Boke of husbandry


HEre begyneth a treatyse of husbondry whi­che mayster Groshede sōtyme bysshop of Lyncoln made / & translated it out of frensshe in to Englysshe / whiche techeth all ma­ner of men to gouerne theyr londes tene­mentes / and demenes ordynatly as the chapytres euy­dently is shewed.

¶The.i. chapytre telleth how ye shall spende your good and extende youre londes.

¶The.ii. chapytre telleth how youre londe shall be me­sured / and how many perches maketh an acre / & how many acres maketh a yerde of londe / and how many yerdes maketh an hyde of londe / and how many hydes maketh a knyghtes fee.

¶The.iii. chapytre telleth how many acres of londe yt a plough may tele in a yere.

¶The.iiii. chapytre telleth whether a plough of oxen or a plough of hors many tele more londe in a yere and whiche is more costly.

¶The.v. chapytre telleth in what season ye shall begynne to falowe all maner of londes.

¶ chapytre telleth how ye shall lay youre londe at sede tyme.

¶The.vii. chapytre telleth how your londe shall be so­wen in all seasons.

¶The.viii. chapytre telleth how ye shall chaunge your sede and nourysshe youre stubble.

¶The.ix. chapytre telleth how ye shall nourysshe youre dounge and wede youre corne and how it shall be mesu­red out of the barne / and how moche an acre shall yelde agayn more than your sede yf ye sholde haue wynnynge therby.

[Page] ¶The.x. chapytre ielleth how ye shall chaunge all ma­ner of catell in season.

¶The.xi. chapytre telleth how ye shall chaūge youre werke bestes and wene youre calues / and what prouffy te ye shall haue of youre kyne / and vayll to butter and chese.

¶The.xii. chapytre telleth howe ye sholde nourysshe youre swyne and youre pygges.

¶The.xiii. chapytre telleth how ye shal nourysshe your shepe and dyuers medycynes for theym.

¶The.xiiii. chapytre telleth what profytes ye shal haue of youre ghees and hennes.

¶The.xv. chapytre telleth how ye shall bye and selle & preue youre weyghtes.

¶The.xvi. chapytre telleth how ye shall take a compte of youre balyf ones a yere.

¶The.i. chapytre.

THe fader in his olde age sayth to his sone / so­nelyue wysely and dyscretly atter god and the worlde / and thynke on the harde chaun­ge of fortune how by lytell and lytell it at­teyneth to ryches / and by lytell & lytell des­cendeth to pouerte and wretchydnes. ¶And therfore I coūseyll you to ordeyne youre lyuynge after thextent of youre lyuclode / and not more then ye may dyspende in a yere by youre lyuelode. ¶And yf ye may profyte & make youre londe better by wynnge or by store of catell or ony other profytynge more than thextent of youre ly­uelode amounteth / as moche it is in value thextent kep­te and dyspende it not. For yf youre catell deye or youre corne fayle it maye stande you in good stede. For and yf [Page] ye despende the value of youre lyuelode in one yere and mysauenture fall vpon you ye haue no recouer by youre profytes. ¶For the wyse man sayth. He that profyted to other men oftymes / he wasteth his owne. For it is of­ten seen that many men haue both londes and tenemē ­tes & can not lyue theron / by cause that they lyue with­oute ordynaunce and purueaunce made in due season. ¶And for they haue spende more than theyr lyuelode may susteyn / and than can none other shyfte but fro ye honde to the mouthe / and so they fall in to pouerte and wretchydnes. And therfore be wyse in youre demenyn­ge / desyre none of your neyghbours goodes wrongfully and kepe youre owne wysely / so that by reson no man may repreue you ne youre werkes And ye good that god hath lente you dyspose it well in gyftes and despenses. ¶And ye shal knowe foure profytable thynges for you. The fyrst is whan ye gyue and to whome. The seconde is yf ye gyue or make ony dyspenses / loke that it be done with good wyll and that it shall be profytable. For yf ye gyue it agaynst youre wyll ye lese as moche as ye gyue or dyspende. The thyrde is loste that ye gyue to hȳ that may bothe further you & hynder you. The fourth is loke ye gyue neyther to moche ne to lytell but after that the persone be that ye gyue it to / and after youre mater be moche or lytell / and after that ye haue to do with ye per­sone. ¶Also lete youre londes be extendyd by wyse men sworn and se what euery perçell there of is worth by the yere more than thextente as well in maners as gardyns and closses / and after warde loke how many actes be in youre closses / & se what an acre therof is worth by yere. ¶And se how many acres of erable londe ye haue / and what an acre is worth by yere / & of all other londes me­dowes [Page] and pasture in lyke wyse / and thus may ye kno­we what ye may dyspende in a yere wtout waste or dys­truccyon & of free tenementes accordynge how moche euery man holdeth of you & by what seruyce. Also what mylles & fysshȳges be worth & ye haue ony within your lordshyp yerely ouer thextent / & of all maner of cotages rentes seruyce & customes in lyke wyse. ¶Or ony other thynge wherby ony profyte to you yerely may aryse / & loke how moche shall competently sowe an acre of lon­de of eche maner of granes / & loke how moche store ye may kepe vpon euerych of youre maners / this knowen than se thextent of youre lyuelode. And ye shall knowe how moche youre balyf shall answere you yerely by the approuemētes ouer extent / & thus ye shall knowe what the value yerely is of youre lyuelode / and there vpon to rule expēses wysely / & loke ye take ye rekenynge of youre balyf yerely in ye moneth of Iuyn how many quarters of corne is sowen vpon youre demene londes / & than lo­ke youre extent & go in to ye felde therwith & take a few of euery pyece of londe that is sowen / and perauenture ye shall fynde more sowen than he gyueth a compte of whiche he holdeth to his owne behoue. Or ellys perauenture ye shall fynde more corne sowen than nedeth. And thus ye shall knowe whether youre balyf be profytable for you or not. ¶And yf ye wyll ye may departe youre londes in thre partes The fyrste to be sowen with wyn­ter corne. The seconde parte to be sowen with lenten se­de / as wt otes pesyn & other suche granes. And ye thyrde to be falowed & somer layde. Also ye may departe youre londe in two partes. The fyrste parte to be sowen with wynter corne and lenten sede. The seconde parte be fa­lowed and somer layde. ¶Also a plough shall tell. viii. [Page] score or. ix. score acres of londe a yere than lay youre ex­tent and see how many acres of londe ye haue / and com­maunde youre balyf to kepe this maner gydynge of ty­the.

¶The.ii. chapytre.

IT is to wete that thre barly cornes take oute of ye myddes of the eere maketh an ynche and. xii. yn­ches maketh a fote. And. xvi. fote and an halfe maketh a perche / and. xi. perches in length / and. iiii. in brede ma­keth an acre of londe / and. iiii. maketh a yerde of londe / and. v. yerdes maketh an hyde of londe / and. vii. hydes maketh a knyghtes fee.

¶The.iii. chapytre.

SOme men say yt a plough may not tele. viii. score or. ix. score acres of londe a yere. But I shall pre­ue it by good reason yt a plough may do it. ¶For ye shall vnd̄stonde that an acre of londe is in msure. xl. perches in lengthe / and. iiii. in brede / and the mesure of a perche is. xvi. fote & an halfe. ¶And so ye brede of an acre of londe is. lxvi. fote and so ye go with youre plough. xxxiii. ty­mes vp and doune the londe / & se the fyrst forowe be a fote / & eche of the other be in lyke quantyte / & than is an acre cred. And whan the forowe is as strayte as it may be / than is it. xxxvi. tymes vp & doune the londe though it be a large acre. And the plough be neuer so feble atte moste ye haue gone but. lxxii. tymes vp & doune ye londe whiche is but. v. myle way. ¶Now truly the hors or oxe is feble that frome the morowe maye not go softely. iii. myle frome home and come agayn by none. ¶And by this other reason ye vndstonde that there be. lii. wekes in in the yere / take. viii. wekes for holy days & other let­tynges / & there remaneth behynde. xliiii. to werke in the [Page] se. xliiii. wekes ben. CC. lx. dayes besyde sondayes. ¶Also a plough shall ere thryes in the yere / yt is to say in the wynter / in lenten / and in leke sede tyme. ¶In wynter a plough shall ere. iii. rodes and an halfe a daye And on e­che other seasons an acre on the day at the lest. ¶Now knowe ye whether it maye be done or not / but by cause plough men carters & other fayne and werke not truly ¶It is behouefull yt men fynde a remedy agaynst theyr seruauntes. And therfore it is necessary that the balyfor some of the lordes offycers be with them the fyrste daye of doynge folowynge and so wynge to se yf they do theyr werkes truly / & let theym answer you as moche werke as they dyde the fyrste daye. ¶Also it is necessarye that youre balyf ouer se youre werke men ones in a daye to wete yf they do theyr werke truly as they ought to do / and yf ye fynde theym contrary he shall chastyse theym resonable therfore / and by dyscrecyon.

¶The.iiii. chapytre.

THe plough of oxen is better than the plough of hors / but / yf it be vpon stony grounde ye whiche greueth fore the oxen in theyr fete. ¶And ye plough of hors is more costly than ye plough of oxen & yet shal your plough of oxen doo as moche werke in a yere as youre plough of hors / though ye dryue your hors faster than ye do your oxen / yet in what groūde so euer it be youre plough of oxen / yf ye tele your londe wel & euenly / they shal do as moche werke one daye with a nother as your plough of hors / & the groūde be tough / your oxen shall werke where youre hors shall shall stande styll. ¶And yf ye wyll knowe how moche the one is costlyer than ye other I shal teche you. It is a costume yt bestes yt go to the plough shall werke from ye feste of saynt Luke vnto [Page] the fest of saynt Elene in Maye / that is to saye. xxv. we­kes / and yf youre hors sholde be kepte in a good plyght to werke / he muste haue dayly the syxt parte of a bushel of otes pryce. ob. / & in gresse in somer season. xii. d. And euery weke that he standeth at drye mete one with an other. ob. in strawe for lytter. ¶And in shoȳge as often as he is shodde on all foure fete. iiii.d. at the leste. ¶The somme of his expenses in the yere is besy­de hay and chafe and other thynges. ¶And as for the oxe ye maye kepe hym in good plyght dayly to doo his Journey gyuynge hym euery weke thre oten sheues pryce. i.d. by cause. x. oten sheues yelde abusshell of otes yf they be made by the extent and in somer season xii.d. in gresse. ¶The somme of his expenses by the yere is. iii. S: i. d. besyde strawe and chafe. ¶And yf a hors be ouerset and brought downe with labour it is aduenture & euer he recouer it. And yf your oxe be ouersette and brought doune with labour / ye shall for. xii. d. in somer season ha­ue hym so pastured that he shal be stronge ynough to do your werke / or elles he shall be so fatte that ye may selle hym for as moche moneye as he coste you.

¶The.v. chapytre.

IN Apryll is good season to falowe londe yf it be well broken before the plough. For in that season is neyther to wete ne to dry / but he that hath moche to doo may not abyde all the good seasons of the yere. Neuertheles / whan so euer ye ere yf it be in good soyle ere depe with a square foro­we so that some of ye good londe may reste. And yf your londe lye in feble soylery ere not depe but falowe it clen­ly so yt ye londe be neyther couered ne vncouered. ¶And at the seconde falowe ere not to depe but so as ye maye [Page] dystroy thystelles and other wedes. ¶For yf youre lon­de lye marras or watry grounde / and it be to depe at ye seconde falowe whiche is to saye youre plough shall not come to no harde grounde but go shotynge all in myre. ¶And yf youre plough go an ynche deper in sede tyme thenne it dyde all the seconde falowe it shall fynde good grounde / and elles the tylthe of ye myre and make good erynge.

¶ chapytre.

AT ye sowynge of your sede lay your lōde naro­we togyder so yt your sede may falle euen vpō ye londe. For yf youre londe be wyde a sonder it shall cause grete hurte. For the londe sowen the harowe shall caste the corne in holles and vayles that ben betwene the gates of the plough so that the corne that is one the rydge shall be vncouered & cau­se lytell or noughte to growe vpon the londe. ¶And yf ye wyll preue it / whā your corne is growe out of the er­the / go to the hede of your londe & loke towarde ye other ende & ye shal se whether that I say soth or nay. ¶And yf ye sowe your londe vnder the forowe / let it be ered & leyde small & nere to gyder / so yt ye rydge of londe bytwe­ne the forowes be narowe ynough togyder lyke a creste in the myddes of the londe the rydge vnder the lefte sy­de fote / & whā they drye the londe agayne kerue it wyth your plough so that the fyrste erynge may be ouer tur­ned / & thā shall your londe be narowe ynough to gyder.

¶The.vii. chapytre.

LOke that ye sowe youre wynter corne tymely so that youre londe sadde and youre corne rote / or that grete wynter come / for yf a grete rayne falle wt in. xx. dayes after the sowynge of your corne & there vp­on [Page] endurynge.ii. or.iii. dayes. The froste shall make the corne to perysshe that is newe sowen by cause it is but tender and ye rote therof but newely budded or put out. ¶All suche clay londes and stony londes as ye purpose to sowe wt lenten sede / sowe them or Maye come for it causeth cley londes to wexe harde / and stony londes dry and comynly the londe openeth for drynesse / & therfore it is nedefull to sowe suche maner of landes tymely so yt the sede that is sowen theron may haue his nourysshynge. ¶As for sondy londes it nedeth not to sowe them so tymely / for it is not good to plough suche maner of lon­des in grete moysture / & yf they be a lytell wete with a dewe at the sowynge it shall not noye it but do it moche good. And yf your londe lye in marras or in watry groū de / make good depe furowes there so that ye ridges may be delyuerde of the water.

¶The.ix. chapytre.

LOke ye chaunge your sede euer yere at Myghelmas for it shall be more auayle to sede your lon­des with sede yt groweth vpon other mennes londes thā with sede yt grewe vpon youre owne londes. And yf ye wyll make a preue therof / ere two peces of londe in lus­te & lyke in soyle / and sowe them at ones / that one with that sede yt grewe vpon your owne londe / & that other with sede grewe vpon other mennes londes / & ye shall fynde yf I saye sothe or nay. Also take not the stubble of your lōde leste ye haue nede therof for couerȳge of youre houses.

¶The. ix. chapytre.

MAke youre donge and medle it with erth that is fresshe / & make clene your shepecote euery. xiiii. nyght / and medle ye donge that cometh therof with fresshe [Page] erth or claye or suche mater as men caste out of dy­kes / & strewe it well with strawe & chaf. And yf ye haue more strawe than youre store wyll spende / strewe it in your folde or shepecote / & lete that donge as well with­in as without be gadred to gyder & layde vpon an hepe And whan ye shall cary it to your londe take hede yt your carters do truly theyr werke / & lete theym answere you duly as moche werke as they dyde you the fyrste daye whan they were ouersene leste they fynde a resonable excuse of theyr lettynge. ¶And whan ye delyuer your carte horse shone sadelles or ony other stuffe / here a rekenynge of the olde / or els lete it be acompted on ye carters wa­ges yf it be loste thrughe theyr neclygence. And ye grees yt ye delyuer to your carters / lete it be medled with ter­re or harde sope / and it shal be the better for your carte / & yf ye carter grees theyr shone theyrwith it shal brenne them & rote them to donge. Also the donge that is med­leo with erth put it vpon sondy groūde yf ye haue ony / for in somer the weder is hote & the sonde is hote by kynde the whiche two hetes whan they mete to gyder after mydsomer it causeth the corne to wexe passynge shorte that groweth on suche sondy londes but it be remedyed by this maner of donge as is before sayd. ¶Whan ye drye donge in ye groūde to sowe corne dry it not to depe / for yt wasteth your dōge. ¶Now shall I tell you what wynnynges ye shal haue by your donge that is medled with erth. Donge yt is roten by it selfe with without er­the shall laste two or thre yere / and after the londe be hote or colde. And donge that is medled with erthe shall laste double as longe / but it shall not be so sharpe ne so ranke berynge / also medled erth lasteth lenger than donge not medled / by cause whan the donge and the erthe [Page] is medled togyder and spred vpon the londe / and yt lon­de harowed the erthe kepythe the donge that it may not wast in dyscendynge as it wolde do. And yf it rayne a lytell whan ye lay your donge on your londe it shall do it moche good / for it causeth the donge and the londe Joy­ne togyder / and ye put your donge vpon your londe at falowynge tyme at the seconde falowe it shall be torned vnder the erthe so that it be hydde with erthe at sowyn­ge tyme. ¶Also lete your shepe dōge be put nexte your sede / for that is moost worthy / and at ye fyrst feest of our lady ordeyne youre hyrdylles after that ye haue shepe & kepe youre folde / for in yt season they haue moste donge And after mydsomer lete your corne be weded and not byfore. For yf ye cutte thystelles. xx. or. xv. or. viii. dayes before that tyme for euery thystell shall growe foure a­gayne. And lette your medowes be well & clene mowen by ye aduyse of your balyf. And se that your mower hol­de not his ryght honde a fore to hygh behynde / hym soo that the grasse be not cutte in the myddes. And this de­faute is called forsynge / and it is a grete defaute and a grete losse of haye. And lette your corne be wysely shor­ne and gadred to gyder and layde in your barne. And lete your thresshers be sworne to thresshe it clene / Neuer theles take hede of them that they haue no pokettes nor no grete purses to stele your corne in / and se that youre wyndowers haue no pokettes bytwene theyr legges to stele your corne. And whan your corne shall be mesured out of your berne purueye you a trewe man to ouersee youre baly / for it is ofte seen that offecers ben of one as­sent to auayle theym selfe and hurte theyr lorde. And se that youre corne be mesured with a trewe mesure / yt is to saye with a trewe busshell / and that euery busshell [Page] euery busshell be streken. And se that they haue a clothe vnder theyr fete to kepe ye corne that fallyth whan it is put in ye sackes. And beware of mesurynge of your bus­shell that is heped for therin is grete dysceit and I shall tell you how. Whan the balyf hath made his acompte of the corne lette ye busshel that he resceyued the corne with be preued with his acompte. For yf it be a large busshell foure busshels vp heped maketh. v. busshels streken / & but lytel more or lytel lasse. Or. v. busshels vp heped ma­keth. vi. busshels streken of / and yf the busshell be not so large or some what more / but & yf the busshell be neuer so small yet. vi. busshels vp heped maketh. vii. stryken / and so of euery busshell somtyme more & somtyme lesse And therby some balyfs that gyue at theyr acompte for viii. busshels vp heped but. ix busshels streken. And whether ye busshell be grete or lytell therin is grete dysceyte. For at the large busshell he stelyth. ii. busshels / and yf ye corne be grete & large / than bothe the grete busshell and the small busshell is grete dysceyte and falsnes. ¶And yf youre londe yelde agayn but thre tymes asmoche as ye sewe theron ye shall wynne nothynge therby but yf corne happen to be of greter pryce than it was whan it was sowen. ¶Also ye shal vnderstonde that an acre of londe shall haue thre erthers or men sowe it & some mo­re. And eche of these erthers be worth. vi.d. ye harowyn­ge. i.d. and on the sayd acre shall be sowen. ii. busshels of whete the pryce. xii.d. the wedynge therof. ob. the shetynge. v.d. the ledynge in to the berne. i.d. the strawe & the chafe shall aquyte the thresshynge. And so thre tymes the sede. vi. busshels / and yf a quarter of whete be solde but for. iii.s. after Myghelmasse than youre. vi. busshels be worthe. iii.s. And youre coste done vpon the sayd acre [Page] draweth vnto. vii.s.i.d.ob. besyde the rente of ye lorde.

¶The.x. chapytre.

YF ye haue ony londe wherupon store of catell may be nourysshed and kepte / lete it be stored after that it may bere. For & yf it be well stored and the store well kepte shall answere you as moche as thextent of youre londe amounteth. ¶And loke ye drawe and serche youre catell ones in ye yere bytwyne Ester and wytsontyde / and chaunge tho­se that be not good. ¶Kepe as well your carte hors and oxen as ony other catell & those yt be not good to kepe put them to gras for yf ye make them fat wt gras ye shal haue wynnynge therby. ¶Also ye shall wete that the feble oxe coste as moche or more as the beest oxe. For yf he be a waster oxe he muste be the more spared / & by that sparynge the best oxe is the more greued. ¶And yf ye bye you store of catell / loke ye by them bytwene Ester & wytsontyde / for than bestes be lene & good chepe / and chaunge your carte hors or oren or they be sore worne / for with a lytell coste ye shall haue yonge hors as to ke­pe stylle the olde. ¶And yf ye bye & sell in season / it shall auayle you more then kepe youre olde tyll they be worne

¶The. xi. chapytre.

LOoke that ye gyue your plough bestes suffycyent mete to susteyne theyr labour wt not ouer­charged ne brought doune with labour / for it wyll coste you moche or they be recouered and releued agayn and youre werke shall be gre­tely lette therby. ¶Also put not youre bestes in houses in rayn weder nor in grete hete for yt engendryth a hete bytwene ye skyn & ye fleshe & bytwene the lyske and the thygh whiche turneth your catell to grete hurte / and yf [Page] your catell haue euery day prouender let it be hygh day or they haue it / and lete it be delyuered by your balyf / & lete theyr prouendre be medled wt wheten chafe or oten / but not with barly chaf / for yt hurteth them in ye mouth and specyally hors. ¶And I wyll tell you why your prouendre is medled with chaf / by cause theyr kepers shall not stele it a way / & chaf causeth them to ete & to drynke better than they sholde do. And loke theyr stable be ma­de clene euery day ones for yt doth them moche good / & loke ye gyue your oxen no grete quantyte of strawe at ones but lytell & lytell & ofte / & they shall ete well & wast lytell. For whā they haue a grete quantyte before them atones they ete theyr fyll / & than they ly doune & chewe cudde & blow on the mete yt is lefte & causeth it to wexe drye / & than they wyll ete nomore therof. ¶And loke youre oxen be duly made clene & rubbed with a wyspe of strawe and that shall cause them to lyke them selfe ye better. And lete your kyne haue suffycyent mete and le­te them haue the prouender yt your hors and oxen leue ouer nyght. And yf your male calf be seke whan it is cal­ued / lete it haue the moders mylke a moneth and at the monethes ende take frome it a pape and so at euery wekes ende folowynge take a pape tyll he haue souked / fyrste and laste seuen wekes and lerne hym to ete. And lete a female calfe haue the moders mylke thre wekes / and atte the thyrde wekes ende take frome it a pape / and soo forthe wekely as ye dyde the male chafe and lete youre calues haue water ynough / and lete theym not out of the house tyll they be waned and some what styfe of age / for many calues dye for defaute of houses of an euyll that is called la pomelyer. ¶And yf ony of youre calues fall in sykenes / spende. i.d. by tyme to helpe it For the wyse man sayth / blessed be the peny that saued [Page] the pounde. ¶Yf ony of your bestes deye in moreyne le­te theym be fleyn and put the skynnes in water. viii or. ix. dayes / than take it out and lete the water renne out and that shall make it thycke & better to the sale and ye selle it let it not be drye / but some what moyste ¶Now ye shall knowe the yssue of your kyne and wynnyngein butter and chese / & how moche a cowe shall gyue weke­ly. ¶Ye muste put youre feble kyne from your good ky­ne in a good pastour of salte marras than. ii. kyne shall answere you of these betwene Ester & Myghelmas besyde euery weke halfe a gallon of butter and yf it be in fresshe pasture / yt is to saye wode felde or stubble after mo­wynge / than thre kyne shall answere you as moche as the two that goth in marras and but lytel more. ¶And shepe yf they be pastured in salte marras / than. xx. mo­der shepe shall answere as moche as the two kyne that be pastured in salte marras. And yf they go in fresshe pasture / than. xxx. moder shepe shall answere as moche as the thre kyne that gone in the fresshe pasture. There be some balyfs and deyes that wyll say nay to this / but yf the mylke be spylte or spende other wyse. And I shall tell you of this thre kyne yt gyue apyece of chese betwen. Ester and Myghelniasse and euery weke halfe a galon of butter. ¶It is a feble cowe yt gyueth not in. ii. dayes as moche mylke as wyll make a chese of an. ob. & that is in syxe dayes. i.ob. For the sondaye is not rekened. For it is for tythe and other necessaryes. ¶Ye knowe that bytwene Ester and Myghelmasse ben. xxiiii. wekes / & for eche of these wekes rekynes a. ob. the somme thre. s. Put as moche for the seconde cowe / and for the thyrde cowe the somme of all. ix.s. and so ye shall haue a pece of chese for that is the comen pryce. ¶Also that cowe is [Page] ryght feble that may not gyue with that the thyrde parte of a pottell of butter / and yf a galon of butter / be sol­de for. vi.d. then yt thyrde parte of a potel is solde for. i. d.

¶The. xii. chapytre.

LEte your swyne be loked & drawe ones in ye yere at after Ester and lete them be chaūged that be not hole. And loke that ye kepe no bores but yf they be of good kynde / & loke that ye kepe youre female swyne wel at forowynge tyme so they be not hurte ne appared through euyll kepynge & after warde wt good mastyn­ge they wyll be as good for youre larder as youre male swyne. In wynter gyue youre swyne mete ynough so they may be stronge of theyr selfe / specyally in Februarii Marche & Apryl for than they haue moost nede / for thā youre sowes shall haue pygges but yf it be thrugh euyll kepynge. And yf ye wyll kepe them well / kepe theym in longe at morowe / & lete them lye dry whyles ye pygges souke and they shall growe the better.

¶The. xiii. chapytre.

LOke that the shepeherde be not yrous wt youre shepe / for that is an euyll vyce / & ye shall preue it where youre shepe pasture as your shepeherde goth a­monge them. For yf they fle from hym / it is a sygne that he is not peasyble with them / & loke euery yere bytwene Ester & Whytsontyde yt ye drawe your shepe / & loke yf they be clene / & yf they be fauty let them be cleped & marked and put fro the hole shepe in to good pasture to be made fatte. And at mydsomer whan they be fatte / selle them for than moton is in season / & lete the wull of tho­se shepe be solde with the skynnes of them that dyed in the moreyne. And with that wulle and skynnes ye may bye as many yonge shepe and put theym in houses by­twene [Page] saynt Martyns day and holy Rode daye in may. ¶Neuerthelesse yf the weder be drye and the folde well strawed with strawe. I say not nay but they may lye in the folde / & the shepe yt lye in houses muste haue mete after the weder / somtyme more & somtyme lesse. And loke that their house be close yt none eyre come to theyr creche and euery nyght put newe strawe vnder theym / and se theyr house be made clene euery. xiiii. nyght ones and ye haue moche donge and moost profyte of theym as they lye in your folde. And yf youre motons lye in houses for tempest lete theym lye by them selfe / and not with other shepe / & lete theyr haye be medled with whete strawe or wt oten strawe / by cause of the tempest and euyll weder that they myght not fede whan they were vpon theyr pasture so that whan they come in to ye house / they be so hungry that ye stronge shepe put ye feble shepe fro theyr mete. And for this cause they swalowe theyr mete hole withoute chewynge / and specyally the smallhaye. And whan the shepe haue eten theyr fyll they wyll lye doune and chew cudde / and the mete yt is not chewed cometh not vp with the mete that is chewed / but lyeth in theyr body tyll yt it be roten by his owne kynde and therof ma­ny shepe perysshe. And yf your haye be medled with strawe / they shal chewe it the better by cause of the gretenes of the strawe. And yf ye haue defaute of strawe or grete haye / take lynge and haye medled togyder for yt is good mete for shepe. And yf an euyll fall amonge theym / yt is called the weruis sodaynly lete theym be sprencled with water / & put them in house as longe as frome ye morne vnto the none / & lete one shepe chaufe well another for yt is a good medesyne for that syknes. ¶And so it is for an euyll that is called the pockes / & yese at morowe a dewe [Page] vpon the grounde that is called ye webbe of tayne chaū ­gynge vpon the grasse bytwene the fyrste feest of oure Lady and the feest of saynt Martyn. Lete not your she­pe oute of the folde tyll that vnholsome dewe be of the grounde. And lete youre shepeharde reyse youre shepe vpon theyr fete a good whyle or they go out of the folde / than dryue them to theyr pasture And for as moche as they were kepte in at morne by cause of the vnholsome dewe lete them pasture so moche lenger at euen whan ye sterres be on the sky for the euen dewe is holsom for she­pe. ¶And yf ye haue pasture of moūt of heth / yf it be dry in somer take them fro yt pasture / for in drye weder that standynge water yt stondeth in suche maner of pasture wexeth blacke yelowe or grene / and these waters be not holsom for shepe ne for none other bestes. ¶For yf your hors drynke therof he shall haue the chaudys / & yf your shepe drynke therof it abydeth soo longe in them that it maketh the fleshe to be corupte. Fyrste it wexeth whyte and after yelowe and than it roteth without remedye / and for a preef herof slee somme of the shepe that goo in suche pasture aboute Myghelmasse and fley theym and ye shall fynde that that I saye sothe. ¶And yf ye wyll saue youre shepe in a wete somer / take theym oute of a wete pasture and put theym in a drye pasture. ¶And atte the feste of Symon and Iude slee threof your best wedders and two of youre best ewen / and yf they be fau­te lete theym be solde / & or ye fayle of chapmen sell them to festes / soo that ye maye be sure of youre money / and gader this herbes vnder wreten in herueste / yt is to saye amyroke other wyse called mayden wede and drye it / & at fyrst comynge in to the house of your shepe / that is at Marymas let medle this herbe with theyr hey and put [Page] some in to the walles of ye house / for it wyll drye the euyl humours with in theyr bodyes / & it is good for the leuer And whan theyr lambes be ewed lete your shepeherde take awaye the wull aboute theyr moders papes for it fastneth about the lambes tethe & some goth in theyr bo­dy & causeth theym to perysshe. And lete your shepeher­de answere you of ye wolle yt he gadreth so & put to youre fleces whan your shepe are shorne. And loke yt ye make tayles bytwene your shepeherde & you / & tayle the we­ders by them selfe / & the ewen by them selfe / & the male hogges by theym selfe two tymes in the yere that is to saye at the feste of saynt Martyn whan they come in ye house / and at the feste of the holy Rode or at clyppynge tyme whan so euer it be. And whan ye put them in ye house lete them be marked on ye ere / and ordeyn you a stron­ge yron to marke them in ye forhede / and yf ony of them dye in moreyne / resceyue not theyr skynnes but they be marked with your marke.

¶The.xiiii. chapytre.

THees and hennes shall be at the delyueraunce of youre bayly for lete so ferme a goos for. xii.d. in a yere. Fyue hennes and a cocke for. iii.s. in a yere & there be some baylyfs and deyes that say nay to this prouffy­tes. But I shall preue it by reason / for in halfe a yere be. xxvi. wekes / and in these. xxvi. wekes be. ix score dayes / and in eche of these dayes ye shall haue an egge of eche henne / & yt is. ix. score egges of eche henne in that halfe yere / it is a feble sale of egges &. xxx. egges be not worth a peny & yf ony of theym syt in that halfe a yere or some daye in defaute of lyenge / ye shall be recompenced ther­fore / & of. vi. more to bere out the ferme ye cocke / and wt the sale of the chekens yt youre syttynge hennes brynge [Page] forthe in that other halfe yere. ¶Nowe shall ye se whether I say sothe or nay the pecocke shall answere as moche the for feders as the shepe for his wolle Euery cowe shall answere you a calfe. And euery moder shepe shall answere you a lambe. ¶Euery female swyne shall ans­were you. xiii. pygges at thre farowȳges at two tymes at eche tyme. iiii. & the thyrde tyme fyue / the. x. for tythe ¶Euery henne shall answere you of. ix. score egges or of chekens to ye value. ¶Euery goos shall answere you of. vi. ghoslynges. And yf ony of this catell be bareyne ye balyf shall answere you of the yssue that is loste thrugh his euyll kepynge / bycause that he dyde not selle theym and put the syluer to other prouffytes to the value.

¶The. xv. chapytre.

LOke ye bye and sell in season / and loke ye haue a true man to here your bargayn / so yt ye haue recorde yf nede be & take hede of your balyf. For it is often seen yt he encreseth suche thȳges as he byeth & selleth for his lorde or mayster / and therfore yf ye bargayn be not good lete hȳ kepe it to hym selfe & answere you ye value therof both in pryce & in prouffytes. And yf ye bye & sell by weyght / beware of hym yt holde ye belaūce for he may do you grete dysseyte. ¶Also ye shall wete yt a peny eng­lysshe withoute tonsure ought too wey. xxx. graynes of whete taken out of the myddes of ye ere / and. xx. englysshe pens ought to wey an vnce / &. xii. vnces make a. li. &. viii. li. make a gallon / and. viii. gallons make a busshell / and. viii. busshels make a quarter.

The. xvi. chapytre.

LOke a compte be made onesin the yere / for it was fyrste ordeyned to wete and to knowe the state and the value of your maners / & to haue knowle­ge of all maner yssues in byenge & sellynge & dyspenses [Page] as wel in housholde as other thynges. ¶And yf ye haue ony rente or money loke ye haue it out of your offycers handes ones in a yere. For it is ofte seen yt the balyf or o­ther of the lordes offycers make theyr marchaūdyse wt theyr lordes money to theyr owne auayle & hurte theyr lorde. ¶And yf there be ony arerages loke yt ye gader them without delaye. Loke ye take the names of theym that owe the arerages / for it is often seen that the balyf is receyuer hym selfe / and so he maketh other receyuers vnder hym / and so one spareth an other / and so that the arerages ben ofte forgeten And loke ye vysyte your thȳ ges wysely and often / and ye shall se yf they take harme and amende it. And loke ye besyte your seruauntes ofte and that shall cause them to be ware in doynge amysse.

¶Here endeth the boke of husbondrye.

¶Here begynneth the plantynge of trees and of vynes.

¶Yf ye wyll graf a tre whose fruyte haue no cores take and bowe in bothe endes courbynge / and cutte bothe endes with a knyfe / and fasten bothe endes in a stoke and whan it groweth so with that tree cut awaye the greter ende and suffre the smal ende to growe and stande styll.

¶Yf ye wyll make youre apples rede / take and graue a grafte of an apple tree vpon a stocke of an elme or an elder and it shall bere rede apples.

¶yf ye wyll that a pere tre bere moche fruyte or elles as he was wonte to doo / dystempre Scamony with well water / and put it in a hole that is perced vnto the pyth of the tree / and stoppe the hole agayn with a pynne ma­de of the same tree / and it shal bere moche fruyte.

¶If ye wyll plante an almonde or walnot tree or a che­ry tree / or a pere tree / put the kernels of yt whiche ye wyl in water thre dayes / and put theym in the erth of gour­des [Page] and cucumbers / and ye may fynde ye same in dyuer­se fruytes. Chery trees loueth colde erth and moyst / but chery trees be wel lykynge in hylly places / ye best settȳge of chery trees is in the moneth of January / and yf a chery tree rotte / make an hole with a persoure vnder the place / that the water that causeth the rottynge may dyscende out / and ye maye doo the same with all maner of trees that rotte.

¶If a peche tree begynne to draukyn / lete hym be well moysted with donge as Pallady sayth / his best dongynge is with drastes of wyne / and that maye kepe hym / dyscendynge.

¶If a peche apple begyn to fall / take and cleue the ro­te therof / and in the clyfte dryue a wedge made of a py­ne tree / or elles make holes with a wymble / and make pynnes of a wylow and smyte theym in with a maylet of tree and the fruyte shall abyde faste ynoughe

¶If wormes growe vpon a tree / take asshes that is medled with oyle olyue or myrre and that shall slee theym. Or elles take and stryke the tree with mellour made the two partes with oxe pysse / and ye thyrde parte of claye.

¶If thou wyll that a costarde or a quynce wex grete take a potte and set it in the erth and bow one of the braun­ches in to the potte / & lete it alone as longe as it wexeth in the potte and it shall be a grete apple.

¶If ye wyll haue many roses growe in youre gardyne take harde pepynes of the same roses and sowe theym in erthe in February or in marche / and whan they spryn dewe theym well with water / and after a yere ye maye plante theym and departe theym eche ferre ynoughe fro other in what ordre ye wyll.

¶Also Grekes refourme or ioyne a barayne vyne cleue the stocke and putte in the clyfte a stone mete ther­fore [Page] and lete it stande tyll it be closed in / and put about the rote with erthe that is mydled with lacke.

¶If ye wyll haue a vyne to bere on ye one syde whyte grapes / & on the other syde rede grapes / puruey you of a whyte vyne & of a rede wyne / & sette theym in erth / & whan they rote / mesure of eche of bothe a shaftement / & of eyther party cut away halfe endlonge vnto ye pyth / Joyn them to gyder and bynde them so that ether party mete with other without dysioynynge / & at the thre dayes ende moyst it burgyon and ye may do thus with pere trees and apple trees braunches and in processe of tyme ye may assay yf the one vyne rote may be taken a­way & the other shall bere both whyte grapes and rede ¶Grekes refourme a vyne & make them bere tuacled grapes they cleue the vyne that is able to be set in the syde the space of two fynger brede / and there the put in treacle so yt it be nere the rote ende of yt stocke that is clo­uen / the profyte therof is that the grape or the wyne or ye vynagre or elles asshes or that stourges brent is good agaynst all maner of venym / and in lyke wyse ye maye do to other trees.

¶If ye wyll kepe apples and peres longe / ye muste gader theym slely withoute brusure and the place where they sholde be kepte muste be withoute wynde or tem­perate colde and put strawe vnder theym & couer them with strawe. Also some men put theym in a potte or a susteren / and some wrappe theym in payste of claye or of morter and in this wyse ye maye kepe all maner of grapes and other fruytes.

¶Here endeth the boke of husbondry / and of plantynge and graffynge of trees and vynes.

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