¶ A compendious or shorte Treatise, gathered out of the chyefe and principall Au­thors of Phisycke, conteynynge certeyne preceptes necessary to the preseruacion of healthe, and longe continuaunce of the same: verye pleasaunte and profitable to reade. (⸫)

❧ To the ryght honorable ma­stie Wylliam Cicyll Esquier, one of the two principall Secretaries to the kyng his most excellent maiestie Henry Wyngfield wysheth long cōtinuaunce of true welfare, and like prosperouse successe.

H [...]uyng wythout anye my de­sert enioyed the cōmoditie of your beneuolence and good wyll, I haue often deuised, & ben desirous [...]accomplyshe some thyng whych I myght exhibit vnto you, as a testimonie and pledge of my pore ear­nest zeale & entier affection. And knowyng by late profe, that if my power wer to declare ye same by some gyft of price, ye wold not wel take it: beyng so syn­cere and vpryght, rather to esteme the good wyll, then the value. The con­sideracion of the whyche thyng hathe moued me at thys my presente beynge here, to take in hande thys small and simple treatyse, presenting it vnto you for a newe yeres gyfte, that it myghte openly appeare how inwardly I beare you (accordyng to my bounden duety) my pore hert and seruyse. And albeit that lacke of tyme, and lette of busines [Page] as it is well knowen, hath withdraw­en from me leasure requisite to the ab­solute finyshynge here of. Yet I truste wel in your wonted gentlenes that you wyll both in good part take my simple labour here imployed (vntyll some wor thyer thyng may happen,) and also for lacke of power [...]accepte my poore good wyll, hertely wyshyng that suche pro­fite may procede vnto you by thys processe, as you maye euermore enioye a healthful mynde in a whole and sounde body, beyng worthy for your excellen [...]e desertes longe continu­aunce of the same.

Who so wyl haue his dayes in healthe long endure,
And wythout payne or griefe to lyue and fare well.
These preceptes let hym practise, or faythfully put in [...]re,
And of health he may be siker, & sickenes so expell.

¶ The preface to the gentle Reader.

THe sharpenes and quickeIngeni [...]. capacitie of mannes wyt (whych is the best gyfte, & greatest treasure, graū ­tedmemoria. to mankynd:) The memorie, trusty, firme, & strong in reteyning & keping thynges cōmitted to her custodi: are not so much necessarie or expediente to the hauynge of a perfecte and exacte knowledge of the tongues and liberall faculties (wherein all treasures of science & wysedome are comprehended,) asJuditi [...] is a pure and sincere iudgemente. Furthermore, to haue so vncor­rupt or vpryght iudgement, true­lye to iudge & esteme euery thyng to be as it is, is a thing very hard and difficulte: Not onlye for be­cause of the great varietie and dis­sention in opinions, but also for [Page] the vayne and vncerteine confec­tures whych be in many sciences, as Palmestry, Pyromancie, and Astrology, and other faculties vn leful by the lawes o [...] God & man. Wherfore onles man know such secrete mysteries and hyd operaci­onsExperientia. of nature bi experience, he can neuer come to the knowledge therLonga vi ta ad sci­entie cog­nitionem necessaria of, the iudgement is so amased, o­pressed, and ouerwhelmed wyth darkenes.

Moreouer, experience also is of­tentymes vncerteine and fallible, bothe for the imbecillitie of oure iudgement, and also for that oure lyfe tyme is feble, frayle, and of shorte continuaunce.

Wherfore of these premisses the noble Physicion Hippocrates of most worthy memorye dyd plain­lye gather, that no man can come to the perfecte and exacte knowe­ledge [Page] of learnyng in short continu­aunce, so that it is requisite that life be prolonged, And there is no man so dul, no such lacke wyt, but that knoweth wel inough, yt thys thyng may be easely performed if he vse wysedome and diligent prouision in the ordryng therof, Whi­che thyng to be true, not only expe­rience, but also the diligent and ex­pert cure of phisycke is a sure wit­nes and testimonie. For it is dayly sene, that feble and weake bo [...]ies by thys prouidence and modera­cion in liuynge, lyue as longe as those which be valeaunt, lusty, and strong. To the confirmaciō wher of, Plato and Aristotle beare me witnes, that a man of excellente lernyng and wisedome named He [...]odicus, which was in all hys lyfe as feble and syckely as anye man liuyng at that tyme, by suche pro­uidence [Page] and order in diete, to haue iyued vntyll he was an hundred yeres olde. I lette passe manye o­ther, of whom Plutarche maketh mencion, whyche althoughe they were verye feble and weake, yet they by obseruynge these precepts of liuyng, and vsyng great diligēce to preserue the same, haue lyued long tyme wythout any greuous or paynefull syckenes. Whyche thynges considered and kept in remembraunce, causeth many not a lytle to meruell what shoulde bee the cause of so sodaine a chaunge & alteracion in our bodies at thys tyme frō their nature which haue ben before vs. For now adaies if a man lyue to fyfty or. lx. yere, it is thought a great age. And the most parte of men ere this tyme euen in their florishyng youth are attached with fearful death which shaketh [Page] of their freshe colour, their bewty, and their strēgth. And yet the case is playne, that mans lyfe myghte continue as longe nowe as it hath done afore tyme, if we in leadyng forth thereof wolde vse suche dili­gence and circūspectiō as dyd our progenitors. Whiche thynge I speake not as any derogatiō vnto gods honor, as who say, that we can appoint or constitute ani time, excepting alway ye power of God which is wonderfull & also merci­ful aboue mans reasō or counsell, preseruing, or striking, whō, whē, or wher it shal like his diuine power. For oftentymes as holy scrip­ture doth record, horrible syn hath ben ye cause of short life. And as itGen. xvi. is writtē ye first boke of Moses in ye first age, one mā liued as long as. v. or. vi. do now, but shortly af­ter, lyke as men, so dyd synne en­crease on the earthe. [Page] Wherefore the Lorde sayde: my spirite shal not alway striue in mā because he is fleshe, and his dayes shall be a. C. &. xx. yeres, but none at all, or very few doth approche nere vnto thys age: And truely to speake as I thynke our imtempe­rance, continuall bankettyng, and dayely ingurgitacions of meates and drinkes, is greate occasion of short lyfe nowe adayes. The spi­rite of glotonie so triumphyng a­monge vs in his glorious chariot called welfare, driuynge all smel­feastes and bealye guttes as hys prisoners afore him into the dun­geon of surfet, where they be tor­mented wyth sondrie painfull di­seases, driuen, drawen, and finally drowned. Such miserable nature remayneth in some mē, that to liue idel [...]y and voluptuously, they wyl chose rather to be sycke then to be [Page] whole: rather to haue payne then pleasure, rather to dye then to liue. For thys is not a rare thyng, but in dayly experience, that by suche reuell, gourmandise, and daily sur­fetyng, many cruellye are putte to deathe, oftentimes in floryshynge youth, in the most pleasaunt tyme of their lyfe. Wherfore the saying of the wise man Salomon is tru­lye on them verified, mo dye sayth he by surfet and intēperance, then dothe by battell and outward bo­stilitie. For the reformacion wher­of, and to restraine their prompte disposicion from suche beastlie na­ture, and wantō appetire: I haue gathered of the moste principall writers of phisicke, this compen­dious extract, wherin are contey­ned certein obseruacions and preceptes very necessary and profitable to the prolōging of lyfe: which [Page] beyng well obserued, put in due execution, and discretelye ordred, doth conserue and keepe oure lyfe longe in health, wythout the why­the all pleasures be paynful, ry­ches vnprofitable, & yet fewe con­sider this (the more pitie it is) but thys omittyng, I haue proceded in this place wyth ouer farre cir­cumstaunce, and also wyth some­what to much libertie of wordes, more then in a preface is requisite, for that it greueth me that mēns myndes be taken prisoners, and subdued to glotonie and intempe­rance. And nowe wyll I come to my matter purposed and fyrst en­terpryse begon (whych excepte I be muche deceyued) shall m [...] nister to the diligent readers, both commo­ditie, and pro­fite. ❀ (⸫) ☜

¶ The heat in our bodies which is called vitall, because as longe as it endu­reth the body is liuyng and quicke, and all the powers thereof, which be three in number: naturall, vitall, animall, do performe their operacions, is noryshed and sed wyth moystnes, by the super­fluous increase or diminucion wherof, ouer or vnder his naturall assignment, the lyfe runneth on hasard, the body is dissoluid, & death immediately folow­eth, which many men haue in extreme hate, and most fearfully abhorre.

The fyrst Chapter.

THat same quicke and liuelye power in our bodyes which is called lyfe, supported by naturall heat and moysture, liueth and dwelleth in the body, whiche two so together are conglutinate or knyt, that the one can not be se­perate frō the other, & the humidi­tie or moystnes is a very noryce to this naturall heat, whych by power digestiue for her sustentacion receyueth of her noryce suche inyce as is cōformable to her appetite. [Page] These two qualities be the mate­riall causes of oure liuinge. For a more playne declaracion where­of, I wyll vse a familier exam­ple daylye represented before our eyes. As the lyghte and bryghte­nesse of the lampe cometh of the oyle and the weke, semblably this vitall power comenly called lyfe, procedeth of natural heate & moy­sture: and when the oyle is consu­med and wasted, the lyght of the lampe is extinguyshed and quen­ched: also when there is to muche excesse or abundaunce therof be­ynge wateryshe or corrupte, the lyght is in daūger to be drowned, Lykewise it fareth by the encrease and diminuciō of humiditie in our bodies. For if moysture be wan­tyng or superfluous, if it be more or lesse then is conuenient to the naturall proporciō and temperature [Page] of the body: it doth shortly debili­tate, make feble and weake natu­rall heate, whyche so weakned in short continuaunce is clene extinct and so the bodye is dissolued, and lyfe distroyed.

Moriēdi necessitas obduas causas
  • Ob humoris re­solutionem cuinullis modis resisti potest.
  • Ob humoris p [...] trefactiout de qua quomodo vitari potest, est nobis hoc loco explicandum.

Yf for lacke of moystnes natu­rall heate be destroyed, the bodye dyeth by resolucion or consumpcion. Yf the naturall heate be drow­ned by superfluouse moysture, or elles by moysture viciate and vn­naturall, [Page] the bodie dyeth by suffocacion, putrefaction, or corrupciō. Thys suffocacion commeth vnto the bodie, when anye of the foure humors (which euery man is composed and made of) doth exceade their proportion that nature hath limited, or elles when any of them be putrified and rotten, speciallye when there is eyther great abun­daunce of flewme in the bodie, or elles when it doth approche to putrefaction or rottennes, wherof is the feuer quotidiane ingendred: wherefore pituita is so called (as some men thynke) quia petit vitam.

Thys necessary therfore and cō ­ueniente forme or discipline of ly­uyng, whych to the prolongacion of mannes life, is requisite and profitable, doth as well instructe vs how to be vigilant and circūspect, least naturall moysture in our bo­bodies [Page] be not lyghtlye consumed and wasted, as also to auoyde the daunger of death, whych cometh by putrefaction of humors. And that euerye man may wyselye and discretelye order these preceptes, to the prolongacion of hys lyfe, with long continuaunce of health: it is expedient and necessarie that euery man knowe the natural ha­bite and disposition of hys owne bodie. For if the body be hotte and drye, and the conduites thereof o­pen, and hys humors subtile or thinne: then he must vse those thin­ges whych do resyst consumption or wastyng, for because his body lacking natural moysture is light­lye thereunto disposed. And to sa­tisfie the desyre of such, whych per aduēture by these general wordes hotte and drie, do not yet perceyue what I meane therby, here for the [Page] playne vnderstandyng thereof, it shal be declared by sensible tokens Such as haue bodies hote & dry, their pore [...], which be litle holes in the skyn, dispersed thorow out all the body be great and open, wher­fore the skyn in feelyng is rough, & the vulgare people ignoraunte of letters do cal such as be of that disposition or naturall habite, goose skynned. Also their vaines be so li­tle that by the outward sēses they can not wel be perceyued. And a cōtrary dispositiō hath cōtrary to­tokens, as a smoth or soft skynne, large and ample vaynes, and such as be of thys constitucion muste vse such thynges whych specially do resyst putrefaction and corrupcion of ye humors which shalbe declared hereafter. But such persons which by aptitude of theyr nature be geuen only to studious medita­cion, [Page] whych wyth vigilant and cō ­stant study abandon al pleasures, and gyue them selues wholely to the exercise of the wyt: These most of all other haue nede to be proui­dent, wyse, and circūspecte in these thynges, for asmuch as their bo­dies be disposed as wel to consūp­tion and wastyng of humiditie, as to putrefaction by to much abun­daunce and excesse of humors. To the euidente profe whereof it is to be noted that their brayne alwaye declineth to drynes and hornes by reason of the continuall mocion of the wyrte whych is alwaye occu­pyed, and the phantasye alwayes conceiuyng thinges, and commit­tynge them to memorye, and also because the bodies of these menneM. fici [...]. lib. i de stud▪ ca▪ tu [...]nd. ca▪ tercio▪ be alwayes in reste and idlenesse, for lacke of competent exercise thei be full of flewme & melancholye. [Page] Wherfore the fyrst cause doth threten consumpcion of humiditie, the later putrefactiō of humors: ther­fore they must vse thynges which resyst the one as well as the other, of the which hereafter in place cō ­uenient shal be spoken abūdantly.

❧ Howe it is necessarie to the prolon­gation of lyfe to haue equall and iuste portion of naturall heate and moysture called radicall. For if inequalitie be thereof, the bodie shortly dyeth.

The second chapter.

IN ministringe of oyle to a lampe, euery man is circum­spect: for they perceiue well if they put in to much at one tyme, they drowne the lyghte, or elles if by negligence they forget to putce any oyle in, for lacke of humiditie the lyght is extingwyshed & goth forth. By exāple wherof we maye learne discretelye to temper heate [Page] and moysture in oure bodyes, by vertue and power of the whych, lyfe tyme may de prolonged.

Fyrste therfore bycause this life is inclosed in a mortal body, a ves­sell frayle, bryckle, and of short cō ­tinuaunce, we may not refuse and caste awaye all regard or respecte thereof, or neglecte our dueties in attendyng of it, for asmuche as it cōteineth in it precious treasures. but with vigilāt custodie intreate and order it, not in much cheryshe­yng or pamperyng of it, not suffe­ryng it to be subdued to all ioyes, pleasures, delicacie, and voluptu­ousenes. For by suche belye chere all the powers are weakened, the goodlye bewtye of the visage, and shape of mankynde, also strengthe of the bodye decayeth and vanish­eth away in short time. Wherfore we must accustume oure selfe to a [Page] moderacion in dyet whyche maye comforte nature, and not fyll the belye. It is wrytten that Galene the prynce of all Phisitions, why­che in hys tyme was had in won­derfull reuerence, dyd neuer in all hys Lyfe eate so muche, but that he left wyth a greate appetite and desyre to eate more. Neyther dyd he vse to eate by and by after he had rysen, whych we call breake­fastes, that be geuen to asswage the guawyng and complayntes of a yonge stomacke (and yet he ly­uedCelius auti-lecti lib. xvi, as Celius writeth. xx. yeres, or as some other affirme a hun­dred and fortye,) albeit breake­fastes to be necessarye in thys Re­alme, a certeyne worshypfull and well lerned man deseruing notable remēbraūce, hath proued by good reason, for asmuche as choler be­yng feruent in the stomacke sēdeth [Page] vp fumosities vnto the heade, and causeth headache, or sometyme be­cometh adust, wherby happeneth perilous syckenes if the heate in­closed in the stomacke haue not cō ­uenient matter to worke on Wherfore they be necessarye in thys Re­alme, specially to yonge men or colericke. But to returne to our pur­pose, it is to be remembred that the lampe burneth long, the lyght wherof is tempered according to the oyle, so that it do not hastelye, but by lytle and lytle burne and waste vp the same.

Lykewyse we in all oure lyfe tyme, specially in youth, muste be aduertised that thys heat natural­ly graffed in vs, be not superflu­ous or abundaunt, then verye lyke shortly to consume all humiditye called radicall, whych oftentymes is great occasion of shorte lyfe.

[Page]Furthermore by our outwarde senses we perceyue the lampe not to burne clerelye if the oyle be not pure and clere but thycke, turbu­lent and full of dregges. For shortly bubbels which ryse on the dregges drowne and extincte the light. But we in the tyme of our natiui­tie haue receiued of nature oyle, I meane moysture radicall, pure, & ayerye. Wherefore that whych is dayly ingendred in our body in the place of that whych is consumed by heate, wherwyth thys heate is fedde and noryshed, ought not on­lye to be of iust and equal porcion and quantitie to that whyche was before, but also in all condicions lyke vnto it, and that it may be so conformable vnto it, it muste not onlye be pure and ayerye, but also not hauynge anye parte of fece or dregges.) Whych if you wyll es­cape [Page] and auoyd, you must beware of cruditie which is a vicious concoction of thynges receyued, they not beynge wholly or perfectly al­terid. Remedies conuenient & fitte therefore shall be expressed in the chapter folowyng.

Also much reste, idlenes, or slug gyshenes, wherfore we muste not neglecte competente exercyse, and that in due and cōueniente tyme, whych surely is a thynge so neces­sary to the preseruacion of health, that wythout it no man may long be wythout syckenesse, whiche is affirmed bi Cornelius Celsus sai­yngCorn. Celsus. lib. x. that sluggyshnes dulleth the bodye, labour doth strength it: the fyrst bryngeth the incōmodties of age shortly, the laste maketh a mā longe tyme lustie, and moste of all to absteyne frome suche meates which engender dregges, making [Page] yll iuyce, and norishyng, and suche as ingender melancholy, as biefe very olde, fleshe or fyshe very salt, chese hard & olde, wyne thicke and blacke, gose, ducke & swanue, also fruits not rype & much vsed. Ther be also manye mo lyke kyndes of meates which I purposely pas o­ue [...], forasmuche as I desyre to be in this treatise cōpēdious. But he that wyl know more abundantly of these & such other, let hym reade the boke of Galene, wher he intreateth of the nature and operacions of meates, and he shall be therein fully satisfyed.

¶ What thynges diminy she or cōsume naturall moysture, and what super flu­oufly increas [...] the same. Also that good digestion is very necessarye to the pro­longation of lyfe.

The thyrd chapter.

THese thynges folowynge in short continuaunce exhaus [...]e and dri vp natural moisture [Page] Greate and abundante esfusion of bloud, either by fyghting or by o­ther chaunce of fortune, violente l [...]ws [...]es of the belye beinge long soluble. Immoderate sweatynge the p [...]res & conduites of the body [...]o [...]uch opened. Ouermuch [...]ami­li [...] acquaintance with [...]s, of wanton delite the goddes & patrones, great thyrst or honger, [...]mmoderat watch, ouermuch vse of thi­ges hot & dry. Also affectes & passions of the myud, as ire & wrathe, also sorowe, heuines, & daylye lan guishyng in tormentes incurable, then the whiche there is nothynge more enemy to life, for it cōsumeth both natural heate, & moysture of the body, also it doth extenuate or make the bodye leane, dulleth the wytte, darkeneth spirites, letteth the vse and iudgemente of reason, and oppresseth memorye. [Page] Whych thynges be ratified by the authoritie and witnes of Salomō Sorowe saythe he, dryeth vp theProu. xv. bones. For lyke as the mothe in the garment, and the worme in the tree, so dothe heauinesse anoye the herce of manne.

Thinges contrary to these whi­che wente before, make moysture vnnaturall and superfluous to re­dound in the bodye: as often drun kennes, whych doth both exhaust heate, and maketh abundaunce of euil moysture, and also causeth cruditie. For when the meate is not well concocte or boyled in the sto­macke, then there is tomuche euyl and corrupt iuyce where by natu­rall heate is drowned, oppressed, and ouerwhelmed. Foresene ther­fore that good digestion is so ne­cessary to the prolongacion of life, let vs if affectionatly we couet the [Page] preseruation therof wyth all oure indeuour and [...]udye vse diligence and circumspection, that we runne not into thys cruditie. But consideryng that it is great occasion both of consumption of humiditie, and also of suffocation of heat diligently to auoyde it in vsynge a moderation bothe in meate and drynke.

For ouer muche ingurgitacion of meates and drynkes, or the vici­ous qualitie thereof, or the recey­uing of them out of order, & gredy and hasty fedynge wythout mastication or good chewyng, or much and verye ofte drinkyng at meales or betwene meales be the chiefe causes of this affecte or dissease. Let vs therefore geue good attendaunce that the meate be not hard to concoc [...], or that it be not ouer sweete, as bankettynge dyshes or [...]lles that they bee not of diuerse [Page] qualities, whych do speciallye corrupt digest [...]ō. Nature teacheth vs thynges necessarye whyche be but fewe and sone prepared, folishnes hathe inuented thynges superflu­ous whych are without number & hard to comby. If thou geue necessaries vnto nature, she is delited and made strong as with thinges fi [...]te for her appetite. But if thou geue her superfluous, she is wea­kened and afflicted as wyth gob­bets not agreyng vnto her dyete.

Last of al let vs beware of slepe at after nonnes, of long watching and sittyng vp of nyghtes, which al wyth many other mo do great­ly let digestion. When I speake of digestiō, I do not meane that only whych is in the stomacke, but the seconde also whych is in the liuer, and the thyrde in the vaynes, and the fourth or last whych is finish­ed [Page] in al the members which, sure­ly to their perfeccion haue neede of good space and continuance whi­che in nyne houres space, as some mē thinke is brought to pas. And if the least of thē al be in any wyse letted or troubled, noryshment is not dueli ministred. Moreouer as it is necessary to the prolongacion of lyfe to help digestion and make it perfite: So lykewyse [...]urgynge of exc [...]emētes is as necessary. Al­so to keepe the skynne cleane from any fylth, and those places wolde be ofte clensed, out of the whyche filthines cōmeth from the inward partes, as the head, the eares, the nosethi [...]les, the eyes, ye armeholes and ye other secret places yt nature hydeth, & honesty scase wold haue named. The. iii. thyng which doth make strong & lus [...]y the liuely and quick power of ye body is exercise [Page] and labour, whych thyng to be ne cessarye is knowen by thys, that those originall thynges corruptible, whereof all liuynge creatures are composed and made, be euer more in continuall motion as the ayre, the fyre, and the water.

But in this place it semeth expediente, seynge I dyd promise the same before, to declare some remedies agaynst thys cruditie where wyth manye be affected and trou­beled, and therewyth to make a perfite conclusion of thys chap­ter. Galene and all other do agree in this case, that peper brused and eaten wyth meate is verye expediente. And where there is muche wynd in the stomacke, then to eate all tymes of the daye the medicine made of thre kyndes of pepper▪ tyme, anise seede, and hony clarified, which is called diatrion piperi [Page] on, and if flewme be abundaunt, then oximel, that is to saye, honye and water soden together wyth the rootes and seedes of fen [...]l and persley, and a quantitie of vinegre put thereto in the boylyng is very commendable. The rest are fullye handled and set forth of Galene in his bookes de Cacoclymia.

¶ By what tokens one may know whether the bloud in bys bodye b [...] good or [...]o & if it be vi [...]ate or yll, how to recti­fie it: For nothyng is more necessary to the producing of lyfe, then good bloud,

The fourth Chapter

THe most famous and expert Phisitions, among all other preceptes whych speciallye apperteme to the prolongacion of mannes lyfe do aduise and coun­sell vs to eate suche meate as ma­keth good iuyce, and suche we cal fyne and holesome meates whych [Page] ingender good norishment, yt is to wyt good & laudable blud, which causeth aboue all thynges the lyfe lōg to cōtinue in health. And good bloud is knowen by this, it is not cold, not dry, not darke & [...]urbulēt, nor of ye colour of a beastes liuer, but it is hot, moist & cler [...]. Yet it is not of feruēt & burning hot [...]s as is fyre, nor yet of thyn humiditie or moysture as is water. For if ye bloud aproche nygh to ye nature & cōdicion of fyre, it maketh natural heate ouermuch to surmoūt in the body, by the superfluous increase whereof humour radical is lightly cōsumed. And if ye blud aproch ne­ [...]er to ye nature of water, it doth extenuat, abate, & diminyshe natural heate, and wyth ouermuch thynne and wa [...]ry moisture doth drowne and opresse it. Wherfore such euyl bloud maketh both heat and moi­sture to exceade their boūdes and [Page] transcend their limites appointed by nature, whereby lyfe is lyke to fall in ruine. And verely if naturall moysture be mingled with wa [...]ry and thyn bloud, it sone receyueth putrefaction, which is oft cause & occasion of feuers & agues called putride. And for this cause it is not holesom to eate frutes or hearbes cold, for thei much & abūdantly eaten do shortly fil ye vaines wt iuyce crude & rawe, which sone wyll re­ceiue putrefactiō. Of these premis­ses it foloweth therfore yt the blud in our bodies be nether very hotte like fire, neither very thin & moyste like water, but in keping ye golden meane betwene bothe.

Hitherto ye qualitie of good bloud is declared, and now lyke wise the substance therof shal be sufficient­lye expressed. Good bloud is ney­ther ouer thycke nor ouer thynne, [Page] But as in hys qualitie, semblably in hys substaunce doth keepe and retayne the meane, and in all con­dicions is correspondēt to the qualitie of the ayer.

If the substaunce of the bloude be thinne, it ngendreth humiditie, yll, vncerteine, and not longe con­tinuyng, and maketh the spirites apte to be dissolued and consumed wherby nature is mortified.

  • Naturalis in hepate,
  • Uitalis in corde,
  • Animalis in cerebro,

Yf it be ouer thycke, it doth de­bilitate and obfuscate the wytte, stoppeth the pores, and geueth oc­casion of suffocation of the lyfe, [Page] and the spirites whych by thycke bloud be condensat and made tuc­bulent because of their thyckenes be nothyng fytte or conuenient for lyfe, for they put out and suffocate naturall heate, vpon the whyche the f [...]ndacion of lyfe is buylded. Like as a great thicke smoke doth ouer whelme the flame of the fyre, and wyll not suffer it to burne out clerely. I let pas that it is so dark that it maketh mans lyfe heauye, sad, and full of pensiuenes, such as for the most parte those that are of a melancholike constitucion be.

Good and pure bloud is as ne­cessary to the noryshing of the life, as good oyles bee for a lampe. Wherefore suche meates muste be pycked out and chosen, whych in­gender pure and good bloud. Rayses in a place shewyng vs how to reteyne and keepe styll longe tyme [Page] the freshnes of youth, & kepe back croked, feble and withered age, aduertiseth vs to vse such meates as ingender good bloud, whyche be precordiall & confortatiues of the hert, & also other lyke which wold be knowen of suche as write of the nature & operation of meates, for this shorte treatise can not receyue them.

¶ Howe that he whiche desireth the course of hys lyfe longe to continue must haue diligent respect or regard to the election of his mansion or dwelling place.

The fyft Chapter.

THe place where a man pur­poseth to dwell is diligently to be considered of thē whi­che desyre to liue long in health, for asmuche as the ayer whych is ac­cordyng to the diuersitie of places good or euyll, is speciall cause of [Page] long lyfe or short. Wherfore of all other thinges ayer is chiefly to be obserued, because it dothe both in­close vs, and also enter into our bodies, specially the most noble member the herte. For thys cause wee must chose a dwelling place wher the ayre is pure and clere, and flie farre from those places where the ayre is euyl, stynking, and corrupt, and corruption of the ayre is ey­ther impured vnto influences of sundrye starres, or elles to greate standynge waters which neuer be refreshed, or elles to carion lyinge longe aboue the grounde, or els to a greate multitude of people in smal rome liuyng vnclenly or slut­tishely. Marcilius Ficinus remembrethLibr. [...]. cap. vii. two thynges whiche moste of all are to be obserued in election of places. Neuer thinke (saith he) yt you can lyue longe in those places [Page] where either fruite can not be kept longe from rottennes and corrup­cion, or elles where men, as you maye see, be but of shorte time and continuaunce of life. And these places be beste whych be hygh, wher the ayer is subtile and pure, not moyst, nor colde. Lowe places in valeyes, or among fennes and maryshe groundes be worse.

The same author saythe in the place before alledged that it is vn­holesome to vse dungynge of the ground, as plowmen be accusto­med to do, to the [...]tent the grounde may be more batryll and fertyle, and also vnholesome for the inha­bitaunies to make standyng wa­ters in pastures for beastes to drynke of. For in suche places all thynges be sone corrupted, wher­fore sayth he, I can not alowe or approue their iudgement, whyche [Page] dyd fynde faute wyth Hesiode theHesiodus [...]. 2. [...]gou ca [...] eme­ [...]on. greke poete, for that he in his bokede re rustica, dyd purposelye passe ouer these two thynges before re­membred, for he very wysely dyd more regarde the holesomnes of the ayer, then the rankenes of the grounde.

But to returne to the election of places most conueniente for habi­taciō. Hygh places on mounteines and hylles be beste, whyche haue theyr situacion agaynst the east or the, north, and it is to be kept in re­mēbraunce (as some men thinke) necessarye that all the dores and wyndowes of the house be situate either against the east or the north. For thys cause (as I thynke) the windes that come from thence be more laudable then the other two▪ be: In bryngynge holesome ayer, and in prolongynge of lyfe by ex­pulsyng [Page] of euyll vapoures. But if wee bee of necessitie compelled to dwell in those places whyche bee lowe, watrye, and vnclenly, Mar­cilius doth aduertise vs to vse hot and swete fragrant sauoures, and to temper our meates with saun­ders, cinamome, and safron, also to vse moderate and competent exercise of the bodie, and not to suffer extreme colde, but ofte syttynge in such wether by a fyre syde.

How wyue is necessary to the prolon gation of life by reason it helpeth dige­ [...]ion, and conforteth natur al heate, also the incommodities whyche procede of dronkennes.

The syxte Chapter.

PLato the wisest of all philo­phers dothe affirme yt wyne moderatelye drunke norysh­eth and conforteth as well the bo­dye as the spirites of manne, and therfore god did ordeine it for mā ­kind [Page] as a necessari remedy against the incōmodities of age, that ther­by thei shuld seme to returne vnto youth & forget heuines, for by his qualities whiche be heate & moy­sture, nature is chieflye conserued. Also Galene saith that wyne is of good norishmēt for the bodye, and doth preserue health, & that ther is no other kyndes of meat or drinke that doth so much cōforte natural heate, & so helpeth digestion. The profite that cōmeth by moderate drinkyng of wyne is that it dothe clarifye the thicke and troublesom bloud, it doth clense & opē the pas­sages and pores of the bodye, and specially the vaines it doth take a­waye stopping of the liuer, it doth expell frō the hert darke fumositie which doth ingēder heauines & so row, it causeth a man to forget all care, & maketh him mery & ioyful. [Page] Wherefore it is holesome for all ages, for all times, and al regions so that it be taken moderately and as he yt drynketh it hath ben accu­stumed to it, if he drynke no more then his nature may wel sustayn & beare. Albeit concernynge ages, touchyng the regimente of wyne, A [...]icene sayeth: to geue chyldren wyne to drynke, is as one wolde lay fyre to fyre made of dry wood, but he sayth that one may geue an olde man as much wyne to drinke as he can beare wythout detrimēt or hurte. Olde folkes are cold, and wyne heateth, theyr spirites are heauye, and wyne maketh them lyght and cleare, and comenly old folkes slepe yll, but wyne makethRayses li bro. iii, al mansoris them to sleepe well. Also Rayses sayeth: wyne vniuersally doth comforte the stomacke and the liuer, and it causeth the meates to passe [Page] downe easely, it doth quycken the corporall myght and wyt. But o­uer much ingurgitacion of wyne, & wyne drunke superfluouse doth hurte the liuer, the brayne, and the senewes, it doth ingēder crampes, palseies, apaplexies, & oftentimes dayly experience teacheth, sodayne death. Drunkennes is ingendred of a grosse and thycke fume, which ascending vp to the brayne, dothe there couer the places where rea­son and memorie lyeth, no other­wyse then the clouds do couer the lyght of the sunne, where by all the senses as wel internall as external be so troubled that they can not execute theyr offices and dueties appoynted of nature, the inconueni­ences whych come by drunkēnes be these that folowe.

The fyrste is corruption of the liuers complexion, for it resolueth [Page] the heate therof, wherby the lyuer loseth hys naturall generation of bloud, & in place of blud ingēdreth a watrishnes & causeth ye dropsye.

The second is corruption of the braynes cōplection. It doeth dis­pose a hote braine to a woodnes & fransie, the cold to the falling euyl, forgetfulnes and palsey. The. iii. is weaknes of senewes and disseases therof as the crampe, palseis, goute, dropsies. Whych thynges well considered and kepte in remē braunce shuld (excepte I be muche deceiued) refraine something their prompt disposition from such wā ­ton appetites. But trulye there is no man knowyng the dueties belō ging to an honest he [...]t but wyl so­rowfully bewayle, & piteously la­ment the folyshe peruersitie of many, which by their negligēt & dissolute liuing wylfully cōmit their bo [Page] dies to be tormented wt greuous and painful sickenesses, the dolour wherof, if by counsell & practise of physycke at the fyrste brunt be not apeased & pacified, for whych the art of phisycke is rated, accused, & put in blame. And thus the paci­entes transpose and laye away the faute whych in them selfe is culpable: Unto the imbecillitie or feble­nes of the arte. But if effectuall re­port were made vnto suche by the informatiō of honeste & approued phisitions how suche disseases by their negligence procured can not easely be expel'ed onles the origi­nal occasions therof be somthyng diminyshed, & so by aduisemente & good order in diet preceding to preuent ye speciall causes thereof: then not onlye of their maladies they shuld be ye soner cured, but also phisitions shuld auoide ye reprocheful rebukes & [...]uyl reportes which of [Page] longe tyme they haue susteyned, & consequentlye the noble science of Phisycke shuld be eftsones resto­red to her pristinat honour & dignitie. And verelye that parte of phy­sycke surmounteth all the other,Diatetici whych do the tracte and deuyse ne­cessarie and conuenient forme of lyuynge whych we shulde diligent­lye and circumspectlye obserue in tyme of our health and welfare, if affectionatly we couet the preser­uacion & long cōtinuaunce therof.

¶ A dyet prescribed for olde men, with certeyne medicines agaynst the incom­modities of age.

The seuenth Chapter.

THey whych are past the daū ­gerous passage of youthe, & nowe approche to olde age, whych is about fyftie yere, what tyme bothe naturall heate and strength begyn to decaye, must di­ligently [Page] haue respecte and regarde to .ii. of the seuen planets: Uenus and Saturnus. The fyrste dothe signifie storyshyng youth, the later withered and teble age. Thei therfore whych ve vnder Saturne, as olde men, must vse circumspection that they be not entangled wyth the blandimē [...]es of Uenus, of wā ton appetites chief patronesse. Al­so they must beware that they suf­fer not extreme colde, nor vse not to bee oute of theyr houses in the ayre of the night tyme, which thinges are knowen to bring damage to that age. Also thei must vse such meats as ingender good and pure bloud, as the yolkes of rier egges newe layed. Also wyne fragrante and somthing swete, whych ingenderith good spirites. They muste not vse much honger or thyrst, and specially auoyde much watchyng [Page] of the nyghtes. Remedies for the prouocation of sleepe shall be re­membred in the nexte Chapter.

Exercise of the bodye wold not be muche vsed in age, also heauy­nes and sorow of the mynd wold be aboue all thinges expelled. For the bodye can not seme yonge and lusty, onles the mynd bequiet, me­rie and pleasaunte. Yf olde men be verie colde, let them laye thys fo­mente or applicacion to their sto­mackes whyche is of wonderfull efficacie and power in prolonging lyfe. R. all the inwarde parte of a hotte newe baked loafe sieped a ly­tle space in good maluissye, and then rolled in poulder of mintes, and so layde to the stomacke or holden to the nose, is to olde men wonderfull profitable, for as Dioge­nes Laertius writeth: By vertue of this fomente dyd the renoumed [Page] and famous philosopher Demo­critus (belong sicknes at deathes dore) keepe and retayne the liuelye spirites wythin hys body, and ly­ued a good space after.

Furthermore lyghte frications and baynes be verie good and ne­cessari for aged men. Also the iuyce of good licorice is supposed of manye to encrease naturall heate and moysture. Almond mylke, suger, and raysynes wolde be also vsed. Rasis doth greatly commend mi­rabolanes called kebuly, condite in India, and doth cōmaund olde men agaynste the incōmodities of age dayely to eate of them.

Remedies for olde men, or any other that can not sleepe.

The eyght Chapter,

LAcke of slepe cometh of great driues of ye brayn, which ma­keth short ye course of lyfe, and no­thing so much ēcreseth melācholy, [Page] so that men hereby be oftentimes disposed to frensies and madnes the veste remedies to resyste thys euil be these that folow. After supper to eate rawe lettes with a litle bread, to drynke after, a litle good and pure wyne. For lettes eaten in the euenynge, as Diascorides recordeth, prouoketh slepe meruei­lously. Wherfore Galene the most noble phisicion, for this intent and purpose was accustumed to haue his poryge made wyth lettes.

Moreouer vehement prouoca­tions shall be to take a confectiō at nyghte made on thys wyse. [...] .ii. vnces of whyte poppie seede and .i. vnce of lettes seede, halfe a drame of safron .vi. vnces of white suger, and sethe all together in the sirupe of poppie, and eate of thys confection .ii. drāmes at one tyme and also by itselfe a lytle of the sy­rupe [Page] of popie. For the same pur­pose it is good to anoynt the fore­head and temples with oyle of vi­olets, with the oyle of the hearbe called nymphea, in englyshe called a water rose, and wyth oyle of al­mondes, and to holde at their nose a lytle vynegre or rose water, Also it is good to beset the bedde and strawe the chamber wyth colde hearbes as endiue, purslane mal­lowes, camomile, vinetree leaues, and suche other. Marcilius Fici­nus approueth ofte whashyng of the head wyth water wherin pop­pie, lettes, purslan, malowes, ro­ses, camomile, the leaues of wyl­lowes and vyne trees be sodden, of ech a like quantitie & also wyth thys water not only to washe the head, but also the armes, legges, and al the bodye.

And here I haue purposely lefte [Page] oute many other more vehement prouocations whiche be not vsed but when great nede doth require and they be only vsed when phisi­cious caste theire patientes into sleepe to the entente to cutte them wythout paine or griefe. They be called of the Grecianes Narcotica, and Anodoyna, of the Latines Stu­pefaciencia, indolorifica, or molestia vacātia. And here I cōclude to speake of remedies agaynst immoderate watchyng, whereby the incommodities of age maye be somethyng mitigate, & also life time prolōged.

Of the golden drinke Auxum potabi­le, and somethyng of the vertue therof.

The nynth Chapter.

THere is no man hauynge the fre vse of reason that wyl de­nye mannes lyfe chiefelye to bee conserued by the strengthe and power of that whyche is ex­tracted [Page] as well forthe of the ver­tue o [...] hearbes as other metalles called the quint essence, Foreseyng that not onlie the opinions of sage and wyse Philosophers haue in thys thyng concluded, but also we maye see the experience of it in our owne bodyes: For forthe of the meates beyng grosse of substance whych we receiue daylye to the su­stentation of nature, is extract by power digestiue the quinte essence of those same meates where doyth nature is fedde and noryshed, that whyche is grosse and euyll beyng seperate awaye, by power e [...]pu [...] ­siue, as gobbettes not agreynge to her dyer. Wherefore she abhor­ryng them, desyreth to haue them expelled by sundrye kyndes of ex­crementes: but nowe to my pur­pose.

[Page]Of al other that quint eisēce is the best and moste precious, which is extracte forth of the precious me­tall golde, for it of al other is most temperate, not obiect to corrupti­on, and as Astronomers aflirme, for the goodly and shynyng colour and also for hys temperature it is resembled to two of the most worthy planettes hauynge supremitie ouer the reste: that is to wyt Sol, and Jupiter. Of thys is made a golden drynke called aurnm pota­bile, whych is of great strength & vertue in producinge of oure lyfe. Of this aurum potabile is a boke intituled Celū philosophicū, vnto the whych boke for the more am­ple and playne declaration hereof, I remitte the studious reader, for this litle treatise can not receiue it.

Of the opiniō of thē which say mans lyfe by degrees of seuen yeres to be in daunger of death or misfortune.

The tenth Chapter.

FOr asmuche as shortnes of tyme and busines otherwise taketh from me labour and studye requisite to the exacte and perfite finyshyng of thys my pur­pose and enterpryse begone, wher­by I am constrained to leaue ma­ny thynges vnspoken concernyng certeyne preceptes of Astronomie, by the healpe whereof Astrono­mers promyse preseruation of health and cōtinuance of the same, which thyngs omitted I purpose onlye to remember their opinion whych affirme ourelyfe euermore at seuen yeres ende to be in daun­ger of death or misfortune, which yeres the Astronomers call Auuos c [...]nactericos, they are called also An [...] sca [...]ar [...]s [...]tadatii or dectetorii, whiche they proue to be by this reasō: Foreseyng that all the Planettes do raigne by order of successiō and [Page] course. Euerye houre of the daye semblablie they raygne in order, euery day in the weeke, also euery planet in order geueth influence and constellacion for the space of a moneth to the chylde conceiued in the wombe, and brought forth vy generation. Whereby wyse Astrologers castyng the daye and hour of the chyldes natiuitye, do indge hys naturall inclinacion, and to what thynges he is of nature apt­lye dysposed. And consequentlye they saye that euerye planet in or­der for a yeres space geueth influ­ence and constellacion vnto mans lyfe. For a more euident declaracion whereof it is to be noted that Saturne the hyghest planet in the fyrste moneth after the chylde is conceyued, hathe supremitie and chiefe rule ouer the chylde lying in the wombe, not hauyng perfecte [Page] shape of manne or woman, and so by discention vnto the loweste. In the seuēth moneth, Luna hath rule and gouernaunce, and so after the chylde is borne and broughte forthe by ascention agayne [...] fyrste yeare of the childes age, the Moone hath soueraigntie and ge­ueth her influence. In the second Mercuri, in the thirde, Uenus, in the fourth Sol, in the fifte Mars, in the syxt Jupiter, in the seuenth Saturne, & so in order returnyng agayne, that suche course there is in all mans lyfe whych causeth in oure bodies euerye seuen yeare a greate alteracion and chaunge.

Wherefore euerye seuen yeare is thought daungerous and ieoper­dous for the causes before menci­oned.

For this cause by ye aduertisemēt of auncient writers at euery seuen [Page] yeres ende we shulde consult with phisicions, wyse and well learned, to knowe how to escape the daun­ger then imminent. For by certeine remedyes Ptolomeus affirmeth that the manaces and threatnings of the planettes may be repressed. Also he affirmeth that mans lyfe maye be prolonged by vertue and power of certeine Images made of precious stones or other metal, if they be made at time oportunate and conuenient, accordinge to the raygne of the planettes, as Philo­st [...]atus telleth of a manne named Appolonius, whych by the vertue of seuen rynges whyche he made, geuyng euery one of them a name accordyng to the names of the planettes, and vsinge dayly to put the ringes on hys fingers as the pla­nettes raygned in the dayes of the weeke: ly [...]ed an hundred yeres [Page] reteinyng styll the yong and good­lye bewtie of the visage, the liuelye power and quicke vigoure of the mynde, and strength of the bodye. Albeit I let pas to wryte of suche astrologicall Images, for because such witchcraft and sorcerye is su­perstitious and deuyllishe, vnlawfull by the lawes of god and man. Wherefore all trust and confidence taken from suche detestable prac­tise, these medicines only maye be lawefully vsed to dryue awaye the in commodities of age, whych on the earthe God hathe created for mannes necessitie.

A confutation of the exoniouse opini­on of certayne philosophers whyche thought phisycke to be of such efficacie and power to make the body immortal. wyth the causes of bodely deathe, and the necessitie thereof.

The eleuenth Chapter.

[Page]THere were in tyme paste cer­teine philosophers, whyche supposed that by suche craft and other lyke as is before hearted, the bodi of mā might be made immortal. Whych opinion to be folyshe, peruerse, and erronions it may sone appeare to al them whi­che wyll eyther folowe daylye ex­perience or natural reason, to leaue of that I shuld firste haue named, and that is the most true and sub­stanciall reason: verelye the deter­minate sentence of almyghtie god. Albeit not only philosophers, but also phisicions by ouermuche affi­aunce and trust had in their science supposed that this thyng myghte be brought to passe against whose presumption & arrogancie the no­ble phisicion Auicene, the chiefe of the Arabians, in forme folowyng replieth, sayenge: The science of [Page] phisytke doth not make a manim mortall, nor doth not defend surely out bodies from outward hurte­full thynges, no nor can not assure euery man to lyfe, to the last terme and daye of his lyfe. But of two thynges it maketh vs sure: that is from putrefaction and corruption and also defendeth that naturall moysture be not lyghtly dissolued or consumed. Wherfore that cruel Lady of destenie named A [...]ropos whom we call comenlye death as­sayleth and pursueth oure bodyes to destroye and kyll them by two sundry maner of wayes. Whereof the fyrste is called resolution or consumption of natural moysture whyche in continuaunce and pre­cesse of tyme muste of necessitie be consumed and wasted, and can by no phisycke be auoyded.

[Page]And all the preceptes whych here be gathered together if thei be dis­cretelye vsed, and put in due execu­tion, serue speciallye for thys pur­pose, that it bee not lyghtlye, as in floryshyng youthe or chylde age consumed or wasted, but be defer­red to olde age as longe as nature wyll permitte and suffer.

The latter cause by the whyche death assayleth the bodie is called putrefaction or corruption of na­turall humiditie, whyche maye be easelye auoyded if man be circum­specte in vsyng the counsels before wrytten, and to keepe the bodye in safety and health. From the daun­ger hereof dothe belonge the dili­gent consideration and ryghte vse of those thynges whych be called in phisicke not natural, whyche be syxe in number. Ayre, meate and drinke, sleepe and watche, mouing [Page] and reste, emptines and repletion, and affectes of the mynde. Of the vse whereof is some thyng spoken in master Eliots Castell, and ther fore here omitted.

But nowe to returne to this ne­cessitye of our dying, to the which by force and constraynt we are driuen, and commeth by thys reason. Naturall heate in oure bodies by continuaunce and processe of time is a necessatie cause of her owne de struction. For if it shulde alwayes continue in our bodies, then shuld we liue, but the thyng is contrary, for at the lengthe it dothe consume and wast her owne matter wher­of she is made, that is naturall moysture. For a more euidente and playne declaration whereof, it is to be considered that lyke as the lyght of the lampe dothe by conti­nuaunce of tyme consume the oyle [Page] which is cause of the lyght, and so is at length extingwyshed: Lyke­wyse it fareth by naturall heate in our bodies, and the more it apro­cheth to age, the more it becometh drier, wherby heat is diminyshed, which diminution of naturall heat is caused of two thynges, the one is ouermuch drynes in al the mē ­bers, the other is lacke of moy­sture, whych of necessitie, immedi­ately after causeth death to come, and the body to be dissolued. This I thynke sufficient to the confuta­cion of the opinion before remem­bred. One thynge I had almoste forgotten, whych althoughe it be but a faynyng of the poetes, yet it is necessarye to the amplifiyng of our purpose, and doth conteine in it thynges delectable, worthye knowledge.

The poets fayne there to be. iii. [Page] fatall Ladies, or Ladies of desti­nye in whose wyll it standeth to prolonge and shorten mans lyfe, and they be called of the Latines Parce, because as I suppose they fauour no manne. The fyrste na­med Clotho, is fayned to holde a rocke or distafe in her hande. The second named Lachesis to plucke forthe the threede, and the thyrde called Athrop [...]s, to plucke asun­der and breake the same, whereby they vnderstand that the fyrste of these Ladyes hathe power of oure lyfe at the begynnyng of it, and the seconde ladye to stretche forth and draw along mannes lyfe, the third ladye at her pleasure, and when she wyll to shorten it, so as it runne not hys full course.

An Epiloge or briefe rehearsall of the pr [...]misses.

[Page]THys is sufficiente for the de­claracion of those thynges which be necessary and expe­diente to be knowen to the preser­uation of the health, and longe continuaunce of the same, whych spe­cialye doth consyst in reducing na­turall heate and moysture to an e­quall and iust temperature in ma­kyng digestion good and perfite, in rectifieng of bloud viciate or corrupt, in consideracion to be hadde concerning, a mansion or dwelling place, in ordinarie dyet to be obserued, in preparing necessarye reme­dies agaynst inordinate watching finallye in the power and strength of that whych beyng extracte out of hearbes and other metalles is called a quine essence, which being studiousely read, and put in due execution, I trust shall be to the rea­ders, both commodious and pro­fitable: [Page] o [...] whom I praye [...]hat my small and symple [...]abo [...]es hece [...] bestowed at vacant tyme from o­ther lettes and busines, maye be fauorably accepted, and hereafter when I shall perceiue where [...]her my lytle power, or poore [...]be­uoure maye better accomplyshe the thyng for theyr commodi­tie, ther shall no laboure let me from doyng of it. Thus fare ye well gentle Readers.

‘Uiue, vale Lector, si quid scis rectius istis Candidus imperti, si non scis viere gratus.’

Imprinted at London by Robert Stough ten, dwellynge wythin Ludgate at the sygne of the Bishoppes Myter.

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