THREE BOOKES OF COLLOQVIES CO [...] CERNING THE ARTE OF SHOOTING [...] GREAT AND SMALL PEECES OF ARTILLERIE, VARIABLE randges, measure, and waight of leaden, yron, and marble stone pellets, minerall saltepeeter, gunpowder of diuers sortes, and the cause why some sortes of gunpowder are corned, and some sortes of gunpowder are not corned: Written in Italian, and dedicated by Nicholas Tartaglia vnto the Royall Prince of most famous me­morie HENRIE the eight, late King of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, de­fender of the faith &c. And now translated into English by CYPRI­AN LVCAR Gent. who hath also augmented the volume of the saide Colloquies with the contents of euery Colloquie, and with all the Corollaries and Tables, that are in the same volume.

Also the saide CYPRIAN LVCAR hath annexed vnto the same three bookes of Colloquies a Treatise named LVCAR APPENDIX collected by him out of diuers Authors in diuers languages, to shew vnto the Reader the properties, office, and dutie of a Gunner, and to teach him to make and refine artificial saltpeeter, to sub­lime brimstone for gunpowder, to make coles for gunpowder, to make gunpowder of diuers sortes and of diuers colours, to make gunmatches, touchwood, and fire stones, to know the waight and measure of any pellet, to make carriages, ladles, rammers, scourers, and cartred­ges for any great peece of artillerie, to know the proportioned length, due thicknesse, and waight of euery great peece of artillerie, to know what number of men, horses, or Oxen wil drawe any great peece of artillerie, to make platformes for great ordinance, to make gabbi­ons of earth for the defence of gunners in time of seruice, to charge euery great peece of artillerie with his due charge in serpentine gunpowder, and also in corne gunpowder, to shoote well at any marke within point blanke, to shoote well at any marke vpon a hill, or in a valley without poynt blanke, to shoote well at a marke in any darke night, to mount morter peeces to strike any appointed marke, to tell whether a thing seene farre of doth stand still, come towards him, or goe from him, to make and vse diuers Trunkes, and many sortes of fire workes, to make mynes, to measure altitudes, longitudes, latitudes, and pro­fundities, to draw the true plat of any place, and to do other commendable things which not onelie in time of warre, but also in time of peace may to a good end be practised.

La possessione delle ricchezze non è sicura,
se la non si salua con la difensione della [...].
[depiction of a piece of artillery]

[...]NTED AT LONDON FOR [...]ohn Harrison. 1588.

‘HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE’‘DROIT ET LOYAL’

TO THE RIGHT HONORA­BLE, ROBERT EARLE OF LEICES­TER, BARON OF DENBIGH, LORD STEW­ARD OF HER MAIESTIES HOVSHOLD, CHIEFE IVSTICE, in Oyer, of all her Maiesties Forrests, Parkes, Chases, and Warrens, by South Trent, and Knight of the most honorable orders of the Garter, and Saint Michael in Fraunce, and one of the Lords of her Maiesties most Honora­ble Priuie Counsell.

DIuers men (Right noble & most renowmed Earle) according to the diuersitie of their natures doe di­uersly seeke to excel others: as in the auncient Ro­mane state, Crassus the rich by wealth, Pompei the great by honor, Caesar the meeke by friendes, Ci­cero the eloquent by learning, Cato the wise by counsell, Fabritius the temperate by integritie, Bru­tus the stoute by fortitude, and Scipio Affricanus by bountie, and libe­ralitie: In all common weales are like dispositions: And verily riches wel vsed are ornaments of peace and sinewes of war: honors wel got­ten & true nobilitie are of peerelesse price, especially in a comely perso­nage, and manly coūtenance: friends vnfained a treasure thā the which nothing more trustie: what is more sweete than learning? highlier to be prised than wisedom? rather to be vsed than temperance? more valu­ed than magnanimitie? & neerlier resembling the boūties of God than true liberalitie? As eche of these though desired for priuate praise, and singled from others is a singuler ornament, so being ioyned with more of the rest, and imployed to the publike good, cannot but make a man to be admired. But if al these together were inspired into one as though all the planets had agreed by their gratious aspects, and sweete influen­ces to furnish a man at all assaies, would not the eyes of all mens minds be as it were dazeled at the bright beames of the right peerelesse nobili­tie of such a man? especially if they shall see it wholly dedicated to the glory of God, the good of the Church and common wealth. I dare not apply this directly to your Honor, least it may seeme to sauour of flat­tery. But if it may please your wisedome to suruay the excellent giftes, wherwith God hath singularly graced your honorable estate, if it ap­peare that you haue imployed your wealth to the good of Gods Church, in this are you like the wise rulers of Israel, who freely offered precious stones, and costly perfumes to the worke of the tabernacle: so[Page]farre as you haue vsed your honorable estate to countenance the Gos­pel, and the professors thereof, therein haue you resembled the proui­dent Ioseph, whom God exalted aboue all Pharaohs house, that so he might relieue his olde father Israel, and the families of all his brethren: wherein your Lordship hath vsed her Maiesties fauour to the building vp of the walles of Gods Church, therein haue you liuely represented the right noble Courtier Nehemiah, whose countenance was sad be­before Darius his king, vntill he had obtained letters, leaue, & furniture, to repaire the walles of the holy Citie: So oft as your godly policies, graue coūsels, & wise speeches, haue directed for the peace of England, haue confounded the counsels of our Romish Achitophels, haue disa­pointed the treasons of our Absoloms, so often hath your Honor bin found faithfull to your Prince, to your Counrie, to the Church, as Hushai the Archite Dauids friend. If by prayer and fasting you haue called for the helpe of God, as Ezra: if your hand haue bin as the hand of Ioab against the enemies of your Prince, and for the people of God in the loe countries: if you haue enlarged your heart and hand in gifts to many, who haue trauailed to benefite their countrie and profit the Church, as Salomō rewarded Hiram, & those who wrought al skilful workes for the Temple. If in all these things God haue inhabled your Lordship in some measure, or in most of them in great measure, to his glorie, the peace of the Church, the wealth of the land, and honor of the Prince, then both haue you wherein to reioyce, and the eies of all men whom to behold, as a common Patrone of all those, who in any zealous desire imploy their paynes to profite their countrey and the Church of God. Wherfore licensed to dispose (as I will) of this English worke made by Master Cyprian Lucar with a dutifull zeale to benefite his natiue soyle, I thought it my duetie to offer it to your noble patro­nage, as a present most fit for your Honor, & most profitable for these times.

Your L. her Maiesties liefetenant in the loe countries hath endured great trauailes in the cause of God, and your Prince, and can any thing be more acceptable to your Honor than that which may be both for chiefe defence of the friends, and greatest anoyance of the enemies of God and your Prince. Againe, when can such a present be more seaso­nable than now, that so many Princes of the earth haue conspired a­gainst the Lord & our Prince the Lords anointed? and what can more astonish the eies, and eares of the profane hearted and earthly minded enemies of Gods religion, and our Princes peace, than the lightening[Page]gunpowder and the thundering Cānon? what can more encourage & strengthen souldiers who shal fight the battailes of God & our Prince, then skilfull shooting in great and small peeces of artillerie? than artifi­ciall making of saltpeeter, gunpowder, mynes, and many sorts of fire­workes? than right vse and practise of al those and many other seruicea­ble deuises? Then to whom rather than to your Honor? when rather than now? What rather than this martiall booke may I offer for a pre­sent in these martiall times? seeing it is not onely a rich storehouse ga­thered by the forenamed Master Cyprian Lucar out of the famous Ni­cholas Tart [...]glia and diuers other Authors in diuers languages, but also by diuers of Master Lucar his deuises greatly furnished and enriched. Most humbly therefore I beseech your Honor according to the won­ted nobilitie of your wel affected mind, to accept of this my present, as a sure pledge both of my zeale to your L. and loyall care to further whatsoeuer may benefite my Queene and countrie. The Lord of his mercie still protect our Prince, defend our countrie, and preserue your Honor that long you may aduaunce your wealth, fame, honor and friends, your person and power, your temperance, wisedome, forti­tude, affabilitie and liberalitie, to the maintenance of our happie peace, propagation of true religion, defence of the holy Church, the Gospel, and the glorie of God.

Your Honors most humble and duetifull Orator Iohn Harrison Stationer.

TO THE MOST PVISANT AND MERCIFVLL Prince Henrie the eight by the grace of God King of Eng­land Fraunce and Ireland, &c.

MOST RENOWMED AND EXCEL­lent King, I haue been allured by questions which graue and wise men at sundry tymes did aske of me, to consider of many matters, and to knowe many thinges which I should not haue knowne, nor thought, if the same questions had neuer beene demaunded. For it was ne­uer my profession, nor at any time haue I delighted to shoote in an Harchibuse, handegunne, or in any other small or great peece of Artillerie, nor doe intende to shoote heereafter in any of them, but one onely question which a skilfull Gunner in Anno Domini 1531. did aske of me in Verona, prouoked mee at that tyme to thinke therevpon, and by that occasion to finde out the order and proportion of shootes at markes neare hand, and also at markes far of, according to the variable eleuation of the peece which doth shoo­te, whereof I should neuer haue had any care, if that Gunner had not with his saide question stir­red mee vp to deale in the same. Moreouer in Anno Domini 1537. It was reported that So­liman the Turkish Emperor made great preparation to war vppon the Christians, wherefore I did write and publishe in haste a short Treatise of shooting in Gunnes to the ende that my deuises in the same might bee considered of, seene, and prooued whether or no they would be profitable for the de­fence of the Christians. And although my saide booke did no good, and that I also made little ac­count thereof because as it happened the report of that war did afterwardes vade away like smeke, yet my saide booke made many wise men of great estimation, and also some of the common people, to trouble mee with other questions of Artillery, Pellets, Saltepeeter, and Powder, and to cause mee to enter againe into a deepe consideration of their saide particular questions, whereby I founde out and knowe (as I haue saide before) many thinges of which (except the same questions had bin asked of me) I should neuer haue had any Consideration or knowledge. After this, thinking with my selfe that hee who hath by knowledge, labour, or chaunce inuented any notable thing doth merite great blame if hee will not impart his deuise vnto others (for if all our forefathers had kept their knowledge secrete from vs, wee should at this time haue little differed from bruite beastes) I determined to be herein blamelesse, and to publish the same questions or inuentions, and for that pur­pose haue now collected them out of one parte of my memoriall, in which I vse for my better re­membraunce to write euery notable thing that I know. This collection is diuided into nine seuerall bookes according to the qualitie of the matter expressed in the same. And because I do remem­ber that my Woorshipfull Gossippe M. Richad Ventuorth (who is one of your sacred Maiesties Gentlemen) hath tolde me of the noble courage, liberalitie, roialty, humanity, and clemencie which are in your Highnesse, and that your Excellencie delighteth much in all manner of warlike deuises, I am emboldened although I lacke the pithie eloquence and fine phraze of speech which is meete for you to heare, to offer and dedicate vnto your Maiestie the saide questions and my resolute An­sweres vnto them, not as a conuenient thing for your Maiestie (for insomuch as the thinges of the most profoundest doctrine being expressed with eloquence and in a pure stile cannot come neere vnto the lowest steppe of your Highnesse, these our inuentions which are mecanicall and common things tolde and declared in a blunt and barbarous stile, may much lesse approch vnto the same) but I doe offer and dedicate my saide inuentions vnto you as nwe thinges according to a custome by which some vse at the beginning of the yeare to present vnto noble and honorable persons vnripe[Page]and sower fruites, not for that any goodnesse is in them, but for daintie and newe thinges which doe naturallie please mens mindes: whereby I am perswaded to thinke that though all my Inuentions shall not like you, yet some of them will delight you, which comming to passe as I desire, will embolden mee to attempt hereafter more greater matters. At your Ma­iesties feete lying prostrate vppon the grounde with my head vncouered, and my handes ioyned togeather, I doe humblie recommend my selfe vnto your Highnesse.

Nicholas Tartaglia.

AD LECTOREM.

ARdua damnosae, praeponas, praelia paci,
Pax mala saepe nocet, bella (que) iusta iuuant.
Sunt longae pacis comites luxus (que) dolus (que),
Corpora dura ducum mollit amica venus.
Plus gula quam galea, & plus lanx quam lancea, vini
Pocula quam ferri spicula, cui (que) placent.
Sed cum bella fremunt, sonat & taratantara praeco,
Cum simul armato milite castra scatent.
Mutantur mores hominum, mutantur amores,
Magnus & est subito, qui modo paruus erat,
Excubiae somnum superant, labor otia vincit,
Tunc Dea vana venus, vina (que) spreta iacent.
Hic ducis assumit partes, hic militis arma,
Iste mucrone potens, hic eques, ille pedes.
Alter bombardis inimicas dissipat aedes,
Eminus hic hastis, cominus hic gladijs.
Si cupis a longé globulis terrere superbos,
Hic discas hostes perterebrare tuos.
Tartaglia arte sua multos ad tartara mittit,
Transtulit hunc nuper Lucar & arte sua.
Non lucrum quaerit Lucar, non munera magna,
Laudem non fraudem, doctus habere studet,
Sed pro regina, pro relligione fide (que),
Pro Christo Angligenas instruit arte sua.
G. B. Cantabrigiensis.
IN DEI NOMINE AMEN.

The first booke of Nicholas Tartaglia his Collo­quies, concerning the Arte of shooting in great and small Peeces of Artillerie,

The first Colloquie.

How a Gunners Quadrant should be made and vsed, and how a Peece of Artillerie doth shoote more ground when it is eleuated at the mouth, than it will do when it lieth leuel: and how Pellets doe make long and short Ranges according as the Peeces which shoote them are eleuated, and howe a Table of Randons maye bee made for any Peece, and how he which hath a true Table of Randons for a Peece, shalbe thereby able to make with that Peece a perfect shoote at any marke within the reach of his said Peece, and teach any vnskilfull Gunner to do the same: and how hee that wanteth such a Table shall neuer learne to shoote well at any marke without point blanke, and how the outer sense telleth truth in particuler things but not in vniuersall things.

Interlocutors
  • Francesse Maria Duke of Vrbine.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
DVKE.

What reasons are they which (as you say in your booke dedicated vnto me) you haue found out concerning the know­ledge of shooting in Gunnes?

Nicholas.

The proportion & or­der of shootes not only at marks far of, but also at marks hard by, with what Peece you will, and with what sort of pellet you will.

Duke.

Speake more plainely, and giue me an example thereof, for I doe not vnderstand what you say.

Nicholas.

I am content to shewe vnto your Excellencie, an example of my said inuention, but first I must speake of that materiall instrument which I haue deuised & set foorth in a picture at the beginning of my said booke dedicated vnto you: the which instrument is made of a square peece of wood or of mettall like vnto this figure B A C, and containeth a quadrant, that is to say,How a Gun­ners quadrant may be made. one fourth part of a circle like vnto the fi­gure H I G K, which is to be described with a paire of compasses vpon the cen­ter H, I meane one foote of the compasse ought to bee fixed in the point H the inward angle of the said square, and the other moueable foote of the com­pas must describe I G K the crooked side or arke of that quadrant: also ano­ther croked line equidistant from the first, as is the line E F, ought to be drawne with the said compasses: but for this purpose the compasses may not bee ope­ned so wide as they were before, and all the space which is betweene the two croked lines, that is to say, betweene the arke I G K, and the arke E F, must be deuided into 12. equal parts drawn by the edge of a ruler from the point H[Page 2]the center of that Quadrant, so as euery of the same diuisions (which I call points) may be perceiued to looke or lie right vpon that center H as they doe in this figure.

[depiction of a gunner's quadrant]

IN the same ma­ner euery of the a­foresaid partes or points should bee diuided into 12.A Type of the Gunners qua­drant. other equal parts: Although I haue not diuided this fi­gure into so many parts, because they would heere marre the same: but a Square of an ordi­narie bignesse (as before I haue said) may be so diuided, as that al the whol Square shall con­taine 144. equall parts which I call minutes. These minutes are to be marked with more shorter lines than are the lines of the points, to this end that they may be more easily nūbred by the halfe or midst of the points depicted with the greater lines, & that we may also know how that euery point containeth twelue minutes. This done, a pinne of yron or of lattin is to bee fixed precisely in the pointe H the center of the quadrant, and vpon that pinne a moueable threede of silke or of some other thing with a plummet at the end of the same must hang downe like vnto the perpendicular H M D.The vse of the Gunnets qua­drant. This Instrument will help vs to iudge of all the variable positions or eleuations that may happen in any Peece of artillerie whatsoeuer. And nowe concerning the same positions or eleuations, this is to bee noted, that the first position of euery Peece is to bee vnderstoode when it is laid leuell, for then (the longest legge of the said instrument being put into the mouth of the said Peece, and rightly extended towards the bottome of his concauitie) the threede and plummet which is fixed in the center of that instrument, will fall precisely vpon the line H F K as it doth in the figure next following.

A peece lying leuell.

And a Peece shall bee said to bee mounted one point, when (the longest legge of our said instrument beeing in the mouth of the said Peece) the saide threede and plummet doth fall precisely vpon the diuision of the first point, as it doth in the figure nex following.

[Page 3]

A Peece mounted at one point or 12. mintes.

Also a Peece shall be said to be eleuated two points, when the said threede and plummet doth fall precisely vpon the diuision of the second point: and when the said threede & plummet doth fall precisely vpon the third point, then the Peece is eleuated at three points: and so we must say of the fourth, fift, and sixt points. But when a Peece is mounted at the sixt point, then the said Peece is mounted to the greatest eleuation that it may be at. I speake this of a Peece of Artillerie, because the morter peeces may be eleuated vnto all the other points following: I meane euen vnto the 12. point. This which wee haue spoken of points, ought also to bee vnderstood of minutes: that is to say, when a Peece is so mounted that the said threed and plummet falleth Precisely vpon the diuisi­on of the first minute, that Peece shalbe said to bee mounted one minute. And when the said threed and plummet shall fall vpon the diuision of two minutes, it shall bee said to bee mounted at two minutes. In like sort it shall bee sayd of all the rest euen to the greatest eleuation, that is to say, to the eleuation of the sixt point, or of 72. minutes, as this figure next following doth manifestly shewe. The other minutes from thence to the end are for morter peeces,

A peece mounted at 6. points or 72. minutes.

[Page 4] How a peece doth cast more ground when it is eleuated at the mouth, then it will do when it lyeth leuell. How pellets do make long and short ran­ges according as the peeces which shoote them are ele­uated.

Duke.

What will you infer vpon this?

Nicholas.

Hereupon I will first infer that a peece of Artillery mounted at one point shootes more farther than it will doe when it lyeth leuell, and that a piece mounted at two points will shoote more farther than at one point, and a piece mounted at three points will shoote more farther than at two points. Also a piece being mounted at 4. pointes, will shoote much more farther than it will do at 3. points. Likewise a peece mounted at 5. points, will shoote somwhat farther than at 4. points. And a peece moun­ted at 6. points, shootes a pellet of leade a little farther than it doth at 5. points. For reason teacheth vs that the range of a pellet shot out of a peece mounted at 5 points, and the range of a like pellet shot out of the same peece mounted at 6. points doe so little differ, as that vpon any small aduauntage happening either by force of powder, or by any other meanes, the peece being mounted at 5. points, will shoote so far as it can doe when it is mounted at 6. points, and per­chaunce farther: but when one doth mount such a peece, so as they doe mount morter peeces, that is to say at 7. points, with out doubt by mounting the peece at 7. points, he shall not shoote so far as he did when that peece was mounted at 6. points, also at the 8. Point, he shall not shoote so far as he did at the 7. point. Likewise at the 9. point he shal shoote much shorter than he did at the 8. point, & at the 10. point he shall shoote lesse ground than at the 9. point, & so at the 11. point he shall shoote much shorter than at the 10. point, finally at the 12. and last point he shall not shoote so far by a great deale as hee did at the 11. point. But in this last eleuation it may be thought, that by naturall reason the pellet should returne backe againe into the mouth of the peece, yet by many acci­dents which do commonly happen in that instant when the peece is discharged, the Pellet will not precisely returne into the very mouth of the peece, but fall downe neare vnto the same.

Duke.

This is to be graunted as all that which you haue besides spoken, but what will you infer vpon this?

Nicho.

I will secondarily infer that I haue found out in what kind of proportion or order the said shootes do increase by euery eleuation, and that not onely from point to point of our said instrument, but also from minute to minute, euen to the end of the eleua­tion of the 6. point or of 72. minuts, yea & that with euery sort of pellet whether the same be of leade, yron, or stone. Likewise I haue found out in what propor­tion the shootes do decrease when peeces are eleuated beyond the said 6. point as morter peeces are eleuated,Howe a Table of randons may bee made for any peece of Ordinance. How he which hath a table of randoms for a peece, shall be therby able to make with that peece a perfect shoote at anye marke within the reach of his said peece, & teache any vnskilfull gun­ner to doe the same, and how he that wāteth such a table shall neuer learn to shoote well at anye marke without point blanke. and that not onely from point to point, but also from minute to minute, euen to the end of all the 12. points, or of the 144. mi­nutes.

Duke.

What profite will come by this your Inuention.

Nicho.

The pro­fite of this inuention is such, as that by the knowledge of one onely shoot out of any peece of ordinance whatsoeuer, each man may make a table of al the shootes that such a peece will shoote at any eleuation, that is to say from point to point, and from minute to minute in our said instrument: the which table shall be of such vertue and propertie, as that any person hauing the same with him shal not onely know how to shoote, but also be able to teache euery vnskilfull Gunnar to shoote in such sort of gunnes at any marke so many paces, and so far of from him as he will, so that the marke be not farther than such peeces will reache: and this notwithstanding he which is so taught lacking such a table, cannot learne any part of this inuention, fot this secrete shal be knowne onely to him that hath such a table and to none other.

Duke.

If he that hath such a table wil not shoote himselfe, but cause one other person to shoote, shall not that other person learne this secrete?

Nicho.

No (most excellent Lord) but that other person may be like­ned vnto the seruants of Appotecaries which continually compound medicines according as they are appointed by Phisitions to doe, and learne not thereby to be Phisitions.

Duke.

This seemeth to me a thing incredible, because you say in your said booke that you did neuer shoote in any gunne, and for that he which will iudge of thinges in which he hath had no proofe or experience, is often­times [Page 5]deceiued.The eie is that which giueth vs a true testi­monie of things imagi­ned. The outer sense reileth truth in parti­cular things, but not in vni­uersall things: for vniuersall thinges are subiect onely to vnderstanding and not to any sense. For the eie is that which giues vs a true testimonie of thinges imagined.

Nich.

It is true that the outer sense doth tel vs the truth in particu­ler things, but not in vniuersal things: for vniuersal things are subiect only to vn­derstāding, & not to any sense.

Duke.

You haue said enough, & if you can make me to see this which I do not beleeue, you shal work a wonder.

Nich.

Al things happening by nature or art are thought to be wonders, when no reason is giuen for the same, but your Excellencie shall find my sayings herein to be true if you will cause them to bee tried with a Peece of Artillerie.

Duke.

I must goe now vnto Pesaro, but at my returne from thence I will cause all this which you haue told mee to be proued.

The second Colloquie.

Where a Peece of Artillerie which is eleuated at the mouth, will doe a greater exploite than a Peece which lieth leuell, and where a Peece which lieth leuell will doe a greater exploit then a Peece which is eleuated, & how a Peece which lieth leuel wil neuer shoot so far in an insensible croked line, as it wil do when it is somwhat eleuated at the mouth, or imbased at the mouth: and how Tartaglia in this Colloquie, by these wordes in a right line, meaneth an insensible croked line, & how it may be proued by the science of weights that a pellet flieth more heauily out of a Peece lying leuell, then it will doe out of the same peece any whit eleuated: and how a pellet shot out of a peece lying leuel, rangeth in a more croked line, & more sooner beginneth to decline downwards to the ground, then it wil do when it is shot out of a peece somewhat eleuated: & how a pellet shot out of a peece lying leuel, wil strike with lesse force then it will do when it is shot out of the same peece any whit eleuated: and hovv as a peece is eleuated frō point to point, or from minute to minute, the pellet of that peece doth augment his range in an insensible croked line: and hovv the pellet of the Culuering vvhich in this Colloquie is planted on the plaine at the foot of the hil, & at his hitting of the obiect vvould haue gone more farther than the pellet of the other Culuering on the toppe of the hil (not meeting vvith an obiect to resist it) shall do the greatest exploit vpon the fort vvhich is his resisting obiect.

Interlocutors
  • Francesse Maria, Duke of Vrbine.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
DVke.

Tell mee briefly as you thinke, whether a peece of artillerie when it lieth leuel will do a greater effect, or pearce farther into the thing at which it doth shoote, than it wil do when it is eleuated?

Nich.

that I may answere your questiō without blame, it is needful for your Excellency to propose this question by an example or figure, and to tell me the distance betweene the artillerie and the thing to which it shall shoote: and also to shew vnto me the qualitie or situa­tion of the thing at which it shall shoote.

Duke.

Suppose for an example that it doth so fall out that you must batter a fort, which is on the top of a hill, being 60. paces high, and that at 100. paces distant from the said hil, there is another hill of 60. paces in height, which is equall in height with the said fort as it may appeare by the figure next following. And suppose that vpon the top of this se­cond hill you may commodiously plant artillerie to batter the said fort, and to shoote leuel with your artillerie from thence against that fort, as it may also ap­peare by the saide figure next following. And finally suppose that you may also cōmodiously batter that fort with like ordinance placed on a plaine at the foot of the saide second hill one hundred paces distant from the hill vpon which the said fort doth stand, & that the said ordinance on the said plaine is much eleua­ted before to shoote from below vpwards to the said fort, as also it may appeare by the said figure next following. Now I aske of you wherher the Peece of artil­lerie [Page 6]placed on the said second hill, will be to more effect, and pearce farther into the said fort than the saide like peece of Artillerie which is placed on the plaine at the foote of that second hill?

[depiction of two pieces of artillery]
Nicholas.

Without doubt that Peece which is on the plaine at the foote of the hill will be to more effect, and pearce farther into the said forte, than that peece which is planted on the top of the hill.

Duke.

If I should bee a Iudge thereof, I would iudge all to the contrary, because the Peece which is to be shot from the top of the hill, is much more nearer to the walles of that fort, than that Peece is which must bee shot from the foote of the hill: and forasmuch as this thing at which you shoot is more neerer to that peece, by natural reason the pellet should pearce more farther into it.

Nichol.

When like peeces of Artillerie are plan­ted after one like maner in vnlike distances against an obiect, that follo­weth which your Excellencie doth say: but by probable reason I doe finde it to be otherwise in this your question,A peece which lieth leuel will neuer shoot so farre in an in­sensible croked line, as it will doe when it is somewhat ele­uated at the mouth or im­based at the mouth. Tartaglia in this Colloquie by these words in a right line, meaneth an insensible cro­ked line. The science of waights de­pendeth vpon Geometrie & natural Philo­sophie. for a Peece which lieth leuel wil neuer shoote so farre in a right line, as it will doe when it is somewhat eleuated at the mouth: and by howe much the more a Peece is eleuated at the mouth, by so much it shootes the more farther in a right line. Likewise wee must vnderstand that a Peece wil shoote farther in a right line when the mouth thereof doth lie but a little downewardes, than it wil doe when it stands leuel, and that by how much the mouth of the Peece doth lie more downewards, by so much it wil shoote the more farther in a right line.

Duke.

This is a strange and incredible tale, that one and the same quantitie and power of powder will expell more violently one and the same weight of pellet, by one way more than by an other: therefore I desire to knowe the reason which causeth you to bee of that opinion.

Nicholas.

The reason thereof is declared by the accidents happening in shooting, in the last proposition of the second booke of our nwe science: but I haue omitted there to shewe the very cause of such effectes, for that I woulde not bee tedious vnto your Excellencie, and because that is plainelie shewed in the science of weights, the which science is of no small speculation, and dependeth vpon Geometrie and naturall Philosophie: but if it will please you nowe to heare mee, I will presentlie declare the same.

Duke.

Doe so with as much breuitie as you may.

Nicholas.

To declare this well, and that I may bee the better vnder­stoode, I am compelled to set downe first the definitions of some fit tearmes,[Page 7]and also some suppositions, as the vse is to doe in euerie Science, and be­cause the thinges will bee better vnderstoode by an Example than by wordes, I will suppose for an Example that A.B. is a paire of Ballance with two armes A.C. and C.B. which are of a like length, and of an equall waight, and that the point C. is the center vpon which the said beame or armes do turne, & that two bodies of equall waighte named by these two letters A. and B doe hang at the endes of the said armes. The which two bodies being supposed to bee of equall waight, and to hang at an equall length vppon the saide two armes A.C. and C. B. of the supposed ballance which are also supposed to bee of one lust length, by the first peticion aleaged by Archimedes in his booke which hee made of the center of waightes, shoulde incline equally, that is to say, they shoulde stande straight outright, so as one ende of that beame doe lie no higher than the other, as it may appeare by the figure next fol­lowing. Also aboute C the center, a circle ought to bee described according to the quantitie of one arme of the saide ballance, and let that cir­cle be E. A. F. B, and then the centers of the saide bodies will alwaies go in the circumference there­of when the saide ballance is turned about vppon his center C.

[depiction of a pair of balances]
The first Definition.
The said two bodies standing in the line of equalitie (as they doe in the figure next following) are said to be in the place of equalitie.
The second definition.
A perpendicular being drawen from the toppe, and passing by the said center C (as doth the line E C F) is called the line of direction.
The first Supposition.

Also this is needefull to be noted, that a heauie bodie is supposed to be more heauier in the place where it lyeth, by so much as his descending is lesse oblique, that is to say, lesse crooked in the same si­tuation or place, the example of this supposition is declared in the figure next following.

[figure]
The second supposition.

The descending of a heauie body is supposed to be so much the more oblique, by how much in his descent it doth take a lesse part of the line of direction, or of an other line equidistant to it in the same quantitie, that is to say, in the same quantitie of the circles circumference where it turneth or goeth.Euery kinde of waight which being weyed departeth from the place of equalitie, is made thereby so much the more lighter, by howe much it is more de­parted from the said place of equalitie. But this shalbe better vnderstoode by the figure following. Now the aforesaid supposition be­ing admitted, I bring forth this proposition and say, that euery kinde of waight which being waied departeth from the place of equalitie, is made thereby so much the more lighter, by how much it is more departed from the saide place of equalitie. And for example of this proposition, let the ballance A B (of the fi­gure precedent) be turned vppon the said center C, and let the same two equall bodies A and B hanging or ioyning to the two endes of the two armes of the said ballance, be in the same place of equalitie (as aboue was supposed) nowe I say that remouing the one and the other of the said bodies from the said place of equalitie (that is to say, one end of the said beame, or of one of the said armes being put downe, and the other end of the said beame, or of the said other arme[Page 8]being eleuated) the one and the other of those two bodies shall bee thereby made the more lighter, and they shall be by so much the more lighter, by howe much they are the more farther from the said place of equalitie. Demonstra∣tion. For a Demon­stration hereof let the bodie A in the figure precedent be put downe euen vnto the point V, as in the figure following, and let B being the other opposite bo­die bee eleuated to the poynt I, and let the one and the other of the two Arkes A V and I B bee deuided into so manye equall partes as you will.

Howbeit in this figure the one and the other of these two Arkes is deuided but into three equall partes in the pointes L N and Q S, and from the three pointes N L I, drawe the three lines N O, L M, and I K equidistant from the diameter B A, the which will cut E F the line of direction in three points Z Y X. Likewise from the three points Q S V. drawe three lines Q P, S R, and V T equidistant from the sayde lyne A B, the which likewise will cut the saide line of direction in three pointes & ♄ ♃ and so the whole descent A V made with the saide bodye A descended into the poynte V, is deuided into three desentes or equall partes the which are A Q, Q S and S V, likewise the whole descent I B which is made with the saide bodie B in descending or returning to his first place (that is to saye in the pointe B) shall bee deuided into three equall partes, the which are I L, L N, and N B. And euery of these three and three partes or descentes doe take one parte of the line of dire­ction, that is to saye, the descent from A to Q doth take from the line of di­rection the parte C &, the descent Q S doth take the parte & ♄, and the de­sent S V doth take the parte ♄ ♃. And therefore the part C & is greater than the parte & ♄ (as by Geometrie it maye bee easilie prooued) where­fore by the saide seconde supposition the descent Q S shall be more oblique than the descent A Q: wherefore by that supposition the said bodie A shall be lighter in waight at the point Q, than at the point A. Likewise because the part ♄ ♃ of the line of direction is lesse than the part & ♄, the descent S V by the said second supposition shall bee more oblique than the descent Q S. And consequently by the said first supposition the said bodie A shall be more lighter in the point S, than it shall bee in the point Q. And all this in the selfe-same maner maye bee demonstrated by the opposite parte of the bodie B. That is to say, the descent of it from the poynt I to the poynt L, is more oblique than that which is from the point L to the poynt N by the said se­conde supposition. Therefore the parte X Y which is taken out of the line of direction, is lesse than the parte Y Z. Wherefore by the saide first sup­position, the saide bodie B hanging at the poynt I, is more lighter than when it doth hang at the poynt L, and by the same reason it shall bee more lighter when it hanges at the poynt L than when it hanges at the poynt N. Likewise it shall bee more lighter when it doth hang at the poynt N than when it hanges at the poynte B the place of equalitie which is the thing that was proposed.

[figure]
Duke.

What will you inferre vp­pon this?

Nicholas.

Euery peece lying leuell is intended to be in the place of equalitie. I will prooue thereby that euerye Peece lying le­uell is intended to bee in the place of equallitye,A pellet flyeth more heauily cut of a peece lying leuell, than it wil doe out of the same peece any wit eleuated. And a pellet shot out of a peece lying leuell ran­geth in a more crooked line, and more sooner beginneth to de­cline downewards to the ground than it will do when it is shot out of a peece somewhat eleuated, & it striketh with lesse force than it wil do out of the same peece any whit eleuated. and by the aforesaide reasons that a Pellet flyeth more he­uilye out of a Peece lying leuell, than it will doe out of the same peece any whit eleuated or separated from that place of equallitie. And therefore in[Page 9]that place of equalitie, the pellet doth range with more difficul­tie and more sooner beginneth to decline downewardes to the grounde and declineth in a greater quantitie than when it is shot out of a peece somewhat eleuated, that is to say, it goeth then (as the Gunners terme it) much lesse in a right line than when it is shot out of a peece eleuated, wherefore in this question, the ef­fects of shootes made in that place of equalitie, will bee of lesse force, and to a lesse effect than in any place of eleuation. Obiection. But here your Excellencie may say with good reason, that although it is manifest by these demonstrations, that in equall distances a shoote out of a peece lying leuell will do a lesse effect than a shoote out of a peece eleuated, yet it is doubtfull whether a shoote out of a peece eleuated will doe a greater effect than a shoote out of a peece lying leuel in vnequall distances, because in our question this is to be con­sidered whether the peece which is on the plaine at the foote of the hill be more distant from the Fort than the other Peece which is on the toppe of the hill. For such a difference may bee much greater than the difference of his shoote in a right line, or the difference of his effects in equall distances, and then the peece from the toppe of the said hill will doe a more greater exploite than the Peece which is on the plaine at the foote of the said hill. To this doubt I aunswere thus. Answere. The distance from the Fort to the peece which is on the plaine may so much differ from that distance which is betweene the saide Forte and the saide peece, which lieth vppon the toppe of the hill, that the same will come to passe which was of you doubted.

Duke.

To make me vnderstand your meaning, giue me an example by a figure.

Nicho.

That I may shewe vnto you my meaning herein by a figure, I wil suppose that the pellet of a Culuering doth waie 20 pound waight,A Culuering which lying leuel shooteth about 200. pa­ces, will at the eleuatiō of 45. degrees, or of 6. points, or of 72. min. shoote about 800. pa­ces. and that the Culuering according to that experience which was made at Verona (as I haue declared in the beginning of my booke of nwe science dedicated vnto your Excellencie) in the place of equalitie, that is to say lying leuell, will shoote in a right line about 200. paces, and that such a culuering at the eleuation of 45. degrees, that is to say, at the 6. point, or at 72. minutes of our Quadrant (by the reason alleaged in the last proposition of my seconde booke of our nwe science) wil shoote in a right line about 800. paces.

Duke.

Doe you say that a Culuering being eleuated at 45. degrees, or at the 6. point, or at 72, minutes, wil shoote about 800. paces, and that the same Peece lying leuel wil shoot but about 200. paces?

Nicho.

By reason I am taught so to say.

Duke.

It seemeth to mee that there is a great difference betweene those shootes.

Nicho.

It commeth so to passe because that eleuation of 6, points doth differ much from the place of equalitie, and according as the Peece is eleuated from minute to minute,According as a Peece is ele­uated from minute to mi­nute, or from point to point: so from minute to minute, and from point to point the pel­let of that Peece doth augment his range in an insensible croked line. so from minute to minute the pellet of that peece doth augment his raunge in a right line: it doth also the like in the points, but that is in a greater quantitie. For the peece being eleuated to the first point of the Quadrant, shootes more farther in a right line than when it is laid leuel: Also the Peece eleuated to the second point of the said Quadrant, shootes much farther in a right line than it doth when it is eleuated but at one point. Likewise the Peece beeing eleuated to the thirde point, shootes farther in a right line than it doth at the second point, & so successiuely the Peece being eleuated to the fourth point, shootes farther than at the third point, and at the fifth point farther than at the fourth point, and at the sixt point (as is aforesaid) farther than at the fifth point and if the Peece should by degrees bee eleuated aboue the sixt point, the pellet woulde flie more farther in a right line: that is to say, the Peece eleuated to the seuenth point would shoote farther in a right line than at the sixt point, and at the eight point, farther than at the seuenth point, and at the ninth point, farther than at the eight point, and at the tenth point farther than at the ninth point: and at the eleuenth point, farther than at the tenth point: and at the twelfth[Page 10]point farther than at the eleuenth point. And at this twelfth point the pellet will flie wholie in a right line,The pellet which is shot out of a peece mounted at 90. degrees, or at 12. points, flieth in a more perfect right line, than whē it is shot out of a peece moun­ted at any o­ther degree or point. Note that Tartaglia calleth that a right line, which is insensibly cro­ked, and that a crooked line, which is eui­dently croo­ked, to this end that the com­mon people may the better vnderstand him. and it will be a perpendicular aboue the horison. And this pellet shot out of a peece mounted at the twelfth point, will flie in a more perfect right line than any of the former pellets did, because in truth the going or violent mouing of a bodie equallie heauie which is without the perpendicu­lar of the horison, can neuer haue any part perfectly right as it hath bin sayd in our said second booke of our nwe science.

Duke.

Why do you call that a right line which is not perfectly right?

Nicho.

That the common people may the bet­ter vnderstand me I call that a right line which is insensiblie crooked, and I call that a crooked line which doth euidently appeare to bee crooked.

Duke.

Pro­ceede on.

Nicho.

Now to returne to our purpose, I say that if the distance be­tweene the said fortresse, and the Peece lying on the plaine at the foote of the hil be 760. paces, and that the distance betweene the same fortresse and the peece lying on the toppe of the said hill be but 130 paces, in this case the said Culue­ring which is planted on the toppe of the hill will doe a greater exploit against the walles of that fortresse, than that Culuering shall do which is planted on the plaine at the foote of the said hill: the cause hereof is, for that the said Culuering lying leuell, doth shoote about 200. paces in a right line as before hath bin said. Then for so much as the distance betweene that Culuering and the Fortresse is but 130 paces (as it hath bin supposed) the pellet of that Culuering will strike the walles of that Fortresse neare about 70 paces before it would end his range in a right line, but the Culuering which is planted on the plaine at the foote of the hill being distant from those walles 760 paces in a diametral line, and eleua­ted to 45 degrees (that is to say, to the 6 point of our quadrant) doth shoote a­bout 800 paces in a right line, and therefore it will strike those walles onely a­bout 40 paces before it would ende his way in a right line, or be sensibly percei­ued to decline.In the questi­on proposed in this Collo­quie the pellet which at his hitting would haue gon most farthest (not meeting with an obiect to resist it) shall do the greatest exploit vpon that obiect which resi­steth. And so that pellet which at his hitting would haue gon most far­thest (not meeting with an obiect to resist it) shall doe the greatest exploit vpon that obiect which resisteth, by the reasons alleaged vppon the fourth proposition of our first booke of our nwe science. Therefore insomuch as the pellet of that Culuering which is planted on the top of the hill at the hitting of those walles had to flie more farther about 70 paces in a right line, and that the pellet of that Culuering which is planted on the plaine at the foote of the hill at his hitting, had to flie more farther but onely about 40 paces in a right line, I conclude in this case by those reasons, that the pellet of that Culuering which is planted on the top of the hill shall do a greater exploit against those walles than the pellet of that Culuering which is planted on the plaine at the foote of the hil, and ele­uated to the sixth poynt of our quadrant. And if the pellet of this Culuering mounted to the sixt poynt be of a lesse force, the pellet of that peece mounted at any other poynt vnder the 6 poynt is of much lesser force. But if the distance from the said Fortresse vnto the Artillerie on the plaine had bin 600 paces in a diametrall line,Note. and that from the Fortresse vnto the Artillerie on the toppe of the hill it had bin 150 paces, the Artillerie on the plaine mounted to the 6 poynt would haue stroken those walles with more force than the Artillerie vpon the top of the hill could haue done: for the pellets shot out of the Artillerie on the plaine will beate those walles about 200 paces before the full ende of their ran­ges in a right line, and the pellets of the Artillery on the top of the hil will beate those walles 50 paces before the end of their full course in a right line. And ther­fore the difference of the saide effects that is from 50. paces to 200. paces, (which they make before they do sensibly decline) is about 150. paces, and therefore the said Culuering not onely at the eleuation of the sixt poynt of our quadrant, but also at the eleuation of the fift point doth make that effect to be more greater. But concerning this I will not stand to make any demonstration for that I will not be tedious vnto you. Then if in so great a height (as in the [Page 11]last case we haue supposed) the Culuering vpon the plaine being mounted to the sixt point, and also to the fift point will do a more greater exploit than the Cul­uering vpon the toppe of the hill, such great effects will much more euidently follow in the first case which was proposed by your Excellencie, where the hill and also the Fortresse were supposed to be of equall height, and each of them to be 60 paces in height, and the distance from the foote of one hill to the foote of the other, or frō the top of the one hil to the top of the other to be 100 paces, & the Diametrall or Diagonall line, that is to say the distance from the saide For­tresse to the place at the foote of the hill, where the Artillerie is supposed to stand on the plaine, by the 47 proposition of the first booke of Euclide to be a­bout 116 paces leauing out the Fraction which should be added vnto that num­ber) and therefore the pellet shot out of the Culuering which is planted on the toppe of the hill will strike those walles about 140 paces before the full end of his range in a right line, & the pellets of the Artillerie which is planted on the plaine at the foote of the hill and mounted to the 6 point wil strike those walles about 684 paces before the full end of their ranges in a right line.Note. And because here is so great a difference in that one of those pellets doth hit the fortresse 140 paces before the full end of his range in a right line, and the other pellet doth hit the same fortresse 684 paces before the full end of his range in a right line, therefore in this question it is a plaine and euident thing, that the Culuering planted on the plaine at the foote of the hill mounted to the 6 point, 5 point, or to any other point of eleuation, wil do a greater exploit against the said fortresse than that Culuering will doe which is planted on the top of the hill.

Duke.

You haue answered well to this Question.

The third Colloquie.

How a pellet doth neuer range in a right line except it be shot out of a peece right vp to­wards Heauen, or right downe towards the center of the world, and by how much more swifter a heauie bodie driuen violently through the aire flyeth, by so much in that mo­uing it is made the more lighter: and how the more lighter a bodie is, the more easilie wil the aire beare it, and by how much a heauie bodie violently mouing doth go more swifter, by so much it doth worke the more greater effect in all thinges which resist the same: and by how much the swiftnes thereof doth more decrease, by so much in that mouing the waight thereof which draweth the said heauie bodie towards the ground doth more in­crease: and the more swifter a pellet flyeth in the aire, the more lighter it is & contrari­wise the more sloer a pellet flieth, the more heauier it is: and howe the one part of a right line cannot be more or lesse right than the other part: and how the more swifter a pellet flieth, the lesse crooked is his range. And how we be oftentimes deceaued by iudging ac­cording to the sence of seeing, and how a peece is said to shoote at point blanke, when it lying leuell or equidistant to the horison is discharged, and howe the waigt of the pellet draweth the pellet out of his way and right passage perpendicularly towardes the grounde when it is shot out of a peece lying leuell, and also when it is shot out of a peece eleuated or imbased, except it be shot right vp towards Heauen, or right downe towardes the center of the worlde.

Interlocutors
  • Francesse Maria, Duke of Vrbine.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
DVke.

By your arguments you haue brought me into an other great doubt: for you haue said (if you do wel remēber) that the Pellet which doth flie out of the mouth of a peece doth not flie in any part of his way in aright line, except[Page 12]it be shot right vp towardes heauen.

Nicho.

Or right downe towardes the cen­ter of the world.

Duke.

I graunt this, that shooting right vp towardes Heauen, or right downe towards the center of the world, the pellet doth flye altogether in a right line, and also that in both those waies the pellet doth flye much more in a right line, than at any other eleuation of the peece, or in any other way what­soeuer: but I do not beleeue for it is vnlikely, that in all other waies except in those two, the pellet doth in no part of his way flie in a right line, for if you doe well remember,Verona is a Cittie in Italie in the country called Marchia Taruisina. you haue told me that by two shootes prooued in Verona, you foūd that the said Culuering lying leuel, & carrying a pellet of 20 pound waight, shot at point blanke, that is to say in a right line (as you iudged) about 200 pa­ces. Now if you haue found by reason that the said range of 200 paces was not altogether in a right line, I will beleeue you and graunt that which you haue spoken, but if such a peece cannot shoote 200 paces in a right line, will you not graunt that such a peece may shoote 100 paces, or at the least 50. paces in a right line?A peece of Ar­tillery cannot shoote one pace in a right line.

Nicho.

A peece will not shoote 50 paces, nor one pace in a perfect right line.

Duke.

This is one of your conceites.

Nicholas.

Reason will satisfie mens mindes, and by it, truth is discerned from falshood.

Duke.

That is truth.

Nicho.

Insomuch as your Excellencie is of this opinion, that the pellet shot out of the Culuering lying leuell, must in some part of his way or violent passage goe in a right line, and in the rest of his way go in a crooked line, suppose that this were true, I would know hereby what is the proper cause why the pellet goeth so in a right line in that part where it is supposed to go so right, and likewise what is the cause that it goeth so by a crooked line in that part where your Excellencie doth suppose that it doth go so crookedly?A pellet goeth out of the mouth of a peece with great swiftnesse which is the cause why that pellet for a little time rangeth in an in­sensible crooked line, but after the force and swiftnesse thereof doth any whitte abate, it then beginneth to flie more weakely and more slowlie, and afterwardes to decline towardes the ground and in that sorte continueth vntill it doth light vppon the ground.

Duke.

We find that a pellet goeth out of the mouth of the peece with great swiftnesse which is the very cause why that pellet for a little time or space goeth right in the aire, but af­ter the force & swiftnesse therof doth any whit abate, it then beginneth to weaken, and to flie more slowlie, and afterwards to decline towards the ground, and in that sort cōtinueth vntil it doth light vpon the groūd.

Nicholas.

By how much more swifter a heauie bodie driuen violent­ly through the ayre flieth, by so much in that mouing it is made the more lighter. The more lighter a body is, the more ea­sily wil the aire beare it. Truely your Excellencie could not haue better answered than you haue done in saying that the great swiftnesse is the proper cause to make the Pellet flie (if it be possible) in a right line, and likewise that the lacke of swift­nesse in the Pellet is the proper cause to make it goe and decline crookedlie in his way towardes the grounde, and that by howe much the saide swiftnesse de­creaseth, by so muche it maketh his declination or crookednesse the greater, for all this commeth so to passe because euerie heauie bodie driuen violentlie through the ayre, by how much the more swifter it flieth, by so much in that mo­uing it is made the more lighter, and therefore it goeth more rightlye in the ayre, because the more lighter a bodie is, the more easilye will the aire beare it. Notwithstanding to worke his effectes in that moouing it taketh a more greater waight than his owne. Therefore by how much a heauie bodie moouing doth goe more swifter,By how much a heauie body violently mouing doth goe more swifter, by so much it doth worke the more greater effect in all thinges which resist the same: likewise by how much the swift­nes thereof doth more decrease, by so much in that mouing the waight ther­of which draweth the said heauy body towards the groūd doth more increase. by so much it doth worke the more greater effect in all thinges which resist the same. Likewise by how much the swiftnesse thereof doth more decrease, by so much in that mouing the waight thereof doth more increase, the which waight prouoketh and draweth the said heauie bodie towards the ground. But to worke his effectes in that mouing it is more lighter, or of lesse waight, and therefore it maketh the lesse effect.

Duke.

I do like wel of this your discourse,The more swifter a pellet doth flie in the aire, the more lighter it is: & contrary wise, the more sloer that the pellet flieth, the more heauier it is. therfore proceede on in the same.

Nicho.

Then I say that of these aforesaide things which by naturall reason haue been proued, this con­clusion doth spring that the more swifter the pellet doth flie in the aire, the[Page 13]more lighter it is, and contrariwise the more sloer that the pellet doth flie the more hea­uier it is.

Duke.

All this is true.

Nicho.

I say also that when there is more waight in the pellet, then is there a more prouocation thereby to shoote the said pellet towards the cen­ter of the world, that is to say towards the ground.

Duke.

It is so as you say.

Nicho.

Now to conclude our sayde purpose wee will suppose that all the range which the pellet being shot our of the Culuering may make or hath made, is all the line A B C D. And if it be possible for any part thereof to be perfectly right, I will suppose the same part to be A B, and diuide the same part into two equall partes in the point E. and because the pellet will flye more swiftly in the space A E (by the third proposition of the first booke of our nwe scyence) than in the space E B, therefore the said pellet doth flye more right­lye (by the reasons afore alleaged) in the space A E, than it doth in the space E B. Where­fore the line A E, shall be a more straighter lyne than E B,The one part of a right line cannot be more or lesse right than the other part. the which is a thing impossi­ble. For if all the whole line A B be supposed to be a perfect right line, the one halfe thereof cannot be more or lesse right than the other halfe, and if the one halfe of that line should bee more righter than the other, it would of necessitie follow that the other halfe should not be right, and therefore of necessitie it followeth that the part E B is not perfectly right.

[depiction of the firing of a piece of artillery]

And if any man be of this opinion, that the part A E is a perfect right line, his said opi­nion may be reprooued for false by deuiding the sayd part A E into two equall partes in the poynt F, and then by the reasons aboue alleaged it will be manyfest that the part A F is more righter than the part F E, so that the saide part F E of necessitie cannot be perfectly right. Likewise by diuiding the part A F into two equall parts, it is manifest by the same reasons, that that halfe therof which is next to A is more righter than that which is next to F and so by diuiding that halfe into two other equall parts it will follow that the part ending in A is more righter than the other part. And because these proceedings are infinite, it followeth of necessitie that not onely all the part A B is not perfectly straight, but that no part therof (howe little soeuer it bee) can bee perfectly straight, which is that which was required to be prooued. Then it is to be seene how that the pellet shot out of that Culuering in such sort, doth not flye in any part of his range in a perfect right line, although it doth flie as swiftly as may be desired,The more swifter a pellet doth flie, the lesse crooked is his range. because the swiftnesse (how great so e­uer it be) is neuer sufficient in such sort to make the pellet flye in a right line. But this is true, the more swifter that the pellet doth flye, the more nearer it doth approch to flie in a right line, and yet it will neuer be made to flye in a right line. Therefore it is more conue­nient to say in such a case, that the more swifter the pellet doth flie, the lesse crooked is his range.

Duke.

Obiection. Whence cōmeth it then that many tymes the pellet doth precisely strike a thing that is leuel with the peece, which thing would not haue chaunced if the pellet had not flyed right.

Nicho.

Aunswere. My Lorde, that doth not prooue that the pellet flyeth right, for many tymes it strikes aboue the marke of leuel which is a thing impossible when the leuel sights are of an equal height, I meane that the pellet should cut the visuall line equidistant to the concauitie of that peece. But such effectes doe not come for that the pellet flyeth in a rght lyne, or for that it doth ascende aboue that rightnesse, but they come wholie by reason of the sayde sightes or markes through which the leuell is taken. And in deede hee which seeth the pellet ranging will iudge without any doubt that the saide pellet for a certaine space flyeth right because our said sence is not apt nor able to descerne such an oblique lyne, as it commeth to passe in beholding the water of the Sea when it is quiet,We be often­times decea­ued by iudging according to the sence of seeing. the which for a great distance doth appeare vnto vs for to bee very playne, and yet by reason wee knowe that it is sphericall: Wherefore we be oftentimes deceaued by iudg­ging according to the sence of seeing.

Duke.

Your reasons are verie good, yet I maruell[Page 14]to heare you say that a pellet being shotte out of such a peece with so great force doth not any whitte flye in a right line, but considering also that in such an oblique waie the waight of the pellet is much more apt to make it decline or to drawe the same pellet to­wardes the ground, than in any other eleuation, I thinke your sayings are true. Yet when a pellet is shot out of a peece somwhat eleuated at the mouth, I do think & verily beleeue, that the pellet wil range through the aire for a while in a right line, because the waight of such a pellet shot out of a peece eleuated at the mouth, is lesse apt to make that pellet de­cline towards the ground, than when it is shot out of a peece lying leuel.

Nich.

It is truth (as your Excellēcy doth say) that the waight of a pellet is not so apt to hinder the range of the same when the pellet flyeth out of a peece eleuated, as when the said pellet flieth out of a peece which lieth equidistant to the Horizon, A peece is said to shoot at point blancke when lying leuell or equidistant to the Horizon it is discharged. that is to say leuel, or as the gūners tearme it, at point blanke for two causes, wherof the first is for that, (as hath bin proued) the greatest waight is in the place of equality or leuel: The other cause is for that the said waight draweth the pellet out of his waie or pas­sage perpendicularly towardes the grounde,The waigt of the pellet draweth the pel­let out of his waie and passage perpendicu­larly towards the ground when it is shot out of a peece lying leuell, and also when it is shot out of a peece eleuated or imbased, ex­cept it be shot right vp towards Heauen, or right downe towardes the ground or center of the worlde. the which kinde of drawing is more vehement and stronger in that place, than in a­nie other eleuation. For the peece being eleuated by degrees, the said waight also by degrees doth goe nearer towards his said waie or passage, that is to say, it doth not fall there so perpedicu­larlie from the sayd passage, but comes alwaies more neare vnto the same, and so is of lesse strength and force to drawe the pellet out of his waie or passage, besides this (as before hath bin declared) by how much a peece is more eleuated, by so much the range of his pellet is lesse crooked, and yet the range of that pellet cannot in a­ny part thereof be perfectly right, except in the two waies before specified, that is to say, when it is shot directly vp towardes heauen, or directly downe towardes the center of the world: Because in euery other waie some part of the waight drawes alwaies the said pellet out of his waie or passage, except in the aforesaid two waies that is to say, directly vp to­wards heauen, or directly downe towards the center of the world: in which two waies, the said waight (if any waight be there) drawes the pellet right according to the order of his passage or waie and not out of the same as by this figure you may easily without any o­ther demonstration perceaue. And so it is in shootes flying downewardes aswell as in shoots flying vpwardes, supposing A to be the mouth of the peece out of which B the pellet is­sueth, & in the forme of a perpendicular, C to be the waight of that pellet B: the which perpendicular or waight C doth alwaies drawe the pellet towardes the center of the worlde that is to say, downe towardes the grounde. Whereuppon by reasoning as we haue done of shoots made in a right line, it wil be manifest, that a pellet shot out of a Culuering or out of any other peece, cannot goe in any small part of his range in a perfect right line, except in the two waies aforesaide, which is that which was required to bee prooued.

Duke.

You haue defended well your reasons, and haue sayd enough for this tyme, and at my re­turne from Pesaro I will cause your said Inuentions to be prooued.

[figure]

The 4. Colloquie.

When a peece is twice discharged, one time after an other, at one selfesame eleuation, and towardes one selfe same place with equall charge of powder and like waight of pellet, the seconde pellet will outflye the first. And it is more easie to mooue and penetrate that which is already mooued and open, than that which is closed and quiet. And a peece when it is drie and temperately warme, doth drye vp the moysture in the powder which is put into the concauitie of the same peece, and ma­keth the same powder to take fire quickelie, and to bee of more force than it was when it was moyste.

[Page 15]Interlocutors
  • L Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

When a peece of Artillery is twice discharged, one time after an other, at one selfesame eleuation, and towards one selfesame place with equall charge of powder, & like waight of pellet, I aske of you whether these two shoots will be equall?

Nicho.

With­out doubt they will be vnequall, because that peece will shoote farther at the second dis­charge than at the first.

Prior.

By what reason?

Ncho.

This reason is also alleaged in the 7. Colloquie of the 2. booke of Nicholas Tartaglia his Colloquies. For two reasons, of which the first is this. At the first shoote the pellet findes the ayre quiet, and at the second shoote it doth find the ayre not onely wholy stirred with the pel­let of the first shoote, but also much tending or going towardes the place at which it is shot,It is more easie to mooue and penetrate that which is already mooued and open, than that which is closed and quiet. and because it is more easie to moue and penetrate that which is already moued and open, than that which is closed and quiet, it followeth that the last pellet finding in his range a lesse resistance than the first pellet did in his range, will outflie the first pellet. The second reason is this. At the first shoote the powder being put into the peece, doth oftentimes finde the same peece somewhat moyst,Moyst powder will not take fire so soone as drie powder, nor worke so forceably as drie powder will doe. And a peece when it is drie and temperately warme, doth dry vp the moysture in the powder which is put into the concauitie of the same peece, and maketh the powder to take fire more sooner, and to be of more force than it was when it was moyst. and especially when such a peece hath not bin shot in for certaine daies before, through which the powder wil not fire so quickly as it wil do when the peece is drie and temperatly warme, for this warmth or heate wil somwhat drie vp the moisture which is in the powder, and cause the powder to fire more sooner. Wherefore the powder doth not work so forceably in the first shoot as it doth in the second, so that also by this se­cond reason the peece will shoote farther at the second discharge than at the first.

Prior.

Your reasons like me well, and here we will end our talke for this euening.

The 5. Colloquie.

When a peece made very hot with continuall shooting for a long time together is discharged, it shootes not so far as it did when it was lesse hot, and when a peece by continual shooting waxeth more hotter, then by how much the more hotter it is, by so much the concauity of that peece is made the more at­tractiue, and when a hot peece made cold with water cast into the concauity thereof is discharged, it shoots not so far as it would haue done if it had bin suffred to coole of it selfe. And how dankish powder doth weaken the force of the peece that is charged with the same, and how the pellet is not expelled forth of a peece with any other thing thā by the airie exhalatiō or wind which the Saltpeter causeth.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you concluded and by good naturall reasons prooued, that one peece being twice shotte of, one time after an other, at one selfesame eleua­tion, and towardes one selfesame place with equall charge of powder and like waight of pellet, shooteth farther at the second time than at the first: now I aske of you if that peece should be continually shot of for a long time togeather at one selfesame eleuation, and to­wards one selfe same place, whether or no the same often shooting will continually cause e­uery one of those shootes to outflie the other.

Nic.

My Lord that wil not follow therupon.

Prior.

You did say yesterday in the euening that a peece shooteth farther at the second time than at the first, for that the pellet doth then find the aire moued and going towardes the place at which it is shotte, and for that the powder put into the peece doth then finde that peece to be drie, and somwhat warme: therfore the more oftener that the peece is shot of, the more doth the pellet by reason of the former shoots find the aire open, penetrated, & going towards the place at which it is shot, likewise the powder wherewith the peece is recharged findeth cōtinually the concauitie therof more drier, & more warmer (the which warmth as you also said) drieth all the moysture in the powder, and maketh it to take fire quickly, and to be of more force than it was before.

Nic.

All this is true which your Lord­ship saith, yet oftentimes the contrary doth happen,By how much more hotter a peece is, by so much the con­cauitie therof is made more attractiue. The pellet is not expelled forth of a peece with any other thing than by the any exha­lation or wind which the Saltpeter cau­seth. for by continuall shooting the peece waxeth more hotter, and by howe much the more hotter it is, by so much the concauity [Page 16]of that peece is made the more attractiue, euen as a cupping glasse which is made hot with tow burned in the same. Now for that the pellet is not expelled or driuen forth with any other thing than by the airie exhalation or wind caused through the saltpeter, therfore by making such a peece cōtinually more attractiue as I haue said with that more heate which suppeth & retaineth continually more of that wind which should serue to expell the pel­let, the virtue expulsiue in that peece doth continually more decrease, & the pellet by that reason flieth with lesse swiftnes or lesse force, and consequently maketh continually a lesse or shorter range.

Prior.

I like wel of your reasons, but who doth not know that the two first accidents which giue furtherance and aide to the range of the pellet (I meane the great combustion or running of the aire towards the place which is continually shot at, and the force which increaseth in the powder through the heate) are sufficient, & perchance more than enough to supplie that attractiue defect caused by the great heate of the peece? The which thing being so, it foloweth that the same peece shooteth alwaies in one like sort, that is to say, it shooteth no farther at onetime than at an other, because that which the said two accidents adde therunto, is so much as that which the third accident doth diminish, or else it shootes continually more farther, for that the increase of the saide two first accidentes is more than the detraction of the third accident.

Nic.

Certainly I must confesse that the said two first accidents (that is to say the breaking of the aire, and the force which increaseth in the powder) do aide & helpe much the range of the pellet, which aide & helpe as it is to be beleeued that sometimes it supplieth and perchaunce giues aduantage by that expulsiue virtue which continually the peece doth diminish or suppe in according as it heateth so as peraduenture the third & fourth shoot will be as it were equal in ballance or all one with the second shoote,Note. or little differing, neuerthelesse it is to be affirmed, that in continuance of time the said two accidents cannot supplie the defect of the third accident, by reason of the great heat which continually increaseth in that Peece,Through con­tinual shooting for a lōg while together, a peece in the end wil shoote a lesse distāce than it did in the beginning. A hot peece cooled with water shooteth not so farre as it will do after it hath beene suffered to coole of it selfe. & continually makes the same Peece as before hath bin declared to be therby more attractiue: and therfore continually the said peece decreaseth or suppeth in more of that exhalatiō which should expel the pel­let & therfore this third accident through continuall shooting for a long time togeather commes to be superior to the two first accidents, & so through continuall shooting for a long while together, the Peece shootes a lesse distance than it did before.

Prior.

If any bo­dy shall coole that Peece by casting water into the concauitie thereof, doe you not thinke that thereby it will shoote more farther towards the saide place?

Nicho.

Without doubt whē the Peece is perfectly dry & cold, it will shoote more farther: but cooled so with water, the mettall being hot doth sup vp of that water, & resolueth that water so supped vp into an airie vapour, which cannot continue in the hollonesse of the Peece, but is forced to goe out of it by little & little: and when this vapour doth not carry with it any moysture, and the concauitie of the Peece is very dry, then that vapour will rather augment the range of the same Peece than diminishe the same, because the power attractiue which was in that Peece, is expelled through the oftē going out of that vapour. But forasmuch as that vapour is altogether moist it must needes bee (notwithstanding the Peece seemeth for to bee drie when the powder is put in to recharge the same) that such a moist vapour will make the powder somewhat dankish,Dākish powder wil weaken the force of the pellet which is shot out of a peece charged with the same pow­der. & that thereby the effects of that powder wil not be so force­able as they would haue been if that Peece had been suffered to coole of it selfe without putting any water into the same.

Prior.

You haue wel satisfied me for this euening, and be­cause it is now late, I pray you let vs make here an end of this talke.

The 6. Colloquie.

How a peece of Artillerie charged with his due charge of powder did shoote his bullet right vpon the place to which the leuel was giuen: and how the said peece charged with more powder than his due charge did shoote his bullet aboue or ouer that place, because the said bullet shot with more powder than his due charge flied more swiftly and in a more righter way than the other bullet did which was shot with his due charge in powder, and by that reason wil alwaies strike aboue that place where the other bullet shot with lesse powder shall strike. And how a bullet will neuer flie in a right line[Page 17]vnto the marke at which the leuell is giuen, except it bee shot right vp towardes heauen, or right downe towardes the center of the worlde.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

What was the cause that a peece charged with his due charge of powder did shoote his bullet right vpon the place to which the leuell was giuen, and that the same peece charged with more powder than his due charge did shoote his bullet aboue or o­uer that place?

Nicho.

It came so to passe by reason that the bullet which was shott out of the peece charged with a more quantity of powder than his due charge, did flye in a waie lesse croked than the other bullet did,The way which is least croo­ked alwaies extendeth and goeth aboue that waie which is more crooked, and by howe much a bullet flyeth more farther, by so much the bullet which flyeth in the lesse crooked way wil strike more high­er, and come more nearer to the right way than the bullet which flieth in the more crooked way. The right way of a bullet is aboue all the oblique waies of any bullet violēt­ly issuing out of a peece towards any place. and that the difference of both their croked waies is more perceaued in the end of their ranges than in any other place: for the way which is least crooked alwayes extendeth and goeth aboue that way which is more crooked, and by how much the bullet flieth more farther, by so much the bullet which flieth in the lesse croked way, shal strike more higher than the bullet which flieth in the more croked way. And the way which is lesse crooked, commeth more nearer to the very right way, than that way doth which is more crooked. Also because that right way, I meane that right way which is rightly ex­tended, and lyeth right with the concauitie of the Peece towardes any place that you will, is alwaies aboue all the oblique wayes of any bullet issuying violently out of that peece towardes any place whatsoeuer. Therefore that way which is most nearest to the right way, is alwayes aboue that way which is farther of from it.A bullet shot out of a peece with more powder than his due charge flieth more swiftly and in a more righter way than a like pellet will doe which is shot out of the same Peece with his due charge in powder, and the pellet shot out of a peece with more powder shall strike aboue that place where the other pellet shot with lesse powder will strike. And because the bullet shot out of a peece which is charged with more powder than his due charge, flieth more swift­ly than that bullet doth which is shot with a lesser quantitie of pow­der, & also flieth in a more righter way than the other, therfore it did strike aboue that place where the other bullet did hit.

Prior.

I doe not well vnderstand this which you haue tolde me: I meane, that the bullet shot with a lesse quantitie of powder will not flie in so right a way as that bullet wil doe which is expelled with a more quantitie of powder. Will you not graunt that a bullet shot out of a Peece charged with his due charge and quantitie of powder, doth flie right vppon that place or marke vnto which the leuel is giuen within a conuenient distaunce?

Nicholas.

I doe also denie that a bullet will flie in a right line vnto the marke at which the leuell is giuen:A pellet will not flie in a right line vnto the marke at which the le­uel is giuen, except it be shot right vp towardes hea­uen, or right down towards the cēter of the worlde, as you may also reade in the seconde and third Col­loquie of this booke. And of the very same matter I did once dispute with the Duke of Ʋrbine of famous memorie, the father of the Duke of Vrbine that nowe is, I meane that a bullet shot out of any peece of Artillery by any maner of meanes, doth neuer goe, nor can goe in any small part of his way vppon a perfect right line, except it bee shot straight vp towardes heauen, or straight downe towardes the center of the worlde.

Prior.

I perceiue that you say true, because if the bullet at the first shoote had gon right vppon the marke, then by recharging the peece afterwardes with a more quantitie of powder, the other bullet coulde not by any reason haue strooken aboue the marke, but in the very same place where the pellet or bullet which was shot out of the Peece with lesse powder did strike before. And of purpose I haue deuised this question because it seemed a strange thing vnto me, that the bullet did ascende aboue the right line by charging the Peece with more powder, and therefore to morrowe in the euening I will dispute better with you of this matter which doth like mee well.

The 7. Colloquie.

When the leuell sight which is set vppon the mouth of the peece is precisely so high as the leuell sight which is set vppon the taile of the peece, and he which will shoote at any marke seeth with his eye the same marke by the extreames or vppermost partes of the said sights, then the pellet wil alwaies strike somewhat vnder that marke. And when it is said that both the leuell sights are of an equall height, you must vnderstand thereby that the extreames or toppes of the sayde leuell sights are equally di­stant from the loest part or ground of the concauitie in the peece, for the height of the leuell sightes, and also the lonesse or shortnesse of the leuell sights, must alwaies be measured from the loest part or ground of the concauitie in the Canon of the peece. And when the leuell sights vpon a peece are of an equall height, and he that shoots doth see his mark by the tops of those leuel sights, then by how much more farther the said marke is from the peece, by so much the pellet will strike more vnder the mark. And when the leuell sight which is set vpon the mouth of the peece is more higher than the leuell sight, which is set vppon the taile of the peece, and he which shootes doth see his marke by the toppes of those leuel sights, the pellet wil strike more vnder that marke than it will do when both the leuell sights are of an equal height. And when our visual line in seeing our marke doth cut the line in which the pellet flieth, then the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece is more shorter than it should be. And when our visual line in seeing our mark doth not cut nor touch the line in which the pellet flieth, then the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece is not so short as it should be. And when our visual line in seeing the marke doth touch or cut the line in which the pellet flyeth, and the marke at which we shoote is in the saide touch poynt or in the saide poynt of intersection, then the leuell sight at the mouth of the peece hath his due length and conuenient shortnesse and the pellet wil strike in the middest of the marke, but when the saide marke shall be within that touch point or point of intersection then the pellet will hit somewhat vnder that marke, and when the saide marke shall bee without that touche poynt or poynt of intersection, then the pellet will hit aboue the saide marke. And when a pellet in his range shal cut the visual line, and ascend aboue the same lyne, then the same pellet in his descending will cut the same line againe. And when our visuall line doth cut the line of the pellet, then of ne­cessitie it shall cut the same line in 2. places, and the first of these 2. places cannot be very far from the peece, but the other place of intersection must of necessitie be very far from the peece, I meane in the end of the pellets violent range. And when a pellet in his range shal cut the visual line, & ascend aboue the same lyne, then the gunner may with that pellet strike 2 sundry markes, in 2 seueral places.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you concluded, and by good naturall reason shewed, that a pellet shot out of a peece doth not in any part of his waie goe in a right line, ex­cept it be shot right vp towards heauen, or right downe towards the center of the worlde, now I demaund of you whence it commeth that a pellet shotte out of a peece at a marke within point blanke,Whē the leuel sight at the mouth of the piece is precisely so high as the leuell sight at the taile of the peece, and he which will shoote at any marke seeth with his eie the same marke by the vppermost parts of the said sights, thē the pellet will alwaies strike sōwhat vnder that marke. doth strike somtimes in the very middest of the marke, and somtimes vnder the marke, and sometimes aboue the marke?

Nich.

All this commeth to passe by reason of the leuell sights that are vpon the peece. For if the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece be precisely so high as the leuel sight at the taile of the peece, that is to say if the one and the other leuell sight be equally distant from the loest part of the concauitie in that peece, and he which will shoote at any marke seeth with his eye precisely the same marke, by the extreames or the vppermost parts of the said two leuell sights, alwaies in such a case the pellet will strike somewhat vnder that marke, and the more farther that the marke is from the peece, the more vnder the marke shal the bloe be, and contrariwise by how much the marke is more nearer to the peece, by so much the bloe will be lesse vnder that marke. the selfesame thing and with greater difference will follow when the leuell sight vpon the taile of the peece is more loer or shorter thā the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece, I say more loer in respect of the loest part or ground of the concauitie in the peece.

Prior.

I do not vnderstād you herein.

Nic.

That you may the better vnderstand me I wil set downe the figure of a peece of Artillery with 2 leuel sights marked with these letters C & D the which two leuell sights in this supposition are supposed to be of equall height, that is to say, the[Page 19]extreames or tops of the said leuell sights C and D are equal­ly distant from the loest part or grounde of the concauitie in the Peece,When it is said that the leuell sights are of an equall height, you must vnderstand therby that the extreames or toppes of the said leuel sights, are equally distant from the loest part or ground of the concauitie in the Peece, for the height of the leuell sights must alwaies be measured from the loest part or ground of the concauitie in the Canon of the peece. and the point E agreeing in a right line with those two leuel sights, is the marke at point blanke which wee haue chosen to shoote at. Nowe I say that of necessitie in this case the pellet will alwayes strike somewhat more vnder that mark, be the marke as farre or as neere to the Peece as you will, because our visual line (which the line C D E doth represent) proceedeth alwayes or ex­tendeth it self in an equall distance from the concauitie of the Peece, or rather frō the line which is produced in a right length according to the order of the concauitie in the Peece, or frō the center of that concauitie, which in this case we will suppose to be the line F G, and therefore the point G must of necessitie be more loer than the point E by so much as the center of the concauitie in the canon of the Peece is loer than the point D. And hereby it may appeare, that if the pellet should flie in a perfect right line, it would strike in this case vnder the mark, that is to say, in the point G. And for that it hath bin proued that in such like shootes the pellet neuer flieth in a perfect right line, but alwayes in an obli­que or croked line,When the le­uell sights vp­on a Peece are of an equall height and he which shootes doth take his marke by the toppes of those leuell sightes, then by how much more farther the said marke is from the Peece, by so muche the pellet will strike more vnder the marke. it foloweth of necessitie that the same pellet wil strike vnder the point G, as if it should be said in the point I. And therefore euery one that is but of a meane ca­pacitie without any other demonstration wil graunt in this case that by how much the said mark E is more farther from the Peece, that by so much the point I will be the more lo­er, because the oblique or croked way of the pellet continually declineth or crooketh to­wards the ground, which is that which was first proposed.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]

The second proposition is,When the le­uel sight which is set vpon the mouth of the Peece is more higher than the leuel sight which is set vpon the taile of the Peece, and he which shootes doth see his marke by the toppes of those leuell sights, the pellet will strike more vnder that marke than it would haue done if both the leuel sights had been of an equall height. if the leuell sight which is set vpon the mouth of the Peece be more higher than the leuell sight which is set vppon the taile or breech of the Peece, that likewise the pellet will alwaies strike vnder the marke at which you shoote, and more vn­der than the pellet will do which is shot out of a Peece hauing his leuell sightes of equall height. This thing without any other demonstration is manifest, and may be sensibly per­ceiued by the figure next following: therefore I will speake no more thereof, but that by these two examples, although they are made of shoots at point blank, we must vnderstand that the verie same will follow in shootes made after any other sort.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]
Prior.

I do well vnderstand both your examples, but let vs now come to the other part of our former talke, that is to say, from whence commeth it that the pellet doth strike sometimes in the very middest of the marke, and sometimes vnder the marke?

Nicholas.

That is by reason of the condition and qualitie of the stroke, which happeneth when the two leuell sights are of equall height: and also when the leuel sight at the mouth of the Peece is more higher than the leuell sight vppon the breech of the Peece: that is to say, in the one & in the other of them, the pellet hits alwaies of necessitie vnder the marke. Now resteth only that I should declare the condition and quallitie of the stroke that may happen when the leuel sight at the mouth of the Peece is somewhat shorter than the leuel[Page 20]sight which is on the taile of the Peece,The lonesse or shortnes of the leuel sights vpon a Peece, must alwaies bee measured as the height of the same ought to bee measured that is to say, from the vndermost part or ground of the conca­uitie in the canon of that Peece. When our vi­suall line in seeing our mark doth cut the line in which the pellet sheth, then the leuell sight at the mouth of the Peece is more shorter than it shoulde bee. When our visuall line in seeing our marke doth not cut nor touch the line in which the pellet sheth, then the leuell sight at the mouth of the Peece is not so short as it should be. and this lonesse or shortnesse ought alwayes to be measured (as before hath been declared) from the vndermost part or ground of the con­cauitie in the canon of that Peece. Therefore I say that when the leuell sight at the mouth of the Peece shall be somewhat more shorter than the leuell sight which is on the breeche of the Peece, it may chaunce that sometimes the pellet will strike in the middle of the marke, and sometimes aboue the marke, and sometimes vnder the marke at which you shoote.

Prior.

By what reason can it do so?

Nicholas.

By this reason. When the leuell sight at the mouth of the Peece is shorter than the leuel sight which is on the breech of the Peece, then alwayies by the fift petition of Euclide our visuall line doth of necessitie meet with the right line which proceedeth straight foorth according to the vndermost part of the concauitie in the Peece, and for that the way in which the pellet flieth for a good space togeather is neare vnto it or not farre from it, although it bee not straight nor goeth in truth by the saide line which proceedeth straight foorth according to the vndermost part of the concauitie in the canon of that Peece. And therefore that intersection may be in such a place where the same visuall line will also cut the line or way in which the pellet flieth. And this commeth to passe when the leuell sight at the mouth of the Peece is more shorter than it should be in respect of the leuell sight which is on the breeche of the Peece. And that intersection may be also in such a place wher the said visual line wil not cut nor touch the said line or way in which the pellet flieth. And this hapneth whē the leuel sight at the mouth of the Peece is not sufficiētly enough more shorter than the leuel sight which is on the breech of the Peece. Also that intersection may bee in such a place where the visual line wil touch the line or way in which the pellet flieth,When our visual line in seeing the marke doth touch or cut the line in which the pellet flieth, and the marke at which wee shoote is in the said touch point, or in the said point of inter­section, then the leuel sight at the mouth of the Peece hath his due length and conuenient shortnesse, and the pellet will strike in the mid­dest of the marke. But when the saide marke shall be within that touch point or point of in­tersection, then the pellet will hit somewhat vnder that marke, and when the said marke shal be without that touch point or point of inter­sectiō, the the pellet wil hit aboue the said mark. & this happeneth when the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece hath his due and conuenient short­nesse in respect of the leuel sight which is on the breech of the Peece, and then if by chaunce our visual line shall cut the said line or way of the pellet, and by chaunce the marke vnto which the leuel is giuen, shall be precisely in the point of that intersection, without doubt the pellet will strike precisely in the midst of that marke: but if by chaunce the said marke shall be within that intersection, that is to say, more towardes the peece, then the pellet wil alwaies hit somwhat vnder the mark I meane vnder the midst of it, and by how much the more remote or farther of the same mark shalbe from that intersection, that is to say, more towards the Peece, by so much the pellet will hit more vnder the middle part of that mark. But if by chaunce the same mark shalbe somwhat without that intersectiō, that is to say, somewhat more higher thā that in­tersectiō, then the pellet wil hit aboue the marke, & for a certaine space by how much the more remote or farther of the same marke shalbe frō that intersection, by so much the pel­let wil hit more aboue the marke.

Pri,

In this matter I do not wel vnderstand you.

Nich.

Let vs suppose by the figure folowing,Example. that a Peece of Artillery hath vpon it 2 leuell sights marked with these letters C and D, & that D the leuel sight, is shorter thā the leuel sight C, & that F G is the line which proceedeth straight foorth according to the order of the vndermost part or ground of the concauitie in the Peece, & that H I is the line or way in which the pellet flieth, & that our visual line proceeding straight foorth by the tops or vp­permost points of the two leuel sights C and D, doth of necessity (as hath bin before said) cut the line FG, and therefore let vs suppose that our said visual line doth also cut the said line H I in the point K as it doth in the figure folowing. Now I say that if the marke to which the leuel is giuen, be precisely in the point K, the pellet will strike precisely in the middle of that mark. And if by chaūce the said marke be within that intersection, that is to say, towards the Peece, as if I should say in the point M, the pellet will alwaies strike some­what vnder the midst of that mark, because in al that space the pellet rangeth alwaies vnder our visual line. And by how much the said mark is more remote or farther frō the point K, that is to say,Note. by how much more nearer M is to the peece, by so much the pellet wil strike[Page]more loer: neuertheles such lonesse in such a case can neuer be equal to the difference that is betweene the extreame or vppermost part of the leuell sight which is vppon the mouth of the peece, I meane betweene the point D and the center of the said concauitie or hollonesse in the peece: the which difference is about one halfe part of the thicknesse of the peece in the breech: and therefore when the marke to which the leuell is giuen, lieth betweene the Peece and that intersection, the Gunner is subiect to a small error by reason of the leuel sights. But when such a marke is somewhat without that intersectiō, as if I should say in the point L, the pellet will strike aboue the marke, because for a long way or space the pellet flieth aboue the visuall line. And therefore by how much the saide marke is more farther from the point K, by so much the stroke of the pellet in a long way will hit the more higher.When a pellet in his range shal cut our vi­sual line & as­cend aboue the same line, then of neces­sitie the same pellet in his descēding will cut the said line againe. When our vi­sual line doth cut the line of the pellet, then of necessitie it must cut the same in two places, & the first of those two places can not bee very far from the peece, but the other place of intersection must of necessitie be very far from the peece, I meane in the end of the pellets violent range. And it is true that the pellet going farre in his croked or na­turall way, returneth to cut againe our visual line, because our visual line C D K L doth infinitely proceede straight foorth, and the pellet doth not infinitely proceed in the way H K I, but in time beginneth to decrease and encline towards the center of the worlde, and finally finding no resistance directeth it selfe in his naturall way towards the said cen­ter of the worlde, and so by going farre it doth of necessitie returne to cut againe our visu­all line in his way: and therefore if the said marke be very farre of, that is to say, so much beyond the first intersection made in the point K, as that by chaunce it is also precisely in the other second intersection, without doubt in that place which is so farre of, the pellet will strike precisely in the middest of the marke, for that at all times when our visuall line doth cut the way of the pellet, it is necessary that it doe cut it in two places, the one of which, that is to say, the first, can not be very farre from the Peece: but the other, that is to say, the second intersection must of necessitie be very farre from the Peece, I meane that it must be in the ende of the violent randge of the pellet: and sometimes that may bee in his naturall mouing or way, and therefore in this case when the marke at which the leuel is giuen is in any of the said two places or intersections, the pellet will necessarily strike in the very middle of the marke.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]
Prior.

This is a very good speculation and it doth much delight me, howbeit I doe not well vnderstande this last particularitie which you haue tolde mee, that is to say, that you may shoote and giue leuell vnto two markes set in two diuers places, therefore giue mee an example thereof if it be possible by a figure, for it seemeth to me a thing impossible to be done.

Nicho.

In the figure following for example sake,How a Gūnar may at one shoot with one pellet strike 2 diuers markes in two seuerall places. a Peece of Artillery is drawne with two leuel sights noted with the letters C and D according as it hath been propo­sed, that is to say, the leuel sight D is so much shorter than the leuel sight C, as that ther­by our visuall line will cut the way in which the pellet flieth. And let all the line H I K L M represent the whole way in which the pellet finding no resistance hath or shall violent­ly randge. And let the line M N bee a part of the naturall range which the pellet hath or shal make. Nowe I say that if our visuall line proceeding foorth right infinitely by the extreames or toppes of the two leuel sights C and D, shall cut the sayd way of the pellet H I K L M N, it must needes bee by the reasons before alledged, that the same our vi­sual line shal cut the said line or way of the pellet in two places: that is to say, once in the right or lesse croked part H I K, and an other time in the crooked parte K L M, or in the naturall way or range M N. Then supposing that the way of the pellet doth cut our visual line in the right part H I K in the point I, and in the crooked part in the point L, as it doth in the figure following, I conclude that if the marke vnto which the leuell is giuen bee in any of the sayd two intersections, I meane in the point I, or in[Page 22]the point L, the pellet will of necessitie strike precisely in the middle of that marke. But when the said mark shalbe more without the said first intersection: that is say frō the point I euē at the point K, the pellet wil strike so much the more aboue the mark. And by how much more the said mark is beyond the sayd point K towards the point L, by so much the pellet will strike the lesse aboue that marke. But when the saide marke is somewhat beyonde the point L, the pellet of necessitie wil strike vnder the marke, and when the marke shall be much beyond the point L, the pellet cannot flie vnto the marke as by na­turall reason this may in my opinion bee easily vnderstood.

Prior.

I perceiue that all this is true, and that this is in deede a very notable speculation, howbeit in this euening I will wearie you no more, but to morrowe in the euening you shall tel mee the rest of this matter.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]

The 8. Colloquie.

When the leuell sight vpon the mouth of the peece is not so short or lowe as the leuell sight vpon the breeche of the peece, by so much as is conuenient for it to bee, then for that our visuall line doth not proceede so loe as that it may touch the line of the pellet, the pellet will alwayes strike vnder the marke: & for that in this case there is one place in the line of the pellet vnto which our visuall line will come more nearer than it will doe vnto any other place in the same line, the pellet wil strike lesse vnder the marke, and more neerer to the marke which standes in that nearest place, than it will doe if the marke shall stand in any other place.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Proceed in that matter of which we did talke yesterday in the euening.

Nicho.

Yesterday in the euening (if I doe not forget my selfe) we did speake of all the effects or strokes that may happen when through the much shortnesse or lownesse of the leuel sight which is before at the mouth of the Peece in respect of the leuell sight which is behind on the taile of the Peece, our visual line shall cut the line or way in which the pellet flieth: and in this euening I will speake of all the effectes or blowes that may happen when the leuel sight at the mouth of the Peece is not so short or loe as the leuel sight at the breech of the Peece by so much as is conuenient for it to bee, through which cause our visual line doth not proceede so loe, as that it may touch the line or way in which the pellet flieth, therfore in such a case the pellet will alwayes strike vnder the marke, because in all that space the pellet flieth vnder our visuall line. But it is true that in the said line of the pellets way, there is one certaine place at which our visual line doth come more nearer to the said way than in any other place, and therefore if by chaunce the mark vnto which the leuel is giuen shal happen to be set in that place although the pellet wil strike there vnder that mark, yet this notwithstanding the pellet wil strike at that place more nearer vnto the mark than in any other place.Example. As for exāple in the figure of a peece of artillery here vnder drawne, let the two leuel sights of that Peece be noted with these letters C and D, and let the line or way of the pellet be noted with these letters H I K, and let the leuel sight on the mouth of the peece[Page 23]noted with the letter D, bee somewhat more shorter than the leuell sight on the breeche noted with this letter C, but in so smal a quantitie that the visual line which shal go by the extreamees or toppes of those leuel sights in the line C D M L, do not touch the said line or way of the pellet H I K. And let the point M be that place of the visual line, which com­meth most neerest to the said way or line of the pellet. Now I say if the marke vnto which the leuell is giuen happeneth to bee in the point M, the pellet will strike vnder that marke, I meane it will strike in the point N. But it wil strike at that place N more neerer to that marke than in any other place, therefore if that marke were more without from the point M, as if I should say in the point L, or within, betweene the Peece and that point M, as if I shoulde say in the point O, the pellet woulde alwayes strike more vnder the marke. But it is true that it is more subiect to error without, than within that point M, as it appeareth to be by the figure folowing.

Prior.

You haue said enough. For I do well vnderstand you in this matter.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]

The 9. Colloquie.

When the leuell sight which is vpon the mouth of the peece shalbe by so much loer or shorter than the leuell sight which is vpon the breech of the saide peece, as that our visuall line passing by the ex­treames or toppes of those leuell sights in taking the leuell of things doth only touch and not cut the way of the pellet, then the distance from the mouth of that peece to the saide contingent or touche point is so much grounde as that peece can cast leuel: and then if the marke vnto which the leuell is giuen shalbe in that contingent or touch point, the pellet will strike precisely in the middest of that marke. And when the marke shall happen to be either without or within that touch point, the pellet will strike vnder the marke, but more vnder when the marke is without the said touch point than it will do when the marke is within the same touch point.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Now go forward in the last part of the proposed matter, that is to say, whē the le­uel sight at the mouth of the Peece shall haue his due & conuenient shortnes in respect of the leuel sight which is on the breech of the Peece.

Nicho.

When the leuel sight at the mouth of the peece shalbe by so much loer or shorter thā the leuel sight on the breech of that Peece, as that our visuall line passing by the extreames or tops of those leuel sights in taking the leuel of things doth only touch & not cut the way of the pellet (as by the figure following it doth appeare to do in the point M) the distance frō the mouth of that Peece to the said touch point which in the figure following shall bee the line H M, may with reason be said to be so much ground as that Peece can cast leuel. And then if the mark vn­to which the leuel is giuen shal by chance be found to be in that touch point, the pellet wil strike precisely in the middle of that mark. But whē the said mark shal happē to be without the same touch point, that is to say, without the point M, the pellet will alwaies strike som­what vnder that marke, I meane so much more vnder the middle of that mark as the same marke shalbe more remote or farther from the touch point, be it without or within that touch point. And it is true that the same marke being within, that is to say,Note. towardes the Peece, the Pellet cannot strike very loe, because that lonesse can neuer be equall to the height of the leuel sight which is vpon the breeche of the Peece, which may be about the one halfe of the thicknesse of the peece in the breech, as hath been said in the ende[Page 24]of the seuenth Colloquie, and therefore in such a case the stroke is subiect to a small error in respect of that which may happen when the marke is without or beyonde that touche point, as any man of a meane capacitie may consider. Obiection.

Prior.

Wherefore do you attribute vnto the distance which is betweene the Peece and the same touch point, that it is all the ground which the Peece can shoote leuell and doe not attribute the same to the distance betweene the Peece and the point of the intersection, in which point if the marke bee set, the pellet will likewise strike in the middle of the saide marke euen as it doth when the marke is in the touch point, as hath been declared in the seuenth Colloquie? Answere.

Nicho.

Be­cause the Point of intersection hauing no determinate place, may be in very many places, according as by very many wayes the leuel sight on the mouth of the Peece may be need.Our visual line passing by the extreames of the leuel sights may cut the line of the pel­let in very ma­nie places. But when our visu­all line passing by the ex­treames of the leuel sights doth only touch and not cut the said line of the pellet, the said touch point cannot bee but in one onely place. lesse more shorter than the leuell sight on the breech of the Peece. But the touch point cannot be but in one place only, the which place is more farther from the mouth of the Peece than any other place whatsoeuer, where our visuall line may meete with the line of way in which the pellet flieth. Then that being a more longer or farther concourse and lesse variable than any of the other concourses which doe cut the same, I thinke for this reason that such a dignitie ought more worthily to bee giuen to that touch point than to any of the points of intersection.

Prior.

Your sayings do agree with reason, and this mat­ter with the other two matters which haue been spoken of before, are three good lessons.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]

The 10. Colloquie.

When one or both of the leuell sights shall not be precisely set in the very middest of the vppermost part or outside of the peece, then that peece will alwaies shoote his pellet wide of the marke vnto which the leuel was giuen by those sights. Also when the concauitie or hollownesse of a peece is not bored or cast right in the middest of the mettall, then that peece will shoote his pellet wide of the marke vnto which the leuel shalbe giuen. And how the middle part of the concauitie in a peece may be iustly knowne: and how the leuel sights may be rightly placed vpon the outside and vppermost part of a peece right ouer the middle point of the concauitie in the peece.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

You haue heeretofore made mee to vnderstande the cause why a pellet shot at a marke vnto which leuell is giuen, doth sometimes strike in the middest of that marke, and sometimes aboue that marke, and sometimes vnder that marke: nowe I woulde knowe why the pellet doth sometimes strike muche wide of the marke vnto which the leuel is giuen?

Nicho.

This may happen by two causes, the one of them is by reason of the leuell sights, for when one of those sightes or both of them shall not be precisely set in the middest of the vppermost part or outside of the Peece,Note. that Peece is forced thereby to driue his pellet wide of the marke. For if the leuell sight on the breech of the Peece shall be set without the same point of the middest, as for example towards our right hand, the same Peece also will driue his pellet wide vpon the same right side of the marke vnto which the leuell was giuen.Note. And if the leuell sight on the breech of the Peece shall be set without the same point of the middest, and towardes our left hande, the same Peece vvill also strike vvide from the marke tovvardes the same left side.

Prior.

It seemeth to mee that this should be contrary to that vvhich you haue said, I meane if the leuell sight on the[Page 25]breech of the Peece be set vvithout the point of the middest, and tovvards the right side, that the peece will shoote his pellet wide of the marke towardes the left side.

Nicho.

It is not so my Lorde, but it is as I haue told you, and to the ende that this may bee proued to be true by reason. I doe suppose for example sake that the peece in the figure folowing hath on his breech a leuell sight noted with this letter C set somewhat without the point of the midst & towards the right hand, and that the leuell sight D which is at the mouth of the Peece is set iust in the point of the middest, and that the point E is the marke vnto which the leuel is giuen by the said two leuell sights, the which point E must needes bee wide, & towardes the left side from the line F G, which is supposed to be the way of the pellet, as it doth appeare to bee in the figure following. Then this point or marke E be­ing vpon the left side wide of the pellets way, it followeth that the way of the pellet lieth wide from the same marke, and towardes the right side thereof as by the figure following which is made for an example you may perceaue. And such effect would much more so­lowe if D the leuell sight on the mouth of the Peece were also without the same pointe of the middest towardes the other side, that is to say, towardes the left side.

[diagram of the firing of a piece of artillery]

The second cause of such effect or inconuenience may come through the concauitie of the peece which often times is not bored or cast right in the middest of the mettall. I meane that the same concauitie or hole is not in the verie middest of the mettall, but makes one side of the peece to be more thinner or thicker than the other side, so that al­though the two leuell sightes be well set and perfectly placed in the verie middell pointes vpon the vppermost part of the mettal, yet that peece must needs shoot wide, for notwith­standing the leuell sightes are placed in the verie middle points vpon the vppermost parte of the mettall yet they doe not stande right ouer the middell of the concauitie of that peece, and for that cause such a peece shootes wide. Wherefore to remedie this incon­uenience it is necessarie to search aduisedly for the verie middle of the concauitie as well in the taile of the Peece, as in the mouth of the same, and to place the leuell sightes ouer the middle of the same concauitie for to amende that fault in the Peece.You may see the type of this instrument which is made of two long rulers or staues in the 23 Col­loquie of this booke. How the leuell sights that are to be placed vpon the out­side & vpper­most part of a Peece, may be set in their due places right ouer the mid­dle point of the concauitie in the same Peece. To finde the middle of the same concauitie the Gunners vse (as I haue been informed) two long Ru­lers or small staues verie right and of equall breadth, and doe put one of them right into the concauitie, and downe to the bottome of the same, and the other without vpon the Peece, and they ioyne one part of that Ruler which is aboue the Peece to the Ruler that goeth into the mouth of the Peece in that part thereof which is without the mouth of the same, and so where they finde the very middle of the concauitie to bee, there right ouer the same vpon the outside and vppermost part of the Peece they doe place in the taile of the Peece, and at the mouth of the Peece the two leuell sightes. And this being a way speedy enough and of smal cunning, it is not to be misliked although it may be other­wise done.

Prior.

May not a way be deuised to set those leuell sightes in their due places without the helpe of those Rulers, only by discharging the Peece oftentimes together?

Nicho.

It may be so done: That is to say, if the Peece shall strike wide vpon the right side of the marke, moue the leuell sight which is on the taile of the Peece somewhat towards the left part, and if the Peece shall happen to strike wide towards the left side of the marke, moue the same leuell sight which is on the taile of the peece somwhat towards the right side, and goe on in so doing till the perfect place where that leuell sight must stand is found, and then make a durable marke in that place (if the leuell sight be a moueable thing) so that at an other time you may haue no cause to seeke for that place againe.

Prior.

I doe vn­derstand you well and am satisfied for this euening.

The 11. Colloquie.

Howe there is a proportioned length for euery peece of Artillerie: and howe when any kinde of peece is made more longer or more shorter than his proportioned length, it will shoote alwaies lesse grounde. And howe this is no generall rule, that by howe much the Canon of a peece is more longer, by so muche it shootes the farther: and how it is a manifest error and a very vnprofitable thing to make very long Culuerings: and how a Culuering doth shoote further than a Cannon: and howe a Cannon may bee made to shoote farther than a Culuering: and howe much the mettall of euery peece shoulde weigh: and how long each peece ought to bee: and how much each pellet which is shotte out of those peeces doth weigh: and howe many Horses or Oxen must bee prouided to drawe each kinde of peece.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
  • Seruant.
PRior.

What is the cause that by howe much the Canon of a Peece of Artillerie is more longer, by so much it shootes the farther?

Nicholas.

This proposition is not generall, I meane that by how much the Canon of a Peece is more longer, by so much it shootes the farther.Note You may know the proportio­ned length of eury great Pe­ce of Artillerie by reading the 39 chapter of myne Ap­pendix. Note. But this is to be beleeued, and to be for a truth affirmed, that to euery kinde of peece there is one certaine and determinate length so duely proportioned for the pow­der and pellet which such a Peece doth carrie, that if a Peece be in any maner of way out of that proportion, it will shoote thereby a lesse ground. And therefore that you may haue perfect knowledge of the proportionate length for all maner of Peeces, I say, that it will not be a commendable thing to make the Canons of Peeces long and short, but vp­on necessitie: for euermore when any kinde of Peece is made more longer or more shorter than that his proportioned length, it will shoote alwayes lesse ground: I meane when it is discharged with one and the same quantitie of powder.

Prior.

I thinke you say true, for I see that ordinarily there is allowed for the due charge of euery Canon & of eue­ry other short Peece so much powder as doth way two third partes of the pellets waight, and that there is commonly alowed to euery Culuering which is a Peece that hath a more longer Canon, so much powder as wayeth ⅘ partes of the pellets waight: and I thinke that the Gunners doe so, because if they should charge a Culuering with no more powder than with so much as wayeth ⅔ partes of the pellets waight (as they doe a Cannon) per­chaunce the Culuering would not shoote so much ground as the Cannon will doe.

Nicho.

I knewe not so much before, and for that it is so as you say, I am glad that I doe knowe it.

Prior.

There is no Gunner so vnskilfull but doth know that this is true which I haue tolde you.

Nicholas.

I thinke that this being a truth ought to bee knowne to euery Gunner: but I maruaile much for what purpose Princes doe cause such Peeces to bee cast with a fault so manifest, and will not through the cost and hurt which commeth thereby redresse the same.

Prior.

As a Culuering is charged with a more quantitie of powder than a Can­non, so it will shoote farther than a Cannon.

Nicholas.

Hath your Lordshippe had any experience thereof?

Prior.

No: and yet I beleeue that this is true which I haue tolde you, for all Gunners generally are of that opininion, and it cannot bee otherwise, for the hollowe Cylinder of the Culuering being more longer than the hollowe Cylinder of the Cannon, and charged with a more quantitie of powder than the Cannon, it muste needes bee that the Culueringe will shoote farther than the Cannon. And the cost thereof is not so great as you thinke it to bee. for a Canon whose Pellet waygheth twentie pounde waight, is commonly charged with thirteene poundes and foure ounces of powder, and the Culuering whose pellet waigheth twentie pounde[Page 27]waight is commonly charged with sixteene pound waight of powder, which is but two pound and eight ounces more of powder than is due for the charge of a Canon, so that the cost of two pound and eight ounces of powder (which is the excesse) is but a trifle.

Nicho.

I will not affirme that the Culuering shall shoote more or lesse grounde than the Canon, for this matter is not very plaine vnto me hauing no perfect knowledge of his proportio­ned length, as before I haue said, but this is true,A Culuering being charged with no more powder than with the due charge of a Canon wil not shoot so much ground as a Canon wil do. that the Culuering charged with no more powder than with the due charge of a Canon, wil not shoote so much ground as a Canon wil do. And I am certaine that he which wil shoot with a Culuering so much ground as he may doe with a Canon, must needes put into that Culuering more powder than is vsed to be put into a Canon. And he shall haue need of so much more powder as the difference betweene the two shootes made with an equall or like quantitie of powder shalbe more greater. And therefore I conclude that when a Culuering whose pellet waigheth twentie pounde waight, is discharged with no more powder than is the ordinarie charge of a Canon, it may bee easily perceaued that the same quantitie of powder is not sufficient to make the Culuering shoote so much grounde as a Canon will doe which is charged and discharged with the like quantitie of the same powder.Note. But it may be that they which did first appoint for the charge of the Culuering so much powder as waigheth ⅘ partes of his pellets waight, haue perchance vpon their experience set downe that proportion to make the Culuering shoote so much grounde and perhaps more than the Canon can doe. But this thing may not be graunted nor denied before proofe hath beene made thereof: ne­uerthelesse be it as you will, if the sayd Culuering charged with the same quantitie of pow­der which chargeth a Canon, shooteth not so farre as the Canon will doe, it is a manifest error, and a ridiculous thing to say, that this error may bee redressed by charging the Culuering with a more quantitie of powder,Note. and that thereby the Culuering shall shoote as muche grounde or more than the Canon will doe. For that excesse of powder beeing put into a Canon charged before with his due charge of the same powder, will cause that Canon to shoote perchaunce more grounde than the saide Culuering can doe. Concer­ning the more charges or expences which your Lordship saith is but a trifle, I say that the same is much more than your Lordship doth suppose it to be: for if I be not deceiued, the Culuerings beeing made more longer than the Canons, must also by reason bee made more thicker of mettall. This being so, there is more mettall put in a Culuering than in a Canon, and consequently a Culuering is much more heauier than a Canon, and being more heauier must also be drawne with a more number of Oxen or Horses than a Canon must haue, and there must bee also a more number of men to gouerne those Oxen or Horses, and a more quantitie of victuale prouided aswell for the cattaile as for the men which do gouerne thē, besides the wages which the Prince or Comminaltie that sendeth foorth those men by the commaundement of the Prince, doe ordinarily pay vnto them. And so beholde what may followe in the end through this small error committed by the Prince. But if the error bee so much in one Culuering, whose pellet waigheth twentie pounde, you shall finde it much more greater in that Culuering whose pellet waigheth 30, 40, 50, or 60 pounde waight, as I haue learned of a Gunner who hath had experience thereof.

Prior.

Without doubt there is more mettall in a Culuering than is in a Canon, and consequently a Culuering must be drawne with more Oxen or Horses than a Canon. And of this matter I haue a note in my memoriall howe much mettall is in euery one Peece, & of what length each peece ought to be,Note. & how many oxen or horses must be pro­uided to draw each Peece.

Nicho.

I beseech you my Lord giue me a coppie therof, for it may be that in time to come the same will pleasure me.

Prior.

With a good will. Seruant bring hither vnto me my memoriall which is my chest.

Seruant.

Here it is my Lord.

Prior.

Now write as I shall tell you.

piece A A Faulconet whose pellet of leade weigheth 3 pounde waight is 5 foote, and ½ foote long,The length and waight of great Pee­ces made in these daies do differ much from the length and weight of peeces made in time past as it doth appeare in the 39 chapter of my Appendix. and commonly containeth 400 pounde waight of mettall, and must be drawne with two horses.

piece B A faulcon whose pellet waigheth 6. pound waight being 7 foote long containeth 890 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with foure horses.

[Page 28] piece C A Peece called in Italy Aspidi, whose pellet wayeth twelue pounde waight, being fiue foote and ½ foote long, containeth 1300 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with sixe horses.

piece D A Saker, whose pellet wayeth 12 pounde waight, being 8 foote long, containeth 1400 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with eight horses.

piece E A Saker, whose pellet wayeth 12 pound waight, being 9 foote long, containeth 2150 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with ten horses.

piece F A Saker, whose pellet wayeth ten pound waight, being 8 foote long, containeth 1300 pound waight of mettal, and must be drawne with sixe horses.

piece G A Culuering whose pellet of yron wayeth sixteene pound waight, being 7 foote and ½ foote long, containeth 1750 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with eight or ten horses.

piece H A Peece called in Italie Passauolante, whose pellet wayeth 16 pounde waight, beeing 12 foote long, containeth 2740 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with fiue yoke of Oxen.

piece I A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 14 pounde waight, being eight foote and ½ foote long, containeth 2233 pound waight of mettall, and must bee drawne with fiue yoke of Oxen.

piece K A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 20 pound waight, being ten foote long, containeth 4300 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 7 yoke of Oxen.

piece L A Canon whose pellet wayeth 20 pound waight, being 7 foote long, containeth 2200 pound waight of mettall and must be drawne with fiue yoke of Oxen.

piece M A Canon whose pellet wayeth 20 pound waight, being 8 foote long, containeth 2500 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with fiue or sixe yoke of Oxen.

piece N A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 30 pound waight, being [...] foote long, containeth [...] pounde waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 8 yoke of Oxen.

piece O A Canon whose pellet wayeth 30 pounde waight, being [...] foote long, containeth [...] pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 6 yoke of Oxen.

piece P A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 50 pounde waight, being 10 foote and ½ foote long, containeth 5387 pound waight of mettall, and must bee drawne with 12 yoke of Oxen.

piece Q A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 50 pound waight, being 12 foote long, containeth 6600 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 14 yoke of oxen.

piece R A Canon whose pellet wayeth 50 pound waight, being 8 foote and ½ foote long, con­taineth 4000 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 9 yoke of oxen.

piece S A Canon whose pellet wayeth one hundred pound waight being nine foote and ½ foote long containeth 8800 pounde waight of mettall, and must bee drawne with 18 yoke of oxen.

piece T A Canon whose pellet wayeth 120 pounde waight, beeing 10 foote long containeth 12459 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne with 25 yoke of Oxen.

piece V A Culuering whose pellet wayeth 120 pound waight, being 15 foote long, containeth 13000 pound waight of mettall, and must be drawne vvith 28 yoke of oxen,

Nich.

Your Lordship may here make an end, for one halfe of that vvhich I haue noted vvoulde haue been enough.

Prior.

I must tell you also of sixe other notes, & aftervvards you shall make an end of your vvriting: I meane that there are also

piece W Gunnes of vvhich each pellet being of stone doth vveigh 250 pound vvaight, and euery of the saide Gunnes is 10 foote and ½ foote long and containeth 8900 pound vvaight of mettall, and must be dravvne vvith 18 or 19 yoke of Oxen.

piece X There are also Gunnes of vvhich each pellet vvayeth 150 pounde vvaight, and euery of the said Gunnes are 10 foote long, and containe 6160 pounde vvaight of mettall, and must be dravvne vvith 12 yoke of oxen.

piece Y There are also Gunnes of vvhich each pellet vvayeth 100 pound vvaight, and euery of the same Gunnes being 10 foote long, do containe 5500 pound vvaight of mettall, and must be dravvne vvith 11 yoke of Oxen,

piece Z There are also Gunnes of which each pellet wayeth one hundred pounde waight, and[Page 29]euery of the same Gunnes being only eight foote, and ½ foote long, containeth 4500. pounde waight of mettall, and must bee drawne with nine yoke of Oxen.

piece AA Also there are Gunnes called in Italy Cortaldi, of which each pellet wayeth 45 pounde waight, and euery of the said Gunnes being seuen foote long, containeth 2740 pounde waight of mettall, and must be drawne with fiue yoke of oxen.

piece BB There is an other sort of such peeces called in Italie Cortaldi, of which each pellet way­eth thirtie pound waight, and euery of the saide Gunnes being seuen foote and ½ foote long, containeth 1600 pounde waight of mettall, and must be drawne with three yoke of oxen.

And so heare I wil make an end.

Nicholas.

Doth that pounde waight which I haue noted containe twelue ounces or sixteene ounces?The pounde waight which doth containe 12 ounces, is called the subtile waight of Venice, and the pound waight which doth containe 16 ounces, is called the grosse waight of Venice, and 350 pounds of the grosse waight of Venice doe make 550 poundes of the subtile waight of Venice, as Bartholomeo di Pas. da Vinetia, hath written in his booke intitu­led, Tariffa de i pesi e misure and are the feete which I haue noted according to the measure of Venice? Or are they longer or shorter then the saide measure of Venice?

Prior.

I thinke that each of those pounds doth containe but 12 ounces, and for an­swere to your question of feete I know not what to say, for this note was deliuered to mee in Barletta, and it may bee that the feete before mentioned are according to the measure of feete in that place which (as I thinke) doth not differ from the mea­sure of feete in Venice.

Nicho.

Nowe it is no matter whether or no I doe learne that measure so exactly, for it sufficeth that I doe knowe that a Canon whose pellet waieth fiftie pound waight being eight foote and ½ foote long, doth containe 4000 pounde waight of mettall, and that the Culuering whose pellet wayeth 50. pounds waight, and is one of that sort, which is twelue foote long, and containeth 6600 poundes waight of mettall, hath in it 2600 poundes waight of mettall more than is in a Canon and that this Culuering must bee drawne with fiue yoke of oxen more than the Canon hath neede of,Note and that the same fiue yoke of oxen (as I thinke) must haue fiue men to go­uerne them, whereby you may perceiue to how much charge this wil amount in continu­ance of time and how much the excesse of powder which is spent at euery shoote is worth.

Prior.

The charge is great in one Culuering, and doth much exceede in many, and truely if I were in health, I would see a proofe hereof, for it is a matter of great importance.

The first Corollarie.

IN the precedent Colloquie there is mention made of the waight and length of peeces according to the subtile waight of poundes and measure of common feete in Ʋenice, which doth not agree with the poundes of auer de poize waight, nor with the measure of feete of assise in England: therefore I haue reduced that subtile waight and measure of cō ­mon feete in Venice, into the auer de poize waight,The contents of the Table next folowing. and measure of feet and ynches of assise in England, & for the benefite of my Readers do set foorth in a Table following the names of the aforesaid peeces, the length of the said peeces according to the measure of common feete in Venice, and according to the measure of feete and inches of assise in England, the waight of the said peeces, and of their pellets, according to the subtile waight of Venice, & according to the auer de poize waight of England, & also the nūber of horses or oxen which must be prouided to draw euery of those or such like Peeces.Instructiōs by which the Reader may easily vnderstand the Table next following. This Table is of it selfe easie to be vnderstood and needeth no other declaration than that which the titles ouer euery Columpe in the same doth shevv, this only excepted, the Rea­der must vnderstand that (as Gasparo Bugati hath written in his booke intituled in Italian,Howe the subtile wayght of Venice may bee made. Historia vniuersale) 24 graines of Wheate doe weigh one pennie waight, 24 pence do weigh one ounce, & 12 ounces do weigh one poūd of the subtil waight of Venice: & the Reader must also be instructed that (as Bartholomeo di Pasi da Vinetia aledgeth in his booke named Tariffa de i Pesi e misure) 550 pounds of the subtile waight of Venice do make 364 pounds of auer de poize waight of England, The difference betweene the subtile waight of Venice & the auer de poize waight of England. & that the said auer de poize waight (as we may reade in Stratioticos, in Pharmacopoea Laur: Iouberti cap. de ponderibus & mensuris, and in the Ground of Artes) is thus made. Twentie graines[Page 30]of Barlie way one scruple waight:How the Auer de Poize waight of Eng­land may be made. What these letters Y I. and M st doe signifie in the Table next fo­lowing. The measure of a common foot of Venice. The difference betwene a cō ­mō foot of Ve­nice & a foote of assise of England. The measure of the Arsenall foot of Venice What the let­ters which are set right against the Peeces named in the Table next following doe signifie. 3 scruples way one dramme waight: 8. drammes weigh one ounce waight: 16. ounces weigh one pound waight: 28. pounds weigh ¼ of an hundred waight: 56 poundes weigh ½ of an hundred waight: 84 pounds weigh ¾ of an hundred waight: & 112 pounds weigh an hūdred of auer de poize waight. Likewise the Reader must learne that where this letter Y is in any square of my Table, it doth signifie, that the pel­let of such waight as is in that square expressed, is of yron, and that the letter L in a square doth signifie that the pellet of such waight, as is in that square expressed, is of leade, and that the letters M st in a square do signifie that the pellet of such waight as is in that square expressed is of a marbell stone. Moreouer the Reader must know that the measure of a cōmon foote in Ʋenice (by which as I haue been informed the said peeces were measured) doth containe in length (as Girolamo Cataneo in his booke Dell' arte militare, and Nicholas Tartaglia in the first booke of the third part of his general treatise di numeri & misure haue depicted the same) one foote, one ynch, and ½ of an ynch of the assise of Englande, and that there is an other kinde of foote measure in Venice, called the Arsenal foote containing in length one foote, one ynch, and ⅕ of an ynch of the assise of England, which ought also to bee remembred to this end, that the true measure of the said Peeces might not by any Reader bee mistaken. And to conclude, the Reader must not bee ignorant, that the let­ters which are set directly against the Peeces named in this Table, do signifie that the pee­ces against which they stand in this Table are the very same Peeces against which the like letters are set in the precedent Colloquie.

The 12. Colloquie.

Hovv long the Canon or concauitie of euery Peece of Artillerie ought to bee, and hovv a mouing bo­die is alvvaies let in his passage vvhen it doth touch an vnmoueable bodie, and hovv the passage of a mouing bodie is by so much more let, as that mouing bodie is more, and by a longer time touched vvith the vnmoueable bodie.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening we disputed whether or no in all sortes of Artillerie the cōcauitie of a Peece, which is made too long or too short, doth hinder the far shoo­ting of those Peeces, now I would vnderstand whether by natural reason wee may appoint how long the concauitie of each Peece should bee, and aptly proportion the same for his conuenient measure of powder and pellet?You may know the proportio­ned length of euery great Peece of artil­lerie by rea­ding the 39. chapter of mine Appen­dix.

Nich.

The length of the canon or concauitie of each Peece ought to be such, as in the very same instant when all the powder is a fier, the pellet should be perceaued to be issuyng at the very end of the Peece. That is to say, at the mouth of the Peece, for in that instant all the expulsiue vertue of the powder begins to worke on the pellet in the chiefe of his furie or force, and after that vertue explsiue hath wrought on the pellet, the said pellet finding nothing to let or resist his range (except the aire) will flie more farther than if the concauitie of that Peece had beene more longer, or more shorter. For if the concauitie of that Peece had been more shorter, the pellet woulde haue bin gone out of the mouth of the Peece before al the powder had bin fired, & before all the expulsiue vertue of the gunpowder had wrought vpon the pellet, & so a part ther­of would haue bin to no purpose. And it might easily haue hapened, that much of the gun­powder woulde haue gon vnburned out of the Peece together with the pellet, I meane that gunpowder which was vntouched with fier. And if the concauitie of that Peece had byn more lōger, the pellet would not haue byn precisely at the mouth of the Peece at that instant when all the gunpowder was a fier,A mouing bo­die is let in his passage, when it doth touch an vnmoue­able bodie. but somewhat more within the concauitie of that peece, and therefore the said pellet being in the prime of his swiftnes and running a­long by that small part of the concauitie which then remained for the pellet to runne in, is thereby greatly let in his way and passage, for alwaies a mouing bodie is let in his passage, when it doth touch an vnmoueable bodie. And by so much is the passage of a mouing bo­die[Page 31]more let, as that mouing bodie is more & by a longer time touched with the vnmoue­able body.

Prior.

I do vnderstand you well, and like well of your reasons, but I will talke no more hereof in this euening.

The 13. Colloquie.

Howe a peece being charged with more powder than his due charge vnto a certaine measure, will shoote more ground than it will doe when it is charged onely with his due charge of powder. And how a peece being charged with a more or lesse quantitie of powder than that certain measure is, will shoote a lesse distance than it will doe with that certaine measure of powder: and how the wind which commeth by reason of the powder in the concauitie of the peece doth alwaies follow somewhat neare or somewhat vnited vnto the pellet after the pellet is gone out of the mouth of the peece, and therby doth augment the moouing of the pellet, and how the force of the same winde doth not worke so much in driuing foorth the same pellet when it is without the concauitie of the peece, as it doth when it is within the concauitie of the peece. And how that part of gunpowder which is in the concauitie of the peece most nearest to the touchhole doth fire before that parte of the powder which is more remote.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
  • Seruant.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you declared with good reasons of what length the con­cauitie of a peece of Artillerie ought to be for to be dulie proportioned for the conue­nient measure of the powder and pellet with which the peece is vsed to bee charged, the which conuenient measure of powder is supposed to be so much in waight as the ⅔ partes of the waight of the pellet.Question. Now supposing that a Cannon whose Pellet wayeth 20 pound waight hath such a due and proportioned length as is conuenient for ⅔ partes in pow­der of the pellets waight, and that the same Cannon is charged with more powder than with ⅔ parts of the pellets waight,Aunswere. I aske of you whether or no that peece will shoote more ground than it was woont to doe?

Nicholas.

Without doubt it will shoote somewhat far­ther than it was woont to doe.

Prior.

This is contrary to those reasons which you did al­ledge yesterday in the euening, for in this case the pellet would be gon out of the mouth of the peece before all the powder should be a fier, & therfore that part of his force which the excesse or ouerplus of powder shoulde cause woulde bee frustrate and in vaine after the pellet is gone out of the mouth of the peece, and therefore that peece should not shoote farther through the excesse of the powder,The winde which comes by the powder in the conca­uitie of the peece doth al­waies follow somwhat nere or somwhat v­nited vnto the pellet after the pellet is gone out of the mouth of the peece & ther­by doth aug­ment the mo­uing of the pellet but the force of the same wind doth not worke so much in driuing forth the same pellet when it is without the concauitie of the peece, as it doth when it is within the concauitie of the peece. but onely the same ground which it was woont to doe, because the force of the same excesse in powder is wholye vaine and frustrate.

Nicho.

That windy force which comes by the excesse of powder after that the pellet is out of the mouth of the peece, although it could not worke on the pellet whilst the same pel­let was within the concauitie of the peece, yet the saide windie force doth not therefore leaue to worke on the pellet after it is out of the mouth of the Peece, that is to say, in the ayre: for al that wind which comes by the powder in the said concauitie doth alwaies fol­low somewhat neare or somwhat vnited vnto the pellet, although the pellet be somewhat gone out of the mouth of the peece, and therefore it doth somewhat augment that mo­uing. And it is true that the same windie force doth not worke so much in driuing foorth the same pellet when it is without the concauitie of the peece, as it doth when it is within the concauitie of the same. I meane that his such woorking shall not be proportionall to the excesse of powder that is put into the same peece, but it shall differ much from that proportion.

Prior.

I do not vnderstand this proportionall woorke.

Nicho.

The proporti­onall woorke is to be vnderstoode in this sorte: suppose for an example, that this our Can­non whose pellet waigheth 20. pound waight is mounted at an eleuation giuen, and dis­charged with ⅔ partes in powder of the pellets waight, and that it doth then shoote 1000. paces, and that the same Cannon is afterwards discharged with so much powder as the pel­let doth weigh, the which quantitie of powder is once and a halfe so much as ⅔ partes in[Page 32]powder of the pellets waight, now I say if this excesse of powder doth woorke proportio­nally on the pellet, then that peece will shoote at the same eleuation iust 1500 paces, that is to say, once and a halfe so much as it did when it was discharged with ⅔ partes in pow­der of the pellets waight. And I say that this peece in such a case will not shoote the same 500 paces of more ground, nor perchaunce the halfe thereof, that is to say 250 paces. But wee will suppose heere that the peece will shoote the same 250. paces of more grounde, which in the whole summe is 1250 paces. And also I say whosoeuer shall shoote the same Cannon with so much powder as the pellet weigeth and ⅓ part more which is in the whole 4/3, that this second third will not increase the same range of the pellet so much as the first third did. That is to say, it will not increase by 250 paces as by supposition it did with the first third, but it increaseth much lesse than the said 250 paces. And likewise whoso­euer doth adde ⅓ part of powder more vnto the aforesaide 4/3 partes of powder,Note. shall thereby increace the far flying of the pellet, but not so much as the excesse of the second third did. So that eache increace or excesse of the powder vnto a certain measure or limite, doth alwaies cause the peece to shoote somewhat farther. But after the excesse of the first third, the said increase by the other excesses doth decrease vnto that measure or limmite, and frō that limmite or measure vpwardes whosoeuer doth adde more powder shall not make the peece to carry farther.Note. And the excesse or ouerplus of powder may be so much, as that it will not make the peece to cast more ground but lesse ground.

Prior.

You tell mee of a thing that doth not well like mee, for you saye that you may put into a peece so much powder aboue a certaine measure or quantity that shall make the peece to cast more ground, and lesse ground, the which thing (as it seemeth to me) is repugnant to reason.

Nicho.

Prouerbe. My sayings therein are according to reason as it may be prooued by the common prouerbe which saith that too much enclosed breaketh his couer, and for to make this doubt plaine, I must of necessitie speake of extremities, and therefore if one shall charge a peece with so much powder as the concauity of the same wil hold, leauing onely towards the mouth of the peece so much of that concauitie empty, as will scarcely receaue the pel­let, and shall discharge that peece being in such a sorte charged, I aske of your Lordship whether you thinke that the same peece will now shoote more ground, or lesse ground thā it would haue done if it had bin charged and discharged with his ordinary charge, that is to say with ⅔ partes in powder of the pellets waight?

Prior.

I thinke that a peece charged in that sort will breake when it is discharged, & that the same too much of powder (as your prouerb saith) wil breake the couer that is to say, it wil break the peece.

Nich.

I wil not dis­pute whether in this case that peece should by reason breake or not breake, for a long dis­putation might be made therof, but I wil now suppose that the same peece wil not breake.

Prior.

In this case where the concauitie of a peece is so straight, as that it was needeful for to make the pellet enter into the same with the force of a rammer, I beleeue that thereby the said peece wil shoot more farther.An admo­nition.

Nicho.

In all things that haue bin spoken, & are to be spoken concerning the ranges of Artillery, suppose alwaies except it be otherwise speci­fied, that the pellets are equall aswel in greatnes, as in waight, & that they are also equally round, for euery of these accidents wil make the ranges of the pellets to vary, and therfore in this our case I say, that it is to be supposed that the pellet which is to be shot out of the concauitie filled with powder, is of the very same quallity of waight, measure & roundnes as that pellet is which we ordinarily shoote out of the peece, that is to say, with ⅔ partes in powder of that pellets waight.A peece whose concauity is full of powder wil shoot much lesse groūd thā it will do when it is discharged with his ordi­nary charge.

Prior.

Supposing that to be in such sort as you say, the thing in effect is very doubtfull.

Nicho.

There is no doubt in it, for it is very certain that the peece whose concauity is full of powder, will shoote much lesse ground than that peece will doe which is discharged with his ordinary charge.

Prior.

By what reason?

Nicho.

This is the reason thereof. All the powder (how fine so euer it be) doth not fier at one instant, that is to say, the powder which is at the touchhole is a fier before that which is farther of from that place, and the powder which is more nearer to the touchhole is a fier somwhat before the powder that is more farther of from the same. This proposition being granted, it is mani­fest that the same part of powder which is in the concauitie of the peece most nearest to the touchhole,That part of gunpowder which is in the concauitie of the peece most nearest to the touchole doth fiar before that part of gunpowder which is more remote. doth fier before that which is more remote. And that I may be the better vnderstood, I will deuide in my mind al the length of the powder which is found to be in[Page 33]the same concauity into four equall parts. I say then that the same part of powder which is next to the touchhole doth fier before the other part which is next adioining vnto it, and in fiering causeth so great a quantity of windy exhalations, that ten such places as that is where the powder was first a fiar, will not bee able to receaue the same exhalations and therfore according as the same exhalations are continually caused by the powder which continually is set on fier, so it is necessary for that exhalation to go forwards in getting by force a more bigger place than the place of the powder which is the cause of the same, and it cannot get such a place but by two waies, the first of these two waies is by expelling be­fore it with violence the rest of the powder which is not a fire, and which is towardes the mouth of the peece together with the pellet, or else by making the peece to breake, and bicause it is to be thought that the same exhalations wil more easily thrust out the powder together with the pellet than make the peece to breake, and especially the pellet being at the extreme or end of the concauity, I say then that the first fourth part of our said powder which was first a fire goeth on continually burning, and expelleth before it the other pow­der lying next before the same & consequently that expelleth out the pellet, and the pellet being very neare out of the peece, at the first and least thrust which it feeleth in the begin­ning goeth out of the same suddenly, and is expelled onely with the whole and vnburned powder (as hath bin said) & not by the proper exhalation of the fiered powder, the which expultion being made so in the beginning, may not be but weake in the pellet, I say weake in respect of that it will be when the pellet is expelled onely by the windy exhalation and in the chiefe of the great furie of that exhalation, besides this the vnburned powder fol­loweth the pellet going out of the peece, and within a while after falleth downe to the ground, and this powder by going in the ayre, and then falling downe vpon the ground, doth much let the going of the windy exhalation which followeth after the Pellet, & hin­ders much the range of the same pellet. So that for these reasons the pellet in such a case will not range very far. But such a peece being discharged with somewhat a lesse quantity of powder will without doubt shoote farther than that peece will doe whose concauitie was filled with gunpowder, for in this second manner or way all the concauitie is not full of powder by the length of twice the thicknesse of the pellet, and the pellet being in the charge will not be found so at the extreame of the peece his mouth, but more within. And therefore the pellet will not so go out of the mouth of the peece at the first and least thrust of the powder, but will resist a little more than the other: within which time much more of the powder wil be a fiar, and consequently a greater quantity of windy exhalations wil be caused, & the pellet with a more force or fury shalbe thrust out & expelled, I say thrust out & expelled with the powder, & not only by the windy exhalation as it was said of the other shoot. And so by these euident reasōs in this second shoot with lesse powder, I cōclude that the peece wil shoot farther thā it did at the first when al the concauity was ful of powder. And likewise if you wil also charge the peece again with a lesse quātity of powder, I meane with so much powder as wil not fil al his concauity by the length of thrice the thicknes of the pellet, I say that in such a case the same peece wil shoot farther than it did when it was charged with gūpowder vp to the mouth within twice the thicknes of the pellet. And so if you wil charge the peece again with powder vp to the mouth within 4. times the thicknes of the pellet, it will shoote farther than it did when it was charged with powder vp to the mouth within thrice the thicknes of the pellet, likewise the peece being charged with gun­powder vp to the mouth within fiue times the thicknes of the pellet wil shoot farther thā it did when it was charged with gunpowder vp to the mouth within foure tymes the thickenesse of the pellet, and so it proceedeth vnto a certaine measure being a meane betweene those two extremeties. When you are come to that certaine measure,Note. you shall finde this worthinesse in it, that he which will then charge that peece vvith a lesse quanti­tie of powder than that certaine measure is, shall shoote a lesse distance than hee did vvith that certaine measure, and likewise he which will charge the peece with more powder than that certaine measure is,We must kepe a meane be­tweene 2. ex­tremities of di­uers proper­ties. shal also shoote a lesse distance than he did with that certaine measure.

Prior.

This is a good speculation, and it likes me well, for in truth I know that wee ought of necessitie to keepe a meane betweene two extreamities, which are of di­uers properties.

Seruant.

My Lord, it is now supper time,

Prior.

Then let vs go to supper.

The 14. Colloquie.

How the powder with which a peece of Artillerie is charged, ought not to be rammed downe too hard in the peece, nor suffered to lie dispersed or too loose in the peece, & how in al contrary extremities we must build vpon the meane. And how the powder which is very hard rammed downe in the peece wil not be so soone a fier as the powder which lyeth dispersed or more loose. And how the longer that it is before the Powder doth take fier, the more weaker will his effects be, and the sooner that the pow­der is a fier, the more forceably doth it driue the pellet, and thereby his vertue & power doth worke more effectually togeather, and howe hee doth weaken the force of gunpowder that doth ramme it downe too hard in the peece, or that doth suffer it to lye much dispersed and loose.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

What thinke you, is it better to ramme the powder hard downe in the peece, or to leaue it somewhat dispersed and loose?

Nich.

In all contrary extremities we must build vppon the meane, that is to say, the gunpowder would not be too hard rammed, nor lie dispersed or too loose,The gunpouder which is very hard rammed downe in the peece will not bee so soone a fiar as the gun­powder which lyeth dispersed or more loose. The longer that it is before the gunpowder doth take fier, the more weaker will his effectes bee, and the sooner that the gunpowder is a fier, the more forceablye doth it driue the pellet, and therby his virtue and power doth worke more effectually togeather. for the gūpowder which is very hard ram­med downe in the peece, doth more resist the fier that commeth vnto it, than that powder doth which lyeth loose, and will not be so soone a fier as the gunpowder which lyeth dispersed or more loose, and the longer that it is before the gunpowder doth take fier, the more weaker will his effects be, contrariwise the sooner that the gunpowder is a fier, the more forceably doth it driue the pellet, and thereby his vertue and power doth worke more effectually togeather. The same thing in a ma­ner doth happen when the gunpowder doth lye much dispersed and very loose, and especially when it lyeth in a long fourme like vnto a traine which is made to set a thing that is far of on a fire: in which traine that part of gunpowder is first a fire which is at that end of the traine where the fire was first giuen, and afterwardes the fire goeth burning continually and successiuely the rest of the gunpowder by little and little euen to the other end of that traine, and the more lon­ger that the traine is, the more longer will the time be before all that gunpowder be a fire the very same may be applyed to this case of artillery, for the powder lying dispersed and loose in the concauitie of a peece, doth lye in a long fourme and fashion, and therefore it will bee the longer before it bee all a fire, and for that cause the effect of that gunpowder wil not be of so greate a force.He doth wea­ken the force of gunpowder that doth ram it downe to hard, in the peece, or that doth suffer it to lye much dispersed and loose. And hereupon I conclude that the powder lying too hard rammed downe in the peece, or lying too much dispersed and loose, weakeneth the effects of that peece, and therefore it behoueth vs to keepe a meane (as before hath bin saide) and not to be in extremities, that is to say, the gunpowder must not be rammed downe too hard, nor suffered to lye to loose.

Prior.

Your opinion heerein pleaseth me well.

The 15. Colloquie.

How a small peece called in Italian Schioppo doth shoote more straighter and more farther at a leuell marke than an Harchibuse can do, and how an harchibuse will be to more effect, and pearce farther into an obiect placed within a common distance, than the said Schioppo can do. And also how there is a kind of Schioppo which will at an equall distance pearce farther into an obiest than an Har­chibuse can doe.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

What is the cause that a peece which is called in Italian Schioppo doth shoote more straighter and more farther at a leuell marke, or in a right line, than an harchi­buse [Page 35]can doe, seeing the Harchibuse will be to more effect, and pearce farther into an ob­iect placed within a common distance, than that Shioppo can doe?

Nicho.

The cause hereof is for that peraduenture the pellet of the Harchibuse is more greater than the pellet of that Schioppo, and that the waight of the Harchibuse pellet doth hinder the swift flying of the same pellet. As for example:Example. suppose that such a Schioppo will shoote a pellet of ½ ounce in waight at length in a right line 400 paces, and that an Harchibuse will shoote a pellet of an ounce in waight in a right line but onely 300 paces,You must vn­derstanst and that in this Colloquie N. Tartaglia doth meane by these words right line, an insensible crooked line. now I say that in a distance of an hundred or of 150 paces, the Harchibuse will pearce farther than the saide Schioppo will doe, although at that place the pellet of that Schioppo flyeth more swiftly (by the rea­sons alleaged in the 4. proposition of the first booke of our nwe science) than the pellet of the Harchibuse And therefore if it bee so as your Lordship sayeth, the pellet of the Har­chibuse should by reason be more greater than the pellet of the Schioppo.

Prior.

It is true that an Harchibuse doth generally cary a greater pellet then doth the Schioppo, and yet there is a kind of Schioppo which shootes pellets as bigge as any Harchibuse doth.

Nicolas.

When a Schioppo doth carye so greate a pellet as an Harchibuse, and shootes more straighter or more farther in a leuel line then an Harchibuse doth, then without doubt at an equall distance such a Schioppo will pearce farther into an obiect than the Harchibuse will doe.

Prior.

by reason it should be so as you say, and you haue spoken enough for this euening.

The 16. Colloquie.

How a peece of Artillerie will doe a greater effect against a wall or any other thing standing firme and fast vpon the ground, than it will doe against a shippe or Gallie moouing on the Sea. And how a peece of Artillerie will doe a greater effect against a shippe or Gallie which doth come towardes it, than it will doe against a shippe or Gallie which doth saile from it, and how the thing which doth more let a mouing bodie, is more thrust, stroken, and hurt with the said mouing bodie than that thing is which doth lesse let the said mouing bodie.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

What is the cause that when a pellet being shot out of a great peece of Artillerie and hitting a shippe or a Gallye on the Sea, doth pearce into the ship or Gallie but a lit­tle way in respect of that it vseth to doe when it is shot against a wall, for euery shippe or gallie (as it is well knowne) is made of plancks of wood, and therfore when 2 or 3 ships lye neare together, it is to be thought that a great peece of Artillery being discharged at thē, in respect of that it will doe against a thicke wall, should by reason shoot thorow all their sides, yet seldom times it happeneth that the pellet doth penetrate thorow both the sides of one ship, for oftentimes the pellet resteth within the ship or gallie.

Nicho.

Note. It is mani­fest by naturall reason that the thing which doth more let a moouing body, is more thrust, strooken, and hurt with the saide moouing bodie: the walles then standing firme and fast on the ground doe let more the waye or range of the pellet than a shippe or gallie doth when it moueth on the Sea, and through that mouing, the shippe or gallie yeeldeth some­what to the stroke of the pellet, wherby the pellet worketh not that great effect, nor pear­ceth into it so far as it would haue done if the shippe or gallie had bin well fixed and set fast in the ground as the walles are, so that by this reason a peece of Artillery is to more effect against a wall or any other thing standing firme and fast on the ground, than against a shippe or gallie moouing on the Sea.Note. And a peece of Artillerie will be to more effect a­gainst a shippe or gallie which doth come towardes it than against a shippe or Gallie that doth saile from it, for the shippe which comes towardes the peece, comes against the range of the pellet, and therfore the pellet doth a more effect against it than it would haue done if the shippe had stoode firme on the Sea. And the shippe or gallie which goeth or faileth[Page 36]from the peece, yeeldeth more to the stroke of the pellet than that shippe or Gallie doth which standes firme and quiet on the Sea.

Prior.

I do vnderstand you well.

The 17. Colloquie.

How you may get out quickely the nayles or any other thing which shall happen by any maner of meanes to be put into the touchholes of great peeces of Artillerie.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prier of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Tell me brieflye if by chaunce in the tyme of any suddaine assault the Artillery should be choked with nayles or otherwise, whether it be possible to deuise a waie to vnchoke quickly and vppon the sudden the same Artillery, I say vpon the sudden, because many know how to do it, and doe the same with a certaine water or oyle which being put vppon the touchhole that is choked, eates the same choking, and so vnchoketh the peece. There are other as I vnderstand which do the same with a borer, that is to say, with such a thing as doth make the touchhole. But euery of these waies require some time for to do the same, but when a great many peeces are to be vnchoked, I would know a waie how if it be possible they might be quickly vnchoked.

Nicho.

Such a thing may be done (except I be deceaued) by charging all the same Artillerie with such pellets as shal go downe hard­lie into their peeces. Then after the peeces are so charged, lay them against the same place at which you should haue had occasion to shoote if they had beene vnchoked, and hauing made a trayne of powder within the concauitie from the mouth of the pece vnto the pel­let in euery peece, watch for an occasion that you may not shoote in vaine, and vpon occa­sion offered to shoote, giue fire to the traine at the mouth of the peece, and so all the pee­ces will doe not onely their ordinary effects, but will also (as I thinke) in their discharges cast out the nailes of yron, or any other thing with which they were choked, and by so vn­choking of them, there will come no hurt or discommoditie.

Prior.

This is a good and speedie waie, and I beleeue that a better waie cannot be deuised than this, if the peeces in their discharges will as you haue sayd, cast out the nailes and other thinges wherewith they were choked.

Nicho.

There is no doubt but that the peeces will cast out in their dis­charges all that which did choke them,

Prior.

If it shall happen that some of the nailes be so fast in the touchhole that the peeces do not in their discharges cast them out,Question. what is the remedie then?

Nicho.

Charge the peeces againe, and shoote them of in the same ma­ner as you did before,Aunswere. but first in this case you must warme with fier the place which is choked,Note. and then laye claie round about that place or touchhole for to receaue and con­taine a little of very hot oyle, which must be powred vppon the touchhole or place that is choked: Whereby the choked touchhole being made warme, sucketh in that hot oyle which will make the choking yron to bee more ready to slippe and goe out. Also in that case after you haue charged your peeces with powder,Note. and before you doe put into them their pellets, you must with a staffe make a hole thorowe the powder euen to the breeche of each peece, and directly vnder the touchhole that is choked, and in this case this secret is not from the purpose, for I thinke it will performe this action without the vse of the hot oyle.

Prior.

I am of your opinion therein, for in the discharging of those peeces, the ra­ging fire doth find the said hole made in the powder to be ill or not wel closed, and there­fore I thinke it a thing needelesse to prepare hot or cold oyle for that purpose: but inso­much as it is now supper time, I will talke no more hereof, and from hencefoorth wee will talke of some other good matter, for concerning Artillery I haue no other question to aske you.

The 18. Colloquie.

How a pellet shot out of a peece at an ohiect which is very neare vnto the saide peece, doth not worke so effectually, nor pearce so far into that obiect as it doth when it is shotte at the like obiect standing[Page 45]farther of. And how the more farther that the pellet flyeth from the peece, the more slolye it doth goe, and that where it goeth slolie there it woorketh a little effect, and how euery mouing thing mo­ueth alwaies some other thing.

Interlocutors
  • L. Iames of Achaia.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
L. Iames.

I know by experience that when a pellet is shot out of a peece at a wall which standeth very neare vnto the said peece, that the same pellet doth not worke so effec­tually, nor pearce so farre into that wall, as it would haue done if the wall had bin farther of, but by the reasons which you alleage in your nwe science, it should be otherwise, for you say there, that the more farther the pellet flieth from the peece, the more sloer doth it goe, and that where it goeth slolie, there it woorketh a little effect. Then by how much more nearer the peece is to the place at which you shoote, by so much ought his pel­let to woorke a more effect on the place where it strikes than that pellet will doe which is shot out of a peece lying more farther of from the said place, because the pellet that is shot out of the peece planted neare vnto the same place, strikes it with a more swifter mo­uing, and yet as I haue said, I know by experience that it will come to passe otherwise, and therefore I aske of you what is the cause of this inconuenience?

Nicholas.

Euery mouing thing moueth alwayes some other thing. For an auns­were to your doubt, you must note how euery moouing thing moueth alwaies some other thing, and therefore when the pellet is mooued by the winde which the Saltpeter causeth, the same pellet togeather with the same winde mooueth also in that very same instant the ayre which is neare vnto it within the concauitie of the peece, and the same ayre mo­ueth and thrusteth out the other ayre consequently next vnto it, and so the one ayre thru­steth the other ayre in such sort, that the sayd pellet thrusteth and carrieth before it a great quantitie of aire, in a very long fashion, or fourme, the which fourme although it bee but of ayre caused through the force of the pellets moouing,Note. yet that ayre is of it selfe so waightie as that for a little while it penetrateth like as it were a beame of wood the other aire with which it meeteth in his way: But it doth not continue long to penitrate the aire,Note. for this ayrie figure for a little while goeth before the pellet, and the pellet being a heauy body, doth more easily penetrate the aire than the said airy figure, and therfore the pellet doth go much more swifter than that airie figure,Note. & in a short time leaues that airy figure behind, which in the beginning was before it. Now to returne to our first purpose, when we discharge a peece of artillery at a thing very neare vnto vs, this airy figure which is thrust before the pellet (as before hath been said) hits the thing at which wee shoote, before the pellet doth strike it, & for that the same airy figure is not able to penetrate the same mark the formost end therof which first did hit the marke must needs rebound & returne backe against the residue of the same airy figure and pellet that followeth it, (and especially when the peece is discharged at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of the peece) the which re­turne causeth the pellet to meete with that residue of the airy figure being neare vnto it, and maketh a great striffe, that is to say, the residue of that airy figure would go forwardes and can not, partly because (as it hath bin sayd) it is not able to pearce into that thing at which you shoote, and partly because of that other parte which is forced to returne back againe, through which stryfe the pellet is much let in his way, and by that meanes can not doo all that effect which otherwise it would doo.Note. You may know howe much ground is in a meane distāce by reading the 70 chapter of mine Appen­dix. But when the place at which you shoote is in a meane distaunce from the Peece, the pellet through his swiftnes will leaue all the same airy figure behinde it, or at the least the greatest parte thereof, so as in that place which is within a meane distance, the pellet will woorke more effectually than in a place which is more nearer to the Peece, because the pellet in dooing of his effect hath no such great let nor strife with the aire.

L. Iames.

I like your reasons well, and perceaue by them that it commes of no other cause.

The 19. Colloquie.

In what place and at what distance a Peece of Artillerie will worke most forceably and most effectu­allie

Interlocutors
  • L. Iames of Achaia.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
L. Iames.

There is an other doubt in which I would bee resolued, and it is this: If you plant a Peece of Artillerie too neare vnto the thing at which you shoote, by the rea­sons which you haue alleaged, and by the experience which I haue had therein, the effects of that Peece will not bee so forceable as they would in a meane distance. Likewise if you plant a Peece too far of from the place at which you shoote (by the opinion of all men) the same will happen, I meane if you plant a Peece too farre of from the marke, it doth not worke so effectually in the thing where it hits, as it woulde doe in a meane distance. Now I aske of you whether by reason a place may bee appointed where the pellet shot out of such a Peece of Artillerie finding no let or resistance in any part of his way or range shall worke most effectually?Note.

Nicho.

If the pellet at that very instant when it commeth to ioyne with the furthermost part of the said airie figure (whereof I haue spoken in the pre­cedent Colloquie) shall finde there an obiect, then in the same place it will worke more effectually than in any other place: For if the obiect be more towardes the mouth of the Peece, the said ayrie figure will strike that obiect before the pellet will hit the same, as it hath been saide in the precedent Colloquie, and immediately after the bloe, it reboundes backwardes against the residue of the same ayrie figure and pellet, and hinders somwhat the range of the pellet, as hath been said in the precedent Colloquie. And if the obiect should be farther from that place, then so soone as the pellet is wholy gone from that airy figure: that is to say, hath left that ayrie figure behinde it, immediately it findes the ayre as it were quiet, whereby the pellet doth with more difficultie penetrate that quiet ayre, than the aire of the said airie figure which goeth likewise towards the same place to which the pellet doth goe: and therefore the pellet being gone from that airy figure doth by so much decrease in force as it doth goe more farther from it, and for that cause it foloweth that his effectes will be the more weaker. So that for these two reasons, the pellet shoulde worke more effectually on that obiect which is founde to be precisely in the pellets going out from the end of the sayde ayrie figure, than in any other place more farther or more nearer to the same.

L. Iames.

I beleeue that it is so as you say: for in effect I perceiue that the pellet will strike in that place without any let of the reflection of the ayre, and that be­tweene the Peece and the same place it hath not been let by the quiet ayre, as it will be let when it commeth vnto it if it goe more farther.

The 20 Colloquie.

The cause why two waddes of hay or of toe are put into a Peece at euery time when it is charged: And how Arte should imitate nature which doth nothing but to some ende and purpose, and how vse hath alwayes been obserued in many Artes as well Mechanicall as Liberall: And how the Artifi­cer is praise worthie that searcheth the cause of thinges vsed to bee done in his Arte: And how knowledge is no other thing than to knowe the thing by his cause.

Interlocutors
  • Bombardiero.
    This worde Bombardiero [...]oth here & in [...] other places of this boke signifie him that doth shoot in a great peece of artillery and is of some called a Canoncere.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
BOmbardiero.

for what cause (as you thinke) are two waddes of hay or of toe put into a Peece at euery time when it is charged, I meane one wadde after the powder is[Page 39]put in betweene the powder and the pellet, and an other wadde after that the pellet is put in?

Nicho.

Vntill now I knewe not of this thing which you haue tolde me, I meane that a wadde of haie or of tow is put into the peece betweene the powder and the pellet, and likewise that an other such wadde of haie or tow is put into the peece after the pellet. But it seemeth to me at this present, that if it be so as you say, it were more conuenient that I should aske of you the cause of that cautell, then that you should aske the same of me, for if you vse to doe so at euery time when you charge a peece,Art should im­mitate nature which doth nothing but to some end and purpose. you should know to what pur­pose it is done, because Art should immitate nature in this thing, which doth nothing but to some end and purpose.

Bombardiero.

I will confesse vnto you that I am vnlearned, and that I haue vsed to do so because I haue seene all other Gunners vse to doe the same.

Nich.

Vse hath alwaies bin obserued in very many arts aswell mechanicall as liberall, and there­fore I do not maruell at you nor blame you, but commend you for searching the cause of that thing which is vsed to bee done in your Arte, and so ought euery man to doe,Vse hath al­waies bin ob­serued in ma­ny arts aswell mechanicall as liberall, and the artificer is praise worthie that searcheth the cause of things vsed to be done in his art, because knowledge is no other thing than to know the thing by his cause. for knowledge is no other thing, than to know the thing by his cause, but now to returne to our purpose, the first wadde which is put betweene the powder and the pellet is for no other cause as I thinke, but to sweepe, bring, and keepe togeather in his due place all the powder which in charging of the peece was put into the concauity of the same.

And concerning the other wadde which is put into the peece after the pellet, I thinke it was first deuised vppon necessitie, which doth neuer happen but when a peece is dis­charged from a high place downewardes at a more loer place. For in that action the mouth of the peece lying downewardes towardes the marke, it may bee (except a wadde be put in after the pellet) that the same pellet will fall out at the mouth of the peece, and therefore to the end that the pellet may not fall out, a wadde is put into the peece after the pellet.

Bombardiero.

You alleadge good reasons, and yet I see that a wadde is also vsually put into the peece after the pellet when wee shoote vpwardes at a marke standing on high where no such perrell is that the pellet will fall out at the mouth of the peece lying directly agaynst the marke, therefore I would know the cause thereof.

Nicholas.

The cause thereof is ignoraunce, for if you vnderstoode the reasons of that action, then you would not put a Wadde there, except when necessitie shall com­pell you to doe it.

Bombardiero.

I perceaue that you doe tell me a truth herein.

The 21. Colloquie.

How a peece which had beene oftentimes togeather charged and discharged was made thereby so much attractiue, as that it did sodainlie drawe into his concauitie a little dog, which by chaunce did in go­ing by, smell vnto the mouth of the same peece. And how if any one shall set his bare bellie to the mouth of a hot peece he shall sticke so fast vnto it as that he shall not be able without great difficul­tie to goe from it.

Interlocutors
  • Bombardiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
BOmbardiero.

I will tell you newes at which I knowe you will greatly maruell and it is this. On a tyme being appointed to make a batterie after manie shootes it chaunced by a certaine occasion that a peece beeing discharged did ryse vppe in such sorte as the mouth thereof went into the grounde, and in the meane while that I was busie to prouide labourers to bring the Peece with leauers vnto his place, a lit­tle Dogge goeing by (as it chaunced) did smell vnto the mouth of the same Peece, and by so doeing was sodainely faste ioyned to the mouth of that peece, and im­mediatlie after drawne into the concauitie of the sayde Gunne, which thing when the standers by hadde seene, some of them ranne to helpe the sayde dogge, and al­though they perceaued him to bee drawne in euen almost to the farthest ende of the said concauitie, they pulled him out being almost dead, and what became of him afterwardes[Page 40]I know not, but as I thinke he dyed. Now tell me what you thinke of this?

Nicho.

I doe not maruell at this thing, for after a peece hath bin oftentimes togeather shot in, it waxeth hot, and through that heate (as it hath bin saide in the fift Colloquie) that peece is made attractiue euen as a cupping glasse which is made hot with tow burned in the same,A cupping glasse is a thing which phisitions and Surgens do vse and of some is called a boxing glasse. and therefore it is no maruaile that the dogge was drawne into the concauitie of that peece for I beleeue that when a peece is very hotte, if any one will goe vnto it and set his bare bellie to the mouth thereof, he shall sticke so fast vnto that place, that he shall not be able without greate difficultie to goe from thence, and in such a case a peece will be made much more attractiue if his touchhole be close stopped.

Bombardiero.

Your reasons doe please me well.

The 22. Colloquie.

Howe there are diuers accidentall causes which will make any peece of Artillerie to breake: and how a peece which breakes doth most commonlie breake at the breeche, or neere vnto the mouth, and seldome tymes in the middle: and how euerie moouing thing may by two waies be let or hinde­red to mooue a side a rounde and heauie bodie which is setled and quiet: and how euery peece of Artillerie being discharged doth make a roaring sounde by reason that the exhalation of winde which the Saltpeeter causeth in the peece doth breake and teare in peeces the aire that resisteth the same exhalation, and how a sound is no other thing than a bloe which two bodies that haue no soules or liues do make togeather.

Interlocutors
  • Gunfounder.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
GVnfounder.

Whence commeth it that euerie peece which breakes, doth moste com­monly breake at the breeche where the powder is, or at the mouth, and seldome tymes in the middle? that a peece doth breake in the breeche it is no maruell, because in that place the powder doth shewe all his force, but I maruell much that a peece doth sometimes breake at the mouth, for it seemeth to me that a peece shoulde rather breake in the middest of the concauitie, than at the mouth, because the exhalation of the Salt­peter findeth at the mouth of the peece a large place to goe out, which is not to be found within the middest of the concauitie.Euery mouing thing may by a waies be let or hindered to mooue a side a round & heuie bodie which is setled and quiet.

Nicholas.

Concerning this matter wee must thinke that euerie moouing thing may by two waies be let or hindered to mooue a side a round and heauie bodie which is setled and quiet, the first is, to mooue that heauie bodie in the beginning, for after it is mooued, there is no difficultie to maintaine the same in con­tinuall moouing: the other lett which the saide mouing thing may receaue, is that after it hath mooued the rounde and heauie bodie, and that the saide bodie is brought to a continuall moouing a side, the moouing thing receaues greate hinderaunce if there bee anie lette or resistance against it, therefore I saie that by the same exhalation of wind which the Saltpeter causeth, after it is engendered in the peece, there happeneth two great difficulties, the first is to mooue so suddenly the pellet being setled and quiet, and therefore in that suddaine accident the saide windie exhalation finding the peece in that place to be weake in the mettall, or the mettall to be ill vnited or not well closed in the casting, or more weaker in the one side than in the other, doth easily breake the peece in that place. But if by chaunce the mettall in that place shall resist so strongly as that the exhalation doth mooue the pellet, then the pellet being mooued from that place, it is not to be feared that the peece will breake there, except some straunge accident doth happen to the pellet within the peece as in the end of this Colloquie shall be declared. For so soone as the pellet is in mouing, that exhalation will continue with ease if no other let do happen, but so soone as the pellet commeth to the mouth of the peece, it findes all the aire without the peece, and by how much the pellet together with the said exhalation that thrusteth it to assault the aire commeth more swiftly, by so much the more vnited and with a greater force doth the aire oppose it selfe very strongly to resist that sudden moo­uing, [Page 41]and thereuppon in that place an other difficultie or strife riseth betweene the exha­lation within (which thrusteth foorth the pellet) and the aire without, that is to say,The cause of the roaring sound which a peece of Artil­lery doth make when it is dis­charged. A sound is no other thing than a bloe which 2 bodies that haue no soules or liues do make to­geather. the ex­halation woulde goe out of the concauitie, and the aire without doth resist the same, but in the end the exhalation within being of a greater force, and getting the victorie, brea­keth foorth and teareth in peeces his saide enimie, and through that breaking foorth of the same exhalation, the great and roaring sound which the peece makes doth come.

For a sounde is defined by wise men to bee no other thing than a bloe which two bodies that haue no soules or liues doe make togeather. Therefore in this case it cannot come of any other cause than of the bloe which is made by the exhalation engendered within the peece, and the aire without the peece. And then the mouth of the peece being as it were in the middest of the strife, doth alwaies suffer very much: and this is the cause that the peece lacking his due thicknesse in the said place, or for some other vnknowne fault made in the casting, doth there easily breake.

Gunfounder.

I like well of your reasons, but I haue yet an other doubt which is this, that although a peece doth most commonly breake at the breeche where the powder is, or at the mouth, yet sometimes it breakes in the middle of the concauity, and therefore I doe greatly desire to knowe the cause thereof.

Nicholas.

The two causes of which I haue before spoken are generall causes, and commonly they cause all manner of peeces to suffer generally in the said two places more than in any o­ther place, but besides the sayde generall causes, we must thinke and beleeue that ma­ny other causes may happen which not onely will cause any peece of Artillerie to suffer more in the said two places, that is to say, at the breeche where the powder is,Note. and at the mouth, but also in the middle parte of his concauitie. Example. As for example sake, if by ill happe the pellet running along in the concauitie findes any little stone like vnto a wedge in fourme, or any other harde and little bodie, and that by chaunce the pellet runnes vppon that stone or bodie, it must needes bee that the same stone or bodie shall let and hinder the moouing of that pellet, and thereby compell the pellet eyther to staie in that place (which commeth to passe when the pellet doth goe very straightly or hardly within the peece) or else that pellet in passing thorow the peece vppon the same stone or bodie, makes a little leape ouer the same stone, and that may bee when the concauity of the peece is more wyder than the height or thickenesse of the pellet: and so if by chaunce the pellet be let by that stone or bodie lyke vnto a wedge in fourme, through that let (the same being greate or strong) the peece will be forced to breake. And if the pellet shall finde that stone or bodie in the beginning of his way, the peece will breake in that end or part where the powder is: And if the pellet shall finde that stone or bo­die in the middest of the concauitie, the peece will by reason breake in the middle part of that concauitie: And if the pellet shall finde that stone or bodie neare vnto the mouth of the peece, then it will breake at the mouth: But if by chaunce the pellet shall haue roome to passe vppon that bodie, then in his passage (as before hath bene sayde) it will of necessitie leape vp, and thereby strike the vppermoste parte of the con­cauitie of the Peece, and rebounde againe to the grounde or vndermoste parte of the same concauitie. The which stroke and rebounde cannot bee of so little force, but that it is able to cause the peece for to breake in that place, and this is one of the acci­dentall causes which is able to breake a peece in any place. Also when a pellet is not e­quallie rounde, or is in one parte more higher than in an other, the peece will some­times breake about the mouth.A brasse peece of artillery be­ing made hot with shooting is apt to breke. Also a peece made of Brasse mettall being made verie hotte by often shooting in it, is more apt to breake than when it is colde. For the brasse mettall is of such nature as that being hotte, it will soone breake. Also by how much the more higher you doe shoote with a peece, by so much that peece doth suffer more than any other peece with which you doe shoote leuell. Also in casting of the peece there may be cracks and holes made in the same,You may learne by rea­ding the 43. Chapter of mine Appendix to knowe whether or no hony combs, cracks, or flawes, are within the concauitie of any great peece of Artillerie. in part not to be perceaued by our sen­ces, and in part manifest, but being within the peece wee cannot see them, and thereby the peece is more weaker in that place than it should bee, and vppon this occasion sometimes without any other particuler accident, the peece breakes in that place whether it be at the tayle, or at the mouth, or in the middest.

[Page 42]

Sometimes also the concauitie of the peece is not made precisely in the middest of the mettall, but goeth more to one side than to an other, whereby the mettall vppon the one side of the peece is more thinner, and vppon the other side more thicker than it should be, and therefore vppon that side where the mettall is more thinner and weaker than it should be, the peece doth sometimes breake: And this is as much as I can tell you concer­ning the causes which do make a peece to breake.

Gunfounder.

You haue at large satis­fied me in all my doubtes.

The 2. Corollarie.

ALthough Vannuccio Biringuccio in his Pirotechnia calleth them lyers which say that they can tell how to make Gunpowder that shall make no noyse when it is shot out of a gunne, and affirmeth that it is a thing impossible to be done with any peece of Artillerie, or with any potgunne of elder, out of which boyes vse to shoote paper and sloes, because (as before in the precedent Colloquie hath bin saide) the exhalation of winde that is within the concauitie of a gunne by breaking the aire which without the mouth of the Gun resisteth the same, doth cause the gunne in his discharge to make a roa­ring sound, yet I doe beleeue that such Gunpowder may bee prepared, for I haue read in a learned and creadible Author that the same kind of gunpowder hath bin made, and that a Duke of Ferrara was the first inuentour of the same gunpowder which (as my saide Au­thour saith) is of so small a force,Ferrara or Fer­raria is a Citie in Italie, and also it is a pro­montorie in Spayne. as that it will shoote a pellet scarce 12. paces from the mouth of the gunnne: But to the end that no ill minded man shall doe hurt with the same vnnecessarie and vnlawfull kinde of Gunpowder by any thing that shall be by mee written thereof, I will not heare name my sayde Authour, nor teache any person to make the same.

The 3. Corollarie.

IN some places at sometime it may happen that it shall be thought a needefull peece of seruice to breake greate peeces of Artillerie, wherefore by occasion of that which hath beene declared in the precedent Colloquie, I will heere saye vnto him that is desirous to learne, that this action may be performed with smooth yron wedges, which I would haue so made as euery of them should be a foote in length, and at one end thinne like an edge of a knife, and at the other end an inch thicke. For when one of these wedges shall bee thrust into a peece charged with powder and pellet, and the thin end of the wedge put in vnder the pellet, it must needes bee a let to the moouing of the pellet, and make the pellet sticking fast within the peece by reason it cannot by any meanes passe o­uer the thicke end of the wedge, to breake the peece although it was charged with no more powder than his ordinary charge. Also if you will charge any greate peece of Artille­rie with a full charge of suche gunpowder as I doe teache you to make in the 16. chap­ter of mine Appendix and haue marked their with the number of 13 you shall breake the peece.

Also you may breake any great peeece of Artillerie in what part thereof you will after this manner. Lay the Peece in a furnace vpon yron wedges or vpon stones of ½ foote in height, and make a good fire of coales vnder and rounde about that part of the peece where it shall be broken: Then bloe the fire with a paire of belloes till you haue made the peece very hotte, and after you haue so done, take the peece out of the fire, and with an yron hammer strike hard vpon the hot part of the peece, and by so doing you shall breake the same peece in that verie place. Likewise you maie breake any great peece of Artillerie thus. Make in the ground a ditch somewhat longer than the peece which shall be broken, and in the bottome of this ditch cut a trenche so long as that parte of the peece which shalbe made hot: Fill this trench with coales, and laie the peece which shall be broken vp­on yron wedges or stones of halfe a foote in height in the ditch, so as the peece in that part[Page 43]which shall be made hot and broken, may lie directly ouer the said trench: then hauing couered the Peece in that part, which shal be made hot and broken, all ouer with coles, & made a wall of stones, or some other thing round about it (I meane the Peece) so as men may worke vpon it, put fire to the said coles, and with belloes bloe the fire till you haue made the Peece very hot: this done, lift the Peece vp out of the ditch, and with an yron hamer strike hard vppon the hot part of the Peece tyll you haue broken it there: which you shall quickly doe.

The 23 Colloquie.

How it may be knowne whether a Peece which was neuer discharged or shot in, will shoote right vppon a marke, or wide, or a scue from the marke vnto which the leuel shal be giuen: And how if a Peece of Artillerie be more thicker vppon the one side than vppon the other, the concauitie of the peece is not right in the middest of the mettall. And how if a peece be more thicker vpon the one side than vpon the other, the same peece will not shoote his pellets foorth right, but alwayes awry towardes the thicker side of the mettall: And how you may know the thinnesse and thicknesse of the mettall in any part of the concauitie in the peece.

Interlocutors
  • Gunfounder.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
GVnfounder.

Is it possible that I may perceiue whether a Peece which is newly laid vpon his carriage & was neuer shot in, wil shoote right, wide, or ascue?

Nich.

Your question in substance is no more than this, that you would knowe whether the concauitie of that Peece doth lie right in the midst of the mettall or no: & if it doe not lie in the midst of the mettall that you would vnderstande how or towards what part of the Peece that conca­uitie doth goe, which as I thinke may without any difficultie be done: For I consider that this is a thing which by diuers wayes may be searched out and knowne. But to shewe you a way by which it may speedilie and easily be done, you must geue me some respite to think thereon.

Gunfounder.

Thinke a while of it, for I haue asked this doubt of many which by their profession are Engenars, and haue not found any of them able to resolue mee therein.

Nicho.

I haue considered of this matter, and perceiue thereby, that the sayde thing may be done by many wayes, but to doe that thing speedily and with small a doe, you must take two staues that are very right, or two lathes or rulers well planed,Note. of equall breadth, & more longer by one braceA brace is a measure in Venice which containes 2 foote & ¼ of a foote of the afsise of England. at the least than the concauitie of the Peece is, and to that part of those staues, lathes, or rulers which exceed in length the same concauitie you must fasten two other staues, lathes, or rulers ouerthwart, which must be in length, somwhat more than halfe the thicknesse of the Peece at the taile, & set apart one from the other almost a brace in measure, to the ende they may bee able to keepe a sunder the two more longer staues, lathes, or rulers in an equall distance. And afterwardes you must put one of those staues or rulers into the concauitie of that Peece, and so the other staffe or ru­ler will be without the Peece. How you may know whether a Peece is more thicker of mettall in one place than in an other.Nowe if you will know whether that Peece is more thicker of mettall in one place than in another doe thus. Lay that staffe which is within the Peece close and right vnto the vppermost part of the concauitie, & then measure or cause some other to measure skilfully how farre the end or extreame part of that staffe which is with­out the Peece is distant from the mettall of the Peece. Afterwardes remoue somewhat the said staffe or ruler which is within the concauitie to an other part thereof, and there mea­sure againe with good aduisement how farre the said end of that staffe is distant from the mettall of the Peece, and in this second place if the end of that staffe shall bee precisely so much and no more distant from the mettall than it was in the first place, you may con­clude that the mettall in those two places is of equall thicknesse: but if that end of the sayd staffe shall bee in the seconde place farther of from the mettall than it was in the first place, you may conclude that in this second place the mettall is more thinner than in the first place, and by so much more thinner as the distance from the mettall shalbe in the se­cond[Page 44]place greater than in the first place. Likewise if by chaunce in this second place that end of thesame staffe or ruler shall bee more nearer to the mettall than it was in the first place, then the mettall in this second place is more thicker than in the first place. And in this sort you must proceede from one part of the concauitie to an other part thereof, and from one side to an other side round about the Peece, and by so doing you shall know whether or no the concauitie doth goe precisely or right in the middest of the mettall, for if it bee founde that the mettall is of equall thicknesse, you may conclude that accor­ding as the Peece doth shew, the concauitie is right in the middest of the mettall, and that the Peece will shoote his pellets foorthright, and not awrie. And if by chaunce you finde the mettall to be more thicker vpon the one side than vpon the other, you may conclude that according as the Peece doth shew, the concauitie is not right in the middest of the mettall, and consequently that the same Peece will not shoote his pellets foorthright, but awrie towards the thicker side of the mettall: that is to say, if that thicknesse shall bee vppon the right side, the Peece will shoote wide towardes the right side: And contrary­wise, Example. if that thicknesse shal be ascue, as for example let vs suppose betweene the right side of the Peece, and the vppermost part of that Peece, it will shoote likewise ascue: that is to say awrie vpwards, and yet towardes the thicker side, and so it must be vnderstood of eue­rie other part of the Peece where the mettall is more thicker than it should be. But that I may be the better vnderstood I doe here with breuitie set downe for an example the fi­gure of a Peece of Artillerie, and I will search in that whether or no his concauitie doth lie right in the middest of the mettal, therefore I take two staues or rulers that are straight and equall as heere A B and C D are supposed to be, and to that part of those staues or rulers which exceede in length the concauitie of that Peece, I doe fasten two other staues or rulers a crosse or ouerthwart which are somewhat more than halfe the thicknes of the Peece at the taile, and I set them apart one from the other almost a brace in mea­sure to the ende they may be able to keepe a sunder in an equall distance, the two staues marked with these letters A B and C D.Note. And afterwardes I thrust one of those staues (which heere I will suppose to bee D C) into the concauitie of the Peece, so that it shall touche close the vppermost part of that concauitie as it appeareth to doe in this fi­gure.The instrumēt which heere the type A B C D doth represent, will serue also to place leuell sights in their due places vp­pon the vpper­most part and outside of a Peece right ouer the middle point of the concauite in the canon of the Peece as you may reade in the tenth Colloquie of this booke.

[depiction of a measuring instrument]

Then I measure or cause some other to measure aduisedlie the distance betweene the point A the ende of the staffe or ruler,Note. and the mettall of that Peece in the same place, and suppose that the sayd distance is precisely so much as is the short line E. Then I doe remoue those staues or rulers to an other place or side of the Peece, and for your better vnderstanding hereof, I doe remoue them to the opposite part of that Peece as it doth appeare by the other figure, and in that place I measure or cause some other to mea­sure the distance that is betweene the saide point A the ende of the staffe, and the mettall of the Peece, the which I will suppose to be as much as the length of the line F. Nowe I say if the line F be equall to the line E, the mettall of that Peece is of equall thick­nesse as well in the vppermost part as in the loermost part of that Peece. But because in this case I doe sensibly finde the line F to be longer than the line E, therefore I conclude that the mettall of the Peece is more thicker aboue, than it is beloe, and that it is so much more thicker, as the line F is longer than the line E.

[Page 45]

[depiction of a measuring instrument]

After this sort and maner I must proceede to the right side, and to the left side, and to all the other partes or sides rounde about the Peece, noting alwaies the distances by lines for by those lines,Note. I shall know exactly the thicknesse and thinnesse of the mettall round [...] about the concauitie of that Peece, and by the reasons before alledged, I shall also know [...] towardes what way or side the said Peece wil shoote his pellets, which is the thing that wa [...] proposed

Gunfounder.

You haue tolde me of a good and speedie way which pleaseth me well.

The 4 Corollarie.

ALthough the concauitie in a Peece of Artillerie doth lie right in the middest of the mettall of that Peece, yet may the said concauitie be taper bored: wherefore to know whether or no a Peece of Artillery is taper bored you must prepare a Rammer head equall in height and compasse to the concauitie in the Peece, and that being done, thrust the said Rammer head into the said concauitie: for if it will not go downe vn­to the touchhole, the Peece is taper bored in that very place where the Rammer head stickes. To know how much the Peece is taper bored, make the like proofe with a Ram­mer head of a lesse height & compasse than the first was, & by making diuers proues after this sort, you shal know how much the Peece in euery place of his concauitie is taper bo­red. Such a Peece as is so taper bored that his concauitie is wyder at the mouth than at the touchhole, is to be misliked, because the Gunner may put into it a pellet which (though it shall seeme to be a fit pellet) will sticke fast in the Peece, and by reason it will not go downe vnto the powder breake the Peece if it be not shot out in such or like sort as in the 27 chapter of mine Appendix you are taught to doe the same. Also such a Peece is to be mis­liked, because the pellet that shall goe downe to the powder is so small that it will swarue in the deliuerance, & randge a lesse ground than it would haue done, if it had bin fit for the mouth of the Peece. But such Peeces as are not taper bored from their mouthes downewards towards their touchholes till within a foote or a foote and a halfe of their touchholes, are not (as some say) to bee misliked, because such Peeces are thereby more stronger and by that meanes their pellets will goe more closer vnto the powder: yet this can not be denied that the ladles for such peeces must bee rounder bent, and that as the spunge which is fit for the mouth of one such Peece will not goe within his concauitie downe to the touchhole or bottome, so the spunge which is fit for one such Peece at the bottome, will be too loe for the rest of his concauitie.

The 24 Colloquie.

The cause and reason why the mouth of a hot Peece of Artillerie falling into a sandie grounde, did drawe a great quantitie of the said sand into the concauitie of that Peece.

Interlocutors
  • Gunfounder.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
GƲnfounder.

I will aske an other question of you which is this: one time as I prooued certaine Peeces at Lio, At Lio which is a place with in a mile of Venice, there is a Hauen vnto which yeerely on the Ascention day (as William Thomas in his booke intituled, The History of Italy saith) the Duke of Venice with the Senate in their best aray vse to goe for to throw a ring into the water, & there­by to take the Sea as their Espowse. it chaunced after I had charged and discharged one Peece ma­nie [Page 46]times together that the mouth of the same Peece fell into a very sandie grounde, and that so soone as the mouth of the sayde Peece was within the said ground, a great quantitie of the same sand was drawne into the concauitie of that Peece: nowe I aske of you the cause of that effect?

Nicho.

A Gunner did once aske me the like question as it wil appeare in the 21 Colloquie of this booke, for as your Peece drew into the concauitie thereof a great deale of sande, so his Peece drew into the concauitie of the same a little dogge. Therefore I will answere your question as I did answer his: that is to say, a Peece which is discharged oftentimes toge­ther must needes waxe hot, and so soone as it waxeth warme, it is made thereby somwhat attractiue euen as a cupping or boxing glasse, and by so much it is made more attractiue, as it is made more hot. Therefore it is no maruaile that your said Peece drew sande into his concauitie.

Gunfounder.

I doe like well of this your answere.

The 25 Colloquie.

How that leuell sight which is well placed vpon a handgunne to shoote at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of the same Gunne, and in a conuenient distance from the said Gunne, will not serue well to shoote at a marke set on a height in a like conuenient distance from the said Gun: And how he which will shoote in such a Gunne that hath such a leuell sight at a marke lying leuell with his Gunne, and in a conuenient distance from his standing, ought to take his leuell at the middle of that marke: And also how hee which will shoote in such a Gunne that hath such a leuell sight at a marke set on a height, in a like conuenient distance from his standing, ought to take his leuell at the loest part of that marke.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
    This worde Schioppetiero doth here and in all other places of this booke signify him that doth vse to shoote in an Harchi­buse, Caliuer, or any other Handgunne.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

I haue a Handgunne with a leuell sight so well placed that if I doe shoote in the said Peece at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of the same and in a conuenient distance from my Peece, most commonly the pellet will strike in the middle of that marke although the said marke be a very small thing. Now I aske of you whether or no that leuel sight being so well placed will serue mee to shoote at a marke or some other little thing espied on a height in a like conuenient distance?

Nich.

It is a manifest thing that the said leuell sight will not serue you so well to shoote at a marke espied on a height in a like con­uenient distance.

Schioppetiero.

Wherefore?

Nicho.

Because if you shoote at a marke ly­ing leuell in a conuenient distance, most cōmonly your pellet strikes in the middle of the marke, and of necessitie at the end of that distance, and in that place your visuall line doth touch or cut the line or way in which the pellet must goe. And because in shooting at markes espied on a height, the pellet doth goe much more by a right line, or by a lesse croked line than the pellet which is shot at a marke lying leuell with the Peece, as hath bin sayd before in the second Colloquie: therefore by how much the pellet shot at a marke on a height doth go more righter than the pellet which is shot at a mark lying leuel, by so much doth that way of the pellet come more nearer or sooner to meete and cut your said visuall line, than the way of the pellet which is shot at a marke lying leuell. Then making that intersection more nearer by shooting at a marke on a height, the thing at which you shoote will be beyond that intersection, and so the said thing or marke being at the sayde first distance, & beyond that intersection, it is impossible by reason of your said leuel sight that the pellet shall in that case strike in the middest of the marke.

Schioppetiero.

I do not well vnderstand your reasons, neither will I trouble you to make me vnderstand them, for I thinke you should haue much a doe with me to make me perceiue them. But do you con­clude that if I shoote at a marke espied on a height & at the same first distance, that the pel­let will strike aboue that marke or vnder that marke?

Nicho.

I conclude that there the pellet will strike aboue the marke, for alwayes when the visual line doth cut the way of[Page 47]the pellet, and that the marke or thing at which you shoote is beyond that intersection [...] the pellet will strike somewhat aboue the marke, & by so much the more aboue the marke as the said marke shall be more farther of from that intersection.

Schioppetiero.

Certaine­lie you say true therein, for you shall vnderstand that I haue in my time killed with my Peece 2000 little birdes, and my long experience hath taught mee to know that which now you haue told mee:Note. therefore when I haue occasion to shoote at any little birde sit­ting on a heigth vpon a tree within a conuenient distance, I take my marke alwayes at the feete of the bird, but when the bird sittes on a place lying leuel with my Peece, then I take my marke precisely at the body of the birde, and by so doing I doe seldomtimes misse with my shoote.

[diagram of a visual line]

The 26. Colloquie

How that leuell sight which is well placed vpon a handgunne to shoote at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of the gunne, and in a conuenient distance from the said Gunne, will not serue well to shoote at a marke lying vnder the leuell of the Gunners eie, and in a like conuenient distance from the said Gunne: And how the Gunner which shootes in a Gunne which hath such a leuell sight at a thing lying vnder the leuell of his eye, and in a conuenient distance from his standing, ought to take his leuell at the loest part of that thing or marke.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

I haue another question to aske of you which is this: if I should shoot with my said handgun at a marke lying vnder the leuel of my eie, & in a conuenient distance from my standing, whether or no will the same leuell sight serue mee to shoote at the said marke, which wil serue mee to shoote at a marke lying leuell with mine eie, I meane, whether or no will the pellet strike in the middest of that marke, or aboue that marke, or vnder that marke?

Nicholas.

It is manifest by the reasons before alleaged that your saide leuell sight will not serue you in that distance, for the pellet in that case will also hitte aboue the same marke.

Schioppetiero.

You aunswere mee well, for I haue[Page 48]learned by long experience, that whensoeuer I shall shoote at any little bird sitting in a place which is vnder the leuell of mine eye, to take my marke at the feete of the same bird as I vse to doe when I shoote at another bird sitting on high vppon a tree or tower, and by so doing I doe seldome times misse the marke.

Nich.

I am glad that by your long experi­ence you can witnesse the same to bee true which I by naturall reason without any practise haue spoken.

[diagram of a visual line]

The 5 Corollarie.

ONe Luigui Collado a Spaniard finding fault with the precepts writtē in the precedent Colloquie teacheth his Readers to shoote at a loe marke lying within a conuenient distance in this sort folowing:A Gunner shooting at a loe mark with­in a conueni­ent distance, ought to take his leuel aboue the same mark as Luigui Col­lado hath written. imbase, saith he, the mouth of your Peece till by put­ting your eie to the vppermost part of mettall in the greatest circumference at the taile of the same Peece, you may see that the vppermost part of mettall, & the top of the dis­part vpon the mouth of that Peece do lie in a right line with the loe marke. This done, hang a line & plummet vpō the vppermost part of mettall in the greatest circumference ouer the mouth of the same Peece, & eleuate the mouth of that Peece till the said line and plummet shall hang without any bending close by all the same mouth, and then suffering the Peece to lie at that eleuation you shall see (as the said Luigui Collado hath writtē in the 80. chapter of his booke named Pratica manuale di Arteglieria) that it will in his discharge strike the said loe mark: which is contrary to the doctrine taught in the precedent Colloquie▪ wher­fore I do exhort euery Gunner to learne by his practise in which of the two repugnant au­thours the error is,

The 27. Colloquie

When one which hath shot in a Handgunne at a marke lying leuell with his eye, doth remoue the said marke more farther from him, because he perceiueth that through the fault of his leuell sights the pellet did hit aboue the marke, and after he hath so done doth shoote againe at the same marke, then the pellet at the second shoote will strike more aboue the mark than the other pellet did at the first shoote. And how it is no inconuenience but a conuenient thing to doe that which by reason must bee done.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

I haue yet an other question to aske of you which is this. Hauing shot in my Handgunne at a marke lying leuell with mine eye, and perceiued that the pellet did hit[Page 49]pellet did hit aboue the marke, I remooue the said marke to another place more farther of from my standing, or I goe backe with my Peece to be farther of from the saide marke, nowe if I shall shoote againe at that marke, whether will the pellet strike more aboue that marke, or more vnder that marke than it did at my first shoote?

Nicholas.

In this case the pellet will strike at your second shoote more aboue the marke than it did at your first shoote?

Schioppetiero.

It will do so in deede, for it chaunced on a time that to proue how farre a new Handgunne would shoote leuell, I did shoote at a marke in a conuenient di­stance from my standing, and strooke with the pellet aboue that marke, wherupon in hope to hit the middest of the marke, I remooued the marke about tenne paces farther from my standing at the first shoote, and going backe from the saide marke to that my standing place, I shot againe, and at this second shoote I strooke with the pellet more aboue that marke than I did at the first shoote, the which seemed to me to be a thing against all rea­son, for I thought then and doe thinke so still, that by remoouing the marke to a place more farther of from my standing, the pellet shoulde hit more loer than it did when the marke stood more nearer vnto me: And therefore I pray you shew vnto me the cause of this inconuenience.

Nicho.

It is no incon­uenience [...] a conuenient thing to doe that which by reason must be done. It is no inconuenience but a conuenient thing to doe that which by reason must be done and it would bee a great inconuenience to haue it as you thought it shoulde be. For alwaies when a Schioppetiero or a Gunner shootes at a marke which lieth from his Peece in a right line, and that by force or through the fault of the two leuell sights the pellet hits aboue the marke, it is manifest that the visual line cuttes the way of the pellet, and that the same intersection which the visual line makes in the way of the pellet is within the marke, that is to say, betweene the Peece and the marke, as it doth appeare by the reasons alleaged in the seuenth Colloquie, and because for a very long way together by how much the marke at which you shoote is more beyond the said intersecti­on, by so much the pellet will hit more aboue that marke, therefore by remoouing the same marke somewhat father of from your standing, that marke will be likewise somwhat more remooued from that intersection, and by so much as the marke shall bee remooued more farther of (euen vnto a certaine limite) by so much the pellet will hit more higher or more aboue the said marke: the same in effect will followe if the Schioppetiero or Gunner will goe backe more farther of from the marke. And all this which I haue tolde you must bee intended when the pellet hits aboue the marke through the fault of the two leuell sights, and not through the fault of him which shootes,Admonition. for if it be by default of him which shootes, I meane if he in discharging the Handgunne doth make any moouing, and that thereby the pellet doth strike aboue, vnder, or wide of the marke, our reasons extend not to helpe that inconuenience, but to amend those faultes which may be committed by the meanes of the two leuell sights which are set vpon the handgunne.Note. Also you must vnder­stand that the said marke may be so much transported, and set so farre of from his first place, that not only the pellet will hit more nearer to the marke than it did at the first shoote, but also strike the same marke, as it doth appeare by the reasons alleaged in the end of the seuenth Colloquie: that is to say, if by happe the marke shall bee transported and set so farre of as that it be put in the same place where our visual line makes a second intersection in the way of the pellet, without doubt the pellet will hit in the very middest of the marke as it hath been said before in the 7 Colloquie. And if by chaunce the marke bee not put in that place of the second intersection, but neare vnto it, then the pellet will not hit so precisely in the very middest of that marke, but neare vnto it, that is to say, if the marke shall be put somewhat within the place of that intersection, the pellet will strike somewhat aboue the marke, and if the marke be put somewhat without that intersection,Note. the pellet will strike somewhat vnder the marke, as all this may easily be perceaued by the reasons and picture in the ende of the seuenth Colloquie. And the sayd marke may bee al­so transported so much from the said second intersection, as that the pellet can not come to touch it, which by naturall reason is easie to be perceiued.

Schioppetiero,

I doe well vn­derstand your reasons and make great account of them.

The 28 Colloquie.

The reasons and causes why a Schioppetiero which doth shoote in a Handgunne at a marke lying le­uell with his eye, and through the fault of his leuell sights doth shoote vnder the marke, shall by re­mouing the said marke more farther from him and shooting at it againe strike sometimes more vn­der the same marke than he did before, and sometimes betweene the marke and the place where the pellet did hit at the first, and sometimes precisely in the marke, and sometimes aboue the marke.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

By occasion of the aforesaid question an other thing commeth to my re­membrance, which is this: I shoote in my handgunne at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of my Peece, and for that the pellet doth hit vnder the marke through the fault of the two leuell sights, I doe remoue the same marke farther of from me, or goe backe from the said marke, now if I shall shoote againe at that marke lying in a right line with my Peece, whether or no will the pellet at the second shoote hit more higher, or more loer than it did at the first shoote.

Nicho.

In this case there may be diuers alterations because the leuel sight before at the mouth of the Peece may be of equall height with the leuell sight behinde at the breech of the Peece, and the said leuell fight before may bee more higher, and also more shorter than the leuell sight behinde:Note. If then by chaunce the leuell sight before vppon the mouth of the Peece shall bee of equall heigth or longer than the leuell sight behinde vpon the taile of the Peece according to the reasons alleaged in the beginning of the seuenth Colloquie, by how much more farther the marke is remooued frō you, by so much the pellet wil strike more loer. But if the leuell sight before shall be more shorter than the leuell sight behind and that by chaunce it is so much shorter than the other, as that your visuall line doth cut the way of the pellet (as is declared in the ende of the seuenth Colloquie) in that case the pellet must needes at the seconde shoote strike higher than it did at the first shoote, and yet that may be vnder the marke: that is to say, betweene the said marke & the place where the pellet strooke at the first bloe, and it may bee also precisely in the midst of the marke,Note. & it may bee also aboue the marke: For alwaies when the leuell sight before is so much shorter than the leuell sight behinde, as that your visuall line doth cut the way of the pellet as before hath been sayd, and that in such a case a Shioppetiero or Gunner doth shoot at a marke lying leuell with his Peece, & through the fault of the two leuell sights, and not through any fault in himselfe doth hit vnder the marke, it is manifest that the intersecti­on which the visuall line makes in the way of the pellet, by the reasons alleaged in the ende of the seuenth Colloquie shall be beyonde the marke: that is to say, the marke shall be betweene the sayd intersection and him that doth shoote. And therefore if the place to which the marke shal be remooued be within that intersection, of necessitie the said se­cond bloe will be vnder the marke, and yet it will be more nearer to the marke than the first bloe was: that is to say, it will be between the marke & the first bloe. But if the marke be remooued to the very place of the intersection, the pellet at the second shoote will hit precisely in the middest of the marke, that is to say, in the marke which lyeth in a right line with the mouth of the Peece. But if the marke be remooued by chaunce beyond the said intersection, the pellet at the second shoote must needes strike aboue the marke, and it will strike so much more aboue the marke vnto a certaine limite, as the marke is more remooued beyonde the saide intersection as in the ende of the precedent Colloquie hath been sayde. But if the leuell sight before be somewhat shorter than the leuell sight behind, and that the shortnesse thereof bee so little, as that it is not able to cause your visuall line to ioyn aloe with the way of the pellet, yet in this case at euery remoouing of the mark the pellet wil hit vnder the mark, and this notwithstanding the pellet at the second shoote[Page 51]may hit aboue that place, and vnder that place, and also in the very same place where the pellet did strike at the first shoote. For if the marke at the first shoote be by chaunce set in the place where your visuall line passeth most nearest to the way of the pellet (as hath been declared in the eight Colloquie) and is afterwardes transported beyond that place, without doubt the pellet will strike at the second shoote more vnder than it did at the first shoote: The same followeth when the marke is set beyonde that place, but when the marke is set at the first shoote within that place where your visuall line passeth most nearest to the way of the pellet, that is to say, more neare vnto you, and is afterwardes remoued for the second shoote more nearer to that place, the pellet will strike at the second shoote higher than it did at the first: and yet that bloe will bee vnder the marke: that is to say, the pellet will strike betweene the first bloe and the marke. But when the marke is remo­ued without that place where your visuall line passeth most nearest to the way of the pel­let, it may be remoued so little without that place, as that the second bloe will be betweene the first bloe and the mark, and it may be remoued so much without that place, as that the second bloe will be vnder the first bloe, and it may be so proportionally remoued without the saide place, as that the second bloe will hit precisely in the place of the first bloe, and all this will appeare very plainely to him that doth consider well of the figure in the eight Colloquie. But when the leuell sight before hath his due and conuenient shortnesse in respect of that leuel sight which is behind, the which thing happeneth very seldome times: that is to say, that the visuall line doth precisely touch and not cut the way of the pellet, then if in such a case any Schioppetiero or Gunner shall shoote at any marke vppon a right line, & by meanes of the said two leuell sights, and not through his owne fault shall strike with the pellet vnder the marke, it may be by that which hath been spoken and declared in the ninth Colloquie that the said marke is both within and without the touch of those two lines, for the marke being so within or without that touche, the pellet alwayes strikes vnder the marke as may bee easily perceaued by the figure in the ninth Colloquie. But when the first bloe is much vnder the marke, it may bee adiudged that the marke is with­out the sayde touche, for the marke being within the sayd touche, the pellet can not hitte very loe by the reasons alleaged in the said ninth Colloquie. And if the marke being with­out the sayde touche, be set more without the same touche, certainelie the second bloe will bee muche vnder the first bloe. But when the marke being set within the said touch is remoued to a place more farther, it may happen that the marke in the second place is within that touche, and it may bee in the very touche, and it may bee also without that touch. If the marke then in the seconde place bee set within that touche, the second bloe will bee aboue or higher than the first bloe, and yet it will be vnder the marke: that is to say, it will bee betweene the marke and the first bloe. But if by chaunce the marke in the seconde place bee set in the verie point of the touche, the seconde bloe will bee precise­lie in the middest of the marke: But if the marke in the seconde place bee set without the sayd touche, it may bee so much without the same, as that the seconde bloe will bee loer than the first bloe, and it may bee also so little without that touche, as that the seconde bloe will bee higher than the first, and yet it will bee vnder the marke: that is to say, betweene the marke and the first bloe. And it may bee so proportionallie without as that the seconde bloe will strike precisely in that place, where the first bloe strooke.

Schioppetiero.

Your reasons haue done me much good, for I beginne now to vnderstand them, and where I had thought to haue made an ende of my questions, your argumentes haue brought new doubtes into my minde, so that if I shall not be tedious vnto you, I will desire you to resolue me in them.

Nicholas.

Proceede for by so doing you shall not be tedious vnto mee.

The 29. Colloquie

The cause why a Schioppetiero or a Gunner when he standes neare vnto a marke lying leuell with his eie, is more apt with euery sort of leuel sights to strike that marke, or to make a faire shoote at the[Page 52]same, than when he standes more farther from the said marke: And how hee which will shoote at a little marke lying very neare vnto him ought to take his leuell at such a height, as that the mouth of his Peece may couer the same marke.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

I perceiue by your arguments before alleaged, that your opinion is if the leuell marke at which I shoote be not set in the point where my visuall line meetes with the way of the pellet, that I cannot strike the said marke in the middest, the which thing on the one part as I consider must needes bee true by naturall reason, so on the o­ther part my long experience causeth mee to thinke otherwise of the same. But before I doe tell you in what part that agreeth not with my experience, I will desire you to open this doubt vnto mee: whence commeth it that euery Schioppetiero and euery Gunner ge­nerally the more nearer he standes vnto a marke lying leuell with his Peece, the more apt hee is with euery sorte of leuell sightes to strike in the marke or to make a faire shoote.

Nicholas.

To open your doubts concerning all sorts of differences which may happen in the two leuell sights, I will first beginne with this: when by chaunce the leuell sight before is precisely of the same height that the leuell sight behinde is of, I meane when the leuell sight before is equally so high as the leuell sight behinde, then by how much he that shootes stands more nearer to the marke, by so much he shall be more apt to strike in the marke or to make a faire shoote, and this commeth to passe through two causes. The first of them is for that alwayes as before hath been said in the seuenth Colloquie, that Hand­gunne or Peece will shoote vnder the leuell marke, and the bloe will be by so much more vnder the marke, as he which shooteth is more farther from the marke: and contrariwise by how much he which shooteth is more nearer to the marke, by so much the bloe shall bee the lesse vnder the marke, and the loest stroke which may happen in the like case shall be when he which shootes standes so neare vnto the marke, as that the ende of the leuell sight before doth as it were touch the said leuell marke: and the bloe which strikes least vnder the marke is about so much vnder, as is that distance which is betweene the ex­treames or endes of the leuell sights and the concauitie of the Peece, which may be a little more than the thicknesse of the mettall of the Peece at the breech,Note. which in a Handgunne may be neare so much as the thicknesse of one finger, and in a great Peece, so much more as the Peece shall bee more thicker of mettall at the breeche: and although the pellet so soone as it is gone out of the mouth of the Handgunne or Peece doth goe continually de­clining downewardes as hath been shewed in the thirde Colloquie, yet in that little time while the pellet may be seene, his said declining shall not be sensible, that is to say, it shall not with our eyes be discerned. Therefore in a short way by reason of the saide leuell sightes that Handgunne may hit a little more vnder the leuell marke than the thick­nesse of a finger, which before hath been spoken of, I say by meanes of the leuell sightes,Note. and not through the fault of him which shootes, for the faultes and acciden­tall causes which may chaunce through his faulte that shootes, are not comprehen­ded within our Argumentes. And this is the first cause why a Schioppetiero and also a Gunner when hee standes neare vnto the leuell marke, and shootes in a Peece that hath his leuell sight before of equall height with the leuell sight behind, is more apt to strike in the marke, or to make a fayrer shoote than when hee shall stand more farther of from the sayde marke: And by the same reason, the like wyll happen when the leuell sighte before is somewhat longer than the leuell sight behinde, for in such a case as hath been sayd in the seuenth Colloquie, the Peece will alwayes strike vnder the leuell marke, and by so much the more vnder, as he which shootes shall be the more farther of from the marke, and the bloe in such a case shalbe at the least so much loer than the mark, as is the space betweene the top of the leuell sight before, and the concauitie of that Peece[Page 53]or a little more, the which lonesse when the marke is as hath been saide very neare to the mouth of the Peece, may be little more than the thicknesse of a finger. But in an equall distance the bloe will be a little more loer than is the space betweene the toppe of the le­uell sight before, and the concauitie of the Peece, especially in a very short distance: So that this is the first cause as hath been sayd why a Schioppetiero and also a Gunner when he standes neare vnto the marke lying leuell with his eye, and shootes in a Peece that hath his leuell sight before somewhat more higher than the leuell sight behinde, is more apt to strike in the marke,Note. or to make a more fairer shoote than when hee shall stand more farther of. But besides this first cause I thinke that euery Gunner and Schioppetiero doth perceiue by naturall reason an other cause, which is this,When a [...] ner is ve [...] neare vn [...] marke h [...] take his [...] somewh [...] aboue th [...] same ma [...] that alwayes when he is very neare to the marke at which he shootes, he must not take his leuell at the very marke, But somewhat aboue the marke, for he should by naturall reason vnderstand, that the vppermost ends of the two leuell sights are aboue the mouth of the Peece out of which the pellet flies: and by so doing he shall amend that little error before spoken of, which he wil otherwise com­mit in shooting vnder the marke, & make himselfe more apt to strike precisely in the midst of the marke. And therefore I say when the leuell sight before is of equall height or some­what more longer than that behind, then the Gunner and Schioppetiero (for the reasons be­fore alleaged) by how much the more nearer he stands to the mark, by so much he is more apt to strike the marke at which he shootes, or to make a more fairer shoote.Note. Much more by the said reasons the very selfesame thing will come to passe when the leuell sight before is somewhat shorter than the leuell sight behinde, and more shorter, or not so short as it should be: for in any way you wil, as let it be loer, there the visual line commeth to be more nearer to the way or line in which the pellet goeth, and continually commes more nearer vnto it, vntil it cutteth, toucheth, or passeth more nearer to the way of the pellet than it did in the two former positions of the leuell sights. For in the same, the said visuall line doth goe from the way of the Pellet, and in this continually it commes more nearer to the way of the pellet vntill it commes to the aforesaid place: And although also in this second po­sition of the leuell sights, by how much more the marke which lyeth leuell with the Peece shall be within that place where the visuall line doth meete with the way of the pellet, or within that place where it passeth neare to that way or line in which the pellet goeth, by so much the stroke shall be more loer, as it hath been declared in the seuenth, eight, and ninth Colloquies, and yet that lonesse may bee but little as hath been also sayde in the same Colloquies. For the most lonesse that may be there, is the same which was the grea­test in the other two first: that is to say, when the marke which lieth leuell with the peece is very neare vnto the leuell sight before, I meane the leuell sight vppon the mouth of the Handgunne or Peece, the which in a Handgunne can bee little more than the thicknesse of one finger as before I haue declared. Then in a Handgunne whose mouth is laide very neare to the marke, the greatest lonesse is little more than the thicknesse of a finger, but the marke being somewhat farther of from the mouth of the Peece it must needes be that the bloe shall not be so loe vnder the marke as the thicknesse of a finger, and it shall bee by so much lesse vnder the marke, as it shalbe more farther from the mouth of the hand­gunne so that it be not beyond the said intersection or touch which the visuall line makes in the line or way of the pellet, or beyond the most nighest part thereof.Note Then the marke being at the least tenne paces from the mouth of the Handgunne, the lonesse of that stroke will bee scant sensible. Besides this as hath been before sayde, when he that shootes is very neare vnto the marke at which he shootes, I thinke that by a certaine natural discre­tion he doth not take his leuel precisely in the midst of the marke, but a little thing aboue: for he ought to know by naturall reason as before hath been saide, that the toppes of the two leuell sights are somewhat aboue the mouth of the Handgun out of which the pellet flieth, and by so doing (as I thinke he doth) he shal amend that little error which the pellet would cōmit in striking vnder that mark: & for these two causes that Schioppetiero or Gun­ner with that kinde of leuell sights generally shalbe more apt to strike the marke set in a place neare vnto him, or to make at it a fairer shoot than he shal do with the two first kinds of leuell sights of which I spake in the beginning of this Colloquie. For in that kinde of leuell sights the visual line by a great space goeth as it were ioyned or little distant from [Page 54]the way of the pellet. And therefore in all that space which is betweene the mouth of the handgunne and the place where the visual line doth meete with the way or line in which the pellet doth goe, or where the said two lines are most nearest, hee is not subiect as it were to commit any error for the reasons before alleaged by meanes of the leuell sights.

Schiop­petiero.

You haue fully satisfied me with your reasons, for of the one part I affirme by those reasons which you haue alleaged in the precedent Colloquie, that it is impossible to strike a marke which lyeth leuell with the mouth of the Peece, when that marke is not precisely in the pointe of the intersection, or in the touch of those two lines meeting together: that is to say, of the visuall line, and the line or way in which the pellet doth go. And of the o­ther part it hath seemed to me through my longe experience that it should be otherwise: for I haue shot in my handgunne and killed therewith many litle birdes, of which some haue stoode in a competent longe distance from me, and some of them haue stoode but in a meane distance from me, and some other of them haue stoode very neare vnto me. The which thing would not so haue chaunced if it had bin so as I did at the first suppose it to be. For if the leuell sights vpon my handgunne be such as will make my visuall line to meete with the line and way of the pellet, it is to bee beleeued that it doth so alwaies as it were in one and the selfesame distance, especially when I shoote after one sorte, and charge alwaies in one and the selfesame maner. And therefore the thing being so, if I shoote more ground or lesse ground than that appointed and determinate distance, it wil be impossible to strike the very mistdest of that marke which lieth leuell with the Peece: But this (as before hath bin said) is already founde by experience to be otherwise,Note. that is to say, it hath bin my hap oftentimes in a common distance,When you wil [...]hoote at any [...]itle marke which is very [...]eare vnto [...]ou, take your [...]euell at such a [...]eight as that [...]he mouth of [...]our Peece [...]ay couer the [...]ame marke. and in a meane distance, and in a short distance, and af­ter one and the selfesame sorte, to strike with my handgunne in the very middest of the marke, the which thing caused me to doubt thereof, but now you haue made me to vnder­stand very well all that I doubted of, and especially for that when I shot at any litle birde which was very neare vnto me, I did alwaies vse (as you haue said) to take my leuell at such a height as the mouth of my handgunne did couer the litle birde, whereby I did seeldome­times misse the marke.

Nicholas.

It pleaseth me well that your longe experience can wit­nesse the same to be true, which by naturall reason and geometricall skill I did thinke in my minde should be so.

Schioppetiero.

You haue made me to vnderstand well all that I doub­ted, yet by thinking vpon your arguments, a nwe matter is come into my minde which I feare to tell vnto you, for that I will not bee trubbelsome.

Nich.

Say on, you shall not be trubbelsome to me for I desire to heare it.

The 30 Colloquie.

The reasons and causes why a Schioppetiero shooting oftentimes together in a handgunne at a marke lying leuell with the mouth of his Peece, and not far from him, may sometimes strike much aboue that marke, and sometimes much vnder that marke, and sometimes wide from that marke, and sometimes in that marke. Also the causes of errors which maybe committed in shooting with handgunnes: and by howe much the marke is more nearer to him which shootes by so much hee which shootes is more like to strike the marke, or to make a faire shoote at the same.

Interlocutors
  • Schioppetiero.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
SChioppetiero.

In your arguments vpon the precedent question you haue showen with ve­ry good reasons that a Schioppetiero shooting at a marke neare vnto him, is alwaies sub­iect to strike vnder the marke, that is to say, more loer than the marke, and that the same lonesse can not exceede the thicknesse of a finger or litle more, but I haue seene many which by shooting often times together in one and the selfesame handgunne at a marke lying not very far from them, haue at sometimes strooke much aboue the marke, and at sometimes much vnder, and at sometimes very wide, and at sometimes in the marke: now I aske of you the cause thereof, for as it seemeth to me it is repugnant to all the reasons of your aforesaid arguments.

[Page 55]

Nicho.

You must vnderstand that all the errours which may be committed in shooting with a handgunne come of sundry causes: For some of those errors are committed onely by the meanes of the leuell sights, and some of those errors are committed onely by the fault of him that shootes, and some of those errors are committed through the fault of the one and of the other: that is to say, by the meanes of the leuell sights and of him that shoots.Admonit [...] The errors of which we haue spoken in our former arguments are such as are only committed by the meanes of the leuell sights, without supposing that hee which shootes doth commit any fault or error (as oftentimes before hath been declared) therefore the errors which doe simply come by the meanes of the leuell sights, haue in them a rule and measure as before in their proper places hath been declared. But the errors which doe simply come by the fault of him that shootes, haue in them no order nor rule:Note. for the most part of those errors are committed by some mouing, which hee that shootes in the Handgunne doth make after he hath taken his leuell, or in discharging the Handgunne. For euery mouing how little soeuer it be which is made in that instant time when the Handgunne is discharged, may cause great error at the mark which lieth leuel or in a right line with that Peece. And the error there will be by so much the more greater, as the mark shal be more farther of from him which shootes: for the mouing of the Handgunne,Note. which may happen by drawing of breath, or by beating of the pulse, or by shaking of the hande hath for it no rule, and therefore when the marke is precisely in the pointe where the visuall line doth meete with the line or way of the pellet, then by reason of the leuell sights, hee which shootes should strike precisely in the middest of the marke, yet neuer­thelesse the handgunne being mooued, the Schioppetiero is subiect to strike aswell aboue the marke, as vnder the marke, and also to strike wide of the marke, aswell vpon the right side as vpon the left side, and he may also by chaunce strike the marke in the middest: and all this may happen when the marke is within or without the meeting of the said two lines: but when the marke is without the meeting of the said lines, the said errors will be more greater (by reason of the longe distance which is betweene the marke and him that shootes) than they will bee when the marke is within the meeting of those lines,By how [...] the ma [...] [...] more [...] to him [...] shootes [...] much h [...] which [...] is more [...] strike th [...] marke, [...] make a [...] shoote [...] same. for then he which shootes is more nearer to the marke. And in truth by howe much the marke is more nearer to him which shootes, by so much euery kinde of error will be the lesse, and therefore he which shootes is by so much more subiect to strike in the marke, or to make a faire shoote as hath bin said in the precedent Colloquie. And also he is subiect to all those same accidents which come when their is any fault in the leuell sightes, that is to say, by the moouing of the said handgunne, he is subiect to strike aswell aboue the marke, as vnder the marke, and also wide of the marke. Also hee is subiect to strike precisely in the middest of the marke, for the moouing of the handgunne may by chaunce bee such, that it will remedy the faulte of the leuell sightes and cause him which shootes to hit the marke in the middest: But he shall doo so onely by chaunce and not by any skill.

Schioppetiero.

You haue spoken enough, for by your arguments I doo perfectly vnder­stand all my said doubtes.

The ende of the first Booke of Colloquies.

The second Booke of Nicholas Tartaglia his Colloquies concerning the variable ranges, measures, and weights, of lea­den, yron, and marble stone pellets,

The first Colloquie.

How a pellet of yron will outflie a pellet of lead: and how much a pellet of yron will outflie a pellet of lead when both of them are shot out of one Peece, at one & the selfesame eleuation, & with an equall quantitie of powder: And how the aire doth more proportionally resist a light bodie than a heauie bodie: And how the aire doth more let the range of the pellet which is shot out of a Peece eleua­ted, then the range of a pellet which is shot out of a Peece lying leuell with the Horizon.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Insomuch as at this present time I know not what to say more of the qualitie of shootes and other accidents of Artillerie, and for that I will not stand idle after the reading of Euclide, let vs speake somewhat of the qualitie, accidents, and diuersitie of pellets, and tell me briefly whe­ther or no (as you thinke) a pellet of lead will outflie a pellet of yron, and by how much ground the one of them will outflie the other,Iron pellets for great or­dinance were first brought into Italy by Charles the French king in Anno Do­mini 1495. as Vannuceio Bi­ringuccio in the ninth chapter of the seuenth booke of his Pirotechnia writeth. when both of them are shot out of one Peece at one & the selfesame eleuation, & with an equal quan­titie of powder?

Nich.

You should tell me also with how much powder euery of the same pellets is to be shot.

Prior.

Suppose that euery of the said pellets is to be shot with ⅔ parts in powder of that which the Pellet of lead doth waie.

Nicho.

Without doubt the Pellet of yron will there outflie the pellet of lead.

Prior.

By how much?

Nicho.

A pellet of yron being shot out of a Peece lying leuell with the Horizon, will outflie a pellet of lead as it were by one third part of his distance, but the Peece being eleuated to one point, the pellet of yron will outflie a pellet of lead somewhat lesse then one third part of his distance. And by howe much the more higher that the Peece is mounted, by so much the more doth the pellet of yron after that proportion decrease & shorten his range: so that moun­ting the Peece to the fift or sixt point, the pellet of yron will goe farther than the pellet of lead little more than a fift part of his distance. And that your Lordship may the better vn­derstād me, I wil suppose that a pellet of lead being shot out of a Peece lying leuel with the Horizon, doth flie 300 paces in length, whereupō I say that a pellet of yron being shot out of that Peece with the same quantitie of powder that did driue the pellet of lead (that is to say with ⅔ parts of that which the pellet of lead waieth) wil flie as it were 400 paces in lēgth, that is to say, once so much, and [...] part more called sesquitertia proportio. But if it be suppo­sed that the pellet of lead at the eleuation of the fift or sixt point, doth flie in length 3000 paces, then I say that the pellet of yron at that eleuation with the same or like quantitie of powder, wil flie in length little more than 3600 paces: that is to say, little more than once so much and ⅕ part more called sesquiquinta proportio.

Prior.

Question. What is the cause why the shootes out of Peeces which are eleuated exceed not in that proportion as the shoots out [Page 57]of Peeces lying leuell with the Horizon doe?

Nicholas.

Answere. Because the ayre doth more pro­portionally resist a light body according to his kinde, than a more heauyer body, and by somch the more it doth resist, as it findes the same light body to go more slolie and faint­lie, and for that in leuell shootes the pellet flieth not in the ayre but onely while it goeth most swiftly: for so soone as his passage or mouing is let, it lights on the ground: therefore the arie doth not so much let the pellet there, as it doth when it is shot out of a peece which is eleuated, for there the pellet flieth a more longer time in the aire, and that sloly, through which slonesse (as hath been before said) the aire hath proportionally a greater power and rule ouer that pellet, than it hath ouer a pellet which is shot out of a Peece lying leuell with the Horizon, wherefore the said pellet of yron being shot out of a Peece eleuated doth not proportionallie so much exceede the pellet of lead, as it doth when it is shot out of a Peece lying leuell.

Prior.

I doe vnderstand you well.

The 2 Colloquie.

Where a pellet of lead will in a maner flie as much ground as a pellet of Iron will doe: and where a pel­let of lead will range more ground than a pellet of yron will doe: and where a pellet of yron wil out­flie a pellet of lead: and how a pellet of lead must be shot with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight: And how a pellet of yron must bee shot with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Tell me whether will a pellet of lead or a pellet of yron flie farthest when both of them are shot out of one Peece at one and the selfesame eleuation,A pellet of lead must bee shotout of a Peece with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight. Question. Answere. and each of them with his ordinarie charge: that is to say, with ⅔ parts in powder of that waight which eue­rie pellet by it selfe doth waye?

Nicho.

In leuell shootes and in shootes a little eleuated there is no great difference, but in shootes much eleuated, as if I should say at the eleuation of the third, fourth, fift, and sixt point, the pellet of lead will flie farther than the pellet of yron: and all this will come to passe by the reasons alleaged in the precedent Colloquie.

Prior.

I had thought to haue asked of you which of those pellets will flie farthest, when euery of them is shot with ⅔ partes in powder of that waight which the pellet of yron wai­eth, but by the aforesaid reasons I perceiue that the pellet of yron will flie farthest.

Nicho.

It will doe so in deede.

The 3 Colloquie.

Where a pellet of stone will outflie a pellet of yron: and where a pellet of yron and a pellet of stone will range one ground: and where a pellet of yron will outflie a pellet of stone.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

What thinke you of a pellet of yron and of a pellet of stone? Which of them will flie farthest? And by how much will one of them outflie the other, when both of them are shot out of one Peece at one and the selfesame eleuation, and with an equall quantitie of powder, that is to say, with ⅔ partes in powder of that waight which the pellet of yron wayeth?

Nicho.

Without any doubt, reason sheweth vs that in leuell shootes, and in the greatest part of eleuated shootes, the pellet of stone wil outflie the pellet of yron.

Prior.

By how much?

Nicho.

In leuel shootes (as for example from the place of equallitie or line of leuell, vnto the eleuation of one onely point) the pellet of stone will outflie the pellet of yron by ¼ part of the way or distance in which the pellet of yron goeth, and rather more than lesse, but in shoots more eleuated, the pellet of stone wil not by so much encrease the [Page 58]length of his range, but rather decrease the same by so much as the Peece shall bee more eleuated. For at the eleuation of the fourth point, the difference will be very little: that is to say, at that eleuation the pellet of yron will in a maner flie as farre as the pellet of stone. But at the eleuation of the fift and sixt point, the pellet of yron will somewhat outflie the pellet of stone: and all this commeth to passe by the reasons alleaged in the first Colloquie of this booke.

Prior.

This matter ought to be well considered of.

The first Corollarie.

THE stone whereof pellets shall bee made, ought to bee very hard, and strong because a pellet of a soft stone (as Luigui Collado writeth) will bee tormented at the mouth of his Peece, and breake asunder as it flies in the aire,

The 4 Colloquie.

Where a pellet of yron will flie farther than a pellet of stone: and where a pellet of stone will flie as farre as a pellet of yron when the pellet of yron is shot with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight, & the pellet of stone is shot but with [...] part in powder of his waight: And how a pellet of stone being shot out of a peece with ⅔ part in powder of his waight will flie as much ground as a pellet of yron of like bignesse shot out of a peece with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight will doe.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior

What thinke you whether will a pellet of yron or a pellet of stone flie farthest when both of them being equall in bignesse are shot out of one Peece at one and the selfesame eleuation, and with their ordinary charge of powder, that is to say, when the pel­let of yron is shot with ⅔ partes in powder of his waight, and the pellet of stone with [...] part in powder of his waight?

Nicholas.

This is a hard question, because the proportion of the waight of euery of those pellets doth differ from the proportion of the waight of the pow­der which is due to each of the sayd bullets. Neuerthelesse I conclude that at euery eleua­tion the pellet of yron will flie farther than the pellet of stone: and that by how much the Peece is more eleuated, by so much the pellet of yron wil proportionally more outflie the pellet of stone: And contrariwise, by how much the Peece doth lie more neare [...]nto the place of equalitie or line of leuell, by so much the difference betweene their ranges will be the lesse.

Prior.

I perceiue by this that they which did first appoint that a pellet of stone shall be shot with [...] part in powder of that waight which the same pellet wayeth,Note. did peraduenture finde by experience that (as you haue saide) it will be there equal in flight with the pellet of yron.

The 5. Colloquie.

Where a pellet of lead will doe a greater exploite and pearce farther into an obiect than a pellet of yron will doe: and where a pellet of yron will doe a greater exploite and pearce farther into an ob­iect than a pellet of lead will doe: And how a pellet of lead will giue a greater stroke against any obiect, and more shake the same than a pellet of yron will doe.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Tell me whether a pellet of lead will doe a greater effect or pearce more farther into an obiect at an equall distance than a pellet of yron will doe, when both of them are shot out of one Peece at one and the self same eleuation, first with an equall quantitie of [Page 59]powder, that is to say with ⅔ partes in powder of that which the pellet of lead wayeth, and afterwards with their ordinary charges of powder.

Nicho.

I haue prooued before in the first colloquie of this booke, that the pellet of yron at any eleuation, will flie farther than a pellet of lead when both of them are shotte with the said equall quantitie of pow­der. Therfore if the thing at which you shoote be so farre of that the pellet of lead cannot fly thether, and that the pellet of yron may flie thether, euery mā is able to iudge the same though I say nothing. But if the marke at which you shoote, shalbe in a conuenient distance for the one & the other shoote, and that the same obiect is not of so harde a substance, as that it will bruse and beate the pellet of lead flat, without doubt the pellet of lead by rea­son of his more waight, wil do a greater exploite, and pearce farther into that obiect than the pellet of yron wil doe.The waight of a thing wor­keth more than the swift­nes thereof. For the waight of a thing worketh more than the swiftnesse thereof (as before in the 16. Colloquie of the first booke hath beene declared) but when the marke at which you shoote is of so hard a substance, as that it will bruse and beate the said pellet of lead flat, in that case it is doubtfull whether the pellet of yron will penetrate somewhat farther then the pellet of lead. But although it be so, that the pellet of lead doth not penetrate so farre in as the pellet of yron, yet by reason of his more waight the pellet of lead will shake the thing which is strooken a great deale more then the pellet of yron wil doe. And all this which hath beene spoken of the saide pellets shot with the said equall quantitie of powder, wil be more verified by shooting them with their ordinarie quantitie of powder, that is to say with ⅔ partes in powder of that which euery of those pellets doth waie by it selfe, I meane in such things which are not apt by their hardnesse to batter and bruse, the pellet of lead will doe a more greater effect, and penetrate farther thā the pellet of yron, when euery of them is shotte with the aforesaid equal quantitie of pow­der. Likewise in those things which by their hardnesse are apt to bruse and beate flatte the pellet of lead, although peraduenture the pellet of yron may pearce somewhat farther in, yet the pellet of lead wil geue a greater stroke and shake more the same obiect than a pel­let of yron will doe.

Prior.

This matter liketh me wel.

The 2. Corollary.

BY the reasons alleaged in the precedent Colloquie, some men of a very good iudge­ment haue beene induced to thinke that a pellet of yron shot out of a Caliuer, Har­chibuse, or any such like handgun, wil goe thorow some armors or yron cotes, which a pellet of lead shotte out of the same or like peece cannot doe, and that an arrow wel hea­ded with harde steele beeing shot out of any such handgun, wil more easilie pearce tho­row armors, than any pellet of lead, or yron, shot out of the same or like gunne can doe: Wherefore I wish that the trueth herein might through priuate practise be knowen, & that the thing which will be most hurtfull to our enemies may in time of militarie seruice be vsed.

The sixt Colloquie.

How a pellet of yron wil doe a greater effect, and pearce farther into an obiect than a pellet of stone wil doe: and how ⅔ part in powder of the waight of a pellet of stone is enough to shoote the same pellet out of his peece.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior

what thinke you, will a pellet of yron doe a greater effect or pearce more farther into an obiect at an equal distance than a pellet of stone when both of them are shot out of one peece at one and the selfesame eleuation, first with an equall quantitie of pow­der, that is to say with ⅔ partes in powder of that which the pellet of yron wayeth, & after­wards with their ordinarie charge of powder?

Nich.

In this question there is no doubt but[Page 60]that the pellet of yron wil doe a more greater effect, and pearce farther into any kinde of obiect than a pellet of stone wil doe when the thing at which you shoote is not farther of than the pellet of yron wil flie, and within the reache of the pellet of stone, as it hath beene also saide of the pellet of lead, and of the pellet of yron in the precedent Colloquie. Now if the pellet of yron wil doe a greater exploite or pearce farther into the obiect than a pel­let of stone wil doe, when both of them are shot with an equall quantitie of powder, it will doe a more greater exploit, and pearce more farther in, when both of them are shot with their ordinarie charge of powder, that is to say, when the pellet of yron is shot with ⅔ parts in powder of that which it wayeth, and the pellet of stone is shot onely with ⅔ part in pow­der of that which it wayeth.

Prior.

I haue alwaies thought it to be so as you haue spoken

The 7 Colloquie.

Why a pellet shot out of a Peece did make in his going a great whisteling: and why other pellettes be­ing shot presently after out of the same Peece did not make so great a whisteling in their going as the first pellet did.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

I being in the Rhodes at that time when the Turke did beseege the same, went foorth with many Pioners into a peece of ground to make Bulwarkes there, and it happened that the Turkes shot a pellet at vs which made such a whisteling, as that we hea­ring the same a great way from vs, did easilie geue place vnto it, and without any hurt a­uoided the same. After that the said pellet was fallen down without doing any harme, eue­ry of vs did returne againe to labour, beleeuing assuredly if the Turkes should shoote a­gaine that we might saue our selues harmelesse by the warning and whisteling of the pel­let. Now it hapned that the Turkes did shoote againe at vs, and the pellet came towardes vs so quietly, and with so little noyse that none of vs did heare or perceaue the same till it was vpon vs, and had killed fower of those Pioners. Now tell me what was the cause why that pellet and many other which were shot at vs afterwards did flie so quietly, and made so soft a whisteling?

Nicholas.

The cause thereof is grounded vpon the reasons alleaged in the 4. Colloquie of the first booke, that is to say, at the first shoote the pellet found the aire quiet, which did thereby more resist the flying of the pellet, than the ayre being trou­bled or stirred could doe, and that resistance was the cause why the pellet did whistle, for the pellet did whistle by reason it did with great difficultie penetrate the ayre which was setled and quiet. But at the second shoote the pellet did not only finde that ayre mooued, broken, and shaken by the pellet of the first shoote, but also going towards the place at which the said pellet was shot, that is to say, going in the way of the pellet: Whereupon the pellet finding no such resistance at the second shoote, as it did at the first shoote, made not so lowd a whisteling as it did before. And by the same reasons the other pellettes which were shot at you presently after the two first, did make a lesse whisteling.

Prior.

Your rea­son doth like me well.

The 8. Colloquie.

Where a light pellet will outflie a heauie pellet: and where a heauie pellet will outflie a light pel­let, and how the vertue, and strength of a moouing thing may be made frustrate through the waight of the same thing, and also through the lightnesse of the same thing.

[Page 61]Interlocutors
  • Bernard Segreo.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
BErnard.

Doe you thinke that a heauy pellet wil flie farther than a light pellet when both of them are shot out of one peece at one eleuation, and with equall quantitie of powder?

Nicholas.

To this question I cannot make you a determinate aunswere, because you doe not distinguish the difference of their waights, and quantitie of powder. For it is wel knowen that the waight of a thing, and likewise that the lightnesse of the thing, doth make frustrate the vertue and strength of a moouing thing. For the pellet which is shot may be so light, that it wil flie but a very little way from the mouth of the Peece. Also it may be so heauie, and expelled with so small a quantitie of powder, that the same inconue­nience wil folow. Therefore it is needefull for you to shew the difference of their weights, and the materiall substance of each pellet, and the quantitie of powder. For if the one pel­let be of lead, and the other of yron, or of stone, and each of them be shot with ⅔ partes in powder of the waight which the pellet of lead wayeth, it is manifest by the reasons allea­ged in the first and third Colloquie of this booke, that the pellet of yron or stone wil out­flie the pellet of lead. But if one of those pellettes be of lead, or of yron, and the other of light wood, or of such corke as is vsed to be put in pantables and slippers, it is to be be­leeued that the heauie pellet (I meane the pellet of lead or yron) shot with his ordinarie charge in powder, will flie much farther than the light pellet, that is to say, than the pellet of light wood, or corke which is shot with the same and like quantitie of powder. And con­trariwise he which shall shoote a pellet of lead of a hundred pound waight in a Cannon of 9. foote and ½ in length, and likewise a pellet of wood as bigge or as thick as the pellet of lead, and shal shoote the one and the other of those pellettes with a pound or two of pow­der, it is to be thought that in this case the pellet of wood will outflie the pellet of lead: Whereby we are taught to know that it is needefull to limite a proportion betweene the waight of the thing which is shot, and the vertue of the moouing thing.

Bernard.

This dis­course pleaseth me wel for once to be satisfied in this doubt I caused a pellet of mettall to be made which was holowe within, and shot the same, but it did not flie so much ground as an ordinarie pellet of yron wil flie.

The 9. Colloquie.

How by knowing the diameter and waight of one pellet, you may tell the true waight of any other pellet whose diameter is knowne.

Interlocutors
  • L. Giulio Sauorgnano.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
L. Giulio.

There is a pellet whose diameter is foure ynches,The 23. Chap­ter of my Ap­pendix will teach you by knowing the diameter and waight of one pellet, to tell the diameter of any other pellet whose wayght is knowen. and it wayeth eight pounde waight, now I aske of you what another pellet wil way whose diameter is six ynches?

Nicholas.

That pellet wayeth twenty seuen pound waight.

L. Giulio.

How is it possible that a pellet whose diameter is six ynches (which make ½ foote) shall way no more than 27. pound waight? I thinke it should way more than 60. pound waight.

Nicholas.

You say true. For if the pellet be of yron, and in his diameter six ynches long of ordinarie measure (which is ½ foote) I doe affirme without any doubt that it wil way about 60. poūd waight.

L. Giulio.

Why saied you then that it would way onely 27. pound waight?

Nicholas.

I say if the pellet which is foure ynches high doth way onely eight pound waight, that the pellet of six yn­ches high wil way 27. poūd waight. But if the pellet which is foure ynches high be of yron, it wil way more than 18. pound waight or thereabout: therefore I haue aunswered your question according as it was proposed.

L. Giulio.

By what rule haue you found out that the pellet of six ynches in height wayeth twentie seuen pound waight?

Nicholas.

I haue[Page 62]found that out by this meanes. I did cube those foure ynches (which is the diameter of the first pellet) and the cube thereof was 64. Likewise I did cube the saide six ynches (which is the diameter of the second pellet) and the cube of the same was 216. then by the rule of three I did say, if sixty foure way eight pound waight, what shall 216 way? Multiplying 216. by 8. the product was 1728. which number being deuided by sixtie foure yeelded in the Quotient twentie seuen. Therefore I conclude that the second pellet wayeth twentie seuen pound waight if the first pellet doe way no more than eight pound waight.

L. Giulio.

I doe well vnderstande all this.

The 10. Colloquie.

How you may finde out the diameter of a pellet which must be double to another pellet whose diameter is knowen.

Interlocutors.
  • Zanantonio.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
ZAnantonio.

There is a pellet whose diameter is fiue fingers, now I aske of you by what meanes I may know the diameter of another pellet which is double to the said pellet of fiue fingers in height?

Nicholas.

Cube the diameter of fiue fingers in height, and the cube number thereof wil be 125. then multiplie 125. by two, the product thereof will bee 250. Finally extract the cube roote of 250, and so the same cube roote shal be the diameter of the second pellet, the which cube roote of 250. being extracted in such sort as I haue before declared, will be somewhat more than sixe fingers, that is to say, there will remaine 34/

Zanantonio.

How must I order this number 34. which remaines for to make of it a conuenient fraction to be added vnto those six fingers.

Nicholas.

I haue not hetherto in a­ny Authour which hath written of the extraction of Cubike rootes, read any good rule which will teach you to make a true fraction after the Cubike roote is extracted out of a number which is no Cubike number, and the cause thereof is (except I be deceaued) for that the right way to extract a Cubike roote was vnknowen vnto them, I doe not say vn­knowen, as though the said Authors knew not how to extract a Cubike roote, or that the rules which they haue set downe serue not for to extract a Cubike roote, but I will say that their rules are not so true and plaine for that purpose as they shoulde be: for if they were true & plaine to extract the Cubike roote, it would be thereby an easie matter to make a fraction of the number remayning after the nighest Cubike roote is extracted out of a number not Cubike.By reading M. Records book called the whetstone of wit, you may learne after the nighest cu­bike roote is extracted out of a number not cubike, to make a fracti­on of the num­ber remayning

Zanantonio.

Is not that the right way to extract a Cubike roote which you haue alredie shewed vnto me?

Nicholas.

That is the very true and right way for to extract a Cubike roote.

Zanantonio.

In so much as you haue taught me to extract a Cu­bike roote, I pray you teach me also how I shall make after the nighest Cubike roote is extracted out of a number not Cubike, a fraction of the number remayning.

Nicholas.

You must at this time haue patience, but I promise you I will shortly teach you, and all others that will learne, to doe the same, and also other thinges.

Zanantonio.

If there be no other remedie I will haue patience till that time.

The 2. Corollary.

YOu may also in this sorte following double or treble a round pellet or any other sphe­ricall bodie. Drawe a rightline of what length you will, and note that line with A B then crosse that line with another line which I would haue you to note with C D, and call the poynt in which the saide lines doe crosse one another E. This done open your com­passe to the length of the diameter of that Sphere which you will double or tre­ble, and with your compasse so opened marke vppon the line E D, from E towards D, the length of that diameter. And when you will treble the said Sphere, marke the[Page 62]length of that diameter thrise vpon the line E B from E towards B. But at this present you shal onlie double the said Sphere, and therefore marke the length of the saide diameter vppon the line E B from E towards B no more times thā twise as I haue done in the points F G of the figure folowing. Now deuide the line E F into two equall parts in the point H, and deuide the line E H into two equall parts in the point L. likewise deuide the line L H into two equall parts in the point M. After this plasing one foote of your compasse in M, and the other foote of the same in G, you must describe a semicircle which in the figure folowing is marked with these letters N C G. Finally deuide the said line C D into two e­quall parts in the point O, and then plasing one foote of your compasse opened to the widenesse of one of those partes last mentioned, in O, and the other foote of your compasse vpon the line E A, drawe the archeline N R C and by so doing you may con­clude, that the space N E, by the ninth proposition of the sixt booke of Euclide, is dou­ble to the space E D as it doth appeare by the figure following,

[figure]

The 11. Colloquie.

How Vitruuius hath erred in appointing a proportion for those stones which are put into the hole of the Enguine called Balista.

Interlocutors
  • Zanantonio.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
ZAnantonio.

By what rule or way doth Vitruuius appoint a proportion for those stones which are put into the hole of the Enguine called Balista?

Nicholas.

I do now remember that the reason which you asked me in the precedent Colloquie, is the very same which Vitruuius doth write of in the seuenteenth Chapter of his tenth booke, where he concludes, that if the stone which is shot out of the Balista doth way two pounde waight, the hole at the head of the Balista must be fiue fingers, and if such a stone doth way fower pound waight, the said hole must be sixe fingers: the which determination is like vnto mine in the precedent Colloquie in respect of the whole number, that is to say of six, and not of the fraction. For the fraction 34/ which remaines in that place telleth vs that the said hole must be somewhat more than six fingers and ¼.

Zanantonio.

It may be that Vitruuius his booke was ill translated.

Nicholas.

It is so translated into Latin.

Zanantonio.

But looke I pray you whether his other determinations which folow in that place be iustly concluded.

Nicholas.

Without doubt there is some error in them, but more in one than in another. And I beleeue that this commeth so to passe for that hee was ignorant how to make a conuenient fraction of that which did remayne when he had extracted the Cubike roote out of a number not Cubike, and for proofe thereof he concludes, that if a stone which is to be shot out of that Balista doth way sixe pound waight, that the hole at the head thereof must be seuen fingers, and for the fraction which remaynes more than[Page 64]the said 7. fingers, he puts downe 9. pointes in fourme like vnto a circle.

Zanantonio.

Who knoweth that the saide 9. pointes doe signifie the conuenient fraction or part of a finger which that hole should be more than the saide 7. fingers, seeing we vnderstande not the signification of the said 9 points which is an auncient thing?

Nicholas.

When it is so, it foloweth of necessitie that in euery place where 9. such points are put, they represent one and the same fraction, the which is otherwise: for in the saide places there happens fracti­ons of diuers denominations, as for example the hole at the end of the Balista must be 7. fingers and about [...]/ [...]; parte of a finger for to receiue the said stone, that is to say, the said hole would be somewhat lesse than 7. fingers, and 1/ [...]; parte of a finger. Therefore in that place the said 9. points should signifie somewhat lesse thā 1/ [...] part of a finger. And for a stone of 10 pound in waight, the saide Ʋitruuius concludes, that the saide hole of the Balista would be 8. fingers high and more, which he doth expresse by the saide 9. pointes, but I by working according to the order set downe in the precedent Colloquie, finde that the saide stone of 10. poundes in waight doth aske a hole somewhat more than 8. fingers and ½ and here­upon this followeth that the saide 9. points in that place doe signifie somewhat more than one halfe finger: and I found before that they did signifie lesse then ⅛ part of a finger, whereby it is manifest how the same 9. points haue no certaine signification, and that Vi­truuius was ignorant how to make a right fraction of that number which did remayne af­ter he had extracted the cubike roote out of a number not cubike. And I say the same of all other Authors which I haue read in that matter.

Zanantonio.

I beleene that Ʋitruuius was not ignorant therein, and that this fault is to be imputed vnto the Translator.

Nicholas

The same fault and a greater is in the most auncientest bookes which are written in the La­tin tongue, for in them it is said, that for a stone of 20. pound in waight the hole of the Ba­lista must be 10. fingers, and the fraction remayning is expressed by the saide 9 points, but I finde that the saide hole would be 10. fingers and somewhat more than ¾ of a finger, and so he goeth forwardes committing errors in all his other determinations folowing.

Za­nantonio.

I maruell that the same man hath erred in this matter.

The 12. Colloquie.

By the diameter and waights of one pellet of yron, the diameters and waight of many other pellets of yron are found out. And how a pellet of lead is in proportion to a pellet of yron of the same bignesse as 30. is to 19. And how a pellet of lead is in proportion to a like pellet of a marble stone as 4. is to 1. And how a pellet of yron is in proportion to a like pellet of marble stone as 38. is to 15.

Interlocutors
  • L. Iames of Achaia.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
L. Iames,

I pray you of courtesie shewe vnto me in a picture how much in length the dia­meter of a pellet waying so much as in Italian is called Rotulo ought to be, and how much in length a pellet waying two Rotuli, ought to be in the diameter, and how much in length a pellet of three Rotuli in waight ought to be, and so of a pellet of fower Rotuli, and of a pellet of fiue Rotuli and of a pellet of sixe Rotuli, & so foorth of other pellets way­ing so many Rotuli as you will.

Nicholas.

To fulfil your Lordships request it is requisite that you should aduertise me with great heed and good aduisement of the diameter & waight of one pellet, that is to say, you must take a pellet the more bigger it is the better it is, and way the same so curiously as you doe siluer, and measure aduisedly how much it is in the diameter, & afterwards tell me the length of that diameter, and how much the pellet way­eth and how much a Rotulo dooth way, and how it is deuided, that is to say, how many ounces or poundes it dooth containe,Lezze is a city within the kingdome of Naples. for there is no such kinde of waight vsed in this place, and when you haue so done I will satisfie your Lordshippe therein.

L. Iames.

The line here drawen is the diameter of an yron pellet which wayeth nine Rotuli, and one Ro­tulo is a certaine waight vsed in Lezze which conteine 33. ounces and ⅓ part of an oūce,[Page 65]that is to say, 100 ounces make 3 rotuli.

Nicholas.

Most honorable Lorde, I see by this line the diameter of a pellette waying 9 Rotuli, and now by the same diameter I will shewe vnto you the diameters of many other pellettes. And for the satisfiing of others, I will al­so reduce this waight of Rotuli to the waight of this place, that is to say, to 33 ounces & ½ for one Rotulo. And because some diameters are so long as that they cannot be drawne at length in this leafe of paper, I will note onely the halfe of such diameters, so as you shall perceaue the same. And if the diameter which you haue shewen vnto me be iust, then the same diameters which I shall Geometrically finde out and shewe vnto you will be iust, but if there be any error in that diameter which you haue shewen vnto me, then the diame­ters which I shall shewe vnto you will be also erroneous. Likewise if your Rotulo bee iust 33 ounces and ⅓, and that each pounde (by which I will now appointe the pellettes to be wayed) doth containe onely 12 ounces, and that there is no difference betweene the oūce of Lezze, and the ounce of Venice, then the saide pellettes may bee wayed and tryed with the waight of Venice, otherwise not.

This line hereunder drawne, is the diameter of a pellette waying 9 Rotuli, which make 25 poundes of Vencie waight.

1

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 10 Rotuli, which make 27 poundes, 9 ounces and ⅓ of an ounce of Venice waight.

2

This line hereunder drawen is the diameter of a pellette waying 11 Rotuli, which make 30 poundes 6 ounces and ⅔ of an ounce of Venice waight.

3

This line hereunder drawen is the diameter of a pellette waying 12 Rotuli which make 33 poundes and 4 ounces of Ʋenice waight.

4

This line hereunder drawne is the semidiameter of a pellette waying 18 Rotuli which make 50 poundes of Venice waight.

5

This line hereunder drawen is the semidiameter of a pellette waying 36 Rotuli, which make 100 poundes of Ʋenice waight.

6

This line hereunder drawne is the semidiameter of a pellette waying 45 Rotuli, which make 125 poundes of Venice waight.

7

This line hereunder drawne is the semidiameter of a pellette waying 72 Rotuli, which make 200 poundes of Ʋenice waight.

8

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 8 Rotuli, which make 22 poundes 2 ounces and ⅓ of an ounce of Venice waight.

9

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 7 Rotuli, which make 19 poundes 5 ounces and ⅓ of an ounce of Ʋenice waight.

10

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 6 Rotuli, which make 16 poundes and 8 ounces of Venice waight.

11

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 5 Rotuli, which make 13 poundes 10 ounces and ⅔ of an ounce of Venice waight.

12

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 4 Rotuli, which make 11 poundes one ounce and ⅓ of an ounce of Venice waight.

13

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 3 Rotuli, which make 8 poundes and 4 ounces of Venice waight.

14

[Page]This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 2 Rotuli, which make 5 poundes 6 ounces and ⅔ of an ounce of Venice waight.

15

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellet waying 1 Rotulo, which makes 2 poundes 9 ounces and ⅓ of an ounce of Venice waight.

16

This line hereūder drawne is the diameter of a pellet waying 1 poūd of Venice waight.

17

This line hereunder drawne is the diameter of a pellette waying 1 Rotulo and ½ which make 4 poundes and 2 ounces of Venice waight.

18

Now this ought also to be knowne, that all the pellettes which are of one fourme and bignesse, are not precisely of one waight: For in one pellette the mettall may be very close and well cast, and in the mettall of an other pellette there may be through many causes di­uers little holes whereof at this present I woulde not haue spoken, but that I thought it needefull for me to aduertise you thereof to this end, if the diameters & waights of pellets doe not precisely agree with my determination of the same, that my said determination should not therefore be ill spoken of.All thinges wrought of a materiall sub­ [...]tance can not be so perfectly made, but that alwaies some of them may be made bet­ [...]er and more perfecter. For all things wrought of a materiall substance can not be so perfectly made but that alwayes some of them may be made better & more per­fecter. Also your Lordship must vnderstand that if the diameter which you haue showen vnto me be the diameter of a pellet of yrō (as you say it is) all the diameters which I haue showen vnto you must be intended to be the diameters of pellets of yron, & not of pellets of lead. But if you will apply those diameters vnto pellets of lead; you must increase their waight by one halfe of the waight which a like pellet of yron doth way, that is to say, if the diameter be of a pellette of yron, & that the same pellet wayeth 9 Rotuli, which make 25 pounds in waight, then a pellet of lead cast in the like fourme, and of the same bignesse wil way about once so much and a halfe, that is to say, 13 Rotuli and ½ which make 37 pounds and ½ pound waight: for the pellet of lead is in waight to the pellet of yron of like fourme and of the fame bignesse almost as it were in sesquialtera proportione, & so we must vnderstand of all other such pellets. And if a pellet be made of a common stone according to the mea­sure or length of any of the aforesaid diameters, the said pellet of stone will way about the fourth part of that waight which a like pellet of lead doth way, that is to say, the proportiō in waight of that marble stone to a like pellet of lead, is as it were subquadrupla proportio. And the proportion in waight of that marble stone to the like pellet of yron is as 15 to 38. And so by the knowledge hereof you may finde out the waight of any other pellet whose dia­meter is knowne. And to the end you may the better remember this matter, I haue hereun­der noted distinctly their said proportions.

A pellet of lead is in proportion to a pellet of yron of the like fourme and of the same bignesse as 30 is to 19, that is to say, as it were almost in sesquialtera proportione.

A pellet of lead is in proportion to a pellet of a marble stone of like fourme and of the same bignesse as 4 is to 1.

A pellet of yron is in proportion to a pellet of marble stone of like fourme & of the same bignesse as 38 is to 15.

The 3 Corollarie.

You may read in my first Co­rollary in the first booke of N. Tartaglia his Colloquies the difference betweene the subtile waight of Venice, & the Auer de poize waight of England.SOme persons by looking vpon the diametral lines drawne in the precedent colloquie, & reading in the same colloquie the pounds & ounces of Ʋenice waight, wil not easily per­ceaue the true length of the said diametral lines according to seete and ynches of assise of England, nor tel the true waight of the pellets which haue such diameters according to the waight which we cal in this realm auer de poize waight, Therfore for the better instructiō of such readers as are ignorāt therein, I haue in the table folowing reduced the length of the diameters of al the yron pellets which are in the said colloquie expressed by lines, into yn­ches & parts of ynches of the assise of England, & the waight of the same pellets expressed in the saide colloquy by the waight of Lezze named rotuli, and by the subtil waight of Ve­nice into the said auer de poize waight, which containes 16 ounces in a pound, & 112 pounds in a hūdred waight, as you may more at large reade thereof in my first Corollary in the first booke of N. Tartaglia his colloquies.

[Page 67]

A Table shewing the true measure of all the Diameters that are expressed by lines in the precedent Colloquie according to the measure of Feete and ynches of Assise in England, and also the waight of yron pellets which haue such Diameters according to the waight of Lezze called Rotuli, and accor­ding to the subtile waight of Venice, and also according to the Auer de poyze weight of England.
The measure of all the Diameters that are in the precedent Colloquie expressed by lines, accor­ding to ynches and partes of ynches of assise of England.The waight (according to the waight of Lezze called Rotuli) of such yron pellettes as haue the same Diameters that are noted in this TableThe waight (according to the subtile waight of Venice) of such yron pellets as haue the same Di­ameters that are noted in this Table.The Auer de poize waight of such yron pellets as haue the same Diameters that are noted in this Table.
YnchesParts of ynchesRotuliPoundsOuncesHūdred waightPoundsOuncesDrāmesScruplesGraines
4356/41392500168529 1/ [...]
589/206510279⅓0186107 29/ [...]
583/41311306⅔0203522 6/7
5143/413123340220019 1/11
654/41318500¼513118 2/ [...]
7301/413361000½1027016 4/11
8132/413451250½2611505 5/ [...]
9303/41372200012056112 [...]/11
4280/4138222 [...]01411009 [...]9/ [...]65
428/597195 [...]012137011 [...]7/3 [...]
4104/413616801103212 [...]/ [...]
4051310⅔093000
3293/4134111⅓0755015 5/ [...]
3153/4133840581216 4/ [...]
2390/413256⅔03106117 57/99
2238/413129⅓01133018 26/3 [...]
1271/4130100010422 42/55
2278/4134202120218 2/ [...]
The end of the second booke of Colloquies.

The third booke of Nicholas Tartaglia his Colloquies concerning minerall Saltpeeter of diuers colours, Gunpowder of diuers sortes, and the cause why some sortes of gunpowder are corned, and some sortes of gunpowder are not corned,

The first Colloquie.

How Saltpeeter was knowne vnto men in olde time: and how there is a minerall kinde of Saltpeeter and an artificiall kinde of Saltpeeter: and how there are diuers sortes of minerall Saltpeeter: and how there is Saltpeeter of many colours.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Is it not a maruaile that men in olde time had no knowledge of Saltpeeter which we in this age doe so well know?

Nicholas.

That simple hath been knowne of a long time, for all the auncient Phisitions and naturall Philosophers make mention thereof. Some of them as namely Anicen calleth Saltpeeter by the name of Baurache, for so in the Arabian language it is named: and some others call Saltpeeter by the name of Afronitrum, because of the Greekes it is so called: and others as Serapion, Diasco­rides, The Pandecte is a volume of ciuile law cal­led the Digestes but here it sig­nifieth an hearball. You may reade of the medici­nable vertue of niter in a dis­course which T Chaloner gē ­tleman hath published ther­of, & was im­printed in Lō ­don by Geralde Dewes in Anno Dom. 1584. & Plinnie cal the same Niter, or spume of Niter, for in the latine toung it is so named. In the Pandecte it is affirmed that there are two kindes of Niter or Saltpeeter, that is to say minerall and artificiall. And it is said that of the minerall kinde there are foure sortes, that is to say, Armenian, Affrican, Roman, and Aegyptian. Moreouer Serapion saith that the mines of Saltpeeter are as the mines of Salt, for it is known that water runneth out of thē, the which water as Plinnie affirmeth congealeth and freeseth harde as it were a stone: al­so it is founde that in those mines there is a thing like vnto a stone, which is called stonie Salt, also it is said that there is white Saltpeeter, redde Saltpeeter, and Saltpeeter of many other colours: and it is affirmed that there are many sortes of Saltpeeter not onely for the diuersitie of colours: but because first there is founde a very spungie kinde thereof, that is to say full of holes, and then there is found an other kinde which is like vnto a flat & bric­kell plate, & of manie other qualities which in a long time will not be told one by one, and thereof one sort is more biting and more stronger than an other. Of the artificial Saltpee­ter I shall not neede to speake, because at this time it is better knowne than the hearbe Be­tonica.

Prior.

I had thought that Saltpeeter had not been knowne till now of late in this age.

The 2 Colloquie.

How men in olde time did know that Saltpeeter would burne, and how they did vse to make therewith fireworkes: and how they did call Saltpeeter by diuers names.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Tell me briefly whether men in olde time hauing knowledge of naturall Saltpee­ter & of artificiall Saltpeeter (as before you haue prooued by the authoritie of ancient[Page 69]Phisitions) had also knowledge that the same woulde kindle and burne so forceably as it doth.

Nicholas.

The said ancient Phisitions and naturall Philosophers doe make men­tion of the propertie which they found in it to be necessary for medicine, and of nothing els concerning the same: But many other auncient Authours knew that it would burne,The Snaile, Ramme, and portable Towars are in­gens of warre. The names by which Saltpe­ter was known in the old time. for they did vse to make certayne fireworkes with the same for to burne the Snaile, Ramme, and portable Towars which were vsed at that time in the assaultes of Ci­ties: and also to fire a Nauie. But in the making of these fireworkes some did call Saltpe­ter by the name of burning salt, some did call the same stonie salt, some did call the same salt practike, and others did call the same properly Saltpeter.

Prior.

Concerning this mat­ter I would aske you an other doubt, but because my head doth now ake, I will deferre to doe it till to morrow in the euening.

The 3 Colloquie.

How men in the olde time which knew that Saltpeter would kindle and burne, did not know how to make gunpowder: and how gunpowder is made of Saltpeter, Brimstone, and Cole, and not onely of Saltpeter.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

If men in the old time had knowledge that Saltpeter would kindle and burne so forceably as it doth, why should not they know also how to make gunpowder being at this time a thing of great importance in the militarie Art.

Nicho.

This is no good con­sequent to say, if men in the olde time had knowledge that Saltpeter woulde kindle and burne, that of necessitie they should also know how to make Gunpowder:Gunpowder is made of Salt­peter, Brim­stone, & Cole, and not only of Saltpeter. for the powder is not made onely of Saltpeter, but is compounded of three thinges (as I beleeue your Lordship doth know) that is to say of Saltpeter, Brimstone, and Cole, and therefore it may be beleeued that men in the old time which knew Saltpeter and the nature thereof were ignorant how to make gunpowder.

Prior.

By reason it may be so.

The 4 Colloquie.

Why gunpowder is made of Saltpeter, Brimstone and Cole: what vertue or particuler office euery of the said simples hath by it selfe in the making of gunpowder: & how it is more possible to make gunpowder without Cole and Brimstone, than without Saltpeter, because all the vertue and force of the pow­der depends vpon pure Saltpeter, and not vpon any other thing.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

By what reason, or for what cause is gunpowder made of these three things, that is to say of Saltpeter, Brimstone, and Cole, & not of any other simples? and what vertue or particular office hath euery of the said three materials or simples by it selfe in the ma­king thereof: and what will any two of those simples doe without the thirde.

Nicholas.

Gunpowder is made of the aforesaid three materials, because euery of them will helpe and supply euery defect which is in any of the other two: for the Brimstone is more apt to make the fire flame when it is touched therewith, than any of the other two, the which flame of fire is much more apt to inflame the Saltpeter than any other fire. And because the Saltpeter in burning is resolued into a windie exhalation, the which is so mightie that sodainly it will extinguishe the fllame which hath taken holde of the Brimstone, and also the flame which through the Brimstone hath taken hold of the Saltpeter, and for that the nature of Brimstone, and also the nature of Saltpeter is such that the flame in them being extinguished there will remaine no token of fire. Therefore in mixing together only the[Page 70]Saltpeter and Brimstone which must be very well pounded, and putting fire to the same the fire doth kindle, and immediately after it is extinguished by the reasons aboue allea­ged: that is to say, the fire will not continue till all the matter thereof bee consumed and burned, but it will burne a while, and leaue part of the saide mixture vntouched there­with. Therefore to remedie this defect, a Cole finely pounded is added to the Saltpeter and Brimstone, for the Cole is of that nature that it will kindle so soone as it is touched with the flame of fyre, and turnes into an vnflaming fyre, the which fyre without flame by how much it is more blowne with any winde, by so much the more sooner it kindles, and keepes a fyre til all his substance is turned into ashes, & therfore the mixture of the afore­said three materials being touched with fyre, the Brimstone doth immediately flame as before is said, the which flame doth not onely set the Saltpeter on a flaming fyre, but also in that very instāt sets the Cole on a fyre without any flame, the which fyre by winde is not extinguished, but augmented, and therefore that winde which the Saltpeter causeth can not extinguish the saide fyre which is without flame in the Cole, but as I haue sayd aug­ment it: for the Brimstone being touched with a flaming fyre, or with an vnflaming fyre, cannot choose but flame, the which flame as before hath been sayde, makes also the Salt­peter to flame. Therefore when the said three materials being very well pounded, & mix­ed together are touched with fyre, they will not leaue burning till they bee wholy consu­med, except there be a fault in some of the said 3. materials by reason of moistnesse, or that the mixture of them is not made by a conuenient proportion. And therefore I conclude that the office of Brimstone in that mixture is onelie to make a fla­ming fyre,The office of Brimstone mixed with Cole and Saltpeter. and to bring the sayde fyre vnto the other two materials, & that the office of the Cole is only to maintaine the same vnflaming fyre which the brimstone brought vnto it,The office of Cole mixed with Brim­stone and Saltpeter. and especially against that great winde which the Saltpeter causeth.The office of Saltpeter mixed with Cole and Brimstone. But the office of the Saltpe­ter is onely for to cause that so great exhalation of winde. For in that winde consistes all the vertue, & propertie of the powder: and that only is the same thing which driueth so forceably each pellet.All the vertue and power of gunpowder depends onely vpon Saltpe­ter, and the Brimstone & Cole are mix­ed with Salt­peter for no other cause than to resolue the Saltpeter into fire and winde. And therefore I conclude, that all the vertue and power of the powder depends only vpon the Saltpeter, and that the two other simples or materials, that is to say, the Brimstone & the Cole are put in for no other cause, than to re­solue the said Saltpeter into fyre and winde: For whosoeuer maketh gunpowder only of Brimstone and Cole, and with a great quantitie of the same will charge a Peece of Artille­rie, and then put fyre into the said powder, I say that thereby the force of such powder will not be able to expell out of the said Peece any little splint of wood, or strawe. This cōmes so to passe because all that vertue expulsiue depends only vpon pure Saltpeter, and not of any other thing. Wherefore it is more possible to make powder for Artillerie without Cole and Brimstone than without Saltpeter. For we may beleeue that it is more possible to deuise other materials which shall doe the office of Brimstone in taking a flaming fyre, & likewise which shall doe the office of Cole in maintaining the said vnflaming fyre, than to finde an other materiall which is apt to cause so great & violent winde as that is which the Saltpeter doth cause.

Prior.

It is to be beleeued that it is more possible to make good gun­powder without Cole and Brimstone, than without Saltpeter, for all the vertue and force of gunpowder (as before you haue said) dependes vpon pure Saltpeter, and not vpon any other thing. But forasmuch as it is now late we will make here and end.

The 5. Colloquie.

By whome gunpowder & gunnes were first deuised: how the inuention of a thing which at the first is homely and rude, will with time be made better: how the proportion of things in making gun­powder hath many times without reason been chaunged: how gunpowder may be made by diuers wayes: and how gunpowder ought to be laid, and kept in drie places.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you declared the cause why gunpowder is made of the aforesaid three materials, and the office which euery of the said materials, hath in that[Page 71]mixture. Nowe I aske of you what hee was which did first inuent gunpowder, and by what reason he hath appointed that propottiō & quantitie of euery of the said materials which is needfull for the same mixture?

Nicho.

The common people report by the authoritie of Cornazano that gunnes and gunpowder were deuised by chaunce by a Duchman who was an Alchimist: But I thinke that Archimedes the Siracusan, and most skilful Philosopher, and Mathematician, was the first inuentor thereof: and he that wrote the Commentary vppon the first booke of Vitruuius in the eight leafe is of mine opinion therein: for as Ʋallurus declareth in the tenth booke of warfare, it is written in diuers bookes that Archimedes de­uised a certaine kinde of enguine made of yron, out of which he shot against an armie vp­pon the land with an incredible sounde or noyse stones of great waight and bignesse, the which thing giueth vs to vnderstand, that it was an enguine like vnto a great gunne, for that it shot very great pellets of stones (as not long agoe but within this our age hath byn vsually done) and especially with such an incredible sounde as in shooting of gunnes doth happen: the which sound (as I thinke) cannot be made in any other sort of enguine,The first in­uention of a thing which is homely and rustike will with time waxe better because it is an easie thing to adde vnto the thing de­uised. except in one like vnto a gunne, yet I beleeue in that time gunnes were made of a more deformed fashion than now they be, for alwayes the first inuention is homely, and rusticke and with time it waxeth better, because it is an easie thing to adde vnto the thing deuised. And this may be applied to gunpowder, that is to say, when it was deuised by Archimedes, or by any other whom you will, it is to bee thought that it was not made at that time in such order and proportion as it is now at this present: For I iudge that from the same time hither­to, the order to make gunpowder hath been very many times altered: and for prooffe thereof I haue read in some Authours which are not very auncient certaine wayes and or­ders to make gunpowder which differ much from the orders and wayes that haue since that time been vsed.

Prior.

Tell me briefly what proportion hath been obserued, and is nowe obserued?

Nicho.

I haue read in some of the most auncientest bookes that for to make gunpowder a like quantitie of euery of the sayd three materials must bee taken: that is to say, so much of the one as of the other. And some other bookes written since that time, willeth them which will make gunpowder, to take three parts of Saltpeter, two parts of Brimstone, and two parts of Cole. Other bookes teacheth vs to take for the making of gunpowder ten poundes of Saltpeter, three poundes of Brimstone, and three poundes of Cole. And in some other books we are willed to take for the making of gunpowder twelue poundes of Saltpeter, three poundes of Brimstone, and two poundes of Cole. In other bookes we are willed to take nine partes of Saltpeter, two partes of Brimstone, and three partes of Cole. And in other bookes written since that time we are willed for the making of gunpowder for Handgunnes to take foure partes of Saltpeter, one part of Brimstone, and one part of Cole. Some other bookes teacheth vs for the making of grosse or course gunpowder, to take twentie partes of Saltpeter, three partes of Brim­stone, and tenne partes of Cole. But for to make somewhat more finer powder for the Handgunne, wee are taught to take an hundred partes of Saltpeter, tenne partes of Brim­stone, and thirtie sixe partes of Cole. Some say that for to make grosse gunpowder wee must take an hundred partes of Saltpeter, twentie partes of Brimstone, and thirtie seuen partes of Cole. And for to make fine gunpowder wee must take nine partes of Saltpe­ter, three partes of Brimstone, and sixe partes of the flower of Mirochea when wee will prooue to make gunpowder without Cole. But I knowe not this hearbe called Mirochea, for I did neuer reade of any hearbe so called in the Pandecte, or in Auicenna, or in any other Herball. Some other of a later time haue sayde, that for to make grosse gunpow­der wee must take two partes of Saltpeter, one part of Brimstone, and one parte of Cole made of Willoe: and for to make gunpowder for an Harchibuse that we must take three partes of Saltpeter, one part of Cole made of young bowes of Willoe, and one part of Brimstone: and for to make fine gunpowder for a Handgunne, they say we must take of Saltpeter many times refined 5 parts, of Brimstone 1 part, of Cole made of the twigs of a Filbert tree, or of a young Nutte tree of one yeeres grothe one parte. Some others say that for to make grosse gunpowder we must take three parts of Saltpeter refined, one part of Brimstone and two partes of Cole made of willoe: and for to make gunpowder of a[Page 72]middle sort, they say that we must take tenne partes of Saltpeter refined, two partes of Brimstone, and three partes of Cole made of willoe: And for to make fine gunpowder for an harchibuse,Note. they say that wee must take tenne partes of Saltpeter refined, one parte of Brimstone and one part of Cole made of the cleane twigges of a filbert tree. And for to make better gunpowder, that is to say, for Handgunnes they will vs to take 27 partes of Saltpeter refined, of Brimstone three partes, of Cole made of the cleane twigges of a Filbert tree 4 partes. Some other say that for to make more forceable and stronger gun­powder, wee must take of Saltpeter refined seuen poundes, of Brimstone one pound, of Cole made of the cleane twigges of a Filbert tree one pounde. Others for to make more better gunpowder will vs to take of Saltpeter refined eight partes, of Brimstone one part, of Cole made of the young and cleane twigges of a Filbert tree one parte. Some for to make gunpowder more stronger haue willed vs to adde vnto the said materials quicke siluer: some will vs to adde thereunto aqua vitae. Some woulde haue vs to adde thereunto salt Armoniacke. Some bid vs to put thereunto Campher: some will vs to make it with Coles made of the stalkes of Coleworts. Others would haue vs to make gunpowder with the Cole of Bulrushes, or with linnen cloth burned. Some haue prooued to make gun­powder of diuers colours without Cole:You may learne to make gunpowder of diuers colours by the 16 chap. of mine Appendix. that is to say, white, redde, and gray, by putting into that mixture the powder of some flowers of dried hearbes for to serue in the place of Cole, and to make the sayd colours. If I should describe these thinges one by one I might haue enough to say till to morrow in the morning: But to the intent you may see the dif­ference betweene those wayes for the making of gunpowder, I will describe them distinctly heereunder one by one as I haue aboue recited them, & also diuers other which for breuitie sake haue not been recited.

1 The making of Gunpowder after the most auncientest order.

  • Saltpeter. 1 part.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole. 1 part.

2 The making of gunpowder after a sort not so auncient.

  • Saltpeter. 3 partes.
  • Brimstone. 2 partes.
  • Cole. 2 partes.

3 The making of gunpowder after a sort not so auncient.

  • Saltpeter. 10 partes.
  • Brimstone. 3 partes.
  • Cole. 3 partes.

4 The making of gunpowder after a sort not so auncient.

  • Saltpeter. 12 partes.
  • Brimstone. 3 partes.
  • Cole. 3 partes.

5 The making of gunpowder after a sort not very ancient.

  • Saltpeter. 9 partes.
  • Brimstone. 2 partes.
  • Cole. 3 partes.

6 The making of gunpowder for handgunnes after a sort lately deuised.

  • Saltpeter. 4 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole. 1 part.

7 The making of gunpowder for great ordinance after a more newersort.

  • Saltpeter. 20 partes.
  • Brimstone. 3 partes.
  • Cole. 10 partes.

8 The making of gunpowder for great ordinance after a more later deuise.

  • Saltpeter. 100 partes.
  • Brimstone. 10 partes.
  • Cole. 36 partes.

[Page 73]9 The making of grosse gunpowder after a nwe order.

  • Saltpeter. 100 parts.
  • Brimstone. 20 parts.
  • Cole. 37 parts.

10 The making of fine gunpowder after no very old sort.

  • Saltpeter. 9 partes.
  • Brimstone. 3 partes.
  • Flowers of Mirochea. 6 partes.

11 The making of grosse gunpowder after a more nwer sort.

  • Saltpeter. 2 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 parte.
  • Cole made of willoe stickes 1 parte.

12 The making of gunpowder for harchibuses after a nwer sort.

  • Saltpeter. 3 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of young willoes. 1 part.

13 The making of fine gunpowder after a nwer sort.

  • Saltpeter many times refined. 5 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of the twigges of a young Filbert tree. 1 part.
    Note.

14 The making of grosse gunpowder after an other sort.

  • Saltpeter refined. 3 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of willoe stickes. 2 partes.

15 The making of a middle sort of gunpowder after a nwe order.Note.

  • Saltpeter refined. 10 partes.
  • Brimstone. 2 partes.
  • Cole made of Willoes. 3 partes.

16 The making of gunpowder for harchibuses as in these dayes it is vsed to be made.Note.

  • Saltpeter many times refined. 10 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of a young filbert tree which hath his barke and rine theron pilled of. 1 part.

17 The making of Gunpowder for handgunnes after a nwer sort.

  • Saltpeter refined. 27 partes.
  • Brimstone. 3 partes.
  • Cole made of young twigs of a filbert tree which hath the barke and rines there­on pilled of. 4 partes.

18 The making of a more stronger kinde of gunpowder for handgunnes after a nwer sort.

  • Saltpeter refined. 7 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of young twigs of a filbert tree which hath the barke and rines thereon pil­led of. 1 part.

19 The making of a more finer and stronger sort of gunpowder for handgunnes.

  • Saltpeter many times refined. 6 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of young twigs of a filbert tree which hath the barke and rines theron pil­led of. 1 part.

[Page 74]20 How grosse gunpowder is now in our age made.

  • Saltpeter. 4 partes.
  • Brimstone. 1 part.
  • Cole made of a willoe tree. 1 part.

21 How grosse gunpowder is now in our age made by an other way.

  • Saltpeter. 20 partes.
  • Brimstone. 4 partes.
  • Cole made of a willoe tree. 5 partes.

22 How gunpowder is in our age made for handgunnes.

  • Saltpeter refined drie. 48 partes.
  • Brimstone cetrine. 7 partes.
  • Cole made of Filbert or of dry hempen stalkes 8 partes.

23 How gunpowder is now in our age made for handgunnes.

  • Saltpeter refined. 18 partes.
  • Brimstone. 2 partes.
  • Cole made of the wood of a filbert tree. 3 partes.

Note.For to make wel any of the aforesaid sorts of gunpowder you must vnderstand that the Saltpeter must be pure,Saltpeter for Gunpowder must be refined, pure, cleane, without grease, and strong. Brimstone for Gunpowder must be cleane, without durt or any other filth, and it must be very drie and purified, and the best coles for Gunpowder are made of soft and young wood that hath his barke and rine pilled of. cleane, and strong (the which thing is lear­ned by practice to burne a little thereof) likewise the Brimstone must be cleane without durt, or any other filth, & the Coles ought not to be moyst (as they will bee by standing in a dankish roome) nor mixed with any dust or durt. Finally you must vnderstande that such gunpowder ought to be very well beaten, and that the said 3 materials ought also to be well incorporated together: this being done, that sort of gūpowder will alwaies do his effects according to his kind, so that it be alwayes kept drie, and therefore it would not be laid in any moyst or dankish place. And also there is another reason why it should be kept drie,Gunpowder ought to be kept drie. for moystnes causeth the Salt­peter to dissolue into water, and it being dissolued descends by little and little to the bot­tome of the vessell in which it lieth, and so the powder in the bottome of the vessel is more fuller of Saltpeter than the powder lying in the vppermost part thereof.

By this your Lordship may perceiue that by many and sundrie wayes the order or pro­portion of quantitie for the said three materials in the making of gunpowder hath been determined.

Prior.

I maruell that the order to be vsed in the making of gunpowder hath been by so many wayes altered, and I can not see by what reason men haue been mooued to deuise so many wayes.

Nicholas.

The first inuention (although some say that it was found out by chaunce) was as I thinke found out by naturall reason speculatiuely, that is to say, the same three materialls being well beaten and mingled together would bee apt to make a strong and vnextinguishable fire till each matter should be consumed: and there are good reasons why it should be so: but I thinke men were instructed by experience to appoint a proportion of quantitie for the said materials: for in the first order they did worke by proportion of equalitie, taking so much of the one material as of the other, and although peraduenture a great quantitie of such gunpowder might doe some good effect, yet neuerthelesse considering how that effect proceeded from the Saltpeter, an other way for the making of gunpowder was deuised by taking a greater quantitie of Saltpeter, than any of the other two materials, whereby it was perceaued that this kinde of gunpowder was more stronger than the first sort of gunpowder: and so vppon such aduised conside­rations, men haue from time to time euen vnto these our dayes changed the said order: But some of the aforesaid orders haue been appointed without any reason or iudgement, and I thinke that they which appointed the same orders were mooued to ordaine them vppon no other reason, than for that they would not doe as others did, & that they might be thought to know more therein than others. Some of them haue without any reason ap­pointed nwe waies for the making of gūpowder by increasing the quantitie of Coles, and decreasing the quantitie of Brimstone. Others increase the quantitie of Brimstone, and[Page 75]decrease the quantitie of Coles: And others alter all the saide three materials by certaine strange proportions to the intent that such order as is so by them appointed may bee thought to be deuised by great wisedome and skill.

Prior.

There are some among those makers of gunpowder which can not say or doe more therein than others haue sayd or done, but because they are ashamed to shew at any time that they haue learned of others to make gunpowder, they studie to alter the way which was shewen vnto them.

Nicholas.

It is so in deede.

Prior.

You haue made a long discourse vppon this matter, therfore let vs make heare an ende thereof.

The first Corollarie.

ALthough Tartaglia in the precedent Colloquie doth affirme out of one Authour that gunnes were deuised by Archimedes and not by a Duchman as Cornazano declareth yet this is to be noted that diuers men are therein of diuers mindes as it wil appeare by this which followeth. Polidor: Virgil: Munster: and Gilbert: Cognat: Nozeren: Inuention of gunnes. haue written that gunnes were first deuised in Anno Domini 1370. by a monke whom Munster calleth Bertholdus Sthwartz and Gilbert: Cognat: nameth Albertus Magnus. M. Iohn Dee our Countrie man in his Mathematicall preface and discourse of Menadrie saith, that an Englishman was the first inuentor of gunnes though his said inuention in an other lande and by other men was first executed: also our English Chronicles doe report that in An. Domini 1380. a monke did vnwillingly let fall a sparke of fier vppon Brimstone beaten to powder in a morter and couered with a tile stone, and that hee seeing how the powder of Brimstone touched with fire did sodainly flame, & lift vp a great height the said tile stone,Inuention of gunpowder. did thereupon deuise a kinde of gunpowder, and taught the Ʋenetians to vse the same in yron pypes against the Genuates.

The 6. Colloquie.

When you shall make a comparison of strength betweene two equall quantities of fine or grose gunpow­der, you may with truth say, that the quantitie of gunpowder which hath in it the greater part of Saltpeter is more stronger than the other quantitie of gunpowder which hath in it the lesser part of Saltpeter: Also when you shall compare one sort of cole whereof gunpowder may be made with an other sort of Cole, you may affirme that by how much the cole is of a more lighter and softer sub­stance, by so much it is more apt to receiue and maintaine fire with facilitie.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening, you declared by how many waies within this little while the order or proportion of quantitie for the three materials in making of gunpowder hath been changed, now tell me which of those wayes (as well of the wayes which are most aūcient, as of the wayes which were lately deuised) is iudged to be best, that is to say, which of those sorts of gunpowder is thought to be most perfect & of most strongest force?

Nich.

Without doubt that powder is thought to be of most force and strength which conteineth the greatest part of Saltpeter: I say the greatest part in respect of all the three materi­als. As for example, in the first order before noted where is taken of euery materiall one part, the Saltpeter containes ⅓ part of the whole mixture, and the Brimstone and Coles containes ⅔ partes of that mixture. And in the second order following next after the same where is taken 3 partes of Saltpeter, 2 partes of Brimstone, and 2 partes of Cole, the Saltpeter containes 3/7 parts of the whole mixture, & the Brimstone and Cole containe ⅘ partes of the same mixture: and because 3/7 are a more greater part than is ⅓, therefore I say that the gunpowder made after the second order is more forceable and stronger than the gunpowder made after the first order. Likewise the gunpowder made after the thirde order will be more forceable and stronger than the gunpowder made after the second or­der, for in the said third order the Saltpeter containes 7/8 parts of the whole mixture, which 5/ [...] are a greater part than 3/7: and in the fourth order the Saltpeter containes [...]2/17 partes of the whole mixture, and because 12/27 are a greater parte than 5/ [...] therefore I say that [Page 76]gunpowder made after the fourth order is more forceable than that which is made after the third order. And in the fift order the Saltpeter containes 9/14 partes of the whole mix­ture, and because 9/14 are a lesser part than 12/17 I say that gunpowder made after the fift order is weaker and worse than the gunpowder made after the fourth order. And in the sixt or­der the Saltpeter containes ⅔ partes of the whole mixture, and because 2/ [...] are a greater part than 9/14 I say that gunpowder made after the sixt order is better and more forceable than gunpowder made after the fift order. And after this fashion proceeding to examine all the other orders folowing (so that I be not ignorāt to work & know the brokē numbers) I will easily know which of those aforesaid orders is best or worst: that is to say, which sort of gunpowder is most forceable & most strongest, & contrariwise, which of those sortes of gūpowder is of least force & weakest. So by knowing how much Saltpeter is in one of those sorts, you may make a comparison in goodnes or badnes between one quantitie of grosse gunpowder for great ordinance, and an other quantitie of such like gunpowder: and like­wise betweene one quantitie of fine gunpowder for handgunnes, and an other quantitie of such like gunpowder: for it would be too long for me to set downe an example for euery of the aforesaid orders.

Prior.

Yet I pray you shew me which of all the said sortes of gun­powder is of most force and strength.

Nicho.

The gunpowder which is made after the 16 order is of more force & strength than gūpowder made after any of the other sorts, I mean where there is taken of Saltpeter many times refined ten partes, of Brimstone one part, of Cole made of the young twigs of a filbert tree which hath the barke and rines thereon pil­led of, one part. And this sort of gunpowder will be most strongest for two causes: The first is, because the Saltpeter containes ⅚ partes of that powder, which ⅚ are a greater part than is any of the partes in the other sortes of gunpowder before noted:By how much cole of which Gunpowder is made, is of a more lighter, and softer sub­stance, by so much it is more apt to receaue and maintaine fire with fa­cilitie. The second cause is, for that the Saltpeter is oftentimes refined, which causeth it to bee more perfect: And also this sort of gunpowder is made of the most perfectest Coles, for in effect by how much the Cole is of a more lighter and softer substance, by so much it is more apt to receiue and main­taine fire with facilitie: and therefore it is by so much the more perfect, more apte, and more readie to do his office quickly.

Prior.

Your opinion herein doth like me wel, and be­cause it is now late I will forbeare vntill to morrowe in the euening to aske an other doubt of you.

The 7 Colloquie.

How gunpowder can not be made of Saltpeter only and how in making of gunpowder such a quantitie of Brimstone and Cole must of necessitie be added vnto Saltpeter as will be able to make each sim­ple in that mixture to doe his expected office.

Interlocutors.
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you concluded that the 16 sort of powder is more finer, more stronger, and of more force than any of the other aforesaid sortes of gunpowder, because that 16 sort of gunpowder hath in it a greater quantitie of Saltpeter than any of the other sortes hath, the which quantitie is as much as ⅚ partes of the whole mixture. Nowe I aske of you whether that gunpowder would haue been of more force and strength if it had been made with a greater quantitie of Saltpeter than ⅚ partes of the whole mixture, and with a lesser quantitie of Brimstone and Cole than ⅙, I meane of such Coles as were put into the sayd sixteenth sort of Gunpowder?

Nicholas.

Without doubt it woulde be of more force and power, so that the sayd small quantitie of Brimstone & Cole bee apte and able to execute their office as they ought to doe, that is to say to be on a fire quickly and to set the Saltpeter on a fire, and to maintaine fire in the same vntill it be wholy resol­ued into fire. For if there shoulde be so small a quantitie of Brimstone and Cole, as that thereby they should not be apt and able to execute their saide office, that compositi­on woulde bee vnprofitable and almost to no purpose: And therefore it is needefull[Page 77]for you to be thereof well aduised. For if it were possible to make gunpowder onely of pure and perfect Saltpeter, without doubt that powder would bee more stronger and of more power than any other sort of gunpowder made with the same Saltpeter, Brimstone, and Cole. But because the said Saltpeter of it selfe is not apt nor able to burne in a flame quicklie as Brimstone wil do, nor maintaine the flaming fire till al the materials are burnt and consumed as the Cole will doe, therefore it is necessary to adde Brimstone and Cole thereunto, and such a quantitie thereof as will make them apt and able to execute their said office according as before it is saide they should doe.

Prior.

I doe vnderstand you well, and you haue spoken enough for this euening.

The 8. Colloquie.

How it is an vnnedfull thing to make more finer gunpowder for one kinde of gunne than for another.

Interlocutors
  • L. Gabriel Tadino Prior of Barletta.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
PRior.

Yesterday in the euening you affirmed that the same gunpowder which con­taines the greatest quantitie of Saltpeter, and the least quantitie of Brimstone & Cole (so that the Brimstone and Cole be sufficient to execute their office is better and of more power than any other kinde of gunpowder made in the same sort of Saltpeter, Brimstone, and Cole with a lesser quantitie of Saltpeter, and a greater quantitie of brimstone & Cole: and although I beleeue this to be true, yet I perceiue that this rule is not generall, for all kind of Artillery, because all men know that handgunnes must be charged with finer pow­der than harchibuses, and that harchibuses must be charged with finer powder than Mus­kets, & Falconets, & that Faulconets must be charged with better powder than is put into other great Ordinance: wherefore I aske of you if it be needful to shew how fine the pow­der ought to be made for euery kinde of Peece.

Nich.

I thinke it not needfull to doe so, al­though it be an vse to do so: but I am of this opinion, that this is a greater error than that which was told of the Culuerings and Cannons in the 11 Colloquie of the first booke.

Prior.

What would you haue to be done?

Nich.

At this present I will not giue an absolute & determinate answere to this matter, but I wil consider a little better therof, and I hope to make you perceiue an error in this thing which bringeth with it other things of more discommoditie, losse and cost than the Culuering doth in respect of the Cannons, whereof I gaue you to vnderstand in the said 11 Colloquie of the first booke.

Prior.

Consider well thereof, for these things being a long time vsed will importe much, and sometimes more than a man will thinke.

The 2 Corollarie.

VAnnuccio Biringuccio in the 10 booke and 2 chapter of his Pyrotechnye declareth that grosse gunpowder occupied in handgunnes or harchibuses will not expel their pellets a quaites cast from their mouthes, & that fine gunpowder being shot out of great ordinance will breake or marre them: but I suppose (as Taertaglia in the prece­dent Colloquie doth think) that we may put with good aduisement so much of grosse gun­powder into our handgunnes and harchibuses as will cause their pellets to randge a long distance, and also that we may charge great Peeces of Artillerie with so small a quantitie of fine gunpowder as wil be a iust charge in powder for them, and in their discharges neither breake or hurt them: For a Peece which doth require for his due and ordinarie charge 8 ounces of that sort of grosse gunpowder which is marked in the 16 chapter of mine Ap­pendix with the number of 1 may be iustly charged, & without any harme to the Peece dis­charged, with 7 ounces and a halfe of that sort of fine Gunpowder which is in the sayde 16 Chapter of mine Appendix marked with the number of 2, or if you will with 7 ounces and 1/9 of an ounce of that sort of more finer Gunpowder which is in the said 16 Chapter of mine Appendix marked with the number 3, as you may more at large reade in Girola­mo Cataneo his 5 booke Dell'arte militare.

The 9. Colloquie.

How they are deceiued which doe thinke that gunpowder is corned for to be thereby more forceable and more stronger. And how Arte ought to follow nature who maketh all things that are made to some ende.

Interlocutors
  • Ierome Gunner.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
IErome

What is the cause as you thinke why the makers of gunpowder do corne fine powder for handguns and harchibuses, and that they doe not corne the grosse powder which serueth for great ordinance.

Nicho.

I know well that you are not ignorant of the cause thereof, and that you do aske this question of me to trie what I can say thereunto.

Ierome.

I aske this question of you to know the cause thereof, and not to trie what you can say thereunto, for I confesse that I know not the cause thereof, and I sweare vnto you as I am a true Christian man, I haue asked this question of many which make gunpowder, I say of such as haue ordinarie pencions of the seignorie to make all sortes of gunpowder, [...]he Arsenal [...] Venice is a [...]ore house for [...]unition and [...]rtillerie: and [...]s William [...]homas affir­ [...]eth in the [...]istorie of Ita­ [...], 600. worke­ [...]en are daily [...]aged for [...]erme of their [...]ues to worke [...] the same [...]orehouse. and none of them could tell me any reason for the same except one which workes in the Arse­nal of Venice, who answered me, that they corned the powder for to make it to bee more forceable, and more stronger, which reason did somewhat content mee, and yet not fully satisfied therewith, I come now vnto you to pray you for to shew me the reason therof and to heare whether or no you be of his opinion.

Nicho.

I can not beleeue this to bee as you say, for I thinke it to be a thing impossible that a worke man should do any thing and not know to what end he doth it, and especially such a thing which hee doth continually. For Arte ought to follow Nature herein who makes all things which are made to some ende: and therefore I can not beleeue that he of the Arsenal who as you haue said hath a pension of the seignorie for to make both fine and grosse powder knoweth not to what end gun­powder is corned for Handgunnes, & not for great ordinance, seeing hee doth make such gunpower euery day.

Ierome.

I know it to be true that hee could not giue mee any better reason for that thing than that which I haue told you.

Nich.

Before I wil tell you my opi­nion herein you shall goe againe vnto him & pray him of curtesie to tell you truely why he doth corne such gunpowder.

Ierome.

It is no neede that I should goe againe vnto him for I am sure he will answere me (as he did before) that he doth corne gunpowder for to make it more forceable and more stronger.

Nicho.

When he hath so answered, say vnto him, if you corne gunpowder to make it haue more force and strength, you shall do well to corne also the grosse gunpowder which serues for great ordinance for to make the same also to be of more force and strength.

Ierome.

I will doe so, and returne againe vnto you to day, or to morrow with his answere.

The 10 Colloquie.

Why gunpowder which doth serue for Handgunnes, Harchibuses, and other small peeces of Artillery is corned: And why gunpowder which doth serue for great ordinance is not corned: And how ma­ny of them which doe corne gunpowder, doe therein as they haue seene others doe, and as they haue been taught, and care not to know vnto what end they doe so.

Interlocutors.
  • Ierome Gunner.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
IErome.

After I parted from you yesterday, I went directly to the Arsenal, and finding my friende there, I prayed him againe if he knew any other reason than the same which he had tolde mee, that he would not hide it from mee, and I promised that for the same I would alwayes account my selfe much bound vnto him: he swore vnto me that he knewe no other reason than that which he had before tolde mee: that is to say, they did corne gunpowder to augment the vertue, force, and power of the same gunpowder. I answered him, why should it not be good to corne also the grosse gunpowder which serues for great[Page 79]ordinance, that the same might likewise be made more forceable, and stronger than it is? He replyed, for feare that the great ordinance would breake therewith, and so I was resol­ued.

Nicholas.

You should haue answered him that vppon such occasiō they might charge such Peeces with a lesse quantitie of gunpowder than is their ordinarie charge and there­by saue much gunpowder, or that they might put into the powder a lesse quantitie of Salt­peeter than they vse to doe.

Ierome.

I was not so wel aduised as to make that aunswere, but it is to be thought that all they which make gunpowder doe according as they haue seene others doe, or as they haue beene taught, & care not to search, or to know the cause of the thing which they doe, that is to say, to what ende they doe it. And I will now speake of my selfe, how I haue made both grosse and fine gunpowder, and that I did corne the fine powder which I made, and knew not to what ende I did corne it, but I did so because I had seen other Gunpowdermakers to do the same.

Nicholas.

I beleeue that it is so as you say.

Ierome.

Tell me of courtesie your opinion herein.

Nicholas.

Hauing promised to tell you mine opinion therin, it is reason that I should perfourme my promise, therefore you shall vnderstand that after you went from me yesterday I considered of this matter, & in effect haue found,Why gun [...] der for ha [...] gunnes is [...] ned, and gunpo [...] [...] great Or [...] nance is corned. that onely necessitie or commoditie hath caused men to learne the meanes to corne gunpowder for handgunnes and harchibuses & not for great ordinance, because the same corne powder will role or runne much better than powder which is not corned, as it may be perceaued by a handfull of corne and a handfull of meale, that is to say, a handfull of corne and a handfull of meale being laide a parte or a sunder vppon a plaine table declining somewhat on the one side, the handfull of corne will role downe more easilie vppon the saide table than the handfull of meale will doe. For the meale will lie flat and more vnmooueable, but if it doe role or runne by reason of the slope lying of the table, it wil runne altogether on a heape, and the corne will role there in seueral parts.

Ierome.

I doe well vnderstand you, but what profite comes by that kind of roling or run­ning?

Nicholas.

You know when you carrie a handgunne or a harchibuse to serue you in your businesse, that it is necessarie also to carrie with you powder for to charge your peece therewith so often as you will, and that such powder is caried in a flaske, and for to charge with measure, that there is made vppon the flaske (as you know) a little pipe able to re­ceiue so much powder as is conuenient for the charge of that handgunne or harchibuse, and how there is an enguine or spring in that little pipe to be shut within it when the said pipe is full of powder to keepe the powder within the same little pipe that it shall not fall out of the same into the flaske.

Ierome.

I knew all this before you tolde me of the same.

Nicholas.

Although you know all the same better than I doe, yet I will tell you thereof that you may the better vnderstande the matter folowing. And therefore I conclude that if the gunpowder which is put into the said flaske be not corned, it wil be a harde thing to fil the saide little pipe with the same. For by turning vp the flaske to fill the saide pipe with such gunpowder as was in the same flask, the said gunpowder wil fall al together in a lump vp­pon the first entring place of that pipe, and choke or locke within the same all the ayre which was in that emptie pipe, and thereby that ayre will not suffer the powder to enter therein, so as oftentimes the saide pipe will be found to be emptie or not full of powder. But this thing wil not so happē if the powder be corned, for such corned powder wil role more a parte or seperately (as it hath beene saide of corne and meale) the which seperation will make a way for the ayre in the saide pipe to goe out of the same into the flaske, and to fill the place which conteyned the powder that is gone into the saide pipe, and by this meanes most commonly the same pipe will be so full of powder as is conuenient for it to be. And for this cause men haue beene compelled to deuise a meanes to corne gunpowder for handgunnes and harchibuses, and not for great ordinance. For (as you know) the powder is put into great ordinance and into the lowest end of the concauitie thereof with a ladle, and therefore it is no matter whether the powder will role or not role, and it will be superfluous to corne powder for great ordinance, for as you know you vse to carry a little flaske full of the finest powder to put into the touchholes of handgunnes and harchibuses,Touchpowder ought to be cor [...] for handgunnes, harchibuses, & [...] small peeces, but not for great [...] dinance. which powder if it be not made with very small cornes, it neither will nor can goe into so little a hole by the reasons aforesaide. And therefore in this case it is necessarie to make[Page 80]the powder with very small cornes. But it is otherwise in great ordinance, for as I haue beene informed, you put powder into their touch holes with your hand.

Ierome.

It is euen so as you say, and your reasons herein are very true. But I neuer thought that gunpowder had beene corned for such a cause, and for that I doe esteeme of this which you haue tolde me more than of 10 crownes, I doe hartely thanke you for the same.

The ende of the thirde Booke of Colloquies.
‘IN SPE’

A TREATISE NAMED LVCAR APPENDIX, COLLECTED BY CYPRIAN LVCAR GEN­TLEMAN, OVT OF DIVERS GOOD AVTHORS IN DIVERS LANGVAGES:

To shewe vnto the Reader the properties, office, and dutie of a Gunner, and to teach him to make, and refine artificiall Saltpeter: to sublime brimstone for gunpowder, to make coles for gunpowder, to make gunpowder of di­uers sorts & of diuers colours, to make gunmatches, touchwood, and fire stones, to know the waight and measure of any pellet, to make carriages, ladles, rammers, scourers, and cartred­ges for any great peece of artillerie, to know the proportioned length, due thicknesse, and waight of euery great peece of artillerie, to know what number of men, horses, or Oxen wil drawe any great peece of artillerie, to make platformes for great ordinance, to make gabbi­ons of earth for the defence of gunners in time of seruice, to charge euery great peece of artillerie with his due charge in serpentine gunpowder, and also in corne gunpowder, to shoote well at any marke within point blanke, to shoote well at any marke vpon a hill, or in a valley without poynt blanke, to shoote well at a marke in any darke night, to mount morter peeces to strike any appointed marke, to tell whether a thing seene farre of doth stand still, come towards him, or goe from him, to make and vse diuers Trunkes, and many sortes of fire workes, to make mynes, to measure altitudes, longitudes, latitudes, and pro­fundities, to draw the true plat of any place, and to do other commendable things which not onelie in time of warre, but also in time of peace may to a good end be practised.

Scientia non habet inimicum prater Ignorantem.
[depiction of the firing of a piece of artillery]

Anno domini. 1588

‘HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE’‘DROIT ET LOYAL’

The names of Authors out of whose Bookes the greatest parte of this Treatise named LƲCAR APPENDIX, hath been collected.

Italian Authors.
  • Nicholas Tartaglia.
  • Vannuccio Biringuccio.
  • Girolamo Ruscelli.
  • Girolamo Cataneo.
  • Francesco Ferretti.
  • Cosimo Bartoli.
  • Gio: Francesco Peuerone.
  • Abel Fullone.
  • Luigi Collado.
Latin Authors.
  • Daniel Santbech.
  • Sebastian: Munsterus.
  • Ioan: Baptista Porta.
  • Hieronymus Cardanus.
  • Ioan: Iacobus Weckerus.
  • Anton: Maria.
  • Gemma Frisius,
  • Hermannus Witekindus.
  • Thomas Finck.
  • Ioan: Demerlierius.
  • Christian: Vrstisius.
English Authors.
  • M. Robert Recorde. Doctor of Phisike.
  • M. William Cunningham Doctor of Phisike.
  • M. Leonarde Digges Gent.
  • M. Thomas Digges Gent.
  • M. Peter Withorne Gent.

The first Chapter. The properties, office, and duetie of a Gunner.

A Gunner ought to be a sober, wakefull, lustie, hardie, patient, prudent, and quick sprited man, he ought also to haue a good eysight, a good iudge­ment, and perfect knowledge to select a conuenient place in the day of ser­uice, to plant his Ordinance where he may doe most hurt vnto the ene­mies, and be least anoyed by them, and where his Ordinance may not be surprised by the enemie.

A Gunner ought to be skilfull in Arithmeticke, and Geometrie, to the ende he may be able by his knowledge in those artes to measure heights, depthes, breadthes, and lengthes, and to drawe the plat of any peece of ground, and to make mines, countermines, artificiall firewoorkes, rampiars, gabbions or baskets of earth, and such like things which are vsed in time of warre to be made for offensiue and defensiue seruice.

A Gunner ought also to procure with all his power the frendship and loue of euery per­son, and to be carefull for his owne safetie, and for the preseruation of all those that shal be about him.

Also he ought to be no surfeter nor a great or sluggish sleeper, but he must gouerne him selfe in al times as a wise, modest, sober, honest, and skilfull man ought to doe, that through want of vnderstanding he may neuer leese his credite, nor an vniuersall victorie which of­tentimes by the meanes of good Gunners well managing their peeces is gotten.

Also a Gunner ought at the receite of his charge to make an Inuitorie of al such things as shall be committed to his charge as well to render an account, as to consider the want of such necessaries as to the Artillerie apperteineth.

And when a Gunner shall be appoynted to doe an exployte, he ought to want neither a fire stone, nor a tyndar box with a good steele, nor flintstones, nor tindar, nor gunmatches, nor a flaske full of good touchpowder to kindle his gunmatch and fire, when neede shall require.

Also when a Gunner shall be appoynted to doe an exployte, he must lay his powder twenty paces from his Peeces in such a place where no fire, water, or hurt may come vnto it through any person, or by reason of any winde, weather, or otherwise, and keeping his powder alwayes couered, he must not be vnmindfull of this, that it is a very dangerous thing for a Gunner to trust many, because a generall hurt and death may thereuppon followe.

Also a Gunner that hath a charge ought to haue alwayes in a readinesse all necessarie things for his artillerie: that is to say, wheeles, axeltrees, ladles, rammers, spunges, gun­powder, pellettes, tampions, chaineshot, crossebarres, sustian, canuas, or paper for car­tredges and firewoorkes, fourmes for ladles and cartredges, needles, threed to sowe and binde the cartredges and firewoorkes, artificiall torches, candles, lantornes, mattockes, shouels, crowes of yron, handaxes, leuers, enguines for the mounting and imbasing of or­dinance, ropes, little handbaskets, glwe or payst, horsecollers, horses or oxen to drawe his peeces, all manner of cartware, carters to guyde and keepe his horses and oxen, and a sufficient number of Gunners and assistants to charge, discharge, mount, imbase, wadde ramme, make cleane, scoure, and coole his peeces when they are ouer heated, and to haue for this purpose vineger and faire colde water.

Also a Gunner ought alwayes to haue a gunners staffe, or a partisant, or a halbert stic­king by him for a part of his defence, and he ought to put into the cocke of his Gunners staffe a gunmatch, or wrappe about the lower end of his staffe, partisant and halbert a good gunmatch, which may geue fire vnto his peeces of artillerie when neede shall require.

Also a Gunner ought not to sleepe much at any time of the day, or night, when he is ap­poynted to serue in the fielde, or in any other place, nor to eate or drinke in any other roome than where his peeces of artillerie are planted, because in his absence the same pee­ces may be choked, poysoned, and harmed by diuers wayes; and that he may many times vppon a sudden haue good occasion to discharge all his peeces,

[Page 2]And it is requisite for a Gunner to fixe vppon the tayle of the carriage of his peece a chest to holde his necessary things, and to defende him from small shot when he shal serue in a place where no baskets of earth are set to defend him.

Also a Gunner ought to haue a ruler and a payre of compasses to measure the heigth & length of euery peece his concauitie, and the length, depth, and widenesse of euery ladle, whereby he may know whether his peece is laden with too much powder, or is charged with a lesse quantitie of powder than it ought to haue.

A Gunner ought to knowe the names, length, and waight of all manner of peeces, and be able to tell readilie how much gunpowder is a due charge for euery peece, how manie times in one day euery peece may without harme be shot of, how many Gunners and as­sistants or labourers ought to attend vppon euery peece, how many horses, or oxen will drawe euery peece, what sorte of peeces doe commonly carry pellettes of lead, what sorte of peeces doe shoote Pellettes of yron, what sorte of peeces are vsually laden with pel­lettes of stone, and what sorte of peeces haue chambers, and how euery kinde of peece should be charged with his powder, tampion, pellet, and wadde.

Also a Gunner must be skilfull to make Saltpeeter, to refine and sublime Saltpeeter, to make diuers sortes of gunpowder, to make coles for gunpowder, to purifie brimstone for Saltpeeter, to make cartredges, to amend and make good agayne euery sorte of gunpow­der which by any manner of meanes hath lost his vertue and force, and tell how much Saltpeter ought to be put into the sayd vnforceable gunpowder to make it so strōg as it was before, and how many times the saltpeeter which shall be put into the sayde gunpowder ought to be refined.

Also a Gunner in time of seruice ought to forbyd with meeke and courteous speeches all manner of persons other than his appoynted assistantes, to come neere his peeces, to the ende that none of his peeces may be choked, poysoned, or hurt, and he ought not for a­ny prayers or rewarde to lende any peece of his gunmatch to another person, because it may be very hurtfull to him in time of seruice to lacke the same.

Also a Gunner before he goeth to doe any exployte ought to consider of all thinges which shal be needeful for him to haue, & how farre the place is to which he must goe, & by what wayes he shall passe with his artillerie, that he may carry with him all thinges needefull for his artillerie and for him selfe.

Also a Gunner ought not at any time to beate open the heads of his gunpowder bar­rels with any yron, or stone, but with a woodden mallet which will neuer fire the gun­powder as a peece of yron and a stone may doe.

Also if a Gunner will charge his peece with Cartredges, he ought to set them vpright in a tubbe or some other woodden vessel, which (though it shall seeme to stande in a place out of danger for fire) should neuer be vncouered for any longer time than while the same cartredges are taken out one by one to charge the peece.

Also a Gunner ought to wash his peece within before he doth first charge it, and (after he hath dryed it well againe by the helpe of 2 or 3 cleane and dry spunges, & made it very clean within) he ought to looke by such meanes as are declared in the 43. Chapter of this Appendix whether or no any hony combes, flawes, or crackes are in the sayd peece.

Also a Gunner before he doth shoote ought to consider and try whether the trunnions in his peece are set in their due places, and finding them by the doctrine taught in the 41. Chapter of this Appendix to be wrong set, preuent the harme which may come thereby.

Also a Gunner before he doth shoote ought to consider whether his peece is charged with strong and dry gunpowder, or with weake and moyst gunpowder, to the end he may alwayes lade his peece according to the qualitie of the gunpowder: For as strong and drie gunpowder may driue the shot farther than the marke, so weake and moyst gunpowder may cause the peece to shoote short of the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he doth shoote must consider that his peece ought to haue a due charge in gunpowder: For as when a gunner doth geue vnto a peece more than his duety, he ouershootes the marke, and puts the peece after it is made hot in danger of breaking, so when he geues vnto a peece lesse than his duetie he shootes shorte of the marke.

[Page 3]Also euery Gunner must charge his peece with a fit pellet: For as the pellet which is more bigger or more higher than it should be putteth the peece in danger of breaking, so the pellet which is loar or smauler than it should be, wil fall short of the marke, and neuer working his expected effect, swarue sometimes in the deliuerance out of the peece and strike wide of the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes ought to remember that a long wadde of haye, strawe, toe, or of vntwisted ropes lying behinde a pellet within any peece will cause the pellet to strike wide of the marke.

Also euery Gunner ought to know that a peece of artillery which doth not lye fast vp­pon his carriage wil shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner ought to know that if the carriage of his peece doth not lie right, the peece will shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner ought to know that if one wheele in the carriage of a peece be more greased than the other wheele in the same carriage, the wheele which is more greased will turne faster about than the other wheele, and cause the Peece lying vppon the sayd carry­age to shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes ought to remember that if one wheele shall re­coyle faster than the other wheele, or if anie thing shall let one wheele more than the o­ther, the Peece will shoote awrie from the marke.

Also euerie Gūner before he shootes must aduisedly looke whether or no both wheeles of euerie carriage are of equall heigth: For when one wheele of a carriage is higher than the other wheele of the same carriage, the higher wheele turneth more faster than the o­ther wheele which is more lower, & causeth the Peece laid vpon such a carriage to shoote awrie from the marke.

Also euerie Gunner before he shootes must aduisedly looke whether or no both endes of the axeltree in euerie carriage are of equall bignesse: For when one end of the axeltree in a carriage is greater than the other ende, the Peece that lyeth vpon such a carriage will shoote awry by reason the wheele which turneth vppon the lesser end of the axeltree run­neth about more easilie than the other wheele which turneth vppon the greater ende of the axeltree.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must aduisedly looke whether or no the rounde holes which are made in the wheeles of euery carriage for the endes of an axeltree to lie in, are of equall bignesse: For if the hole in the naue of one wheele of a carriage shall be greater or wider than the hole in the naue of the other wheele of the same carriage, the peece that lyeth vppon a carriage with such wheeles will shoote awry, because the wheele which hath in his naue the greater hole, runneth about vppon the end of his axeltree more easilie than the other wheele which hath in his naue the lesser hole.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must aduisedlie looke whether or no the holes which are made in euery carriage for the trunnions of his peece to lie in, are fit for the same trunnions, and of equall bignesse: For when one trunnion hole vppon a carriage is wide, and the other trunnion hole vppon the same carriage is narrowe, then the peece that hath his trunnions layde in two such vnfit and vnequall holes will shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must take away all the stones which shall lie vnder the tayle of any carriage: For when a stone shall happen to lie vnder the tayle of a carri­age, then the peece that lyeth vppon the same carriage will in the deliuerance of his shot turne aside, and shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must take away all the stones which shall lie vnder the wheeles of a carriage: For when a stone lyeth vnder any one wheele of a carriage, then the peece which lyeth vppon the same carriage wil shoote awry from the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he doth first charge his peece ought to trie whether or no his peece is rightly bored in the middest of the mettall: For a peece which is not rightly bo­red wil shoote alwayes wide from the marke, except the Gunner to remedie that fault doe vse such skill as is taught in the 10. Colloquie of Nich. Tartaglia, his first booke of Colloquies.

Also euery Gunner ought to remember before he shootes that if both or one of the le­uel[Page 4]sights vppon the peece shall not be precisely set in the midst of the outside of the peece, the sayd peece will driue his pellet wide from the marke.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must cōsider of the marke at which he wil shoote, I meane euery Gunner must looke aduisedly whether the marke at which he will shoote be vppon a playne ground, or vppon the toppe of a hill, or downe in a valley, or farther than his peece will shoote, that he may plant, mount, and imbase his peece to strike the marke lying within the reach of his peece.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes ought to consider whether the ayre be thinne and cleere, or close and thick, because a pellet wil passe more easilie thorow a thinne and cleere ayre, than thorow a close and thicke ayre.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes ought to trie whether or no the ground vppon which the peece doth lie in his carriage be playne and leuell: For as when the grounde is lower at the tayle of the peece than it is in the place where the wheeles stand, the peece re­coyling vnto the lower ground will ouershoote the marke, because in the deliuerance of the shot the breech goeth downewards, and the mouth vpwards, so when the grounde is higher at the tayle of the peece than it is before in the place where the wheeles stand, the peece may shoote short of the marke, although it is not so apt to recoyle agaynst a hill as it wil doe downe a hill.

Also euery Gunner ought to weather the marke according to the hardnes of the winde, and the distance vnto the marke: For as the winde being with him will cause a pellet to flie beyonde the marke according to the hardnesse thereof, and the winde being against him will cause a pellet to fal short of the marke according to the hardnesse thereof, so a side winde driueth a pellet wide from the marke.

Also euerie Gunner before he shootes ought to driue the wadde and shot home vnto the gunpowder, for when the wadde and shot do lie short from the gunpowder, the Peece breaketh manie times in the vacant or emptie place betweene the powder and the shot.

Also euery Gunner before he shootes must trulie disparte his Peece, or giue allowance for the disparte, and when he dispartes a Peece he ought to set the said dispart in the midst and vppermost part of mettall ouer the mouth of the Peece.

Also euery Gunner ought to know that as it is a wholesome thing for him to drinke and eate a little meate before hee doth discharge anie Peece of artillerie, because the fume of saltpeter and brimstone will otherwise bee hurtfull to his braines, so it is verie vnwhole­some for him to shoote in anie Peece of ordinance while his stomake is full.

Also a Gunner which shall serue vppon the sea in any Galleon, or other Ship, or in a­ny great or small Galley, ought before his going to sea to consider well of the num­ber of trunkes, pykes, dartes, earthen pottes halfe baked, copper cauldrons, mor­ters, pestels, and searces that will be needefull for him in his sea seruice, and also of the measure of seuerall oyles, and quantitie of gummes, camphire, and all other mate­riall and needefull things for firewoorkes.

Also a Gunner which shall serue vppon the sea in any Shippe, ought before his going to sea to wryte with good aduisement in a paper booke for the owner or Captayne of the vessell in which he shall serue, the number and price of trunkes, pykes, dartes, ar­rowes, and earthen pottes halfe baked, that will be needefull vppon the sea for of­fensiue and defensiue seruice, and also the number and price of yron hoopes, and the length and price of yron wiers or strong cordes that wil be sufficient to binde fast all the sayd trunkes, pykes, dartes, arrowes, and pottes of fire.

Also euery Gunner which shall serue vppon the sea in any shippe ought before his go­ing to sea to write in his memoriall or paper booke for the owner or Captayne of the vessell in which he shall serue, the waight and price of euery simple and materiall thing that is requisite to make firewoorkes, and rokettes for many seuerall fightes, and diuers triumphes vppon the Sea, & also the number and price of the cartredges which he meaneth to make for his ordinance, and the quantitie and price of fustian, canuas, or paper that will iustly serue without waste to make the same cartredges,

[Page 5]Also euery Gunner which shal serue vppon the sea &c. ought to write in his memorial &c. the number, sortes, and prises of great and small needles, the quantitie and price of packthreede, and other smaller threede that wil be needeful to sowe the bagges of his car­tredges, and to binde fast his fireworkes and rochets in their cotes or couers.

Also euery Gunner which shall serue vppon the sea &c. ought to write in his sayd me­moriall &c. the waight and price of so much gunpowder, and of so many fit pellettes as wil be enough for to charge all the peeces in his vessel fourty times ouer, and also the price of ten barrels of more gunpowder, which he ought to haue for the onely making of fire­workes.

Also euery Gunner which shall serue vppon the sea &c. ought to write in his sayde me­moriall &c. the quantitie and price of saltpeeter, brimstone, and cole, which will be requi­site for him to haue in store to amend, and also to nwe make vppon the sea gunpowder, if his prouision thereof should happen by any meanes to decay or consume. For the wante of any one of these things cannot without a marueylous chaūce be supplied vppon the sea.

Also euery Gunner which shal serue vpon the sea &c. must with discreation write in his memoriall &c. the number and sortes of faultlesse peeces that will be needefull for his vessell and the places of the shippe or vessel where they ought to lie, and appoynt in his sayd memoriall three chambers for euery chamber peece.

Also a Gunner seruing vppon the sea ought alwayes when he shall be forced by neede to nwe make or amend his gunpowder, or to make any kinde of firewoorke, to roe in a shipboate to lande, or otherwise into the sea farre from his shippe, and to woorke for the safetie of his shippe vnder a couer or tent in his boate, or vppon the land in an old desolate house standing alone from other houses.

The 2. Chapter. How artificiall Saltpeeter which is a mixture of many substances hath (as some suppose) greater ver­tue, and more strength than mynerall saltpeeter: how artificiall saltpeeter is made of fine and small earth by two sundry wayes: how the earth which maketh artificiall saltpeeter is digged out of sellers, vaultes, stables, oxstalles, gote or sheepecotes, pigen houses, or out of the loermost roomes in other houses: how blacke earth which will sparkle in a fire, or yeelde a sharpe, byting, and meane salt taste doth make good saltpeeter: how for the making of artificiall saltpeeter you must prouide a sufficient number of cauldrons, furnaces, barrelles, halfe tubbes, and a conuenient quantitie of wood, white­lime, ashes of oke, earth, and water, and how the sayd cauldrons, furnaces, barrels, and halfe tubbes must be placed.

ARtificiall saltpeeter is a mixture of many substances gotten with fire and water out of drie and durtie grounde, or of the flower that groweth out of walles in sellers, or out of that ground which is found loose within vaultes, tombes, or desolate caues, where rayne cannot come in. And (as some thinke) artificiall saltpeeter hath greater vertue and more strength than mynerall saltpeeter. But the best artificiall saltpeeter is made of beastes dung conuerted into earth in stables, or in dunghilles of a long time not vsed, & aboue all other of the same dung which comes of gotes and hogges: And it is requisite what dung so euer it be, that by continuance of time it be well resolued into earth, and all the humiditie thereof being dryed, that the same earth should be as it were a subtile and fine powder. When you shall haue occasion to make of this dung or earth a great quantitie of artificiall saltpeeter,The first way to make artifi­ciall Saltpeter of earth. it will be necessarie for you to prouide many cauldrons, furnaces, barrelles or tubbes, and likewise wood, white lime, ashes of olde oke, and a sufficient quantitie of the sayde earth, and a great barne or other walled house neere to the water, that you may haue enough thereof, and of euery other material thing. But first the furnaces must be made for the cauldrons, & they must be placed thereō as they are which Diers vse: Then there must be prepared ioystes so long as the house, [Page 6]and so broade that vppon them commodiously aboue ground may stand buttes with their heads knocked out, square chestes, barrels or tubbes to the number of 50. 60. or 100. ac­cording to the cauldrons, and the capacitie of the place, and betweene euery two of those vessels, there must be set a halfe tubbe to receaue the water that shall runne out: Or there would be placed a gutter or canel of wood along vnder the holes of the vessels which are set aboue the ground, so that it may conuey all the water which commeth from them in­to one or two great tubbes sufficient to holde all the water that shall be full of the substāce of Saltpeeter. And in the buttes which haue their heads knocked out, barrels or tubbes: I say in the bottome of euery of them, a hole must be made on the one side with an Augar, or els three or foure little holes may be made with a good big perser, and vppon them you may lay a little thinne linnen cloath, or els the sweeping ende of a broome, or some strawe for to keepe the yerth vp, and to strayne the water that shall be put amongst the same yerth which is to be wrought when it is tasted with the mouth, so that it be certaine that it contayneth Saltpeeter. Then there must be made in the middest of the house where the sayd Saltpeeter is to be wrought a great hil, next vnto which must be made another hil halfe so big which must be made with two partes of vnslaked lime, and three partes of oke ashes, or other ashes which in taste are very strong and sharpe, and then the one hill must be wel mingled with the other, and with the same composition the tubbes must be filled which are set aloft vppon the ioystes within a span of the mouth, or els (minding not to mingle with the yerth the ashes and the lime together) you may put first a span thicknesse of yerth in the bottome of the tubbe, and then three fingers thicknesse of the aforesayde lime, and ashes, and afterwardes vppon the same another span in thicknesse of yerth, and on that likewise another three or foure fingers thicknesse of lime and ashes: and so putting into the sayd tubbes one rew of one thing, and another rew of another thing, you ought to fill all the buttes, and tubbes, or other vessels that you haue placed (euen as aboue I haue sayd) within a span of the mouthes of them, and the rest which is then left empty, you must fill with water, the which running through all the yerth by a little and a little, must drop into the tubbes that stande vnder to receaue it, or into a gutter, or canel, or where you list, so that it be conueyed into one, two, or three sundry tubbes, or where you thinke good: and so you must wel and diligently gather all the water which was powred vppon the yerth after it hath passed through the holes in the bottome of the tubbes in such wise that it may bring with it all the substance and vertue of the saltpeeter which was in the sayd earth, whereof by putting some of it on your tongue you may taste, and finding it biting and very salte,To know good Saltpeter wa­ter. it is a token that it is good, and that you haue done wel: if not, powre it a­gaine vppon the very same earth, or vppon some other nwe earth. But finding the first earth full of substance so much as sufficeth, you may againe powre vppon it more water to wash better the remnant of the earth: albeit this second water would be saued in another ves­sel, and after this the earth may likewise be washed the thirde time, to the intent that all the substance thereof may be perfectly gotten. But this seconde, nor the thirde, ought not to be mingled with the first, if it happen not to come of the very same taste, the which I be­leeue that it wil not: but it must be put by it selfe in other vessels for that it is good to powre vppon the change of the next earth, and so you may proceede gathering a good quantitie of such water, taking heede neuerthelesse that it be full of the substance of salt­peeter: the which if it seeme vnto you not of the same perfection as you would haue it, you may powre it againe vppon the very same earth, or vppon other nwe, til such time as it shal satisfie you, and that you shal knowe it to be ful of the substāce of saltpeeter. Besides this there must be made a furnace with one or two cauldrons of brasse wauled thereon, which must be so great as those which the Dyers vse, & these cauldrōs must then be filled with the sayd saltpeter water: the which (as alredy I haue tolde) ought to be so ful of substāce as may be, so that it haue about the two third partes, and make it faire and softly to boyle so much till it come to one thirde part or there aboutes, and after take it of, and put it to settle in a great vessel couered, which must be wel bound about with hoopes of yron, and sure, and close in the ioyning thereof, to the intent it spill not: And thus when the same water is setled, cleere, and from the earth and grosse matter which in it remayned diligently pur­ged, it must be taken out, and boyled againe of nwe in the same cauldron, or in some o­ther. [Page 7]And forasmuch as at euery time that it boyleth if it be not taken heed of, it turneth into skumme, and sometimes swelleth so much that by running ouer, it spilleth and car­rieth away therwith much of the good, the which minding to remedy, you must take three partes of Oke ashes, and one of Lime, and moreouer in euery hundred pounde waight of water, there must be dissolued foure poundes of Roch Alume, and when the Cauldron boy­leth take of the said water with a pot, and power into it once or twise, specially when you see the Saltpeter water rise in skumme, and so doing within a little while you shall see it alay, and be both cleere, faire, an of an azure colour: and it must be boiled so long till all the thinne watrinesse be vapoured away, and the substance of the Saltpeter thickened, so that it being taken out, and put in chestes, or tubbes, and cooled, may congeale: the which is best done when the water is brought to a small quantitie, taking it out and putting it into a lesse Cauldron wherein it will sooner congeale, the which water being tasted, and seen to be readie to congeale, you may take it out, and put it into vessels of wood, or of earth that are rough within, with certaine stickes of wood to congeale, and so you shal let it coole, and rest three or foure dayes so as it may droppe, and be strained through some little hole in the bottome of the vessell: and all the water which is not then congealed, you must take out, and saue for to seeth againe: and the Saltpeter which is in any quantitie congealed, you shall finde to be according to the vertue that was in the water, or in the earth: but the cleerenesse and fairenesse thereof will come of the master vertue of the water which is put into it in the boyling, which hath strength to purge it, and to make it come as it were refi­ned in the first seething. Now this being taken from the sides of the vessel where it congea­led, and in the water thereof washed, you must lay it vpon a Table to drie throughly, and the same seeming vnto you to haue neede, or neuerthelesse minding to haue it aboue the common vse for some purpose more refined, and purified from all maner of earthie grosse­nesse, fatnesse, and saltnesse, (which for to make exceeding fine powder or aquam fortem, is most requisite so to be) I counsell you to refine and purifie after one of the wayes taught in this Appendix.

Saltpeter may also be made of earth in this sort folowing,The second way to make artificiall Saltpeter of earth. digge such earth out of floores in sellers, vaultes, stables, oxestaules, gote or sheepe coates, pigen houses, or out of the lo­ermost roomes in other houses as is blacke, or that throwne into a fire will sparkle, or that is of a sharpe, biting, and meane salt taste. But digge not for any such earth more deeper than the length of 3 ynches vnder the face and vppermost part of the floore or ground out of which it shalbe taken, except you shall see in the earth vnder that depth such white things or veines as the Italian mameth Fiocchi. To know whether or no any Saltpeter is in earth do this, make a woodden pin of a foote in length, and with a mallet driue it vp to the head into the ground where you meane to seeke for Saltpeter: Then taking the pinne out of his hole, thrust an yron naile made redde hot with fire, and equal in length and bignesse to the saide pin, into the said hole. After this couer the same hole quickly & suffer the naile to stād in it til it shalbe thorow cold: This done, pull the naile out of the saide hole, and note well the culler of the naile. For as when the naile so taken out of the hole shall haue a pale yelloe culler you ought to thinke that the earth in that place wil yeeld plentie of Saltpeter, so when the naile taken out of the hole shal haue the naturall culler of yron, you must knowe that no Saltpeter will bee made of the earth in that place. Hauing gotten a suf­ficient quantitie of Saltpeter earth made fine and small, and a competent number of halfe buttes, hogsheaddes, or barrels that haue one hole made with an Augar in the bottome of euery of them you must first couer euery of the said holes on the inside, with an earthen porenger, and stoppe the saide holes on the outside of the vessels with tappes and spiggets. This done, fill vp the said halfe buttes, hogsheads, or barrels with the said earth within a spanne of their brimmes, and re­member that although the earth about the sides of euery vessell must be rammed downe, yet that part of earth which lyeth in the midst of the vessell must lie loose, and vnpressed. After this powre a bucket or pale of cleane water by little & litte vppon the saide earth: When the earth hath drunke vp this water, powre one other bucket or pale of cleane water in the same sort vpon that earth, and continue in so doing till all the earth in the said vessels is well moistened with water, which ought to lie in the saide vessels for the space of a day and a night one handbreadth in heigth aboue the earth: Then pull the said tappes or spig­gets out of the holes in the vessels, and suffer all the saide water to droppe out into other tubbes placed directly vnder the said holes: when you shall see that no more water will come or droppe into the vndermost tubbes, emptie the dropped water into the vessels out of which it did droppe before, and out of the same let it drop againe so long, and so much[Page 8]as it will into the said vndermost tubbes. This water which hath so soked thorow the earth in the said vessells, & hath twise dropped out of the higher vessels into the tubbes that are placed vnder them, is called among the Italians water of the foote, & also the washe of earth, which ought to be saued by it selfe, After you haue done all this, powre some other cleane water (as you did before) vppon the earth in the vessels, and when the same wa­ter hath dropped out of the higher vessels into the tubbes standing vnder them, take all the said earth out of the vessels, and fill them againe as you did before with other like earth and then powre vppon this earth in the vessels the first water called water of the foote, and wash of earth, suffering it to droppe thorow the same into the vndermost tubbes so often till the same water tasted in your mouth will byte your tongue,Note. and that an egge put into this water will swim vppon the toppe of the same. The first water being brought by this meanes to this perfection, and strength, powre the second water vppon the same earth (or on other such like earth if neede bee) that it may by often dropping thorow the same bee made also of a biting taste like vnto the first water, and able to beare vppe an egge put into the same like as the first water called water of the foote, and wash of earth did before. Now this second water being a very strong water must be boyled in a Cauldron and after it hath wel boiled abate the fire vnder the Cauldron, till you haue taken of from it all the scumme which must be saued in a pot or other vessell. When you haue so done, make a good fire vnder the Cauldron to cause the water that is in the same to seeth or boyle quickly againe, and as the water shall diminish, or seethe away, put more of the said first water vnto the same, and (as you were before willed to do) scumme the said water and keepe the scumme. when the scumme shall be thicke,To know whē the maister water of Salt­peter is e­nough boyled. and hard, and of a French russet colour, take some water with the scummer out of the Cauldron, & let it drop vppon a peece of yron, for if the wa­ter be well and enough boyled, the droppes of water will congeale vppon the same yron, and if the said droppes doe not congeale, it is a signe that the water in the Cauldron is not boiled enough. When you shall perceiue by this signe that the water is well and enough boiled, take it of from the fire and preserue it, because it is the master water. So soone as you haue made an end of boyling the second water, you ought to boile and scumme the first wa­ter called water of the foote,To know whē the first water of Saltpeter called water of the foote, and wash of earth is e­nough boyled. How water of the foote and wash of earth when it is bur­ned, may be made good a­gaine. Salt peter wa­ter must be suffered to cō ­geale in a dan­kish, close, and darke place. and wash of earth, as you did the second water till it shall cast vp a scumme of a French russet colour, vnto which (if it shal happen to cleaue vnto the sides of the Cauldron) you must put of the other French russet scumme that was made, and saued by you before, to boyle with it, vntill the droppes of this water falling vppon yron wil con­geale. If this congealed water shall be very soft, it is a signe that the water in the Cauldron is not boyled enough, but if this congealed water shall be very hard, it is a signe that it is burned. To amend this fault which the very hard congealed water hath, and to make the same water good againe, put some freshe and cleare water thereunto, and then hauing ex­tinguished all the fire vnder the Cauldron, and made the same Cauldron to stand a slope, so that the lies and dregges (which being congealed are the very salt whereof Saltpeter is made) may not with any water runne ouer the brimmes of the vessell, you must (if you will make good Saltpeter) suffer the water to settle in the same vessell, and to congeale in a dan­kish, close, and darke place, and after the water which will not congeale hath for the space of two or three dayes dropped out of the vessell into some other tubbe, take the Saltpeter out of the saist vessell, and preserue the same water because it being the master water may af­terwardes be vsed when you shall haue neede of the master water.

The 3 Chapter. How you may make an excellent kind of artificiall Saltpeter of the flowre which groeth on walles: how Saltpeter water must bee boyled: howe you may knowe when Saltpeter water hath boyled enough: how Saltpeter water which is burned may bee made good againe: and how Saltpeter in his refining doth waste.

TAke of flowre which groeth on walles foure partes, of vnslaked Lime one parte: This one part of lime must bee well boyled in water ouer a fire, and after it hath boyled[Page 9]enough, it must be taken from the fire, and suffered to settle, and then it must be strained into another vessell. This done, put the same foure parts of the said flowre into such a halfe but, tubbe, hogshead, or other barrell as before you haue been willed to prepare for earth whereof Saltpeter shalbe made, & powre vppon the same flowre so much of the said strai­ned water which is named Lie, or Lime water, as will dissolue the same flowre. When the flower is dissolued, let the Lie or Lime water which hath dissolued the flower, droppe out at the bottome of the sayd vessell into another tubbe set vnder the same vessell, and boyle those droppes of Lie or Lime water ouer a fire, till they being put vppon yron wil congeale, and be of a temperate hardnesse, that is to say, neither too soft, nor too hard. It is a signe (as before I haue told you) that the water hath not boyled enough, when the congealed droppes are too soft, and it is a token that the water is burned when the congealed drops are too hard. But (as you haue learned) the water which is burned may be made good againe with a little fresh and cleare water put vnto it. After this Lie or Lime water is well and enough boyled, take it of from the fire, scumme it with a scummer, and doe vnto it all that you haue been taught in the precedent Chapter to doe vnto the Saltpeter water that first droppeth out of vessels filled with earth: So this Saltpeter will bee good with the first boyling, and serue for some vses without any other refining: But for to make gun­powder it ought to be refined againe though thereby it will waste a little.

The 4 Chapter. How good Saltpeter may be knowne.

PVT a handful of Saltpeter vppon an oken boord, or vppon a drie Walnut tree boord, lay vppon the Saltpeter a quicke cole of fire, and when the Saltpeter is well kindeled, take the cole away from it, for now if the Saltpeter be good, it will burne of it selfe, and ray much the table. But if the Saltpeter shall as it doth burne giue any crackes, it is a token that the same Saltpeter hath in it Salt, and that it was refined, for vnrefined Saltpeter will neuer cracke, and when many dregges do remaine vppon the table after the Saltpeter is so bur­ned, they shew that the same Saltpeter had much grease in it and that it was naught.

The 5 Chapter. How Saltpeter may be made to groe where none did groe before: and how earth which hath made Salt­peter may be made after the end of fiue or sixe yeeres to yeelde more Saltpeter than it did yeelde at the first time.

DIssolue Saltpeter in water, and wet well therewith a couered peece of ground where you will haue Saltpeter to groe, then suffer that peece of ground to lie still for a cer­taine space of time, and by so doing you shall see that the Saltpeter will groe and multiplie wonderfully in that place. Also it is truth if the earth which hath made Saltpeter be heaped vp in a couered place where no raine may fall vppon the same, that after the end of fiue or sixe yeres, you may labour the same earth againe, and finde in it more Saltpeter than it did yeeld at the first time.

The 6 Chapter. How Saltpeter meale is made: and how Saltpeter meale without any beating will serue among other materiall things to make gunpowder.

HAng a kettle with a wide bottome ouer a good fire and put into that kettle a conueni­ent quantitie of Saltpeter: when the Saltpeter shall begin to bloe, frie, and smoke, stirre it about the kettle with a woodden ladle, pulling backe the Saltpeter which shal shew white, and putting forward the other Saltpeter which hath not had so much fire as the said white Saltpeter, and cease not to stirre and mingle all the Saltpeter well together, so as it may not melt, vntill it shall waxe drie, and be like a comfette, for by so doing you shall take away out of the Saltpeter all the grease and Salt that was in it. Then powring so much water[Page 10]into the kettle as will couer all the Saltpeter that is in it, you must melt the same Saltpeter ouer a good fire, and sturre it well about the kettle with a bigge and rounde staffe, vntill it shall waxe drie againe, & be like meale, which without any beating will serue among other materiall things to make gunpowder.

The 7 Chapter. How Saltpeter may be refined with water by two sundrie wayes: and how Saltpeter refined with water ought to be dried.

The first waie to refine Salt­peter with wa­ter.TAke of the mixture made of Lime, Ashes, and Allum dissolued, whereof mention hath been made in the second Chapter of this booke and in the first way to make artificiall Saltpeter of earth, and into euery barrell of water that you haue put into the Cauldron for to dissolue the Saltpeter, powre sixe pots full of the strong water that is also mentioned in the said first way to make artificiall Saltpeter, and in the same quantitie of water so prepa­red, put so much Saltpeter as you thinke may well be dissolued: and with boyling make it to dissolue very well. Then seeing it in boyling to haue cast vp scumme, you shall take it out of the Cauldron, and put it into a tubbe, in the bottome whereof you must first put fine sand foure fingers thicknesse cleane washed, couered with a linnen cloth: and by a lit­tle hole made into the bottome of the tubbe, you shall suffer it to droppe by little and little in some other vessell set vnder to receiue it: and so this water thus strained, you must afterwards put into the very same, or into another Cauldron to boyle againe, and to make the greater part of the same water seethe away. Finally make it boyle so much vntill you shall see it readie to thicken, powring now and then into the same water a little of the aforesaid strong water, especially when it swelleth, & casteth vp scumme. This done, powre the said water out of the Cauldron into chestes, or other vessels of wood to congeale, which (though it shall be a great quantitie) within three or foure dayes will congeale. But if any part of that water doe not within that time congeale, then taking it out of the vessel boile it againe, & do it vnto all that you did before to the other water that is congealed. And so you must doe from time to time as it gathereth together, and congealeth: and by this meanes you shall make the Saltpeter most white, and faire, and much better than at the first seething.

The second way to refine Saltpeter with water.Saltpeter may also be refined with water in this manner: put Saltpeter with Lime well slaked into a cleane Cauldron, and powre vppon the Saltpeter and slaked Lime so much faire water or rather so much of the aforesaide Lie or Lime water, as will couer and lie foure ynches in heigth aboue the same Saltpeter, and slaked Lime. Moreouer make a good fire vnder the Cauldron, that the things in the same may quickly boile, and bee readie as scumme shal rise to take it away with a scummer. When you shal see that no more scumme will rise, then take the Cauldron from the fire, and setting it somewhat aslope, let the boi­led water coole, settle, and cleare in the same: if the boiled water will not waxe cleare by this meanes, put ashes into it, aad boyle the same water againe for a while. This done, take the Cauldron from the fire, & setting it aslope, sprinkle faire water vpon the boyled water, for by so doing you shall make the same water cleare. This water being cleare, must by lit­tle and little be powred into some other vessell so as the lies, dregges, or grounds may not goe out with the same:Saltpeter refi­ned with wa­ter ought to be dried a­gainst the Sun or with heate of fire. For of the water which lyeth aboue in the vessell, Saltpeter is made, and in the water at the bottome of the vessell, are the lies or dregges of Saltpeter. After you haue in this sort powred out the saide water into other vessels, and haue suffered the same for two dayes space (and more if need be) to congeale in the same vessels, you must take the same congealed water (which is Saltpeter) out of the vessels, and drie the same against the Sunne, or with heate of fire.

To know whē the water in which Saltpe­ter is refined hath boyled enough.After you haue taken the said Saltpeter out of the vessels in which it did congeale, boyle again ouer a good fire the vncongealed water which remaineth in the said vessels, & so long as this water doth boile, scumme it if it shall cast vp any scumme, & let this water boile vn­till the same water dropping vppon yron, stone, or such like things from a peece of wood put into the water will congeale: for then is that time to take it from the fire. Nowe this [Page 11]being done if you shall see a thinne skin to lie vppon the water, scumme the same away, and more doo vnto the same water all that you haue bin willed to doo vnto the other water which did before congeale into saltpeter.

Although this saltpeter made of the water which did lie in the bottome of the vessels is not so good as the Saltpeter which came of that part of water which did lie vppermost in the vessels, yet may it be made as good as the other with so much labour as you are willed to bestowe vppon the other, and by putting so much water vnto it as you did vnto the other, for through lacke of water it will be burned.

Saltpeter being thus refined with water will make good gunpowder:How Saltpeter refined with water ought to be dried in a Cauldron ouer a fire if it shall after­wards passe thorow a boul­ter or searse. But to drie this Saltpeter so as it may passe thorow a fine boulter or searse, put it into a Cauldron ouer a fire of Coles whereby the Saltpeter will yeeld a water, fall into the flowre, and melt, and being well stirred in a Cauldron that all the Saltpeter may feele the heate of fire, it will be a lumpe like a comfet. When you shall see that this Saltpeter is drie, take it from the fire, for through too long standing ouer the fire, it will yeeld moysture, loose his strength and bee a gumme when it is burned.

The 8 Chapter. How Saltpeter may be refined with fire: and how Saltpeter may be better refined with water than with fire.

SAltpeter in a little quantitie is refined with fire after this maner which although it be a readie way yet seldome times it is vsed, and albeit it serueth to get out the fatnesse of Saltpeter, yet for that it sendeth into the bottome very much earthie drosse, I like better the other wayes which teach you to purge it with water, than this with fire. But to refine Salt­peter with fire doe thus: Take an yron sallet, or some other yron, or brasen vessell, and fill it with Saltpeter, and couer it with a couer of yron, brasse, or earth, so that it be made bigge enough, meete to be taken of, and put on when you list, and so as the vessell being well co­uered, the heate within may not breath out. This vessell must be set in the midst of a good fire of coles, and so the Saltpeter will melt, which is soone perceiued of the expert artificer and workman. When you thinke that it is melted looke vppon it, and if it be not well mel­ted, couer it againe, and let it melt well: Then the Saltpeter being well melted, take Brim­stone most finely beaten in powder, and cast some thereon: and if of it selfe it take not fire, doe you kindle it, and being kindeled, let it burne till such time as the Brimstone bee all consumed, so that nothing els be burnt but the vpper part and certaine grosse vnctious­nesse of the Saltpeter, the which when it is burned, will leaue the rest faire and cleare: and then it must be taken from the fire letting it coole in the vessell where you shall finde it (af­ter the same is colde) all in one peece like a white peece of marble. All the earthy drosse thereof remaining in the bottome will be good Saltpeter to make gunpowder, but not ve­rie commendable to any other vse.

Some in steede of Brimstone doe burne the grosse vnctiousnesse of Saltpeter with quicke vnflaming coles of fire, but insomuch as the refined Saltpeter being so burned, looseth part of his force, as Girolamo Cataneo in his fift booke Dell'arte militare writeth) I will not coun­sell you to burne the grosse vnctiousnesse of Saltpeter with any Brimstone, or quicke vnfla­ming coles of fire.

The 9 Chapter. How you may sublime and purifie Saltpeter by two sundry waies.

TAke of Saltpeter refined drie one part, and of the scumme or off all of yron one part, sublime both these materiall things as you shall hereafter in the tenth chapter of this booke be taught to sublime Brimstone, and when you mill make gunpowder, or fireworks of sublimed Saltpeter and Brimstone, moisten them well with aqua vita. Also you may pu­rifie Saltpeter in this maner: Take for euery pound of Saltpeter a quart of good white wine, and putting them together in a pot ouer a fire, let them seeth till one fourth part thereof is sod away: then taking the pot from the fire, suffer the mixture which is nowe Saltpeter well purified to remaine in it till it be drie.

The 10 Chapter. How you may sublime Brimstone, Arsenike and salt Armoniake.

MElt your Brimstone ouer a sloe fire in a copper or cleane earthen vessell, and with a cleane ladle take away all the scumme or thinne skinne which will lie vppon the toppe of the same melted Brimstone. That done, straine the Brimstone remaining in the vessell into an other cleane pot thorow a thicke peece of canuasse, or thorow a thicke strainer, and keepe this strained Brimstone which hath been thus sublimed and purified for to serue in fine gunpowder, and fireworkes.

The thinne skinne or scumme which shall bee so taken away from melted Brimstone with a ladle, is the grease that Was in the melted Brimstone, and that which remaineth in the canuasse after the Brimstone is strained, is the refuse and earth of the Brimstone. Arse­nike and salt Armoniake are sublimed and purified in the same maner as Brimstone is sub­limed.

The 11 Chapter. How you may make Coles for gunpowder by foure sundrie wayes.

TO make Coles for gunpowder, fixe vppon the grounde fiue or sixe woodden staues of foure or fiue feete in heigth in the fourme of a round pyramis or taper circle which at the great and loest end must be one foote and a half or there about in widenesse. Binde round about the outsides of these staues in three or foure seuerall places bondes of toe, and then hauing in a readinesse a conuenient number of small, shorte, clouen, and drie stickes of young willoe bowes without any barke or rines, pyle within the said staues vp to their toppes the said stickes, which must be set vpright vppon their endes, and then couer the said pyle of stickes and the staues on the outside all ouer with wette strawe, and lay moist earth, durt, or clay three or foure ynches thicke hard pressed downe all ouer the straw: This done, winde round about in 4 or 5 places vppon the couer of clay good bigge bonds of toe, & make a small hole in the verie top & midle part of the said pyle of stickes, & thorow that hole put fire to the said pyle. After you shall vppon good aduisement thinke that the fire is kindeled in the pyle, & that it hath burnt well downwards halfe the way into the pyle, stoppe vp the said hole in the toppe, and with a round sticke so bigge as a mans finger, make diuers other holes as the fire shall burne downewards thorow the said couers of moyst clay,Note. and wette strawe, round about the aforesaide pyle for smoke to passe out at. When you shal see that no smoke doth come out at any of the holes, then the coles are bur­ned enough, and now to the end that they may not consume to ashes, you must close, and stoppe vp all the said holes, and beware to meddle any more with the saide pyle till all the Coles in the same are colde, which will be within one day or two after the Coles haue been burned enough.

The second way to make Coles for gun­powder.Also you may make Coles for gunpowder in this maner. Builde with Stone and Lime a round furnace like a round well, and in the bottome of this furnace leaue an open place or hole thorowe the wall two ynches square, and set fiue or six staues of wood in the midst of the furnace vpright vpon their endes in the fourme of a rounde pyramis or taper circle, and within those staues, pyle vp to their toppes small, short, clouen, & drie stickes of wood without any barke or rines, and hauing set the said stickes in that pyle vpright vpon their endes, couer the toppe of the sayd furnace all ouer with clay, or durt, leauing in the vpper­most part thereof a hole so bigge as a mans great finger for smoke to passe out at: and thorowe the saide hole in the bottome of the furnace put fire to the said stickes. When the fire hath well burned vpwardes to the middest of the pyle within the furnace, stoppe vp the said hole in the bottome of the furnace with a fitte stone well luted so as no smoke may come out at that lo [...]rmost hole.Note. This done, the said vppermost hole must also be stop­ped vp when you shall see that no smoke commeth out of the same hole, for the Coles in the[Page 13]said pyle being then burned enough, if any one of the saide holes should afterwards be left open, all the Coles in the said pyle would burne to ashes. Finallie, after the said holes haue been closed vp in this maner for the space of two dayes and two nights, you may vncouer the toppe of the sayde Furnace, and (the heate of the fire that was in the Coles being gone) pull away the stone below, and at your pleasure take all the Coles out of the Fur­nace.

To make a small quantitie of Coles for fine gunpowder,The third way to make coles for gunpow­der. take young Hasell wood of a yeere olde without any barke or rines, and hauing cut them in short peeces, put the same peeces into a great earthen pot, or into a vessell of yron, or brasse: and that pot or vessell being close shut and couered, lay lute or clay very well about the pot or vessell, so that it may not breath: then make fire rounde about the pot or vessell, and also vppon it, til such time as you shall vppon good aduisement thinke that the heate is well entred in through all partes of the vessell, and that the stickes within are well kindeled, and only through such heate without firebrandes or flame burned. After this the Coles within the pot or vessell being burned enough, take the fire from the pot or vessell, & suffer the Coles within the said pot or vessell to coole before you take them out.

Also you may make in hast a small quantitie of Coles for gunpowder in this maner;The 4 way to make coles for gunpowder. Take so many drie Hasell stickes cut in short peeces without any barke, or rynes, as will be sufficient to serue your purpose, and laying them close togeather on a heape set them a fire, and after you haue well burned them, sprinkle water vppon them with a broome till you haue quenched their fire, and in so doing scatter the Coles heere and there, that they being so with water throughly quenched may drie well againe.

The 12 Chapter. How you may make a mixture of Brimstone and quickesiluer for gunpowder: and how Brimstone which shall serue for gunpowder ought alwaies to be very drie, and without any fat.

MElt, scumme, and straine your Brimstone as before in the tenth Chapter of this booke you haue been taught: After this melt againe the same Brimstone, and then taking it from the fire put thereunto so much quicksiluer as you will, stirring them together with a sticke vntill they are incorporated. When you doe put quicke siluer into the melted Brimstone, hold your face so farre as you may from it,An admoni­tion. because if any quick­siluer, or Brimstone should leape vp out of the pot, & hit your face, it would doe you much hurt. Also you must vnderstand that the Brimstone which shal serue for gunpowder ought alwayes to be very drie, for that the fatte of Brimstone doth make dregges in gunpowder, and is offensiue to the Saltpeeter that is in any sort of gunpowder.

The 13 Chapter. How the makers of gunpowder doe mingle togeather the simples and materiall thinges of which they doe make gunpowder: and how gunpowder must be kept in drie vessels of wood, and laide in high roomes of houses: and how an emptie caske of wood ought to waie 12 poundes: and euery caske fil­led full of gunpowder ought to waie one hundred waight of Auer de poize waight: and how euery last of gunpowder ought to waye 24 hundred waight of the said Auer de poize waight.

SOme vse to waie euery of the simples and materiall things whereof gunpowder is made by it selfe, and afterwardes they do mingle, & beate all the same things togeather. Others hauing beaten and searsed euery simple wherof gunpowder is made by it selfe, doe mingle the same togeather. But the best & most readiest way is to put all the Saltpeeter which you will occupie into a Cauldron that must haue so much water in it as will (when the same is made hot with fire) suffice to dissolue the said saltpeter, which being so dissolued ought to be [Page 14]washed, and laid when it is washt vppon a cleane and firme place or peece of grounde. This done, beate the quantitie of Cole (which is to bee added vnto the mixture) into very fine powder, and putting the same powder vnto the dissolued Saltpeeter, stirre and incorporate them well togeather, and as you doe stirre and turne togeather with a staffe the Saltpeeter and Cole, you must cast vppon them a due quantitie of Brimstone finely beaten, and well searsed and continue in stirring of them togeather till the sayd Saltpeeter, Coles, and Brim­stone shall be well mingled. After this lay foorth that mixture to drie a little, and when the same mixture somewhat dried by beating the Cole till it bee subtile and inpalpable is made a very fine incorporate substance, sift it well thorow a S [...]eue, or rather a searse: then casting water and vineger vppon it, corne the gunpowder, and when you haue so done, drie it well againe, or after it is drie, put all the same gunpowder into cleane and drie vessels of wood, which ought to be laid in high roomes of houses where little comming is for other reasons than that it may lie there drie. And forsomuch as in England we do vse to put our gunpowder into woodden vesselles called Caskes,16 ounces doe make 1 pound of Auer de poize waight and 112 poūds doe make one hūdred waight of the same Auer de poize waight. note well that an emptie Caske of wood ought to waie twelue poundes, and that euery such Caske filled full of gun­powder ought to waie one hundred waight of auer de poize waight. Also note that 24 such Caskes of gunpowder are named a Last of gunpowder, and that euery Last of gunpouder ought to waie 24 hundred waight of the said auer de poize waight.

The 14 Chapter. How you may grinde or beate gunpowder by sixe sundrie waies: how gunpowder ought not to be bea­ten drie: and how you may know whether or no gunpowder is well beaten, or enough grounde.

MAny men doe grinde gunpowder in such milles as doe serue to grinde crabbes to make vergys, & appels to make sider. And some stamp the powder in a stone morter large in the mouth with a woodden pestell like vnto a hammer or maule. And some cause the powder to be stamped in morters with a water mill or a horse mill, which way is the best of all other and most surest: for the powder is thereby more finely beaten, and with lesse labour. Some which haue not the commoditie of water make a great wheele after such sort that the cogges thereof shall raise vppe many heauie pestels, which in falling downe doe beate the powder lying within diuers morters of wood made in a beame of Oke: Among which there bee some that haue their bottomes of brasse. Some stampe gunpowder with pestels which they holde in their handes, and tie to the ende of a poole with a corde right ouer a morter of wood, or brasse, and so they beate with lesse paine. And some grinde gunpowder with handmilles as they vse to grinde corne, which is a painefull and dangerous way,You shall kin­dle fire by rub­bing two Bay stickes togea­ther with vio­lence. An admoniti­on. because such a composition ground togeather with stones will soone catch heate, and bee a fiar, euen as by rubbing together with violence a couple of Bay stickes, you shall straight way kindle fire. Wherefore in grinding and beating gun­powder after this last way, or any other way, it behooueth all men to take heede that they doe not grinde or beate the same drie, but wet with water to a certaine degree of moist­nesse, so that taking it vp in one hand it may cling togeather. Some for this purpose doe moysten it with vineger, and some with Camphored aqua vitae, and they say that the pow­der will therewith be made more stronger. But neither vineger, nor aqua vitae, will be bet­ter than water to make gunpowder forceable and strong, because they vaporing away, little of their substance can remaine.

Note.By drawing gunpowder with your finger, and in like maner by breaking or cutting with a knife a part thereof you may know whether or no it is well and enough grounde or beaten. For if in the said broken part you shall see all blacke within, and no Saltpeeter, or Brimstone in the same, then vndoubtedly that sort of gunpowder is well and enough bea­ten. And contrariwise, if you shal perceiue any Saltpeeter or Brimstone within that broken or cut part, then it is certaine that the same sort of gunpowder is not beaten enough.

The 15 Chapter. How you may corne gunpowder.

FIrst prepare a Seeue with a bottome of thicke parchment made full of round holes, and then moystening the Gunpowder which shall be corned with water, put the same, and also a little bowle, into that Seeue, and when you haue so done, sift the powder so as the said bowle rolling vp and downe in the Seeue, may breake the cloddes of powder, and make the same powder by running through the holes of the Seeue to corne.

The 16 Chapter. How you may make diuers sorts of gunpowder: and how you may make gunpowder of diuers colours: and how you may abate the force of gunpowder: and how for want of aqua vitae and vineger to moi­sten gunpowder, you may vse the water of Saltpeeter, or if you will the vrine of a man: & how Mute gunpowder is of little force.

To make grosse gunpowder for great Ordinance.

1 Take of

  • Saltpeeter. 4 partes.
  • Fine Brimstone 1 part.
  • Cole of Willoe, Hasell or some other soft wood. 1 part.

out of euery pounde waight that is in the same part of Brimstone, take away one ounce of Brimstone, and then hauing beaten, and sifted thorow a Searse euery of the said materials, or simples by it selfe, you shall moysten them with very strong white Vineger, and incor­porate them togeather, for through that moystnesse the powder will be made more stron­ger, and beaten more finer:An admoniti­on. yet take heede that you doe not stampe this powder so much as you shall be willed to stampe the two sortes of gunpowder next following for hande­gunnes, because it may thereby be made too strong, and able to breake any great Peece of Artillerie that shall be charged with an ordinary charge thereof.

You may know whether or no this mixture is enough beaten by breaking or cutting a part thereof, for after you haue broken or cut a little part or peece of the powder, if you shall perceaue that the Brimstone is finely beaten, and that no Saltpeeter can bee seene within the same broken peece, then you may know that this mixture of gunpowder is enough beaten.

After this mixture hath been so beaten, sift it thorow a Seeue or searse to make it to corne, and all that part thereof which will not passe thorow a Seeue or searse beate againe in a morter, and by such meanes make it to passe thorow the Seeue or searse that it may also be corne gunpowder, which being dried will (as I haue tolde you before) be best kept in close and drie vesselles of wood.

To make fine gunpowder for Handgunnes.

2 Take of Saltpeeter fiue partes, of Coles made of young Hasell twigges or of the wood of a young Willoe tree one part, of Brimstone one part lacking one ounce in euery pounde waight that is in the same part of Brimstone:672 partes of this sort of gunpowder are equall in force to 720 parts of that sort of gun­powder which is before mar­ked with the figure of 1. beate during the space of sixe houres euery of the said simples and materiall thinges by it selfe into fine powder, and sift each of those powders by it selfe twise or thrise thorow a fine Seeue or searse, and then incorpo­rate them togeather. Moreouer hauing moystened the same mixture with strong vineger, you ought to beate it well againe, and in so doing to remember that the mixture is beaten enough when by cutting or breaking a peece thereof you shall see it all blacke within and no Saltpeter or Brimstone within the same. After the said mixture hath been enough bea­ten, fift it againe thorow a fine Seeue, and corne it that when it is drie, the same may be kept in vessels of wood for to charge Handgunes.

To make more finer gunpowder for Handgunnes.

3 Take of Saltpeeter sixe partes, of Cole made of the twigges or bowes of a Nut tree of one yeeres groth one parte, of Brimstone one part lacking one ounce in euery pounde waight that is in the same part of Brimstone:640 partes of this sort of gunpowder are equall in force to 672 parts of that sort of gun­powder which is before mar­ked with the figure of 2. beate euery of the said simples and materi­all thinges by it selfe into very fine powder, and sift each of those powders by it selfe three times at the least thorow a searse or fine Seeue, and remember alwaies to beate againe that powder which remaining in the searse or fine Seeue, can not passe thorow the same, to this end that euery part thereof may be sifted thorow the searse or fine Seeue. When you haue in this maner sifted all these powders thorow the searse or fine Seeue, mingle them togea­ther, and sift them againe altogeather thorow that searse or Seeue. This done, moysten the same mixture with strong vineger, or Saltpeeter water, and beate it in a morter of brasse vntill you may (as before hath been declared) see it all blacke within and no Saltpeeter, or Brimstone in the same. Moreouer after this mixture hath been beaten enough, prepare a fine Seeue, and place the same right ouer a course searse so as the part of this mixture which passeth thorow the Seeue and lieth vppon the searse may thereby be made corne powder, and so as the other part which shall passe thorow the course searse being afterwardes sifted againe thorow a more finer searse may be very fine and subtill powder.

If any part of this subtile powder which hath been so sifted thorow the course searse will not passe thorow the finer searse, then must the same part and also the other powder which could not bee sifted thorow the Seeue be beaten againe in a brasen morter, so as all the same powder may be in like maner sifted thorow the said fine searse, and being corned, and well dried, may with the rest of this sort of gunpowder be kept in close and dry vessels of wood.

To make fine corne powder for Handgunnes of that sort of grosse gunpowder wihch before in the be­ginning of this Chapter is marked with the figure 1.

4 Take what quantitie you will of the same grosse gunpowder which before in the be­ginning of this chapter is marked with the figure of 1. And hauing moistened the same sort of gunpowder with Saltpeeter water, or with strong vineger, or with faire water: beate it well in a morter, and sift it thorow a fine Seeue or searse. With euery pound of gunpowder mingle one ounce of Saltpeeter that hath been refined drie, well beaten, and sifted thorow a fine searse. And when you haue so done, beate and moysten this mixture againe vntill you shal see by breaking or cutting it with a knife that the same mixture is all black within, and that there is no signe of Saltpeeter, or Brimstone within the same mixture. Moreouer, corne the said gunpowder thorow a fine Seeue as before in the precedent chapter of this booke I haue taught you to do. After you haue dried this corne gunpowder, & taken away from it the fine and subtile powder, you may shoote this corned gunpowder in harchibuses and other handgunnes: Although in very deed it is not so strong in effect as is that sort of fine gunpowder which before in this chapter I haue marked with the figure of 2, by reason the Brimstone and the Cole in that sort of fine gunpowder are finely beaten, and that the Brimstone and Cole in this sort of gunpowder is grosly pounded.

To make an other sort of fine corne powder.

5 Take of Saltpeeter refined drie sixe parts, of Brimstone mingled with a little quicksil­uer that hath line in aqua vitae one part: when you haue mingled them wel together & sifted them thorow a fine Seeue or searse put thereunto of Coles made of an old Walnutte tree beatē into fine powder, & sifted in like maner thorow a fine Seeue or searse one part, & for euery nine pounds in waight of Saltpeeter put into this mixture ½ ounce of Campher, and then moystening the same things with aqua vitae or with strong vineger: beate them well and corne their powder.

The Coles for this composition after they haue been burned, and made in a pot couered al ouer with lute or clay (as I haue taught you in the 11 chapter of this booke, & in the 3 way to make coles for gūpowder) ought to be wel wet with aqua vitae while they are warme and after they are drie againe, to be beaten as aforesaid into fine gunpowder.

To make an other sort of fine come gunpowder.

6 Take of Saltpeeter sixe parts, of Brimstone one part, of Campher ½ part, beate, sift and incorporate all these things together as before you haue been taught to beat, sift & incor­porate other like materiall things, & after you haue so done, beate well this mixture againe, and hauing moystened it with aqua vitae or with strong white vineger, corne the powder.

If you shall want at any time aqua vitae and Vineger to moisten the powder which you will make, you may in steade of aqua vitae and vineger vse the water of Saltpeeter, or if you will the vrine of a man.

To make gunpowder which will take fire and burne in a moist place and in wet weather.

7 Take of saltpeeter refined drie fiue parts, of Coles made of a Filbert or Nut tree one part, of nwe vnslaked Lime one part, of Campher ½ part: beate and sift thorow a fine seeue euerie materiall thing that is aboue rehearsed for this composition by it selfe, and that done, incorporate them together. This sort of gunpowder so made and very well beaten will take fire, and burne in any moyst place, and in wet and rainie weather.

To make gunpowder which by long keeping shall not decay in qualitie, nor consume in quantitie.

8 Take what quantitie you will of gunpowder, and after it hath been well beaten, well moistened with aqua vitae, and well mingled, make thereof round baules or pellettes: and when you haue so done, dry them in the Sunne, or in a hotte place, and put them into a nea­led vessell, for (as Girolamo Cataneo writeth) they (I meane the said pellets of gunpowder so kept) will neuer decay in qualitie, nor consume in quantitie.

To make an other sort of corne gunpowder.

9 Take of Saltpeeter twelue parts, of Coles made of the wood or tree called Tilia, or of Iuniper three partes, of Brimstone two partes, and ¼ of a part: pound all these things well, and mingle them togeather, and then moystening this mixture, corne the same thorow a fine Seeue or searse.

To make white gunpowder,

10 Take of Saltpeeter refined drie 6. parts, of Brimstone sublimed or purged one part, of powder of a firre tree well dried in an hot ouen one part, sift all these materiall things thorow a fine Seeue, moysten them with aqua vitae, beate them well in a morter with a cleane pestell, and then incorporate them togeather.

To make redde gunpowder.

11 Take of saltpeeter refined dry sixe parts, of Brimstone sublimed or purged one part, of Amber ½ part, of redde saunders one part: sift all these thinges thorow a fine Seeue or searse, moysten them with aqua vitae beate them well in a morter with a cleane pestell, and incorporate them togeather.

To make gunpowder of an azure colour.

12 Take of Saltpeeter refined drie sixe parts, of Brimstone sublimed or purged one part, of Spike or Lauender dried in a hot ouen ½ part: beate and sift euery materiall thing in this composition by it selfe, and incorporate them togeather as you haue been taught to incorporate the other sortes of gunpowder.

To make a strong kinde of gunpowder and to abate the strength of any kinde of gunpowder.

13 Take of good gunpowder twelue partes, of quicksiluer one part, of the marchasite stone one part, of the hearbe Colophonia one partpound al these things wel, & then min­gle them togeather for to vse. This kinde of gunpowder is of so great force as that it wil cause any peece of Artillerie full charged therewith to breake in peeces with a great noyse, & therby put them in danger of their liues that shalbe then neare vnto the same peece. But whosoeuer doth put into this kinde of gunpowder 24 parts of burned paper, or so much [Page 18]of hay seede very well pounded, and mingle well the same burned paper or hay seed with the said gunpowder, shall so abate the force of that powder, as that it will not make so ve­hement a flame, nor giue so great a bloc as otherwise it would haue done. with this kinde of gunpowder the ingenious Gunner may doe wonderfull experiments.

To make an other kinde of gunpowder.

14 If you mingle three poundes of good gunpowder, and one pound of Brimstone, and Greeke pitch togeather, you shall make a kinde of gunpowder which will bee a fire quickly, and burne very vehemently.

A censure of Mute gunpowder.

15 Mute gunpowder was first inuented (as Brasauolus saith) by a Duke of Ferrara and insomuch as it will make no noyse when it shall be shot out of a peece, the saide powder is named Mute gunpowder: and some men fearing it more than any other sort of gunpow­der, doe iudge the same powder an vnlawfull thing to bee vsed. But knowing by the rea­sons alleaged in the first booke and 22 Colloquie of Nicholas Tartaglia his Colloquies, that it is an impossible thing for gunpowder of any force to make no noise when it shalbe shot out of a peece: Also considering that diuers Authours, namely Hieronymus Cardanus, and Ioan: Iacobus Weckerus doe affirme in their bookes that Mute powder is alwaies of so litle force as that it will shoote a pellet scarse twelue paces from the mouth of his peece, I esteeme that feare of Mute powder as a vaine conceite, and doe verily beleue vnder refor­mation that Mute gunpowder which (as before you haue heard) is weake in force, and not much hurtful in effects, may among all men of vnderstanding be more tollerable then any other sort of gunpowder.

The 17 Chapter. To renue and make good againe any sort of gunpowder that hath lost his strength or vertue by moisture long lying, or by any other meanes.

WHen you haue dried all the gunpowder which shall be renued, put so much there­of as you will into a canuasse sachell or linnen bagge, and then tying a corde very hard about the mouth of the bagge, thrust the same into a cleane Cauldron, and powre so much water into the Cauldron as will couer the bagge: this done, make the water to boile in the Cauldron till a droppe of it laid vppon yron or stone will congeale, and while the water boyleth, remember to scumme it as neede shall require. After this remoue the Caul­dron from the fire, and setting it a slope let that bagge drop into the Cauldron, and when you shall see that the water in the Cauldron is cleare, poure it out by little and litle into an other vessell, so as no lies, or dregges may runne out with the water into the same vessell, because the water must there congeale. After the water is congealed take the Saltpeeter out of the vessell, and as you did before boyle and scumme the water which shall then re­maine in the said vessell till a droppe of it laid vpon yron or stone will congeale. Also doe vnto it all that you did before vnto the congealed water, and let it not greeue you to worke thus so long as any saltpeter may by this meanes bee founde in the vncongealed water.

The saltpeeter and Brimston which were within the said bagge did dissolue and soke in­to the boyling water, yea the dissolued saltpeter turned into water, & the dissolued brim­stone sunke downe to the bottome of the water where you may finde it: But the coles which were mingled with the said dissolued saltpeter and brimstone remaine still within the bagge among the lies and dregges of the decayed gunpowder: therefore when you haue gathered together by the meanes aboue rehearsed all the saltpeter that was in the sayd boyling water, and haue well dried the said saltpeter, brimstone, and coles, poise euery of them by it selfe, and then seeing how much the part of saltpeeter so gathered doth want of the quantitie which it should haue for the sayd parts of cole, and brimstone, adde there­unto the portion of saltpeeter which wanteth: That done, beate, mingle, and incorporate them together as you haue bene taught to beat, mingle, and make nwe gunpowder.

The 18 Chapter. How you may by taste, feeling, colour, and burning, know good and il gunpowder: and how among many sortes of gunpowder, you may know the best sorte of gunpowder.

GVnpowder that hath so mylde a taste as that you shall scant feele it on your tongue, is of good receite and well wrought.

By how much gunpowder is in feeling more harder, by so much it is more better.

Gunpowder of a fayre azure or french russet colour is very good, and it may be iudged to haue all his receites well wrought, and sufficient of the master well refined.

Lay 3. or 4. cornes of gunpowder vppon a white peece of paper, the one three fingers distant from the other, and put fire to one of them: Now if the gunpowder be good and strong you shall see them all at one time a fire, and that there will remayne no refuse or grosenesse of brimston, or of saltpeeter, nor any other thing except a white smokie colour in the place where they were burned, neither will the paper be burnt or defiled therewith.

If good gunpowder be layde vppon the palme of your hande, and set on a fire, it will not burne your hande.

Gunpowder that hath a very sharpe taste, hath abundance of the master not wel refined, and will geue againe.

If white knottes, or knottes of a french russet colour, shall remayne after gunpowder is set on a fire, it is a signe that the saltpeeter in that sorte of gunpowder was not wel refined, but lefte full of salte, and grease, especially when the same knottes shall hisse in burning, be dankish, and leaue moysture in the place where the gunpowder was burned.

If harde, dry, and white knottes, or pearles, shall remayne after gunpowder is set on a fire, it is a signe that this sorte of gunpowder was not well wrought:An admoni­tion. And it behooueth e­uery Gunner to beware of such gunpowder, because if it doe lie long dry in a peece, it will waxe so fine with long and dry lying, that if you take it not out of the peece, it will in his discharge with fire put the same peece in danger of breaking.

If small black knottes (which will burne downwards in the place where proofe is made) shall remayne after gunpowder is set on a fire, they doe shewe that the same sorte of gun­powder hath not enough of the maister, and that it is of little force or strength and slowe in fiering.

If a little heape of gunpowder set in a fire doth make a noyse, rise vp with great speede, and yeelde little smoke, it is a signe that the saltpeeter in that heape of gunpowder was well refined, and well wrought, and that the materials in the sayde heape were well incor­porated.

If the flame of fiered gunpowder shall rise vp slowly, continue long, make little noyse, & yeelde much smoke, it is a signe that the same gunpowder had in it much cole & brimston, and a little quantitie of saltpeeter.

If gunpowder burned vppon a boorde shall black the same boorde, it is a signe that too much cole was in the same gunpowder.

When gunpowder is moyste, or full of the earth of saltpeeter, it is naught for to be shot out of great ordinance, because it putteth him in perill which shooteth with the same, & in time of neede, shaming the Gunner which doth occupie it, serueth to no effect.

If gunpowder be very black, it is a signe that it was made with very much cole, or that it is moyste, and when you rubbe it vppon a peece of white paper, it will black the same pa­per more than it should doe.

Among many sortes of gunpowder to know which sorte is best, make a little heape of e­uery sorte of gunpowder, and then setting those heapes one from another, marke well when you put fire vnto them which of the heapes did soonest take fire: For that sorte of gunpowder which will soonest be a fire, make least smoke, & leaue least refuse, is the best gunpowder.

The 19 Chapter. To make diuers sortes of gunmatches, and other matches, which will serue to discharge great & small peeces of artillerie, and geue fire to trunkes, pykes, mines, dartes, arrowes, & all other firewoorkes.

Make small ropes or cordes of bumbas, or of cotton wooll, put the same into an earthen pot or pan which must haue in it so much strong vineger or rather aqua vitae, brimstone, and saltpeeter, or in steade of saltpeeter, grosse gunpowder, mingled together, as will couer the same ropes, and seeth all those things together in the same pot ouer a fire vntill the aqua vitae, brimstone, and saltpeeter, or grosse gunpowder shall waxe thicke and incorporate, and then pull the same ropes well soked in that composition one after another out of the pot, and hang one of them from another vppon a pole to dry in the sunne, so as when they are thorow dry you may winde or role them vp for gunmatches to geue fire vnto great & smal peeces of artillerie, mynes, trunkes, pikes, dartes, arrowes, pottes, hollow pellettes, and all other firewoorkes.

An other way to make Gunmatches.

Take cordes made of hempe that is not very fine, or of toe which is better, although it will sooner consume, and let euery corde be so big as a mans great finger. Also choose such cords for this purpose as are nor much wreathed, this done boyle the same cords in strong lie, ashes, and a little of saltpeeter til all the lie shal be consumed.

An other way to make Gunmatches.

Take cordes made of toe, and beate them with a woodden hammer vppon a quicke stone. [...]unmatches [...]hich will [...]rne in moyst [...]aces, in wa­ [...]r, vnder snoe [...]d yce. [...]ou may also [...]arne to [...]ake an vn­ [...]enchable [...]nmatch by [...]e lxxxviii. [...]hapter of [...]is appendix. [...]atches [...]hich will [...]ne & con­ [...]me very [...]ickly, and [...]rne his [...]ote that shal [...]ade vppon [...]em. Also take of turpentine, nwe waxe, and common oyle, of each an equall parte, couer and boyle the cordes in the turpentine, waxe, and oyle, till the sayd liquide composition shall be consumed, and then take the cordes out of the vessel in which they did boyle, and beate them againe a little, and when you haue so done, suffer them to dry in the shadowe. This sorte of gunmatches will preserue fire in any moyste place, and also in water and vn­der snoe and yee.

An other way to make matches, which wil serue to geue fire to trunkes, pottes, pikes, darts, arrows, hollow pellettes, and al other such like fireworkes.

Take cordes made of three or fourethreedes of bumbas spinned coursely, boyle them in a nwe nealed pot filled full of strong white vineger, till all the vineger shalbe consumed, then take the cordes out of the pot, wring them, and dry them in the shadow, or at the fire if you haue haste to vse them. You may also boyle the same cordes in saltpeeter water, or in cleere lie and saltpeeter, and when you haue so done, you must wring the moysture out of them: that done you must wet them in aqua vitae, and after wring them againe lightly, & then role them in fine gunpowder, and suffer them to lie in fine gunpowder till they are dry.

A match thus made doth burne and consume very quickly, because it hath beene wet in aqua vitae, wherefore you must not wet your match in aqua vitae if you wil not haue it to burne and consume very quickly. Also one of these matches after it hath beene thrice boyled in saltpeeter water, or in cleere lie and saltpeeter, thrice wet in aqua vitae, and thrice roled in fine gunpowder, will burne your foote if you shall happen to treade vppon it.

The 20. Chapter. To make touchwood and tinder for a Gunners Tinder boxe.

TAke those great things which are called olde Todestooles growing at the bottomes of nuttrees, beechtrees, okes, and such other like trees, drye them with the smoke of fire, & then cut them into so many peeces as you will, and hauing well beaten them, boyle thē in stronglie with waule floure, or saltpeeter, till all the lie shal be consumed. After this lay­ing them in a heape vppon a boorde, drie them in an ouen which must not be made verie hotte, and after you haue so done, beate them well with a woodden mallet, and when you shall haue cause to vse any parte of those To destooles (now by the meanes aboue declared made touchwood) rubbe well that parte betweene your handes for to make it softe, and apte to take fire. But when you will make tinder for a Gunners tinder boxe, take peeces of fustian, or of olde and fine linnen clothe, make them to burne and flame in a fire,[Page 21]& suddenly before the flame which is in thē doth die, choke their fire, & keepe their tinder so made in a boxe lined within with clothe, to the ende it may not be moyste at any time.

The 21 Chapter. To make a stone which being wette with water, or spittle, will flame and be a fire, and serue to light can­dles, and gunmatches, in such places where by reason of rayne, or other moysture, you can not light candles, or matches by any other meanes.

PVt a loadestone into a pot, or other like vessel, then fill the same pot or vessell with Colo­phonia and vnquenched or vnslaked lime, so as the sayde stone may lie buryed in the same Colophonia and lime. After this set the sayd pot close stopped with potters clay, or with that kinde of clay which is called Lutum sapientiae, in a hotte furnace, vntil it be throughlie baked, and then hauing taken the sayde pot out of the furnace, put the sayde loadestone, Colophonia, and vnslaked lime in an other pot, and set this pot likewise stopped with the sayd potters clay, or with the clay named Lutum sapientiae, in a hotte furnace, and doe this so many times togeather one after an other, till the sayd stony mixture shall be made very white, and be dry burned, for then the sayde stone is perfect, and being wette with water or spittle wil flame and be a fire: This stone being agayne quenched, must be kept in a hotte or warme place, and it is a needefull thing for many purposes though in this place I doe teach you to make the same for no other cause than to light your candles, and gunmat­ches, and to kindle fire in such places where by reason of rayne, or other moysture you can­not light, nor kindle such things by any other meanes.

2 An other way to make a like stone, which being well wette with water or spittle, will flame and be a fire.

Take of quicke brimston and of saltpeeter refined, of each a like quantitie, of camphire, double so much as you tooke of brimstone or saltpeeter, whereunto adde nwe lime made of the stone before mentioned in the first way of this Chapter: Beate all these thinges to­geather in a morter vnto so fine powder as you may possiblie doe. Then the sayd powder being straightly wrapped and bound harde together in a linnen clothe, must be put into an earthen vessel closely stopped with potters clay, or with clay named Lutum sapientiae, af­ter the same shalbe well dryed with the heate of the sunne, set the sayde vessell in a potters furnace for so long time as his pottes are baking and when the pottes are baked (wherein you must be very circumspect) take your sayde vessel out of the furnace, and vse the stone which you shall finde in the vessell made of the sayde powder, as you haue before beene taught to vse the stone mentioned in the first way of this Chapter.

3 An other way to make a like stone, which being wette with water or spittle, will flame & bee a fire.

Take of the stone which you haue learned to make in the first way of this Chapter, one pound, of saltpeeter oftentimes refined fowre poundes, of camphire, quicke brimstone which hath neuer beene set ouer a fire oyle of turpentine, and tartar, of each of these a like quantitie: Beate all these things togeather in a morter, vntil you haue made thereof a fine powder: Then sifte the same powder thorow a very fine seeue or searse. If any parte of that powder shall be so grosse beaten, as that it wil not goe thorowe, but remayne in the seeue or searse, you must put againe that remaynder into the morter, and hauing beaten it into fine powder, sifte the same thorow the sayde seeue or searse vppon the other powder: After this put all the same things into a glasse, and powre vppon the same mixture so much burning water made of sower wine, as will drowne and couer it: When you haue so done, stoppe the mouth of the glasse with potters clay, or with Lutum sapientiae, that no ayre may come out of the glasse: Then bury the sayde glasse in dung for 2. or 3. monethes space, and at euery 10. dayes ende during that time take the glasse out of the dung, and hauing sha­ken well together the sayde thinges which are in the sayde glasse, bury the same glasse in fresh dung, that the mixture in the same dung may incorporate, waxe thicke like hony, and appeare to be a substance made of one thing. All this being done, set the sayde glasse ouer a hotte fire, vntill all the moysture within the same shalbe cleane dryed vp, and the mixture within the glasse shall be turned into a stone. After a stone is so made of that mixture, breake the sayde glasse, and take the sayde stone out of it, and when you will vse this stone to light your candle, or gunmatch, or to kindle a fire, beate some of it into powder[Page 22]which being wette with spittle, or water, will flame and be a fire. This kinde of stone (as Ioan Baptista Porta, and Iacobus Weckerus haue written) is to be commended aboue all o­ther stones, which being wette with water or spittle wil kindle and flame.

4 An other way to make a like stone, which being wette with water or spittle, will flame and be a fire.

Take quicke lime and saltpeeter refined diuers times dry, Tutia Alexandrina vnprepa­red calaminte stone as much of the one as of the other, quick brimstone, and camphire, of each of thē 2 parts: beate all these things into very fine powder, & hauing sifted this pow­der thorow a seeue or searse, binde it vp hard within a nwe peece of linnen clothe, and put it (I meane the powder so bound) into a couple of Goldsmithes crosettes, or melting pots and set one of them vppon the other, mouth to mouth, bynding them fast with wire, and couering them all ouer where neede shall require, with Lutum sapientiae, so that it may take no manner of ayre: This done drie them in the sunne till the powder within the sayd cro­settes shall be yeallowe, and then set the crosettes in a furnace of bricke, or lime, and leaue them there till the fire in the sayd furnace shall be extinguished, and then taking the sayde crosettes out of the furnace, you shall finde within them a stone, which (when you shall vse of it for to light a match, or candle, or to kindle a fire) you must wette with water or spitle, and put it to your match, or candle: And when you will quench your stone agayne, you shall blowe it out as you will blowe out a candle.

5 An other way to make a like stone which being wette with water or spittle, will flame and be a fire.

Take the Loadestone that hath vertue to drawe yron to him on the one side, and to put it away on the other side, put the same stone into a potte leaded, and put to it 4. poundes of pytch, and one pounde of brimstone: then lute and lay claye well vppon the potte, & setting it in a furnace, geue it a small fire for the space of a day and a night, but aug­ment the fire in the seconde day, and in the thirde day more, vntill the stone be a fire. After the stone is a fire, and hath in such manner burned, you shall quench it, and suffer it to coole, and keepe it safe to vse, for the stone is now prepared, and wetting it with water or spittle, you may make it flame, and be a fire, to light your candle or gunmatch.

The 22 Chapter. How you may make a stone which being wette with aqua vitae, wil kindle and flame: and how you may make an other stone, which being rubbed well with a woollen clothe, will suddenly burne.

TAke of drie gumme of a pyne tree, of quick brimstone, camphere, and calaminte stone, of each one dramme, beate all these things into powder, & adde vnto that powder of Tutia Alexandrina whole, and vnprepared, two drammes. That done, thrust all these things mingled together into a canuas bagge, which must be well and harde bound round about, then fill a potte halfe full with powder of vnslaked lyme, and lay the bagge and the con­fection that is in it vppon the sayde lyme. After you haue so done, powre vppon the sayde bagge vp to the brimmes of the potte more powder of vnquenched lyme, and then stop­ping the mouth of the potte with Lutum sapientiae, so as no ayre may breathe out of it, put the sayde potte (after the Lutum sapientiae is thorow drie) into a glasse furnace, and suffer it to lie there close couered by the space of two dayes and two nights. In fine take the sayde potte out of the furnace, and breaking it in peeces, keepe the congealed stone which you shall finde in the potte, to light your gunmatch and candles when neede shall require: For this stone being wette with a droppe of aqua vitae, will flame and be a fire. But to make a stone which being rubbed well with a woollen clothe shall suddenly burne, take of the Ca­laminte stone, brimstone, vnslaked lyme, pytch, ceruse, of each of these three drammes, of camphere one dramme, of asphaltum three drammes, beate all these thinges into pow­der, and put the same powder into a strong potte well stopped with lute, and after make a[Page 23]fire vnder the potte, encreasing the same by little and little vntill the powder in the potte shall be so harde as a stone, then if you will haue it burne to light your gunmatch or to kin­dle a fire, rubbe it well with a clothe, and by so doing you shall make this stone to burne suddenly. But when you will put out the fire that is in the stone, spitte vppon it and after­wardes set it in a moyste place, for by such meanes this burning stone may be quenched.

The 23. Chapter. How you may know the diameter or heigth of a pellet by the circumference of the same pellet: And how by the diameter and waight of one pellet you may finde the diameter of any other pellet that is of a knowen waight and of like substance: and how a hundred waight of pellettes doth containe 112. poundes: and how a tunne of pellettes doth contayne twenty hundred waight of pellettes.

MVltiplie the circumference of any pellet by 7, deuide the product by 22, and note the quotient for the diameter of the same pellet. As for example,In the 9. Colloquie of the second booke of Nich. Tar­taglia you may learn by knowing the diame­ter & waight of one pellet, to know the waight of any other pellet whose diame­ter is knowen. multiplie 44. the cir­cumference of a pellet by 7, and thereof commeth 308, which deuided by 22 will yeelde in the quotient 14 for the diameter of the same pellet. But when you will know by the dia­meter and waight of one pellet, the diameter of an other pellet that is of a knowen waight and of like substance, waye any one pellet, and measure the heigth or diameter of the same, then note in some booke for your better remembrance the sayd diame­ter and waight, for by knowing the diameter & waight of that one onely pellet, you may finde at all times the diameter of any other pellet that is of a knowē waight and of like substance. And to the ende you may learne to doe the same, let it be supposed that to answere this questiō, what is the diameter of that yron pellet which wayeth 125. poundes in auer de poize waight? I doe peruse my memoriall, & finding there that a pellet of yron of fiue ynches & 299/413 of an ynche in diameter doth waye 27 pounds in auer de poyze waight,The quātities compared to­gether are called the termes of the proportion, & in some writers the first terme namely, that which is com­pared is called the antece­dent whether it be equall, greater, or lesse than the other: and the second terme namely that whereunto the compari­son is made, is called the con­sequent. But in Arithmetike Boetius & o­ther writers call the terme compared dux & the terme to whome the comparison is made they call Comet. I say that as the cubes are in triple proportion to the sides: so are the proportions of the sides to be founde by seeking the cubike rootes of the two termes of the proportion. Wherefore I doe first set downe the termes of the proportion of the pellettes thus, 125/27, and I doe set the cubike roote of 125 which is 5, and the cubike roote of 27 which is 3 in the roome of the two others thus 5/3. These two numbers doe declare the proportion betweene the diameters of the two pellettes, of which one that is the lesser is knowen to be fiue ynches and 299/4 [...]3 making by reduction 2364/413 therefore I multiplie that fraction 2364/413 by 5, the cubike roote of 125, whereof commeth 11820/413 and this number of 11820/413 I doe deuide by 3 the cubike roote of 27 which geueth 11820/1239 making by reduction 9 ynches and 223/413 of an ynche: Whereuppon I conclude that if 5 ynches & 299/413 of an ynche be the diameter to a pellet of 27 poundes in waight, then 9 ynches and 223/413 of an ynche shal be the diameter to the pellet of 125 poundes in waight, and that after this sorte by the diameter and waight of one pellet, you may finde out the diameter of any other pellette that is of a knowen waight, and of like substance. But fearing that the vnlearned Gun­ners (who commonly esteeme all that for naught woorth which they can not vnderstand) will iudge it a combrous, paynefull, and needelesse labor to seeke for the diameters of pel­lettes by any of the sayde two wayes, I doe here presente vnto them two tables, of which one (made by a currant pellet of yron in diameter 4 ynches, and 9 poundes 3 ounces in waight) sheweth the diameters and waightes of 40 sundrie yron pellettes, and the other (made by a currant kentish stone pellet of 3 ynches and 12/13 of an ynche in diameter, and of 2 poundes 15 ounces, and ½ ounce in waight) expresseth the diameters and waights of fourty sundry kentish stone pellettes, and haue set downe for those which are yet vn­taught this rule, that a hundred waight of pelletes doth containe 112 poundes in auer de poize waight, and that a tunne of pellettes wayeth 20 hundred waight, I meane auer de poize waight.

[depiction of the measuring of the diameter of a pellet]

[Page] [Page]

A Table of the Diameters and waights of 40. sundrie currant pellets of yron.
The diameters or heigths of yron pellets.The waights of currant yron pellets according to the olde auer de poyze waight of England.
YnchesParts of an ynche Hūdred waightParts of an hundred waight.PoundsOuncesDrammesScruplesGrainesParts of a graine.
10 0002212½
1¼ 0004321341/128
1½ 000760015/16
1¾ 0001221891/128
20 00123000
2¼ 00110101821/128
2½ 00237069/16
2¾ 0021560871/1 [...]8
30 00314007½
3¼ 0041462697/128
3½ 006232911/16
3¾ 0079021981/128
40 00930000
4¼ 00110211413/128
4½ 001312155/16
4¾ 001504216127/128
50 0017150212½
5¼ 002012221525/128
5½ 0023141087/16
5¾ 00274501575/128
60 0¼301000
6¼ 0¼706055/128
6½ 0¼11660141/16
6¾ 0¼162301055/128
70 0¼2136117½
7¼ 0¼2611201881/128
7½ 0½4872173/16
7¾ 0½1013101667/128
80 0½1780000
8¼ 0½2495210125/128
8½ 0¾42411213/16
8¾ 0¾122528111/128
90 0¾2010312½
9½ 101962179/128
9½ 10111201515/10
9¾ 1021070259/128
100 1¼387000
10¼ 1¼1493211117/128
10½ 1¼2627119/10
10¾ 1½105301239/128

[Page]

A Table of the Diameters and waights of 40. sundrie currant pellets of Kentish stone.
The diameters or heigths of Kentish stone pellets.The waights of currant Kentish stone pellets according to the olde auer de poyze waight of England.
YnchesParts of an ynche Parts of an hundred waight.PoundsOuncesDrammesScruplesGrainesPartes of a grayne
10 000601782173/152651
1¼ 001401795159/170808
1½ 00250142288/4913
1 0041233414264/4244832
20 00621042 [...]60/44217
2¼ 0087216323/19652
2½ 001221013450/44217
2¾ 010221353921/176868
30 015121596255/132651
3¼ 01110022055108/2122410
3½ 0215210230640/530604
3¾ 0293213558846/1061208
40 03222728561/44217
4¼ 03123087/30
4½ 047511076140/132051
4¾ 054211032965/176 [...]08
50 06222219166/44217
5¼ 07162214091/19652
5½ 08270619408/442 [...]7
5¾ 095419173/176868
60 0109715106785/132651
6¼ 01200112134157/5 [...]0804
6½ 01380136599 [...]/88434
6¾ 01517115729270/1061208
70 0161362363327/132651
7¼ 0181161291739/176868
7½ 020117081046/4913
7¾ 0221411151361000/1414944
80 02526117403/44217
8¼ 027952194547/19052
8½ ¼231055/9
8¾ ¼415001595825/176868
90 ¼7134042908/4913
9¼ ¼101450819051/176868
9½ ¼14240121713/44217
9¾ ¼1791102825/19652
100 ¼212511922677/44217
10¼ ¼24151114152903/17686 [...]
10½ ½01452197659/132651
10¾ ½512115615640/1414944

[Page]

The 24 Chapter. How you may measure the circumference of any rounde pellet, or sphericall bodye, by three sundry wayes.

method 1 MVltiplie the diameter of any pellet or sphericall body by 22, deuide the product by 7, and note the quotient number for the measure of the circumference of the same pellet or sphericall body: as for example, if you will know the circumference of a pellet of 14 ynches in diameter, multiplie 14 in 22 and thereof commeth 308, deuide this number of 308 by 7, and the quotient number will geue you 44 ynches for the measure of the circumference of that pellet. method 2 Likewise by tripling the diameter of any rounde pellet or sphericall body, and adding thereunto 1/7 parte of the sayde diameter, you shal knowe the measure of the circumference of the same pellet: as for example, triple 14 the diameter of a supposed pellet, and so the product thereof will be 42, adde 2 for 1/7 of 14 vnto 42 the triple of 14, and so you shall finde in the totall summe 44 for the measure of the circum­ference of that pellet. method 3 Also looke how many times 7 is in the diameter of a round pel­let or spherical body, so many times 22 is in the circumference of the same pellet or sphe­ricall body: as for example, the supposed pellet is in diameter 14 ynches, and forsomuch as in 14 there is twise 7, therefore I conclude that twise 22 which maketh 44 is in the measure of the circumference of the sayde pellet.

The 25 Chapter. How you may measure the superficies of any rounde pellet or sphericall body by three sundrie wayes.

method 1 MVltiplie the circumference of any pellet or sphericall body by the diameter of the same pellet, and note the producte for the superficiall measure of that pellet or sphericall body: as for example, the supposed pellet being 14 ynches in diameter, and 44 ynches in circumference, multiplie 44 by 14, and note the product, which is 616 ynches for the superficiall measure of the same supposed pellet. method 2 Likewise if you multiplie the square of the diameter of any pellet or sphericall body, by 22/7 you may note the product for the superficiall measure of the same pellet or sphericall body: as for example, the sup­posed pellet being in diameter 14 ynches, multiplie 196 the square of 14 by 22/7 and the product thereof will be 4312/7 making by reduction 616 ynches, which doe expresse the superficiall measure of the same supposed pellet. method 3 Also by deuiding the square of the cir­cumference of any pellet or sphericall body by 22/7 you shall finde in the quotient number the superficiall measure of the same pellet or sphericall body: as for example, 1936 being the square of 44 which is the circumference of the supposed pellet, must be deuided by 22/7 and so the quotient number will be 13552/22 making by reduction 616, which sheweth the superficiall measure of the same supposed pellet.

The 26 Chapter. How you may measure the solide content or crassitude of any rounde pellet or sphericall body by three sundry wayes.

method 1 MVltiplie the cube of the diameter of any pellet or sphericall body by 11, deuide the product thereof by 21, and note the quotient number for the solide content or cras­situde of that pellet or sphericall body: as for example, multiplie 2744 the cube number of 14 (which is the diameter of the supposed pellet) by 11, & so thereof will come 30184, de­uide the sayde number 30184 by 21, and the quotient number shal be 1437 and ⅓ which sheweth the solide content of the supposed pellet. method 2 Likewise if you wil multiplie the square [Page 24]of the circumference of any pellet by 49, and diuide the product thereof by 66, you shal haue in the quotient number the solide content or crassitude of that pellet: as for exam­ple, multiplie 1936 the square of 44 (which is the circumference of the supposed pellet) by 49, and the product thereof will be 94864, which diuided by 66 yeeldeth in the quo­tient 1437 and ⅓ for the solide content of the same supposed pellet. Also if you will mul­tiplie the cube of the semicircumference of any rounde pellet or sphericall body by 49, and diuide the product by 363, you shall haue in the quotient number the solide content or crassitude of that pellet: as for example, the semicircumference of the supposed pellet is 22, and the cube of 22 is 10648, which multiplied by 49 produceth 521752, and this number 521752 being diuided by 363 will yeelde in the quotient number 1437 and ⅓ for the solide content of the supposed pellet.

The 27 Chapter. How a pellet which sticketh so fast within the concauitie of a peece of Artillerie as that it can not be driuen home vnto the powder may be shotte out of the peece without danger to the Gunner, or hurte to the peece: and how any rusty pellet which for a long time hath stuck fast within a peece may be shotte, or taken out of the peece without danger to the Gunner or hurte to the peece.

WHen a peece of Artillerie is charged with a pellet that will not be driuen home vnto the powder, then the Gunner to saue this peece from breaking, must so much imbase the mouth of the peece as that fayre and cleere water being at diuers and many times put into the touchhole, may for two or three dayes togeather soke through the powder which is within the peece, and droppe out at the mouth of the peece into a tubbe set vnder the same for to receaue and saue all the saltpeeter that was in the sayde powder. And after all the Saltpeeter is by this meanes soked out of that powder, the Gunner pryming the touchhole with so much fresh powder as will suffice to driue out that pellet, may geue fire to the peece, and without any danger to him selfe, or hurte to the peece shoote out of it the sayde pellet. But when a rusty pellet hath for a long time stuck fast within a peece, put strong vineger into the concauitie of the peece, & with a woodden r [...]mmer strike harde vppon the pellet till it doth moue: then powre the vineger out of the peece, and hauing powred thorow the touchhole into the peece somuch powder as will suffice to dryue out that pellet, fill vp the touchhole with good gunpowder, and geue fire to the peece, so as the sayde rusty pellet may thereby be expelled out of the conca­uitie in which it did sticke. But if the sayde pellet after all this hath beene done shall still remayne within the peece, then powre hotte scalding oyle thorowe the touchhole into the peece, and with a long yron rodde made at that ende which shall goe into the Peece like vnto a hogges nayle, rubbe away the ruste lying betweene the pellet & the peece, and afterwardes imbasing much the mouth of that peece, strike harde thereon, I meane vp­pon the mouth of the peece with a great beetle, or yron hammer, and by so doing, you shall force the sayde rusty pellet to role out of the peece.

The 28 Chapter. To make rounde pellettes of vnrounde yron pellettes by two diuers wayes.

IN winter when it doth snowe and freeze, couer yron pellettes which are not rounde all ouer with frozen snowe, and so let them lie in frozen snowe for the space of one night: This done, vncouer the pellettes, and with a steele hammer which must be well tempered, somewhat heauie, and like vnto a Playsterers or Tylers hammer, beate, or cut away the superfluous yron from the vnround yron pellettes, & while you doe so woorke vpon the vnrounde pellettes, powre often times colde water vppon them. By this meanes you shal (as Luigi Collado wryteth) take away the superfluous yron from the vnrounde pellettes,[Page 26]and perceaue that it will be no more harder to doe,Yron is more brickle in win­ter than in summer. The lathe of a crossebowe is apte to breake in winter, ex­cept it be first well rubbed with a clothe. than to cut a softe stone: For yron is more brickle in colde weather than in a warme season, and by that reason yron pellettes shotte in the winter against an harde stone wall, doe sometimes breake in peeces, and the steele lathe of a Crossebowe which is not made somewhat warme with the rubbing of a cloath, doth oftentimes in winter breake at his first shoote.

Also you may make rounde pellettes of vnrounde yron pellettes by this way following: Take an yron pellet which is not rounde, if it be a pellet for a Minion put the same pellet into the rounde moulde of a pellet for a Saker, and when you haue so done, fil vp the emp­tie places in the sayde moulde with melted lead, and so you shall make thereof a rounde pellet for a Saker. Likewise if a pellet for a Saker be not rounde, you may put the same vn­rounde pellet into the round moulde of a pellet for a Culueringe, and by filling the emp­ty places in the moulde full of melted lead, make thereof a rounde pellet for a Culueringe. And after this manner you may make a rounde pellet of any vnrounde yron pellet whatso­euer.

The 29 Chapter. How you may make a modell or forme for any Gunladle that shall appertayne vnto any Fanconet, for­reine peece that is not so high as a Faucon, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske, Cannon, or to any other like made peece: And how vppon such modelles, or formes, gunladles for the sayde peeces are fashioned: and how a Ladle for any Cannon periero may be made: and how euery can­non periero ought to haue a Ladle.

TO the ende you may the better vnderstande by this Chapter how a modell or forme may be made for any Ladle that shall appertaine vnto any Fauconet, forreine peece that is not so high as a Faucon, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske, or Cannon, or to any other like made peece: and how the same Ladles are fashioned, beholde here in a figure the patterne of a Copper plate for any such Ladle,The Copper plates of la­ [...]les for peeces of the smaller sorte must be in thicknes at the least so much as the back of a com­mon meate knife, and for peeces of a bigger sorte of a greater thicknesse. & note this in it, that A B C doth represent that parte of the plate which shall holde the charge in Gunpowder for great Ordinance, and that D A C E F G doe demonstrate that other parte of the same plate which must lie round about vppon the staffe of such a Ladle. This done, make a modell or forme of a long and rounde peece of wood for euery sorte of such Ladle plates like vnto the picture H I, and let the model be in his rounde compasse so much more lesse than the circumference of a pellet that will fitte the peece for which you doe intende to make a Ladle, as the plate of the Ladle is thick: then bende rounde that parte of the plate which shall holde the charge of gunpowder vppon the sayde modell, so as the two sides of the plate may stande wide open and asunder in a reasonable space one from an other. Moreouer, hauing in a readinesse a strong staffe, which must be rounde and bigge at one ende like the sayde modell, and two foote or thereabout longer than the length of the concauitie in the sayde peece: winde DACEFG the other parte of the sayde plate rounde about vppon the bigge ende of the same staffe, and nayle the sayde parte D A C E F G fast vppon the same ende: When you haue done all this, the Ladle so made and nayled vppon his staffe, will be like vnto the picture K L.

The type of a copper plate for a Gunne Ladle

[Page 27]

A forme for a Gunne Ladle.
The type of a Gunne Ladle.

There is an other sorte of ladles which doe belong vnto such peeces as are called in I­talian Cannoni Perieri, the name of such a Ladle in Italian is Scaffetta, and the Gunners in Venice hauing alwayes in a readinesse at the least one such Ladle for euery Cannone Perie­ro, doe vse with the sayde Ladles to put cartredges into their Cannoni Perieri. To make a Scaffetta for any Cannon periero, take a peece of softe wood which ought to be iustlie so long as the Cartredge of the peece for which it shall serue: make this long peece of wood rounde, and in his rounde circumference, equall to the concauitie of the sayde peece. Also cleaue the sayde rounde peece of wood from one ende to the other right in the middest, and make one peece thereof hollowe like a ruffe tyle for a house, and let the thick­nesse of the same hollowe peece of wood be neither more nor lesse than the thicknesse of the gumme at the mouth of the Chāber which belongeth to the peece for which the Scaf­fetta shall be made. This done, tie at one ende of it a strong corde, and when you haue put a cartredge with this Scaffetta into a Cannon periero, you may by the help of the sayd corde drawe the Scaffetta out of the same peece.

The type of a Scaffetta.

Also you may make a Ladle for any Cannon periero of a copper plate after this manner Prepare a Copper plate, and fashion it as before you haue beene taught to fashion Copper plates for Ladles which shall serue to charge Fauconettes, Faucons, and other such pee­ces, and make the breadth of euery Ladle for a Cannon periero by the circumference in his Chamber, as the generall rule in the thirtie Chapter of this Appendix doth instruct you to make the breadth of Ladles for other peeces by the circumference of a pellet: But in geuing length to the Ladle of a Cannon periero, you must remember that the ladle of a Cannon periero which requireth for his due charge in gunpowder [...]/ [...] of the waight in his pellet, ought to be in length twise so much as the diameter in the mouth of the Chamber of that cannon periero, and that the ladle for a cannon periero which requireth for his due charge in gunpowder ½ of the waight in his pellet, ought to be in length so much as two of those diameters and ⅔ of one such diameter.

The 30 Chapter. Rules by which you may know the true breadth and length of any Ladle that will holde at twise an ordinarie charge in Serpentine powder for any great peece of Artillery except Cannoni Pe­rieri, Chamber, and morter peeces.

[Page 28]1 A Ladle which shal holde at twise an ordinary charge in serpentine powder for any peece of artillery (except Chamber and Morter peeces) that hath his due length, & wayeth in mettall more than one hundred waight, and lesse than one hundred waight and a halfe for euery pounde waight in his yron pellet ought to containe in breadth 3/5 parts of the compasse of one fitte pellet for his peece, and in length the heigth of 3 such pellettes, or as the Gunners terme is) 3 baules.

2 A ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge in serpentine powder for any peece of artillery (except Chamber and Morter peeces) that hath his due length, and wayeth in mettall one hundred waight and a halfe or thereabout for euery pound waight in his yron pellet, ought to contayne in breadth 3/5 partes of the compasse of one fitte pellette for his Peece, and in length the heigth of three such pellettes, and of ½ of one pellet.

3 A ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge in serpentine powder for any peece of artillery (except Chamber & Morter peeces) that hath his due length, and way­eth in mettall more than 100 waight and a halfe, and lesse than two hundred waight for euery pound waight in his yron pellet, ought to contayne in breadth 3/5 partes of the compasse of one fitte pellet for his peece, and in length the heigth of foure such pel­lettes.

4 A ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge in serpentine powder for any peece of artillerie (except Chamber and Morter peeces) that hath his due length, and wayeth in mettall two hundred waight or vpwardes vnto three hundred waight for euery pounde waight in his yron pellet, ought to contayne in breadth 3/5 partes of the compasse of one fitte pellet for his peece, and in length the heigth of foure such pellettes and of ½ of one pellet.

5 A ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge in serpentine powder for any peece of artillery (except Chamber and Morter peeces) that hath his due length, and way­eth in mettall three hundred waight for euery pounde waight in his yron pellet, ought to contayne in breadth 3/9 partes of the compasse of one fitte pellet for his peece, & in length the heigth of fiue such pellettes.

The 31 Chapter. Rules by which you may knowe the true breadth and length of any Ladle that will holde at twise an ordinary charge of that sorte of corne gunpowder which I haue marked in the sixteene Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of [...], for any Fauconet, forreyne peece that is not so high as a Fau­con, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske, Cannon, or any other like made peece.

TO knowe the true breadth of any Ladle that shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of that sorte of corne gunpowder which I haue marked in the 16 Chapter of this Ap­pendix with the figure of 1, for any Fauconet forreine peece that is not so high as a Fau­con, Faucon,A generall rule for the bredth of gun­ladles. Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske, Cannon, or any other like made peece, measure with your compasse the iust length of the semidiameter of a pellet that is fitte for the same peece for which you doe intende to make a ladle, and keeping your compasse at that widenesse drawe therewith a circle vppon a boorde or peece of paper, which circle wil be equal to the circumference of the sayd fitte pellet: This done, your compasse remayning still at the sayd widenesse, set one foote thereof in the very edge of the circle as for exāple in the circle descrybed in the margent at A, and with the other foote drawe an arke within the circle from one side of the sayde circle vnto the other, and then taking with your compasse the iust length of B C the corde of that arke, measure out thrise the length of that corde B C vppon your plate, as I haue done for your better vnderstanding vppon the line D A C E in the figure nexte followinge,

[figure]

which representeth the true breadth, length, and fashion of a Copper plate for a Ladle which shall holde at [Page 29]twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gunpowder for any fauconet, forreine peece that is not so high as a faucon faucon minion saker, or demy culuering lower than ordi­nary: After all this is done, take the same three like lengthes for the breadth of that parte of the plate which must lie close vppon and about the ende of his staffe, and be nayled thereunto, and then your compasse still opened vnto the iust length of the sayde corde B C, set one foote thereof in H the iust middle parte of the sayde line D A C E, and with the other foote make in the line H D a pricke at A, and one other pricke in the line H E at C, and when you haue so done take the length of that line A H C for the exact breadth of the other parte of the plate which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gunpow­der for his peece, if the same peece shall not be a Cannon: For the breadth of a Cannon ladle ought to be a litle lesse than the breadth of ladles for other peeces, and that little parte of his breadth which shall be so taken away must be added to his length, to this ende, that the Cannon ladle may thereby be more easilie turned, and roled within his peece. After you haue founde by this generall rule the true breadth of a ladle for any peece which before in this Chapter hath beene named: You may also (if you will) with great facilitie see the iust lengthe of the same Ladle in one of the three rules fol­lowing.

The type of a Copperplate for a Gunladle.

1 A Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gun­powder for any Fauconet, forreine peece that is not so high as the Faucon, Faucon, Mi­nion, Saker, or Culuering which hath his proportioned length, and is fortefied with his due waight & thicknesse in mettal, must be in length 5 times the heigth of a pellet that is fitte for the peece which shall be charged with the same Ladle, and more the breadth of one finger, that is to say,The breadth of a finger is here & in the 2 other rules next following added to the length of eue­ry Ladle for to supply the wante of that parte of the plate which is cut away at the toppe of euery Ladle to make it their round like a halfe cir­cle whereby as it is thought euery Ladle will doe his of­fice the better. that parte of this Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gunpow­der, ought to be in length foure times the heigth of such a pellet, and the breadth of one finger: and the other parte of this Ladle which must lie very close vppon and about the great ende of a staffe, and be nayled thereunto, must be in length once the heigth of such a pellet: But if any peece named in this rule shall be charged with such fine gunpowder as is mar­ked in the sixteene Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2 then that part of his Ladle which shal holde the same charge in fine powder, must be no more in length than thrise the heigth of one of his pellettes and the breadth of one fin­ger.

[diagram of a copperplate for a gun ladle]

2 A Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gunpowder for any ordinary demy Culue­ringe, demy Culuering of the elder sorte, whole Culueringe not so high as ordinary, whole ordinary Culueringe, or whole Culueringe of the elder sorte, which lacketh his proportioned length, waight or due thicknesse in mettall, must be in length foure times the heigth of a pellet that is fitte for the peece which shall be charged with the same Ladle, ⅔ partes of the heigth of one such pellet, and the breadth of one finger: that is to say, that parte of this Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordina­ry charge of the sayde corne gunpowder, ought to be in length three times the heigth of such a pellet, ⅔ partes of the heigth of one such pellet, and the breadth of one finger, and the other parte of this Ladle which must lie very close vppon and about the greate ende of a staffe, and be nayled thereunto must be in length once the heigth of such a pellet.

3 A Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinary charge of the sayde corne gun­powder[Page 30]powder for any demy Cānon, double Cānon, or any other like made peece that shooteth an yron pellet waying not aboue ½ hundred waight and twenty foure poundes of auer de poize waight, must be in length foure times the heigth of a pellet that is fitte for the peece which shall be charged with the same Ladle: And the breadth of one finger: that is to say, that parte of the Ladle which shall holde at twise an ordinarie charge of the sayde corne gunpowder ought to be in length three times the heigth of such a pellet and the breadth of one finger: And the other parte of this Ladle which must lie very close vppon & about the great ende of a staffe and be nayled thereunto, must be in length once the heigth of such a pellet: But if you will charge any of these peeces with such gunpowder as is marked in the 16 Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2, then that parte of the Ladle which shall holde at twise a due charge in such fine gunpowder for the same peece, must bee in length no more than twise the heigth of a pellet that is fitte for the same peece, and ⅔ of the heigth of such a pellet.

The 32. Chapter. How you may knowe the diameter of any Chamber bored Cannon: and make a Ladle for any Chamber bored Cannon.

TO make a Ladle for a Chamber bored Cannon, measure the heigth of his Chamber in this sort following: Thrust downe a small rounde yron pyn with a little hooke at his lower ende thorowe the touchhole vnto the lowest parte of the peece his concauitie, and then marke with a red stone or otherwise that parte of the sayde yron pyn which is tou­ched with the mettall in the vpper ende of the touchhole. After this pull vp the sayd yron pyn, and suffering his hooke to stay in the mettall of the peece at the lower ende of the touchhole, marke againe with a red stone or otherwise that part of the sayde yron which is touched with the mettall in the sayde vpper ende of the touchhole: And when you haue so done, drawe all the yron pyn out of the touchhole, and noting well the space betweene the sayde two markes, adde thereunto the height of the sayde hooke, and take the whole measure thereof for the heigth of the Chamber in that Cannon:The length of a Chamber in a chamber bo­red peece is commonly 4. times the dia­meter at the mouth of his peece: that is to say, 3 times the sayde dia­meter for his charge in gun­powder, and once the sayde diameter for his wadde. This done, open your compasse within ⅛ of an ynche to the widenesse of ½ of that heigth, and setting one foote of your compasse faste vppon a peece of paper, or vppon a smoothe boorde, drawe there­on with the other foote a circle which will be ¼ of an ynche shorter in his diameter than the heigth of the sayde Chamber, and by that circle search out the breadth of a Ladle for the sayde Chamber bored Cannon, as you haue beene taught in the 31 Chapter of this Appendix, to seeke for the breadthes of other Ladles by the circumference of a pellet: And when you haue so done, note that a Ladle of that breadth for a Chamber bo­red Cannon which shall be charged with such fine gunpowder as is marked in the sixteene Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2, must be in length twise so much as the diameter of the sayde circle, and ⅔ partes of the same diameter: and that a Ladle of that breadth for a Chamber bored Cannon which shall be charged with such grosse gunpow­der as is marked in the sayde sixteene Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 1, must be in length thrise so much as the diameter of the sayde circle,

The 33 Chapter. How you may make a Ladle for any Bell bored Cannon.

TAke a staffe somewhat longer than the Bell bored Cannon, and neare vnto one of his ends pearse a hole thorow the sides of the staffe, & thrust a bygwier into the same hole, & make it to stand fast there like a crosse. This wyer in his length ought to be equall to the heigth or (which is all one) to the widenesse of the mouth in the Bell bored Cannon. After you haue set the same wyer crossewise in the staffe, thrust it into the bore of the peece so far as it wil goe, that is to say, downe to the mouth of the bel bore: which done, drawe the wyer[Page 31]out of the bore, & measure the Diameter of the bel bore vnder the touchhole, as you haue been taught in the 31 Chapter of this Appendix to measure the heigth of the chamber in the chamberbored Cannon, and adde the Diameter of the said bel bore vnto the length of the said wyer. Then opening your compasse to ¼ of the same length, set one foot therof fast vpon a smoothe boord, or vppon paper, and with the other foote draw a circle, and make the bredth of a ladle, and the circumference of a spunge for a bell bored Cannon,Note. equall to the said circle: and make this ladle in length if his peece shall be charged with such fine gun­powder as is marked in the sixteene Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2, thrise the heigth or (which is all one) thrise the Diameter of that circle: But if this ladle shall serue for a bell bored Cannon that shall be charged with such grosse gunpowder as is marked in the sayde 16 chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 1, then the said ladle ought to bee in length thrise the heigth of that circle and ⅓ of that heigth: and now remember that euery of these two ladles doth at twise duely charge his bell bored Cannon: and that the length of the chamber in a bell bored peece is commonly foure times and a halfe the Diameter at the mouth of his Peece.

The 34 Chapter. How you may make Rammers for Faulconets, forreine ordinance that are not so high as the Faucon, Faucons, minions, Sakers, Culuerings, Basiliscoes, demie Cannons, and double Cannons: and how a Rammer and ladle which doe belong to some sort of peeces may be set vppon one staffe: and how a Rammer and ladle which doe belong to some other sort of peeces must be set vppon sundrie staues: and how a Rammer serueth to thrust home powder that shall lie loose and dispearsed within a peece, to driue a Tampion close vnto powder within a peece, and to put a pellet close vnto the Tampion: and how you may make rammers for those peeces which in Italian are called Cannoni perieri.

TO frame a Rammer for any Fauconet, forrein peece that is not so high as the Faucon, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culuering, Basilisco or Cannon, doe thus.A Rammer for a Cannon and for a whole Culuering is in some coun­tries made no longer than the Diameter of one of their pellets, and in some places a rammer is in length once & a halfe the Di­ameter of a pellet. The substance and fourme of a Tampion. Make at the ende of a strong staffe (which ought alwayes to be two foote or thereabout longer than the peece for which the rammer shall be made) a round bobbe of wood, and let that bobbe be equal in thicknesse to the heigth of a fit pellet for that peece, and in length so much as once and a halfe the heigth of the same pellet. This bobbe of wood among Gunners is named a ram­mer because it serueth to thrust home the powder which shal lie loose and dispearsed with­in a peece, to driue a Tampion close vnto a Cartredge, or to a charge of loose gunpowder within a peece, & to put a pellet close vnto the Tampion, which Tampion ought alwaies to be made of soft wood, as of willoe, popler, or such like wood, and at his foremost ende to be somewhat lesse than at his other ende. And heere by the way I must tell you that a Rammer and ladle which shall belong to any Fauconet, forrein peece that is not so high as the Faucon, Faucon, Minion, Saker, or demie Culuering lower than ordinarie may be set vppon one staffe: that is to say, the ladle may be nailed vppon one end of the staffe and the rammer may bee made at the other ende of the same staffe as this figure following doth shewe, and that a rammer and ladle which shall appertaine vnto an ordinarie demie Cul­uering, demie Culuering of the eldest sort, Culuering not so high as ordinarie, ordinarie Culuering, Culuering of the eldest fort, Basilisco or any sort of Cannon must be set vppon seuerall and sundrie staues.

A Rammer and a ladle vppon one staffe. A Tampion.

There is an other kind of rammer which serueth to beat downe a Tampion of wood, close vnto a cartredge lying within the chāber of a cānō periero, & the said rāmer may be made after this maner: make (as before you haue bin taught) a bobbe of wood at the end of a[Page 32]strong staffe, let this bobbe be somwhat lesse in thicknesse than the heigth of the mouth in the chamber of his Cannon periero, & within one foote & a half of the bobbe end, place a turning wheele in the said staffe, and make the Diameter of that wheele equall to the heigth of the concauitie in the said Cannon periero. Moreouer towardes the lesser end of the said staffe put two strong sticks thorow & ouerthwart, and so you shall finish the Ram­mer which then will be like to this figure.

A Rammer to beate downe a Tampion.

If two men after the Rammer is so made wil take the said two ouerthwart sticks in their hands, and putting the bobbe end of this Rammer into his Cannon periero charged with a cartredge and a tampion, will at one instant time thrust the saide Rammer with a good strength downe vppon the tampion, they may through the help of the said turning wheele (which guideth the Rammer iust vppon the tampion) beate the same tampion close vnto the said Cartredge.

The 35 Chapter. How you may make spunges or scourers for any sort of great peeces: and how spunges doe serue to make cleane soule peeces, and to coole hot peeces.

AS euery great peece ought to haue his ladle and rammer, so euery great peece ought to haue a fit spunge or (which is all one,) a fit scowrer seruing to make a peece cleane so often as neede shall require, and being well wet with cleane water, or vineger, or rather with one part of vineger, and two partes of water mingled togeather, to coole a peece whensoeuer it shall happen through many shootes to be very hotte: therefore to make a spunge or scowrer, prouide a staffe (as you haue been willed to doe for a Rammer) more longer by two foote or thereabout than the concauitie of the Peece for which the spunge shall be made, & frame at one end of this staffe a bobbe like a rammer, and let this bobbe be somewhat lesse in compasse than the circumference of the concauitie in the said peece. This done, couer the saide bobbe all ouer with a peece of sheepes skinne that hath long wooll vppon it, put the wooll side outwardes, and naile fast the same peece of sheepes skin vppon the said bobbe, and in so doing remember that euery spunge ought when it is thrust into his peece to stoppe vp very closely all the concauitie where it lyeth.

The Type of a spunge or scowrer for a great peece of artillery

Note.If in time of neede such a spunge can not bee prouided, you may binde your cappe or some other peece of cloth full and hard stuffed with straw or hay vppon one end of a long staffe, and vse the same staffe so dressed for a spunge. Also in time of neede for want of a ram­mer, you may with a staffe so dressed thrust home gunpowder within a peece.

The 36 Chapter. How you may make Cartredges vppon a round moulde or forme of wood.

MAke vppon a long and rounde mould or fourme of wood like vnto the picture in the margent, a long and round bagge of paper, fustian, or canuasse: Let the rounde wide­nesse of this bagge bee a little lesse than the circumference of the concauitie in the peece [Page 33]that shall shoote this Cartredge, and make the length of this bagge equal to the iust length of the ladle which be­longeth to the peece that shall shoote the Cartredge. Moreouer fashion this bagge with a round flat bottome, and then putting into the same bagge so much gunpowder, as the peece which shal shoote this bagge requi­reth for his due charge, shut vp the vpper end or mouth of the bagge, & when you wil after­wards put this bagge of gunpowder (which among Gunners is called a Cartredge) into the bore or concauity of any gunne, remember to cut cleane away (before you do put it into a gunne) that peece of the bagge which shall lie directly vnder and next to the touchhole of the gunne, to this end, that only by putting fire vnto the gunpowder in the touchhole, you may without any faile giue fire to all the gunpowder in the said bagge or Cartredge.

A fourme for a Cartredge.

Also you may make Cartredges for any great peece of artillery by these rules folowing.

A Cartredge for a Fauconet, Faucon, Miniō, Saker, & Culuering which hath his propor­tioned length, iust waight, & due thicknes in mettall, ought to bee foure baules in length, that is to say foure times the diameter of one of their fit pellets, & in breadth [...] baules lac­king [...] part of a baule, I meane such baules as are in the length of the same Cartredges.

A Cartredge for euery Cannon & Basiliske ought to be in length 2 baules & [...] of a baule: that is to say, 2 times the Diameter of one of their fit pellets, & [...] of the Diameter of one such pellet, & euery such cartredge ought to be in bredth 3 baules lacking [...] part of a baule I meane such baules as are in the length of the said Cartrege.

A Cartredge for a Cannon periero, & for euery other peece which shooteth a pellet of stone ought to be in length twise the diameter of the mouth in the chāber of his peece, & in bredth 3 baules lacking [...] part of a baule, I meane such baules as are in the length of the said Cartredge.

When you will make a bag for a Cartredge vppon a mould or fourme, & paste or glue together the sides of the same bagge, annoint well with tallow that part of the said fourme which shall lie vnder the paste or glue, & suffer the bagge to remaine vppon his fourme till the paste or glue shalbe thorow drie, for in drawing the said fourme out of the bagge, you shall see that the bagge will then cleaue to no part of the annointed fourme.

The 37 Chapter. How great peeces of artillery are named & how through the intollerable fault of carelesse or vnskil­full Gunfounders all our great Peeces of one name are not of one length, nor of one waight, nor of one heigth in their mouthes.

OVr great peeces of artillery are knowne by these names: double Cannō of the biggest sort, double Cānon of the ordinarie sort, French double Cānon, demie Cannon of the biggest sort, demie Cānon of the ordinary sort, demie Cānon of an extraordinary sort, frēch demie Cānon, Cannō with a bel bore, Cannō with a chāber bore, Basilisk, Culuering of the biggest sort, Culuering of the ordinary sort, Culuering of an extraordinary sort, demie Cul­uering of the biggest sort, demie Culuering of the ordinary sort, demie Culuering of an ex­traordinary sort, Saker of the biggest sort, Saker of the ordinary sort, Saker of an extraordi­narie sort, Miniō of the biggest sort, Miniō of the ordinary sort, Moiane, Passauolante or Ze­bratana, Faucon of the ordinary sort, Faucon of an extraordinary sort, Fauconet, Cannon periero of the old making, Cannon periero of the nwe making, Morter peece, Base, Rabi­net, Fowler, Sling, Portpeece, Rebadochino, Aspidi, Smeriglio, Harchibusacrock & musket. But through the intollerable fault of carelesse or vnskilfull gunfounders all our great pee­ces of one name are not of one lēgth, nor of one waight nor of one heigth in their mouthes & therfore the gūners bookes & tables which do shew that al our great peeces of one name are of an equal length, & of an equal waight, & of an equall heigth in their mouthes are er­ronious.

The 38. Chapter. The mixture of mettals whereof great peeces of artillery ought to be made.

THe mixture of mettals which is vsed for the making of good & seruiceable peeces of ar­tillery, doth consist of copper, tyn, & latten: & we in Englād do cal the said mixture in our [Page 34]mother tongue brasse, and in Italian Bronzo. The gunfounders doe vse to put into the said mixture for euery fiuescore poundes in waight of pure copper, tenne poundes in waight of good latten, and eight poundes in waight of cleane tynne. The tynne (as the Gunfoun­ders doe say) causeth the said mixture to be hard, the latten helpeth much to incorporate the mettals togeather and maketh the mixture to bee of a good colour, and the copper doth much strengthen the same mixture, although among Gunners this is an approued veritie, that the peeces of artillerie which are cast of the same mixture are apte to breake after they are made hot with many shootes.

The 39 Chapter. Rules by which you may know the proportioned length, iust waight, and due thicknesse of mettall which ought to be in great peeces of artillerie.

Length.1 EVery Fauconet, and forrein peece, which shooteth not a bullet bigger than the bul­let of a Fauconet, ought to be in length 34 times the Diameter of his mouth.

2Waight.2 Euery Fauconet and forrein Peece which shooteth not a bullet bigger than the bul­let of a Fauconet ought to waye in mettall 242 poundes and ⅔ of a pounde of auer de poize waight for euery like pound waight of mettall in his pellet:Thicknesse. Or the thicknesse of mettal at the bottome of the bore in euery Fauconet & forreine Peece which shooteth not a bullet bigger than the bullet of a Fauconet ought to be so much as the Diameter in the mouth of the same bore, and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery of the said Peeces ought to be [...]/ [...] of the said Diameter, and the thicknesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery of the said Peeces ought to be 63/ [...] of the said Diameter, and the thicknesse of met­tall at the necke of euery such Peece ought to be ⅜ of the said Diameter.

Length.3 Euery Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane and Culuering, ought to be in length 32 times the Diameter of his mouth.

Waight.4 Euery Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane and Culuering, ought to waie in mettall 242 pounds and ⅔ of a pound of auer de poize waight for euery like pound waight of mettall in his pellet:Thicknesse. Or the thicknesse of mettall at the bottome of the bore in eue­rie Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culuering, ought to be so much as the Diameter in the mouth of the same bore: and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery of the said Peeces ought to be 9/8 of the said Diameter, and the thicknesse of mettal at the trunnions in euery of the same Peeces ought to be 63/64 of the said Diameter, and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke of euery such Peece ought to bee 3/8 of the saide Dia­meter.

Length. The Cannons which haue a longer length than this pro­portioned length are cal­led Basterd Cannons. Waight Thicknesse.5 The proportioned length of euery quarter Cannon is 28 times the Diameter of his mouth: the proportioned length of euery demie Cannon is betweene 21 and 25 times the Diameter of his mouth: the proportioned length of euery double Cannon is 18 times the Diameter of his mouth: and the proportioned length of euerie Basiliske is bitweene 24 and 31 times the Diameter of his mouth.

6 Euery Cannon and Basiliske ought to waie 161 poundes, twelue ounces, three drammes, one scruple, thirteene graines and 1/ [...] of a graine in mettall of auer de poize waight for euery pound of like waight in his pellet: Or the thicknesse of mettal at the bottome of the bore in euery Cannon ought to be so much as the Diameter in the mouth of the same bore,A cannon thus fortified with mettall (as Luigui Colla­do writeth) may be char­ged with ⅔ in fine gūpowder of his pellet waight. I mean such gunpow­der as is mar­ked in the six­teenth chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2. and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery Cannon ought to bee 9/8 or at the least so much as the said Diameter: and the thicknesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery Cannon ought to be so much as the said Diameter, or at the least ⅝ partes of the same Diameter: and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke in euery Cannon ought to bee 5/ [...] partes of the said Diameter: and the thicknesse of mettall at the bottome of the bore in euery Basilisk ought to be a little more than the Diameter in the mouth of the same bore: and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery Basiliske ought to be [...]1/22 of the said Diameter: and the thicknesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery Basiliske ought to be 41/44 of the said Diameter: and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke in euery Basiliske ought to be 5/ [...] of the said Diameter.

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[depiction of the ends of three gun barrells]

[Page]

[Page 35]7 There are two sortes of such peeces as are named Cannoni perieri: that is to say, there are Cannoni perieri of the old making, and there are Cannoni perieri of a nwe making, and the Cannoni perieri of both these two sorts are alwaies chamber bored.

Length.8 The proportioned length of euery Cannon periero is betweene sixe and eight times the Diameter of his mouth.

Chamber.9 The length of the chamber in euery Cannon periero of the olde making ought to be foure times and ½ the Diameter at the mouth of the chamber.

Chamber.10 The diameter at the mouth of the chamber in euery Cannon periero of the old ma­king, ought to be ⅔ parts of the Diameter in the mouth of the Cannon periero.

Waight.11 Euery Cannon periero ought to waie in mettall 80 poundes, fourteene ounces, one dramme, two scruples, sixe graines, and ⅔ of a graine of auer de poize waight for euery like pound waight of stone in his pellet: Thicknesse.Or the thicknesse of mettall at the bottome of the bore in euery Cannon periero ought to bee so much as the Diameter at the mouth of his chamber, or (which is all one) ⅔ of the Diameter at the mouth of the Cannon periero: and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery Cannon periero of the old making ought to be ½ of the Diameter at [...]e mouth of the said Cannon periero, and the thicke­nesse of mettall at the mouth of t [...] chamber in euery Cannon periero of the olde making ought to be ⅙ part of the Diameter at the mouth of the cannon periero: and the thicke­nesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery cannon periero of the olde making ought to be ¼ part of the Diameter at the mouth of the cannon periero: and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke of euery cannon periero of the old making ought to be ⅙ part of the Diame­ter at the mouth of the cannon periero: and the thicknesse of mettall at the touchhole in euery cannon periero of the nwe making ought to be so much as the Diameter at the mouth of the chamber in the cannon periero: and the thicknesse of mettall in the gumme of the mouth of euery cannon periero of the nwe making, ought to be ½ of the Diameter at the mouth of the chamber in the cannon periero: and the thicknesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery cannon periero of the nwe making ought to be ½ of the diameter at the mouth of the chamber in the cannon periero, and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke of euery cannon periero of the nwe making ought to bee ⅓ part of the Diameter at the mouth of the chamber in the cannon periero:

12 The length of the chamber in euery cānon periero of the nwe making, ought to be shorter than the length of a chamber in a cannon periero of the old making, because the gunpowder which in this our age doth commōly charge euery cannon periero, is more stronger than the gunpowder which did charge in time past the Cannoni perieri of the old making.

Morter p [...]13 The thicknesse of mettall at the breech of euery motter peece ought to be so much as the Diameter in the mouth of his chamber: the thicknesse of mettall at the trunnions in euery morter peece, ought to be so much as the semidiameter of the mouth in the cham­ber: and the thicknesse of mettall at the necke of euery morter peece ought to be [...] part of the Diameter in the mouth of the chamber.

14 The Diameter at the mouth of the chamber in euery morter peece, ought to bee equall to the semidiameter in the mouth of the morter peece: & the length of euery cham­ber in a morter peece ought to be so much as once and a halfe the Diameter of the cham­ber.

The vse [...] morter p [...] Note.15 Morter peeces are commonly vsed in the night time to shoot pellets of stone, baules of wildefire, cases filled full of stones, pellets of lead, or square peeces of yron: Note. And when an expert gunner will shoote in a morter peece he putteth no wadde vppon the powder in the peece, nor giueth fire to the same peece in any other place than at his mouth with a gunmatch.

The 40 Chapter. To measure the thicknesse of mettall in any part of a peece of artillerie.

MEasure first with a paire of calleper cōpasses, or with an ynch rule the whole thicknes of the peece. Likewise measure with a paire of other cōpasses, I mean straight cōpasses, or with [Page 36]an ynch rule the Diameter or (which is all one) the heigth of the concauitie in the Peece: then subtracting the heigth of the said concauitie frō the whole thicknesse of the Peece in that part which was so measured, take half of the remainder for the thicknes of the mettal in that measured part of the peece: Or for lacke of a payre of calleper compasses put a gir­dle or string that will not stretch round about the outside of the Peece in that part which is to be measured, & measure exactly so much of that girdle or string as went about the peece: this done, multiplie that measure by seuen, and deuide the product by 22, and so the quo­tient wil giue you the true measure of the whole thicknesse of the Peece in that part which was measured: the rest of this worke you must doe as you did when you measured the whole thicknesse of the Peece with a paire of Calleper compasses.

The 41 Chapter. How euery great peece of Artillerie hath trunnions for three causes: and how Gunfounders may learne to set the trunnions of euery great peece in their due places.

EVery great Peece of artillerie hath trunnions for thre causes, of which the first is to hold vp the Peece vppon his carriage, the second is to make a Peece when it resteth vppon them in his carriage to moue easilie vp and downe, and at the will of the Gunner to lie sometimes leuell, and sometimes mounted: And the thirde cause is, that they set in their due places, and well laid vppon a fit carriage, wil make their Peece in his discharge to lie fast and steadie without any mouing forwardes, or backwards, downeward, or towardes any side, wherein the whole inportance of the shoote doth rest. When the trunnions of a Peece are set to high, that is to say, more nearer to the mouth of their Peece thā they should be, then the Peece in which the trunnions are so set will be so heauie at his taile, as that the Gunner shall not without great paine and strength lift it vp. And when the trunnions of a peece shall be set too loe, that is to say more nearer to the touchhole than they should be, then the mouth of their Peece (by meanes of the vnequall and great waight which is be­tween the said mouth and the said trunnions) will in his discharge fall downe towards the ground, wherefore I will not wrap vp here in silence the rules by which gunfounders may alwaies set the trunnions of euery great Peece in their due places.

Diuide the length of the Peece into seuen equall partes, and in the third part measured from the touchhole towards the mouth of the Peece set the trunnions so as ⅔ partes of the circumference of the Peece in that place where the trunnions shall be set, may bee seene aboue vppon, the Peece betweene the two trunnions. Also a Gunfounder skilfull in the arte of numbring, may by the helpe of the golden rule set the trunnions of euery great Peece in their due places after this maner: hee may multiplie the length of the Peece in which the trunnions shall be set by three, and hauing diuided the product thereof by seuen note the quotient number for the measure of the space between the loest end of the peece his concauitie and the place where the trunnions must be set: As for example if a Gun­founder would know in what part of a peece which is 144 ynches in length the trunnions of the same Peece should be set, he must multiplie 144 the length of the Peece by three, whereof will come 432 which diuided by seuen yeeldeth in the quotient 61 ynches and 5/7 of an ynch for the space betweene the loest end of that peece his concauitie and the place where the trunnions of the same Peece ought to stand.

The 42 Chapter. How great peeces of artillerie may be cast of lead? how the thicknesse of a leaden peece round about the concauitie so farre as the due charge of gunpowder for the same peece will reach ought to be once & a halfe, so much as the height of a pellet that is fit for the same peece: how the thicknesse of a leaden peece at his necke round about the concauitie, ought to be ⅔ partes of the heigth of the said pellet: how any one peece of what weight soeuer it is, may be drawne by the strength of many men from one place to another. And how olde rustie yron serueth to make gunne pellets better than nwe yron.

[Page 37]VVHen a citie or towne shall be besieged that hath in it no yron, or brasse pee­ces of artillerie for offensiue and defensiue seruice, then the inhabitants of that Cittie or Towne may in time of need cause great peeces of artillery to be cast of lead, whereof there is no lacke within any Cittie or Towne of England, for such peeces of lead wil beare well the ordinary charge of powder and pellet, if from the touchhole so farre as the due charge of gunpowder for the same peece will reach, the thicknesse of the mettall round about the concauitie of the peece bee once and a halfe the heigth of his pellet, and that the thicknesse of the mettall round about the concauitie at the necke of the peece bee ⅔ partes of the heigth of the said pellet.An Admoni­tion. But these peeces be­ing made very hot with much shooting will quickly breake, therefore the Gunners must not shoote in them when they are very hot.

Although a peece of artillery so cast of lead will be of a great waight, yet this is to be be­leeued that a peece so cast of lead will be easily drawne by the strength of many men from one place to an other within a Towne. For Luigui Collado in the 71 chapter of his Pratica manuale di arteglieria saith, that in Barcellona a chamber belonging to a peece was of such waight as twentie men might not lift it, and that poore people did vse in Sommer to sleepe within the saide peece which had a bedde or carriage more than three fa­dome about. And we may also reade in the second booke and sixteenth chapter of Eng­lands description in Hollēsheads Cronicles, that the great Turke had a gunne (cast by one Orbane a Dane) which was drawne to the siege of Constantinople by two thousand men and seuenty yokes of Oxen.This Orbane did also cast for the Turke one other great Peece which did shoote a pellet of more waight than two talents. Here I might take occasion by reason of that which hath byn written in this Chapter to shew how great peeces of artillery and pellets of yron are cast, but I will passe ouer the same with silence, and referre those which are desirous to learne how peeces of artillerie & yron pellets are cast, to the Pirotechnie of Ʋannuccio Biringuccio where they may read enough thereof, and see that old rustie yron is better to make gunne pellets than nwe yron.

The 43 Chapter. How you may see, & also otherwise know whether or no honie combes, crackes, or flawes are within the concauitie of any great peece of artillerie.

SO soone as you haue charged and discharged a peece, couer very close the mouth of the same peece all ouer with leather, and at the same instant cause an other person to stoppe vp sodainely the touchhole of the same peece: and so if any vnknowne flawes or crackes do goe thorow the mettal in any part of the peece, a visible smoke wil come out of the peece thorow the same hidden flawes & cracks. Also you may when the Sunne shineth take a steele glasse, and with the same cast the beames or shadow of the Sunne into the mouth or concauitie of the peece: for by this meanes a very great and cleere light will be within the concauitie of the peece, and by that cleare light you shall plainly see euery honie combe, cracke, and flaw within the same concauitie. But forasmuch as the Sunne doth not alwaies shine and that at some time in a bright Sunne shining day a steele glasse may bee wanting, you may at such times take a sticke somewhat longer than the concauitie of the peece, and hauing clouen one end of the said sticke for to hold an ende of a candle, light an end of a candle, and put the same into the said clift, and thrust that lighted end of a candle sticking fast in the said clift or slit downe to the loest end of the concauitie in the gunne, and looke circumspectly by the light of the same candle whether or no any honie combes, flawes or crackes are in the concauitie of that gunne. Also if you striking a peece of artillery vppon the out side of the mettal in diuers places with an yrō hammer shal at euery stroke heare a cleare sound, it is a signe that the same peece is without any hony cōbes, flawes, or cracks: But if you so striking the peece of artillery with an yron hammer shall heare a hoarse sound, then without doubt there are honie combes, flawes, or crackes in the same peece.

The 44 Chapter. How any great peece of artillery may be drawne ouer a soft marrish ground, bog, or owes.

[Page 38]WHen you shall haue occasion to drawe any great peece of artillerie ouer a soft mar­rish ground, bogge, or owes, make for the same peece a strong carriage like vnto a flat bottomed bote that is brode at one end and sharpe at the other ende as this figure heare drawne doth shew.

[depiction of a gun carriage]

Let the said carriage be tight, so as no water or durt may come into it, and when you haue so done, lay the peece of artillery vppon the saide carriage that it may not by any meanes role or fal of from it, and vppon one or (if you may) vppon both sides of the soft grounde cause oxen, or horses, or men (where no oxen or horses may goe) to drawe all to­geather the peece so lying in his carriage ouer the same soft grounde, which will not bee a hard worke to doe, for (as I haue read) a double Cannon will swimme vppon such a car­riage in a water of one foote in depth, and lying vppon such a carriage can not sinke the same carriage in any marrish, bogge or owes aboue halfe a foote.

The 45 Chapter. How by knowing the certaine number of men, horses, or oxen which will draw any one peece of artille­rie, you may tell what number of men, horses, or oxen will be able to drawe any other peece of ar­tillerie: how you may know what number of men will in drawing counteruaile any number of hor­ses, or oxen: how you may know what number of horses will in drawing counteruaile any number of Oxen: & how this is to bee noted that a fraction in a quotient number of men, horses, or oxen is not to bee reckoned.

VVRite first in your memoriall that 80 men may drawe a Peece of artillerie waying eight thousand poundes in waight, and that sixe horses may drawe a peece of 860 poundes in waight, and that sixe oxen may drawe a peece of Artillerie waying 1058 poundes in waight, and afterwardes if you shall be asked what number of men will suf­fice to drawe any Peece of Artillerie, multiplie the waight of the Peece by which the que­stion is asked in 80 the number of men that will suffice (as you haue noted in your me­moriall) to drawe a peece of eight thousand poundes in waight, and deuide the product thereof by eight thousand the waight of the Peece which 80 men may drawe, and so the quotient will shew the number of men that will suffice to drawe the peece of which the question was asked. As for example it shall be supposed that this question is asked, what number of men will suffice to drawe a peece waying 860 poundes in waight? To aunswere the same question, I multiplie 860 the waight of the Peece by which the que­stion was asked in 80 the number of men which (as I haue noted in my memoriall) will suffice to drawe a peece of eight thousande poundes in waight, and thereof commeth 68800 which I deuide by the said number of eight thousand the waight of the Peece which (as my memorial doth record) may bee drawne with fourescore men, and so the quotient yeeldeth eight (leauing out the fraction which remaineth) for the number of men that wil[Page 39]suffice to drawe the same peece of 860 poundes in waight, which by reduction maketh seuen hundred waight, ½ hundred waight, and twentie poundes of Auer de poize waight of England. Also let it be supposed that I am required to to tell what number of oxen will suffice to drawe the saide peece waying 860 poundes in waight? For to aunswere this question I peruse my memoriall and finding there that sixe Oxen will suffice to drawe a peece of 1058 poundes in waight, I multiplie 860 the waight of the peece by which the question was asked, in sixe the number of oxen which will suffice to draw the said peece of 1058 poundes in waight, and so the product thereof is 5160, and then diuiding the said produced number videlicet 5160 by 1058 the waight of the peece which sixe oxen will draw I finde in the quotient foure (leauing out the fraction which remaineth) for the number of oxen which will suffice to drawe a peece of 860 poundes in waight. Like­wise if I should be required to tell what number of horses will suffice to draw a peece of 1800 poundes in waight, I would multiplie 1800 the waight of the peece by which the question is asked in sixe the number of horses (which as I am instructed by my said memo­riall will suffice to draw a peece of 860 poundes in waight) and diuide the product ther­of by the said number of 860, and take the quotient thereof which is twelue (leauing out the remaining fraction) for the number of horses which will suffice to draw the said peece of 1800 poundes in waight.

After this maner (leauing out alwaies the fraction which shall remaine, because it is not to be reckoned in an answere to a question concerning the number of men, horses, or ox­en which will suffice to drawe a peece of artillerie) you may tell what number of men, hor­ses, or oxen will suffice to drawe any peece of artillerie whatsoeuer, what number of men will in drawing counteruaile any number of horses, or oxen, and what number of horses will in drawing counteruaile any number of oxen.

Waight of Peeces.Number of men which will suffice to drawe the same peeces.
800080
8608

Waight of peeces.Oxen to draw.
10586
8604

Waight of peeces.Horses to draw.
8606
180012

The 46 Chapter. How all platfourmes for great Ordinance ought to be couered with woodden planks: and how it is better to plant great Ordinance vppon plaine and leuell platfourmes, than vppon slope platfourmes.

COuer all platformes for great Ordinance with thicke, & smooth, woodden planks ioi­ned close together: for if great peeces of artillerie be in time of seruice planted vppon a floore of earth, the wheeles of their cariages may with recoiles so sinke into the ground, that the gunners shall not be able to manage well the same peeces. And though some plat­fourmes for great Ordinance are high behind the carriages of peeces, and loe where the wheeles of the same carriages shal ordinarily stand, to this end that the peeces lying in their carriages vppon the same slope platfourmes may after they haue recoyled bee speedily brought againe into their ordinary places, yet (as many expert men in the gunners art do thinke) it is better to plant great Ordinance vppon plaine and leuell platfourmes, than vppon slope platfourmes, because the great peeces of artillery which shall bee discharged from such slope platfourmes will oftentimes shoote short of their markes.

The 47 Chapter. How you may know by a gunners Quadrant, and also by a gunners Semicircle whether or no a plat­fourme for great Ordinance, or any other peece of grounde, lyeth in a perfect leuell.

[Page 40]TO perceiue whether or no a platfourme for great Ordinance, or any other peece of grounde lyeth in a perfect leuell, let vs suppose that L M is the platfoume or peece of grounde vppon which great Ordinance shall be planted, & that I am required to tell whe­ther or no the said platfourme is plaine and leuell. For this purpose I place my Quadrant or Semicircle vppon a staffe, or some other vnmooueable thing, and doe mooue it vp or downe vntill the line and plummet vpon the same doth hang precisely vppon the line of le­uell, that is to say in the Quadrant vppon the line H L, and in the Semicircle vppon the line R S: and then looking through the sightes or channell of the same Quadrant or Se­micircle, I doe see N a marke which is leuell with mine eie, and fixed in a staffe or such a like thing perpendicularlie erected. After this I measure exactly the heigth of mine eye from the grounde, that is to say the length of the line O L, and likewise I measure the heigth of the said marke N, that is to say the length of the line N M, and because I finde by so doing that the said line N M is equall to the line O L, and that the said platforme or peece of grounde doth lie vppon the right side, and vppon the left side according as the line L M doth lie, I conclude that the sayd grounde L M lyeth in a perfect leuel. For the line L M which lyeth along vppon that peece of ground (by the 33 proposition of the first booke of Euclide) is equidistant to the line O N which goeth by the plane of the Horizon, and consequently the said peece of ground or platfourme vppon which the said line L M goeth is equidistant (by the foureteenth proposition of the eleuenth booke of Euclide) to the plane of the Horizon. But if the line N M had been longer than the line O L, I woulde haue concluded that the same peece of ground is more lower at M than it is at L. And contrariwise if the line M N had been shorter than the line O L, I would haue concluded that the same ground is more higher at M than it is at L. And after this sort I will proceede to the right side, and to the left side, and prooue whether or no the said platfourme or peece of ground doth lie rounde about according as the said line L M doth lie. And so by this supposed worke you may learne to trie whether or no a platforme, or any other peece of ground lieth in a perfect leuell.

[depiction of the use of a quadrant]

The 48 Chapter. How Gabbions or Baskets of earth may be made vppon platfourmes in time of militarie seruice for the defence of Gunners: and how men vppon a platfourme or vppon the walles of a Cittie, Towne, or Fort, where no Gabbions or Baskets of earth are to shadow them in time of militarie seruice, may be shadowed with canuas, cables, ropes, wet straw or hay, mattresses or ship sailes.

[Page 41]PRepare a conuenient number of osiar twigges or pliant roddes, and for euery gabbion or basket which shall be made 16 long stakes: set the stakes of euery basket vpright in the fourme of a circle and fast in the ground neere vnto the sides of such great peeces as shall be vsed for defensiue and offensiue seruice. And let each peece of grounde which shall be so circularwise enclosed with 16 stakes for a gabbion or basket, bee foure foote wide within the stakes. This done, wreath about the stakes of each gabbion or basket so many of the said Osiar twigges or pliant roddes as will suffice to make euery basket extende one foote in heigth aboue the head of the taulest gunner. After you haue so done, fill vp the said baskets with earth which must be throwne into each basket by a little and little at a time, and cause a man standing within euery basket to treade well and ramme downe all the same earth as it shall be so cast in. But when gunners shall serue vppon a platfourme where no baskets of earth are set to defende them, they may shadow themselues with ca­bles, or bigge ropes, with wet strawe or wet hay, with dead bodies of enemies, with mattres­ses, shippe sailes or canuas hanged stiffe vp so as the enemie shall not see any marke or man vppon the platfourme to shoote at, and with a line drawe vp the nearer or loost end of the same mattresses, ship sailes or canuas, so often as they shall haue cause to shoote at their enemies. This deuise as some men doe thinke will be also profitable for those that shall in time of warre stand vppon the walles of a cittie, towne, or forte, because they may put vp at their pleasure the canuas, & looke vnder the same with more safety than through the loope or looke holes in the wall at which the enemis are alwayes readie to shoote.

If for defence in seruice you will make a double Gabbion which at the least ought to be eight foote in widenesse and 25 feete and 1/7 of a foote in compasse, digge at the ende of euery foote in measure vppon that compasse, a whole foote & ½ foote or somwhat more in deepenesse and set vpright in euery of the said holes a staffe often foote in length and in compasse so bigge as a mans arme. This done, wreath pliant twigges of Osiar, or of nut trees, or of oke, or of willoe about all the same erected staues vp to their tops, & while you are so occupied, cause an other man with a woodden beetle to beate downe your worke close togeather, whereby it will be more able to resist the violent bloe of a pellet: Also in the very middest of the Gabbion driue a strong peece of oke into the ground, & lay other peeces of tymber ioyned fast togeather ouerthwarte the gabbion from one of his sides to the other. After all this, fill vp the said gabbion with good clay, or with blacke, small, and wet earth well rammed downe, or with greene turfes digged out of meddowes, or with bagges full of earth or fine sande, or with bagges of wooll which is the best thing of al for this purpose and take heed that you do put no stone into any gabbion among those things which do fill it vp.

The 49 Chapter. Rules by which Rabinets, Bases, Fauconets, forreine ordinance that are not so high as the Faucon, Faucons, Minions, Sakers, Culuerings, Basiliskes, Cannons, and all peeces which do shoote stone pel­lets may for proofe and also for seruice be duely charged with that sort of corne gunpowder which is marked in the 16 Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 1, and by which you may tell what roome a due charge of such corne gunpowder will fill vp in the concauitie of any great peece that shooteth pellets of lead, or pellets of yron.

1 YOu may prooue all sorts of great peeces with three shoots in this maner following. Charge euery Rabinet, Base, Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Moiane, Saker, & Culuering which is fortified with mettal as it ought to be, for the first shoote of proofe with the whole waight in gunpowder of his pellet, for the se­cond shoote of proofe with 5/4 in gunpowder of the waight in his pellet, & for the third and last shoote of proofe with 3/2 in gunpowder of the waight in his pellet. As for example, if a peece which shalbe prooued doth shoote a pellet of 12 pounds in waight, you must charge the said peece for the first shoote of proof, with 12 poundes in gunpowder, for the second shoote of proofe, with 15 poundes in gunpowder, and for the third shoote of proofe with eighteene poundes in gunpowder.

2 Charge euery Cānon & Basilisk for the first shoot of proof with ⅔ in gūpowder of the waight in his pellet, for the second shoot of proof with ⅚ partes in gūpowder of the waight [Page 42]in his pellet, and for the third and last shoote of proofe with the whole waight of his pellet in gūpowder. As for example if any Peece named in this second rule shall be prooued with a fit pellet of 45 poundes in waight, you must charge the said peece for the first shoote of proofe with thirtie poundes in gunpowder, and for the second shoote of proofe with 37. poundes and ½ pound in gunpowder, and for the third and last shoote of proofe with 45 pounds in gunpowder.

3 Charge euery cannon periero of the olde making for the first shoote of proofe with ⅓ in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet, for the second shoote of proofe with 7/18 partes in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet, and for the third and last shoote of proofe with 4/9 partes in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet. As for example, if a cannon periero of the old making shall be prooued with a fit stone pellet of 36 poundes in waight, you must charge the said cannon periero for the first shoote of proofe with 12 poundes in gunpowder, for the second shoote of proofe with 14 poundes in gunpowder, and for the third shoote of proofe with 16 poundes in gunpowder.

4 Charge euery cannon periero of the nwe making for the first shoote of proofe with ½ in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet, for the second shoote of proofe with 5/ [...] parts in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet, & for the third and last shoote with ¾ parts in gunpowder of the waight in his stone pellet. As for example, if a cannon periero of the nwe making shall be prooued with a fit stone pellet of 36 poundes in waight, you must charge the said cannon periero for the first shoote of proofe with 18 poundes in gunpow­der, for the second shoote of proofe with 22 poundes and ½ pounde in gunpowder, and for the third and last shoote of proofe with 27 poundes in gunpowder.

5 Also you may prooue any great peece of artillerie by these rules following: charge and discharge thrise togeather, for proofe euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Base, Rabinet, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Passauolante, and demie Culuering loer than ordinarie with the whole waight in corne gunpowder of his leaden pellet.

6 Charge & discharge thrise togeather for proofe, euery ordinary demie Culuering, demie Culuering of the biggest sort, whole Culuering not so high as ordinary, whole ordi­narie demie Culuering, and whole Culuering of the biggest sort which is not so well for­tified with mettall as it should be, with the whole waight in corne gunpowder of his yron pellet.

7 For proofe charge & discharge thrise togeather euery Cannon, & Basiliske, which shooteth an yron pellet of lesse waight than ½ hundred waight, and 24 poundes of auer de poize waight in Englande, with the whole poise in corne gunpowder of the waight in his pellet.

8 For proofe charge and discharge thrise togeather euery cannon periero and euery other peece which shooteth a stone pellet of lesse waight than ½ hundred waight, tenne pounds and three ounces of auer de poize waight in England, with ⅓ part in corne gunpow­der of the poyse in his stone pellet.

9 For seruice charge euery Rabinet, Base, Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culuering which is duely fortified with mettall, with the whole waight in corne gunpowder of his yron pellet: And note that such a charge in gunpowder filleth vp within the concauitie of euery Peece named in this rule, so much roome as will containe foure fit pellets and the breadth of one finger ioyned to them.

10 For seruice charge euery ordinary demie Culuering, demie Culuering of the biggest sort, whole Culuering not so high as ordinarie, whole ordinary Culuering and whole Cul­uering of the biggest sort which is not duely fortified with mettall, with ⅘ partes in corne gunpowder of the waight in his yron pellet: and note that such a charge in gunpowder filleth vp within the concauitie of euery peece named in this tenth rule, so much roome as will containe three fit pellets, ⅔ partes of one fit pellet, and the bredth of one finger ioined to them.

11 For seruice charge euery Cannon and Basiliske which shooteth an yron pellet of lesse waight than ½ hundred waight and 24 pounds of auer de poize waight in England with [...]/ [...] partes in corne gunpowder of the poise in his yron pellet: And note that such a charge in gunpowder filleth vppe within the concauitie of euerie peece named in this 11 rule[Page 43]so much roome as will containe three fitte pellettes, and the breadth of one finger ioyned to them.

12 When you shalbe forced in time of seruice to shoote out of a Cannon or Basiliske a stone Pellet for want of yron pellettes, you shall then duely charge the sayde peece with ½ in such fine gunpowder as is marked in the 16 Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 2, or with [...]/3 in such gunpowder as is marked in the sayde 16 Chapter with the figure of 1, of the waight in the sayde stone pellet.

13 When any great peece of artillery shall be charged with such fine gunpowder as is marked in the sayde 16 Chapter of this Appendix with the figure of 3, you must abate 1/ [...] out of his ordinary charge.

14 For seruice charge euery Cannon Periero of the olde making with ⅓ in corne gun­powder of the waight in his stone pellet.

15 For seruice charge euery Cannon Periero of the nwe making with ½ in corne gun­powder of the waight in his stone pellet.

16 Euery peece which shalbe prooued, ought to lie mounted in the times of his dis­charge for proofe, at 30 degrees or thereabouts.

17 The gunpowder which hath beene named in this Chapter without this addition fine, is of that sorte of gunpowder which is marked in the sixteene Chapter of this Appen­dix with the figure of 1.

The 50 Chapter. Rules by which carriages for great peeces of artillery ought to be made.

1 THe plankes in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culueringe,Length. ought to be in length once and a halfe so much as the Canon of their peece. As for example, if the Canon of a peece be in length thirty two times the diameter at his mouth, then the plankes in the car­riage (I meane euery planke in the carriage) ought to be in length fourty eyght times that diameter.

2 The plankes in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culueringe,Breadth. ought to be in breadth at their fore­endes foure times and ½ the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

3 The plankes in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culueringe,Breadth. ought to be in breadth about their middest, I meane in those places which are touched with the two endes of the flat trāsome in the carriage, 4 times the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

4 The plankes in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culueringe,Breadth. ought to be in breadth in their endes which shall lie vppon the grounde, twise and a halfe the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

5 The plankes in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, and such o­ther small peeces,Thicknesse. ought to be in thicknesse once and a halfe the diameter in the mouth of their peece, to the ende they may beare a proportion to their wheeles.

6 The plankes in the carriage of euery Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, and Culueringe,Thicknesse. ought to be in thicknesse once so much as the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

7 If a Gunner shall desire to haue light carriages for his peeces, he may cause a Carpen­ter to cut away from the thicknesse of the plankes in euery carriage, that is to say,Thicknesse. from their insides betweene the flat transome and the tayle transome so much as ⅛ parte of the diameter in the mouth of the peece which shall lie vppon the carriage.

8 Foure transomes, that is to say, the fore transome, the flat transome, the vpright tran­some, and the tayle transome, are put into the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino,Transome. Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Saker, Moiane, Culueringe, Cannon, & Basiliske, to holde faste togeather the plankes or sides of their carriage. Also the fore transome, [Page 44]the flatte transome, and the vpright transome doe serue in their carriage for other vses de­clared in the 3 rules next following.

[...]re Tran­ [...]e.9 The fore transome of a carriage ought to be strengthened with two yron boltes put thorowe it, to holde vp the mouth of his peece that it may not in his discharge fall downe towardes the ground.

10 The flatte transome of a carriage ought to be strengthened (especially if it shall lye vnder a Cannon or Basiliske) with two boltes of yron put thorow it, [...]t Tran­ [...]e. that it may be able to beare the waight in the tayle of his peece when it is charged: And this flat transome must lie in the sides of his carriage so loe as may bee, because the loer that this flatte transome doth lie in his carriage, the more higher will his peece be mounted.

[...]right Tran­ [...]e.11 The vpright transome (which more properly may be called the slope transome, con­sidering it doth lie aslope in his carriage) ought to be strengthened with two yron boltes put thorow it, or very neere vnto it, frō one side of the carriage vnto the other, that it may holde vp the tayle of his peece when it shalbe mounted or imbased with wedges.

12 Betweene the vpright transome and the tayle transome, that is to say, a little aboue the tayle transome, a strong bolte of yron must lie fast from one side of euery carriage to the other, [...]mbers. and from one limber in euery carriage to the other: which limbers ought to be set vppon the endes of that bolte in the outsides of their carriages, and stayed from moo­uing vp or downe when a horse shall drawe betweene them, with two moueable shuttles of yron thrust into them thorow their sides, [...]uttles. and thorow the sides of the carriage a litle aboue the tayle transome.

[...]e centers of [...]les for trun­ [...]ons.13 The centers of the holes in the sides of a carriage where the trunnions of a Smeri­glio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Moiane, Saker, Culueringe, Cannon, or Basiliske shall lie, ought to be distant from the fore endes in the sides of their carriage, 3 times & a halfe the diameter in the mouth of their peece. And the sayd holes ought to be in depth ⅔ partes of the thicknesse in their trunnions, for ⅓ parte of the thick­nesse in the trunnions must alwayes lie aboue the vppermost parte of the sayd holes.

[...]heeles for [...]rriages [...]hich shall [...]ue in the [...]elde.14 The wheeles in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Moiane, Saker, and Culueringe, when they shalbe vsed in the fielde, ought to be in heigth 14 times the diameter in the mouth of their peece besides the thick­nesse of the yron which lyeth about their ringes to saue them from wearing: that is to say the yron about the ringes of the wheeles may be in thicknesse 1/12 or if you will 1/10 parte of the sayde diameter. The heigth of the ringe in euery of the sayd wheeles ought to be equal to the sayd diameter. The spokes betweene the naue and the ringe of euery such wheele ought to be in length 4 times so much as the sayd diameter. The naue of euery such wheele ought to be in thicknesse 4 times so much as the sayd diameter, and the naue of euery such wheele ought to be in length 4 times and a halfe the sayde diameter.

Wheeles for [...]arriages [...]hich shall [...]rue vppon [...]alles of [...]ownes, sortes, [...]nd castles. [...] Palme is in [...]easure ¼ [...]art of a foote.15 The wheeles in the carriage of euery Smeriglio, Rebadochino, Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Passauolante, Moiane, Saker, and Culueringe, when they shalbe vsed vppon the wall of a forte, castle, or towne, ought to be in heigth double to the heigth of the parapet of that wall, which parapet (as Carlo Tetti wryteth in the 1 Chapter of his second booke delle for­tificationi) is alwayes in his due height 10 palmes.

[...]ength.16 The plankes in the carriage of euery Cānon and Basiliske ought to be in length once and ⅓ parte of the length of the canon of their peece, except the places where they shall lie be so narrow as that they cannot lie there.

[...]readth.17 The plankes in the carriage of euery Cannon and Basiliske ought to be in breadth at their fore endes 3 times the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

Breadth.18 The plankes in the carriage of euery Cannon and Basiliske, ought to be in breadth about their middest twise and a halfe the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

Breadth.19 The plankes in the carriage of euery Cannon and Basiliske, ought to be in breadth at their lower endes twise so much as the diameter in the mouth of their peece.

Thicknesse.20 The plankes in the carriage of euery Cannon and Basiliske ought to be in thicknesse once so much as the diameter in the mouth of their peece. But if a Gunner will desire to haue the same planks more thinner to the end they may be more lighter, then he may cause a Carpenter to cut away in the inside of euery of these planks ¼ part of their sayd thicknes.

[Page 45]21 The wheeles in the carriage of euery Cannon and Basiliske when they shalbe vsed in the fielde ought to be in heigth nine times the diameter in the mouth of their Peece,Wheeles besides the thicknesse of yron which lyeth about their ringes to saue them from wearing: that is to say, the yron about the ringes of the wheeles may be in thicknesse 1/12 or if you will 1/10 parte of the sayde diameter. The heigth of the ringe in euery of these wheles ought to be equall to the sayde diameter. The spokes betweene the naue and ringe of euery such wheele ought to be in length two times so much as the sayde diameter. The naue of eue­ry such wheele ought to be in thicknesse three times the heigth of the sayd diameter.Fashion. And the naue of euery such wheele ought to be in length 3 times and a halfe the said diameter.

22 Also note that the carriages for all peeces named in this Chapter are made like in fashion: and that the transomes in all the saide carriages are set after one like māner.

The 51 Chapter. How with a Ladle you may geue vnto any Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske, Cannon, or any other like made Peece his due charge in gunpowder: how you may in time of ser­uice charge any of the sayde peeces with cartredges: and how you may safely discharge any of the sayd peeces.

VVHen you will charge any Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Basiliske,When you will fill a gunladle with gunpow­der that is somewhat moyste, you must fil it heape full, and not strike a­way the pow­der that shall lie aboue the sides of the ladle, & be­ware to charge any peece with very wet gun­powder. After you haue charged a Cannon, you ought to rāme downe his charge in gun­powder with foure thrustes. Cannon, or any other like made peece, put first your hande into the gunpowder which you haue prepared to charge the sayde peece, and perceauing thereby that the same gunpowder is drie, fill the Ladle belonging to the peece that shalbe charged, full of the same gunpowder so many times as is requisite, and euermore with your hand or some other thinge strike away all the drie gunpowder that shall lie aboue the brimme or sides of the same ladle. Then mounting the peece to sixe or seuen degrees, and standing vppon one side of the peece (because it is a perillous thing to place your whole bodie right a­gainst the mouth of a peece which charged with gunpowder may through many occasi­ons goe of suddenly) put the sayd ladle so filled with drie gunpowder into the lowest end of the sayde concauitie, and when you haue so done, turne within the peece the vpside of the ladle downe, so as the gunpowder may fall into the peece, and after the ladle is pulled out, remayne in the lowest ende of the same peece. After you haue in this sorte laded the peece with his due charge in gunpowder, thruste harde with a rammer twise togeather & no more (except you doe charge a Cannon) all the sayd gunpowder home vnto the lowest ende of the peece, that it may not lie dispersed or loose, nor be too harde rammed downe in that place. Also thruste a bigge wad of toe, hay, strawe, or of vntwisted ropes into the peece home vnto the charge in gunpowder for to sweepe and keepe togeather all the sayd charge in gunpowder, and to cause the pellet that shalbe shotte out of the same peece to range farre. Then putting a fitte pellet into the concauitie of the peece (which fitte pellet as our English Gunners doe say ought alwayes for diuers reasons to be ¼ of an ynch lesse or shorter in his diameter than the heigth of the sayde concauitie) driue with a rammer the pellet home vnto that wadde, and if the peece shall shoote downewardes at a marke,A fitte pellet (as our english Gunners doe say) is ¼ of an ynche lesse or shorter in his diameter than the heigth of the concauitie in his peece: But among the Gunners in high Germany this is a general rule that the diameter of a fitte pellet ought to be neither more nor lesse than 20/21 of the diameter in the mouth of his peece. As for example, a fitte pellet for a peece of seuen ynches in diameter, must be 6 ynches & ⅔ of an ynche in diameter. thruste an other bigge wadde of toe, hay, strawe, or of vntwisted ropes into the peece home vnto the said pellet, for to keep the pellet within the peece, & to stay the pellet there, that it may not role out before the peece shalbe discharged: moreouer, put good & dry gunpowder into the touchhole, and about the touchhole of the peece like a trayne, and be not ignorant that after all this is done the peece is charged, and that you standing vppon one side of a peece so charged, and touching the trayne of gunpowder by the touchhole of the peece with a lintstocke or with a fiered Gun-match (which some Gunners doe tie to the ende of a sticke of three or foure foote in length, and some Gunners doe set fast in the cockes of their staues, and some Gun­ners doe winde about the staffe ende of an halbert or partisant) may safely discharge the same peece.

[Page 46]Also if you will in time of seruice charge any of the sayd peeces of Artillerie with car­tredges doe thus: Put first a cartredge into the mouth of the Peece, and then with a ram­mer thruste it into the lowest end of the Peece his concauitie, and next driue a woodden tampion with a rammer into the same concauitie home to the cartredge, then ioyne a good bigge wadde of hay, strawe, toe, or of vntwisted ropes vnto the sayd tampion, and put a fitte pellet into the Peece close vnto the sayd wadde: and when a Peece so charged shall shoote downewardes at a marke, thruste an other like bigge wadde into his concaui­tie harde vppon the pellet: This done, put a long pricker into the touchhole of the Peece so charged, and with the same pricker pearce diuers holes thorow the cartredge lying within the Peece, or (which in mine opinion is a better deuise) cut cleane away before you doe put the cartredge into the hollow Cylinder a peece of the outside of the cartredge, in that parte which shall lie directly vnder and next vnto the touchhole. Finally, fill the touchhole of this Peece with good and dry corne gunpowder, and make about the touch­hole a little trayne of powder, and considering that the tampion within the sayd Peece (if the powder lying behinde the same tampion should happen to be moyste) must be drawen out with a long yron worme,An admoni­tion. or cutte in peeces with a long yron cheesell which will be a perillous worke to doe, I counsel you to discharge the sayd Peece within a con­uenient time after it shalbe so charged with a tampion.

The 52 Chapter. How without a Ladle you may lade any Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Cannon, or other like made Peece with his due charge in loose gunpowder.

PVt a long, straight, and smoothe staffe into the bottome of euery Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Cannon, and euery other like made Peece that shall be charged, and hauing thruste the staffe downe close by the mettall into the concauitie of his Peece so farre as it may goe, marke with a knife or with some other conuenient thing that parte of the staffe which is touched with the lippe or outmost edge of the Peece his mouth. Then drawing the sayd staffe out of his Peece, measure along vppon the same staffe with a compasse (beginning at the sayd marke, and proceeding downewardes in a straight line towardes that end of the staffe which was at the bottome of the sayd conca­uitie) the iust length of the roome which a due charge in gunpowder will fill vp in the sayd concauitie,You may see in the 49 Chapter of this Appendix what roome a due charge in gunpowder will fill vp in any Fauconet, Faucon, Mini­on, Saker, Cul­uering, Cānon or any other like made Peece. and make an other visible marke vppon the staffe at the end of the same length, and for a distinction call it the lowermost marke. After this throe Gunpowder into the Peece with your handes, vntill by estimation the Peece hath receaued thereof a due charge, and with a rammer (as you haue beene taught in the precedent Chapter) thruste the same gunpowder downe into the bottome of the Peece, and to the ende you may be guyded by the sayd staffe to throwe no more gunpowder into the Peece than is requisite, and to take out the excesse when you haue throne too much gunpowder into the Peece, put the sayd staffe agayne into the Peece home vnto the gunpowder, and looke where the lowermost marke vppon the same staffe is: For as the Peece lacketh a parte of his due charge in gunpowder if the sayd lowermost marke shall now be within his mouth, and hath more than his due charge in nwe gunpowder, if the sayde lowermost marke shall be without his mouth, So if you haue throwen into the Peece his due charge in gunpow­der, the sayd lowermost marke will now neither be within the mouth of the Peece, nor without the mouth of the Peece, but touch exactly the outmost edge or lippe of the Peece his mouth.

The 53 Chapter. How you may duely charge any Chamber peece of Artillery, and how you may charge any Cannon Periero.

PVt into euery chamber so much powder as his peece requireth for a due charge, and with a rammer beate a tampion of softe wood downe vppon the gunpowder. Moreo­uer, put a bigge wadde into the peece at that ende where the mouth of the chamber must goe in, and after the wadde thruste into the peece at the sayde ende a fitte pellet, & when you haue done all this, put the chamber into the lowest ende of the peece, lock them fast togeather, and cause the sayde tampion to lie harde vppon the powder in the sayde chamber, and the pellet to touch the tampion, and the wadde to lie close by the pellet.

Euery chamber peece ought to haue three chambers, and when a Gunner will geue fire to a chamber peece, he ought not to stande vppō that side of the peece where a wedge of yron is put to locke the chamber in the peece, because the sayde wedge may through the discharge of that peece flie out, and kill the Gunner. But you shall charge euery Can­non Periero with all these things following in such order as I doe here set them downe.

First with a cartredge which must be put into the peece with a Ladle called in Italian Scaffetta, or with an other fitte Ladle whereof I haue made mention in the 29 Chapter of this Appendix.

Secondly with a tampion of softe wood which must be rammed downe vppon the cartredge.

Thirdly with a wadde which must be thruste into the peece home vnto the sayd tam­pion.

Fourthly with a fitte pellet of stone which must be thruste into the peece home vnto the sayde wadde.

Fiftly with an other wadde of vntwisted ropes, toe, haye, or strawe, which must be thruste into the peece home vnto the sayde pellet. And you may also (if you wil) put into the peece after all these thinges in the place of a stone pellet, a case of wood or of white plate made like vnto the figure in the margent,

[figure]

and filled full of rounde stones, or rounde pellettes of lead, or square pee­ces of yron like vnto dice of an ynch square: But therewith note that a case so filled with stones, pellettes of lead, or square peeces of yron must be equall in waight to a stone pellet which is fitte for the peece that shall shoote the same case.

If a peece of Artillerie which wanteth a couer of mettall for his touchhole shall lie a long time charged, couer the touchhole of the same peece with toe imbrued in tallow, and the powder of cole mingled togeather, and lay vppon the same couer a shel, or a parte of a ruffe tyle, that no rayne may enter into the same touch­hole while his peece is so charged.

The 54 Chapter. How you may cause any great peece of Artillerie to make in his discharge an exceeding great noyse, and a marueylous rore.

WHen you will haue a great peece of Artillerie to make in his discharge an exceeding great noyse, charge the peece with great and harde cornes of gunpowder. For as Felix Platerus wryteth, by how much the cornes of gunpowder are more greater, and more harder, by so much a peece charged with them will in his discharge make a more greater noyse. Also you may by laying a peece of thinne lead, or a peece of shooe leather [Page 48]betweene the gunpowder and the wadde within the hollowe Cylinder, and by putting a little quicksiluer thorow the touchhole into the sayde gunpowder, cause the same hollowe Cylinder or gunne in his discharge to make a marueylous rore.

The 55 Chapter. This Chapter following sheweth that some great peeces of Artillerie doe serue to batter, and that some great peeces of Artillery doe serue to lie vppon walles of Cities, Townes, Castles and Fortes, and that some great peeces of Artillerie doe serue for the fielde. Also this Chapter following sheweth how many times in one day certayne great peeces of Artillerie may be safely charged and discharged, and how many Gunners and Assistantes or Labourers certayne great peeces of Artillerie ought to haue.

AN ordinarie double Cannon duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to batter, & may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be thirtie times charged and discharged in one day.

A french double Cannon duely fortefied with mettall, wil serue to batter & may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be thirtie three times charged and discharged in one day.

A demy Cannon of the eldest and biggest sorte duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to batter, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 80 times charged and dis­charged in one day.

An ordinarie demy Cannon duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to batter, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 108 times charged and discharged within the space of 5 houres in one day, and it ought to haue three Gunners and fifteene Assistantes or Labourers.

A french demy Cannon duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to batter, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be sixty times charged and discharged in one day.

A quarter Cannon duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to lie vppon the wall of a City, Towne, Castle, or Forte, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 110 times charged and discharged in one day.

A whole Culueringe of the eldest and biggest sorte duely fortefied with mettall, wil serue to lie vppon the wall of a Citie, Towne, Castle, or Forte, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 60 times charged and discharged in one day.

A whole ordinary Culueringe duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to lie vppon the wall of a Citie, Towne, Castle, or Forte, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 60 times charged and discharged in one day.

A demy Culuering of the eldest sorte duely fortefied with mettall, will serue to lie vppon the wall of a Citie, Towne, Castle, or Forte, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue ser­uice be 70 times charged and discharged in one day, and it ought to haue two Gunners and tenne assistants or labourers.

A demy Culueringe lower than ordinarie, duely fortefied with mettall, will serue for a fielde peece, and may safelie for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 75 times charged and discharged in one day, and it ought to haue two Gunners and tenne Assistantes or La­bourers.

A Saker of the eldest and biggest sorte duely fortefied with mettall, wil serue for a fielde peece, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be 80 times charged & dischar­ged in one day, and it ought to haue one Gunner and 5 assistants or labourers.

A Faucon duely fortefied with mettall, will serue for a fielde peece, and may safely for of­fensiue and defensiue seruice be an hundred and twenty times charged and discharged in one day.

A Fauconet duely fortefied with mettall, will serue for a fielde peece, and may safely for offensiue and defensiue seruice be a hundred and fourty times charged and discharged in one day.

The 56 Chapter. How a peece of Artillery ought not to be prooued vppon his carriage: how a peece of Artillery that shalbe prooued ought to be made cleane: how a peece of Artillery that shalbe prooued ought to be without hony combes, flawes, & crackes: and how he which hath charged a peece for proofe, ought when he doth discharge the same peece to stande behinde a banke of earth, or wall, vntill by a trayne of gunpowder he hath discharged the sayde peece.

WHen a great peece of Artillery shalbe prooued whether or no it is duely fortefied with mettall, and may in time of seruice be vsed without feare of breaking, take the same peece from his bed or carriage and mount it at 30 degrees, because a great peece which lieth vppon his carriage when it is prooued, cannot be enough eleuated to suffer in time of his proofe a sufficient violence, nor without harme to his carriage be dischar­ged. Also put the staffe of a spunge or the staffe of a gunladle downe [...]to the concauitie of the same peece so farre as it will goe, and thruste downe thorow the touchhole of the peece a round sharpe poynted pricker of yron or steele that may touch and pricke the end of the sayde staffe, which (if no stone, scale, or other lette be within the sayde concauitie) will lie vnder the touchhole. Then taking out all the stones, scales, and filthe, which are within the sayd hollow Cylinder, make cleane the same with a scourer, or (which is all one) with a spunge, for such thinges lying within a hollow Cylinder charged with gunpowder, may cause the same hollow Cylinder in his discharge to breake, or cause a moysture in the same hollow Cylinder which will weaken the gunpowder that is there, and make it vnable to expell a pellet with so great force as it should doe. After this lay the tayle of the peece vppon the grounde against a woodden planke backed with a wall or banke of earth, and perceauing (by such meanes as before in the 43 Chapter of this Appendix haue beene de­clared) that no hony combes, flawes, or crackes are in the sayd hollow Cylinder, put blocks vnder the mouth of the sayde hollow Cylinder or gunne, to mount and eleuate the same mouth as before I haue tolde you vnto 30 degrees. This done, charge and discharge the sayde peece thrise togeather for his proofe with a fitte pellet and a due charge in gunpow­der, according as you haue beene taught in the 40 Chapter of this Appendix. I say thrise to­geather, because a faultie gunne that taketh no hurte by the first shoote, may receaue a little harme by the seconde shoote, and breake in peeces at the thirde shoote. Last of all, make a trayne of gunpowder from a place behinde an high banke of earth or wall, vnto the touchhole of the peece, and standing alwayes when you doe prooue any great peece at the ende of the sayde trayne behinde the banke or wall, geue fire vnto the sayde trayne,An admoni­tion. and beware that you doe not remooue from the sayde standing place till by putting fire to the trayne you haue discharged the peece.

The 57 Chapter. How you may by fiue sundry wayes disparte any Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culuering, Cannon, or any other like made peece: how you may finde out the middle and vppermost parte of mettal ouer the tayle of any peece: how you may finde out the middle and vppermost parte of mettall ouer the mouth of any peece: and how you ought to set the disparte of euery peece vppon the middle and vp­permost parte of mettall ouer the mouth of the peece.

1 MEasure with a calaper cōpasse the greatest heigth of mettall in the taile of the peece, & also the greatest heigth of mettall at the mouth of the peece, subtract the lesser heigth out of the greater heigth, and take halfe of the remaynder for the disparte of the peece.

2 Adde the diameter of the greatest circūference of mettall at the mouth of the peece, to the diameter of the greatest circumference of mettall at the tayle of the peece, and di­uide the whole length of both those diameters into two equall partes. This done, ope­ning [Page 50]your compasse to the measure of one of those equall partes, set one foote of your compasse fast in the vndermost parte of the concauitie at the mouth of the Peece, and extende the other foote of your compasse right ouer the vppermost parte of mettall in the greatest circumference about the mouth of the peece, and take that heigth which is betweene the sayd vppermost parte of mettall, and the sayd vppermost ende or poynt of your compasse for the true length of the disparte of the sayde peece.

3 Measure with a girdle or stringe that will not stretch, the greatest circumference of mettall in the tayle of the peece, multiplie the measure of the sayde circumference by 7, diuide the product thereof by 22, and note in your memoriall the quotient number for the diameter of that circumference. Likewise measure with a girdle or stringe that will not stretch, the greatest circumference of mettall about the mouth of the peece, multi­plie the measure of the circumference last named by 7, diuide the product thereof by 22, and note in your memoriall the quotient number for the diameter of the circumfe­rence last named. This done, subtract the shortest diameter out of the longest diameter, and take ½ parte [...] the remaynder for the disparte of the sayde peece.

4 Prepare a long ruler marked with ynches, halfe ynches, quarters of ynches, and with other lesse equall partes: Lay that ruler ouerthwarte and equidistant to the Horizon vppon the greatest circumference of mettall in the tayle of the peece, let a line and plummet hang right downe from the sayde ruler first close without any bending by one side of the same circumference, and after close without any bending by the other side of the same circumference, note exactly the partes of the ruler which were at both times touched with the line, and in like manner note exactly the poynte of mettall in the sayd circumference which lyeth directly in the middest betweene the sayde two noted parts. This done, take the space betweene the sayde two noted partes for the diameter of the sayde circumference, and marke with a file or some other thing the sayde poynte of met­tall for the middle and vppermost parte of mettall in the sayde circumference. Likewise laye your ruler close to the mouth of the sayde Peece, and let a line and plummet hang right downe from the sayde ruler first close without any bending by one side of the grea­test circumference in the mettall at the mouth of the peece, and after close without any bending by the other side of the circumference last named: then noting well (as you did before) the partes of the ruler touched at both times with the sayde line, and also the poynte of mettall lying in the circumference last named directly ouer the middle parte of the space which is betweene those noted partes, take the same space for the diameter of the sayde circumference at the mouth of the peece, and marke the same poynte with a file or some other thing for the middle and vppermost parte of the last named circumfe­rence. After all this, subtract the shorter diameter from the longer diameter, and taking ⅓ parte of the remaynder for the disparte of the Peece, set a strawe or a peece of a small waxe Candle of equall length to the sayde disparte vpright vppon the sayde marke in the middle and vppermost parte of the circumference last named, and call that strawe or peece of a waxe Candle, the dispart of the peece.

5 Thruste a pryming yron thorowe the touchhole of the Peece downe to the bottom of his concauitie, and then marke with a redde stone that parte of the yron which is e­quall in heigth with the vppermost parte of mettall in the greatest circumference at the tayle of the peece. This done, pull vp the sayde yron out of the touchhole, set that ende of the yron which went thorowe the touchhole, vppon the vndermost parte of the concauitie in the mouth of the peece, and holding the marked parte of the sayd yron right ouer the middle parte of mettall in the greatest circumference aboue the mouth of the peece, take the space betweene the sayde marke vppon the yron, and the sayde middle parte of mettall ouer the mouth of the peece, for the desired dis­parte which (if it be set in his due place) will alwayes direct you to lay the concauity of his peece leuell, and right against any appoynted marke.

The 58 Chapter. How with a Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, or Cannon, you may alwayes strike any appoynted marke within poynt blanke.

AFter you haue charged a Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culueringe, Cannon, or any other like made peece with his duetie in powder, waddes, and pellet, according to the precepts expressed in the 49 Chapter of this Appendix, disparte the peece, and set his disparte vpright with a little waxe vppon the middle and vppermost parte of mettall in the greatest circumference ouer the mouth of the peece, and lifte your peece vp or downe vntill by laying your eye vnto the middle and vppermost parte of mettall in the greatest circumference at the tayle of the peece, you may perceaue that the marke at which you will shoote, the toppe of the disparte, and the vppermost parte of mettall at the tayle of the peece doe lie in a perfect right line and in an equall heigth. Then doing your duety as you haue beene taught in the first Chapter of this Appendix, discharge your peece and you shall see that the pellet shotte out of the same peece will strike the appoynted marke which lyeth within poynte blanke.

When you shall haue occasion to shoote at a light seene in the night time, disparte your peece with a lighted & vnflaming waxe candle, or with a lighted gunmatch, or set a lighted gūmatch vpright by the disparte, that you may see by the light of the fire in the same gun­match, to lay the middle and vppermost parte of mettall at the tayle of the peece, and the toppe of the disparte in a straight line with the marke, and to place the concauity of the peece right against the marke, as before in this Chapter I haue taught you to doe.

The 59 Chapter. How you may know what number of feete, yardes, pases, or scores, any peece of Artillerie will shoote in an vnsensible crooked line, or (as the Gunners terme is) at poynt blanke.

CHarge the peece for whose poynte blanke you seeke with his duetie in good corne gunpowder, and with a fitte pellet, turne the mouth of that peece towardes a wall, butte, or banke of earth scituated in a conuenient distance from the peece: and lay the peece leuell by the helpe of a Gunners semicircle, or quadrante, as you haue beene taught in the first Colloquie of the first booke of Nicholas Tartaglia his Colloquies: Then setting the true disparte of the peece vppon his mouth according to the doctrine written in the tenth Colloquie of the sayde first booke of Colloquies, and in the 57 and 58 Chapters of this Appendix, discharge the peece at a small visible marke fixed in a poynte of the sayde wall, butte, or banke of earth that is leuell with the toppe of the sayde disparte, and with the highest parte of the mettall at the tayle of the peece. This done, note diligently where the pellet doth hit, and euermore when the pellet so shotte doth strike aboue the marke,When the pellet shotte in this maner striketh aboue the marke, then the ex­treame & far­thest ende of the poynte blanke which you seeke, is beyonde the sayde marke. When the pellet shotte in this maner striketh vnder the marke, then the extreame and farthest end of the poynt blanke which you seeke, lyeth betweene your peece & the said mark. remooue the peece backwardes to an other place more farther from the sayde marke, and out of the more remote place shoote at the marke agayne as you did before with one sorte of gunpowder and with a like pellet, till the pellet so shotte shal strike in the middest of the marke. For when the pellet so shotte doth strike precisely in the middest of the marke, then by the reasons alleaged in the nynth Colloquie of the saide first booke of Col­loquies, the number of scores, pases, yardes, and feete, betweene your sayde peece, and the sayde marke, is so much grounde as your sayde peece can shoote in an vnsensible crooked line, or (as the Gunners terme is) at poynte blanke. But if the pellet so shotte shall strike vnder the marke, drawe the peece forwardes towardes the marke, and from a more nearer place shoote againe as you did before with one sorte of powder, and with a like pellet, till the pellet so shotte striking in the middest of the marke shall shewe vnto you by the reasons alleaged in the sayde 9 Colloquie, that the distance betweene your peece [Page 52]and the marke is so much ground as your sayd Peece can shoote in an vnsensible crooked line, or (as the Gunners terme is) at poynt blanke.

The 60 Chapter. How the poynt blanke and vtmost ranges are proportionall in all peeces of Artillerie: How by the rule of proportion you may knowe what number of yardes any peece will reach at his vtmost randon: And how by the sayd rule you may know what number of yardes any peece will reach at his poynte blanke.

THe poynt blanke and vtmost ranges (as some authors haue written) are proportionall in all peeces of Artillerie, wherefore knowing the poynt blanke and vtmost range of any one peece, and the poynt blanke of an other peece, you may tell the vtmost range of any that other peece. In like manner knowing the poynt blanke and vtmost range of any one peece, and the vtmost range of an other peece, you may tell the poynt blanke of that o­ther peece: As for example let vs suppose that this question is asked: If a Faucon carrying poynt blanke 320 yardes will at his vtmost randon range 1280 yardes: how farre will a Saker reach at his vtmost randon that at poynt blanke or leuel rangeth 360 yardes? I say, that the rule of proportion serueth precisely to answere the same and all such like questi­ons, And that multiplying 360 in 1280, and diuiding 460800 the product thereof by 320, the quotient will yeelde 1440 for the number of yardes which the sayd Saker shall reach at his vtmost randon. Againe, let vs suppose that I am required to answere this demaunde. If a Faucon which rangeth at his vtmost randon 1280 yardes will carrie poynt blanke 320 yardes, how farre will a Saker reach at poynte blanke that at his vtmost randon rangeth 1440 yardes? To doe that which is required I multiplie 320 in 1440, and hauing diuided 460800 the product by 1280. I finde in the quotient 360 to be the number of yards which the Saker will shoote leuel: or (as the Gunners terme is) poynt blanke. And thereuppon I conclude that after this manner by obseruations vsed in any one peece of artillery, and by the arte of proportion I may discouer vnto you the force of all other peeces of artillerie.

 Poynt blanke.Vtmost randon. Vtmost randon.Poynt blanke.
Faucon.320 Yards.1280 Yards.Faucon.1280 Yards.320 Yards.
Saker,360 Yards.1440 Yards.Saker.1440 Yards.360 Yards.

The 61 Chapter. How you must mount your peece when you will shoote vnto the farthest end of the vtmost randone.

NIcholas Tartaglia in his Epistle set at the beginning of his booke named La noua scientia declareth that euery great Peece of Artillery ought to be mounted at 45 degrees when it shall shoote vnto the farthest ende of his vtmost randon. But William Bourne in his Treatise of shooting in great Ordinance wryteth that it is needefull for vs to consider well of the winde before we doe mount any peece to shoote vnto the farthest ende of his vtmost randon, because (as he sayth) when we will shoote with the winde vnto the farthest ende of the vtmost randon, we must mount our peece at 45 degrees, and in a windie day against the winde sometimes at 36 degrees, sometimes at 37 degrees, sometimes at 38 degrees, sometimes at 39 degrees, sometimes at 40 degrees, according as the winde is in bignesse, and in a fayre calme day at 42 degrees.

The 62 Chapter. How you may mounte any great peece of Artillerie with a ruler, as well as with a quadrant or se­micircle vnto the number of tenne degrees, and how such a ruler ought to be made: and how such a ruler ought to be vsed when a peece of Artillerie is by it mounted, or imbased.

THe measure of the length of the peece that shal be mounted by a ruler being doub­led, reduce into ynches: after this, multiplie the sayd number of ynches by 22,[Page 53]and diuide the product by 7, and diuide againe the quotient number of that diuision by 360, then take the last quotient for the number of ynches and partes of an ynch, that wil make a degree vppon a ruler for that peece which was so measured. As for example, I wil mounte a peece of 6 foote long at one degree with my ruler, therefore 6 foote the length of that peece being doubled maketh 12 foote, which reduced into ynches make 144 yn­ches. This number of 144 multiplied by 22 produceth 3168, which diuided by 7 yeeldeth in the quotient 452 and 4/7: then doe I diuide that quotient of 452 and 4/7 by 360, and so the quotient of this last diuision which is 1 and [...]/3 [...]/5 sheweth that this peece of 6 foote in length, being mounted by my ruler 1 ynche and [...]/3 9/5 of an ynche, lyeth iustly of the same heigth that it would doe if it should be mounted at one degree of a quadrant or semicir­cle. Now to know how much the sayde peece must be mounted for 2 degrees of a qua­drant or semicircle, I multiplie 1 and [...]/3 9/5 by 2, and thereof commeth 2 and ⅓ [...]/5, wherefore I say, if the sayde peece be eleuated by the ruler 2 ynches and ⅓ [...]/5 of an ynche that it lieth mounted at two degrees. Likewise by multiplying the sayd number of 1 and [...]/3 9/5 by 3, the product therof (which is 3 and ⅔ 7/5 ex­presseth that the sayd peece must be mounted 3 ynches and ⅔ 7/5 of an ynch for 3 degrees. And after this order I may knowe how to mount the sayde peece with a ruler vnto any other de­gree to which the peece wil be moun­ted with a ruler, for you ought not to be ignorāt of this, that a peece of ar­tillerie cannot be mounted with a ru­ler aboue 10 degrees, because the de­grees are taken out of a circumferēce and not out of a straight line.

[depiction of a ruler, a quadrant and a semicircle]

The ruler with which peeces of ar­tillerie may be mounted is made in fashion like vnto the picture drawē in the margent, & marked as common rulers are, with ynches, halfe ynches, quarters of ynches, halfe quarters of ynches, and with more lesser partes of an ynch. Also in the middest of this ruler (almost from one end to the o­ther) there is a slitte or open place, within which a plate of brasse or lat­tin hauing in it a little hole pearced thorow is so placed, that the said hole may as need shall require be mooued vp and downe in that slitte, and be set right against any ynch, or parte of an ynche marked vppon the same ru­ler. And although (as it seemeth to me) a peece may be more easilie, and more iustly mounted vnto any de­gree by a quadrant, and also by a se­micircle, than by a ruler, yet wil I not let passe to shewe in this place how you must vse the ruler to mounte a peece by it. Wherefore when you wil mount a peece by a ruler to shoote at any marke, put first the true disparte of the peece to be mounted, vppon[Page 54]the peece his mouth, as you haue beene taught in the 57 Chapter of this Appendix, then knowing at what degree the peece must be mounted to reach the marke, set the hole which is in the mouable plate of the ruler right against the number of ynches, and partes of an ynche that will make iustly the same degree: and hauing so done, set the ende of the ruler vppon the tayle of the peece, so as the ruler may stande vppon the peece squirewise, vntill you haue done your woorke. After this (the mouth of the sayde peece being layde right vppon the marke) koyne the breeche of the peece vp and downe vntil you may see thorow the sayd hole in the plate the top of the disparte, and the marke, and when you haue so done, geue fire to the peece that you may strike the sayde marke.

The 63 Chapter. How you may by the helpe of wedges lay the concauitie of any great peece of Artillerie right against a marke: how by the helpe of wedges you may make a perfect shoote at a marke lying vnder the mouth of your Peece: and how by the helpe of wedges you may cause your Peece to strike in the marke, after it hath at one shoote shotte vnder the marke, and at an other shoote shotte aboue the marke.

PRepare of yron or of strong and harde wood two sortes of wedges for euery great peece of Artillery, that is to say, three wedges of one sorte, and three wedges of an other sorte: Make euery wedge of the one sort iust so thicke as ⅓ parte of the heigth in the disparte of his peece: and let euery wedge of the other sorte be no thicker than ⅙ parte of the sayde heigth. This done, lay the vppermost parte of mettall at the tayle of the peece, and the vppermost parte of mettall ouer the mouth of the peece, in an equall heigth and in a right line with the marke: and then put vnder the tayle of the peece one of his sayde wedges of the thicker sorte, which (as Luigi Collado affirmeth) will cause the concauitie of that Peece without any more woork, to lie right against the sayd marke. But when you pur­posing to shoote at a marke lying vnder the mouth of your Peece within poynte blanke, doe looke vppon that marke by the sayde two vppermost partes of mettall, put vnder the tayle of your peece two of the sayde wedges of the thicker sorte, and by so dooing you shall make a perfect shoote at the sayde marke. Also (as the sayde Luigi Collado writeth) if your peece lying leuell dooth shoote vnder the marke, and afterwardes (the vpper­most parte of mettall ouer his mouth being layde in an equall heigth with the vppermost parte of mettall at his tayle) doth shoote somuch aboue the marke as before it did shoote vnder, you may at the thirde and next shoote cause your sayde peece to strike in the sayd marke, if you will for this thirde shoote lay againe the vppermost parte of mettall ouer his mouth in an equall heigth with the vppermost parte of mettall at his tayle, and put afterwardes one of his sayde wedges of the thinner sorte vnder his tayle.

The 64 Chapter. How to make a perfect shoote at any companie of horsemen, or footemen passing by the place where Or­dinance doth lie vppon a leuell grounde: and also how to make a perfect shoote at any shippe sayling in a riuer by the place where Ordinaunce doth lie vppon a leuell grounde: and also how to make a per­fect shoote at any moouing thing passing by a place where Ordinance doth lie vppon an vneuen ground.

WHen any horsemen or footemen shall passe by a place where a great peece of Artil­lerie doth lie, the Gunner must charge that peece duely with good gunpowder, and with a fit pellet, to this ende that the same peece may goe off so soone as fire is put vn­to it.

[Page 55]Also the Gunner in this case must lay his peece truely disparted vppon a leuell grounde right against some marke in their way: as for example against some tree, bushe, hillocke, cloude, or if it may bee vppon some turning way, because in such a place they can not de­part verie quicklie from the marke, and in fine when the said horsemen or footemen shall come neare vnto that marke, or be in that turning way, the Gunner must discharge his saide peece at them. Likewise when a Gunner will shoote at a ship sayling in a Riuer, hee ought to plant his peece against some cloude or other marke lying from him on the far­ther side of the water, and giue fire vnto his peece when the forepart of the shippe shall be­ginne to be betweene the mouth of the peece and the marke. But when the peece which shall be discharged at a mouing thing doth lie in his carriage vppon an vneuen ground, the Gunner must measure by the helpe of a Quadrant, or Semicircle, how many ynches the ground vnder one wheele of the peece his carriage is more higher, than the ground vnder the other wheele of the same carriage, or for want of a Quadrant and Semicircle, he must goe to that wheele of the Peece his carriage which standeth vppon the loer grounde, and hanging a line and plummet downe to the grounde from the middle and highest parte of that wheele, measure exactly the space betweene the said plummet, and the middest of the loermost part of the same wheele: for this measure sheweth in like maner how much the ground is more higher vnder one wheele, than vnder the other wheele. And when hee hath so done he must lay his said peece according to that measure wide from the marke towardes the more higher side of ground: I meane if it bee found by the first or second way to measure the said difference of heigthes, that the grounde vnder the wheele on the North side of the peece his carriage doth lie sixteene ynches aboue the ground that is vn­der the wheele vppon the Southside of the same carriage, the Gunner to make a perfect shoote at the moouing thing ought to lay the mouth of his saide peece sixeteene ynches wide towardes the North from the vnmooueable marke that must guide him to shoote at the moouing thing.

The 65 Chapter. How much a peece must bee eleuated for to shoote vpwardes at a marke vppon a hill without point blanke: and by what meanes the mouth of a peece may be laid right vppon any marke.

VVHen you will shoote vpwards at a marke which is scituated vppon a hill with­out poynt blanke you must first measure with your Quadrant or Semicircle the space which is betweene your peece and the marke, & afterwardes mount that peece at so many degrees as will cause it to shoote so much ground as is in the saide space: then place your Quadrant or Semicircle close by the mouth of your peece, and mooue it vp or downe till you shall espie through the sightes or channell of the Quadrant or Semicircle the said marke. That done, note the degree which was tou­ched in this last action with the line and plummet of the Quadrant or Semicircle, and mount the peece againe more higher by so many degrees than it was before, I meane if you did mount the peece at foure degrees to shoote so much grounde as is betweene the peece and the marke, and did note three degrees for the degrees which were touched with the line and plummet of the Quadrant or Semicircle, then must you mount the peece againe at three degrees more, and so the said peece will lie mounted in the whole summe at seuen degrees for to shoote vpwardes to the marke vppon the hill. And by so doing if the peece be layd right vppon the marke, you shall vndoubtedly strike the same. But if your peece doe not lie right vppon the marke when it is discharged, it will strike wide of the marke so many times the measure of the widenesse that it lyeth at when it is discharged, as the length of the peece is contained in the distance betweene the peece and the marke. As for example, if a peece of eight foote long be planted one ynch wide from the marke lying eight hundred foote distant from the peece, I conclude that the said peece planted one ynch wyde from the marke, will strike at the end of that distance one hundred ynches wide from the said marke.

[Page 56]To lay your peece right vppon the marke doe thus: hang a line and plummet right ouer the taile of the peece in the middle part thereof, and winde the peece vntill you stan­ding behinde the same peece shall see that the middle part of the mouth of the peece doth lie directly betweene the marke and the line hanging at the taile of the peece: For when the middle part of the mouth of the peece doth lie directlie betweene the marke and the said line, then doth the peece lie right vppon the marke.

The 66 Chapter. How much a peece ought to bee imbased for to shoote at a marke lying in a valley without point blanke.

TO shoote downewardes at a marke lying in a valley without point blanke, measure first with your Quadrant or Semicirle the space which is betweene your peece and the marke, and afterwardes mount that peece at so many degrees as will cause it to shoote so much ground as is in the said space. Then hauing placed your Quadrant or Semicircle by the mouth of your peece, mooue it vp or downe till you shall espie through the sights or channell of the Quadrant or Semicircle the said marke, and note what degree is touched with the line and plummet of the Quadrant or Semicircle: that done, put downe the mouth of the peece more loer by so many degrees than it was before, I meane if you did mounte the peece foure degrees to shoote so much grounde as is betweene the peece and the marke, and did note three degrees for the degrees touched with the said line & plum­met of the Quadrant or Semicircle, then the mouth of the peece must be put downe or (as some terme it) imbased three degrees, and so will the peece being laid right vppon the marke and mounted but at one degree, strike the marke in the valley although in the pre­cedent chapter the said peece was mounted at seuen degrees to shoote a like distance at a marke vppon a hill, and at foure degrees to shoote a like distance vppon a plaine ground.

Heere this is to be noted that a pellet shot from an heigth into a loe place can doe no more harme than kill one person, or make one hole in the place where it falles, because (as Luigui Collado hath written) the pellet so shot doth more offend through his owne naturall waight, than by the expulsiue power of the gunpowder which did expell it out of his peece.

The 67 Chapter. How you may certainely know by the Gunners Semicircle whether a ship vppon the Sea, or an Armie vppon the land, or any other thing seene a farre of, doth come towardes you, stande still, or goe from you: and how you ought to discharge your great ordinance of diuers sortes against a ship, or an Armie comming towardes you.

A Long distance being betweene you and a ship vpon the Sea, or an armie of men moo­uing a farre of, may oftentimes through the weaknesse of your sight deceiue you, and make you not to discerne well whether that ship, or armie doth stand still, goe frō you, or come towardes you: therefore it will be very profitable (as I thinke) for you to learne how you may be alwaies certaine thereof, for to follow your enemies when they shall flie from you, and make preparation of defence when you shall see them come to assault you. For this purpose you shall ascende into some high place from whence you may behold the ship or armie a farre of: and hauing put a Semicircle to your eye, mooue it vp or downe till you shall see through the sights, or through a channell made in the said Semicircle, that part of the ship or armie which is nearest vnto you. Then your Semicircle remaining vnmooue­able, note diligently the part of the Semicircle touched with the hanging line and plummet of that Semicircle, and after a while making the said line to hang againe directlie vppon the saide part which was touched with it when you did espie thorow the saide sightes or channell the ship or armie, looke againe whether you can espie thorow the same sights or channell the part of the ship or armie which was first espied: for if at your second looking you shall behold againe through the said sights or channell the very same part of the ship [Page 57]or armie which you did first espie you may boldly affirme that the said ship or armie moo­ued not betweene the time of the first and second looking. And if your visuall line passing through the said sights or channell shall not at your second looking extend to the said part, then it is certaine that the said ship or armie doth goe from you. But if your saide visuall line passing through the said sights or channell shall at your seconde looking extende ouer the said part of that ship or armie, then you may boldly say that the said ship or armie commeth towards you.

[diagram of a visual line]

After all this you must measure by the helpe of your Semicircle how farre the said ship or armie is from you, and finding by your measure that the said ship or armie is within the reach of your peeces, you ought to shoote out of Culuerings, Sakers, Minions, Faucons, and Fauconets, whole yron shot at the same ship or armie, and when the armie shall come very neere vnto you chaine shot, cliue shot, dice shot, baules of wild fire and such other like spoiling shot.

The 65 Chapter. How you may make a perfect shoote in a darke night at any marke that may be seene in the day time: and how a lighted candle may be carried in the night time so as no light shall be seene but at your will and pleasure.

[Page 58]IN the day time mount your peece to reach the appointed marke, and at that very time place the mouth or concauitie of the peece right vppon the saide marke, and then ha­uing put the longest legge of your Semicircle into the mouth of the saide peece, note exact­lie what degree vppon the Semicircle is touched with the line & plummet hanging vppon the said Semicircle, for that degree being written in your memoriall will shew you alwaies how much the said peece lying in that place must be mounted to reach the said marke. Af­ter this, let fall a line and plummet downe vnto the grounde from the middle part of the mouth of the peece, and thrust a pin of wood or yron into that point of ground which was touched with the plummet last mentioned. Likewise from the middle part of the breeche or taile of the peece, let that line and plummet hang downe againe vnto the grounde, and thrust an other pyn of wood or yron into the same very point of grounde which was last touched with the said plummet. Finally, draw a straight line vppon the ground right ouer both those pinnes, and make each end of this line to reach two yardes at the least beyonde the pyn next vnto it. This line lyeth directly vnder the middle parte of the mouth of the peece, and also vnder the middle part of the taile of the peece, and right vppon the marke, and is named therefore the line of direction. Now when you will shoote in a darke night with that peece at the saide marke, charge the peece with his duetie in powder, and with a fit pellet, and plumme the middle of the mouth of the said peece, and the middle of the taile of the said peece, right vppon the said pynnes set in the said line of direction, that you may by so doing lay the mouth of the peece right vppon the appointed marke. Then the longest legge of your saide Semicircle being put into the mouth of the peece koyne the peece vp and downe till the line and plummet hanging vppon the Semicircle shall fall ex­actlie vppon the same degree that it touched before when it was mounted in the day time to strike the said marke. Al this being done, you ought to consider of other things that are expressed in the first chapter of this Appendix, and obserue the same before you do shoote, for by so doing there is no doubt but that the pellet shot out of the saide peece will strike the appointed marke in any night how darke so euer it is. Also if this doctrine be obser­ued at euery time when you will shoote at a marke, you may without faile strike the saide marke so often as you will with diuers peeces from sundrie places in any darke night. But to the end you may see at all times before you shoote whether or no the line and plummet hanging vppon the Semicircle falleth vppon the degree noted in your memoriall, & whea­ther or no the middle part of the mouth of the peece doth lie right ouer the line of directi­on, I counsell you to prepare a close boxe of boordes like a lantorne to carrie a lighted candle, and to haue a dore in the side of the boxe to open when you will see with your can­dle, and to shut when you will haue no light seene.

[diagram of a visual line]

[Page 59]Example.

A peece of artillery beeing planted in the day time at B and mounted by a Semicircle 3 degrees, did strike D a marke in the wall of a forte, and when the said peece was dischar­ged at the same marke, the middle part of the mouth of the peece, and the middle part of the taile of the peece did lie directly ouer B C the woodden or yron pinnes which stande in the line of direction, therefore when you will shoote in the night time from B to D, you must mount this peece three degrees, and plumme the middle part of the mouth of the peece, and the middle part of the taile of the peece right ouer B C the wodden or yron pinnes in the line of direction, and so doing you can not faile in your purpose.

The 69 Chapter. How you may carrie in the night time a lighted Gunmatch so as it shall not bee seene nor bee wet with raine.

HAng at your girdle as you doe the sheath of your knife a hollow cane of eight or tenne ynches in length, and let the Cane be open at both endes, then put the lighted ende of the gunmatch into the Cane, and as the gunmatch within the Cane shall burne and con­sume, so put the lighted end of the same gunmatch more farther or loer into the Cane, and by this meanes the lighted end of the gunmatch being within the Cane can not bee seene in the night, nor be wet with raine.

The 70 Chapter. In what distance peeces of Artillerie ought to be planted for batterie: In what order peeces of artil­lery ought to be mounted for batterie: In what sort peeces of artillery ought to bee discharged for batterie: and in what measure a breach with battery ought to be: and in what maner a peece made hot with many shootes ought to be cooled.

TO batter a wall of a Towne or fort, lay your Cannons if you can at the distance of 80 paces from the wall which shall be beaten downe, and in no wise (without constraint) more farther from that wal than 150 paces: for when Cannons doe lie 300 or 200 paces of from the wall which shal be battred, they are planted (as Luigui Collado writeth) in an in­conuenient distance & vnmeete place to batter. Also lay the mouthes of your Cannons so as they may strike a foot one aboue an other in the wal vnto ¼ of the heigth in the said wal, & discharging them altogether at one instant, continue the batterie, till you haue made a breach so bigge as at the least nine men in a rancke may enter into it.

After a peece with manie shootes is made very hot, it changeth his colour, & shooteth weaklie, and then to saue it from breaking, you ought to coole it within with a spunge wet in cold water, or in two parts of cold water, & one part of vineger, or in lie mingled with a little water: and lay all ouer the peece, or at the least from the touchhole to the mouth, sheepes skinnes with long wooll on thē dipped in the said cold water, or in 2 parts of cold water, & 1 part of vineger, or in lie and a little water, which lie stoppeth the powres of the mettall in the peece, and causeth it to resist heate.

The 71 Chapter. How a Gunner may outshoote other Gunners in one and the same peece at one and the same eleuation with pellets of one waight, & of one kinde, & with an equall waight of one & the same kind of gun­powder.

WRappe the pellet in linnen or woollen cloth, so as it may goe very stiffe and close vnto the gunpowder in the peece, and by so doing you shall make the sayde pellets to randge more grounde than a like pellet which is not so wrapped in cloth will doe. Likewise when a Gunner shall shoote with an other Gunner in one and the same peece, at one and the same eleuation with pellettes of one waight and of one kinde, with an equall waight of one and the same kind of gunpowder, and in all pointes with like aduantage, hee that shooteth last shall out shoote him which did first shoote in[Page 60]the saide peece by the reasons alleaged in the 4 Colloquie of the first booke of N: Tarta­glia his Colloquies, and in the seuenth Colloquie of the second booke of N: Tartaglia his Colloquies. Also if a gunner after he hath laded a peece with his due charge in gunpow­der will make a hole with a staffe of a conuenient length and bignesse thorow the very mid­dest of the same gunpowder, and likewise after he hath duely charged his saide peece with 2 waddes of hay, strawe, toe, or of vntwisted ropes, and a fit pellet, wil fill the touchhole of the same peece with good gunpowder, and make an other hole with his proyning yron thorow the same touch gunpowder downe vnto the hole which was first made in the saide due charge of gunpowder within the peece, doubtlesse he shall by so doing shoote more ground than an other Gunner ignorant of this skil can doe in the same peece at one and the same eleuation with a like pellet, and an equall charge of one and the same sort of gun­powder.

The staffe which shall make a hole in the middest of the peece his charge in gunpow­der ought for euery Fauconet, Faucon, Minion, Saker, Culuering, French demie Cannon, demie Cannon lower than ordinarie, and demie Cannon, to bee in compasse three or foure ynches or there aboutes, and the staffe which shall make a hole in the middest of the peece his charge in gunpowder for euery ordinarie demie Cannon demie Cannon of the eldest sort, French double Cannon, ordinarie double Cannon, and double Cannon of the eldest and biggest sort ought to be in compasse fiue ynches or thereabout.

The 72 Chapter. How you may amend high, loe, and wide shootes.

To amend an high shoote.VVHen a pellet shot at a marke within point blanke hath strooke somwhat aboue that marke, lay your peece for the second shoote against the said marke in euery respect as it did lie at the first shoote, and afterwards raise vp the dispart vppon the mouth of your peece, till you shall see by the vppermost part of mettall in the taile of the peece, and the toppe of that dispart, the place where the pellet strooke at the first shoote. This done, im­base the mouth of that peece, till the said vppermost part of mettall, and the toppe of the same dispart, doe lie in a right line with the marke, and then giuing fire to the peece, you shall see that by this meanes the peece will shoote into the marke.

To amend a loe shoote.Also when a pellet shot at a marke within point blanke doth strike somewhat vnder his marke, you may amend the said loe shoote in this maner. Recharge your peece, and after you haue for the second shoote laid it against the marke in euery respect as you did lay it for the first shoote, set vpright vppon the vppermost part of mettall in the taile of the peece a waxe candle of such a length as that you may see by the toppe of the saide candle, and the toppe of the dispart vppon the mouth of the peece, the loe place where the pellet before did hit. Then hauing mounted the mouth of your peece till the toppe of the saide waxe candle, and the toppe of the dispart vppon the mouth of your peece, doe lie in a right line with the saide marke, giue fire to the peece, and so you shall shoote into the marke.

To amende a shoote wide vppon your right hand.But when a pellet shot at a marke within point blanke shall strike wide vppon your right hand, then to amend that wide shoote, recharge the peece which shot that pellet, and lay­ing it for the second shoote against the marke as it did lie at the first shoote, remoue the le­uell sight vppon the taile of your peece somewhat towards your left hand, so as the top of your nwe leuell sight, and the toppe of your peece his dispart, may be perceaued to lie in a right line with the place where the pellet before did strike. This done, mooue your peece to and fro till you shall see that the top of your nwe leuell sight, and the toppe of your peece his dispart do lie in a right line with the marke, & for an end of this worke giue fire to your peece which now without faile will shoote his pellet into the marke.

To amende a shoote wide vppon your left hand.You may amend a shoote wide vppon your left hand as you haue been taught to amend a shoote wide vppon your right hand, sauing for the amendment of a shoote wide vpon your left hand, you must alwaies remoue the leuel sight vppon the taile of your peece som­what towards your right hand.

The 73 Chapter. To make an engine which will make a great spoile and a merueilous slaughter.

PLace a great peece of Artillerie within a brode yron hoope, and lay a great number of Caliuers or Muskets in the said hoope rounde about the said peece according to the fi­gure next folowing, and when need shall require charge and discharge all the same peeces togeather. This engine discharged out of a ship at men in a Gallie, Foyst, or any other like vessell (as Girolamo Ruscelli writeth) will make a great spoile and a merueilous slaughter.

[depiction of an explosive engine]

The 74 Chapter. Instructions for all those that are vnskilfull to handle and vse an Harchibuse, Caliuer, or Musket.

1 EVery person vnskilfull to handle and vse an Harchibuse, Caliuer, or Musket ought first to learne to handle and carry soldier like the saide peece, and the Flaske, and touch boxe belonging to it.

2 Also hee ought to know that his Caliuer which shall be allowed for militarie seruice must be in length at the least three foote and two ynches, and that the bore of his Caliuer must bee in Diameter ⅔ of an ynch, and in circumference two ynches and [...] of an ynche,

the alowed bore of a caliuer in Ao. Dnī 1588

and that a due charge in gunpowder for his Caliuer is ¾ of that waight which a fit pellet of lead for the same Caliuer doth waie, and that such a due charge in gunpowder waieth one ounce & nine graines of auer de poyze waight, and that one pound of gunpowder will make for his Caliuer 15 shootes and 115/163 of one shoote, and that the diameter & circumference of a fitte pellet for his Caliuer must alwaies be some­what lesse than the Diamete round Circumference in the bore of his Caliuer, and that a fitte pellet of lead for his Caliuer wayeth one ounce ¾ of an ounce two scruples, and 12 graines of auer de poize waight, And that 11 fit pellets of lead & 127/163 of one fit pellet of lead for his Caliuer doe waie iust one pounde of auer de poize waight.

3 In like maner he ought to know that his Mus­ket which shall be allowed for militarie seruice must bee in length at the least foure foote, and that the bore of his Musket must bee in Diameter 23/ [...]0 of an ynch and in circumference two ynches and 43/10 [...] of an ynch,

the alowed bore of a musket in Ao Dnī 1588.

and that a due charge in gunpowder for his Musket is ¾ of that waight which a fit pellet of lead for the same Musket doth waye, and that such a due charge in gunpowder wayeth one ounce ¾ of an ounce, 19 graines and ½ of a graine of auer de poize waight, And that one pound of gunpowder will make for his Musket 8 shootes and 536/573 of one shoote, and that the diameter and circumference of a fit pellet for his Mus­ket [Page 62]must alwayes bee somewhat lesse than the diameter and circumference in the bore of his Musket, & that a fit pellet of lead for his Musket wayeth two ounces ¼ of an ounce, one dramme & six graines of auer de poize waight, and that six fit pellets & ½ 3/9 4/ [...] of one fit pellet of lead for his Musket doe waie iust one pound of auer de poize waight.

4 Also he ought to learne how he shall in a commendable maner charge his peece, and how he shall afterwardes (when need shall require) lay it to his cheeke.

5 Hauing learned to charge, he ought also to know how hee should shoote in the saide peece at randon, and likewise how he should shoote in that peece at a marke within the le­uell of the same peece, and how vppon a small stay in march or skirmish hee should charge and discharge speedily his peece.

6 Also he ought to prooue before hee hath vrgent cause to vse his peece, whether it bee good and meete for his purpose or like to breake.

7 And in a skirmish made only for practise or sport, let him take heed that hee doe not charge his peece with any bullet whereby any person may be maymed or put in hazard of his life or limmes.

8 Also for diuers reasons which are not meete to be expressed in this booke, let no per­son at any time vse to shoote out of his peece any pellet of lead after hee hath chawed it in his mouth and bitten it with his teeth.

The 75 Chapter. How to mount a morter peece for to shoote out of the same fireworks or great stones ouer walles or other high places into cities, townes, or camps, to burne and beate downe houses, tents, and lodgings within the same places.

IT behooueth him which will shoote out of a morter peece any fireworke or great stone for to haue it fall right downe vppon the appointed place to know these 3 things. The waight of the shot, how much ground his peece wil shoote at the best of the randon, & how far the place which he would burne or beate downe is from him. The said three things being knowne, he may easily by this example following learne to doe as he intended.

[depiction of the firing of a piece of artillery]

Example.

The peece will shoote the fireworke, or the great stone at the best of the randon 800 paces, and the place to be burned or beaten downe is distant from that peece 600 paces, therefore that peece must be mounted for to doe this exploit at 48 degrees and ½ degree. But if the fireworke or the great stone will flie at the best of the randon 900 paces, and the place to bee burned or beaten downe bee distant from the peece sixe hundred paces, then the saide peece must bee mounted at fortie one degrees and almost ½ of a degree.[Page 63]And when the fireworke or stone will flie at the best of the raudon 1000 paces, and the space betweene the peece and the said place doth containe 600 paces, the said peece must be mounted at sixe & thirtie degrees and ½ part of a degree, but for the better vnderstan­ding hereof marke well this figure following.

[...] fort to be burned or beaten downe.

The [...]etus or perpendiculer line.

A morter peece set vpright.

In the said figure there is a Quadrant, and vppon the same with a moueable Hipothenuasa or Index a right angled triangle is fashioned. The base of that triangle representing the space betweene the peece & the marke ought to bee diuided into so many equal partes as the said distance betweene the peece and the marke doth containe paces. Likewise the said Hipothenusa or Index representing the way of the shot would be marked with so many of such like equall partes as may shew the number of paces which the peece wil shoote at the best of the randon to be numbred from the center downewardes. Now when a fireworke or a great stone is to be shot out of a morter peece vnto an appointed place, the gunner hauing in a readinesse such a Quadrant, and knowing how much ground his said peece wil shoote at the best of the randon, & also what distance is betweene the peece & the place to be Burned or beaten downe, must mooue vpwardes or downewardes the said Hipothe­nusa or Index vntill that part of the Hipothenusa which is equall to the number of paces which the peece will shoote at the best randon doth touch the Cathetus or perpendiculer line of the said triangle: And thē he must note the degree vpon the Quadrāt which is tou­ched with the fiduciall line of the sayde Hipothenusa or Index, and mount the sayd mor­ter peece to that degree for to shoote the fireworke or the great stone to the appoyn­ted place.

The 76 Chapter. How you may make an yron dart which being shot out of any great peece of artillerie, or out of the in­guine called Balista, or throne out of your handes against any woodden obiect, will burne and con­sume the same obiect if it shall strike and sticke in the same obiect.

MAke an yron dart of two foote in length (more or lesse at your pleasure) with yron winges placed a little below the vpper end like the feathers of an arrow or Butshaft, and aboue or vnder the said winges pearce a hole thorow the stem of the dart.

[depiction of an iron dart]

Also make a round pype of yron plate about foure ynches in length, and in compasse a little lesse than the compasse of the concauitie in the peece which shall shoote the same dart, and hauing pearced a little hole thorow both sides of this pype put the pype filled full of the mixture following vppon the dart aboue the said winges, or if you wil below the said wings, so as his hole may lie directly vppon the other hole which was first made in the stemme of the dart, because you must driue a naile thorow both these holes from one side of the saide pype vnto the other side of the same pype to fasten it and the dart togeather, that when the dart shalbe shot out of a peece of artillerie, the saide yron pype may not flie from it. Likewise I would haue you to pearce one hole at the vpper end [...]f this pype, and diuers other holes thorow the sides of this pype, and to put into the side holes short yron pypes like vnto the Canons of pocket dagges, and to set fast these short pypes within the said great pype so as their mouthes may lie a little without the said holes according to the picture next following, and that their other endes may rest vppon a part of the dart. For these short pypes charged with powder and pellet (as dagges ought to be) will shoote out their pellets when the mixture in the said great pype shall burne about them, and astonish all those that shall then be neare vnto them, especially if the dart bee shotte from an high place downewardes. Moreouer, put vppon the dart neare vnto his point a bagge wide in the middest and narrow towards both his endes according to the picture next following, & with a mixture made of 12 parts of Saltpeeter, eight partes of Brimstone brused grosse­lie like pepper cornes, and foure partes of grosse gunpowder mingled togeather, fill that bagge, and also the said great pype of yron as full as you can, binding well togeather both the endes of the said bagge so filled, and nailing the full bagge vnto the dart with a naile driuen thorow a hole which for that purpose ought to be in the dart according to the pic­ture next following, to the ende that the said bagge may not mooue from his place when the dart shall be shot out of a peece of great Ordinance, or throne with your hande. Also you shall dippe hempe in the mixture which you learned to make in the nineteenth Chap­ter of this Appendix for gunmatches, and binde the same with pack threede when it is drie rounde about the dart from the said yron wings vnto the said bagge, laying the loose ends of the hempe towardes the great pype of yron, or in steede of hempe binde a gunmatche rounde about the dart betweene the said yron wings and the said bagge, that the mixture in the said great pype of yron being a fire may giue fire to the saide hempe or gunmatche which will carrie fire vnto the mixture in the bagge.

[depiction of an incendiary dart]

And forasmuch as these dartes touched with mens handes or wet with raine will waxe worse and marre, therefore cote them with canuas and winde packthreede very hard vp­pon the same canuas, and then couer the said canuas all ouer with paste made of meale sod in water: and when the said couer of paste is thorow drie, make a close and hard binding net of wiar round about vppon the saide couer of paste according to picture next folloing

[Page 65]

[depiction of a cover for an incendiary dart]

When you will shoote this dart put into the said hole at the vpper end of the saide great pype a peece of a gunmatch, and charge not the peece out of which this dart shall be shot with so much gunpowder as is his ordinarie charge nor with any tampion or wadde.

The 77 Chapter. To make balles or pellets of fire which being shot out of great ordinance, or throne out of mens hands will sticke fast and burne the obiect in which they shall strike.

PRepare three sharpe pointed barres of yron a little lesse in their lengths than the heigth of the peece his concauitie in which they shal lie. This done, lay 2 of those barres crosse­wise in their middle parts one vppon an other, binding the contingent partes of the same crosse fast about with an yron wier. Also lay the middle part of the 3 barre ouerthwart and crossewise vpon the middle and contingent parts of the other 2 crosse barres, tying them in like maner fast togeather with an yron wier, so as one point at the least of the same dou­ble and ouertwart crosse may sticke fast in euery obiect that shalbe strooken with the same. Moreouer winde a gunmatch round about the contingent partes of the the said crosse till you haue made vppon the same a round bottome as bigge as an Orrange, & then weauing the rest of the gunmatch in and out vppon the said crosse barres, you shall make certaine void and emptie roomes like vnto birdes neastes, which must be filled with a mixture that ought to be made after this maner. Take of Saltpeeter 12 parts, of Brimstone grosly brui­sed like pepper cornes 8 partes, of grosse gunpowder 4 parts, & with all these things min­gled togeather fill the said emptie roomes so as your worke may bee a rounde body like a pellet. Furthermore winde round about ouer the said mixture more of the gunmatch, & vppon this gunmatch winde very hard a handfull of packthreed in such sort as some men vse to winde threed vppon a bottome, and when you haue so done, make an other mixture after this maner. Take of Brimstone one part, of Orpiment, one part, of Colophonia pitch or Colophonia gum 2 parts, of Ship pitch one part, of Turpentine one part, of the wood of a yew tree one part, of Frankensence ½ of a part, of Oyle of lynseed ½ of a part, of Oyle of stone ⅓ of a part, of vitriall grosly beaten one part: and in these things mingled togeather, and boiled a little while in a copper vessel, dip toe or bumbase much or scarsely according as you will haue this pellet to burne furiously or slowly, which toe or bumbase must after­wardes be wrapped round about the pellet, & well couered ouer with pitch, remembring that the sharpe points of the said yron barres must stand two ynces at the least without the said couer of pytch, and that a hole must be made thorow the midst of the pellet from one side to the other to containe a gunmatch, which lying along in the saide hole shall when neede requireth make the saide ball or pellet to burne.

[depiction of incendiary pellets]

The 78 Chapter. How you may make holloe baules of mettall which being shot out of great Ordinance or morter pee­ces, or throne with slings out of mens hands among soldiers standing or marching in battaile ray, will sodainely breake in many peeces and doe great hurt.

EVery holloe ball of mettall that shal be shot out of any great peece of Artillerie or mor­ter peece, or that shal be throne with mens handes among soldiers in battaile ray, ought to be made of brickle mettall, as of Copper, Lattin, Tynne, or cast yron and haue a lit­tle hole in it, through which the concauitie of that baule may bee filled with fine corne gunpowder, and in which after the said concauitie is filled with gunpowder, a short end of a gunmatch may be put that shall fire the sayd gunpowder incontinently after the baule commes among them at whom it was shot, to the ende that the sayd baule being vnable to abide the violent blast of the gunpowder that is within his concauitie, may thereby breake in many peeces, and kill or greeuously hurt more men than one whole pellet will doe.

You may also fill holloe baules of mettall with that kinde of gunpowder which I haue taught you to make in the thirteenth way and sixteenth chapter of this Appendix, for the said gunpowder is of so great force, as that vndoubtedly it wil breake any holloe baule of brickle mettall filled with the same.

Some make these holloe baules with three partes of brasse, and one of tynne, in thicke­nesse ¼ of an ynche, and they doe melt the brasse before they put the Tynne vnto it, and when such baules shall be vsed they fill them halfe full of good corne gunpowder, and to fill vp the rest of the hollonesse in this baule, they put in three partes of serpentine powder mingled with one part of rosen beaten into powder, & then hauing put into the mouthes of the holes that are in the baules a little fine corne gunpowder for to make the residue of the stuffe to fire the sooner, they shoote them out of great Ordinance, or throe them with slings out of their hands among men in battaile ray, or ouer walles into townes, fortresses, and camps, to terrifie, hurt, and kill all those that at the time of their breaking shall bee neare vnto them.

Moreouer you may for that purpose make a holloe pellet of one pounde of tynne, and three poundes of copper: and this pellet being made halfe a finger thicke, you must pearce two holes so bigge as a man may thrust into them his little finger in both sides of the pellet, one directly against the other. This done, fill the holloe pellet full of fine gun­powder pressed downe very hard and put into this pellet thoroe the saide holes a holloe pype of yron which must reach from one of those holes vnto the other, and be fast riueted in the pellet. But before you doe put the pype so into the pellet, remember to pearce about the middle part of the pype two or three holes thoroe the sides of it, and after the pype is riueted fast in the pellet to make this next mixture folloing.

Take of grosse gunpowder sixtie partes, of Saltpeeter stamped twelue partes, of vernish in graines sixe partes of Spanish pitch sixe partes, incorporate all these thinges togeather, and after both the endes of that yron pype are fast riueted in the pellet, fill the saide pype almost full of that mixture, I say almostful because you must put fine gunpowder into both endes of the said yron pype. Moreouer, after you haue so done you shall first annoint the outside of this pellet all ouer with Turpentine, and then hauing roled the pellet in fine gunpowder to make it apte to take fire quickly, you shall shoote the same out of a great peece of Artillerie with a traine of gunpowder, which lying along in the peece from the mouth of it vnto the gunpowder behinde the said pellet, must first bee set on a fire at the mouth of the peece. Also you may if you will put into the saide holloe baule or pellet cer­taine square or rounde peeces of lead, or diuers shorte pypes of yron like vnto pocket dagges full charged with gunpowder and pellettes, and fill vp the rest of the concauitie in that baule or pellet with fine gunpowder, and hauing annointed it with Turpentine, and[Page 67]roled it in fine gunpowder, shoote it out of a peece of Artillery with a trayne as aboue you haue beene taught to doe.

[depiction of explosive pellets]

The 79 Chapter. How you may make diuers sortes of baules of wildefire which may be shotte out of Morter peeces, and also out of other great peeces of Ordinance: And how you may make diuers sortes of baules of wildefire and other firewoorkes which may be throen out of mens hands with slinges, cordes, or o­ther such like thinges, into a Towne, Forte, Trenche, or Campe, or among men set in battelray.

TAke brimstone, oyle of brimstone, stone oyle, Iuniper oyle, Saltpeeter very well refi­ned, and for euery parte of these thinges take fiue partes of Aspalto: Moreouer, take Goose grease, or Duckes grease, pure Greeke pitch, vernish, Pigens dunge dried and bea­ten into fine powder, and so much Aqua vitae as will couer all the same thinges. After you haue put all these thinges together into a glasse or into an earthen pot (which must bee glased or nealed) stoppe close the mouth of that glasse or potte with waxe, or with the clay which we call Lutum sapientiae in Latin, and in English Lute of wisdome, and burie the sayde glasse or potte in hotte dung for 25 or 30 dayes togeather. Then (to the ende all that mixture may be the better incorporated) set the sayde glasse or potte vppon a softe fire, and hauing so done, dippe toe or linnen clothe in the sayd mixture, and make a round baule fitte for your Morter peece, or for an other peece of Ordinance of the same toe or linnen clothe wel dipped and imbrued in the sayd mixture.

2 You may also if you will take a small pellet of yron or stone, and winde about the same so much of that toe or linnen clothe well dipped and imbrued in the sayd mixture, as will suffice to make the same a fitte shotte for your great peece of Ordinance, or Morter peece. But when you will throe the sayd ball of toe or linnen clothe with your handes, you shall hang a ringe about the same, and tie vnto that ringe a cord ¾ of a yarde in length, which corde you shall take in one of your hands, and with the same tosse the ball after it is set on a fire rounde about you, till you shall perceaue by casting it about that it is rea­die to departe from you, and then with all your strength throe it into the appoynted place.

Also Canes, holloe staues, and pottes may bee filled with this mixture, or you may fill bagges therewith, and after you haue set them on a fire, throe them with slinges, or such like instruments whether you will.

3 An other kinde of firewoorke which may be throne out of mens handes among enemies set in battell ray, and which may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces into Townes, Castles, Campes and Shippes.

TAke of the vernish which is occupied to guilde leather an hundred twenty partes, of quick brimstone forty eyght parts, of the oyle of rozen or gumme twenty foure parts, of Saltpeeter eyghteene parts, of the oyle called Oleum Olibani twelue parts, of Camphire sixe parts, of very good Aqua vitae fourteene parts: Mingle all these thinges togeather in a pot, or some other vessell set ouer a softe fire, then dip or imbrue toe or linnen clothe in that mixture, and keepe the same imbrued toe and linnen clothe in pottes, to throe after it is kindled with a gunpowder match among enemies, standing or marching in battel ray: or make of the same imbrued toe and linnen clothe fitte pellets for to be shot out of great Ordinance, and Morter peeces into Townes, Castles, Campes and Shippes: For this kinde of firewoorke being well kindled, can not be quenched wheresoeuer it falles.

4 An other firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces, or throne out of mens handes.

TAke of the vernish which is occupied to guilde leather 120 parts, of the oyle of rozen or gumme 12 parts, of the oyle of waxe 12 parts, of the oyle of turpentine 8 parts, of quick brimstone 24 parts, of saltpeeter 48 parts, of camphire 12 parts, of very good Aqua vitae 24 parts, of greeke pitch beaten into fine powder 36 parts: Mingle all these things to­geather in a pot or some other vessel set ouer a softe fire, then dip and imbrue toe or lin­nen clothe in that mixture, and keepe the same imbrued toe in pottes, to be throne with slinges after it is kindled, into any place that you will burne: or make of the imbrued toe and linnen clothe rounde balles which may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces into Townes, Fortes, Campes, and Shippes, for this firewoorke being kindled, can not be quenched.

5 An other firewoorke which will burne in water, and may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces in holloe balles of mettall, & throne with slinges out of mens hands.

TAke of good gunpowder 72 parts, of colophonia 24 parts, of common oyle of Oliues 18 parts, of brimstone 12 parts, of Naphra or stone oyle 12 parts: These things being well mingled togeather will burne all drie things, and as by adding vnto the same mixture a greater quantitie of gunpowder you may increase the strength of this firewoorke, so by putting vnto that mixture somewhat more of Colophonia and brimstone, you may abate the strength of the same firewoorke.

After you haue made a mixture of the said things, wrap the same in little bags of linnen as well and as straight bound about as may be, then hauing tied a corde vnto euery of the said bags, holde fast the endes of the cordes in your handes, that by the same you may dip and imbrue the said bags in hote pitch, which done, let the said bags imbrued with pitch drie: When they are drie wrap them in linnen clothe as before you did the said mixture, & afterwards dip and imbrue the said wrappers in hote pitch as before you did the bagges, through which they shall not onely be defended from the moysture of water, but also from breaking asunder with the force of fire. After this, drie the said wrappers in the sunne, & hauing so done, pearce a little hole quite thoroe the said imbrued wrappers & bags & into that hole put fire: After the fire is kindled, and hath burned a while in the said hole, throe the aforesaid composition into water, and by so doing you shall see the said firewoorke to go downe to the bottome of the water, and to rise vp againe to the top of the water, and to flame and burne both on the toppe of the water, & also in the bottome of the water, and neuer to be quenched with water.

Some vse to shoote this kinde of firewoorke in holloe balles of mettall out of great Or­dinance, and Morter peeces, and for that purpose they put a quantitie of gunpowder in toe, and after they haue imbrued the said toe in the aforesaide mixture of Gunpowder,[Page 69]Colophonia oyle of Oliues, oyle of brimstone, oyle of stone or naphra, they fill therewith hollow balles of mettall, which being also couered on the outside with the sayde mixture, and shotte out of great Ordinance, or Morter peeces with other gunpowder, will for a while flie burning in the ayre, and at the length breake in many peeces to the spoyle and destruction of all those that shall be strooken with any peece of the same ball.

That this firewoorke may burne the longer and be more stronger, some put vnto the sayd mixture Swines grease, Goose grease, brimstone that hath neuer beene on any fire, oyle of brimstone, oyle of naphra, oyle of lintseede, Saltpeeter oftentimes refined, Aqua vitae or burning water, oyle of turpentine, Iuniper oyle, liquide pitch or vernish, oyle of the yolke of egges: and for to thicken and incorporate those liquide thinges, sawe duste of a Bay tree: And after they haue well mingled all these thinges togeather, and haue put the same in a glasse well stopped with waxe that no ayre may breathe out, they bury the sayde glasse in a doonghill for two or three moneths space, and at euery tenne dayes ende with­in that time they take that glasse out of the dunghill, and hauing shaken well togeather the mixture in the same, they bury it againe in fresh dung. After the sayd mixture hath beene so buried in dung by the sayd space of two or three monethes, it may be vsed for a firewoorke, which being a fire with gunpowder, or with a gunpowder match, will burne and not be quenched with water till all his substance shalbe consumed, and yet with drie durte, drie earth, drie sande, and with such other drie thinges may be choaked and cleane put out.

If this kinde of firewoorke shall happen to fall vppon a mans helmet, corslet, target, sworde, or other weapon, it will make the same redde hote, and force the man armed with the same to throe his sayde armour and weapon away for to saue him selfe from burning.

6 An other vnquenchable firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces, and may be throne in pottes out of mens handes with slinges.

TAke of Turpentine twelue poundes, of liquide pitch twelue poundes, of pitch vernish twelue poundes, of Frankensence twelue poundes, of Camphire twelue poundes, of quick brimstone sixe poundes, of Saltpeeter refined twenty foure poundes, of burning water thirtie sixe poundes, of the oyle of naphra thirtie sixe poundes, of coles made of willoe beaten into fine powder three poundes and ½ pound. Mingle all these thinges to­geather, and make thereof with toe or linnen clothe imbrued in the same round balles, which may be shotte out of great Ordinance and Morter peeces, or if you will, you may throe certayne pottes filled with the sayd mixture among enemies, for this kinde of fire­woorke is vnquenchable.

7 An other firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance, or out of Trombes or Trunkes, or throne in pottes, and which will serue for Pykes, Dartes, Arrowes, or any other kinde of fire­woorke, and may be kept good for a very long time.

TAke of fine gunpowder well beaten one parte, of Saltpeeter refined, dry, and well bea­ten one parte, of brimstone well beaten fiue partes, of softe coles well beaten ten parts, of vernish in grayne well beaten two partes, of Spanish pitch well beaten two partes, of Orpiment well beaten two partes, of Camphire well beaten sixe partes: Also take of oyle of Lynseede one parte, of oyle of bayes three parts, of liquide vernish two partes, of turpen­tine three partes: Melte the gumme, waxe, and oyles ouer a sloe fire, and when they are melted put all the other thinges into them, and sturre them well together till all the oyle is dryed vp. With this mixture you may fill Trombes or Trunkes, and Pottes, and make thereof pellettes which may be shotte out of great Ordinance, and also out of Morter pee­ces. Also you may tie this mixture vnto the endes of Pykes, Dartes; and Arrowes, and if you will sprinkle it with Aqua vitae, and put it into a nealed potte well and close stopped, you may keepe it good so long as you will for such purposes.

[Page 70]

[depiction of types of fireworks]

8 An other kinde of firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance.

TAke of Saltpeeter refined with water thirtie sixe parts, of brimstone fiue parts, of cole sixe parts, of Camphire three parts, beate euery materiall thing by it selfe, moysten them with Aqua vitae, incorporate them togeather, and make pellets of the same mixture and shoote the same pellets out of great Ordinance.

9 An other kinde of firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance.

FIrst take of grosse gunpowder sixe partes, of Saltpeeter refined two parts, of brimstone one parte, of ship pitch two parts, of gumme of a Pine tree ½ parte. Beate well all these things and incorporate them togeather. That done, take of turpentine two parts, of nwe waxe ½ parte, of stone oyle one parte, of common oyle foure parts: Melte the Turpentine, Gumme, and waxe, and oyles ouer a sloe fire, and then putting into this liquide mixture the composition which was first made, make thereof an other mixture. Then hauing in a readinesse certain round bags of canuas, fill euery of those round bags with the said com­position, and binde euery of those bags or pellets so filled rounde about with yron wier. That done, cote them (as the Gunners terme is) twise all ouer with a mixture of brimstone and gumme and winde yron wier harde vppon euery cote. After this make foure holes in euery pellet from one side to the other, let euery hole be so big as a mans finger, and put­ting into euery hole an ende of a gunmatch well roled in gunpowder, fill vp the vacant roome of euery hole with good and fine gunpowder.

When you will charge a peece of Artillerie with one of these pellets, put first into the same peece ⅔ partes of his ordinarie charge in gunpowder: Secondly, make a hole with a staffe thoroe the middest of the same charge in gunpowder: Thirdly, of purpose refrayning to thruste a wadde into the peece next after the powder, and put the pellet into the peece & close vnto the gunpowder, and so as his said holes may lie directly against the Gunpow­der, and then geuing fire to the Gunpowder in the touchhole of the Peece, you shall see that the pellette will burne, and be a fearefull fire.

10 An other kinde of firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Ordinance, or throne with mens hands, and will burne in water, armour, stones and euery other thing vppon which it shall fal,

TAke of Saltpeeter, of cole made of willoe, of Aqua vitae, of brimstone of Greeke pitch or Spanish pitch, gumme of a Pine tree, Shippe pitch, camphire, stone oyle, liquide ver­nish [Page 71]and Turpentine, of each one parte. Mingle all these thinges togeather, and boy­ling this mixture in a Kettle ouer a sloe fire, make thereof a paiste which must not bee made too harde, nor too softe. Then hauing in a readinesse rounde bagges of linnen clothe full stuffed with pure grose gunpowder, and well bounde, couer euery bagge or pellette all ouer with the saide paiste, and winde toe vppon euery couer of paiste to keepe faste the paiste vppon the saide pellettes. This done, couer againe the saide bags or pellettes all ouer with the said payste, and winde toe as you did before vppon euery of those couers, and binde the toe fast vppon the pellettes with good packthreede, then make a hole u [...] [...]ery of those pellettes, euen to the gunpowder which is within them, and put into euery of those holes an ende of a gunmatch well roled in fine gunpowder. Now if you will shoote any of these pellettes out of a peece of Ordinance, you must charge the Peece with no more Gunpowder than with halfe of the gunpowder which is requisite for the same Peece when it shooteth a pellette of yron, and you must thrust the hole which is in euery of these Pellettes right against the middest of the peece his charge in gunpowder.

You may also without hurte to your selfe throe with your handes any of these pel­lettes among your enemies, if you will hurle the pellette away from you so soone as you haue kindled the Gunmatch lying within it, for after the Gunpowder within the pellet is a fire with the saide Gunmatch, the pellette doth open, and bring an vnquenchable fire to the saide paiste, which will burne Armour, Stones, and euery other thing vpon which it shall fall though the thing be in water.

An other kinde of Firewoorke which may be shotte out of great Peeces of Artil­lerie or throne out of mens handes.

MAke a rounde purse of canuasse, fill it full of grose gunpowder, and binde well the mouth of the purse according to the picture in the margent. And then make with a greate bodkin two or three holes or a more number of holes in that purse, and put into euery of the same holes a woodden pinne. After this role the purse of­tentimes in the mixture following, till you haue well couered the same with that mixture, as before you haue beene taught to couer pellettes with an other mixture.

To make the mixture in which the purse must be so roled, take fiue partes of grose gunpowder, three parts of Saltpeeter refined, one parte of brimstone, one parte and ½ parte of the gumme of a Pine tree, ½ parte of cam­phire, ½ parte of Turpentine, ½ parte of Vitriall not too small beaten, ½ parte of common salte, ½ parte of oyle of stone, and of oyle of Linseede, and one parte of A­qua vitae: Mingle all these thinges well togeather, and hauing roled the purse in this mixture according as you haue beene taught before to role pellettes in an other mixture, take away out of the purse so soone as the mixture which is vppon it is drie, all the saide pinnes of wood, because they were put into the saide holes for no o­ther purpose than to keepe the saide mixture out of them, and fill vp all those holes with fine gunpowder, which touched with fire will cause the purse to burne, and be a fire that can not be quenched with any other thing than with ashes, duste, or drie sande.

[depiction of a type of firework]

The 80 Chapter. How you may make diuers sortes of Firewoorkes, which being shotte in a darke night out of a Mor­terpeece, or out of any other peece of Artillerie, or throne out of mens hands into an appointed place, will geue so great a light as that you may discerne by the same light whether or no[Page 72]any enemies are in or neare vnto that place.

1 MAke certaine round bagges or balles of double folded canuasse, which being fil­led with the 2 mixtures following may be fitte pellets for morter peeces, and also for other peeces of Artillerie. Likewise make some such rounde balles of double folded canuasse sixe ynches in widenes or thereaboutes, for to be throne out of mens handes. When you doe paiste or glue togeather the sides of those bagges, leaue a hole open in euery great ball, so bygge as the toppe of your Thombe, and in euery ball of the lesser sorte no wyder than that you may put into it the toppe of one of your fingers: This done, take of Saltpeeter not much refined sixty partes, of Brim­stone forty partes, of grose gunpowder two partes: bruse the said brimstone grossely like cornes of pepper, and pound the said grose gunpowder (if it be corned) into fine pow­der, and incorporate all those things togeather. Moreouer, make an other mixture thus. Take of brimstone 48 partes, melte the same brimstone in an yron potte ouer a quick fire of coles, and put to that quantitie of melted brimstone 12 partes of drie & harde gumme of a Pine tree, and 6 parts of Colophonia or Greeke Pitch, or Spanish pitch, which must in like manner be melted by a little and a little with the said brimstone. Then put to the saide liquide mixture by a little and a little, 18 partes of Saltpeeter grosely beaten, still sturring the same in the saide mixture with a staffe or sticke. After this remoue the said potte from the fire, and then mingle well with the said mixture 12 partes of grose gunpowder. When you haue so done, put into that mixture by a little and a little so much sawe dust of a drie Pine tree as will (after it hath been therein wel sturred with a sticke) soke and drinke vp al the saide liquide mixture. Then laying this confection while it is warme vppon a rough & rugged boorde, breake the same confection into diuers peeces, so bigge as walnuttes or chestnuttes, and that done let them lie till they are colde, then mingle a conuenient num­ber of those peeces with the mixture which you did learne in this Chapter to make first, and after you haue so done, fill the saide round bagges with that confection pressed downe harde, and leaue a hole open in euery bagge of the greater sorte that shalbe filled in such manner with the saide mixture so bigge as that you may put the toppe of your little fin­ger into it. After all this, thruste a long woodden pyn thoro euery such hole a finger deepe into the saide mixture, and couer euery such ball all ouer with a double folded paper pai­sted togeather on the sides. Againe, vppon euery such couer of paper you must put an other couer of browne paper double folded and paisted togeather on the sides, and when you shall see that all the saide couers are drie, make ouer the last couer vppon euery of the saide ba [...]les a strong nette of yron wire to keepe the confection in euery ball fast togea­ther, and then pulling the saide woodden pinnes out of the holes in the saide pellettes, thruste one ende of a match of fiue fingers in length or thereabouts, well roled in good, grose, or fine gunpowder, into euery of the saide holes a finger deepe, and let the other ende of that gunmatch hang out a little vppon the outside of the pellettes last couer vnder the nette. Now when you will shoote these pellets so made, out of a Morter peece, or out of any other peece of artillery, take a quantitie of toe, stuffe the same toe made like vnto a little pilloe or cusshin with the peece his dutie in gunpowder rammed downe softly, and lay one of those pellets next vpon the same cusshin, and then making a traine of gunpow­der from the saide cusshin vnto the mouth of the peece mounted to shoote into the ap­pointed place, geue fire to the ende of the traine at the mouth of the peece, and shoote di­uers of those pellettes into diuers places of that fielde or plaine where the thing is which you desire to see.

The pellets which for the same purpose may be throne with slinges in mens handes are stuffed in euery respect with the saide mixtures as you haue beene taught to fill the other pellettes for peeces, but you must couer the canuasse of these pellettes all ouer with two sundrie smoothe couers of thrise folded paper paisted togeather on the sides, and well bounde crossewise rounde about with good pack threede, to this ende that after they are drie you may with a sling or corde of two foote and ½ in length tyed faste at one ende to the pellet, throe any of the same pellettes into the appoynted places.

An other kinde of Firewoorke which being shotte in a darke night out of a Morter peece, or out of any other peece of Artillerie, or throne out of mens hands into an appoynted place, will geue so great a light as that you may discerne by the same light whether or no any enemies are in or neare vnto that place.

2 TAke of Saltpeeter refined 1 part, of Brimstone 3 partes, of gumme of a Pine tree one parte, of that which in Italian is called Antimonio 4 partes, and of coles made of soft wood 1 part. Beate well all these things and incorporate them togeather with Linseed oyle so as the mixture may be like a softe paiste. Then make of toe and of the saide mixture pel­lets, and shoote them out of Morter peeces, or out of other great Peeces, as before you haue beene taught to shoote other like pellettes: for this kinde of pellet wil also geue a ve­ry great light, and discouer all things that are neere vnto the place where it doth burne.

An other kinde of firewoorke which being shot out of great peeces will geue a great light.

3 TAke of turpentine 4 pounds, of saltpeeter 1 pound, and of coles made of softe wood 4 pounds: stampe all these things togeather, incorporate them with flaxe, and make thereof pellets or round balles. For these pellets shot out of Morter peeces or out of other great peeces of artillery, or throne with mens hands into a darke place after they are a fire wil geue so great a light as that you may see by it whether or no any enemy or other person is there.

An other kinde of firewoorke which being shot out of great peeces will geue a great light and serue to burne the enemies munition.

4 TAke a pellet of yron in diameter 2 fingers shorter than the heigth of the concauitie in the peece which shall shoote this ball or pellet that is now to bee made, & paiste paper all ouer vppon this yron pellet, and when the paiste is drie, cut a slash in the paper, & pull away out of the paper thorow that slash the said yron pellet. This done, fill the saide round and empty ball of paper with this mixture. Take of grosse gunpowder 48 parts, of saltpeeter 12 parts, of greeke pitch 12 parts, of coles 6 parts, of oyle of Linseede 12 parts. Incorporate al these things wel togeather, and hauing filled the said rounde & empty ball of paper with the same mixture, couer the ball all ouer with canuasse paisted vppon it, and well bounde rounde about with packthreede, to the ende it may not fall of when the ball shalbe shot out of a peece. After this, thruste long woodden pinnes or pricks round about the ball into the middle parte thereof, and then take of grosse gunpowder sifted thorow a [...]ercer 24 parts, of turpentine 18 parts, of brimstone 6 parts, of saltpeeter 6 parts. Moysten wel al these things with oyle, seeth them and incorporate them togeather in a liquide mix­ture, & imbrue well the said ball in that liquide mixture. Moreouer, when you will shoote this ball out ofa peece, let the mixture vppon the ball be drie, and pulling the sayd wood­den pinnes or prickes out of the ball, fill vp all their holes with fine gunpowder. After this, lade the appointed Peece with a due charge in gunpowder, & with the saide ball thrust home vnto the powder. But in this action put no wadde into the peece after the ball, be­cause you must make a trayne of gunpowder within the peece from the ball vnto the mouth of the peece, and hauing layde the mouth of the peece directly against the place at which you will shoote, discharge the peece geuing fire to the ende of the said trayne at the mouth of the Peece.

An other kinde of firewoorke which being shotte in a darke night out of Morter peeces, or out of o­ther great peeces of Artillerie, or throne out of mens hands into any place, will geue so great a light as that you may see by the same light whether or no any enemies are in, or neare vnto that place, and will burne sackes of bumbase, sackes of wooll, and such other things which are sometimes hanged before a wall to defend the same from the force of battering peeces.

5 TAke 2 ounces of Saltpeeter, 1 ounce of brimstone, 2 ounces of camphire, and a lit­tle of mans grease or fatte. Mingle all these thinges togeather, and moysten them wel in a kettle ouer a fire with aqua vitae, then hauing in a readinesse diuers pellets of wood, stone, or yron, you shall role euery of those pellettes well in the same liquide mixture,[Page 74]and when they are drie you shall role them well againe in that mixture: Likewise after the pellettes are drie againe, you shall role well euery of them the thirde time in that liquide mixture. Moreouer, if these pellettes shall happen to be drie when you will shoote them out of any peece of Artillery, or when you will throe them from you with your hands to see who is in a darke place, you must moysten them againe with Aqua vitae.

Or you may if you will prepare certaine holloe pellets of Copper plate, white plate, or yron plate, and hauing made rounde about euery of them foure or sixe or a more number of holes, fil the same empty pellets with the aforesaid mixture, and with shippe pitch, leane or drie gumme, and quicksiluer mingled with the saide mixture, and role them well at 3 sundry times in this mixture, as you haue beene taught before to role the other pellets in the other mixture, remembring that with these pellets shotte out of Morter peeces, or out of other great peeces of Artillerie, or throne out of mens hands vppon sackes of bumbasse or sackes of wooll, or vppon any other thing hanged before a wall to defende the same from the force of battering peeces, you may burne and consume the same sackes and o­ther things of defence.

The 81 Chapter. To make and vse halfe baked pottes, and fiue sundrie sortes of firewoorkes which may be put into the same pottes, and be throne out of mens hands for offensiue and defensiue seruice.

MAke great and small earthen pottes which must be but halfe baked, and like vnto the picture in the margent.

[depiction of half-baked pots]

The great pottes ought to holde 6 or 8 pottels, but the lit­tle pottes ought not to exceede the measure of one pottle. Fill euery of those pottes halfe full with grosse gunpowder pressed downe harde, and with one of the fiue seuerall mix­tures next following in this Chapter, fill vp the other halfes of those pottes: This done, couer the mouth of euery pot with a peece of canuasse bound hard about the mouth of the pot, and well imbrued in melted brimstone. Also tie round about the middle of euery pot a packthreed, and then hang vppon the same packthreede round about the potte so many Gun­matches of a finger in length as you wil, & when you wil throe any of these pottes among your enemies, light the same gun­matches that they may so soone as the potte is broken with his fall vppon the ground, fire the mixture in the potte. Or rather put fire to the mixture at the mouth of the potte, & by so doing make the same to burne before you doe throe the potte from you, because it is a better and more surer way than the other: I meane than to fire the said mixture after the pot is broken with burning gunmatches.Note. Moreouer this is to be noted, that the small pots doe serue for to be throne out of one shippe into an other in fight vppon the sea, and that the great pottes are to be vsed in seruice vppon the lande for the defence of townes, fortes, walles, and gates, and to burne such things as the enemies shall throe into ditches for to fill vp the same ditches, and also to destroy enemies in their trenches and campes.

1 The first mixture with which the said pottes may be charged. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder sifted thorow a sercer 24 partes.
  • Saltpeeter sifted thorow a sercer 2 partes.
  • Brimstone sifted thorow a sercer 2 partes.
  • Vernish in graine 2 partes.
  • Cole made of a willoe tree sifted 1 parte.

Moysten all these things with Aqua vitae, and incorporate them togeather.

[Page 75]2 The second mixture which is an excellent mixture to be throne in those halfe baked pottes vppon enemies which will offer to scale any Forte, or wall, & is very good to burne such stuffe as shalbe by enemies throne into ditches for to fill them vp. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder 96 partes.
  • Saltpeeter 18 partes.
  • Brimstone 4 partes.
  • Liquide vernish 2 partes.
  • Stone oyle 2 partes.
  • Greene coperesse 2 partes.
  • Arsenick 2 partes.
  • Assa fetida 2 partes.
  • Shippe pitch 2 partes.

Mingle all these things very well togeather, for the more better that they are mingled to­geather, the more better will the same mixture doe his effect.

3 The 3 mixture with which the said pottes may be charged. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder 4 pounds.
  • Greeke pitch 1 pound.
  • Vernish in graines 1 pound.
  • Brimstone 1 pound.
  • Saltpeeter 1 pound.
  • Oyle of stone 1 pound.

Stampe wel all these things together, and make a mixture of the same as you haue learned to make the other two mixtures.

4 The 4 mixture with which the said pottes may be charged. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder 48 partes.
  • Greeke pitch 12 partes.
  • Drie or leane gumme 6 partes.
  • Brimstone 6 partes.
  • Saltpeeter 12 partes.

Stampe wel all these things togeather, and make a mixture of the same things.

5 The 5 mixture with which the said pottes may be charged. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder 10 pounds.
  • Saltpeeter 2 pounds.
  • Vernish in graines 1 pound.
  • Spanish pitch 1 pound.

Stampe all these things moystned with Aqua vitae in a morter, & incorporate thē together.

You may also if you will charge the said pottes with square or rounde peeces of yron and lead after this manner:Note. Melte in a ladle or in some other thing a conuenient quantity of redde or yellowe waxe, and with the same liquide waxe line and couer the inside of eue­ry potte: this done, sticke in the waxe round about the inside of euery potte so many smal, square, or round peeces of yron and lead as you shall thinke needefull. Then hauing in a readines for euery potte a holloe trunke or pipe which in compasse must be equal with the widenesse of the pottes mouth, and in length agree with the heigth of the potte within, you shall pearce 3 or 4 holes in the sides of euery of the said pipes, and fill the saide pipes full of a mixture thus made. Take of

  • Grosse gunpowder 10 pounds.
  • Brimstone sifted thorow a sercer 2 pounds.
  • Vernish in graines 1 pound.
  • Saltpeeter beaten to powder 1 pound.
  • and sifted thorow a sercer

Moysten all these things with common water, and mingle them togeather, and after you haue put into euery potte so much fine gunpowder as will lie (the said pipes being within the pottes) betweene the outsides of the said pipes, and the insides of the pottes, you shall thruste into euery potte one of those pipes filled full of the saide mixture, and couer euery potte all ouer with canuasse well bounde about and imbrued in pitch. Also when you will[Page 76]thro any such potte among enemies, geue fire to the mixture in the pipe of that potte, and suffer it for a little while to burne before you doe cast the same potte from you, which any man may doe without harme to himselfe.

The 82 Chapter. To make 5 diuers kindes of firewoorkes which may be put into pottes, holloe staues, canes, or other ves­sels, and throne out of mens handes in defensiue and offensiue seruice.

TAke greeke pitch, alchitrean, quick brimstone, tartar, sarcocolla, niter, stone oyle, of e­uery of these 1 parte, and of vnslaked lime 2 parts and somewhat more: Incorporate all these things togeather with the oyle of the yolkes of egges, then put al that mixture in­to a glasse or into a glased earthen potte, and hauing wel and closely stopped the mouth of the said potte or glasse with waxe, bury the same glasse or potte in a dūghil or in hote dung for the space of a moneth. After the ende of a moneth take it out of the dung, and set the said glasse or potte wel and closely stopped vppon a softe fire that the mixture in the same may melte, & be liquide. This done, fill with that licor holloe staues, canes, pottes, or other vessels made of purpose to receaue the same, and in the middest of euery of them put a gun­match, or rather a little good corne gunpowder which will when neede shall require set them quickly in a fire.

2 An other firewoorke which may be put into pottes and throne out of mens hands in offensiue and defensiue seruice, and may be shotte out of Trunkes, or tied to the endes of arrowes or dartes, and will serue to burne gates, carts, & all other woodden things that shalbe annoynted with the same.

TO make this liquide kinde of firewoorke put into a Cauldron Hogges grease, stone oyle, Oyle of Brimstone, Saltpeeter twise refined, Aqua vitae, Greeke pitch, Tur­pentine, and some Serpentine gunpowder. But first the Pitch, Brimstone, and Saltpeeter ought to be made liquide, and that done, put the saide Hogges grease, Turpentine, Oyle, and Gunpowder into the sayde I [...]cor set ouer a fire, that you may well incorporate the sayde mixture, by sturring and mingling the same with a sticke in a potte or other vessell prepared for that purpose. After this, couer the sayde composition all ouer with good Gunpowder, that it may take fire quickly when neede shall require. After you haue so done, let it settle, that when you wil vse it you may thro it out of your handes with a sling, or with a corde tied vnto the potte, or with a chaine, or otherwise as you shall thinke best.

Also you may fill certaine little bagges of linnen with this licor, which being bounde a­bout with cordes, and made rounde like pellets, may be shotte out of yron Trunkes.

Moreouer, you may with this liquide composition anoynte gates of Cities, woodden Bridges, Cartes, Munition, and such like thinges which are apte to burne, easie to be pe­netrated with fire, and able to maintayne fire. And you may tie some of the saide linnen bags about the endes or heades of dartes, or arrowes, and if you will you may fill certaine linnen purses full of the sayde composition, and throe them out of your handes in defensiue and offensiue seruice.

3 An other firewoorke which may be put into pottes, and throne out of mens handes in defensiue and offensiue seruice.

YOu ought for this purpose to prepare so many pots or other vessels as you shall thinke needefull, and it is no matter whether the same pots or vessels be baked or vnbaked, so that the humiditie of their earthie substance be dried vp. This done, fill those pots or vessels[Page 77]more than halfe full with Serpentine gunpowder, and mingle with that gunpowder Greek pitch & brimstone wel beatē to powder, in quantitie so much as ⅓ part therof at the least. After this, couer the said mixture a finger thick with hogges grease strayned, to the ende that the said mixture when it shalbe throne may holde togeather and not fall asunder, and that it may cause the fire burning sloely to endure til it shall fall among the enemies at whō it was throne. When you haue done all this, make a hole thorow the said couering of hogs greace into the aforesaid mixture of gunpowder, pitch, and brimstone, and hauing put in­to the said hole a shorte peece of a gunmatch, or a little of good corne gunpowder, fire the said gunmatch, or gunpowder, and keepe the potte of that firewoorke in your hand til you shall perceaue the fire in it to be wel kindled, for then is the time to cast it.

4 An other kinde of firewoorke which may be put into pottes, and throne out of mens hands in defen­siue and offensiue seruice.

TAke of Saltpeeter 5 ounces, of grosse gunpowder 4 ounces, and of gumme 2 ounces. Hauing beaten euery of these simples by it selfe grossely, mingle them togeather, and incorporate them with oyle of Linseede: that done, fill a potte with the same mixture, and suffer it for the space of one day to lie stil in the same potte. After the end of that day make a round hole with a pearcer, or an auger, beginning at the mouth of the potte, thorow the said mixture, and also thorow the bottome of the same potte, and to close vp the same hole againe put into it a cane or pipe of softe wood, which being open at both endes, and equall in bignesse with the said hole must in one halfe be filled with grosse gunpowder, and in the other halfe with the said mixture. When all this is perfourmed, couer the mouth of the potte with a peece of canuasse bound round about the same, and before you doe cast the potte among your enemies cutte a hole in the canuasse ouer the mouth of the potte, & put­ting a suffycient quantitie of good gunpowder within that hole vppon the said mixture, geue fire thereunto.

5 An other firewoorke which may be throne out of mens hands in defensiue and offensiue seruice, & can not be quenched with any other thing than with vineger or vrine.

TAke of quick brimstone 1 parte, of orpiment 1 parte of colophonia 2 parts, of shippe pitch 1 parte, of vernish in graine 1 parte, of turpentine 1 parte, of that which sticketh like a gumme in the inside of a butte of wine 2 parts, of that which in Italian is called Tasso 1 parte, of frankencense ½ of a parte, of oyle of linseede ½ of a parte, and of stone oyle ⅓ of a parte. Beate well all these things togeather, that done, boyle them a little in a vessell of Copper, and then put toe or bumbasse into the same confection, and after you haue well imbrued the said toe or bumbasse therein, make thereof pellettes which being a fire will not be quenched with any other thing than with vineger or vrine.

The 83 Chapter. To make 5 sundrie sortes of firewoorkes which will kindle with water or rayne.

TAke nwe lime made of Flintstone, calamite burned to powder, vitrioll grossely beaten 32 parts, saltpeeter oftentimes refined 8 parts, of camphire asmuch as all the aforesaid things, oyle of quick brimstone, oyle of turpentine, saltpeeter, salte armoniack, in waight so much as the vitrioll, and so much of tartar, bay salte, salte of vrine, and aqua vitae made of strong wine, as will suffice to dissolue all the same composition, which must be put into an Alcumist glasse named in Italian Boccia, so well and closely stopped with waxe, that no ayre may breathe out of the same, and hauing so done, bury the same glasse in hot dung for the space of 2 or 3 moneths, how be it within that time you must remoue the saide glasse, and change the dung in which it lyeth buryed at the least euery tenne dayes, to the ende that the said composition may ripe well, and be incorporated, and be like vnto a licor of one kinde, the which must afterwards be boiled vppon a soft fire til al the oylie, moysture,[Page 78]and all the other moysture that is in it be vapored away, and that the rest of it be drie, and harde like a stone. When you haue in such manner made that mixture drie, and harde like a stone, breake the said glasse to take out of it the said drie and stonie mixture. That being done, grinde the said mixture to powder, and when you will vse the same powder, strowe it vppon a place where it shall take wette with raine or other water, for therewith it will kin­dle, and burne. But forasmuch as this kinde of firewoorke may sometimes fayle to kindle with rayne or water, it will be expedient for you to put fire vnto the said gunpowder, for to make it kindle and burne according to your desire.

2 An other firewoorke which wil kindle with rayne or water.

MAke pellets of vnslaked lime, quicke brimstone, oyle of linseede, or of oyle of Oliues mingled togeather, and lay the same pellets where raine or other water may fall vp­pon them, for they being wette with raine or other water will suddenly kindle and burne.

3 An other firewoorke which will kindle with water or rayne.

TAke of the thing which in Italian is called Gloriatto one pound, of the oyle of the yolks of egges one pounde, of oyle of brimstone one pound, of vnslaked lime beaten to fine powder eighteene poundes: Incorporate these things togeather, and lay a quantity there­of where you will haue it to burne, for when any raine or other water shall fall vppon the same quantitie of mixture, it wil kindle and burne.

4 An other firewoorke which will kindle with water or rayne.

TAke of baulme or of blessed oyle 1 pound, of oyle of linseede 3 pounds, of the oyle of the yolkes of egges 1 pound, of vnslaked lime 8 pounds. Beate well all these thinges togeather, and make thereof a confection. That done, when neede shal require lay the same confection in an open place where raine may fall vppon it: or anointe therewith gates, woodden bridges, cartes, and such like things which are apt to burne, for the thing so a­nointed will burne so soone as it shalbe wette with raine or other water.

5 An other firewoorke which will kindle and burne with water, and also with spittle.

TAke of brimston oyle, of the gumme of the tree called in Latin Larix, in English Larch, of the rozē that runneth out of a Cedar tree, of liquide pitch of each 14 parts, of salt­peeter 16 parts, of the salte of that sweete gumme which is called in Latin Salammoniacum, & in English Beniemine, or of armoniake salte, of vitriol, of lime made of tartar, of each one parte, of lime made of the lode stone, of vnslaked lime made of flintes lying by the sides of riuers, of each 5 parts, of tallowe and of duckes grease, of each sixe parts. Put all these mate­riall things togeather into a pot, and poure into that pot so much Aqua vitae as wil drowne and couer all those things. Then bury the same pot wel luted in a dunghil of horsedung for the space of 3 monethes, and at euery 4 dayes ende during that time, take the pot out of the dunghil, and shake wel togeather al the things which are in the pot, and when you haue so done, bury the pot againe in an other place of the said dunghil, and after the end of the said 3 moneths, set the said pot ouer a hote fire vntill all the moysture within the same shal be cleane dried vp, & the mixture within the pot shalbe as lies or dregs. Then breake the pot, and keepe the same lies or dregs which you shall finde there: for the powder of the same lies or dregs being wet with spittle or water wil kindle and burne.

The 84 Chapter. To make 2 sundry sorts of firewoorkes which will kindle with the heate of the sunne, & burne in water.

THere is a very thinne and burning licor with which if you will anointe in the cani­culer daies any wood or other thing apt to burn, you shal see that the heate of the sun[Page 79]without any other fire wil make the same anointed things to burn. Some say that Marcus Graccus deuised this fireworke to burne the Romanes Nauie, and it is also reported that if materiall fire be put into this kinde of oyntment it will sodainlie burne, & be vnquench­able, except it be choked with drie sande, or wet with old and long kept vrine, or with very strong vineger. Also this kinde of fireworke will burne in water, and as the saide Marcus Graccus writeth, it may thus be made. Take Camphire, oyle of quicke Brimstone, oyle of Turpentine, oyle called in Italian Oglio Laterino, Iuniper oyle, Stone oyle oyle of Lynseede, Alchitrean, Colophonia finely beaten, oyle of the yolkes of egges, ship pitch, Cera Zagora, Duckes greace strained, Saltpeeter, and twise so much aqua vitae as all the composition, and so much of Arsinicke and Tartar as ⅛ part of the whole composition, and some Armo­niacke salt, and hauing put all these things in an Alcumist pot or glasse well stopped with waxe, burie the said pot or glasse (that the stuffe within the same may putrifie) in hot doung for the space of two monethes. Then all the said thinges being in a vessell called Storta, which Alcumistes doe vse, must bee distilled with a soft fire through which within sixe or eight houres after the said things haue been ouer the fire, there will come a very thinne li­cor, into which you must put so much pigens dung, or oxe dung dried in an ouen, bea­ten into verie fine powder, and searced, as will make of it a substance like sope, or rather a more liquide thing,

This liquide mixture may thus bee vsed. Anoynt the thing which is to be burned with that liquide mixture, and (as it is said) the heate of the Sunne in the Caniculer daies will set the same in a fire, so as it will not onely burne the annointed thing, but also euery other thing apt to take fire which is neare vnto it. Galen doth report that in Mysia which is a part of Asia, the dung of a Pigen fell vppon a part of a woodden windoe painted with rosen, and that after the saide dung was drie, it did kindle with the heat of the Sunne, and burne not only the said windoe, but also the whole house where that windoe was, by rea­son that the dung of Pigens being drie, is apt and hath power to kindle fire.

2 An other fire worke which will kindle with the heate of the Sunne, and burne in water, and that may be choked with drie sand or earth, and can not bee quenched with any other thing than with stale vrine, or strong vineger.

TAke of the refuse or dregges of the gumme of the Larix or Larch tree after the distillati­on of the oyle of the Larix or Larche tree, of the oyle of the Larix or Larche tree, of li­quide pytch, of Cedar pytch, of Camphire, of the lime or clay named Bitumen, of the d [...]ug called Mumia, of nwe wax, of Duckes greace, of Pigens dung, of the oyle of quicke Brim­stone, of the oyle of Iuniper of the oyle of Bayes, of the oyle of Lynseed, of the oyle of hemp­seed, of stone oyle, of Philosophers oyle, of the oyle of the yolkes of egges, of euery of these things 60 parts, of Saltpeeter 120 partes, of salt Armoniacke seuen parts: all these things being put into a vessell of glasse, must be first well moistened, and couered with burning wa­ter, and then buried in horse dung for the space of sixe monethes. But at euery three daies end during the saide time, the saide vessell must be taken out of the dung, and (after the things in the same haue been well shaken togeather) it must bee buried againe in fresh horse dung. When the said time of 6 monethes shall be expired, put the same mixture into the Distillatorie vessell which is named a Seraphine, and draw out the quintessence of the said mixture in the Seraphine, the which quintessence may be thickned with very fine pow­der of Oxe or Cowe dung. This done, put the said mixture into pots or other vessels, and when you will vse the same fire worke, I counsell you to set it in a fire with a gunpowder match, or with good corne gunpowder as you haue before been taught to giue fire vnto other fireworkes, and to throe the sayd pots with slings after they are well kindled, among your enemies.

The 85 Chapter. To make balles of fire which will burne in water.

MElt in a pot ouer a fire two poundes of cleane Brimstone, & while it is warme min­gle wel therewith one pounde of Saltpeeter, and halfe a pounde of fine gunpowder.[Page 80]This done, take the pot from the fire, and put into the said mixture two poundes of grosse gunpowder: after that beate in a morter the said mixture moystened with strong and di­stilled vineger, and when you haue so done, make thereof rounde balles or pellets: Then wrappe euery of the same balles or pellets in canuas, binding them rounde about vppon their wrappers as hard as may be with packthreed, and imbrue their wrappers so bounde all ouer with hot and liquide pytche, and remember after the pytch is colde and drie, to make a hole in euery of the said pellets, and to put a peece of a gunmatch into euery hole for to fire the pellets when you will haue them burne.

2 An other fireworke which will burne in water, and consume armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on.

TAke of Saltpeeter two partes, of Brimstone two parts, of Greeke pitch or Spanish pitch one part, of Assa fetida ½ of a part, of Camphire three parts, and a few graines of Barly brused, wet in aqua vitae, and roled in good and fine gunpowder. Beat well and sift all these materials except the Camphire, Assa fetida, & the graines of Barly, which you shall neuer pound well, vnlesse you doe first beate a Nutte or two Almondes in the morter where the Assa fetida, Camphire, and barlie must be pounded. This done beate very well so much gunpowder as will counterpease in waight all the said materials, & hauing sifted the same powder thorow a Seeue, mingle it among the other aforesaide materials, and moysten the whole mixture with oyle of Lynseed, and with oyle of stone: then hauing in a readinesse rounde bagges of canuas, put into their bottomes lead, to make the rounde bagges or balles stand vpright and after fill vp those rounde bagges with the aforesayd mixture pres­sed hard downe. Also take of Brimstone, Gumme, and of Spanish pyth of each one parte, melt them togeather ouer a sloe fire, and while this mixture is warme, couer the said round balles all ouer with the same, and bynde well the said mixture vppon the balles with yron or copper wiers. Then wrap or soe canuas round about the said balles, and hauing coue­red the said wrappers with the mixture last named, binde the said mixture vppon them as you did before with yron or copper wiers: and after you haue in this maner couered the said balles thrise, make thorow the side of euery ball, and thorow the middest of the saide peece of lead which you haue put into euery ball to make it stand vpright a hole so bigge as a mans finger, and two fingers deepe within the mixture that was first put into the pel­let, and then filling vp the said holes with good and fine gunpowder, giue fire to the same, and when the fire is well, kindeled throe the ball from you into water, for it will burne armor, wood, and euery other thing and can not be quenched with water.

3 An other fireworke which will burne in water and consume armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on.

TAke of grosse gunpowder one part, of Saltpeeter one part, of Amber one part, of Cam­phire ½ of a part: Beate all these thinges into fine powder, sift them thorow a fine Seeue or searser, and incorporate them togeather: then take more of gunpowder wel bea­ten so much as will counterpease in waight all the said materials, and incorporate the same with the other mixture. After this mingle sixe ounces of aqua vitae with the said compositi­on, and also incorporate with the saide mixture, of oyle petriol foure partes, of stone oyle three parts, of oyle of Brimstone, or rather of Iuniper oyle which is better two partes, and with this composition fill certaine rounde bagges, or balles of canuas as before you haue been taught to fill other like rounde bagges with other mixtures. Also couer and binde the rounde bagges filled with this mixture in like maner as you haue been taught to couer and bynde other like rounde bagges, and hauing made a hole in euery bagge euen to the mixture within the bagge, and filled the same hole with good and fine gunpowder, giue fire vnto the same gunpowder, and after the fire is well kindeled, throe the ball from you into water, for it will burne armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on, and can not be quenched with water.

4 An other fireworke which will burne in water and consume armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on,

TAke of Saltpeeter refined drie, of quicke Brimstone, of nwe pitch, of Camphire, of quicke lime, of the thing called in Italian comiranti, of each one part beaten togeather into very fine powder, and searced thorow a searcer. Also take of olde petriol oyle, & oyle of comuranti, melt them with nwe waxe ouer a soft fire, and while they are liquide and warme but not seething hot, incorporate them and the other mixture of powder togeather, and of this composition make pellets or rounde balles as before you haue been taught. For this sort of pellets will burne in water, and consume armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on. The Saltpeeter in this composition must bee sodde in strong vineger, and well dried before you doe beate it among the other things to powder.

5 An other fireworke which will burne in water, and consume armor, wood, and euery other thing that it shall fall on, and can not be quenched but with strong vineger.

TAke of Saltpeeter refined drie one part, of Brimstone one part, of Orpiment one part, of ship pytch one part, of Spanish pytch ½ of a part, of vernishe in graine one part, of Frankensence one part, beate all these things into very fine powder, and incorporate them togeather: Also take of Turpentine one part, of Sheepes suet one part, of petriol oyle ½ of a part, and hauing made the same to boyle a little in a pot ouer a sloe fire, put the other mixture into it, and incorporate them togeather: then dip fine toe or bumbase into the said composition, and make pellets thereof & when need shall require giue fire vnto them as before you haue beene taught, and thro them vppon enemies which will offer to assault the fort, towne, or cittie where you are. For these pellets will burne in water and consume armor, wood, and euerie other thing that they shall fall on and can not be quenched but with strong vineger.

The 86 Chapter. To make a fireworke which will burne stones and yron.

TAke of Camphire three partes, of salt Armoniacke twelue partes, of oyle of Bayes 24 partes, of vernish 24 partes, of Gumme 36 partes, of liquide vernish twelue partes. of Turpentine 24 partes, of Spanish pitch 60 partes, of Brimstone 60 partes, of liquide pitch twelue partes, of nwe waxe twelue partes, of Coles made of willoe 144 parts of fine gunpowder for handgunnes twelue partes, and of oyle of Lynseede 36 partes: incorpo­rate all these things togeather and keepe this confection to burne stones and yron.

The 87 Chapter. To make a fireworke which was first inuented by the sonnes of Amram.

TAke of liquide picth, of the gumme of Iuniper, of the oyle and gumme of Turpentine, of the oyle of that lime or clay which is called Bitumen, of the oyle of Brimstone, of the oyle of Niter, of the oyle of the yolkes of egges, of the oyle of Bayes, of euery of these thinges sixe partes, of the powder of a drie Bay tree, of Camphire, of euery of them well so­ked in aqua vitae fourteene partes, put all these things togeather into a glasse narrowe to­wardes the mouth, and well stopped about the mouth with waxe: This done, bury the same glasse in horse dung for the space of sixe monethes, and at euery foure dayes ende within that time, take the glasse out of the said dung, and when you haue well shaken those thinges togeather in the glasse, burie the glasse againe in other horse dung, and after the ende of the said sixe monethes distill all those things in that kinde of vessell which of some Alcumistes is named a Seraphine.

The 88 Chapter. To make an vnquenchable fireworke which will burne without any flame.

TAke of Saltpeeter refined two partes, of Coles made of a firre tree ¼ of one part, and with the whites of egges incorporate them together. This done, role or drawe a cord made of fine wooll or bombase thoroe the saide mixture, and then putting fire vnto the same cord you shall see that it will burne without any flame and be vnquenchable.

The 89 Chapter. To make a fireworke which shall burne and doe his desired effect at any appointed time.

TAke of Orpiment twelue parts, of pitch one part, of waxe one part, of Saltpeeter one part, of Cole made of soft wood foure partes: melt or dissolue all these things togea­ther in water, and after they are so dissolued thrust a gunmatch of a knowne length into the said mixture, and wet it well in the same. When you haue so done, and haue also dried this gunmatch wel againe, kindle one end of that gunmatch with fire, and noting diligent­lie by a true watch or houre glasse, how long time it continueth, let it burne for a proofe till all of it shall with the fire be consumed. And let it be here supposed that the gunmatch which was so wet in the said mixture was three yardes in length, and that it did continue in burning one iust quarter of an houre, and that I am appointed to burne a thing with a like gunmatch at the end of one iust houre after the gunmatch shall bee kindeled, nowe therefore I take a like gunmatch of twelue yardes in length which is foure times so long as was the gunmatch by which I made the saide proofe, because it must burne one houre, which is 4 times so long as the other gunmatch did burne, & I wreath this gunmatch about a staffe, placing one wreath somewhat farre from the other, to the end that the sayd gun­match may burne in no more places than in one onely place at one time. For if the sayde wreathes should be set neare togeather, it might be that one wreath woulde set an other wreathe in a fire, and thereby making the gunmatch to doe his effect before the appointed time, discredite the workman, and frustrate his intent. Likewise if I should bee appointed to fire a thing with a like gunmatch at the iust end of two houres after the match shall bee kindeled, I must take a like gunmatch of 24 yardes in length which is eight times so long as was the gunmatch by which I made the said proofe, because it must burne two houres, which is eight times so long as the other gunmatch did burne, and wreathing as I did be­fore this gunmatch about a staffe, I doe put that ende of the gunmatch which shall bee last touched at the end of two houres with fire, in a vessell of gunpowder, or in a ball of wilde fire, that it may without faile doe thereby his effect at the appointed time. Thus noting well what I haue here written, you may fire any ship, myne, forte, or any other thing at an appointed time.

The 90 Chapter. To make a fireworke which may be vsed in militarie seruice, and also in triumphes.

TAke of grosse gunpowder three partes, of Saltpeeter two parts, of Brimstone one part, of vernish in graines foure partes, of Romane vitriol sixe partes, of Spanish pitch sixe partes, of Amber foure partes, of Orpiment foure partes, of Arsenike foure partes, of greene Coperesse two partes, and of Salt Armoniake two parts: beate well all these things (except the Saltpeeter and Brimstone which must not bee much beaten) and incorporate them togeather. Also take of liquide vernish sixe parts, of Petriol oyle foure partes, of oile of Lynseede foure partes, and of aqua vitae sixe partes. First put the aqua vitae alone into the said mixture, and incorporate them well togeather: then put the liquide vernish into the said composition, and incorporate them togeather, and last of all put the saide oyles into the said composition, and in like manner incorporate them well togeather. This done,[Page 83]you may vse the said composition for militarie seruice, and also for triumphes, and if you will put it into a nealed pot well and close stopped, you may preserue it so long as you will for such purposes,

The 91 Chapter. To make a fireworke which may be cast vp into the ayre, and may be shot out of a trunke or trombe.

TAke of Greeke pytch twelue parts, of quicke Brimstone two partes, of Saltpeeter refi­ned drie three partes, beate all these things, and make a paiste of them with aqua vitae, and oyle of Lynseede, and then of that composition make certaine pellets, and when you will charge a trombe or trunke with any of these pellets, role them in fine gunpowder, and hauing made holes crossewise thoro the sides of the same pellets, to the ende that the fire may enter into them, fill vp the said holes with fine gunpowder.

The 92 Chapter. To make a fireworke which at a triumph may be cast vp into the ayre.

TAke of Saltpeeter refined drie two partes, of Brimstone one part and ½ of a part, of li­quide Camphire one part, of Coles one part and ½ part: beate all these thinges into fine powder, and after you haue so done take of petriol oyle and of aqua vitae of eache an equall quantitie, and incorporate them with the Camphire, and with the saide powder, and then make of that mixture pellets which must be dryed in the Sunne: and when you will thro any of these pellets vp into the ayre, you must first make a hole into the pellet, and hauing filled vp the said hole with good gunpowder giue fire vnto the same gunpowder.

The 93 Chapter. To make Rockettes or Squibbes which being throne vp into the ayre wil cast foorth flames of fire, and in comming downe towards the ground will shew like starres falling from heauen.

TO make these Rockets you must prepare a fourme or model of wood of a conueni­ent length, and role paper vppon the same foure or fiue folde, and tie a packthreede very harde about one end of this holloe trunke of paper, leauing all this notwithstanding a small hole in that ende. This holloe trunke of paper ought to be of such length that it may conueniently hold all the things which must be put into it, and you ought to put no more waight vppon a Rocket than the iust poyse of the same Rocket.

When this trunke of paper shall be filled with such things as will flame and giue crackes or bloes, put fine gunpowder into the said trunke for to kindle the gunmatch, which must lie along in the stuffe that will flame and cracke. The stuffe which is to be put into the Roc­ket for to flame and giue crackes is made of twelue partes of Saltpeeter refined, of Citrine Brimstone nine partes, of grosse gunpowder fiue partes and ¼ of a part mingled togeather with your hand. The Brimstone and Saltpeeter must be grosly poūded like vnto the cornes of grosse gunpowder. This done, make of som hemp or toe a thing like vnto a taile ¾ of a foote or more in length, and tie a packthreed about the said taile neare vnto the biggest end of it: Also at that greatest end of the taile, a holloe place must be made like vnto a birds nest, & after you haue put into that nest one part and ⅓ of a part of the said mixture, winde the rest of that taile rounde about vppon the nest and all ouer the saide mixture, make a rounde ball thereof, and crossewise binde packthreed very hard vppon it to the ende that the said ball may therewith be made very harde. And finally thrust a gunmatch well roled in good gunpowder cleane thorow the said ball and mixture to kindle the saide mixture, and to make this Rocket for to flame.

The 94 Chapter. To make Torches and candles which after they are lighted cannot be ex­tinguished with any winde or water.

TAke foure cordes so bigge as a mans finger of fine wooll or bumbase, seethe them in Saltpeeter water, and when they are drie againe, role them well in fine gunpowder and Brimstone tempered with a sufficient quantitie of aqua vitae: then take of waxe three partes, of gumme of a pine tree two partes, of Camphire ½ of a parte, of Turpentine ½ of a part, and of Greeke pytch or Spanish pytch one part: melt all these things ouer a soft fire, and make a paiste of the same mixture, and couer the saide cordes all ouer with the saide mixture as chaundelers doe their waxe candles. This done, sticke and lay the same foure cordes so couered vppon a drie firre tree staffe, as waxe candles are stucke and laide vppon like staues commonly called staffe torches, and fill vppe the emptie places vppon the staffe which will be betweene the said cordes, with a mixture made of three partes of quicke or vnslaked lime, and of one part of quicke Brimstone beaten into fine powder, and moyste­ned with a little of Linseed oyle: a torch thus made after it is lighted can not be extingui­shed with any winde or water. But to make a candle for the like purpose, take the weeke of a candle, and the powder of quicke Brimstone, wrappe them vp togeather in a fine peece of lynnen cloth, and with waxe make thereof a candle, for (as Nostradamus and Weckerus haue written) a lighted candle so made can not bee extinguished with any winde so long as any peece of his substance doth endure.

Also you may make any nextinguishable torche in this maner: Take a long gunmatch, and after you haue boyled it in lie made of Saltpeeter, drie it well: then take of Brimstone finely beaten 1 part, of gunpowder for great ordinance one part, & of waxe one part: Min­gle al these things togeather, and when you haue melted this mixture in a pan, put so much of the said gunmatch into it as will drinke or soke vp the greatest part thereof: then taking the gunmatch out of the pan, cut it into peeces so long as the torch shall be, and vnto the quantity of mixture remaining in the pan, put a like quantity of the gumme of a pine tree, a like quantitie of Brimstone, and a like quantitie of Turpentine. Which done, melt in that pan all the same things, and after you haue there well mingled them togeather, couer the said peeces of a gunmatch all ouer with the same mixture, as waxe chaundelers doe vse to couer their torch candles: and by so doing you shall make excellent torches, which bur­ning in a flame can not be extinguished with winde, raine, or snoe.

The 95 Chapter. To make a fireworke which will burne and giue a great light in a Crosset.

THrust lynnen ragges into oyle of hempsede, and after dippe them in melte [...] allowe, then putting them into Cressets giue fire to them, & you shall see that they [...]ll burne and giue a great light.

The 96 Chapter. To kindle fire with the heate of the Sunne.

IF you will lay a Christall stone vnder the circle of the Sunne, that is to say against the Sunne, and place a thing that may be burned neare vnto it, you shall see that the heate of the Sunne will set that thing in a fire.

The 97 Chapter. How you may make a Trunke or Trombe which will shoote fireworkes, and may bee vsed in fight vp­pon the Sea, and in fight vppon the lande: how you may make a furious and quicke burning fire­worke for the said Trunke: how you may make a sloe and soft burning fireworke for the said trunke: and how you may make diuers fortes of fireworkes for the said trunke: and how you ought to charge the said trunke with the said furious and quicke burning fireworke: and also with the saide sloe and soft burning fireworke.

TO make a Trunke take a rounde peece of wood in length two foote, and in compasse equall with the small of a mans legge. Bore a rounde hole in the middest of this peece of wood seuenteene ynches long from one end of the same peece of wood towardes the other end, and make the same hole of such widenesse that a henne egge may be put into it. Likewise bore a small hole three ynches long at the other ende of the sayd peece of wood to receaue an ende of a staffe of fiue foote long, which being put in, and there made fast, ought to be holden in your hand when the Trunke shall be discharged. Now leauing foure ynches space in wood betweene the bottome of this hole and the bottome of the other hole into which the mixture for the charge of the Trunke shall be put, bind the sayd peece rounde about for more securitie in three or foure places with hoopes of yron, to the end it may not breake with the force of his charge. Also you must prepare certaine pypes of yron in length sixe ynches, like canons which are made for pocket dagges, and charging them with gunpowder and pellets, binde them so fast with the said hoopes of yron vppon the outside of the Trunke, that they in their discharges may not flie out of their pla­ces.

The said pypes of yron ought to be set vnder the saide hoopes, and vppon the Trunke according as they are drawne in the figure next following. That is to say, certaine of the sayd pypes of yron must bee placed vnder euery hoope rounde about the outside of the Trunke in such order as no one of them may bee perceiued to stande directly behinde an other, and so as the touch hole in euery of the sayd pypes may lie iustly vppon a small hole pearced thorow the thicknesse of the wood about the concauitie in the Trunke, to the end that the mixture in the trombe or trunke being a fire may giue fire thorow the said holes to the gunpowder in euery of the same yron pypes, and expell their pellets.

[depiction of a trunk or trombe [hand-grenade]]

To make a furious and quicke burning fireworke for the said trunke, take twelue partes of grosse gunpowder, three partes of Saltpeeter grosly brused like pepper cornes, and some graines of Salt equall in biggenesse to the saide cornes of Saltpeeter: mingle these things togeather, and moysten them with aqua vitae & with a little of oxe gall: but to make a sloe and soft burning fireworke for the said trunke, take tenne partes of grosse gunpow­der, sixe partes of Saltpeeter grosly brused, and foure partes of Brimstone grosly brused, and to prooue whether or no these things mingled togeather will burne so sloly or softly as you desire that they shoulde doe, lay a small part of the same mixture vppon a boord or table, and hauing put fire thereunto marke diligently how the same doth burne, and in so doing remember, that by adding more gunpowder vnto this sloe burning fireworke you shall make it to burne more furiously, & that by taking away some part of the gunpowder which is in the same fireworke, you shall make it to burne in a Trunke more sloely and softly. Now hauing prepared for a trunke two such fireworkes, fill the concauitie of the Trunke first 3 ynches in length with the said furious and raging fireworke, next one ynche in length with the sayde sloe burning fireworke, then againe three ynches in length with the furious fireworke, after that one ynche in length with the sloe bur­ning [Page 86]fireworke, and proceede in this order till you haue filled the concauitie of the trunke ful of that fireworke. Or (if you will) you may before the trunke is full charged with both those fireworkes, put into the trunke next vnto the last course of the sloe burning fire­worke one parte and ½ part of fine gunpowder, and some quantitie of grosse filinges of lead, and small peeces of glasse wrapped vppe togeather in a loose peece of paper like a pellet, and thrust lightly home vnto the gunpowder, so as a burning gunmatch lying a long by one side of the said pellet from the mouth of the saide concauitie vnto the sayde fine gunpowder, may when neede shall require fire the gunpowder, and make the fire­worke in the trunke to flame.

2 An other mixture with which the sayd trunke may be charged.

TAke of grosse gunpowder 48 partes, of Greeke pytch or Spanish pytch twelue partes, of Camphire sixe parts, of glasse beaten into powder foure partes, of vernish in graines three partes, of vernish in powder three partes, of drie or leane gumme two partes, of Salt­peeter sixe partes, of Brimstone two partes, of quicksiluer killed with fasting spittle one part: beate each of these thinges by it selfe, and hauing moistened them with aqua vitae mingle them togeather.

With this mixture you ought to charge a trunke in this maner: first put into the con­cauitie of the trunke a little of grosse gunpowder, next a little of the saide mixture, thrus­ting it home to the gunpowder with a woodden rammer, then a little of bumbase or cot­ten wooll wet in Iuniper oyle or in aqua vitae, after that a little quickesiluer, and when you haue so done put againe into the trunke a little gunpowder vnmixed, some of the sayde mixture, and a little quicksiluer in such measure and like sort as you did before, keeping still the same order till you haue filled the trunke full of the saide gunpowder, mixture, bumbase, and quicksiluer. After all this is done, couer the mouth of the trunke with pa­per bounde fast about the trunke with packthreede, and making a little hole right against the mouth of the trunke, thrust into the same a gunmatch, which lying along within the concauitie of the trunke from the outside of the hole in the said paper couer, vnto the gun­powder that is in the trunke, may when neede shall require, giue fire vnto the said gunpow­der.

3 An other mixture with which a trunke may be charged.

TAke of Saltpeeter, Brimstone, oyle of Lynseede, oyle of the pyne tree, gumme melted, Spanish pitch, drie gumme, of eache a like portion: and when you haue mingled all these things togeather, charge your trunke with the said mixture.

4 An other mixture with which a trunke may be charged.

TAke of Brimstone, Orpiment, Colophonia pytch, or gumme of the hearb Colophonia, nwe pytch, Vernish in graines, Turpentine, mans fat or mans grease, Masticke, Greeke pytch, Frankensence, oyle of Lynseede, of each one part: beate well all these thinges, and then mingle them togeather, and cause the same mixture to seethe a good while in a glasse. That done, dippe bumbase or toe into the same mixture, and make therof as it shall please you great or little pellets. My Authour Leonardo Cataneo writeth that you may charge the aforesaid trunk with these pellets, and that the same pellets being once a fire can not bee quenched with any other thing than with vrine, vineger, ashes, dust or sand.

The 98 Chapter. How you may make foure sundrie sortes of Trunkes or Trombes: how you may make foure sundry sortes of mixtures for the said Trunkes: how you may make balles or pellets for the said trunks: and how you ought to charge the said Trunkes with the said mixtures and pellets.

MAke a rounde Trunke of Willoe, or of Oliue, or of the wood named in Italian Bedolo, or of the wood named Onizzo, for making it of any other wood which is not a softe and fast wood, the trunke will not only by breaking put you in danger, but will bee all in a fire vppon a sodaine and destroy you and your friends about you.

Make this round Trunke three foote and ¼ of a foote in length, and fiue ynches in thick­nesse from outside to outside, And let the concauitie of this Trunke bee in length thirtie ynches, and the Diameter of the said concauitie two ynches: also make a rounde hole in the breech of this Trunke foure ynches long towards the loer end of the saide concauitie in the trunke, and one ynch and ½ ynche in Diameter or widenesse for to receiue and hold fast the ende of a round staffe which must be put into the same hole when you will vse the Trunke. Furthermore, take away the wood rounde about vppon the outside of the trunke sixe ynches beneath the mouth of the trunke, in deepnesse so much as the backe of a knife is thicke, and in breadth three ynches, and winde or binde very hard a strong corde, or a strong yron wier round about all ouer and vppon the trunke in that & in all his other like holloe places, for sixe ynches beneath this hollo place you must make an other like hol­loe place: I meane you must take away the wood rounde about vppon the outside of the Trunke in deepnesse so much as the backe of a knife is thick and in breadth three ynches, and binde very hard a strong cord or a strong yron wier rounde about all ouer and vppon that holloe place. Likewise you must make round about vppon the trunke sixe ynches be­neath this second holloe place, a third holloe place like and equall in breadth and deepe­nesse to the said second holloe place, and binde very harde a strong corde or a strong yron wier rounde about all ouer and vppon this third holloe place, as you did vppon the first and second holloe places according to the two figures A B and A C next following: for A B is a trunke with three such holloe places as before haue been spoken of: and A C is a trunke which hath three such holloe places bounde all ouer with strong cordes or strong wiers and hath a staffe set fast in his loer end.

[depiction of two trunks or trombes [hand-grenades]]

After you haue framed a Trunke in this sorte, take of grosse gunpowder which is vncor­ned 72 partes, of Saltpeeter beaten like vnto the seed of millet nine partes, of Brimstone beaten and sifted sixe partes, of Coles made of the wood of Willoe beaten and sifted foure partes, and of vernish beaten and sifted two parts, put all these things togeather in a bole of wood, and sprinkle a little water vppon them that the Coles may not be blone out of the bole, and by so doing you shall make of those things a sloe mixture to burne in the said trunke.

Also you shall prepare balles or pellets for the saide trunke in this manner. Make a flatte Cake of hempe in greatnesse so much as the paulme of a mans hande, and in thicke­nesse so muche as the backe of a knife, wette well this Hemppen Cake in aqua vitae, and after you haue so done wryng the aqua vitae out of it. Then hauing in a readinesse a mixture made of twelue partes of grosse gunpowder sifted, and of three partes of Saltpeeter sifted, put a parcell thereof vppon the middest of the said cake, and when you haue so done, role vppe that Cake like a Ball or Pellet which must bee ½ finger lesse in his Diameter than the heigth of the concauitie in the Trunke, and muste bee well bounde rounde about with packthreede. Moreouer, thrust sixe Pinnes or prickes of Wood into this ball euen vnto the mixture which is within the ball, and let euerie of[Page 88]these prickes or pinnes be of such length that one ende of euery of them may touche the said mixture within the ball, and the other ende of euery of them may be two ynches at the least without the ball. After all this is done, cote the whole ball with melted Brimstone, & make in this maner a great number of these balles which you may keepe till you shall haue cause to vse them in trunkes: at which time you must take out of them the said prickes or pinnes and fill vp their holes with good gunpowder which will easily and very quickely set the said balles in a fire.

When this trunke shall bee charged, you must haue in a readinesse grosse gunpowder mingled with filings of yron in this proportion. Vnto one part of the filings of yron put 12 parts of grosse gunpowder: and this done, you must first thrust so much of that mixture into the bottome or loest ende of the concauitie in the trunke as will fill the saide conca­uitie three ynches in length after it hath been rammed downe hard with a staffe. And after this you shall put one of the aforesaid balles or pellets into the trunke: and after the same pellet so much gunpowder as you can take vp and hold with your thombe and foure fin­gers, and after the quantitie of gunpowder last named, so much of the said sloe mixture as will fill the concauitie in the trunke three ynches more in length, and then you shall put a­gaine into the concauitie of the trunke so much of the said gunpowder mingled with the filings of yron rammed downe very hard with a staffe, as will fill the saide concauitie three ynches more in length, and after the saide gunpowder and filinges, one other of the saide balles, and after the said ball so much gunpowder as you can take vp and hold with your thombe and foure fingers, and after this quantitie of gunpowder last named, so much of the sloe mixture as will fill the saide concauitie three ynches more in length, and you shall proceede to put the said gunpowder mingled with filings of yron, balles, gunpowder vn­mingled, and sloe mixture into the trunke in such order as you did before vntill you haue filled the said concauitie full within ½ ynch of his mouth, and in so doing you must put the balles in the saide concauitie directly vnder the saide holloe places which are bounde for more safetie all ouer with strong cordes or strong wiers of yron.An admoniti­on. When you haue so filled the concauitie of this trunke within ½ ynch of his mouth, binde a lynnen cloth well im­brued or coted with pitch all ouer the mouth of the said concauitie, to saue the gunpow­der, balles, and sloe mixture in the saide concauitie from sparkles of fire, and from moi­sture, and let it remaine there vntill you shal be readie to put fire with a gunmatch, or other wise, vnto the thinges in the concauitie of the trunke, for then it must be taken away. Also you must put the end of a staffe of sixe foote long into the said round hole of foure ynches in length at the breeche of the trunke, and pynne it fast there that it may not come out agayne.The vse of Trunkes. With such trunkes as this is, walles may be assaulted, breaches may bee defended, and shippes may be boorded. Also with such trunks the forefront of an armie may be pre­serued from the force of horsemen, campes, gates, fortes, and townes, may with the fire issu­ing out of these trunkes be burned.

This trunke may also be charged in an other sort without any of the saide pellets: for a round box of good yron plate being made like the woodden couer of a round Marmelaid box, & ¼ of an ynch lesse in his Diameter than is the widenesse of the concauitie in the trunke, you shall fill the said yron boxe full of square peeces of yron or lead, and binde pa­per ouer the mouth of the boxe that the square peeces which are in the saide boxe may not fall out. And when you will charge your trunke with this boxe full of such square pee­ces of yron or lead, you must first put into the trunke so much of vnmingled grosse gun­powder as wil fil the concauitie in the trunke thre ynches in lēgth after it hath been pressed downe very hard: and secondly you must put into the trunke after the sayd grosse gun­powder so much of fine gunpowder as you can take vp and holde with your thombe and foure fingers: and thirdly you must put into the said trunke the said boxe of yron full of square peeces of yron or lead with his bottome towardes and next to the saide gunpow­der. Fourthly you must put into the sayd trunke next after the said boxe so much of grosse gunpowder as will bee enough to carrie fire vnto the fine gunpowder which is behinde or vnder the bottome of the saide boxe. Fiftly you must put into the saide trunke so much of the sloe mixture nexte following as wyll fill the concauitie in the Trunke three or foure ynches more in length. Sixtly, you must put into the Trunke so much[Page 89]of grosse gunpowder as you did at the first, and then you must proceede in the aforesaide order to fill vp the concauitie in the the said trunke with gunpowder, & the sloe mixture next folloing, vntill the saide concauitie shall bee full within ½ ynch of his mouth. Which done, binde ouer the mouth of the trunke a linnen cloth wel imbrued or coted with pitch, and let it remaine there till you will giue fire vnto the things in the trunke with a gūmatch or otherwise, for then it must be taken away. Also remember to thrust the saide yron boxe into the trunk so as it may lie directly vnder one of the said holloe places which are bound all ouer with strong cordes or strong wiers of yron, as you haue been willed before to place the said pellets.

The sloe mixture (which as before I haue tolde you) must be put into the concauitie of the trunke when you doe charge the same trunke with the saide boxe of yron, is made of 102 partes of grosse gunpowder sifted, of sixe partes of Saltpeeter fifted grosly, of two partes of vernish in graine, of two partes of quickesiluer killed, of two parts of Assa fetida, and of three parts of Turpentine mingled togeather.

Vppon this trunke you may also if you will put an yron hoope of 3 fingers in breadth, and ½ finger in thicknesse, and placing two sworde blades very fast in the said yron hoope according to the picture folloing, you may vse the said trunke to offend and defend as you would vse a Pertisant.

[depiction of a trunk or trombe [hand-grenade]]

Also a long two handed sword may be aptlie put into the staffe of the said trunke in this manner. Saw the staffe iust in the middest from the loer end towards the vpper end, and see that the part of the staffe which is so sawne do iustlie agree in thickenesse and length with the breadth and length of the sword blade. This done put the sword blade into the saide staffe so sawne as you would put the same blade into a scabbord, and with two rings of wood made of purpose to slide vp & downe vppon the said staffe, you may shut the staffe so close that the blade shall not come out, and open the staffe (when you will) so wide, that the blade shall come foorth easilie.

The bearer of this trunke seeing his trunke in a fire may soone thro it away, and vse the two handed sword that was in the staffe of the trunke: and therefore he that doth beare such a trunke ought to be a curragious, skilfull, and an able soldier to vse it.

[depiction of a trunk or trombe [hand-grenade]]

How you may make a Trunke or Trombe after an other fashion, and a mixture to charge the sayde Trunke: and how you ought to charge this Trunke with the said mixture.

MAke a Trunke of a plate of yron which ought to be so thicke as the back of a knife, put thereon three hoopes of yron, and let euery of them be one ynch in bredth, nayle the said hoopes very fast vppon the trunke which must be two foote in length, and one ynche and ½ ynch in his Diameter or widenesse: all this being done, take a rounde peece of wood in length one foote, & driue the said round peece of wood sixe ynches at the least into one end of the concauitie in the trunke, and then put a staffe into that end of the rounde peece of wood which is without the said concauitie. The trunke being thus made must be char­ged, and filled almost vp to the mouth with the mixture next folloing. But in so charging this trunke, forget not after his concauitie shall be filled three ynches in length, to presse well and ramme downe the saide mixture. After you haue so filled the concauitie of the trunke almost vp to the mouth with the sayd mixture, put into the mouth of the said con­cauitie a sufficient quantitie of good gunpowder, and binde a lynnen cloth imbrued or co­ted with pytch all ouer the mouth of the saide concauitie as you haue been willed to doe ouer the mouth of the trunke before mentioned.

The mixture for this trunke is thus made: Take of grosse gunpowder sifted 144 parts, of Saltpeter sifted grosly 24 parts, of Brimstone sifted 12 parts, of Coles made of the wood of Willoe sifted 18 parts, of Assa fetida two parts, of greene Coperesse one part, of Arsenick one part of vitriol beaten one part, of the filings of yron sifted one part: incorporate all these things well togeather, and moisten them with aqua vitae.

The 99 Chapter. To tie a fireworke at the vpper end of a scaling ladder.

COuer the vpper part of the scaling ladder with plates of yron & in the very top let the ladder haue one or two great and strong hookes of yron to catch and holde fast what­soeuer thing you shall lay it on. Also set in the foote of the ladder long yron pykes which may be thrust into the ground to keepe the ladder from slyding. All this being done, tie vppon the the said yron plates a canuas bagge filled with some one kinde of burning mix­ture, binde the said bagge all ouer with yron wiers, and couer it all ouer with such paste as doth serue to couer pellets and balles of wildefire. Then making holes thorow the bag in­to the said mixture, fil vp the saide holes againe with fine and good gunpowder, or with gunmatches roled in fine and drie gunpowder, and when you shall haue cause to vse any such ladder, giue fire to the said gunpowder or gunmatches which will cause the said mix­ture to burne in such maner, as no enemie will offer to come neere vnto the ladder.

A scaling ladder which may be folded togeather.

The 100 Chapter.

1 To make three sundrie Firewoorkes which will bloe vp walles, towres, fortes, and such like thinges, and spoyle many enemies.

PVt a barrell full of fine gunpowder within a Butte well hooped, let the barrell stand fast in the middest of the Butte, filling vp the rest of the roome within the Butte with round shelles, or stones, so byg as walnuttes, or egges, and lay about the Butte certaine gunmat­ches which may geue fire at an appointed time to the gunpowder in the bottome of the barrell. For if you should geue fire to the gunpowder in the top of the barrell, you would before you could escape, hurte your selfe so soone as your enemie. Likewise if you should not lay gunmatches about the Butte to geue fire vnto the gunpowder at an appoynted time when you may be in an other place a good distance from the said Butte and Barrell, you would kill your selfe: For this kinde of firewoorke laide in a trench vnder the groūd, or vnder a wall, forte, or tower, will be a very offensiue thing to all those that are neare vn­to it when it doth his effect.

Girolamo Russelli in his booke entituled Precetti della militia moderna writeth, that at the assault of Saint Andrewes in Scotlande Anno Domini 1542, this kinde of firewoorke did kill 321 persons, and mayme more than 600 persons.

A gunmatch to fire the powder in the Barrel.

A gunmach to fire the powder in the Barrel.

2 An other Firewoorke which will bloe vp walles, towers, fortes, and such like thinges, and spoyle many enemies.

MAke of good and thicke plates of yron certayne barrels, hoope them well with yron hoopes, vppon their hoopes fixe certaine thicke peeces of yron of an ynche and ¼ of an ynch in length with sharpe poyntes, and with an harde cheesel hack euery barrell in diuers places, but not thoroe, because euery barrel ought to be made very close, so as no fire may breathe out of it till the force of fiered gunpowder with which euery barrell must be full stuffed shall cause the same barrels to breake in many peeces. Also vpon the head or one ende of euery such barrell, fixe well a holloe pipe of yron, making it to goe close downe foure fingers deepe into the barrell, and to extende three fingers in heigth aboue the head of the barrell. This done, fill euery of those barrels with good and fine gun­powder, and euery of those yron pipes with some one kinde of mixture that will burne slo­lie: and when you will vse these barrels in time of military seruice, geuing fire to the mix­ture in their sayd pipes, thro them away from you ouer the Towne walles, or being in sea seruice, out of your shippe into an other shippe or galey among your enemies. For so soone[Page 92]as the fire in the said mixture shall come to the gunpowder within the barrell, the barrell through the force of gunpowder, and by reason of the said hackes, will breake and flie in many peeces.

Also with yron buttes or great barrels of yron filled full of gunpowder, and made like vnto the said small barrels, you may bloe vp any appointed wall or tower, if you wil lay such great barrels filled full of fine gunpowder in the ground vnder the appointed place.

[depiction of a type of barrel firework]

3 An other Firewoorke which will bloe vp Walles, Towers, Fortes, and such like thinges, and spoyle many enemies.

MAke of long, thick, smoothe, and well wrought plates of yron, a vessell of eyght or ten feete in length like vnto the picture following, hoope the same vessell with yron hoopes, & also make a bottome for the same vessell of like plates of yron, laying one plate a finger breadth vpon the middle parte of an other plate his thicknesse, and set this bot­tome fast in a fitte creast made round about the loer ende of the said vessell. This done, hacke the vessell but not thorow, in diuers places with a cheesell, and make a hole in euery plate about that loer ende, and then to stoppe vp those holes againe that no fire may breathe out of any one of them, driue an yron pinne ouerthwarte into euery of the sayde holes. Moreouer, make a little hole in the bottome of the saide vessell, and put into the same hole a pype of yron, and after you haue stuffed the saide vessell full of drie and fine gunpowder, fill the saide pype with a burning mixture, or with a Gunmatch which may bring fire vnto the said gunpowder when it shall doe his effect. Now this vessell being so prepared to bloe vp a wall, tower, or forte, digge a caue vnder the wall, towre, or forte, that shalbe blone vp, which caue must be no bigger than will receaue the said vessel, and setting proppes in the ground vnder the said wall, tower, or forte, geue fire to the end of a Gun­match that shall at the ende of halfe an houre or thereabouts after you haue done all this geue fire to the gunpowder in the said barrell. For you must before that time (if you will saue your owne life) be a good distance from the same place that shalbe blone vp with the said gunpowder.

[depiction of a type of barrel firework]

The 101 Chapter. How Frauncesse George of Sena was the first inuentor of Mynes: how caues or mynes for the subuersion of Fortes, Castles, and walles of Cities ought to be made: and how gunpowder ought to be placed in the ouens of such Mynes, that the same gunpowder may ouerthroe and bloe the Forts, Castles, and Walles of Cities which shall stande directly ouer the sayde ouens.

IOan: Iacobus Weckerus, and Vannuccio Biringuccio, doe reporte in their bookes that Fraun­cesse George of Sena was the first inuentor of Mynes for the subuersion of Fortes, Castles,Sena is a citie in that part of Italie which is called Tulcane distant from Roome an hū ­dred miles. and walles of Cities: And the said Weckerus, Biringuccio, and other authors haue written, that such mynes ought to be made in this sorte following.

The mouth and beginning of the myne ought not to be neare vnto the place that is ap­pointed to be blone vp with gunpowder, to this ende that the men of the saide place may not perceaue the myne, nor issue out to molest the Pioners, nor know where to make countermines to let the fire breathe out, or to cause the myne by any manner of meanes to be of no effect. And to the intent that the saide myne may not ende before it comes to the very pointe of ground which l [...]eth directly vnder the saide place that shalbe ouerthrone, nor extende beyonde the same, you must measure exactly with your Quadrant or Semi­circle the distance betweene the beginning of the myne and the place where it shall ende, and note circumspectly by the helpe of a Geographicall plaine Sphere, how the end of the myne lieth from the place of his beginning. This done, drawe a platte of a myne that may vppon paper expresse the true proportion and symetrie of the same myne which you doe now goe about to make, and instruct the Pyoners to vndermyne according to the same platte.

If the Pioners shall happen to finde water in the way of the myne, you must teach them to sinke welles, and to digge gutturs which may carry the water out of the way into the same welles, and after they haue laide plankes ouer the saide welles, to proceede in their woorke according to your platte. But when the Pioners shal not be able by reason of other lettes within the ground (which in many places will happen) to vndermine according to your platte, then your platte must be altered in such sorte as the way of the myne vnder ground may in breadth, length, and fourme, agree with the said platte.

While the Pioners doe worke in the way of the myne, cause them to bore diuers deepe holes in each side of the myne with a long augar, and when they haue so done, if you will lay your eare to the saide holes, I meane first to one hole and after to an other, you shall heare whether the enemies doe dig any countermyne.

Some men doe thinke that a myne, and also a countermyne may with little or no noise at all be thus made. Prepare strong and bigge augars of 8 or 9 feete in length, bore with them diuers holes vnder the ground thorow the earth, and also thorow the stones which shall lie in the way of the myne or countermyne: This done, breake downe the earth and stones about the saide holes with croes of yron, and then boring other holes, and breaking downe againe the earth and stones about the same holes as you did before, woorke for­wardes, and keepe this order in your woorke till you haue finished the myne.

[Page 94]A myne may be made in fashion like vnto TV or XY in the pictures next following.

[depiction of two types of mines]

Also the Pyoners (if the grounde will permitte them so to worke) may digge foorth­right from the beginning of the myne towardes the thing that is appoynted to be ouer­throne, vntill they shall come neare vnto the ground which lyeth directly vnder the saide thing, and of some is named the Ouen, and place of greatest effect: But of necessitie the way of the myne from the saide neare place vnto the saide Ouen and place of greatest effect, must be crooked & oblique according to BDEC in the two Figures following.

After you haue made a myne platte according to this doctrine or in any other manner, you must instruct the Pyoners to vndermine deepe within harde grounde, and to make the way of the myne three foote in breadth, and sixe foote in heigth, and to digge the sayd Ouen and place of greatest effect sixe or seuen foote in breadth, and nine or tenne foot in heigth, to this ende that the gunpowder laide in that place may make his vent vpwardes, and that the ayre which is within the saide holloe place may ayde the gunpowder to open and ouerturne the ground which is right ouer it.

When the saide Ouen and place of greatest effect shall happen to be made in a stonie grounde where the stones are like to fall, then you must vnderproppe them with holloe pypes of timber filled ful of good gunpowder: and remember alwaies to obserue a meane in making the Ouen and place of greatest effect, because it ought in no manner of grounde to be too bigge or too little.

The myne being finished according to your saide platte, couer the ground or floore in the saide Ouen and place of greatest effect with boordes, and hauing stroed vppon those boordes a sufficient quantitie of good gunpowder, put so many barrelles without any heads or couers, full of good and strong gunpowder vppon the same boordes, as will execute the thing appointed to be done, and in so doing perswade your selfe that the bet­ter and greater the quantitie of gunpowder which shalbe laide in the saide Ouen & place of greatest effect is, the more greater will be the effect of the same. Moreouer, for to fire the said gunpowder when time shall require, lay a gunmatch made of fine bumbase cotten that hath beene well sodde in vineger, brimstone, and saltpeeter, well roled in gunpowder, and well dried in the Sunne, within a Trunke, Pype, or case of boordes: which gunmatch and trunke must extende and reache in length from the gunpowder stroed vppon the boordes in the saide Ouen and place of greatest effect, vnto the mouth and beginning of the myne, and also somewhat without the same, and hauing couered the saide gunmatch all ouer with a traine of dry gunpowder, close vp the said trunke with a couer of boordes,[Page 95]so as no soile or moysture may come vnto the gunpowder within the same Trunke. Or if you will, you may tie a peece of a gunmatch vnto the ende of a small line, and when the saide ende of a gunmatch shalbe a fire, drawe the same by that line running on a pulley thorow a traine of gunpowder made within a Trunke vnto the barrels of gunpowder in the saide ouen and place of greatest effect. But before you doe fire the gunpowder in the myne with a gunmatch after the doctrine last taught, or in any other manner, you must with earth, rootes of trees, blockes of timber, stones, and such like things, walle, fortefie, and ramme vp the mouth of the saide Ouen, or rather all that parte of the myne which C D and E in the figure next following doth represent, so as no fire, or aire may breath out of the said ouen and place of greatest effect by any other way than by the saide holloe Trunke. For in so much as that parte of the myne which is noted in this figure next fol­lowing with E, lieth not right against the saide ouen and place of greatest effect, and like­wise for that the place of the myne which D in this figure following doth represent, lieth not right against C, and also for that the mouth of the myne which B representeth in the figure next following, is not right against E and D, it is certaine, when the gunpowder in the saide ouen and place of greatest effect shall be set in a fire (after the way of the myne from C to D is so stopped vp with earth, rootes of trees, blockes of timber, stones, and such like thinges) that the saide gunpowder will with a great and horrible violence bloe and o­uerturne all the ground and buildings ouer the same.

[depiction of two types of mines]

The 102 Chapter. How a caue ought to be made rounde about a Castle or Forte that is besieged, to the intent that they which are in the saide caue may heare and perceaue at all times whether or no the enemie doth woorke to vndermyne the same Castle or Forte.

WHen a Castle or Forte is besieged, and the Captaine of that Castle or Forte doth feare that the enemie will vndermine the same place, then the Captaine (to auoid the hurte which may come by the saide myne) ought to commaunde his Souldiers to make a deepe pitte within their Castle or Forte, and from the bottome of the same to dyg a caue vnder the foundation of the walles of their saide Castle or Forte, and also vnder the ditch which enuironeth the saide place vntill they shall come vnto the outside of the saide ditch, and from thence to vndermine on the outside of the saide ditch (as the ground will suffer them to woorke) rounde about the saide Castle or Forte.

When the Souldiers haue brought out of the saide caue all the earth which was in the same, they may fortefie the walles of their Castle or Forte with the same earth, and laying[Page 96]sackes of wooll straightly bounde about with cordes in diuers places of the saide caue, they ought to put vppon euery of the saide sackes a latten bason, and cast into euery of the saide basons sixe or eight harde peason, to this ende that they which are in the saide caue may heare and perceaue at all times by those peason, whether or no the enemie doth worke to vndermine the same Castle or Forte, for at euery stroke that the Pioners shall strike, the peason in the saide basons will vndoubtedly make an audible iarre, whereof the Captaine ought presently to haue warning, that he may in conuenient time with counter­mines, or by some other pollicie, make the myne of his enemies to be of no effect.

Moreouer, to knowe whether or no the enemies doe make any myne against you this may be done: Sinke diuers deepe welles in diuers places towardes the suspected myne, and hauing made diuers holes with a long auger in the sides of those welles, cause vigilant and skilfull men to watch and harken continually at the saide holes, or in the bottome of the saide welles, whether or no the enemies doe vndermine towards you. But if this way shall not like you, take a drumme and set one ende of it flatte vppon a very plaine peece of ground, neare vnto the head of one of the saide welles, and then vppon the vpper ende or head of the drumme lay fiue or sixe haukes belles, or such belles as are commonly set in collars for little dogges, or for wante of such belles a conuenient number of drie beanes which will make a sounde at euery stroke geuen in the myne with any mattocke or pickaxe, if the enemies doe vndermine within fourty or fifty paces of the saide drumme, and that sound will be by so much more audible by how much more nearer to the drūme the enemies Pioners doe come. Also you may knowe whether the enemies doe vnder­mine towardes you, if you will place a conuenient number of copper or latten basons fil­led full of cleane water in the bottome of euery of the aforesaide welles, and set the sides of the same basons in the grounde, for when the enemies doe vndermine, the water in the basons will tremble at euery bloe which shalbe geuen in the myne of the enemies with a­ny pickaxe or mattocke, and therein this is to be noted, that the more lighter the saide ba­sons are, the better will they moue and bewray the strokes of pickaxes and mattocks.

The 103 Chapter. To make a burning oyle of Saltpeeter and Brimstone mingled togeather for Firewoorkes.

TAke of Saltpeeter well refined one parte, of Brimstone one parte, beate the Saltpee­ter by it selfe, and also the Brimstone by it selfe into very fine powder: After this in­corporate them in a potte of nwe earth, putting so much strong white vineger into the potte as will couer the mixture. This done, couer the potte so as no ayre may breathe out of it: and when the vineger in the potte shalbe consumed, and the saide mixture dry, you must distill the saide mixture in a Limbecke, and reserue the burning oyle that will come from it for Firewoorkes.

The 104 Chapter. To make oyle of Brimstone for Firewoorkes.

MElte Brimstone in a potte ouer a fire, and taking a sufficient quantitie of the eldest redde brickes that may be gotten, beate them into peeces so bigge as beanes: This done, put into the melted Brimstone so many of those small peeces as will drinke vp all the same melted Brimstone: And after you haue so done, distill them in a Limbecke, for that which shall come out of the saide peeces of brickes thoroe the Limbecke, is oyle of Brimstone which will serue for Firewoorkes.

The 105 Chapter. To make two sortes of burning waters for Firewoorkes.

1 TAke the rines or peeles of Lemons or rather of Oranges which are better, pull a­way all the white skinnes which sticke fast on their insides, and then distil the said rines in a limbeck: so doing you shall drawe out of those rines a burning water.

An other burning water which burned vppon a mans hande will doe no harme thereunto.

2 TAke of Turpentine, of oile of stones, of Sheepes suet, of Brimstone, of vnslaked Lime, of Hogges grease, of each an equall quantitie: Beate all these things to powder, and after you haue well mingled them togeather, distill the mixture, and keepe the distilled licor for a burning water, which burned vppon your hande will doe no harme thereun­to, as Girolamo Ruscelli writeth.

The 106 Chapter. How the clay which some men name Lutum sapientiae, and some men doe call Lute of wisdome, is made: And how the said clay will serue to stoppe vessels of glasse and Fornaces, and to make thicke mouldes, and many other thinges.

THe clay which some men name Lutum sapientiae, and some men doe call Lute of wis­dome, (of which in diuers places of this booke I haue spoken) may bee made in this maner. Take of good white or ashie cullor chalk which wil make white pipkins, white pots, white dishes, & other white vessels, 4 partes, of cōmon ashes which haue serued in a buck of clothes ½ part, of drie horsedung or assedung one part, & a little quantitie of the powder of a brick stone, or a small portion of the filings of yron, beate all these things into a very fine powder, then sifte them thoroe a fine seeue or searcer, and that being done, mingle them togeather. After this, lay the saide mixture vppon a faire floore, and cast or strowe one parte of floxe vppon the saide mixture by little and little in as equall portions as you can. Also sprinkle so much water as shalbe needefull vppon the saide mixture. Further­more, sturre the said moyste mixture well togeather, first with a staffe, afterwardes with a spade or shouel, and make a heape thereof. When the saide mixture hath in that sort byn well wrought, lay it vppon a boorde and moysten it againe, and beate it with a spade or shouell till you haue beaten it enough, for the longer that you shall beate and moysten it, the better it will be.

This kinde of clay is very good to lute or stoppe vessels of glasse, and Fornaces, and to make thicke mouldes, and many other things.

If you will not bestow all this labor to make Lutum sapientiae, or lute of wisdome, then take onely of the saide white chaulke, floxe, horsedung or assedung, and a few ashes. Some make this lute of wisdome without floxe, others make the saide lute of wisdome without horsedung or assedung, and euery of them doth therein follow his owne will: For in ve­ry deede you may by diuers wayes make lute of wisdome, as you may reade in the firste booke and sixe and twenty Chapter of the nwe Iewell of health treating of distillations. But to lute and stoppe the mouthes of glasses that no ayre may breathe out of them, such lute of wisdome as is made after the first order is best, especially if two partes of vnslaked lime, and so many whites of egges as shall seeme to bee enough, be added thereunto, for vnslaked Lime and the whites of egges wil make it more sure, and as harde as glasse, and by such meanes the vente of ayre will bee the lesse. Moreouer, this Lute of wis­dome must alwayes be kept in a moyste place, but so as the said Lute bee not kept too moyste nor too drie, for the same being drie will waxe harde, and then it serues to no vse,[Page 98]and if you shall goe about to make it softe by casting water vppon it, the outside thereof will be moyste and mollified therewith, but the inside of the same will continue harde, wherefore when the lute of wisdome is very harde, it is best for you to let it drie well, and afterwardes to beate it into fine powder, and then to make thereof againe lute of wisdome in such sorte as before you were taught to doe.

The 107 Chapter. How you may way with feure seuerall waightes any quantitie from one pounde waight vnto fourtie poundes in waight: how you may way with fiue seuerall waightes any quantitie from one pounde waight vnto an hundred twenty & one poundes in waight: how you may way with 6 seuerall waights any quantitie from one pound waight vnto three hundred sixty & foure pounds in waight: and how vppon a Beame called a Stater, you may with a small waight way thinges of very great waight.

HOw needefull a thing it is for those that doe deliuer or receaue Gunpowder & pellets by waights, and also for those that doe make Gunpowder, Cartredges, and Firewoorks by proportion and waights, to know how they may onely with 4 waights way any quan­titie from one pound waight to 40 poundes in waight, and with 5 waights any quantitie from 1 pound waight to 121 poundes in waight, and with 6 waights any quantitie from one pound waight vnto 364 poundes in waight, and how they may way vppon a Beame called a Stater, with a small and light waight, great things of a very heauie waight, I neede not rehearse because euery man will confesse that it is a pointe of vanity to vse many things when a fewe things wil serue our turne, as this Latin sentence doth declare: Frustra fit per plura quod fieri potest per pauciora. Therefore I aduise those that ought to haue vnder­standing in the science of waights to note well this which followeth.

Foure seuerall waights wil way any quantitie from one pound waight vnto 40 pounds in waight, if the first of those foure waightes be of one pounde, the seconde of 3 poundes, the thirde of 9 poundes, and the fourth of twenty seuen poundes in waight. As for ex­ample, a quantitie of 6 pounds in waight will be iustly wayed if you put the saide quantitie and the waight of 3 pounds in one scale, and the waight of 9 pounds in the other Scale. Also you may way a quantitie of 21 pounds in waight, if you will put the saide quantitie and the waight of 9 poundes in one Scale, and the waight of three pounds, and the waight of 27 pounds in the other Scale. In like manner with fiue waights, that is to say with the said waight of 1 pound, with the said waight of 3 pounds, with the said waight of 9 pounds, with the said waight of 27 pounds, and with a waight of eighty one pounds, you may way any quantitie from one pound waight vnto 121 poundes in waight. Also with 6 waights I meane with the waight of one pound, with the waight of three poundes, with the waight of nine poundes, with the waight of twenty seuen poundes, with the waight of eightie one poundes, & with a waight of two hundred fourty and three poundes, you may way any quantitie from one pounde vnto 364 poundes in waight.

[depiction of weighing scales]

[Page 99]When you doe way any quantitie in an vnknowne paire of ballance,An admoni­tion. I counsell you to way the quantitie first in one scale of the same ballance, and after in the other scale of the same ballance: For as a quantitie wayed in a true payre of Ballances will be of one and the same waight in both the scales of that ballance, so a quantitie wayed in a false payre of Ballances will be of more waight in one scale than in the other scale of false Ballances. And besides all this, it is needefull for you to know that some false Ballances are so sub­tillye made, that their beames will lie in an equall heigth, and beare the tunges of the same false Ballances vpright betweene their cheekes, when their scales doe hang emptie.

But if you will way your thinges with a Stater,To make and vse a long Stater. make first a playne and smoothe beame of yron in fashion like a Pyramis or foure square Taper, in length one yarde, and in thicknesse about ⅓ parte of an ynche, and then vppon a strong pinne of yron called the first Axeltree set ouertwharte and very fast in the great ende of the Beame, hang a pen­dant hooke of yron, that winding and moouing to all sides may claspe and holde faste all the ropes of the scale in which the thinges that shall be wayed must lie. Moreouer, fixe an other strong Axeltree of yron in the sayde Beame as a parallel to the first, and distant from the same about [...]/21 parte of the Beames length. Also you must set the tung of the Stater Squirewise vppon the beame right ouer this seconde Axeltree, and put the cheekes of the tung vppon the endes of the seconde Axeltree, so as they may easilie mooue vp and downe vppon the same. And it is expedient that these cheekes shoulde haue in their vppermost ende a ringe or hooke by which the Stater may bee alwayes hanged vp when neede shall require. Next after this, you must lay in the scale of the Stater depending by ropes from the first Axeltree, so much of knowne waight as be­ing reckoned with the waight of the scale and the waight of the ropes belonging to the Scale, will make both endes of the Beame to lie without any declyning in an equall heigth: Which is perceaued by the tung of the Stater when it doth stande right vp betweene his cheekes. Furthermore, to this waight which hath made both endes of the Beame to stande precisely equidistant to the Horizon, and is supposed by me to contayne fiftie poundes, you shall adde tenne poundes of more wayght, and that being done, you shall hang a ringed poyze of tenne poundes in waight vppon that parte of the Beame which is marked in the Figure following with B F. Now the sayde poyze hanged vppon B F the longer parte of the beame, must bee mooued to and fro vntill the tung of the Stater shall bee perceaued to stande very vpright beetweene his cheekes, to this ende that the parte of the Beame which is then tou­ched with the ring of the poyze may bee exactly marked with a small notch or with a fine line. When you haue made there such a notch or such a lyne, lay tenne poundes of more wayght in the scale, and because the tung of the Stater will now enclyne towardes A the greater ende of the beame, remooue the sayde poyze to­wardes F, vntill the tung of the Stater standing vpright betweene his cheekes, shall shewe agayne equalitie of wayght, and then as before you haue beene taught to doe, make an other notch, or drawe an other lyne vppon that part of the beame which is touched with the ringe of the poyze. For the space betweene these two notches or lynes will exactly shewe a distinction and separation of tenne poundes in wayght. Vnto which if you adde the first wayght which is supposed to bee fiftye, and the seconde wayght which was tenne, the totall summe of the whole wayght which the ringed poyze doeth counterpeyse in the notch or lyne last made, amounteth to seuenty poundes.

Finally you must marke vppon the beame the space that is betweene the two notches or lynes so manye tymes as the beame will receaue the same. For the notch or lyne in each of those spaces is a distinction of tenne poundes in wayght, so that if you will diuide euery of those equall spaces into tenne equall partes, and euery of these tenne equall partes, into sixteene equall partes, the beame will not onely shewe the places of poundes in wayght, but also the place of euery ounce that is in each of the sayde poundes.[Page 100]For euery of those equall spaces doe geue equall increase, and looke what proportion the supposed waight of 50 pounds (which made both endes of the beame to lie in an equall heigth) beareth to the ringed poyze, the same proportion doth B F the longer parte of the beame beare to A B the shorter parte of the beame: And because B F the longer parte of the beame is twenty times so much in length as A B the shorter parte of the beame, and that the ringed poyze wayeth tenne poundes, multiplie 10 in 20, and thereof riseth 200, vnto which adde the supposed waight of 50 poundes, which did make the beame to lie as a parallell with the Horizon before the ringed poyze was put on vppon the same, and so the product thereof will be 250, wherefore I conclude that this Stater with his said ringed poyze of 10 poundes will shewe the true waight of any quantitie that doth not way aboue 250 poundes.

The Type of a shorre Stater

To make and vse a long Stater.You may also way with a longer Stater great Ordinance, lastes of gunpowder, Tunnes of pellettes, Ankers, Belles, Pillers, and such like heauie quantities if you will frame this longer Stater according to these preceptes following, which differ little from the former rules that doe teach you to make the lesser Stater. For hauing prepared a strong beame of wood like vnto a shippe maste twelue yardes in length, fixe the first Axeltree of yr [...] ouerthwarte, and very fast in the greater ende of the Beame, and place the seconde Axe [...] tree of yron very fast in the Beame as a parallel to the first Axeltree, and distant one yarde from the same. Likewise driue a strong pinne of yron ouerthwarte in the smaller ende of the Beame, and after you haue set the tung of the Stater squirewise vppon this beame, right ouer the seconde Axeltree, hange vp the Beame in a reasonable heigth by both endes of the seconde Axeltree vppon two strong peeces of timber standing vpright and fast in the grounde, according to the Picture following, so as the Beame hanging in that sorte may easilie mooue vp and downe betweene them. Moreouer, hang the scale of this Stater vppon the first Axeltree at the greater ende of this Beame, putting[Page]

[depiction of a shore stater [weighing beam]]

[Page] [Page 101]into the same so much of knowen waight as being reconed with the waight of the scale and ropes belonging to the scale, will make both endes of the beame to lie without any declining in an equall heigth. All which waight shall here be supposed to be 460 poundes, and for a distinction shalbe named the first waight. Now a long Stater being thus made, take away the scale from the first axeltree, and hang it vppon the saide pinne of yron at the smaller ende of this beame, and then the quantitie which shall be wayed being fast ty­ed with ropes and hanged vppon the same first axeltree where the saide scale did hang be­fore, you shall put into the same scale hanging now at the smaller ende of this beame, so many knowne waights as will lifte the quantitie which is to be wayed from the grounde, and make the tung of the Stater to stande very vpright betweene his cheekes. For as B C the longer parte of the beame being eleuen yardes in length, is eleuen times longer than A B the shorter parte of the beame, so the quantitie that hanges vppon A to be wayed, is eleuen times more in waight than are the knowne waights in the scale, and so much more as is the saide supposed waight of 460 pounds, which was hanged vppon the first axeltree to make this beame lie parallell with the horizon. Wherefore supposing that the waight which hath beene laide in the scale hanging at C ouer and aboue the saide waight of 460 poundes is 1030 pounds, I multiplie 1030 by 11 and thereof commeth 11330, then I adde thereunto the saide supposed waight of 460, which made both endes of this beame to lie in the place of equall height, so the totall summe being 11790 sheweth the true waight of the quantitie that hanged at A.

The 108 Chapter. To make three sundrie oyntments which will heale any person scalded with hotte Saltpeeter water, or with any other hotte licour, and cure all those which shalbe burned with hotte yron, or gunpowder.

method 1 BOyle Hogges grease that is stale and olde ouer a fire, and still as any scumme shall rise take it cleane away. When you shall see that the same olde and stale Hogges grease so boyling will cast vp no more scumme, take it of from the fire, and set it in the open ayre for the space of three or foure nightes: After you haue so done, melte the saide grease a­gaine ouer a fire, and then straine it into fresh and cleane water: after all this, wash the said grease in diuers faire and cleane waters till it shalbe very white, and clammie, and till the water in which it hath beene well washed doth appeare to be faire and cleere. This done, the oyntment, is made, and if you will annoynte with it the place that is scalded or bur­ned, you shall heale the same place without any scarre, blemmish, or paine.

An other oyntment to heale scaldings and burnings.

method 2 TAke of ordinarie gray Sope and annoynte presently the place scalded or burned, once annointing will serue, if you take it so soone as it is done, both to take away the fire, and to heale it without any other thing. method 3 But if the greeued place be not within a quarter of an houre annoynted with graye Sope, then take Goose grease which hath not beene salted, for in any wise take heede that you doe not occupie for this purpose any Goose grease that hath salte in it, and annoynte the place therewith well warmed twise a day, for this alone will heale it, and so as it shall neuer be seene except it be burned very deepe.

The 109 Chapter. To make a Plaister which will heale without payne any wrenched or broken arme, hande, legge, foote, or ioynte, and all manner of bruses.

[Page 102]TAke of mirte named in Italian Mortella, shippe pitch, gumme of a Pine tree, tallowe of a Gote, frankencense, masticke, and garden woormes, wash well the said wormes in water, and then drie them in an hote Ouen to powder. Also beate the saide franken­sence, masticke, and mirte to powder, and after you haue so done, mingle togeather one parte of the powder of mirte, one parte of the powder of frankensence, one parte of the powder of masticke, and one parte of the powder of garden woormes. Moreouer, after you haue melted in a potte ouer a sloe fire the saide gumme and shippe pitch, put Gotes tallowe into the potte among the said melted gumme and pitch, and when the sayde tallowe is there also melted, put all the saide partes of powders into the same potte, and mingling them well with the other thinges which are melted in the same potte, seethe all those thinges togeather for a while ouer a fire till they shall beginne to waxe somewhat harde. When you haue so done, take the potte from the fire, and spread some of that mix­ture in the potte thicke vppon a white and softe peece of leather, and then while it is warme lay the plaister vppon the greeued place, and suffer it to lie there till it doe fall a­way of it selfe.

This plaister (as Girolamo Ruscelli writeth) is of such vertue that it will drawe the bone out of ioynte into his place, and take away all the payne. Also it is a soueraigne plaister to be laide vppon a broken bone or ribbe, or vppon any bruise within a mans bodie, or within any parte thereof, and it taketh away all the paine thereof without any danger, & when it hath done his cure, it will of it selfe fall away from the place that was greeued. When you cannot get of the saide woormes, you may make the plaister without them, although the plaister which hath such woormes in it is of more vertue than the other plai­ster made without those woormes.

The 110 Chapter. How a Gunner cannot mount any peece of Artillerie to make a perfect shoote at a marke without point blanke, except he doe knowe the distance betweene his peece and the marke, and how for the same reason, and also for other causes, the Authour of this Appendix doth shewe in the Chapters following diuers rules concerning the mensuration of Altitudes, Longitudes, Latitudes, and Pro­fundities, and the platting of fieldes, mynes, and other places.

COnsidering that (as Nicholas Tartaglia in his epistle at the beginning of his Booke intituled La noua Scientia writeth) a Gunner cannot mount well any peece of Artille­rie to make a perfect shoote at a marke without pointe blanke, except he doe knowe the distance betweene his Peece and the marke: Also considering that a Gunner may haue occasion to measure Altitudes, Latitudes, and Profundities, and to drawe vppon paper the platte of fieldes, mynes, and other places, I will now before the ende of my Booke shewe in certaine Chapters, some playne, infallible and necessarie rules for mensuration of Altitudes, Longitudes, Latitudes, and Profundities, & for the drawing of plattes which shall containe the true proportion and symetrie of any fielde, myne, or other place, so as euery Gunner shalbe able thereby to tell how farre any place in his platte is distant from other.

The 111 Chapter. The bignesse fashion, and vse of an Instrument named a Gunners Semicircle: and of an Instrument named a Geometricall Square.

TO perfourme my promise made in the last Chapter, I must first shewe you the fashion, bignesse, and vse of an Instrument named a Gunners Semicircle, which ought to be made of harde, smoothe, and well seasoned wood, as of Oke, Wallnut tree, Peare tree, or rather of Cipresse wood, because the Cipresse wood will not warpe with the heate of the Sunne, nor with any moysture. Also the saide Semicircle fashioned and diuided like[Page 103]vnto his type heere drawne, ought to be at the least so bigge as the saide type, and from his center a plumbe line ought to hang downe, but in place of the two sight holes which may bee sette vppon the saide instrument, you shall (if you wyll followe my counsell) make a straight narrow and shalloe channel along in the Ruler A B from the point D to the point E, and likewise an other straight, shallowe, and narroe channell in the Ruler B C, from the point F to the point G. This done, couer those channels with a thinne peece of wood in such maner as you may (notwithstanding the said couers) looke thorow those channels at any marke whatsoeuer. A Semicircle thus framed will serue to lay any great peece of Artillerie leuell, to mount all manner of great peeces vnto any ele­uation, to imbase the mouth of any peece for to shoote at markes in vallies,The vse of a gunners Se­micircle. to measure heigthes, depths, and distances, to leuell all maner of groundes, and to doe all such things as may be done by a Gunners Quadrant. Moreouer for mensuration of Altitudes, Lati­tudes, & profundities according to the Rules following,The vse of a Geometricall square. I doe exhort you to prepare a Geometricall square of a conuenient biggenesse, and to make it of mettall, or of Cypresse, like in euery respect vnto his Type heere placed, Sauing that I woulde haue you to diuide the Quadrant in your Geometricall square into ninetie equall partes called degrees, and euery side of your said square into 1200 equall partes, and the Index of your Square into 1697 and 191/ [...]394 of like equall parts which in this side of Paper for want of roome I could not doe.

[depiction of a gunner's semicircle]

The 112 Chapter. To take the heigth of the Sunne with a Quadrant drawne within your Geometricall square.

SET your Geometricall square plumbe vpright vppon his side or ende V X, and sette his side Y X right against or towardes the Sunne. This do [...]e, rayse vppe and downe the Index of the square vntill the Sunne shall shine duely through his two sight holes, and then looke what degree in the edge of the Quadrant is touched with the fiduciall line of the sayde Index, for the degree to touched doth shew exactly the degrees of the Sunnes heigth at that present time.

[Page 104]

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

The 113 Chapter. How you may measure at one station in a Sunne shining day with your Geometricall square, and also with an Haulbert or any other staffe perpendiculerly erected, the altitude of any Tower, or other thing whose shadow length is knowne.

SET your Geometricall square vpright vppon his side or end V X, and with the Quadrant drawne vppon the said square, take the heigth of the Sun as you haue been taught in the last Chapter. This done, when the Sunne is 45 de­grees in heigth, the fiduciall line of the index wil lie directly betweene the right and contrary shadowe, I meane vppon the line V Y and then the shadowes of all things perpendicularly eleuated are equall to their bodies. Wherefore after you haue measured the length of the shadowe which a Tower doth giue, you may note that measure for the altitude of the same Tower.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

[Page 105]If the Sunne be aboue fortie fiue degrees in heigth, the Index will fall vppon the right shadow of the square, and forasmuch as then the shadowes of all bodies perpendicularlie erected are shorter than their bodies, you must now multiplie all the partes in one side of the square in the measure of the shadowe which the Tower to bee measured doth giue, and diuide the product thereof by the part of right shadowe touched with the fiduciall line of the Index, and take the quotient number for the heigth of the said Tower.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

But if the Altitude of the Sunne bee lesse than fortie fiue degrees, the said Index will fall vppon the contrary shadowe of the square: and seeing that then the shadowes of all bodies perpendicularly erected are longer than their bodies, you shall multiplie the part of con­trary shadowe touched with the fiduciall line of the Index in the length of the shadowe which the Tower to bee measured doth make, and hauing diuided the product thereof by all the partes in one side of the square, take the quotient number for the altitude of the said Tower.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

How by the knowen length of a shadow which a Halberte or staffe perpendiculary erected doth giue in a Sunne shining day, you may know the heigth of any Tower or other thing which giueth at the same time a shadow that may be measured.

IN a Sunne shining day pitch vpright a Halberte of a knowne length by the Tower or other thing whose Altitude you woulde knowe. This done, measure the length of the Halberts shadowe, and also the length of the shadow which the said Tower doth giue. For as the altitude of the erected Halbert is in proportion to his shadowe, so the desired alti­tude of the Tower is in proportion to his shadowe: Therefore multiply the length of the Halbert in the length of the shadow which the Tower giueth, diuide the product thereof by the length of the shadow which the Halbert doth giue, and take the quotient number for the Altitude of the said Tower.

[Page 106]Example.

The Tower to be measured giueth a shadowe of 125 feete in length, & the erected Hal­bert of eight feete in length doth make a shadow of twelue feete in length, therefore mul­tiplie eight in 125, and the product therof will be 1000, which diuided by twelue yeeldeth in the quotient 83 foote and foure ynches for the altitude of the said Tower.

ShadowAltitude.
128
12583 and [...].

The 114 Chapter. How you may measure with your Geometricall square at one station any approchable altitutde: also how you may with Arithmeticall skill measure the Hipothenusall distance betweene your said sta­tion and the top of the said altitude.

SET your Geometricall square plumbe vpright vppon his side or ende V Z. This done, mooue the Index of the square vp and downe, till you may see through his two sightes, the top of the altitude to be measured: then noting well what equall part in the side of the square is touched with the fiduciall line of the said Index, looke whether the saide part is in the side of right shadow, or in the side of contrary shadowe. For if the said equall part be in the side of right shadowe (which happeneth when the space betweene the base of the altitude to be measured and your standing is shorter than the said altitude) you must mul­tiplie the measure of the space betweene your standing, and the base of the said altitude, in all the partes that are in one side of the square, and diuide the product by the equal part touched with the fiduciall line of the Index in the side of right shadowe, and then adding the heigth of the center of your square aboue the base of the thing to be measured, vn­to the quotient thereof, take the totall summe of that addition for the measure of the said approchable altitude.

Example.

S T is a Tower whose altitude I will measure, R T is the space betweene the approchable base of the said tower & my standing, which space is 40 feete. Q or V the heigth of the center of my square a­boue the said base is 5 feet. V Z X Y is the square set plumbe vpright vpō his side V Z, and V P is the fiduciall line of the Index which pointing directlie from mine eie at the center of the square, to the top of the saide Tower, toucheth the 800 parte in the right shadow, therefore I multiple 40 feete the space betweene R and T, in 1200 the whole number of partes in the whole side of the square and thereof commeth 48000 which diuided by 800 the part touched with the fidu­ciall line of the Index in the right sha­dow, yeeldeth sixtie feeete: then ad­ding fiue feete for the heigth of the center of my square aboue the saide base vnto the said number of sixtie, I take the totall summe thereof which is 65 feet for the altitude of the saide Tower.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

[Page 107]If in this worke the fiduciall line of the Index shall touche a part of contrary shadowe (which happeneth when the space betweene the base of the altitude to be measured and your standing, is longer than the said altitude) then multiplie that parte of contrary sha­dow in the measure of the space betweene the saide base and your standing, and after you haue diuided the product thereof by all the partes in one side of the square, adde to the quotient the heigth of the center of your square aboue the saide base, and take the totall summe thereof for the altitude of the said Tower.

But if in this worke the fiduciall line of the Index shall fall betweene the right and contrarie shadowes vppon the line V Y, then adding the heigth of the center of your square aboue the said base, to the measure of the space betweene your standing and the said base, take the totall summe or length thereof for the altitude of the said Tower.

Now by knowing the heigth of the saide Tower, and the measure of the distance be­tweene your standing and the base of the said Tower, you may by the art of numbring tell the true measure of the Hipothenusall distance betweene your station and the toppe of the said Tower: a thing needfull to bee knowne, and of great account in making sealing lad­ders for militarie seruice. Therefore to doe this thing, square the distance betweene your standing and the base of the Tower. Likewise square the heigth of the said Tower, and ioy­ning their squares togeather, take the square roote of the totall summe for the Hipothenu­sall distance betweene your standing and the top of the said Tower.

Example.

Square foure pearches the measure of the distance betweene R your station and T the base of the Tower, and the square number therof will be sixteene. Also square three pear­ches the heigth of the Tower T S, and the square number thereof will be nine. Now adde both those squares togeather and thereof will come twentie fiue, whose square roote being fiue is the measure of pearches in the Hipothenusall distance betweene R your standing, and S the toppe of the said Tower.

[depiction of the use of a scaling ladder]

The 115 Chapter. How you may measure with your Geometricall square an Hipothenusall distance, and an altitude of a Tower or any other thing perpendicularlie erected.

IF the distance from your station vnto the altitude of the Tower which shall be measured be lesse than the same altitude, as for example if your station bee at A, and M N bee the altitude of a Tower which shall bee measured, set your square vpright so as his angle X may stand vppon A, and his angle Y, may lie directly betweene the saide angle A, and N the toppe of the saide Tower. This done, lift vp the Index of your square till you may see through his sights N the toppe of the said Tower, and then noting what parte in Y Z (the side of your square) is touched with the fiduciall edge of the saide Index, which here for example I will suppose to be twelue, multiplie 1200 the whole number of partes in one side of your square by one foote the distance betweene the center of your square and the[Page 108]peece of grounde at the said A and so the quotient thereof will be 1200 which being di­uided by twelue the number of partes touched with the fiduciall edge of the saide Index will yeeld in the quotient 100 feete for the measure of the Hipothenusall distance between A your station, and N the toppe of the Tower.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

After you haue in this maner founde out the said hipothenusall distance set your square vpright at A vppon his side V X, and moouing the Index of your square vp or downe till you shall see through his sightes N the top of the said Tower, note what part of the Index is touched with Z Y the side of your square, which here for example I will admitte to bee 1360: then working by the rule of proportion multiplie 1200 the whole number of partes in one side of your square by 100 the measure of the saide hipothenusall distance, and thereof will come 120000, which diuided by 1360 the part of the Index touched with Z Y the side of the square, yeeldeth in the quotient 88 feete and 4/17 of a foote for the altitude of the said Tower N M.

The 116 Chapter. How you may artificially measure with a Gunners quadrant, and also with a gunners Semicircle, the altitude of any thing perpendicularly erected, although you may not goe to it, nor see the base there­of: and how you may measure with the same instruments the Hipothenusall distance, and Hori­zontall distance of that altitude.

PVt your gunners quadrant to your eye or hang your said quadrant vppon a staffe fast fixed in the ground, so that you may at your pleasure without stirring of the said staffe, lift vp or put downe the quadrant till you haue espied through his two sights A the toppe of that altitude.In the scale of the quadrant the 72 partes which shall be next vnto your sights are cal­led the partes of right sha­dow and the 72 parts which shall be on the other side of that scale are called the partes of con­trary shadowe. Then note vppon what side of the scale, the line and plummet of the qua­drant doth fall. If the said line shall happen to fall vppon the partes of contrary shadow (as most commonly it doth in such kinde of mensurations) note the partes of that shadowe touched with the said line, and by the number of those partes diuide 72 (the whole num­ber of partes of one side of the scale) and reserue the quotient thereof. As for example, if the line shall fall vppon twelue partes, diuide 72 by twelue, and the quotient to bee reser­ued will be sixe. Afterwards remoouing your quadrant, marke the place of your standing, and goe so farre as you list directly forwardes towardes the desired altitude, or directlie backwardes from the same. Then putting your instrument to your eie or hanging your in­strument again vpon a staffe as you did before, lift vp, or put downe your quadrant til you may espie againe through his said sights A the top of the said altitud, & note aduisedly vpon how many partes of contrary shadowe the said line fell: by which number of partes diuide againe 72, and subtract the quotient thereof from the first reserued quotient, and keepe the remainder thereof. As for an example, if at the second standing the saide line shall fall vppon 36 partes of contrary shadowe, diuide 72 (the whole number of partes of one side of the scale) by the said number of 36, and the quotient thereof will bee two. This[Page 109]number of two you must subtract from the other reserued quotient which was sixe, and the remainder therof will be foure: this remainder of foure must also be reserued. Then measure the space betweene the first and seconde standing with what kinde of measure you wil, and the number of that measure diuide by foure the remainder which you did last reserue, and to the quotient thereof, adde the heigth of your eie from the grounde, and so you may conclude that the totall summe thereof is the altitude of the thing seene: as for example suppose the space betweene your two standings to be 156 paces, then diuide 156 by foure, and thereof commeth thirtie nine, to this thirtie nine adde the heigth of your eie from the grounde (which you shall also suppose to be two paces) and so the total summe being fortie one sheweth the heigth of A B. But to the end this kinde of mensuration may be the better vnderstood, I will giue you an other example thereof which shall differ from the aforesayde example, and in this example following I will suppose the side of the square to be diuided only into twelue partes.

Suppose againe that your first standing is in the place marked with C, and that at the same standing the said line doth fall vppon the tenth parte of contrarie shadowe (as it doth in the figure following) and that at your second standing in the place marked with V, the said line falleth vppon the eight part of contrary shadowe (as likewise it appeareth to doe in the said figure) and that the space betweene C and V containes 285 feete, and that from your eye to the grounde, that is to say from E to C or from X to V there are foure feete. Now diuide twelue (the whole number of partes of one side of the scale) by 10 the part of contrarie shadowe touched with the said line at the first station and the quo­tient will be one and ⅕ the which you must reserue. Then diuide againe the saide number of twelue by eight the part of contrary shadowe touched with the said line at the seconde station, and the quotient will be one and ½. Out of this one and ½ subtract that one and ⅕ which was reserued, and so there will remaine 3/20. By this 3/20 diuide 285 which is the num­ber of feete in the distance betweene C and V, and the quotient thereof will bee 950. To this 950 adde foure feete for the heigth of your eie from the ground, or for the heigth of E aboue C, or for the heigth of X aboue V, and so the totall summe thereof being 954 feete is the true measure of the altitude A: that is to say of the line betweene A and B which B is an inuisible point by imagination conceiued directly vnder the said A within the ground T.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

To make a demonstration hereof, from your eye at the second station, that is to say from X to your eye at the first station, that is to say to E, drawe the line X E, and produce the same line in your imagination till it meete with the said line A B within the grounde T, in the point F, which is also an inuisible point conceiued by imagination to bee within[Page 110]the said ground, and leuell with your eie, I meane with X and E, And because the triangle A E F, is like vnto the triangle L P Q of the first station, such proportion as the line or side A F hath vnto the line or side E F, the same proportion hath the side P Q to the side Q L. Wherefor (by the 13 and 21 definition of the seuenth booke of Euclide) so many times as the said P Q is contained in the side Q L, so many times the side A F is contained in the side E F. And because the side P Q containes ten partes of the one side of the scale, and the side L Q containes twelue of those partes, therefore the side L Q containes the side P Q once and ⅕ part thereof, and so it followeth that the side E F containes the side A F once and ⅕ part thereof. And now although you be ignorant of the altitude of A F, & of the di­stance betweene E and F, yet you know that the said distance E F containes the heigth A F once and ⅕ part thereof. Then reseruing this 1 and ⅕, go to your second standing where you shall finde the triangle X F A, to be like vnto the triangle L P Q of the seconde stan­ding, and that so many times as the side P Q (which is eight partes of the scale of contra­rie shadowe) is in the side L Q (which is 12, the whole number of partes of one side of the scale) so many times the heigth A F is contained in the distance X F, and because the side P Q (that is to say 8 parts) is contained once and ½ in the side L Q (that is to say in 12 partes) therefore the heigth A F is likewise contained once and ½ in the distance X F. Ther­fore subtracting the distance E F from the distance X F (that is to say 1 and ⅕ from 1 and ½) there will remaine 3/10 for the difference E X, so as the said difference E X wil be 3/10 of the said heigth A F. And because the said difference E X is such as is the line V C (by the 34 proposition of the first booke of Euclide) and that the said line V C is supposed to containe 285 feete, therefore it followeth that there are 285 feete in 3/10 of the heigth A F. By reason whereof the whole heigth of A F should be 950 feete, as before hath been sayd. Then ioyn 4 feete which is supposed to be the heigth of E C and of X V vnto the said number of 950 feete, and so the totall summe thereof will be 954 feete which is the whole heigth of A B, because the heigth of F B doth likewise containe 4 feete. And therefore as the side P Q of the first standing is in proportion to the side or Hipothenusal line L P, so is the heigth A F to the Hipothenusall distance A E. And because the side P Q is in proportion to the side or Hipothenusall line L P (by the 47 proposition of the first booke of Euclide) as 10 is to the nighest square roote of 244 (which number of 244 is the summe that came by ad­ding the square of 10 to the square of 12) therefore multiplie 950 feete by 15 and 19/30 which is the nighest square roote of 244 and diuide the product thereof by 10, and the quotient wil yeeld 1485 feete & two ynches for the Hipothenusall distance A E. And forsomuch as the distance betweene E and F is so much as the heigth of A F and ⅕ parte more (as be­fore hath been prooued) therefore take ⅕ of the heigth A F that is to say ⅕ parte of 950 feete which is 190 and adde the same summe of 190 to the summe of 950 feete the heigth of A F and thereof will come 1140 feet which sheweth what number of feete are in the Horizontall distance that is to say betweene E and F and betweene C and B.

And in like sort you must proceede to finde out at the second standing the Hipothenu­sall distance betweene X and A,An admoni­tion. and the Horizontall distance betweene X F, but it behoo­ueth you to note in this kinde of mensurations by two standinges, that sometimes your eye in one standing will not be so high from the grounde as it will be in the other standing, especially when your Instrument hangs vpon a thing that standes fast in the ground. And although that difference is but little, yet many times the same will breede great errors, and therefore to auoyd the occasion of such errors, I exhort you to prouide a line and plummet which may reache from the center of the quadrant to the grounde, and direct you at your first standing and also at your second standing. Moreouer to auoyde errors, I counsell you to hang your Quadrant so as it may turne vppon no other part thereof then vppon his center, but nowe to returne vnto our purpose, if by chaunce you shall stande so neare vnto the altitude as that the line and plummet of the quadrant falleth vppon the right shadow, you must work otherwise than you did before, I meane you must diuide those parts cut with the said line by 12, & in this case the quotient must alwaies bee set downe like a fraction, the which fraction you must reserue, and after you haue marked the place[Page 106]where you stoode, goe from thence so farre as you list in a right line forwardes or backe­wardes, and then placing your saide Instrument againe as you did at your first standing, lift the said Instrument vppe or put it down, till you may through his sights see A the top of the altitude. This done, note aduisedly vppon what part of right shadowe the saide line and plummet falleth, and that part diuide by twelue (the whole number of partes of one side of the scale) and the quotient thereof must of necessitie bee set downe like a fraction: This fraction subtract from the other fraction first reserued, or in plainer words, subtract the lesser of those two fractions from the greater, and reserue the remainder thereof. Then measure the space between your first and second standing by feete, paces, or any other kind of measure that you will, and diuide the number of that measure by the remainder which was before reserued, and adde vnto the quotient of the saide diuision the heigth betweene the center of the said Instrument and the ground, and by so doing you may conclude that the totall summe thereof is the altitude of the thing seene.

For an example hereof, if at the first standing the sayd line and plummet shall fall vppon the thirde parte of right shadowe, diuide that number of three by twelue (the whole number of partes in one side of the scale) and the quotient thereof will bee in a fraction ¼. Reserue this fraction of ¼, and then marke your first standing with a staffe set vpright vn­der the center of your Instrument and then goe from thence backwardes in a right line so farre as you list, and placing there your Instrument as you did at your first standing, mooue it vp or down till you shall againe espie through the said sightes A the toppe of the said al­titude. Then looke vppon what part of right shadowe the said line and plummet falleth, as if by chaunce it fell vppon the fourth part, diuide that fourth by twelue, and the quoti­ent wil be in a fraction ⅓. Nowe out of ¼ the fraction which was before reserued, subtract the last quotient which was ⅓ and so [...]/12 will remaine: then hauing likewise marked your seconde standing with a staffe set vpright vnder the center of your Instrument, measure the space betweene the staffe at your first standing, and the staffe at your second standing: which space in this example I suppose to be eight paces. Now diuide this eight by 1/1 [...] the remainder last mentioned, and the quotient thereof will be ninetie sixe, and adde vnto the saide number of ninetie sixe the heigth betweene the center of the Instrument and the grounde (which in this example I will suppose to bee one pase) and so the totall summe amounting to ninetie seuen paces sheweth the heigth of A B. The demonstration of this worke is to be made by the similitude of triangles and their proportionall sides as before the other demonstration hath been made.

In this kinde of mensurations by two standings, you must be very circumspect that the staffe vppon which your quadrant shall hang doe stande plumbe vpright both at your first standing, and also at your seconde standing. For otherwise it will make you not a little to erre: which thing may be easily done by the helpe of your said quadrant, or by letting fall a line and plummet close by the side of that staffe.

The 117 Chapter. To know by the helpe of a Gunners Semicircle how many miles, paces, yardes, or feete, any shippe lying at Rode in the Sea, or Tower, or any other marke vppon the land in sight, is from you.

To measure lengthes some say we should auoid hilles and desire plaines, for that otherwise great errors will insue. But in this kinde of mensuration no such matter is required, for here it shall bee onely needefull at the time of your measuring to haue ground enough to go directly backwardes & sidewise from your first standing. This commodititie of ground enough had, whether that grounde be leuell or otherwise, worke thus. Lay your Semicir­cle flat and leuell vppon a stoole, or some other such thing, and mooue the same about till you shal espie through D E the channell in the ruler A B the ship or other thing to which you will me [...]sure, & (your Semicircle so remaining vnmooueable) looke through the saide channel E D at some other thing lying directly in a right line 200 yardes or feete more or lesse at your pleasure, behinde your standing, which thing so espied shall here for an ex­ample [Page 112]be marked with the figure of 3. Then (the Semicircle remaining still vnmooueable) look through the channel F G in the ruler B C, at some other thing lying sidewise in a right angle 100 yards or feete more or lesse frō your first standing noted for an exāple with the figure of 1, & that thing so espied shall in this place be noted with the figure of 2. After this cōuey your selfe and your Semicircle from your first standing vnto the said thing which hath here been marked with the figure of 3, and lay your Semicircle there flat and leuell as you did before, but so as the end of that channell which is marked with E do lie right ouer the point here marked as afore­said with the figure of 3, and that by moouing the Semicircle a­bout, you may at the last perceiue through the said channell D E, that 1 the mark at your first stan­ding doth lie right between you and the thing to which you mea­sure. Now without moouing of your Semicircle looke agayne through the said channel F G at some other thing lying sidewise in a right angle from 3 the mark of your 2 standing, and goe in a right line towards the same thing last espied, till the saide marke which hath here bin noted with the figure of 2 shall stand right betweene you and the thing to which you measure, and there make a marke which in this ex­ample shalbe the figure of 4. This done, measure exactly the distāce betweene the marke 1, and the mark 2, & cal it the first distance: also measure exactly the distance betweene the marke 1 and the marke 3, & call it the 2 distance. Finally, measure the distance be­tween the mark 3 & the mark 4 & call it the 3 distance. Now sub­tract the first distance from the third, and reserue the remainder for your diuisor, then multiplie the 3 distance by the second di­stance, & diuide the product by your reserued diuisor, and so the quotient wil shew the true lēgth from the marke 3 vnto the ship, tower, or other thing to which you did measure.

[depiction of the use of a gunner's semicircle]

[Page 113]At the figure of fiue there is a shippe lying at Rode in the Sea, and from 6, 7, 8, and 9, a platfourme with ordinance vppon the lande, I am required to measure vnto the said ship, wherefore making my first standing at the place 1, I measure from thence vnto the place 2 which lyeth sidewise 200 yardes in a right angle from 1. Againe I measure from the saide place 1, vnto 3 the place of my seconde standing which lyeth 300 yardes in aright line with the said shippe behind my first standing. Also I measure from the saide place marked with the figure of 3 vnto the place 4 lying 240 yardes sidewise in a right angle from 3, and scituated so as the said place 2 doth lie in a right line betweene it and the said ship: then subducing 200 from 240 I keepe the remainder which is 40 for my di­uisor, and after this I multiplie 300 by 240 whereof commeth 72000 which diuided by 40 my said reserued diuisor yeeldeth in the quotient 1800 yardes for the longitude be­tweene 3 the place of my second standing and the said shippe.

The 118 Chapter. How you may measure a short distance as the breadth of a towne ditch, or narrow riuer, without any Geometricall Instrument, or arithmeticall knowledge.

STanding right vp with your bodie and necke vppon the side of a towne ditch, or nar­row riuer, put your feete close together, and behold with one eie a grasse leafe, stone, or other marke in the opposite side of the same ditch or riuer, and in so doing pull down your hat or cap ouer your eie till you may see no other thing beyond the marke so espied. After this keeping still your body and necke vpright, your feete ioyned together, and your one eie fast shut, turne your selfe towards the plainest peece of ground that is about you, and marke well that part of ground which you shall espie vnder your hat or cap most farthest from your station, for the distance betweene the middest of your feete and the said farthest part of ground, is equall to the breadth of the said riuer.

The 119 Chapter. How you may at one station measure vppon an heigth with a Geometricall square a longitude vppon plaine.

SEt your Geometricall square very vpright vppon his side or ende X Y ouer the plaine where you will measure an vnknowne longitude. This done, mooue the Index of your said square vp or downe till you may espie through his sights the farthest ende of the desired longitude. Then note diligently the partes of the square cut with the fiduciall line of the Index. And if the partes so cut be in the contrary shadow, multiplie the whole number of partes in one side of the square, by the number of feet or yards which are in the heigth be­tweene the center of your Instrument and that part of the plaine which lieth directly vn­der the same center, and diuide the product thereof by the partes cut in the side of your square, and note the quotient for the true measure of the desired longitude. When the partes so cut shall be in the right shadow, multiplie the partes so cut in the heigth between the center of your Instrument & that part of the plaine which lieth directly vnder the same center and hauing diuided the product thereof by the whole number of partes in one side of the square, note the quotient for the true measure of the desired longitude. But if the fiducial line of the said Index shall lie directly betweene the right shadow and the contrary shadowe when you espie through the said sights the farthest end of the desired longltude, then the heigth betweene the center of your Instrument and the part of the plaine which lyeth vnder the same center, is equall to the desired longitude.

Example.

Admit that B C is an vnkowne longitude between a ship & a gallie tying at Rode in the Sea, & that to measure the same longitude I haue set my Geometricall square plumbe vp­right vppon his side or end X Y in A the maine top of the ship directlie ouer B one ende of the said longitude, and that when I saw through the sights vppon the Index the gallie at C the farthest end of the desired longitude, the fiduciall line of the saide Index did cut fortie partes of contrary shadowe, and that the center of my square is tenne yardes aboue the[Page 114]said B, therefore I multiplie 1200 the whole number of partes in one side of the square by tenne the measure of the heigth betweene the center of my square and B, and the pro­duct thereof being 12000 I diuide by fortie the partes cut in contrary shadowe, and so the quotient yeeldeth three hundred for the number of yardes in the measure of the saide longitude.

This one example geueth light to the ingenious Reader to worke in mensurations of longitudes when the fiduciall line of the index shall cut partes in the right shadowe of the square, and also when the same fiduciall line shall lie vppon the square directly betweene the right shadowe and the contrary shadowe, wherefore I doe omit to set downe here more examples in so plaine a matter.

[depiction of the use of a geometrical square]

The 120 Chapter. How you may measure with a Geometricall square at two stations any longitude in sight.

TO measure at two stations an vnknowne longitude which here shal be supposed to be A B, lay your Geometricall square flat and leuell vppon a stoole, or vppon a foote made of purpose to holde it vp. Then setting the fiduciall edge of his Index vppon the line H I which passeth directly from H to the beginning of the equal parts marked vpon X Y a side of the square turne the square vpō the stoole or foote (his Index remaining stedfast vpō the said line H I) till you may espie through the sights vppon the saide Index, B the far­thest ende of the said vnknowne longitude. This done, the square remaining vnmooueable turne the fiduciall edge of his Index to the line V Z which passeth directly from V to the beginning of the equall partes marked vppon Y Z an other side of the said square, & then looking againe through the said sights, note some mark a good space from you: the farther this mark is frō you, the better it is for your purpose: then pitchinge vp a staffe right vnder the center of your square in A, conueye your square vnto the saide marke which heere I[Page 115]will call C, and recon to be 40 yardes from A, now the square being layde againe flat and leuell vppon a stoole, or vppon a foote, right ouer C as it was before at A, put the fiduciall edge of the Index vppon the saide line H I, and turne the square vppon the stoole (the Index remayning vnmouable vppon the saide line H I) till you may see through the sights vppon the same Index the staffe in A. After this the square remayning vnmouable, turne the saide Index to and fro till you may see through his sights B the extreame parte of the desired longitude, and note diligently what parte of contrary shadowe is then touched with the fiduciall edge of the Index, for if you will multiplie the whole number of partes in one side of the square by the number of yards betweene A and C your two stations, and diuide the product thereof by the parte of contrarie shadowe touched with the fiduciall edge of the saide Index, the quotient will shewe you the true measure of the saide lon­gitude.

Example.

Admitte that at C your seconde station the fiduciall edge of the Index did touche the 100 parte of contrary shadowe, and that you did then see through the sightes vppon the same Index B the extreame parte of the desired longitude. Then multiplie 1200 the whole number of partes in one side of the square by 40 the number of yardes betweene A and C your two stations, and diuide the product thereof which is 48000 by 100 the parte of con­trary shadowe touched with the fiduciall edge of the Index at C your seconde station, and so the quotient will yeelde 480 yardes for the desired measure of the sayde longitude A B.

[depiction of the use of a geometrical square]

The 121 Chapter. How you may measure with a Geometricall Square, any distance or breadth lying in a plaine & leuel grounde, with your eye or station how so euer the same breadth or distance is scituated.

BEing required to tell the distance or breadth betweene two Towers which for exam­ple may here be named Q and R, measure first how farre either Tower is from you, which you may doe by sundrie wayes before taught, and then laying your Geometricall Square flatte and leuell vppon a stoole, or vppon a foote made of purpose to beare it vp, turne the Square about till you haue set H I a line vppon one side of the saide Square right against Q the Tower next vnto you. For if R the other Tower were nearer to you than the Tower Q, you shoulde first lay the line H K right against the same Tower R. This done (the Square not being remooued) turne the Index to and fro till you may see through his sightes the saide Tower R, which in this example (as before I haue tolde you) is the fardest Tower from you. Then opening your compasse to so many equall partes in the side of the Square as there are yards betweene the center of the Square & the tower Q. [Page 116]which I will here suppose to be an hundred yardes, set one foote of your compasse in the center of your Square, and with the other foote of your compasse make a fine visible mark at M vppon the line H I, and when you haue so done, open your compasse againe to so many partes in the side of the Square as there are yardes betweene the center of your In­strument and the saide Tower R, which I will likewise suppose to be an hundred and fiftie yardes, and putting one foote of your compasse in the saide center, make an other fine visible marke vppon the face of the Square with the other foote of your compasse at N, close by the fiduciall edge of the saide Index, which ought now to lie in that place where it stoode when you did last see through his sightes the sayde Tower R. Moreouer, open your compasse to the space betweene those two markes M and N, and lay your compasse so opened vppon the partes in the side of your Square, and so you shall perceaue how many yardes are betweene the Tower Q and the Tower R. For looke how many e­quall partes are beetweene the two feete of your compasse, so many yardes are bee­tweene the Tower Q and the Tower R, and therefore if sixty one partes shall bee be­tweene the two feete of your compasse, you may boldly affyrme that the distance or breadth betweene the Tower Q and the Towre R doth containe sixty and one yardes.

[...]derstande [...]teous rea­ [...], that M [...]ght to stand [...] this picture [...] the ende of [...] line which [...]tendeth [...] the side [...] the square [...] the fiducial [...]ge of the [...]ex, and N [...]ght to stand [...] that end of [...] sayde line [...]ch adioy­ [...]th to the fiduciall edge of the index, H ought to stand at the center of the square, and I ought to stand at the lowest [...]de of the square where the equall partes begin, and that betweene H M are 100 equall partes, betweene M N 61 [...]uall partes, and betweene H N 150 equall partes.

[depiction of the use of a geometrical square]

The 122 Chapter. How you standing vppon the toppe of a hill or drie ditch may measure with a Geome­tricall Square the deepenesse of the same hill or ditch, and the breadth of any drie ditch or valley.

TO measure the deepenesse and breadth of M N O a ditch or valley, measure first his breadth MN as you may doe by sundrie wayes before taught, which breadth shall here be supposed to be eighteene yardes. Likewise measure by the precepts before geuen, the length or depth of M O, which here shall be supposed to be fifteene yardes, this done, square 15 the measure of the depth M O, and the product thereof will bee 225. Likewise square 9 which is ½ of the measure of the breadth M N, and the pro­duct thereof will be 81. Then subduce the square 81 from the saide square 225, and out of the remainder which is 144 extract the Square root, which being 12 sheweth the num­ber of yardes that are in P O the depth of the ditch or valley. Also in this manner if you stande vppon the toppe of a hill, you may measure the heigth of the same hill.

[Page 117]

[depiction of the use of a geometrical square]

The 123 Chapter. How you may drawe a platte of any peece of grounde which shall containe the true proportion and Sy­metrie thereof, in such sorte that you may tel how farre any place in the platte is distante from other.

TO drawe a platte of any peece of ground, prepare an Instrument made of mettall, or of Cypresse wood like vnto the Figure following. And after you haue set it flatte and leuel vppon a foote, or vpon a stoole in an high place from whence you may see round about many other notable places,Note that the variation of e­uery compasse in England is 11 degrees & ¼ of a degree, and that for the same cause in euery com­passe within England, the North poynte lyeth directly against the North pole, & the South poynt lieth di­rectly against the South pole, when the needle of the compasse doth stande directly ouer the north and by East, & South and by West points in the compasse. turne this Instrument named a Geographicall playne Sphere to and fro vppon his foote, or for lacke of a foote, vppon a stoole, till by the ayde of his needle you haue made all his Semidiameters to pointe vnto their proper quarters. This done, the Instrument remayning stedfast, direct the Index with his two sights to eue­ry place that shall be set foorth in your platte, taking your markes through the said sights in the middest of euery of them, and note in a Table by it selfe the degrees cutte with the said Index in the Circle, which may be called the Angles of position, or Angles of sight, and so make a table of your first station. Then remoouing your Instrument to one of the highest places noted in your saide Table, pitch your Instrument in the high place which you haue chosen for your seconde station in all respects as you did at your first station, and turning the saide Index so as you may see through his sightes all the places which you did see before at your first station, Note againe in an other Table the Angles of position, or Angles of sightes, writing the name of euery place and his Angle of sight by it. After this, at your comming home lay a protractor (which is a circle made of wood or mettalle, di­uided into 360 equall partes like vnto C D the Figure following) vppon a sheete of pa­per, and making a prick thoroe the center of the saide protractor in the saide paper, which prick shall represent the place of your first station, write with a cole at the edge of the pro­tractor by euery degree or Angle of sight his place, and then laying your protractor aside, drawe with a cole straight lines from the saide prick which representeth your first station vnto the places so noted. Againe putting the center of your protractor right ouer the line which pointeth from your first station vnto your second station, and hauing regard to place the prick of your second station from the prick of the first station, so as the crossing of like lines may be within the compasse of your said paper, turne the protractor to and fro kee­ping his center vppon the said line, till it doe lie in euery respect as it did vppon the pricke of your first station, and when you haue so done, make thoroe the center of the protractor in the said line a prick, which must represent the place of your second station, & write with a cole as you did before at the edge of the protractor by euery degree or Angle of sight his place. After this taking vp the protractor from the paper, draw with a cole straight lines from the pricke of your seconde station vnto the noted places, and looking diligently[Page 118]vppon the crossing of euery two like lines, write thereon a figure, starre, or other signe, and the name of his place. Now to know how farre euery place is distant from other, mea­sure by your Instrument, or by a wier line the distance betweene your two stations, and di­uide the right line in your paper betweene the pricke of your first station and the prick of your second station, into so many equall partes as there are feete, yardes, pases, or perches betweene your two stations, and then opening your compasse to one of those partes, you may measure from place to place, and say that there are so many feete, yardes, pases, or perches (according to the denomination of that one parte whereunto you open your Compasse) as you finde partes.

Example.

Purposing to drawe the platte of a peece of ground which hath vppon it a Beacon, a Tower, a house, a church, a windmill, a hill and a mount, I doe first set my Geographicall plaine Sphere in all respectes according to the precepts before declared vpon the hill from whence I may see al the aforesaide places, and then by turning the Index of my Instrument to euery of those places, I finde that it cutteh at the middell parte of the Beacon, 80 de­grees, at the middle parte of the Tower 95 degrees, at the middle parte of the house 110 degrees, at the middle parte of the church 130 degrees and ⅔ of a degree, at the middle parte of the windemill 155 degrees and ½ of a degree, and at that parte of the mount where I will make my second station 180 degrees, whereuppon I make a table of my first station after this manner.

The Table of my first station.
The Beacon80 degrees
The tower95 degrees
The house110 degrees
The church130 degrees ⅔
The windemill155 degrees ½
The mount180 degrees

This done, I transporte my saide Instrument vnto that parte of the mount which I haue noted for my second station, and placing it there in euery respecte according to the pre­cepts before declared, I turne againe the saide Index vnto euery of the saide noted places, and by so doing see that it cutteth at the middle parte of the said beacon 40 degrees, at the middle parte of the tower 65 degrees, at the middle parte of the house 80 degrees, at the middle parte of the church 100 degrees, at the middle parte of the windemill 120 degrees and ¼, wherefore after I haue measured the space betweene my two stations, I make an o­ther table of my second station thus.

The table of my seconde station.
The Beacon40 degrees
The tower65 degrees
The house80 degrees
The Church100 degrees
The windemill120 degrees [...]

The space betweene my two stations is in measure 200 yardes.

[Page 119]

[diagram of the use of a protractor]

Moreouer, I doe lay my portractor vppon a sheete of paper, and hauing made a pricke in the same paper with the poynt of a needle thrust thorow a little hole in the cen­ter of the same protractor, I make a poynte with a cole in the edge of the protractor at eue­ry degree and parte of a degree noted in the table of my first station, and then taking my protractor vp from the paper, doe drawe straight lines vnto euery of those points, & write with a cole their names. After all this I doe put the center of my protractor right vppon the line which pointeth from my first station vnto my second station, in a reasonable di­stance from the prick that representeth in the paper my first station, and making an other pricke in the saide line with the pointe of a needle thrust thorow the hole in the center of the protractor, I doe turne the protractor to and fro keeping his center ouer the prick last made, till I haue set it in euery respect as it did lie before vpon the prick of my first station, and hauing made a pointe with a cole in the edge of the protractor at euery degree and parte of a degree noted in the table of my second station, I put the protractor aside, and drawe straight lines from the prick made for the place of my second station vnto euery of those pointes, noting well the crossing of like lines. That is to say, where the line of the Beacon drawne from the pricke of my first station meeteth with the line of the Beacon drawne from the prick of my second station, and where the line of the Tower drawen from the prick of my first station meeteth with the line of the Tower drawen from the prick of my second station, and so of the rest: for other intersections or crossinges in this woorke are not to be regarded.

Also to know how farre euery place in this plat is from other, I diuide the space before the prick of my first station, and the prick of my seconde station into so many equall parts as there are yardes, which for example I here suppose to be 200, & then drawing straight[Page 120]lines from euery one of these noted places vnto other, and opening my compasse to one of the said equall partes, I measure how many times it is contayned in euery of the sayde lines, and say that the number of yardes in the length of them is as this Table following doth shewe.

A Table shewing the distance of euery place from the two stations, and also the distance of euery place from other: and therein this is to be noted that 1 signifieth the first station, 2 the seconde station, 3 the Beacon, 4 the Towre, 5 the house, 6 the Church, and 7 the Windemill.
  • FRom 1 to 2, 200 yardes.
  • From 1 to 3, 193 yardes and ¼ of a yarde.
  • From 1 to 4, 350 yardes.
  • From 1 to 5, 375 yardes.
  • From 1 to 6, 425 yardes.
  • From 1 to 7, 395 yardes and [...] of a yarde:
  • From 2 to 3, 300 yardes.
  • From 2 to 4, 391 yardes and ⅔ of a yarde.
  • From 2 to 5, 362 yardes and ½ of a yarde.
  • From 2 to 6, 358 yardes and ⅓ of a yarde.
  • From 2 to 7, 283 yardes and [...] of a yarde.
  • From 3 to 4, 166 yardes and ⅔ of a yarde,
  • From 3 to 5, 218 yardes and 2/11 of a yarde.
  • From 3 to 6, 316 yardes and [...] of a yarde.
  • From 3 to 7, 340 yardes.
  • From 4 to 5, 88 yardes and [...] of a yarde.
  • From 4 to 6, 208 yardes and [...] of a yarde.
  • From 4 to 7, 275 yardes.
  • From 5 to 6, 120 yardes.
  • From 5 to 7, 195 yardes and ⅚ of a yarde.
  • From 6 to 7, 107 yardes and ¾ of a yarde.

In this manner by changing my stations I may make diuers plattes expressing the true proportion and distances of Cities, Townes, Hauens, Castles, Fortes, Campes, Mynes, Hilles, and all other notable places within a whole Region.

Laus Deo.
Gutta cauat lapidem non vi, sed sape cadendo,
Sic homo fit sapiens non vi, sed saepe legendo.
The ende of Lucar Appendix.

AT LONDON Printed by Thomas Dawson, for Iohn Harrison the elder, at the Signe of the Greyhounde in Paules Churchyarde, And are there to be solde. 1588.

[Page]

‘IN SPE’
Amendements of faults made in printing the three bookes of Colloquies.
Faultes.Page.Line.Amendmentes.
BOdie mouing.1243. and 44.bodie violently mouing
616028506146
be loer5322be more loer.
which conteine 336450which conteins 33
here and ende7044here an ende.
is in our749is now in our

Amendments of faults made in printing Lucar Appendix.
Faultes.Page.Line.Amendments.
IN some other1018into some other
and doe it vnto1026and doe vnto it
that time1052the time.
into the flowre1111into flowre
in a Cauldron1112in the cauldron
and vineger1410or vineger
or after1411and after.
full of round153full of litle round
their tinder211the tinder
being well wette2121being wett
a whole foote4123whole of a foote
The 65, Chapter5714the 68. Chapter
said pellets5945said pellet
next mixture6637mixture next
and put7023put
peece and close7024peece next and close
by it7317by them
bloe the forts934bloe vp the forts
before11921betweene

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