The effect of certaine Sermons TOVCHING THE FVLL REDEMPTION of mankind by the death and bloud of CHRIST IESVS: WHEREIN Besides the merite of Christs suffering, the manner of his offering, the power of his death, the comfort of his Crosse, the glorie of his resurrection, Are handled, What paines Christ suffered in his soule on the Crosse: Together, With the place and purpose of his descent to hel after death: Preached at Paules Crosse and else where in London, by the right Reuerend Father Thomas Bilson Bishop of Winchester. With a conclusion to the Reader for the cleering of cer­taine obiections made against the said doctrine.

1. Corinth. 3.

I esteeme not to knowe any thing saue Christ Iesus, and him crucified.

Athanasius de Incarnatione verbi dei.

Therefore the sonne of God tooke to him a bodie that might die, that, endu­ing it with a reasonable soule, it might suffice for a full satisfaction to Death for all.

Imprinted at London by Peter Short for Walter Burre, and are to be sold in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Flower deluce. 1599.

To the Christian Reader.

IT is some time since (good Chri­stian Reader) that lying in London, and preaching at Paules Crosse, as the feast of Easter drawing neer did admonish mee, I made choice to speake of the redemption of man­kinde by the death and bloud of Christ Iesus. And because that Citie then had, and yet hath, as manie learned and religious preachers; so some conceited and too much addicted to nouelties, who spared not in their Catechisings and readings, to vrge the suffering of the verie paines of hell in the soul of Christ on the crosse, as the chiefest part, and maine ground of our Redemption by Christ: I, finding how fast that opinion had increased, since it was first deui­sed, and doubting where it would end, thought it my dutie publikelie to warne them that were forward in defending this fansie, to take heed how farre they wa­ded in that late sprong speculation: For as these words ofPsa. 18. & 116 Dauid, The sorrowes of hell besieged me, and these ofIonas. 2. Ionas, Out of the belly of hel I cried, & thou heardest my voice, may be tolerablie applied to Christ, if they be metaphorically interpreted of Christ, as the scriptures meane them in Dauid and Ionas; so if wee grow from the figuratiue vse of the worde HELL, to the proper signification thereof, and rise from the degrees of sor­rowes [Page] and feares, which pursue the Saints in this life, to the highest sense and suffering of ALL, and THE VE­RIE SAME paines and punishments which the dam­ned do and shall endure for euer; freeing Christ from nothing but from the place and continuance of hell: vve make not a curious and superfluous, but an erro­neous and daungerous addition to the mysterie of our Saluation.

The better to slacke their inconsiderate heate, I laboured to prooue these foure pointes vnto them. First that it was no where recorded in the holie Scriptures, nor iustlie to bee con­cluded by the Scriptures, that Christ suffe­red the true paines of hell; and so the Con­sciences of the faythfull coulde not iustlie bee for­ced to the necessarie beleeuing of anie such strange assertion. Secondlie, that as the Scriptures describe to vs the paines of the damned and of hell; there are manie terrors and torments, which, without euident impietie, cannot be ascribed to the Sonne of God, as namely extreame Darkenesse, Desperation, Confu­sion, vtter separation, reiection and exclusion from the grace, fauour, and kingdome of God; remem­brance of sinne gnawing the conscience, horrour of Diuels tormented and tormenting, and flame of fire intolerablie burning both bodie and soule. Thirdlie, that the death and bloud of Christ Iesus were eui­dentlie, frequentlie, constantlie set downe in the writinges of the Apostles as the sufficient price of our Redemption, and true meane of our reconcili­ation to God; and the verie same proposed in the [Page] figures, resembled in the sacrifices of the Lawe, and sealed with the Sacraments of the new Testament as the verie grounde worke of our saluation by Christ; and so haue beene receaued and beleeued in the Church of God fourteene hundred yeares, before anie man euer made mention of hell paines to bee suffered in the soule of Christ. Lastlie, where the Scriptures are plaine and pregnant, that Christ 1. Corin. 13. DIED: for our sinnes, and by his Hebre. 2 DEATH, destroi­ed him that had power of death, euen the Diuell, and reconciled vs, when we were strangers and enemies, IN THEColos. 1. BODIE OF HIS FLESH THROVGH DEATH, (for wee are reconciled to God, by the Rom 5. DEATH of his sonne, and sanctified by THE OFFERING OF THE Hebr. 10. BO­DIE of Iesus Christ once, who 1. Pet. [...]. himselfe bare our sinnes in his BODIE on the Tree: where hee was put to death concerning the FLESH;) Besides that the holie Ghost in these places by expresse wordes nameth the bodilie death of Christ as the meane of our redemp­tion and reconciliation to God: no considerate di­uine might affirme or imagine Christ suffered the Death of the soule; for so much as the Death of the soule must exclude Christ from the grace, spirit, and life of God; and leaue in him neither faith, hope, nor loue, sanctitie, nor innocencie; which God forbid anie Christian man shoulde so much as dreame. Wee shoulde therefore do well to reuerence the ma­nifest wordes of Gods Spirit in so high a pointe of Religion, and suffer our selues as schollers to bee taught by the leader into all trueth, what to beleeue and confesse in the mystery of our redemp­tion, and not to controle or correct the doctrine so [Page] cleerelie deliuered in the Scriptures, so consonantlie retained of all learned and vnlearned in the Church of Christ, for so many hundred yeares. And if anie man to maintaine his deuise woulde inuent a newe hell and another death of the soule, then either scrip­tures or fathers euer heard or spake of, they shoulde keepe their inuentions to themselues; it sufficed me to beleeue what I read, and consequently not to be­leeue what I did not read in the word of God, which is and ought to be the foundation of our faith.

Thus farre I purposed, when I first entered, by Gods grace to proceede in this cause, according to ye simple vnderstanding wherwith god hath endued me for the good of his Church. The article of the Creed, Christ DESCENDED INTO HELL I meant not to meddle with; choosing rather to leaue yt vntouched, then to presse any sense as a point of faith, for vvhich I had not so full and faire warrant, as for the redemption of man by the death and blood of Christ Iesus; but the vehe­mencie of some contradicting that I taught, and the importunitie of others requesting to knowe what they might safelie beleeue of that article, made mee to alter my minde. For whē some vrged, others doub­ted, that if Christ did not suffer the paines of hell whiles he hung on the Crosse, that part of the Creed was added in vaine; and the wordes of Psal. 16. Dauid, Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell, applied by Acts 2. Peter vnto Christ in the second of the Acts, could hardly haue any good construction: (because it seemed farre fet, and altogither repugnant to the proper signification of the wordes, to take the soule for the bodie, and hell for the graue; and as for the locall descent of Christ [Page] to hell after death, they counted that but a fable:) I was forced to promise that I would openlie deliuer, which I thought was the likeliest and safest sense, as well of that article in the Creede, as of those wordes of Dauid, fulfilled in the person of our Sauiour. This occasion drew mee to the next question of Christes descent to hell. Wherin I resolued as by perusing the later part of this treatise will better appeare, that Christs descent to the verie place of hell after his death, did best concord both with the Creede, and with the truth of Christian religion, so we tooke care not to swarue frō the Scriptures, in setting downe the cause why he went thither: which was to ouerthrow & destroy the kingdom & might of Satan in the place of his greatest strength, euen in hel, and as our head to free all his members from daunger and feare of com­ming thither: the sorrowes and terrors whereof hee loosed vvith his presence, treading them vnder his feete, and rose againe into a blessed and immortall life, leading captiuitie captiue, and taking from hell and Satan all povver to preuaile against his elect.

Both these resolutions that Christ suffered not the true paines of hell in his soule on the crosse; and that hee personallie conquered and disarmed the powers and terrours thereof before his resurrection; some (as in such cases is common) misremembred, some miscon­strued, and some misliked: vvhereupon I vvas both aduised and intreated by men of greater place then I vvill name, to put the effect of that vvhich I had deliuered in vvriting, that by mine ovvne vvords, and not by other mens conceits or reports, the learned might iudge of the doctrine. Which I did that verie [Page] Summer, and had it readie for the presse before Bartle­mewtide, but that the Parliament of States appro­ching, wherein men shoulde be otherwise imploied; and a great hurle raised against it by certaine popular preachers in that citie, through whose mouthes the contrarie had often passed to the people as currant, I was desired by the same persons againe to staie, till that time of businesse were ouer past, that heat of con­tradiction somewhat alaied, and respite giuen that it might be trāslated into Latin, which also is now per­formed, as wel as published in English. To whole coū ­sell I yeelded, referring the time wholy to their iudge­ments, notwithstanding I were by many traduced in many places as a teacher of strange and false doctrine. But I haue beene and am the more willing to beare the reproches of maligners, because I seeke not my selfe heerein, but that the church of Christ heere in Englande should hold fast that ancient and sure foun­dation of faith which hitherto it hath kept; and pro­fesse that doctrine touching our Redemption by Christ, which as wel the publike lawes of this realme, as all the catholike fathers do vphold and allow.

In setting downe the summe of that which I prea­ched, I neither do, nor can promise thee (gentle Rea­der) the same words which I then spake; I wrote them not; but I assure thee before him that knoweth all things, that I haue not swarued nor altered anie ma­teriall point from the methode, propositions, proofes and conclusions, which I then vsed, nor from the wordes as farre as either my notes, or my memory vpon the fresh foote coulde direct mee; which I haue yet to shew. Manie proofes and authorities I omitted [Page] in the pulpit, which the time shut me from; and some obiections I haue answered here more largelie, then the course of Sermons would permit: but here is the selfe same in effect, which then I vttered and purpo­sed, if the time woulde haue suffered. The manner of handling this question, I alwaies wished might bee temperate and sober, as best became christian profes­sours and teachers; least by catching aduantages be­sides the cause, wee increased quarrels, and so much regarded our credits that wee neglected the truth. I haue therfore in the Treatise it selfe touched no mans name, oppugned no mans wordes, traduced no mans iudgement; but admitting and retaining as much as I thought might stande with the truth, I haue pared off certaine extremities, and reiected certaine addi­tions, which the first inuentors did refraine; for that Christ suffered the death of the soule, or all the same tormentes, which the damned do and shall, are posi­tions lately coined, and deriued from the proportion of Gods iustice as they call it, but as I thinke from pre­sumption of mans reason intruding into Gods secrets. The doctrine which I defend, that we are sufficientlie redeemed by the death and bloud of Christ Iesus, (without adding of hell paines to bee suffered in the soule of Christ) hath the constant, full, and expresse warrant of the Scriptures, and the like approbation from al the fathers without exception. And therefore howsoeuer some men may despise all ancient writers, and frustrate the scriptures with their figures; al sober and wise christians will, I doubt not, beware how they admit this strange and late found nouelty into their Creede or consciences. The second point I presse nor [Page] with like vehemencie, because it hath not like certain­tie. So long as we confesse (which the Scriptures do confirme) that Christs humane nature after his ex­treame humiliation on the Crosse, & before his resur­rection, conquered & spoyled not death only, but hell & Satan also, of al their power & right ouer ye faithful, & ascending on hie lead captiuitie captiue, & tooke the keyes of death and of hell into his owne hands; with the precise maner and hower I will not burden anie mans conscience, that cannot be perswaded by reading the latter part of this treatise; though I my selfe, after long & diligent search, find no sense so agreeable to ye words of the Creede, so answerable to the rules of the sacred Scriptures, and so fullie followed by all the Fathers, as Christs descent to the verie place of hell for the purposes aforesaid.

Hauing premonished thee (Christian reader) of thus much, I am not willing to detayne thee anie longer from vewing and examining the booke it selfe, but onelie to tell thee that whiles I stayed the printing hereof, till others did like it, as wel as my self, one more hastie then either aduised or learned, calling himselfe H. I. would needes traduce it and confute it before he saw it, resting belike on such notes, as his angry mind and brickle memorie tooke at the time when I preached of these points. Wherein though others condemne his follie, yet I commend his pollicie, that least hee should trouble himselfe with more thē he could answere, he thought it ye best way to come into the field alone, and like a stout Champion fighting with his owne shadow, to say no more thē he would be sure to deny or decline with one [Page] shift or other. To make the easier conquest of that I preached, hee cleane changeth the state of the first Question, hee offereth to prooue that which I neuer denied, hee confuteth that which I ne­uer affirmed, hee runneth at Random no man can tell whither, hee peruerteth my wordes, hee may­meth my reasons, hee skippeth all my authori­ties; hee scornefullie reiecteth the iudgement of the Fathers when I alleage them, the Scriptures hee turneth and windeth at his pleasure, he wadeth desperately through thicke and thinne in matters of most importance, his best reason is euerie where his own opinion, outfacing the world with his ignorance; in summe, he sheweth vs by his example what it is for a man in matters of faith to despise both authoritie and antiquity, and trust onely to his own fancie. Such an opponent the wiser sort will thinke I were better neglect then encounter, which resolution I my selfe do retayne; onely lest my silence should augment his boldnes, I thought it not amisse in the conclusion se­uered from the treatise, to giue thee a tast of the rash­nes and weaknes of his enterprise, intreating thee in the meane time to reade aduisedly and iudge indiffe­rently, for that the cause is weighty and toucheth thee as neere as mee. For if we suffer the mayne foundation of our faith and hope in Christ to be wrenched neuer so little awrie; the whole building is more endangered then wee are ware of. In Gods causes, let Gods booke teach vs what to beleeue, and what to professe. If thou thinke it thy duetie in matters of faith to be­ware of vnwritten verities, in the greatest point of all, which is our redemption by Christ; take heede [Page] thou easilie admit not vnwritten absurdities. This matter began in more generall and more tolerable tearmes, if they might bee rather soberly mitigated, then too vehemently pressed; but as when we runne downe an hill we can hardly staie; so in matters of re­ligion when we fal to inuenting beyond the scriptures we quickly misse and seldome recouer the truth. Fare­well (gentle Reader) and pray that our thoughts and wits may be subiected to the truth of Gods word, and that wee loath not the simplicitie which is in Christ.

THE FVLL REDEMP­tion of mankind, by the death and bloud of Christ.

GALATH. 6. verse. 14.‘Be it far from me to reioice but in the Crosse of Christ.’

AS the naturall man no where li­keth nor alloweth the thinges of God, because they seeme foolish­nes vnto him: so of all the waies and workes of God there is none, that more displeaseth and offendeth the vnbeléeuer, then the Crosse of Christ. 1. Corinth 8. The crosse of Christ despised both of Iewes and Gentiles. Wee preach Christ crucified (saith the Apostle) to the Iewes a stumbling blocke, to the Grecians foolishnesse. The Grecians [...]auoring nothing but worldlie wisedome, and fleshlie reason, coun­ted it a méere folly for the sonne of God, to leaue his Throne of glorie in the heauens, and as a man amongst men▪ to taste of ma [...]e miseries; and to suffer a cruell and shamefull death at the handes of his enemies. The pri [...] of our Re­demption, for whose sakes hee died, and the power of his re­surrection, by which hee raised vs to the imitation and ex­pectation of a better life, they did neither conceiue, nor be­léeue; and therefore they reiected his birth, and speciallie his death, as a dreame of simple and vnlearned men, such as [Page 2] they tooke the Apostles to be. The Iewes hauing their eares full of those excellent promises, which God made by his pro­phets, concerning the kingdome of the Messias, and refer­ring them to an earthlie king, that should sit on the throne of Dauid, brusing his enemies with a rod of Iron, and ru­ling the world with iustice and equitie: when they sawe the weake and base condition of our Sauiour, in outward shew promising nothing but reproch and penurie; they so disdai­ned and detested him, that they could not bee quiet, till they had crucified him; being then, and euer since ashamed, and gréeued that anie should saie, or thinke, he was the Messias, so much spoken of in the prophets. Thus the Iewes looking for wonders, and the Grecians for Wisedome, did both con­demne the crosse of Christ: the one of weakenesse, the other of foolishnesse: and for that cause fell at the stone of offence: but such as were called both Iewes and Gentiles to bee heires of the promise, did plainelie perceaue, and fullie con­fesse Christ crucified to be the mightie power, and manifold wisedome of God for their euerlasting ioie and blisse; and were so far from being ashamed of Christs sufferings,What it is to the beleeuers. that they were willing partakers and open reioicers in the crosse of Christ, as the Apostle here saieth of himselfe. Galath. 6 Be it farre from mee to reioice, but in the Crosse of Christ, by which the world is crucified to me, and I to the world. And indéede if we beholde Christ crucified with carnall eies, as did the Iewes, wee shall see nothing in him but earthlie weakenesse, and deadlie woundes, as they sawe: but if we bende the eies of our faith to the tr [...]th of his person, and to the force and fruite of his death, as must all his saints; we shall finde the power and wisedome, iustice and mercie of God so tempered in the crosse of Christ for our good; that by his paines we are eased, by his stripes we are healed, his weakenesse is our strength, his shame is our glorie, and his death our life: worthely there­fore doth the Apostle professe, that he did, and we should not reioice but in the crosse of Christ.

And where hee saith, he did reioyce in nothing but in the crosse of Christ; he thereby teacheth vs to repose all our faith [Page 3] and hope, aswell as our ioy, in the fauour of God, which Christ hath purchased for vs, by his death and bloud. Rom. 1 [...]. Reioice in hope, saith the Apostle; that is in the expectation, not in the present fruition of heauenlie thinges, which God hath prepa­red for all that loue him. Now hope without faith there can bee none. Hebr. 11 Faith is the ground worke of that wee hope, for howe can we with patience looke for that, which we doe not beléeue wee shall receiue? The doubting of Gods promises is the plaine distr [...]sting of them; and bréedeth rather a feare we shall misse them, then an hope to enioie them: and in feare there is 1. Iohn. 4. PAINE, as saint Iohn saith, and no IOIE. Then as there is no perfect ioie, but in hope assured by faith, so if we must not reioice but in the crosse of Christ, our faith and hope must wholie depende on that peace and attonement▪ which Christ hath made betwixt God and vs, by the sheading of his precious bloud for our sakes; that is by his crosse. Since therefore Christ crucified is the wisedome and power of God to saue all that beléeue, and the crosse of Christ is the ful support of all our faith, hope and ioie; there is no one point in christian religion, that more mainelie concerneth, and neerelie toucheth the saluation of our soules, then the right vnderstanding and only relying on the crosse of Christ; least we mistake the truth or distrust the force thereof, to the disho­nour of Christ, and danger of our owne soules.

To preuent this perill,The methode of this treatise▪ I thinke best to obserue this or­der in that which shall be saide, [...]o shewe first what the Crosse of Christ CONTAINETH, next what the crosse of Christ PERFORMETH: that knowing the contents and effectes of Christs crosse, I meane the paines which he suffered; and the worke which he accomplished by dying on the crosse; we may be setled and assured, how far it extended, and what it effec­ted for vs.

To begin with the CONTENTS of Christes crosse: The crosse is sometimes taken in the Scripture for all manner of affliction, Luke. [...] He that will come after me, let him denie him­selfe, and dailie take vp his crosse and follow me. Matth. [...] He that doth [Page 4] not take vp his Crosse and follow me, is not worthy of me. In this sence, saieth Bernarde, De passi. dom. cap. 5. The crosse ta­ken for all kind of affliction. The whole life of Christ was a crosse and a martyrdom. The reason [...] Christ so vsed the worde (for he first vsed it) was, for that he saw before hande, that going to his crosse he should taste all kindes of calami­ties: and so came it to passe. For betwéene his last supper, and his death, hee was betraied of Iudas, abiured of Peter, forsaken of all his followers; hee was wrongfulli [...] impriso­ned, falselie accused, vniustlie condemned; he was buffeted, whipped, scorned, reuiled; he endured colde, nakednes, thirst, wounding, hanging, shame, reproch, and all sortes of dead­lie paines; besides heauinesse of heart, and agonie of mind, which oppressed him in the garden. Rightlie then maie the crosse note all maner of miseries, forasmuch as our Saui­our going from the garden to the graue, suffered all sortes of afflictions: howbeit this is no different signification, but ra­ther a participation of the crosse of Christ.

The church of Rome hono­reth the cro [...]se and dishono­reth the death of Christ.The Church of Rome hath wedded a great part of her de­uotion to the crosse of Christ, but vnder that name she ado­reth the matter and forme of the crosse: as for the force and ef­fects of Christs death, which is remission of our sinnes, satis­faction of Gods wrath, and donation of eternall life, she pro­digallie imparteth that to her pilgrimages, pardons, & pur­gatorie, yea to the works and praiers of quicke and dead; and so magni [...]eng the signe and wood of the crosse, she dishono­reth the merite and fruit of Christ crucified. But of her pain­ted and ca [...]ued crosses, the scripture maketh no mention, and therefore I shipt it, rather as a manifest illusion, then anie signification of the crosse of Christ.

What the scriptures meane by the cro [...]se of Christ.Most commonlie in the Scriptures by the crosse of Christ, the holie Ghost meaneth the person suffering, and the paine suffered on the crosse, that is, the punishments and torments which the sonne of God suffered for our sinnes, after he was fastened to the tree: the rest which went before not being ex­cluded as superfluous, but continued and increased by that sharpe and extreame martyrdome which hee endured on the [Page 5] crosse. And so Christ crucified as the scriptures describe him, had from top to toe no part frée from paine and griefe; but hoong on the wood, hauing his flesh torne with whippes, his chéekes swolne with buffets, his face defiled with spittle, his head stuckt full with thornes, his eies deiected for shame, his eares burning with taunts, his mouth sowred with vineger, his hands and feete wounded with Iron spikes, his bones vniointed, his sinewes pricked and strained, his whole body hanging by the sorenesse of his hands and feet, and lastlie (though he were first dead) his heart pierced with a Speare, whence issued bloud and water. His bodie thus wounded and tortured vnto death, his bloud thus shed, and as it were powred on the earth, are said in the scriptures to be the ran­some of our sinnes, and price of our redemption. 1 Peter. 2. Hee bare our sinnes in his body vpon the Crosse (saith Peter:) and again, 1 Peter. 1 You are redeemed with the precious bloud of Christ, as of a lambe vnspotted and vndefiled. I do not amplifie the bodilie paines which Christ suffered, of purpose to make them séeme greater then they were; I find my selfe rather vnable to ex­presse them; but least wee should too much diminish them, and aske, What great matter it was for him to go securely, and as it were sportinglie to his death, I thought good shortlie to touch them, and leaue the fuller and further consideration of them to the godlie at their priuate leysure.

In the meane time I may not omit in his Stripes, Thornes, The paines of Christs crosse. Crucifying and Death, to obserue that which the Reader will happilie ouerskippe in the historie of his passion, vnlesse hee be both aduised and learned. In his STRIPES I note, that Pilate hauing a purpose to saue the life of Christ, and not neglecting to satisfie the people that were incensed against him, caused him extreamly to be whipped, and shewed to the people in that plight with these worde,Iohn 19 Ecce homo Behold ye man; to let them see that Christ had receiued very sufficient correction, no crime being prooued aga [...]st him, and so to withdraw them from seeking his death. [...]n CROVVNING him with thornes, the souldiers did not onel [...]e wreath him [Page 6] a thicke crowne of thornes, to sticke his head full of them: but after the putting it on, to fasten it, they did strike him on the heade with their Canes, as Matth. 27. Marke. 15. Matthew and Marke do plainlie testifie. In NAILING him to the Crosse, besides the greatnesse and sorenesse of his wounds, which were wor­thie to be marked, they so strained his bodie least hee should stirre hand or foote, that all his bones might bee numbred. The greatnesse of his woundes Dauid foreshewed by th [...]se wordes: Psa [...]. 22. Foderunt manus meas, & pedes meos; they digged my handes and my feete; noting howe wide woundes they made in both, which were rather digged than pierced; and so bigge were the nailes, as the Ecclesiasticall historie repor­teth, that Constantine made of them (when his mother had found them in the mount where Christ was crucified) Socrates lib. 1. cap. 17 A bridle, and an helmet for his owne vse. How tender and sen­sible the hands & feét are aboue other partes of the bodie, and what paine and anguish the pricking, straining and tearing of the sinewes, ligaments and ioynts in either (which are verie thicke, and full of sense in both those places) did bréede and kindle in the whole bodie, nature can teach vs without anie further proofe. Of RACKING his ioints, Bernard ma­keth this collection out of Dauid: De pass. dom. cap. 7. Tantum distentus sum [...] vt corpore nudo in modū Tympanicae pellis distonto, facile possint om­nia ossa mea dinumerari. I am so strained (saith he in the per­son of Christ) that my bodie naked beeing stretched like the head of a timbrell (or drum) all my bones may be numbred. If this proofe reach not home, Dauid hath plainer and expresser wordes, in the 14. verse of the same Psalme, which can­not be contradicted. HITH PAREDV .i. Separauerunt se om­nia ossamea, All my bones are out of ioint, or pulled one from the other. In this horrible torment of Stripes, Thornes, Wounds, Sinewes and ioynts, our Sauiour hoong on the crosse aboue thrée houres, in most perfect sense, with most extream paine, till the verie instant that hee breathed out his soule. A violenter death by fyre, or otherwise, our Sauiour might happilie haue suffered; but a more painfull, with perfection [Page 7] of patience, neuer martyr, much lesse malefactor, did or could endure.

The torments of others when they are violent,Christ had no pangs of death but perfect sense of paine vnto the end. do either ha­sten death, or ouerwhelme the sense, and so the paine when it is most grieuous, is least perceiued. In Christ there was no such thing. He died not by degrées as we do; his senses did not decay, no pangs of death tooke hold of him, but in perfect sense, and perfect patience both of bodie and soule, he did vo­luntarily and miraculously resigne his spirit (as hee was praying) into his fathers handes. Longer tortures others haue endured, but neuer greater for the time, nor with like patience. For in all men (Christ excepted) though the spirit be neuer so willing, & the measure of faith neuer so strong, yet vnles it please God to shorten or lighten the rage of their paine, the flesh repineth at the present anguish, howsoeuer grace support the soule, that it sink not vnder the burthen. But Bernard de pass. dom. ca. 41. He which shortneth and lightneth the force of torments in his saints when they be grieuous, in his owne would doe nei­ther. He spared not himselfe, that knoweth how to spare his; but suffered and indured all to the vttermost, with so exact obe­dience and patience, that he did not shrinke at the paine, nor striue with death, but y [...]elded so voluntarie a sacrifice to god, that in, the sharpest torments he made no shew of sense: nor suffered his flesh so much as to tremble or struggle with paine or death.He died vo­luntarily. The manner of rendring vp his soule the Scriptures and Fathers do carefullie obserue. Saint Iohn thus describeth it. Iohn. 19. When Iesus had tasted of the vinegar, hee said (all) is finished, & bowed his head, and gaue vp the Ghost.. Whereupon Bernard saith:Serm. 4. Hebdoma [...]ae p [...]nosae. It is a great infirmity to die, but so to die, doth plainlie proue an infinite power. S. Luke reporteth that Iesus Luk. 13. cried with a loud voice (to shew himselfe to be frée from any touch of death) and saide, Father into thy handes I commend my spirit. Whereupon Hierom obserueth, that the Centurion hearing his prayer, and seeing him quaest. 8. ad Hedibium. Statim spiritum sponte dimisisse, presently of his owne accord to sende forth his spirite, Commotus signi magnitudine, mooued with the [Page 8] greatnesse of the wonder, saide; Truly this man was the sonne of God. Augustine largely handling the maner of his death saith;Tract. 119. in Iohan. Who can so sleepe when he wil, as Christ died when he would? Who can so laie aside his garment at his pleasure, as Christ laid aside his flesh? Who can so leaue his place, as Christ left his life? with how great power shall he come to iudge, that shewed so great power when he died? Christ himselfe ralift­eth these obseruations with his owne mouth in the Gospell of saint Iohn Iohn. 10.: None taketh my soule from mee, but I laie it downe of my selfe. By this we may perceiue, the coniuncti­on of the Humane nature with the Diuine in the person of Christ was so fast and sure, that neither sinne, death, nor hell assaulting our Sauiour, could make anie separation, no not of his bodie; but he himselfe of his owne accord must put off his earthlie tabernacle, that dying for a season he might con­quer death for euer; and so the laying downe of his life was no imposed punishment, nor forceable inuasion of death vp­on him, but a voluntary sacrifice for sinne rendred vnto God for our sakes, to appease the wrath and satisfie the curse, which our manifold wickednes had most iustlie deserued.

How the opi­nion of Christs suffering hell paines hath growen by degrees.Thus farre without feare we maie fréelie extend the crosse of Christ by the warrant of the holie scriptures. Some men in our daies stretch it a great deale farther, to the death both of bodie and soule, and to the WHOLE PAINES OF THE DAMNED IN HELL; but vpon how iust grounds, when you heare, you may iudge as you s [...]e cause. This opinion hath growen by degrees; and euerie daie taketh newe en­crease. At the first, men contented themselues to thinke Christ suffered the paines of hel, that is great and intolerable paines; which metaphoricall kind of speach the Scriptures will beare; if we conclude no worse meaning with [...] those words;Ionas. 2. Psal. 18. Psal. 116. Out of the bellie of HEL, (saith Ionas) I cried and thou heardest my voice. The sorrowes of HEL compassed me about (saith Dauid) and the griefes of HEL tooke hold of me. Some others affirme, that Christ, in sustaining the wrath of God due to vs, wrastled with the verie powers of hell that sought [Page 9] to fasten on him, and howsoeuer beholding the terror of Gods vengeance prouoked by our sinnes, he did somtimes tremble, yet by firme faith alwaies fixed on God, he repelled and repressed those assaults of Satan, and so saued not him­selfe onely, but vs also. This might be indured if men could stay here; & it were to be wished, that in matters of so great weight and danger, we would rather try where we are, then hasten to go onward. But as water breaking her bankes still runneth and neuer stayeth; so some lighting on other mens inuentions neuer leaue adding till they marre all. In the case which we haue in hand, the name of Hell paines be­ing once admitted into the worke of our redemption, some in our daies will no nay, but that Christ on the crosse suffe­red the selfe same paines in soule, which the damned do in hell, and endured euen the death of the soule; yea others auouc [...] that hee sustained farre greater torments then anie are in hell, to wit, as much paine in 15. houres, as all the faithfull should haue suffered euerlastinglie, and that as well in body as in soule. To these dangerous deuises are some men slipt in our time. And because I knowe not when or where they will make an ende, I thinke it néedfull for discharge of my dutie, and direction of your faith, as well to set downe certaine limits beyond which you may not go, as also to re­iect such extremities as by no meanes may be closed in the crosse of Christ, without apparant impietie.

The paines of hell (if I be not deceiued) make a fourefold impression in the soules of men;How many im­pressions the paines of hell make in the soule of man. a carefull feare, which decli­neth them; a doubtfull feare, which conflicteth with them; a desperate feare which sinketh vnder them, and a damned feare which suffereth them. The first is and must be in all the god­lie; and chieflie in Christ himselfe: For the more we loue God, the more wee detest and shunne all separation from God. Hell therefore which is an vtter exclusion from the kingdome of God, is most iustlie abhorred of all his saints, and speciallie of his owne Son: who not onelie by will, but by nature is one with his Father. A conflict with Hell [Page 10] if it come not from the inward motion of the mind, is but a temptation to trie the heart, or shew the strength of the god­lie. So was Adam tempted in Paradise by Eue, and Eue by the Serpent, to prooue howe mindfull they were, and thank­full they would be for the blessings of God bestowed vpon them. So was Christ tempted in the wildernesse by Sa­tan, and all his life long by the wicked, which were to him but occasions to declare the innocencie and integritie of his humane nature. But the inwarde temptation of the heart and conscience, though it bee in all the children of A­dam, (the elect themselues not excepted,) by reason of their flesh lusting agaynst the spirite, their conscience accu­sing them for sinne, and their fayth sometimes fainting; yet in Christ wee must graunt no such thing, because in him there was neither corruption of flesh, nor remorse of sinne, nor weakenesse of faith, that shoulde anie kinde of waie bréede or yeelde to the worme, that gnaw­eth at our consciences. A desperate feare is when the wrath of God awaketh the wicked to knowe and ac­knowledge, what vengeance is prepared for them, in the life to come, and so hauing lost both fayth and hope, they fall to an horrible expectation of iudgement, and fla­ming fyre, which shall deuoure the aduersarie. But yet euen these men, whose case is most despaired, are not while they liue heere on earth, in the true paines of Hell, but are as farre from that, as expecting is from suffering. The last I knowe not howe to call, but by the name of a damned, rather paine, then feare; which the wicked departed this life doe presentlie feele. For paine that is present, inflicteth rather torment, then feare; since feare is properlie the trembling at euill, be­fore it come, and not the grieuing at it, when it is come. Of these foure impressions, yee see which I attribute vnto Christ, and which not. Despairing, or so much as doubting of his saluation, we cannot ascribe to him with­out euident impietie. And as for Christes suffering the [Page 11] same paines which the damned soules in Hell doe, to my simple vnderstanding, it is rather a dreame then a doc­trine to bee taught in the Church of Christ. Did they de­fende as great sense and anguish of paine to haue beene in Christes bodie or soule, as hell fire doth inflict to the dam­ned, though that were a verie presumptuous and audacious position, yet is it not so impious, as when they affirme he suf­red the self same which the damned do. For the damned haue many sorts of paines in hel, which by no means could fasten on Christs person; and since there be degrées of paine in hell euen for the damned; these curious teachers must shewe vs which of these degrees Christ suffered, & by what warrant of gods word, they a [...]iunge the very paines of hell to the crosse of Christ.

To perswade them to hold fast the forme of wholsom words, 2. Tim. 1. which the holy ghost obserueth throughout the scriptures, I feare is but lost labor; hauing lighted on a strange doctrine, they are forced to vse strange spéeches, such as no where are found in the word of truth, expressing mans redemption by the death and bloud of Christ; yet somwhat to rebate the heat of such as despise all other sufferings of Christ in respect of their hell-paines, I think it not amisse to examine the weight of those allegations and reasons that are brought to support their assertion.The proofes which are brought that Christ suffered the paines of hell. The proofs that are pretended for this opinion may be recalled to thrée principal heds, which are these, PRE­DICTIONS that Christ should suffer the paines of hell in soul; CAVSES, why he must suffer them; SIGNES that he did suffer them. Predictions, that Christ should suffer the paines of hel are cited the se,Psal. 16. Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell; and againe,Psal. 18. The sorowes or streights of hell haue found me out, & beset me round. The causes why he must suffer them are en­larged by some into many branches, but may bee contracted into these two; THE PART that chiefly sinned in man; & the VVAGES due to man for sin. The WORKE of sin appeared first & most in the soul of Adam, & therfore in ye satisfaction for sin, the soul of Christ, as they say, must properly & principally [Page 12] suffer. The VVAGES of sin is expressely death both of soule and bodie, and therfore Christ, as our suretie and for our sinnes, must taste of both, (as they affirm) before he can discharge vs from both. Signes that he did suffer, were his AGONIE in the garden, when he sweat blood; which for a corporall death he would neuer haue don: & his COMPLAINT on the crosse, that he was forsaken of God, which (as they thinke) proouesh he felt in soule a most fearefull iudgement of God, pronoun­ced against our sinnes. To euerie of these I will speake in order, that finding the weaknesse of their foundation, we maie the sooner see the lamenesse of their conclusion.

To the first I might answere with Saint Austen; these words of Dauid specifie not anie suffering of hell paines on the crosse, but rather a descent to the place of hell. Predictions that Christ should suffer ye paines of hel. [...]gust. epi. 99 That the Lord after his bodie was dead came to hell is certaine enough: for neither can the prophecie be contradicted, which said. Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell; (which least anie man shoulde dare otherwise to interpret, Peter in the Acts of the Apostles so expoundeth;) nor the wordes of Peter bee auoided, where hee saith that Christ brake the sorrowes of hell, the which could not possiblie take hold on him; who then but an infidell will denie that Christ was in hell? But with antiquitte I will not vrge them; if the text doe not refuse their exposition, I will re­lease them this authoritie. That this saying of Dauid doth not import anie paines suffered while Christ liued, but some honour done to his soule after his death, maie thrée waies be prooued; by the wordes next praecedent, by the words next adioyned, and by the application which Peter maketh, when he citeth this place. The wordes next before, (which are these, Psal. 16. My flesh shall rest in hope) note Christs buriall: and this is brought as a reason why Christes bodie should rest in hope, not on the crosse where it had no rest, but in the graue after he was dead; because thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell. If this respected any thing endured on the crosse, the holy ghost must haue saide in the person of Christ, because THOV HAST NOT LEFT MY SOVLE IN HEL: the paines, and [Page 13] time were both past; but he speaketh in the future tence, & of future things, Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell. And this was the hope in which Christ died. Now hope neuer tendeth to things past and known, but to that which is to come. This therefore toucheth somthing consequent after Christs death, which he hoped for when he died, and not anie paines suffered on the crosse, or in the garden, whiles he liued. The words an­nexed infer the same. Psal. 16. Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell, nor suffer thine holie one to see corruption. Both these be­ing iointlie spoken of Christ, must both bee iointlie verified in Christ; wherefore Christes soule must then not bee left in hell, when his flesh lying in the earth sawe no corruption. They may not bee seuered in performance, which the holie ghost knitteth together in coherence. Lastlie Peter in plaine words sa [...]eth, Acts 2, Dauid spake (this) of Christs resurrection. If this concerned his resurrection, then not his passion on the crosse; but after death, and before he rose, as his flesh saw no corruption; So his soule was not left in hell. Yea, God Ibidem. raised him vp (as Peter saith) breaking the sorrowes of death (or hell before him) of which it was impossible he should be held; August epist. 99. not that hee was euer in them, and so loosed them, as a man doth chaines, where with hee was once bound: but as the snares of hunters (saith Austen) are broken, Ne teneant, non quia tenue­runt: before they take hold, not after they haue taken holde. For Christ was to rise againe, not as others before him were restored to this present life; but as the full and first con­querour of death and hell, hee was to rise both in bodie and soule to eternall & celestial glory; and therfore he brake, when he rose, the paines and powers of death and hell; that they should not preuaile for euer against him or his.

The other places of the Psalmes, haue as manie aun­sweres as they haue wordes; for euerie word is an answere. First Dauid speaketh of himselfe, not of Christ; and Dauids words to Christs person we may not refer at our pleasures, without farther and better warrant. Againe, Dauid doth not saie, the TORMENTS, but thePsal. 18. & 116. SNARES, or STREIGHTS [Page 14] of DEATH, as well as of HELL (for the worde Sheol in­differentlie signifieth both, if there bee none other circum­stance to limite it to either; and Dauid by the rules of diuini­tie was neuer here on earth in the true paines of the dam­ned,) haue FOVND me out, or BESET, and besieged mee, but not oppressed, nor ouerwhelmed me. And if we take the name of HELL neuer so properlie, it is no inconuenience, that the gates of hell, I meane the craft and power of Sa­tan, should hunt after the godlie heere on earth, and seéke to entrap, euen Christ himselfe; but the true paines of hell, the wicked and desperate do not suffer in this life, much lesse the elect, least of all Christ. It is a iudgement following death, and maie no more be defended to bee here on earth, then the ioies of heauen may be possessed in this life.

The causes why Christ must suffer the paines of hel.In the causes, why Christ should suffer the paines of hell, we may do well not to be too forwarde with the rules of rea­son: as well for that there is no proportion betwixt the per­son of Christ and vs, as also for that wee may not sit iudges with God, and prescribe when or howe his iustice should bee satisfied. It is requisite in our selues to confesse that as both parts of man sinned in Adam, so the wages of sinne, which is euerlasting death, is due to both: and as the soule shoulde haue principallie enioied God, which is her life, if shee had persisted in obedience; so in falling from God, her losse, and smart, must of the twaine bee farre the greater; though the bodie shall not wante both grieuaunce and vengeance intolerable: but if wee stretch these rules to Christ, and subiect his person, as our suretie, to the verie SAME WAGES of sinne, which we should haue suffered, I knowe not howe in fewer wordes a man maie couch more grosse and open impiety. For we should haue béene WHOLY SEVERED, IVSTLY HATED, and VTTERLY REIECTED from God, yea ETERNALLY CONDEMNED BO­DIE AND SOVLE, to hell fire. May anie of these thinges be affirmed or imagined of Christ without hainous and hor­rible blasphemie? This was the wages of our sinne; must [Page 15] he endure THE SAME, before wee can bee redéemed, or Gods iustice be satisfied? I hope no sound diuine will so conclude.

They will release eternall death to the dignitie of Christs person,Christ could not suffer the death of the soule, which was the chiefe wages of our sinne. but he was (as they saie) for the time to taste the ve­rie same death both in soule and bodie which wee should haue done; and which in vs should haue béene euerlasting. First by their leaues, hell in the scriptures is an euerlasting tor­ment, and therefore if the excellencie of Christes person ex­empt him from euerlasting miserie, that cléerelie quiteth him in bodie and soule from suffering hell. Againe, as sinne is the voluntarie defection of the soule from God, so hell is the TOTAL, if not FINAL EXCLVSION of the soule from all fellowship with God; lesse th [...]n the death of soule it cannot be. It is the wages of sinne, and therefore it must bee the death as well of the soule, as of the bodie; and chiefelie of the soule, because the soule of man is the principall agent in sinne. S. Iohn calleth hell the Apocal. 2. second death. If then the soule of Christ suffered either hell, or the wages of our sinne; of necessitie for the time it must be dead. The Rom, 6. wages of sinne is death. If for the time Christes soule were dead, it had no communion with God, nor God with it, no more then death hath with life, or darkenes with light: It lost for that time all faith and loue of God. For by faith the iust doe Galat. 3 liue: and he that 1. Iohn. 4. abideth in loue abideth in God. And since God is the life of the soule, Christ could not suffer the death of the soule, which is the wages of our sinne, no not for a day, or an houre, but he must be seuered from God, & forsaken of God.August. deci­nitate dei lib. 13. cap. 2. Mors animae fit cum eam deserit deus, the death of the soule is when God forsaketh it. Idem de Tri­nitate. lib. 4. c. 14 Mors est spiritus a deo deseri, it is the death of the spirit to bee forsaken of God. Idem de verbis domini super Matthae [...]til. serm, 6. Mors animae deus amissus: the losse of God is the death of the soule. To lose God, or to be forsaken of God, is to haue no coniunction, nor fel­lowship with God; the soule then that is dead, is excluded from the fauour, and grace; truth, and spirit of God; and if a­nie bee so irreligious or impious, as once to affirme these [Page 16] thinges of Christ, he may auouch, that Christs soule suffered the true wages of our sin; but if we abhorre these things as sacrilegious and monstrous absurdities, as I doubt not but we do; then certainelie the soule of Christ could not bee dead, no not for an instant, and consequentlie the true wa­ges of our sinne the soule of Christ could not receaue, nor suf­fer on the crosse, or in the garden: but wee must rather giue eare to Peter, which saith, Pet. 2. Christ bare our sinnes in his bodie on the tree; where he was quickened in spirite, though morti­fied in flesh, and strengthened in the inward man by the ioy proposed, for which hee sustained the crosse, and despised the shame thereof. Christ then tooke the burden of our sinnes from vs, and laied it on his owne shoulders, yea the Lorde I [...]say. 53. Laid vpon him the iniquity of vs all; but when it came to light vpon him, the verie iustice of God found great difference betwixt his person and ours; and so great, that what should haue condemned vs bodie and soule for euer, that could take no hold on him; but so far forth, as he did voluntarilie yeeld himselfe to bee obedient vnto the death of the crosse, and in our flesh to quench the curse of the lawe pronounced agains [...] our sinnes; insomuch that neither sinne nor death were able to sease on his bodie, till he did of his owne accord resigne it into their handes. If we thinke it strange to sée so much dif­ference betwixt him and vs, we must remember, wee were sinnefull, he was innocent; we were defiled, hee was holie; we were hatefull, he was beloued; we were the seruants of sinne, and enemies vnto God, he was the Lord of life and of glorie; we were seuered and estranged from God both in bo­die and soule, his verie flesh was personallie vnited and in­separablie ioined vnto God; besides that himselfe was the true and euerliuing sonne of God. What maruell then if sinne, which should haue wrought in vs an eternall destruc­tion both of body and soule, could not farther preuaile in him, but to the wounding of his flesh, and shedding of his bloud for the iust and full satisfaction of all our sinnes, euen in the righteous and sincere iudgement of God? Though therefore [Page 17] THE SAME PART might, and did suffer in Christ, which sinned in man I meane the soule; yet by no meanes could it receaue THE SAME WAGES which we should haue recei­ued. And since hell is the greatest vengeance, that God in­flicteth for sinne, if Christes soule were frée from anie, it must néedes be cléered and acquited from that, which is greatest, and most repugnant to the fulnesse of grace, truth and spirit, that dwell in the humane soule of Christ: but hereof I shall haue occasion to speake afterward againe.

The signes that Christ suffered the paines of hell are left:The signes yt Christ did suffer the paines of hell, are his agonie in the garden, and his complaint on the crosse. and those are his agonie in the garden, and his complaint on the crosse, that he was forsaken. Of Christs agonie, since the scriptures haue nor reuealed the right cause, it is cut los [...]tie to examen, presumption to determine, impossibilitie to con­clude certainelie what was the true cause thereof. Howbeit if we will néedes coniecture at causes, wee must take héede, that with our obscure and priuate guesses, we do not contra­dict such plaine and euident places, as testifie the perfection and coniunction of Christs humane nature with this diuine, and so wrong the person of our Sauiour. This rule remem­bred (though I bee most willing to refraine the searching of that, which is concealed from vs) yet since they make this the most aduantage of their cause, that there cānot be anie other reason assigned of Christes sorrow, besides his suffering the paines of hell. I will let you vnderstand how manie there might be besides that which they bring [...] and that theirs of all others, is least probable, if not altogether intolerable. I will offer you sixe causes, that might be, of Christs agonie; eue­rie one of them more likelie, and more godlie then this de­uise of hell paines; others at their leasures maie thinke on moe, which I shall be content to heare. Those sixe are these. Christs SVBMISSION to the maiestie of God sitting in iudge­ment;Sixe causes that might be of Christs ago­ny in yt garden. The REIECTION of the Iewes; The DISPERSION of his Church; The LAMENTATION of mans sinne; The DE­PRECATION of Gods wrath; The VOLVNTARY DEDI­CATION of his bloud to be shed for the sinnes of the world, [Page 18] and sanctificatiō of his person to offer his true & eternal sacrifice.

So great is the MAIESTY OF GOD, euerie where and at all times, but speciallie sitting in iudgment, and so farre excelling the capacitie of all his creatures, that no flesh li­ning is able to appeare before him without feare and trem­bling, Ioel. 2 The day of the Lord (whensoeuer hee riseth to iudge) is great and fearefull, and who shall indure it? When God gaue his lawe, which was but the rule of his iudgement, so Hebre. 12 terri­ble was the sight, that Moses said, I feare and tremble. Psalm. 119 My flesh (saith Dauid to God) trembleth for feare of thee, and I am afraide of thy iudgements. Since then it is a point not onelie confessed but vrged, by the defenders of this new deuise, that Christ appeared here before the tribunall of God, to submit himselfe to his fathers pleasure; and the wordes of Christ in that twelfth of Iohn tend to that effect, where he saith, Iohn. 12 Nowe (euen at hand) is the iudgement of the world. Now (euen short­lie) shall the prince of this world be cast out, and if I were lift vp from the earth, I will draw all vnto me: whie might not the hu­mane nature of Christ tremble before the maiestie of that iudge, whose glorie the Seraphins in heauen doe not behold withoutEsay. 6 yealing their faces? whereby Christ teacheth vs not to presse into Gods presence, whiles wee are loden with sin, but in much feare and trembling; since he would not appeare before God to take our sinnes on him, but in this agonie.

The reprobation of ye Iewes.The REIECTION OF THE IEWES might be ano­ther cause of his agonie. Luke. 19 He wept ouer their cittie, when he beheld it, and remembred the subuersion of it; how woulde he then be grieued when he foresawe the finall reiection of ye whole nation? and his bloud to be laid on them and their chil­dren for euer? for their sakes Moses desired Exod 32 To bee wiped out of Gods booke, and Paule Rom. 9. could haue wished himselfe to be separated from Christ for his brethren the Israelites. If the seruants of Christ had so great heauinesse and sorrow in their hearts for their kinsmen according to the flesh; what agonie must it néedes bréede in their king, and Messias, in whome were the bowels of mercie and pittie, to sée the wicked rage [Page 19] of the people kindling Gods fearefull vengeance against themselues, and their ofspring by putting him to a most cru­ell and shamefull death, that came to redéeme them from sin and death? This cause is obserued by Ambrose, Hierom, Augustine and Bede. Ambros. in L [...] ­cam. lib. 10. de tristitia & dole­re Christi. Nec illud distat à vero, si tristis erat pro persecutoribus: neither is that dissonant from truth (saith Am­brose) if he were heauy (in soule) for his persecutors, whom hee knewe should dearelie pay for their sacrilegious putting him to death. Hee was not then afraide to die, but hee was loath to haue them though they were euill, to perish; least his passion should bee their destruction, which hee meant for the saluation of all. Christs soule was not heauie (saith Ierom and Bede) Hieron. in Matth. cap. 26 for any feare of his passiō, but for that most vnhappy Iudas, for the scandall of all his Apostles, for the reiection of the Iewes, and subuersion of wretched Ierusalem. Peda in matth. cap. 26. And Austen, If wee saie the Lorde was sorrowfull (for the Iewes) when his passion drewe neere, where they would commit so haynous a sinne, August. in Psal. 87. non in­congruè nos dicere existimo, I think we speake not without reasō.

If respect of his persecutors could thus agonize him, what could the regard of his own followers doe?The dispersion of his church. how did the weak­nesse of his owne disciples afflict him, when the wilfulnesse of his enemies did so preuaile with him? Hee warned his disciples of the danger, and they vaunted of their strength; he willed them to Luke. 2 [...] praie, and they slept; and when he was ap­prehended they did euerie one forsake him; yea the stoutest of them did plainelie forsweare him. Hee might therefore iustlie be grieued with their infirmitie, and earnestlie praie for their securitie. His tender care of them, and earnest prai­er for them appeareth in the 17. of Iohn, euen as hee entered into the garden; hee called vpon them to Ibidem. watch and praie, that they entred not into temptation. Ambros. in Iu [...] ­cam. lib. 10. de tristitia & do­lere Christi. Dormiunt (saith Am­brose) & nesciunt dolere pro quibus Christus dolebat: the Disci­ples slept, and cānottel how to sorrow, for whom Christ sorrow­ed. Tristis erat non pro suapassione, sed pro nostra dispersione. Tristis erat, quia nosparnulos relinguebat. Hee was sorrowfull [Page 20] not for his owne suffering, but for our dispersing. He was gréeued because hee left vs yong and weake. Hilarie▪ in his tenth booke de Trinitate largely pursueth this occasion of Christo agonie, & concludeth:Hilarius de [...]rinitate. lib 10 Non ergo sibi tristis erat▪ ne (que) sibi orat, sed illis, quos monet orare peruigiles: Christ is not sorrowfull for himself, nor praieth for himself, but for those whō he warneth to watch and pray. And for their sakes he [...]aith, the Angell was sent to comfort Christ, that hee should take no longer griefe and feare for his Disciples.Ibidem. The Angell being sent to protect the Apostles, and the Lord receiuing comfort thereby Ne pro his tristis esset; iam sine tristit [...]ae m [...]tu ait, dormite & re­quiessite: That he should no longer grieue for them, beginneth nowe to be without griefe and feare, and saith to them, sleepe now, and take your rest. Ibidem. Nam quinobis tristis est, e [...] est propter nos tristis est, necesse est vt proptennos sit comfortatus, & nobis; for he that was sorrowfull for our sakes, and in our behalfe, must of force be comforted for vs▪ and to our vse.

His sorrow for our sinne.The desire and care Christ had to sée his kept safe from the rage of Satan, leadeth me to the fourth cause of Christs agonie▪ For if Christ were so sad for our infirmitie, how sor­rowfull then was he for our iniquitie, whereby we [...]dde not one lie [...] our selues open to danger, but euen wound our selues to death and deseruetion & Well saith Ambrose of this matter. Ambrose de fide lib, [...]. cap. 3. Mihicompatitur, mihi trist is est, nahi dole [...]. E [...]go pro mo, & in me doluit, qui pro sen [...]d habuir quod doleret. D [...]les [...] igitur domine Iesu; non tu [...], sed mea vulnera, non tuam mortem, sed nost [...]am infirmitaetem▪ Christ is affected for mee, sadde for mee, and greened for m [...]e. Hee sorroweth for mee, and in mee, who had nothing in himselfe to bee sorowed for. Thou grieuest Lord Iesu, not at thine owne wounds, but at mine; not for thy death but for my weakenesse: Inward sorrow for sin is preciselie requisite in all remission of sinnes. To sinne and not to be sorie for if, is first to displease, and then to de­spise God. Wherefore it is not possible to appease Gods wrath once prouoked▪ but with earnest and heartie sorrowe that euer we offended, Then as corruption is the mother, and [Page 21] pleasure is the life of sinne: so the inward affliction and con­trition of the soule in all the godlie, is the death of sinne. And since we are neither willing, nor able to sorrow sufficientlie for our sinnes, why might not the son of God, when her tooke vpon him▪ the purgation of our [...] in his own person, take likewise vnto him that inward & earnest sorow for our sins, which neuer creature before him, or besides him did, or could expresse 2. Cor. [...]. Godly sorrow causeth (u [...] vs) repentance vnto salua­tion; and a Psal. 5. 1. troubled spirit is a sacrifice vnto God. Of this kind of sorrow to supplie the weaknes and want of true repen­tance in vs all, and to teach vs heartilie to lament our sins, the more wee attribute vnto the soule of our Sauiour, the more sufficient euerie way we make his satisfaction for sin, that did not onelie render recompen [...]e by his life, and suffer vengeance by his death for our sins, but for déepelie sorrowed for them that in his agonie, aboue nature, he sweate bloud after a strange and maruellous maner.

The fift cause of Christs agonie,The depre [...]a­tion of Gods wrath. might be the cup of gods wrath, tempered and made readie for the sinnes of men. Psal. 75 In the hand of the Lorde is a cuppe (saith Dauid) it is mixed full, the wine thereof is redde, all the wicked of the earth shall wring and drinke the dregges thereof. In this cuppe are all manner of plagues and punishmentes for sinne, as well spirituall, as corporall▪ eternall, as t [...]mporall. The mix­ture of which [...]ppe. Christ perfectlie knowing; and care­fullie shunning the dregges thereof, earnestlie prayed this cuppe might passe from him. I knowe diuers men haue diuer [...]i [...] expounded these wordes of Christ, some there­by collecting two willes shewed in Christ, a diuine and humane, the one submitting it selfe to the other: some no­ting a difference betwixt the vnwillingnesse of our flesh, and readinesse of the spirite, euen in the manhoode of Christ: some also thinking that Christ corrected and reuo­ked his petition, suddenly [...]lipt from him, by the vehemencie of griefe, which tooke from him the present remembrance of gods heauenly decree. In this varietie of iudgements, to refuse [Page 22] none that agréeth any way with the rules of truth, Christ might behold three things in the cuppe of Gods wrath, and by his praier accordinglie decline them; to wit, eternal male­diction, corporall castigation aboue his strength, and the sepa­ration of his bodie by death from the fruition of God.

Christ might pray against the eternal malediction of our sinnes.What was due to our sinnes Christ could not be ignorant; and as he became man to quicken our souls that were dead, not to kill his owne; and to bring vs to God, not to seuer himselfe from God: so knowing what our sinnes deserued, he might intentiuelie pray to haue That cup passe from him, which was prepared for vs; & was heard in that he declined or feared; Heb. 5. Christ (saith Paule) in the dayes of his flesh did of­fer vp praiers and supplications to him, that was able to saue him from death, and was heard [...], for the reue­rence had of him; for so Chrysostome, Theodorete, Oecumenius and others not vnlearned (as I thinke) in the Gréeke tongue doe interprete the worde; or as others delight rather to say: He was heard in that he feared; [...] signifying feare and care, as wel as reuerence. Theodoret in c. 5. epist. ad Heb. Paule meaneth that praier (saieth Theodorete) which CHRIST made before his passion, when he said, Father if it be possible let this cup passe from me. And in­déed but in the garden, Christ neuer praied with strong cries and teares to be saued from death, that we read in the scrip­tures: and He was heard (saith the Apostle) in that he feared or shunned. From the death of the crosse hee was not saued, that therfore was not the effect of his praier; for he was heard in that hee asked. He desired therefore to be saued from ETERNALL death, and that the cup of Gods euerlasting malediction might passe from him, and in that he was heard.

[At least then (wil they say) Christ feared euerlasting death, against which he instantlie praied with strōg cries & tears.] The number of our sinnes, and power of Gods wrath hee coulde not choose but see, being ordained the sauiour of the world, to heare the one, and appease the other; and therefore if we grant that the sight of both, did for the time somewhat astonish the humane nature of Christ, aduisedly considering [Page 23] she waight of both, I [...] no great incon [...]enience therein, so long as they impressed n [...]thing in the soule of Christ, but a religious feare to Sorrow for the one, and to pray against the other. But distrust of his owne saluation, or doubt of Gods displeasure against himselfe, we cannot so much as imagine in Christ, without euident want of grace, and losse of Faith; which we may not attribute to Christs person, no not for an instant. It is weakenesse of [...]aith in vs to feare or forget the promises of God, when the conscience of sinne accuseth vs. What then will it be for the soule of Christ, after so manie promises and oathes made by God, to annoint and send the Sauiour of the world, after so manie cleere and full assuran­ces of Gods loue and fauour towards his person, to stagger at the certaintie of Gods counsell, at the light of his owne knowledge, and at the truth of his fathers voice so often de­nounced, and confirmed with thunder from heauen? I re­fraine to speake what wrong it is, to put either doubtfulnes, or forgetfulnesse of these thinges in any part of Christes hu­mane nature.

[Why then did hee praie that the cup might passe from him?] he had no néed to pray for himself,Christ praied as the heade of his bodie, and so one person with his mem­bers. but onely for vs; who then suffered with him, and in him. On vs it might haue staied being seuered from him, as the iust wages of our sin: against him it could not prenaile, because nothing could be­fall him either against his will, or vnfit for the sonne of God. Wherefore the force and effect of his praier chieflie concer­ned vs,Galath. 2. Rom. 6. Colos. 3. Being then comprised in his bodie, in which wee were crucified, buried, and raised, togither with him. And touching himselfe, albeit the innocencie of his cause, the holinesse of his life, the merit of his obedience, the aboundance of his spirit, the loue of his father, and vnit [...]e of his person, did most sufficientlie gard him from all danger, and doubt of eternal death; yet to shew the perfection of his humilitie, he woulde not suffer his humane nature to require it of right, but pro­ [...]ra [...] on the earth be sought his Father, That cuppe might [Page 24] passe from him, and was heard in that he [...]unned, or an [...]ded. For though God were long before resolued to accept the death and bloud of his sonne for the sinnes of the world; yet by this meanes Christ did sée howe déerelie God loued him▪ that for his sake, and at his request released the last benge­an [...] of mans sinne, & tooke the [...] of eternall malediction not from him onlie, but from vs all at his mediation: how­beit to shew the confidence he had in his father, and to bring his obedience to the highest degrée that might be, hee did af­ter his religious dislike of that cup, which wee had deserued, simplie and who [...]e submit himselfe to his fathers pleasure, without anie condition or exception, in saying to his father; Matth. 26 Not as I will, but as thou wilt. Not [...] by striking any ter­ror of hell into the sence of his flesh, as some would haue it; but fully resting on his fathers will and goodnesse towardes him, as in the surest hauen of his hope, and ou [...] helpe, against all the power of death and hell.

Christ might desire the pu­nishment of our sinnes to be proportio­ned to the strength of his humane flesh.A second thing which Christ might iustlie feare, and ear­nestlie praie against, (though his soule were neuer so safe▪) was the power of Gods wrath to be executed on his bodie, vnlesse it pleased God to lighten the burden of mans sinne. For God was armed with infinite vengeance to afflict and punish the bodie, aboue that the humane flesh of Christ was able to endure. Since therefore Christ was not onelie with meekenesse to beare, but with al willingnes to offer to abide the hand of God laid vpon him, by what meanes soeuer; hee might pray that the cup of his passion might be proportioned to the strength of his flesh, which was but weake in respect of Gods power; and therein also he was heard. For the cup which his father gaue him to drinke by the hands of the wic­ked, did passe from him, without oppressing his patience, or shaking his obedience.Christ might pray against death, not as weaker but as perfecter then others.

Thirdlie Christ might feare his verie passion; not as wea­ker in courage then martyrs or malefactors, but as perfec­ter in nature then either of them. The more we enioie the [Page 25] presence of God in soule or in bodie; the greater griefe it will be, and must be to lacke the sence hereof, euen for a short time. The flesh of Christ then, which had not onelie a personall coniunction, but also a wonderfull fruition of God aboue all men liuing, might well he loath to leaue the same, and yéeld to death, not as timorous through infirmity, but as desirous in pietie to kéepe that sence and feeling of Gods presence, which not onlie the soules, but also the bodies of his Saintes shall hereafter enioie; and which Christ had here on earth in greater measure, then we can expresse, as being personallie vnited to the diuine nature, though as yet not glorified with immortalitie.

And where some auouch, it had beene in Christ a shamefull nicenesse to be so afflicted with the feare of his passion; albeit S. Augustine saie well: August, tract. 60. in Iohanneth. Christ cured our infirmitie [...] in his owne person. Non est vllo modo dubit andum, non eum animi infirmitate, sed potestate turbatum; We may by no meanes doubt that Christ was troubled not for any weakenesse of hart, but through (his own) power: yet Cyril granteth that Christ as a man abhorred and feared death, and addeth that ex­cept he had voluntarily shewed our feare in himselfe, and quenched it, we had neuer beene fréed from it. Cyril thesaur [...]. lib. 10. cap. 3. Omnia Chri­stus perpessus est, vt nos ab omnibus liberaret. Sicut igitur nisi mortuus esset, mors non extingueretur, sic nisi timuisset, non esse­mus nos à metu liberati: nisi doluisset non cessassent dolores nostri. Christ suffered all, that he might free vs from al. As therefore ex­cept he had died, death had not beene conquered; so vnlesse he [...]ad feared, we had not beene deliuered from feare; and if he had not sorrowed, our sorrowes could not haue ceased. And in like manner shalt thou finde all the passions of (our) flesh, to haue beene stirred in Christ, but without sinne, that beeing stirred they might be repressed, by the power of the godheade dwelling in him, and our nature by that meanes reduced to a better temper. Ambrose in other wordes saieth as much. Ambrosius in Lucam lib. 10. de tristitia dol [...] ­re & t [...]edio Christi. Sequestrata de­loctatione diuinitatis aeternae, taedio meae infirmitatis afficitur. Suscepit enim tristitiam meam, vt mihi suam laetitiam largiretur, & [Page 25] vestigijs nostris descendit vsque admortis aerumnam, vt nos suis vestigijs reuocaret advitam. Debuit ergo & dolorem suscipere, vt vinceret tristitiam, non excluderet; & nos disceremus in Chri­sto, quemadmodum futurae mortis maestitiam vinceremus. And so he concludeth. Hic alto operatur effectu, vt quia in carne sua peccata nostra perimebat maerorem quoque animae nostrae, suae animae maerore aboleret. Laying aside the delight of his aeternall deitie, (Christ) is affected with the tediousnesse of my infirmity; and deiected himselfe to feele the griefe of death as we doe, that by following his steps he might reduce vs to life: hee was there­fore to admit sorrowe that he might conquer sorrowe, and not keepe it off; and wee to learne in Christ howe we should ouer­come the feare of death approching. (In his agonie) hee wrought with a deepe effect, that because in his flesh hee killed our sinnes, he might also with the sorrow of his soule extinguish the sorrowe of our soules. So the sorrowe and feare of death▪ which it pleased our sauiour to féele in our nature came not for want of strength: but of purpose to quench and abolish those affections and passions in vs, that the faithfull for euer might bee fréed from them, through his grace working in their hearts. And therefore we haue no cause to excuse, much lesse to reproch Christes weakenesse, but rather to admire his power, and praise his mercie, that woulde submit himselfe to these infirmities of our nature, thereby to cure them in vs, and to strengthen vs against them; and to make vs parta­kers of his wonderfull courage, and patience, the steps wher­of we may dailie find, not in martyrs onelie, but in all his members, when they are tried with anie kinde of outwarde or inward affliction.

Howbeit, I may not omit, how great an ouersight it is to conclude,We must pre­fer Christs suf­fering before all martyrs, not for his paines, but for his pa­tience. that Christ, if he feared death in his agony, was far f [...]ebler then martyrs which ioifullie die; yea, then malefactors which oftentimes go to their death verie resolutely. The des­ratenesse of the wicked which haue neither feare nor care of God, till they féele the force of his wrath in hell fire, is no fit [Page 26] comparison for the sonne of God, no more then the sinke of sinne is to swéeten the fountaine of grace; I will therefore skippe that ouer with silence. But if death bee not fearefull to the seruants of Christ, as indéede it is not, they are the more bound to their Lord and master, who in his owne per­son to make the waie easie for them, with the losse of his life disarmed death for euer, and brake the chaines in sunder wherewith death and hell were coupled together. For Christ was the first that by seuering death from the terror and pow­er of hell, made the stroke of death contemptible to all the godlie; which otherwise was and would haue béene the har­binger of hell. So that when death presented it selfe to the sight of our sauiour purposing to redeeme the world, it came so fast clasped with hell; that none but the sonne of God could dissolue the band, wherewith they were linked. And therfore Christ had far greater cause then anie of his members, to feare; and with earnest praier to decline the [...]aile of death, which did wound both bodie and soule with euerlasting de­struction, if he did not take awaie the sting thereof; and by his sundring the one from the other, (which was the hope of all his saints, before he died, and faith of al the godlie since) death was and is to all beléeuers no cause of feare, but rest from their labors, and passage to a better life. The feare then which Christ had and shewed of death, was either the curing of our infirmities in his flesh; or the breaking the knot betwixt death and hell, which none but he was able to doe; or the mitigating of Gods anger, which might be executed on his bodie, or lastlie the desire hee had to continue the féeling and enioying of Gods presence, and coherence with bodie and soule in the v­nitie of his person: and if in anie of these wee charge Christ with nicenesse, wee knowe not what we saie, except we will bee guiltie in a worse issue, which I perswade my selfe was no part of their meaning, that first broched this matter.

The last cause of Christs agony might be the sanctifying of himselfe to praie for trangressors,Christ migh [...] by his agony voluntarilie dedicate his bloud to mans redemption. and the voluntarie dedi­cating [Page 28] of his bloud to bee shed for the redemption of man­kind: for where some coniecture Christ did sweate bloud for feare, Hilarie plain [...]lie denieth it, and saieth, Hilar, lib. 10 de trin [...]ate. Sudo­remnemo audebit infirmitati deputare; quia & contra naturam est sudare sanguinem, nec infirmitas est, quod pot estas, non secun­dum naturae consuetudinem, gessit. No man shoulde dare attri­bute (Christs bloudy) sweate to infirmitie, because it is against nature to sweat bloud, and can bee no weakenes, which power did aboue the course of nature. Austen maketh it a significati­on of the martyrs bloud, that should willinglie bee shedde throughout the church for the testimonie of the trueth. August. in Psalm. 93. Ideo toto corpore sanguinē suda [...]it, quia in corpore suo, id est Ecclesia, Martyrum sanguinem ostendit. Christ sweat bloud along all his bodie, to this ende, that he might shew the bloud of martyrs in his bodie, which is the church. Prosper agréeth with S. Augu­stine in iudgement and saith. Prosper sen­tent. ex August. sent. 68. Oranscum sudore sanguineo do­minus Iesus▪ significabat de toto corpore, quod est Ecclesia, ema­naturas martyrum passiones. The Lorde Iesus praying with a bloudy sweat, signified the sufferings of the martyrs that should be in his whole body which is the church. Bede thereby noteth that Christes praier made for his Apostles was hearde; and that by his bloud he should not onelie redresse the frailtie of his disciples, but quicken the whole earth being dead in their sinnes. Rede in Luc. cap. [...]2. Nemo sudorem hunc infirmitati deputet, sed intelligat per irrigatam sacratamque eius sanguine terram, non sibi, qui no­uerat sed nobis apertè declaratum, quod effectum suae precis iam obtineret, vt fidem discipulorum, quam terrena adhuc fragilitas arguebat, suo sanguine purgaret, & quicquidilla scandali de eius morte pertulisset, hoc torū ipse moriendo deleret, immo vniuer sum latè terrarum orbem p [...]ccatis mortuum sua innoxia morte caele­stem resuscitaret ad vitam. Let no man attribute Christs bloudie sweat to infirmitie, but rather learne that by sprinkling and hal­lowing the earth with his bloud it was declared, not to him who knewe it▪ but vnto vs, that he had obtained the effect of his prai­er, with his bloud to purge the faith of his Disciples, which earth [Page 29] lie frailtie did weaken, and whatsoeuer offence (the earth) had taken at his death, al that he dying should abolish, yea with his innocent death he should raise vnto an heauenlie life the whole world then dead in their sinnes. Bernard taketh hold on S. Pauls wordes, where hee calleth Christes sweate by the name of teares:Bernard in ra [...]s palmar [...] ser­mon. 3. and [...]aith, Ventum est adorationem, & vsque tertiò factus in Ago [...]ia orabat; vbi quidem non solis oculis, sed quasi omnibus membris sleuisse videtur, vt totū corpus eius, quod est ec­clesia, totius corporis lachrymis purgaretur. Christ came to prai­er, and being in an agony he praied thrise: where he seemed to weepe, not onelie with his cies, but with all the parts of his body; that the whole body of his Church might bee purged with the teares of his whole body.

S. Paul alleageth the cries and teares of Christ in the garden as a proofe of his priesthood, & saith, that not onlie Hebe. 5. He offered praiers & supplications, which was one part of ye priests office, wherein hee was heard for the reuerence had of him: But also [...], being sanctified, to offer sacrifice,Or sanctifie his person to offer the true sacri­fice for sinne, (for so the word doth often signifie,) or else consummated by the offering of himselfe on the crosse, (which was the other part of his priest­lie function) was made authour of eternall saluation to all that obey him, being thus called and allowed of God to bee an high priest after the order of Melchizedec. Christ readie to enter the garden saith, Iohn. 17 Pro [...]eis sanctifico meipsum; for their sakes I sanc­tifie my selfe: and sanctification properlie belonged to the priestes: person, before hee might appeare in Gods presence to offer for the sinnes of the people; and by the rite of Moses lawe, the priestes, when they were sanctified vnto God, had their bodies Exod. 29 sprinkled with the bloud of their sacrifice from top to toe. Christ then being the truth of all their figures as well in the sanctification, as oblation of himselfe, might mi­raculouslie sprinkle his whole bodie with his own bloud; (for it was aboue nature as Hilarie noteth) and so conscera [...]e his person, as approoued of God, to be the true priest after the order of Melchizedec, and voluntarilie dedicate his bloud to [Page 29] be shed for the remission of our sinnes, which hee did of his owne accord yeeld, to be disposed of at his fathers pleasure, before the Iewes or Gentiles wounded his bodie, that his whole passion which followed, might bee a willing sacrifice, and no forced violence by the handes or weapons of the wic­ked. Christes agonie then being alleaged by the Apostle to demonstrate Christs priesthood, must not rise from the ter­ror of his own death, but rather from the vehemencie of his praier for vs, that it might bee aswell an intercession for sin­ners, as a sanctification of himselfe, to offer the sacrifice auaile­able for the sinnes of the world. To which if anie will adde the signification of the martyrs bloud, which Austen speaketh of, as if Christ in the garden did not onelie present his owne bloud to be the true propitiation of our sinnes, but also the bloud of his martyrs, to make their death acceptable to God, that willinglie laide downe their liues for the witnes of his truth; I can be well content to admit that exposition, considering Christ must offer both the liues and deathes of all his saintes to God his father, before they can be holie or precious in his sight.

The suffering of hell paines not ye cause of Christs agony.But since Christes feare(as they expound the Apostles words Hebre. 5.) is made the groundworke of this conceipt, let vs see whether their owne foundation wil not ouerthrow their owne building. The paines of hell, did Christ when hee praied in the garden, feare them or no? if hee did not feare them, hee did not féele them; for they are fearefull: yea the verieHebre. 10 expectation of them is verie dreadful, as the Apostle saith Hebre. 10; and if he feared them not, howe could they bee the cause of his agonie, which these men so stiflie main­taine? If he feared them, he was fréed from them, as they themselues interprete the worde [...], for hee was heard in that he feared. His praier was to haue that cup passe from him, and God neuer denied whatsoeuer he asked. Ioh. 11. I know (saith Christ to his father) that thou hearest me alwaies. Whence they conclude, he feared hell paines, thence I infer [Page 30] hee suffered them not. for being deliuered from the feare of hell approching, he could not be left vnder the burden of hell abi­ding. Againe, if the suffering of hell were the cause of Christs agony, the cause continuing, the effect could not cease. But his agonie ended in the garden; how then could the paines of hell endure on the crosse, and be lengthened almost to the end of his life? Ierome saith vpon these wordes of Christ to his disciples, [Arise let vs go:] Hieron. in Matth. ca. [...] least they finde vs, as though we were fearefull, and drawing backe, let vs of our owne ac­corde goe towardes them; vt considentiam, & gaudium passuri videant; that they may see the confidence and gladnesse (of Christ) going to his passion.

The continuance of Christes agonie they proue by his complaint on the crosse, where not long before he yeelded vp his spirit, he cried; Matth. 2 [...]. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? and these words, they saie, do plainelie conuince, that Christ felt himselfe forsaken of God,What is mean by Christs cō ­plaint on the crosse that he was forsaken. and that this was the true cause of his agonie, whatsoeuer pretences are inuented by others to excuse, or colour his feare. Indeede this place must beare the burden of the whole frame; for the rest are on­lie signes of sorrowe and zeale, the scriptures not expressing the cause; but here are manifest wordes if wee mistake not their reference. Iohn. 14 My father is greater then I am, were words as cleare as daie light: but the referring that to the diuine which hee spake of his humane nature, bred the Arrian he­resie. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken mee; are not so plaine. for the saints of God haue often complained vnto God that they were forsaken of him, when he withdrew nei­ther his fauour, grace, nor spirit from them; but onelie with­helde his helpe or comfort for the time, to make them more earnest to séeke and flie to him. But were they neuer so preg­nant, if we applie them to the wrong part, which God neuer forsooke, we may incurre as grosse an errour as euer did Ar­rius. And yet if we straine them to the vttermost, they will neuer proue that Christ on the crosse suffered the paines of [Page 32] hell. For if we should grant, which were diuelish impietie to thinke, that God forsooke Christes soule as verelie, as euer hee did anie of the wicked heere on earth, Cain, Saul, Iudas not excepted; yet that doth not conclude he suffered the true paines of hell. For those in this life did not suffer as much, as their soules doe now in hell, make their case neuer so de­sperate. And therefore I maruaile howe wise men were be­witched with the sound of these wordes, which hence resolued that out of all question, Christ suffered the paines of the dam­ned in hell, where as the wordes inferre no such thing▪ though we stretch them neuer so farre. For in spite of our hearts, before we can bring that conclusion to follow, this must be the iointure of our reason.The wicked are here forsa­ken, and yet not in hell. All men any way forsaken of God in this life are in the true paines of hell: Christ was for­saken of God, ergo he was in the true paines of hell. Now howe fond, false, and absurd the generall assertion is, that all anie way forsaken of God, are in the true paines of hell, to men of learning and religion néedeth no long discourse. Cain was a Genes. 4 runnagate and accursed by Gods mouth: Esau was a Hebre. 12 pro­phane person, and Rom, 9. hated of God; Saul was verie desperate when he sought to the witch, for God was 1 Samuel 28 departed from him, and become his enemie; Iudas was the Iohn. 17 sonne of perdition, and a Iohn. 6 diuell: yea manie were starke mad, and possessed with diuels; and yet none of them in those verie tormentes, which are reserued for the damned in hell. The Ephes. 4.18 Gentiles as Paul saith, were strangers from the life of God, and had Ephes. 2, 12. no hope, and were without God in the world, yet were they not in the paines of hell, here on earth. But I hope we be not so far drowned in the depth of hell, that wee will for our fansie range the sonne of God, and sauiour of the world, in this ra­ble of wicked and desperate castawaies; and yet though men could be so dangerouslie deuoted to their dreames, this proo­ueth not their purpose. Desperation they may stumble at, if they will presse the words without anie difference betwéen the dereliction of Gods saintes and his enemies; but tolera­tion [Page 33] of hell paines these words will neuer conclude, vnlesse we make hell to be no iudgement, nor punishment after this life, but onelie a terror and horror of conscience, such as pur­sueth the wicked here in reuenge of their sinnes.

When the godlie complaine,How the godly are forsaken. as often they do in the scrip­tures, that they were forsaken of God, it is not onlie a plaine absurditie, but a grosse impietie to conclude of their words, that they then suffered the verie paines of the damned in hell. For example, Sion, which is the whole church of God, saith in the prophet Esay, Esay 49. the Lorde hath forsaken me: and God himselfe assureth her words to bee true, Esay. 54 For a while I forsooke thee, for a moment in mine anger, I hid my face from thee: Was the whole church for that time in the true paines of hell? Dauid saith of himselfe, Psalm. 89 Thou hast reiected and ab­horred, thou hast beene angrie with thine annointed. Was Dauid then in the verie paines of the damned? of his whole realme he saith; Psalm. 60 O God thou hast cast vs off, and beene angry with vs. Did all the people then suffer the torments of hell? reiecting and abhorring are wordes of greater dislike, and more detestation, then forsaking; and yet they infer not the paines of hell. Whie then doe wee so fondlie misconster the one, when we well inough vnderstande the other? why stumble we at a strawe, when we canne step ouer a blocke? To be forsaken of God as the wicked are, is to bee depriued of his fauour, grace, and spirit: and yet they are not forth­with in hell. To be forsaken, as the godlie complaine they are, is to be voide of comfort, or destitute of helpe, when their enemies assault or afflict them, which is nothing néere the state of the damned. For as God is said to be present by his gifts and graces: so he hideth his face, or forsaketh vs, when he refraineth his eie from watching, his eare from hearing, or his hand from helping vs in the miseries and aduersities of this life.

If I be thought partiall, let vs heare what the ancient and learned fathers purposelie write of our sauiours complaint [Page 34] on the crosse; in whome I finde sundrie, and all godlie exposi­tions, according with the truth of the scriptures, and no way bending or inclining to this late deuise of hell paines.

1 The first; that as Christ is our heade, and we his mem­bers in such sort ioyned in one bodie wi [...]h him,Diuers expo­sitions of the fathers, how Christ was for­saken on the crosse. that hee suffe­reth in vs, and we in him; so were we not onlie crucified and buried, but also raised, and glorified in him, and with him; and therefore hee shewed and vttered manie thinges in his passion, which ought to be referred directlie to vs, and not to him▪ but as bearing our person, and speaking in our names. My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken mee? August. episto­la. [...]20. Hanc in se vocem transfigurauit Iesus, vocem corporis fui, hoc est ecclesiae. This speech Christ transferred to himselfe, (saith Austen) being the speach of his body, which is the church. The church suffered then in him, when he suffered for the church, euen as hee suffe­red in the church, when the church suffered for him. And as we heard the voice of the church suffering in Christ, when he saide; my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me: so haue we heard the voice of Christ suffering in his church, when hee saide; Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou mee? And againe; Idem in Psal­ [...] 21. quid voluit di­cere dominus? non enim dereliquerat illū deus, cum ipse esset deus, atque filius dei. Quare dicitur, nisiquia nos ibi eramus, nisi quia corpus Christi ecclesia? Why would the Lord saie, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? God had not forsaken him, for so much as he was God, and the son of God. Why then was it said, but because we were there in him, & the church which was his bodie? Leo de passio. serm. 16. Sub redemptorum suorum voce clamabat, deus de­us meus, quare me dereliquisti, In the name of his redeemed Christ said, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me: Athanasius de incarna [...]. Christi. Ex nostra persona verba illa proloquitur, non enim ipse à deo desti­tutus fuit sednos. In our person Christ speaketh these wordes, for he was not forsaken of God, but we.

The second exposition of these words is, that Christes hu­mane nature was not protected from the rage of the Iewes, but left without helpe in the power of his enemies, to bee [Page 35] vsed at their pleasures, which he calleth a kind of forsaking. For God then séemeth to leaue vs, whē he doth not defend vs from the furie of our foes, which séeke our ouerthrow. August epist. 120. Erat aliqua causa, eaque non parua, quare Christum de manibus Iu­daeorum non liberaret deus, cumque in potestate saeuientium, vs­que ad mortis exitum derelinqueret. There was a cause, saieth Augustine, and that no small cause, why God did not deliuer Christ out of the handes of the Iewes, but let him alone in the power of his pursuers, vntill he died. Ambros. de fide lib. 2. cap 3. Vt homo loquitur meos circumferens metus, quod in periculis positi a domino deseri nos putamus. Christ speaketh as a man (saith Ambrose) bearing a­bout him my feares, for yt we, when we are in danger, think our selues forsaken of God. Hieron in ca. 27 Matthae. Ne mireris querimonias derelicti, cum scandalum crucis videas. Maruaile not at Christes complaint that he was forsaken, when as thou seest how he was vsed on the crosse. Idē in Psal. 21 Derelictus est Christus pro parte carnis. Christ was forsaken in his passion as touching his flesh.

A third is, that Christs godhead together with his humane 3 soule were then departing from his bodie, and leauing it vn­to death. Tertullian, (Deus) Filium Tertul. aduer­sus Praxeam. dereliquit, cum hominem eius tradidit in mortē. Ita relinqui a patre, fuit mori filio. God forsooke his sonne, in that he deliuered his humanity vnto death. So for the sonne to die, was to be forsaken of his father. Hilarie, Hilar. lib. x [...] de Trinitate Habes conquerentem se esse relictum ad mortem, quia homo est: vt intelligentia nostra sit, & homo mortuus, & deus regnans. Thou heardest Christ complaine that hee was left vnto death, that we should conceiue he died as a man, he raigned as a God. And againe; Idem in Matth. Can. 33. Clamor ad deum, corporis vox est, recedentis a se verbi dei contestata dissidium: relinquitur, quia erat homo etiam morte peragendus. Christes complaint vnto God, that hee was forsaken, is the voice of his body, testifying the separation of the diuine nature from it for a time. He is forsaken, because he was a man to be consummated by his death. Epiphanius saith, hee spake these words, Epiph. lib. [...]. [...]. 2. con [...]ra. Ario­manita [...] When he saw his deitie with his soule readie to depart from the person of his humanity & to forsake his body.

[Page 36]A fourth is, that where God for sin had refused and for­saken 4 man, euen from the fall of Adam, Christ nowe exal­ted on the tree, reconciled mankind vnto God, and slue hatred, making peace by his prayer betwixt God & man. Cyril: Cyril de recta [...]ide ad [...]eginas. whē Adam transgressed the diuine commaundement, mans nature was after a sort forsaken of God, and therby subiected to a curse and death. These words of Christ therfore, Erant soluentis ma­nifesté derelictionem quae nobis acciderat, & quasi placantis in hoc patrē, &c. Were the manifest remouing of that derelictiō, which fel on vs, and as it were an appeasing his father, and procuring his fauor towards vs, as towards himself, Basil: Basil. in Psal. 32. Dicit haec dominus, primitiae humanae naturae pro vniuersa. The lord speaketh these words for all mankind, as being the first fruits of mās nature. O­therwise of his own person it is true that Athanasius saith. Athan. contra Arrianos serm. 4. Ne (que) enim à patre derelinqui potuit, quia semper est in patre & antequam hanc vocem ederet & post quam edidisset. Ecce enim di­cente, cur me dereliquisti: ostendit pater sevt semper antea, ita tum quo (que) in filio fuisse. He could not be forsaken of his father, who was alwaies in his father, both before and after he spake these words. Behold as hee vttered these words (why hast thou forsaken me) the father shewed himselfe to be euen then in his sonne, as he was at all times before. For the earth feeling the weight of her Lord, straight wayes trembled, the vaile rent, the Sunne darkened, the stones claue, the dead rose.

5 The fift, that Christ putteth vs in mind by these wordes to acknowledge the cause, why God doth often not heare our prayers, but in refusing our desires prouideth better for vs, then if we had our wils.Leo de Pass. serm. 16. Vox ista, quare me dereliquisti, doctri­na est, nō querela. Nam cum in Christo dei & hominis vna sit per­sona, nec ab eopotuerit relinqui, à quo non poterat separari, pro na­bis trepidis & infirmis interrogat, curcaro pati metuens exaudi­ta non fuerit. This speach (saith Leo) My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, is an instruction, and no complaint: For where in Christ there is but one person of God and man, and he could not be forsaken of God, from whom he could not bee se­parated, [Page 37] he asketh the question for vs that are fearefull & weak, why flesh fearing to suffer is not heard. Ibidem. Vnde ipsa vox non exanditi, magni est expositio sacramenti: quod nihil humano gene­ri conferret redemptoris potostas, si quod petebat nostra obtineret infirmitas. The verie wordes of him, that was not heard, o­pen to vs a great mysterie, to witte, that the power of the re­deemer coulde doe mankinde no good, if our infirmitie might obtaine what it woulde aske. Origen sayth: Origen in Mat. cap. [...]. In respect of that, in which consisted the inuisible forme of God, Christ was forsaken of his father, where hee tooke the shape of a ser­uant, and came to the death of the Crosse, which amongst men was most shamefull. So that for Christ to become man, and to suffer on the Crosse, was to bee forsaken of God, in comparison of that glorie, which hée had with his Father before all worldes.

The last exposition is, that when the Iewes reproched Christ on the Crosse, as reiected of God, he with a loud voice, that all might hear, sang or cited the beginning of the 21. Psalme, wherein it was by the Prophet Dauid fore­shewed, that the true Messias and sauiour of the worlde should suffer all those wronges, and shames, which they had heaped on him: and thereby taught them, that they had Act. 4. gathered themselues togither to do whatsoeuer the hand and counsaile of God had determined before to be done. Hieron in Psa. 12. The Lord (saith Ierom) hanging on the Crosse, vseth this verse, My God my God, why hast thou forsaken me; by which wee perceiue, that in the Crosse he sang the whole Psalme, as directly pertai­ning to his passiō. Chrysost. hom [...] in Mat. [...]9. Christ spake these words (saith Chrysostom) that the Iewes might know hee honoured his father to the last breath, and that God was not his enemie (as they obiected:) for which cause he vsed the Prophet Dauids words, to verifie or fulfill the scripture of the old testament.

All these interpretations are sound, and stand well with the rules of christian pietie, without dishonouring the person, or disturbing the faith of Christ; & therfore I cannot but maruel [Page 38] what reason our late writers had to refuse them all, and de­uise another exposition of their owne which imploieth not onlie desperation in Christs soule,If Christs soule were forsaken, he had neither faith, hope, nor loue. if wee presse the wordes, and the dissolution of Christes person, but an euident con­tradiction to all that Christ did, or saide on the crosse, or in iudgement after the Iewes had once laide handes on him. For if these words be referred to the soule of Christ, and un­port a generall and true dereliction, which must be supposed, before the paines of hell can thence be concluded; Christ fée­ling and confessing himselfe to bee forsaken of God, coulde haue neither faith, nor hope. For he that beléeueth, and hopeth in God, cannot trulie saie, that God hath forsaken his soule; he may complaine that God doth not deliuer him from dan­gers and troubles assaulting him; which the weakenesse of man thinketh a kinde of forsaking. Psal. [...]1. Mine enemies (saith Dauid) take counsell, saying, God hath forsaken him, pursue him, there is none to deliuer him. But this is no forsaking of the soule, so long as that part of man trusteth in God, which is created chiefelie to enioie God. Nowe by faith, hope, and loue, the soule of man enioieth God in this life; and hee that enioieth God is not forsaken of God. Yea whosoeuer hopeth in him, neither is nor euer shall be forsaken. Rom. 5. For hope doth not confound, Ecclesi [...] [...] was there euer any confounded, that put his trust in the Lorde? or who hath continued in his feare, and hath beene forsaken? or whome did he euer despise that called vpon him? Then if out of these wordes we will infer, that Christes soule was truelie forsaken of God, it cannot bee auoided, but this inwarde perswasion in Christ (that his soule was forsaken) during from the time of his agonie in the garden, till his complaint on the crosse (which was aboue 18. houres) was manifest desperation: vnlesse wee saie Christ was de­ceiued in so thinking, which is as great an errour on the o­ther side. For if his faith, hope, and loue were still fixed on God, and no waie decaied, he could with no truth saie, that his soule was vtterlie forsaken.

[Page 39]Againe, the soule that is forsaken of God must néedes be separated from God. 1. Cor. 6. If Christs soule were forsaken the vnion of his two na­tures was dissolued. For he that cleaueth vnto the Lorde, is one spirit with him, & so not forsaken of him. Yf then Christs soule were seuered from God, it could haue no mutuall con­gruence, much lesse naturall coherence with God. There must bee a spirituall communion in grace, or else there can be no personall vnion in nature. As the soule doth com­municate her effects to the bodie, with which shee is coupled: so must the deitie make the humane nature of Christ parta­ker of those graces and giftes, which maie come from the godhead, before we can trulie saie, that the one is personal­lie ioyned with the other. The participation and fruition of God is not in words or thoughtes, but in déedes and effects. In whom then the spirit of God dwelleth not, with his force and fruites, let him neuer deceiue his hart, that he hath any fellowship with God. Nowe in Christ was the fulnesse of Gods spirit and grace. God Iohn. [...] measured not his spirit to him, but of his fulnesse we all haue receaued. So that if the fulnesse of grace failed in the soule of Christ, the vnitie of his person was vtterly dissolued. For without a communion, there can be no coniunctiō of two natures in Christ. If there were an effectuall and full communion, there could be no reall nor generall dereliction. Insomuch that the verie flesh of Christ, though it were left vnto death; yet was it not vtterlie forsa­ken of the deitie, but preserued euen in the graue from cor­ruption, and raised againe with greater perfection then before; besides the wonderfull conquest it had ouer death. Which plainelie proue the Godheade was neuer separated from the bodie of Christ, though the soule for a time de­parted, that death and hell might bee destroied. If the deitie did neuer forsake the bodie, no not in death▪ much lesse did it euer forsake the soule, which alwaies had an vnseparable coniunction, and vnceaseable communion with the godhead of Christ.

Lastlie, no sence could bee deuised, more repugnant and [Page 40] opposite to all that Christ saide or did after his agonie,Christs words & deeds proue his soule was not forsaken of God. then this last found exposition, or rather deprauation of his words. To the high priest asking him whether he were Christ the son of ye blessed (God,) he answered Mark. 14. I am: and ye shall see the son of man sit at the right hande of the power of God, and come in the cloudes of heauen. Christ was and must be farre from dis­trusting or doubting that, which he resolutelie affirmeth shal come to passe euen in the eies of his enemies. When they fastened him to the crosse hee said, Luke. 25 Father, forgiue them, they know not what they do. Could he intreate and obtaine par­don for others, that found himselfe to be forsaken of God? To the thiefe that hung by him, and desired to be remembred when he came to his kingdome, he answered, Luke. 23. Verilie, I saie to thee, thou shalt this day bee with me in paradise. Could hee giue paradise to others, with so great confidence, that coulde not then assure himselfe of Gods fauour, yea, as these men will haue it, that was abandoned and forsaken of God? The Centurion that had the charge to see him put to death, and heard him speake these words, neuer conceiued that he was reiected or estranged from God, but contrariwise confessed; Matth, 27. Truelie this man was the sonne of God. Christ himselfe Iohn. 18 Knowing all thinges that should come vnto him, saide to his disciples; Iohn. 16 Behold the houre is come, that ye shall be scattered, and leaue me alone, but I am not alone, for the father is with me. Now if God were with him, when his disciples left him, as he himselfe witnesseth, howe could his soule be forsaken of God? of Christ crucified Dauid saith (as Peter expoundeth his wordes) Acts. 2. I alwaies beheld the Lord before me, euen at my right hand, that I should not bee shaken. If Christ had all the time of his passion the fauour of God so constant, and the power of God so present, that hee coulde not be so much as mooued or swaied to and fro, for so the wordes [...] doe signifie, that I should not waue vp and downe, but st [...]nd fired and assured; how could that parte of Christ, which enioied so manifestlie the sight of Gods countenance, and [Page 41] strength of Gods assistance, be forsaken or refused of God: And out of this complaint, that he was forsaken, if we inferre the paines of hell, wee conclude directlie against Christes wordes in the 16. psalme. Non derelinques animam meam in inferno, Thou wilt not forsake my soule in hell. Christs soule was not forsaken in hell; if then it were forsaken on the crosse, it is euident that there it suffered not hell, for in hell it was neuer forsaken. And therefore turne and winde the wordes of Christ which way they will or can, this exposition [...]punc; which they fasten vnto them, is a manifest contradiction to all that Christ did or saide on the crosse, and namelie to that assertion of Dauid, in the person of Christ, Thou wilt not for­sake my soule in hell.

Then are there in the sacred scriptures neither anie pre­dictions that Christ shoulde suffer the paines of hell in his soule here on earth; nor causes why he must suffer them; nor Signes that he did suffer them; and consequentlie, whatsoeuer is pretended, no proofe that these sufferings must be added to the crosse of Christ, before the worke of our saluation can be perfect. And for my part, which moderation I wish in you all, What I reade in the word of God that I beleeue, what I do not reade that I doe not beleeue. In Gods causes wee maie not easily leaue Gods words, and with a new kind of speach make way for a new kinde of faith. We must learne from God what to beléeue, and not by correcting or inuerting his words teach him how to speake. Since therefore redempti­on and remission of sinnes are euerie where in the scriptures referred to the death and bloud of Christ, I dare not so much as thinke the words of the holie ghost in one of the greatest mysteries of our christian faith to be improper, or imperfect. And that you may the better perceaue how plainelie and ful­lie this doctrine is deliuered in the propheticall & apostolical scriptures, I thinke it good to go forwardes with the effects of Christes crosse, by which it shall appeare howe sufficient the price of our redemption is, in the bloud of Christ, without [Page 42] anie supplie of hell paines to be suffered in ye soule of Christ.

The effectes of Christs crosse though I might recken ma­nie, yet to keep my selfe within some compasse, I restraine to fiue chiefe branches:The effects of Christs crosse. the MERITE of his suffering, which was INFINITE; the MANER of his offering, which was BLOVDY; The POVVER of his DEATH, which was mighty; the COMFORT of his CROSSE which was NE­CESSARIE, & the GLORY of his RESVRRECTION which was heauenly. These fiue will direct vs not onely what to be­léeue, but what to refuse in the person and passion of our Sa­uiour. I will therefore take them as they lie in order.

The merite of Christs passion must be infinit in two respects The merite of Christs suffering must be simply infinite, that it may worke two things for vs; to wit, redeeme vs from Sathan, and reconcile vs vnto God: cleere vs from hell, and bring vs to heauen; & in either respect it must be infinite. The wages of sinne is death, both of bodie and soule, héere and for euer. With the Iudge of the world is no vnrighteousnesse. He therefore punisheth no man, without cause, or aboue de­sert. Since the reuenge of each mans sinne is eternall, yt is infinite in time; the waight of each mans sinne must needs be infinite, as being rewarded with euerlasting death. It may séeme much to carnal men, that God should requite sin with euer during reuenge; but if we seriouslie bethinke our selues what it is for earth and ashes to waxe proud against God, & after so manifold & abundant blessings to cast off his yoake, & readily, yea gréedily to prefer euerie vanitie and fansie be­fore his heauenlie truth, & glory; we shall presently perceiue how iust cause God hath infinitely to hate our vncleannes, & eternally to pursue the pride, contempt, & rebellion of wic­ked and wilfull men against his diuine maiestie; howsoeuer we digest it, it is a thing determined with God, and no doubt balāced in his vpright and sincere iudgment. E [...]ech. 18. The soule that sinneth, that soule shal die. Death & life are both eternall, yt is, infinite in length, though not in weight; in durance, though not in degree and sence of ioy, or paine. Then in either respect [Page 43] to counteruaile our deliuerance from hell, & our inheritance in heauen, she merit of Christs suffering must be infinite. An infinite purchase cannot be made, but with an infinite price.

For this infinite price whither shall we seeke?Hell is not in­finite, but onlie in time. to the paines of hell, or to the powers of heauen [...] ye paines of hel are neither meritorious nor infinite. What thanks with God to be sepa­rated from God? and the soule being alienated from God, what other part of man can merite his fauor? Hebre. 10. If any man fal away, my soule shall haue no pleasure in him. Hel paines there­fore are accursed, not accepted of God; and hee that suffereth them is hated, and no way beloued. Matth [...]. Depart from me ye cur­sed into euerlasting fire. As they are not meritorious, no more are they infinite, I meane in waight; but they must e­uerlastingly be suffered, before they can be infinite. For not only diuels, but men of all sorts shal suffer them, who cannot endure any infinite sence of paine. All creatures are finite both in force to do,Nothing infi­nite but only God. & strength to suffer. Infinit is as much as God himself hath, & therefore God alone is infinite. So that neither hel fire is of infinite force to punish, nor men nor an­gels of infinite strength to suffer, but the vengeance of sinne continueth for euer, by reason no creature is able to beare an infinite waight of punishment. Since then the paines of hel haue neither worth nor waight sufficient in themselues to satisfie the anger, & procure the fauor of God, we must séeke to heauen, euen to God himselfe, for the true ransome for our sinnes,The merite of Christ is infi­nite in respect of his person. and redemption of our soules, which we no where find, but in the person of Christ Iesus, who being true God tooke our nature vnto him, and by the infinite price of his bloud bought vs from ye power of hel, & brought vs vnto God. For neither ye vertues of Christs humane soule, though they were many; nor the sufferings of his flesh, though they were pain­ful, are simply infinite, til we looke to his person, & then shall we find that Acts. 20 God vouchsafed with his own bloud to purchase his Church, & that Roman. [...]. we were reconciled to God by the death of his sonne when we were his enemies. Bernarde expressing the [Page 44] infinite merite of Christes death and passion saith. Bernard de passione cap. 17 In­comprehensibilis (deus voluit) comprehendi, summus humilia­ri, potentissimus despici▪ pulcherrimus deformari▪ sapientissimus vt iumentū fieri, immortalis mori, vt compendio absoluam, deus fieri (voluit) vermiculus▪ quid excelsius deo? quid inferius vermiculo? The incomprehensible (God woulde) be comprehended, the highest humbled, the most mighty despised, the most beautifull deformed, the most wise bee like a beast, the immortall (would) suffer death; to speake all in fewe wordes, God would become a Worme: what is higher then God? what is baser then a Worme? If betwéene the Creator and the best of his creatures there be an infinite distance; what thinke yee then was there be­twixt the throne of God in heauen, and the crosse of Christ on earth? not an infinite distance? and so infinite that nei­ther men nor Angels can comprehend it? The ground of our saluation then is the obedience, humility and charitie of the sonne of God, yeelding himselfe not onelie to serue in our stéed, but to die for our sinnes. For when he was equall with God in nature, power, and glory, hee refused not to take the shape of a seruant vpon him, and to humble himselfe to the death of the crosse, not onelie obeying his fathers will, which we had despised; but abiding his hand for the chastisement of our peace. The Apostle noteth these thrée vertues in the per­son of Christ; Philip. 2 Let the SAME AFFECTION (of loue) bee in you, which was in Christ Iesus, vvho being in the forme of God, emptied and humbled himselfe and became obedient to the death, euen to the death of the crosse. By his humilitie, obedi­ence, and charity, hee purged the pride, rebellion, and selfe-loue, which our first father shewed when he fell, and we all expresse in our sinnes; and therefore as wee all died in Adams transgression, so we are all iustified, that is absol­ued from our sinnes, and receaued into fauour, by the obe­dience of Christ.

Yea the obedience of Christ did in farre higher degrée please God the Father, then the rebellion of Adam did dis­please [Page 45] him.Christs obedi­ence doth more then counteruaile Adams diso­bedience. For there the vassall rebelled, here the equall o­beied: there earth presumed to be like vnto God, here God vouchsafed to bee the lowest amongst men: there the crea­ture neglected his maker, here the creator so loued his ene­mies, euen his persecutors, that hee tooke the burthen from their shoulders, and laid it on his owne, contentedly giuing his life for them, who cruellie tooke his life from him: to con­clude, those were the sinnes of men, these are the vertues of God, which doe infinitelie counteruaile the other, and for that cause the iustice of God is farre better satisfied with the obe­dience of Christ, then with the vengeance it might iustlie haue executed on the sinnes of men. For God hath no Ezech. [...] plea­sure in the death of the wicked, neither doth hee delight in mans destruction; but with the obedience of his sonne he is well pleased, and therein euen his soule delighteth. Matt [...] This is my beloued sonne in whom I am well pleased. Esay. 4 [...]. Loe my cho­sen, my soule taketh pleasure in him. In which words God doth not onlie note the naturall loue betwixt his sonne and him­selfe; but he giueth full approbation of his obedience, as be­ing thereby throughlie satisfied for the sinne of man. By Christs obedience I doe not meane the holinesse of his life, or performance of the lawe, but the obedience of the person vnto death, euen the death of the Crosse; which was volun­tarilie offered by him, not necessarily imposed on him, aboue and besides the lawe, and no way required in the lawe. For it could be no dutie to God or man, but onelie mercie and pitie towardes vs, that caused the sonne of God to take our mortall and weake flesh vnto him, and therein, and ther­by to pay the ransome of our sinnes, and to purchase eter­nall life for vs. He must be a Sauiour, no debter; a redéemer, no prisoner; Lord of all, euen when hee humbled himselfe to be the seruant of all; his diuine glorie, power and maiestie make his sufferings to be of infinite force and value. And from this dignitie, and vnitie of his person, which is the maine pillar of our redemption, if we cast our eies on any [Page 46] other cause, or deuise any new help to strengthen the merits of Christ, wee dishonour and disable his diuinitie, as if the sonne of God were not a full and sufficient price, to ransome the bodies and soules of all mankind.

On this foundation doe the scriptures build the whole frame of mans redemption. Acts. 20 The scriptures ground our saluation on the dignitie of Christs person GOD purchased his church (saith Paule) WITH HIS OVVNE BLOVD; GOD, noting the dig­nitie; HIS OVVNE, the vnitie of his person, and both impor­ting a price far worthier then the thing purchased. Rom. 8. God spa­red not his owne sonne, but gaue him for vs all. In that he was the sonne of God, al nations are counted vnto him (or in bal­lance with him) Esay. 40. lesse thē nothing, and vanitie; in that he was giuen for vs, the ransome excelleth the prisoner, as much as God doth manRom. 5.. We are reconciled to God by the death of his sonne. Maruell we to sée Christs death of that power & price with God, that it appeased his wrath, when he was angrie with vs, as with his enemies; when as his owne son being equall with him in the forme of God, humbled himselfe to the death of the crosse for our sakes? Fairer or fuller causes of our redemption we neede not aske, the holie Ghost doth not expresse, God cannot haue. If the son of God be not able with his bloud to redeeme vs, wee must giue ouer all hope; and despaire. For heauen cannot yéeld vs a greater value, and the earth hath none like. Wherfore if any man be dispo­sed to seale his own condemnation, with his own heart, let him distrust the merits of Christs death: but all that will be saued must acknowledge the infinite price of his death, and bloud aboue our worth, and we must learne being sinfull and wretched creatures, not to amend the wordes of God, in the mysterie of our redemption, but suffer him that is trueth to be the guider of our faith, and not by figures to frustrate all that is written in the word of God touching our saluation, purchased by the death and bloud of Christ Iesus.

And so do the fathers.I am not the first that obserued or vrged this doctrine, it is auncient and Catholike. Athanasius de incarnatione ci­tatura Theodo­reto dialogo 3. Cum super omnes esset Dei [Page 47] verbum, merito suum ipsius templum & corporale instrumen­tum pro omniū ammis pretium offerens, id quod morti debebatur persoluit. Where as the word (or sonne) of God, (saith Athana­sius) was aboue al, worthily then by offering his owne temple & bodily instrument, as a price for the soules of all men, did he pay that was due vnto death. Cyril. Cyril de recta fide ad reginas in 1. Timothei. 2. dedit semetips [...] pretium pro nobis. Si non esset deus quomodo ipse & solus sufficeret ad hoc, vt sit pretiū? Sed sufficit solus pro omni­bus mortuus, quia super omnes est; deus igitur est, morte suae car­nis à mundo mortē depellens. If Christ were not God, how could he alone suffice to be the ransome (for al?) but he alone dead suf­ficeth for all, because he is aboue all; he is therefore God, by the death of his flesh, driuing away death from the worlde. And againe; Cyril ibidem in 1. Petri. 1. pretios [...] sanguine Christi redemp­ti estis. Redempti sumus Christo proprium corpus dante pro no­bis. Sed si vt communis homo intelligeretur Christus, quomodo corpus eius ad rependendum omnium vitam sufficeret? At si deus fuit in carne, qui dignissimus, sufficiens ad redemptionem totius mundi per suum sanguinē merito fuit. We are redeemed, Christ giuing his own body for vs. But if Christ be taken to be no more then a man, how should his body be sufficient to restore life to al men? but if he were God in our flesh, worthily thē did he suffice to redeem the whole world with his bloud. Austen. August in psa. 148. Si propter hominē mortuus est deus, nō est victurus homo cum deo? quomodo mortuus est deus? accepit ex te vnde moreretur pro te; nōposset mori nisi caro nōposset mori nisi mortale corpus. If god died for mā shall not mā liue with god? but how died god? he took of thine wherin to die for thee. There could nothing die but flesh, there could die nothing but a mortal body. And elsewhere an anciēt writer vnder his name, if not himselfe. Indubitanter creda­mus quod totum mundum redemit, August. de tempore. 114. qui plus dedit quā totus mun­dus valeret: inter redimentē & redemptum dispensatio, non com­pensatio fuit. Let vs vndoubtedly beleeue that hee redeemed the whole worlde, which gaue more then the whole world was worth. Betweene the redeemer and the redeemed there was a dispensation (of humilitie) no compensation (of equality.) And to shewe the truth of his spéech he addeth; Ibidem. Innocency was arraigned for the guiltie, mercie was buffeted for the cruell, piety [Page 48] was whipped for the vngodlie, wisdom was mocked for the foo­lish, righteousnes was condēned for the vnrighteous, truth was slaine for the liar, life died for him that was dead. And doe wee yet, remembring who he was, and what we were, stagger to confesse with these Christian and Catholike Fathers, that his bloud was a most sufficient price for all the world? or woonder we to see death ouerthrowne by his death, who was the fountaine of life, and could no more bee swallowed vp of death, then God himselfe could be conquered by the power of darkenesse.

[The mightier Christs person, the more able he was (some will say) to suffer death & hell.The mightier Christs person the fitter to conquer, but not to suffer hel.] he would be partaker of our mortall infirmitie, that by suffering death for the time hee might conquer the force thereof for euer; but the gates of hel could not preuaile against him, because the Prince of this world had nothing in him. The inward man may be strong­est when the outward man is weakest; and when the flesh is nearest vnto death, the spirit may cleane fastest vnto God. Christ therefore in dying for our sakes shewed a most eui­dent, and eminent example of his obedience, loue, and pati­ence; but in suffering hel there is no signe of grace, nor shew of vertue. Uoluntarilie to forsake God, or willinglie to be forsaken of God, is the greatest impietie that can bee com­mitted. And against his will Christ neuer did, nor might suf­fer anie thing: for that had beene violence, not obedience; ven­geance, not patience; force, not loue. But all constraint was farre from Christ, that his sufferings might be a voluntary sacrifice to witnesse his loue, and declare his merits, which in compulsion could be none. Since then the sonne of God neither willinglie would, nor forciblie could be forsaken of his Father; it is a dangerous deuise to subiect his soule to hell, which is the totall and finall separation of the wicked from God, and his kingdome.

Eight things in hel paines, which by no means Christs soule might suffer.And that wee may a little the better be thinke our selues, before we growe too resolute in this assertion, that Christes soule suffered the verie paines of hell; I will obserue some [Page 49] things, which the scriptures affirme of hell; & may not be ap­plied to Christ without apparāt iniurie. First hel is outward and inward darkenesse; nowe Christ was light, and in him 1 was no darknesse of the soule. Iohn. 9. As long as I am in the worlde I am (sayth hée) the light of the worlde. Then as the 2. Cor 6. light hath no fellowshippe with darkenesse, no more had Christ with hell, which is the Colos. 1. power of darkenesse, from whence hee hath deliuered vs. Secondlie, hell is destruction both of bodie and soule, Mat. 10. Feare not them (saith Christ) which kill the bodie, but cannot kill the soule; feare him rather which is able to destroie both soule and bodie in hell. In the Saui­our of both, wee maie not admitte the destruction of both: howe shall he saue vs, that could hardlie, and as some write, MAXIMA CVM DIFFICVLTATE [...]punc; with much a do saue himselfe? But 1 Iohn. [...] God sent his sonne to bee the Sauiour of the worlde. We must not therefore wrappe him within the de­struction of bodie and soule; no not for an hower, or an in­stant. Thirdlie, hell is the second death. The first is of the bo­die for a time, the second is of the soule for euer. Apoc. 20. The lake burning with fire and brimstone, this is the second death (saith Saint Iohn.) Of this death Austen saith, An [...] ciui [...] de [...]. lib 13 cap. [...] De prima cor­poris morte dicipotest quòd bonis bona sit & malis mala; secunda vero sine dubio sicut nullorum est bonorum, ita nulli bona. Ideo vero secunda, quia post illam primamest. The first death of the bodie is good to the good, and euill to the euill; but the seconde death without doubt, as no good man suffereth it, so is it good to none: and therefore it is called the seconde death, because it followeth after the first. Before the first death, no man suffereth hell, which is the seconde death, and before wee maie auouch it of Christ, wee must take all goodnesse from him; for doubtlesse (sayeth Austen) no good man dooth suffer it. And indéede howe pernicious it is to make the soule of Christ lyable to the death of the soule, I shall afterwarde haue occasion to speake. In the meane time S. Iohn affirmeth, that hell goeth not before [Page 50] death, but followeth after death.Apoc. 6. I looked (saith he) and beheld a pale horse, and his name that sate on him, was death, and HEL FOLLOVVED AFTER HIM: and therefore it cannot stand with truth to subiect the soule of Christ yet liuing on earth, to 4 the very paines of the damned. Fourthly, their Ma [...]k 9. WORME in hell neuer dieth, for so much as the remembrance of their sinnes committed against God euerlasting lie biteth and af­flicteth the conscience. Now in Christ as there was no taint of sinne, so could there bee no touch of conscience accusing, nor remorse of any transgression agaynst God. With com­passion of our sinnes he might be moued and troubled; but worme of conscience hee could haue none, who was priuie to his owne heart, that he was, Hebr. 7. holie, harmlesse, vndefiled, and separated from sinners, and therefore needed no sacrifice for his owne sinnes, but as Hebr. 2. a faythfull and mercifull high Priest by the offering of him selfe once, made an attonement for the sinnes of the people.

But what the paines of the damned are, the sentence of the Iudge will best declare, Mat. 25. Discedite à me maledicti in ignem aeternum, Depart from mee ye cursed into euerlasting fire, pre­pared for the diuell and his Angels. In which wordes there are foure things, which by no meanes can agrée vnto Christ; RE­IECTION, MALEDICTION, VENGEANCE OF FIRE, & CONTINVANCE THERIN FOR EVER. As sin is a voluntary separation of man from god, so hell is a totall and finall exclusion ▪ of the sinfull frō enioying the presence or pati­ence of God anie longer. The time of this life is the respite of Gods patience towards all the wicked; with the ende thereof, beginneth his eternall vengeaunce, which who­lie and for euer debarreth the workers of wickednesse from the kingdome of God. This reiection the soule of Christ 5 could not suffer, beeing inseparablie ioyned to the Godhead of Christ. We must not in stead of a naturall and mutuall coniunction, beléeue or teach a reall & effectuall separation betwixt God and man, in the person of Christ, no not a [Page 51] perswasion thereof in the soule of our Sauiour, which is all one with Desperation, and sheweth the condition rather of the Reprobate, then of the children of God, much lesse of him that was God and man. As the Sonne of God coulde not bee REIECTED; no more could hee bee ACCVRSED. He that is ioyned with God, must needes 6 bee partaker of Gods goodnesse. God is the fountaine of all bli [...]e; hee therefore filleth with his blessing all that are vnited vnto him. And if we, when we cleaue vnto him by faith and loue, must needs deriue from him ioy and blisse; coulde the soule of Christ bee personallie ioyned with him, and not be perpetuallie blessed by him? Though then it pleased our Sauiour to suffer a cursed kinde of death for our sinnes, and by receyuing that curse in his flesh to quench the spirituall and eternall curse that hung ouer our heades; yet his souls was neuer accursed, since he was al­waies beloued; and the curse of God compriseth not onelie the anger and hatred, but the intolerable and vnceaseable vengeance of God, which pursueth the souls and bodies of the wicked with flaming fire for euer. For how could Gen. 22. al nations of the earth be blessed in him; if he himselfe were accursed? but God Acts 3 [...] sent him to blesse vs: hee must therefore be stored with fulnes of blessing, first for himselfe, then for vs all.

And could we frame our tongues, which I hope all Chri­stians with heart detest, so much to dishonour the person of Christ as to auouch him to be trulie reiected and accursed of his Father, for the time bee it neuer so short; yet we must not shew our selues so void of al sense, as to say that Christs soule suffered HEL FIRE; which is the perpetuall and essen­tiall 7 punishment of all the damned. Let vs not come within that danger of so desperate follie; not to knowe, or not to care, what we defend or affirme. It should haue some proofe, it should haue some truth, whatsoeuer is held for matter of faith. That Christes soule was tormented with hell fire I aske not what proofe, or truth, but what shewe can bee [Page 52] pretended? The fire of hell, they will say is metaphoricall; they that go thither shall find it no metaphore. It is no good dallying with Gods eternall, and terrible iudgements. The Scriptures are so plaine, and so full of the parts and effects of fire in hell, that I dare not allegorize them. Christ ma­keth the rich mans soule in hell to saie, Luke 16. I am tormented in this flame. Saint Iohn saith it is a Reuel. 21. lake burning with fire and brimstone. Daniel saith, Dan. 7. a firie streame issued from before Christ sitting in iudgement. Paul saith, it is Heb. 10. a vio­lent fire which shall deuoure the aduersaries. God himselfe saith, a Deut. 32. fire is kindled in my wrath, and shall burne to the bot­tome of hell, and shall enflame the foundations of the hilles. If therefore the paines of the damned come in question, it is not safe to measure them by our imaginations, but to giue eare to the holie ghost, who can best expresse them; and by him wee learne, that if anie man worshippe the beast and his image, he shall Reuel. 1 [...]. drinke of the wine of the wrath of God, and shall bee tormented in fire and Brimstone before the holie Angels, and before the lambe. And the smoke of their torment shall ascende euermore; and they shall haue no rest night nor daie. Into this fire if we cast Christes soule, we must take heede our proofes bee sound and sure; least our presumption exclude vs from the place where Christ is; and leaue vs in the lake where hee neuer was: there to learne what it is rashlie to conclude the thinges that are not confirmed by the word of God. But I perswade my self, few men of learning or religion, will venter on this despe­rate resolution, that Christs soule here on earth suffered hell fire, and therefore to propose it, is inough to confute it.

The last thing in hell fire, is that it is eternal. For as there is no remission of paine, so thence is no redemption; but once adiudged thither is euerlastinglie fastened to that place of torment. And this is cause inough to staie all men, that bee soberlie minded, from defending that Christs soule suffered the paines of hell, which the holie Ghost [Page 53] saith are endles. 2. Thes. 1. They which knowe not God, and obey not the gospell shall suffer paines, euen euerlasting perdition, from the presence of the Lord, saith the Apostle to the Thessalonians. And so Peter, 2. Peter. 2. to whom the myst of darkenesse is reserued for euer. And Iude, Iud. epist. Sodome and Gomorrhe are set for an exam­ple, which suffer the punishment of euerlasting fire. Yea Christ himselfe pronounced that fire to be Mark. 9. vnquenchable. Where­fore vnlesse we can shew a later and better warrant then I yet see, we shall do well not to enterprize to quench hell fire; but to let it burne eternallie, and to confesse with Peter that God raised Christ breaking the paines of death and hell, of which it was Acts. 2. impossible he should be held. For since he was and is the Ephes 5. Sauiour of his body, the paines of hell, which are eternall, could not take hold on him. He was mightier then hell, that saued vs from hell; hee could not frée vs from the chaines of darkenesse, but he must first breake them in sun­der. His deliuering vs from the power of Satan, proueth him to be stronger then Satan; and the stronger could ne­uer be bound by the weaker; but contrariwise he entred into Satans Matth 12. house, where his chiefe strength was, and bound him and so spoiled him. This comparison Christ maketh betwixt Satan & himselfe; by which he concludeth that he was stron­ger then Satan; and consequentlie could not himselfe bee bound by death or hell, but Luke. 11 ouercame satan, and tooke all his armour from him wherein he trusted, and deuided the spoiles.

And where some men begin to doubt,The paines of hel are eternal whether eternal con­tinuance be of the nature & substance of hell or no, they shall doe well to leaue these dangerous and fruitelesse speculati­ons. For whether they looke to the persons for vvhom; or the crimes for vvhich, or the Iudge, by vvhom it was prepared; they shall euerie waie find it must be eternall. It was Matth. 25. prepared for the diuell and his Angels, and to them coulde no punish­ment be allotted but euerlasting, except we will giue possi­bilitie of grace, and hope of repentance vnto diuels. It is the wages of sinne; which being an infinite contempt of the [Page 54] diuine maiestie, must by the balance of iustice haue infinite vengeance in waight, or in length. And since no creature is able to beare an infinite burden and sence of paine, of force all sinnefull creatures must bee condemned to an infinite length of punishment; which is hell fire. Lastlie, as God is e­ternall and cannot change; no more can his iustice, or iudge­ment alter with time; but as his truth abideth for euer, so his iudgment being iust and good is irreuocable; & consequently the vengeance of sinne can neuer cease, as proceeding from the righteous iudge of the world, in whom is Iames. 1. no shadowing, nor varying. And therefore Paul calleth the iudgement Heb. 6. aeter­nal, wherby God shall rewarde euerie man according to his works; & our sauior for warneth vs not in vaine, that hel f [...]er is Mark. 9. VNQVENCHABLE, & EVERLASTING. Since then neither the remorse, reiection, malediction, nor desperation of the dam­ned; nor the darkenes, destruction, death, & fire of hel can with­out euident impiety be attributed to the soule of Christ; I am farre from admitting into anie part of the Créed this ambi­guous, if not dangerous assertion, that Christ in his soule on the crosse felt the verie paines, and torments of the damned: but I preferre the simple and plaine doctrine of the holie Ghost, which teacheth vs that Christ 1. Corinth. 15 died for our sinnes ac­cording to the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that hee rose againe the thirde daie according to the scriptures, and by Christs so doing, death was Ibidem. swallowed vp into victory; and we may ioifully saie, Ibidem. O death where is thy sting? O hell where is thy victory? thanking God which hath giuen this victorie through our Lorde Iesus Christ, as it was forespoken by the prophet Esay. The Lorde will Esay. 25. destroy death for euer; and by Osee, Ose. 13. O death I will bee thy death, O hell I will bee thy de­struction.

The sacrifice for sinne must be bloudy, be­fore it could be propitia­torie.The manner of Christes offering is the second effect of Christs crosse which must be bloudie, before it can be propiti­atorie. In this part I will deliuer you thrée thinges worthie to be obserued; with what Sacrifice God was pleased for our [Page 55] sinnes, with what price the Diuell was concluded for our ransome, with what Seale the newe couenant of grace and mercie was confirmed vnto vs for our safetie. These three depend eache on other. God, as the Iudge offen­ded, was to haue a sacrifice for our sinne, that might content him; the Diuell as the Iailour, was to haue a ran­some for vs, that were by Gods Iustice deliuered into his handes; Our selues as prisoners were to bee restored by GODS pardon, and to be assured of his protection, that the like miserie might not the second time preuaile a­gainst vs; which is performed by the newe Testament of mercie forgiuing, and grace repressing sinne, that wee relapse not into the pit of perdition whence wee were de­liuered.

What was the true propitiatorie sacrifice which God ac­cepted for the sinnes of the world,The true sacri­fice for sinne was shadowed in the figures and sacrifices of the former testament. if the new testament did not plainelie declare, the olde testament would sufficientlie witnesse vnto vs. For as well Patriarks as Prophets, yea all the godlie from Abel to Christ did by their sacrifices and seruice of God professe and confirme their faith to be this, that they looked for the Seede of the woman, who by his death and bloud should purge their sinnes, and make peace betwéene God and them. This was the promise of grace which God made in Paradise to our first parents, threatning the serpent with the séede of the woman in these words; Genes. 32 He shall crush thine heade, and thou shalt bruise his heele. As the heele of man is the basest part of his bodie, and nearest the earth; so the Serpent shoulde bruise the weakest and earthliest part of Christ; but euen that bruized heele should bee of force enough to crush the Serpentes head. For by the flesh of Christ wounded, and bloud shed, the power & pride of satan should be conquered and confounded. This sence of Gods promise made to his parents, Abell the first mar­tyr by faith accepted, by sacrifice adored; and in that respect his bodilie and bloudie offering was preferred before his [Page 56] brothers. This faith did all the Patriarkes testifie by their bloudie sacrifices, that they expected the bodie of the Messi­as to be bruized, and his bloud to be shed for the remission of their sinnes. And as they receiued it from their fathers, so they deliuered it to their children for the shoot anchor of all their hope. This God did ratifie by his lawe written, suffe­ring his people to haue no sacrifices for sinne, but such as represented the bloudie offering of Christ on the crosse. So that all the sacrifices and sacraments of Moses lawe were no­thing else but figures and Hebre 9 examples of better thinges, as the Apostle calleth them, namelie of Christes bodie once to bee offered, and his bloud once to bee shed for the abolishing of sinne. The FIGVRES of Christ before and vnder the lawe, what else doe they point, but to the death, bloud, and crosse of Christ to be the redemption and saluation of all mankinde? Abrahams readinesse to offer vp Isaac, for which the blessing was annexed to him with an othe, what doth it import but the loue of God Rom. 8 Not sparing his owne sonne, but giuing him for vs all? The bl [...]d of the passeouer sprinkled on the postes of the Israelites f [...]uert the destroier; doth it not represent the bloud of that immaculate lambe, which saueth vs from the fiercenesse of Gods wrath? The lifting vp the brasen serpent to cure the people that were stung with fierie Ser­pents, doth it not foreshewe. Christ hanging on the crosse to cure our soules from the poison of sinne, which is the sting of that deadlie serpent? The strength of Sampson pulling the house on his owne and his enemies heades, doth it not de­clare the voluntarie death of Christ, to be the destruction of death and hell, which insulted at him on the crosse?

When the truth came expressed by all these sacrifices, and resembled in all these figures, The Patriarks and prophets did not mistake the true sacri­fice for sinne. what offering made he on the altar of the crosse? Did he yeelde his soule to the paines of hell, or his bodie to be crucified of the Iewes? both they will saie; for so they must saie, except they will haue their suppo­sall of hell paines cleane excluded from the sacrifice for sin. [Page 57] But which of these two was beleeued of the Patriarks, wit­nessed by the sacrifices, shadowed in the figures of the law, expected of the faithfull from the foundation of the worlde? The bloudie sacrifice of Christes bodie is so plainelie pro­claimed by them all, that there can bee no question of their faith and expectation. And were they deceiued in the obiect of their faith, and hope? Did they all mistake the true sa­crifice for their sinnes? and did God by his lawe confirme them in that errour? And doeth the Apostle falselie con­clude from the sacrifices of the lawe, that Christes offe­ring before it coulde take awaie sinne, must of force bee bloudie? These were verie strange positions in Christian religion, and yet I sée not howe wee shall auoide them, if we strictlie maintaine the suffering of hell paines to bee the chiefer and principaller part of our redemption, without which the rest is nothing. If their faith fastened on the death and bloud of Christ for the remission of their sinnes did saue them, then was the death of Christ of force e­nough, without the paines of Hell to release them from their sinnes; and bring them vnto God. And if it wrought that effect in them, it is still of the same power and strength to worke the like in vs. If it were insufficient to re­lease them from the rigour of GODS wrath, then are the Patriarkes perished in their sinnes, by mista­king the true price of their redemption. For that they knewe anie thing of Christs suffering Hell paynes, I thinke will hardlie bee prooued. But out of question their faith was right which was settled on the bloud of Christ to bee shedde for the redéeming of their sinnes; and themselues are Saintes in Gods kingdome: Wee must therefore take heede that wee doe not rashlie varie from the foundation of their faith and hope; which must like­wise be ours, with this onelie difference, that they beléeued in him, which should take away the sins of the worlde by his death and crosse, and we in him that hath taken them away. [Page 58] The time doth differ; but the meanes are still the same. The Reuel. 13 lamb was slaine from the beginning of the world; not actually, but in the counsaile of God, which did purpose it; and in the truth of God, which did promise it; as likewise in the faith of al his saints, which did rest & reioice in it; frō whose steps if we swarue, we may not looke to be Abrahās children, yt refuse A­brahās faith as erroneous, & chalēge our father for misbeliefe

Three proper­ties of the true sacrifice for sinne, vrged by the Apostle.If the offerings and faith of the Patriarks were not preg­nant enough to lead vs to the true sacrifice for sinne; the A­postle to the Hebrewes doth so purposelie and positiuely han­dle it, that I much muse how any man of iudgement or lear­ning can mistake it. For if we marke but thrée conclusions, which the Apostle maketh; we cannot erre from the truth in 1 this behalfe. The true sacrifice for sinne must be but ONE, and ONCE OFFERED, not often, nor iterated, by reason it is perfect and able to clense vs from all sinne. It must bee 2 BLOVDY, for so were all the offeringes of the lawe, and Hebre. 9 without shedding of bloud is no remission. It must bee CON­FIRMED 3 BY DEATH, that redemption purchased might neuer bee reuoked, nor altered. These thrée positions are mainelie and mightilie vrged by the holie ghost, the 9. and 10. to the Hebrues; and for this faith, are all the fathers of the old Testament from Abel to Samuel praised in the 11. chap­ter of that Epistle. This Hebre. 10. man (saith Paul meaning Christ) after he had offered ONE SACRIFICE FOR SINNE, sit­teth for euer at the right hand of God. For with ONE OFFE­RING had he made perfit for euer those which are sanctified. Now where remission (of sinne) is, there is no more offering for sinne. Christ then making but one offering for sinne, we must not make two; but rather learne what that one was, which we may do without any difficultie, since the Apostle so plain­lie teacheth vs, that we are sanctified by THE OFFERING OF THE BODY OF IESVS ONCE; that Hebre. 9 BY HIS OWNE BLOVD CHRIST ENTERED in Once into the holy place, and FOVND ETERNALL REDEMPTION. Almost all things are by [Page 59] the law purged with bloud, and without shedding of bloud is no remission. It was then necessary that the similitudes of hea­uenlie thinges (in the law) should be purified with such thinges (as the bloud of bulles and goates) but heauenly things them­selues with better sacrifices then these; euen with the bloud of Christ. For Hebre. 9 if the bloud of bulles and goates sanctifieth as tou­ching the purifying of the flesh; howe much more shall THE BLOVD OF CHRIST, who through the eternall spirit of­fered himselfe without spot to God, PVRGE YOVR CONSCI­ENCES FROM DEAD WORKS to serue the liuing God? And Ibidem. for this cause is he the Mediator of the newe Testament, that THROVGH DEATH which was for THE REDEMPTION OF THE TRANSGRESSIONS IN THE FORMER TESTAMENT, they which were called might receiue the promise of eternal in­heritance. For where a testament is, there must be THE DEATH OF HIM THAT MADE THE TESTAMENT. For it is of no force, so long as he that made it, is aliue; wherefore neither was the first testament ordained without bloud. Hebre. 13 Iesus then suffe­red without the gate, that hee might SANCTIFIE the people WITH HIS OWNE BLOVD, and this is the bloud of the euer­lasting Testament, through which God brought againe from the dead our Lorde Iesus. Christ confirmeth the same when hee saith. This is Matth. 26, MY BLOVD of the new testament WHICH IS SHED for many for THE REMISSION OF SINNES.

The words be plainer then that they néede anie commen­tarie. There was but ONE sacrifice that coulde abolish sinne;The sacrifice for sinne was bodily, blou­dy, and deadly. euen THE OBLATION OF THE BODIE OF IESVS ONCE, whose BLOVD purged our consciences from deade works, and purchased eternal inheritance, by the TESTATORS DEATH, FOR THE REDEMPTION of those sinnes, which we committed against the former Testament. What shift haue we to shun the force of these wordes, or to bring in the paines of hell in Christes soule, as a part of the propitiatory sacrifice for sinne? Christ made but one oblation of him­selfe for sinne, and that was the suffering of death in his body [Page 60] for the redemption of our transgressions, and shedding of his bloud for the remission of our sinnes. More then one, hee née­ded not make; for that one obtained eternall redemption: and other then this, he did not make, for his offering was both BODILY and BLOVDIE. Luke. 22 This is my body, which is giuen, (and) 1. Corinth. 11 broken for you; this is Mark. 14 my bloud, which is shed for ma­nie. THE OBLATION OF THE BODY of Iesus once & THE SHEDDING OF HIS BLOVD are of strength & force enough to clense vs from our sins, & to procure vs the promise of euerlasting inheritance, which beeing confir­med by the death of the testator standeth irreuocable. How canne wee then bring in another sacrifice of Christes soule suffering the paines of hell, which could be neither bodily nor bloudy, but wee must increase the number, and confounde the differences of Christs offerings; and weaken the force of his externall & corporal sacrifice, which was the truth that an­swered & accomplished al the signes of the law? For the inui­sible paines of hel are no where prefigured in the sacrifices of the law, that I find; nor so much as once mentioned in the A­postles discourse, of Christs sacrifice for sinne, that I reade; & therfore if we adde them as a necessary part of our redemp­tion, we derogate from the bloud of Christ, as insufficient without those torments to clense vs from our sins, & pacifie the wrath of God, that was kindled against vs.

What danger it is to depart from ye manifest words of the holy ghost in so high a point of faith,The force of Christs bloud expressed in the scriptures. & by things vnwritten to discredit things written, I néede not admonish such as be learned, let the simple take héed, that they suffer not reason to ouerrule religion, & obscure and doubtful places in the scrip­tures to wrest from them the perspicuous and perpetuall doctrine of the holy ghost. Howe ful and perfect the redemp­tion is, which wee haue by the bloud of Christ, if you search the Scriptures you shall easilie see; if you doe but hearken you shall presentlie learne. The bloud of Christ doth RE­DEEME, CLENSE, VVASH, IVSTIFIE, & SANCTIFY the [Page 61] elect; It doth PACIFIE and PROPITIATE the Iudge; It doth SEALE THE COVENANT of mercie, grace & glorie, be­twixt God & man; It doth CONCLVDE and bind the diuell; what more can be required I verily cannot cōiecture. If the blood of Christ performe al these things for vs, & more we can not aske or expect; why shrinke we from it as vnable to saue vs, except it be supplied with the paines of hell? Whether I affirme any thing of mine owne, or deliuer you that which is plainly taught in ye scriptures, iudge you. 1 Pet. 1. Ye were REDEE­MED (saith Peter by the pretious bloud of Christ as of a Lambe vnspotred, and vndefiled. Hebr. 9. Christ by his own bloud (saith Paul) entered once into the holy place OBTAINING eternall RE­DEMPTION. 1 Iohn 1. The bloud of Iesus Christ CLENSETH VS frō all our sinnes. Reuel. x He WASHED vs from our sinnes in his bloud. Rom. 5. Beeing now IVSTIFIED by his bloud, we shall bee saued from wrath through him. Heb. 13. Iesus suffered that hee might sanctifie the people with his bloud. By Christ then Ephes. 1. wee haue redemption through his bloud, euen the remission of sinnes▪ and Ephes. 2. nowe in Christ Iesus yee which once were farre off, are made neere by the bloud of Christ. Colos. 1. For it hath pleased (the Father) by him to reconcile all thinges vnto himselfe. And to pacifie through the bloud of his Crosse both thinges in earth, and things in heauen: Rom. 3. Whome God hath purposed to bee a Reconciliation through fayth in his bloud.

And therefore the new testament is sealed with Christes bloud. This is (saith hee) my bloud of the Mat. 26. new Testament, which is shed for manie for the remission of sinnes. Heb. 12. Yee are come to Iesus the mediatour of the newe Testament (saith Paul) & to the blood of sprinkling which speaketh better things then that of Abell. For Abels bloud cried for vengeance: but Christs bloud speaketh for mercie and grace. And for that cause Paul calleth it, Heb. 13. The bloud of the euerlasting Te­stament; For Heb. 8. this is the Testament, that I will make with the house of Israel; after those dayes sayeth the Lorde, I will [Page 62] put my lawes in their minde, and in their heart I will write them, and I will bee their God, and they shall bee my people; I will be mercifull to their vnrighteousnesse, Heb. 8. and I will remem­ber their sinnes and iniquities no more. This testament of mercie, grace and glorie is confirmed by the death of Christ, and sealed with his bloud, which if we weaken or frustrate with our inuentions, or additions, wee must looke for that fearefull iudgement which the Apostle threatneth. Heb. 10. He that despiseth Moses lawe dieth without mercie vnder two or three witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment suppose ye shal he be worthie, which treadeth vnder foote the sonne of God, and counteth vnholie the bloud of the Testament, wherewith he was sanctified, and reprocheth the spirite of grace? The wrong that is offered to the bloud of the newe Testament, treadeth vnder foote the sonne of God, and reprocheth the spirit of grace. Now howe can we more vnsanctifie the bloud of the Testament, then to make it so vnprecious, that it cannot redeeme vs without the paines of hell, or to set vp another price, for which we haue no expresse record, against, or aboue the bloud of Christ, by which we are cleansed from our sinnes, and reconciled to God?

I knowe they will and must answere, the paines of hell are contained in the bloud of Christ; for so much as he suffe­red the one in [...]heir imagination,Whether the paines of hell be comprised in the bloud of Christ. when hee shed the other. Could they prooue by expresse and infallible testimonies (which they cannot do) that Christ suffered in soul the paines of the damned, they had some reason to comprise the one within the other; but no such thing being warranted, or wit­nessed in the scriptures, they must take héed, that they do not elude, rather then expound the words of the holie ghost with a perpetuall Synecdoche, which shall frustrate the very force of all those euident and vehement speeches. For it is strange to mee, first, that without iust proofe any such thing should be ioined to the bloud of Christ, to helpe the price thereof. Next that the holie ghost should alwayes vrge the one, and [Page 63] as if were continuallie forget the other. Thirdlie, the things which are named in the Scriptures, as they were the last, so are they the chiefest parts of Christs sufferings, the rest be­ing vnderstood as antecedent to them, and not eminent a­boue them. Nowe the CROSSE, BLOVD, and DEATH o [...] Christ are euerie where mentioned in the scriptures, as the verie ground worke and pillars of our redemption. Lastlie the bodie of Christ wounded, and his bloud shed for the re­mission of sinnes, are the seales that confirme and ratifie the new testament; and therefore they giue chiefest power and strength to the whole couenant; as appeareth by the Sacra­ments: which import vnto vs not the paines of hell, but the death and bloud of Christ, as the right and true meanes of our redemption. Rom. [...] Know ye not (saith Paule) that all we which haue beene baptised into Iesus Christ, haue beene baptised into his death? Wee are buried then with him by baptisme into his death. And speaking of the Lords Supper he saith: 1. Cor. 11. As often as ye shall eate this bread, and drinke this cuppe, ye shewe the Lords death vntill he come. 1. Cor. 10. The cuppe of blessing which wee blesse, is it not the communion of Christes blood? The bread which we breake, is it not the communion of Christs bodie? By these we are grafted into Christ, by these wee are quickned, & nourished into life euerlasting: And these propose vnto vs no inuisible paines of hell, but the bodie of Christ wounded, and his bloud shed for the remitting of our sinnes, [...]ow vni­ting vs vnto Christ, that we may be Ephes▪ 5. members of his bodie, of his flesh, and of his bones.

Yea what an vnthankefull part were it for the captiues that are inlarged,Christs bloud the verie price of our redemp­tion. to chalenge the ransome, which was paide for their fréedome, as defectiue; when the aduersarie from whom we were bought, receyued it by the rule of Gods iu­stice, as a price most sufficient for vs all that were deliue­red? F I will redeeme them from the power of hell, I will ran­some them from death (saith God by his Prophet:)g you were bought with a PRICE (saith Paul,) The price then which Christ [Page 64] paid must be fully worth the thing redéemed. For since it pleased God, not by force to take vs from Satan, but with a price to buie vs out of his hands, it were dishonour to God, and a kinde of reproch to giue lesse for vs, then might coun­teruaile vs. And therefore let vs rest assured that the price which Christ payed for vs, was of farre greater value then we were, not onelie in the vpright iudgement of God, but euen in the malicious and furious desire of Satan, who thirsted after the bloud of the sonne of God, with gree­dier [...]awes, then after all the worlde besydes, and try­umphed more in bringing him to a shamefull death, then in the destruction of all the faythfull. Wherefore the wisedome and iustice of God, suffered him to shewe his rage on the flesh of Christ, and as it were to trample in his bloud, which hee spilt like water on the earth; and left him that, which hee so eagerly pursued, and in his ma­lice against Gods glorie preferred before all the worlde, as a full payment for all those that shoulde be deliuered by the death of Christ. And for this cause the bloud of Christ is called by ye holie ghost the PRICE of our REDEMPTION. 1. Pet. 1. Ye were REDEEMED (saith Peter) WITH THE PRECI­OVS BLOVD of Christ as of a lambe vnspotted and vndefiled. Yea the song which the Saints in heauen do sing vnto the lambe is this, Thou wast killed, and Reuel. 5. HAST REDEEMED VS TO GOD BY THY BLOOD.

How the price of our redemp­tion was paid.When I say the bloud of Christ was [...]he price, wherewith God redéemed vs out of Satans power, I doe not meane that God made anie contract with Satan, or tooke his con­sent to exchange; much lesse, that Christ did profer his bloud to the diuell, to set vs free: it were an iniurie to Christ for vs to thinke his bloud was shed to Nezianzen. [...]ras. 42. in Pas [...]ha [...]. 2. satisfie the diuell as Gregory Nazianzene wel obserueth in his oration de Pas­chate; but Christ offered his bloud as a sacrifice to god his fa­ther to verifie the iudgement pronounced against vs, Gene. 2. Thou shalt die the death, and to satisfie the iustice of God prouoked [Page 65] with our sinnes; yet in comming to his death, since his life might not be ended, neither with his owne hand, nor by the hand of his Father, the wisedome of God Mark. 14. deliuered him into the handes of sinners, by whose blinde zeale and bloudie rage the diuell, that worketh in the children of disobedience, conspired and compassed his death, and with all maner of contumelie and crueltie abused his body, and spilt his blood, insulting at him by the mouthes of the wicked, and reioy­cing in the conquest he gate ouer Christ in bringing him to a reprochfull death. But this extreame rage of Satan a­gainst the person of Christ, turned to the vtter ruine of his owne kingdome. For God did not onely raise againe the Lord Iesus from death, as dying an innocent without all desert, but in recompence of the wrong, which he receiued at Satans hands, to the which he willingly submitted himselfe, God gaue him power to spoyle the kingdome of the diuell; and to deliuer all that euer did or should beleeue in his death and passion. And in this sort Christ bought vs with his pre­cious bloud from the daunger of sinne and hell; not of­fering, but suffering Satan by the hands of the Iewes to take his life from him; neither compounding with his aduersarie, but repressing him in the middest of his ma­lice, who assaulting Christ Iesus our head, as he had done all the members was ouerthrowne by him, and vanquished with an euerlasting victorie.

Basil [...] oratio [...], in sine epist [...] larum. Mortuus est volens, vt inuoluntarie mortuos exusci­taret. Deuorauit ipsum mors ignorans, vbi deuorasset, cognouit quem non deuorauit. Deuorauit vnum cum omnibus; perdidit omnes propter vnum. Rapuit vt leo; confracti sunt dentes ipsius. Christ died willinglie (saith Basill) that hee might raise those which died against their wils. Death ignorantly deuoured him, which when hee had done, hee knewe whom he had not de­uoured▪ Hee swallowed vp one as he did all; and for that one, hee lost all. Hee seased on him as a Lion, but his teeth were therwith broken. The créed extant vnder the name of Ruffinus; [Page 66] Symbolum Ruffini tomo Hicronymi. 4. Sacramentum carnis susceptae hanc habet causam, vt diuina fi­lij dei virtus velut hamus quidam, habitu humanae carnis obtec­tus principem mundi inuitare posset ad Agonem, cui ipse car­nem suam velut escam tradens, hamo eum diuinitatis in­trinsecus teneret insertus ex profusione immaculati sangui­nis. The mysterie of Christes taking flesh was to this end, that the diuine power of the Sonne of GOD couered as a hooke vnder the shewe of mans flesh, might prouoke the Prince of this worlde to assault him; to WHOM (CHRIST) DELIVERING HIS FLESH AS A BAITE helde fast (the diuell) with the hooke of his diuinitie sticking in him, through the shedding of his immaculate bloud. Gregor. Mora­lium. lib. 3. ca. 11 Condi­torem omnium Satanae manui traditum, quis vel desipiens credat? sed tamen edoctus veritate quis nesciat; — cum se pro nostra redemptione Dominus membrorum Satanae manibus tradidit, (quod) eiusdem Satanae manum in se saeuire permittit, vt vnde ipse exterius occumberet, inde nos ex­terius interiusque liberaret? That the maker of all was de­liuered into the hande of Satan, who is so foolish as to be­leeue? And yet who taught by the trueth is ignorant, that when the Lorde for our redemption yeelded himselfe into their handes that were the members of Satan, hee suffered the hande of Satan to rage agaynst him, that whence he out­wardlie dyed (in body) thence he might both outwardlie and inwardlie deliuer vs? And therefore hee concludeth, Ibidem. Cum corpus eius ad passionem accipit; electos eius à iure suae potesta­tis amittit. When (Satan) receyued the bodie (of Christ) to crucifie it; hee lost the elect of Christ from subiection to his power.

Saint Austen shewing howe Christ conquered the Di­uell first by iustice, and then by power, sayeth; August. de trinitate li. 13 cap. 13. Pla­cuit Deo, vt propter eruendum hominem de Diabol [...] potestate, non potentia Diabolus sed iustitia vinceretur. It pleased God for the deliuering of man out of the Diuels power, that the diuell should be conquered by iustice, and not by [Page 67] might. Ibidem. Qua est igitur iustitia, qua victus est Diabolus? Quae nisi iustitia Iesu Christi? Et quomodo victus est? Quia cum in eo nihil morte dignum inuenit, occidit eum tamen: & utique iustum est, vt debitores quos tenebat, liberi dimit­tantur, in eum credentes, quem sine vllo debito occidit, Hoc est quod iustificari dicimur in sanguine Christi. What then is the iustice whereby the Diuell was conquered? What but the iustice of Iesu Christ? And howe? Because that when the Diuell founde in Christ nothing woorthie of death, hee killed him notwithstanding: and surelie iustice requi­reth that the debtours, which Satan helde shoulde bee sette free, beleeuing in him whome Satan slue without any debt. This is it that wee are sayde to bee iustifyed in the bloud of Christ. Ibidem. cap. [...] Sanguis enim ille quoniam eius erat qui nullum habuit omnino peccatum, ad remissionem nostrorum fusus est peccatorum; vt quia eos Diabolus merito tenebat, quos peccatireos conditione mortis obstrinxit, hos per eum meritò dimitteret, quem nullius peccati reum immerito poena mortis affecit: hac iustitia victus, & hoc vinculo vinctus est for­tis, vt vasa eius eriperentur. For that bloud because it was his, who was vtterlie voyde of sinne, was shedde for the remission of our sinnes; that whom the Diuell iustlie held as guiltie of sinne, and obnoxious to death, those hee might woorthilie loose through him, whome hee wrongfullie slue beeing guiltie of no sinne: with this iustice the Diuell was conquered, and with this band was hee bound, that his goods might bee spoyled. And so Saint Austen concludeth in ex­presse wordes, that THE BLOVD OF CHRIST, which the Diuell was permitted to shedde by the handes of the wicked, VVAS GIVEN AS A PRICE IN OVR REDEMPTION, Which when the Diuell had spilt, it was reckoned to him as a ransom for vs since Christ owed none for himself; & so were we dismissed out of his power.Ibidem. cap. 15 In hac redēptione tanquā pretiū pro nobis datus est Christi sanguis, quo [Page 68] accepto diabolus non ditatus, sed ligatus est, vt nos ab eius nexibus solueremur. In this redemption the bloud of Christ was giuen as a ransome for vs, which being receiued, the diuell was not inri­ched, but concluded that wee might bee loosed from his snares. Ambros lib. 9 Epist. 77. S. Ambrose affirmeth as much. Si redempti sumus non cor­ruptibilibus argento, & auro, sed precioso sanguine domini nostri Iesu Christi (quo vti (que) vendente NISI EO qui nostrū iam pecca­tricis successionis are quaesitum seruitium possidedat) Sine dubio IPSE flagitabat pretium vt seruitio exueret quos tenebat ob­strictos: Pretiū autem nostrae liberationis erat sanguis domini Ie­su, quod necessario soluendum erat EI, CVI peccatis nostris ven­diti eramus. If we bee redeemed not with corruptible things as siluer and golde, but with the precious bloud of our Lorde Iesus Christ (who selling vs, BVT HE that possessed vs as his seruants by reason of our sinfull succession) doubtlesse euen HE required a ransome to dismisse vs from the seruitude which he had ouer vs. Now the price of our deliuerance was the bloud of the Lord Iesus, which (price) was necessarilie to bee payde to HIM, TO WHOM we were sold through our sinnes. They which traduce this doctrine, as inclining to Manicheisme, had more neede of Elleborus to furge their braines, then of authorities to perswade their hearts. For since Christ paid no ransome for himsel [...]e, but for vs, and his innocent bloud could not be shed but by the hands of the wicked, what touch of vntruth can it haue, that God accounted the bloud of Christ to bee of more value then all the sonnes of men; and consequentlie, that, which the diuell eagerlie thirsted, and wrongfullie shed, to be reputed as mans ransome, and a price most sufficient for all the world? Yea the scripture, which is the word of truth, doth not onely teach vs, who redeemed vs, and with what price, as, Acts. 20. God bought his Church with his owne bloud: but in ma­nifest words from whom we were redéemed, euen from the power of Colos. 1. DARKNES, Osee. 13. DEATH and HEL; that being Luke 1. de­liuered out of the hands of our enemies, wee should serue God without feare in holines and righteousnes all the daies of our life.

[Page 69]Whether therefore wee resemble the bodie and bloud of Christ to a PRAY that brake the téeth of the deuourer; to a BAITE that held fast the swallower; to a PRICE that con­cluded the challenger; to a RANSOME that fréed the prisoner; or to a CONQVEST that ouerthrew the infulter; in effect it is all one: Satan by killing him, that was the authour of life, lost both him and all his members; the Lorde rising againe by his owne power, and raising them all, that could not bee seuered from him, by the might and merite of his death and suffering. And so the godlie, which now liue on the earth, are not their 1. Corinth. 6. OVVNE, but his that bought them with a price; being before Rom 7. solde vnder sinne, whose Rom 6 seruants they were till Christ with his bloud Reuelat. 5. redeemed them Reuelat. 5. vnto GOD, and made them kinges and priestes to God his father. August in Psal. 95. Ve­nit redemptor & dedit pretium, fudit sanguinem suum, emit or­bem terrarum. Videte quid dederit, & inuenite quid emerit. San­guis Christi pretium est, tanti quid valet? quid nisi totus orbis? quid nisi omnes gentes? The redeemer came (saith Austen) and paied the price: hee shed his bloud, and purchased the worlde. Consider what he gaue, and marke what he bought. The bloud of Christ was ye price: what was valued at so great a price? What but the whole world? what but al the nations of the earth? Chrysost. ad popul. Antioch homil. 61. Hic sanguis effusus omnem terrarum orben [...] abluit, hic sanguis antea semper praesignabatur in sacrificijs, in iustorum caedibus▪ Hic orbis terrarum est pretiū. Hoc Christus emit ecclesiam. Hoc eam om­ [...]em adornauit. This bloud (saith Chrysostom) being shed wa­shed the whole world. This bloud was euer before figured in the sacrifices, and martyrdomes of the righteous. This bloud is the price of the world; with this Christ bought his Church, with this he wholy adorned it. Cyril dialog. de trinitat. lib. 4. Christus non esset condignum pretiū totius creaturae redimendae, neque sufficeret ad bene redimendam mundi vitam, etiamsi suam deponeret animam vt pretium pro no­bis, ac etiam pretiosum sanguinem, nisi vere esset filius, & tan­quam ex deo deus. Christ had not beene a iust price (saith Cyril) to redeeme all creatures, nor sufficient to purchase the life of the [Page 70] world, though he would haue laid down his life and his precious bloud as a ransome for vs, if he had not beene the true sonne of God, & as it were, God of God. Where as now Cyril tom. 2 epistola. 1. Vnus digni­tate vniuersos superans, pro omnibus mortuus est, & quaecun (que) sub co [...]lo sunt sanguine suo redemit, deo (que) & patrivniuersae terrae habi­tatores acquisiuit. He alone exceeding al other in worth & valew died for al, & by his bloud redeemed all things vnder heauen, & purchased to God his father the inhabitants of the whole earth.

[But our sauior saith the son of man came Matth. 20. dare animā suā redemptionem pro multis, to giue his soule a ransome for many. And Esay foretold as much, that he should Esay. 53. Howe Christ gaue his soule a ransome for many. make his soule an offering for sin] It is no great masterie to cite places of scrip­ture in shew repugnant one to the other; howbeit in trueth these are not contrarieties, but cōsequents to the former au­thorities. For where the soule of man is the life of his bodie; Christ could not die for our sinnes, but he must laie down his soule to death, that it might be separated from his bodie & so giue HIS SOVLE, that is, his LIFE a ransome for many, & an offering for sin. And so she very trāslators, yt otherwise fauor this opinion of hel paines, do interprete those words: Matth. 20. The son of man came not to be serued but to serue, & to giue HIS LIFE a ransome for many. And the like elsewhere: Iohn. 10 Bonus pastor dat animā pro ouibus, The good shepheard giueth HIS LIFE for his sheep Iohn. 10 Animā meā pono pro ouibus meis; I lay down my LIFE for my sheep. Iohn. 10 Diligit me pater quia pono animā meā, vt iterū sumā eam. My father loueth me because I lay downe my life to take it againe. And indéed that phrase PONTRE ANIMAM in the Scrip­tures doth alwaies note a voluntary yeelding of the life, which is A LAYING ASIDE OF THE SOVLE, for ye loue of others; as where Peter saith, Iohn. 13. Ponam animam meā pro te; he did not meane he would go to hel for his master, there was no cause nor néede thereof; but I wil lay down MY LIFE for thee. And when S. Iohn telleth vs, 1. Iohn. 3. Quoniam ille; animā suā posuit pro nobis, & nos debe­mus animas ponere pro fratribus; hee doth not charge vs to ha­zard our soules by sin or hel for others; but insomuch as Christ [Page 71] gaue HIS LIFE for vs, wee ought to GIVE OVR LIVES for our bre­thren. So that for Christ to LAY ASIDE HIS SOVLE, or to POVRE IT OVT VNTO DEATH; was not to suffer hell paines for our sakes, but to die for our sins; & al those places are rather cohe­rent, thē dissident to the rest of ye scriptures, which I alleaged.

And yet because the ancient fathers some times saie that Christ gaue his soule for our soules, as hee did his flesh for our flesh, & the scriptures often affirme hee gaue himselfe; I will come to the third effect of Christs crosse, which is the MIGHTY POVVER OF HIS DEATH; The power of Christs death. and there examine what part of Christ died for our sinnes, and howe by his death the guilt of sinne, the curse of the lawe, the sting of death, and the strength of Satan are not onelie weakened, and wasted, but extingui­shed and abolished, that they shal neuer preuaile against him or his elect.

That the Sonne of God loued vs & gaue Galat. 2 himselfe for vs ma­king the purgatiō of our sinnes in his Hebre. 1 own person, by the Hebre. 9 By Christes death the scriptures meane the death of his body. sacri­fice of himself to put away sinne; is a case so cléere, that it néed not to be prooued, much lesse may be doubted without appa­rant subuersion of the christian faith: but whether Christ suf­fered the death of the whole man, his soule tasting for the time an inwarde and spirituall death in satisfaction of our sinnes; as his flesh did an externall & corporall dissolution of nature, this by some men is questioned in our daies. That for our sakes he humbled himself, & was obedient vnto death euen the death of ye crosse, is out of al doubt; the Euangelists describe the maner of his death, the apostles the cause; to wit the REDEMPTION of our sins, the CONFIRMATION of the new te­stament, the RECONCILIATION of man to God, the DESTRVCTI­ON of him that was ruler of death, & the IMITATION of his obedience, who suffered for vs leauing an exāple 1. Peter. 2. yt we should follow his steps. Al this he performed with ye death of his flesh, the Scriptures no where mentioning anie other kinde of death, that I can read. Where a testament is, there must be the death of him that made the testament. r For the testamēt is [Page 72] confirmed when men are dead▪ Christ is the mediator of the new Testament, that through death which was for the redemption of the trespasses in the former Testament, they which are called might receiue the promise of eternall inheritance. This plainelie expresseth the death of the bodie. For God forbid mens Testaments should be frustrate, till their soules haue tasted the second death: but from the death of the bodie all te­staments take their force. Wherefore the new testament is confirmed by the bodilie death of Christ, and there neede no paines of hell before it can be good. Colos. 1 You y in times past were strangers and enemies in mind by euill works, hath he nowe re­conciled in the body of his flesh through death to make you ho­lie, vndefiled, and faultlesse before him. Paul thought it not e­nough to saie, Wee were reconciled vnto God by the death of his sonne; but that death, he addeth, was IN THE BODY OF HIS FLESH, to exclude all supposals of the death of the soule; since THE BLOVD OF CHRISTS CROSSE did PACIFY thinges in earth and in heauen. Hebre. 2 For so much as the children were partakers of flesh and bloud, hee also did therein partake with them, that through death hee might destroy him that had power of death euen the deuill. The death of the spirit maie bee without f [...]esh and bloud; as we see in the Deuils who are dead in spirite. But Christ tooke flesh and bloud, that by the death of his flesh hee might destroie the deuill, that insulted and raigned ouer the weakenesse of mans flesh. Rom. 6 Wee are buried (with Christ) by baptisme into his death, and if we bee grafted with him into the similitude of his death, we shalbe like­wise into his resurrection: knowing this that our old man is cru­cified with him that the body of sinne might bee destroied, that henceforth wee shoulde not serue sinne, for hee that is dead is freed from sinne. So manie wordes, so manie reasons to prooue that Christ died not for vs the death of the soule, but onelie of the bodie. Wee are buried with him by Baptisme; his bodie not his soule was buried. Wee are grafted into the similitude of his death; not the soule but sinne dieth in [Page 73] vs, when we are grafted into Christ, for hee quickeneth our spirits. Our olde man was crucified with him; his soule was not crucified but his flesh: that the body of sinne might be de­stroied; by the death of the soule the body of sinne is strength­ned and encreased. That henceforth we should not serue sinne; they must needes serue sinne, whose soules are deade with sinne. He that is dead is freed from sinne; but he that is deade in spirit, is subiected to the force & furie of sinne. The death of Christ then is mentioned no where in the Scriptures, but the verie words or circumstances, doe cléerely confirme that they speake of the death which he suffered for vs on the crosse, IN THE BODY OF HIS FLESH.

That Christ did or could suffer the death of the soule,Christ could not die the death of the soule. is a position far from the words, but farther from the groundes of the sacred scriptures. For in God there is no death, and without God there is no life of the soule. So that it is nei­ther possible for the soule ioyned with God to die, nor for the soule separated from God to liue. Then if Christs soule were at anie time deade, it lost all coniunction and communion with God; and consequentlie the personall vnion of God and man in Christ was for that time dissolued, and the grace and presence of Gods spirit were vtterlie taken from him; and so during that space, there coulde bee in Christ neither obedi­ence, humility, patiēce, holines nor loue, which are the fruits of Gods spirit; yea the soule of Christ, if it were but for an houre depriued of Gods grace and spirit, must néedes for that time be subiected to all sinne and wickednesse; which the diuel him­selfe dare not auouch of the soule of Christ. Men maie doe well therefore to beware how they venture vnaduisedlie to saie, that Christ suffered the death of the soule, for howsoeuer they may frame vnto themselues a new kind of death in the soule of Christ, as they thinke far from these absurdities and blasphemies; yet both scriptures & fathers mightilie contra­dict that loose, if not lewde assertion. Psal. 36. With thee is the foun­taine of life, saith Dauid to God. Then if the soule of Christ [Page 74] were alwaies ioined with God, or so much as in Gods fauor, it must needs haue life; for Psal 30. Iohn. 6 in (Gods) fauour there is life. Yea the presence of Gods spirit giueth life. [...]. Corinth. 3. Spiritus est qui viui­ [...]icat; it is the spirit yt quickneth, saith our Sauiour; and Paul ci­teth the same words. Where then THE SPIRIT OF GOD is, there is LIFE; and consequently the soule yt is dead is depri­ued of Gods spirit. Now from whom the spirit of God is de­parted; in him must néeds want al the fruits of Gods spirit; and so the soule, that is dead, is excluded from all godlinesse and vertue. For these are not onelie signes, but effectes of Gods spirit working in the soule of man. And since be­tween righteousnes and vnrighteousnes there is no middle, the soule of man wanting light, truth, and sanctitie, of force must be filled with darkenes, error, & iniquity; which to surmise in the soule of Christ, is the hight of all impietie. Rom. [...] As manie as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sonnes of God. If Christes soule wanted at anie time the spirit of God he was not the sonne of God. If he euer and alwaies had the spirit of life dwelling in him, his soule coulde at no time be dead. For the Rom. 8. spirite is life through righteousnesse. But whie seeke we proofes that Christes soule could not die, since he himselfe is the AVTHOR and GIVER OF LIFE? Iohn. 14 I am the waie, the truth, and THE LIFE saith our Sauiour. Iohn. 6. He that beleeueth in me hath euerlasting life. Iohn. 11 I am the resurrec­tion and the life: hee that beleeueth in mee, though hee were dead, he shall liue. And hee that liueth, and beleeueth in me, shal neuer die. If the soule of him that beleeueth in Christ shal neuer die how could Christ himself at anie time die in soule? Colos. 3. Christ is our life; howe then shall we be sure neuer to die, if the fountaine of our life in Christes person might for the time bee dried vp with death? shall we haue fuller or perfi­ter fruition of life then Christ Iesus our heade, who Iohn. 1 [...] giueth life to all his sheepe? but he had so plentifull, perpetuall, and personall possession of life, not onelie for himselfe, but for vs all, that the Apostle saith, the first Adam was made a liuing [Page 75] soule, the last Adam was made a 1. Corinth. 15 quickening spirit; that is not only to haue life in himself, but to giue life to others. Could hee then at anie time be a deade soule, whome the holy ghost affirmeth to be made a QVICKENING SPIRIT? could he giue that to others, which himselfe did lacke? or loose that which he once had? I know to giue life is proper to God, and for that cause the soule of Christ could not haue that power by creation, but by coniunction with his godhead; and in that respect was the receptacle whereby the life and grace of his di­uine nature was deriued into his humane, with such abun­dance, and assurance, that of his Iohn. [...] fulnes we al haue receaued; insomuch that the Iohn. 6 words which he spake, were spirit and life; and the Iohn. 6 flesh which he tooke, was the bread of life; yea the bo­dy of Christ dying did not only resist and represse the force of death; but rising againe destroied death, & restored life to the world. If the temple of his bodie were stronger then death, what was the sanctuarie of his soule?

I wish therfore all men, that professe themselues christiās, to be soberlie minded;The death of the soule is ei­ther sinne, o [...] damnation. and with the learned and auncient, fa­thers to acknowledge, that there is not mentioned in the scriptures anie death of the soule, besides SINNE, & eternall DAMNATION; neither of the which with anie moderation or mitigation can be attributed to Christ without shamefull blasphemie. Ezech. 1 [...] Anima peccans ipsa morietur. The soule that sinneth, that soule shall die. In these wordes are both deaths of the soule expressed; the first voluntarie when for the delights of sinne wee refuse the preceptes of God: the o­ther necessarie, when God by his iustice withdraweth his presence from vs, and executeth his VENGEANCE on vs, that neuer shall haue end. That sinne is a death of the soule, cannot be denied. Let the Matth. [...] dead bury their dead, saith Christ to one of his disciples, follow thou me. Which must néedes be meant of such as are liuing in body, & dead in soule, as Paule speaketh of wanton widowes, she which liueth in pleasure, is 1. Timoth. [...]. dead whiles shee liueth. These the scripture calleth DEAD [Page 76] IN SINNE. When we were Ephes. 2 dead by sinnes, God quicke­ned vs together with Christ. And again, You, which Coloss. 2 were dead in sinnes, hath he quickened together with Christ, forgiuing you all your trespasses. From this death I make no doubt but all christian men with heart and voice will cléerelie discharge the 1. Pet. 1. VNSPOTTED and VNDEFILED Lambe of God, who did 1. Peter. 2. no sinne, neither was there any guile found in his mouth.

The other kinde of the death of the soule, which is damna­tion, must be farther from Christ then euer was sinne. For not onelie Christes innocency should bee vniustlie condem­ned, which were altogether repugnant to Gods righteous­nesse; but the sonne of God wronged, and mans saluation wholy subuerted. Nothing might befall the humane nature of Christ, which was vnfitting for his diuine; both being ioi­ned in one person. And if our Sauiour were condemned to hell; which way shall we thinke to scape the iust and fearefull iudgement of God for our manifold and grieuous sinnes? he was indéed condemned by man, that gaue wrongfull sen­tence of death against him; but hee was acquited of God. And because hee humbled himselfe to the death of the crosse, God highly Philip. [...] exalted him, and gaue him a name aboue all names, as well in witnesse of his innocencie, as in reward of his humility. Yea the holie ghost, which euidently Psal. 1 [...]. recordeth Christes assurance, confidence, and reioicing in God, as hee hung on the crosse, cleane excludeth all suspicion that he suf­fered the death of the soule. For the soule in this life can haue no fuller, nor faster coherence with God, then Christ had. And since God is the true life of the soule; the inseparable cō ­iunction of Christes soule with God proueth a continuall perswasion, and fruition of eternal life; which by no meanes admitteth anie danger or doubt, much lesse anie sence or sufferance of the second death being the iust wages of sinne, whereby the wicked are euerlastinglie punished. August. epi. 66. Certe a­ [...]ima Christi non solum immortalis secundum caeterarū naturam, [Page 77] sed etiam nullo mortificata peccato, vel damnatione punita est: quibus duabus causis mors animae intelligi potest. Surely the soule of Christ (saith Austen) was not only immortall in nature as the rest; but was NEITHER DEAD WITH ANY SIN, nor PVNISHED WITH DAMNATION: which two wayes the death of the soule may be vnderstood. If then neither transgression, nor damnation may be ascribed to the soul of Christ, it is euident he suffered not the death of the soule; yea to subiect the soule of Christ to either of these two deaths, which onelie are the deaths of the soule, were more horrible blasphemie, then I hope anie Christian man meaneth to incurre.

[But I mistake the death of the soule.The death of the soule is a separation frō God.] I must con­fesse I therein followe the sacred Scriptures, and ancient fathers; other kinde of death of the soule I know none, be­cause I reade none iustlie prooued. These two are manifest in the scriptures. That sinne killeth the soule, besides ma­nie other places before cited, Saint Paule shortly sheweth in these words. Rom. 7. SIN REVIVED, BVT I DIED: for sinne deceiued me, and slue me. And likewise our sauiour, except you beleeue, you shall Iohn. 8. die in your sinnes. That euerlasting death is the wages of sinne, I take it to be as cleare a case, as the former. These shal go into Mat. 25. euerlasting punishmēt, saith Christ to the wicked. They shall be 2. Thes. 1. punished with euerla­sting perdition, saith Paule of the ignorant and disobedient. The smoke of their torments shal ascend Reuel. 14. euermore, saith Iohn in his Reuelation. The Reuel. 20. lake burning with fire and brimstone, this is the second death. Howe the ancient fathers define the death of the soule, is soone séene by their writings. Dicam au­dacter fratres sed tamem verum. Duae vitae sunt; vna corporis, al­tera animae, sicut vita corporis anima, sic vita animae deus. Quo­modo si anima deserat, moritur corpus; sic moritur anima si deserat Deus. August. in Psal. 70. I wil speake boldlie (saith Austen) but trulie. There are two sortes of life, one of the bodie, another of the soule. As the soule is the life of the body, so God is the life of the soule; & as if [Page 78] the soule depart the body dieth; so dieth the soule, if God forsake it. C [...]il. homil. [...]. Mors proprie non est [...]a, quae animam à corpore, sed quae animam à Deo separat [...] Deus vita est, quia Deo separatur, mortuus est. That is not properly death (saieth Cyrill) which seuereth the soule from the bodie, but that which seuereth the soule from God. God is life; and therefore hee that is separa­ted from God, is dead. Ambros. de ho [...]o mortis ca 9 Anima quae peccat moritur, non vtique aliqua sui dissolutione, sed merito moritur Deo, quia viuit peccato. Ergo quae non peccat, non moritur. The soule which sinneth dieth, (sayeth Ambrose) not by anie dissolu­tion of her substaunce, but worthilie dieth shee vnto God, be­cause shee liueth vnto sinne. The soule then which sinneth not, dieth not. Gregor. in Ezech. homil. 17. Anima in corpore vita est carnis; Deus vero qui viuificat omnia, vita est animarum. Idem mora [...] lib. 9. Cap. 38. Sicut mors exterior ab a­nima diuidit carnem, ita mors interior à Deo separat animam. The soule in the bodie (saith Gregorie) is the life of the flesh, but God that quickeneth all things is the life of the soule; as the outwarde death diuideth the bodye from the soule, so the in­ward death diuideth the soule from God. Bernard serm. paru. 3. & aliis ser. paru. num. 7 Sicut anima vita est corporis, ita Deus vita est animae. Luc. 18. Mors animae separatio à Deo; mors corporis separatio animae à corpore. As the soule is the life of the bodie, so God is the life of the soule, saith Ber­nard. The death of the soule is to be separated from God; the death of the bodie is the departure of the soule from the bodie. Neither doe I sée howe this definition of the death of the soule can be auoyded or amended. For can there be life from any other, but onelie from God? If it bee good, it must come from the fountaine of all goodnesse; and [...] none is good but onelie God. Then the soule which is partaker of God, is partaker of life; and to be seuered from God, is to be seuered from life which is the true description of death.

The fathers mainely teach that christ died the death of ye flesh ONELY.Rightly therefore do the auncient Fathers teach, that Christ dying for our sinnes, suffered ONLY THE DEATH OF THE BODIE, but not of the soule: and the scriptures wheresoeuer they mention the death of Christ, must haue [Page 79] the like construction. For the soule of Christ could not die, so long as it had the presence and assistance of Gods spirit; yea we leaue him neither faith nor hope, loue nor ioy, obedience nor patience, nor any other merites or vertues, if wee sub­iect him to the death of the soule; for these are the buds and fruits of life. From which if we cannot exclude the soule of Christ, no not for a moment, without sacrilegious impie­tie, it remaineth that Christ neither suffered nor tasted the death of the soule, but onelie the death of the bodie. 1 Pet. [...]. In his bodie he bare our sinnes on the tree; and Colos. 1. reconciled vs vnto God, in the BODY OF HIS FLESH THROVGH DEATH, when we were straungers and enemyes in heart, by reason of our euill workes. August. epist. 99. Quid est enim quod vini [...]icatus est spiritu, nisi quod eudem caro QVA SOLA FVERAT MOR­TIFICATVS viuificante spiritu resurrexit? Nam QVOD ANIMA FVERAT MORTIFICATVS IESVS, hoc est eo spiritu qui hominis est, QVIS AVDEAT DICERE, cum mors animae non sit nisi peccatum, à quo ille omnino immu­nis fuit? Mortificatus ergo carne dictus est, quia secun­dum SOLAM CARNEM mortuus est. What is meant by this, that Christ was quickened in spirite, but that the same flesh, IN WHICH ONELIE HE DIED, rose againe quickened by the spirite? For that Iesus was DEAD IN SPIRIT WHO DARE AVOVCH, I meane in his humane spirite, since as the death of the soule is no­thing but sinne, from which hee was altogither free? And least wee shoulde thinke this slipte his penne, else­where hee largelie and learnedlie handleth the same matter. (Diabolus) Idem de trini­tate. lib. 4 ca. 1 [...]. per impietatem MORTVVS EST IN SPIRITV, carne vtique mortuus non est: nobis autem & impietatem persuasit, & per hanc vt in mortem car­nis venire mereremur effecit. Quô ergo nos Mediator mortis transmisit, & ipse NON VENIT, hoc est ad MORTEM CAR­NIS: ibi nobis Dominus Deus noster medicinam emendatio­nis inseruit quam ille non meruit. By sinne the Diuell [Page 80] DIED IN SPIRIT; in flesh he died not: but to vs hee per­swaded sinne, and thereby brought vs to deserue the death of the flesh. Whither then the mediator of death cast vs, and came not himselfe, that is to the death of the bodie; euen there the Lord our God appointed a medicine to cure vs which the Di­uell neuer obtained. And noting the remedie prouided for vs in the bodilie death of Christ, he saith, Ibidem. Vitae mediator osten­dens, quam non sit mors timenda, quae per humanam conditionem iam euadi non potest, sed potius impietas quae per fidem cauer [...] po­test occurrit nobis AD FINEM QVO venimus, sed NON QVA VENIMVS. Nos enim ad mortem per peccatum venimus, ille per iustitiam; & ideo cum sit mors nostra poena peccati, mors illius facta est hostia pro peccato. The Mediatour of life (Christ Iesus) to shewe vs that death is not to bee feared, which by humane condition can nowe not bee escaped, but rather impietie, which by fayth may be auoyded; mette vs in the ende whither wee were come, but not in the way by which we came. For we came by sinne to death; but hee by righteous­nesse: and so where our death is the punishment of sinne; his death is the sacrifice for sinne. And therefore the death which Christ suffered in his bodie on the Crosse, did purge, abolish, and extinguish all our sinnes, whereby the power of satan iustly detained vs to abide the punishment of our transgres­sions. Ibidem. cap. 13 Quia viuum spiritu mortuus spiritu non inuasit, quo­quo modo auidus mortis humanae conuertit se ad faciendam mor­tem quā potuit; & PERMISSVS EST IN ILLVD, QVOD EX NOBIS MORTALE vinus mediator acceperat: Et vbi potuit aliquid facere, ibi omni ex parte deuictus est, & vnde ac­cepit exterius potestatem dominicae carnis occidend [...]e, inde interior eius potestas, quâ nos tenebat, occisa est. Factum est enim, vt vincula peccatorum multorum IN MVLTIS MORTIBVS PER VNIVS VNAM MORTEM, quam peccatum nullum praecesse­rat, soluerentur. Ita Diabolus hominem in ipsa morte CARNIS amisit. Because (the Diuell) deade in spirite coulde not inuade (Christ) liuing in spirite; as most desirous [Page 81] to kill man, hee fastened on that death which hee coulde compasse and was suffered to kill that mortall (bodie) which the liuing Mediatour tooke from mankinde; and where he could doe anie thing, euen there was hee euerie waie conquered; and whence hee receyued outwardlie power to kill the Lords bodie, thence was his inwarde power, whereby hee helde vs, ouerthrowne. By which it came to passe, that the chaines of manie sinnes deseruing manie deathes were loosed by the one death of one, in whome was no sinne. So the Diuell lost man BY THE VERIE DEATH OF (Christs) FLESH. Yea the death of Christ should leade vs patientlie to suffer the same death for him which hee suffered for vs. August [...] de Trinitate lib. 1 [...] cap. 15. Hactenus morerentur ad Christi gratiam pertinentes, quatenus pro illis ipse mortuus est Christus, CARNIS TANTVM MORTE NON SPIRITVS. So farre shoulde they, which belong to the grace of Christ, die as Christ died for them; that is, the DEATH OF THE BODIE ONELIE, AND NOT OF THE SPIRIT. And by that death of his bodie he fréed vs from both. Idem de tempore. Serm. 16. SOLIVS CORPORIS MORTEM Dei silius pro nobis accepit, per quam à nobis & dominationem peccati, & poenam aeternae punitionis exclusit. The death OF THE BO­DIE ONLIE THE SONNE OF GOD SVFFERED FOR VS, by which he deliuered vs both from the dominion of sin, and from eternall damnation.

Cyrillus teacheth the same doctrine. Cyril [...] de rect [...] fide ad regina [...] lib. 2. Si intelligatur Deus incarnatus, & propria carne passus, parua est erga ipsum omnis creatura, & sufficit ad redemptionem mund [...] VNIVS CARNIS MORS. If wee vnderstand (Christ) to bee God incarnate, and to haue suffered in his owne flesh; of small value in respect of him are all creatures, and sufficient to redeeme the worlde is the DEATH OF HIS ONELY FLESH. And likewise Gregorie, Greg. mora [...] lib. 9. cap. 15. Nos quia mente a Deo recessimus, & carne ad puluerem redimus, poena duplae mortis astringimur. Sed venit ad nos qui SOLA CARNE PRO NOBIS MORERETVR, ET SIMPLAM SVAM DV­PLAE [Page 82] NOSTRAE iungeret & nos AB VTRAQVE MORTE liberaret. Because in heart wee were departed from God, and in flesh returning to dust, wee are tied to the punish­ment OF A DOVBLE DEATH. But (Christ) came vnto vs, which DIED IN THE FLESH ONLY FOR VS. and ioyning HIS ONE KINDE OF DEATH TO BOTH OVRS, DELIVERED VS FROM BOTH. And more at large, the same father debating the same matter; Idem moralium lib. 4. cap. 17. Vmbra mortis mors carnis accipitur quia sicut vera mors est, qua anima separatur á Deo, ita vmbra mortis est, qua caro separatur ab anima. Quos enim constat NON SPIRITV SED SOLA CARNE MORI, ne­quaquam se vera morte, sed vmbra mortis dicunt operiri. Quid est ergo quod beatus Iob postulat vmbram mortis nisi quod ad de­lenda peccata ante Dei oculos, Dei & hominum Mediato­rem requirit, qui SOLAM PRO NOBIS MORTEM CAR­NIS susciperet, & veram mortem delinquentium, per vmbram suae mortis deleret? Ad nos quippe venit qui IN MORTE SPIRITVS CARNISQVE TENEBAMVR VNAM ad nos suā mortē detulit, & DVAS NOSTRAS, quas reperit sol­ [...]it. SI ENIM IPSE VTRAMQVE SVSCIPERET NOS A NVLLA LIBERARET: sed VNAM misericorditer accepit, & IVSTE V­TRAM QVE damnauit SIMPLAM SVAM DVPLAE NO­STRAE cōtulit & DVPLAM NOSTRAM MORIENS SVBE­GIT. Qui ergo SOLAM PRO NOBIS MORTEM CARNIS SVSCEPIT vmbrā mortis pertulit, & a dei oculis culpam quam fecimus, abscondit. The shadow of death is takē for the death of the bodie, for that as it is the true death, whereby the soule is separated from God; so it is but the shadow of death, whereby the bodie is separated from the soule. For they which assuredly die NOT THE DEATH OF THE SPIRIT, BVT ONLY OF THE FLESH, they doe not say they are couered with the true death, but with the shadow of death. To what end then doth blessed Iob aske for the shadow of death, but that to wipe away sinne out of Gods sight, hee seeketh for the Mediator of God & man, who should vndertake FOR VS THE DEATH [Page 83] OF THE BODIE ONLY, and by the shadow of his death might extinguish the true death of sinners? Hee came to v that WERE SVBIECT BOTH TO THE DEATH OF THE SPIRIT AND OF THE FLESH, and by HIS SINGLE DEATH HE LOOSED BOTH OVR DEATHS. If he should haue SVFFERED BOTH, HE COVLD HAVE DELIVERED VS FROM NEITHER. But he merci­fully VNDERTOOKE ONE OF THEM and iustlie CONDEMNED BOTH. He ioyned HIS SINGLE DEATH TO OVR DOVBLE DEATH, and dying CONQVERED BOTH OVR DEATHS. He then which for vs TOOKE VPON HIM ONLY THE DEATH OF THE BODY suffered the shadow of death, and hid from Gods eies, the sinne which we had committed. Bernard likwise.Bernard. ad mili [...]. [...] cap. 1 [...]. Cum gemina morte secundum vtram (que) naturam homo damnatus fuisset, altera quidem spiritali & voluntaria, altera corporali & necessaria; v­tri (que) deus homo, VNA SVA CORPORALI ac voluntaria benigne & potenter occurrit, ILLAQVE SVA VNA NOSTRAM VTRAMQVE DAMNAVIT. Where man was condemned vnto a double death, to witte, in either part of his nature; the one death spirituall and voluntarie, the other corporall and necessarie; God beeing made man did mightilie and mercifullie release both our Deathes, with his ONE CORPORALL and volun­tarie Death, and with THAT ONE DEATH OF HIS DESTROYED BOTH OVRS. And so concludeth; Dum sponte, & tantum in corpore moritur, & vitam nobis & iustitiam promeretur. VVhiles Christ dyed willinglie and ONELY in his BODY he merited for vs both righteousnesse and life.

I hope to all men learned,How Christ gaue himselfe wholy for vs. or well aduised it will séeme no Iesuiticall phrensie, but rather christian & catholike doctrine, that the son of God dying for our sinnes, suffered NOT THE DEATH OF THE SOVLE, but ONLIE OF THE BODIE by the hands of the Iewes: and by the bodily & bloudie sacrifice of himself, did not only redeeme & clense both our souls & bodies, but de­stroied sin & death, purging our transgressions by the merit of his obedience, & swalowing vp death by power yt of his life [Page 84] And howsoeuer the scriptures sometimes affirme that hee gaue 1. Tim 2 himselfe a ransome for all men, and the Fathers like­wise teach, that hee gaue his flesh for our flesh, and his soule for our soules: yet neither Scriptures nor Fathers haue a­nie meaning either to subiect Christ to the death of the soule, which assertion they abhorre as wicked; or to diminish the force or fruit of his bodily death, which they extoll as most sufficient; but to expresse that in the death of his flesh on the crosse his soule did suffer the sense of paine, and smart of death which parted the bodie and soule in sunder; and so ioyntlie with the bodie, and seuerallie by it selfe, the soule of Christ had not onely temptations, afflictions and passions, but euen endured the naturall sting and sharpenesse of death, to which he submitted his soule, that he might haue the Heb. 4. feeling of our infirmities, and in all things bee tempted as wee are: but still without sinne. How Christ gaue himselfe wholy for vs, we maie learne out of Bernard. Bernard in ramis palma­rum Serm. 3. Sicut TOTVM HOMINEM salu [...]m fecit, sic DE TOTO SE HOSTIAM fecit salutarem; corpus exponens tantis supplicijs & iniurijs, animam vero gemi­nae cuiusdam humanissimae compassionis affectui, inde super moerore inconsolabili sanctarum foeminarum, inde super de­speratione & dispersione discipulorum. In his quatuor crux domi [...] mea fuit. As Christ saued the VVHOLE MAN, so of HIM­SELFE WHOLIE hee made a wholesome sacrifice: yeel­ding his bodie to so great torments and wrongs, and his soule to the feeling of a double most tender compassion, on the one side for the vncomfortable greefe of the holie women; on the other side for the desperation and dispersion of his dis­ciples. In these foure consisted the crosse of Christ. Since then the death of Christ did both affect and afflict his soule and his bodie; iustlie might Irenaeus say, Irenaeus. lib. 5. [...]ap. [...]. The Lord bought vs with his owne bloud, and gaue his soule for our soules, and his flesh for our flesh. For in dying hee layde downe his soule not onelie to sorrowe, gréefe and paine, but euen to the bitter diuorce of death, that brake the communion of bodie [Page 85] and soule. Fulgentius ad Trasimundum lib. 3. Sicut TOTVS SEMETIPSVM tradidit, & TOTVS HOMO SEMETIPSVM OBTVLIT, ita totus homo ANI­MAM SVAM POSVIT, cū anima, in cruce moriente carne, dis­cessit. As WHOLE Christ gaue HIM SELFE (saith Fulgen­tius) and the WHOLE MAN OFFERED HIMSELFE, so the whole man LAYD DOWNE HIS SOVLE, whē, the flesh dying on the crosse, the soule departed. So that Christ yéelded his soule for our soules to the susception of sorrow, prepossion of paine, and dissolution of nature; but vnto the death of the soule he did neither offer, nor yéelde himselfe: since that is a separation from God, and exclusion from grace, from which it was vtterlie impossible the soule of Christ could either wil­lingly, or forceablie for an houre be remoued: yea where you find the suffering of his soule witnessed, there shall you see the DEATH OF HIS FLESH ONELIE to be auouched. Fulgentius ad Trasimundum lib. 3. Quia TOTVM HOMINEM deus ille suscepit, ideo TOTIVS HOMINIS in se passiones in veritate monstrauit, & ammam qui­dem rationalem habens, quicquid fuit infirmitatis animae sine peccato suscepit & pertulit, vt dum humanae animae passiones, in anima quam accepit vinceret, nostras quoque animas ab infirmi­tatibus liberaret. Carnem quoque humanam accipiens, in eiusdem veritate carnis, veritatem voluntariae habuit passionis, vt IN CARNE MORTVVS TOTAM in se HOMINIS OCCI­DERET MORTEM. Because (the sonne of God) tooke vnto him the WHOLE NATVRE of man, therefore he shewed in himselfe the sufferings OF THE VVHOLE MAN; and hauing a reasonable soule, he tooke vpon him and endured all the infir­mities of the soule, but without sinne; that whiles in the soule, which he tooke, hee conquered the passions of mans soule, he might free our soules also from infirmities. Taking likewise mans flesh, in the truth of the same flesh he suffered a true and volun­tarie passion, that DYING IN THE FLESH, hee might kill in his person the WHOLE DEATH dew to man. Christ en­dured the passions of the whole man; hauing neither bodie nor soule frée from suffering; but yet he died ONLY in the [Page 86] FLESH, and thereby he killed the WHOLE DEATH inflicted on the body and soule of man.Ibidem. Quis ignorat Christum IN SO­LO CORPORE MORTVVM & sepultū? Who is ignorāt that Christ in BODY ONLY DIED, and was buried? And againe, Ibidem. Sicut in MORTE SOLIVS CARNIS immortalis fuit, sic in passionibus totius hominis impassibilis omnino permansit. The godheade of Christ was immortall when ONELY HIS BODY DIED, and impassible, when the whole man suffered. Ibidem. Moriente carne, non solum deitas sed NEC ANIMA CHRI­STI POTEST OSTENDI COMMORTVA. When Christs bo­die died, not onelie his deitie, but his SOVLE CANNOT BE SHEWED TO HAVE BEEN PARTAKER OF DEATH. Wherefore I easilie admitte the wordes of Nazianzene to be true, that euerie part in man is Nazianzen. in tract. 49. ad Cledonium. sanctified by the like in Christ, our condemned flesh by his flesh, our soule by his soule, our vnderstanding by his vnderstanding; yea I dis­like not the wordes of Cyrill; Cyril. de recta fide ad Theodo­sium. Carnem suam in redemptio­nis pretium pro omnium carne dependit; & animam suam si­militer pro omnium anima redemptionis pretium constituit, quamuis iterum reuixerit, vita secundum naturam existens. Christ yeelded his flesh, as a ransome for the flesh of all men, and made his soule likewise a price to redeeme the soules of all, though he were restored againe to life, as beeing life by nature: so long as we abuse not his wordes to maintaine our fan­sies impugning his generall and setled doctrine; that Cyril de recta fide ad reginas lib. 2. suffi­cient for the redēption of the world, is the DEATH OF HIS FLESH ONLY: nor thereby take occasion to defend that his bloud is not able to iustifie, or sanctifie the beléeuers. Idem de recta fide ad reginas lib. 1 San­guine suo, hoc est SVAE CARNIS SANGVINE iustificat omnes in se credentes. With his bloud, that is with THE BLOVD OF HIS FLESH he iustifieth all that beleeue in him. Ibidem. SI NON A­LIO MODO SALVANDVS ERAT mundus nisi in SANGVINE ET CORPORE morti VTILITER derelicto, quo pacto non necessarius verbo incarnationis modus vt iustificet in sāguine suo credētes in se, & conciliet patri per mortē sui corporis? If the world MIGHT [Page 87] NONE OTHER VVAY BE SAVED but by Christes leauing his BODIE AND BLOVD VNTO DEATH for our good, howe was not the taking of flesh necessarie for the sonne of God, that by his bloud hee might iustifie such as beleeued in him, and BY THE DEATH OF HIS BODIE reconcile them to God his father? Ibidem. Quomodo sanguis communis hominis nos sanctos efficeret? sed sanctificauit sanguis Christi. Deus igitur & non simpliciter homo; deus enim erat in carne, SVO SANGVINE nos purificans. How could the bloud of a common man make vs holie? BVT THE BLOVD OF CHRIST DID SANCTI­FIE VS. He was therefore God and not simplie a man. For he was God in FLESH THAT CLENSED VS VVITH HIS BLOVD.

When the ancient fathers affirme,The death of Christs flesh redeemeth as well soule as bodie. that Christ died for vs THE DEATH OF THE BODY ONLY, and that the BLOVD OF HIS FLESH doth saue and sanctifie the beleeuers; we must not like children imagine they speake of insensible flesh, or that in those wordes they exclude the vnion, operati­on or passion of the soule, whiles Christes bodie suffered and died: that were to make Christ a stocke, not a man, and to giue him carrion, and not humane flesh quickened and coupled with life and soule; but in the death of his bodie & shedding of his bloud, they include all those afflictions and passions of the soule, which naturally & necessarily follow paine & accompany death. For these sufferings of Christs soule con­firme his obedience, & witnes his patience; only their intent is by all meanes to frée Christ from THE DEATH OF THE SOVLE, and then to propose the death which hee suffered in the bodie of his flesh on the crosse, with all painefull, but no sinneful c [...]comitants and consequents, as the propitiati­on for our sinnes, redemption of our soules, and reconciliation vnto God; by which al ye aduersaries of our saluation the law, sinne, death and Satan are vtterlie conquered and abolished. And thus farre forth they haue the scriptures expresselie [Page 88] concurring with them. 1. Iohn. 1 The bloud of Iesus Christ his sonne clenseth vs from all sinne. It must clense then our soules, as wel as our bodies; for they are the chiefe agents in sin.Hebre. 9 Much more shall the bloud of Christ purge your consciences from dead works. Conscience is a part of the soule; not of the bo­die. Reuelat. 5. Thou hast redeemed vs to God by thy bloud, saie the saintes in heauen, whose bodies lie in the dust of the earth. Redemption, remission of sinnes, iustification, sanctification, and such like effectes of the bloud of Christ are PRINCI­PALLY and PRIMARILY in the soule; and by consequent in the bodie. And therefore there can be no question, but the bodilie death of Christ is the redemption of our soules, as well as of our bodies, in as much as the whole mā in Christ died the death of the crosse, to redéeme the whole man in vs; both partes in him ioyntlie féeling; but with admirable pa­tience enduring, the bitter and sharpe paines antecedent, and annexed to the death of his bodie. August. epist. 120. Cum caro in doloribus est, & in poenis, profecto anima tunc habet maximum agonem pa­tientiae. When the flesh is in anguish and paine, (saith Austen) then the soule certainly hath the greatest triall of patience. For the soule is so created and ordained that shee feeleth the plea­sure and paine of her bodie; and howsoeuer the flesh bee sub­iected to violence, the sence and grieuance thereof is in the soule, both in this life, and in the next.

The bodilie death of christ ouerthrew all the enemies of our saluation,As the bodilie death of Christ paieth the price of our re­demption: so it remoueth all the impediments of our salua­tion, which are manie and mightilie linked together. For by the CORRVPTION of nature descending from our pa­rents, and dwelling within vs, wee are Rom. 7. solde vnder sinne, Ephes 2. fulfilling the will of the flesh, and louing 2. Timoth▪ 3 pleasures more then God: whereby we neglect and breake the LAVV of God, and so incurre the CVRSE pronounced against the transgres­sours of the law; and by that obligation are liable to ETER­NAL DEATH. This is the chaine of originall infection, actuall transgression, legall malediction, and eternal damnation, [Page 89] which draweth vs from God, and bindeth vs as prisoners and captiues to death, and hell. If then the DEATH of Christ suffered Colos. [...] IN THE BODY OF HIS FLESH loosed euery linke of this chaine, and not onelie cleered vs from all these enemies and exactors, but reconciled vs to God, and made peace for vs Ibidem. by the bloud of his crosse; it is a wrong to the death & bloud of Christ either to disable thē as not sufficient to redéem vs; or to supplie them with anie better or other ad­dition, which the holie ghost doth not mention. Examine these particularlie, and see whether the power of Christes death doe not perfectlie dissolue them all. Rom. 6. Our olde man is crucified with him, that the bodie of sinne might bee destroied, that henceforth we should not serue sinne. Let not sinne raigne therefore in your mortall bodie, (saieth the Apostle) that you should obey it in the lustes thereof. The force and strength of originall sinne and corruption in all the faithfull is crucified and dead with Christ, except they reuiue it by voluntarie o­beying the lustes thereof. Galat. 5 For they which are Christes, haue crucified the flesh with the affections and lustes; by reason not onelie the guilt, but also the life and power of sinne died in Christes flesh, when it was crucified. So that Rom. 6. sinne nowe hath no dominion ouer them, because they are not vnder the lawe, but vnder grace. And likewise for actuall sinne, (by Christ) Ephes. 1. Colos. 1. we haue redemption, through his bloud, that is the for­giuenes of sinnes. For God hath Rom. 3. proposed him to be a recon­ciliation through faith in his bloud by the forgiuenesse of the sinnes that are passed, through the patience of God. 1. Iohn. 1 The bloud (therefore) of Christ Iesus his sonne clenseth vs from all sinne, since he is the Hebre. 9 mediator of the new Testament, (whose) death was for the redemption of the transgressions, that were in the former testament.

If the death of Christ on the crosse,The death of Christ on the crosse quen­cheth ye curse of the law. and the shedding of his bloud were the iust and full redemption of all our sinnes, then apparentlie it eased and ended the curse which the lawe inflicted [...] for sinne. For where he is Galat 3. accursed, that continueth [Page 90] not in al things written in the book OF THE LAVV, to do thē; the remitting of sinne, is the releasing of the curse that is con­sequent to sinne. The curse importeth vengeance due to sinne. Then where sinne is pardoned the curse is determined. But Ephes. 1 wee haue redemption, euen remission of sinnes through his bloud. Ergo the bloud of Christ doth quench the curse of the law. The maner, how the curse of the law lighted & seased on the person of Christ, is thus expressed by S. Paule. Galat. 3 Christ re­deemed vs from the curse of the lawe, being made a curse for vs. For it is written, accursed is euery one that hangeth on the tree. As by his stripes we are healed: so by his curse we are blessed. In as much as he submitted himselfe to the curse of the law for our sinnes, not only our transgressions are pardoned, for which Christ suffered; but the law stinging him to death, lost his force for euer. For the vengeance of the law once execu­ted on our suertie, can no more in Gods iustice be exacted of vs. But Christ receiued the sentence of the lawe in himselfe, when he bare our sinnes in his bodie on the tree; wee there­fore are quited for euer from the power of the lawe. Since then by his receiuing and suffering the curse of the lawe in his owne person, wee are fréed and blessed; it remai­neth wee search howe farre the curse preuailed against him. Wherein we must take héede that wee slep not an hayres breadth from the Apostles words. For if we stretch the curse farther on Christ, then in truth it did, or coulde take place, wee arrogantlie and impiouslie pronounce that cursed, which indeede was blessed; and falsifie the promise of God, made to Abraham, that in his seede, which was Christ, Genes. 22 All the nations of the earth should be blessed. For howe could the blessing of Abraham be deriued from Christ to vs, if euerie part of his humane nature were accursed? Wherefore Christ must receiue the curse of the lawe in one part of him­selfe, which was his flesh, and in the other which was his soule, retaine the blessing of God, as well for his flesh to bee raised againe, as for his members to bee vnited vnto [Page 91] him. If this bee not the doctrine of the holie Ghost, I vrge no man to beléeue it; if it bee, let such as will wante GODS curse, beware howe they refuse it. It is no small aduenture to extende the curse of God vpon the soule of Christ Iesus, without cléere, sound, and sure testimonie of the holie scriptures.

To shew that Christ sustained the curse of the lawe;How Christ was made a curse for vs. and by his enduring it, acquited vs; Saint Paul in effect vseth this reason. Deuter. 21 CVRSED saieth Moses is euerie one that is hanged on the tree. But Christ was content for our sinnes to be hanged on the tree of the crosse. He therfore submitted himselfe to the curse of the law to redeeme vs from it. That this is Saint Paules argument, the thirde to the Galathians, to proue Christ vnder the curse of the lawe, I hope the sim­plest amongst you, will soone perceiue, the learnedest dare not denie. By which it is euident, that part of Christ which hung on the crosse was subiected to the curse: but the soule of Christ was not crucified: Ergo the soule of Christ was not made a curse; but onelie his bodie. And by suffering this curse, that is by hanging on the tree, hee re­déemed vs from the curse of the lawe, which wee had deser­ued both in bodie and soule. Which of these thinges canne we contradict? Shall wee saie the Apostle mist his marke, in that hee cleareth vs from the spirituall and perpetuall curse of the lawe, by Christes suffering a corporall and temporall parte thereof? or shall wee chalenge him to be so simple that he knew not the difference betwixt the one & the other? I am far from any such thought; I loue to follow and not to leade the holie ghost. In matters of so great depth I dare not wade, without, or before my guide. That Christ died hanging on a tree, the Matth 27 Marke 15 Luke 23. Euangelistes are plaine. That hanging on a tree is a cursed kinde of death in the Deutero. [...] lawe of Moses, is as manifest. That by hanging on the tree hee w [...]s made a curse for vs, and thereby redeemed vs from the curse of the lawe, the Galat. 3. Apostle is resolute. [Page 92] If anie man will offer farther, I must leaue him. To fasten the internall or eternall curse of the lawe,Christ was not accursed in soule. on the soule of Christ, is to my vnderstanding verie desperate diuinitie. For men might naile his bodie to the tr [...]e, as did the Iewes; but none coulde inflict the curse on his soule, but onelie God. Since then the innocencie, obedience, patience, humilitie, and sanctitie of his soule were so perfect euen in the sight of God, that it could not [...]ustlie be but blessed, howe shoulde the righteousnesse of God immediatelie, and vn­iustlie laie the curse, which bringeth inwarde and euerla­sting death, on the soule of Christ? Againe, God spirituallie curseth none, but whome hee first deseruedlie hateth; as all vncleane and wicked persons. If then the soule of Christ could not worthilie be hated of God, it coulde not truelie bee cursed of God; for the hatred and curse of God cannot bee seuered.

This doctrine is ancient and catholicke. Saint Austen ripping this matter to the quicke, saieth. August. contra [...]austum Man [...] ­ [...]h [...]ū. lib. 14. ca 4 Securus Aposto­lus ait de Christo, factus est pro nobis maledictum, sicut non ti­muit dic [...]re, pro omnibus mortuus est; hoc est enim mortuus, quod maledictus; quoniam mors ipsa ex maledicto est: Christ was in that part ac­cursed in which he died. & maledictum est omne peccatum, siue ipsum quod fit, vt sequatur supplicium, siue ipsum supplicium, quod alio modo vocatur peccatum, quia fit ex [...] peccato. Suscepit autem [...] Christus sine reatu supplicium no­strum, vt inde solueret reatum nostrum, & finiret etiam suppli­cium nostrum. Securely the Apostle saieth of Christ that he was made a curse for vs, euen as he feared not to say, Christ DIED FOR ALL. For, HEE DIED, IS ALL ONE VVITH HE VVAS ACCVRSED, BECAVSE DEATH CAME FROM THE CVRSE; and all sinne is accursed, as well that which is committed and deserueth punishment, as THE PV­NISHMENT IT SELFE, which in a sort is called sinne, be­cause it is consequent to sinne. Nowe Christ bare our punish­ment without any desert, that thereby hee might acquite our guiltinesse, and ende our punishment. And againe. Ibid, in cap 6 Male­dictus [Page 93] omnis qui pendet in ligno, non hic aut ille▪ sed omnis omnino. Etiamne & filius dei? etiam prorsus. DISPLICET VOBIS MALEDICTVS PRO NOBIS, QVIA DISPLICET MORTVVS PRO NOBIS. Tune extra maledictum illius Adam, si extra illius mortem. Cum vero ex homine, & pro ho­mine mortem suscepit, ex illo & pro illo etiam maledictum quod mortem comitatur suscipere non dedignatus est etiam ille, prorsus etiam ille filius Dei, semper vi [...]s in sua iustitia, mortuus autem propter delicta nostra in carne suscepta ex poena nostra. Sic & sem­per benedi [...]tus in sua iustitia, maledictus autem propter delicta nostra, in morte suscepta ex poena nostra; ac per hoc additum est, OMNIS: ne Christus ad veram mortem non pertinere diceretur, si à maledi [...]to, quod morti coniunctum est, insipienti honorisicen­tia separaretur. Cursed is euerie one that hangeth on the wood [...] not this or that man, but euery man without exception. What the sonne of God himselfe? yea in anie case. You (Mani­chees) mislike Christ should be accursed for vs; because you be­leeue not hee died for vs. Then is Christ without the curse of Adam, when he is without the death of Adam. But for so much as from man, and for man he did admit death; euen from man, and for man he vouchsafed to admit the curse, which ac­cōpanieth death; I meane euen that verie son of God, alwayes liuing in his owne righteousnesse, but dying for our sinnes in the flesh which he tooke from our punishment. So alwayes blessed in his owne righteousnesse, he was accursed for our sinnes in the death which hee suffered by reason of our punishment; and therefore the Scripture sayth, EVERIE ONE; least Christ should be thought not truly to haue died, if by an intent of foo­lish honour he should be excepted from the curse, which is vni­ted vnto death. And answering Faustus obiection; if a king commaund anie Christian to worship the Sunne & Moone, or to be hanged on a trée; hee must either way of necessitie be accursed: Austen saieth. Ibid. cap. 1 [...]. Christianus videt vnum male­dictum pertinere ad corpus mortale, quod ligno suspenditur; al­terum ad ammum, quo sol adoratur: sicut mors est corporis in [Page 94] ligno pendere, it a mors est animi solem adorare. Eligendum est ig [...]tur maledictum in corporis morte, quo maledicto & ipsum corpus in resurrectione liberabitur: deuitandum autem male­dictum in animi morte, ne cum suo corpore in aeterno igne damnetur. Nolite timere maledictum corporalis mortis, quod temporaliter soluitur; sed timete maledictum mortis spiritua­lis, per quod anima in aeternum cum suo corpore cruciatur. A Christian perceiueth the one curse to belong to the mor­tall bodie, that hangeth on the woodde; the other whereby the Sonne is worshipped, to pertaine to the soule. Hee must therefore choose the curse of the corporall death, from which curse euen his verie bodie shall be deliuered in the resurrection; and shunne the curse of the spirituall death, least togither with the bodie the soule bee damned in euerlasting fire. Feare not the curse of the corporall death, which is dissolued with time; but feare the curse of the spirituall death, by which the soule is euerlastingly tormented with her bodie. This doctrine is so sounde, it cannot bee confuted; and so cleare, it neede not bee explained. The temporall death of the bodie came first from sinne, as a part of the curse and punishment of sinne; and so to this daie doth it continue. Christ there­fore in that hee yeelded his bodie to die on the Crosse, sub­iected himselfe to the curse of our sinne, and by suffering a part of the curse, abolished the whole: but the curse of the soule, which is the spirituall death, Christ coulde not taste; because that damneth bodie and soule for euer.

The rest of the ancient fathers tredd the same path.Chrysost. in cap. 3 epit. ad Galato [...]. The kinde of Christs death was acc [...]sed, & so the force of the lawe dissolued. The people (saith Chrysostome) were subiect to the curse, which saith, accursed is euery one yt abideth not in those things which are written in the booke of the law. For none of them had conti­nued therein, neither had any man fulfilled the whole lawe, but Christ exchanged the curse with another, which saith, accursed is euerie one that hangeth on the tree. Where then he that han­geth on the tree is accursed, and he that transgresseth the law is [Page 95] likewise accursed, he that shall dissolue this curse, must not bee subiect to the same; but must admit an other in steede of that; which Christ did, and so by the one loosed the other. Ibidem. The crosse therefore tooke away the curse. Can we wish plainer words, then that Christ by suffering the CVRSE OF SVSPEN­SION on the crosse, tooke away THE CVRSE OF TRANS­GRESSION, to which the people were subiect? Theodorete: Theodoret. in cap. 3. epist. ad Galat. When all were subiect to the curse of the lawe, Christ suffered that kinde of death, which is accursed in the lawe, that hee might deliuer all men from the curse. Cyril. Cyril. de rec [...] fide ad regina [...]. lib. 1. Factus est pro nobis maledictum, crucem ferens & pendens in ligno ut sol­uat peccatum mundi. Christ was made a curse for vs; when hee endured the Crosse, and hung on the tree, that hee might release the sinne of the worlde. Ambrose. Ambros. epist. lib. 5. oration. in Auxentium de [...]. Quare maledictum dicatur Apostolus te docet dicens, quia scriptum est: malediclus omnis qui pendet in ligno. Hoc est qui in carne sua nostram carnem, in suo corpore nostras infirmitates, & nostra maledicta suscepit, vt cruci sigeret. Why Christ is called a curse, the Apostle teacheth thee, when hee sayth, because it is writ­ten; accursed is euerie one that hangeth on the tree, that is, which in his flesh bare our flesh, AND IN HIS BODIE TOOKE OVR INFIRMITIES, AND OVR CVRSES that he might fasten them to his Crosse. Hierom. Hierom. la. cap. 3. epist. ad Gala. It ought to trouble no man that Christ was made a curse for vs; because God, who is saide to make him a curse, did also make him sinne for vs, though he knew no sinne; yea, being life he died, and being the wise­dome of God, he is called foolishnes: but he died, that we might liue; he was made foolishnes that we should be made wisdome; hee hung on the tree, that being fastened to the tree, hee might wipe out the sin, which we had cōmitted in ye tree of the know­ledge of good and euil. Oe [...]umenius. Oe [...]umeni [...] in cap. 3. [...]pist [...] ad [...]al [...] We were vnder the curse, because wee had not kept the lawe; Christ was free from that because he had fulfilled the law; and yet hee suffered a curse not due to him, when he was hanged on the tree, that he might dis­solue the curse pronounced against vs.

[Page 96]Other expositions if anie man séeke, hee shall find euen in the learned and ancient writers. Cyril, desens. in Anathematis­m [...] [...]imum. Non maledictum, vel peccatum factum, est (verbum) sed cum iniquis reputatus est iu­stus existens, vt aboleat peccatum: & appellatus est maledictus, qui benedixit creaturam, vt soluat nostrum maledictum, & libe­ret à poenà credentes in ipsum. Igitur non est factus secundum veritatem maledictum & peccatum, appellatus autem illorum nominibus, vt aboleat maledictum & peccatum. Christ was not made indeede a curse, or sinne (sayth Cyrill) but hee was repu­ted amongst the wicked, beeing iust, that hee might put awaie sinne; and he who did bles [...]e the creature, was called a curse, that he might dissolue our curse, and free from vengeance such as beleeued in him. Therefore he was not in truth made a curse and sin; but he was called by those names, that he might abo­lish b [...]th the curse and sinne. Christ was no more a curse, then hee was sinne; who indéede, and with God was nei­ther; but with men he was reputed both wicked and accur­sed, by reason God suffered him to endure that vilde and shamefull kinde of death, which hee did to saue vs from the curse of sinne. Epiphanius saith he was A CVRSE VNTO THE CVRSE, that is, a dissoluer and finisher of the curse. Epiphanius contra Ma [...]ci [...] [...]itas heres. 42. Ignorat omnino miser ille, quod ne (que) Christus maledictio factus sit; absit: sed maledictionem, quae propter peccat a nostra fuit, abstu­lit seipsum cruci dede [...]s; & factus est mors morti propter peccata nostra, & MALEDICTIO MALEDICTIONI. Quaprop­ter non est Christus maledictum, sed maledicti solutio; benedictio autem omnibus verè in ipsum credentibus. That wretch (Mar­cion) is vtterly ignorant, that Christ was not accursed; God forbid: but he tooke away the curse that lay on our sinnes, in yeelding himselfe to the crosse, and was made death vnto death for our sinnes, and A CVRSE VNTO THE CVRSE. Where­fore Christ WAS NOT A CVRSE, but THE DISSOL­VER OF THE CVRSE, and A BLESSING to all that [...]ulie beleeue in him.

These, though they diuerslie applie the Apostles speach, [Page 97] Factus pro nobis maledictum, Christ was made a curse for vs, some to the toleration of death, some to the opinion of men, These three wayes Christ is said to be ac­cursed for vs. and some to the depulsion of the curse from vs; yet in this they all agrée, that by giuing his bodie to die on the Crosse, Christ receiued, sustained, and abolished the curse due to vs for transgressing the law of God. And to iustifie their assertion they haue not onelie the plaine text of Galat. 3. Paule and Deut. 21. Moses, Cursed is he that hangeth on the tree; but the manifest wordes of Peter, 1. Peter. 2. He bare our sinnes in his bodie on the tree. To proue the death which Christ suffered to be a cursed kinde of death, the place of Moses is verie pregnant; to proue the person to bee accursed in soule, it hath neither cause, nor truth. For innocents maie suffer that wrong to bee hanged on trées; and shall they then be accursed in soule? And be they male­factors, they may repent as did the theefe on the crosse; and shall they notwithstanding their repentance bee accursed? Shall we close both penitent and innocent within the true curse of the soule, rather then we will suffer Pauls words to be referred to the death of the bodie? For he saith, Cursed is EVERIE ONE that hangeth on the tree; excusing none; and if anie might bee excepted out of the generall rule, Christ Iesus most of all. But euerie one that hangeth on the tree, hath a cursed kinde of death, though a blessed soule. Paule therefore expresselie teacheth, that Christ subiected himselfe to a cursed kind of death; and in so dying, he de­liuered vs from the curse of the Lawe.August. in exposition. epist. ad Galat. Ex parte quippe mortali pependit in ligno, mortalitas autem vnde sit, notum est credentibus. Ex poena quippe est, & maledictio peccati primi hominis, quam Dominus suscepit, & peccata nostra pertulit in corpore suo super liguum. That part (sayth Au­sten) which was mortall (in Christ) hung on the Crosse; and whence mortalitie came the faythfull knowe. It came from the punishment of sinne, and is the malediction of the sinne of the first man; which the Lorde tooke vnto him and bare our sinnes in his bodie on the tree. Yea when [Page 98] Christ tooke the curse, hee tooke the sinne of the olde man into his flesh, and fastened it togither with his flesh vnto the Crosse. Ibidem Quid pependit in ligno, nisi pecca­tum veteris hominis, quod Dominus pro nobis in ipsa car­nis mortalitate suscepit? Vnde nec erubuit nec tumuit Apo­s [...]olus dicere, peccatum eum fecisse pro nobis; addens vt de peccato condemnaret peccatum. Non enim & vetus homo noster simul crucifi [...] cretur, sicut Apostolus alibi dicit, nisi in illa morte Domini, peccati nostri figura penderet. What hung on the tree but the sinne of the olde man, which (sinne) the Lorde tooke vpon him for vs in the verie mortalitie of his flesh? Wherefore the Apostle was neither ashamed, nor a­fraied to say, that (God) made him sinne for vs, that by sinne he might condemne sin. For our olde man could not be crucified to­gither with Christ, as the Apostle else where writeth, except the figure of our sinne did hang on the Crosse in that death which the Lord died. And if Peters words be true, (which can not be false) Christ bare our sinnes, that is, the malediction and pu­nishment of our sinnes, in his body on the tree, and thereby sa­ued vs from the eternall malediction, which is, Go you cursed into euerlasting fire.

My resolution then is, which I hope will bee receyued, because it is the Apostles;Rom. 7. We are dead to the law in the bodie of Christ. WE ARE DEAD TO THE LAVV BY THE BODIE OF CHRIST, that we should be to ano­ther, euen to him that is raised from the dead. We are quit from the feare, from the yoke, from the curse, from the vengeance of the law; in one word, WE ARE DEAD to the lawe; which hath no more chalenge to vs nowe, then a man hath to his wife that is long since dead. And if you aske when, and how we became dead to the lawe, Saint Paul answereth; BY THE BODIE OF CHRIST, when hee suffered on the Crosse for our sinnes. And as Rom. 6. he that is dead is freed from sinne; so we dying in, and with the bodie of Christ, are Rom. 8. LOOSED FROM THE LAVVE OF SINNE, AND DEATH; Sinne beeing condemned, and death conque­red [Page 99] in the flesh of Christ, VVHICH IS OVR FLESH, not onelie because it was taken of vs, but also for that it is vnited vnto vs, as the heade to the members; and commu­nicateth with vs both in life and death, as appeareth by that we died and rose againe in him; and to this daie he suffereth in vs, then which no coniunction can be surer, or neerer. Since then the corruption of our flesh, the guilt of our sinne, the curse of the lawe, the sting of death were all closed and crucified in the bodie of Christ on the Crosse, and his death hath discharged vs from their dominion; iustlie doth the Apostle saie of Christ, that hee did Hebr. [...]. partake with flesh, and bloud, that through death hee might destroy him that had power of death, euen the diuell. For in that wee bee freed from the curse of the lawe, which brought and bound sinners by death to hell: the chaynes of darkenesse are broken, and Satans force wholie frustrate; and he him­selfe nowe left to beholde the ruine of his kingdome, to grieue at the spoyle of his goodes, and to feare the ven­geance prouided for him, howsoeuer for a season hee bee suffered to pursue the members of Christ here on earth, to his owne shame, and their greater comfort, in trying the mightie power and steadfast fauour of God for their perpetuall defence, and eternall recompence. So that in all thinges Rom. 8. wee are more then conquerours through him that loued vs, Galat. 2. and gaue himselfe for vs, Rom. 16. who will tread downe Satan vnder our feete, 1. Cor. 15. that God may bee all in all. Uerie mightie then is the power of Christes death, by whose BLOVD the Saintes Reuel. 12. OVER COME the greate Dra­gon, that olde Serpent called the Diuell; and his ouerthrow prooueth all the enemies of mans saluation to bee van­quished, and impediments remooued; since he was the first perswader and procurer, and is the Prince and ruler of them all.

We haue seene the power of Christs death in subduing sin and Satan,The bodilie death of christ doth more expresse Gods mercies and Christs m [...]its, then if the paines of hell were ioyned with it. as likewise in ending & abolishing the curse [Page 100] of the lawe, which obliged man for his vncleannesse and vn­righteousnesse to euerlasting condemnation; and find that hee, which bare our sinnes in his bodie on the tree, did in that mortall part which hee tooke of vs, crucifie as well the flesh, and sinne of man, as the curse and death, that raig­ned ouer man: and so much hee performed in the bodie of his flesh through death, by which hee reconciled vs vnto God, to make vs holie and blamelesse in his sight: let vs nowe see whether the death of the spirite, and the curse of the soule will anie thing helpe the woorke of our re­demption, or whether the death of Christes bodie, doe not more fullie demonstrate the mercies of God, and me­rits of Christ, then if the paines of hell had beene ioyned with it. And where some men thinke it woulde much com­mende the TRVTH, POVVER, and IVSTICE of God, and more amplie declare the OBEDIENCE, PATIENCE, and LOVE of Christ, if hee refused not the verie tor­ments of hell for our sakes, shunning no part of the bur­then that pressed vs, I must confesse I am rather of a con­trarie minde; that the bodilie death of Christ on the crosse doth more plainlie expresse the vertues of God, and Christ his sonne, then if the terror and horror of hell were there­with coupled.

1 And first for the TRVTH of god, his threatning Adam in this wise, Gen. 2. Thou shalt die the death, or thou shalt certainely die, was truelie performed in the bodie of Christ; in the soule of Christ it could not without sinne or damnation; neither of which with anie truth can be ascribed vnto Christ.As namely the truth of God That the mouth of God lied, or the soule of Christ died, is a cho [...]se so hard, that I wish all men that haue anie care of Christian religion to refraine either. Next, touching the POVVER of 2 God;The power God. the weaker the instrument which God vseth to ouer­throwe his enemies, the greater is both his glory and their shame. Then, for flesh which was the feeblest part of Christ, after it was deade, and voide of all hope in shew, to rise a­gaine [Page 101] into a blessed and heauenlie life, and to foile both death and Satan by recouering it selfe into the full possessi­on, and all his members into the ioyfull expectation of euer­lasting glorie, was farre a mightier conquest, then for his soule with much adoe at length to escape, and resist the as­saultes of hell. From the depth of hell here on earth manie sinnefull soules haue by grace struggeled, and cléered them­selues; from the graue neuer rose none into an immortall, & incorruptible life, before the flesh of Christ. Déeper in de­speration, and al other temptations of hel haue others been, that yet were saued, then anie man dare affirme of Christ: déeper in death without corruption, then the bodie of Christ, neuer was, nor euer shall be anie of the sonnes of men. It was therefore an harder thing for the bodie of Christ, past all sense, to rise from death, to immortalitie, then for his soule voide of sinne, and full of grace to repell the force of Satan; and yet to repell it, sheweth greater power then to suffer it; to conquere it, sheweth greatest of all.

[But to beare the burden of Gods wrath due to our sinnes, and to frée vs from it, néeded greater strength, (they will saie) then Christes flesh could haue.] To support and auert Gods iust indignation from vs, the humane bodie or soule of Christ of themselues were not able;To auert Gods wrath from vs, the dignity of Christs person was nec [...]ssary. but the DIGNI­TIE and VNITIE of his person must be placed in the gap to quench the flame of Gods iust vengeāce against our sinnes, which was euerlasting destruction both of bodie and soule; yet for so much as the sincerity and sanctitie of Christes soule, personallie ioyned, quickened, and blessed with the perpetual vnion, communion, and fruition of his deitie, could feele no want of grace, no lacke of spirit, no losse of fauour with God (in which thinges consist the inwarde death, and curse of the soule:) the wrath of God was executed on the flesh of his sonne, which hee tooke of purpose from Adam, that the rein he might beare the sinne, and curse of Adam; and so by his death might satisfie the sentence, and pacifie the displeasure of [Page 102] God against our vnrighteousnesse.

And this is more agréeable to Gods iustice, then if Christs 3 soule had suffered the death and curse of the soule. For to take life from the soule, The iustice of God. must be Gods proper and peculiar action. No creature can giue the grace or spirit of God to the soule of man, which is the life of the soule, but onelie God. There­fore no creature can take it from the soule, but God alone that GIVETH it, must TAKE IT AVVAY. Since then Christ might suffer nothing iustlie, but as the 1. Pet. 3 iust for the vn­iust, that is willinglie, but vniustlie; his death must come by the handes of the wicked, who might wrongfullie take his life from him, but not touch his soule; and not by the immediate hande of GOD, who will doe no wrong, and can kill the soule. Matth. 27 I haue sinned, saith Iudas, in betraying the INNOCENT bloud. Actes. 3. You denied the HOLIE AND IVST, and killed the Lorde of life, saith Peter to the Iewes, warning them howe great a sinne they had committed in putting Christ to death. If hee were an INNOCENT, and deserued no punishment; if hee were HOLIE and IVST, and could not bee persecuted or put to death without hay­nous impietie and iniurie, wee may doe well to remember that the death of his soule had beene a farre greater wrong, then the death of his bodie was. And therefore if the iu­stice of God would not farther interpose it selfe in killing his bodie, then by deliuering him into the handes of the wic­ked, permitting them to shed his blond, which hee woulde accept for the sinnes of the worlde; much lesse woulde God with his owne mouth accurse;The death of Christs soule could neither proceed from God, nor be acceptable vn­to God. or with his owne hande slea the soule of his sonne, whome hee sent to restore and quicken those that were accursed, and dead in their sinnes. Againe, corporallie or temporallie God punisheth one for anothers fault, bicause he can recompence them eternally, that thereby repent and turne from their sinnes; but eternally or spiri­tually he punisheth no man, but for his owne vncleannes, ei­ther naturally sticking in him, or voluntarily committed by [Page 103] him. Christ then beeing frée from all sinne, might not suffer the inwarde or euerlasting death of the soule, but corporall and temporall reproch, and paine, which God might and did re­compence with eternall ioye, Ezechiel. 18 and glorie. Thirdlie that soule which sinneth, that soule shall die. This is the setled rule of Gods iustice; and therefore Christs soule which sinned not, could by no iustice die the death of the soule. To laie down his life for vs was loue and thankes with God: but willing­lie to separate himselfe from God for vs, was no waie to reconcile God to vs, or to bring vs to God. He must there­fore cleaue fast to God in soule, whose death shall bee preti­ous in Gods sight, as was Christs. If the soule bee seuered from God, the death of the bodie is detestable in his eies, as beeing the wages of sinne; and therefore no more accepta­ble to GOD then sinne it selfe, but where the soule, ha­ting the infection of sinne, and loathing the infirmitie of the flesh, resigneth it vnto death for Gods glorie, and the good of others. And in this respect the death of the bodie maie bee a sacrifice vnto God, but not except the soule doe liue, and cleaue to God, without separation. Then hatefull to GOD was the death of Christ, if his soule were first ha­ted or accursed; if that were beloued and blessed of God, it coulde not choose but liue; for God is not the Matth. 22. God of the deade, but of the liuing. So that the death of Christes bo­die on the Crosse, was by no iustice an acceptable sacri­fice vnto God, if his soule were first deade. But his death was so precious in Gods sight, that in Colos. [...] the bodie of his flesh through death, he reconciled vs vnto God: his soule was there­fore aliue and in fauour with God, yea so abundantly blessed, and highly accepted, for the holines, humilitie, and obedience thereof, that God was pacified, and pleased, and we all sanc­tified with THE OBLATION OF THE BODY of Iesus on the altar of the crosse.

Lastlie, the flesh of Christ by Gods iustice must bee as able to purge vs from sinne, as Adams was to poyson [Page 104] vs with sinne.Christes flesh must be as a­ble to quicken vs, as Adams flesh was to kill vs. But the flesh of Adam infected all his poste­ritie with sinne, and death; ergo the flesh of Christ must haue as much force, to clense and quicken the faithfull both in this life, and the next. Of this iustice Paul speaketh, when he saith, since by man came death, by man must come the resurrection of the dead: For as in Adam all die, euen so in Christ shal al be made aliue. The first Adam WAS THE FIGVRE of the second Adam, that where 1. Corinth. 15 sinne abounded, there grace might abound much more. Rom. 5. As then by one mans disobedience ma­nie were made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall ma­ny bee made righteous. The obedience of Christ which here Paule mentioneth, is his Philip. 2. Rom. 3. verse obedience vnto death, euen to the death of the crosse; and the 25. & righteousnesse of the faithfull is the forgiuenes of their sinnes, 24. through the redemption that is in Christ Iesus. I wil not here dispute whether the soule be created, and infunded; or else tradu [...]ed from Adam, as well as the flesh: I meane not with curious or superfluous questi­ons to busie mens heades; that which the scriptures deliuer touching the deriuation of sinne and death from our first pa­rents, I may safelie teach, and you must necessarily beléeue. That we were Psal. 51. fashioned in iniquitie, and conceaued in sinne, the words of Dauid doe exactlie witnesse, and no maruaile. For Iob. 14. who can make that to bee cleane, which commeth from the vncleane? yea sinne cleaueth so fast vnto our flesh, that when the Ephes. 1. eies of our heart are lightened, and the Ephes 4 spirit of our minde is renued, so that the Rom 7. inwarde man delighteth in the law of God; EVEN THEN haue we an Rom. 7 other law in our members rebelling against the lawe of our minde, and leading vs captiue vnto the lawe of sinne; the Galat. 5 one so contrarie to the other, that we cannot doe the things which we would; by rea­son the affection or Rom. 8 liking of the flesh cannot be subiect to the lawe of God. [...] This fight betwixt the flesh and the spirit is so durable, that it cannot bee dissolued but onelie by death. Though Rom. 1 Christ bee in vs, and the spirit liue for righteousnesse sake; yet Rom. 7 sinne so dwelleth in vs, (that is) in our Rom. [...] mortall bo­dies, [Page 105] that whiles we liue, Rom. 7 in minde we serue the law of God, but in our flesh the lawe of sinne. From Adams flesh wee de­riue this infection of sinne, that sticketh so fast vnto vs after we are regenerate, and new borne againe of water and the holie ghost, and this is the roote and nurse of all sinne, and the cause of death to al men. Rom. 8. If Christ be in you, the bodie is dead because of sinne. From Christes flesh then we must receiue the purgation of sinne both inherent in vs, and committed by vs; or else Adams flesh is stronger to wound vs, then Christs is to heale vs; which is repugnant to the iustice of God; by which the grace of God must bee farre mightier vnto saluation in the bodie of Christ, then the force of sinne was vnto con­demnation in the bodie of Adam; vnlesse wee make sinne of more power to kill, then God is to quicken; which is to ex­alt the diuell aboue God, and his sonne. For 2. Corinth. [...] God was in Christ, reconciling the worlde to himselfe; by whose bloud the Ephes. 2 partition wal is broken down, and hatred abrogated Ephes. 2 through his flesh; that wee might bee reconciled vnto God in one bodie by his crosse.

[But the death of the bodie, they will saie, hath no propor­tion to the death of the soule;why the death of Christs bo­dy doth coun­teruaile all the bodies & soule [...] of men. and therefore the one cannot in iustice excuse the other.] There is farre greater distance be­twixt the sonne of God, and the sonnes of men, then betwixt the bodies and soules of men. These differ as creatures, and both inferiour vnto the angels; but there is the excellencie of the Creator aboue the creature, which is simplie infinite. Whatsoeuer therefore it pleased the sonne of God to suffer for our sakes, it was most sufficient for our redemption; howbeit to demonstrate his loue, hee would be partaker of our infirmitie and mortality; least we should loath our condi­tion, or grudge at the chastisement of our sinnes; but if we set a side the dignitie and vnitie of his person, then is no waie the death of the soule or the paines of hell, which they imagine Christ suffered, proportionable in exact iustice to the true wa­ges of our sinne. For what equiualence hath one soule with [Page 106] all the soules of the Saints? or one daies anguish which Christ felt in soule, as they suppose, with that euerlasting fire which wee shoulde haue suffered in bodie and soule for euer? set aside I saie the respect of the person, which suffered for vs; and in the rest they shall neuer bee able to prooue anie proportion of iustice diuine or humane. But as I haue fullie shewed before, the worthinesse of the person is the su­rest ground of our saluation, and chiefest weight of our re­demption; and therefore his death is of infinite force, and his bloude of infinite price, euen as his person is. For since all mens actions are and ought to bee esteemed ac­cording to the giftes which they haue, and place which they holde from GOD; whie shoulde not the death and bloud of Christ bee valued in Gods iustice according to the height and worth of his person? and if in all thinges wee receaue honour not due to our fleshe wherein wee par­take with Beastes, but fitte for the soule wherein wee communicate with Angels; howe seemeth it strange in our eyes, that the dooinges and sufferinges of Christ Iesus, which hath the natures of God and man in a surer and nearer coniunction, then wee haue our soules and bodies, shoulde not bee reckned and accepted in GODS iustice, as the ACTIONS and PASSIONS of HIS OVVNE SONNE; and haue their value from the diuiner and worthier parte of Christ?

The bodilie death of christ doth more cō ­mend the me­rits of Christ then if ye paines of hell were ioyned with it.As the death of Christes flesh ONELIE doth more ex­presse the TRVETH, POVVER, AND IVSTICE of God, then if the death of the soule had beene ioyned with it; so the same setteth forth Christes merites, namelie his OBEDIENCE, PATIENCE, and LOVE in farre better sorte, then if wee adde vnto it the death of the spirite, which is the rewarde of all the reprobate and damned. For what a man vnwillinglie suffereth, that sheweth ney­ther obedience, nor patience. Obedience hath readinesse; and patience, if it bee perfect, hath gladnesse; both haus [Page 107] willingnesse. If then wee bee forced against our willes to endure that which wee woulde gladlie auoide, it is violence;In the death of the soule there could neither be obedience nor patience. it is neither obedience nor patience; and consequentlie it hath neither merits nor thankes with GOD. The death then of the soule, which is a separation from the fauour and grace of God, did Christ suffer it willinglie, or vn­willinglie? if willinglie; there coulde bee no greater neg­lect of GOD, then to bee willing to bee separated from God. It were disobedience and insolence in the highest degree, to be glad and forwarde to forsake God, or to bee forsaken of him. Christ therefore must not bee willing to suffer the death of the soule, least wee wrap him with­in the compasse of contemning and reiecting the grace and fauour of GOD, which are sinnefull enormities. Was hee vnwilling to suffer it? then coulde hee bee neither obedient, nor patient in suffering it. All ver­tue is voluntarie, compulsion hath no merite. 2. Corinth. 9. God loueth a cheerefull giuer, and sufferer. Hee that murmu­reth, in heart rebelleth, though hee holde still his tongue. So likewise I must aske, if Christ suffered the death of the soule, did hee suffer it iustlie or vniustlie? if vniustlie: God could not be the sole and immediate agent in imposing it; and besides God, no creature canne bereaue the soule of life. Did hee suffer it iustlie? then must hee be voide of all vertue; for nothing but sinne deserueth the death of the soule. Obedience and patience, merite thankes with God; and cannot wante the blessing of God: where the death of the soule is the greatest curse, that God inflicteth heere on earth.

And where they thinke it woulde greatelie increase the loue of Christ towardes vs if hee vouchsafed to taste the death of the soule for our sakes;It is no loue to renounces God for mans sake [...] I replie, that suppo­sition woulde make Christ a sinner, if not a lyar; which God forbid shoulde once enter our thoughtes. For [...]irst Christ saieth. Iohn. 15 Greater loue then this hath no man, [Page 108] that one should laie downe his life for his friendes. But Rom. 5 God commendeth his loue towards vs; that whiles we were yet sin­ners Christ died for vs. If it be loue for a man to loose his soule for his friend, then is there found a greater loue, then Christ euer knew: for he saith, there is no greater loue thē for a mā to laie downe his life. And the Apostle applying it to Christ saith, The height of Gods loue was this, that Christ died for sinners: that is, for his enemies, not for his friendes; sinne beeing enmitie to God, and sinners enemies to the holinesse of his will, and glory of his kingdome. This loue of Christ by which he died for vs, we reiect as little worth, vnlesse hee endured the losse of Gods fauour for vs; which I take to bee sinne and not loue. For loue is due first and aboue all to God, then to men; this order of loue if we breake, it is no charitie, it is iniquitie. What doe all wicked ones, but preferre the loue of themselues, or of others, before the loue of God? to loue men so well, that wee waxe willing to forsake the fa­uour and fellowship of God, is transgression against God, and not compassion towards men; and therefore wee maie not bring the sonne of God within the listes of this loue, no not for an houre; by reason the loue of God afore all others may not faile in the hart of Christ, not for a moment, bee it neuer so short.

Christs loue towards vs in dying for vs.For our loue then he tooke flesh, when he was God; which was infinite humilitie; and gaue his life for his enemies, which was exceeding charitie; and in the course thereof referred himself wholie to the wil and pleasure of God, which was exact obedience; willinglie, but wrongfullie suffering, whatsoeuer the malice of Satan, and rage of the wicked contriued against him: the wise and gracious counsell of God so turning the mischiefe of the diuell and his members to the generall good of mankind, that Christes innocent and righteous bloud, being furiously and vniustly shed by the hands of his enemies, became the true sacrifice for sinne, and the full [Page 109] price of mans redemption. Farther then this, if we will force the sonne of God with our fancies, as namelie to the death or curse of the soule, wee doe not onelie diminish the strength of his loue towardes God, but we debase the price of his bloud; and make it rather detestable, then acceptable in Gods sight. For nothing can please God, but that which is RIGHTEOVS, INNOCENT, HOLIE, & VNDEPILED. And in a dead or cursed soule what place leaue we for these giftes and graces of the holie Ghost? Since then our high Priest must be Heb. 7. holie, harmelesse, vndefiled, and separate from sinners, before his sacrifice coulde bee accepted; the soule of Christ must necessarilie bee replenished with all goodnesse, and embraced with all fauour, before the death of his bodie could be an Ephes. [...]. offering of a sweete sauour vnto God: and so the power of Christes death is no whitte encreased, but alto­gither weakened, if wee conioyne it with the death of the soule.

The death of the soule then doth not encrease the obe­dience, patience, and loue of Christ towardes vs, but doth ra­ther decrease and endanger all the vertues of our Sauiour. For if Christ suffered the death of the soule, which is Gods immediate action; since God will offer his owne sonne neither violence nor wrong, wee must confesse that Christ deserued the death of the soule, and admitted it as due vnto him; to which absurdities if wee come, wee leaue nothing sound in our saluation.All Christs sufferings were INIVRIOVS in respect of the doers▪ and VO­LVNTARIE in respect of him selfe. Ca [...] we him iust that deserueth, or holie that desireth to be forsaken of God? I thinke not. Then all Christs sufferings must be INIVRIOVS, before hee can be IVST; and VOLVNTARIE, before they can be a SACRI­FICE vnto God. Both which are witnessed by the worde of God, as likewise by the ancient fathers. THIS IS 1. Peter. 2. THANK-VVORTHIE (saith Peter) if a man for conscience towards God endure grief, SVFFERING VVRONGFVLLY. For what praise is it, if when ye be BVFFETED for your FAVLTS, ye take it PATIENTLIE? But if, when ye doe well, ye suffer patientlie, [Page 110] this is acceptable vnto God. For hereunto are ye called: for so CHRIST SVFFERED FOR VS, leauing vs an example that we should follow his steppes. Christ therfore suffered as well VVRONGFVLLY as PATIENTLY. Malefactors may be patient, but that is no merit with God. He must be both in­nocent and patient that will haue thanks from God. So was Christ1.Pet. [...]. He did no sin, and so was innocent;1. Pet. [...]. when he was re­uiled, he reuiled not againe: when he suffered, he threatned not, which proueth his patience. This verie testimonie, the theefe on the crosse giueth him. Luke 23. We receiue punishment worthie of that we haue done; but this mā hath done nothing amisse. Augusti. de tem­pore. serm. 101. Quod iuste debebat Adam, Christus iniusté mortem suscipiendo persol­uit. What Adam iustly owed (saith Austen) that Christ vniustlie paied by suffering death. Idem de trini­tate li. 13. ca. 14 Pergit ad passionem, vt pro debitoribus nobis quod ipse nō debebat, exsolueret. Christ goeth to his passion to pay that for vs debtors, which hee did not owe. Ibid. cap. 1 [...] De huma­nitate suscepta tantum beneficij collatum est hominibus, vt à dei sempiterno filio, eodemque hominis filio mors temporalis indebita redderetur, qua eos a sempiternâ morte debità liberaret. Peccata nostra Diabolus tenebat, & per illanos merito figebat in mor­te. Demisit ea ille, qui sua non habebat, & ab illo imme­ritó est perductus ad mortem. Tantum valuit sanguis ille, vt neminem Christo indutum in aeterna morte debita detinere debuerit, qui Christum morte indebita vel ad tempus occi­dit. By Christ taking mans nature, this benefite men get, that the eternall Sonne of God, and the same also the sonne of man, suffered a temporall death not due, to deliuer them from an euerlasting death due. The Diuell laide sure holde on our sinnes, and by them helde vs deseruedlie in death. Those hee remitted, that had no sinnes of his owne, and was without anie desert brought by the Diuell vnto death. But such was the force of Christes bloud, that the Diuell had no right to detaine anie man (that put on Christ) in eternall death due, for so much as hee slue Christ with death for the time, which was no way due. Greg. [...]. 3. ca. 11. Mediator noster punir [...] pro se [Page 111] ipso non debuit: quia nullum culpae contagium perpetrauit. Sed si ipse indebitam mortem non susciperet, nunquam nos à debita morte liberaret. Our Mediatour for himselfe ought not to bee punished, because hee neuer sinned. But if hee had not suffered a death not due, hee coulde neuer haue freed vs from the death that was due. If the temporall death of the bodie were not due to our Sauiour, much lesse was the death of the soule due vnto him. And if no death were due; that which hee suffered was wrong­full. Then might God bee the permitter, directer, orderer, and accepter of Christes death on the Crosse; but hee coulde not bee the immediate inflicter of it, because it was wrongfull and vndeserued: much lesse might GOD in iustice forsake his soule, that with so great obedience, pa­tience and innocencie humbled himselfe to the will of his heauenlie father.

That likewise hee suffered nothing agaynst his owne liking, his owne mouth testified when he said. Iohn. 10. Nemo tollit animam meam à me, sed pono eam à meipso. No man taketh my life from mee, but I lay it downe of my selfe. And else where. Galat. 2▪ The sonne of God loued mee, and gaue himselfe for mee. Ephes. 5. Loue your wiues as Christ loued the Church, and gaue himselfe for it. If it were loue, then was it no con­straint, nor violence, that forced him thereto. If hee gaue himselfe for vs; it must needes bee voluntarie what­soeuer hee suffered. August. de tri­nitat, li. 4. ca. 13 Demonstrauit spiritus mediatoris quàm nulla poena peccati vsque ad mortem carnis accessorit, quia non eam deseruit inuitus, sed QVIA VOLVIT, QVAN­DO VOLVIT, QVOMODO VOLVIT. The spirite of the Mediator shewed that without anie punishment of sinne it came euen to the death of the flesh, which hee did not leaue agaynst his will, but BECAVSE HE VVOVLDE, VVHEN HE VVOVLDE, AND HOVVE HE VVOVLDE. Et August. de [...] contra Mani­chaeos. cap. 26. natus, & passus, & mortuus est, nulla sua necessitate, sed voluntate, & potestate. Christ was borne, and suffered [Page 112] and died, not for anie necessitie that vrged him, but of his owne will, and hauing it in his owne power. If Christ might suf­fer nothing but what hee woulde, and as hee would; the death of the soule hee did neuer suffer; for thereto hee coulde not be willing without sinne, by reason it is a separation from God, and a losse both of his heauenlie fauour, and holie spirite, from which Christ willinglie would neuer be excluded.

The summe is, since the TRVTH and IVSTICE of God might not release the sin of man,The recapitu­lation of ye ma­ner and merit of Christs death. without fulfilling the sen­tence of the Iudge, Gen. 2. THOV SHALT DIE THE DEATH, and that by man; for so much as man was the trespasser: Iohn. 3. God so loued the world, when none of the sonnes of Adam was able to restore his owne soule, much lesse to ransome others; that hee sent his owne sonne to become man; and as by the dignitie and puritie of his person to counteruaile and ouer­weigh the soules of all men; so by his paines and death on the Crosse, to verifie and satisfie the iudgement of God pronoun­ced against man, and to quit him from all danger following death. And to trie the obedience, shew the patience, and aug­ment the merits of the Redeemer, the wisedome of God decreed, that his sonne in our substance should violentlie and wrongfullie bee put to death euen by their handes, for whose sakes he laid downe his life; that his loue might so much the more excéede in praying for his persecutours, and dying for his tormentors. The shame and sharpenesse of the crosse, so iniuriouslie imposed on the holinesse, and worthinesse of Christes person, and yet so obedientlie and patientlie endured by him, God so highlie esteemed, and recompenced, that hee made his death the ransome of all mankinde, and his bloud to bee the purgation and propitiation of our sinnes: his obedience wyping awaie our disobedience; his fauour quenching the displeasure; his blessednesse al [...]ering the curse; his death finishing the vengeance that was due to our iniquities. This is the manner and merit of Christs [Page 113] suffering death on the crosse, to saue vs from the wrath of God, that was kindled against our transgressions. And since the scriptures mention none other meanes of our redemp­tion but the DEATH and BLOVD of the SONNE of God, I hold them wisest, that leaue deuising any better or other help for our saluation then God himselfe hath reuealed. And as for the death of the soule, I take that to be the greatest hin­derance that maybe to the worke of our redemption, and to shake the verie foundation of our faith and hope in the crosse of Christ. Which least I should seeme to say, & no way to proue: let vs view the COMFORT of Christes crosse, and thereby see howe his soule was affected towardes God, euen whiles his bodie suffered that grieuous, and opprobri­ous death of the crosse.

I haue often mused what made men of great learning and iudgement otherwise,The cōfort of Christs crosse taken out of the 22. Psalme. to swarue so much from the plain tenor of the scriptures; and to imagine in the soule of our sa­uiour, such doubt and feare of Gods fauour, such hor [...]ors and torments of hell, that they sticke not to match them with the paines of the damned; considering there is no manifest ground, nor euident proofe of so dangerous doct [...]ine in the word of God: but contrariwise, when the scriptures describe Christ on the crosse, they propose his bodie martyred with al kinde of crueltie, but his soule cleaning to God, with all perfection of constancie. Read the xvi. and xxii. Psalme. who will, which purposelie treate of Christes passion; and tell mee whether there bee so much as a worde importing anie distrust of Gods fauour, or anie suspicion of the paines of hell suffered in the soule of Christ? [The first entrance of the xxii. Psalme, you will say is, Psalm. 2 [...]. My God, my God, whie hast thou forsaken me?] This is that Helen, that hath be­witched the world; I meane the misconstring of these words. Of which though I haue spoken before, as much as may con­tent any man that is not fastned to his fancies, more then to the truth; yet let vs shortlie see whether the rest of the [Page 114] Psalme admit their new found exposition, or no. It followeth in the same place. Vers. 9. Thou didst bring me out of my mothers wombe; thou gauest mee confidence at my mothers breasts. 10 On thee was I cast from my birth. THOV ART MY GOD FROM MY MOTHERS BELLIE. 11 Bee not farre from mee, for trouble is neere, and there is none to helpe. 19 Bee not farre, O Lord my strength: hasten to helpe me. 12 I will de­clare thy name vnto my brethren, in the midst of the congrega­tion, I will praise thee, [...]4 for HE HATH NOT DESPISED, nor abhorred the weakenesse, or basenesse of the poore: neither HATH HE HID HIS FACE FROM HIM; but when he cal­led vnto him HE HEARD HIM. Is this the praier of a man whose soule is forsaken of God? Did he doubt of Gods fauour, that with such confidence pronounced, Thou gauest me assurance at my mothers breasts, thou art my God from my mothers belly? Was he perswaded that god had refused and left him when as he saith, God hath not DESPISED ye weaknes of the poore: he hath not hid his face from him; when he called, God heard him? If these be flat contradictions to their imaginations, why wrest they the first verse to euert all the rest? Christ therfore in the beginning of the Psalm might well complain that god had for the time of his passion withheld his PROTEC­TION, or diminished his CONSOLATION; but in no wise that God had decreased his loue, or shut vp his fauor towards the humane soule of his sonne. Yea the next words are an expli­cation of the former. Why hast thou forsaken me, Vers. 1. and art so farre from mine helpe? Not to helpe in trouble is to forsake, though God bee not angrie with the soules of such as suffer affliction. The very words agrée, to GO FARRE OFF frō a man, is to FORSAKE HIM; & so he that desireth God not to be far off, praieth not to be forsaken; but rather to receiue helpe in time of néed. Uerilie S. Ambroses iudgement and reason doth sa­tisfie me, whatsoeuer it doth others. Ambros. in Psal. 118. ser. 1. Ille nunquam derelictus est à patre, cum quo pater semper erat. Sed secundum corpus, in quo traditus est passioni vox ista processit; quoniam derelinqui [Page 115] nobis videmur, quando sumus in periculis constituti. Christ was neuer forsaken of his Father, with whome the father alwayes was; but this complaint came from his bodie, which was left to suffer death, for so much as wee thinke our selues forsaken when wee are oppressed with anie trou­bles▪

If the xxii. Psalme content vs not, let vs examine the sixteenth, The same o [...] of the 16. Psalme. and there marke what the holie Ghost doth attri­bute to the soule of Christ in the middes of his sufferings on the Crosse; and then iudge which opinion draweth nea­rest to the truth of the sacred Scriptures. Psal. 16. I haue alwayes SET the Lord BEFORE ME; for hee IS AT MY RIGHT HAND THAT I SHOVLD NOT BE SHAKEN, therefore my heart is glad, & my tongue reioiceth; my flesh also shall REST IN HOPE. Because thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell, nor suffer thine ho­lie one to see corruptiō. Thou wilt SHEVV ME THE VVAY OF LIFE; THE FVLNES OF IOY IS IN THY PRESENCE, and delectation at thy right hand for euer. Thrée plentifull and wonderfull graces of the holie Ghost are here described in our Sauiour, as he hung on the crosse, in the middest of his miseries; abundance of FAITH, assurance of HOPE, persistance in IOY. The ground of our faith is the truth of Gods word,The ground of Christs faith. sealed in our hearts, by the working of his spirite. The faith of Christ had a farre stronger foundation, and clearer reuelation, then ours can possible haue. He was hoped for by the Patriarks, sear­ched after by the Prophets, he was the end of all the lawe, and truth of all the former testament. He was serued by An­gels, acknowledged by starres, seas, windes, beasts, fishes, and trees; hee was obeyed by diseases, death and diuels, the holie Ghost visiblie descended on him when hee was baptised, the father by thunder from heauen often proclaimed him to be his welbeloued sonne, and commaunded all men to heare him; he knewe the thoughts of mens hearts, yea the secrets of heauen; he was transfigured in the Mount, and tasted of that heauenlie glorie prepared for him. The confessing him [Page 116] to bee the sonne of God, openeth heauen, preuaileth agaynst hell, supporteth his Church, and obtaineth blessednes. This he heard with his eares, sawe with his eyes, and wrought with his hands: yea, he spake with his mouth, & knew in his heart that God had sanctified him, and sent him to saue the world. I aske now a meane diuine; was it possible that Christ Iesus after all this intelligence, euidence and experience both of his owne person who he was, and of his fathers loue and purpose, how setled, determined, and euerlasting it was, should feare or doubt, least he should be forsaken, or want the fauor and help of god in those afflictions, which he willingly suffered for our safetie? For vs to distrust or doubt Gods promise cōfirmed by his word, & perswaded to our spirits by his spirit, is diffidēce and incredulitie. What hainous and horrible sinne then were it for the soule of Christ, after so cleare perspicuitie, so full cer­taintie, so fi [...]e stabilitie of Gods COVNSEL and PROMISE, OATH & PERFORMANCE, that in him all nations of the earth should be blessed: to haue so much as a feare, doubt, or thought, that God would faile him, or forsake him? Let me fatherlie aduise, and brotherly intreate you all in the bowels of Christ Iesus, that you take good héed how you venter on any such doctrine. Ioine rather with S. Peter, and stedfastlie beléeue, that Dauid spake concerning Christ, when he said: Act. 1. I saw the Lord alwayes before me, for he is at my right hande, that I should not be mooued. If ALVVAIES, then was there no intermission: If BEFORE HIS FACE, then was there no obscuration: If A HIS RIGHT HAND, then God was neuer absent: If hee COVLD NOT BE MOOVED, then could he not be forsaken.

[But Christ himselfe sayth, he was forsaken?] hee doth not say he was forsaken, either in soule, or else of Gods fauour and grace, as some in our dayes woulde faine make him speake: but he saith, My God, my God, why hast thou forsa­ken me? And his words stand true, if any kind of dereliction be confessed. Bernard de verb [...] I saiae serm. 5. Quasi quaedam ibi derelictio fuit, vbi nulla fuit in [Page 117] tanta necessitate virtutis exhibitio, nulla maiestatis ostensio. There was on the crosse a kind of forsaking, in as much as there was in so great necessitie, no declaring of his power; no shew­ing of his maiestie. Diuers other kindes of forsaking may bee verie well allowed and beleeued in the sufferings of our Sauiour; but that he should be destitute of FAITH, HOPE, LOVE, or IOY, or forsaken of Gods. FAVOVR, GRACE, or SPIRIT, that is so dangerous to the office, and pernicious to the person of Christ, that it may in no wise bee admitted.

Whatsoeuer is not of faith is sinne. Rom. 14 Then howe much we de­crease faith in Christ, so much wee increase sinne in Christ. VVAVERING, Doubting of Gods fauour is sinne in Christ STICKING, DOVBTING are all rebate­ments of faith, and degrées of diffidence, and greater sinnes in Christ, then in any other man, because of his infallible REVELATION FROM GOD, vnspeakeable FRVITI­ON OF GOD, and inseparable COMMVNION VVITH GOD. Matth. 14. Modicae fidei, quare dubitasti? O thou of LITTLE saith, why diddest thou DOVBT? saith Christ to Peter. Then doubting is the diminishing of faith. Rom. 4. Abraham (saieth the Apostle) did not DVBT of the promise of God THROVGH VNBELIEFE; but was strengthned in faith, and gaue the glo­rie vnto God; being fullie assured, that hee which had promised, was able to performe it, Then doubting, by the expresse [...]le of the holie ghost, is VNBELIEFE, and a DISHONOR VN­TO GOD, as if he were not able to make good his promise. So that wee must in spite of our heartes either CLEERE CHRIST FROM DOVBTING, or CHARGE HIM VVITH VNBELIEVING, and DISHONOVRING GOD. Iacob. 1. If any man lacke wisedome (saith Iames) let him aske of God, and it shall be giuen him: but let him aske in faith, and not doubt, (or dispute with himselfe;) for he that doubteth, is like a waue of the Sea, tost with the winde; neither let that man thinke he shall re­ceaue anything of the Lorde. Doubtfulnesse differeth from incrodulitie in this, that the incredulous as yet beleeueth not: the doubtfull wauereth betwixt faith and infidelitie; as [Page 118] a waue of the sea doth, that is tost with the winde, enclining sometimes one way, sometimes another way. But this man for his inconstancie, shall obtaine nothing at Gods handes, whose truth when we but DOVBT wee DENIE; and whose promise when wee DISPVTE wee DISBELEEVE. The soule of Christ then maie not bee touched VVITH ANIE DOVBT, much lesse distrust of Gods fauour and loue to­wards him, and to imagine or affirme so much of Christes person, is to drawe him within the compasse of incon­stancie, infidelitie, and Apostasie from GOD; which I assure my selfe, no Christian Diuine will attempt or endure.

Feare is more intolerable in Christ then doubting.If the humane soule of Christ must bee so setled and resol­ued in faith, that it might not doubt of Gods fauour; much lesse might it be perplexed or amazed with the feare, terror, or sense of Gods displeasure against himselfe, as our surety. For to that ende did it please the sonne of God to take our nature into the vnitie of his person, that it shoulde vtter­lie bee impossible for sinne, death, or hell to separate vs from him, or him from God. Whereof because hee was infalliblie assured, hee must néedes be throughlie perswaded; and in that perfect perswasion, knowledge, and assurance of Gods euerlasting purpose, fauour, and loue towardes him, that he should be the Sauiour of the world, if doubting bee not tolerable, howe inexcuseable is feare and terror, as if hee were forsaken of God? which could not bee, except God would breake his promise, and othe giuen to Abraham and Dauid, and falsifie his truth expressed with his own voice from heauen; yea, and reuerse his eternall counsell and decree, for­spoken by the mouthes of so many Prophets, cōfirmed with so manie miracles, and executed and accomplished so eui­dentlie in the birth of our Sauiour. The soule of Christ must therefore bee farre from fearing or doubting, least God woulde change his minde, recall his worde, frustrate his pro­mise, and violate his oath; for these are blasphemies against [Page 119] God in the higest degrée; wee must rather receaue Saint Peters assertion out of Dauid, that Christ did Actes. 2. ALVVAIES see God on HIS RIGHT HANDE that hee shoulde NOT BEE MOOVED; And therefore his heart was gladde, and his tongue ioyfull: yea, wee must not onelie leaue him faith, but so perpetuall, constant, and strong, that nothing might shake it, or abate it. For if wee giue vnto men faith that shal withstand, and conquere al temptations, much more must we allow the Sauior of the world faith, as farre aboue ours, in validitie, stability, and certainty, as the rest of his vir­tues and graces exceede the measure of our gifts. As there­fore in wisdome and holines, power and prudence, counsell and strength, righteousnesse and faithfulnesse, no creature might excéed the humane soule of Christ; so in patience and assurance, hope and loue, courage and confidence no earthlie wight might come néere him. For hee had the Iohn. 1. fulnesse of Gods spirite, as much as the creature was capable of; we haue but a portion according to the Ephes. 4 measure of the gifte of Christ. Since then Iohn 3. God did not giue him the spirit by mea­sure, it is an euident absurditie, if not impietie, to di­minish his faith with doubting, his loue with feare, his hope with horrour of reiection, alienation, or separation from GOD; but as constant faith STAGGERETH NOT, perfect loue FEARETH NOT, assured hope TREM­BLETH NOT; so the faith, hope, and loue of Christ must not stumble at anie of these stones, much lesse make such a shipwracke of faith and hope, as if hee DID AL­MOST PERSVVADE HIMSELFE that hee was DROVVNED, and PERISHED in the gulfe of per­dition.

[But the vehemencie of paine (some thinke) might for the time wrest frō Christ the remembrāce of Gods eternal decree & promise, Christ was not amazed on the Crosse. & so shake ye perswasion otherwise settled in his hart yt God had sworne he would not faile Dauid.] I had rather confesse mine ignorāce in not vnderstanding, then shew any [Page 120] skill in refelling this answere. It is true that a mightie feare may so affect a man for the time, that it shall hinder the sences from recouering themselues, and stop the facul­ties from informing one the other. But this must bee some suddaine obiect astonishing the heart; and so terrible that it suffereth vs not presentlie to gather our wits together, and to consider of it. But what is this to our purpose? was Christ in a traunce on the crosse? and so continued eightéen houres, from his entering into the garden after supper, to the ending of his life the next daie at three of the clocke after noone? and all this while so affrighted and amazed that hee could not remember he was the sonne of God, and sent to re­deeme the world? his words and déedes at his apprehension, at his examination before the chiefe Priestes and Elders at his condemnation by Pilate, at his crucifixion and expiration doe they make anie proofe, or giue any signe of a man in a maze? when hee boldelie professed himselfe before the high Priest Mark. 14. TO BE THE SONNE OF GOD; when he tolde Pi­late as well the cause why Iohn. 18 HE VVAS BORNE, as the place whence he had Iohn. 19 POVVER OVER HIM; when hee warned the women of Ierusalem TO Luke. 23 VVEEPE FOR THEM­SELVES and their children; when hee praied for his persecu­tors, as Luke. 23. NOT KNOVVING VVHAT THEY DID, and promised PARADISE to the penitent thiefe that hung by him; when he bequeathed the care of his Iohn. 19 MOTHER to the fidelitie of his DISCIPLE, and Luke. 23 COMMENDED HIS SPIRIT into the handes of his father; was his memorie or vnderstanding taken from him by feare in anie of these ac­tions? or doe we not rather see his death answerable to his life, that is full of constancie, clemencie, fidelitie and piety? If anie be otherwise minded, God graunt they be not in a déepe traunce of selfe-liking: that will rather challenge Christes memorie, then suspect their owne fansie. Coulde he forget himselfe to be the sonne of God, that so often and openlie called God his FATHER? that in the heate of his [Page 121] agony praying vsed none other stile, butMatth. 2 [...] O MY FATHER? that in the counsell of the Scribes and Elders woulde not conceale himselfe to be Marke. 14 THE SONNE OF GOD, no not to saue his life, but said Marke. 14 I AM the sonne of the blessed? that dying committed his spirit to his Luke 23. FATHERS HANDS? he remembred to call for drinke, that the Iohn. 19 scripture might bee fulfilled; and Iohn. 19 knew that all things touching him were perfor­med; and had he forgotten who he was, or why he came into the world, euen Matth. 1 [...] to saue that which was lost?

And in all good sort to admonish them that are learned, to looke a little better, before they resolue on so strange a con­clusion in diuinitie; if wee put Christ in such a maze on the crosse, that for feare he forgate his fathers counsell, purpose, promise, voice, and oath; yea his own function, vnion and per­son: what obedience or patience, what humility or charitie do we leaue him, in suffering the death of the crosse? what vertue find me, where remembrance faileth? or what merite is it for a man to be amazed? how hangeth this with their owne po­sition, that the sense and suffering of Gods wrath in the soule of Christ is the chiefest and principallest part of our redemp­tion? is it so materiall for mans saluation, as they affirme, and can it not be maintained but by taking from Christ both iudgement and memorie? is this that great mysterie of de­uotion, which true religion may not endure, except wee sup­pose the sonne of God to be for feare besides himselfe? haue they not spun a faire thread, to be so zealous for Christs suf­fering the verie paines of hell, here on earth, and when all is done their assertion cannot bee saued from impietie, but by casting Christ into a fit of a Lethargie? for that God was in deede angrie, and offended with his owne sonne, is odious and enormous blasphemie. That Christ so conceaued, and perswaded himselfe, or so dissembled, when there was no such cause; chargeth the sonne of God not onelie with falsitie, but with infidelitie. To decline both these mischiefes there is no meane left, but to saie, that the verie force of paine made [Page 122] Christ forget both his owne person, and his Fathers eter­nall counsell and loue towardes him; which is to flie one absurditie with an other. For though by this maze they excuse Christ from sinne, as being neither aduised, nor suffe­red by feare to be master of himselfe; yet by the same they ex­clude him from all the graces and vertues of his passion, on which our saluation is grounded; and leaue him as without memorie, so without merite; since the faculties of the mind, ouerwhelmed and astonished with feare or paine, haue no full apprehension, much lesse iust deliberation, and least of all free election of good and euil. In which case if we suppose our Sa­uiour to haue bin during his suffering on the crosse we shew our selues to be void of all vnderstanding, in that we cleaue to our own fansies against the witnes both of nature & scripture. Read who list the maner of Christs praying, answering & suffering, before & at his death; & tel me wherin he shewed any defect of iudgment, or want of remēbring? Peter saith, Christ 1. Peter. 2 suffered for vs, leauing vs an example, that we should follow his steps. If he were stroken with feare besides himselfe, it is a bad example for vs to follow. But in déede he neither did, nor spake anie thing, no not in the mids of his paines, but verie aduisedlie, quietly, religiously, & obediently: such as might wel beseeme the Sauiour of the world, humbled in our flesh, and chastised for our sinnes, but no way partner of our impatient and sinnefull affections.

Christ wauered not in his prai­ers in ye garden[He wauered (some thinke) in his praiers; and corrected himselfe as ouershot, in that he asked at his fathers hands:] such holdfast they take of his wordes, that faine would haue his wittes amazed with their imagined feare and horrour of hell fire. But by their patience, their expositions must not looke to bee canonicall in the church of God. If they saie anie thing well, wee take it with their prayse; if o­therwise as men they misse their marke, wee refuse it with their leaues. 1 Galat. 5 God hath called vs vnto libertie, 1. Corinth. 7 not to be seruantes of men; and to serue erroneous constructions, is [Page 123] worse than to beare tyrannous exactions. Was Christ vn­aduised in his praiers in the garden? and did hee reuoke that which suddainly slipt from him? All praier without faith is sin in Gods sight. What then was Christs praier, if it were di­rectlie bent against the determined purpose, and reuealed will of God, but euident sinne? His thrise repeating Matth. 26. verse 44. the selfe same words with good distance of time betwéene, and aduised and vehement zeale, what was it, if it still needed to bee re­uoked and amended, but a voluntary spurning at the stedfast decree and eternall counsell of God for mans redemption? But god forbid, we should so cōceiue of our sauior, as if there were in his deeds, words or thoughts the least inclination to contradict his fathers resolution. He was not onely patient without refusing, but obedient without misliking his fathers wil. Esay saith of him. Esay. 53 [...] He was oppressed and afflicted, yet did hee not open his mouth. Hee was brought as a sheepe to the slaughter, and as a Lambe is dumbe before his shearer, so ope­ned hee not his mouth. Doth the holie ghost giue him this testimonie, that hee mildelie and silentlie bare all the oppressions and afflictions, that were laide on him, and shall we dare auouch, that hee vehementlie and often strug­gled, and striued in his praiers against the knowne will of his Father; and sought by all meanes to decline the worke for which hee came into the worlde? [His flesh (they will saie,) feared death, though his spirit submit­ted it selfe to the will of his heauenlie Father.] As if his flesh did praie, and not his spirite? if then his praiers were passionate and vnaduised, his spirit cannot bee ex­cused from consenting and yeelding thereto. And where do we learne that Christes flesh refused the lawe of his minde, and so preuailed against the spirite, that it wrested from him inconsiderate and disobedient thoughtes, and wordes? or when wee thus saie, doe wee not plainelie bring the sonne of GOD within the communion of our sinnefull corruption?

[Page 124][But his spirit was amazed with feare, and so hee knewe not what he praied.Christ praied often and ear­nestly but with full assurance to be heard.] We take too much vpō vs to put Christ besides himselfe, when it pleaseth vs. His praiers in the gar­den were zealous, but religious; vehement, but reuerent; mourneful, but faithful. He offered vp Hebre 5. strong cries and teares, but HE VVAS HEARD in that he asked; and so long as God performed, what Christ desired, it is more then presumption to challenge his praiers as inconstant and wauering. For my part though I could not conceiue the sense of Christes praier in the garden, yet do I fully resolue he was most as­sured in faith, his praier should take effect. His oftē repeating ye same words, noteth how great a thing hee requested at his fathers hands, which yet he obtained, though it were neuer so great. That which you call a reuocation, I take to bee a limi­tation, wherby Christ declared, he neuer ment to aske or haue any thing against his fathers liking; nor in any sort to prefer his owne choise or ease, before his fathers will. If this be a trance, then faith and obedience are no fruits of Gods spirit, but fits of a distempered humor, and in the end we shall con­clude godlines to be madnes. For greater submissiō or more deuotiō, then Christ vttered in that agony, can no man shew. If therfore we condemne this as a maze in Christ, when shal zealous and deuout persons be in their wits?

[But the scripture saith, he was Mark. 14. verse: 33. Christ might at the first be abashed with Gods maiesty, or mans mise­ry; but he reco­uered himselfe before he en­tered into his praiers. AFRIGHTED, & ASTO­NISHED.] The liuely beholding of Gods maiesty, or mās misery might both afright & astonish his humane nature on the suddaine, but presently, recollecting himselfe, he fell to ve­hement and intentiue praier, and therein continued almost an houre, not warbling in his wordes, nor wauering in his petitions or affections; but perseuering in the same minde, & in the same matter, till he obtained his desire. Nowe to be abashed at Gods presence, declared his pietie: and to bee stricken at the heart with the feeling of vengeance prouided for vs, commended his charitie. Lay these two, deuotion to God, and compassion towards men, as the grounds & causes [Page 125] of his Agonie, and you shall easily cleare this foule heape of absurdities and impieties, that now pursueth the contrarie position. It is humilitie for mans infirmitie to shake and tremble at the appearance of Gods glorie. It is mercie, to stand defixed and euen astonished with the sense and griefe of mans finall iudgement and eternall punishment. From this fountaine, that is from the meditation of the diuine Maie­stie, and commiseration of humane miserie, if we deriue the HEAVINES of heart, FEARE and ASTONISHMENT, which Christ suffered or shewed in his agony, we can do him no wrong; because the more violent, the more eminent signes they were of submission to God, and compassion on man: his faith and loue not being oppressed with stupiditie, How and why Christ might be rauished. but infla­med with such vehemencie, that the weakenesse of mans flesh not able to followe the readinesse of his spirit, rauished with a wonderfull feruencie to giue himselfe to saue the worlde, might for the time faile in the exteriour actions, and offices of the bodie. But we must beware that we continue not this astonishment, when he came to his praiers. For in praier the heart must be, not one lie prepared and aduised; but sincerelie affected and wholie deuoted to aske nothing, but that which tendeth to Gods glorie, and agreeth with Gods will. He that otherwise asketh anie thing at Gods hands, prayeth not, but presumptuouslie tempteth God, and seeketh to make the wisedome and power of God seruiceable to his corrupt ap­petites. Mat. 20. You knowe not what you aske; said Christ to the sonnes of Zebedee, when he refused their petition, and repro­ued their follie. How shall we beléeue, wee shall receiue, if we aske we knowe not what? Faith must be rightlie direc­ [...]ed, and throughlie perswaded, before it can obtaine. Christes prayers then in the garden were neither abrupt without sense, nor wauering without faith, that they néeded bee excu­sed or corrected; but his deuotion was instant, and perswa­sion constant that he should preuaile; and therefore hee ceased not to aske the selfe same thing thrise, till hee was heard, and [Page 126] strengthened by an Angel from heauen.

[He asked that, they will say, which was not granted.] I am resolutelie of another minde.Christs praier could not be reiected. My reasons are, first the Apostle sayeth. Heb. 5. HE VVAS HEARD offering vp strong cries and teares. Secondlie, Christ himselfe sayeth; Iohn 11. Father I thanke thee, because thou hast heard me. I knowe THOV HEAREST ME ALVVAYES. And howe coulde it be otherwise? For if he prayed according to the will of God, he must needes bee heard; and agaynst the will of God hee neither did, nor woulde praie. For that were sinne in him, that was not ignorant of Gods will, both determined and reuealed. And God forbid, we should bee so wicked, as to say or thinke, that Christ would thrise in most earnest prayer, impugne his fathers will so well knowne, and so often foretolde by his owne mouth. I be­léeue rather his owne report of himselfe; for hee coulde not lie. Iohn. 8. I doe nothing (sayde hee) of my selfe, but as my father hath taught mee, so speake I these thinges. For hee that sent mee is with mee: the Father hath not left mee a­lone, because I DOE ALVVAYES the thinges, THAT PLEASE HIM. Though I beare recorde of my selfe, my recorde is true; FOR I KNOVVE VVHENCE I CAME, AND VVHITHER I GOE. As hee coulde not bee ig­norant, so coulde hee not bee forgetfull of his Fathers counsell and decree. The glorie of God might appall him at the entrance into his prayers: but his constant continuing one and the same request to his Father three seuerall turnes, with intermission of time, and ad­monition to his Disciples to watch and praie, prooueth hee had not forgotten himselfe, that still persisted in his purpose; nor yet striued agaynst his Fathers will, in that his prayer was accepted, and assured from hea­uen.

[Did then the cup passe from him; which was the summe of his prayer?] No doubt it did in that sense which he desired. [Page 127] The cup mingled by Gods iust iudgment for the sin of man,The cup did passe from Christ in that sense in which he prayed it might. did passe both from him, and vs, by force of his prayer; not that hee did not taste of it, but in that yeelding him­selfe to the temporall and corporall chasticement there­of, hee quenched the spirituall and eternall vengeance, that was consequent after death: the abolishing whereof was a worke worthie of the sonne of God; and a memorable effect of that earnest and instant prayer, which our Sa­uiour made in the Garden, thereby shutting vp hell, and opening heauen to all his members. And for that cause the Prophet Esay ioyneth his patient suffering and vehement praying, as needfull groundes of our redemption; hee bare the sinne of manie, and Esay. 5 [...] PRAYED for the TRESPASSERS: and the Apostle reckoneth Christs Hebr. 5. PRAIERS OFFERED VVITH TEARES, and his painesHebr. 5. suffered through obedience as principall parts of his Priesthood, and effectuall sacrifices for the sinnes of the people.

As praying in the garden Christ must be frée from for­getting either his fathers will or loue;Christ on the crosse must be assured his sa­crifice should be accepted. so suffering on the crosse he must haue not onely patience and obedience, but in­telligence & assurance that the bloudy sacrifice which he offe­red, should be accepted as the propitiation for our sinnes, and himselfe exalted from the shame and paine of the crosse to euerlasting honour, ioy, and glorie. He did not offer himselfe on the altar of the crosse, supposing or presuming it might please God thereby to be fauourable vnto man; but as hee came into the world annointed and sent of purpose Matt. 1. to saue his people from their sinnes, so did hee Phil. 2. humble himselfe to the death of the Crosse, beeing thereto appoynted by his hea­uenlie father; and therefore most assured that God was im­mutablie determined to accept his sacrifice for the sin of the world, and Colos. 1. by the bloud of his crosse to set at peace thinges both in heauen and in earth: and to reconcile vs that were straungers and enemies in euill woorkes, through death in the bodie of his flesh, to make vs holie and without fault [Page 128] in the sight of God. This Saint Paule saith was Gods Colos. 1. vers. 19. & 20 GOOD PLEASVRE, to which Christ was Phil. 2. ver. 8. OBEDIENT, & therefore neither ignorant of it, nor doubtfull in it; but assured­lie resolued with fulnesse of faith and hope, that he which had decreed it, could not be changed; and that God which had sent him, would not deceiue him. And for that cause the Apo­stle maketh the death of Christ to be a Ephe. 5. SACRIFICE OF A SVVEET SMELLING SAVOVR VNTO GOD; and saith, that Heb. 12. Iesus the authour & finisher of our faith, FOR THE IOY VVHICH VVAS SET BEFORE HIM, endured the crosse, and despised the shame (thereof) and is placed on the right hand of the throne of God. So that howsoeuer late wri­ters haue found out the terror of Gods wrath, and horror of eternall death in the soule of Christ suffering; the Apostle tea­cheth vs, that Christ hanging in the shame and paine of the crosse, had not onelie peace and fauour with god, as offering a sweet smelling sacrifice, but also ioy before his eies of euerla­sting glory at the right hand of ye throne of God. And with him agrée both Peter & Dauid, when they bare witnes of Christ, that his HEART VVAS GLAD, & his TONGVE IOIFVL, and that euen Acts. 2. Psal. 16. HIS FLESH should REST IN HOPE, not­withstanding the anguish of death, force of the graue, and fury of hell. For God would neither forsake his soule in hell, nor suffer his flesh to sée corruption.

Dare anie man doubt of this doctrine, which is so cleare­lie and fullie deliuered vs in the Scriptures?We must suffer as Christ did; which I hope is not the paines of hell. Or make wee a pastime of it, in fauour of our fansies to ouer­turne the verie principles of truth? 1. Pet. 2. Christ suffered for vs, leauing vs an example, that wee shoulde followe his steppes. For if Rom. 8. wee suffer with him, wee shall bee glorified with him. Must we suffer the paines of the damned, afore we may hope to be partakers of his glorie? The gaine which we haue in Christ, when wee haue refused all thinges as vile for his sake, is to knowe the fellowshippe of his afflictions, Phil. 3. and to bee conformed vnto his death; if by [Page 129] anie meanes wee may attaine to the resurrection of the deade. Shall the communion of Christes sufferings bring vs to the true torments of hell, and must we perswade our selues that wee are forsaken of God, afore wee can bee conformed to his death? 1 Peter. 4▪ Reioyce (sayth Peter,) when yee doe com­municate with Christes sufferings. Must we then REIOICE in the horror of hell, and bee glad of Gods displeasure towards vs? I thinke not. Howe farre fuller of comfort is the Apostles doctrine, where he saith; 2. Cor. 1. As the sufferinges of Christ abound in vs; so our consolation aboundeth through Christ. Christs affliction on ye cross [...] was full of consolation. And our hope is stedfast concerning you, that as you are partakers of the sufferinges, so shall you bee of the com­forts. What comfort these men can finde in the paines of the damned, I knowe not; they else where seeme to say, that all feares and griefes, all terrors and torm [...]nts are trifles vnto the sense and feeling of Gods displeasure and iust indignation; but the holie Ghost I am sure propo­seth to vs the Crosse of Christ as the waie to perfection, that neuer wanteth consolation. For therein though our 2. Cor. 4. outwarde man perish, yet the inwarde man is daylie renued; and when our bodies die to sinne, as did Christes, our soules liue to God, as did his. Excellentlie doth the Apostle describe the comfort of Christes Crosse in all the faythfull, when hee sayeth. Ibidem. Wee are afflicted on euerie side, but not ouerpressed; wanting, but not vtterlie desti­tute; persecuted, but not forsaken; falling, but not pe­rishing; alwayes bearing about in our bodie the dying of the Lorde Iesu, that the life of Iesu might bee manifest in our bodyes. For wee, whiles wee liue, are still deliuered vnto death for Iesus sake, that the life of Iesu might bee manifest in our mortall flesh. Christ then in the mortifi­cation of his bodie on the Crosse, was neither OVER­ [...]RESSED, FORSAKEN, nor PERISHING; but relieued & supported inwardly by the power of gods spirit, in which he reioiced, whiles his flesh indured bitter and sharpe torments. [Page 130] And this rule, 2. Cor. 12. When I am weake, then am I strong, was true in Christ, and after his example shall be in all his mem­bers. For Gods Ibidem. power is perfited in infirmitie. Ibidem. Very gladly therefore must all the godlie reioice and take pleasure in their infirmities, that the power of Christ may dwell in them. How can this be called Christs power, if he wanted it in his infir­mities and afflictions? And if we haue it from him, why pre­sume we to take it from him in the time of his sufferinges? Shall the scholler be aboue his maister? or the seruant more perfect then his Lord? Yea, then God manifested in the flesh? But I hope men learned will take good héede howe they di­minish the comfort of Christs crosse; we must Heb. 12. looke to Iesus the authour and finisher of our faith. If he were amazed, per­plexed, and forsaken in his afflictions, who shal raise and com­fort vs in our extremities? Hee that himselfe was astoni­shed and ouerwhelmed, with his sufferings on the crosse? It may then be said vnto him, Luke 4. Phisition heale thy selfe. Shall hee comfort vs, that could NOT COMFORT himselfe? Can wee REIOICE AND TAKE PLEASVRE in fol­lowing his steppes, when hee sanke vnder the burthen, and suffered both his fayth and hope for the time to faile? But farre be from vs these vnsauorie thoughts, and vnséemelie spéeches. Heb. 2. It was fit that hee from whom, and by whom are all things, should CONSVMMATE BY AFFLICTIONS THE PRINCE OF OVR SALVATION, that shoulde bring many sons vnto glorie; the selfe same way that he went before them. Which cannot be by doubting & distrusting the fauor and help of god, much lesse by suffering & induring the paines of the damned; but by desiring through loue, and reioi­cing vnder hope to take vp Christs crosse and follow him; 2. Cor. 12. de­lighting in reproches, necessities, persecutions and anguish for Christs sake, that 1. Pet. 4. when his glorie shal appeare, we may be glad and reioice with fulnesse of euerlasting ioy.

Do we then exempt the Lord Christ from all sense of his fa­thers wrath against our sins; whiles we defend in him peace [Page 131] and ioy of the holie ghost, as he hung on the crosse?All miseries are the effect [...] of gods wrath. There is a feeling of gods wrath which may stand with the pacification & consolation of the inward man; and there is a sense of Gods wrath which ouerthroweth both, and bréedeth a fearful appre­hension of Gods displeasure towards vs; in which is neither peace nor comfort. All the miseries of mans life, whatsoeuer they be, came first frō the force of gods wrath reuenging sin; and therfore not only death & damnation, but al kinds of trou­bles, paines & griefs, in our states, bodies and minds, which shor­ten or sower this present life, are degrees of gods wrath, & cha­sticements of our transgression and corruption. When the plague was kindled amongst the people for murmuring a­gainst Moses & Aarō, Moses said to Aaron, Num. 16. take ye censer & put fire & incense therein, & go quickly vnto the congregation, and make an atonemēt for thē: for there IS VVRATH GONE OVT FROM THE LORD; the plague is begun. When the prophet Iehu repro­ued Iehosaphat for aiding Achab the king of Israel; he said 2. Chro. 13 wouldst thou help the wicked? and loue them that hate the lord? euen for this cause WAS THE VVRATH OF THE LORD VPON THEE. The prophet Esay comforting the church, saithEsay. 51 Awake, awake and stand vp ô Ierusalem, which hast drunke at the hand of the Lord, THE CVP OF HIS VVRATH. By the prophet Micheas the Church humbleth her selfe vnder the hande of God in these wordes.Mich. 7. I will BEARE THE VVRATH of the Lord, because I haue sinned against him, vntill he plead my cause, and execute iudgement for me. Euerie where the like is vsed in the scrip­tures. Esay. 47. I VVAS VVROTH with my people, and gaue them into thine hand, (saith God to Babylon) and thou didst shewe them no mercie, but didst lay a verie heauie yoke vpon the aun­cient. So Ieremie complaineth to God. Thou hast Lament. 5. vtterly re­iected vs, thou art EXCEEDINGLY ANGRY VVITH VS. These, and many such places more, mention the wrath of God, which the saints & seruants of god tasted and felt for their sinnes; but they do not import that Gods eternall fauour and loue towards his children in heauenlie things, was vanished or changed. The 2. Tim. 2. foundation of God standeth sure; yea the Rom. 11. gifts and calling of [Page 132] God are without repentance. And therefore it is vtterlie im­possible, that Gods election should alter, or that hee should not Iohn. 13. loue his owne vnto the end; but [...] Peter. 4. iudgement beginning at the house of God, 1. Cor. 11. wee are chastened of the Lord, that wee should not be cōdemned with the world. And albeit yt bitternes of affliction some time bite so neere, that the conscience of our sinnes accusing vs as vnworthie to bee the sonnes of God; feare calleth Gods fauour in question for the time; yet that temptation riseth from the guiltines of our hearts, and weak­nesse of our faith, which giueth way to the diuel: otherwise as we ought to béene god will be Heb. 8. merciful to our iniquities, & remember our sinnes no more, for his couenant made with vs in the bloud of his sonne; so should we bee fallie perswa­ded, that when we endure chastening, bee it neuer so sharpe, God Heb. 12. offereth himselfe vnto vs, as vnto sonnes; for what sonne is it, whome the father chasteneth not? So that if wee bee with­out correction, whereof all are partakers, wee are bastards and not sonnes, since God chasteneth vs for our profite, that wee might be partakers of his holines.

This correction and chastisement of God, because it Heb. 12. see­meth greeuous for the present, and not ioyous, is called in the scriptures the rodde and wrath of God; not that Gods loue ceaseth when he correcteth his children; (for Heb. 13. whom the Lord loueth he chasteneth, and he scourgeth euery sonne, that hee re­ceiueth;) But as the blessings which he abundantly bestoweth on vs, do manifest his gracious and vndeserued mercy; so the plagues, with which he visiteth our sinnes, do witnes his righte­ous and prouoked iudgement. And in that sense must we rec­kon them to be the signes and effects of Gods wrath. For as he is iustly offended with our iniquities because they resist his will Rom. 2. dishonour his name, and Ephe 4. grieue his holie spirit, by whō we are sealed vnto the day of redemption; so when hee cha­steneth our transgressions, the scourge which we feele is tru­lie said to be the wrath of God; not that God is touched with anie pe [...]turbation or alteration in himselfe, but his iustice [Page 133] leadeth him to inflict that punishment on vs, as well to bring vs to hate that we haue done, by godlie sorrow;Gods wrath towards his [...] mixed with mercy and iustice. as to make vs more warie how we attempt the like, which is religious feare restraining vs from often and easie offending the maiesty and sanctitie of God. But this vengeance of our sinnes because it is temporall, when it should iustlie be eternall; and afflicteth the bodie, where it might worthilie kill the soule; it is rather the chastisement of a father, then the rigour of a Iudge. And yet the scriptures call it wrath, because God neuer procee­deth to punish, but when he is prouoked and despised, in such sort, that were it not for smart of correction, wee would fall to the rage of open rebellion.

Wherefore the displeasure of God against our sinnes was verie great,The wrath of God against our sinnes was very great in the crosse of Christ. that pursued our suertie, beeing innocent and obedient, and euen his owne and only sonne, with all ma­ner of corporall and temporall scourges vnto death, before it could bee pacified; but that Gods fauour towards his sonne was altered or diminished, or that Christ in feare and terror apprehended anie such change in his father, or so much as doubted the constant and eternall counsell, and decree of God, to make him the Sauiour of the worlde, and by the bloud of his crosse to make peace in heauen and earth; these are so dangerous doctrines, that I thinke no learned diuine will vndertake them. Hebre. 5 Though he were the sonne, yet lear­ned he obedience, by that which he suffered, saith the Apostle. Now obedience could not breed diffidence but confidence; and was the vertue, that so highlie pleased God in Christ, that hee was Ibidem. made the authour of eternall saluation vnto all that OBEY HIM. A double sense then of Gods wrath Christ Iesus had. The first that pursued his bodie vnto death on the trée, where 1. Peter. 2. hee bare our sinnes; that is the Esay. 53. chastisement of our peace, the STRIPES of our iniquities, and VVOVNDES of our transgressions. The next was the serious contemplation of that eternall and intolerable vengeance; which the iustice of God had in store for vs, by reason of our manifold sinnes; [Page 134] whose danger and destruction touched him as néere, through the tendernesse of his loue and pietie, as if it had beene im­minent ouer his owne heade. And therefore euen sicke with sorrowe for vs, & trembling at the terror of Gods wrath prepared to reuēge our vnrighteousnes, he neuer left SVVEA­TING, VVEEPING and CRYING to God for vs, that his stripes might heale vs, his anguish excuse vs, his death quicken vs, and his person sustaine and suffer for vs, whatso­euer the iustice of God would laie on him, till he was heard, and allowed of God to offer the sacrifice, that should propi­tiate the sinnes of the worlde. In these paines and feares, whiles hee felt the arrowes of God sticking in his flesh, and sawe the terror of eternall death readie to swallow vp all his members, we maie grant, that the CONSOLATION and IOIE, which the humane soule of Christ before had of his Fa­thers continuall presence and assistance, was for the time somewhat diminished; his heart being oppressed with sor­row, his bodie afflicted with sharpe and bitter paine, his soule besieged with feare and care for vs, that neither the dreadful wrath of God ouerwhelmed vs, nor the deceitefull fraude of Satan vndermined vs: but by no meanes we maie admit in Christ either feare or doubt of his owne saluation; nor forget­fulnes of his person or function; but the harder the work he vn­dertooke, the stronger his faith, that performed it; the more terrible our danger, the more stedfast his loue, that shrunke not from vs in so great extremitie.

[Might not yet the soule of Christ in this constant and full assurance of Gods loue towardes him, and mercie towards vs, feele the torments of hell for the time without anie dis­trusting or doubting of his saluation, or our redemption?] The essentiall torments of hell, are the absolute losse of Gods kingdome, without recouerie, and exquisite sense of hell fire euerlastinglie without release. Neither of these without hor­rible blasphemie can be imagined in the soule of Christ: the [...]est that are consequents to these, as desperation, murmura­tion, [Page 135] darkenesse, horrour and such other impressions are like to these; and coulde no more haue place in Christes person, then the antecedentes might. And since it is no where wit­nessed in the Scriptures, nor anie waie prooued, that Christ suffered the paines of hell; whie striue we to establish a méere conceite of men, neuer written or spoken of, be­fore our age? beare wee so small regarde to the Church of Christ, and to all the learned fathers and teachers in the same,It should som­what moue vs, yt hell paines were neuer ad­ded to Christs crosse for 1300 yeeres since the Apostles time. that for thirtéene hundred yéeres no man euer knew or heard the right waie, and true meane of our redemption and reconciliation to God, till the paines of hell were late­lie deuised? Abuses and errours did by little and little creepe into the church by the wilinesse of Satan, and wilfulnesse of men; but that the gates of hell shoulde so much preuaile a­gainst it, as from the Apostles time to this present age, no christian should euer trulie teach or rightlie beléeue how we are saued by the crosse of Christ, is to me so strange, that I wil be ten times aduised, before I will once admit it. Let vs giue thankes to God, for dispelling the mist of darkenes and ignorance, that ouerspred the world vnder Antichrist: but let vs neuer glorie that we first inuented a newe faith, neither testified in the scriptures, nor mentioned in anie ancient wri­ters, nor euer heard of amongst christians before our time. It is no corne but cockle that springeth so late in the Lordes field; it is no saith, but fansie that neuer before was in y foun­dation of Christs church. The simplicitie therfore of the scrip­tures continually PRESSING the DEATH and BLOVD of Christ, as the TRVE CAVSES of our saluation & redemption; and the consonancy of all antiquity according therewith, do so cha­lenge my faith, and establish my hart, that I will see this new deuise of hel paines suffered in the soule of Christ, better warranted, before I wish it to be beléeued.

And as for the doctrine of the church of England, The doctrine here deliuered is authorised by the lawes of this realme. which some men would faine infect with this late fansie, giue mee leaue, men and brethren to admonish you shortlie but [Page 136] trulie; that who so will reade the sermon of the Num 3. saluation of al mankinde, in the first volume of Homilies; and likewise the two Homilies, concerning the death and Num 13. passion of our Sa­uiour Iesus Christ, contained in the second tome of Homi­lies; shall finde that the doctrine which I haue deliuered you, hath the publike approbation of Prince and Parliament, the con­sent and agreement of all the Bishops, and the subscription of all the clergie of this kingdome, to bee taught as truth in all the churches of this realme, and so hath had, as well in the daies of king Edwarde the sixt, as all the time of her maie­sties most happie raigne, whatsoeuer some forward nouices haue told you to the contrarie. And thus much let me speake in the Honor of her maiestie, and this realme; I see no cause, why the doctrine of the church of England so plainelie war­ranted by the Scriptures, so fullie confessed by all the Fathers, so long continued in Christs church without contradiction, so sufficiently authorized, so generally acknowledged, should bee controlled or corrected, either by the dangerous deuises of some late writers, or by the vnsetled humours of some late teachers. Hold therefore in Gods name close to the rules of the holie ghost, close to the words of the christian & catholicke Fathers, close to the lawes of this realme: they all concur and conioine together, howsoeuer some giddie spirits haue lately buzzed in your eares that I impugned the doctrine of the church of England.

I Haue deliuered you foure effectes of Christes crosse; the merite of his suffering which was infinite;The fi [...]t effect of Christes crosse; which is the glory of his resurrectiō. the maner of his offering, which was bloudie; the power of his death, which was mightie; the comfort of his crosse, which was and is necessary for vs all; there remaineth the glorie of his resurrection, which was heauenlie, of which I did not purpose to speake, when I first entred this matter; but the ignorance of some, imagi­ning I denied the Article of the Créede, HE DESCENDED INTO HELL (for descent but on the crosse they admit none) [Page 137] and the zeale of others importuning me to knowe what they might safelie beléeue touching that article, hath made me to change my mind; and in this last part to shewe, that I nei­ther frustrate the faith, nor alter the Créede by anie thing that I affirme, or refuse. Where to let you see the multipli­citie of mens wits and conceites; there are foure seuerall opinions that take holde euerie one of this Article of our Créede, and chalenge the true meaning thereof as their pe­culiar and vndoubted right.Foure opiniō touching the article of the Creede he de­scended into hell. The FIRST applieth it to the soule of Christ suffering on the crosse; the SECOND to the bodie of Christ buried; the THIRD to the state of Christes soule seuered by death from the bodie; the LAST to the con­quest and triumph which the humane soule of Christ had ouer hell by the glorie of his resurrection, as his bodie had ouer death. Which of these hath the best right, and fittest sense to be an article of our créede, wil appeare by comparison in the end and vpshot of all; in the meane while, I will shortlie sift them, that you maie sée the substance of them, and so be able the better to iudge of them.

The first is the verie same, which I haue alreadie handled, and refused as not consonant to the christian faith; but rather repugnant to the dignitie, certainty, sanctity of Christs per­son, coniunction, & communion with God. The scriptures a­uouch, that Christs SOVLE was IN HELL, but not whiles he liued here on earth: it was a consequent to his death, and no part of his suffering on the crosse, as I shewed before. And since the times do so much varie, there can be no truth in ta­king the one for the other. In this life God sometimes suf­fereth the sorowes and feares of hell to besiege his seruantes, and 1. Samuel. 2 bringeth them euen vnto hell; but his saints descend not into hell: feare may humble them, that would otherwise pre­sume of themselues,The [...]eare of hell may fall on vs, but not on Christ. or make triall howe fast they stande on that foundation against the which the gates of hell shall not preuaile: but this conflict of conscience must resolue on the assurance of Gods fauour, except they yéelde themselues vn­to [Page 138] to despaire. In Christ as there was no vse, so was there no place for anie such temptation. There was in him no danger of pride to exalt him; and therefore no neede of feare to depresse him: no slacknesse or coldnesse coulde take holde of him; and so no terror requisite to awake him from sleepe, or inflame his zeale: generallie there was in him no corrupti­on of nature, no infection of sinne, no wauering of faith, no want of grace, no doubt of Gods fauour; and so those dread­full thoughts and feares of hell, which amaze other, could not arise within his heart; but all the paines and griefes, which the sonne of God felt in his pretious bodie, or righteous soule, as they were VOLVNTARY for our example, and SATIS­FATORIE for our sinne; and not MEDICINABLE for a­nie infirmitie of his, nor PROFITABLE to bring him to perfection of holinesse, as they are in vs: so were they pro­portioned to his person, that was most assured of Gods euer­lasting loue; and to his gifts, that could endure no inward de­crease; and therefore hee must in this point differ from all the saints of God, that euer were or euer shall be on earth. For they may be tossed with the waues of temptation, rising from the remembrance of sinne, & remorse of conscience; but our Sauiour, as he was frée from all touch of sinne, so was he from all feare of heart, that hee should or might bee reiected from Gods fauour, or adiudged to euerlasting death. Smart, paine and griefe of bodie or minde, be it neuer so great, will commende his obedience and patience; but the SENSE of damnation or separation from God, or the FEARE or DOVBT thereof in Christ, as they quench faith, and abo­lish grace, so they dissolue the vnion and communion of both his natures; or else bréede a false perswasion, and sinne­full temptation in the soule of Christ. In vs that haue infi­nitelie prouoked the iustice of God, it is the true beholding what wee haue deser [...]ed, if God be not pleased for Christs sake to pardon and forgiue vs; In Christ, that was perfect­lie righteous, and personallie ioyned with God, there coulde [Page 139] bee no apprehension of hell paines as due vnto him, or de­termined for him, without renouncing his innocencie, and leauing the vnitie of his person; and consequentlie hee must find or feare, that God would be inconstant, and vniust; which are more then hainous impieties. For Christ coulde not FEARE or DOVBT his owne saluation, but he must feare or doubt, that either his humane nature should bee separated from his diuine, or his diuine together with his humane bee cast into hell fier; from which the Lord blesse the tongues and thoughts of al christian men. As for Christs not remēbring in a maze, that he was the son of God, & sauiour of the world; is a seely shift to shun these inconueniencies; I had rather simply deny, then any way beléeue this kind of descending into hel.

Do I charge then anie man with vpholding these impie­ties? God forbid. I sée by their own words they purpose and professe by al meanes to decline them, & no doubt detest them; but I confesse my dulnes, that sée not how to auoide the one, if I auouch the other.How Christ in some sense may be said to haue suffered the paines of hel on ye cros [...]e. If we take hell paines METAPHORI­CALLY for great and intolerable paines; in which sense the word maie bee vsed; then it is no daunger to saie, Christ suffered on the crosse the paines of hell: because there canne bee no doubt, but HIS PAYNES were exceeding GREATE, and more SHARPE, then wee canne conceiue or vtter. But this is not the meaning of the Créede in that Article hee descended into Hell; by rea­son there are wordes before inferring the paynes, which hee SVFFERED, when hee was CRVCIFIED. If wee attribute the sense of Gods wrath, and feeling of hell paynes vnto Christ by waie of COGNITION and COM­PASSION towardes vs, forsomuch as the soule hath her sight, and pittie hath her inwarde feeling of other mens miseries, as if they were our owne; it is no wrong to the person or function of our Sauiour for vs to confesse, that hee considered and grieued to see the bur­then of Gods euerlasting wrath due to our sinnes, none [Page 140] otherwise then if himselfe had béene subiect thereto: so long as we leaue him certaintie and securitie of his owne saluati­on & our redemption; that his bowels of mercie maie bee mooued and affected for our danger, and not for his owne. It is farre more religious to presse the soule of Christ with vio­lent panges of griefe and sorrowe for our inquities and mi­series; then to touch him with anie feare or doubt of his own innocencie or safetie. Charitie is a fitter Agonie for the sonne of God in our flesh, then either timiditie or stupiditie; and yet I do not thinke this to be the sense of the Creede, when it saieth hee descended into hell; for that it were somewhat strange to expresse the virtues of Christs suffering, by his de­scending into hell.

Papists were the first bro­chers of this o­pinion, that Christ suffered hell paines on the crosse.And least the insolent sect of Iesuites shoulde take such pleasure as they doe, in misconstruing other mens words, and blazing them vnto the worlde as erroneous and impi­ous; let them remember, that some of their owne side, and those not of the meanest both for learning and religion a­mongst them, haue not onelie waded as farre as anie other newe writers in this position; but for ought that I reade, haue gone farther; howsoeuer they will defende it or excuse it. Nicholaus Cusanus a Cardinall of their church, and a great aduiser of the councell of Basill, 50. yéeres before Lu­ther appeared, first broched this assertion. Nicholaus de Cusa Excitatio­num lib 10. ex sermone: qui per spiritum sanctum semetipsū obtul [...]s. Passio Christi, (qua maior nulla potest esse) fuit vt damnatorum, qui magic damnari nequeunt, scilicet VSQVE AD POENAM INFER­NALEM. The suffering of Christ, (then the which there can be no greater,) was as of the damned, which cannot bee more condemned, EVEN VNTO THE PAINES OF HELL. And againe.Ibidem. Illam poenā sensus CONFORMEM DAMNA­TIS IN INFERNO, pati voluit in gloriam dei patris sui. Tha [...] paine of feeling agreeable to the damned in hell, Christ would suffer for the glory of God his father. Augustinus Iustinianus, that set out the Psalter in Hebrew with sixe translations and obseruations, the same yéere, that Luther beganne to [Page 141] write; in his scholies vpon the 30 Psalme, mentioneth this opinion of Cusanus, and saith, August. Iusti­nianus in scho­liis Octapli [...] Psal. 30. Se huius [...]rudit issimi viri, & in omni scientia eminent issimi opinionem, nec amplecti, nec aspernari; He neither embraceth nor reiecteth the opinion of that most learned man and excelling in all kinde of knowledge. Iohannes Ferus a Franciscane and preacher at Mogunce, about the same time that Caluine wrote, goeth further then anie other wri­ter, that I haue read. Commenting vpon these wordes of Christ, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, he saith, Ferus. lib. 4. in Mat. cap. 27. in illa verba [...] Deus meus, deuenitus Exuit Christus hac horâ DEVM, non abijciendo, sed non SEN­YIENDO: seposuit patrem vt hominem ageret. Sic & Deus pa­ter, nunc non patrem, sed TYRANNVM AGIT, quamuis in­terim amicissimo in Christum sit animo. Illa Christi derelictio pa­nor est conscientiae nostrae ob admissa peccata, quae iudicium dei & iram aeternam experitur: & sic afficitur, quasi in perpetuum derelicta & reiecta à facie Dei esset. That verie hower Christ put off GOD, not casting him away, but not FEELING him; he laid aside his father, that he might shew himselfe to be a man. So also God the father now taketh vnto him the PERSON not of a father, but OF A TYRANT; though in heart hee were most louing vnto Christ. That forsaking of Christ is the feare of our conscience for sinne committed, which feeleth the iudgment and eternall wrath of God; & is so affected, as if it were forsaken and reiected from the face of God for euer. And as if this were not inough to say, that Christ put off his diuine nature, as ha­uing no féeling of it, and God the father played the PART OF A TYRANT; he goeth on and addeth. Ibidem. Non solum sup­plicium à nobis meritum, verum etiam DESPERATIONEM NOSTRAM in se transtulit. Itaque Christus vt peccatores libe­raret constituit seipsum in locum omnium peccatorum, non qui­dem furans, adulterans, occidens, &c: sed stipendium, poenam & meritum peccatorum, quae sunt frigus, calor, esuries, sitis, timor, tremor, horror mortis, horror inferni, DESPERATIO, mors, INFERNVS IPSE) in se transferens, vt samem fame, timorem timore, horrorem [...]orrore, DESPERATIONEM DESPERA­TIONE, [Page 142] mortem morte, INFERNVM INFERNO, breuiter SATANAM SATANA, vinceret. Christ did transferre to him­selfe not onelie the punishment which wee had deserued, but euen OVR DESPERATION. And therefore Christ, that hee might deliuer sinners, set himselfe in the place of all sinners, not by stealing, adultering, killing, but by transferring vnto him­selfe, the wages, punishment, and desert of sinners, which are heate and colde, hunger and thirst, feare and trembling, horror of death, HORROR OF HELL DESPERATION, death, HELL IT SELFE: that he might ouercome hunger with hunger, feare with feare, horror with horror, DESPERA­TION VVITH DESPERATION, death with death, HELL VVITH HELL, and lastlie, SATAN VVITH SATAN. Trulie I knowe no man that so plainlie auoucheth, Christ admitted and receyued vnto himselfe DESPERATION, as this Frier doth. For where other men warilie decline to say that CHRIST DESPAIRED, this Franciscane boldlie saith, Christ transferred vnto himselfe DESPERATION, HELL, yea, THE DIVELL and all, and was so affected for the time, as if he had FELT THE ETERNALL VVRATH OF GOD, and were REIECTED FOR EVER. Could those quar­rellers haue gotten the like aduantage against anie of our writers, they would haue filled the world with their tragi­call exclamations of HERESIE, BLASPHEMIE, TVR­CISME, PAGANISME, and I knowe not what; and there­fore let them goe and washe their owne faces from these spottes, before they declaime so violentlie agaynst our de­formities.

And albeit I like not these spéeches either in theirs or ours, yet I cleare them both from anie purpose of wilfull blas­phemie.Charitie sup­poseth the best They might be deceiued in the sequele of their assertion, but sure they were neuer so vnaduised, as to fasten either DESPERATION or DAMNATION on the soule of Christ. Perhappes they thought hee was be­sieged and assaulted with these temptations, and that the [Page 143] humane nature of Christ, being left to it selfe, could not pre­sentlie & easilie stand cleare from the vengeance due to our sinnes, but with some conflict and feare, wrestled from vnder the weight of our iniquities, and in this fight did sweat blood, and spake as if he were forsaken: yea Ferus seemeth to mean that Christ did voluntarilie take the burthen of despera­tion and damnation from vs, and laid it on himselfe; against whom it could not preuaile; that by transferring those dan­gers from our persons to his, & suffering them for the time, he might breake them, and dissolue them for euer.

Naturall infirmities, Sinful infirmi­ties are more hainous in Christ then in vs. which are outragious in vs by reason of our corruption, Christ might suffer to arise within him, and there temper them, as Cyrill & other ancient fathers do teach; but sinfull extremities, as desperation, confusion, reiection, dam­nation, Christ must conquere by repelling, not by suffering: least the fellowship of our sinnes be more hainous in him, then in vs. For as his faith, hope and loue must by manie degrées exceed ours in perfection; so the quenching or slaking of these graces in him, is greater sinne then in vs. Doubt and distrust is farre more impious in Angels, by reason of their excel­lent knowledge and strength, then in men; and most impi­ous in the soule of Christ, who by his personall vnion with God, deriued clearer intelligence in knowing Gods will, and greater assurance to persist therein, then either man or An­gell. For the verie Angels haue but the condition of their creation, from which some fell; and confirmation of grace, in which the rest stand: but no creature euer had so fast con­iunction, and full communion with the godhead, as the soule of Christ. And therefore DVBITATION, DESPERATION, TREPIDATION in his soule are more hainous sinnes, then in any other creature; for somuch as they beleeue not ye truth, trust not the promise, rest not secured in the VOICE and OATH of God, which all are immutable and impossible to bee false; and feare least Gods goodnesse and loue will faile; and in fine doe depriue him of his diuine nature, since [Page 144] without veritie, bonitie, and constancie, there can be no God. It then Christs soule could not be infected with sinne, nor haue anie societie with euill, no not for an instant; these doubts and feares of Gods fauour, and his saluation must be farre from him; and in the full perswasion, and steadfast expecta­tion of eternall ioy and blisse, howe desperation should lodge, I yet vnderstand not.

God might reueale, and the soule of Christ in this life be­holde, as all ours shall when we appeare before the face of God after this life, what cup was prepared for the wicked to drinke, and the sight thereof as it is most fearefull, so might it make him tremble, though he were neuer so frée from it; but more then the VISION of Gods wrath, and COMMISE­RATION of mans danger, if wee attribute to the soule of Christ; we must either grant he was tempted as well with our iniquities, through lacke of grace, as with our infirmi­ties through want of strength; or else cast him into a traunce at the time of his passion, as some doe, to excuse him from sinne. For that in the fulnesse of Gods fa­uour, grace and spirite, the soule of Christ shoulde feele the flames of hell fire;Christs soule [...]reer from hel. then either saints or angels. can neither bee prooued, nor defended by the worde of God. The proofe I leaue to them that like the position; which if anie man affirme, he were best bee sure of his footing. It is no small arrogancie, and blas­phemie to sit Iudge in Gods place, and to condemne Christs soule to hell fire, without a sounde and cleare commission, to warrant that assertion. Besides hell fire in the Scrip­tures being ETERNALL; by what authoritie will they quench it at their pleasure, and make it temporarie? And if Christes soule beeing personallie ioyned to the Deitie, notwithstanding might feele the furie of hell fire, when shall the Saints of God, that can neuer bee so vnited vnto his glorie, nor assured of his societie, nor so endued with his sanctitie, bee free from the flames of hell? If that vnion and communion which Christ had with God, coulde not [Page 145] exclude hell fire; what shall hinder but that the Angels in heauen maie for the time likewise feele the flames there­of? Can they haue faster coherence, or fuller presence of God, then hee which was ioyned with God in vnitie of per­son? They come not neere the fauour and grace, know­ledge and truth, power & stedfastnes of the manhoode of Christ, which here on earth they did serue and adore. But none of these things can be intended in the Creede; for there the ar­ticles are placed in ORDER and TIME, as they were perfor­med. And therfore when Christ was DEAD AND BVRIED, he then DESCENDED INTO HELL.

The second opinion is, that Christs descent to hell is all one with his buriall,This opinion is not false, but impertinent and idle. for that SHEOL in the olde testament doth most commonlie, if not continuallie signifie the graue. But this is nothing to the Creede, whose authoritie and antiquitie if wee reuerence, it is soone concluded, that hell there doth not signifie the graue. For first it is absurde, that in a short rehearsall of the faith made for the simplest to conceiue, one article shoulde bee twice repeated; and after a plaine and knowne worde, hee was buried which no man could doubt of; a darke and enigmaticall phrase of spéech, HE DES­CENDED INTO HELL, which fewe men did vnderstande, should bee added, rather to obscure then to expound the for­mer. Againe, HE DESCENDED, signifieth a voluntarie mo­tion, where as the bodie dead hath neither VVILL nor MO­TION. Thirdlie, HELL in the new testament, is so vnusuall for the graue; that I thinke no example can be shewed there­of. Though therefore this exposition cannot be charged with falsitie, for Christ was trulie buried; yet may it not bee en­dured by reason of the idle repetition, and strange circumlo­quution, which troubleth and confoundeth the hearer; besides the improprietie and incoherence of the worde, that a deade corps should descend, and speciallie vnto hell.

The third opinion doth neither mistake the TIME nor the PART which descended: for they referre the words of the [Page 146] Creede to Christes SOVLE after DEATH, but they change the name of hell into the state of the deade; and so con [...]esse that Christes soule after separation from the bodie endured THE STATE OF THE DEAD. The third opi­nion can hard­ly auoid [...]. To this a number of learned men incline, because they would auoyde Limbus patrum; disliking by all meanes that the soules of the righteous and faithfull before Christes suffering shoulde be kept in a region or part of hell; and thence deliuered by his descent. I see well enough what they woulde faine decline; but what if by their farre fet exposition they fall into that errour which they seeke to flie? Doe they not fairelie profer, and quite besides the marke? Let vs looke a little into their conceite. Christ descended into hell, that is, saie they, his soule after death, conuersed among the soules of the iust, that were dead before him. But where were the soules of the iust? In a place, or no? Without a place can nothing be, but onelie God. All creatures be they soules or angels are desined with place, though they doe not reple­nish their places as bodies do; yea what soeuer is not circum­scribed within a place, is infinite; which no creature can bee. The soules then of the righteous must of necesstie bee in a place. And what call you that place by your opinion? For­sooth euen HELL. For Christs descending into hell, as you expound it, was his conuersing among the soules of the dead. Those soules then were in a place, and that place by your construction the Creed calleth Hell. Their state you will say, is called hell, but not their place. A wittie difference I as­sure you. The place for soules after this life, is answerable to their state. If their state bee hell, their place can nei­ther bee Heauen, nor Paradise. As is their receptacle, so is their rest; the place doth bring either ioy or paine, which is their state. So that if Christ descending into hell conuersed with the soules of the righteous; of force the soules of the righteous were in hell, which is the selfe same errour, that you woulde seeme by your newe founde [Page 147] interpretation to preuent.

[But the state of the [...]eade, is in Hebrew noted by the worde Sheôl; and thither Christ descended.] And the state or place whither Christ descended, is in the Creede na­med hell, and so Sheôl is that which the Creede calleth hell. In deede some say, that Sheôl doth neuer in the olde testament signifie the place of the damned: but I must be borne with, if I bee not of their minde. Manie men saie, that they neuer proue; and some speake they know not what. As both partes of man sinned in the first transgression;Sheol as well hell as the graue. so was there a pit of perdition prouided for either part; the graue for the bodie, which there should rot; and hell for the soule, which there should bee tormented with euerlasting fire. Both these pits, because they alwayes expect and ex­act as their due, the bodies and soules of mortall and sin­full men, and neuer are satisfied, are contained in the word Sheôl; and are not distinguished by the nature of the worde, which is common to both; but by the circumstan­ces added, which are proper to either. For example, when the word Sheôl is qualified with an OPPOSITION to heauen with a differēce of SCITVATION, as the LOVVER PIT; with an ADDI­TION of the soule there suffering, or of the pain there suffered; all these are proofs that the word Sheôl, which is otherwise in­different, must there be taken not for the buriall of the body, nor for the change from this life, but [...]or the state of destruc­tion, and place of damnation. Psal. [...]. Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I slie from thy presence? If I ascend into heauen, thou art there: If I lodge BENEATH IN HEL, thou art there. Opposite to heauen is not the graue, where the bodies of all gods saints do lie, but hell as being the farthest from it, and most repugnāt to it; since from hel to heauen there is no passage for man; but from the graue to heauen is the assu­red hope of all the faithfull. This opposition our Sauiour expressing in the new testament, saith. [...] And thou Capernaum which art exalted to heauen, shalt bee thrust downe to hell. [Page 148] Christ doth not threaten the contemners of his doctrine, and myracles with the graue, which is common to all the godlie; but with perpetuall destruction and punishment proportio­nable to the height of their pride, which must needes be hell. And so much followeth in plaine wordes in the next verse. Ibid. ver. 24. I say to you, it shall be easier for them of the land of Sodome in the day of iudgement, then for thee. In the daie of iudge­ment as death, so the graue are at an ende, for the bodies of the wicked shall then liue for euer; and then shall Capernaum be cast downe to hell for the contempt of Christs preaching.

As hel is the farthest place from heauen, that can be named, so it is the lowest, and therefore by the lower pit, is ment not the graue, but hell, which in scituation is far lower then ye out­side of the earth where men are buried. Iob. 11 Canst thou by sear­ching find out God? canst thou find out the perfection of the al­mightie? to the height of heauen what canst thou do? it is deeper then hell;The lowest place and farthest from heauen is hell. how canst thou know it? Gods perfection is higher then the highest place, which is heauen; & deeper then the dee­pest place, which is hel. To compare his power or iustice with the depth of the graue, which is not foure yeards déepe at the most, were a very slender comparison for the incomprehen­sible greatnes of god; but since in height & depth it excéedeth all things; there can be no doubt, but it is compared with the highest & déepest places that are; which are heauen and hel. In like sort, Psal. 85. Thou hast deliuered my soule from the lowest pit, can not be ment of the graue. For mens souls are not inclosed in graues with their bodies, but as the pit prouided for the body is the higher of the twaine, and the pit prepared for the soule is the lower; so the lowest pit out of question is hell, where the soules of such as are reiected from God are detained a­gainst the day of vengeance. And albeit some of these spée­ches may perchance admit an allegoricall sense, and so signi­fie the greatest and extreamest dangers that might be; yet the ground of the allegorie dependeth on the nature of hell, and not of the graue, because of the two sortes of pittes, [Page 149] hell is the lowest; and made to receaue the soules of men, which the graue doth not.Deut. 32 A fire, (saith God by Moses) is kind­led in my wrath, and shall burne to the bottome of hell, and set on fire the foundations of the mountaines. Fire in the graue there is none, in hell there is; neither can the sepulcher, where mens bodies lie buried, be the bottome of hell. For so shall we make the place of hell higher then the earth, which the scripture euerie where crosseth, when it calleth hell the deepe, or lowest pit. A fire then burning to the bottome of hell, and inflaming the verie foundations of the hils, can haue no resem­blance to the graue, nor performance in the graue; but Sheol in that scripture, as in manie others, must signifie the verie place of the damned, which we call hell.

The wordes then of the Créede, hee descended into hell, since the defenders of this thirde opinion doe not referre to the bodie of Christ buried, but to the soule of Christ after death; it is euident by their position, that not onelie Christs soule after this life descended to hell, but all the soules of the iust and righteous leauing this worlde before Christes com­ming, descended likewise into hell. And this euasion of theirs, that Sheol in Hebrew signifieth the state of the deade after this life, be it good or bad, standeth them in little stéed. For first they doe not auoid that obscure and idle repetition, wherewith the second opinion was charged; that, after a plaine and easie article, hee was deade, the selfe same thing should bee iterated againe with a verie darke and doubtfull kind of hebraisme, he descended into Sheôl. By this former, he was dead, euerie man must néedes conceaue, not onelie the separation of the soule from the bodie, but also the subiec­tion of either part to the state of the deade. What néeded then an vnknowne hebrew phrase hee descended into Sheôl, to expresse the verie same point, which before was fullie and fairelie deliuered? Againe, though Sheôl be common to the bodies of the faithfull and infidels, yet may it bee verie well doubted, whether the soules of the righteous departed [Page 150] this life be in Sheôl, The scripture maketh a de­scent to Sheol. or no. And vnder correction I take it to bee more, then the Scripture anie where doeth posi­tiuelie affirme. My reason is, that Abrahams bosome is by our Sauiour placed Luke. 16 ABOVE, PARRE OFF from the place, where the wicked after this life are tormented. Now to Sheôl the Scripture maketh a DESCENT, not an as­cent, as when Iacob saieth; Genes. 37 I VVILL GOE DOVVNE TO Sheôl vnto my sonne, mourning. And againe, Genes [...] 42. you will bring my gray hayres with sorrow DOVVNE TO SHE­OL. And least wee shoulde dreame of a metaphoricall kinde of descent; in the rebellion of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, the scripture saieth; Numb. 16 THE GROVNDE claue a­sunder, that was VNDER THEM, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them vp, with their families. So they, and all that were with them, DESCENDED aliue into Sheôl, and the earth COVERED THEM. To Sheôl then the scripture maketh a locall descent, which is either of the bodie to the graue, (for so Iacobs words must be vnderstood; when he saith, I will descende to Sheôl vnto my sonne;) or of the soule after death, to the place of torment, which is the rewarde of all the wicked. The Psal. 9. wicked (saith Dauid) shall be turned into Sheôl, and al nations that forget God. The soules of ye wicked were in Sheol before Christs com­ming, but not of the godly. Where he doth not meane, they shall die aswel as the godly, which is likewise the lot of all the iust & righteous; but they shall haue the due wages of sinne; both body and soule descending to Sheôl; that is, the one to corruption in the earth, the other to damnation in hell. For Sheol containeth both, and importeth both to the forgetters and despisers of God; albeit it fasten no farther on the godly, then to bring their bodies to the graue, which is the gate of hel. Ezechiah mentioning in his praiers, how he was willed by the prophet to prepare himselfe to die, thus expresseth it. [...]say. 38 I said in the cutting off of my daies; I shal goe to the gates of Sheol, I am depriued of the residue of my yeeres; but ye wicked go to THE DEPTH OF SHEOL, which is the place of euerlasting punishment.Prouerb. 15 The way of life (saith Salomon) is ON HIGH, to [Page 151] him that vnderstandeth to decline frō SHEOL BENEATH. So that after this life, the soules that liue, are aboue, for the way to life is on high; the soules that die, go to the depth of Sheol, euen to the bottomles pit of perdition. Of him that hanteth harlots Salomon saith. Prouerb. 9 He knoweth not yt her ghests are in the depth of Sheol, that is, so wrapped in their sinnes, that they cannot preuent euerlasting damnation. And againe. Prouerb. 23 Thou shalt smite the child with the rod, and shalt deliuer his soule frō Sheol. Correction will not saue a [...]hilde that hee shall not see death, but it will bow him to obedience, and so saue his soule from destruction. Yea how should Dauid so often confesse to God that his soule was freed from Sheol, if by Sheol hee ment the state after death? for thence it was impossible his soule shuld be deliuered.Psal. 89. What man liueth, & shal not see death? Psal. 49 so pre­tious is the redēption of the soule (frō death) that it must cease for euer. And yet comparing himself with the wicked, & his state with theirs, he saith. Psal. 49. Like sheepe shall they lie in Sheol; death shal deuoure thē, and the righteous shall haue dominiō ouer thē, in the day spring. But God wil deliuer my soule from the power of Sheol; for he will receiue me. Doth Dauid meane he shal ne­uer die, or that his soule shalbe deliuered from Sheol, that is from the state of such as were departed this life? ye imagina­tion were both false & absurd; but he meaneth, that death shal deuoure the wicked wholie, as well soule as bodie; whereas he did firmly beleeue, yt God would deliuer his soule from the power of Sheol, & would receaue him after death▪ though his body must of force by the condition of nature waxe olde as a garment, and rot in the graue, til the day of resurrection.

And if anie man thinke good in some such places,Abraham bo­some is no part of Sheol, or hel. as these are, to interpret the SOVLE for LIFE, because it is the spring and cause of life in the bodie; and SHEOL for the GRAVE, where life endeth; I will not vtterlie condemne his exposi­tion, so long as he leaneth a different power of Sheol ouer ye iust & vniust, frō which Dauid saith, God will deliuer his soule; and do not make the soules of the righteous DESCEND TO [Page 152] SHEOL after death. For that directlie impugneth the doc­trine, as well of the olde testament, which saith the Prouerb. 13 way of life is on high; as of our Sauiour, who placeth Abrahams bosome VPVVARD A FAR OFF from hell; when he saith of the rich man; that Luke. 16. being in hell in torments, hee LIFT VP his [...]ies and saw Abraham A FAR OFF, and Lazarus in his bosome. Upon which place, S. Augusten learnedlie and tru­lie inferreth,August. epist. 99. Ne ipsos quidem INFEROS VSPIAM scriptu­rarum locis IN BONO APPELLATOS potuireperire. Quod si nusquam in diuinis authoritatibus legitur, non vtique sinus ille Abrahae, idest, secretae cuiusdam quietis habitatio ALIQVA PARS INFERORVM esse credenda est: quanquam in ijs ipsis tanti magistri verbis, vbi ait dixisse Abraham, Inter nos & vos chaos magnum firmatum est; SATIS VT OPINOR APPA­RET, NON ESSE QVANDAM PARTEM, ET QVASI MEMBRVM INFERORVM, tantae illius felicitatis sinum: Chaos enim magnum, quid est nisi quidam hiatus multum ea se­parans, inter quae non solum est, verum etiam firmatus est? The name of Inferi I could no where finde in anie place of scripture vsed IN ANY GOOD SENSE: which if wee doe no where reade in the authorities of the scripture, surelie Abrahams bo­some, which is an habitation of secret rest, may not be thought to bee ANY PEECE OF THE LOVVER PARTS albeit in the words of so sufficient a maister (as our Sauiour) where he maketh Abraham say, betwixt vs and you there is a GREATE GVLFE ESTABLISHED, it is EVIDENT ENOVGH, as I take it; that the bosome of so great felicitie, is NO PART NOR MEMBER of hell. For what is a great gulfe, but a great distance separating those places, betweene which it lieth? Inferi are the lower parts where the deade remaine, which the He­brew calleth Sheôl; and touching Inferi, which are the pla­ces, or spirits beneath, we maie with S. Austen conclude two thinges out of the manifest wordes of our Sauiour. First that Abrahams bosome is VPVVARD towards heauen, and therfore the soules of the righteous before the death of Christ [Page 153] ascended rather, then descended. Next, that neither paradise, nor Abrahams bosome, (which was the receptacle for ye soules of all the sonnes of Abraham, that held the faith, and did the works of Abraham,) was anie part or member of hell. So that CHRISTS DESCENDING INTO HELL cannot be expounded of his conuersing with the spirites of the iust and perfect men after his death; nor of his enduring the state of the deade; since the place, where their soules doe rest after death, is no where in the scriptures called HELL or SHEOL, or, as S. Austen speaketh, INFERI. And this I take to be so cleere, that neither Iewish Rabbines with their grammati­call obseruations, nor Gréeke poets with their fantasticall imaginations may be suffered to contradict it. Howe easie it is to wrangle with the words, NEPHESH, SHEOL, and HADES a meane scholar maie soon perceiue; but I hold it no sound course to fetch the explication of the mysteries of chri­stian religion, either from such impudent impugners of it, as were the Rabbines, or from such ignorant deluders of it, as were the prophane poets, who talke euerie where of hea­uen and hell, according to the false and lewde perswasion of their own hearts. And therfore they may spare their paines, that promise vs so manie thousand deponentes both Iewish and heathen, that Sheol and Hades do not signifie hell. It wil trouble them more then they thinke, to bring vs but one good proofe out of the scripture, that the soules of the righteous be­fore Christs comming, were in Sheol or Hades; and till they doe, I rest on Saint Austens collection out of the wordes of Christ; that Abrahams bosome is no péece nor part of Ha­des, or Inferi, which the hebrew calleth Sheol, as being deui­ded from it with a mightie distance; and that the soules of the iust departing this life before Christs death, were Luke. 16. CA­RIED VP BY THE ANGELS, INTO ABRAHAMS BO­SOME.

So that as yet wee haue not the true meaning of these words of our creed, he was CRVCIFIED, DEAD, & BVRIED; [Page 154] HE DESCENDED INTO HEL; neither doeth anie of the precedent opinions come nére the plaine and true expo­sition thereof.How ye words of the Creed are best ex­pounded. For in my iudgement they must haue a sense both DIFFERENT in matter, and CONSEQVENT in order, euen as they lie, before we can rightlie vnderstand thē. First he must be DEAD; then BVRIED in body, which was laid in ye earth: lastlie the soule after it was seuered by death from the bodie, DESCENDED INTO HEL; & this third point, he de­scended into hell, must neither be ALLEGORIZED, which in matters of faith is verie dangerous, so long as the proper sense containeth a truth; nor CONFOVNDED VVITH THE FOR­MER: for so the Créed shal not shortly touch mysteries of reli­gion, but darckly trouble vs with phrases of variation. And therefore for my part, I retaine in expounding this Article, 3. things; DISTINCTION of matter, CONSEQVENCE of or­der, & PROPRIETY of words; and those thrée considered, the sense of the Article maie & must be, that Christ, after his BO­DY was BVRIED, in SOVLE DESCENDED VNTO that place, which the scripture properly calleth HEL; & this sense I find to be so far from any falsity or absurdity, that it is more honorable to Christ, and more comfortable to christians, then any of the rest, that we haue yet examined. Which that you may the better perceiue, giue me leaue somewhat farther to repeat the fruit and force of his glorious resurrection.

Christ is called 1. Corinth. 15 the first fruits of them that slept; not that ne­uer none before Christ was restored from the deade, to liue héere on earth; but though many were so reuiued againe, yet from the foundation of the worlde not one was euer raised vnto a blessed and immortall life before Christ. Elias raised the 1. Regum. 17. widow of Sareptas sonne; Elizeus the 2. Regum. 4 Sunamites; Christ himselfe restored to life the Marei. 5. daughter of Iairus, the Luke 7 widowes onlie sonne of Naim, and Iohn. 11 Lazarus; yet all these after their returne to life were still subiect to sinne and death, as they were before; but he whom the scripture nameth Reuelat. 2. the first be­gotten of the dead, was indéede the first, that euer rose from [Page 155] the deade into an happy and heauenly life. For where man here on earth is beset with thrée dangers,Christ the first that euer rose, conqueror of sinne, death and hell. with SINNE du­ring life, with DEATH shortning life, with HEL tormenting after life; (the iust vengeance of sinne deliuering the body to death, the soule to hel:) the resurrection of Christ, being the ful conquest of all his & our enemies, that impugne either his glory or our safety, must ouerthrowe, sinne, death & hel; not in his own person onlie, to whom no such thing was due, but in our stéed, & for our good; yt we might bee likewise fréed from the power of those foes; and as members be ioyned vnto our head, wholy without any hinderance, euerlastingly without anie disturbance, and ioyfully without any gréeuance. Wher­fore Christ rising into a SPIRITVAL, IMMORTAL, & CE­LESTIAL life, fréed vs from the dominion of sinne, feare of death, and fury of Satan; and by Ephes. [...] quickening vs, raising vs vp, and setting vs together with himselfe, in heauenly places, hath not only giuen vs the victorie against sinne, and death, but euen trodden down Satan vnder our féet.

Of Christs conquest against sinne & death, The conquest of Christ ouer sinne & death. I shall not néed to say much; things not impugned require lesse paines to be defended; his conquest ouerhel, as in himself it shewed most power, & purchased most honor; so from vs it deserueth grea­test thanks as bringing vs greatest comfort; that though sinne remaine, & death preuaile against our bodies, there is yet no cause to feare or doubt the fulnesse and surenesse of our re­demption, since the strength of hell is altogether conquered & abolished from the faithfull; which before was the very sting of sinne and death. As therfore Christ was Rom. 4. deliuered to death for our sinnes, and is risen againe for our iustification; so by MERCY REMITTING, and GRACE REPRESSING, he pareth the branches, and drieth the roote of sinne, till the bodie of sinne and death turning to dust, & withering in the graue, be resto­red againe after Christs example to perpetuall & celestial life and blisse. Insomuch that by lamenting sinne past, and resi­sting sinne to come, sin daily dieth in vs; and the inward man [Page 156] of the heart being lightened and renewed by grace doth dai­ly more and more, by desire and delight of heauenly thinges, aspire to the imitation and participation of Christes resurrecti­on. The force of sinne then being quenched by Christes dy­ing vnto sinne, and his rising againe vnto righteousnesse, the power of death is abolished by the pardoning and decrea­sing of our sinnes; that being nowe the passage to glorie for all repenters, which before was the gate to hell for all transgres­sors. In his owne person Christ shewed his conquest ouer death, not by kéeping his flesh from death, which he could ea­silie haue done, but by sauing it from rotting in the sepulchre, and by raising it againe into an immortall and glorious state: that death being swallowed vp by the power of his life, heé might take from vs the feare of death, whiles here wee liue: and change the curse of death, making it nowe a Reuel. 14 rest from all labours, which before was an entrance into perpetuall paine. This enemie, because he doth least harme, shall bée last destroied: euen at the daie of the generall resurrection, and not before: and serueth now rather to represse sinne, then to reuenge sinne; the godlie being by death deliuered from the committing, louing, or fearing sinne; and the wisedome of God prouiding, that as sinne brought death into the world; so death should abolish sinne out of the worlde. This is brieflie the victorie, that Christ obtained against sinne and death, by his dying and rising from the dead. His conquest ouer hell, as it is more questioned, and more expected, so will I not re­fuse to shew you, what I thinke maie be safelie beleeued, and must not rashlie be reiected of any christian.

The conquest of Christ ouer hell and Satan may bee no way doubted by any diuine,In vaine is all that christ did for vs, if hel be no [...] cōquered. that rightly handleth the myste­rie of our saluation. In vaine do we speake of releasing sinne, or despising death, if the right of hell to vs, and power of hell ouer vs doe still remaine. And therefore the verie ground of Christs conquering sinne and death, is his subduing of hell and Satan, that they should lay no chalenge to, nor haue no [Page 157] force against the faithful. It is then on all sides accorded, that hell and Satan must be fullie conquered by Christ, before the worke of our redemption can be perfectlie setled or assu­red; but as well the time when, as the maner, how, are some­what questioned, and that maketh the whole matter the more néedfull to he discussed. To refute euerie mans fansie that speaketh hereof, were an infinite labour; to search out a truth in this case, that maie safelie be receiued, and comfor­tablie embraced, if not necessarilie vrged, is the summe of mine intention, and should bee the ende of your expectation; with this prouiso, that no man carpe before hee righlie con­ceiue; nor pronounce before hee well examine that which shall be spoken; least hee checke the Scriptures before he beware, and condemne the whole Church of God without a­nie cause.

In expressing Christes conquest ouer hell and Satan, I thinke best to obserue these thrée things:The methode of handling Christs des­cent. VVHAT hee did vnto Satan and his kingdome; VVHEN; and with VVHICH PART OF HIMSELFE hee did execute this triumph. VVHAT HE DID vnto Satan, wee shall learne, by seeing what he suffered at Satans hands. Proportiona­ble to Christs humiliation was his exaltation; and for the violence which he endured, he receiued full satisfaction. As then on the crosse Christ suffered at Satans hands, and by Satans meanes REPROCHE, RAGE, & VVRONG;Christs con­quest ouer Sa­tan had these three effects. so in his resurrection he reaped a triple recompence from Sa­tan: SVBMISSION, whereby his pride was subiected vnder Christ; CAPTIVATION, whereby his rage was restrained, and himselfe chained by Christ; RESTITVTION, whereby his spoiles were diuided, and deliuered vnto Christ. When I say that Satan was SVBDVED, TIED, and SPOILED by Christ rising from the dead, let no vnsetled braine imagine, this is superstitious and popish; as I mean them, and as the scriptures deliuer them, they are prophe­ticall and Apostolicall. And least you should thinke I delude [Page 158] you with wordes, I will shewe you whence I take them; first iointlie all in one sentence, then seuerallie from sun­drie places of the holie scriptures. Our Sauiour in the Gos­pell doth purposelie make this comparison,The proofe of these three by the scriptures or vtter this pa­rable concerning himself and the kingdom of Satan.Mat. 12. Mark. 3. How can a man ENTER into a strong mans house, and spoile his goods, except he first BIND the strong man, and then SPOILE his house? Christ then ENTERED vpon Satans house as a CONQVERER; TIED him as the STRONGER; SPOI­LED him as the right OVVNER of that, which Satan vniust­lie detained from him. And albeit it maie not bee denied, but Christ whiles hee liued on earth, made some proofe, of his right and power, to dissolue the workes, and displace the force of Satan, from the bodies and soules of men; yet it is euident that the full demonstration of his victorie, and perfection of his glorie were reserued to the time of his re­surrection, when he brake the [...] and sorrowes of death and hell, and ascended to his father, not onelie clothed with honour, and immortalitie, but armed with power and princi­palitie;Phil. 2. all knees bowing vnto him, in heauen, earth and hell, and all tongues confessing that Iesus was the Lord, to the glorie of God. These verie parts of Christs conquest ouer Satan, the Apostle doth comprise in one sentence to the Colossians, saying: Christ Colos. 2. SPOILED powers and principalities, and made A SHEVV of them openlie, TRIVMPHING ouer them in his owne person. That powers and principalities in this place doe signifie wicked and sinfull spirites there can bee no question; those names in the scriptures are proper to Angels, bee they good or badde; as Roman. 8 vers. 38. Ephes. 3. vers. 10. & 6. vers. 12. Colos. 1. vers. 16 1. Peter. 3. vers. 22. And heere must needes import euill Angels, because Christ had no cause to conquere or spoile the elect Angels, which serued him, and ministred vn­to him; but the badde that impugned his trueth, and enuied his glorie. Ouer those then Christ TRIVMPHED [Page 159] as a conquerer; those hee OPENLIE SHEVVED as cap­tiues bounde with chains; those he STRIPT OR SPOI­LED of the goodes which they had vnlawfullie gotten. And this the Apostle saith he did execute in his owne person, as a triumph fit for the sonne of God, 1. Cor. 15. all things being subiected vnder his feete, yea, 1. Peter. 3. Angels, powers, and mights subdued vnto him, when he ascended into heauen.

And though some late translators, to decline the des­cent of Christ to hell after death, doe imagine that the wic­ked Angels were CONQVERED, SHEVVED and SPOI­LED by Christ in his suffering the paines of hell on the crosse;On the crosse Christ obtai­ned his tri­umph, but he executed it at his resurrectiō and to that ende doe alter the ancient and constant reading of the text, putting in steade of [...] in his owne person, [...] in the same crosse; yet since both scriptures and fathers with one consent doe contradict that daun­gerous speculation, I maie not admitte it as consonant, either to the faith or truth of the Scriptures. For the conquest which Christ had ouer Satan and his King­dome, was not by RESISTING, much lesse by SVFFE­RING the assaults of hell. He is no conquerer that with much adoe saueth himselfe and his from the furie of his enemies; but hee that subdueth and treadeth his aduersa­ries vnder his féete, and so maistreth them, that hee may dis­pose of them at his will, he is truly called a conquerer. And since the Apostle saith, Christ SPOILED the powers of dark­nes, and made AN OPEN SHEVV of them, and TRIVM­PHED ouer them, it is an euident wrong to Christ to thinke that all the conquest hee had ouer them, was at length to REPELL them; & with mightie feares and cries TO SCAPE their force. Yea the redemption of mankind is altogither vncertain and vnsufficient, if our head being God and man, could doe no more but by long struggling wind himselfe out of Satans clawes. We must confesse an other kind of con­quest, before the kingdome of Christ can ouerrule all as it must; and his Church bee secure from the gates of hell; [Page 160] to wit, that Mat. 28. ALL POVVER in heauen and earth was giuen vnto him; that Philip. 2 EVERIE KNEE in heauen, and earth, and hell bowed vnto him; that he had and hath THE Reuel. 1. KEIES of death and OF HELL; and could Psal 2. RVLE his enemies with a rodde of yron, and breake them like a potters vessell; that by his death, hee Heq. 2. DESTROIED him, that was the ruler of death, euen the diuell. This conquest Christ purchased by his passion, but he did not execute it till his resurrection; other­wise he could not haue died, if death on the crosse had beene throughlie conquered. But hee was humbled and exinani­ted on the crosse, euen vnto death, that he might after in his resurrection bee exalted, and replenished with all honour, power, and principalitie, in heauen, earth and hell. Howbeit of the time VVHEN hee triumphed, wee shall afterwarde speake; we nowe obserue VVHAT hee did in his triumph o­uer hell and Satan; and by the Scriptures wee finde that Christ ENTERED Satans house, TIED him, and SPOILED his goodes; or as the Apostle expresseth it, hee SPOILED POVVERS & PRINCIPALITIES, MADE AN OPEN SHEVV of them, and TRIVMPHED OVER THEM IN HIS OVVNE PERSON.

And least I be thought to pretend an ancient and vniforme reading of Paules wordes in this place without iust proofe, let vs see what ancient fathers haue followed the same. The Siriacke translation of the newe Testament, which is of no small antiquitie, readeth Colos. 2. The fathers read in s [...]met­ipso in his own person, and those yt reade [...] applie it to Christ, & not to the crosse, saue onelie Occumenius. IN SEMETIPSO, IN HIS OVVNE PERSON, as I doe. So do Origen, in Epistola ad Romanos, lib. 5. cap. 5. Epiphanius in Anchorato, & contra Pneu­matomacheos haeres. 74. Chrysostome homili. 6. in 2. ca. ad Co­los. and Theodorete likewise in 2. cap. ad Colos. Of the Latine Fathers, in whome it maie better bee distinguished, the booke de Trinitate vnder Tertullians name, Augustine con­tra Faustum: lib. 16. cap. 29. & Epistola 59. a Hilarius de Trini­tate. lib. 1. & lib. 9. Fulgentius ad Thrasimundum. lib. 3. Hie­ronymus in cap. 2. ad Colos. Ambrose vpon the same place, [Page 161] Ruffinus in Symbolum Apostolicum, and so throughout the La­tine Church without anie dissenting. Onelie the Greeke collections vnder O [...]cumenius name, referre that triumph which saint Paul here speaketh of, to the Crosse, saying that Christ shamed and confounded the diuell on the crosse, in that he was openlie crucified in the eies of all the people.O [...]cumenius [...] 2. cap. ad [...]. And although I condemne not the sense as false, that Christ wrestled with Satan on the crosse, and euen there ouermai­stred his power, yet that Christ had no further or greater tri­umph ouer hell and Satan, then by dying on the crosse in the sight of men, doth vtterlie abolish the glorie of his resurrec­tion, and contradicteth the whole course of the scriptures. By his suffering and dying on the crosse; hee deserued and pur­chased the exaltation, and triumph which he had afterwards, when he rose from the dead; and euen before he died, he was fullie assured, that neither his soule should be left in hell, nor his flesh see corruption; but that God would raise him again, and giue him all power in heauen and earth; and make all knees in heauen, earth, and hell to bow vnto him, Christs resur­rectiō was a fa­more glorious triumph ouer Satan, then his passion was. and place him at his right hand in the brightnesse of eternall glorie. It may there­fore be confessed & beléeued, that Christ ouerthrew Satan on the crosse; and so triumphed in spirit against him, or had a spirituall triumph ouer him, as Dauid foretolde, when he said in the person of Christ; Mine heart was glad, and my tongue ioyfull, yea my flesh shall rest in hope; but that the glorie of his resurrection did not farre excell the shame of his passion, and that his rising from the deade was no more victorious and triumphant, then his yeelding him­selfe vnto death, is directlie repugnant to the truth of the scriptures. Though he were 2. Cor [...] CRVCIFIED THROVGH IN­FIRMITIE, yet liueth he (saith Paul) through THE POVVER of God. So that to die, euen in Christ, was infirmitie, though voluntarie; to liue againe as hee liueth in the height of celestiall glorie, was a cleare demonstration of the power of God in him.Rom [...] He was declared to be the son of God, [Page 166] in power by the resurrection from the dead. Insomuch that if Christ had died, and not risen againe, his conquest had not beene woorth the speaking of. 1. Cor. 15. If Christ bee not rai­sed, your faith is in vaine, saith Paule; and ye are yet in your sinnes. Christes death then without his resurrection had béene a full conquest of Satan ouer Christ, and all his members. That which Paule sayeth, is true, as well in Christ as in vs; [...] It is sowen in dishonour, it is raised in glorie; it is sowen in VVEAKENESSE, it is raised in power. Since then in the death and crosse of Christ the holie ghost noteth [...] Heb. 13. reproach, [...] Heb. 12. shame and weakenesse; wee do foulie erre, if wee ascribe no greater, nor other triumph to Christ ouer death and hell, then his crosse and passion. Luke. 24. These things, Christ was to suffer, and (so) to enter into his glorie; but we must make as great difference betwixt his dying, and his rising againe, as wee woulde betwixt his weakenesse and his power; his conflict, and his conquest; his depression, and his exaltation; his suffering in reproch, and his raigning in glorie.

For the better euidence whereof, you shall see the holie scriptures at large expresse the verie same parts, and the ve­rie same time, which I obserued vnto you. Phil. [...] Christ humbled himselfe, and became obedient vnto the death, The cause and [...]ne of christs triumph. euen the death of the crosse. WHEREFORE God also highly EXALTED him, and gaue him a name aboue euery name, that at the name of Iesus euery KNEE SHOVLD BOVV, of things IN HEAVEN IN EARTH, AND BENEATH THE EARTH. Under the earth are no reasonable creatures to kneele to Christs per­son and scepter, but the damned spirits and soules in hell, except we take holde of Purgatorie, or Limbus patrum; the elect in heauen doe willinglie serue him; such as liue on earth, doe endure his iustice or loue his mercie; the spirits beneath doe finde his truth, and feele his hand; the most aduerse acknowledge his name, and feare his force. This exaltation of Christ to raigne ouer heauen, earth and hell, [Page 163] came after his death, as being the rewarde and effect of his obedience vnto death. So saith the Apostle. He humbled himselfe, and became obedient to the death, euen the death of the Crosse. WHEREFORE (or for which cause) God high­lie exalted him, that in the name of Iesus all knees in hea­uen, earth and hell should bowe. Then on the crosse, or afore his death the time was not yet come, that Christ should be thus exalted; but there rather was the time and place of his humiliation; and when he rose againe, Math. [...]. all power in heauen and earth was giuen vnto him. Reuel. [...]. I was dead (saith hee him­selfe) and behold I am aliue for euermore; and I HAVE THE KEIES OF HELL AND OF DEATH; that is all power ouer death and hell, to Reuel. 3. shut and no man may open; to open, and no man may shut. The Prophet Esay pointeth to the verie same CAVSE and TIME of Christes exaltation. Esay. 5 [...] BE­CAVSE he hath powred out his soule vnto death: THERE­FORE will I giue him his portion with the great, and hee shall diuide the spoiles with the mightie. If FOR THAT CAVSE; then AFTER THAT TIME, Christ diuided the spoyles of the mightie; or (as the Apostle speaketh) hee spoyled powers and principalities. And noting exactlie the TIME of Christes triumph, the Apostle saith [...], ASCENDING ON HIGH, HE LED CAPTI­VITIE CAPTIVE. This that hee ascended, what mea­neth it, but that hee first descended into the lower Ephes. 4. partes of the earth? Christ did not leade captiuitie captiue, when hee descended into the lower partes of the earth, but when hee ascended from thence. The Diuels then which helde vs in captiuitie, were themselues leade captiue, when Christ ascended from the lower partes of the earth; and then were powers and principalities SPOILED, and openlie SHEVVED, Christ TRIVM­PHING OVER THEM, not on the Crosse at the time of his passion; but IN HIS OVVNE PERSON, at the time of his resurrection and ascension. [Page 164] An effect of this triumph is this, that an Angell was sent (in the Reuelation of Saint Iohn) from heauen hauing the key of the bottomlesse pit, and a great chaine in his hand. Reuel. 10. And hee tooke the Dragon that olde Serpent, which is the diuel & Satan, and bound him a thousand yeares. And cast him into the bot­tomles pit, and shut him vp, and sealed vpō him, that he should deceiue the people no more. If a messenger from Christ had this power ouer Satan, to binde him, and shut him vp, what commaund then had Christ himselfe ouer hell and Satan? And how wholesome and gladsome a thing is it for vs to be­léeue and confesse, that Christ Iesus our Lord and sauiour hath Satan, and all the pawers of hell chained at his will, and by his conquest ouer them so ruleth and restraineth them that they can not stirre but by his leaue and appoint­ment; and thus shall he hold them captiue, till hee deliuer the kingdome to God his father, and throughly tread both death and Satan vnder our feete. This doctrine I trust main­taineth no superstition, but sound and true religion, as well touching the partes, as the time of Christs conquest and tri­umph ouer death and hell.

It resteth now to search what part of Christ had this tri­umph ouer hell; for so much as Christ consisted of two na­tures, diuine, and humane;Christs man­hood must tri­umph and not his Godhead. & his manhood by death was then diuided into two places, the bodie being separate from the soule, and lying in the dust of the earth, but without corrup­tion. And first, we must not referre this triumph to his di­uine nature; by reason it was no maisterie for god to conquer his vassall. The [...] 3. seede of the woman must bruize the ser­pents heade, and not the maker of heauen and earth with his almightie power & maiestie. Besides the godhead of Christ coulde neither truly DESCEND, nor ASCEND; as be­ing euery where present; nor be EXALTED as being equall with the highest, nor RECEIVE GIFT, as hauing all fulnes in it: but that nature which led captiuity captiue, did first DESCEND into ye lower parts of the earth, & after ASCENDED, & was EXAL­TED, [Page 165] and RECEAVED this power and honour as a GIFT from God, in respect of his obedience, patience, and humilitie. The places are before alleaged, there is no néede to repeat them. It was then Christes humane nature, which God so highlie EXALTED for his former obedience vnto death, and to which all power was giuen in heauen and earth; his diuine was euer in euen degree with his father, full of maiestie, power and glorie. It is not to be neglected, that Ireneus saith, Irenaeus. lib. 3. cap. 20. Si homo non vicisset inimicum hominis, non iusté victus esset inimicus. If a man had not ouercome the enemy of man, the enemie had not lawfully beene ouercome. Which pro­portion of iustice the Apostle vrgeth, when he saith; as 1. Corinth. 15 by a man came death, so by a man came the resurrection of the dead. Since then the humane nature of Christ by condition might, and by desert must bee exalted aboue all creatures; and by the rule of iustice had the conquest of satan and his kingdome; it is no harde matter to discerne,And in his mā ­hood the soule, not the bodie, which lay dead in earth. which part of Christs manhood must ouerthrow death, and which must tri­umph ouer hell. The bodie of man, whiles the first death la­steth, is not due to hell; it must lie dead and senselesse in the earth; and so can neither liue, nor feele the paines of hell. Christes bodie then lying in the graue without SENSE, MO­TION, OR LIFE, could haue no conquest ouer hell; ouer death it had, being preserued in the graue without all corrup­tion; and raised from the deade to a blessed and immortall state without all imperfection: Ouer hel it had none, because that part of Christ which did conquere hel, must haue as well MOTION TO DESCEND thither, and POVVER TO RE­PRESSE there the rage of satā; as also LIFE AND SENSE TO SPOILE powers and principalities, and by leading them captiue to make an open shewe of them; from al which, the first death kept the bodie of Christ; till the time that his soule ascending with triumph from hell, tooke his body from death, and so made a perfect conquest ouer hell and death, not onlie for his owne person, to whome all power was giuen [Page 166] in heauen and earth, but for his members also, for whose sa­fety he tooke from Satan the keyes of hell, and of death, that he himselfe might be Rom. 14 Lord of the dead & the liuing. So that now the power of hell is destroied, and Satan restrained, and the faithfull freed from all feare, & assured that Matth. 16. the gates of hel shal not preuaile against them. And this is that victorie, which God threatened to death and hell by his prophet, say­ing: Osee. 13 I will redeeme them from THE POVVER OF HEL; I will deliuer them from death. O death I will be thy death: O HEL I VVIL BE THY DESTRVCTION; repentance is hid from mine eyes.

Whether Christs descēt to hel be writ­ten in the scrip­tu [...]es, or no.So agréeable is this doctrine to the christian faith, & so com­fortable to all the godly, that few would refuse it, except such as are waspishlie wedded to their owne fansies; if it might appeare where this is written in the scriptures. The which desire of religious mindes, whiles I labor to satisfie, I must forwarne them, how easie it is for cōtentious spirits to frus­trate the strength of all that God saith, if they may be suffe­red with diuerse significations, & figuratiue interpretations, to elude when they list, the words of the holie ghost, & decline the literall & proper sense of the diuine oracles as their plea­sures. This rule therefore must be helde throughout the scrip­tures, yt in mysteries of religion, we diuert not from the na­tiue & proper significations of the wordes, but when the letter impugneth the grounds of christian faith & charity. Otherwise we shal leaue nothing sound & sure in the word of God; if we may auoid al things by figures: that please not our humors. August. de doctri. Christia­na. lib. 3. c [...]p. 10. To this lesson, (saith Austen) whereby wee take heede not to interpret a figuratiue speach, as if it were proper; we must adde an other, that wee take not a proper speach, as if it were figuratiue. First then we must shewe the meane, how to finde out whether the speach bee figuratiue or proper. And this is the way to discerne them; Ibidem. vt quicquid in sermone diuino, ne­que ad morum honestatem, neque ad fidei veritatem proprie refer­ri potest, figuratum esse cognoseas; that whatsoeuer in the diuine [Page 167] scripture CANNOT PROPERLY be referred to the honestie of maners, or to the verity of faith, thou maist be sure it is FIGV­RATIVE. So long then as the proper sense of the scriptures may stand with the Analogy of faith, and direction of charity; we offer violence to the word of God, if wee wrest it to a fi­guratiue vnderstanding.

From this rule, (which must be obserued throughout the body of the scripture,) if we do not rashly slide; it is no harde matter to shew where Christes descent to hell is expreslie re­corded in the scriptures. The words are well known, & often alleaged, if men were not disposed to peruert, or elude them with their enigmaticall & allegoricall constructions. Psal. 16. Actes. 2 The words are plaine enough if we wrest thē not from thei [...] proper sense. Thou VVILT NOT FORSAKE MY SOVLE IN HELL, nor suffer thine holy one to see corruptiō. If Christs soule in hel were assisted with the glorious power and presence of God; ergo Christes soule VVAS in hel. And THERE it could not be, without DESCEN­DING THITHER. The descent then of Christes soule into hell, when it was seuered from the bodie, is apparantly witnessed in the scriptures, howsoeuer the diuers conceits of men doe diuersly expound it. To take the SOVLE for the CARCAS; & HEL for the GRAVE, (as some do) if it be not a wrested exposition, I am sure it is not the proper interpretation of the words; and therefore in mysteries of faith by no meanes to be admitted. To let the soule retaine her true signification, and by hell to meane paradise (where others defend the soule of Christ was al the time, that his bodie lay in the graue;) if it be not a mis­construction, it is no literall exposition of the place, and in my iudgement a verie strange kind of figure it is, to expresse Christs ascent into Paradise, by his descent into hell; & so to ex­pound the words of the Créed, that we draw them to a cleane contrary sense. If therefore we leane sorcing & wresting the words of the holy ghost, & let their proper & true signification stand, as wel ye words, as the circumstances wil exactly proue that ye soule of Christ after death DESCENDED INTO HEL. That this was performed after Christ was dead, and consequently [Page 168] when his soule was seuered from his bodie, there can bee no question, as I haue shewed before; for that Christ saieth, his flesh Psal. 16. SHAL LIE DOVVN (or take rest in the taberna­cle of his graue) IN HOPE that God VVIL NOT FOR­SAKE HIS SOVLE IN HEL; and in this hope Christ died: this assistance was therfore gi [...]en him after death. That his soule must be taken properlie for that part, which after death sawe the power and presence of God not forsaking him, as well the separation of the bodie,The soule must not be taken for the bodie, though man may be signifi­ [...]d by either. as fruition of Gods assis­tance do plainelie proue. Whiles we liue, the bodie or soule may rightlie import the whole man; but after death it is more then absurd to take the soule for the bodie, or the bodie for the soule: yea in men here liuing, wee must take héede that in matters of doctrine we mistake not the one for the o­ther. In matters of fact, to note the person by either part, can be no danger; but in their attributes and properties, to confounde them, is to leaue nothing certaine in christian religion. Tertullian saith truly. Tertullian. d [...] carne Christi. cap. 13. Certe peruersissimū, vt carnem nominantes animā intelligamus; & animam significantes, carnē interpretemur. Omnia periclitabuntur aliter accipi, quam sunt; & amittere quod sunt, dum aliter accipiuntur: si aliter, quam sunt, cognominantur. Fides nominum salus est proprietatum. It is most peruerse, that the flesh being named, wee should vnder­stande the soule, or the soule being signified, wee should inter­pret it for the flesh. All thinges shall be in danger to bee other­wise taken then they are, and to loose that they are, whiles they are mistaken, if wee call them by other names then their owne. The distinction of their names is the preseruation of their pro­perties. And yet in these words the case is cleèrer. For heere are both partes expressed and distinguished as well by their NATVRES, and PLACES, as by their NAMES. Christs soule was not forsaken in hell, but enioyed the glorious assistance of God, euen there, where God forsaketh all others: Christes flesh lying dead without sense in the graue, was there pre­serued from all corruption. For Dauid, saith Peter, Actes. 2. spake of [Page 169] Christs resurrection, that his SOVLE was not forsaken, (or left) in hel, nor his FLESH saw corruption. Tertullian. de carne Christi. cap. 13 Quum diuidit species, carnem & animam, duo oftendit, saith Tertullian. When (the scripture) deuideth the kindes, as the soule and the flesh, it no­teth two distinct things. Since then Peter doth not onlie so reporte, but so interpret Dauids wordes, that hee spake of Christs soule and Christs flesh; it is euident they must be two distinct and different thinges, both in Dauids prediction, and in Peters application.

Againe in these words is not comprised the generall state of the dead common to Christ with all other,The circumstances proue the words must be properly taken. but a speciall prerogatiue verified in none, but in the true Messias and Sauiour of the worlde. For neither of these was euer ac­complished in anie, but in Christ. Then as no flesh in the sepulchre was euer free from corruption, but onlie Christs; so no soule in hell was euer supported and assisted by God, and not forsaken, but onely Christes. If by hell, wee vn­derstand Paradise; it was no priuiledge to be there not forsa­ken, but rather a childish absurditie to thinke that any soule might there be forsaken; and so no cause for Christ so strong­ly to hope, and so greatly to reioice, that HIS SOVLE should not bee forsaken, where it was impossible, that anie soule should be forsaken: but this is rather a iust grounde of ex­ceeding ioie, if where all soules were forsaken of God, as in hell they are; there Christes soule should not be forsaken, but assisted with the might and maiestie of God, to breake the force, and tread the power of hell vnder his féet. And this prooueth Christes resurrection more stronglie, (for which cause Dauid spake it) then if wee applie the name of hell to the state of Paradise. For if Christ did rise againe without corruption, because his soule was not forsaken of God in Paradise; then all the soules that rise not in like maner, are forsaken of God, though they still remaine in the rest and cōfort of Paradise; which is a palpable falsity, if not impietie. But if neither the graue could corrupt his flesh, nor hell de­taine his soule; what better assurance could be brought of his [Page 170] resurrection, then that neither death could dissolue his bodie into dust, nor hell preuaile against his soule. And this I take to be S. Peters reason when hee saith to the Iewes: Actes. [...]. Iesus of Nazareth haue ye taken by the handes of the wicked, & crucifi­ed, and slaine: whom God raised againe, BREAKING THE SORROVVES OF DEATH, in as much as it was IMPOSSIBLE he should BE HELD THER OF. God made way for Christ to rise againe by BREAKING THE SORROVVES OF DEATH before him, that they should not hinder him. Christes bodie lying dead in the graue, & lacking sense could haue no sorrow. In Paradise a place of rest & ioie, if his soule were there, much lesse may we imagine any sorrow. Since then the sepulchre hath no SENSE where Christs flesh lay; & Paradise hath NO SORROVV; the SORROVVES OF DEATH must needes be referred to the paines of hel, which were all loosed and dissolued before Christ, because IT VVAS IMPOSSIBLE THEY SHOVLD TAKE HOLD OF HIM.

[But Peter, they will say, nameth the SORROVVES OF DEATH, and not of hell:] as if the name of death did not extende, as well to the Apoc. 2 SECOND DEATH, which is hell, as to the first,20. which is the dissolution of nature?21. and THE SORROVVES OF THE FIRST DEATH Christ apparant­ly suffered,Death is ei­ther the first or the second as much as any man; and they ended with death, they dured not after death. But in Peters words the sorrows of death were broken at Christs resurrection. God Ac [...]es. 3 raised him vp, loosing the sorrowes (or paines) of death. Wherefore the SORROVVES OF THE SECOND DEATH must necessarilie be vnderstoode; & those were all broken and dissolued before Christ, by reason his soule was not forsakē in hell, but vnited vnto God, & aided by the mighty hand of God, to tread vpon al the power of ye aduersary, & in his own person to triumph ouer Satan, and al the strength of the kingdom of darknes.

The word [...] by which S. Luke expresseth Da­ [...]ids meaning doth alwaies note hel in the new testamentLastly howsoeuer some presumers on their Hebrew may wrangle with the word Sheôl in Dauids speach, thou wilt not forsake my soule in hel: yet the worde [...], by which S. Luke expresseth Dauids meaning, doth properly import in the new [Page 171] testament the place of the damned. I remit poets & Pagans v­sing that word after their prophane imagination, to the alleagers; in what sense the Euangelists and Apostles take it, wil soone appeare by their writings. Matth. 16 Vpō this Rock (saith Christ) wil I build my church, & the gates [...] (of hel) shal not preuaile against it. The church doth not assure the godly, that they shall not die; but, that the gates of the Reuelat. [...] second death shal not hurt thē. When the merciles rich man died & was buried, as wee read in the gospel of S. Luke, ye scripture saith Luke. 16 [...], & being in hel, in TORMENTS, he lift vp his eies, and saw Abrahā a far off, & Lazarus in his bosome. I hope the soule of this rich man, was neither in the graue, nor in paradise, but plainelie IN HEL, euen in the Ibidem. ver. 23 PLACE OF TORMENTS, where no mercy can be shewed, nor release hoped for; and that place & state of the damned S. Luke calleth [...], and our Sauior expressing it, maketh the rich man most truly to saie;Ibidem. ver. 24 I AM TORMEN­TED IN THIS FLAME; S. Iohn in his Reuelation noting the co­herence of death and hell in the destruction of the wicked, saith.Reuel. 6. Behold, a pale horse, and his name, that sate thereon was death, & ( [...]) HEL FOLLOVVED AFTER HIM, and power was giuen THEM ouer the fourth part of ye earth. After death follow­eth none other death, but HEL, which is the second death, and yt as it commeth AFTER the death of the body; so is it distingui­shed from the death of the bodie, because it killeth the soule for euer; and that S. Iohn calleth [...]. He doth the like in the 20. chap. of the same booke. The Reuelat. 20 sea (saith he) gaue vp her dead, which were in her, & death & ( [...]) HEL deliuered vp her dead, that were in them, and death & ( [...]) HEL were cast into ye lake of fire, this is the second death. When our sauiour then saith, I haue ye keies of death, Reuel. [...] ( [...]) & of hel, he doth not onlie mean the graues of dead bodies are subiected to his power, but the place and paines of damned soules are likewise at his disposition. And when Paule saith;1. Corinth. 15 O death, where is thy sting ( [...]) ò hel where is thy victory? he teacheth vs that God hath giuen vs the victory ouer DEATH AND HEL, through our Lord Iesus Christ. That victorie Christ could not make [Page 172] vs partakers of, except hee had first triumphed ouer them both in his owne person. And that victorie Christ did foresee and foreshew, when he said to God, thou wilt not forsake my soule (g d="fo") in hell; (or leaue it to the power of hell;) but assist me there, and bring me thence with safetie and victory.

The church from the be­ginning hath confessed Christs de­scent to hell.If my collections were not allowed by the scriptures; the generall faith and confession of all the fathers in all ages and countries, since the first foundation of Christs church, should moue men that are modest, not hastelie to leape from the v­niuersall consent of al places, and persons grounding them­selues on the manifest words of the sacred scriptures. To quote them all, were to increase another volume; I will therefore content my selfe with shewing you, how soone it began, and howe long it continued in the church of Christ, to be receaued and beléeued as a matter of faith. Thaddaeus one of the 70. disciples, mentioned in the tenth of Luke, taught the citizens of Edessa, within ten yeares after Christs death, amongst other points of faith, as Eusebius reporteth, Euseb. ecclesi­a [...] [...]stor, lib. 1 cap. 13. Quomodo (Christus) crucifixus fuerit, & ad inferos descende­rit, sepemque illam antea nunquam diruptam sciderit; resurrexe­rit etiam, ac mortuos qui à seculo dormierant, vná excitauerit; & quomodo solus quidem descenderit, multâ vero turbâ comita­tus ad patrem ipsius ascenderit. Howe Christ was crucified, and descended into hell, and ouerthrew the wall, which was neuer before that time broken; and rose againe, and raised vp with him those yt had bin dead long before; & how he descēded alone, but ascended vp to his father with a great multitude. This report by some men is counted fabulous, for yt the letters sent to Christ and receaued from him by the ruler of that city, are no where remembred in the Euangelists: but by their leaues that rea­son is rather friuolous: for so much as S. Iohn saith; Iohn. 22 There are also many other thinges, which Iesus did, the which if they should be writtē euery one, I suppose the world could not con­taine the bookes, that should be written. Since then this is no sure ground to reiect a storie, for that it is not contained in [Page 173] the scriptures, I sée no cause either to preiudice the publike and ancient records of the citie of Edessa, remaining at that verie time when this report was made; or to mistrust the credite of Eusebius, as if he had impudentlie forged the olde monuments of that citie, where he might so easilie bee re­prooued. His words are. Euseb. ibid. Habes harum rerum testimonium scriptis comprehensum, & ex Grammatophylacio vrbis Edessae tunc regiae de sumptum. Nam in ipsis publicis chartis, quae res pris­ [...]as continent, ista ad hun [...] vs (que) diem ex eo tempore seruata repe­riuntur. Nihil autem impedit, quo minus literas ipsas, quae nobis ex Archiuis desumptae, & e Syrorum lingua his verbis translatae sunt, audiamus▪ Thou hast the testimonie of these thinges com­prised in writing, and taken out of the chamber of Edessa, that then was a princely Citie. For in the publike recordes, of things aunciently past, thus much is there extant TO THIS VERIE DAY, preserued from the time wherein these things were done▪ And I thinke it best to set downe the letters, which I my selfe COPIED out of the Authentick records, and TRANSLA­TED from the Syrian tongue in these wordes. How the report of a writer, yt is not canonical, should haue more credite then this hath, I know not. The records were auncient and pub­lique, and then extant to be viewed by euerie man, when Eusebius did exemplifie them. If wee discredite all an­tiquitie and testimonie which wee sée not with our owne eies; wee must looke to receiue the like rewarde from our posteritie. Ignatius that liued with, and after the Apostles, Ignatius [...]. in his Epistle to the Church of Trallis, conses­seth the same Article, almost in the same words. [...]. Christ descended into Hell alone, and returned (or rose againe) with a greate number, and brake downe the rampiere that had stoode from the beginning, and ouerthrewe the mid-wall thereof. Athanasius present at the great councell of Nice as a Cleargie man, though not then a Bishop, in his short recapitulation of the Ca­tholike faith, addeth this Article, as necessarie to be be­léeued [Page 174] of all Christians. As [...]anas. in Symbolo. Passus est pro salute nostra, descendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis: haec est fides Catholi­ca quam nisi quis firmiter fideliter (que) crediderit saluus esse non po­terit. Christ suffered for our saluation, descended into hell, rose a­gaine the third day from the dead. This is the Catholike faith, which except a man doe firmelie and fastlie beleeue he cannot bee saued. Saint Austen doth so presse it, that hee pronoun­ceth it infidelitie to denie it. August. epist. 99. Secundum animam (Christum) apud inferos fuisse aperté scriptura declarat, & per Prophetam praemissa, & per Apostolicum intellectum satis exposita, qua dic­tum est, non derelinques animam meam in inferno. That Christ according to his soule was in hell, the Scripture plainelie declareth, forespoken by the Prophet (Dauid) and suffi­cientlie expounded by the Apostles application, where it was saide, Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell. Ibidem [...] Quis er­go nisi infidelis negauerit fuisse apud inferos Christum? Who then but an infidell will denie, that Christ was in Hell? Hilarius maketh it a necessarie cause of our redemption. Hilarius de [...]rinitat. lib. 2, Crux, mors, inferi, salus nostra est. Christes Crosse, death, and beeing in Hell, are the meanes of our saluation. For as hee died that wee might liue, so hee went to hell by Hi­laries assertion, that wee might goe to heauen. Ibid. lib 3. Christus Dei filius moritur, sed omnis caro viuificatur in Christo. Dei filius in inferis est, sed homo refertur ad coelum. Christ the sonne of God dieth, but all flesh is quickened in Christ. The sonne of God is in Hell, but man is restored to Heauen. And least wee shoulde thinke that Hilarie dreamed of Christes suffering hell paines on the Crosse, as some haue alledged him; his wordes are plaine else where, that Christs soule after death descended into hell. Hilarius in Psal. 138. Humanae istae lex necessitatis est, vt sepultis corporibus ad inferos animae des­cendant. Quam descensionem, Dominus ad consummatio­nem veri hominis non recusauit. This is the lawe of mans miserie, that their bodies goe to the graue, their soules to hell: WHICH DESCENT the Lorde did not refuse, to [Page 175] prooue himselfe in euerie point to bee a true man. This ne­cessitie was the wages of mans sinne; the strength where­of coulde none abolish but onelie Christ. Idem de trinit▪ lib. 4. Hic vnus est, [...]d­uersantes nobis ini [...]icasque virtutes ligno passionis affigens, mor­tem in inferno perimens, spei nostrae fidem resurrectione confir­mans, corruptionem humanae carnis gloria corporis sui perimens. Christ alone was hee that fastened to the wood of his passion the powers which were aduersaries and enemies to vs; that vanquished death euen in hell; that confirmed the stedfast­nes [...]e of our hope with his resurrection, and abolished the corruption of mans flesh with the glorie of his bodie. Leo likewise. Leo de res [...] domini, serm [...] [...] Resurrectio saluatoris, nec animam in infer­no, nec carnem diu morata est in sepulchro; quoniam deitas, quae ab vtraque suscepti hominis substantia non recessit, quod po­testate diuisit, potestate coniunxit. The resurrection of our Sa­uiour neither stayed his soule long in hell, nor his flesh in the graue; because his Godhead which did not depart from either part of his manhoode, mightilie conioyned, what it mightilie seuered.

But no man hath more pishilie, or more soundlie deliuered the full course, and cause of Christes descent to Hell, then Fulgentius; which I muste repeate at large, because euerie woorde is woorth the marking. Tulgentius de passione domini ad Trasim. lib. 3 Restabat ad plenum nostrae redemptionis effectum, vt il­luc vsque homo sine peccato. à Deo susceptus descenderet, quo­usque homo separatus à Deo peccati merito cecidisset: id est ad infer [...]um, vbi solebat peccatoris anima torqueri, & ad sepulchrum, vbi consueuerat peccatoris caro corrumpi: sic ta­men, vt nec Christi caro in sepulchro corrumperetur, nec in­ferni doloribus anima torqueretur. Quoniam anima immunis à peccato non erat subdenda supplicio, & carnem sine peccato non debuit vitiare corruptio. Nam quia peceans homo me­ [...]uit in seipso per supplicium diuidi, quia maluit à Deo praeuarica­tionis reatu disiungi, propterea factum est, vt peccatoris mors [...]arnem peccati ad sepulchrum corrumpendam perduceret, ani­mam [Page 176] inferno torquendam protinus manciparet. Vt autem pec­cator fuisset gratuito munere liberatus, factum est, vt mortens corporis, quam à Deo iusto peccator homo pertulerat iusté, Deifilius a peccatore pateretur iniuste: & ad sepulchrum per­veniret caro iusti, quousque fuerat caro deuoluta peccati: & vs (que) ad infernum descenderet anima saluatoris, vbi peccatimerito tor­quebatur anima peccatoris. Hoc autem ideo factum est, vt per morientem temporaliter carnem iusti, donaretur vita aeterna car­ni: & per descendentem ad infernum animam iusti, dolores solue­rentur inferni. It remained for the full effecting of our redemp­tion, that man assumed of God without sinne, shoulde thither descend, whither man seuered from God fell by desert of sinne: that is, vnto hell, where the soule of the sinner was woont to bee tormented, and to the graue, where the flesh of the sinner was woont to bee corrupted; yet so, that neither Christes flesh shoulde bee corrupted in the graue, nor his soule bee tormented with the paines of hell; because the soule free from sinne was not to be subiected to that punishment, nor flesh cleane from the contagion of sinne shoulde suffer corruption. In so much as man sinning deserued by punish­ment to bee seuered from himselfe, who by his transgression woulde needes bee seuered from God, therefore it was appoin­ted that the death of the sinner should bring his sinfull flesh to the graue, there to rotte; and presentlie should send his soule to hell, there to be tormented. But when the sinner by the gift of (Gods) grace, was to bee deliuered; it was proui­ded, that the sonne of God should vniustlie suffer at the hands of sinners the death of the bodie, which sinfull man had iustlie beene wrapped in by the iustice of God, and the flesh of the iust should come to the graue, whither sinfull flesh was tum­bled: and that the SOVLE OF OVR SAVIOVR SHOVLD DESCEND TO HELL, VVHERE THE SINFVLL SOVL [...] VVAS TORMENTED FOR THE REVVARD OF SINNE. This was therefore done, that by the flesh of the iust temporally dying, eternall life might be giuen to (our) flesh, and by the soule [Page 177] of the iust descending to hell, the torments of hell might be abo­lished.

Out of Fulgentius I obserue two things; which if it please men to marke, they shall cleare themselues from all absur­dities touching Christs descent to hell. The first is, THE PLACE, VVHITHER he desended; the next is, THE CAVSE, VVHY he descended. The place whither hee descended was hell; whither the soule of man sinning against God was adiudged for the wages of his transg [...]ession. The cause of his descent, was to free all the faithfull from the begin­ning of the world to the ende thereof from comming thi­ther. And in both these, the Scriptures and fathers doe ful­lie concurre; though some auncient writers doe swarue, and striue about Christes deliuering some from hell, that were there at the time of his descent, as they suppose. Which varietie and vncertaintie of opinions concerning the state of the deade before Christes comming hath verie much en­tangled this question, and induced manie men of learning and iudgement otherwise, to reiect. Christs descent to hell as a fable, or to wrest it to an other sense, with newe founde expositions. Howbeit I see no cause, but the doctrine of the Scriptures confessed by all the fathers may stande verie cleare, whatsoeuer we resolue of this other assertion, tou­ching the state of the righteous departed this life before Christs death. I will therefore shortly discusse both the place and the cause, and so draw to an end.

As for the place whither Christ descended, the Church of Rome gréedily hunteth after it, to heare of her Purgatorie; hoping, whence the soules of the righteous were by Christ deliuered, there to make a stand for soules, not perfectlie con­fessed and absolued in this life; that she maie set to sale her praiers and pardons. But if shee follow Christ descen­ding,Christ descen­ded to ye place of the damned. her deuotion must reach to the place and paines of the damned, for thither Christ descended. And so by their leaues both Scriptures and fathers auouch. First the [Page 178] wordes are plaine, and must bee proper, as well in the Act. 8. Ca­non as in theSymbol. [...]post. Créed. Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hell: and Symbol. [...]post. he descended into hell. Againe the kingdom of Satan con­sisteth of these three; SINNE, DEATH, and HELL: SINNE RAIGNING, whiles the bodie and soule are ioined togither; DEATH SEVERING them both, and TVRNING the bodie to earth; HELL RECEIVING and TORMEN­TING the soule, till the daie of iudgement, when bodie and soule shall for euer bee cast into hell fire. If these three bee not abolished by Christ, Satans kingdome is not destroyed by Christ; and speciallie if hell bee not vanquished; no part of our saluation is performed. The woorke of sinne is sweete, if the wages were not sower, which is hell fire. To raise our bodies from death, is no fauour, if Hell bee not ouerthrowen; it were more easie for them to lie in dust, then to burne in hell. Howe hath Christ restored vs to Heauen, if hee haue not yet freed vs from Hell? Or brought vs to God, if he haue not yet taken vs from Satan? Wherefore either Hell must bee destroyed, or wee are no waie redeemed, And in all these, when I speake of Hell, I speake of the place of the damned. For if the feare of damna­tion continue, what hope of saluation can wee con­ceiue? But the Apostle saieth plainlie, that Christ through death Heb 2. DESTROIED HIM, that had power of death, euen the DIVELL; and DELIVERED ALL them which for feare of death were all their life time subiect to seruitude. If the DIVELL bee DESTROIED, To destroy the diuell, and to deliuer man. then Hell is fullie conquered; for whiles that retaineth force against the faithfull, the Diuell is in the height of his kingdome. Neither is death to bee feared at all, but in respect of hell following after death. If then all the Saintes heere on earth be Heb. 2. DELIVERED FROM THE FEARE OF DEATH, and Luke [...] from the handes of all that hate (them) to serue (God) without feare all the dayes of their [Page 179] life, in holinesse and righteousnesse before him; it is eui­dent that hell is spoyled of all right and claime to the members of Christ, by reason our heade beeing there in our names, and for our sinnes, brake the strength of hell, abolished the power, and loosed the sorrowes and paines thereof; that they shoulde not take holde on him, nor euer after on anie of his. For as hee suffered and died, not for his owne sake, but for ours; so hee descen­ded and loosed the sorrowes of death and hell, not as pro­uided for him, but for vs. And since to our sinnes was due damnation, and no lesser or easier punishment; it was requisite that Christ shoulde thither descende, and by dis­soluing the wages of our sinne in his owne person, thence deliuer vs; though not there tormented, yet thither ad­iudged, and so release vs, not as beeing there, but from comming thither.

Touching the place, Thaddaeus one of the seuentie taught, as wee heard out of Eusebius, that Christ des­cended into hell;Whither christ descended af­ter death. and brake the wall that was neuer be­fore broken. From the deade manie rose before Christes death, and therefore the partition betwixt death and life was often broken by others, before Christes resurrec­tion; but from hell neuer returned anie, but onelye Christ; by reason that wall was neuer broken, but by the Sonne of GOD. Athanas de salutari aduento [...] Christi. Athanasius in like sorte. In suae ad nostri similitudinem forma, nostram inibi depingens mor­tem, vt in ea resurrectionem pro nobis concinnaret, ex sepulchro quidē corpus, animam vero ex ORCO reducem faceret, vt in morte mortem dissolueret per exhibitionem animae, & per sepul­chrum corporis in sepulchro, corruptionem aboleret; ex orco verò & sepulchro immortalitatem & incorruptionem osten­dit, in forma nobis consimili viam nostram emensus, nostram­que detentionem relaxans, & hoc ipsum eximij miraculi fuit. In his likenesse to our nature (Christe) accom­plishing our death, that in the same hee might perform his [Page 180] resurrection for vs', brought his BODIE OVT OF THE GRAVE, & his SOVLE OVT OF HEL; that in death he might dissolue death by presenting his soule there, and by the buriall of his bodie, he might abolish corruption in the graue. So that euen from hell, and from the graue, hee shewed immortalitie (of the soule) and incorruption (of the body) treading the verie way that we should haue trod, in the likenesse of our nature, and relea­sing of our detention. And this was a marueilous wonder. When Athanasius saith, that Christ in his humane nature trodde the verie same way of death that wee should haue done; his bodie and soule going to those very places whither ours should haue gone; he doth not mean the place of rest, where ye soules of the righteous were before Christs comming; but the place whither the souls of men were condemned for the sin of their first father; which is not Paradise, nor Abrahams bosome, but the place of the damned, where the true death of the soule and wages of sin are by Gods iustice inflicted. Heare his owne words.Athanas. de in­carnatione Christi. Vbi corruptum fuerat humanum corpus, eó suum corpus protecit Iesus: & vbitenebatur anima humana in morte, ibi exhi­buit humanam suam animam, vt ipse inuictus à morte, tanquam hominem se praesentem ostenderet, & solueret catenas mor­tis vt Deus; vt vbi seminata fuerat corruptio, inde exoriretur incorruptibilitas; & VBI REGNAVERAT MORS IN FOR­MA HVMANAE ANIMAE, ibi ipse ille mortalis praesens, immor­talitatem exhiberet, at (que) ita NOS PARTICIPES redderet suae incorruptibilitatis, & immortalitatis per spem resurrectionis ex mortuis. Where the bodie of man vsed to rot, thither Iesus cast his body: and VVHERE THE SOVLE OF MAN VVAS HELD IN DEATH, there did he exhibite his humane soule; that hee being in no wise to bee conquered by death, might both shewe him­selfe there present as man; and yet break the chaines of death as God; that where corruption was sowed, thence incorruption might rise (euen from the graue;) & where death raigned ouer mens soules (which must néedes be in hell) there he being pre­sent as a mortall man, might demonstrate his immortalitie, and [Page 181] so make vs partakers, of his incorruption (in flesh,) and im­mortalitie (in soule) by the hope of resurrection from the dead.

And because Hilarius and Fulgentius doe so fullie concurre with Athanasius, Athanasius a­greeth in this point with Hi­lary and Fulgen­tius. that if we trulie conceiue the one, we shall easilie vnderstand the other; you shall see the same doctrine, which the other two follow, more fullie deliuered by Athana­sius. Athanas. ibid [...]. Quide Adae inobedientia quaestionem habuit, indicioque peracto duplicem paenam in sententia sua complexus erat, dum rei terrestri italoquitur, Terraes, & in terram reuerteris, (at que ita pro decreto, domini corpus in terram abscedit;) animae dixit, morte morieris; at (que) hinc est, quod homo in duas partes discerpitur, et vt ad duo loca discedat, condemnatur. Ac proinde upos fuit illo ipso iudice, qui hoc decretū tulerat, vt ipse per se sententiā solueret sub specie condēnati, incondēnatū se sincerūque a peccatis ostēdens, vt hominem deo reconciliaret, hominemque totum in libertatem vindicaret. I am si mihi alium locum condemnationis praeter hos duos ostendere potestis, merito hominem dixeritis tripliciter diui­di. Quod si tertium aliquem locum ostender [...] non potestis, PRAE­TER SEPVLCHRVM ET INFERNVM, ex quibus plané ereptus est homo Christo assertore, per suam speciem cum nostri similitudine congruentem; cur igitur dicitis, deum nondum propi­tiatum esse? Hee that examined Adams disobedience, and in the ende of his iudgement comprised in his sentence (against Adam) a double punishment; speaking thus to the terrestriall part (of man,) earth thou art, aad to earth shalt thou returne; and according to this decree, the Lords body was laid in earth; euen he said to the soule, thou shalt die the death; and thereup­on man (dying) is distracted in two partes, and condemned to two places. Insomuch that it was requisite, the verie same iudge, which pronounced this decree, should by himselfe dissolue this sentence in the shew of a man condemned, but yet prouing him selfe to be vncondemned, and cleere from sinne, that he might reconcile man to God, and reduce the whole man to libertie. Nowe if you can name me any other place, whereto man was condemned besides these two, rightly may you thinke man [Page 182] (after death) is to be deuided into three (places;) but if you can shewe me no third place, besides the graue, (for the bodie) and hell, (for the soule,) from both which man is fullie freed, Christ deliuering him with like parts of himselfe answerable to our na­ture, how say you then, that God is not yet satisfied? The whole man in Adam was in such sort condemned for sinne, that his bodie returned to corruption in the earth, and his soule departed to tormentes in hell, which is the death of the soule after this life. To the verie same places whither man was condemned, & in the same partes of our nature, the sonne of GOD vouchsafed to descende, that by the ly­ing of his bodie in the earth, our bodies might at the last daie bee raised out of the earth; and by the presence of his soule in hell, on which the force of hell coulde not fasten, our soules might for euer be deliuered from comming thither.

This condemnation of the bodie to the graue, and of the soule to hell for sinne, is that Hilar. in Psal. 138. law of humane necessity, which Hilary speaketh of, wherto the Lord Iesus submitted himself; not that his flesh should sée corruption, or his soule tast of dā ­natiō, but yt by the presence of his body in the graue, & of his soule in hell he might shew himselfe inuincible to both, and so deliuer vs from both. Hilar. de tri­ [...]ta [...]. lib. 3 The archangels, powers, and princi­palities (in heauen) doe with vnceasing and euerlasting voices glorifie the sonne of God (saith Hilary) quia homo natus sit, mor­tem vicerit, portas Inferni fregerit, cohaeredē sibi plebē acquisiue­rit, carnem in aeternitatis gloriam ex corruptione transtulerit; be­cause he became man, vanquished death, brake the gates of hel, purchased vnto himselfe a people to inherit with him, and tran­slated his flesh frō corruptiō to eternal glory. These two places the graue & hel, wherto sinners were adiudged to haue their bodies in the one to be corrupted, their soules in the other to be tormented, Fulgentius doth expresly pursue; as his wordes before do plainly testifie; and resolutelie concludeth, that Christs manhood for the ful effecting of our redemption must SO FAR DESCEND, Pulgen [...]. vt [...]. quousque homo separatus à deo peccati [Page 183] merito cecidisset; HOVV FAR MAN SEVERED FROM GOD, FEL BY THE DESERT OF SINNE; THAT IS, TO HELL, VVHERE THE SOVLE OF THE SINNER VSED TO BE TORMENTED, and to the graue where the FLESH OF THE SINNER vsed to putrifie. Nowe if anie man thinke the soule of man seuered from God, did not for the wages of sinne deserue the place and paines of the damned, he had more néede bee catechised then confuted. For since without repentance men Luke. 13. perish in their sinnes; and Ezech. 18 the soule that sinneth, that soule shall die; the death of the soule after this life is no where but in hell, where bodie & soule do perish euerlastinglie. With these someth Saint Au­sten as touching the place. Si in illum Abrabae sinum Chri­stum mortuum venisse sancta scriptura dixisset, August. epi. 99 non nomina­to inferno eiusque doloribus; miror si quisquam ad inferos eum descendisse asserere auderet. Sed quia euidentia testimonia & infernum commemorant & dolores, nulla causa occurrit, cur illô credatur venisse saluator, nisi vt ab eius doloribus saluos faceret. If the holie Scripture had saide, that Christ after his death came to Abrahams bosome, and not mentioned hell and the paynes thereof, I maruaile if anie woulde haue beene so bolde, as to haue auouched that Christ descended into hel. But for that euident testimonies do name hel, and the paines (of hel) I yet see no cause, why our Sauiour should bee beleeued to haue come thither, but to deliuer frō the paines thereof. Wherefore when the scriptures teach vs, yt Christs soule was in hell; wee must not by hel mean Abrahams bosome, or Paradise, but ye very place of the damned, where the soules of sinners are tor­mented. For Christ to redeeme man that was condemned for sinne, descended as lowe, as man fell by the punishment of sinne in this life or the nexte, and fet vs backe from the sentence of death pronounced against vs, by presenting himselfe in our stéede to the verie places, that were prepared to reuenge our transgressions: his flesh resisting the pow­er of the graue, and his soule repressing and breaking the [Page 184] paines of hell, that neither shoulde bee able to hinder the spéede of his resurrection, or weaken the worke of our re­demption.

As the place whither Christ descended, is expresly named in the scriptures to be hell, and [...], where the wicked are euerlastinglie tormented;The ende of Christs descēt to hell, was the destruction of Satan, and de­liuerance of man. so the purpose of his descent is plainelie professed in the same, to bee the spoiling of Satan, and deliuering of man from the power of hell. And these two are so linked together, that the one is alwaies included in the other; Christ entring Satans house to this ende, that he might diuide the spoiles. First then let vs see, what the scrip­tures say of mans deliuerance from the hande of Satan; and afterward heare what some of the ancient writers haue thereto added, or therein doubted. The promise made in the prophet Esay, that God Esay. 25 will destroie death for euer, and like­wise in the prophet Osee; Osee. 13 I will redeeme them from the pow­er of hell; I will deliuer them from death; ô death I will be thy death, ô hell I will bee thy destruction: was not peculiar to this or that age, nor proper to those that were alreadie dead, or then borne when this was spoken; but generall to all the faithfull from the beginning to the ende; whereby God assureth them, that Osee. 13 hell shall bee destroied, and Rom. 16 Satan tro­den vnder feete, and 1. Corinth. 15 death swallowed vp in victorie. Zachary Iohn Baptistes father is the best expositor of all these promi­ses, when he saith. Luke. 1 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, because he hath visited, and redeemed his people. And hath raised vp an horne of saluation for vs, in the house of his seruant Dauid, (as he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which were from the beginning) euen saluation from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate vs. (Which was) the othe, that hee sware to our father Abraham, that he would cause vs; being deliuered out of the hande of our enemies, to serue him without feare in holinesse and righteousnesse before him all the daies of our life. The saluation which God hath wrought for vs in Christ, doth not frée vs from afflictions and troubles, since 2. Tim. 3 all that will [Page 185] liue godly in Christ Iesus shall suffer persecution; but it bring­eth vs DELIVERANCE FROM OVR (ghostly) ENEMIES; & saueth vs from the hand of al that hate (our soules); that be­ing quieted from their power and feare, we should serue God in holines all the time of our life. And albeit in this life, our eies Actes▪ 26 are opened, that we may turne from darkenesse to light, and from the power of Satan, to God; and receaue forgiuenesse of sinnes, and inheritance amongst them, which are sanctified by faith in Christ [...] yet the feare of death is not taken from vs, till we be assured, that hell is conquered; and no cause lefte why we should tremble at death, that now is an entrance to a better life.

DELIVERANCE then,Deliuerance was performed as well to the liuing and vn­borne, as to the deade. FROM THE HAND OF ALL that hate vs, (which Christ hath purchased for vs,) hath in it not onelie remission of sinnes, and resurrection from death, but also the destruction of Satan: whereby God acquiteth vs from the power of darkenesse, that is, from the feare of hell in this life, and from the danger thereof in the next, and fully tran­slateth vs into the kingdome of his deere sonne; and this deli­uerance belongeth to all the members of Christ without ex­ception, as well liuing, as yet vnborne. Christ (saith the A­postle) through death Hebre. 2 destroied him, that had power of death, euen the diuell, and DELIVERED ALL THEM, which for feare of death were al their life long subiect to bondage. If ALL BE DELIVERED, that were oppressed with the feare of death, then surelie the liuing must néeds be discharged from the bondage of Satan; and redemption from the power of hell, which God promised vnto his seruantes, was not pro­per to anie that were in hell at the time of Christes descent, but it was, and is extended to all the faithfull before and after Christs comming, that in this life they should be secured, & in the next saued from him, that had the power of death, and from the gates of hell. Fulgentius teacheth this doctrine as Catholicke. Fulgent. ad Trasimundum. lib. 3. Sicut mortuus pro nobis, omnes nos sibi commori fecit; sic solutis doloribus inferni, omnes fideles ab ysdem doloribus [Page 186] liberauit. As (Christ) dying for vs, made vs all to die with him; so dissoluing the paines of hell, he DELIVERED ALL THE FAITHFVLL from the same. As all the godlie, that euer were, are, or shall be, died in Christes flesh vnto sinne; so all the faithfull from the beginning of the world to the end ther­of were deliuered from the paines of hell, by the presence and power of Christs soule breaking the strength, and loosing the sorrowes of death euen in hell. And therefore hee saith, Christ called himselfe free among the dead, Ibidem. vt ostenderet ani­mam suam à peccato liberam, in infernum pro NOBIS PECCA­TORIBVS DESCENDISSE, to shew that his soule clecre frō sinne descended into hel FOR VS SINNERS. So that Christ descended to hell FOR ALL THE FAITHFVL, and FOR VS SINNERS, to deliuer them and vs from the sorrowes of the second death; and not for certaine whom he found in hell, when he came thither.

Hilarius ioyneth in the same confession, that Christ De trinitat. 1. 4 killing death in hell, confirmed the faith OF OVR HOPE with his resurrection: Ibidem. lib. 3 and breaking the gates of hell, purchased a people that shoulde inherite with him. Athanasius euerie where treadeth the same steppes; teaching vs that Christ Athanas. de sa­lutari aduentu Christi. perfited his resurrection FOR VS, and out of hell and the graue brought immortalitie and incorruption, releasing OVR DETENTION. And againe, Christ Idem de incar­nat, Christi. brake the chaines of death as God, that where death raigned ouer mens soules, there he being present as a man might demonstrate immortali­tie (in his soule) and so MAKE VS PARTAKERS of his in­corruption. And lastlie, where death both of soule and bodie was inflicted on man for sinne, the one in the graue, the other in hell; Ibidem. hee that gaue the iudgement, dissolued the sen­tence in his owne person, vnder the shewe of a man condem­ned; but in deede vncondemned, and free from sinne, that hee might reconcile MAN to God, and bring THE VVHOLE MAN into libertie. FROM THE GRAVE THEN, AND FROM HEL MAN VVAS FREED CHRIST DELIVE­RING HIM.

[Page 187]And least it should séeme strange,We are deliue­red, not from being in hell but from com­ming thither. that our soules were de­liuered from hel [...]y Christs descent thither, where they neuer were; S. Austen expounding Dauids words,Psal. 85. Thou hast deli­uered my soule frō the nethermost hell, sheweth that men may bee deliuered as well from DANGERS CONSEQVENT as PRESENT; and as well from that which is DESER­VED, as from that which is INFLICTED. And first yt Christ deliuered OVR SOVLES from hell by his comming thither (though we were not there) his words are plaine.August. in Psal. 85. Est aliud (infernum) inferius, quò eunt mortui: vnde voluit deus eruere A­NIMAS NOSTRAS, etiam illuc mittendo filium suum. Prop­terea vox eius est in illo psalmo, non quoquam homine conijciente, sed Apostolo exponente, vbi ait: quoniā non dereliquisti animam meā in inferno. Ergo aut ipsius vox est hic, et eruisti animā meane ab inferno inferiori, aut nostra vox est per ipsum christū dominū nostrū, quia ideo ille peruenit vs (que) ad infernū, ne NOS REMA­NEREMVS in inferno. There is a lower hel, whither ye dead go; whēce it pleased God to deliuer OVR SOVLES, by sending his son thither. Therfore those are Christs words in ye psalme, not by mās coniecture, but by the Apostles exposition, where he saith; y hast not left my soule in hel. So yt this verse, Thou hast deliuered my soule frō the nethermost hel, is either the voice of Christ in this psalm, or it is our voice in the person of Christ our Lord, because he therefore went to hell, LEAST VVE SHOVLD ABIDE (for euer) IN HEL. And to proue this speach to be vsuall yt we are deliue­red from the dangers & places in which we neuer were, but should haue bin, if wee had not bin saued thence; hee addeth. Ibidem▪ Recte dicis medico, liberasti me ab agritudine, non in quaiā eras, sed in qua futurus eras. Mittendus erat (quis) in carcerem: venit alius defendit eum; gratias agens, quid dicit? eruisti animam meam de carcere. Suspendendus erat debitor; solutum est de­bitum pro eo; liberatus dicitur de suspendio. In his omnibus non orant, sed quia talibus meritis agebantur, vt, nisi subuentum esset, ibi essent, inde se recte dicunt liberari, quò per libera­tores suos non sunt permissi perduci. Thou sayest rightlie to [Page 188] thy physitiā, you haue deliuered me frō this sicknes, not in which thou wast, but into which thou wast like to fall. A man is about to be cast into prison; another commeth and rescueth him. What saith he when he giueth thanks? you deliuered me out of prison. A debtor was in danger to be hanged; the debt is paid for him, he is said to be deliuered from hanging. In all these things, they were not; but because such were their desertes, that vnlesse they had beene holpen, they had fallen into them, THEY RIGHT­LY MAY SAY THEY VVERE DELIVERED thence, VVHITHER THEY VVERE NOT SVFFERED TO COME, by those that deliuered them. Tertullian declining to Montanisme in his booke de anima, and defending the soules of al the faithful after Christs comming to be kept, apud In­feros, in the region of hell till the daie of iudgement, saue of martyrs, to whome onely he opened Paradise, confess [...]th the other side, which in deed were true christians, made this obiection against him. Tertullian. de anima. cap. 55 Sed in hoc, inquiunt, Christus inferos adijt, ne nos adiremus. Caeterum quod discrimen ethnicorum & christianorum, ficarcer mortuis idem? But to this end, they say, Christ went to hell, that we should not come thither. For what difference between the Ethnickes and Christians, if after death they be both in one prison? So that in all ages this doctrine was preserued in the church, which the scriptures doe war­rant, that Christ by his death destroied the deuil, and deliuered all the godlie from the feare, not of the first death, which they cannot auoide, and néed not to feare; but of the second death in hell, which is iustlie to be feared, and can no way be pre­uented, but by the power of that redemption, which we haue in Christ Iesus.

Where the soules of the righteous were before Christs comming, is nothing to this question.[But all the fathers with one consent affirme, that Christ deliuered the soules of the patriarks & prophets out of hel, at his comming thither; and so spoiled Satan of those, yt were in his present possession.] The doctrin of Christs descending into hel to saue al his mēbers from cōming thither, must not be confounded with this disputation, whether ye soules of the [Page 189] prophets and Patriarks were before Christs resurrection in hell or no; but what soeuer we determine or imagine of this later question, the other position standeth vncontrolled, both by Scriptures and fathers: yet for their sakes, that happilie maie stumble at this blocke, I will not refraine to speake what I thinke of this assertion; so as I bee first allowed to say with saint Austen. August. in psal. 85. Quod dicimus fratres; hoc si non vobis tanquam certus exposuero, ne succenseatis. Homo enim sum, & quantum conceditur de scripturis sanctis, tantum audeo dicere, ni­hil ex me. Infernum nec ego expertus sum adhuc, nec vos; & for­tassis alia via erit, & non per infernum erit. Incerta sunt enim haec. That which (in this question) I say brethren, if I can not auouch it as certaine, you must not bee offended. I am but a man, and what I am assured by the Scriptures, that I dare affirme, and of my selfe nothing. Hell neither I haue yet experience of, neither you; and perchance there shall bee another way, and by hell it shall not bee. For these thinges are altogither vncertaine. The thinges after this life God will not haue particularlie knowne vnto vs, whiles here wee liue; and therefore to make sodaine resolutions of them, can haue neither certaintie nor safetie; yet so much as the scrip­tures reueale, we must necessarilie beléeue, and may boldlie professe without anie danger.

Touching the state of the dead in the olde Testament, I see a number of auncient writers incline to this conclu­sion, that the soules of the righteous before Christes death and descent were in hell;The reason why the fathers thought they were in hell. but as the foundation of their o­pinion is verie weake, so the consequents are plainlie con­tradicted, both by Scriptures and fathers. This assertion first grewe from the confession of the Patriarkes and Pro­phets, that they must after this life, DESCEND TO SHE­OL; which the Septuagint doe alwayes expresse by the worde [...], and the Latine interpreter, by Infernus; where­vpon the fathers both Greeke and Latin supposed the saints in the old Testament departing hence DESCENDED TO [Page 190] HELL; But the signification of the worde Sheôl is so mani­festlie mistaken, that it is nowe no great masterie to finde the foile. When Iacob saith,Gen. 37. I will go downe TO SHEOL mour­ning to my sonne; and againe, Gen. 42. You will bring my gray haires with sorrow vnto Sheôl; and likewise Iob; Iob. 17. Sheôl is my house; oh that thou wouldest hide me Iob. 14. in Sheôl till thine anger were past; as also Dauid, Psal. 89. what man liueth, that shall deliuer his soule from the hand of Sheôl? And lastly Esai. 38. Ezechias, I shal go to the gates of Sheôl: If by Sheôl in these places wee vn­derstand hell, as some Greeke and Latine interpreters and writers haue done; we must needes confesse the faithfull dy­ing in the former Testament descended into hell; but if wee take Sheôl for the graue, where life endeth and the bo­die lieth; then make they no kind of proofe, that the soules of the godly before Christs comming, were in hel, but only that their bodies were in the graue; of which there was neuer any question amongst christians or pagans.

Nowe that Sheôl in the Scriptures noteth as well the graue where mens bodies putrifie,Sheôl signifi­eth as well the graue as hell. as she place where the soules of the wicked are after this life detained and puni­shed, to him that considereth the circumstances of these and other such places, will soone appeare. The words of king Ezechiah at large are these. Esay. 38. I said in the cutting off of my daies, I shall goe to the gates of Sheôl, I am depriued of the residue of my yeares. I saide, I shall not see the Lord in the land of the liuing; I shall see man no more amongst the inhabi­tants of the worlde. I haue cutte my life in sunder like a wea­uer. Here is a full description of death, not of hell; and least wee shoulde dreame, that both are linked togither, in the end hee saieth; Ibid. ver. 18. & 19. Sheôl can not confesse vnto thee, neither can death praise thee, nor they that descende into the pitte, trust in thy trueth; but the liuing, the liuing, hee shall confesse thee, as I doe this day. It is manifest impietie to saie that the soules of the Saints departed did neither CONFESSE, NOR PRAISE GOD, nor TRVST [Page 191] IN HIS TRVTH: but in the graue where the bodie wan­teth sense and life, this is most true, which Ezechias de­liuereth, and confirmed by the holie Ghost in diuerse places of the Scriptures. Psal. 6. In death there is no remem­brance of thee (saieth Dauid to God) and in Sheôl who shall confesse (or praise) thee? The soules of iust and per­fect men did then most praise GOD, when they were loosed from the warfare of this life; therefore they were not in Sheôl; for in Sheôl none shall confesse vnto God, nor trust in his truth. Psal. 1 [...]5. The deade praise not the Lord, nor all that goe downe into silence. DEATH, SILENCE, and SHEOL, are taken for one and the same thing; and in none of these is God praised, or confessed. And what can bee plainer then that Dauid saieth in the 141. Psalme? Psal. 141. Our bones lie scattered at the mouth of Sheôl, as chippes [...]ewed on the earth. Their bones I trust lay not scattered at the mouth of hell, but at the mouth of their graues, where their bodies were buried. Iob in like maner; Iob. 17. though I hope, yet Sheôl must bee mine house, I shall take vp my bedde in darkenesse. I shall say to corruption, thou art my father, and to the worme, thou art my mother, and my sister. Darkenesse, corruption, and the worme are the partes of Sheol; a [...]d th [...]se consume the bodie, they waste not the soule. Salomon shall seale vp this inquisition, where hee [...]aieth; Eccles. [...]. All that thine hande is able to doe, dispatch it in thy strength; for there is neither VVORKE, nor THOVGHT; nor KNOVVLEDGE, nor VVISEDOME in SHEOL whither thou goest. If the soules of the righteous nei­ther DOE, nor THINKE, nor KNOVVE anie thing, they bee surelie a sleepe, and neither in ioy nor paine; but if this bee absurde and wicked to affirme either of hell, hea­uen, paradise, or of Abrahams bosome, then certainlie SHEOL, where none of these things are, is THE GRAVE; and there it is e [...]ident, all these thinges are wanting. Since then without question Sheol signifieth as well the [Page 192] graue, where the bodie lieth dead and rotten, as the place where the soules of vniust and sinfull men are kept and tor­mented; if in the wordes of the Patriarkes and Prophets, confessing they must go to Sheôl, we vnderstand the graue, which indéede they ment; there is no shew in the scriptures, that the faithfull before Christes death went to hell, as some fathers haue collected out of these and such like say­ings of the godlie before Christes birth; but rather the pla­ces that mention their state after death, do euidently import the contrarie.

The Church of the Iewes thought the soules of the righteous to be in peace.The booke of Wisedome, though it be not Canonicall; yet doth it shewe what opinion the Church of the Iewes had of the soules of the righteous departed this life; and how much some ancient writers were deceiued in this their perswa­sion, that the spirites of the Patriarks and Prophets were in hell at the time of Christes descent thither. Sapient, ca. 3. The soules of the righteous are in the hand of God, and no torment shall touch them. They seemed in the eyes of the vnwise to die, and their ende was counted miserie, and their departure hence de­struction; but they are in peace. For though in the sight of men they were punished, yet their hope is full of immor­talitie. They were nourtured in some fewe thinges, but they shall bee rewarded in greate thinges, for God tried them, and founde them meete for himselfe. Hee prooued them as gold in the fornace; and receiued them, as the fruites of a perfect offe [...]ing. In the time of their visitation, they shall shine, and iudge the Nations, and raigne ouer peoples, and he that is Lord ouer them shall raigne for euer. They that trusted in him, shall vnderstande the truth, and the faithfull shall remaine in his fauour; for grace and mercie is with his Saints, and a due re­garde had of his elect. The soules of the righteous, be­fore Christes comming were in peace, euen in Gods hande, receiued as a perfect offering. Grace and mer­cie was with them, and a speciall fauour towardes them, no torments did touch them. If this were hell, what [Page 193] greater ioy and blisse coulde they haue in Paradise? And this is in effect the verie same, that Dauid hoped for, when hee saide, Psal. 19. God shal deliuer my soule from the power of Sheôl; for he will receiue me. Selah.

And if this bee not plaine enough, our Sauiour in his life time described Abraham to be Luke 16. Christ himsel [...] placed ye [...] of the righteous far aboue be [...] in [...]. farre aboue the place of torment, and Lazarus in his bosome; and so huge a distaunce betwixt, that there was no passing from the one to the other; yea the thiefe was the same daie that Christ died in Paradise; and yet our Sauiour raysed nor reduced none from Hell, by their owne confession, till the thirde daie, that hee rose from the deade. If A­braham were not in hell, nor Lazarus, that laie in his bo­some; if the riche man woulde haue his fiue brethren warned, least they came into that place of torment; how can it bee true, that the Prophets, and Patriarkes were in hell, when Christ descended, and not thence deliue­red, but by his resurrection? Saint Austens collection vpon Abrahams bosome, is woorth the hearing. August [...]pi. 9 [...] Ad­dunt quidam hoc beneficium antiquis etiam Sanctis fuisse con­cessum, Abel, Seth, Noe, & domui eius, Abraham, Isaac, & Iacob, alijsque Patriarchis & Propheti [...], vt cum Domi­nus in infernum venisset [...] illis doloribus soluerentur. Sed quo­nam modo intelligatur Abraham, in cuius sinum pius ille pauper susceptus est, in illis doloribus fuisse, EGO QVIDEM NON VID [...]O: explicant fortasse qui possunt. Solos autem duos, id est Abraham & Lazarum in illo memorabilis quie­tis si [...]s fuisse, antequam Dominum in inferna descenderet; & de ipsis tantum duobus dictum fuisse illi diuiti; Inter vos & nos chaos magnum firmatum est, vt ij qui volunt hinc transire ad vos non possint, neque inde huc transmeare; nescio vtrum QVISQVAM SIT, CVINON VIDEATVR ABSVRDVM. Porro si plures quam duo ibi erant, QVIS AVDEAT DICERE non ibi fuisse Patriarchas & Prophetas, quibus in Scripturis Dei iustitiae pietatisque tam insigne testimonium perhibetur? [Page 194] Quid ergo is praestiterit, qui dolores soluit inferni, in quibus illi non fuerunt, n [...]ndum intelligo; praesertim quia ne ipsos quidem in­feros vspiam Scripturarum locis in bono appellatos potui repe­rire. Quod si nusquam legitur, non vtique sinus i [...]e Abra [...]e, id est secretae cuiusdam quietis habitatio, aliqua pars inferorum esse credenda est; quanquam in his ipsis tanti magistri verbis, vbi ait dixisse Abraham, Inter nos & vos chaos magnum firma­tum est, SATIS VT OPINOR APPARET, non esse quan­dam partem & quasi membrum inferorum tantae felicitatis sinum. Some adde that this benefite was yeelded vnto the Saintes of the olde Testament, Abel, Seth, Noe and his familie, Abra­ham, Isaac, and Iacob, and to the rest of the Patriarkes and Prophets, that when Christ came to hell, they were deliuered from those paines there. But how Abraham, into whose bo­some that godlie poore. Lazarus was receiued, can bee imagi­ned to haue beene in these paines, I for my part doe not see, let them DECLARE IT THAT CAN. But that onely two, Abraham and Lazarus, were in that bosome of memorable rest, before the Lorde descended to hell; and that it was [...]aid of these two onelie, betwixt you and vs is a mightie gulfe set­led, (so that such as would goe from hence to you, can not; nor anie that woulde come from you to vs,) I knowe not whether there be anie man, to whom IT SEEMETH NOT ABSVRD. And if there were mo then two, VVHO DARE SAY, the Patriarkes and Prophets were not there, to whom the worde of God giueth so great testimonie of righteousnesse and god­linesse? What benefite hee did them, by loosing the paines of hell, in which they were not, I yet vnderstande not; speciallie since I cannot finde the name of Inferi (or hell) in any place of scripture vsed for any good. The which if it bee no where in the diuine authoritie to be read, then surely the bosome of Abraham which is an habitation of secret rest, is not to be thought any part of hell; albeit in the verie wordes of so great a teacher (as Christ is) where he maketh Abraham say, betwixt you and vs there is a mightie distance established, it is euident enough, as I thinke, [Page 195] that the bosome of so great happines is no part nor mēber of hel.

Saint Austen examineth the opinion of some auncient writer,The summe of S. Austens col­lections out of the 16. of sain [...] Luke. that Christ descended to hell to deliuer ye patriarks, prophets, and the righteous of the old testament thence, & not onely refuseth, but after his maner mildly refuteth that fan­sie, which had possessed many of the fathers before him. Out of Christs words in the 16. of Luke he deriueth two conclu­sions; one that Abrahams bosom was a place OF REST AND HAPPINES, or as the scripture speaketh, OF COMFORT; and consequently not of paine or torment, as was hell; the other, that BETVVIXT THEM is AN HVGE DISTANCE, so that by no meanes Abrahams bosome can be taken to bee ANY PART OR MEMBER OF HELL. Out of the princi­ples of diuinitie he draweth two other positions, the first, that Abrahams bosome was not made for Lazarus onelie; which is so absurd, that he thinketh no man will be so foolish as to em­brace it. Abrahams bosome must be open to the rest of his children, which did the workes of their father Abraham, as well as to Lazarus; with God is no respect of persons; and Mat. 8. From the East and West shall come manie, and sit downe with Abraham, Isaac and Iacob, in the kingdome of heauen, saith our Sauiour. The second is, that if more besides A­braham and Lazarus were in that bosome of rest, the Pro­phets and Patriarks, must néeds be there, who for fidelitie and pietie are commended by the witnesse of Gods spirite, and placed in the foundation of the Church with the Apo­stles next the heade corner stone, as 2. Pet. [...]. HOLIE MEN OF GOD, inspired and mooued by the holie ghost. These deduc­tions being sound and sure, whereof there can bee no doubt, it is certaine, Christ went not to hell to fetch the Patriarkes and Prophets thence, for they were not there; but in Abra­hams bosome, which was an habitation of REST, COM­FORT and BLISSE; so farre distant from the place of tor­ment, that by no meanes it coulde bee a PART or MEMBER THEREOF.

[Page 196][But Austen himselfe saith, hee doubteth not, but Christ deliuered some from the paines of hell at his descent thi­ther.] Saint Austen refelleth the receiued opinion of o­thers before him,S. Austens cō ­iecture that some were de­liuered out of hell is v [...]ne weake. that Christ descended to hell, to deliuer thence the Patriarkes and Prophets that were there detai­ned; and addeth, that because he then presentlie sawe no cause why Christ should descend, but to saue from the paines of hel; he doth not doubt, but Christ deliuered some frō thence. But when he commeth to make proof for this his opinion, he fain­teth, and saith; the words of Peter, that Christ loosed the paines of hell, may bee taken in that sense; and that Adam was then loosed, ALMOST the whole church consented. Howbeit both these proofs are no more then probable, & scant so much; and therfore they compell no man to receiue S. Austens coniec­turall inclination; but leaue vs at libertie, as wel to examine his reasons, as to suspend our iudgemēts, till we sée strōger & better motiues to induce our consent. For touching Peters wordes, himselfe confesseth they may bee referred to Christ. August. epist. 99. Quod scriptū est in morte Christi factū, solutis doloribus inferni, vel ad ipsum potest intelligi pertinere, quod eos hactenus solue­rit, hoc est irru os fecerit, ne ab eis ipse teneretur, praesertim quia sequitur, in quibus impossibile erat teneri EVM: vel si causa quae­ritur cur venire voluerit in infernum, vbi dolores illi essent, qui­bus omnino teneri non poterat; hoc quod scriptum est, solutis do­loribus inferni, non in omnibus, sed IN QVIBVSDAM ACCI­PI POTEST, quos ille dignos ista liberatione iudicabat. What the Scripture saieth was perfourmed in the death of Christ, THE PAINES OF HELL BEEING LOOSED, may either bee vnderstoode to pertaine to Christ himselfe, that hee loosed, that is, frustrated those paines from taking anie holde of him; speciallie whereas it followeth (in the Text) OF VVHICH PAINES IT VVAS IMPOSSIBLE HEE SHOVLDE BE HELDE: or if wee aske for the cause, why he woulde come to hell, where those paines were which coulde take no hold of him; these words (loosing the paines of hel) may [Page 197] bee taken not of all, but of some, whome he thought worthy to be deliuered. Either way these wordes make nothing to S. Austens supposition, that some were in the pa [...]nes of hell, when Christ did thence deliuer them. For if we applie them to Christs person, which in déede S. Peter doth, they note that Christ brake before him the strength of hell, when he appro­ched to his resurrection. If wee refer them to mans deliue­rance thence, that Christ in our names and for our safetie loosed the sorrowes of hell; this will proue, we should haue gone to hell, if Christ had not saued vs thence; but that wee were there, it no way proueth. For hee deliuered all his, as wel liuing, and not then borne, as dead, from all the right and claime that hell had to them; and as we were deliuered, not from being there, but from comming thither; so the dead might bee acquited and assured from the chalenge that hell had to them, though they were then in rest, and in hope of Christs comming to performe their expectation, and perfit their redemption from the power of hell.

As for the consent of the whole church ALMOST, How ye church might beleeue Adams bandes were loosed in hell by Christs descent. since Austen himselfe leadeth vs to dislike the opinion of all the fa­thers ALMOST, that the soules of the righteous were in hel before Christes descent thither; hee openeth the waie for vs to aske how the church came, by that perswasion; whether by scripture, or by Tradition? Scripture there is none extant for Adam, more then for all other men. Tradition for things done in hell, where no man liuing was present, can none bee pretended. The testimonie, which Austen alleageth out of the booke of Wisedome, maketh rather against that position, then for it. (Wisedome) Sapient. 10 kept the first man that was alone created, euen the father of the world; and BROVGHT HIM OVT OF HIS SINNE, and gaue him power to gouerne all thinges. That wisedome brought Adam out of his sinne, is here affirmed, but whether by chastisement and repentance in this life, or by deliuerance out of hell after this life, since nei­ther is specified, the first is rather to bee receaued. For God [Page 198] both by punishing Adams offence, and by offering him grace in the promised Scede, did make way for repentance; yea the whole life of Adam was nothing else but the meditati­on of his fall; but that Christ fet him from hell, when hee descended thither, canne by no rules of religion bee war­ranted. Indeed Christ went to hell to loose the bands of A­dams sinne; and so the church might well beléeue and professe. For the guilt of Adams transgression, and roote of Adams corruption, brought vs all to be iustlie condemned to hell, but that the death of Christ reconciled vs againe to God by the remission of our sinnes; and the personall descent of our Sauiour loosed all the bandes, and brake all, the chaines of darkenesse that were prouided for vs; and so fréed Adam and his ofspring from the power and paines of hell. In this the whole church might consent, that Adams sinne was re­leased, and Adams bandes loosed by Christs descent to hell; but other tradition, what soules were in hell, and thence deliuered at Christes comming, as it was altogether vn­knowne to men on earth, and consequentlie most vncer­taine, so is it rather presumptuous to define, then religious to beléeue.

And least I shoulde séeme to be led with the spirit of con­tradiction, to refuse both the tradition of the church, and o­pinion of the fathers, I will plainelie shew, what causeth me to consent to neither.From hel was no release, by the doctrine of our Sauiour. First in these secret and vnknowne things, no mans assertion is to be trusted without the witnes of the scriptures; and forsomuch as is expressed vnto vs in the word of God, it rather crosseth, then fauoreth this asserti­on of the fathers. Next the ancient writers heere in doe not onelie varie, one from another, but euen from themselues; to manifest that they had no settled truth, but some coniec­tures, and those verie slender in these hidden matters. Tou­ching the soules of the righteous departed this life before Christes death, to omit the place of the booke of Wisedome alreadie recited, which expresselie gaine saieth this supposall [Page 199] of the fathers, that the soules of the iust were both in hell and in torments: there is nothing exactlie reuealed vnto vs in the scriptures that are canonicall, till we come to the xvi. of S. Lukes gospell, where our Sauiour by the parabolicall historie of the wicked rich man and the godlie Lazarus tea­cheth vs, what became of them both after their deathes; and consequentlie what was the state of all the deade before his time; to wit, that they were either CARIED BY AN­GELS TO ABRAHAMS BOSOME, or PVNISHED IN THE FLAMES OF HELL. These two places, as they bee farre distant the one from the other, both in SCITVATION and CONDITION, the one beeing full of comfort, the other of torment; so in this they agrée, that there coulde bee no ALTERATION in either. The rich man in hell coulde neither obtaine anie meanes to bee re­freshed, no not a drop of water to coole his heate; nor expect anie time to bee released. Our Sauiour maketh Abraham to say to the rich man, which must néedes be true, Luke. 16 between you and vs there is settled a great gulfe, (or mightie dis­tance,) so that they which would go from hence to you cannot, NEITHER CAN THEY COME FROM THENCE TO VS. After this life there was no changing of places, and namelie from hell there was no release. This our Saui­our taught for a resolute trueth in his life time; howe then coulde the soules of the iust bee released and reduced from hell by his descent? If Abraham and Lazarus were not in hell, but in a place of rest and comforte farre distant from hell, howe then were all the righteous before Christes time not onlie in hell, but in the sorrowes and paines of hell? yea the son of God with his owne mouth so often in the new testament expressing the fire of hel to be Mark. 9 [...] vnquenchable, and the worme there neuer to die, how dare we without any war­rant of the word of God, first to bring al ye soules of the righ­teous before Christ, from Abrahams bosome to hell, and then to deliuer them thence without anie witnesse of the holie [Page 200] scriptures? With one breath our Sauiour doth thrice pro­nounce in the gospell of Marke that in hell, neither the fire quencheth, Mark. 9. not the worme dieth; and presume wee to quench the one, and kill the other without any scruple?

[But the scripture saith, the soules of the Patriarkes and Prophets were in hell; and there to leaue them after Christs descent, were euerlastinglie to condemne them.] The tran­slators mistooke the word Sheôl, calling that hel, which indéed was the graue, where the bodies of all the iust both before and after Christ were laid; but the teacher of all truth, whose doctrine wee by no meanes may distrust, placeth Abraham in rest, and maketh his bosome a receptacle for the soules of the righteous; and therefore we may striue about words if we list, but we must leaue the spirits of iust and perfit men before Christes comming, that place, which Christ, teaching here on earth, assured vs, was assigned them of God. And since by the doctrine of our sauiour they were not in hell, it is more then manifest, he did not fetch them thence by his de­scending thither.

The fathers varie touching the place of the soules de­parted before Christs com­ming.As for the supposall of the fathers, that Abraham, Iacob, Sa­muel, and Dauid, with the rest of the Patriarks and prophets were in hell; it were easie to shew their varieties, & contra­rieties, if I tooke pleasure to discouer their weakenesse. S. Austen in his 99. Epistle to Euodius, and his 12. booke de ge­nesi ad literam. cap. 33. exactlie contradicteth the opinion of De anima. ca. 55. Tertullian, In Psal. 48. concio. 13. Basil, In Eccle. cap. 9 Hierom, & In Epistol. ad Rom. cap. 5. Ambrose, that Abraham & the rest of the Patriarks and Prophets were in hell; & prooueth that Abrahams bosome must not be thought to be any part or member of hell. In his 57. Epistle to Dardanus hee saith, non faciledixerim; I cannot readily pronounce. In his 20. booke de ciuitate dei. cap. 15. he saith, non absurde credividetur, anti­quos etiam sanctos, apud inferos fuisse, it seemeth no absurdity to beleeue, that the Saints of the olde testament were in hell; vntill the bloud of Christ and his descent to those places did deliuer them. And thus he either some times spared the credites of [Page 201] those that were before him, or else by writing hee so profited, that where at first he doubted or yéelded to others, at last he resolued the contrarie vpon the dewe examining the wordes of our Sauiour. Tertullian likewise in his booke de anima saith, Cap. 55. Habes de paradiso à nobis libellum, quo constituimus, om­nem an [...]mam apud inferos sequestrari in diem iudicij. We haue written a booke touching paradice, where wee defende that all soules are kept in hell vntill the day of iudgement. And spea­king namelie of Abrahams bosome; Idem. cap. 5 [...] Omnes ergo animae pe­nes inferos, inquis? velis ac nolis, & supplicia iam illic & refri­geria, habes pauperem, & diuivem. Cur enim non putes animam & puniri & foueri in inferis? Are al soules then in hell, you wil aske? will you, nill you, you shall finde there punishmentes, and refreshments; as in Lazarus, and the rich man. And why shoulde you not thinke that the soule may bee both tormented, and comforted in hell? and yet in his fourth booke against Marcion, hee contradicteth that false position, and commeth soundlie to the truth.Idem contrae Marcion. lib. 4 Aliud inferi, vt puto, aliud quoque sinus Abrahae. Nam & magnum ait intercedere regiones istas profun­dum, & transitum vtrinque prohibere. Sed nec alleuasset diues oculos, & quidem de longinquo, nisi in superiora, & de altitudi­nis longinquo, per immensam illam distantiā sublimitatis & pro­funditatis. Eam itaque regionē s [...]m dico Abrahae, etsi non coe­lestem sublimiorem tamen Inferis. Hel is one thing, as I thinke; and Abrahams bosome is another. For (Abraham) sayeth a great depth is betweene these two regions, and suffereth none to passe to and fro. Neither coulde the rich man haue lift vp his eies, but vnto places aboue him, and far aboue him, by reason of the infinite distance betwixt that heigth, and that depth. That region then, I call Abrahams bosome, which though it bee not heauen, yet is it higher then hell. Ambrose after the same ma­ner, sometimes saith, that Abraham was,(In Epistol. ad Rom. cap 5 apud Inferos) in hell; sometimes againe, that Lazarus In Psal. 118 serm. 3 in Abrahae sinu recumbens, vitam carpebat aeternam: Lazarus lying in Abra­hams bosome, enioied euerlasting life; and hard it is, that eter­nall [Page 202] life should be in hell. In the one and the same chapter he alloweth the perswasion of the heathen, Ambros. de bo­no mortis. ca. 10. quod animae libe­ratae de corporibus [...] peterent, id est, locum qui non videtur, quē locum Latinè Infernum dicimus: that soules departed from their bodies did go to [...], that is, to an inuisible place, which in latine is called hell; and also the assertion of true religion, yt the Ambros. de bo­no mortis. ca. 10. graue was the receptacle of the body only; Ambros. de bo­no mortis. ca. 10. animarū autē superiora esse habitacul [...], scripturae testimonijs valde probatur; But ye mansions of the soules are aboue, as may easily be proued by ye testimonies of scripture. These are the habitatiōs of which Christ said, there are Iohn. 14 many mansions with his father. But I take no delight in rehersing their ouersights, it will suffice that with one consent,The soules of the righteous were in Abra­hams bosome by the confes­sion of the fa­thers. they make Abrahams bosome a receptacle for all the iust; and the place of tormente where the rich man was, a prison for the wicked; calling the one hell, and con­fessing the other to be the fruition of rest and happinesse after this life.

Orig. [...]. They that depart this world by death are according to their deeds & deserts bestowed (saith Origen) alij in locū, qui dicitur Infernus, alij in sinū Abrahae, some to ye place which is called hel, others to Abrahās bosom. Hieron. in. E­say. cap. 65. Omnes quipatrem habent Abrahā, & virtutū eius similes esse meruerunt, requiescunt in sinu eius. Al that haue Abrahā for their father, and obtained to be like him in virtues, rest in his bosome, saith Ierom: Ambros. in Psal. 38 Iusti in Abrahae sinure­quiescere leguntur, quod in eius gratia, in eius requie in eius pla­ciditate requiescunt, qui conformē ei fidē induerunt, et [...]andem in bonis operibus fecerunt voluntatem. The iust (saith Ambrose,) are said to rest in Abrahams bosome, because they rest in like fauor, in like ease, in like contentation, which put on like faith to Abra­hā, and followed his exāple in wel doing. And therfore he spea­keth else where to Abrahā: Idem de bono mortis cap. 12 [...] Expande sinus tuos, vt plures sus­cipias, quia plurimiin deū crediderunt. Open wide thy bosom to receaue mo, because many haue beleeued in God. Hilar. in Psal. 51. Extendit Dauid spes suas ad infinitam perennitatis aetatē, nec concluditur mortis occasu quū sciat sib [...] in Abrahae sinibus exemplopauperis [Page 203] Lazariesse viuendū. Dauid stretcheth out his hope to infinite e­ternity, & endeth it not with ye fal of death, knowing yt he should liue in Abrahās bosome, as did that poore Lazarus, saith Hilary. Neither Dauid onely, but all the faithfull were, and still are kept in Abrahams bosome, as Hilarie thinketh, vntill the day of iudgement. Idem in Psal. 120. Exeuntes de corpore ad introitum illū regni cae­lestis, per custodiā domini fideles omnes reseruabuntur: in sinu sci­licet interim Abrahae collocati, quô adire impios interiectum cha­os inhibet, quousque introeundi rursum in regnum caelorum tem­pus adueniat; All the faithfull departing this life, shall bee re­serued in the Lords keeping, for that entrance into the kingdom of heauen, placed the meane while in Abrahams bosome, whi­ther the gulfe betweene will not suffer the wicked to come, till the time approch that (the godly) shal enter into the kingdom of heauen. This time of entring into the kingdom of heauen, he maketh to be the day of iudgement.Idem. in Psal. 2. Excipit (impios) sta­tim vltor infernus: & decedentes de corpore, si ita vixerunt, con­festim de via iusta peribunt. Testes nobis sunt Euangelij diues et pauper, quorum vnum angeli IN SEDIBVS BEATORVM, & in Abrahae sinu locauerunt, alium statim regio paenae susce­pit. Nihil illic dilationis aut morae est. Iudicij enim dies, vel, beatitudinis retributio est aeternae, vel paenae: Tempus vero mortis habet interim vnūquem (que) suis legibus, dū ad iudiciū vnūquem (que) aut Abraham reseruat aut paena. Hel, as a reuenger, presently ta­keth the wicked, and th [...]y leauing this body, according to their liues, do forthwith perish frō the right way. The rich and poore man in the gospel, do serue vs for witnesses, wherof the one was caried by the Angels, INTO THE SEATES OF THE BLESSED, & placed in Abrahams bosome; the other the region of punish­ment did straightway sease on. No delaie or stay may there be looked for. The day of iudgment bringeth with it the reward of eternal blisse, or paine: but the verie time of death in the mean season subiecteth all men to these lawes, that either Abraham or hell paines detaineth euerie soule vnto iudgement. These Fathers confesse, that all the iust, as well before Christes [Page 204] resurrection as after, were and are still in Abrahams bosom; and there shall continue till the daie of iudgement. Howe then could either Abrahams bosome be in hell, or the Saintes of the olde testament be thence deliuered by Christes descent, since they remaine still in Abrahams bosome, as these fathers write; and so shall do, to the end of the world? If Abrahams bosome were in hell, beeing deliuered from hell, they must needes bee deliuered likewise from Abrahams bosome. If they be still in Abrahams bosome, then were they neuer deli­uered thence; and that being in hell, as some fathers would haue it, the iust of both testamentes are still in hell; and so none were deliuered thence by Christes descending thither.

[But the calling vp of Samuel by the Witch at Endor, proo­ueth yt Samuel & so the rest of the prophets were in hell. For she saw 1. Samuel. [...]8. Whether the soule of Samuel were in hell, or no. him ascending vp out of the earth, & he saide to Saul 1. Samuel. 18. Whether the soule of Samuel were in hell, or no. To morrow shalt thou and thy sonnes be with me. Now that Saul being a reprobate, and killing himselfe, should bee in A­brahams bosome, it was not possible. Since then Samuel and Saul after death were both in one place, and that place was beneath in the earth, it is likelier that Samuel was in hell with Saul, till he were deliuered thence, then that Saul was in Abrahams bosome with Samuel.] The raising vp of Samu­el after his death by the Witch, hath mooued much question in the church of God, whether it were Samuel in déede that rose and sp [...]ke, or whether it were the diuell transforming himselfe in to the likenesse of Samuel, to driue Saul into dis­paire. And albeit the matter may be largelie disputed on ei­ther side, yet neither opinion will infer that Samuels soule was in hell; which is the point we haue in hand. That it was not Samuel himselfe which appeared,Reasons to proue it was an illusion of the Diuel. but the Witches fami­liar spirit in his likenesse; these reasons preuaile with mee. First, neither by Witches nor Diuels coulde the soules of the saints bee commanded, or disquieted from their places, where they are in rest and peace. Secondlie, we are assured, by the doctrine of our Sauiour, that God will sende none Luke 16. from the dead to instruct the liuing: yea all such conference [Page 205] is prohibited & pronounced Deut. 18. abominable by the law of God; not that the dead can arise or aduise the liuing, but because the diuell vnder that colour should not delude and abuse the people of God. Thirdlie, that which appeared receiued adora­tion at Saules hands, which the Reuel. [...]. Angel refused at S. Iohns; and the soule of Samuel neither might, nor would haue ac­cepted. Fourthlie, Saul forsaken & reiected of God, could not after death rest in the same place with Samuel the elect and approoued seruant of God. Lastlie, the fathers doe for the most part resolue, it was an illusion of Satan to strike Saul into desperation.

Tertullian disputing against it verie learnedlie, saieth. Tertul. de ani­ma. cap 57. Authorities to proue the same. Ecce hodie (Simonis haereticos) tanta praesumptio artis extollit, vt etiam Prophetarum animas ab inferis mouere se spondeant. Et credo, quia mendacio possunt: nec enim pythonico tunc spiritui mi­nus licuit animam Samuelis essingere, post deum mortuos consu­lente Saule. Absit alioquin vt animam cuiuslibet sancti nedum Prophetae à daemonio credamus extractam edocti, quod ipse Sata­nas transfiguretur in Angelum lucis, nedum in hominem lucis. Dubitauit, si forte tunc Prophetam se Dei asseuerare, & vtique Sauli, in quo ipse morabatur: ne putes alium fuisse qui phantas­ma administrabat, alium qui commendabat, sed eundem spiri­tum & in pseudoprophetide & in Apostata facile mētiri, quod fe­cerat credi: & ideo per quem visurum se credidit, vidit: quia per quem vidit & credidit. Ibid. Nulli autem animae omnino inferos pa­tere, satis dominus in argumento illo pauperis requiescentis, & diuitis ingemiscentis ex persona Abrahae sanxit, non posse relegari renunciatorem dispositionis infernae, quod vel tunc licere potuisset, vt Mosi & Prophotis crederetur. Euen at this day the followers of Simon (Magus) are so puffed vp with the presumption of their art, that they promise to raise from hell the soules of the Pro­phets. And I thinke they can easily belie themselues; for so did the familiar spirit (of the witch at Endor) resemble the soule of Samuel, when Saul reiected of God, consulted the dead. O­therwise, GOD FORBID VVE SHOVLD BELEEVE, that the [Page 206] soule of any Saint, much lesse of a Prophet, could bee raised by the Diuell; since wee are taught that Satan is often transfigu­red into an Angell of light, much more into a man of light. Per­chaunce (the Diuell) did doubt to auouch himselfe to bee the Prophet of God, and that to Saul, whom hee alreadie posses­sed; least you should thinke it was anie other which commen­ded the apparition, then hee that procured it; but euen the same spirite both in the false Prophetesse, and to the Apostata (Saul) easilie belied that which he had made to be beleeued. And therefore by whome (Saul) beleeued hee should see (the ghost of Samuel) by him he saw it; because by whom he saw it, to him he gaue credite. And to teach vs that no soule may rise from the dead, the lord doth sufficiently determine by the person of Abra­ham in that argument of the poore man in rest, & the rich man in torment, that none can returne to report the state of things in hell, which then might haue beene done, to get the more authoritie to Moses and the Prophetes. The booke of que­stions vnder the name of Iustine Martyr being of good an­tiquitie, if it bee not his; saieth. Respons. ad quaest. 52. Caetera omnia ab ipsa Pythonissa facta sunt, Daemonis operâ, praestigijs eorum ocu­los deludentis, qui videbant cum qui Samuel non erat. Ve­ritas autem dictorum a Deo fuit, qui permisit Daemoni, vt in forma Samuelis Pythonissae appareret, & res futuras prae­monstraret. Et quoniam Samuelem Saul non audierat, dum amissionem regni praediceret illi, sed post diuinam sen­tentiam ei regnum adimentem, per hariolos imperium re­tinere satagebat, indignum eum duxit Deus, vt ei ventu­ra significaret per homines sibi adhaerentes. All the rest the witch did by the operation of the Diuell, deluding their eies, which sawe one that was not Samuel. But the trueth of that which was spoken, was of God, who permitted the Diuell both to appeare to the witch in the shape of Samuel, and to foretell the euent of thinges to come. For in that Saul would not giue [...]are to Samuel, prophecying vnto him the losse of his kingdome, but sought to retaine it by the helpe [Page 207] of witches, God counted him vnworthie to vnderstande what should come to passe by anie seruants of his. Theodorete in his questions vpon the first booke of Kings, doth reiect this opi­nion, that the witch raised vp Samuel, not as false only, but as impious also. His words are. Theodoret. que­stio [...]um in lib 1. Regum quaest. 62 Quomodo oportet intelligere do ventriloqua? Nonnulli dicunt eam veré retulisse Samuel [...]m. Nō ­nulli autem hoc refellerunt. Ego quidem PRIMVM EXISTIMO ESSE IMPIVM Existimo enim mulieres necromanticas ne quamli­bet quidem reducere animam, tantum abest, vt prophetae, & tan­ti prophetae. Est enim perspicuum, quod in aliquo alio loco degunt animae expectantes resurrectionem corporum. EST ERGO VALDE IMPIVM credere ventriloquam habere vim tantam. What shall we say concerning the witch? Some thinke shee truly raised vp Samuel; Some others refell it. I think the first to be a VVICKED imagination. For I resolue that witches can raise no mans soule, much lesse the soule of a prophet, and of so great a prophet. It is euident that the soules (of the dead) are in a place besides this world, expecting ye resurrectiō of their bodies. It is therfore VERY IMPIOVS to beleeue yt a witch hath so great power. And where Theodoret alledgeth a place of the Chronicles to proue, Ibidem. Quod ipse deus vniuersorum, efformata vt voluit specie Samuelis, protu­lit sententiam, & minime per aduersarios protulit sententiā; That God himselfe framing the shape of Samuel as pleased him, pro­nounced the sentence, and did not giue that iudgement by his aduersaries: there are no such wordes in the Text as he quo­teth. For he citeth them thus:Idem. quaest. 62 Et mortuus est Saul in suis ini­quitatibus, in quibus peccauit domino super eloquium domini prop­terea quod ipsum nō custodiuit, & quod interrogauit Saul in ven­triloqua, vt exquireret, ET RESPONDIT SAMVEL PROPHETA, & non exquisiuit in d [...]mino, & occidit eum. Saul died in his sinnes, in which he sinned against the Lord, as touching the word of ye lord which he performed not, & also in that Saul consulted the witch, to know what successe he should haue. And Samuel the prophet answered him, & Saul sought not the lord, & he slue him. These wordes, AND SAMVEL THE PROPHET ANSVVERED HIM, [Page 208] are not in the booke of Vide lib. 1. Pa­ralip. cap. 10. ver. 13. [...] 14. Chronicles; and therefore Theodo­rets foundation being false, his conclusion that God spake these wordes, and not the diuell, is no way iustifiable. Be­sides, if God had saide, that Saul and his sonnes after death should bee with (God;) as hee that spake to Saule saide they should be with him; God had promised vnto Saul ETERNAL LIFE after his departure hence; which is a plaine contra­rietie to the wordes of the Scripture, that saith; 1. Paral. ca. 10. vers. 13. SAVL DIED IN HIS SINNES. The first part then of Theodorets resolution, that a witch could not raise the soule of Samuel, is sound and true diuinitie; the second, that God made a shape of Samuel, and thereby answered Saul, is not prooued by any scripture, though it be so supposed by Theodoret.

S. Austen disputing the matter on both sides, though he no way yéeld that the witch was able to raise vp soules; yet hee saith,Ad Simplician. lib. 2. quaest. 3. Non est absurdum credere, ex aliqua dispensatione diuinae voluntatis permissum fuisse, vt nō inuitus, nec dominante aut sub­iugante magica potentia, sed volens & obtēperans occultae dispen­sationi dei, quae & pythonissam illam, & Saulem latebat, cōsentiret spiritus Prophetae sancti se ostendi aspectibus regis, diuina cum sententia percussurus. It is no absurditie to thinke, that by some dispensation of the diuine pleasure it was permitted, that the soule of the holie Prophet, not against his will, nor ouerruled or forced by anie magicall power, but willing and obeying the se­crete will of God, which was hidde both from the witch, and from Saul, should shewe it selfe to the kings sight, to the end it might the more astonish him with the iudgement of God. And albeit he make this possible, yet he inclineth rather to this opinion as the easier, and likelier, that the whole was but the deceite and woorke of Satan. Ibidem. Quanquam in hoc facto, potest esse alius FACILIOR intellectus & EXPE­DITIOR exitus, vt non vere spiritum Samuelis excipatum à sua requie credamus, sed aliquod phantasma, et imaginar [...]am illusio­nem diaboli machinationibus factam, quam propterea scriptura nomine Samuelis appellat, quia solent imagines, rerum earum [Page 209] nominibus appellari, quarum imagines sunt. Although in this fact, there may bee another more easier vnderstanding, and freer from (all) difficulties, if wee beleeue that the soule of Sa­muel indeede was not raised from his rest, but that it was a phantasme, and illusion wrought by the craft of Satan; which the scripture therefore calleth by the name of Samuel, because resemblances are woont to bee called by the names of those things which they resemble. The selfe same word for word hee Ad octo Dul­citij quaestione. quest. 6 repeateth in his answere to the questions which Dulcitius proposed vnto him; and albeit in these places he sway indiffe­rently betwixt both, or incline faintly to the one; yet in his bookes De doctrina Christiana he calleth it a Sacrilegious re­presentation of Samuels image.De doct. Chri­stiana. li. 2. ca. 23 Non enim quia imago Samue­lis mortui Sauliregi vera praenunciarit, propterea talia sacrile­gia, quibus imago illa praesentata est, minus execranda sunt. Nei­ther, because the image of dead Samuel foretold truth to king Saul, are such SACRILEGIES, BY VVHICH THAT I­MAGE VVAS SHEVVED, the lesse to be DETESTED.

But if it were the soule of Samuel that appeared, and no illusion of the diuell presenting himself in the habit of Samu­el, Neither opiniō proueth that Samuels soule was in hell. the storie no way conuinceth that Samuel was in hell. The witch said, I saw gods ascending out of the earth; but her sight is no good proofe, where the soules of the iust are, or whence they come, the diuell might easily delude her, and make her beléeue, hee came out of the earth, that came from another place. Againe if the bodie of Samuel were taken vp for his soule to appeare in; that was raised out of the earth, though the soule of Samuel came from Abrahams bosome; & so hee ne­cessarily must rise out of the earth, if his bodie rose withall, as we all shall at the generall resurrection. And where the image of Samuel saide to Saul, 1. Sam. 1 [...]. To morrow thou and thy sonnes shall be with vs; he did not meane their soules shoulde be in the same receptacles after death, but as Austen saieth: Ad Simplie. lib. 2. quaest. 3 Mortuus mortem viuo praenunciabat. He that was dead, fore­shewed the death of him that liued;Ad Simplie. lib. 2. quaest. 3 vt non ad aequalitatem feli­citatis [Page 210] sed ad parem conditionem mortis referatur: That it should be referred to the like condition of death, & not to the fruition of the same felicitie. For if we so take the words, Thou shalt be to morrow with mee, vei (que) falsum est; it is certainly false, saith Au­sten. f Magno quippe interuallo post mortem separari bonos a malis in Euangelio legimus cum dominus inter superbum illum diuitem, cum iam apud inferos tormenta pateretur, & illum, qui ad eius ia­nuam vlcero sus iacebat, iam in requie constitutum, magnum chaos interi [...]ctum testetur. That the good are after death separated frō the bad by a mightie distance, we read in the Gospel, where the Lord witnesseth, that there is a great gulfe interiected betweene the proude rich man, when hee was tormented in hell, and the poore Lazare now in rest, which lay full of sores at the rich mans gate. And so whether we take it to be the soule of Samuel that spake to Saul, or a Magicall illusion of Satan transforming himselfe into the shape of Samuel, neither way proueth that Samuel was in hell; howbeit I rather imbrace the reasons that are extant in the Quaest. ex ve­ [...]er. test [...]mento. [...]uaest. 27. questions of the olde testament vnder the name of S. Austen, cited in the Canon law, which though they be not Austens, are verie ancient.Caus. 26. qu [...]st. [...]. § 14. nec mirū. Indignum facinus aesti­mo, si secundum verba historiae commodetur assensus. Quomodo enim fieri poterat, vt arte magica attraheretur vir & natiuitate sanctus, & vitae operibus iustus? Aut si non attractus est, consen­sit: quod vtrum (que) de viro iusto crede [...]e absur [...]um est. Porro hoc est praestigium Satanae, quo, vt plurimos fallat, etiambonos in po­testate se habere consingit. Historicus mentem Saul, & habitum Samuelis descripsit, ea quae dicta & visa sunt exponens, praeter­mittens si vera an falsa sint. Quid enim ait? Audiens in quo ha­b [...]tu esset excitatus, intellexit, hunc esse Samuelem. Quid intel­lexerit retulit, & quia non bene intellexit, contra scripturā, alium adorauit quam deum, & putans Samuelem adorauit diabolum, vt fructum fallaciae suae haberet Satanas. Si enim vere Samuel illi ap­p [...]ruisset non vti (que) vir iustus permisisset se adorari, qui praedicaue­rat deū solum adorandū. Et quomodo homo dei, qui cū Abraham in refrigerio erat dicebat ad virum pestilentiae, dignum ardore [Page 211] gehennae, eras mecum eris? His duobus titulis subtilitatem falla­ciae suae prodidit improuidus Satan, quia & adorari se permisit sub habitu & nomine Samuelis contra legem: & virum peccatis pres­sum, cum magna distantia peccatorum & iustorum sit, cum Sa­muele iustissimo futurum mentitus est. Ad eum enim transmigra­uit (Saul) quem adorauit. I take it to be a wicked act, if we acknowledge the storie according to the words. For how could it be that a man holie in birth, and iust in life should bee drawne (from the place of his rest) by the power of a witch? If he were not drawne (against his will) hee consented (to come;) both which are ab­surd to beleeue of so iust a person. And this is the sleight of Satan, that to deceiue the more, hee maketh as if the iust were in his hands. The storie doth describe the mind of Saul, and the shew of Samuel, expressing what was seene and said, but pretermitting how true or false either was. For what saith it? Saul hearing in what habite (the spirite) was raised, vnderstoode it to be Samuel. It reporteth what (Saul) conceiued, and because hee concei­ued amisse, hee adored another then God, against the scrip­ture; and thinking it to bee Samuel, worshipped the Di­uell, that Satan might reape the fruite of his fallacie. For if Samuel had indeede appeared vnto him, the iust person woulde neuer haue suffered himselfe to bee worshipped, which preached God alone to be worshipped. And how did the man of god, that was with Abraham in rest, say to that pestilent man, worthie of hell fire, to morrowe thou shalt bee with me? By these two wayes Satan afore he was ware betraied his fraudu­lent subtiltie, because he suffered himselfe to be worshipped vn­der the habite and name of Samuel, against (Gods) lawe; and lied, that Saul loden with sinne should after death be with righ­teous Samuel, whereas there is a great distance betwixt the iust and vniust (after this life;) and Saul went hence to him, whom he worshipped.

[If the fathers so much varie and dissent from themselues, and from others, whie do I presse their testimonie touching Christs descent to hell?] I presse them no further then they [Page 212] accord with the words of the scripture, and with the grounds of faith, & wherein they all concurre with one consent. When they swarue aside,Ivrge not the fathers but a­greeing with the scriptures and with them selues. or part asunder, I dissemble it not; wi­shing the reader, as not to regarde their priuate opinions without good proofe, so not to reiect their general confession in matters of faith agreeing with the scriptures, without better demonstration then I yet sée made for the contrarie. That the diuell was destroied, and man deliuered by Christes death from the feare of death,Heb 2. is no supposall of mine or theirs, but the manifest conclusion of the holy ghost. That Christ Colos 2. in his owne person spoiled powers and principalities, and open­ly triumphed ouer them, that 1. Cor. 15. death and hell might bee swal­lowed vp in victorie, is not mans imagination, but the Apo­stles resolution. That Christs Acts 2. soule was in hell, and there not Acts 2. forsaken, if Dauids prediction, and Peters application were not plaine inough, S. Lukes interpretation is so pregnant, that without wrong to the word, it can not bee pared. Lay these togither, and sée what they lacke of Christs soule descen­ding into hell. His being there must néeds inferre his des­cending thither. And yet least some scrupulous person should stick at the phrase of Christs DESCENDING INTO HEL, I think S. Paul hath words equiualent to them. Ephes. 4. Ascending on high he led captiuitie captiue. That he ascended, what is it, but that he FIRST DESCENDED into the lower partes of the earth? He that descended, is euen the same that ascended aboue al the heauens, that he might fil al. If hell be any where, there can be no doubt but it must be in the lower parts of the earth. From the earth vpward is heauen, where hell can not be. Christ then DES­CENDED into the lower partes of the earth, and thence ledde captiuitie captiue, that hee might fill all (places) with his pre­sence. Christs sepulchre was in the higher parts of the earth, Mat. 27. hewen out in a rock, and thence he might lead the death of the bodie captiue, but not the diuell, that was ruler ouer death, and had a chalenge to the soules of men that came not neare their graues. Since then ascending from the lower parts of [Page 213] the earth, he lead captiue, all ye powers, that held man in bon­dage; and those chiefelie were the powers of hell, which had interest into the soule of man by reason of sinne; it must needes bee that Christ descended to those partes of the earth, where mans captiuitie was strongest, which is in hell: and thence fréed him by his presence, and led those captiues, that ruled ouer him, as conquerour of all the power of the deuill and darkenesse, whose prisoner man was, before hee was redeemed. Againe, hee first descended to the lowest, and then ascended to the highest, that he might fill all places with his presence. If hee descended not to hell, howe filled hee that place, where hee neuer was, except with the brightnesse of his diuine glorie, which is euerie where present without descending or ascending? But the Apostle saith he descen­ded to the lowest, and ascended to the highest, that he might fill all (places) with the presence of his manhoode, all knees in heauen, earth, and hell bowing vnto the exaltation of his humane nature.

And if the lower partes of the earth, whither Christ de­scended to leade captiuitie captiue, Christs desce [...]ding into the deep, and into hel are al on [...] bee not lowe enough to shewe the scituation of hell; Saint Paul hath plainer wordes of Christes descending as lowe as might bee; when he wri­teth to the Romanes in this wise. Rom. 10 Say not in thine heart, who shall ascende into heauen? (that is, to bring Christ downe from aboue,) or who shal DESCEND INTO THE DEEPE? (that is, to bring Christ backe from the deade.) Christ dy­ing DESCENDED INTO THE DEEPE, as rising from the deade, hee ascended into heauen. Nowe the deepe is so lowe, that no place canne be lower; yea hell it selfe, and the prison of Diuels is knowne by that name in the newe Testament. When the spirits, that possessed the mad man amongst the Gadarens, were to bee cast out by Christ, Luke. 8 they besought him, that hee would not commaund them [...], to departe into the deepe. In the Reue­lation of Saint Iohn, hell is called, Reuelat 9. verse 1 [...]8. [...], [Page 214] the pit of the deepe, and the Diuell is there named Ibidem. ver. 11 the An­gell, [...], of the deepe: yea the verie place, where the Diuell is shut vp, is expressed by that word; Reuel. [...] 20. I sawe an An­gell (saith Saint Iohn) come downe from heauen, hauing [...], the key of the deepe, and a great chaine in his hand. And he took the dragon that olde serpent, which is called the diuell, and bounde him, and cast him [...] into the deep, Christ descen­ded into the bottomlesse deepe. & shut him vp. If [...] be a bottomles deep, then which can nothing be déeper; if in the scriptures it pro­perly signifie the verie dungeon of hel, where the diuels are kept; the Apostle then auouching that Christ, when hee died, DESCENDED [...], INTO THE BOTTOMLES DEEP, doth cléerely confirme that he descended into hell. As therefore, if we aske who can descend into the deep, or ascend into heauen, we reuerse Christs being among the dead and his sitting at the right hand of God in the heauens, so if wee confesse thē both to be verified in Christ (& but in Christ they neuer were nor euer shalbe verified of any man) we must no more deny yt he descended into the bottomles pit, which is hell, then yt he ascended into ye heauens; both are necessary partes of our redemption, & euident proofes of his mighty operatiō. We must be fréed frō hel, before we can be placed in heauen; and if Christ haue omitted either, he hath performed neither.

What maruaile then, if the ancient fathers with one con­sent, make Christs descent to hel,The descent to hell after death, a part of our redēption. a material point of our re­demption, and presse it as an appendix to faith; since it hath so good ground, and iust proofe in the scriptures, howsoeuer they or we doubt, where the soules of the righteous were be­fore Christs suffering. De Trinitat. lib. 2 Crux, mors, inferi, salus nostra est, saith Hilary; The crosse, death, and descent (of Christ) to hell are our saluation. [...]thanas. de sa­lutari adue [...]mu Christi. Diuinitas neque corpus in monumento, ne (que) animā in inferno destituit, hoc est enim, quod dictū est per prophetā non re­linques animā meā apud inferos, ne (que) dabis sanctū tuū videre cor­ruptionem. Quoc [...]rcain ANIMA quidē CHRISTI MORS DEVICTA EST, resurrectio (que) ab inferis deprompta, & spiritibus annunciata [Page 215] est: in corpore vero dei corruptio abolita est, et incorruptibilitas é sepulchro emicuit. (Christs) deity neither forsooke his body in the sepulchre, nor his soule in hel. For yt is ye meaning of the Prophet, whē he saith; Thou wilt not leaue my soule in hel, nor suffer thine holy one to see corruptiō. Wherfore in THE SOVLE OF CHRIST DEATH VVAS CONQVERED, and the rerurrection from hell per­formed, and signified to the spirits, (that rose with him:) In the body of (him that was) God, corruption was abolished, & in­corruption shined out of the graue. Yea Austen himself putteth great difference betwixt the certainly of Christes descent to hell, and the vncertainty of deliuering of some soules thence, which he found there, as he imagineth. August. [...]pist. 99. Teneamus firmissimé Quod fides habet fundatissimâ auctoritate firmata, quia Chri­stus mortuus est secundum scripturas, et caetera quae de illo testante veritate conscripta sunt: in quibus etiam hoc est, quod apud Infe­ros fuit, solutis eorū doloribus, quibus eū erat impossibile teneri. Let vs hold most firmly, yt which ye faith containeth, confirmed with most assured authority, that Christ died according to the scriptures; & the rest yt is written of him by the testimony of the truth, amongst ye which this is also to be nūbred, yt he was in hel, dissoluing ye pains therof. Of which it was impossible he shuld be held. Thus far doth Austen vrge the very articles of our faith confirmed by the scriptures, & that maketh him infer, Ibidem. who then but an infidel wil deny that Christ was in hell? But when he commeth to the second point of deliuering some from hel, that were in the paines thereof, he tempereth his stile and saith, Ibidem▪ à quibus recte intelligitur soluisse & liberasse, quos voluit; from which paines Christ may well be conceaued, to haue loosed and deliuered whom he would; & that which Peter saith, loosing the sorrowes of hel, Ibidem▪ accipi potest in quibusdā, may be vnderstood of some, whom he thought worthy to be deliuered. For which since there can bee no sure proofe brought out of the worde of trueth, we shall doe best to giue eare to his owne aduise in the like case. August. [...] Ergo fratres siue illud siue istud sit, hîc me scrutatorem verbi dei, non temerarium affirmatorem teneatis. [Page 216] Therefore brethren whether this or that bee it, heere take me as a searcher of the word of God, and not as a rash affirmer.

Christ deliue­red the bodies of some saints, from the pow­er of hel▪ that is, he raised thē from death.All the defence that may be made out of the Scriptures, that Christ deliuered some of the saints out of the present pos­session and power of hell; is that which is written in the gos­pell of Saint Matthew, touching the bodies of the saintes ri­sing from death. When Iesus yéelded vp the ghost; Matth. 27 Behold the vaile of the temple rent in twaine, and the earth did quake, and the stones did cleaue; and the graues did open themselues, and many bodies of the Saints, which slept, arose; and came out of the graues after his resurrection, and went into the holy cittie and appeared to many. The death of the bodie, as it is parte of the wages of sinne; so is it the Esay. 33 gate of hell; and the Di­uell is saide in the scriptures to haue the Hebre. 2 power thereof. So that howsoeuer the soules of the iust were in the handes of God, and at rest in Abrahams bosom, their bodies lying dead in the graue, & rotten with corruption were within Satans walke; and when Christ raised them out of their sepulchers to an happie life, he tooke them from the power of darknes; and translated them into the kingdome of light. 1. Corinth. 15 Death is an enemie, though the last that shall be destroied; and Reuelat. 20 death, as well as hell, shall be cast into the lake of fire; and therefore Christ tooke the keyes both of Reuel. 1. death, and of hell;1. Corinth. 15 and by his rising from the dead insulted against both; ô death, where is thy sting? ô hell, where is thy victory? It is the force of sinne that killeth the bodie; and likewise the force of sinne that rot­teth the bodie; sinne being the strength of hell against bodie and soule. As then our soules are freed from the power of hell, when our sinnes are remitted; so our bodies are deliue­red from the handfast of hel, when corruption, the consequent of sinne, is abolished. In this sense it may bee saide, that Christ deliuered some from the power of hell, that is, their bodies from the sepulchers where they laie turned into dust. For by death and corruption the sinnefull flesh of man is till the resurrection subiected to the range of Satan, hee beeing [Page 217] the Ephes. 2 Prince of the ayre, and Ephes. 6 gouernour of darknesse, and Hebre. 2 ru­ler of death.

Saint Austen doubteth,Whether the bodies of the the saints, that rose with christ slept againe or no. whether those bodies of the saints were wholie freed from corruption; or laie down againe in death after they had giuen witnesse to Christs resurrection. August. epist. 99 Scio quibusdam videri, morte domini Christi iam talem re­surrectionem praestitā iustis, qualis nobis in fine promittitur; Qui vtique si non iterum repositis corporibus dormierunt, videndum est quemadmodum Christus intelligatur primogenitus a mortuis si eum in illa resurrectione tot praecesserunt. I know (saith Au­sten) some thinke, that at the death of the Lord Christ the same kind of resurrection was performed to the iust, which is promi­sed to vs in the ende of the worlde: but if they slept not againe, by laying downe their bodies, we must looke howe Christ can be vnderstood to be the first borne of the dead, if so many went before him in that resurrection. But his reasons are of no such force, as to perswade, that the bodies of the saintes, which rose with Christ, slept againe in their graues, and returned to corruption; yea that would somewhat impeach the power of Christs resurrection, if it were able to raise them to life, but not preserue them in life; and the whole fact will seeme rather an apparition, then a true resurrection. His first ob­iection is answered in the text it selfe. For the saints did not rise before Christ, but after Christ; and so still Christ was the first borne from the dead. The wordes of the text are; Matth. 27 [...] manie bodies of the saintes, which slept arose; and came out of the graues AFTER HIS RESVRRECTION. Nowe to thinke that they rose presentlie vpō his death, & staied aliue in their graues till he was risen, is a vaine imagination, and a waie rather to punish them with a wearisome life, then to prefer them to a comfortable resurrection. His second reason hath some more shew, but it is not sufficiēt to conclude his inten­tion. August. [...]pistola. 99 [...] It seemeth hard (saith he) that Dauid should not be in that resurrection of the iust, if it were eternall, of whose seede Christ is so often commended to vs with so great honor and eui­dence. [Page 218] And if Dauid rose with them, Peters proofe vnto the Iewes is verie weake, when hee saith, Actes. 2 Dauid is deade and buried; and his sepulchre remaineth with vs vnto this daie. For if Dauids body were risen before the speaking of those words, his sepulchre was emptie; and concluded nothing for Pe­ters purpose. For aunswere heereto, the holie Ghost had no meaning by Peters mouth to prooue that Dauid laie then in his graue,Dauid saw cor­ruptiō though he were then risen from cor­ruption, but Christs flesh neuer putrified when those wordes were spoken; but onelie that Dauid saw corruption, as his sepulchre remaining to that daie conuinced; wherein his bodie was buried aboue a thou­sand yeares before Christes comming, and consequentlie must néeds be turned into dust many hundreds before Peter spake the worde. His prediction therfore, that God would not suffer his holy one to see corruption, could no waie pertaine to himselfe, but must bee verified in some other, which was Christ; and so Peters argument was verie sound and cléere; whether Dauids ashes were then in his sepulchre or no. Peters other allegation, that Acts. 2. ver. 34 Dauid is not ascended into heauen, doth not hinder, but Dauid might be translated into Paradise, with the rest of the saints, yt rose from the dead, when Christ did; but it is a iust probation, that Dauids body was not then ascended, when Christ sate in his humane flesh at the right hand of God; which expresseth the power and glorie, wherun­to the bodie of Christ was exalted by his ascension into hea­uen. So that here Austen hath some hold to proue, that Dauid did not ascende in body, when Christ did; or at least not to heauen, whither Christ ascended; because in plaine wordes Peter saith, Dauid is not ascended into heauen; but either the bodies of ye saints slept againe, when they had giuen testimo­ny to Christs resurrection; or they were placed in Paradise, and there expect the number of their brethren, which shall bee raised out of the dust; or lastlie Dauid was none of those, that were raised to beare witnesse of Christes resurrection; but onelie such were chosen, as were knowne to the persons then liuing in Hierusalem. Whatsoeuer it was, August. de ge­nesi ad literam li. 8. cap. [...]. melius est [Page 219] dubitare de occultis, quam litigare de incertis: It is better (as Au­sten saith) to doubt of things (vnknown and) hid, then to striue about things vncertain. The last reason of S. Austen, that Hebre. 11. God so prouided for vs, that the fathers of the olde testament without vs, should not be perfect; proueth not, that al [...]he saints in Pa­radise lacke their bodies; for then we must deny that Henoch was Hebre. 11 translated, not to see death; and that Elias was 4. Regum. 2 taken vp by a whirlewind into heauē; as also that he was Matth. 1 [...] seene on the mount talking with Christ, which are directlie affirmed by the scriptures; but it wil make some proofe, that they haue not ye same perfection of ioie and blisse, which they shall haue, when all the members of Christ are receaued into glorie.

There remaineth one obiection, which must be eased, before I ende. And that is, Christ saide to the théefe which confessed him on the crosse: Luke. 23 This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise; how then could Christs soule be thrée daies in hell, except we grant it might be in manie places at once? S. Austē laboreth in his 57. epistle to remooue this stumbling blocke; and af­ter some turnes and wrenches, he thus concludeth. August. epist. 57. Est au­tem sensus multo expeditior, & ab his omnibus ambiguita [...]bus li­ber, si non secundum id quod homo erat, sed secundū id quod deus erat, Christus dixisse accipiatur: Hodie mecū eris in paradiso. Ho­mo quippe Christus, illo die secundū carnem in sepulchro, secun­dum animam in inferno futurus erat. Deus vero idē ipse Christus vbique semper est. The far easier vnderstanding, and free from al these ambiguities is; if wee take Christ to speake those wordes, This day shalt thou bee VVITH MEE in Paradise, not of his manhoode, but of his Godhead. For the man Christ was that day in the graue according to his flesh, and in hell as touching his soule; but the same Christ as God is alwaies euery where. And though this answere please that learned Father best, that Christ shoulde speake of the theeues soule, and his diuine presence in Paradise, yet wee haue no warrant in the word of God so to fasten Christs soule vnto hel for the time of his death, that it might not bee in Paradise before it descended [Page 220] into hell; and he first shew himselfe to the saints to their vn­speakeable comfort, before hee went to subiect the powers or darkenesse vnder his yoke. That hee Rom. 10 descended into the deep, must be receaued, because it is auouched by the apostle; but what time he went, or how long he staied, as also what maner of triumph he brought thence, cannot bee limited by a­nie mortall man; In all these cases I thinke it safest to par­ticularize nothing, which is not defined in the worde of God: there may be likelihoods, but the consciences of the faithfull must not bee enforced, except to certainties. This is that I thought fit to be saide touching Christes descent to hell; vrging the force and fruite of his going thither, or appea­ring there, to subiect the whole strength and kingdome of Satan vnto himselfe, and to acquite all his members from comming thither; but the time or manner of his descen­ding, I dare not determine, least I should auert you from truth to fables.

Farre surer is the former doctrine, teaching the redemp­tion of mankinde by the death of Christ to bee all-sufficient and euerlasting, wherein the scriptures being euident and the Fathers consonant, I shall néede no moe words; I wil ther­fore close them both with the confession of Fulgentius, who liued 500. yeeres after Christ, and so commend you to God. Fulgens. de in­carnat, & gra­tia dom. nostri [...] christi. ca. 8. Deus verus & viuus, imo deus veritas et vita aeterna, nisi idem verus homo fieret, mortē gustare non posset. Et idē homo qui mor­tem gustauit, siverus deus & vita aeterna non esset mortē vincere non valeret. Excepto illo, qui sic homo est vt idem sit deus, quis est homo qui destruxerit mortem, aut quis eruet animam suā de ma­nu inferi? mors autem filij dei, quam SOLA CARNE suscepit VTRAMQVE IN NOBIS MORTEM, animae scilicet car­nisque destruxit, & resurrectio carnis eius, gratiam nobis & spi­ritualis & corporalis resurrectionis attribuit, vt prius iustificati per fidem mortis & resurrectionis filij dei, resuscitemur ab infi­delitatis morte, & post primam resurrectionem scilicet ani­marum, quae nobis in fide collocata est, etiam istacarne, in [Page 221] qua nunc vistimus, resurgamus, nunquam denuo morituri. The true and liuing God, yea the God that is truth it self, and life euer­lasting, if he were not also true man, could not haue tasted death, and that man which tasted death, except he had beene likewise the true God, and eternall life, hee could not haue conquered death. Sauing he that was both God and man, what man could haue destroied death, or deliuered his own soule from the power of hell? But the death of the sonne of God VVHICH HE SVF­FERED IN HIS FLESH ONELIE, destroied both deaths in vs, as well of soule as bodie; and the resurrection of his flesh gaue vs the grace both of a spirituall and corporall resurrection, that being first iustified by faith in the death and resurrection of the sonne of God, we might bee raised from the death of infideli­tie; and after the first resurrection which is of the soule, (from sinne,) giuen vs by faith, we may also rise in this flesh, in which we now liue, neuer to die anie more. Pulgent. de passione domini ad Trasim. lib. 3. Cum SOLA MO­RERETVR ET RESVSCITARETVR IN CHRISTO prop­ter vnitatem personae dei & hominis, filius dei dicitur mortuus. Totum igitur HOMINEM cum suis infirmitatibus sine pec­cato dei filius accepit; in tota traditus idem Christus, SECVN­DVM SOLAM CARNEM MORTVVS, Totus Christus se­cundum solam animam ad infernum descendit. Humanitas ergo vera filij dei, nec tota fuit in sepulchro, nec tota in inferno, sed in sepulchro secundum carnem Christus mortuus iacuit, & secundum animam ad infernum Christus descendit. Secundum diuinitatem vero suam, quae nec loco tenetur, nec fine concluditur, totus fuit in sepulchro cum carne, totus in inferno cum anima. Aciper hoc ple­nus fuit vbi (que) Christus, quia non est deus ab humanitate, quam susceperat separatus, qui & in anima fuit, vt solutis infernidolo­suus AB INFERNO VICTRIX REDIRET, & in carne suafuit, vt celeri resurrectione corrumpi non posset. Whereas ONELIE THE FLESH died, and was raised againe in Christ, yet for the vnitie of the person, being God and man; the sonne of God is said to haue died. The whole nature of man then with our infirmities, the sonne of God tooke vnto him for our sakes, [Page 222] but without sinne: in the whole nature the same Christ beeing deliuered, DIED ACCORDING TO THE FLESH ONLY, and whole Christ descended into hell according to the soule on­lie. So that the true manhood of the sonne of God, was neither wholie in the sepulchre, nor wholie in hell, but in the sepul­chre Christ lay dead in his true flesh; and in his soule Christ des­cended into hell. But as touching his diuinitie, which is nei­ther comprehended in place, nor measured with end, whole Christ was in the graue with his flesh, and whole Christ in hell with his soule. And thereby whole Christ was euery where: be­cause his Godhead was not seuered from his manhood; but was with his soule, that dissoluing the sorrowes of hell, it might re­turne conquerour from hell; and with his flesh, that speedilie ri­sing, it might not see corruption.

The darke places of Peter, that Christ by his 1. Pet. 3. spirit prea­ched vnto the spirites (that are now) in prison, which in the daies of Noe were disobedient whiles the Arke was preparing: and likewise that [...]. Pet. 4. the Gospell was preached vnto the dead; I omit as nothing pertinent to Christs descent to hell; the first be­ing verified in the time, and by the mouth of Noe; and the se­cond performed by the preaching of the Apostles, as Saint Austen long since obserued; who saith of the first,August. epist. 99. Considera ne fortè totum illud quod de conclusis incarcere spiritibus, qui in diebus Noe non crediderant, Petrus Apostolus dicit, omnino ad inferos non pertineat, sed ad illa potius tempora, quorum formam ad haec tempora transtulit: Take heede least happily all that which Peter speaketh of spirits closed in prison, which beleeued not in the daies of Noe, doe not at all pertaine to hell, but rather to those times which Peter compareth with our age: and of the second,Ibidem. Quod Petrus dicit, propter hoc & mortuis Euange­lizatum est, vt iudicentur secundum homines in carne, vinant autem secundum deum spiritu, non cogit apud inferos intelligi. Propterea ènim in hac vita & mortuis Euangelizatum est, idest, infidelibus & iniquis, vt cum crediderint, iudicentur secundum homines in carne, hoc est, in diuersis tribulationibus & in ipsa [Page 223] morte carnis. That which Peter saieth; (to this purpose was the Gospel preached vnto the deade, that they might bee iudged according to men in the flesh, but liue according to God in the spirit;) hath no necessitie to be applied to hell. For the Gospel is preached in this life to the dead, that is to the infidels and sinners, that when they beleeue they might be iudged in the flesh after the maner of men, by diuerse troubles, and euen by the death of the flesh. This I repeate the rather, because some late writers haue borrowed Saint Austens exposition, and suppressed Saint Austens name; as if they were the first that euer looked into the truth of these places. Other reasons there are, but they are not worth the ripping vp; I will ther­fore trouble you no further.

To the father that spared not his owne sonne, but gaue him for vs all; to the sonne that laide downe his life for vs, and redeemed vs with his precious bloud; to the holie Ghost which sealeth the sufferings and comforts of Christ in our harts; euen to the king euerlasting, immortal, inuisible, and God onelie wise, be honour and glorie, for euer and euer. Amen.

The Conclusion to the Reader, for the cleering of certaine obiections made against the doctrine before handled.

I Promised thee (Christian reader) in ye preface of this booke, to giue thée a ta [...] in the conclusion how rashly & weak­ly the doctrine, which thou hast now read, was confuted, before it was printed, by one that professeth Pag [...] ‘He could not forbeare but imploy his talent to cleare the holy cause (as he calleth it) from all the corrupt fansies and vaine imaginations of men:’ which, God willing, I meane now to performe. Thou must not looke that I will wast time and paper to settle a giddie head, or stoppe a running rounge; but when by some particu­lars I haue made it appeare how vnfit he is to bée refuted, or so much as regarded by mée; I will leaue him to the depth of his follies. For though he point plainlie to my sermons, in directing his treatise:pag [...]8 [...] contrary to certaine errors publikly preached in London, and sticketh not to Pag. 89. name me; yet because he flyeth from the state of the chiefe Question which I im­pugned, and taketh the paines to ouer skip all my authori­ties with silence, if not with contempt, and in reporting my reasons forgetteth and dissembleth what pleaseth himselfe, as also in the defence of his holie cause he roueth as he li­steth, neither kéeping himself to any order, nor bringing any matter of moment, but confusedlie powring out the hastie resolutions of his owne braines, spiced euerie where with ignorant & absurd positions: neither my leasure nor my li­king suffer me to seeke him out, that hath so farre lost him­selfe, nor to vouchsafe him an answere, that so proudlie despi­seth all authoritie and antiquitie, which sorteth not with his fansie. I will therefore shew thée (good Reader) some exam­ples [Page 226] of his insolent reiecting the Fathers, of his forgetfull or wilfull altering my reasons, of his impertinent proouing that which is not questioned, and skipping that which should bée prooued, of his erroneous and dangerous assertions, of his intolerable ignorance in the tongue, whereof he so much vaunteth, and then leaue thée to God, if thou loath not the rea­ding, as I did the writing before thou come to the end.

Where I tooke for my text, these words of S. Paule, Galat 6. God forbid that I should reioice but in the crosse of our Lord Iesus Christ, whereby the world is crucified to me and I to the world. This cōfuter would beare men in hand, that I mistooke my text, & forced a false conclusion from it. Pag 31. ‘This (saith hée) is not onely an obiection, but euen a foundation and principall ground of this errour, but so mistaken and forced as nothing may be more. My reasō hée maketh to be this; Christs soule was not crucified but only his bodie; therefore Christs bodie onlie suffe­red, and not his soule.’ By this (gentle reader) it may plainlie be perceiued, how well this gainsaier obserued my proofs. I drewe no reason from these words, but proposing them for my theme, tooke occasion from them to laie downe; first the contents of Christs crosse, how far it extended; and then the effects of Christs crosse, how much it performed, which is the generall methode of the whole treatise. In the contents of Christs crosse my words are these. Rightly then maie the Crosse note all manner of miseries, forsomuch as our Sauiour going from the garden to the graue suffered all sorts of afflicti­ons; Vide pag. 4. which I before specifying amongst others named these, shame, reproch, and all sorts of deadlie paines, besides heauines of hart, and agonie of mind, which oppressed him in the garden; and this I made no different signification, but rather a partici­pation of the crosse of Christ. When I came to Christs suffe­rings on the Tree, as Peter speaketh, I vsed these plaine words: the rest (of his torments) which went before, not being excluded as superfluous, but continued and increased by that [...]harp &. extreme martirdome which he suffered on the Crosse. [Page 227] Did I then make any such conclusion out of these words of Paul as you imagine, Sir confuter? or did rather your wit & memorie so slenderlie serue you, that you could not conceiue or carry away the maine methode of my sermons, distinctly laid downe at my first entrance into this matter? But as you begin with my Theme, so you continue with the whole discourse, mistaking, forgetting, peruerting and maiming all that I alledged or concluded.

Neuerthelesse you take it to bee cleare,Pag. [...].that this text was mistaken by me, for the Apostle here speaketh not of the personall sufferings of Christ, but of the godlie, which they suffer for Christs truth sake. To dimme ties twy light is clearer then Sunne shine; and to a man of your vnderstanding falsehood may bee clearer then truth; but knowe you Sir H. I. that I mis­tooke not my text. For albeit the CROSSE bee some times taken for the afflictions of the godlie; yet THE CROSSE OF CHRIST is no where in the scriptures so taken. Again though we be 2. Cor. 17. vers 30. permitted and Iacob. 1. ver. 2. commanded to reioice in our afflictions, yet to make it a thing detestable to reioice in anie thing else, as the Apostle here doth, by saying, God for­bid that I should reioice but in the Crosse of Christ; hath no ground in diuinitie. Himselfe saieth else where; 2. Cor. 11. Of such a man (as was taken vp into Paradise) will I reioice; of my selfe I will not reioyce, except it bee of mine infir­mities. Our Sauiour saieth to his Disciples, Luke. 10. Reioice rather because your names are written in heauen. But of Christ crucified, it is pietie and dutie to saie, God forbid that wee should reioice but in the Crosse of Christ. For as to the Co­rinths the Apostle refuseth 1. Cor. all knowledge saue of Christ, and him crucified: so here hee renounceth all reioycing saue in the Crosse of Christ, that is in Christ crucified. This to bee the full and plaine meaning of the Apostle in this place is to me as cleare as daie light, and I hope will so seeme to thee (Christian Reader) if thou marke the words of Saint Paul in the 12. verse of this verie Chapter, where hee chargeth [Page 228] the false Apostles with vrging Circumcision, because they would auoid persecution for the crosse of Christ:Gala. 6. v [...]. 12 They con­straine you (saith hee) to be circumcised, onely because they would not suffer persecution for the Crosse of Christ; protesting the contrarie for himselfe in these wordes, but God forbid that I should reioice but in the Crosse of Christ, VVHER BY THE VVORLD IS CRVCIFIED TO ME, AND [...] TO THE VVORLD: Meaning he doth not onely refuse the fa­uours, but despise the terrors of the worlde for the crosse of Christ. In the first part of this comparison betwixt himselfe and those that flattered the Iewes with teaching circumci­sion for feare of affliction, put your interpretation to yt words of the Apostle, and sée how absurdly it matcheth with them. They constraine you to bee circumcised, onely because they would not suffer persecution for the crosse of Christ, that is as you expound it, because they would not suffer persecution for "the afflictions of the godlie. Hath this exposition either sense or reason in it? Or else is it euident that the Apostle here mea­neth by the crosse of Christ, the slander & shame of Christs suf­fering on the Crosse, which the Iewes so abhorred, that they pursued all that preached or beléeued it? Then consequentlie Paules reioycing in nothing but in the crosse of Christ contra­rie to their course must needs import, that he reioiced in no­thing so much as in that shamefull death which the Sauiour of the world endured on the crosse; and to that and he saieth in the former Chapter, where hee more largelie h [...]ndleth this matter; Gal. 5. ver. [...]1. If I yet preach circumcision, why doe I yet suffer persecution? Then is the slaunder of the crosse abolished; meaning there was none other cause why the Iewes hated and persecuted him, but for preaching Christ crucified, to bee the true and onlie meane of our saluation, without circum­cision or whatsoeuer ceremonies of the law.

As the text is cleere with the sense [...]hich I followed, so the fathers concurre with the same. Christ (saieth Austen) T [...]act in Io­ [...]. [...]. chose that kind of death to hang on the crosse, that a Christian might [Page 229] saie, [...]ar be it from me to reioice but in the crosse of Christ. Chry­sostome vpon this place, Chry [...]o [...]. [...] Galat [...] [...] what is the reason (saith hee) that Paul so reioyceth in Christes crosse? because Christ for my sake [...]oke the shape of a seruant, and for my sake endured that hee suffered. Adding far [...]her. Chry [...]o [...]. [...] Galat [...] [...] Annon est gloriandum, quum ille dominus, quiverus est deus, non erubescit pro nobis crucem subi­re? Haue we not good cause to reioice when that Lord, which is true God, was not ashamed to endure the crosse for vs? Paul doth Ierom in Galat. 6 not reioice (saith Ierom) in his owne righteousnesse or knowledge, but in the faith of the crosse, by which all my sinnes are pardoned me. Christ Beda. in Galat. 6 bearing his crosse on his shoulders, (saith Bede) commendeth it, that Paul might saie, be it far from me to reioice but in the crosse of Christ. He was despised in the eyes of the wicked for that, wherein the heartes of the Saintes should reioice. I sta [...]e somewhat longer (gentle Reader) on this point; for that, as it had bin a childish ouersight in me at the verie first entrance to mistake the meaning of my text; so it is more then a malepart tricke in him vniustlie to cha­lenge me for it; but I ma [...]e the better content my selfe with it, since this Refuter s [...]icketh not to vse all the Fathers with like disdaine, whereof I will giue th [...]e an example or two, that thou maiest see the headinesse of this hasty writer.

In the contents of Christs crosse, I obserued out of, Vide pag [...] Au­gustine, Vide pag [...] Ierom, and Vide pag [...] Bernard that no violence of death wrested Christes soule from him, as it doth ours; but when he sawe his time, hee euen at an instant laide it downe of himselfe, no paines hastening his death. Page [...]This is a p [...]ra­doxe in Nature (saieth this Controller) and contrary to scrip­ture which saith, he was like vs in all things sinne only excepted.’ You might giue the learned and auncient Fathers better wordes Sir trister, what soeuer you do me; your wits are too weake to refute their resolution. For where like a P [...]ncée, you praie you know not what, they ground them [...]lues on the plaine and expresse wordee of the scriptures. [...] No man (saith our Sauiour) taketh (my soule) from mee, but I la [...]e it [Page 230] downe of my selfe: I haue power to laie it downe, and haue power to take it againe. Howe thinke you Sir; coulde anie violence or paines of death take Christes soule from him; or had hee power to laie it downe when and as he woulde, which no man else euer had or shall haue? you replie, he was "like vs in all things, sinne only excepted. Such proofes became well your person. Was he like vs in his birth? can we lie in the graue without corruption, as he laie? or raise our selues from death as he did? Reade more for shame and write lesse, till you bee better aduised, or better instructed. Upon these words of Christ, I haue power to laie down my soule, and haue power to take it again, Chrysostom writeth thus; Homili. 69 In Iohannem. vtrum (que) nouum fuit & praeter communem consuetudinem. Potestatem ha­beo ponendi eam: hoc est, ego solus potestatem habeo, quae vobis non est. Both these (powers) were strange and aboue the common course of men. I haue power to laie down my soule, that is, I A­LONE haue this power, which you haue not. If you denie this that Chrysostom saith, remember what God himselfe saith: Luke. 12. ô foole this night shal they fetch away thy soule frō thee, which Christ saith none could do from him, because he had power by his fathers appointment to laie it down of himselfe.

In like sort, when I shewed not mine own opinion, but the iudgments of the ancient fathers as well for the causes that might be of Christes Vide pag. 19 agonie in the garden, as for the mea­ning of his Vide pag. 34 complaint on the crosse, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me; obserue (gentle Reader) I praie thee, how absurdly he roleth from the one to the other, & how inso­lentlie he reiecteth al the fathers, for that they vphold not his humour of hell paines to be the ground of both. I alleaged Ierom and Chrysostom, that Christ on the crosse cited the be­ginning of the 22. Psalme, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, that the Iewes might knowe they had fulfilled the words of the prophet Dauid in that psalme foreshewing "the passiō of Christ. His answere is, Pag 66 this sence is most absurd. To Athanasius, Augustine, and Leo, that Christ spake those [Page 231] words in the person of his church, which then suffered in him and with him, he saith,Pag. 67 This is no lesse absurd then the former, there is no reason or likelihood for it. When I brought Ierom," Ambrose, Austen, and Bede, that in the garden Christ might sorrow for the reiection of the Iewes, who would pul the ven­geance of God on their owne heads, to the vtter destruction of their whole nation by putting him to death, this Confu­ter foolishly and forgetf [...]lly maketh this an interpretation of Christes complaint on the crosse, and addeth; Pag 68. This is more fond and absurd then the other. So when among other causes" of Christs agony in the garden that might [...]e, (for I tooke vp­on me to determine none) being sixe in number, I brought this for one out of Ambrose, that Christ sorrowed for vs, was SAD for vs, and GRIEVED for vs, he LAMENTED OVR VVOVNDES, not his, OVR VVEAKENES, not his owne death, Pag. 68. ‘This in effect (saith hee) is nothing but what wee affirme, howbeit this ought not to haue anie place heere; Pag. 69. how could these wordes hang together, when hee meaneth to tell his father howe zealous hee is for his glorie, to saie; My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? There is no fashion in them thus signifying. What you speake boldlie but errone­ouslie of the sonne of God; Pag. 55. It cannot bee strange if often times Christ fell amazed, confounded and forgetfull of him­selfe for feare and griefe,’ I maie trulie and iustlie say of you; it is not strange to see you amazed, confounded and forget­full in your writing. What I spake of Christes agonie in the garden, you applie to his complaint on the crosse, and sale, the words will not hang together. Góod Sir awake out,, of your sleepe, and learne at least to vnderstand before you aunswere.

As this presumer euerie where with disdaine casteth away the iudgements of the fathers which I produce, & preferreth his owne peeuish conceite before them all; so when he repor­teth my reasons, he either ignorātlie mistaketh them, or pur­poselie peruerteth them, y they may the lesse encumber him. [Page 232] In the effectes of Christes crosse I noted out of the Apostle to the Hebrues three properties of the true propitiatorie sacri­fice which tooke awaie the sinne of the world;Vide page. 18 It was a bodi­lie, a bloudie, and a deadlie sacrifice, and amongst manie reasons to confirme the same, I brought these two, which the conf [...]ter after his forgetfull maner roueth at. The first in ef­fect was this. The true sacrifice for sinne, which the Redee­mer should offer, was shadowed and foreshewed by the sa­crifices which God commanded and accepted in the old testa­ment: but the sacrifices of the Patriarches and of the faith­full appointed by Moses foreshewed and figured a bodilie, bloudie, and deadlie sacrifice, and no paines of hell; therfore the true sacrifice for sinne was made by the bodie, bloud and death of the Redéemer, and not by the paines of hell suffe­red in his soule. The second this; As the sacrifices of the law prefigured what the Sauiour of the world should do for the abolishing of sinne; so the sacraments of the newe testa­ment confirme and scale that performed in the person of Christ Iesus, which was the true propitiation for our sinnes, and price of our redemption: but the sacraments of the new testament, and speciallie the Lordes supper, declare and con­firme vnto vs the bodie of Christ giuen for vs vnto death, and his bloud shed for the remission of our sinnes; therefore this was the true propitiation for our sinnes, and price of our redemption, and not the paines of hell suffered in the soule of Christ, as some imagine. To the first the Confuter answereth; Page. 11. ‘The proposition is false taking it generally. The carnall sacrifices of the Iewes signified that which they were apt to signifie, but not anie further. The sacrifices of beastes coulde not prefigure the personall vnion of God and man, nor the rea­sonable and immortall soule of Christ, nor his resurrection, all which were necessarie pointes in the meritorious sacrifice. Se­condlie he denieth the assumption. Page. 12. For certaine of the Iewes sacrifices set foorth the sufferinges of the soule of Christ also.’ As the scape Gote in the 16. of Leuiticus, which was a sin offe­ring, [Page 233] though it were sent awaie free and vntouched. To the reason drawne from the Sacraments, hee saieth, Pag. 14. Wee are to answere as we did before. ‘These are bodilie and earthlie Ele­ments, and therefore fitte to set soorth bodilie and apparant ef­fects in Christ; they can not set out the spirituall and inuisible effects in him. And yet the ceremonie of breaking the bread, which is to shewe that Christes bodie was broken for vs, can not belong properlie to the bodie, but to the soule.’ These I trust are your words; now heare my replie. I had no such proposition as you frame to your selfe, that either the sacrifices of the lawe, or Sacraments of the Gospel, were figures of our whole and absolute redemption, which is (as you expound it) of all the fruits and causes of our redemption. This is your eua­sion, not my proposition; I tolde you that as God had pro­mised, so the faithfull beléeued, that his owne sonne should be the Seede of the woman, and by his death and bloud should purge their sinnes. To continue this promise and con­firme the faith of all before and vnder the lawe, God ap­pointed bloudie sacrifices, as continuall remembrances and figures, not of the person, nor of the function of Christ; but of the Sacrifice, by which hee shoulde abolish sinne; to wi [...]te, by his bodie slaine, and his bloud shedde, which the carnall sacrifices were fittest to resemble, since God would not haue the bloud of anie man, but of his owne sonne shedde for remission of sinnes. My propo­sition then speaketh of the true sacrifice for sinne, and a­uoucheth that to bee the true sacrifice for sinne, which was shadowed and figured by the death and bloud of those beasts, that God comma [...]ded to bee offered vnto him. This pro­position you doe not denie, for you graunt, pag. [...]1.52 The Iewes sacrifices signified what they were apt to teach, and signifie: but they were apt and ordained of GOD to teach the Iewes, that, by the death and bloud of the Messias, they shoulde bee redeemed and saued from their sinnes; ergo they were apt and ordained of God to figure and shadowe [Page 234] the true propitiatorie sacrifice. And so the patriarkes and Prophetes beléeued and expected, whose faith and hope could neither be vaine nor frustrate, since they were thereto directed by Gods owne appointment.

This proposition, be you Christian or Iewe, you may not denie; and therefore you doe well to denie the assumption, and to affirme that certaine sacrifices of the Iewes, as namelie the scape Goate in the 16. of Leuiticus did signi­fie the immortall soule of Christ, which wasPage. 12: a sacrifice for sinne, and did properlie beare our sinnes, and suffer for our sinnes.But Sir, if a man aske you howe you proue that the scape Goate signified the soule of Christ, what haue you to saie? Because both Goates (saie you) are a sacrifice for sinne, as the Text speaketh. You abuse the Text, and de­ceiue your selfe. The wordes are. Aaron Leuit. 16 vers. 5. shall take of the assemblie of the children of Israel two hee Goates f [...]r a sinne offering, that is to make a sinne offering of one of them, on which the Lordes lotte shall fall; So followe the wordes in the 8. verse of that chapter. Aaron shall cast lottes ouer the two hee Goates, one lotte for the Lorde▪ and another lotte for the scape Goate. And Aaron shall offer the Goate on which the Lords lot shall fall, and MAKE HIM A SINNE OFFERING. The taking of the Goates from the people doth not make them sacrifices for sinne, but the of­fering them vnto the Lord by the Priest: so that though two were taken, yet lots were cast which of them should hee the sinne offering, and which of them the scape Goat, which con­sequentlie was no sinne offering, because that was made a sinne offering, on which the Lords lot fell. And so if the scape Goate did signifie the soule of Christ, as you affirme more boldlie then wiselie, then was not the soule of Christ a sinne offering, neither did it suffer for sinne, if your owne ex­ample maie bee trusted. Howbeit what the scape Goate signified, I am not so forwarde to pronounce as you bee, though I haue better warrant so to doe then you haue. [Page 235] For Cyrill, or as some thinke, Origen writing vpon that place of Leuiticus [...] In Leuit. lib. [...] If all the people of God were ho­lie, there shoulde not bee two lottes cast vpon the Goates, one to bee offered to the Lorde, the other to bee sent to the desart; but there should bee one lotte, and one offering to the Lord alone. But nowe where in the number of them that come to the Lord, some belong to the Lord, some deserue to bee cast awaie, and seuered from the Lordes offering; therefore part of the sacrifice which the people bring, to wit one of the Goates, is offered to the Lorde, the other is cast off, and sent into the Desart. Ambrose in the like sense. Lib. 1. epist▪ 4. As of two founde in the fielde one istaken, the other forsaken; so are there two Goates, one fitte for sacrifice, the other to bee sent awaie into the Desart. Hee serued for no vse, neither might hee bee eaten or tasted of by the children of the Priestes▪ Beda ioyneth with them. In Leuit. ca. 1▪ If all the people were holie, there shoulde not bee two lottes vpon the Goates, but one lotte, and one offering; nowe when manie are called and fewe chosen, part of the peoples sacrifice is offered to the Lord, the other parte is cast awaie. Or else this maie bee vnder­stoode of Iesus and Barrabas, that one of them, which was the Lordes lotte, euen Iesus was slaine; the other accursed caitife was sent into the Iewes Desart, bearing the sinnes of the people that cried, Crucifie him. So that the scape Goate by the iudgement of these fathers signified the reprobate a­mong the people; and not the soule of Christ; as you bold­lie auouch. But did it signifie the soule of Christ; what gaine you by that? The scape Goate was neither done to death, nor made anie sinne offering, as you falslie suppose, but was separated from the Lords offering, and let go free and vntou­ched. Then by your owne similitude the soule of Christ neither died anie death, as you after falselie and absurd­lie conclude, that the soule of Christ died, and was cru­cified; neither was it anie part of the offering for sinne to GOD, which you so much endeuour to proue. Such is [Page 236] your vnderstanding, that by your owne examples, you ouer­throw your owne positions, whiles you labour to establish them with faint conceits of your owne deuising.

[But in the burnt offering or holocaust prescribed, Leui. 6 you find more helpe then in the scape Goate, to proue that Christ soule suffered for our sins as wel as his body.] If you meane that Christs soule suffered the paines of hel, I would faine sée how you proue that out of the holocaust or burnt of­fering. If you thinke the name of fire doth somewhat relieue you, remember, Sir, besides the sundrie references that fire hath in the scripture, the Leuit. 7. ver. 2. holocaust was first slaine, and after burnt; and therefore vnlesse you will fasten the fire of afflictiō as you call it, to Christs body or soule after his death, the bur­ning of the dead sacrifice by fire will little further your pur­pose. Again, in one and the same fire was the holocaust con­sumed. If this therefore touch the death and passion of Christ, his bodie and soule must iointly suffer one and the same kind of affliction; which is the thing you so much impugne. And since by your owne position the bodies of beasts pag. 11 could not "prefigure the immortall and reasonable soule of Christ, how com­meth it now to passe that ye body of the holocaust after death shall signifie as well the soule as the bodie of Christ? Can you thus plant and plucke vp with a touch? It is no waie denied or doubted by mee, that the soule of Christ was af­flicted and tormented with sorrow and paine all the time of his passion; which this Trister so much laboureth to proue; and therefore if the holocaust did signifie the whole manhood of Christ suffering for our sinnes, it could not preiudice anie thing, that I did or doe teach, as anon thou shalt (gentle Reader) more plainlie perceiue; but yet whie the burning of the holocaust should signifie Christes affliction on the Crosse, either in bodie or soule, I see no proofe made by this Confuter; [...]nd why it should not resemble Christes af­flictions before death, these two reasons mooue me. First it was burnt after it was dead; next it was wholie consumed [Page 237] by fire; neither of which can accord with Christes sufferings or the crosse: but by the burning of that sacrifice, I take ra­ther the acceptation of Christs death, or his incorruption af­ter death to be signified. For that part of each sacrifice which God reserued for himselfe, and receiued to himselfe, was al­wayes burnt with fyre; and the Hebrue word, HOLAH, which the Scripture vseth for the holocaust, signifieth Gen. 8. Exod. 29. Leuit. [...]. that which ascendeth vp to God (by fire;) whence God is often saide in the scriptures, when hee accepteth an holocaust, to smel a swéete sauour. Which words saint Paul applieth to the death of Christ in saying, Christ gaue himselfe for vs to be a sacrifice vnto God of a sweet smelling sauour, that is well pleasing and acceptable vnto God. So likewise because the fire consu­med in the holocaust all that was subiect to corruption, the holocaust may signifie Christs incorruption after death. This sense S. Austen approoueth, when he saith. August. in. psal. 50. Sic leuetur holocau­stum vt absorbeatur mors in victoriam; Let the holocaust so as­cend that death bee swallowed vp in victorie. And againe, August. in psal. 65. Quando totum consumitur igne diuino, holocaustum dicitur. Totum moùm consumat ignis tuus, nihil inde remaneat mihi, totum sit tibi. Hoc erit in resurrectione mortuorum, quando mortale hoc induerit immortalitem. Cum absorbet ignis diui­nus mortem nostram, holocaustum est. When the whole sacri­fice is consumed with heauenlie sire, it is called an holocaust. Let thy fire (ò Lord) consume me wholie, let nothing therof remaine mine, let the whole be thine: this shall bee in the resurrection of the dead, when this mortalitie putteth on immortalitie. When Gods fire consumeth our Death, then is it an holocaust. And other kinde of holocaust is mentioned by Saint Austen, which I mislike not. Idem. in psal. 49. Holocaustum est totum igne consumptum. Est quidam ignis flagrantissimae charitatis; totus exardes­cat igne diuini amoris, qui vult offerre Deo holocaustum. An holocaust is when the whole is consumed with fire. There is a fire of most feruent charitie, hee must wholie burne with the fire of the loue of God, which will offer to God an holocaust. [Page 238] No man euer burned with this fire comparable to Christ Iesus; whose loue towardes God and man flamed, as vnto death, so after death, most feruentlie. So that touching the holocaust the Confuter presumeth but proueth nothing; and yet if his supposall were granted, it weakeneth not the force of my reason, since by the bodily and bloudie sacrifice shado­wed in the law, I do not exclude the torments on the crosse imparted to the soule, or rather wholy discerned by the soule of Christ, but onelie the paines of hell which were neuer fi­gured by anie sacrifice, nor scaled by anie Sacrament of the old or new testament, though now they bee made the princi­pall part of our redemption, which indéede was purchased by the death and bloud of Christ Iesus.

In auoiding the reason which I drewe from the Sacra­ments of the new testament, and namelie from the Lordes Supper, in the length of six lines (Sir refuter) you contradict the definition and institution of that Sacrament, as also the plaine resolution of S. Paul, and the principles of naturall reason. ‘The Sacraments (you saie) are earthlie elements, they cannot set out spirituall and inuisible effects in Christ. I had thought Sacraments by their nature had beene visible signes of inuisible graces, which definition is so common in the schooles, that no smatterer in diuinitie besides you is igno­rant of it. Chysost. in Mat. homil. 83. Si tu incorporeus esses, nudè dona ipsa incorporea tibi tradidisset, quoniam vero corpori coniuncta est anima, in sensibili­bus intelligibilia tibi traduntur. If thou hadst been without a bo­die, God would haue giuen thee his spirituall gifts vncouered; but because thy soule is ioined with thy bodie, in sensible thinges are deliuered thee spirituall (or inuisible) graces. In Psal. 77. Where all the Sa­craments were common, (saith Augustine) Grace which is the vertue of the Sacraments, was not common to all. Ambros. de sacramentis. lib. 6. cap 1. In the Lords Supper, that there should be no horror of bloud, & yet the grace of Redemption might remaine, for a resemblance thou receiuest the Sacrament, but thou obtainest the grace & vertue of (Christs) true nature. So that if those earthly elements of water, bread [Page 239] and wine, did not set out and exhibite the spiritual and invisi­ble effects in Christ, they were no Sacraments. ‘[But the Pag. 14. Ce­remonie of breaking bread (say you) cannot properly belong to the body, but to the soule.]’In the first institution of his Supper did not Christ breake the bread, and deliuer it saying, Take eate, this is my bodie? If breaking belong to the bread, then breaking belongeth properlie to the body of Christ; for the bread was ordained to shew forth the body of Christ, & that S. Paul noteth in expresse words. 1. Cor. 10. The bread which we break, is it not the Cōmunion of the body of Christ? But Christs body (you say) was not properly broken; because ye scripture saith Iohn. 19. not a bone of him shalbe broken. A speculation fit for such a diuine as you are; had Christs body nothing in it but bones? Had he not as well flesh as bones?Luke. 24. A spirit, saith our sauiour, hath not flesh & bones, as you see me haue. Then if Christs flesh were rent & torne with whips, with nailes, with a speare, as it cer­tainly was, though his bones were whole, his body was pro­perly & truly broken. For the cutting or tearing of the flesh, is the breaking of the flesh, and from a part the whole maie and doth properly take his denomination. And therfore Paul spake truly and properlie when he thus expresseth the words of Christs institution,1. Cor. 11. This is my body, which is brokē for you. Neither doth he in that word varie from Christs institution, but he rather teacheth vs, that as the bread is broken, and the wine powred out in the Lords supper; so was the flesh of the Lords body giuen to be broken & torne on the crosse for vs, & his bloud likewise shed for the remission of our sinnes. Pag. 10. ‘The nailes & spear, (you grant) did pearce him, but in no sort can that be called breaking or bruising in peeces, as the worde in Esay doth plainlie signifie. Wherefore the meaning is the torments of his soule did bruize and breake him in peeces.’ Your Hebrue, your Greeke, & your Philosophie, came all out of one forge, they are so like. You can not finde that Christes flesh was broken and bruised on the Crosse by grieuous stripes and wounds, but you haue spied, that his soule was broken in [Page 240] peeces and that properlie. If one of the Prentices before whome you were wont to talke, should aske you into howe manie péeces it was broken, your heade would ake to shape him a wise answere. [But the word DACHA which Esay v­seth doth plainly (you say) signifie to breake in peeces.] Doth it alwaies and euer signifie properlie to breake into péeces? How can it then be applied to the soule, but improperlie and by a figuratiue kinde of speech? A Moole hill with you is a Mountaine. The worde doth signifie to treade vnder foote, to bruise, to oppresse, to humble. When Dauid saith the enemie Psal. 143. ve. 3. hath cast my life downe to the ground; Will you saie he hath broken my life in péeces? When Iob saith, Iob. 19. ver. 2. How long will yee vexe my soule, and afflict mee with your wordes, will you adde, and breake mee in peeces with your wordes? When Ie­remie saith of the men of Iudah. Ier. 44. ver. 10. They are not humbled vnto this day; Will you phrase it, and say, They are not broken in peeces to this day?

In the power of Christs death to proue the bloud of our sa­uiour to be the true price of our redemption, and that as wel of our soules as of our bodies; I alledged the words of Peter 1. Pet. 1. You were redeemed with the precious bloud of Christ; and of the souls in heauen saying vnto Christ, Reuel. 5. Thou wast killed, & hast redeemed vs to God by thy bloud; when their bodies were rotten in ye earth. Hence I reasoned, if our soules be not re­deemed frō death by the blood of christ, our bodies haue in this life no benefite of redemption, I meane from death; for wee die as doe infidels, and our bodies rot in the graue as theirs doe till the daie of resurrection. But S. Peter saieth, wee are redeemed, not we shall bee; and the saints say to Christ when their bodies lie in the dust, Thou hast redeemed vs by thy bloud; ergo that redemption which we haue in this life, must be referred to our soules; and our bodies must expect the ge­nerall daie of redemption in the ende of the world. To this our Confuter replieth, Pag. 23. What a paradox, yea what impietie is this? Haue our bodies no good at all by Christes death, [Page 241] no more then the bodyes of infidels; because wee die stil as wel as they?Good Sir remember, Redemption from death is the point which I vrged; yt our bodies in this life haue not, no more then the bodies of Infidels haue, but must expect it. And therefore if our Soules be not redeemed by the blood of Christ from Sinne & death, we haue presentlie no redempti­on by the bloud of Christ, but must staie for the time of our resurrection before we shall haue it. Which is contrarie to the words both of Peter and of the Soules in heauen, that saie to Christ when their bodies bee rotten in earth, Thou hast re­deemed vs by thy blood. Here yu tell vs of the iustification, mortification, and sanctification of our bodies, as also of the expectation of glorie, which our bodies shall haue, and thinke to make a great conquest of the words, NO GOOD AT ALL; but pull in your hornes. Besides that my meaning is verie plaine, whatsoeuer the wordes were, which I might vse, which I do not acknowledge to be these that you bring, but that our bodies haue no benefitte of Redemption from death; marke well the condition annexed to the proposition, If our soules bee not redeemed by the death and bloud of Christ; and then all these absurdities which you thought to fasten on mee, [...]all full on your owne head. For if our soules be not redeemed by the bloud of Christ, our bodies haue vt­terlie no good, euen no good at all by the death of Christ. ‘[They haue you saie Iustification, mortification, sanctifi [...]ti­on, & hope of resurrection; besides the lawfull possession of earthly things.]’ Haue our bodies these things of themselues, or from our soules first iustified, mortified; sanctified and as­sured of life? I trust you dare not saie that our bodies haue anie of these, but for and from the Soule. Then if the soule be not redéemed by the death of Christ, the bodie can haue none of these, and consequentlie my words are sound and good; & yours, if you stand to them against the condition an­nexed to mine, are prophane and false. [But I alter my words, you will saie, to my best aduantage, when I sée your obiections to preuent that danger.] It had bene fittest for [Page 242] you to haue staied the printing of mine owne wordes, and then you might haue charged me with them, and not bee repelled as a forgette [...] or misconstruer of them, or to haue gotten you a copie of that which I deliueerd out that verie summer to men of great honour and learning, a yeere and more before I euer heard or thought of your pamphlet, be­cause I founde so manie humorous heades misconcea­ning and misreporting my wordes. But your hast [...] was such; you coulde not; or your skill, you woulde not staie the sight of mine owne wordes, least they shoulde trouble you more then you were ware: and therefore out of your owne ill con [...]eaued, and worse digested Rapso­dies, you fram [...] obiections as pleaseth your selfe, which either were not mine, or not so proposed by me. And that maketh me pursue no more of your aunsweres, by reason I spende more time in recalling you to the trueth of my wordes, then in refelling your exceptions, which haue neither waight nor witnesse, more then the buzzing of your owne braine. Let vs therefore view howe well you behaue your selfe in your owne proofes, which you cannot forget or mistake.

In proposing the question, and pursuing the proofes; there is some hope (christian Reader) the holines of the confuters cause wil lead him to go plainly & soūdlie to work. Thus ther­fore he beginneth.Pag. 1.

The whole controuersy hath in it two points.
  • 1. That Christ suffered for vs the wrath of God.
  • 2. That, after his death on the crosse, he went not into hel in his soule.
Now then for the former, thus we saie and constantly auow: Christ Iesus did suffer in his whole manhoode for the redemption and sa­tisfaction of our sinnes: yea he suffered properly and immediatelie in his soule and not in his flesh only. Therefore he suffered for vs the wrath of God. This consequent is manifest and cannot be de­nied. The antecedent or first part of the former generall reason is denied and confidentlie reiected yet how falselie by Gods helpe shal [Page 243] easily appeare.

Touching the first part of this controuersie; were you awaked or a sléepe (Sir refuter) when I preached of these thinges, that you so constantlie auowe this was the question, whether Christ suffered for vs th [...] wrath of God or no? if you were present and not a sleepe, it is too much bold­nes to outface the world in print, that this was the position which I impugned. There were too manie witnesses there, for mee to denie, or you to belie, the question; you knowe it well enough, but you cannot tell how to proue that which I then reproued, and therefore you shrink from that, and dallie with generall and doubtfull termes, which according as they are expounded, may either make with you, or against you. The question proposed by me, was, whether it could be pro­ued by the scriptures, or by necessary consequent from them, that Christ in his soule suffered the true paines of hell such as the damned doe suffer, and wee shoulde haue suffered, had we not beene redeemed by him? I added, if we tooke the paines of hell metaphoricallie for great and extreame sorrowes and paines, as Dauid and Ionas did, she speach might be to­lerated; but if wee tooke them properlie for the verie same which the damned doe and shall suffer in hell, as there is no proofe for it, so there is no truth in it. To this you saie no­thing, and so to all wise men make a confession that you cannot iustifie that, which I then disallowed. Ye bee come since to tell vs that certainelie Christ suffered the wrath of God for vs; which if it be granted you, I doe not see what it canne helpe your cause, or hurt mine. For the wrath of God extendeth to all paines and punishmentes as well cor­porall as spirituall, in this life and the next, be they tem­porall or eternall. So that no paine or punishment small or great coulde befall the bodie or soule of Christ, but it must néedes procéed from the wrath of God. Wherefore your idle discourse of 32. leaues, in which you labor to proue that Christ suffered the wrath of God for sinne, might wel haue bin spa­red. Thrée lines directlie to the purpose had bin more worth [Page 244] then so many leaues thus wastfullie spent. But in the ende you conclude like a Clark, Christ suffered the wrath of God, Pag. 33. which we affirme is equall to hell it selfe, and all the tormentes thereof. What you affirme I little regarde; what you can proue is that I intend. And out of this proposition Christ suf­fered for vs the wrath of God for sinne, you shall neuer con­clude; Ergo hee suffered the true paines of hel. Were your proposition generall shal Christ suffered all the wrath of God for sinne, that is the whole wrath of God and euery part thereof due to sinne, you might well conclude; Ergo he suffe­red the true paines of hell; for hell indéede as it is the last, so is it the greatest effect of Gods wrath against sin; but from an indefinite proposition as yours is, which maie signifie the VVHOLE or SOME PART of GODS VVRATH due to sinne, you shall neuer inferre what part you list, as here you doe.

Will you, to make your consequent good, amend your an­tecedent and make it generall; that Christ suffered the whole wrath of God, & euery part thereof due to sinne? Then heare good Sir, mine answere. That proposition, besides that it no waie followeth vpon your first antecedēt; Christ suffered properlie and immediatlie in his soule, therefore he suffered the whole wrath of God and euery part thereof due to sinne: besides I saie that there is no coherence, no consequence be­twixt these two propositions; the later of them, that Christ suffered the whole wrath of God due to sinne, and euery part thereof, is most impious and blasphemous. For so neither vtter desperation, nor finall reiection, nor eternal damnation are ex­cepted, but Christ did and must suffer them all; since they are partes, yea the chiefest partes and effectes of Gods wrath against sinne. This is far from your meaning, as you often protest. Trulie I beléeue it; charitie leades me to thinke, though you be somewhat foolish in this cause, that yet you are not so diuelish as to fasten these things on the sonne of God. But you must also be so wise as to sée, that if your antecedent [Page 245] be general these wil follow, whether you mean them or no: if your antecedent be not general, but indefinite, as, Christ suf­fered the wrath of God due to sinne, that is some partes and effectes of Gods wrath due to sinne, you shall neuer make choise in your conclusion which parts he suffered, as namelie the true paines of hel & of the damned. Now choose which you will, either the inualiditie of your argument, or the impietie of your antecedent; the one will proue you to lack learning, that you sée not the difference; the other that you want chri­stianity, if you should not with mouth disclaim, and with hart detest that horrible blasphemie.

You wil pretend I know, your conclusion is not general: no more indeed is it; your words are, therfore Christ suffered for vs the wrath of God;’but this conclusion beeing indefinite, and verie doubtfull, will do you no good in the fortifieng of your cause. For Christ may suffer the wrath of God in his bodie, yea in his soule hee maie suffer it, and yet not the paines of the damned, or of hell: but because you make this the maine foundation of your whole matter, let vs looke somewhat better into it. You labour to proue by a long pro­cesse that Christ suffered the wrath of God for sinne. First then what meane you by the wrath of God? I hope you doe not meane anie inwarde affection or perturbation in God, but as you expo [...]nde your selfe Pag. 37. the verie effectes of his iust wrath; you shoulde saie, of his iustice and power punishing" sinne. And this warning (gentle Reader) if thou bee simple I must giue thee, (for the learned knowe it of themselues,) that when thou readest in the scriptures, or hearest me rea­son of the wrath of God, thou doe not imagine that God is mooued with anie inwarde mutation, but the punishment ordained for sinne by the iustice of God, or inflicted on vs when we haue sinned by the hand of God, (whatsoeuer mean it please him to vse) is called the wrath God. Ambrose saieth well; In cap. [...]. [...] Rom. Ira est non ei qui iudicat, sed illi qui iudica­tur; It is no wrath to God that iudgeth, but to him that is [Page 246] is iudged. Greg. moral. lib. 20. cap. 24 Quia culpas percutit irasci dicitur, saieth Grego­rie; God is saide to be angrie, because he punisheth our sinnes. And so Austen. August. de ciuitate dei. li [...] 15. cap. 25 Ira de [...]non perturbatio animi eius est, sed iudicium quo irrogatur pana peccato. The wrath of God is no affection of mind in him, but his iudgment whereby punish­ment is inflicted for sinne. The conclusion is; August. in Psal. 78. nomine irae intelligitur vindicta iniquitatis, by the name of (Gods) wrath is vnderstoode the punishment of iniquitie. It is then eui­dent that by the name of (Gods) wrath, throughout the scrip­tures, is vnderstoode the vengeance or punishment prepa­red or inflicted for the sinnes of men. Nowe what particu­lar punishmentes God hath prouided for sinne as well in this life, as the next, to chastise and reuenge both the bo­dies and soules of sinners, woulde aske long time to re­hearse. The greatest and foarest are these iudgementes, which are executed on the wicked, in the worlde to come; to witte, reiection from the kingdome of God, and condem­nation to hell fire, where not onelie darkenesse amazeth the eies, and remembrance of sinne committed afflicteth the conscience, but an intolerable flame of fire tormenteth both soule and bodie for euer. These terrible iudgementes of GOD against sinne the Scriptures publish and de­nounce to men in this life, that if the loue of heauen doe not winne them to obedience, the feare of hell shoulde hold them from resisting and contemning God. The greatest torment that in this life canne befall a sinner is desperati­on; when the soule of man, conuinced in her selfe by the number of her hainous ofsences, loseth all hope of life to come, and casteth her eies wholie on the fearefull tormentes of hell prepared for her; the continuall thought and fright whereof doe so amaze and afflict the comfortlesse soule, that shee sinking vnder the burden feeleth in her selfe the horrour of hell before shee come to it. So that the losse of heauen, and feare of hell maie torment wicked and desperate persons in this life; but the execution thereof, [Page 247] after this life, shall breede an other manner of astonishment and torment, then they canne yet conceaue. If the thought of these iudgementes and punishmentes, ordayned by Gods power and iustice for sinners, so afflict men, what shall the sight doe? If the feare of hell bee so intolerable, what shall the flame bee? when therefore you saie (Sir Re­futer) Christ suffered for vs the wrath of God; wee must not content our selues with that generall worde, you must tell vs in particular what partes and effectes of GODS wrath Christ endured, before you canne auouch that which hee suffered, to bee equall to hell and all the tormentes thereof. Did hee suffer hell fire either in soule, or in bodie? the damned shall suffer it in both. Did hee finde or feare himselfe to be excluded from the kingdome of God? the dam­ned doe see themselues shut out for euer. If hee neither felt nor feared the MYST, the VVORME, the FIRE of hell, nor so much as DOVBTED the LOSSE of Gods kingdome, what tormentes equall to hell canne you name vs? [The wrath of God you will saie, is equall to hell and all the tor­ments thereof]. The wrath of God is hell, and so are all the tormentes of hell; yea they are the sharpest effectes of Gods wrath against sinne. And therefore neuer plaie with gene­ralities and ambiguities, but expresse plainly what other ef­fectes of Gods wrath you meane. For since the losse of hea­uen, the darkenesse, worme, and fire of hell, and the feare of both bee the greatest and sorest iudgementes of God a­gainst sinne, that are decreed by his iustice, reuealed by his word, and executed by his power, in this life or the nexte: wee plainelie and truelie saie you can name vs none other effectes of Gods wrath equall to these. If then it be hay­nous impietie to saie, Christ suffered these, and none other are equall to these, take backe your lauishing vntruth, that Christ suffered the effects of Gods wrath, equal to hel and all the tormentes thereof;’for my part I see neither sense nor rea­son in it.

[Page 248] ‘[But it shalbe soundlie and euidently prooued.]’ Will you prooue you know not what? Tell first what effects of gods wrath you meane, and then on with your proofes. Your mea­ning may be such as you shall neuer prooue. It may be such as we wil easely graunt. For touching your words which you take for the castel of your cause, Christ suffered for vs the wrath of God;’ know you good Syr, Christ suffered nothing at his Passion either in bodie or soule, were it little or great, but it was an effect of Gods wrath punishing Sinne, or as you delighte to speake, it was the wrath of God. Well, if you bée so loath to expresse your mind, for feare you bewra [...]e your cause, let vs heare your proofes; Pag: 4 Thus wee saie and constantlie auow: Christ Iesus did suffer in his whole manhood for the Re­demption and satisfaction of our Sinnes; yea he suffered properlie and immediatlie in his soule and not in his flesh onlie:’ As you haue begonne so you will goe on; talking is your profession, you did your selfe wrong when you came to writing. This Antecedent as you vtter it, (your meaning is secret to your selfe) doth neither good nor hurt to the Question. That christ suffered in his whole manhood for the Redemption of our Sinnes is a thing by mee neuer doubted, nor denied; the doubt is, what he suffered in his whole manhood; and what in ech part of his manhood; for that he suffered all that he suffe­red in his whole manhood your selfe doe disclaime in the next page, when you saie, Pag: 5. ‘This greeuous Passion was in his soule properlie and immediatlie, seeing then his bodie was not touched with anie smart.’ And when I gaue sixe causes that might bee of Christs agonie in ye garden, did I so much as pretend that anie of them then touched his bodie, when he was affected with this passion of mind? And except this be your meaning, that Christ suffered some things for our Redemption in his whole manhood, and some things properlie and immediatlie in his Soule, your Antecedent hath a flatte contradiction in it selfe. For if he suffered all, that he suffered, in his whole manhood, how could hée suffer anie thing properlie and [Page 249] immediatelie in his soule? which is the second part of your owne Antecedent. And if that bee the drift of your generall reason, about which you spende 32. leaues, you maie sit downe and begin againe a newe pamphlet, that shall haue some more certaintie then this hath. For heere you roue, neither expressing, nor indéede knowing what you woulde haue; onlie you hide your selfe in this generall phrase, that Christ suffered the wrath of God for sinne; but vnlesse you speci­fie" what he suffered, I do not meane to brabble with you, or with anie other, about generall and vncertaine speaches. What hee suffered more then the scriptures expresse, (for I faithfullie beléeue all that is there written) I doe not easilie admit you, or anie other such presumer, to deliuer vpon your credits; when you declare what you meane, and prooue that you saie, you shall soone haue an answere.

‘[Christ (you saie) Pag. [...] assumed not our nature, nor any part of it, but ONLY to suffer in it properly and immediately, euen for the very purchasing of our redemption thereby. Otherwise he had no neede to assume both, but either the one part or the other.]’ See what it is (good Reader) for a man to loose himselfe in the wildernesse of his owne wit. To proue that Christ suffered both in bodie and soule, which is a thing by no man denied (for the question is, what he suffered, and not whether soule and bodie were ioined in Christes sufferings?) this Refuter lea­peth ouer head and eares into absurdities, not onely against diuinitie, but euen against nature, and the verie law of our first creation.Pag. 16. That the sonne of God had no END nor PVR­POSE" in taking our nature vnto his in the vnitie of person, but ONLY to suffer for our sinnes,Pag. 17. is a bolde and lewd ouer­sight;" his ende and purpose in taking our nature was not onlie to suffer for vs, but to doe all that for vs, which in his life time, and after his death, by his resurrection, ascension, and mediation he did, doth, and will do for vs. By his owne mouth he reuealed to vs his fathers will from heauen; by his example of life he taught vs all perfection of holinesse; [Page 250] by his rising he swallowed vp our death; by his intercession wee receaue all the giftes and graces of God, which wee haue or shall haue; by his sitting in heauen with our flesh, he giueth vs assurance that our mortall bodies shall bee chan­ged, like to his glorious bodie; yea the verie vnion of our nature to his is an effectuall meane to make vs one with him, as he is one with God. Had Christ not béene man, we could haue had no interest in the fulnes of his obedience, in the riches of his graces, in the Communion of his spirit, in the fellowship of his glorie, which are the helpes, supportes, and meanes of our saluation, as well as his suffering for vs: and man hee coulde not bee without a soule and a bodie; neither part ioyned with his diuine nature was sufficient to make him a man. By the lawe of our first cre­ation we are men consisting of bodies and soules; and there­fore Christ as our heade must haue both, NOT ONELIE TO SVFFER FOR SINNE, but also to quic­ken, sanctifie, and glorifie both our soules and bodyes that hee may perfite our saluation, and bring vs to GOD, without reiecting or excluding either parte of our nature. Yea so aduised you are, Sir Refuter, in your reasons, that by your owne assertion you conclude Christes flesh to bee needelesse for our Redemption: for thus you saie; Pag. 18. This suffering (of the soule by her bodie which is na­turall and by sympathie onelie) PROPERLIE DID NOT MAKE TO OVR REDEMPTION.’ What is suffe­ring, good Sir, in your learning? The receauing of the blowes, or the feeling of the paine? If you beate or cut a deade carkas, that hath neither life nor sense, will you saie it suffereth? I thinke not. There must then bee life and sense in the bodie, before it canne suffer or feele a­nie paine. Nowe, life and sense, pertaine they to the bo­die or else to the soule? If you knewe not before, as by the vnlearned discourse it seemeth you did not, Saint Au­sten shall teach you; except you will skorne him in this [Page 251] point, as you do in others. August. d [...] ciuitate dei. lib. 21. cap. 3 [...] Si diligentius consideremus, dolor, qui dicitur corporis, magis ad animā pertinet. Animae enim est do­lère, non corporis, etiam quando ei dolendi causa existit a cor­pore, cum in eo loco dolet, vbi laeditur corpus. Sicut ergo dici­mus corpora sentientia & corpora viuentia cum ab anima fit cor­poris sensus & vita; it [...] et corpora dicimus dolentia, cum dolor corporis nisi ab anima esse non possit. If wee well consider, the paine which is called bodilie paine, belongeth rather to the soule. The soule feeleth the paine, not the bodie euen when the cause of paine commeth from the bodie, and the soule greeueth in the place where the bodie is hurte; As then wee saie bodies are liuing and feeling, when the life and sense of the bodie is by the soule; so saie wee bodies full of paine, when the paine of the bodie cannot bee felte but by the soule. And so againe; Idem de ciui­tate dei. lib. 14. cap. 15 Dolores qui dicuntur car­nis animae sunt in carne & ex carne; dolor carnis tantummo­do offensio est animae ex carne. The paines which are called bodilie paines, are the paines of the soule in the bodie and by the bodie. For bodilie paine is nothing else but the griefe of the soule by the bodie. Whereof Diuines maie not doubte, since naturall reason and experience teacheth, that as the soule seeth by the eies, and heareth by the eares of the bodie; so the soule feeleth paine and offence by euerie part of the bodie, when it is wounded or wronged. If this suffering of Christes soule, by communion with his bodie, did not properlie make to our Redemption, which are your" own words; then neither the stripes, woundes, nor death of Christ did any way make to our redemption; since of all these violences offered to Christes bodie, the flesh it selfe had not the féeling but onlie the soule of Christ by communion with her bodie, or as you terme it, by Sympathie. Yea farther, by your owne rule, the flesh of Christ was néedelesse in the worke of our Redemption, for so much as his flesh could not properly and immediatlie féele any paine; but of force [Page 252] must leaue the féeling of all that was suffered to the soule; and so whiles you talke so much of the proper and immediate suffering of Christes soule, you haue cleane excluded all the sufferings of Christ, which the scripture expresseth, as not making properlie to our redemption.

‘[But Pag. 19. insteede of a false argument of mine, you will returne a reason better grounded, and of certaine truth; which is this; Whereby Adam first, and we euer since doe most properlie commit sinne, by the same hath Christ our second Adam made satisfac­tion for our sinne. But Adam first, and we euer since most proper­lie commit sinne in our soules, our bodies beeing but the instru­ments of our soules, and following the soules direction and will. Therefore Christ in his soule chieflie and most properly made satis­faction for vs.]’ Thou shalt perceiue (christian reader) by the answere to this argument, howe ill I spend the time in pur­suing this Trifler, which neither can tel what he would haue, nor what he should proue, nor whether his own reasōs make with him or against him. I made no such argument as here he pretendeth; the effect of my reason was this.Vide page. 104 The flesh of Christ must be as able to redéeme vs as Adams was to con­demne vs: but we inherit pollution and condemnation from Adams flesh; wherefore the flesh of Christ must both quicken and clense vs. The Maior is euident, vnlesse we make the di­uell more able to destroie vs by an other, then God is able to saue vs by himselfe. The Minor is cléere, without intermed­ling with the question, whence soules be deriued. I vtterlie refused to ground anie reason vpon that difficultie; I vsed Dauids words, in sinne my mother conceiued me, and as Am­brose saith, In Apologia Dauid. ca. 11. prius incipit in homine macula quam vita; pollu­tion (which is originall) beginneth in man before hee hath life. Now the soule is the life of the bodie. Then if pollution cleaue to the flesh before life come, and consequentlie before the soule come, whence soeuer it commeth; it is euident that A­dams flesh defileth and so condemneth vs. As for my conclu­sion that Christes flesh must quicken and clense vs, if the [Page 253] premisses would not support it, which they fully doe; the Scriptures will maintaine it.Iohn 6. He that eateth my flesh (saith our Sauiour) and drinketh my bloud, hath eternall life, and I will raise him vp at the last daie. I am that bread of life. If anie man eate of this bread, he shall liue for euer, and the bread that I will giue, is my flesh, which I will giue for the life of the world. My reeason standing good, Sir Refuter, let vs looke a little to yours, that you saie is so well grounded, and of certaine truth. How prooue you your first proposition, ‘In which part Adam did first Sinne, by that part Christ must satisfy for sinne?’ Satisfaction for Sinne the Scripture acknowledgeth none but by death; because y Iudge in prohibiting Adam to trans­gresse threatned death:Gene. 2. In the day that thou eatest therof thou shalt die the death: and the Apostle saith plainlie; Hebrue [...] 9. Christ is the mediator of the new testament, that THROVGH DEATH, which was for the REDEMPTION of the transgressions in the former Testament, they which were called might receiue the promise of eternall inheritance. If nothing might satisfie for sinne but death; then consequently the Soule of Christ which could not die, could not paie the satisfaction for our Sinnes, howsoeuer Adam did, and we still doe sinne, most properlie with our Soules. This is but a straw in your waie; for you stiflie, but absurdly, if not impiously defend, that Christ died the death of the Soule;Vide page 79. yet because the Scriptures and Fa­thers with one consent auouch the contrarie, yea S. Austen is so peremptorie therein that he asketh, QVIS AVDEAT DICERE, VVHO DARE AFFIRME IT? you shall giue mee leaue to tell you that the Apostle denieth your Maior, till you can make it good, not by your own vnlearned frensie, but by good testimonie of Scripture, that Christ did die the death of the Soule. Now by your assumption, that Adam most proper­lie committed sinne in his soule;’If you mean that Adams soule was the agent, his body the Instrument which the soule vsed as in all sins, so in this; that indéed is most true, but directly repugnant to your conclusion. Put that for your Minor, that [Page 254] Adams soule transgressed the commaundement with hir bodie and by hir bodie; the conclusion then followeth in spite of your hart; ergo in satisfying for sinne the Soule of Christ must be punished with hir bodie & by hir bodie; which is the thing you labour to ouerthrowe with all the wits you haue. Meane you otherwise that Adam brake the Commaunde­ment of God, not by his bodie properlie, but by his soule? Then is your assumption a manifest contradiction to the fact of Adam. For with his eares he heard the perswasion of the woman, with his eies he liked the forbidden fruit, with his hand he tooke it, with his mouth he did eat it, which was the fact that God preciselie did prohibit. God did not saie to A­dam thou shalt not like it, or desire it, which the soule of Adam did, but THOV SHALT NOT EATE THEREOF, which could not bee performed but by the hand and mouth of A­dam: and therefore Adam transgressed the commandement not by his soule, but by his bodie, euen as in murder, theft, & adulterie, these facts men commit by their bodies and not by their soules.

[But in that and all other sinnes brought to effect, the soule, you will saie, is the principall agent, the bodie is but the Instrument.] I grant it willinglie; and thence I conclude, ergo in the satisfaction for sinne, the soule must be the principall patient and dolent, and the bodie by Gods iustice must be the instrument of her paine. And here marke I praie thée (Christian Reader) whether this one ar­gument doe not vtterlie ouerthrow all that this idle discour­ser hath doone, and would doe in this whole pamphlet. For nothing is more proportionable to Gods iustice, then to ioine them in paine, that were ioyned in sinne; and to re­taine the same order in punishing, which they kept in offen­ding. But all prouocations and pleasures of sinnes the soule [...]aketh from her bodie, all acts of sinne she committeth by her bod [...]e: therefore the iustice of God both temporallie and [Page 255] eternallie punisheth the soule by the bodie; that as it hath beene the Instrument of her pleasure, so it shall bee of her paine. And if GOD obserue this course as well in his temporall as eternall vengeance on the sinnes of men, whie then shoulde not the sufferinges of Christes soule by his bodie bee truelie and properlie a satisfaction for sinne, which this great Doctor a little before said,Pag. 18. made not properlie to our Redemption?

For thy better instruction, gentle Reader, and my dis­charge, that the soule taketh her occasions to sinne, vseth her delightes in sinne, and perfourmeth her attemptes of sinne, with and by the bodie, giue mee leaue in this point to bee somewhat the longer. Cyprian in prolog de na­tiuitate Christi Caro est officina spi­ritus, qui in ea et per eam, quaecunque affectauerit, peragit & consummat. The flesh (saith Cyprian) is the forge of the soule, which in that and by that acteth and performeth, what­soeuer it affecteth. Hier. contra Iouin. lib. 2 Per quinque sensus, quasi per quasdam fenestras vitiorum ad animam est introitus. By the fiue senses of the bodie (saieth Ierome) as it were by certaine windowes, vices (or sinnes) haue their entrance into the soule. Tertullian. de resurrect. car [...]nis [...] Nus­quam animasine carne est quamdiuest in carne; NIHIL NON CVM ILLA AGIT, sine qua non est; siquidem in carne, & cum carne, & per carnem agitur ab anima, quod agitur in corde. The soule (saieth Tertullian) is no where without the flesh, as long as it is in the flesh. SHEE DOTH NOTHING VVITHOVT THAT, without which shee is not. Euen that which is done in the heart, the soule doth in her flesh, with her flesh, and by her flesh: Yea hee presseth it farther and saieth; Ibidem. A deó non sola anima tran­sigit vitam, vt nec cogitatus licet solos, licet non ad effectum per carnem deductos, auferamus a collegio carnis. Et sine opere et sine effectu cogitatus, carnis est actus. Negent factorum societa­tem, cui negare non possunt cogitatorum. Et si anima est, quae a­git & impellit in omnia, carnis obsequium est. So farre it is that [Page 256] the soule alone doth perfourme this life, that the VERIE THOVGHTS IN THEM SELVES, neuer brought to effect, we take not frō the fellowship of the flesh. Yea the very thought VVITHOVT ACT, VVITHOVT EFFECT, IS A DEEDE of the flesh. Let them now denie that to be the soules companion in works, which they cannot denie to bee her companion in thoughts. For though it be the soule, that mooueth and leadeth to all things, yet the flesh addeth her seruice. And least it should seeme strange that he affirmeth, he pointeth to the words of our Sauiour, Matth. 15. out of the hart come. euill thoughts. How trew this is that Tertullian here voucheth thou shalt soone perceiue (gentle Reader) if thou behould men in SLEEPE, in FRENSIES, in LETHARGIES, in APOPLEXIES; where the substance of the soule is no waie touched or decaied; but onelie the Instruments of her bodie, which she vseth in per­ceiuing, remembring, vnderstanding anie thing, are distem­pered, or obstructed. The experience hereof, is so easie and eui­dent euen to the simplest among men, that I shall néede to spend no more words to the learned. Tertullians conclusion is this.Ibidem de re­ [...]urrect. carnis. deum non licet aut iniustum iudicē credi, aut inertem; in­iustū, si sociam bonorum operum a praemiis arceat; inertem, si sociā malorū a suppliciis secernat. Non sit particeps in sententia caro, si non fuerit & in causa. Non possunt ergo separari in mercede, quas opera coniung it. We maie not thinke God to bee an iniurious, or a negligent Iudge: iniurious, if he exclude the (soules) compa­nion in good works from (the soules) reward; negligent, if he ex­cuse the (soules) partner in euill, from the (soules) punishments. Let the flesh haue no part in the sentence, if it had no part in the cause. They cannot be seuered in wages, that were ioyned in worke. If Tertullians assumption be true, that in this life the soule can neither work, speake, perceiue, desire, nor think good or euill without the Instruments of her bodie; (excepting alwaies Gods power to inspire what pleaseth him; for hee that framed the soule can alter and chaunge it at his liking, by the immediate working of his spirit;) if Tertullians con­clusion [Page 257] be true, that God the righteous iudge of the world in his euerlasting reward of obedience, & likewise in his eter­nall vengeance for sinne will ioine and couple both bodie and soule togither; then apparentlie NO SVFFERINGS ARE SO FIT in THE PERSON OF THE REDEEMER FOR THE SATISFACTION of sinne, as those VVHICH ARE COMMON TO DOTH PARTS OF MAN, & namely which the soule suffereth from her bodie & by her bodie; which ouerthroweth all the Confuters vnsalted and vnsettled dis­course of the soules proper and immediate suffering in the person of Christ Iesus.

Doe I then denie that the soule hath anie sufferings in this life and the next, which come not by the bodie? By no meanes. For though those conioined sufferings be most an­swerable to sinnes committed; yet the soule hath some pro­per punishments in this life, as sorrow and feare, when the bodie hath no hurt, from which Christ was not frée as ap­peereth by his Agonie: and so in the next the soules of the wicked haue griefe and remorse besides the paine of fier. The remembrance of sinne shall not a little torment the wicked, but perpetuallie afflict and gnaw their consciences as a worme that neuer dieth. The losse of Gods fauour and kingdome shall not a little greeue them, when they sée others receiued into that eternall ioye and blisse, and them­selues excluded. Chrysost. in Genes. homil. 33. Gehenna grauius est a dei beneuolentia exci­dere; to fall from Gods fauour (saith Chrysostome) is more grieuous then hell it selfe; and againe, Chrysost. i [...] Mat. homil. 24 Ego illius gloriae amissionem multo amarius quam ipsius gehennae supplicium esse dico. Intoler abilis quidem res est gehenna: quis nesciat & suppli­cium illud horribile? tamen si mille quis ponat gehennas, nihil tale dicturus est quale est a beatae illius gloriae honore repelli. The losse of that (euerlasting) glorie I saie is farre bitterer then the torments of hell it selfe. Hell is an intolerable thing, and an horrible punishment: who knoweth it not? Yet if a man [Page 258] would put a thousand hels hee shall saie no such thing as this is, to bee repelled from the honour of that blessed glo­rie. Neither of these two could be in the person of our Saui­our, much lesse the paine of hell fier; no nor so much as the feare or doubt, that anie of these should or could light vppon him; which amazeth and driueth the wic­ked to desperation in this life, and often afrighteth the godlie, when they behold and consider the horror of their owne sinnes, and the dreadfull power of the Iudge. But this feare could not possesse the soule of our Sauiour, be­ing alwaies most assured of Gods fauour, and certaine­lie knowing, not onlie the counsell and decree of his father, that annointed and sent him to saue his people from their sinnes; but chieflie the coniunction of his hu­mane nature with his diuine, in the vnitie of his per­son, which neither sinne, nor death, nor diuell, nor hell could infringe or frustrate: And touching the feare of hell torments, which this discourser would faine hide vn­der the name of Gods wrath, heare (Christian Reader) what an ancient father or two saie. Cyrill examining the cause of Christs teares and praiers in the garden, and of his words, my soule is sorrowfull vnto death; repelleth the feare of hell to be the cause therof with some indignation.Cyrill. the­sauri. lib. 10. ca. 3. Sed infernum tim [...]it, inquiunt: mirum est quod haec audeant dicere. But he feared hell, they saie: It is a marueilous thing that they dare so saie. And when others affirmed,Idem de rec­ta side ad regi­nas lib 2 de sacerdotio Christi. congruit ipsi mortem formidare, periculum suspicari, flere in tētationibus, et opus habere alterius manu vt seruetur, & ad haec discere obe­dientiam ex iis quae tētādo passus est; It was fit for Christ to feare death, to suspect danger, to weepe in temptations, to haue neede of another to saue him, and to learne obedience by those temptations which he suffered, Cyrill replieth; hoc est ab­surdè & loqui & sentire, this is an ABSVRD BOTH SPEECH AND THOVGHT. His owne opinion is this. Ibidem Igitur nos eramus in illo, tanquam in secundo generis principio, cum clamo­re [Page 259] valido, & non sine lachrym [...]s adorantes, & aboleri mortis imperium, roborarique vitam olim naturae donatam precantes. Therefore wee were in Christ, as in the second roote of our nature, worshipping with strong cries & teares, & praying the imperie of death might bee abolished, and the life which was giuen to man at the first strengthned. Athanas. con­tra Arrianos. serm [...] 4. Athanasius in like manner.Athanas. con­tra Arrianos. serm [...] 4. Quî (quaeso) non absurdum impiumque, hunc dicere mortem aut infernum exhor [...]uisse, ad cuius conspectum Iani­tores inferorum metu se contraxerunt? How I praie you can it be but ABSVRD and IMPIOVS to saie that (Christ) feared death or hell, at the sight of whom the keepers of hell for feare shruncke awaie? Hilarie hauing cited Christs praier in the garden, and his complaint on the Crosse, and his com­mending his soule into his fathers handes, as proofes brought by others of Christs feare at the tyme of his pas­sion, saith;Hilarius de Trinitate lib: 10: hoc legens, & non intelligens, aut piè tacuisses, aut etiam religio se intelligentiam eius orasses: non magis per impudentem assertionem stulto furore veritatis incapax vaga­ueris. Anne tibi metuere infernum chaos, & torrentes flam­mas, & omnem paenarum vltricium abyssum credendus est, di­cens latroni in cruce, Amen dico tibi, hodie mecum eris in Paradiso? Reading this and not vnderstanding it, thou shoul­dest either with pietie hould thy peace, or religiouslie praie for the right vnderstanding thereof, and not with an impu­dent assertion wander in a foolish madnesse, as vncapable of the trueth. Wilt thou beleeue Christ feared hell gulfe, and those burning flames and depth of penall vengeance, when as hee told the thiefe on the Crosse, verelie I saie to thee, this daie shalt thou bee with mee in Paradice? What would these fathers haue saied to these that defend Christ suffered the verie same torments of hell which the damned doe, when they are soe earnest a­gainst such as imagined Christ might haue some feare of hell?

In that which is past I haue giuen thee a view (Christi­an [Page 260] an Reader) how scornfully this Confuter reiecteth the iudg­ments of the auncient fathers by mee alleaged tou [...]ing the causes of Christs agonie in the garden, and his com­plainte on the Crosse; as likewise how forgetfullie hee changeth, or purposelie maimeth my reasons, that hee maie the better auoyde them: and thirdlie how vncer­tayne his propositions, and how lame his conclusions are, that hee maketh for his owne side, yea often such as ouerthrowe his owne assertion; Thou shalt heare now some of his speciall reasons, as hee calleth them; but as the trueth is, some of his speciall absurdities, and impie­ties: wherein I will be no longer then of force I must bee; I take little pleasure in raking such an vncleane sinke.

The first is: Pag. 34. Christ suffered the paines and sorrowes for sinne which we should.’ This proposition (Sir confuter) if you take it indefinitlie as it lieth; prooueth nothing for you: you maie do well to goe to the Uniuersitie againe, whence you came afore you were wise, and there learne to put quantitie to your propositions, that wee maie know when you speake of any thing, whether you meane ALL or SOME: for if you meane here, that Christ suffered ALL that wee should, this proposition is an horrible blasphemie: then Christ suffered the LOSSE of Gods GRACE, SPIRITE, FAVOVR, LIFE, and KINGDOME, for so should wee; then hee was plunged into finall desperation, irreuocable malediction, and eternall condemnation; for so should wee. [You are farre from that frensie, you will saie.] I hope so too; neither doe I charge you with it; but if your propo­sition bee generall you cannot auoide it; and therefore, after your loose and trifling manner, you sette downe a doubtfull assertion, that maie serue for all, or for part of y which wee should haue suffered. If you meane but part, then your proposition prooueth no such thing, as you intend. For you would faine from hence inferre, that Christ suffered the paines of hell, which were due to vs; & if hee suffered but [Page 261] part of that which wee should, a wise Christian will suppose anie part, rather then the paines of hell; howbeit the Apostle teacheth mee to saie that 1 Cor. 15. Christ died for our Sinnes according to the Scriptures, and that death was the death of the Crosse, Phil. 2. He humbled himself & became obedient vnto death, euen to the death of the crosse. [That is no sufficiēt answere, you wil saie; because on the Crosse Esai. 53. He sustained our sorrowes, as Esaie said he should.] The wordes of Esaie are not, as you would faine haue them, he bare ALL our sorrowes, for then he must haue sorrowed for the losse of gods grace, fauour & king­dome, as I said before; but the prophet saith, he bare our sor­rowes, which maie receiue a double construction, and either of them verie religious and christian. The first, whatsoeuer hee felt or suffered it was ours, not his owne, that is for our sakes, and for our Sinnes. This the Prophet in the words following confirmeth, He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruized for our iniquities. The next is, he sustained our sorrowes that is such weaknes, faintnes, & wearines, as are incident to our nature; and that the Prophet confesseth in the words before, He is a man full of sorrowes, and hath experi­ence of infirmities, euen of such as naturallie offend & afflict vs. But when the scripture faileth you, you flie to similitudes of your owne making, and where Paule saith, 1 Timot [...] Christ gaue himselfe a ransome for all; you saie,Pag. 3 [...] the Scripture speaking heere after the common vse, and custome of redeeming cap­tiues taken in warre doth meane that Christ paid for vs THE SAME PRICE which else wee should haue paid. First whoe told you that the Scripture speaketh here after the common vse of Enimies, since in our Saluation the sonne of God interposed himselfe as a mediator with his father, to an­swere what the iustice of God would require at the hands of his sonne, for the pardoning of a seruant, that had offen­ded? You and your friends cannot abide to heare, that the enimie who had vs in captiuitie should haue any price for our deliuerance; you condemne that as a Manicheisme; [Page 262] and doe you nowe for an aduantage vrge that the ene­mie must haue a price for his captiue? Secondlie the price that wee shoulde haue paide was eternall condemnation of bodie and soule into hell fire. If Christ paide the same, looke wel least with séeking helpe from an enemie, you light not on open blasphemie. Lastlie to ioyne with you in your owne similitude, is it not the common vse in warres to redeeme captiuitie with monie? The Captiue himselfe is tyed to perpetuall imprisonment or seruitude; hee that will ransome a prisoner is not bounde to bee a Prisoner himselfe, but to yéelde such recompence in money or other­wise, as the conquerour shall demaunde. So that e­uen by your owne comparison, it is euident, the sonne of GOD in redeeming vs was not tied to our captiui­tie, but might yeelde his Father a greater recompence for our absolution, then our condemnation woulde haue a­mounted vnto.

Your seconde speciall follie (Sir Confuter) is groun­ded vpon the wordes of Saint Paule. Page .35. Christ redeemed vs from the curse of the Lawe beeing made a curse for vs. Whence you reason; It is vaine and senselesse to thinke that the A­postle speaketh here of two seueral kindes of curses. And if Christ sustained anie curse for vs, what curse could it be? not the curse of the lawe? or what was it? not the curse of God?’ If you aske to learne, you may bee soone taught. If you aske to brag, you maie be soone cooled. The curse of God vpon the sinne of man proceedeth from the wrath of God against the sinne of man; howbeit God curseth not onelie sinners, but other his creatures, with whom he is not angrie, but only because they shoulde not serue the pride and lustes of the wicked. When Adam transgressed▪ God cursed the earth for his sinne in saying, Genes, 3 Cursed is the earth for thy sake, thornes and thistles shall it bring thee. For not onelie the soules and bo­dies of the wicked are cursed and consumed with plagues resting in them, and on them; but all that they take in hand, [Page 263] and all that belongth to them is accursed like wise. Deutero. 2 [...] If thou wilt not (saieth Moses) obey the voice of the Lorde thy God to doe all his commaundementes, then all these curses shall come vpon thee and ouertake thee. Cursed shall thy basket bee, and thy store. Cursed shall bee the fruite of thy bodie, and the fruite of thy lande, the increase of thy kine, and the flockes of thy sheepe. The Lorde will sende vpon thee cur­sing in all that which thou settest thine hande to doe, vntill thou bee destroyed and perish, because of the wickednesse of thy workes. The rest of GODS curses there numbred vnto the ende of that Chapter, and laide vpon bodie and soule, wife and children, goods and landes, life and death of such as transgresse; peruse (gentle Reader) at thy le [...]ure, and thou shalt easilie see, how farre the curse of GOD in this life pursueth sinners; besides the horri­ble tormentes of the nexte life kept in store for them. So that as I did in the wrath of God, I must in the curse of God aske you (Sir Confuter) whether you meane that Christ suffered for vs the whole curse of the lawe, or parte thereof? if you aunswere the whole; looke in that place which I now cited, how manie kinds of curses there be reck­ned, which neuer touched our Sauiour; besides the graunde curse which closeth vp all, and continueth for euer; Matth. 25 Depart from me ye CVRSED into euerlasting fire. If you saie a parte; then proue you nothing with your hot and sharpe spurres as you thinke, when you saie; what curse could it be? not the curse of the law? or what else? not the curse of God? Christ suffered a parte of that curse, which God by his owne mouth laid on Adam and all his posteritie for sinne. Rom. 5▪ By one man sinne entred into the worlde (saieth Paul) and by sinne death. hee also suffered other partes of the curse, which GOD by his Deut. 28 lawe threatned vnto sinners, to wit verse 20.3 [...] shame and TROVBLE, 33. VVRONG and VIOLENCE, 48. CAPTIVITY and MISERY, 48. THIRST and NAKEDNES, 65▪ GRIEFE and PAYNE of bodie and minde. Besides, the verie kinde of death, to [Page 264] which he submitted himselfe was accursed by speciall words in the law, Galat. 3 accursed is euery one that hangeth on the Tree. Now to verifie the words of S. Paul, that Christ redeemed vs from the curse of the law due to our sinnes, being made a curse for vs; it sufficeth that the sonne of God, being equall with his Father in glorie and maiestie, vouchsafed to vnder­goe not all the partes of our curse, but some partes there­of. Gods euerlasting curse which is most due to sinne, I hope you will free him from. Gods spirituall curse, by which he depriueth the wicked of his trueth, of his grace and other giftes of his spirite, you must likewise cleare the sonne of GOD from. Hee cannot be subiected to that parte of Gods curse without apparant impietie. Take from him trueth, you make him a lyar; take from him grace you charge him with a reprobate minde; take from him the Spirit of GOD, you giue place to Satan to worke in him as in the children of vnbeliefe. I trust (Sir Refuter) you bee neither so wicked as to thinke, neither so desperate as to defend, that the sonne of God might suffer any of these curses. Then haue you boldelie, but falsely and lewdly con­cluded out of S. Paul, that he putteth Pag. 40. a part of the iust curse of the lawe, thereby meaning the whole. Are you so well ac­quainted with Saint Paules minde, that of your owne heade, to vphold your humorous fansie, you will vrge his meaning without his wordes, to support a manifest falsitie? The whole curse of the law containeth infatuation of minde, obduration of heart, desperation, damnation; and what not? did Paul meane, that Christ was made these thinges for vs? or could hee haue redéemed vs, if in these things he had beene yoked with vs? But that I thinke (Sir Refuter,) you sinne of ignorance, not meaning to maintaine these blasphemies, and yet including them within the largenesse of your words, through the weaknesse of your wit, I must by the duty which I owe to God, and his truth, haue giuen you other termes, then now I do; but I had rather fatherly warne you to take [Page 265] heede of these [...]ies in time, least they bring the whole curse of God vpon your owne sou [...]e, which you would so [...]ame fa­sten on Christs.

Notwithstanding your follie thus to presume without all proofe vpon the Apostles meaning besides his wordes, you haue a good conceit of your self, & like a proper man you say, I vrge then,Pag 37. let it be noted▪ Christ is said to be made a curse for vs; and before I shewed this curse was Gods curse And againe. Pag. 36. The Scripture it selfe affirmeth, hee did all that for vs: therefore who dareth denie it? Who either man or Angel shall presume to say nay?’ You haue vrged it, I haue noted it, and so haue ma­nie wise and good men more; and will you heare what I conceiue? Trulie this; you haue more néede of Phisicke to cure your braines, then of labour to rebate your argu­ments. So many, and those speciall reasons, so proudlie propo­sed, so weaklie performed, so [...]alselie concluded, did I neuer reade as long as I haue liued. Thou wilt thinke perchance (christian Reader) I speake this to disgrace the encounterer, and so to preiudice his cause with thee; mine heart God knoweth; but if thou bee not of the same minde with mee be­fore I ende with his speciall reasons, as hee calleth them, I much deceiue my selfe; speciallie if thou thy selfe bee intelli­gent and indifferent.

I hope, though I vaunt not, as he doth, there can bee no doubt, but the curse of God for sinne containeth these partes which I propose; to wit, the externall, corporall, spirituall, & eter­nall plagues and punishments, wherewith God pursueth the wicked that rebell against him. I count it as cleare, that nei­ther the eternall, nor the true spirituall curse of God cou [...]d take hold on the soule of our Sauiour. For as the greatest bles­sings that God giueth vs in this life, after he hath by mercie pardoned our sinnes, are the faith of his truth, to direct vs, the strength of his grace, to assist vs, the earnest of his spirite to perswade our hearts of his fatherlie clemencie to vs, and to inflame vs againe with the loue of his name, hope [Page 266] of his promises, and desire of his kingdome; so the greatest curse for sinne, that in this life maie befall men, is to haue his holie spirite taken from them, with all his gra­ces and gifts, that anie waie tende to saluation, and to bee giuen ouer into a reprobate sense, that with blindnesse and hardnesse of heart, they may runne headlong to their owne destruction. With these impieties and blasphemies, I trust no Christian will burthen the soule of our Sauiour; and yet these are the true spirituall curses of God against sinne. If then the soule of Christ were alwayes Iohn. [...]. full of grace and truth, and the abundance of his spirite such, that Iohn. [...]. wee all receiue of his fulnesse; If in the perfection of his holinesse, innocen­cie and obedience there coulde bee no defect; nor anie feare or doubt in that stedfast assurance of faith, hope and loue, which our Sauiour alwayes retained; howe could hee bee­ing so fullie and perpetuallie blessed of God, b [...]e also trulie accursed of him? The curse of God is not in wordes, but in déedes. Then euidentlie saint Paules meaning is and must be, that Christ, voluntarilie vndertaking some part of the curse due to our sinnes, (for the whole hee could not vn­dertake without reprobation and damnation;) not onlie dis­charged vs of the whole, but gaue vs the blessing of God pro­mised to Abraham. And to this ende I brought the testimo­nies of saint Austen, Chrysostome, and others, fullie confir­ming that I said: to which you replie, as your custome is; Pag: 35: ‘It is vaine and senselesse to thinke that the Apostle here speaketh of two seuerall kinds of curses.’ Indeede it is vaine and fruitlesse to reason with him, that preferreth his ignorant imagina­tion, before the iudgements of all the learned, and auncient fathers in Christs church; but Sir, your follies will sticke fast by you, when their expositions shall passe with all wise men for currant and good.

You quarrell as your manner is, with those parts of the curse, which I say Christ indured. For where I proposed a SHAMEFVL, VVRONGFVL & PAINFVL death to be that [Page 267] part of the curse, which Christ suffered for vs; you skirre at euerie one of these; And of the first you say: Pag. 38. Will any man of common reason affirme that (to be openly hanged on a tree) was all the curse that Christ bore for vs? Nothing but the shame of the world, because it was an ignominious death? Whether you account saint Austen, and saint Chrysostome, men of com­mon reason I know not; The Church this 1200. yeeres hath taken them for reuerend and learned fathers. You adde, It is more then absurd so to say. Iudge thou (Christian reader) whether this Prater be well in his wits, that in his [...]renzie thus reprocheth, not onelie the fathers of Christes church, but euen the Prophets and Apostles themselues, as men more then absurd, and not of common reason. Moses from Gods mouth threatneth such as transgresse the lawe, that God will send themDeut. 28. vers 20. trouble and shame, and will make them a & ver. 37. wonder, a prouerbe, and a common talke among all people. Esay foreshewing Christs sufferings, reckoneth this not for one of the least: Esay. 53. He was despised, reiected & numbred among sinners; we did iudge him plagued and smitten of God, and tur­ned our faces from him. Dauid in the person of Christ, com­plaining of the wrongs receiued at the time of his passion; putteth this as the first and the chiefest, Psal. 22▪ I am (as) a worme and not a man; a shame of men, and the contempt of the peo­ple. All they that see mee haue mee in derision; they make a mowe, and nod the heade, saying, he trusted in God, let him deliuer him, let him saue him. They gape vpon mee with their mouthes. Saint Paule himselfe vrgeth as much the shame, as the paine of the crosse; Heb. [...]2. Looke to Iesus the authour and finisher of your faith, who for the ioy set before him endured the crosse and despised the SHAME. He endured such contra­diction of sinners least you should faint in your mindes. How of­ten doth God threaten shame and confusion of face to those that fall from him? How earnestly doth Dauid euery where pray against it? Howe truly doth Daniel make this confes­sion to god?Daniel. [...] O Lord to vs belongeth OPEN SHAME because [Page 268] we haue sinned against thee; the CVRSE is powred vpon vs written in the law of Moses; because of our sinnes, Ierusalem and thy people are a REPROCH to all about vs. If the scriptures were not cleare, that shame and reproch is a chiefe part of Gods curse against sinne, howe manie wise men and good men choose death before shame? What generous nature doth not more decline slandering then wounding? In common reason to which you appeale, howe can it bee lesse wrong or griefe, to whippe the soule with reproches, then the bodie with scourges? Uerily our Sauiour who best knoweth the waight of both, giueth like reward to both: Matt. 5. Blessed are you when men reuile you, and speake all maner of euill against you for my sake, falselie; reioice and be glad, for great is your reward in heauen.

As you shuffle with the shame, which our Sauiour suffe­red on the Crosse, so you doe with his death; affirming that ‘Death may Pag. 45. in no sort heere be called a curse, because death to the godlie is no Pag 44 Vide pag. 92 curse properlie, nor punishment of sinne, but a benefite and aduantage.’ You are too yoong a Doc­tor to controll Saint Austen, whose wordes I haue alled­ged in the Treatise at large. His resolution is, that when Paule saieth, Christ was made a curse for vs, he meant Christ died for vs. Idem est mortuus quod maledictus, quoniam mors ipsa ex maledicto est. It is all one to saie, Christ died for vs, and hee was accursed for vs; because death came from the curse. This you denie; for that the godlie after death goe to heauen, which is rather a benefite then a curse to them. Good Sir, it is no benefite of death it selfe, but Christes blessing after death, that departing this life, wee goe to heauen. Did you incourage men to die, since of force for sinne dwelling in their bodies they must die; it were well said, that death is rest from their labours, and an en­trance into blisse, for so Christ hath prouided for his, when they goe hence: but if you will reason what death is in it selfe, you must resolue it to be a part of Gods curse inflicted on [Page 269] Adam for sinne, and from him naturallie deriued to all his posterity; from which though our soules be exempted, and our bodies shall be restored▪ yet it remaineth to this day a part of Adams punishment, which can not bee auoided, though it must not bee feared, because Christ hath ouerthrowne the force and feare therof with his death.Rom 5. By one man (saith Paul meaning Adam) sinne entred into the world, and by sin death. I hope it entered not as a blessing; God do [...]h not vse to blesse sinne: but it entered as a part of the wages of sinne, or curse for sinne, and so it doth and shall continue, to the ende. 1. Cor. 15 The last enemie that shall be destroied (saith Paul) is death; when this mortall hath put on immortalitie, then is death swallowed vp in victorie; till then the sting of death is sinne. If the death of the bodie be an enemie and must be destroied by Christs second comming, then is it no blessing; for those shall increase, when hee appeareth in glorie.Rom 8. If Christ be in you (saith Paul) the spi­rit is life for righteousnes sake, the bodie is deade because of sinne. If sinne bee the cause of death yet seazing on our bo­dies, it can bee no blessing, that riseth from so badde a cause; neither could the resurrection of our bodies, which Christ hath promised, and we expect at the last day, bee so great a ioy as it is; if the corruption of our bodies in the meane time were a blessing. Gods blessings be not contrarie one to the o­ther. S. Austen learnedlie resolueth this question in this sort. August. de ciuitate dei. lib. 13. cap. 5. Boni benè moriuntur, quamuis mors sit malum. The godlie die well, though death be euill. August. contra Faustum. lib. 14. cap 3. Mors hominis ex poena peccati est, quia ex peccato factum est vt moriatur. The death of mans body commeth from the punishment of sinne, because sinne brought it to passe, that man dieth. This conclusion in exact wordes Prosper collecteth out of saint Austen. Prosper in sentent. ex August. [...] Mors etiam p [...]orum poe­na peccati est. The corporall death euen of the godlie is the pu­nishment of sinne. This collection to bee true, S. Austen him­selfe confirmeth. August. de ciuitate dei lib. 13. cap. 4▪ Si vero quom mouet, cur velipsam patiantur, si & ipsa poenapeccati est, quorum per gratiam reatus aboletur tam ista quaestio in alio nostro opere, quod inscripsimus de Bap­tismo [Page 270] paruulorum tractata ac soluta est. If it moue any man, why they, whose sinne is abolished by grace, doe yet suffer the death of the bodie, if that death bee a punishment of sinne, that Question I haue handled and resolued in another worke of mine, intituled of the baptisme of infants. The effect of his reso­lution here is this. Ibidem. Per ineffabilem dei misericordiam & ipsa poena vitiorum transit in arma virt [...]tis, & sit meritū iusti, etiam suppliciū peccatoris, NON QVIA MORS BONVM ALIQVOD FACTA EST, QVAE ANTEA MALVM FVIT, sed tantam deus fidei praestitit gratiam vt mors instrumentum fieret, per quod transiretur in vitam. By the vnspeakeable mercie of God, the verie wages of vice becommeth an instrument of vertue, and the punishment of a sinner is made the merite of the righteous: not that death, VVHICH BEFORE VVAS EVILL, IS NOVV BECOME ANIE GOOD THING, but God hath shewed so great fauour to our faith, that death is the waie or meane by which wee shall passe to life. And so concludeth, that Ibidem cap. 5 Pie fideliterque tolerando auget meritum patientiae, non au­fert vocabulum poenae; By induring (the death of the bodie) religiouslie and faithfullie the merite of patience is increased, but the name of the punishment is not altered. And if death were nowe no part of the punishment of our sinnes, but a gaine to the godlie as you woulde haue it, by what meanes I praie you came it so to bee? Not by the resur­rection of Christ conquering death, and changing the na­ture of it? Then till Christ was risen, death was a pu­nishment to the faithfull themselues; and consequentlie when Christ died for our sinnes, hee tooke vpon him a part of our curse, which after he turned, as you saie, into a blessing.Chrysost. in gen. Homil. 29. Pri­mus parens propter transgressionem mortis poenam intulit, verum superceniens Christus haec omnia abstulit. Neque enim mors, vltra mors est, sed nomen tantum habet mortis. Our first pa­rent by his transgression brought in the punishment of death: But Christ comming after tooke all away. For death is no longer death, but hath onelie the name of death, August. de ciuitate dei. lib. 10. cap. 24. Ipsam mor­tem, [Page 271] quamuis esset poena peccati, pro nobis tamen sine peccato Chri­stus per soluit. Death it selfe, (saieth Austen) though it were the punishment of sinne, yet Christ that was without sinne vnder­tooke it for our sakes▪ And so for anie thing you haue yet said, or shall euer be able to say, Saint Austens assertion, which I cited before, standeth good; that because the death of the bodie was a part of the curse inflicted vpon Adams sinne, Christ vndertaking that part of the curse for vs, that is, dying in his bodie, loosed vs from the whole curse of the lawe.

Against Chrysostomes iudgement, that not onelie death, but the very kind of death which Christ died, was accursed by the very words of the lawe, saying, accursed is hee that han­geth on a tree ▪ you replie:Pag. 38. ‘Not euery one that is hanged is cur­sed: for manie innocents and martyrs are hanged, who are most blessed; but euerie one that is iustlie hanged is accursed, and so was Christ here Pag. 39.condenmed by the iust sentence of the lawe to paie his debts, for whome hee had willinglie and aduisedlie vn­dertaken. And so indeede he bare the true curse of the lawe.’ Chry­sostoms iudgement is as I reported it. Chrysost. in demonstrat. quod Christus sit deu [...]. tom. 5. Crux signum erat mortis maledictae, mortis omnium diffamatissimae. Hoc enim solū mortis genus maledictioni erat obnoxium. The crosse was a signe of a cursed death, of a death most infamous. This onelie kinde of death was subiected to the curse. And againe. Idem in epist. ad philip. [...]er. 7▪ Non quaeuis mors isti similis est, ista nam (que) omnium videbatur esse probrosissi­ma, ista plena dedecore, ista maledicta. Propterea Iudaei satagebant eum ista morte interimere, vt sinemo abstineret ab eo quod esset occisus, abstineret tamen vel ideo, quod hoc pacto esset occisus. Not euerie death was like to this. This seemed most reproch­full, most shamefull and accursed. Therefore the Iewes laboured to put him to this kind of death, that if no man would refuse him because he was killed, at least yet they should forsake him, for that he died this vild kinde of death. The kinde of death which christ submitted himself vnto was a shameful, & a cursed kind of death; as for the cause of christs death, Chrysostom was far [Page 272] from thinking Christ was iustlie hanged; he saith Christ thus honoured his father,Ibidem. Non coactus, nec inuitus sed & hoc ex suae ipsius virtute; not cōstrained, nor vnwilling, but of his own virtue or humilitie. And the Apostle warranteth Chrysostoms speech, for he saith:Phil. 2. Christ humbled himselfe, and was obedient to the death, euen to the death of the crosse. But what warranteth your spéech that Pag. 39. Christ was hanged on the tree by the iust sen­tence of the lawe?’ I had thought he had suffered the 1. Pet. 3. iust for the vniust; and hauing no sinne had beene willinglie, and by no sentence of the law, hanged on a tree.Pag▪ 39 ‘Is it wrong (you aske) for the law to lay the penaltie on the suretie, when the debtor cannot discharge it? But if it be meere and true iustice, and no wrong, then was Christ by the iust sentence of the lawe hanged on the tree, and so he bare indeed the true curse of the law. Pag. 42. For though God alwayes loued and imbraced Christ in regard of his owne in­nocent person, yet in another regard of our person, which he sustai­ned, we may say God HATED him, God CVRSED him. Ibidem. Yea he tooke our person on him, and so became by our sins, SINFVLL, DEFI­LED, HATEFVL, & ACCVRSED. Is this the holines of your cause you haue in hand, Sir refuter▪ with a simple similitude against the scriptures, against the faith, against the fathers, against the consciences of gods people, openly to pronounce the eternall and euerlasting sonne of God SINFVL, DEFI­LED, HATEFVL, & accursed of his father, for that he took vpon him the punishment of our sinnes? Your similitude had néed be sound, that shall beare the waight of these wordes; if you faile, can you tell howe déeply you come within the iust sentence of gods law, for opening your irreligious mouth a­gainst God, and his sonne? but thereof anon.

In the meane while, because with scorning Chrysostom, you make way to your vnholy cōceit, that Christ being truly ac­cursed in soule for the guilt of mans sinne Pag. 35. was iustlie hanged by the sentence of the lawe, and say it is VAINE and SENCE­LESSE to thinke the Apostle speaketh there of two kinds of cur­ses (as Chrysostom affirmeth) but rather that Pag. 40 hanging on a tree [Page 273] is set downe as a part for the whole execution of Gods iust curse, and argueth the whole to be on Christ, let vs see whether you, or Chrysostom, hee deceiued. Galat [...] As many as are of the workes of Gods lawe, are vnder the curse, (saith Paul;) for it is written, Cursed is euery man that continueth not in all things which are written in the booke of the lawe, to do them. We shall agree I hope that this is Gods curse, both temporall and eternall, laid on the bodies and soules of sinners, for transgressing a­nie part of Gods commandementes, proposed in his lawe; and to this all that haue sinned are subiected, because it is the GENERALL curse, EXECVTED by God himself vpon ALL sinne committed, either in deede, word, or thought. Galat. 3 From this curse (saith Paul) Christ hath redeemed vs, beeing made a curse for vs, as it is written, Cursed is euerie one, that hangeth on a tree. If this be all one with the other, then euerie man that transgressed Gods law in thought, word, or deede, was by the sentence of the lawe to bee hanged on a f [...]ée. Shewe that sentence in the lawe, and Chrysostom shall yeelde vnto you; if you cānot, then hāging on a trée is no necessarie part of the generall curse of God vpon all sinners, and conse­quentlie being no part of it, it is not all one with it, neither can it argue the whole to haue béen in Christ. ‘[How standeth the Apostles reason then that Christ was made a curse?]’where in sinne there are two thinges, the committing of it, and the reuenging of it by God or man in this life or the next; and magistrates had vnder Moses, as they haue vnder Christ, power giuen them from aboue Rom. 13. as Gods ministers to take vengeance (in this life) on him that doth euill; the Apostle knowing that Christ, though he committed no sinne, was yet content to beare the punishment due to sinne in his bodie on the trée; and by his smart to abolish our fault; citeth a place out of Moses, where the Iudiciall and corporall punishment of a man by death is not onelie called a curse, but counted a satisfaction for sinne, which being suffered the law had ended his forme vpon the sufferer. And so concludeth that Christ [Page 274] receauing a Iudiciall, and corporall punishment of death for our sinne, not onlie therein suffered the curse, but satisfied the force of the law, & by that curse of his suffering redéemed vs from the curse of our transgressing. The place cited out of Moses is this; Deuter. 21 if a man haue committed an offence worthy of death, and is (by the lawe) to die, and thou hang him on a tree: his body shall not remaine all night on the tree, but thou shalt bury him the same day; for the curse of God is (alreadie laid or executed) on him that is hanged. This most apparantly was a publike punishment executed by the magistrate vpon the body of the offender; and because by his open and shamefull death, which Moses rightlie calleth the curse of God, hee had satisfied the sentence of the Iudiciall lawe, God commandeth no far­ther reproch to be offered his bodie, in suffering it to hang in all mens eies any longer, but to bee buried the same daie; For that by his death the curse of God ceased. The difference betwéene these two curses is soone perceiued. Euerie sinne receaued the first curse, whereof Paul spake before; fewe crimes receaued the iudgement of this seconde kinde of curse which was to bee hanged. The first was inflicted by God himselfe: the second was executed by the magistrate. The first touched bodie and soule, in this life and the next; the second ended with the death of the bodie. The first was committing of sinne, the seconde was suffering for sinne. And therefore Chrysostomes exposition is verie true, when hee saieth; Chrysost. in ca. 3. ad Galat. The people were obnoxious to another curse, which was this; Cursed is euerie one, that continueth not in that which is written in the booke of the lawe, for there was not one of them that had fulfilled the whole Lawe; but Christ in­steede of that, tooke vpon him another curse, which said, cursed is euery one that hangeth on the tree. He that should take away the first curse, must not bee subiect to the same, but vndertake an other in place thereof, and by that dissolue the first. As if one be­ing adiudged to die (for some crime) an other, no way guilty of the same, but willing to die for him, should deliuer him from the [Page 275] punishment: So did Christ; not being subiect to the curse of trās­gression, insteede thereof he tooke an other curse, and dissolued the curse that laie on them.

‘[Before a man can be accursed by his death, hee must, you saie, be iustlie hanged; for manie Innocents and martyrs are hanged who are most blessed.]’Innocentes and martyrs, bee their soules neuer so blessed, maie beare in their bodies a shamefull death, as Christ did in his▪ and that is a kinde of corporall curse, though by men vniustlie inflicted, e­uen as death in the godlie is a remnant of Gods curse vp­on sinne, though their soules bee blessed before and after death. Yea the worde KALAL whence the Hebrewes de­riue that which with them signifieth a curse, noteth also to make vilde and contemptible, as if shame, reproch, and contempt were the greatest outwarde curse, that coulde befall anie man in this life. The cause why wee suffer it, shall make it iust or vniust; but wee must call thinges by those names, which GOD first allotted them. Nowe death, shame, wrong, reproch, and such like, God orday­ned at first to bee punishmentes of sinne, and so partes of the curse due to sinne. If wee suffer at mens handes for piety, that which God appointed to be the wages of iniquity, so wee bee patient and willing to abide the triall, which is righteous with God, though iniurious from men, the name is not altered, but the reward increased. Yea God it is, that causeth iudgement to beginne at his own house oftentimes, by the handes of persecutors; hee doth vs right, when men doe vs wrong; and dealeth not with vs according to our sinnes in the greatest wrongs that can be done vs. Therfore martyrs and innocents may do well to remember, that God hath cause enough, though man haue none; and so submit themselues as worthie of worse from Gods handes. But none of these thinges may be saide of our Sauiour, who a­lone among all the children of men wanted sinne, and suf­fered wrong; and therefore his punishments with God were [Page 276] iust, not by his deseruing, but by his desiring to suffer for man. How then commeth it to passe, that martyrs, which are sin­ners before God, are vniustlie hanged, because they deserue no such thing at mens handes; and Christ who was most in­nocent before men, and most righteous before God, you wil needs haue to be iustly hanged?

‘[The suerty (you say) by his suertiship is a debtor to the creditor and to the law; and so Christ, though most innocent in himself, yet was hee iustlie hanged, as our suretie, by the iust sen­tence of the law.]’ You mistake, Sir Confuter, as well the sentence of the lawe, as the suertiship of Christ. For though mans lawe permit, which is the rule of charitie, that men should beare each others burdens, and vndertake one for an other in money matters, and such like things which God lea­ueth in each mans will and power; yet tell me I praie, what lawe, Gods or mans, permitteth a murderer or like offen­der to be spared, and an other, that is willing, to bee hanged in his steede? I thinke mans law will allow you no such su­ertiship, I am sure Gods lawe will not. Ezech. 18 As I liue, saith the Lord, the soule that sinneth, that soule shall die. The wickednes of the wicked shall bee vpon himselfe. Hee shall haue then no suerties to die for him, much lesse shall his suertie be compel­led to die by the sentence of the law. Their monie men may giue awaie; but their liues they may not, till God call for them; and if not their liues, much lesse their soules by anie sentence of the law. The sonne of God did not by LAVV, but by LOVE interpose himselfe to beare our sinnes; Iohn 3. So God loued the worlde, that hee gaue his onely begotten sonne, that whosoeuer beleeueth in him should not perish, but haue euerla­sting life. Yea Galat. 2 the sonne of God loued vs, and gaue himselfe for vs, not by anie obligation to the lawe, for hee was aboue the lawe, and could not be bound by the lawe; and we were condemned by the sentence of the law, and not put to finde suerties. The eternall wisedome and counsell of God then out of his inestimable loue towardes vs, without the lawe, [Page 277] and before the law decréed, as to create vs, so to redéeme vs, by Christ his sonne. And the sonne not as debtour to anie, nor for anie, but of his good will and fauour toward vs, offe­red himselfe to suffer for vs whatsoeuer the iustice of his fa­ther would impose. Wherein he became not a Suertie bound to the law; but a Mediatour to God, and a Redeemer of man. Suerties that stand bounde and must paie the debt, may not looke to be Mediators; and he that redeemeth a prisoner from the enemie is not bound, but content so to doe. And that the death of Christ should be paide as a debt to the lawe whereto Christ was bounde, is to mee a strange position. I tooke Christes sufferings all this while for a voluntarie oblation to God, and not for a due obligation to the lawe, and himselfe to be a mediatour, not a debtour; his death I reckned to bee a richer offer, then man coulde owe, and a greater price then the lawe could exact. And therefore the newe testament of mercie, grace, and glorie was made by his bloud, which are other manner of purchases, then the due paiment of mans debt. Howe coulde that bee due vnto the lawe, which ouer­threw the law? Sinners, such as we are, were to die by the lawe; but that the sonne of God should die for vs, what lawe did or coulde require that at his handes? you shall doe well therefore to leaue these [...]angerous discourses, and learne to saie with the scripture and fathers, that loue, not lawe; de­sire, not debt; mercy, not necessity brought the sonne of God from his throne in heauen, to his crosse on earth.

[Such was the sentence of the lawe, you will saie, that without death he could not redeeme vs.] Naie such was his loue, you should saie, that euen with his death hee would re­deeme vs. Greg. mora [...] lib. 20. cap. 2 [...] Cum posset nobis etiam non moriendo succurrere, subuenire tamen moriendo hominibus voluit: quia nos videlicet minus amasset nisi & vulnera nostra susciperet, nec vim suae di­lectionis nobis ostenderet, nisi hoc quod a nobis tolleret, ad tempus ipse sustineret. Passibiles quippe mortalesque nos reperit, & qui nos existere fecit ex nihilo, reuocare etiam sine sua morte potuit [Page 278] à passione. Sed vt quanta esset virtus Compassionis ostenderet, fieri pro nobis dignatus est, quod esse nos voluit, vt in semet­ipso temporaliter mortem susciperet, quam á nobis in perpe­tuum fugaret. Christ when he might haue succoured vs with­out dying, woulde rather helpe man by dying (saieth Gre­gorie:) because he had loued vs lesse, if he had not taken to himselfe our woundes, neither had hee shewed vs the strength of his loue, vnlesse hee had for a tyme sustayned that, from which he deliuered vs. Hee founde vs miserable and mor­tall; yet hee that made vs of nothing might haue recalled vs from our miserie without his owne death. But that hee might declare howe greate the vertue of Compassion is, hee vouch­safed to bee that, which hee appointed vs to bee, that re­ceauing a temporall death in himselfe, hee might chase it from vs for euer. August. de Trinitate lib. 13. cap. 10 Those (saieth Austen) that aske, did GOD so want meanes to deliuer men from the miserie of this mortalitie, that hee woulde haue his onelie begotten sonne to bee made a mortall man, and to suffer death; It is not e­nough so to refute that wee shewe this waie to be good and a­greeable to the diuine excellencie, whereby God vouchsafed to deliuer vs by the Mediatour of God and man Christ Iesus, verum etiam vt ostendamus NON ALIVM MODVM POS­SIBILEM DEO DEFVISSE, cuius potestati cuncta aequa­liter sub iacent, sed sanandae nostrae miseriae conuenientio­rem alium modum non fuisse, nec esse oportuisse; but also that wee shewe God VVANTED NOT OTHER MEANES, to whose power all thinges are subiect, but that neither there was, nor coulde bee a more conuenient way to heale our misery. For what was so needefull to raise vp our hope, and to free mens mindes from despairing immortalitie, being alreadie deiected by the condition of their mortalitie, as to make euident shewe vnto vs, how much God esteemed vs, and how much hee loued vs? whereof what plainer or perfiter proofe could be made, then that the sonne of God, remaining that he was, would take from vs & for vs that which he was not, and vouchsafe to be amongst [Page 279] vs: and first without anie deserte of his to beare our miseries, and vpon vs, then beleeuing how greatly God loued vs, and ho­ping where afore wee despaired, to bestowe without all merit of ours, yea when wee deserued euill at his handes, the giftes of his grace, with bounty no way prouoked by vs. And so Ambrose. Ambros. de fide resurrec [...]. By one mans death the world was redeemed. Christ might, if hee woulde, haue refrained from death; but hee neither refused death as vnprofitable, neither could he haue saued vs any better waie then by dying. So that no legall necessitie, much lesse Iudiciall seueritie, brought Christ to his Crosse, but to teach vs obedience to God by his example, to demonstrato his loue to vs by refusing nothing for our sakes, and to de­clare his owne power, whose weakenesse was stronger then all his and our enemies, and to strengthen our patience, and giue vs comfort in all the troubles of this life, he chose the paynefull and shamefull death of the Crosse, and there shewed so perfitte a patterne of obedience, in­nocence, patience, that the Angels themselues did ad­mire it.

So farre you make Christ suertie for vs that in taking Pag. 4 [...]. our person on him, hee became by our sinne sinnefull, defiled, hatefull and accoursed.Similitudes, if you sucke nothing from them but that which is agreeable to ye truth, in teaching may be tolerated; in concluding they wil halt. That Christ is Hebre. 7 a su­erty, we find it once mentioned in the scriptures; but not to ye law to pay our debtes, but Hebre. 7 of a better testament, euen of the new couenant of grace established in his bloud, wherof he is also the mediator & priest. Now he died for vs, not as a suerty bound to ye law, but as a mediator to God for vs, he interpo­sed himself of his own accord, to yeeld such recompence vnto his father, as hee should be pleased to accept for vs. If you wil needs vse similitudes, vse rather the similitude of a medi­ator, and Redeemer, which the scriptures often call him, then of a suerty; therby to bind him not onely to suffer the paines of hell in our stéede, but also to defile him with our sinnes [Page 278] [...] [Page 279] [...] [Page 280] and make him hatefull to God by our curse. No similitudes can prooue Christ in taking our person on him to be SINNE­FVLL, DEFILED, HATEFVL, and ACCVRSED; and ther­fore your vncleane mouth, and vncleaner heart, that thus speake, and thinke of the sonne of God, are worthier of ca­stigation, then of refutation. I know you will pretend the Apostles wordes, 2. Cor. 5 God made him sinne for vs that knewe no sinne; but howsoeuer some late writers turne sinne into sinner, and thence giue cause of these and the like speaches, the church of God from the beginning hath warilie declined such irreuerent wordes, and yet plainelie confesse the truth. That God MADE HIM SINNE, hath two good and approo­ued senses; one that he made him a sacrifice for sinne, and so the clenser of sinne, and no waie defiled by our sinne: the o­ther, that he punished our sinnes in him, and vsed him as hee doth sinners. Aug. de ver­bis do. secund. Iohan. serm. 48 They that know (saith Austen) the scriptures of the olde testament, acknowledge this that I saie. Not once, but often and verie often it is found; Sacrifices for sinnes, are called sinnes. Then him that knewe no sinne God made sinne for vs, that is a sacrifice for sinne. Christ was made sinne in that he was offered to abolish sinne. And againe, Idem de ver­bis Apostoli. serm. 7. peccatum vocabatur in lege sacrificium pro peccato, assidue lex hoc commemorat, non semel, non iterum, sed saepissime. Tale peccatum erat Christus. Peccatum non habebat, & peccatum erat; peccatum erat, quia sacrificium pro peccato. The sacrifice for sinne is in the law cal­led sinne. The lawe still so vseth the word, not once, nor twice, but verie often. Such a sinne was Christ, he had no sinne, and yet he was sinne. He was sinne, because he was the sacrifice for sinne. So Ambrose. Ambros in 2. Corinth. ca. 5 Because Christ was offered for sinne, worthilie is he said to be made sinne, because in the lawe the sa­crifice that is offered for sinne is called sinne. This waie if you conster S. Paules words, they conclude directlie against your irreligious supposition. For if Christ when hee tooke vs into his bodie, did clense our sinnes by the offering of himselfe; hee became not defiled by our sinnes. Hee did not clense vs [Page 281] that was defiled by vs. Howsoeuer you take those wordes; Heb. [...] Such an high priest it became vs to haue (saieth the Apostle) as was holy, harmlesse, VNDEFILED, SEPARATE from sinners. If the Priest were defiled, the sacrifice could not be accepted. If Christ were separate from sinners, then was hee not pol­luted by sinners. He tooke our sinnes vnto him, not to drawe anie pollution from them, but to make ye purgation of them. He that coulde clense vs from our sinnes, howe much more coulde hee kéepe himselfe from beeing defiled with our sinnes? If we follow the other sense of S. Pauls wordes, that Christ was made sinne for vs, that is the punishment of our sinne, wee must take héede that wee bring him not with­in the guiltinesse of our sinnes, as we doe within the punish­ment of our sinnes. August. [...] Faus [...]um. lib. 1 [...] cap. 4 Suscepit Christus sine rea [...]u supplicium nostrum, vt inde solueret reatum nostrum, & siuiret etiam sup­plicium nostrum. Christ vndertooke (saith Austen) our pu­nishment without our guilt, that so hee might remit our guilt, and ende our paine. Cyprian d [...] passion [...] Chri­sti. Christ (saieth Cyprian) endured by Mo­ses and his owne Apostle to bee called a curse, and sinne, pro si­militudine poenae, non culpae, for the likenesse of the paine, not of the fault. Bernard in canti [...]. serm 2 [...] Dilexit (nos Christus) dulciter, sapienter, fortiter. Dulce nempe dixerim, quod carnem induit; cautum, quod culpam cauit: forte, quod mortem sustinuit. Christ (saith Bernard, loued vs sweetelie, wiselie, stronglie. Sweetelie in that he tooke our flesh; wiselie, in that hee shunned our guiltinesse; strong [...]ie, in that he suffered death for vs. If Christ tooke the paine, but not the guilt of our sinnes, howe came hee to bee defiled by our sinnes? It must needes be either in ioining and vniting him­selfe vnto vs, or in answering and suffering for vs. Our v­nion with Christ doth sanctifie vs, it defileth not him. We are as neere ioyned to Christ nowe raigning in heauen, as wee were to Christ suffering on the Crosse. As wee died with him then in the bodie of his flesh, Ephe [...] so wee sitte togither with him in heauenlie thinges. But our vni­on and communion nowe, though wee bee sinfull and [Page 282] mortall, doth no waie defile him, no more did it then, when hee suffered for vs. If you saie our sinnes were imputed vnto him, when he was crucified for them; that increaseth the perfection of his loue, it argueth not anie pollution of his soule. To die for wicked men, did not touche him with anie taint of our sinnes, but Rom. 5. GOD (saieth the Apostle) setteth out his loue towardes vs in this, that whiles wee were yet sinners Christ died for vs. The iust therefore did die for the vniust, and was no partner of our iniustice; hee that saued vs from our sinnes, did not defile himselfe with them. And where all this is grounded vppon a simple similitude, that a suertie by vndertaking for a debtour, maketh the debt his owne, though hee neuer borrowed the money; it is easilie and trulie aunswered, that Christ did not vndertake wee shoulde not sinne, nor that wee should paie the debt which wee did owe; but when wee had sinned, and were able no waie to aunswere the iustice of GOD, but by our euer­lasting destruction of bodie and soule; it pleased the sonne of God to interpose himselfe, and no waie bound to vs, or for vs, to intreate his father f that in his owne per­son hee might make recompence for our sinnes; and so as a Mediatour allowed of God, hee tooke our nature: and freelie, not indebted; willinglie, not constrained; Ephes. 5. Hee gaue himselfe for vs a sacrifice of a sweete sauour vn­to God. As if the whole people of anie lande rebelling against their King, and beeing subdued and readie to be destroied, the Kinges sonne (loath to see his fathers king­dome dispeopled, and so manie wretched men, women, and children put to fire and sworde) shoulde importune his father at his request to bee gratious vnto them, and to laie on him, though hee bee his onelie sonne, what chasticement the father in his wisedome and iustice shall thinke fitte for the repressing of the like outrage hereaf­ter: maie anie of those subiectes without extreame ingra­titude, [Page 283] and intolerable contumelie reproch the Kings sonne, when hee suffereth for their sakes, that hee is guiltie of their treason, and both DEFILED with it, and HATEFVLL for it? I will not applie, because it will presse you too farre; but as mine owne perswasion is, that no such sinfull and hatefull wordes haue, or should be vsed in the Church of God to the dishonour of his sonne; so my counsell to the sober and wise reader, is, to stop his eares, and shut his eies against such defiled and accursed speeches.

You proceede to another proofe, and where the Apostle saith, Christ spoiled Principalities & powers, and made a shew of them openlie, triumphing ouer them; vpon these words you inferre. Pag 45. These principalities are the diuels; therefore it is cer­taine Christ FELT THEM to bee the verie instruments that VVROVGHT THE VERIE EFFECTS of Gods wrath VPON HIM.This is the first place where you specifie anie effect of Gods wrath against Christs soule (for you will haue the soule of Christ properlie and immediatelie to suffer the effectes of Gods wrath;) and that you prooue learnedlie and wiselie like your selfe. The diuels haue nothing to do with the soules of men, but either to tempt them to worke in them, or to tor­ment them. To tempt is to trie how fast ye saints stand in the feare and loue of God. And for that cause the wisdome of god hath from the beginning suffered all his saints, his owne sonne not excepted to be tempted of satan. For Christ coulde not be tempted by the corruption of his heart as we are, but by Satans voice, or by Satans members. Of vs Iames saith Iames. [...] Euerie man is tempted, when he is entised and drawne away by his owne concupiscence. Concupiscence there was none in Christ. He had no law in his flesh rebelling against the lawe of his minde, as wee haue; It is in vs the rage of originall sinne from which he was frée, and therefore he coulde not bee tempted but by the eare, as he was in ye desart by satan him­self, & by Satans members al the time of his abode on earth. In the harts of men when ye diuel preuaileth with temptation [Page 284] there he worketh, leading such as consent and yéeld vnto him into all wickednesse, euen with greedinesse: So [...]. 2. he worketh in the children of disobedience, as the Apostle testifieth. This can haue no place in Christ [...] because P [...]. 2. he did no sinne, neither was there anie guile found in his mouth. [...] 3. He that committeth sinne (saith saint Iohn) is of the diuel, and for this purpose appea­red the sonne of God, that hee might dissolue the workes of the diuell. Then since inward temptation by the hart Christ could haue none, and outward temptation by the mouthes & hands of the wicked is no effect of Gods wrath, but rather a triall of Gods gifts and graces bestowed on vs; It remaineth that if Christ felt the diuels as the very instruments that wrong he the verie effects of Gods wrath vpon him, that is vpon his soule, (for that part of Christ you say must properly and immediateli [...] feele the wrath of God) it resteth I saie by your owne wordes ye Christ FELT the DIVELS TORMENTING HIS SOVLE. And indeede for so much as in executing the true paines of hell, and of the damned, God hath none other instruments but diuels, you cannot defend that Christ suffered the paines of hell, but you must graunt that Christ felt the diuels, as instruments executing those paines on his soule. Nowe the bodie of man they may torment with touching, as they did Iobs; the soule they can not, but by possessing it. For they can not woorke but where they are, and therefore they must possesse the soule which they torment. Is not here (Christian Reader) an wholesome clearke, and an holie cause, that conclude [...] Christes soule was possessed and tormented of diuels on the Crosse? And the proofe is as ridiculous, as the position is impious. Christ Philip [...]. spoiled principalities and powers, and openlie triumphed ouer them, ergo (say you) hee "felt them the instruments of Gods wrath, by tormenting his soule. If your learning and Logicke serue you so well, you may procéede Doctor in do [...]age when you will. For my part (christian Reader) I will giue none other answere to these lewd and wicked absurdities, but that which Iacob said to Si­meon [Page 285] and Le [...]i; Gen 49. Into their secret my soule shall not come. To strengthen thee, thou maiest remember, what Peter saide of Christ.Acts. 10. God anointed Iesus of Nazareth with the holy ghost, & with power to heale all that were oppressed of the diuell; for God was with him; or else what Christ said of himselfe,Iohn. 14 The prince of this world commeth, and hath naught in me; or at least what the diuels themselues said to Christ; Matt. 8. Iesus the sonne of God VVHAT HAVE VVE TO DO VVITH THEE? Art thou come to torment vs before the time? And so in the Gospell of saint Luke, the Luke 8 soule spirit when he saw Iesus cried out, what haue I to doe with thee, Iesus the sonne of God most high? I beseech thee torment me not.

[But perchance I mistake him.] would God there were so much grace in him, as to reuoke it, or refuse it; I woulde gladlie confesse mine errour in mistaking his wordes: but what if he go on from bad to worse? What if he heapeth vp reasons as he thinketh, but indeede trifles void of sense and reason to confirme the same? Pag. 45 ‘This reason will proue the same (saith hee) taken from the lesse to the more. Pag. 46. Thus do the members of Christ suffer. Therefore of necessitie Christ our head suffered the like. Yea to the Hebrues hee sheweth a reason which can neuer be refuted by the witte of man. Pag. 47 Christ succoured vs not, but wherein hee had experience of our temptations and infiri­mities: but he succoureth vs euen in these our temptations of fee­ling the terrours of God and the sorrowes of hell. Therefore hee himselfe had experience of the same. Pa. 48. & 49 Adde hereunto that of all absurdities, this is the greatest, that meere men should suffer more deepely and bitterly then Christ did.’ You haue more words then witte (Sir Confuter) that propose these childish argu­ments for inuincible reasons. Your selfe shall sée the weake­nes of them.Pag. 46. ‘What soeuer the members of Christ, say you, did or shall suffer, of necessitie Christ our head suffered the like.’ Meane you in bodie? or in soule? or in both? If in bodie, th [...]n Christ had his eies put out, for so had Sampson; he was swalowed vp by a whale, for so was Ionas; hee was cast into a burning [Page 286] furnace, for so were Sidrac, Mishac, and Abednego; he was stoned to death, for so were Naboth, Steuen, and others. You meane not in bodie; meane you then in soule? Inwarde as­saults of error, lust and sinne Christ neuer had. He was [...]ree from all conflicts of heart, that rise in vs from the roote or remorse of sinne; that increase with weakenesse of faith, want of grace, and quenching of Gods spirite. The terrors of minde which wee feele through conscience of our vnwor­thinesse, ignorance of Gods counsell, and distrust of Gods fauour hee neuer felt: his faith admitted no doubting, his loue excluded all fearing, his hope reiected all de­spairing. So that howe you shoulde make a falser pro­position, and more repugnant to the Apostles wordes which you alledge then this which you haue made, I by no meanes can conceiue. Hee was tempted in all thinges a like except sinne. Then neither the rootes, partes, nor fruites of sinne must bee in him. But the Apostle that ex­cepteth sinne, excepteth all sinnefull adherentes. The punishment of sinne which proceedeth from the iustice of GOD, and is no sinne, that Christ might and did beare; but in no wise those terrours and feares of con­science which proceede from sinne, and augment sinne, as doubting, distrusting, despairing, in which GOD re­uengeth sinne with sinne; these muste bee farre from Christ, vnlesse wee will wrappe him within the snares of our sinnes. The feare of Gods Maiestie armed with mightie power to reuenge sinne, is profitable to keepe vs from sinne; therein Christ may communicate with vs, though not to that ende, [...]or he could not sinne; but fearing, doubting, or distrusting that God wil for our manifold sinnes cast vs from his presence, and condemne vs to hell, commeth in vs from the guiltinesse of conscience and weakenesse of faith and hope, which in Christ neither had, nor coulde haue anie place.

[Page 287] ‘[But Pag. 47. the Apostle (you saie) sheweth a reason, which can neuer bee refuted by the witte of man. Christ succoured vs not, but wherein he had experience of our temptations.]’ Are those wordes in the Apostle? No (you will saie) but collected from the Apostles wordes, where hee saith Heb. [...]. In that Christ suffered being tempted he can helpe those that are tempted. Hence you conclude vpon your owne warrant, that Christ can succour vs in no temptation but whereof himselfe had first experi­ence; and this you proclaime to be irrefutable. Such lips such lettice; such doctors such diuinitie. Your collection, Sir Refu­ter, is not onelie farre different from the Apostles wordes, but euidentlie repugnant to the christian faith and truth. The Apostle giueth not here the cause why Christ is able to helpe vs in our miseries and necessities, for he is able in that he is God to do what he will; but hee sheweth that our high Priest is Heb. 2. ver [...] [...]7 faithfull and mercifull, that is willing and readie to heare vs, and helpe vs in all our afflictions and troubles, for so much as in his owne person hee woulde feele our temptati­ons and infirmities, that he might be the better able to helpe vs in hauing more compassion on vs. And this is that the Apostle saith in the fourth chapter of this Epistle: Heb. [...]. Wee haue not an high Priest, which can not bee touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but was in all things (or through­lie) tempted alike except sinne. So that his sufferinges made him the more mercifull and faithfull; because he know­eth best as well our naturall infirmities, as our manifolde miseries.

This for the sense of the Apostle, nowe to the truth of your collection. CHRIST SVCCOVRETH VS NOT, but wherein he hath felt the same. Meane you Christ is not able or not willing? For you saie, hee succoureth vs not. To saie hee is not able, is blasphemie; because he is God, and God I hope can succour vs in all our miseries, without suf­fering those things which we doe. To say he will not (though the Apostles word bee [...], hee is able) is as false in [Page 288] it selfe, and as iniurious to Christ. For then Christ will neuer helpe anie man that is sicke, because hee neuer felt anie disease of bodie, nor anie whose bones are broken, be­cause his were whole: nor anie Martyr that burneth in fire, because hee died on the crosse; [...] the blinde, deafe, dumbe, lame, and a thousand such like Christ will neuer heare, nor helpe, because he suffered not the same. [You speake of ghostlie temptations, you will saie, not of bodily afflictions.] Saint Paule speaketh of both, and Christ had experience of both; and therefore if your collection be false and absurde in the one, it will neuer bee sound and assured in the other. But come to your owne pitch. Will Christ deliuer no man from blindnesse and hardnesse of heart, because hee neuer endured either? Will he not aide vs to represse the lusts of our [...]lesh, because he neuer was tempted with them? Will he not helpe our vnbeliefe, because his faith was al­wayes strong? Will he not saue anie from desperation, be­cause he neuer despaired? Will hee not cure frenzie, and furie, because hee was neuer out of his wittes? Nei­ther did hee, nor will hee cast out Diuels, because him­selfe was not possessed? Is this the reason that cannot bee refuted by mans witte which euerie childe maie pre­sentlie controlle? In deede you speake truer then you are ware of, if your deuise maie bee receiued. For you doe not sticke to defile Christ with our sinnes, to asto­nish and amaze all the partes and powers of his minde, to torment him with Diuels, and in the ende to adiudge him to the death of the soule, which hath in it blindnesse and hardnesse of heart, infidelitie, and what not? Yea it is with you: Pag. 48. of all absurdities the greatest, that meere men, although they bee reprobates, shoulde suffer more deepely then Christ did, Pag. 83 For Gods iustice, saie you, shoulde bee as seuere on Christ, as on anie reprobate, and yet they suffer reprobation, despera­tion, damnation.

From hence you go to another of your holie mysteries; [Page 289] and as if you had not done the Lord of glorie wrong enough with these irreuerent and irreligious speaches, you take from him in his passion at your pleasure, not only his ver­tues & graces, but euen his sense, memorie & vnderstanding, & leaue him often times when you list your selues,Pag. 45. amazed, astonished, and forgetfull of himselfe for feare, yea so distempered, disturbed, distracted, Pag. 53. ouerwhelmed & ALL CONFOVNDED in his whole humanity, both in all the powers of his soule and sen­ses of his body, that he knew not what he said or did.God grant, (Sir Refuter) you be wel in your wits, that depriue the Sa­uiour of the world when you will, of all sense, memorie, & vn­derstanding. [The euangelists, you wil say, in expresse words affirme that Christ in the garden was Mark. 14. astonished Math. 26. & grie­uously perplexed.] Haue you the skill, when the scriptures saie, that Christ beganne to bee astonished and perplexed, to stretch ye beginning to the highest degree of all astonishment that maie light on the Reprobate in this life, or the damned in the next? when the holie ghost toucheth a naturall infirmity common to Christ with all the godlie in the like cases, doth your cōscience serue you to make of that not onlie a general and total distemper, but an Infernall confusion of all the pow­ers of his soule, and senses of his bodie? had you consulted S. Ierom, hee would haue taught you an other lesson. Ierom. i [...] Matth. ca. 26 [...] Do­minus vt veritatem probaret assumpti hominis, veré quidem con­tristatus est; sed ne passio in animo eius dominaretur per propassi­onem caepit contristari. Aliud est enim contristari, aliud incipere contristari, & The Lorde to shew himselfe a true man, was sorrowfull in verie deede, not that any passion ouerswaied his minde, but he began to be touched with the affection of sorrow. It is one thing to be sorrowfull, and an other to begin to be sor­rowfull; his sorrow was not for any feare to suffer, since he came of purpose to suffer, and reproued Peter as too feareful, but for that most wretched Iudas, and the weakenes of all his Apostles, and the reiection of the whole nation of the Iewes, and the mi­serable destruction of Ierusalem. And if heretickes doe interpret [Page 290] this sorrowe of heart, not for our Sauiours affection towardes them that shoulde perish, but for a perturbation of minde, let them answere me, howe they expounde that which Ezechiel speaketh in the person of God, and in all these thinges thou didst make me sorrowfull. Saint Ierome saieth, the wordes enforce no more, then that Christ began to bee sorrowfull and perplexed, and if anie man stretch them farther hee giueth him the note of an hereticke; and though I re­fraine that worde because I hope you doe it of ignorance and not of malice, yet I cannot excuse you from a dange­rous errour, and that in foure speciall pointes. First you mistake the cause whence this feare arose; secondlie you extende it farther then in trueth you shoulde; thirdlie you continue it longer then with anie warrant you may; and fourthlie by pretence thereof you chalenge Christes prayers in the garden not onelie with want of good memorie, but with flat repugnancie to the knowne will of God; which is euident sinne,

Concerning the first I am resolued, as in the treatise be­fore I haue specified,Vide pag. 17 that the cause of Christes agonie, could not procéed, but from his submission to the maiestie of God sitting in iudgement, or from his compassion on mans mi­serie, or from both. You will haue it procéede from Pag. 80 the intolerable horrors of Gods fiery wrath equall to hell; And where Cain saide, The horror of my sinne is heauier then I can beare, you doubt not but Pag. 81. Christ as touching the vehemencie of the paine, was as sharpelie touched euen as the Reprobates themselues, yea if it may be, more extraordinarilie.’ You that are so well acquainted with the horrors of the Reprobate for their sinnes, that you dare attribute them to Christ, can you tell what they are? is it speculation that you speake of, or experience; that you dare thus subiect the sonne of God to the same terrors and horrors of conscience, which namelie Cain as you saie, and other reprobates haue felt? I praie you, Sir, in so waightie matters as maie amounte to [Page 291] heresie and open blasphemy, plaie not with generall termes, so as neither you vnderstande your selfe, nor anie man else can conceiue your meaning. The terrors of [...]he wicked in this life wee can coniecture, you canne perhaps liuelie describe them, but for ought that wee learne by the scrip­tures they are such, as without horrible impietie you cannot ascribe vnto the Sauiour of the worlde. Remorse of sinne committed, vexing and gnawing the conscience, is the first of their paines, which suffereth them night nor daie to take anie test. Secondlie, the feare that God, whome they haue despised, hath likewise reiected them and is become their enemie, and therefore from him they looke for nothing, but the iust vengeance of their sinnes both in this life and the nexte, so pursueth them, that they tremble and slie when no man followeth them. Thirdlie the griefe to forsee themselues excluded from the fellowship of that ioie and blisse, which is prouided for the saintes of GOD, which Chrysostom saieth is far more bitter then the paine of hel, doth make them sinke for sorrowe. Lastlie the continuall terrour of that dreadfull iudgement which shall be pronounced, of that horrible confusion which then shall o­uerwhelme them; and of those eternall and intollerable flames of fire in which they shall burne; the verie terrour I saie and horrour thereof doeth so afflict and torment them, as if they presentlie felt it. More wordes may bee vsed, and perhaps more vehement to amplifie their paine; but these are the partes and causes of that feare and horrour, which pursueth the wicked for their haynous offences. Can anie of these, (Sir Refuter,) bee applied to Christ? Dare you but offer so much as the mention of the least of them to bee founde in the sonne of GOD? I thinke you bare not; I hope you will not. What meaneth then this matching of Christ with Cain? yea this touching of Christ deeper then anie of the Reprobate? In horrour and paine you saie, Pag. 77. ‘Christ was like them who be separated in deede [Page 292] from the grace and loue of God, yet himselfe neuer separated, but alwaies most intirely beloued.’ The horrour and paine, which the Reprobate heere feele, riseth from the remorse of their owne conscience, and from the distrust and feare of their owne hearts; which pursueth them euen in this life before iudge­ment. The execution of his terrible vengeance indéede God hath reserued to the next life. The greatest terror that the A­postle noteth in the wicked here in this world is, Hebre. 10 a feareful expectation of iudgment and of burning fire which shall deuour t [...]e aduersaries. What horror then like the reprobate coulde the conscience of Christ féele, that had no remorse, distrust, or feare of anie such thing as they haue, but was assured and secured of Gods euerlasting fauour, and loue in the highest degree? was there paine without horrour and feare in the soule of Christ? if you meane the paine that is consequent to our naturall affections, as to sorrowe and feare, you saie nothing to the purpose. Saint Iohn saith 1. Iohn. 4 timor habet poenam; Feare hath in it paine, and so hath sorrowe, euen as hope hath ioye; Rom. 12. Reioice in hope; but this is not the paine which the Reprobate feele, much lesse which the damned suffer; I trust their paine is more then a naturall oppressing and af­flicting of the heart with humane feare and sorrowe. And therefore if I conceaue anie thing, you misse the truth verie much, Sir Confuter, when you saie that Christ was touched in horrour and paine as déepelie as the Reprobates are; and yet your conceite reacheth farther. For you defende that he suffered as much as the damned in hell, which is more then the reprobates doe in earth, howsoeuer to shewe your lear­ning you make hell and heauen heere on earth. For my selfe (Christian Reader) whence I thinke, the astonishment of Christ in the garden might rise, thou hast it in the treatise before, I shall not néed to repeat it againe.

In like maner you extend Christes agonie too farre; for where it was an agonie of minde, which did not bereaue him neither of sense, memorie, nor vnderstanding, you haue [Page 293] brought vs a fardell of phrases, to expresse that all the senses of his bodie, and al the powers of his soule were amazed, astonished, distempered, disturbed, distracted, forgetfull, ouerwhelmed, and all confounded;’ and you thinke you neuer haue words enough to expresse your follie, in dreaming of the greatest astonish­ment that maie be, because the scripture saieth, he began to beastonished. But Sir, how proue you this you saie? as in feares and sorrowes there bee di [...]ers degrées; so are there likewise in astonishmēts. To be astonished is to ioine feare with admiration, which draweth the minde so wholie to think on some speciall thing aboue our reach, that during the time we turne not our selues to anie other cogitation. Euen as the eie, if it be bent intentiuelie to behold anie thing, for that present it discerneth nothing else: So fareth it with ye soule, if she wholie addict her selfe to thinke on anie matter, she is a­mused; if it bee more then she conceaueth, or more fearefull then she well indureth, she is amazed, or astonished; but not of necessitie so, that she looseth either sense or memorie; one­lie for that time she conuerteth neither to anie other obiect. The present beholding of the diuine maiestie sitting in iudgement; and of his iustice armed with infinite power to reuenge the sinnes of men, might iustlie astonish the hu­mane soule of Christ; seeing the rewithal how mightilie God was prouoked by the manifold and wilfull transgressions of men; but this religious astonishment, though it might for a season suspend all other thoughtes in our Sauiour, yet is there no neede it shoulde depriue him of vnderstanding, sense or memorie. When Paul saieth Philip. 2 worke your saluation with feare and trembling, doth hee meane they should want memorie or vnderstanding? When Moses receaued the law from God, Hebre. 1 [...] so terrible was the sight that hee saide, I tremble and quake. Was Moses [...] voide of sense or reason at that present? Psal. 119. An horrible terror (saith Dauid) hath taken mee for the vngodlie that forsake thy lawe. Was Dauid for their sakes besides himselfe, and all confounded in bodie and [Page 294] soule, as you speake here of Christ? Our whole conuersation shoulde bee as Paule professeth of himselfe, when hee saieth, I 1 Cor. 2 was among you with much trembling and feare. Should therefore Christians bee alwayes besides themselues? ‘[Page 61. Christ often praied vnto his Father, you saie, and then pre­sented himselfe before the Maiestie of God; and yet wee do not reade that euer hee was vexed, terrified, and amazed in so do­ing.]’ Sir Refuter, if your vnderstanding and memorie be not lost, I tolde you that the humane nature of Christ pre­sented it selfe before the maiestie of God in iudgement, there to suffer man euerlastinglie to perish, whome hee deerelie loued, or to vndertake in his owne person that burthen, which the iustice of God, displeased with our sinnes, should laie vpon him. And if you doe not thinke this a cause sufficient for the manhoode of Christ to feare and tremble, yea for the time to bee astonished at the number of our sinnes, and terrour of Gods vengeance, prouided for our eternall destruction both of bodie and soule, you bee so déepe in your hellish paines, that your wits and senses are con­founded. Absurdities and contrarieties are so rife with you, that you thinke other men can hardlie auoide them; but first vnderstand your owne, and then you shall the bet­ter charge others.

After you haue spent the whole strength of your small elo­quence and lesse intelligence, to infer and amplifie the most Pag. 73. wonderfull and piteous agonies, feares, sorrowes, miseries, out­cries, teares, astonishment, forgetfulnesse, and confusion of the powers of nature with which the sense of Gods wrath afflicted, dis­tracted, amazed, ouerwhelmed, and all confounded our Sauiour in his whole humanity;’ You suddainlie, euen in the twinkling of an eie free him from all, and set him cleare, as if all this had béene but a dreame. For vppon Christes speaking of these wordes, Matth. 26. Father, if it bee possible let this cuppe passe from mee; you inferre, Page .57 if Christ had thus praied aduisedly and with good memorie, against the knowne will of God hee had [Page 295] sinned.’And in the words presentlie following without staie or pause betweene, yet not my will, but thine bee doone, you imagine that Christ, Pag. 71. as it were comming suddainly to himselfe quickly controled his former words. And thus when it pleaseth you, you put the sonne of God into Pag. 73 a wonderfull and piteous confusion and forgetfulnesse of all the powers and partes of his bodie and soule;’ and least you shoulde be conuin­ced of a manifest, and irreligious vntrueth, in the verie nicke of the nexte worde, which Christ spake with the same breath, you restore him to his perfect senses, and dis­charge him from your hellish confusion and paynes. But good Sir, if it were so vnsupportable and intolerable a bur­den, and confusion as you dreame of, howe came our Sauiour to bee so lightlie and quicklie ridde of it, as if there had béene no such thing? was that heauie and fierie wrath of GOD against our sinnes equall to hell so soone quenched? or was the sonne of God no longer able to en­dure it? Pag 48. Of all absurdities (your selfe beeing iudge, for it is your position) this is the greatest, that meere men should suffer more deepelie then Christ. Then if Cain endured this all his life long, if Saul and Iudas had no intermission of their payne, if the damned in hell, (from whome you fetch your patterne) doe euerlastinglie suffer it, howe commeth it to passe, that after you haue so hotlie stirred for it, you are so soone wearie of it? will you make vs beleeue, that Christes obedience and patience was tried with a touch of this hellish paine, and so an ende? or will you returne it as often as please you? and if this cuppe did so quicklie passe from our Sauiour, howe did hee then praie against the knowne will of God; which is an o­ther of your foundations, when as, in the vttering of these words, the cup did passe from him, by your owne confession? In like sorte to excuse Christ from sinne,Pag. 50in praying a­gainst the will of his Father, you cast him into a wonderfull [Page 296] confusion and forgetfulnesse of all the powers of his soule, and sen­ses of his body: and in the same page, for an other aduantage, you auouch that in that praier, ChristPag. 59.PERFECTLIE KNEVV the dominion of death shoulde not holde him. Were all the powers of his soule ouerwhelmed and all confounded, and yet did he euen in that whole confusion of sense, memo­rie, and vnderstanding PERFECTLY KNOVV the domini­on of death should not holde him? can a man haue his know­ledge and memorie all confounded and ouerwhelmed, and yet retaine PERFECT KNOVVLEDGE? coulde Christ for­get his fathers will in that praier through astonishment, and in the speaking of the words remember he praied amisse, and in the nexte worde quicklie correct himselfe? Surelie these be conceites answerable to your cause; and deuices fit for your diuinitie; But (Sir Refuter,) let passe your dreames, and shewe vs your proofes, that Christ praied against the knowne will of his father, which you make the groundwork of this confusion: and when you haue so done, then prooue that your hellish paine was the cause of this astonishment. Manie thinges might astonish our Sauiour for the time, besides the paines of hell; and in that astonishment, if Christ had spokē he knew not what (which I beléeue not) as Lucae. 9 Peter did when he sawe his glorie in the mountaine, it had béene a de­fect in nature, and no contempt of Gods counsell, much lesse such an infernall confusion as you describe.

‘[It is manifest (you saie) that Christ Pag. 59 in plaine words praied contrarie to Gods known will:]’ It is more manifest that you knowe not what you saie. How coulde he praie against his Fathers will that praied e [...]preslie with this condition, Lucae. 22. ô Father IF THOV VVILT take awaie this cup from me. [That is a correction after the praier (you will saie) and no conditi­on in the praier.] Are you so captious against Christ, that you will not supplie one Euangelist with an other? Mat. 26. Luke and Mat. 26. Matthew put a plaine condition vnto the praier of Christ; the one saying, father if thou wilt; the other, father if [Page 297] it be possible, that is to stand with thy will, and mans sal­ua [...]ion. And though Marke omit the condition in the tenor of the praier, yet doth he fu [...]ie expresse his meaning to bee al one with the rest. For t [...]us he saieth of our Sauiour, Mark. 14. hee fell downe on the grounde, and praied that IF IT VVERE POSSIBLE, that houre might passe from him. So that all thrée Euangelistes concurre, that Christ praied not onelie with a reseruation of his fathers will, but annexed that con­dition vnto his praier; and therefore in all mens eies saue yours, hee praied not in plaine wordes contrarie to Gods knowne will. And this erroneous and contumelious positi­on you set downe to the worlde, as the chiefest fortresse of your hellish paines, wherein you plainly wrest the scriptures from their expresse words. [But S. Iohn, you will saie, repor­teth Christes [...] to bee simplie made, Iohn. 1 [...] Father, saue mee from this houre.] Saint Iohn speaketh of an other time and place; and his wordes import a deliberation of two partes proposed by our Sauiour, with his resolution in the ende; what shall I saie? Father deliuer me from this hower; that is, shall I saie deliuer me from this hower? but therefore came I into this hower. Father glorifie thy name. Chrysostom thus expoundeth Christes wordes: Chrysost. in Ioan. Homil. 66 NON DICO libera me ex hac hora, sed pater glorifica nomen tuum. I SAIE NOT, de­liuer me from this hower, but father glorifie thy name. And so doth Epiphanius. Epiphan. lib. 2 Haerel 69. Quid dicam pater? serua me ex hac hora, hoc inquit dicam? at propterea veni in hanc horam. What shall I saie? Father saue mee from this hower? shall I saie so? but therefore came I into this hower. But what better exposi­tor canne wee haue then Saint Paul, who plainely saith that Christ in making this praier was heard, & Hebre. 5. deliuered from that he feared. Hee praied not against the knowne will of God, whose praiers God heard and performed. And where you flie to this hellish confusion to saue Christ from sinne; by pretending to cléere him from sinne, you charge him ra­ther with sinne. For the praier which is not made in faith [Page 298] is sinne. Nowe can the heart be assured it shall receaue that it asketh at Gods hands, if it bee neither directed to aske ac­cording to the will of God, nor prepared to aske with that de­uotion which is fit for God? So that when you make Christ to triple his praiers with vehement teares and cries, & still repugnant to the will of God, you chalenge the sonne of God with open sinne, from which you would seeme to excuse him. And as for your double relapse into the same astonish­ment still, when Christ was twice cléere from it, it is a foolish deuice of your idle braines, as if the Lorde no sooner retur­ned to his praiers, but your hellish confusion did waite at his heeles, to interrupt and ouerwhelm him; and within sixe wordes againe to leaue him. If your cause be holie, iest not thus prophanelie with the sonne of God, nor bereaue him of his wits, when you thinke good. If it were a ne­cessarie effect of Gods wrath, then after it lighted on our Sauiour in the garden, it must continue till man was re­déemed, and Gods wrath appeased, which was not done but by the death of Christ. And therefore make your choise: ei­ther let the wrath of God cease in the garden, when Christ ended his praiers; or if that still continued to [...]he death, let also this astonishment still continue, or at least bee no ne­cessarie effect of Gods wrath. One of these you must take, take which you wil; the rest will serue to subuert your tower of Babell.

[I doe you wrong, you will saie, to call your opinion the tower of Confusion;] you do your selfe wrong (Sir Re­futer) in the chiefest point of Christian religion to leaue the faith confessed by the whole Church of Christ for these 1500. yeares, and to walke in such ambiguities, and ab­surdities as your selfe doe not vnderstande. For I praie you, Sir, this wonderfull confusion and astonishment in all powers of the soule, and senses of the bodie, is it a ne­cessarie consequent to the wrath of GOD, or no? If it bee,Pag. 54. (for you saie, Christ coulde not but sinke, and bee confounded vnder that burden) howe commeth it to passe, [Page 299] that the reprobate and desperate, feeling the sense of GODS wrath vpon them, doe not loose their wits, and senses as Christ by your assertion did? will you affirme they are astonished and all confounded as Christ was? then if you excuse Christ from sinne, in dis [...]iking and declining his Fathers knowne will, because hee was astonished; you must likewise excuse all the wicked and Reprobate from their sinnes, after they once feele the sense of Gods wrath, because they cannot but bee astonished and con­founded vnder that burden? Againe, coulde Christ not sinne, whiles hee felte the wrath of God vppon him, be­cause he was astonished? Ergo neither coulde hee merite all that while, and so neither his obedience, patience, hu­militie, nor charitie coulde haue anie place, or vse, so long as the sense of GODS wrath dured. Haue you not deuised vs a goodlie sense of Gods wrath, that shall exclude Christ Iesus from the exercise of all his graces, vertues. and merites? This palpable absurditie you thinke to skippe, (Sir Refuter,) but your wit is too weake, or your cause not good; it will not bee. ‘[Page .57. If a man in distresse fall a sleepe, saie you, or be astonished with some violent blowe on the heade, in such an one there is no decaie of faith, nor of obedience, nor of patience, nor of loue; euen so in Christ there was no defect of grace, but an infirmitie of nature.]’ Was Christ a sléepe or in a swoune? astonished you thinke, he was. Was hee so astonished that his senses were taken from him? did hee not walke? did he not speake? did hee not pray? whie then compare you this to a sléep or a swoune; wheras in Christ was neither? and though you plainelie faile in your comparison; yet, were it so, as you would haue it, for your life you cannot auoide my conclusion. For a man in a sleepe or a swoune, though he loose not the habite of faith and pati­ence, obedience and loue, yet hath hee no vse of them for that time; much lesse doth hee serue God with them. But Christ Iesus by all his sufferinges must merite, which a [Page 300] man a sleepe or amazed cannot doe, And therefore remem­ber, (Sir Refuter) this reason amongst the rest is yet vn­answerd; and I thinke wil somwhat trouble your braines before it bee answered. All that Christ suffered for our Re­demption was, and must bee, meritorious with God. But the suffering of hell paynes, which astonish and confounde all the powers of the soule, and senses of the bodie, neither was, nor coulde bee meritorious with God; Christ therefore did not suffer such hellish paynes as did confounde and astonish all the powers of his soule and senses of his bodie. And thus, by your amazed position, you haue wholie confounded your owne opinion.

Thou hast heard (good Reader) a number of the Refu­ters speciall follies; I haue some fewe more to trouble thee with, and so I will leaue him to his holie cause, and thee to the mercies of God. To shewe himselfe learned as well in the Gréeke tongue, as in philosophie, hee vndertaketh an o­ther reason that I made, and sporteth himselfe somewhat handsomlie with it. Out of the fift to the Hebrewes where the Apostle saieth, Hebre. 5 Christ in the daies of his flesh did offer vp prayers and supplications with strong cryes and teares vnto him that was able to saue him from death, and was heard in that he feared, or deliuered from his feare; I collected two things. First that Christ in his praiers made in ye garden (for to those the Apostle pointeth) did but feare, and not as then suffer that he feared. The nexte, he was deliuered from his feare; and consequentlie neuer came to suffer that from which hee was deliuered. This Confuter replieth, as hee thinketh, verie soundlie, and verie sufficientlie. Thou shalt heare the whole. My reason hee maketh to bee this. Pag. 74. ‘That wherein Christ was hearde and deliuered from by praier, he feared but felt not. But Christ was heard and deliuered by prayer from the wrath which he feared, therefore he felt it not. His answere is. Ibidem. Nay euen therefore he felt it. Wee deny therefore the first proposition. For hee was in some sense of it, when hee praied against it, and was [Page 301] heard. He had then some foretast but the extremity came after, which hee before feared. And finallie hee being in all this was heard (as the verie word ( [...]) seemeth to im­port) and delyuered from it, that is at least, not before hee had felt it. Againe very the fearing of Gods wrath is a true feeling, I saie not a ful feeling, but a true feeling: but it is gran­ted that now in this Agonie hee feared the wrath of God: Therefore hee truelie felt it. Therefore the Question is gran­ted.’ You wrote this in the morning, Sir Refuter, when you were fresh and fasting, it is so short and sharpe; but be like it was darke, or your eies were dull you could not sée neither what I said, nor what your selfe saie.Vide Pag. 29. The force of my reason consisted in this, that where feare goeth before suffering, and is no longer called feare when suffering com­meth; if Christ at the time of his praiers in the garden were deliuered from his feare, much more from anie suffe­ring of that hee feared. And since by your owne positions you affirme hee feared in his agonie the paines of hell; I concluded hee suffered them not. Let vs now sée howe you impugne this reason. You first change suffering into sée­ling, and because the soule in all hir affections hath a kind of feeling, you inferre, naie therefore Christ felt it. Your manner is too shrowde your selfe with generall and am­biguous words that maie signifie anie thing, and then you shew your learning in speaking you knowe not what. But vse the word suffering which I did, or take feeling for suffe­ring, in which sence it maie stand; and then sée how absurd­lie and falslie you take my reason at this rebound. For then you must saie. Fearing is a kind of feeling, Christ fea­red the paines of hell, ergo Christ suffered them; and so by your logicke whosoeuer feareth captiuitie or death, is a captiue, and dead; and hee that feareth to loose his purse, hath lost it; yea hee that feareth to offend God, doth offend him; and hee that feareth to bee an hereticke, is an here­ticke. I thought though your diuinitie had not, yet your [Page 302] Philosophie coulde haue serued you to vnderstand; that Cicero [...] Tus­cul. qu [...]est. lib. 4 metus est mali impendentis, aegritudo praesentis; feare is of an euill approching; griefe or paine, of an euill present. If you scorne philosophers, whom for the proprietie of words, you preferre before all the diuines in the world, as anon shall appear [...]; Lactantius telleth you, that of Lactant [...] de vero cultu. li. 6. ca. 14 Desire, ioy, feare and sorrow, the two first (desire and ioy) are for good things ap­proching or present: the two last (feare and sorrow) for euill likewise approching or present. S. Ambrose will teach you that, Ambros. de Iacob et beata vita li 1. ca 2. ante dolorem est. timor, post dolorem tristitia: feare is before griefe or paine; after paine followeth heauines. And like­wise Gregorie, Gregor. mo­ral. li. 9. cap. 39. In his vitae tormentis, timor dolorem habet, do­lor timorem non habet, quia nequa quam mentem metus cruciat, cum pati iam caeperit, quod metuebat. In the torments in this life feare hath some griefe, but griefe hath no feare; because feare doth not afflict the mind, when a man once suffereth that, which he feared. This were enough to make my argument good, but it hath yet more strengh from the Apostles words: Christ praying in the garden was heard from his feare; that is was deliuered from his feare. Now is a man deliuered from his feare by suffering that he feared? So wee iest with men, when we will giue them their deserts, and let them stand no longer in suspence; but God so iested not with his sonne, as to rid him from his feare, by present punishment. God there­fore heard Christs prayer and deliuered him from his feare, when as yet he did not suffer it; and being deliuered from it in the garden, how came he to suffer it more extremely on the Crosse? For you saie, Pag. 74. Christ was in some sense of it, when hee praied against it, he had then some fortaste of it, but the extre­mitie came after, which he before feared.’ Syr confuter, if you can iest & gybe thus with the Apostles words, I must leaue you as lacking both conscience & commō sense; & so will all yt be godly. Christ praying in the garden was deliuered from his feare, saith Paul; that is say you, after he had suffered on the "Crosse, the extremitie of that which he before feared. So thē for [Page 303] Christ to be deliuered, from that he feared, was (by your con­struction) to suffer the extremitie of that he feared. Will you that God send you such deliuerance in the time of néed, that so prophanely play with the deliuerance of his sonne? [Hée was deliuered you will say, from the continuance of it?] No (good Syr) Christ neuer feared the paines of hell should con­tinue on him after death; it is horrible blasphemy so to think; & vnto death you say they continued. How was he then deli­uered from his feare? or haue you so soone forgotten your owne words, if you regard not myne? Pag. 5 [...]. ‘It is absurd to saie he praied in feare against that which he perfectly knew should neuer come vnto him, namely that the Dominion of Death should hold him.’ If the dominion of death should not hold his bodie, much lesse should hell hold his soule.

[But the Greeke word, [...], you saie, séemeth to import a deliuerance after Christ was in that he feared: [...], Pag. 63. Hee was heard being in it.] As is your diui­nitie, Syr confuter, so is your Greeke. For if Christ were heard; then God did heare him; & so if [...] ioyned to the pas­siue of [...] signifie that Christ was heard being in the paines of hell; then [...], ioyned to the Actiue, and referred to God, must likewise import that God being in ye same paines did heare him. Haue you not brought vs a learned obserua­tion out of your Greeke store, that God which heard, and Christ that was heard, were both in the paines of hell? But indéed [...] is to hearken vnto, as wee do when we bend our eare to anothers spéech; and [...] is hark­ned vnto or heard. The word is fiue times vsed in the new tes­tament, but in the Septuagint nothing more frequent to sig­nifie that we harken to Gods voice when we obey him, and God harkneth to our voice, when hee graunteth our praiers. Feare not saith the Angell to Zacharie [...], thy praier is heard, Lucae. [...] thy wise Elizabeth shall bring thee a sonne, Act: 10 [...] Soe the Angell to Cornelius, [...] thy praier is hearde 1 Cor: 14 with [Page 304] strange toonges will I speake to this people, saith the Lord, [...], and neither so will they har­ken vnto mee. The wise man in like manner, Eccles [...] 3 [...] [...], hee that harkeneth vnto the Lord, giueth rest to his mother. And the Septuagint, Whē thou praiest, saith Eliphas in the booke of Iob, Iob [...] 22: [...], God will heare thee, Psal. 55 Earlie, saith Dauid to God, [...], shalt thou heare my voice. So in Esaie, Esa. 59. the eare of the Lord is not shutte, [...] not to heare. Infinite exam­ples might bee brought to the same end, but these are suffici­ent to conuince your ignorant mistaking of the Gréeke tongue; yet the Question you saie is granted. Pag. 74. ‘For fearing is a true feeling, and if Christ feared the wrath of God, ergo he felt it.’ You recken a pace when you recken alone, but when you come for allowance you will lacke a faire deale of your reckning. If fearing wore suffering, which is most ab­surd; if there were no kind of feare, but your amazed and all confounded feare, as there be more other kinds of feares; if there were noe more parts of the wrath of God, but hell paines, as there be sundrie more; if no man might feare but for himselfe, as in charitie wee may, and in duty we ought to feare for others, and Christ in loue might and did for vs; then had you some hope, that he which granteth the one, would admit the other: but if this be all you can saie, that feare is a kind of feeling, I am as farre from granting the Question, as I was in the first beginning. For though you dallie with doubtfull words, and thinke it enough to catch here and there at a likelihood, my course is not so. In­déede out of these words I reasoned vppon your owne prin­ciples: and supposing it for the time to be true which on this place some auouch, that Christ feared the paines of hell, I concluded, if Christ were deliuered from fearing, he was certainlie deliuered from suffering the paines of hell. And before you answere the argument, you triumph as if the Question were granted. But Syr remember it [Page 305] is the suffering of hell paines that we talke of, and not of a Metaphoricall kinde of féeling; which you substitute in stéed thereof. Againe all the effects of Gods wrath Christ did not feele, nor feare, as namelie, neither reprobation, nor desperation, nor eternall damnation, which is the chiefest and sharpest effect of Gods iust wrath against sinne. Some partes thereof if hee did feare, and so in affection feele, howe doth it followe hee felt or feared hell paines? Thirdlie, hee did sustaine as well our person, as our cause; hee had not onelie compassion on vs, but coniunction with vs; and in that respect as our head hee might worthilie feare the euerlasting destruction of his bodie, if he did not interpose himselfe, and auert Gods wrath from them, by healing them with his owne stripes, and bearing their sinnes in his owne bodie. Fourthlie he might feare the power of Gods wrath, able to punish euen the bodie of Christ with farre more smart, then his humane flesh was able to endure. Last­lie, hee might carefullie shunne and decline both our sinne and the wages of our sinne, which is eternall death with a re­ligious feare, as content to redeeme vs, but not to destroie both himselfe and vs.

And this commeth néerest the signification of the Gréek worde there vsed, which is no confused or amazed feare, such as you woulde cunninglie conuey vnder the name of a Pag 74. perplexed feare, but a carefull and diligent regarde to be­ware and decline that, which wee mislike or doubt. And therefore [...] is not onelie one that feareth God by taking good care not to displease him, but a circumspect and warie man in other thinges; and [...] is circum­spection and warinesse in priuate or publique affaires, as well as Religion to GOD. Nowe because the bol­der men are, the sooner they aduenture on anie thing, and the more fearefull, the more héede they take what they do; [...] by consequent signifieth an inclination rather to feare, then presumption; but it is lesse then [...], which [Page 306] is the vsuall worde in Greeke for feare, as maie plainelie be prooued by Plutarch in his Treatise of Morall vertue; where, noting howe men couer vitious affections vnder the names of vertues, he saieth, Plutarch. de virtute moral. [...]; They call blushing reuerence; mirth gladnesse, and feare wa­rinesse, Euripides in the person of Eteocles king of Thebes, saieth,Euripid. in Phaeniss. [...], Circumspect care is the most profitable Goddesse. And where you quote the 23. of the Acts for proofe of your conseit, the place is rather a­gainst you then with you. For when the Councell dissen­ted about Paule, and some tumult began to arise, the Acts. 23. Tri­bune doubting least some hurt might happen vnto Paule then his prisoner, preuented it, and sent his souldiers to take him a waie from the midst of the throng. This feare of the tri­bune was for another man, not for himselfe, neither was a perplexed or amazed feare, but a doubt forecasting the worst, and preuenting it. So is it written of Noah, that being ad­monished by God of the floud which should come vpon the world, by saith Heb. 11. [...], fearing, declining and preuenting (what God had threatned to others) he made ready the Arke, for the sauing of his housholde. This could be no distrust full feare, what should befall him and his house; for his faith is commended by the Apostle in preparing the Arke, for the safetie of himself and his children; but he shunned that which he saw would light on others; and that the scripture there cal­leth [...]. The rest that maie concerne Christs praier in the garden, or might occasion that agonie which there hee shewed, thou hast (gentle Reader) in the Vide pag. 17 treatise before; which I will not here resume, least I wearie thee with ouer much tediousnesse.

For a farewell to his speciall reasons, the Confuter hath reserued matters of most speciall moment to the last: and because they are weightie and neede good proofe, hee hath searched the bottome of his studie, and sheweth vs here [Page 307] the depth as well of his reading, as vnderstanding. Out of the Epistle to the Hebrues he citeth these wordes; Heb. 2. Christ through death abolished him that had the power of death, that is the Diuell. From hence hee reasoneth thus. Pag. 77 Surelie the worde DEATH hath the same meaning in both places: ve­rie fonde it were to take it here otherwise. Nowe it is questi­onlesse, in this latter place, death signifieth the death of the soule, the tormentes and sorrowes of the damned, which are sepa­rated from the life of God: of which death the Diuell is sayde to haue the power and execution. Therefore in the former place death signifieth so to, euen the death of the soule, that is the tor­ments and sorrowes due to the damned, and Pag. 75. consequently Christ suffered the death of the soule. And because this reason will seeme altogether vnreasonable and harsh in the eares of some, to saie the least of it, let them soberlie consider it, and it is most true and euident: Or if this will not perswade men to be­leeue that Christ died the death of the soule, Pag. 7 [...] men liuing be­ing surprised with grieuous sorrowes and paines, will saie (as Terence witnesseth, occidi, perij, interij) they die, they perish. So likewise the death of the soule sometimes maie bee vnderstoode and that most sitlie for the paines and sufferinges of Gods wrath,Pag. 77. which alwayes accompanie them that are separated from the grace and loue of God. And if Terence bee not au­thoritie sufficient, Saint Peter against whome lieth no ex­ception, Pag. 78. saith, that Christ in his suffering for vs was done to death in the flesh, but made aliue by the spirite. And in the Scripture whensoeuer the fleshe and the spirite are opposed to­gither, Pag. 75. the flesh is alwayes Christes whole humanitie, I saie not his bodie onelie, but his soule also. From hence nowe it fol­loweth, that Christes soule also died, and was crucified accor­ding to the death and crucifying, which soules are subiect vnto, and capable of.’ I haue (Christian Reader) neither per­uerted the reasons, nor pared the authorities, on which this Confuter groundeth his conclusion, that Christ died [Page 308] the death of the soule, and that Christs soule was also cruci­fied as well as his bodie; I haue onelie sette them togither, that thou maiest with one view behold both the deepnes and soundnesse of this vpstart writer; and in thy secrete and vp­right iudgement, is it not patience enough to heare and en­dure a two legged creature to talke in this sort without all learning, religion or discretion, controlling all the fathers as fooles, for thinking otherwise then hee doth, commaun­ding the Scriptures pretor-like, to serue his ignorant and lewd assertions, and estéeming none to be sober or conside­rate, except they confesse his shamefull absurdities to bee most true and euident? But I haue not learned nor vsed to giue reuiling spéeches, the Lorde reprooue his follie. Though it bee not worth the answering, yet for their sakes that bee simple, I will not refuse to speake to it, and to let them see what difference there is betwixt truth and errour.

Your maine reason (Sir Refuter) is this, in these wordes of the Apostle, ‘Christ through death abolished the diuell that had power of death. This worde DEATH (say you) hath the same meaning in both places, the proofe you make for it is this, verie fond it were to take it here otherwise. Your assumption is, but death in the latter place questionlesse signifieth the death of the soule; Therefore Christ died the death of the soule.’ It were as easie for mee to saie, it is not so; as for you to saie, it is so; but that course which you holde is but prating of euerie thing, it is no proouing of anie thing. Howe manie kinds of death there are, wee shall better learne by the graue father Saint Austen, then by the young louers in Terence: August. serm. [...]29. Dicitur mors prima, dicitur & secunda. Primae mortis duae sunt partes, vna qua peccatrix anima per culpam discessit a creatore suo: altera qua indicante Deo exclusa est per poenam à corpore suo. Mors autem secunda ipsa est cor­poris & animae punitio sempiterna. There is a first death and a second Death. Of the first death there be two parts: one, when [Page 309] the sinfull soule by offending departed from her Creator; the o­ther whereby the soule for her punishment was excluded from her bodie by Gods iustice. The second death is the euerlasting torment of bodie and soule. The same partes and kindes of death are often repeated by him in his 13. booke de ciuitate Dei; as namelie,August. de ciuitate dei. lib. 13. cap. [...]. Mors animae fit cum eam deserit Deus, sicut corporis cum id deserit anima. Ergo vtrius (que) rei, id est totius ho­minis mors est, cum anima à Deo deserta deserit corpus. Ita enim nec ipsa vixit ex deo, nec corpus ex ipsa. Huiusmodi autem totius hominis mortem illa sequitur quam secundam mortem diuino­rum eloquiorum appellat authoritas. Nam illa poena vltima & sempiterna recte mors animae dicitur. The death of the soule is, when God forsaketh her, as the death of the bodie is, when the soule forsaketh the bodie. So ye death of both, that is of the whole man is when the soule forsaken of God forsaketh her bodie. For so neither she liueth by God, nor the bodie by her. This death of the whole man, that other death followeth; which the diuine scriptures call the second death, for that last and euerlasting pu­nishment is rightlie called the death of the soule. Here are thrée kinds of death; sinne which separateth vs from God, bodilie death, which separateth the soule from the body, and eternall damnation which tormenteth body and soule for euer. In the Apostles words to the Hebrues, that Christ through death abolished ye diuell that had power of death; you wil by no meanes haue the death of the bodie intended; that is a benefite and gaine to the godlie. Then of sinne and eternall damnation the diuell must be said to haue power, and indeede so he hath. For hee is the perswader and leader to sinne, and the ex­ecutioner and tormentor in damnation. And so by your di­uinitie Christ must sinne, and be euerlastinglie condemned to hell fire, before he can abolish the Diuell that hath power of both these. For he must abolish him, by the same kind of death, whereof hee hath power. Looke, Sir Refu­ter, what an wholsome exposition of the Apostles words you haue made vs, which the diuell himselfe durst not aduenture, [Page 310] it is so blasphemous. God forbid you will say, this should be anie part of your meaning. But if such bee your ignorant rashnesse, that you will so expound scriptures, as these con­sequents shall necessarie followe, you must leaue writing, and fall to learning an other while, till you be able to foresée what may iustly be inferred vpon your positions. Deaths of the soule there are none mentioned in anie Scripture, or father, but sinne and eternall damnation. Leaue the pa­theticall, hyperbolicall & metaphoricall phrases of Terence, to boies in the Grammer schoole, speake at least like a di­uine, though you bee none. If your cause bee so holie a truth as you talke of, it hath both foundation and approba­tion in the Scriptures. You shall not neede to runne to heathen Poets to prooue that the Sauiour of the worlde died the death of the soule. What the death of the soule is, what consequentes it hath, and what maine and moste sufficient reasons there are, why Christ neither did, nor might die the death of the soule, thou hast (good Rea­der) before in the Treatise it selfe: if this fumbler either will skippe them, or can not answere them, I must not repeate them as often as hee will neglect them.Vide pag. 73. Yet to ease thee of going backe, I will here giue thee the effect thereof.

The life and death of the soule is in manie hundred places learnedlie and trulie vouched and prooued by Saint Austen,August. in Io­han. tract. 47. Mori carni tuae est amittere vitam suam; mori animae tuae est amittere vitam suam. Vita carnis tuae anima tua, vitae animae tuae Deus tuus. Quomodo moritur caro amissa anima, quae vita eius est; sic moritur anima amisso Deo, qui vita est eius. For thy bodie to die, is to loose his life; and for thy soule to die, is to loose her life. The life of thy bodie is thy soule. The life of thy soule is thy God. As the bodie dieth when the soule is departed, which is his life; so the soule dieth when God is departed which is her life. And againe. August. de verbis Apost. serm. 30. Quomodo ergo mortua est anima de qua viuit corpus? Audi ergo & [Page 311] disce▪ corpus hominis creatura Dei est, & anima hominis creatu­ra dei est. De anima deus viuificat carnem, ipsam autem animam viuificat de seipso, non de seipsa. Vita ergo corporis anima est, vita animae Deus est: moritur corpus cum recedit anima, moritur ergo anima si recedit Deus. Carnem iacentem sine anima vides; ani­mam miseram sine Deo videre non potes? Crede ergo, adhibe o­culos fidei. How dieth the soule then by which the bodie li­ueth? Hearken and learne. The bodie of man is the creature of God, & so is the soule. By the soule God giueth life to the flesh, but the soule her selfe God quickeneth by himselfe, and not by herselfe. The life of the bodie then is the soule, the life of the soule is God. The bodie dieth when the soule departeth, ergo the soule dieth if God depart from her. Thou seest the flesh lying dead without a soule, and canst thou not see the soule wretched without God? Beleeue then, and open the eies of faith. And speaking of the particular consequents to the life and death of the soule, the same father saith: August. in Io­han. tract. 19. Quomodo cum anima est in corpore, praestat illi vigorem, decorem, mobilitatem; Sic cum vita eius Deus est in ipsa, praestat illi sapientiam, pietatem, iustitiam, charitatem; veniente ita (que) verbo & audientibus infu­so resurgit anima à morte sua ad vitam suam, hoc est ab iniqui­tate, ab insipientia, ab impietate, ad Deum suum qui est illi sapi­entia, iustitia, charitas. As when the soule is in the bodie, shee giueth vigour, comelinesse and motion to the bodie; so when God her life is in the soule, he giueth her wisedome, pietie, righteousnesse and charitie. The worde (of God) then sounding and infused to the hearers, the soule riseth from her death to her life, that is from iniquitie, follie, and impietie, to her God, who is to her wisedome, righteousnesse, and charitie. If this were not plaine inough; the Scriptures themselues are so euident, that no man can mistake the life of the soule, except hee will purposelie blinde himselfe, least hee shoulde come to the knowledge of the truth. For the sonne of God is Iohn. 1. life, and comming down from heauen, Iohn. 6. gaue life to the world, Iohn. 5. quickning whom hee would Iohn. 7. with the waters of life, that is [Page 312] by the Rom. [...]. spirite of life, yea Iohn 6. whosoeuer beleeueth, and Iohn 15 abideth in him, hath life and beareth fruite in him. For the iust shall Galat. 3. liue by faith, and he that dwelleth in 1. Iohn 4. loue, dwelleth in God, and God in him, for God is loue. So that not onely Christ is our life, 1. Iohn. 5. and he that hath the sonne hath life, but Colos. 3. with him, and in him, alwaies was, and alwaies will bee, the Reuel. 22. fountaine of life, which neuer did nor can drie vp; how then could Christ die the death of the soule, whose soule was personallie vni­ted, vnto the worde that was life in it selfe? And if the grace and spirite of God in vs, make vs liue by God, and in God; if faith and loue knitte men to the life of God; howe coulde the soule of Christ alwaies full of grace and truth, alwaies full of faith and loue, and of the holie Ghost, bee deade?

[But this Refuter meaneth another death of the soule.] What his meaning is, is not materiall, but whether hee meane truth or no. If he wil frame vs a monster in christian religion, what haue I to do with that, but to detest it? There is another death after this life, mentioned both in scriptures and fathers, which is the second death. But I hope this Con­futer will eate and sléepe vpon the cause before hee wrappe our Sauiour within euerlasting damnation. That is, a death in déed from which God blesse and saue vs all. They must néedes bee good Christians that labour to bring Christes soule within the compasse of the second death.August in psa. 43. Haec mortali­tas est vmbra mortis; vera mors est damnatio cum Diabolo. Our death is here but a shadow of death; the true death indeede is damnation with the diuell, saith Austen. And againe Idem in Io­han. tract. 43 Quid est istamors? Est relictio corporis, depositio sarcinae grauis: mors secunda, mors aeterna, mors gehennarum, mors damnatio­nis cum Diabolo, ipsa est vera mors: What is this death? It is the leauing of the bodie, and the laying downe of an heauier burthen; for the second death, the death that is eternall, the death of hell, the death of condemnation with the Diuell, that is the true death. Which of these two deathes of the [Page 313] soules, you will haue the soule of Christ subiected vnto, you must tell vs, (Sir Refuter,) if you will néedes haue him die the death of the soule; and the choise is so good, that take which you will, you in [...]ur hainous and horrible blasphemie. I wish you to bee better aduised, then to procéede to the de­fence of so wilfull a frensie. As for new deaths of the soule▪, you haue no commission to inuent anie; shewe what scrip­ture or Father spake it before you, or you must giue the godlie leaue to thinke you no fit founder of a newe faith. S. Austen was of opinion that no Christian durst auouch that Christ died the death of the soule, Idē epist. 99 Nam quod Iesus anima mortificatus fuerat, quis audcat dicere, cum mors animae non sit nisi peccatum, a quo ille omnino immunis fuit? That Christ was dead in soule VVHO DARES AFFIRME IT, whereas the death of the soule (in this life) is nothing but sinne, from which hee was altogether free? you not onelie auouch it, but you thinke no man sober that will not consent to it. But you did well to prophesie of this conceite of yours, that it woulde seeme harsh and altogether vnreasonable in the eares of some, to [...] saie the least of it; In the eares of all that bee wise and lear­ned it will sound worse, for it is a flat repugnancie not only to all the Fathere, but euen to the christian faith, that Christ died as well in soule as in bodie; and as meane a man as I am, I thinke I shall bee able to make that good which I saie. For if the soule of Christ were alwaies perfectlie vni­ted vnto life, fullie possessed of life, and aboundantly able to giue life, tell me I praie you howe it maie stande with the trueth of the scriptures, that the same soule was for anie time deade? you may euen as well defende that Christ sin­ned, as that his soule died, for the death of the soule is sinne in this life, and damnation in the next. Aug. epist. 99 Certe anima Christi nulla mortificata peccato vel damnatione punita est, quibus dua­bus causis mors animae intelligi potest: Surelie the soule of Christ was deade with no sinne, nor punished with any damnation, which are the two waies that the death of the soule may bee [Page 314] possibly conceaued.

‘[The death of the soule, say you, Pag. 77. may be vnderstood, & that most fitly, for the paines and sufferings of Gods wrath, which al­waies as company them that are separated from the grace and loue of God. This death of the soule yee affirme Christ suffered; yet hee himselfe neuer separated, but most intirely beloued, yea most Pag. 42 holie, most innocent, and most blessed.]’ You contradict, (Sir Refuter,) not onlie the scriptures and fathers, but euen your selfe in one and the same sentence, and reele like a man whose braines are not steadie. Ambros. de fide resurrect. Secundum scripturas triplicem esse mortem accepimus. Vna est cum morimur peccato, deo viuimus. Beata mors quae a mortali nos separat, immortali conseruat. Alia mors est vitae excessus cum anima nexu corporis liberatur. Tertia mors est de qua dictum est, anima quae pecca­uerit, ipsa morietur. Ea morte non solum caro sed etiam anima moritur; haec mors non est perfunctio huius vitae, sed lapsus erro­ris. By the scriptures (saith Ambrose) we learne there is a tri­ple death. One when we die to sinne and liue to God. This is a blessed death, which seuereth vs from that which is mortall, and ioineth vs to that which is immortall. The second is the de­parture out of this life, when the soule is deliuered from the bandes of her bodie. The thirde death is that of which it is written; the soule that sinneth, shall die; this death dieth not onelie the flesh, but the soule also; for it is not the ending of this life, but the running into errour. Ibidem. The first is the life of the soule, and the death of sinne; which is SPIRITV­ALL. The second is the ceasing of this life which is NA­TVRALL; the thirde is not onelie sinne but destruction, which is PENALL. Which of these agreeth to Christ, Ambrose himselfe will tell you. Ibidem▪ Quid est Christus nisi mors corporis, spiritus vitae? What is Christ but the death of the bodie, and the Spirit of life? Then Christ died not the death of the soule, for the spirit of life cannot die, vnlesse you will make life it selfe to bee death. Yea, they which in this worlde die the death of the soule are separated from [Page 315] Christ, for did they abide in him, they shoulde abide in life; he is Iohn. 14 the waie, the truth, and (not onelie liuing, but) life it selfe; This testimonie our Sauiour giueth of him­selfe, Iohn. [...] Verilie, verilie I saie vnto you, hee that beleeueth in mee hath eternall life. If they cannot die the death of the soule, which beleeue in Christ, howe mush lesse can Christ himselfe die that death? And heere, (Sir Refuter) you broch so grosse and palpable an errour, that women and children will deride you. For if the tormentes of hell and paines of the damned do alwayes accompany them that are se­parated from the grace and loue of God, howe manie hun­dred thousand thousandes of all sortes, sexes, and ages in all kingdomes and countries shoulde bee disturbed, dis­tracted, and confounded in all the powers of their soules and senses of their bodie? where are the Rom. [...] riches of Gods bounteousnesse, patience and long suffering which the Apo­stle so highlie commendeth, as leading vnto repentance? How could Abraham with anie truth saie to the rich man in hell; Lucae. 16. Sonne remember thou in thy life time receauedst thy good thinges and Lazarus paines; where if your position be true, the paines of Lazarus coulde not bee comparable to the tor­mentes and paines that ALVVAIES ACCOMPANIE the wicked? I assure thee (christian Reader) a man could not with fewer and foolisher wordes then these, more crosse the whole tenor of the scriptures. For the wicked here in this life abound with all wealth, ease, and prosperitie, insomuch that manie of the godlie haue beene and still are offended with it. Reade the 72. Psalme, and see whether these intolerable and horrible feares, sorrowes, paines, and tormentes of hell and the damned, do alwaies accompanie them heere in this life. Psal. 7 [...] My feete were almost gone (saith Dauid) when I sawe the peace of the wicked. There are no bands in their death, they are Iustie and strong, they are not in trouble, nor plagued with other men, their eies stand out for fastnesse, they haue more then their heart can wish. Lo these are the wicked, yet PROSPER [Page 316] THEY ALVVAIE, and increase in riches. This was too hard for me till I went into the sanctuarie of God, then I vnderstood their ende. So that God Rom. 9 with much patience suffereth the vessels of wrath prepared vnto destruction, who according to their harde and impenitent hearts, Rom. 2 heape vp wrath vpon them­selues against the daie of the declaration of the iust iudgement of God, whose suddaine destruction is then nearest, when they shal say 1. Thessa. 5 peace and safety.

And what maruell you crosse the scriptures in confoun­ding the wrath of God to come with the wrath of God pre­sent in this life; when you doe not see your owne wordes to be contrarie one to the other? For if Christ died the death of the soule, which is Ephes. 2 an alienation from the life of God, howe was he neuer separated, but alwaies intirely beloued and most blessed? If hee were neuer separated from the life of God, howe came he to die the death of the soule, which must néeds be a separatiō for the time from God, vnlesse you can match light and darkenesse, death and life together, and make the one to be the other, and both to cleaue to God himselfe? But what cannot you do, that can make the paines of the dam­ned, and torments of hell the onlie true and perfectlie accep­ted sacrifice to God? These are your words. [...]age .68. Such a sorrow indeed of a broken and contrite heart is the only true and perfectly accepted sacrifice to God, and is in effect nothing but what we af­firme. You affirme that Christ died the death of the soule, which you interpret to bee such Pag. 77. paines and sufferings of Gods wrath, as alwaies accompany them that are separated from the grace and loue of God: You affirme that Christ suffered Pag. 73. won­derfull and piteous astonishment, forgetfulnesse and confusion of the powers of nature, euen of Pag. 53. all the powers of his soule and sen­ses of his bodie, yea he Pag. 45. felt the verie diuels as the instruments, that wrought the verie effectes of Gods wrath vppon him; and though the Pag. 80. wicked oftentimes find farre more intolerable hor­ror of their sinnes then any other, yet you doubt not, but Pag. 81. Christ as touching the vehemencie of paine, was as sharply tou­ched [Page 317] euen as the Reprobate themselues, yea, if it may be, more ex­traordinarily. All this you affirme, and by your owne words, all this is the ONLY TRVE, and perfectly accepted sacrifice to God.’ So then whosoeuer feeleth not all this, hath no broken nor contrite heart, nor anie longer then hee feeleth these hel­lish torments in his soule. And if this be the ONLY TRVE sacrifice to God, I will not aske what shall become of the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiuing, but howe vnhappie are the godlie that at anie time are free from the paines of the damned, and from the tormentes of hell, since the suf­fering thereof is the ONLY TRVE and perfectlie accepted sacrifice to God? 2. Corin. 7 Godly sorrow, saieth the Apostle, causeth repentance vnto saluation; those wordes please you not;‘such Pag. 45 in margine. hellish sorrowes, and intolerable horrors as the Reprobate themselues feele, yea as the damned doe suffer, this saie you is the ONIY TRVE and accepted sacrifice to God. You must haue other sacrifices, and those accepted, before you come to heauen; or else the Reprobate and damned will bee there as soone as you: God send you his grace, and grant your wits and senses bee not distempered and distracted; you talke so much of hellish paines, and torments executed by diuels, as the only true sacrifice of a broken and contrite hart.

The Apostles wordes, whereon you first grounded this o­dious" assertion, haue no such intention, as you imagine. By death Christ conquered him that had power of death that is the Diuel. Aske the simplest childe yt is catechised in your charge, if you haue anie, what death Christ died for vs, and hee will answere you out of his Créede, Christ was crucified, deade, and buried; and that is the death which the Scriptures de­scribe and deliuer. 1 Corin, 15. I deliuered vnto you (saieth Paul) that which I receiued, how that Christ died for our sinnes, according to the scriptutes; what death if wee aske the Apostle, he will answere the death of the Crosse. For 1. Cor. 1 we preach (saieth he) Christ crucified; and I esteemed not to know any thing among you but Christ Iesus and him crucified. Christ crucified then, [Page 318] that is by his death on the crosse, destroied him that had pow­er of death. [Of what death, you aske, hath the diuell pow­er?] as well of the second death which Christ coulde not suffer; as of the first which hee did suffer. [Christ, you will saie, coulde deliuer vs from no death, but from the verie same which he suffered himselfe.] If so you saie, 1. Cor. [...]. or so would saie, it is no lesse then heresie, or blasphemie. Hee deliuered vs from euerlasting death, which hee neither did, nor coulde suffer. If you saie hee deliuered vs not from euerlasting death, it is open heresie; if you saie Christ suffered euerla­sting death, it is blasphemie. Yet hath the diuell power of both deaths, as well temporal as eternall. What power, you aske, hath the diuel of this death which our bodies die? Sapient. 1. God made not that death, but by the Sapi. 2. enuy of the Diuell it came in­to the world. He was the first procurer of it by perswading sinne, and still reioiceth in it as the verie gate to hel. Esa. 38 I shal goe (said Ezechiah) to the gate of hell, which was the death of his bodie; that waie the wicked passe to hell. Yea the Apostle calleth the corruption of our bodies the sting of sinne, where­with the diuell pearced vs; 1. Corin. 15. when this corruption hath put on incorruption, ô death where is thy sting?

For the exposition of the Apostles words, I may either say with August. de pec [...]. merit. & remiss. li 2 [...] c. 32 S, Austen▪ Ipse Dominus mori voluit, vt, quemadmodū de illo scriptum est, per mortem euacuaret eum qui ptoestatē habebat mortis, id est Diabolum, & liberaret eos qui timore mortis per t [...] ­tam vitam rei erant seruitutis. Hoc Testimonio satis illud mon­stratur, & mortem istam corporis principe atque authore Diabolo, hoc est ex peccato accidisse, quod ille persuasit. Ne (que) enim ob aliud potestatem habere mortis verissime diceretur. The Lord himselfe would die, that as it is written of him, by death he might destroie him that had power of death, euen the diuell, and deliuer them which for feare of death were all their life long subiect to serui­tude. By this testimonie it is sufficientlie prooued that this ve­rie death of our bodies came from the Diuell as the Authour and chiefe dooer thereof; that is from the sinne which hee per­swaded. [Page 319] He cannot for any other cause be said to haue power of death, which here is most truly spoken. Ambrose, Chrysostom, and Cyril referre death throughout that sentence to the death of the bodie: In these wordes (saie they) the Apostle Ambros. in, Hebre. ca. [...] noteth an admirable thing, that whereby the diuel had power, thereby was he ouerthrown. The weapons which were his strength a­gainst the world, that is death, by yt Christ strooke him. Why trē ­ble ye? why feare ye death? now death is not terrible, but accep­table as the end of labor and the beginning of rest. Chrysost. in Hebre. ca. [...] Chrysostom hath almost the same wordes. Cyrill verie often expoundeth death in that place for the death of Christs bodie. Cyril de recta fide. lib. 1. ex Hebr. ca. 2 The sonne of God was partaker of flesh and bloud, that yeelding his BODY to death, he by nature as God being life it selfe, might quicken it againe: otherwise how had hee abolished the imperie of death, vnlesse he had raised againe his dead BODY. And againe; Idem de recta fide lib. 2. Be­cause it was aboue mans nature to abolish death, yea rather it was subdued of death, the son of God, that is life, took vnto him mans nature subiect to death, yt death as a cruell beast inuading his flesh should cease frō his tyranny ouer vs, that should there­by be abolished. If by death in the second place we vnder­stand the death of body and soule with Fulgentius, I am not a­gainst it, this being alwaies remembred, that Christ died no death but the death of the bodie.Fulgent de incarnat. & gra [...]. christi. c. [...] Mors filij Dei, quam SOLA CARNE suscepit vtram (que) in nobis mortē, animae scilicet carnis (que) destruxit. The death which the sonne of God suffered ONLY in his flesh, destroied BOTH DEATHS in vs, as well that of the soule, as that of the body.

The Confu [...]er hauing be stirred himselfe in his special and choise arguments, as thou hast heard (christiā reader) & now drawing to an ende, purposeth like a politicke captaine so to entrench himself, that no force shal fetch him out of his hold. And because wordes are the weapons that can endanger him; he taketh the readie waie with them, to turne & wind them at his wil, and so maketh anie thing to be euerie thing, that nothing should hurt him. The scriptures affirme [...] that [Page 320] Christ crucified is the wisedome and power of God to all that be called, and that we are Rom. 5. reconciled to God by the death of his sonne, and our sinnes redeemed, and the Hebre. 2. diuel destroied by the death of Christ Iesus; as also that hee 1. Peter. 4 suffered for vs in the flesh, yea he 1. Peter. 3. suffered for our sinnes being put to death in the flesh. And least it should hence bee collected, that Christ died not ye death of the soule; but rather the death of his bodie was a sufficient price for the life of the worlde; the Refuter vndertaketh this place of Saint Peter, that Christ was 1. Peter. 3. done to death in the flesh, and thence will proue, that the flesh com­prehendeth bodie and soule, and that the soule of Christ Pag. 79 DI­ED "and was crucified as well as the bodie. Reason or authori­tie besides his owne he bringeth none, but out of the hinder part of his head he giueth an obseruation, which, if he saie the worde, must needes prooue sounde and good; and this it is. Pag. 78 Whensoeuer in scripture the flesh and the spirit are opposed to­gether, the Pag. 79 flesh is alwaies Christes whole humanitie, as well his soule as his bodie. From whence it followeth that Christs soule also died and was crucified.’ How proue you this note, (Sir Refuter?) had you saide that wheresoeuer the flesh of Christ liuing is spoken of, there the flesh of a man endued with a humane soule is intended; you had saide well: for Christ was perfect man and perfect God, in one and the same person: but when you will stretch all the attributes of the bodie, and make them common to the soule, because Christ had a soule as well as a bodie, it is no true obseruation de­riued from the scripture, but a partiall supposition intended to further your hellish sorrowes. In the 26. of Matthew, when Christ telleth his disciples Matth. 26. that the spirit is readie, but the flesh weake, doth hee take spirit there for the godheade, as if that were readie to suffer anie thing, or for the soule which was willing, but that the flesh was weake? In the 24. of Luke when Christ saieth, Lucae. 24 a spirit hath not flesh and bones as you see me haue, had his soule flesh and bones, and those to be seene as his bodie had? To the Romanes when Paul saith, [Page 321] Rom. 1. Christ our Lord was made o the seede of Dauid according to the flesh, and declared to be the sonne of God, touching the spi­rit of sanctification, by the resurrection from the deade; will you conclude that Christes soule was made of the seede of Dauid and came from Dauids loines as Christes flesh did? The like he repeateth in the same Epistle: Rom. [...] of the Israelites came Christ according to the flesh, which is God ouer all to be blessed for euer; where [...]f your obseruation faile not, Christes soule must be kinne to the Iewes as well as his flesh. Whie then [...] when Peter saith, 1. Pet. 3 Christ was put to death according to the flesh, but quickned by the spirit, doe you make it so cleere a case that the worde flesh there compriseth both bodie and soule; and therefore by Peters confession, Christ died in soule as well as in bodie? so when Paul saith; 2. Corin