BY Humphry Sydenham, Mr. of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM Colledge in OXFORD.

LONDON, Printed for IOHN PARKER. 1626.



THat seruice is most free of in­sinuatiō, which is so of attendance; whil'st others onely looke on your vertues, with your fortunes, and admire them, I both weigh, and [Page] contemplate, and so honor you more than they by how much a iust speculation exceedes an outward and partiall suruey of men, and of their actions. 'Tis my beleefe in that hath arm'd my resolution in this bold tender of my labours, which though I acknowledge vnworthy either of your iudge­ment, or acceptance, yet the noble incouragements and faire inter­pretations you haue giuen those formerly deliuer'd in your eare, haue taught me a confidence that you will entertaine these also offer'd to your eye; a Judge more seuere than the other, be­cause more subtle, and (what is more) more deliberate; how­euer, did I not beleeue they [Page] would passe the mercy of an ho­nourable perusall, I should neuer haue expos'd them to the criti­cisme and comment of a censori­ous Age, which vnderualues most things because they are common, and many things, because they are good. Though mine can lay no title to the latter in respect of their frame and structure, they may of the subiect, that is sacred, and should at least inuite acceptance, if not in­force it. As they are (most No­ble Lord) vouchsafe them enter­tainment; they were publisht at the importunities of some priuate, but reall friends, to whom they addresse thēselues only for suruey, to you (now) for patronage, they may incourage my proceedings, but [Page] greatnesse must protect them; your countenance they beg which if you daine to afford, you no lesse crowne them, than the Au­thor, who in all humilitie deuotes himselfe

Your Lordships vnfeined honourer and loyall seruant, HVM: SYDENHAM.

The ATHENIAN Babler.

A SERMON PREACHED AT St. MARIES in Oxforde, the 9. of Iuly, 1626. being ACT-Sunday.

By Humphry Sydenham, Master of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM-Colledge in Oxon.


LONDON. Printed by B.A. and T. FAVVCET, for IOHN PARKER. 1627.



HOweuer the publishing of other Labours may enti­tle mee to Osten­tation, this cannot but touch vpon Humilitie, since I haue exposed that to the Eye onely of a Nation, which I had formerly to the Eare of a World, a Vniuer­sitie; a World more Glorious then that which inuolues it, by how much it exceeds [Page] the other, in her Iudgement, in her Chari­tie, and (what is Noble, too) her incou­ragement; of the latter, I had some taste in the deliuery of this, when I was a fitter object of her Pitie, then approbation, whether shee reflected on Minde, or Body, my Dis­course, or Mee. But that was the extensi­on of her goodnesse, nothing that my weake­nesse could expect, or point at, but the Mercy of my worthyer Friends, amongst whome, as, you were then pleased to approue it, so, now vouchsafe both to peruse and Counte­nance; In that you shall glorifie the endea­uours of him, who lookes no higher, then the honour of this title,

Your Friend that euer serues you HVM: SYDENHAM.


Text. ACTS, 17. Vers. 18.

Some said; what will this Bab­ler say?

THe Life of a true Christi­an the Apostle calls a continuall warfare; The life of a true Apostle the Christian calls a conti­nual Martyrdome; Each act of it hath a bloody sceane, but not a mor­tall; A few wounds can­not yet terminate his misery, though they begin his glory. There are di­uers tough breathings required to the Coelestiall race; many a bleeding scarre to the good Fight, sweatings, wrestlings, tuggings numberlesse to the crowne of Glory. PAVL had long since begun the [Page 2] course and finisht it, and can shew you a platforme of all the sufferings; the scrowle is ready drawne with his owne hand,Vers. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. you may peruse it if you please, 2. Corinth. 11. where crueltie seemes to bee metho­dicall, and torment accurate, persecution tumbles on persecution, as a billow on a billow, this on the necke of that; one seales not the truth of his Apo­stleship,Act. 14. v. 10.19. Act. 16.18.23. many shall. Hee was but now at Lystra, where hee cured a Cripple, and hee is stoned for it; by and by at Philippi hee casts out a Diuell, and hee is scourged. Heere's not all; sufferings of the body are not load enough for an Apostle; if hee loue his Lord and Master (as hee ought) hee must haue some of reputation too; hee that hath beene so long ac­quainted with the Lash of the hand, must now feele that of the tongue too: Buffettings are not suffici­ent for Disciples, they must haue reuilings also for the name of IESVS. PAVL therefore shall now to Athens (the eye of the learned world and seate of the Philosopher) where hee meets with language as peruerse as the Religion, and amongst many false ones, findes no entertainment for the true; The mention of a IESVS Crucified stands not with the Faith of an Athenian, nor a story of the Resurre­ction with his Philosophie. The Altar there conse­crated to the vnknowne will not so soone smoake to the jealous God. Act. 17.23. The glorious Statues of Mars and Jupiter, cannot yet bee translated to the forme of a Nazarite. 'Tis not a bare relation can plant CHRIST at Athens, it must bee Reason, the si­new and strength of some powerfull Argument, and to this purpose PAVL was but now in hot Disputation with the Iewes there in the Synagogue. Act. 17. v. 17. By this time he hath dispatcht; for loe yonder where hee stands in earnest discourse with the people in the [Page 3] Market? The tumult is inlarged, and the Atheni­an already tickled with the expectation of some noueltie; Anon, the Gowne besets him, and all the rigid Sects of the Philosophers; as the throng in­creases, so doth the Cry; On that side, Censure, — Some sayd hee was a setter forth of strange Gods, on this side, Preiudice, — And some said, what will this Babler say?

In the diuision of which tumult wilt please you to obserue mine.

1. The persons Prejudicate, maskt heere vnder a doubtfull Pronoune, Quidam - some, - [...], - some sayd. - 2. The person prejudic'd, cloathed in a terme of obloquy and dishonour, [...] - Bab­ler, - What will this Babler say? Thus the Field stands pitcht where wee may view the parts, as the persons, In a double squadron, no more. PAVL and his Spi­rit in one part of the Battalio; Epicures, Stoickes with their Philosophie, in the other, the rest are but lookers on, no sharers in the conflict. Heeres all; All that's naturall from the words, and not wrested; For (mine owne part) I'le not pull Scripture into pieces, digging for particulars which are not offred, for that were to torment a Text, not diuide it. I af­fect nothing that is forc'd, loue Fluentnesse, and (what the maiestie of this place may (perchance) looke sowre on) plainnesse. Howeuer, at this time, I haue a little endeuoured that way, that those of Co­rinth and Ephesus may aswell heare PAVL as these of Athens. I come not now to play with the quaint eare but to rubbe it, nor to cherish the dancing expe­ctation of those Athenians which cry - Newes, Act 17. v. 21. Newes, - but to foyle it. And this is well enough for a Babler, that's the doome at Athens, mine, now, and justly too. I may not expect a greater mercy of [Page 4] the tongue thence, then an Apostle had, especially when a Stoicke raignes in it. Whose Religion (for the most part) is but snarling, and a maine peece of his learning, Censure; But let's heare first what hee can say of the Babler, next, what the Babler will say. I begin with the persons preiudicate, [...], Some sayd.

Pars 1. Some? what some? The front of this verse presents them both in their qualitie, and number; Philoso­phers. What of all Sects? No. -Vers. 17. Certayne Philoso­phers - of old, [...], since, by the modestie of PY­THAGORAS a little degraded of that height, as if it trenched too neere vpon ambition to entitle them­selues immediatly vnto Wisdome, but to the loue of it,In cap. 17. Act. and therefore now, [...], yet still of venerable esteeme amongst the Athenians. ARETIVS calls them their Diuin [...]; BRENTIVS, their Patriarkes and their Prophets, Each word they spake was as canonicall as Text, and they themselues both Ma­sters of it, and of the people. Of these there were di­uers Sects, two (heere) specified. Epicures, Stoickes; these were extreames in the rules both of their life, and tenent;Aretius in cap. 17. Act. the Epicure in the defect, the Stoicke in the excesse. Betweene them both were the Peri­pateticks and the Academicks, better mixt and qua­lified in their opinion, stooping neyther to the loose­nesse of the one, nor the austeritie of the other; but of these no mention in the Text. The Areopa­gites (intimated in the foot of this Chapter) were not Philosophers, but the Athenian Iudges, some say, others, their Consuls, or their Senatours: In the street of Mars (where the Athenians brought PAVL,Act. 17. v. 22. and enquired of his Doctrine) was their Tribunall, where they sate vpon their more weighty affaires, and,Gen. not. ibid. of old, arraigned SOCRATES and condemned [Page 5] him of impietie. But I haue no quarrell to these, since I finde they had none to the Apostle; The Stoicke and the Epicure are the sole incendiaries and ringleaders of the tumult, whom the very Text points out in this, - [...] - some sayd, - men as opposite in their opinion, as to the truth; one sea­ted his chiefe happinesse in the pleasure of the Body, the other in the vertues of the Mind. The Epicure attributed too much to voluptuousnesse,Aretius in cap. 17. Act. the Stoicke to the want of it; that would haue a vacuitie of griefe both in mind, and sence; this taught his - [...] - a nullitie of all affections in eyther. These are the broad and common Differences in their opi­nion, and such as heere tread opposite to the Do­ctrine of Saint PAVL; but there are others more cryticall and nice, which not finding touch'd by the pen of the Holy Ghost, I presum [...] to enquire after in their owne Schooles, in Zeno's Stoä for one, and in Epicurus Garden for the other. A trauaile some­what vnnecessary for Athens amongst Philosophers, where they are daily canuast. Yet (perchance) there may bee - some Nobles heere of Bereä,Vers. 17. Vers. 4. and Chiefe wo­men of Thessalonica, which haue receiued PAVL with all willingnesse - which know them not. I shall bee onely your remembrancer, their informer.

Epicures (for I begin with them, they haue the precedence in the Text) challenge both name, and pedigree, from EPICVRVS the founder, and Fa­ther of that Sect. Hee was borne at Athens seauen yeares after the Death of PLATO, where he liued, taught, dyed. Hee wrote 300. Bookes in his owne Art, without reference to a second Pen, and (what is strange) obseruation; no sentence, no precept of Philosopher, but his owne; those of DEMOCRI­TVS, de Atomis, and of ARISTIPPVS, de Ʋolup­tate, [Page 6] Lib. 2. Hist. DIONISIVS HALICARNASSEVS cals his. His deportment and way of carriage in matters of Moralitie was very remarkeable.Lib. de Epicur. In Parentes pie­tas, in Fratres Beneficentia, in Seruos mansuctudo. ('Tis the triple commendation LAERTIVS giues him,) And in lieu of these, and the like vertues, his Countrey afterwards erected many brazen Statues, and ATHENAEVS wrote certayne Epitaphes to the perpetuall embalming both of his name and ho­nour. Hee was one it seemes more irreguler in his tenent, then his life, abstenious hee was, moderate, in his repast,A Fero sic in Locum. in his desires, - Oleribus vtens exiguis, HIEROME sayes, and hee confesses himselfe in his Epistles, that Temperance was his Feast, the low­est stayre of it,Allexand ab A­lex. lib. 3. Gena­lium Dierum. Cap. 11. Parcemonie: Aquâ contentus & po­lentâ. His place of teaching was in Gardens, and the manner not onely to the capacitie, but the Dispositi­on of his hearer.

The whole Fabricke of his precepts hee builds 1 vpon this double ground; The one on Mans part, that hee is composed of a double substance, a Body, and a Soule, and both these mortall; yea, the Soule vanisht sooner then the Body; For when the Soule is breathed out, the Body yet remaines the same and the proportion of parts, perfect. Anima mòx vt exierit veluti fumus vento diuerberata, dissoluitur, But the Soule is no sooner seperate then blowne a­way, like smoake scattered by the wind. So S. AV­GVSTINE relates the opinion in his Tract. De Epic. & Stoic. 5. Cap. On this foundation was raised their great opinion, that Mans chiefest happinesses consi­sted in the pleasure of the Body. The rest of that was the end of all Blessednesse, For to this purpose doe wee all things, In Epistol ad Herodotum. that wee may neyther bee disturbed nor grieued, ('tis EPICVRVS owne Doctrine.) [Page 7] Yet euery pleasure is not so magnified, as that of the Pallate by superfluitie, of the Body by effeminate­nesse; But, when after-a-long tolleration of sorrow a greater pleasure ensues, when the Body is no more bea­ten with griefe, the Mind vntost and free from all waues of perturbation, there was the true Happinesse. Hee was blessed that enjoyed those Delights in present; future, they neither beleeued, nor cared for, Death was the slaughterman of all: And therefore SENECA calls the Schoole of the Epicures; Delicatam, Senec. lib. 4. de Benefic. & vm­braticam, apud quos virtus voluptatis ministra. For if the Soule also perisheth with the Body, the dirge and requiem that they sing, is Ede, Bibe, Lude, Eate and Drinke, for to morrow wee shall Dye; and after Death what pleasure? And therefore wee find their vsuall Epicaedium [...], - Death is nothing to vs, for what is dissolued wants sence, Lib. 3. Pyrron. Hypotyp. cap. 24 and what wants sence is nothing to vs. For if Man bee composed of Body and Soule, and Death bee the disso­lution of both, the burthen of their song runnes in­stantly, Cùm sumus, nòn est mors, cùm autèm mors est, non sumus, so SEXTVS EMPIRICVS; More­ouer, they would haue the Soule a kind of body, o­therwise (say they) it would neyther doe nor suffer. Incorporeum, with them, is all one with Ʋacuum; and therefore, the Soule (they sayd) was composed of Atomes, and when the Atoms in a man were dissol­ued, then the Soule dyed, as EPICVRVS himselfe in his Epistle to HERODOTVS.

The other foundation is on Gods part, for the 2 Epicure grants there is a GOD, but denies his Prouidence; howbeit, vnder a glorious colour - De­um ad Coeli cardines obambulare, Gualt. in Locum & nulla tangi mor­talium curâ, as if, forsooth, it would not stand with the maiestie of the world to regard what is done in [Page 8] those sublunary parts,Jn Apolog. ad­uers. gentes. cap. 24. and so make God (as TER­TVLLIAN complaines) Otiosum, & inexercitum neminem in humanis rebus, - happely conceiting it might detract somewhat from his delight and plea­sure, to molest himselfe with the care of this nether World. Aboue all things this moued him most, - Homines Religiosos, - that the most Religious men were most of all afflicted, whereas those which did eyther wholly neglect the Gods, or serue them but at their pleasure, came into no misfortune, or at least no misfortune like other men. And, in fine, Ipsa eti­àm Templa fulminibus conflagrari, - hee obserued that the Temples also raysed for the honour of the Gods, and dedicated to their seruice were often­times burnt with fire from Heauen. Out of which premisses the silly Heathen gathers this desperate Conclusion:Allexand ab A­lex. lib. 3. Gena­lium Dierum. Cap. 11. Surely the Almighty walketh in the height of Heauen, and judgeth not; Tush, GOD ca­reth not for those things.

Stoickes (so deriued from Stoä where ZENO taught, the Master of that Sect) were of a more sowre and contracted brow; their seuerity drew their name into a Prouerbe, Stoicum supercilium, grauitas Stoi­ca: their Precepts were for the most part but a Systeame of harsh and austeere paradoxes. A wise­man is then blest, Tull. 5. de Fini­bus & 1. Aca­dem. when vnder the greatest torments. Metellus liues not more happily then Regulus. A wise­man is free from all passions. Hee is a foole that doth commiserate his Friend in distresse; Lypsius in mae­nuduct ad Stoi­tam Phylosoph. Mercy and Pitie are diseases of the minde, and one with the species and perturbations of griefe, Mentall sicknesses disturbe no wise mans health. Hee can neyther erre, nor bee igno­rant, nor deceiue, nor lye. Hee is alone to bee reputed rich, a Master of his owne libertie, a King, without sinne, equall to GOD himselfe; Hoc est summum [Page 9] bonum, quod si occupas, incipis Deorum socius essè, non supplex, it is SENECA'S Stoyicisme, in his 31. Epistle. In all Vertues they held a paritie,Tull. 1. de not. Deorum. and so in Sinnes too, Hee no more faultie that kills a Man, then hee that cuts off a Dogs necke. Touching GOD and the nature of him, they strangely varyed. Some thought him - an immortall liuing Creature, Tull. lib. 1. de nat. Deorum. a perfect rationall and a blessed; others granted him a Beeing and Prouidence; but this Prouidence they vassall to their Stoyicall fate, Diogen. Laert. in vita Zenō. lib. 7 and make Gods gouernment not free and voluntary, but necessitated and compelled. Ʋt Deus ipse sati necessitate constrictus cum Coeli ma­china violenter ferretur, (so CALVIN.In 17. cap. Act.) Touching Man, they taught that his chiefest Happinesse was placed in the Minds vertue, which opinion though it shew faire and glorious,In Locum. tends but to this - Quem­vis mortalem faelicitatis suae artificem esse posse, (sayes BVLLINGER.) Euery man should bee the contri­uer and squarer out of his owne Happinesse; and thus weake man is hereby blowne vp with a proud confidence, that, being vertuous he should bee ador­ned with the spoyles of God, - Est aliquid quo sapiens antecedat Deum, ille naturae beneficio, non suo sapiens est. I forbeare to translate the proud Blasphemy, it is SENECA'S in his 53. Epistle. But me thinkes this vaunting Stoicke might easily haue beene taken downe by his owne Principles, for aske but any of them, how long their soule shall enioy that supposed happinesse. TVLLY makes answere for them,5. de Finibus. - Diù mansuros aiunt animos, semper negant, - Like long-liued Crowes, they last out some yeares after the bodies Death; but by their owne confessions grow old continually, and dye at last; and then wherein may the Stoicke bragge more then the Epi­cure? In this, little. They both held,Laert. lib. de E­picur. the Soule was [Page 10] of it selfe a body; the Stoicke did extend it a little fur­ther, and then, obnoxious to corruption, too. And yet ANTIPATER, and POSSIDONIVS (chiefe members of that Sect) sayd, the Soule was a hot spi­rit, for this made vs to moue and breath; And all soules should endure till that heate were extinguisht, CLEANTHES sayd,Sextus Emper. Pyrron. Hypol. cap 24. lib. 3. but CHRYSIPPVS, onely wise-mens. Thus some are as giddy in their opini­ons, as sottish; others, as detestable, as giddy; one dotes on the world, and would haue it to bee - Ani­mal rationale, - The vniuerse must haue a Soule, that immortall, and the parts thereof, Animantium ani­mae. A second falls in loue with Vertues, and would haue them to bee glorious liuing Creatures; but this foole SENECA lashes with an - O tristes ineptiás, ridiculae sunt, in his 113. Epistle. A third adores the Starres, and would haue them nourisht, the Sunne from the Sea, the Moone from the lesser waters. A fourth growes salacious, and hot, and would haue a communitie of Wiues, to Wise-men, of Strumpets, to the residue. A fifth, yet more diuelish, will haue a libertie of Bed from the Father to the Daughter, from the Mother to the Sonne, from the Brother to the Si­ster, and so backe againe: and to make all compleatly heathenish (and I tremble to breath it in a Pulpit) A Sonne may participate of the body of his liue Mother, and eate the flesh of his dead Father, [...] dete­stabile; Cryes SEXTVS EMPERICVS - Zeno ap­probat quod apud nos Sodomitae, - in his 3. Booke Pyr­roniarum Hypotyp [...]si [...]v. Cap. 24.

Thus, with as much breuitie as I could, I haue traced out the principall positions of these diuided Sects. Worthy ones no doubt, to bandy against the sacred Fundamentals of an Apostle, yet if it now please you to follow them, - E [...] stoä, & hortis, in Sy­nagogam, [Page 11] - From their Gallery and Garden where they taught, into their Synagogue, you shall ouer­take them there all flocked together about S. PAVL,Act. 17. v. 17. and (as the Text describes it) encountring him. Heere is just matter for obseruation, if not for won­der. Epicures, Stoickes, men which jarre asmuch as any that beare the name of Philosophers can doe a­mongst themselues, are ready (neuerthelesse) to meet in a tumult and joyne forces against an Apostle, strange, did wee not know that the wisedome of this world were enmitie against GOD, and that - CHRIST vnto the Jewes a stumbling Blocke, 1. Cor. 1.23. vnto the Grecians foolishnesse. What the ground was which should occasion this assault, S. AVGVSTINE conie­ctures to bee (and it is not repugnant to the drift of the Text) Quid faciat beatam vitam? What might make a man most happie? The Epicure hee an­swers; Voluptas corporis, the pleasure,Caluin. in Locū. but with this limitation, the honest pleasure of the body. The Stoicke hee sayth, - Virtus, - The vertue of the mind;August. Tract. de Epicur. & Stoicis, cap 7. the Apostle replies - Donum Dei, it is the guift of GOD: LYRA addes, that from thence the se­quele led them to the Resurrection.Lyra in cap 17. Act. For the Epicures joy could last no longer then his subiect; his blisse must dye with his body; and the Stoickes foresaw not the Soules immortalitie, and therefore could not promise euerlasting Happinesse. But the Apostle hee preacheth a Resurection of body and soule, and by that Eternall life,Act 17.18. and so by consequence euerlasting Happinesse through CHRIST, both of Soule and Body. This seemes to haue been the subiect of their Dispute, but their Arguments I can by no meanes collect; Be like they were so silly, that they were not thought worthy to bee enrolled amongst those more noble Acts of the Apostles, onely their impu­dence, [Page 12] that is so notorious that it may not bee omit­ted. For on what side soeuer the victorie goes, theirs is the tryumph; the cry runnes with the A­thenian, the Philosopher hath non-plust the Diuine, and the Apostle bables. Thus the wicked haue bent their bowe and shot their arrowes, euen bitter words, bitter words against the Church and her true members in all Ages. The naturall man led on by the dull light of reason, making Philosophie his Starre, endeauours with those weake twinklings those lesser influences to obscure the glory of the greater light, that of Diuine truth; so it was in the first dawne and rising of the Church. IANNES and IAMBRES, the great Magitians of Aegipt, with­stood MOSES working miracles before PHARAOH. But all the spels of Magicke with their blacke power, neuer wrought so mischieuously against the Church as the subtle inchantments of the Philosopher. Christianitie neuer felt such wounds, as from the Schoole of the Athenian. The Seminarie of the wrangling Artist; the Epicure, Stoicke, Platonist; they were Philosophers, that's enough; they not onely strugled to oppose Fundamentals of Faith, but to destroy them. Euery age of the Church, and al­most euery place of it will giue vs a world of Instan­ces; one Alexandria affoords an Aetius and a De­mophylus, against CHRIST; one Constantinople, a Macedonius, and an Eurox, against the Holy Ghost; One Ephesus, an Anthemius, and a Theo­dore, against the Virgin MARY; One Athens (heere) an Epicure, and a Stoicke, against PAVL; Nay, the sophistry of one peruerse but nimble Dis­putant, hath cost more liues then are now breathing in the Christian world, and opened such a sluce and Arch through the body of the Easterne Church, [Page 13] which was not stopt againe almost in the current of 300. yeares, when downe it blood ran swiftly from the butcheries of Valens & Constantius, and the limbes, the thousand limbs of slaughtered Infants swam with the violence of the Torrent, euen then when Christia­nity groaned vnder the mercilesse inuentions and va­rious tortures of the Arrian Massacre and persecuti­on. Philosophers were the first Patriarchs of that Heresie,Socrat. lib. 1. cap. 5. and hence I suppose was that Edict of Con­stantine, that as a badge and character of their profes­sion, they should bee no more called Arrians, but Porphirians, the venemous brood of their cursed Master, and one that then blew the coale to most combustions of the Primitiue Church; For at the Councell of Nice (the place, and meanes ordayned by that good Emperour for the suppression of Arrius, Sozom. lib. 1. cap. 17. Anno Christi, 325.) some, if not of his name yet of his profession, (for they were Phylosophers) trooped thither in droues and multitudes, not onely to op­pose the Bishops, but to vpbraid them. Odio imflam­mati quod superstitiosa Gentilium religio antiquari caeperat, - as Ruffinus, lib. 1. cap. 3. And before that (in the Apostles time) about the yeare of CHRIST 75. they went about from Citie to Citie with this pretext onely to reforme publique misdemeanors, and to that purpose had certayne Sermons to the peo­ple, for rectifying their Conuersation in morrall ca­riages, and so seemed industrious to reduce them to a better forme, but the maine proiect was to con­front the Apostles doctrine, and establish them more immoueably in the former superstition of the Gen­tiles, thus did Dyon, Apollonius, Euphrates, De­metrius, Musonius, Epictetus, Lucian, and others, as Baronius in his first Tome 777. pag. nay,Ad Annū. 75. the very dregs of them (sayth the Antiquarie) the Cynicke; [Page 14] and the Epicure, so violent (heere) against PAVL. Hos prae caeteris infestos sensit Christiana religio. - These were the heathen Ianizaries, the chiefe Soul­diers and speare-men against the Christian Faith, when at Rome the sides of that Religion were strucke through with their blasphemous Declamations, Et petulantiū eorum calumnijs & dicterijs miserè proscin­debatur, Baron. Ad An­num, 164. the same Baronius in his second Tome, pag. 154. Thus all violent oppositions of Christian truth had their first conception in the wombe of Philoso­phie; The Fathers which traffick't with the tumults of those times, said in effect as much, - Omnes haere­ses subornauit Philosophia, - MARCION came out of the Schoole of our Stoicke, CELSVS, of the E­picure, VALENTINVS, of that of PLATO; all heresies were the flourishings and trimmings of hu­maine Learning. Inde Aeones, & formae nescio quae, & Trinitas hominis apud Ʋalentinum. Thence those Aeones (I know not what Idaeas,) and that triple man in Valentinus, hee was a Platonist. Thence Marcions quiet God, it came from the Stoickes; And the Soule should be made subiect to Corrupti­on, - is an obseruation of the Epicures, and the deni­all of the Resurrection, the joynt opinion of their whole Schooles.Lib. de Prae­script. aduers. Haeres. And when their - Materia prima is matcht with God, it is Zeno's Discipline, and when God is said to bee a fiery Substance, Heraclitus hath a finger in it,Comment. in Nahū. ad cap. 3. thus Tertullian. S. Hierome keepes on the Catalogue - inde Eunomius prefert. Thence Eunomius drew his poyson against the Eternitie of the Sonne of God, For whatsoeuer is begotten and borne before it was begotten, was not; Thence Noua­tus blockes vp all hope of pardon for offences on Gods part, that hee might take away repentance and all suite for it, on ours. Thence Manichaeus dou­ble [Page 15] God, and Sabellius fingle person; and to be short - De illis fontibus vniuersa dogmata argumentationum suarum riuulos trahunt: - Menandrians, Saturnians, Johan. Baptist. Chrispus de Ethnic. Philos. Caute Legend. Quinar. 1. Basilidians, Ammonians, Proclians, Iulians, and the residue of that cursed Rabble, had from thence their conception, birth, nourishment, continuance. Here­upon the great Doctor of the Gentiles, writing pur­posely of their Wisedome, alledgeth no other reason why they were not wise vnto Saluation, but the wise­dome of this World. The world through Wisedome knew not God. 1. Cor. cap. 1. vers. 20. And therefore hee prescribes the Collossians a - Cauete nè vos seducat, Colos. 2.4. - Take heed least any man spoyle you through Philo­sophie and vaine deceit. Fuerat Athenis, De Praescript. aduers Haeres. S. PAVL had bin at Athens (sayth Tertullian,) and knew by his often encounter there, how desperately secular and prophane Knowledge wounded Diuine truth. Insomuch, that the Father is of opinion. Ʋnâ hac sententiâ omnes haereses damnari, in his 5. Booke a­gainst Marcion, 19. Chapter.

But whilest wee goe about to vindicate our Apo­stle, let vs not bee too iniurious to the Philosopher; The Epicure and the Stoicke had their Drosse and rubbish, yet they had their Siluer too, which had past the fornace, tryed and purified enough for the practice of a Christian. Though they had Huskes and Acornes for their Swine, yet they had Bread for Men. It was not their Philosophie was so pestilent, but the vse of it; our Apostle reprehends not the true, but the vaine; no doubt there is that which is Sanctified, as well as the Adulterate, otherwise the Fathers would neuer haue stiled Diuinitie, Philoso­phie; That is a glorious ray sent downe from Hea­uen by the Father of Light; This but strange Fire, some Prometheus stole thence, and infused into a [Page 16] peece of babling clay which circumuents weake men, and vnder a shadow and pretext of Wisedome, oftentimes carries away probabilitie for truth. And it was this latter that inflamed the youth of AV­GVSTINE to the study of it; but he was soone cool'd when hee descried the other;Cap. 4. then - Nomen Christi non erat ibi, - in the 3. of his Confessions. And the words - [...] were not now to bee read in the great Peripateti (que). - Insomuch, that that former asseueration of his - Phylosophos tantùm extuli, quan­tùm impios non oportuit, - hee recants in the first of his Retractations;Cap. 1. and against the Academicks hee is at once zealous and peremptorie. - Hujus mundi Philosophiam sacra nostra meritissimè detestantur, Lib. 3. cap 19. - Our sacred Discipline vtterly detests Philosophie; But what? The Philosophie of this world, which I know not whether it hath more conuinced, or be­gotten errour, or improued vs in our knowledge, or staggered vs.In Col. cum Trypho Indaeo. And therefore Justin Martyr, after his Conuersion from the Philosopher to the Christi­an, complayned hee was deluded by reading Plato; and Clemens Alexandrinus reports of Carpocrates and Epiphanes, who reading in PLATOES Com­mon-wealth that - Wiues ought to bee common, taught instantly their owne to follow that vertuous princi­ple,Ad Annū. 120. it is Baronius Quotat. in his 2. Tome, pag. 76. Thus the Gold which SALOMON transports from Ophyr, hammered and polished as it ought, beauti­fies the Temple, but if it fall into the hands of the Babilonians they worke it to the Ruine of the Citie of GOD.

And by this time PAVL hath past his encounter, and begins now to suspect the censure of the Philo­sopher. Hee that enters the Synagogue at Athens is to expect nimble Eares, and sharpe Tongues. If hee [Page 17] Dispute, hee must hazard an absurditie; if he Preach, hee Babbles. What hee doth on the one side lesse af­fectedly, and plaine, the Epicure wrests instantly to the censure of a Bull, what more tiersely, and polite; on the other, the Stoicke to a strong Line. Thus be­tweene the acutenesse of the one, and the supercili­ousnesse of the other, PAVL shall not scape his lash; but the comfort is, except that the Paralell (heere) exceeds the patterne, our Criticks are not number­lesse; onely, [...] - some sayd; and these some (too) very probably, but Philosophers; that is, - Gloriae a­nimalia & popularis aurae at (que) rumoris venalia manci­pia, as HIEROME characters them. Creatures that will bee bought and sold for popular applause; and when those factions are thus met, that is the issue? All they leaue behind is but a meere saying, - [...], - some sayd, - and not said onely of late, but done too, done violently against PAVL, not onely at Athens, in the Synagogue, Act. 17. v. 22. but in the hill of Mars too, the place of their consultation, where if the rude Epicure and the Stoicke cannot cry him downe e­nough, at Corinth, Iewes shall rise against him, and bring him to the judgement seate before Gallio the chiefe Deputie, for doing things otherwise then the Law; but maugre all their spight, it was found (said the Text) but a - cauill of names and wordes, Act. 18.5. - and hee is dismist the Tribunall with consent of the judge, and little glory to the Persecutor; The story you may finde in the 18. of this Booke, the applicati­on neerer home, thus. There is an out-side au­steritie which lookes grim vpon offences, and pre­tends strangely to publique Reformation; but the heart is double, and the designe base, when it is not out of zeale to the common cause, but enuy to the person. There are some which can harbour cleanly [Page 18] an inueterate grudge, and like cunning Apothecaries guild handsomely their bitter Pills; but when occa­sion of Reuenge is offred, like Wind that is crept in­to the Cauernes of the earth, it swells and struggles, and shakes the whole masse and bulke till it hath vent, which not finding close enough by their owne persons, they set their Pioners a digging, and their Moles are heauing vnder earth, thinking to blow vp all vnseene. There is no malice so desperate as that which lyes in ambush, and with her fangs hid, that proiect is euer mercilesse, though the stroake mis­carrie.

Beloued, if Athens bee thus an enemy to Athens, and will nurse vp Snakes in her owne bosome, and vultures for her owne heart, what can shee expect from the lippes of Aspes, and venome of sharpe set Tongues, which cry of her as they did sometimes of Ierusalem, - Downe with it euen to the ground? - The Ʋirgin daughter is become an Harlot, the rende­uouz of the Epicure, the Synagogue of Lewdnesse, the Pappe of exorbitancie, - [...], - Some sayd it. Some, that not onely went out from vs, but were of vs too, but whilest heere little better, then profest Epicures, at Rome (lately) bold Stoickes, and in a beardlesse austeritie, cry downe the Discipline of A­thens in open Senate; There are some so ambitious of the thing called Honour, (indeed but a meere tym­panie, and ayre of true Honour) that they will ven­ter for it through the jawes of Periurie, forgetting the loyaltie they owed to their sometimes Mother, and the fearefull engagements made her by way of Oath for the vindicating of her honour; but these haue sayd, and had they said truely, it had beene in such a high iniustice, and in sonnes too broadly dis­couers their little truth of affection, and lesse of [Page 19] iudgement. As for those ignorant cryes, the monster multitude casts vpon Athens, heere, shee hath made the obiect both of their scorne, and pitie. The wounds, the vnnaturall wounds from her owne NERO so touch our AGRIPPINA.

And now the Epicure, and the Stoicke, haue sayd, sayd, and done what they can, against PAVL, and against Athens; you haue heard their violence; please you now turne your attentions from the Phi­losopher to the Diuine, and heare - What the Babler will say.

What will this Babler say?

A GOD, at Myletum? at Lystra, Pars 2. Act 28. vers. 6. & Cap. 24, 12. MER­CVRIE? and at Athens, a Babler? Sure mens censures vary with the place, and as the Clime is seated, so is the opinion: Had they steept all their malice and wit in one head-piece, and vented it by a tongue more scurrilous then that of RABSHEKEY, they could not haue propha­ned the honour of an Apostle with a terme of such barbarousnesse and derogation. Babler; A word so foule and odious, of that latitude, and various signifi­cation in the originall, that both Translators, and Expositors,H [...]sichius - [...]. - Leonardus Are­tinus. Beza in locum, Vetus lectio. haue beene plunged strangely and deui­ded in the apt rendring it in a second Language; to omit the vulgar ones of - Nugator, Rabula, Garru­lus, Blaterator, - as of those which follow the heele and tracke of the Letter, meerely; others, which more closely pursue the Metaphor giue it vs, by - Se­minator - verborum, - a sower of words;Erasmus in lo­cum. others - Se­mini - verbius - a seeder of them, a third sort, - Semi­nilegus, [Page 20] - a gatherer of seedes, - and this latter seemes to Kisse and affie nearest with the nature of the word [...],Caietan in locū. an Atticke one, (sayes Cajetan) metophorically applyed (heere) and hath reference to those [...],Aretius in lo­cum. certayne Birds (Aretius tells vs) so called, - [...] - from gathering of Seedes, or - [...] - from sowing of Speeches, - though this latter deri­uation affect not some, as doubly peccant, in the Ety­mon, and the Metaphor; for then [...] had beene more genuine,Beza vt supra. so Beza. Birds they were of vile esteeme amongst the Athenians, vselesse, neyther for food, nor song, - Sed garritu perpetuo laborantes, - so continually Chattering, that they did racke and perplexe the eares of all that heard them, insomuch that it grew prouerbiall amongst the Atticks, Athanaeus cita­tur ab Erasmo in locum. that hee that was loude in his discourse, or impertinent or profuse, was instantly - [...], which seemes to sound one with that [...] Athanaeus touches, - [...] - quoted by Eras­mus. The first (for ought I reade) that euer made vse of the word in this disgracefull way was Demosthe­nes, Aretius & E­rasmo in locum. and hee flung it vpon Aeschines, who being an Athenian, dropt it (be like) afterwards amongst some of the Philosophers, and a Stoicke takes it vppe and bestowes it heere on an Apostle. It was well shoulder'd from the Philosopher to the Diuine; but, me thinkes it should not sticke there. Babling ill be­comes the lippes of the Leuite; and it cannot hang truely vpon that tongue which hath beene toucht with a Coale from the Altar; and sure justice can­not put it on vs, it must bee malice, or preiudice, or both, and both haue done it, not onely on vs, but that great Apostle PAVL himselfe, though choyce­ly verst in all wayes of Learning, a knowne Schol­ler, [Page 21] a profest Disputant, a great Doctor of the Gen­tiles, brought vp at the feet of Gamaliell, one that had done so many Myracles to the Conuersion of ma­ny, astonishment of all, yet hee cannot passe an A­thenian without his lash, a Philosopher without his Quip, - where the Gowne is so frequent hard baul­king the Cryticke; Lyuie will not like Trogus, nor Caligula, Lyuie; Athanaeus, Plato, or a third Atha­naeus; Tully, Demosthenes, or the Lypsiaen, Tully; so many fancies, so many censures, - no auoyding them at Athens. Nay, were PAVL a second time to ar­riue it, hee might yet perchance meete with an Epi­cure or a Stoicke, would haue a fling at him with his Quìd vult Seminilegus iste? What will this Babler say? And this Venome towards PAVL swells not onely at Athens, but at Dirbe, and Lystra, and the chiefe Cities of Lycaonia; scarce one in a Kingdome but would jerke at a Paul; and if hee chance to come before Foelix the Gouernour, some black-mouthed Tertullus will bee bawling at the barre ready bill'd with a false accusation,Act. 24.5. - This man is a mouer of Sedi­tion, goes about to pollute the Temple, a chiefe main­tayner of the Sect of the Nazarites. - Thus secular malice (through all ages) hath opposed the true mem­bers of the Church, and if it cannot disparage the ho­nour of their title, it will spitefully plot the traduce­ment of their honour. - Ʋp thou Baldpate, 2. King. 2.23. Vp thou Baldpate, Children can cry at Bethell; - and, Hee is factious, hee is vnconformable, hee is a Babler, at Athens, is the popular and common Ʋogue. Heere is a large Field offered me through which I might trauell, but this is not my way, it is too trodden; euery Hackney rodes it, I haue found out as neere a cut, though the passage may seeme more stony and vneuen; thither bend I, where I shall shew you, [Page 22] how in Diuine matters wee may bee said to Babble? how in Secular? in eyther how not? The Symptomes of that Lip-disease, the danger, the judgement on it, the cure. Let the Epicure, and the Stoicke, (a­while) lay by their censure, and heare, now - What this Babler will say? -

Hooker, lib. 5. Eccles. Pol. Speech is the very image whereby the Mind and Soule of the speaker conueyeth it selfe into the bo­some of him that heareth.Charron, lib. 3. Wisedome. The Sterne and Rother of the Soule which disposeth the hearts and affections of men, like certayne notes to make vp an exact har­mony. But this must bee soft and gentle then, not ouerscrued; It is with Speech, as it is with Tunes, if keyed too high, racke no lesse the Instrument then the eare that heares them, when those which are lower pitcht make the harmony both full, and swee­ter; your tumid and forced language harrowes the attention, when the facill and flowing stile doth not so much inuite applause, as command it; it is a gau­dy, but an emasculate and weake eloquence, which is drest onely in a pompe of wordes, and glories more in the strength of the Epythet, then the matter; this is the Body, the other but the Garment of our discourse, which wee should suite as well to euery subiect, as occasion; sometimes more liberally, sometimes more contractedly, least wee be said to Babble, Heccatus. - for it is true what Archidamus told the O­rator of old, - They which know how to speake well, know also their times of silence. - And (indeed) to speake appositely and much, is not the part of one man,Ecclus. 21.25. I am sure, not of a wise-man. - The wordes of him which hath vnderstanding, are weighed in the ballance. - Marke - weighed, in the Ballance. - Heere is deliberation of speech, euennesse - Pone Domine custodiam ori meo, Psal. 141.3. - was the Prayer of Dauid, - set a [Page 23] watch before my lippes. And in the Law of Mo­ses, the Vessell that had not the couering fastened to it was vncleane; and therefore the inner-Parts of a Foole are resembled to a broken vessell, which hath neyther part entire, nor couering, Hee can keepe no knowledge while hee liueth, Ecclus. 21.14.Plutar. Hereup­pon those more nobly bred amongst the Romans lear­ned first to hold their peace, and afterwards to speake.De 3. plici Cu­stodia: ling. man. ment. - For Vnde illi cura Cordis (saith Bernard) cui ne ipsa quidèm adhùc oris circumspectio? Hee is an ill treasurer of his owne thoughts, that keepes not the doores of his lippes shut; and that heart is neuer lockt fast vpon any secret, where a profuse tongue layes interest to the Key.

And therefore, Nature hath prouided well by for­tifying this member more then any part of the Body, setting a garrison of the strong and stout men about it, Eccles. 12. doubly intrenching it with lippes and teeth, not so much to oppose a forraine inuasion as to allay mutinies within, for the tongue is an vnruely member; and sides much with the peruersnesse of our will; and therefore Reason should keepe strict senti­nell vpon it, and as well direct, as guard it. Nature hath proportioned vs a double Eare and Eye to a sin­gle Tongue, and Reason interprets instantly - Wee should heare and see twice, ere wee speake once. And indeed our Tongues would follow our sence (sayes Augustine) and not our will,Ad Fratres in Erem. serm. 2. and the Father puts the Foole handsomely vpon him, - Qui non priùs verbum ducit ad linguam rationis, quàm educat ad linguam oris. -

Let Reason (saith the Sonne of Syrach) goe be­fore euery enterprize and counsaile to euery Action,Ecclus. 37.16. - to euery vertuous action,Aristotle Elluc. lib. 3. (besides the latter of these) the Philosopher allowes a double Aduerbe, - Scientèr, [Page 24] Constantèr. - So that euery discreet designe must haue besides Reason, Knowledge, Counsaile, Constancy; Reason and Knowledge, the pole and card to direct it; Counsaile, Constancie, to steere and ballace it. Hence it is that the tongue of a Wise man is in his heart,Ecclus. 21. and where the heart of a Foole is, no igno­rance so womanish but tels you.

So that the obseruation of S. Bernard comes seaso­nably heere,Bernard vt sup. - Nòn personam tibi velim suspectam esse, sed linguam, praesertim in sermocinatione com­muni, - In common talke wee are not to heed the person so much as the tongue, for by the babling of that wee may roue at the weight or weaknesse of the Master; for commonly hee that nothing but talkes, talkes nothing, nothing of bulke or substance, shells onely and barkes of things without their pith or kernell.

To auoyd then this disease of Babling and profuse emptying of vaine words,Marke, 9. the Disciples were pre­scribed,Leuit 12.13. Colos. 4.6. - their - Habete Sal in vobis; - and Salt (you know) was commanded of old, not only to Men, but to Sacrifices and Words. Ad Fratres in Erem. serm. 2. That to words (not sauoured aright) S. Augustine calls; - Sal insatuatum ad nullum condimentum, - it seasons nothing as it should doe, euery thing relishes amisse it toucheth. For the Bab­ler doth not measure words by their weight, but by their number, neyther regards hee what he speakes, but how much; Thus whiles he labours to perswade the eare, hee wounds it, and to inuite his hearer, he torments him. In the Leuiticall Law, the man that had - Fluxum seminis, - was vncleane; - And Grego­rie turnes the Allegorie, on the dispencers of holy Mysteries. - GODS Word is the Seed, the Prea­cher the Sower of it;August. in Pa­rab. semi [...]an. or, as The Father hath it on the Parable, - Cophinus seminantis, - the Seedesmans [Page 25] basket. - If hee bee then - Jncautè loquax, - vnpre­meditately babling. - Non ad vsum generis, sed ad immunditiam semen effundit, - and such a one in Pri­mitiue times was called - Semini-verbius, Greg lib. 2. Past. cap. 4. - the Fa­ther tels vs in the 2. part of his Pastorals, 4. Chapter. And no doubt hee that sowes ouermuch by the Tongue shall seldome fructifie, except the seed bee choice and orderly disposed,Charron. lib. 3. Speech being the more exquisite communication of Discourse and Reason, which as it should not bee too coursely open, so not inuolued;Themistocles. - Hence the Athenian compared it to a rich piece of Arras drawne out in varietie of Stories, which displayed, opened both delight and wonder, but folded vp, neyther; For, it is with Speech as with some Aromaticks and perfumes, which in the masse and role smell little, but beaten abroad fill the roome with fragancy. Matter wound vp in obscu­ritie of language growes to the nature of a Riddle, and is not so properly Speech, as Mysterie; Things that hammer onely on our eares, not our interlectu­als, are no more words, but sounds, meere - babling - ayre (onely,) beaten with distinctlesse and confused noyse, nothing of substance in it for matter, or for forme; And the man that affects such marticulate­nesse, heare how Gregory playes vpon,Nazian. in Prae­fat. Apol. - Ego solertiae nomine admiror, ne dicam, stultitiae. A Wise-man (sayes the Philosopher of old) when hee openeth his lippes,Socrates. as in a Temple wee Behold the goodly si­militudes and images of the Soule, - And indeed that Eloquence that is made the obiect of our sence, and intellectuals carries with it both maiestie and imita­tion, when that which runnes in a myst or vayle, Censure for the most part, sometimes, Pitie. Let the Babler then that thus speakes in a Cloud, - Pray that hee may interpret, 1. Cor. 14.13.1. Cor. 14.13. [...] it will require a [Page 26] Comment from his owne industry; others, are too dull to vndertake a taske of such an endlesse trauaile. It is a preposterous way of interpretation, when the glosse growes obscurer then the Text; Sermons which were first intended for the illumination of the vnderstanding, are at length growne like those an­sweres of the Oracles, both intricate and doubtfull, They will require the heate of a sublimated braine, eyther to apprehend their raptures, or to reconcile them. But why at Athens such prodigies of Lear­ning? Such monsters of affectation? Why this e­laborate vanitie? This industrious Babling? Let it no more touch the grauitie of the Typpet, or the Scarlet, as fitter for a Deske then a Pulpit, and a lash, then a reproofe. But, soft Stoicke. Let me not bee censured heere too hastily a Babler. I am not so much a friend to the slouenly discourse, as to loath that which hath a decent and modest dresse; wordes apt and choyse, I hate not, onely those tortured, and affected ones; I preferre S. Augustines golden Key before his wooden, though this may vnlocke Mysteries as well as that; yet would I not giue way to the kick-shawed discourse, where there is com­monly more sauce then meate; or, as Quintillian spake of Seneca, - Chalke without Sand, - more of lustre then of weight; It is the well wouen and sub­stantiall piece taskes mee, yet that too, not without the flourishings and intermixtures of discreet lan­guage. For it is heere as it is in Needle-workes, where wee allow light colours, so the ground bee sadde. The Brestplate of Iudgement which Aaron wore was made with embroydered workes,Exod. 28.15. and in the Ephod, there were as well diuersities of colours as of riches, - Blew silke, and Purple, and Scarlet, and fine Linnen. - That then of Epiphanius is wor­thy [Page 27] both of your memory and imitation, - whose workes were read of the simple for the wordes, of the Learned for the matter. - So, - hee that will not runne the censure of a Babler, must haue as well his deepes for the Elephant, as his shallowes for the Lambe; Knowing that some are transported with heate of fancy, and others with strength of judge­ment, and it is in the choyce of eyther, as in that of Stuffes, which some buy for the roundnesse and sub­stance of the threed, others for the lightnesse of the colour. Matter not cloathed in handsomenesse of wordes is but dusted treasure, and like some Gar­dens where there is fatnesse of earth, no Flower. Your embellisht phrase without sollidnesse of mat­ter, but - Copiosa aegestas (as Saint Augustine stiles it) a gaudie pouertie, and like some vnhappy Tilla­ges, where there is more of Poppie and Darnell, then good Corne; But, where the materials are cleane, the language keem'd, there is the workmanship of an exact Pen-man; If they are both well mixt and ce­mented, there is a choyce master-piece, Apelles himselfe hath beene there.

And howeuer, the discourse that is so brusht and swept others haue thought too effeminate for the Pulpit, yet, in some it is no way of affectation, but of knowledge. High fancies cannot creepe to hum­ble expressions, and the fault is oftentimes in the pre­iudice or weakenesse of the receiuer, not in the ela­boratenesse of the Pen-man. Sermons are not to bee measured by their sound, or the haste and vncharita­blenesse of a dull organ; the Eare is a deceitfull one, full of winding and vncertayne doores, and often carries false messages to the Sence, the Eye as it is a more subtle organ, so a more certayne, and though that bee sometimes deceiued too when it is not ma­ster [Page 28] of the distance, yet vpon stricter perusall of the obiect, it giues you vncorrupt intelligence, when wordes passe (for the most part) by our eares like tunes in a double consort, which wee may heare, not distinguish.

And yet notwithstanding, though at Athens a­mongst Philosophers, this polite way of discourse may bee passable, and draw on sometimes approba­tion, sometimes applause; yet at Ephesus (where PAVL is to encounter Beasts) it is but meere Bab­ling; Act. 26.13. And to what purpose those loftie varieties, in sprinkled Congregations? Raptures and high visi­ons are for Cesarea, Act. 28.14. when PAVL is to speake before Agrippa, thinner exhortations will serue the Bre­thren at Puteoli. - And when all those descants and quauerings of the plausible and harmonious tongue shall loose their volubilitie and sweetnesse, and for­get to warble (as the time will come (the Preacher tels vs) when all those Daughters of Musicke shall bee brought low) the plaine long must take at last,Eccles. 12. that which is set to euery capacitie and eare; and yet will affoord you, as well her varieties of satisfacti­on, as delight; to the judicious sollid fluentnesse, to apprehensions lower-roofed wayes more troden to aduise, and comfort; to the weake and Soule-sicke, the still voyce, to the obstinate, and remorselesse, lowder sounds; perchance this thunderclap may breed a shower, that shower, a sun-shine. Teares and Comfort are the successory children of reprehension, sometimes, the twinnes; Let the sword of the Spi­rit then cut both wayes, but more to reproofe, then menacing; master thy Vineger with Oyle, so thou shall not so much sharpen the heart of the Sinner, as supple it; some grow more refractary by rebuke, and some more flexible; For, it is with [Page 29] the word of a Preacher, as it is with Fire, which both mollifies and hardens Steele, according to the varietie of heates. If wee deriue onely from one Throne coles of fire, and hot Thun­derbolts, wee kindle dispaire in him wee teach, not reformation; It is the temperate and gentle fire sparkles into zeale, when that which is too high and turbulent growes at an instant both flame and ashes. Let the Righteous smite mee friendly (sayes the Kingly Prophet) but let not their pre­cious balmes breake my head. Psal. 141.5. - I allow repre­hension a Rod, but not a Fleyle, a hand to (lash the transgressions of the time, not as some doe to thresh them.

PAVL will prescribe the Spirituall combatant a Sword, but not a Speare;Achillis. except hee had the Greci­ans, - which would both wound and cure. Marah may haue bitter waters, but Gilead must haue balme too for the broken heart. Where sinnes are full kern'd and ripe, I deny not a Sickle to cut them downe, but the sinner, whither as Corne for the Barne, or Chaffe for the fire, I leaue to the dispo­sall of the great Haruestman.

In the apparition of GOD to Eliah, on Mount Horeb, (you know the Text,1. King. 19.11.12. and therefore guesse at the allusion.) A strong winde rent the Mountaines, and brake in pieces the Rocke, before the Lord; but the Lord was not in it, and there was a great Earthquake and a Fire, but the Lord was not in it. And in those windes and fires, and earth­quakes which are both seene and heard on our Horeb heere, the Lord oftentimes is not in them, for then the mountainous and rockie heart would bee cleft a sunder, now it is vnbattered and rib'd with Adamant proofe against perswasion,

Knowing that these are but Men of Thunder, counterfeit thunder too, and there is a GOD that rules the true, his hot bolts and coles of Fire they quake and tremble at, not those fire-workes, and squibs, and flashes heere below, which spleenaticke men fling about (as they thinke) to terrour, but they returne by scorne.Be [...]nard de tri­pl [...]ci Custod. It is true (sayes Bernard) - Ser­mo est Ventus, but it is not alwayes, - Ventus vrens, - surge Aquilo, veni Auster, perfla hortum meum, & fluant Aramata illius, - Arise O North, and come O South (the one (you know) is moyst, and the other cold) yet both of these must blow on the garden of the Spouse, that the Spices thereof may flow out,Cant. 4.6. Cant. 4.6. In the Song of Moses, did not Do­ctrine drop as the raine? and Speech still as dew? as the shower vpon Hearbes? and as the great raine vpon the Grasse [...]?Deut. 32.2. I confesse, on Synay once there was a thicke Cloud, Lightning and Thunder, and the mountayne smoaked;Exod. 20.18. but the Text sayes, - The people fledde from it. - But on mount Tabor, the Cloud was bright, the Sunne cleere, and a Voyce heard in stead of Thunder, and then the Disciples cry, - Edificemus Domine, Mat. 17.2.4, 5. - Let vs build heere.

Amongst the numberlesse Gods the Heathens had, and the diuers wayes of Sacrifice they appeased them with, the Romaines had their - Hostiam Animalem, - in which the Soule onely was consecrated to GOD, [...] the Host they offered must bee pure and choyse, not of Bulls or Swine, as creatures fierce and vn­cleane, but of Kids and Lambes, more innocent and milde, and of these too, such as were not lame, or diseased, or had - Caudam aculeatam, or, - Lin­guam nigram, Alexand. ab A­lex. lib. 3. cap. 12 - sayes my Antiquary. You see stings in the tayle, and blacknesse in tongue are exempted heere and thought vnfit for this sacrifice of the Soule.

Let the virulent Babler leaue the Letter and take the Allegorie, and hee hath applyed; - For venemous and foule language doth exasperate and obdure euen those which the modest and gentle pierces. Let Bil­lowes beate against a Rocke, they fall backe without wounding it, yet if moderate and gentle drops fall on a Stone they hollow it, not by violence,Jn Praefat. A­polog. but the of­ten Distillation. Sheepe (sayes Nazianzene) are not to bee gouerned by rigour, but perswasion; all those impulsions of necessitie and force, carry with them a shew of tyrannie, and hold neyther with Na­ture nor obseruation,Idem Ibid. - Non secùs ac planta per vim manibus inflexa, - sayes the Father. Bend a Plant (and it is with most men as it is with plants) it turnes againe. There was neuer disposition, not cowardly and base, that violence could worke vpon. Ingenui­tie if it bee not alwayes voluntary, it may bee ledde sometimes, but neuer drawne; And therefore Peter feeds his Flocke, not by constraint, but willingly, and (as your common Bablers neuer doe) not for filtby Lucre, but a ready minde. 1. Peter, 5.2.1. Pet. 5.2. And indeed it is this filthy-Lucre - hath occasioned so many Bab­lers in our Church, those that will say any thing for the inhauncement of their profite, the improuing of their Stipend; Brey at Vniuersities for a morsell of bread; giue blowes against Learning, make scarres in the face of Knowledge, cry downe the vse of Arts, or what is curiously strung in secular Lear­nings, abandon them from the lippes of the Prea­cher, and confine him onely to a sacred dialect with­out intermixture of prophane Knowledge, or sleeke of humane Eloquence; No marrow of the Father, no subtilty of the Schoole-man, no grauitie of the Philosopher, no policie of the Historian; thereby de­priuing the Church of varietie of Guifts, and mana­cling [Page 32] and pinning the Holy Ghost to a defect of all outward ornaments, as if that winde which bloweth where it list were forbad to breath any where but in their new-fangled and braine-sicke en­deauours.

Hence it is, that the distribution of holy Mysteries growes so to contempt, the dispencers of them enti­tled to tearmes of obloquy and scorne, exposed to the Paraphrase and Comment of the jeering aduersary. Our Athens disparaged, Learning of no price and value, Preaching, Babling, and the mayne reason and inducement why the whole body of Arts thus reeles and wauers. I haue at length met the Babler, I desi­red to grapple with, and wee must exchange a few blowes ere wee part, in which I shall bee home with­out much florish. Stoicke, once more forbeare. Stand aloofe till wee haue past this Duell, then let thy censure fall, as the wounds doe, Iustly. Suppose we then a man harnessed and clad with all the glories and habiliments of Nature, besides the rich dowrie and treasure of Art and Knowledge, yet say I not that this man without a supernaturall light from the Scripture, is able to vtter those Mysteries as hee ought, eyther in their strength, or decencie. Doubt­lesse, the best of ours, eyther for depth of Know­ledge, or sublimitie of Inuention, or accuratenesse of Composure, or cleannesse of Zeale, are comparatiue­ly meere Bablings, and fall many bowes short of those inspired ones of old; neyther are they Gods word (sayes Hooker) in the same manner that the Sermons of the Prophets were,Lib. 5. Ecclest. Polit. no they are ambigu­ously tearmed his Word,Doct. Cowels Defence, in the Chapter of Preaching. and are no more the same, then is the Discourse the Theame, or the Line the Rule, by which it is drawne; yet haue they a peculi­arity both of vertue and successe; strange preroga­tiues [Page 33] ouer the sodaine passions and affections of most men, whom they not leade onely but entangle, and not fetter barely, but entraunce; in a word, they raigne ouer vs and establish a violent empire and command ouer our very Soules. Diuinitie we con­fesse the soueraigne Lady and Queene of all Sciences, Arts (if you approue the stile) her Maydes of ho­nour. Are wee not sacriligious then to the state of Soueraigntie when wee rob it of her trayne? The chiefest complement of Greatnesse is the retinue, take away her equipage you disnoble it. Barre sa­cred Learning of the attendance of that which is secular, Arts, Sciences, you disrobe it, strip it of its glory.Diuinity (saith Basill) is the fruit, Arts as the leaues, and leaues are not onely for or­nament but succour. * Certaine truths in her cannot fully bee dis­couered without some measure of Knowledge in them all. The Axiomes and principles of Humanitie though they a little runne by those of Diuinitie, yet they doe not thwart them, there may bee difference, no contrarietie, no not in those things which seeme to carry a shew of contrariety. Reason our Mistresse tels vs, - Verum vero consonat, - and Truth stands di­ametrically opposed to Falshood, not to a second truth; for - Vero nil verius, - Philosophicall truths challenge the same sowrce and pedigree Theologicall doe, the same fountaine, and Father, GOD, and are of the like Truth, though not of the like Authority.

Hence flowes that admirable consent and harmony between the naturall patefactions of GOD, and the supernaturall;Amand. Polan. lib. 2. Logic. fol. 213. for from God is both Reason and Scripture, and Reason being obscured by Sinne, and blemished by her many errours, the Scripture doth vnscale and beames againe, and so sets her free from her former obliquities and digressions,De Fuga saculi. Cap. 3. the light of Nature being dimmed (saith Ambrose) was to bee cleared by the Law, the wrests of the Law by the [Page 34] Gospell, so that Grace doth not abolish Nature, but perfect it,August. in Psal. 10 [...]. neyther doth Nature reject Grace (saith Augustine) but imbrace it. Nay, my Author (and I haue gleaned I confesse some few eares of Corne from his more plentifull crop) quotes Tertullian too very appositely,Theolog. Logic, pag 200. (and 'tis like Tertullians both for the marrow and the reach.) - God first sent Nature to bee our Schoolemistresse, being after to send Prophe­sie, that thou being first the Disciple of Nature, mightest afterwards the more easily bee induced to beleeue Prophesie. Wee may not thinke then the Ipse Dixit of the Philosopher, or the weighty depositions of prophane Authors, to bee meere Chimaeraes, fruitlesse Fancies, Bablings of no consequence; though some of them were not true Visions, yet they were not all starke Dreames, PAVL then would neuer haue confu­ted the Idolaters of Athens with their owneAct. 17.28. Text, - Some of your owne Poets haue sayd it; There may bee much Hay and Stubble amongst them, but there is some Gold, and precious Stones; try them, if they indure not the touch, throw them by as mettals too course and drossie; but if there be rich Oare mixt with veynes of Earth, why not separated? Why not purged by the fire of Gods word? Why may not this stranger to Israell, her head shauen, and the haire of her eye-browes cut bee admitted into the Sanctu­ary? If one Copernicus bee troubled with the Ver­tigo, and would haue the earth runne round as his head does, shall a whole Sect of Aristotelians bee lyable to a disease of giddinesse? Though a Stoicke or an Epicure oppose PAVL, yet at Athens there were Academickes, and Peripatetickes, Philoso­phers too, without their tumult, and for ought the Text caueat's mee to the contrary, they were his [Page 35] Conuerts too. And it is euident that the Apostles, and after them the Fathers,Doct. Cowell. made Arts the Chiefe wea­pons against the Enemies of the Church, for as some opinions would not bee conuinced without humane Learning,August. so others affections would not bee per­swaded without that eloquence, thus they wounded the Heresies and Apostasies of their times, when the Reuolted Iulian was impelled to say;Greg. Nazian. - We are strucke through with our owne Darts. - All Science what­soeuer is in the nature of good; and good is good, wheresoeuer I finde it.August. de Bap­tist. contra Do­tist. l [...]b. 6. cap. 2. Ʋpon a withered branch (sayes Augustine to his Donatist) a Grape some­times may hang, shall I refuse the Grape because the staulke is withered? If on a tempestuous shore I meete by chance a rich piece of Amber, or richer Pearle, amongst oare, and shels, and froath, and sands, shall I refuse eyther for the stench of the place or the companions? I haue seldome read of any thing but a foolish Cocke that refused Treasure, though on a dunghill. I know Heathens had their slime and mud, and some of their streames ranne impurely, yet they had their Christall fountaynes too, especially the Platonists, of which wee might draw, and drinke, and drinke our fill, and drinke as our owne, too, (Augustine sayes) they being in the tenure of vn­iust possessors.August. lib 2. de Doct. Christi­ana cap. 40. For as the Israelites (it is the Fathers similitude) tooke from the Aegyptians their Idols, and Rings, and siluer, & Gold, and bestowed the same vpon the adorning of the Lords Tabernacle, which they had abused by pride and ryot, to the beautifying of the Temples of their false Gods, and did this - Non auctoritate propriâ sed praecepto (sayes the Father) not by the instigation of their owne will, but by mandat, sic Doctrinae omnes Gentilium, non solum simulata & superstitiose figmenta, &c. So all those Doctrines of [Page 36] the Gentiles (their superstitious fictions expunged and layd by) their liberall Disciplines and Precepts of manners (which were their Gold and Siluer) may bee reduced to the vse of sacred Learning, and a Christian may challenge them - Ad vsum justum praedicandi Euangelij, - they are the Fathers owne wordes. - Howeuer hee puts in a caueat by the way - a - sed hoc modo instructus, - the Diuine that is thus accommodated when hee shall addresse himselfe to the vse and search of these heathen treasures, - Illud Apostolicum cogitare non cesset, 1. Cor. 8. - Scientia inflat, chari­tas aedificat, - in his Lib. 2. de Doct. Christian. 40. Cap. I neuer yet read that the true vse of secular Learning tooke from the glory of that which was Diuine, I haue, that it hath added, nor that any thing gleaned and pickt, and culled with a cleane hand was distast­full vnto GOD, I haue that it was approued. I know there is a Ʋenomous eloquence (as Cyprian wrote of that of Nouatus) and this perchance the Babler himselfe vses,Epist. ad Cornel. when hee leades silly Creatures captiue, but it is odious both to GOD and Man, and hath beene the maine Engine in all Ages by which Schismes and Heresies haue wrought. In those Sa­crifices of old, Leuit. 4.5. You know whatsoeuer was vncleane, was an abomination vnto the Lord; the Offering it selfe must bee without blemish, the Altar seuen dayes cleansed before it was layd on, the Priest too washed before the Congregation, ere hee dared to immolate; and why not so in this Holocaust and Sacrifice of the lippes? Why not the Offering with­out blemish, the Altar cleansed, the Priest so in his Discourse too, that what is kindled heere may burne as a sweet Incense vnto the Lord? smells that are vn­sauoury neuer touch his nostrils, sounds harsh and jarring, neuer his eares; and therefore, the Bells of [Page 37] Aaron were of pure Gold,Greg Nazian. Apolog. - Ne subaeratum ali­quod tinniat in Sacerdotio, - saith Gregory.

It is a sullennesse, or rather policy, most in our age haue got, that what is in a way of eminence and per­fection, they censure as a piece of affectation or curi­ositie, when (God knowes) it is but to colour some sinister pretence, and for a fairer varnish of their owne weaknesses. You know the story of the Pain­ter and the Cocke, and the Boy that kept the liue ones from his shop least comming too nigh, the vn­skilfulnesse of that hand should bee discouered, which had drawne the other at so rude a posture.

There is a malicious ignorance possesseth many, by which they vnder-value all things aboue their spheare, and cry downe that industry or Art in o­thers, which is beyond rhe verge and fathome of their owne abilities. But why should Moles repine that other see? Or Cripples murmure that others halt not? Tolle quod tuùm est & Vade. Hierom. ad Col­phurnium. Yet loe how euen those last and gasping times keepe vp with the manner of those of old, both in their spleene and weakenesse. There bee (saith the Father to his Marcellinus) that account inciuilitie of Manners and rudenesse of Speech, true Holinesse,Hieronimus. - and with such, - Quis non Ʋicus abundat? Would I could not say, - Quae Academia? These Cynickes are in eue­ry Tub, these Stoickes heere at Athens. But why should the talke of such bee a burthen in our way? Learning vnto a Wise-man is as an ornament of Gold, and like a bracelet on his Arme,Eccles. 21.15. but Fetters a­bout the feete, and Manackles about the hands; of whom? of him that (but now) was the burthen in the way, the Foole, Ecclus. 21.21. whom least wee should leaue without his companion, Syracides brings home to the gates of the Babler, and I will leaue him there, [Page 38] - As a house that is destroyed, Ecclus. 21.18. so is Learning to a Foole, and his Knowledge is but talke without sence, Ecclus. 21.18. the tayle of the Verse carryeth the sting; for much of our Bablers knowledge is little better then - Sermo sine sensu, Wordes without Salt, Speech with­out Ballace. And yet (good Lord) how these lampes burne in our Tabernacles, these Bells sound in our Sanctuary? They are the thunderbolts of our Congregations, the Hotspurres of our Pulpits. A­gainst the sinnes of the time they clacke loude, and often, but it is like Mills driuen by a hasty torrent, which grinde much, but not cleane; And indeed it is not much they grinde neyther, in substance, but in shew, neyther is the labour so superlatiue, as the noyse. Some that haue been conuersant in the trade, say, that Corne that is cleane and massie, will lye long in the wombe and body of the Mill and requires all the industry of stone and water, and will not bee deliuered without some time and trauaile, when graines which are mixt and course, runne through with lesse difficultie, and more tumult. The Babler will apply. Thus wee see empty vessels sound much, and shallow streames runne swift and loude, but on barren grounds, when those deeper ones glide slow­ly, as with more grauitie, so more silence, yet on fat soyles, and so the neighbouring Fields grow fertile with their abundance. If all truth of Religion raigned in the Tongue, and the subduing of our ma­nifold rebellions in the mortification of the Looke, there were no sanctitie but here. - But the heate of this mans zeale, is like that of Glasse, which will bee blowne into any forme according to the fancy of him that blowes it, sometimes into that of a Serpent, sometimes of a Doue, but more often of a Serpent, then of a Doue, not for the wisedome of it, but the [Page 39] venome. Euery word is a sting against the Church, her Discipline, truth of Gouernment, Hee Bab­bles shrewdly against each Institution of it, State, Ceremonies, makes them adulterate, the dres­ses of the Great whore, and sets all without the walls of reformation, which Wheele and Role not with the giddinesse of his tenents. The Golden-mouthed Homilist in his fourth vpon the Acts, Chrysost. speaking of that miraculous way of the Holy Ghosts descent vpon the Apostles in the day of Penticost, obserues nimbly, thus; - There came a sound from Heauen, - As it were - of a Rushing and mightie winde, and there appeared to them Clouen tongues, - As it were - of Fire, - Rectè vbi (que) additum est, - Ʋelut - ne­quid sensibile de Spiritu suspicareris, - sayes the Fa­ther. - And indeed, in those phanaticke Spirits, though the Tongues bee fiery, and the voyce as the Windes, rushing; yet in themselues there is nothing sensible; For as those which appeared to the Apostles, were but - Ʋelut igneae, Chrysost Homil, 4. in Act. - and Ʋelut flatus, - so this orall vehemency is but - Velut Ze­lus, and Velut Indignatio, - False fire, or, at best, but some hot exhalation in the braine set on fire by continuall motion and agitation of the Tongue, and there it burnes sometimes to the madnesse of the Professour, most times, of the Disciple. Againe, these Tongues are said to sit vpon the A­postles, - Sedendi verbum stabilitatem ac mansio­nem denotat, the same Father - sitting presupposes Stabilitie and Mansion, but most of these haue neyther, eyther in their opinion, or course of life, but as the contribution ebbes or flowes; so they hoyse, or strike sayle, eyther way, sometimes for the wide mayne, sometimes for the next harbour. [Page 40] Againe, the Apostles are sayd there, to bee filled with the Holy Ghost. - Rectè repleti, nòn enim vulgaritèr acciperunt gratiam Spiritus, sed eosque vt impleren­tur, the Father still. - Where the Spirit powres out it leaues no part emptie, it doth fill, fill vp euen to the brim, giues power of speaking roundly, and ful­ly; where it doth giue power, - no Rhumaticke En­thusiasmes, no languishing ejaculations, but such as the Spirit indeed haue dictated, such as flow from lippes immediately touched with the true Cherubin, and a Tongue swolne with inspiration. Againe, the Tongues which sate vpon the Apostles were clouen Tongues, Vide Geneua Notes in 2. chap. Acts. other tongues, Vers. 4. and S. Marke calls them new Tongues. They were not confined then to a single dialect to Babling meerely in our Mother tongue, but the Text sayes they had diuers Tongues, of the Parthian, and Mede, and Elamite, Phrygi­an, and Pamphilian, and of those of Lybia which is beside Cyrene, And in those and (other Tongues too) they spake the wonderfull workes of God. Act. 2.11. Lastly, this Vision they saw when they were in the Temple, not in a Cloyster, a Barne, a Wood, a Conuenticle, and they were in the Temple with one accord too, with one Office, one Spirit, one Minde, one Faith; not heere a Separatist, there a Brownist, yonder a Familist, neere him an Anabaptist, but as their Faith was one, so was their life, and (if brought to the test) their death too. That was not Religion with them which was deuided,Plin. lib 18. cap. 2. nor that not vnity of opinion which they would not burne for. Some Heathens haue shewed such resolution and truth e­uen in their false Religion; such were those - Ar­uales Sacerdotes - of olde amongst the Romaines, Caesar. lib. 3. Galli. the Solduni amongst the Aquitans; the Aegiptians also had their [...], so called, because, pro­miscuously [Page 41] enioying each others benefites, as in one Religion, so in one Loue, they would dye together;Alex. ab Alex. Lib. 1. Cap. 26. & Cap. 12. lib. 3. such were the Hunnes, Hyberi, Cantabri, and others, which were joynt-sharers of each others miseries, and fortunes; and if one by disaster or disease met with Calamitie, or Fate, the other sought it. —

— Placìdam (que) petunt pro vulnera mortem.

If in matters therefore as well Morrall as Di­uine, there was such reciprocation of old; and not onely in Religions, which were tainted, and smelt not of the true GOD, but in that too which hath beene touched and influenced by the Spirit of the Almightie, there was such punctuall correspon­dence then, why such combustion now? Why those dayly scarres and wounds both by the Tongue, and Penne? Why so much gall in our Pulpit, such wormewood at the Presse? Why those Ciuill-warres in our owne tenents? Such stabbings in particular opinions? Such heart-burnings in our Brethren? to the great disquiet of our Mother, Church, and her Sonne they so labour to disinherit, the Protestant, the wounded Protestant, who hath beene now so long Crucified betweene the - non - Conformist and the Romanist, that at length hee is inforced to flye to Caesar for sanctuary, and in the very rescue and Appeale, like the poore man be­tweene Jerusalem, and Jerico, hee falls into the hands of Thieues, two desperate cut-throates and enemies to the Truth, and him, the Pelagian and the Armi­xian. But no more (beloued) of those Daggers and Stillettoes to our owne brests by the cruelty of our owne Tribe; Know, dissention is the very gate of ruine, and the breach at which destruction enters. [Page 42] Ciuill-warres are as dangerous in matters of Re­ligion as State, and proue the Earth-quakes both of Church and Common-wealth. The story of the Romanes shafts is both old, and troden, but very per­tinent; in the Bandle they neuer felt injury of hand, one by one were the conquest of a finger, and Tacitus speakes of Apronius Souldiers; - Satìs validi si si­mul, &c. as long as they marched in their combined rankes they stood aloofe all danger, but, these deui­ded, they grew the prey and slaughter of the Aduer­sary; and thus - Dùm singuli pugnunt, vniuersi vin­cuntur. A mutiny or rent in an Army is the Souldiers passing-bell, Death followes, or dispaire of victory, when those which are knit-vp in one heart of cou­rage and affection trample on distrust as if they had already worne the palme and glory of their Try­umph. A [...] it speeds no better in a deuided Church, where Scismes and Factions like so many rents and breaches, haue hewed-out, a way to her ouerthrow and ruine. No more struglings then by vnnaturall twinnes in the wombe of our Rebecca. No more warre in her members, no more Bablings in their tongue, no more venome in their Penne, to the great aduan­tage of the Aduersary, whose artillery is ready, his bow bent, the arrow on the string and malice leuel­ling at the very bosome of the Church, (I pray God, not of the State too) and waites onely opportunity to loosen it. But let vs with all humblenesse of mind, meekenesse, Ephes. 4. ver. 2.3 4.5.6. long suffering (supporting one another through loue) endeauour to keepe the vnity of the Spi­rit in the bond of peace, knowing there is one Body, one Spirit, one Lord, one Faith, one Baptisme, one GOD, and Father of all, who is aboue all, through all, and in you all.

And now PAVL hath bin at Athens, past his [Page 43] bickerings with the Epicure, and the Stoicke, had their censure, - Hee is a Babler. - He is now rigged for Corinth, and by this time arriued there, where I leaue him - Jn earnest Disputation with the Graecians in the Synagogue. Act. 19.5. The Stoicke is returned to his Porch too, the Epicure to his Garden. But heere is an A­thens too, though no PAVL, or at least no such Paul; and yonder sits a Stoicke and hee whispers to his Epicure, - What will this Babler say? He sayes - Glory to GOD on high, in Earth peace, goodwill to­wards men. Hee sayes, hearty and true Allegeance to his Soueraigne, - wishes the budding and continu­ance of a temporall Crowne heere, and the assurance of an immortall one hereafter. - Hee sayes, florishing to his Church, his Common-wealth, his People; swift and fierce destruction to his Enemies foraigne, and (if hee haue any such) domestique. - Hee sayes courage to his Nobility, vnity to his Clergie, loue to his Gentry, loyaltie to his Commonalty. In fine; Hee sayes prosperity to Athens (heere) vnanimity, true brotherhood, happie successe to your stu­dies, to your designes; and The grace of our Lord IESVS CHRIST to you all, and with you all. Amen.

Gloria in excelsis Deo.

IACOB and ESAV: Elec …

IACOB and ESAV: Election. Reprobation.


BY Humphry Sydenham Mr. of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM Colledge in OXFORD.

August. lib. 7. de Trinitate.

Qui videt haec, vel ex parte, vel per speculum in aenigmate, gaudeat cognoscens Deum, & gratias agat, qui verò non, tendat per pie­tatem fidei ad videndum, & non per caecitatem ad calumnian­dum.

LONDON, Printed for IOHN PARKER. 1626.

TO MY MOST HONOVR'D FRIEND William Brouncker Es­quier, This.


WHere I owe a iust ser­uice, and would pub­lish it, I lesse feare the censure of vain-glo­ry, than of vnthanke­fulnesse; you know the age is both tart, and nimble, in her Para­phrase on those which would be Men in Print; I haue found it; yet will rather hazard the im­putation of a weake man, than an vngratefull: Howeuer, I desire not so much to expose my la­bours [Page] to the world, as my loyaltie, that others might take notice how much you haue beene mine in your cherishing of those, and how I am euer yours in my expressions of this. He that doth but tacitely acknowledge the bounties of a noble friend, in a manner buries them, when he that proclaimes them, hath in a part requi­ted; he hath repayed his honour, and therefore him, and so hath satisfied, though not restored. If this publike thankfulnesse of mine, for those daily fauours, shall meet with so mercifull an interpretation of yours, I esteeme not any rigid one of the times; I cannot gloze with them, nor you, yet shall endeuour to be reputed one of those who vnfeinedly honours you, and will doe, whilst I weare the name, and title of

Your euer friend, and seruant HVM: SYDENHAM.


ROM. 9.18.

He will haue mercy on whom he will haue mercy; and whom he will, he hardeneth.

THe Text holds some Analogie with the Times we liue in, fraught with no lesse subtilty, than danger; and as an vndiscreeter prouidence is soone oreshot in those, so in this too. We are not here then to cheat our Auditory with a thin discourse; Mysterie is our Theame and sub­iect, the very Battlement and Pinacle of Diuinity, which he that too boldly climbes, falls headlong into errour. A taske, though perchance disproportionable to youthfull vndertakings, and may from such challenge the censure of a vaine-glorious enterprise: yet giue me leaue to re­turne, though not satisfaction, answer. In sacred Riddles what wee cannot resolue, giue vs leaue to contemplate; and what not comprehend, admire: where our pencill failes vs to limme in so curious a Portraiture, weele play Timanthes, and shadow with a vaile; and when our rea­son is once non-plust, we are husht in a contented wonder. [Page 2] Where we may behold the Almighty (in a full shower) powring downe his blessings vpon some, scarce deawing or sprinkling them on others; softning this Wax, and hardening that Clay, with one and the selfe-same sunne, (his will) and yet that will not clouded with iniustice. Here is that will not onely stagger, but entrance a car­nall apprehension; Not a circumstance which is not e­qually loaded with doubt and amazement, and whose discussing will no lesse inuite than command attention. That which in common passages of Diuinity doth but transport our thought, in those more mysticall will cap­tiuate: Euery word is knotty, and full of brambles, and requires the hand of an exact industry.

It behoues vs then to be wary of our choice, how ei­ther we traffique here with corrupt antiquity (where but to taste were to surfeit) or with that moderne Nauie of Expositors, where mixture of opinion will rather cloy than feed, and confound than informe our vnderstan­ding. I desire not to paraphrase on a reuerend errour, nor to chastise there where I beg information. I shall onely request gray haires thus farre to dispence with me, that where their Candle burnes dimly and uncertainly, I may borrow light of a more glorious flame. Not then to beguile time and so noble an attention with quaint­nesse of preamble, or diuision; The parts here are, as the persons, and their condition, Two, Mercy for whom he will, and they are Sheepe; Hardening for whom he will, and these are Goats. Let vs first put them on the right hand, and we shall finde a Venite Benedicti. Come ye bles­sed, here is mercy for you; After, these on the left hand, and we shall meet with an Ite maledicti, Goe ye cursed, here is hardening for you: Both which, when wee haue in a carefull separation orderly distinguished, we shall make here the will of the Almighty as free from iniustice, as there his censure, He will haue mercy on whom he will, &c.

PART. I. He will.

THat the will of God is the principall efficient cause of all those workes which he doth externally from himselfe, so that there is no superiour or precedent cause mouing and impelling it, shines to vs no lesse from the eternity of his will, than the omnipotency; for with that double attribute Augustin doth inuest it in his 2. booke contra Manichaeos, cap. 2. And seeing there is nothing be­fore his will, as being eternall; nothing greater, as being omnipotent; we inferre with that learned Father, that Neque extra, vel vltra illam causa inquirenda; There is no cause either without, or beyond it, that being the source and fountaine of all causes, as by a more particular suruey of Gods workes we shall discusse hereafter. For il­lustration. In his eternall decree, why are some marked out as inheritours of his Sion? others againe expulsed, and banished those blessed Territories? they as vessels of mercy, for the manifestation of his goodnesse; these of furie, for the promulgation of his iustice? Doubtlesse the wil, & the bene-placitū of the Almighty as the prima­ry & immediate cause, whereof if there be any more sub­ordinate, they haue all alliance and dependancy on it, Tanquam à principali intentione primi agentis. Like inferi­our Orbes which haue their influence & motion from a higher mouer. I need not trauaile far either for proofe or instance; our Chapter is bountifull in both. What was the cause that God did chuse Iacob and reiect Esau? The mediate and secondary cause, was, because he loued Ia­cob, and not Esau. But why is his loue incommunica­ble, and as it seemes, in a partiall reseruation, peculiar to that more than this? I know not a more plausible and higher motiue than his will. Insistendum ergò in parti­culas, [Page 4] cuius vult, & quem vult. Our enquiry here must be cautelous, and slow of foot, lest wee run violently in­to errour. Here is a cuius vult onely for him that hee hath mercy on, and but a quem vult for him he hardens; vltra quas procedere non licèt, saith Caluin. Here is the vtmost Verge & Pillar where reason durst to coast; what is beyond is either vnknowne, or dangerous; how e­uer some vain-glorious braines (ambitious of mysteri­ous and abstruser knowledge) haue inscribed here their Multi pertransibunt, & augebitur scientia. But in so stickle & dangerous a torrēt, how are they o'rewhelmed at last? and whilst they so ventrously climbe this steeper turret, throwne desperately into heresie? For mine owne part, I haue euer thought curiosity in diuine affaires but a quaint distraction, rather applauding an humble (yet faithful) ignorance, than a proud and temerarious know­ledge. And had some of the Fathers beene shot-free of this curious insolence, they needed not haue retreated from former Tenents, & so much indeared posterity, no lesse in the reuiew than retractation of laborious errors: Amongst whom S. Augustine (though since entituled Malleus Haereticorum) shared not a little in the 83. of his Questions, and 68. Where expounding our place of the Apostle, would thus vindicate the Almighty from iniu­stice; that God foresaw that in some, Quo digni sunt iu­stificatione; that in others, Quo digni sunt obtusione; so making Gods will to depend on a foreseene merit. A position that doth not onely repugne the discipline of holy storie, but thwarts the maine tide & current of or­thodox antiquity, as in a fuller discourse we shall display anon: and therefore in his 7. Booke de Praedestinatione Sanctorū, cap. 4. he doth chastise his former tenents with a Deus non elegit opera, sed fidem in praescientiâ; That God did not elect Iacob for foreseene workes, but faith. But because in saith there is as well a merit, as in workes, he once more rectifies his opinion in the first of his Retra­ctations [Page 5] and 23, where he doth peach his sometimes ig­norance, and ingeniously declares himselfe, that—Non­dum diligentius quaesiuit, nec inuenit mysteria, he had not yet throughly sifted that of the Apostle, Rom. 11.5. That there was a remnant according to the election of grace, which, if it did flow from a foreseene merit, was rather restored than giuen, and therefore (at last) he informes his owne judgement, and his Readers thus; Datur qui­dem fideli sed data est etiam prius ut esset fidelis; Grace is given to the faithfull, but it is first given that he should be faithfull, Hence Lumbard in his 1 booke, 41 distincti­on, pathetically, Elegit quos voluit Deus gratuitâ miseri­cordiâ, non quia fideles futuri erant, sed ut essent, nec quià crediderant, sed ut fierent credentes. God out of the prero­gatiue of his will, and bounty of his goodnesse, hath cho­sen whom he pleased, not because they were faithfull, but because they should be, and not of themselues beleeuing, but made so. And therefore, that Ʋt sim fidelis, 1 Cor. 7.25. beares a remarkable emphasis. I haue obtained mercie that I might be faithfull, not that I was. Here the Pelagian startles, & lately backt with a troope of Armini­ans, takes head against this truth, fancying and dreaming of certain causes without God, which are not subsisting in God himselfe, but externally mouing the will of God to dispose and determine of seuerall euents, laying this as an unshaken principle, Fidem esse conditionem in obiecto eli­gibili ante electionem; That faith and obedience (fore­seene of God in the Elect) was the necessary condition and cause of their election. I intend not here a pitcht field against the vpstart Sectarie, for I shall meet him anon in a single combat: my purpose now is to be but as a scout, or spie, which discouers the weaknesse of his aduer­sary, not stands to encounter. And indeed both the time and place suggest me rather to resolue, than debate; and convince, than dispute an errour. That faith then, or any praeexisting merit in the person to be elected, was [Page 6] the cause of his election, is neither warrantable by reason nor primitiue Authoritie. For God could not foresee in the elect any faith at all, but that which in after times he was to crowne them with, and therefore not conside­rable as any precedent cause of election, but as the effect and fruit, and consequent thereof.

The primary and chiefe motive then is that [...], Ephes. 1.5. the good pleasure of Gods will, which, prompted of it selfe, without any reference to praeexisting faith, obedience, merit, as the qualities, cause, or conditi­on of it, hath powred grace on this man more than that; Non solum in Christo, Synod. Dort. sed per Christum. And therefore (as that late venerable Synode hath awarded it) Non ex illis conditionibus facta est, sed ad illas; That election was not fram'd of these conditions, but to them, as to their effect and issue. And if we commerce a little with passa­ges of holy story, we shall find that our election points rather to the free will of God in his eternall councell, than to any goodnesse in vs which God foresaw: so Acts 13.48. where we read of the Gentiles, that many beleeued because they were ordained to eternal life, and not there­fore ordained because they formerly beleeued. And if we will not suffer our minds to bee transported either with scruple or noueltie, the text is open, Ephes. 1.4. He hath chosen vs before the foundations of the world were laid, that we might be holy, not that we were. And in this very Chapter, verse 23. The vessels of mercy are first said to be prepared to mercy, then cald: and therefore Saint Austin in his 86. Tract upon Iohn, out of a holy indigna­tion, doth check the insolence of those, Qui praescientiam Dei defendunt contra gratiam Dei; Which in matters of saluation, obscure and extenuate the grace of God with the foreknowledge of God: for if God did therefore chuse vs, because he did know, and foresee that wee would be good, he did not chuse vs to make vs good, but wee rather chose him, in purposing to be good, [Page 7] which if it did carry any shew either of probabilitie, or truth, we might question our Apostle, who in his 8 here, and 29. no lesse perswades, than proues, that those which God foreknew he did predestinate to be con­form'd to the image of his sonne, and therefore God did not chuse vs, because before election there was a con­formitie in vs, but because from all eternitie he did elect vs, in time he made us conform'd to the image of his Sonne. Whereupon St. Augustine in his fift booke, con­tra Iulianum, 3. chapt. thus, Nullum elegit dignum, sed eligendo effecit dignum. God in the choise of his Elect, found none worthy, but in the chusing made them worthy. Moreover, our election, which is of grace (as I yonder proued) could not stand if workes and merits went before it. Haec quippè non inuenit meri­ta, sed facit; Grace doth not find works in vs, but fashi­ons them, according to that of the Apostle, 2 Thes. 2.13. God hath from the beginning chosen you through sanctifica­tion of the spirit, and not of works. Nay, some here so much abolish and wipe off all claime of merit, that they admit not Christ as the meritorious cause of our election. In­deed, say they, the Scripture is thus farre our Schoole­master, That we are iustified by the blood of Christ,Synod. Dort. and reconciled to God by the death of his Sonne: but where are we informed that we are elected through his bloud, or praedestinated by his death? Indeed, in the 3 of Iohn 16. we finde a —sic Deus dilexit,—God so loued the world that he gaue his Sonne. So that, not because Christ died for vs, God loued, and chose vs, but because God loued and chose us, therefore Christ died for vs. For so Rom. 5.8. God setteth out his loue towards vs, that whilst we were yet sinners, Christ died for vs. In matters therefore of election, we acknowledge not a cause more classicke than the Cuius vult here specified, He will haue mercy on whom he will. Insomuch that in the parable of the housholder, Matth. 20. I finde but a sic volo, as a suffici­ent [Page 8] and iust cause of his designes. I will giue to this last as much as to thee; & yet this Will so clothed with a diuine iustice, that God is not said to will a thing to be done, be­cause it is good, but rather to make it good, because God would haue it to be done. For proofe whereof, a sweet singer of our Israel instances in those wonderfull passa­ges of creation, where 'tis first said that Deus creauit, God created all things, and the Valdè bonum comes aloofe, he saw that they were all good, and the morall portends but this, That euery thing is therefore good, because it was created, and not therefore created because it was good; which doth wash, and purge the will of the Almighty from any staine, or tincture of iniustice; for though that be the chiefe mover and director of all his proiects, as the prime and peremptory cause, doing this, because hee will, yet we finde not onely sanctitatem in operibus, but justitiam in vijs. The Lord is righteous in all his wayes, and holy in all his workes. Hereupon that great treasurer of Learning and Religion, Zanchius in his 3 booke, de Natura Dei, and 4 chapter, diuides betweene the cause of Gods will, and the reason of his will: That though there be no superiour cause of it, yet there is a iust reason, and a right end and purpose in it.Morl. Clean. Lep. Hence S. Ierome, De­us nihil fecit quia vult, sed quia est ratio sic fieri; God doth nothing because hee will, but because there is a reason of so doing, in regard whereof it is not simply called [...], the will of God, but [...], the good will of God, Ephes. 1.11. So that in his sacred resolutions and designements, though we meet (sometimes) with passages, wound vp in darkened terrour, the cause whereof wee may admire not scan; yet the drift and maine ends of the Al­mighty haue been so backt with strength of a iust reason, that we may rather magnifie his goodnesse than tax his power; and applaud the calmnesse of an indulgent mer­cie, than repine at the lashes of an incensed iustice. Equi­tie and goodnesse are children of one burden, both [Page 9] the lawfull issue of his will, which though foule mouthes of libertines haue strangely bastardized, making that the throne of tyranny, which is the rule of iustice, yet let them know that of Augustine to his Sixtus; Iniustum esse non po­test, quod placuit Iusto. To be God, and to be vniust, is to be God and not God. So faire a goodnesse, was neuer capable of so foule a contradiction, and therefore (as the same father prosequutes) Iniquitatem damnare nouit, non facere: God knows how to iudge, not to commit a crime, and to dispose, not mould it, and is often the father of the punishment, not the fact. Hence 'tis, that the dimnesse of humane apprehension conceaues that (oftentimes) a de­linquency in God, which is the monster of our own frail­ty; making God not onely to foreknow, but predestinate an euill, when the euill is both by growth, and concepti­on ours, and if ought sauour of goodnesse in vs, Gods, not ours, yet ours too, as deriuatiue from God, who is no lesse the Patron of all goodnesse, than the Creatour, and 'tis as truly impossible for him to commit euill, as 'twas truly miraculous to make all that hee had made good. And therefore Tertullian, in his first booke de Trinitate, makes it a Non potest fieri, a matter beyond the list and reach of possibilitie, that he should be Artifex mali operis, the pro­moter & enginer of a depraued act, who challengeth to himselfe the title no lesse of an vnblemished Father, than of a Iudge. Our thoughts then should not carry too loftie a saile, but take heed how they cut the narrow straights, and passages of his will. A busie prying into this Arke of secrets, as 'tis accompanied with a full blowne inso­lence, so with danger; Humilitie (here) is the first staire to safetie; and a modest knowledge stands constantly wondering, whilst the proud apprehension staggers, and tumbles too. Here's a Sea vnnauigable, and a gulfe so scorning fathom, that our Apostle himselfe was driuen to his [...], O depth, and in a rapture, more of astonish­ment, than contemplation, he stiles it, [...] [Page 10] [...], voluntatis suae mysterium, or (as Beza translates it,) Sacramentum, the Sacrament, and mysterie of his will, being so full of vnknowne turnings, and Meanders, that if a naked reason hold the clue, we are rather inuol­ued, than guided in so strange a Labyrinth.

To enquire then the cause of Gods will, were an Act of Lunacie, not of Iudgement; for every efficient cause is greater than the effect, now there's nothing grea­ter than the will of God, and therefore no cause thereof. For if there were, there should something praeoccupate that will, wch to conceiue were sinfull, to beleeue blas­phemous. If any then (suggested by a vaine-glorious en­quirie) should aske why God did elect this man, and not that? we haue not onely to resolue, but to forestall so bea­ten an obiection: Because he would. But why would God doe it? Here's a question as guiltie of reproofe, as the author, who seekes a cause of that, beyond, or with­out which there is no cause found, where the apprehen­sion wheeles, and reason runs giddy in a doubtfull gire: Compescat se ergò humana temeritas, August. & id quod non est non quaerat, ne id quod est non inueniat. Here a scrupulous and humane rashnesse should be husht, and not search for that which is not, lest it finde not that which is. For as the same Father, in his 105 Epist. Cur illum potiùs, quàm illum, liberet, aut non, scrutetur (qui potest) iudiciorum eius tam magnum profundum, sed caueat praecipitium—. Let him that can, descry the wonders of the Lord in this great deep, but let him take heed he sinke not; and in his answer to the second question of Simplician: Quare huic ita, & huic non ita, homo tu quis es qui respondeas Deo? & cur isti sic, illi aliter? Absit vt dicamus Iudicium luti esse, sed figuli. Why God doth to this man so, and to that not so, who dare expostulate? and why to this man, thus, to that, otherwise? farre be it, that we should thinke it in the iudgement of the clay, bur of the potter. Downe then with this aspiring thought, this ambitious desire of hid­den [Page 11] knowledge, and make not curiositie the picklocke of diuine secrets; know that such mysteries are doubly bar­red vp in the coffers of the Almighty, which thou maist striue to violate, not open. And therefore if thou wilt needs trespasse vpon deity, dig not in its bosome; a more humble aduenture sutes better with the condition of a worme, scarce a man, or if so, exposed to frailtie.

'Tis a fit taske and imployment for mortalitie, to con­template Gods workes, not sift his mysteries, and admire his goodnesse, not blurre his iustice; And it hath beene euer the practice of primitiue discipline, rather to defend a disparaged equitie, than to question it, for so that reue­rend Father (who euer mixt his learning with a deuout awe) in his 3 booke, cont. Iulianum, and 18 chapter, Bo­nus est Deus, iustus est Deus, potest aliquos sine bonis meri­tis liberare, quia bonus est, non potest quemquam sine malis damnare, quia iustus est. God is equally good and iust, he can saue some without reference to desert, because he is good, he cannot damne any man without a due deme­rit, because he is iust: Nay had God deliuered all man­kinde into the iawes of destruction, we could not touch him with iniustice, but rather admire so darke and inue­stigable an equitie, which we may illustrate by worldly passages and humane contracts. If I were bankrupt of instance, S. Augustine could relieue me. A great man (saith he) lends two summes of money, to two seuerall men, who can tax him of obduratenesse, or iniustice, if at time of repayment he forgiue this man his debt, and re­quire satisfaction of that? for this liues not in the will and disposall of the debtor, but of the creditor. So stands the case betweene frailty and omnipotencie. All men (which through Adam became tributaries to sin and death) are one masse of corruption, subiect to the stroake of di­uine iustice, which, whether it be required or giuen, there is no iniquitie in God, but of whom required, and to whom giuen, 'tis in such debtors insolence to iudge, [Page 12] lest God returne their saucinesse with a —Non licet mihi quod volo facere? as the housholder did the murmuring labourers in his vineyard. Is thine eie euill, because I am good? And indeed I display not a higher cause of electi­on, and reprobation than diuine goodnesse, which that learned Schoole-man, Part. 1. quaest. 23. art. 5. doth not onely illustrate but proue no lesse by similitude, than ar­gument. For God (saith he) made all things for his goodnesse sake, that in things by him made, his good­nesse might appeare, but because that goodnesse is in it selfe, one, and simple: and things created cannot attaine to so diuine a perfection, it was necessary that that good­nesse should be diuersly represented in those things, and hence 'tis that to the complement and full glory of the vniuerse, there is in them a diuersitie of degrees requi­red, of which some possesse a lower, and some a higher roome; and that such a multiformitie may be preserued in nature, God permits some euils to be done, lest much good should be anticipated: —Voluit itaque Deus in ho­minibus, quantum ad aliquos, quos praedestinet, suam reprae­sentare bonitatem, per modum misericordiae, parcendo illis, quantum verò ad alios, quos reprobet, suam ostendi bonita­tem per modum iusticiae, puniendo eos. God in those hee elects, would shew his goodnesse by way of mercie in spa­ring these, in others he reprobates, his goodnesse too, by way of iustice in punishing them. And therefore our A­postle here not onely magnifies the riches of his glory vpon vessels of mercie, vers. 23. but his long patience too, to vessels of wrath, vers. 22. So that in his house there are not onely those of gold and siluer, but of wood and earth too, and some to honor, some to dishonor, 2 Tim. 2.20. Of wch if any mutinous or sawcy ignorant desires a rea­son beyond Gods will, I haue no answer but that of Au­gustine, in his 22 Sermon, de verb Apost. Tu ratiocinare, ego mirer, tu disputa, ego credam: altitudinem video, ad profundum non peruenio; Dispute and reason he that durst, [Page 13] while my thought and beleefe stand at a bay, and won­der; I see there is a height, but cannot reach it, and know this gulfe, not fathome it. For as in things naturall (it is Aquinas similitude) when all the first matter is vni­forme, why one part of it should be vnder the forme of fire, another vnder the forme of earth, there may be a rea­son assigned, that there might be a diuersity of species in things naturall: but why this part of matter should be rather vnder the forme of fire, and that vnder the forme of earth, depends only on the simplicity of Gods will; & as it hangs too on the wil of the Architect, that this stone should be rather in this part of the wall, and that in ano­ther, although reason and art require that other stones should be in one part of the Edifice, & other in another. Neither is there for this iniquity in God, that he doth not proportion his gifts in a strict equality, for it were a­gainst the reason and truth of iustice, if the effect of Prae­destination should be of debt, and not of grace; for in those thing which are of an vnrestrained freedome, eue­ry man (out of the iurisdiction of his owne will) may giue to whome he will, more or lesse, without the least disparagement of iustice: And therefore to those recoi­ling dispositions wch mutter at a free bounty, heaped on others without referēce to desert, I wil vsurpe that of the Parable, Tolle quod tuum est, & vad [...]. And yet notwith­standing though the will of God be the independent prime cause of all things, so that beyond it there is no o­ther cause, and without it there is no reason of Gods acti­ons; yet it is not the sole and particular cause, for there are many secondary concurring with the first, by the media­tion whereof, the will of God brings his intendments to an issue. As in matters of our saluation the will and wor­king of man shakes hands with that of God, for though without him we finde a Nil potestis facere, Ioh. 15.5. Ye can doe nothing; yet assisted by his will, and the power­full and effectuall operations of his grace, our will co­operates [Page 14] with Gods. Else how could Dauid pray to him to be his helper, vnlesse he himselfe did endeauour some­thing? or how could God command vs to doe his will, except the will of man did worke in the performance of it?Lumb. lib. 1. distinct. 42. It is true (saith S. Augustine) we finde a Deus operatur omnia in omnibus, but we no where finde a Deus credit omnia in omnibus. Nostrum itaque est credere, & velle, il­lius autem dare credentibus, & volentibus facultatem ope­randi: To will, and to beleeue is ours, but to giue the fa­culty of operation to them that will and bleeue, is Gods. I haue laboured more than they all, yet not I, but the grace of God with me, 1 Cor. 15.10. Why God therefore doth saue some men, there is more to be alleaged than this, God would haue them to be saued; for if this laurell doe beautifie our triumph we must encounter, hee that will haue this Crowne must tug for it, and this prize, must wrestle, Qui creauit te sine te, non saluat te sine te. He that hath created thee without thy selfe, will not saue thee without thy selfe. And therefore those whom God from all eternity hath destined to saluation, hee hath in a like priuiledge destined to the meanes: But why those meanes, not communicable to all, many a busie endea­uour hath strugled for a reason, not compast it. Out of more than a double Iurie of Interpreters, which I haue (not with a little distraction) obserued, wauing here in doubtfull opinion, Hugo de Sancto Ʋictore giues thus his verdict. Gods grace is indifferently exhibited to all men, to the elect and reprobate, but all doe not e­qually lay hold on it. Some no lesse neglect, than re­pulse Gods grace, and when its comfortable beames shall shine vpon them, they shut their eies against it, and will not behold it, and God in iustice with-drawes his grace from these men, because they with-draw themselues from his grace. Est enim in gratiâ quemadmodum in solis radio (saith he) There is a proportion betwixt the raies of the Sunne, and the eie, and betwixt the soule of man, and [Page 15] the grace of God. The eie is ordained by nature to be the organ of the sight, and yet the eie cannot see except the Sunne enlighten it; neither can the Sunne make any thing else see but the eie in man, for it may shine vpon our hand or foot, neuerthelesse the hand or foot shall see nothing: so the soule hath a possibility to merit by her naturall abilities, but that possibility shall be vaine and fruitlesse, vnlesse it be quickned by the powerfull opera­tion of Gods grace, which grace, if it shall once actuate it, then the soule will be able to attaine to that double life of grace here, of glory hereafter. Ʋnde totum est ex gratiâ, sic tamen vt non excludatur meritum. Whence he would haue all to hang on grace, yet so that wee exclude not merit. But this inference is many stories aboue my reach, and in the greennesse of my iudgement, there is little truth in the consequence, and palpable contradicti­on in the consequent. For how can the merits of man challenge any thing, if all flow from the grace of God? Yes (saith Hugo) euen as a weake child which cannot yet goe alone, should be led by the Nurse, a man cannot say that the childe goeth of himselfe, but by the assistance of the Nurse; and yet the Nurse could not make the childe goe, vnlesse he were naturally inclinde to that motion: so the soule of man is said to merit by the aid of grace, and by her owne naturall inbred ability, but all the glory of the merit must be ascribed to God, because the soule can doe nothing without the support and grace of God. Whence I can gather no truth but this, that in solo homine sit petentia logica ad salutē. That a man only maybe saued without apparant contradiction; no vnreasonable crea­ture is capable of that euerlasting blessednesse and beati­ficall vision; and the soule of a beast is no more able to see God, than a sencelesse stocke to behold a visible ob­iect. For man onely hath a passiue power to saluation, and man before his conuersion hath a passiue power on­ly. And therefore the similies afore proposed, if they be [Page 16] referred to the soule before the conuersion, are false, and beare no proportion, for then the soule is starke blinde, and dead in trespasses, and cannot looke on the grace of­fered, or moue one iot in the course of Christianity: But after the conuersiō when God speaks Ephata to the soule, be opened, when the vnderstanding is illuminated, and scales of errour once drop from the eies, then it may hold some correspondency with truth. As therefore in mat­ters of our conuersion, so of election too, all hangs on Grace, and this grace in a holy reseruation limited to a narrow Tribe, for the cuius vult here insinuates no more, and He will haue mercy on whom he will, sounds in a direct aequiualence with this, He will haue mercy onely on some; of which some there is a definite and see num­ber, vncapable of augmentation, or diminution, how­euer those new sprung Sectaries,Arminians. out of a turbulent braine and thirst of cauillation, blaspheme the eternity of Gods decree, making our election mutable, incompleat, con­ditionate, subiect to change and reuocation, and what other stranger birth and prodigie of opinion, which I conceiue not without a holy impatience and indignati­on. And whereas our Fathers of old haue maintained, euen to the sword and fagot, the decree of election to be no lesse eternall than irreuocable, these would faine lull our beleefe with innouation of vpstart discipline, al­tering no lesse the number than the condition of the e­lect into the state of reprobate, and of the reprobate into the elect. And (as the Deuill did to Christ) they vrge Text and reason for it. For God (say they) cannot giue grace to whom he doth giue grace, which if hee should doe an elect may be damned; and hee can giue grace to him he doth not giue grace too, which if he doe, a repro­bate may be saued, and so a reprobate may become an e­lect, and an elect a reprobate. Thus they shoot by an indirect aime, and saile by a wrong Compasse, for wee enquire not here of Gods power, but of his will, not what [Page 17] he can doe, but what he hath resolued to doe. Againe, it seemes no consequence, God can saue or damne a man, therefore this man can be saued or damned,Hugo de Sancto Victore in cap. 9. ad Rom. Non enim posse Dei sequitur posse nostrum, Gods power stands not in relation to ours; as if God would otherwise re­deeme mankinde than by the death of his Sonne. (As there was another meanes possible (saith Austin) but not more conuenient.) That therefore mankinde could o­therwise be redeemed; and if God had this in his power, that it should be therefore in mans too? Could not God (if he would) haue saued Iudas? doth it therefore fol­low that Iudas could be saued? No, for though this be too ragged and stonie for a popular capacity to digge through; yet if wee looke backe a little into the myste­ries of Gods decree, wee shall finde that which will no lesse relieue our vnderstanding, than remoue our scruple; where things from euerlasting haue such a doome, which is not malleable either by change or reuocation, For the Lord of hosts hath determined, and who can disanull it? and his hand is stretched out, and who can turne it away? Isay 14.27. Seeing then that election is from eternity, and that not obnoxious to mutability or corruption, we nei­ther curtaile the elect of their primatiue glory, nor of their number. Which though they be a little flocke, (in re­spect of that herd and large droue of the damned) yet in those sacred volumes of Gods diuiner Oracles, we finde them numberlesse. So Apoc. 7.9. These things I beheld, and loe, a great multitude which none could number of all nations and kinreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lambe, cloathed with long white robes, and palmes in their hands. Whence those Fa­ctors for the Romish See, would hew out a way to vniuersall grace; making our election generall, mani­folde, indefinite, and would haue Christs death no lesse meritorious, than propitiatory for the sinnes of the whole world. A quaere long since on foot betweene Augustine [Page 18] and Pelagius, and since in a fiery skirmish betweene the Caluinist and the Lutheran, out of whose mud and cor­ruption there hath beene lately bred the Arminian, a Sect as poisonous as subtill, and will no lesse allure than betray a flexible and yeelding iudgement. For our own safety then, and the easier oppugning of so dangerous a suggestion, let vs examine a little of the extent & bounds of this grace, which Diuines cut into these three squa­drons, in Gratiam Praedestinationis, vocationis, & iusti­ficationis. Gratia Praedestinationis, is that of eternity, the wombe and Nursery of all graces, whereby God loued his elect, [...]. Gratia vocationis, a seconda­ry grace, by which God cals vs, and by calling prescribes the meanes of our saluation. And this grace hath a dou­ble prospect. Either to that which is externall, in libro Scripturae, or creaturae, where God did manifest himselfe as well by what he had made, as by what he had written; or to that which is internall, of illumination, or renoua­tion, of that in the intellect only, which a reprobate may lay claime to, of this in the heart, which by a holy reser­uation and incommunicablenesse is peculiar to the elect. Gratia iustificationis, which is not a grace inherent, but bestowed, and stands as a direct Antipode to humane merit. Yet not that [...] which the Schooles christen with a gratia gratis data, any gift which God out of his free bounty hath bestowed vpon vs beyond our desert, as Prudence, Temperance, and the like; for in these the heathen had their share, whose singular endowmēts haue made posterity both an admirer, and a debter; but [...], Gratia gratum faciens, a gift perfect, and sanctified, which doth so qualifie the receiuer, that hee is not onely accep­table, but glorious in the eyes of the bestower, as Faith, Hope, & the third sister Charity, which no lesse recon­cile than iustifie vs before God.

We conclude then, that the externall grace which the creature affordeth vs, is not limited to a priuate number, [Page 19] but to all; yet we denie the power and vertue of saluati­on in it. We allow a sufficiencie of redargution for con­uicting the heathen, who when they knew God, wor­shipped him not as God, and therefore are both desperate and inexcusable. Moreover the grace which the Scrip­ture affordeth vs, as it is not vniuersall, so not of absolute sufficiency for saluation, but onely in genere mediorum externorum, (as the Schooles speake) because it doth pre­scribe vs the meanes how we may be saued, but it doth not apply the meanes that we are saued. Againe, that grace of Illumination is more peculiarly confined, and if by the beames of that glorious Sunne which enlightneth euery man that comes into the world, we attaine to the knowledge of the Scripture, yet the bare knowledge doth not saue vs, but the application. But the grace of regeneration is not onely a sufficient, but an effectuall grace, and as 'tis more powerfull, so 'tis more restrained; they onely partake of this blessednes, whom God hath no lesse enlightned, than sanctified, and pointed out, then sealed, men inuested in white robes of sinceritie, whose delinquencies, though sometimes of a deepe tincture, are now both dispēsed with, & obliterated, not because they were not sinfull, but because, not imputed: so inuolu­crous, and hidden are Gods eternall proiects, that in those he relinquisheth, or saues, his reason, is his will; yet that as farre discoasted from tyranny, as iniustice. The Quare we may contemplate, not scan, lest our misprision grow equall with our wonder. And here in a double ambush dangerously lurke the Romanist and the Armi­nian, men equally swolne with rancor of malice, and po­sition: and with no lesse violence of reason, than impor­tunitie, presse the vertue of Christs death for the whole world. Alas! we combat not of the price and worth of Christs death, but acknowledge That an able ransome of a thousand worlds; but the ground of our duell tends to this, whether Christ dying proposed to himselfe the [Page 20] saluation of the whole world. We distinguish then —in­ter [...] Christi, & gratiam Christi. The merits of Christ and the gracious application of those merits. His merits are able to allay the fury of his incensed Father, and recon­cile vnto him the very reprobates: but the application of those merits are restrained to the Elect, for they onely are capeable of so great a blessednesse. For proofe wherof we haue not only that venerable Bench and Councell of Fa­thers and Schoole-men, but also a higher court of Parlia­ment to appeale vnto, the Registers and penmen of sacred Chronicles, Euangelists, & Apostles, wch punctually in­sinuate Christs death onely for his own, for his Church, for his Brethren, for those whose head hee was, laying down his life for some, and shedding his blood for some, for his sheepe, his little flock, his peculiar Priesthood, his tabernacle, body, spouse, his Canaan, Sion, Ierusalem, his Ambassadors, Saints, Angels, in a word this Cuius vult, The Elect. I'le not beat your eares with a voluminous ci­tation of text and Fathers, I'le draw only one shalt out of this holy quiuer, and direct it to the Roman aduersary, wch if he shall repell or put by, I'le proclaime hereafter a perpetuall truce. The maine and chiefe cause that impeld Christ to die, was his loue, Iohn 15. But Christ loued not all, but his own Eph. 5. Therefore Christ died not for all, but for his owne. The Iesuite here retraicts, and we haue none now left to encounter vs but the Arminian; who (like a cunning Fencer) hath many a quaint flourish, and with a false blow sometimes staggers, not wounds his ad­uersary. The part most indangered, is the eie of our intel­lect, and iudgement which he thus dazzels with a subtile nicety.Moulin in his Anatomy of Arminianisme. That Christ hath obtained reconciliation for all, for Saul and Iudas, but not as they were reprobates, but as they were sinners; For God (saith he) did equally intend, and desire the saluation of all, and the reason why they were not saued was their incredulitie, and mis­applying of this gracious reconciliation and attonement. [Page 21] Thus they would betray weaknesse into the hands of er­rour; and for a fairer glosse, and gilding of this their treachery, they distinguish —inter Impetrationem, & ap­plicationem; Pretending that Christ did impetrate re­conciliation for all, but the application of that leanes wholly to the elect. How crazy and ill tempered this position is, wee'le declare briefly. First, wee deny that Christ by his death hath impetrated reconciliation for all, for Saul, or Iudas: Neither can our thought, much lesse our beleefe giue way to so strange a Paradox,Idem ibidem. That remission of sinnes is obtained for those whose sinnes are not remitted, or that saluation was purchased for those whom God from all eternity had decreed to condemne. Againe, we acknowledge Christs death sufficient for all, all bel [...]euers, nay all, if they did beleeue. But that Saul or Iudas or the residue of that cursed Hierarchy should reap the benefit of his Passion, we vtterly disclaime as erroni­ous and hereticall. For if Christ by his death hath re­conciled Iudas, how i'st that Iudas suffers for his sinnes? for we cannot without impeachment both of his mercy, and iustice too, say that Christ suffered for Iudas his sins, yet Iudas is damned for those sinnes; And since Christ as he is God, hath from euerl [...]sting destined Iudas to damnation, how i'st that the same Christ, as he is man, and mediator betweene God and man, should reconcile Iu­das whom from eternity he had reprobated? Againe, if Christ hath obtained reconciliation for all men, then none shall be borne without the couenant of Christ, so that of the Apostle will be false: That, By nature we are all borne the children of wrath Ephes. 2. And can we true­ly be stiled the children of wrath, if reconciliation be ob­tained for all men without exception? And if all infants borne without the couenant are reconciled, Cur non cle­menti crudelitate in cunis ingulauimus? (saith the learned Moulin) why doe we not in a mercifull cruelty murther them in their cradles? for then their saluation were sea­led; [Page 22] but if they suruiue, they are nourished in Paganisme, infidelitie, which are the beaten roades and highwayes to destruction. And if we scan (saith he) the nicety of these words, the obtaining of reconciliation to be applied, and the application of reconciliation obtained, wee shall finde it a meere curiositie to barrow and perplex the braine, and torture the vnderstanding, since Christ hath neuer obtained that which he hath not applied, nei­ther hath he applied that which he hath not obtained. Yet these men either of a head-strong opinion, or learned madnesse, are so violent in the prosecution of their te­nents, that no strength of answer will satisfie their obie­ction, nor modestie of language suppresse their clamour, but a foule mouthed Forsterus will bray out his witty spleene with an —Error, & furor Zuinglianorum. His reasons are as slender as they are many (the vertigoes and impostures of a giddie braine) fitter for silence, than rehearsall, and for scorne than confutation. Wee apply then; Is grace vniuersally bountifull, and mercy open-brested vnto all? What meane then those Epithites of outcast, cursed, damned, and that triple inscription of death, hell, and damnation? are they either of pollicie or truth? Are they things reall, or fancied onely to bug-beare and awe mortalitie? What would the Throne por­tend? Iudge, aduersarie, Sergeant, prison, or those horrid tones of worme, fire, brimstone, howling, gnashing? Is the Scripture the Anuill of vntruth, or are these things no more than faigned and imaginary? What will those flames of your threatned purgatory proue at last, but the Chimaera and coinage of a phantasticke braine? And a 500 yeares indulgence, but the sharke and legerdemaine of your Lord God the Pope? Either your opinion is san­dy, or your prison, both which must fleet with your holy Fathers honour, if the armes of mercie be expanded to all. Againe, are the merits of Christ appliable to all? Sweare, whore, drinke, prophane, blaspheme, and (if there [Page 23] be in that Alcharon, and cursed rolle, a sinne of a fairer growth) baffle the Almighty at his face. Thinkest thou that heauen was euer guiltie of such treason against her Soueraigne? or that it will euer entertaine a guest so ex­posed to the height of dissolutenesse and debaushment? No, thou must know that one day there will be a dread­full summons, either at those particular accounts, at the houre of Death, or at the generall audit of the last trumpe, when thou shalt meet with a new Acheldema and vale of Hinnom, places no lesse of terror than of torment, the fi­ery dungeon, and the burning Tophet, where the fury of the great Iudge reaks in a floud of brimstone, and his reuenge boiles in a firy torrent, limitlesse, and vnquench­able. On the other side happily maist thou slumber, without howle, or skreeke of conscience, thou wounded and deiected spirit; Thou whose glorious ornaments are but sackcloth and ashes, and thy choisest fare but the bread of sorrow and contrition. Know there is balme of Gilead for the broken-hearted sinner, and oile of com­fort for those which mourne in Sion. Behold, how thy Sauiour comes flying downe with the wings of his loue, and sweepes away thy sinnes that they shall neither tem­porally shame thee, nor eternally condemne thee. Who shall wipe off all teares from your eyes, and lodge you in the bosome of old Abraham, where there is blisse vn­speakeable for euer. And thus I haue shewed you the happinesse of sheepe vnder the state of mercie; Time bids me now to reflect on the misery of Goats, as they are vnder the condition of hardening.

PART. II. He hardeneth.

WHat? he that is rich in goodnesse, and his mer­cies aboue all his workes? he that mournes in se­cret for our offences, and vowes that he desireth not the death of a sinner, will he harden? How can this stand either with his promise, or mercy, or iustice? Gods vn­reuealed proiects are full of wonder, which if our appre­hension cannot diue to, our beliefes must sound. Occul­ta esse possunt, iniusta non possunt, fraught they may be with sullen and darker riddles, neuer with iniustice. Let vs first then take a suruey of Mans heart, and see to what miseries the hardnesse of it hath expo [...]de our irregular predecessors, and after try whether we can make proui­dence the mother of so deformed an issue. And here a­while let vs obserue S. Bernard tutoring his Eugenius, Cordurum, a heart, which the softer temper of Gods working spirit leaues to mollifie, and its owne corrupt affections begins once to mould. Like that of Naball, to be all stone, becomes at last so cauterized, Vt semetipsum non exhorreat quià nec sentit, that it is so farre from starting at its owne vglinesse, that it is non-sensible of deformity. And hence Theodoret defines it to be prauam animi affe­ctionem, a corrupt and depraued affection of the minde, which if man once giue way to, hee is so screen'd both from Gods mercy and truth; that though it be about him, and in the masterdome and dominion of his best sense, Non ceruit tamen, nec intelligit, yet his eyes are as blinde intelligencers to belieue, as his vnderstanding. And against such that sweet singer of Israel breakes out into his passionate complaint, Ʋsquè quò filij hominum, vsquè quò? O ye sonnes of men, how long will ye turne my honour into shame, how long? and that of the Pro­tomartyr [Page 25] Stephen, in his Oration to the refractary Iewes. Durâ ceruice, O ye stiffe-necked and vncircumcized of heart and eares, yee doe alwaies resist the holy Ghost. And indeed such hearts are but the Wardrobes and Ex­chequers of future mischiefe, whose keyes are not in the custodie of the Almighty, but thine owne bosome. For so that great Doctor of the Gentiles, Secundum impoeni­tens cor tuum thesaurisas iram: According to the im­penitency of thine owne heart, thou treasurest vp wrath (to thy selfe) against the day of wrath. How then can that eye which should be fixed either on the tendernesse or mercy of his Creator, glance so much on his iniu­stice, as to make that the Midwife of so foule a progenie? Obduration was neuer the childe of goodnesse, neither can a sinne of so base a descent lay claime to omnipoten­cie. It stands not (I dare say) with Gods power, I am sure, his will, to reconcile two enemies in such an extre­mity of opposition. Doe sweet water and puddle flow immediatly from one and the selfe-same spring? light and darknesse from the selfe-same Sunne? I know there is a stiffe-necked and blind-fold Tribe, which God hath left, not made the storie of his vengeance; whose affe­ctions are too dull and drousie in his seruice. Men crest-fallen in deuotion, whose hearts are so dead in their alle­geance to him, that they seeme spiritlesse, hauing all the powers & faculties of their soule benummed, and their conscience without pulse or motion. And of these the Prophet, Inorassatum est cor populi. Their heart is as fat as brawne. These sticke not to belch open defiance in the face of the Almighty, and with those Miscreants in Iob, are ready to expostulate with eternity. Quis est omnipo­tens vt seruiemus ei? Who is the Lord that we should serue him? Such haue forehead of brasse, which no shame can bore through: and (as the Prophet spake of Iuda) a face of whoredome which refuseth modesty. But Saint Gregory in his 10. Homily vpon Ezechiel, hath proclaimed their [Page 26] doome. Frontem cordis in impudentiam aperit culpa fre­quens, vt quo crebrius committitur, eò minus de illa com­mittentis animus verecundetur: Frequency of sinning doth flesh vs in immodesty, assiduity, in impudence. Of­fences that are customarie are not easie of dimission, and if thou once entertaine them as thy followers, they will quickly intrude as thy companions. Sinnes that are fed with delight, with vse, are as dangerous as those of Ap­petite: which oftentimes proue no lesse inseparable, than hereditary; to doe well is as impossible to these, as not to doe ill; So can assiduity make a sinne both delight­full, and naturall. Can the Aethiop change his skinne, and the Leopard his spots? then may yee also doe well which are accustomed to doe euill. That sinne then is irrazable which is so steeled with custome, and may vndergoe the censure of that sometime Citie of God; Insanabilis est dolor tuus: Thy sinne is written with a pen of iron, and with a claw of a Diamond is engrauen on the table of thy heart. How then can wee without sacriledge, and rob­bing of diuine honour, make God the father of so foule and vnwashed a crime? Obduration is the issue of thine owne transgression. Perditio tua ex te, ô Israel: If de­struction dog thee, thanke thy corrupt affections, not blame thy maker, for he doth but leaue thee, and they harden. To lay then (with some depraued libertines) the weight and burden of our sinnes on the shoulder of Predestination, and make that the wombe of those foule enormities, may well passe for an infirmity, not for ex­cuse, and indeed thus to shuffle with diuine goodnesse, is no lesse fearefull, than blasphemous. For, though God from eternity knew how to reward euery man, either by crown, or punishment—.Nemini tamē aut necessitatē, aut voluntatem intulit delinquendi, yet he neuer enioyned any man either a necessity, or a will to sinne. If any then fall off from goodnesse, hee is hurried no lesse with the vio­lence of his owne perswasion, than concupiscence; and [Page 27] in those desperate affaires, Gods will is neither an inter­medler, nor compartner, Cuius ope scimus multos, ne la­berentur, retentos, nullos, vt laberentur, impulsos (saith Augustine.) By whose hand of prouidence wee know many to be supported that they might not fall, none im­peld that they should. And in his answer to that 14. Ar­ticle falsly supposed to be his, Fieri non potest, vt per quem à peccatis surgitur, per eum ad peccata decidatur: for one and the selfe-same goodnesse, to be the life and death of the selfe-same sinne, is so much beyond improbability, that it is impossible. If any then goe onward in the true rode of diuine graces, no doubt but the finger of the Al­mighty points out his way to happinesse; but if he wan­der in the by-pathes of a vicious and depraued dissolute­nesse, his owne corrupt affections beckens him to ruine. To loue then his children, and neglect his enemies, doth neither impaire Gods mercy, nor impeach his iustice. But why God should loue this as his childe, neglect that as his enemy, Nec possible est comprehendere, nec licitum inuesti­gare—, is beyond all lawfulnesse of enquirie, all ken of apprehension. Let this then satisfie our desire of know­ledge, Et ab illo esse, quod statur, & non esse ab illo, quod ruitur: That his prouidence is the staffe and crutch on which we so leane that we yet stand; our corrupt affecti­ons, the bruzed and broken reed on which, if wee doe leane, we fall. If any stagger at those vnfathomed my­steries, and his reason and apprehension be strooke dead at the contemplation of Gods eternall, but hidden pro­iects, let him season a little his amazement with adora­tion, and at last solace his distempered thoughts with that of Gregory, Qui in factis Dei, &c. In the abstruse and darker mysteries of God, he that sees not a reason, if he sees his own infirmity, he sees a sufficient reason why he should not see. Me thinkes this should cloy the appe­tite of a greedy inquisition, and satisfie the distrust of a­ny, but of too querulous a disposition, which, with the [Page 28] eye of curiositie prying too nicely into the closet of Gods secrets, are no lesse dazeled than blinded; if not with profanation, heresie. Diuine secrets should rather transport vs with wonder, than prompt vs to enquiry, and bring vs on our knees to acknowledge the infinite­nesse both of Gods power and will, than ransacke the bosome of the Almighty, for the reuealing of his intents. Is it not blessednesse enough that God hath made thee his Steward, though not his Secretarie? Will no Mansi­on in heauen content thee, but that which is the throne and chaire for omnipotency to sit on? No treasury, but that which is the Cabinet and store-house of his own se­crets? Worme, and no man, take heed how thou strug­lest with thy Maker; expostulation with God imports no lesse peremptorinesse, than danger; and if Angels fell for pride of emulation, where wilt thou tumble for this pride of inquiry? As in matters therefore of vnusu­all doubt, where truth hath no verdict, probability finds audience, So in those obstruct and narrow passages of his will, where reason cannot informe thee, beleefe is thy best intelligencer, and if that want a tongue, make this thy interpreter; so thou maist euade with lesse distrust, I am sure, with more safety.

And at last when thou hast scan'd all, what either scru­ple or inquisition can prompe thee to, in a deiected hu­miliation, thou must cry out with that Iewish penitent; Lord I beleeue, helpe thou my vnbeleefe. Yea, but how shall we here cleare God from this aspersion, when the Apostle is the Herauld to his guilt? whom he will he har­dens: Indurat is an actiue, and doth alwayes presuppose a passiue; And if there be a subiect that must suffer, there must be a hand too that must inflict. How then can we quit the Almighty of the suspition either of tyranny or iniustice, since he is said to send on some the spirit of errour, 2 Thess. 2. and that great Trumpet of Gods dis­pleasure, Esay in his 63. brings in the Iewes, no lesse mut­tering [Page 29] than expostulating with God, Quare errare nos fe­cisti Domine? Lord why hast thou made vs to erre from thy wayes, and hardened our hearts from thy feare? These instances (at the first suruey,) beare terrour in their looks, and like sophisticated lights in a darke roome, make things seeme more vgly than they are; and are but false bils, preferred against a spotlesse innocent, which, with­out search, may conuince of publique crime, but narrow­ly scan'd, absolue him, no lesse from the act, than the thought of guilt. How God therefore in this is liable to censure and misprision, and how both a beholder, an in­termedler of depraued actions; vouchsafe me a little your attentiue patience, and I doubt not, but I shall in­forme the vnderstanding of the shallow, and to the por­tion of my weake Talent, will striue to satisfie the waue­ringly iudicious. Whom he will he hardens. Some (too nicely tender of the honour of their maker) haue giuen way to an interpretation more modest, than authenticke, and interpret —indurare— for duritiam manifestare, so that God is not properly said to harden the heart, but rather to manifest how hard it is, And to this opinion Saint Augustine is a close adherent in his 18 Question vpon Exodus. But this holds not with the purpose of God, nor with the scope and meaning of the Text, which if we compare with others of that nature, wee shall finde that Gods will hath rather a finger in this, than his pro­mulgation: for so in the 10 of Iosua we reade, that 'twas the will and the sentence of the Almighty, that the Ca­naanites should be hardened, that they might deserue no mercie, but perish. Others there are (whose opinions bor­der neerer vpon truth) which would haue God to be said to harden —non effectiue, sed permissiuè; Not by way of Action, but permission, and so Damascen in his third booke de fide Orthodoxâ, cap. 20. Where his words run thus. Operaepretium est agnoscere—. 'Tis a matter no lesse worthy of knowledge, than obseruance, that 'tis the [Page 30] custome of the Scripture to call Gods permission, his action. So we reade that God sent his enemies the spi­rit of slumber, which is not to be ascribed to God as an agent, but as a permitter. This glosse sutes well with the approbation of Saint Chrysostome; who speaking occa­sionally of that of the first of the Romanes, Deus tradidit illos—God gaue them vp vnto vile affections, hee there expounds —tradidit, by permisit, which he thus illustrates by a similitude—; As the Generall of an Armie, in the sweat and brunt of a bloudy day, if he withdraw his per­sonall directions from his souldiers, what doth he but expose them to the mercie of their enemies? not that he led them into the iawes of danger, but because they were not back't by his encouragement: So God in this spiritu­all conflict, he deliuers vs not into the hands of our arch-enemie, he leaues vs to our owne strength, and our cor­rupt affections drag vs thither with a witnesse. And hence that dicotomy of Caietan claimes his prerogatiue, that God doth harden Negatiuely, but not Positiuely, wch distinction though it be sound & Orthodox, yet it doth not exempt vs from scruple, for God hath more in the stiffeneckt and peruerse, than a naked and bare permissi­on, otherwise we should too weakly distance obduration from a lesser sinne, for euery sinne God permits, and as Saint Augustine in his Enchir. 96. cap. Nihil fit nisi om­nipotens fieri velit, vel sinendo vt fiat, vel ipse faciendo. There's nothing done without the consent and appro­bation of the Almightie, and that either by his person or substitute. If God therfore be only said to harden man be­cause he permits him to be hardened, why should he not be likewise said to steale, because he permits man to steale? No doubt therefore but God hath a greater ore in this sinne of hardneing, than in offences of a lesser bulke. And therefore Saint Augustine in his 3. lib. cont. Iulianum, 3. cap. with many a sinewed allegation proues, that God doth concurre to the excaecation and hardening both of [Page 31] the minde and heart,—Non solum, secundum patientiam, & permissionem, sed potentiam, & actionem. Not ac­cording to his patience and permission onely, but his power and action: Which position hee thus (after) qualifies with a distinction. Obduration is not onely a sinne, but a punishment of a sinne. Now, that which is in obduration meerely of sinne hath it's pedegree and originall from man onely; but that which is of punish­ment for that sinne, from God. And therefore I cannot but approue of that of Isiodore, Qui iusti sunt, à Deo non impelluntur, vt malifiant, sed dùm mali iam sunt, indu­rantur, vt deteriores existant,— According to that of Paul, 2 Thes. 2. For this cause God shall send them strong delusions, that they might beleeue a lie, that all might be damned that beleeue not the truth, but haue pleasure in vnrighteousnesse. I haue as yet but toucht the barke and skinne of the controuersie, the pith and the kernell is yet vnchewed, and that is,—Whether God here (as hee is said to harden) be the cause of our transgressions. Which quaere admits a three-fore distraction, and difference of opinion. Two of them are extremes, and by hot oppo­sition each of other, they haue both lost the truth, the third runnes in a midway, and euer directs to safety. Florini [...] (whose opinion posterity records as the monu­ment of a seduced errour) with no lesse peremptorinesse than blaspemy hath arraigned the Almighry, and made him not onely the permitter, but the Author of our sins. The Seleuciani, after him, were poisoned with that here­sie, & the Libertines laboured in the defence therof. Ma­nes, and his disciples, dreampt of a summum malum, and vpon that phantasie grounded their assertion, that God the summum bonum, is to be seene onely in our good acti­ons, but euery depraued Act had its deriuation from their summum malum. But those of a more solid and well tempered iudgement, whom the influence of the Spirit had taught a moderatiō, or the danger of Inquisition for­bad [Page 32] curiosity, dare not with Florinus impute (here) sinne vnto God, yet maintaine against the Manichees, that God is not a bare and idle spectator, but powerfull ouer, although no actor in the sinne, Not in the sinne, as it is meerely a sinne, but in the sinne as 'tis a punishment of sinne. And therefore in euery transgression of ours, there are foure thing, remarkeable, 1 Subiectum, seu materiale, he subiect in which sinne subsists, and that is two-fold. 1 Substantia, the substance, or rather the faculties of the reasonable soule, in which originall sinne is so riueted, that the naturall man can by no meanes purge himselfe of that hereditary contagion, or Actio bona, on which all our actuall sinnes are grounded. 2 Formale, the for­malitie, or obliquity of the action. For euery sinne is [...], the transgression of the Law, and in the sinner there's nothing sinne but this. 3 Reatus, The guilt of this enormitie, which makes vs liable to eternall death. 4 Poena, the punishment inflicted vpon the guilty, whe­ther temporall, or eternall, or both. Now wee may not charge God with the obliquitie of the action, for that proceedes from a peruerse, and a seduced will, but the substance of the action (as the Schoolemen speake) that hath its originall from God. And therefore we consider sinne, either vt malum culpae, as 'tis a violation of Gods law, or vt malum poenae, as a punishment laid vpon vs for the violation of that Law: So Rom. 1.25. The Gentiles tur­ned the truth of God into a lye, There's malum culpae. And it followes immediatly at the 26 verse, For this cause God gaue them vp into vile affections, There's malum poenae. Now God is author of the second, not the first. If mists still hang on the eyes of clouded errour, I thus dispell them with that of Hugo de Sancto Victore— Deus malis potestatem solam tribuit, non voluntatem, quià licet ex ipsi­us permissione sit, quod malum possunt, ex inspiratione tamen non est quod malum volunt. God onely giues power to the wicked, not will, that although it be by his permission [Page 33] that we can doe euill, yet it is not by his inspiration that we will doe euill. And therefore as the Schooles doe commonly distinguish of the decree of God, so must wee of the execution or that decree, which is either pe [...] effici­entiam; when the diuine power doth worke any thing with, or without the creature, or secundum permissionem, when the creature hath leaue to worke without the gui­dance of that power. Neither will it sauor of imperti­nence, if we insert here that distinction of Gods proui­dence in efficientem & descrentem: Into a releeuing and forsaking prouidence, for whensoeuer God withdrawes his especiall aid and assistance from vs, man is hurried where his owne corrupter appetite, not Gods grace car­rieth him. Adam fell as soone as the influence of Gods grace ceased, and without the supportance of the same grace we all fall, with no lesse certainty of perill, than danger of restitution. When the Sunne sets, we see dark­nesse followes immediatly vpon the face of the earth, and yet the Sunne is not the efficient cause of darknesse, but the deficient; so when the Sunne of righteousnesse shall forsake vs, the darknesse of errour, must needs possesse the vnderstanding, and the will must mistake in her choice and execution. She must nec [...]ssitate consequentia, non cònsequè [...]is. The necessitie is grounded on a conse­quent in Logicke, not any influence in Nature. And here we may borrow a true glorie for that in the 2 Acts, where it is said that Christ was deliuered into the hands of the wicked, by the determinate counsell & fore-know­ledge of God. We must not thinke that God was the letter in this villany, that he conspired with Iudas in his treason, or with Pilate in his bloudy sentence: But that he only gaue way to their attempts, and offered them to crucifie the Lord of glory. Yea, but why did not God curbe them in their cruell proceedings: Why should his conniuence betray the bloud of innocence? Saint Au­stine shall answer for me. Qui [...] mel [...] iudicauit de malis [Page 34] beneifacere, quàm mala nulla esse permittere. To extract good out of euill was peculiar onely to omnipotency and goodnesse; and therefore no lesse solid than charitable is that caueat of Du. Blesses—Malè quaeritur, vnde malum officiatur. It is an ill curiosity to seeke an efficient cause of ill. Let this then satisfie modest enquiry that it is with the sinner as with an vntuned Instrument, and the Musi­cian, the sound is from the finger of him that toucheth it, but the [...]arring from the Instrument.

That our discourse then with the time may draw to­wards a Period, we inuolue and wrap vp in this one di­stinction the very iuice and substance of the controuer­sie. Sinne is considerable two waies, ante commissionem, before the Commission, Sic se Deus habet negatiuè, tum respectu voluntatis, tum productionis. God doth neither worke with vs, nor countenance vs in the act of sinning. Post commissionem, after the Commission, sic Deus deter­minat, & ordinat peccatum. God sets bounds to the ma­lice of wicked men, and so mannages the disorder in sin, that contrary to the nature of sinne, and the intent of the sinner, it shall redound to his glory.

We inculcate then, that God is not the author, but the orderer of sinne. Hee causeth the worke, not the fault; the effect, not the delinquencie, working by, not in mischiefe. Wherein, according to the rules of Logicke, the finall and impulsiut causes euer so distinguish the actions, that two doing the same thing to a diuers intent, are notwithstanding said not to doe the same. So God gaue his Sonne, and Christ himselfe, and Iudas Christ, (saith Augustine) why is God here holy, and man guil­ty? Nisi in re vnâ quam fecerunt, non est causa vna ob quam fecerunt. I shut vp all with that state of Fulgentius in his first booke ad Mancinum cap. 1 [...]. Where hauing long houered ouer this question, An peccatafiant ex prae­destinatione? He at last thus resolues it. Potuit Deus, si­ent voluit, pradestinare quosdam ad gloriam, quesdam ad [Page 35] poenam, sed quos praedestinauit ad gloriam, praedestinauit ad iustitiam, quos autem praedestinauit ad poenam, non praede­stinauit ad culpam. God when hee saues any man doth predestinate him as well to the meanes, as to the end. But in the reprobation of a sinner, God destines the sinner onely to the punishment; foreseeing, but not determi­ning those sinnes which shall in time draw Gods punish­ments downe vpon him.

Doe our corruptions harden then, and God puni­sheth? Take heed you Pharaohs of the world, you which persecute the poore Israelite in his way to Canaan, spurre not the goodnesse of the Almighty to reuenge, or iustice. Laesa patientia sit furor—, trample too much on the necke of patience, you will turne it to fury. It is true, God hath leet of Lead (clemency intermixt with slownesse of reuenge) but he hath hands of iron, they will grinde and bruise into powder, when they are dared to combat.

Sera venit, sed certa venit vindicta Deorum.

Procrastination of diuine iustice is euer waited on no lesse with a certainty of punishment than ruine. What shall wee doe then (wretched, miserable that we are) or to whom shall we flie for succour? The good S. Augu­stine tells vs, —à Deo [...]a [...]o, ad Deum placatum—, from the tribunall of his iustice, to his throne of mercy, and compassion. That of Anselmus was most admirable —Et si Domine ego commisi vnde me damnare potes, tu ta­men non amisisti, vnde noc saluare potes—. O blessed Iesus, though I haue committed those transgressions for which thou maist condemnemed, yet thou hast not lost those compassions by which thou maist saue me. If our soules were in such a straight, that wee saw hell opening her mouth vpon vs, like the red sea before the Israelites; the damned and vgly fiends, pursuing vs behinde, like the Egyptians, on the right hand, and on the left; death and sea ready to ingulse vs, yet vpon a broken heart, and vn­disguised [Page 36] sorrow would I speake to you in the confi­dence of Moses — Stand still, stand still, behold the saluati­on of the Lord. Thou then which art opprest with the vi­olence and clamour of thy sinnes, and wantest an aduo­cate either to intercede, or pitty, heare the voice of the Lambe, —Cry vnto me, I will heare thee out of my holy hill. Is any heauily loaden with the weight of his offences, or groanes vnder the yoke and tyrannie of manifold temp­tations? —Come vnto me, I will refresh thee—. Doth a­ny hunger after righteousnesse? behold, I am the bread of life, take, eat, here is my body. Doth any thirst after the waies of grace? loc, I am a liuing spring, come; drinke here is my bloud, my bloud that was shed for many for the re­mission of sinnes; for many, not for all. Hath sinne do­minion ouer thee? or doth it reigne in thy mortall heart? are the wounds of thy transgressions so deepe that they cannot be searched? or so old, that they corrupt and pu­trifie? where is the Samaritan that will either binde them vp, or powre in oyle? But art thou not yet dead in tres­passes? are not thy vlcers past cure? are there any seeds of true life remaining? is there any motion of repentance in thy soule? will thy pulse of remorse beare a little? haste thou but a touch of sorrow? a sparke of contriti­on? a graine of faith? know there is oyle of comfort for him which mournes in Sion. Not a teare drops from thee with sincerity which is either vnpittied, or vnpreser­ued, —God puts it into his bottle. On the otherside, is there a Pharaoh in thee? an heart vnmollified? a stone that will not be bruized? a flint vnmalleable? I both mourne for it, and leaue it: But is this heart of stone ta­ken away, and is there giuen thee a heart of flesh? is it soft and tender with remorse? truly sacrificed to sorrow? know there is balme of Gilead for the broken heart, balme that will both refresh and cure it. Thou then which groanest in the spirit, and are drawne out, (as it were) in­to contrition for thy sinnes; thou which hast washt thy [Page 37] hands in innocence, goe cheerefully to the altar of thy God, vnbinde thy sacrifice, lay it on. But hast thou done it sin­cerely? from thy heart? lurkes there no falshood there? is all swept cleane and garnished? doth the countenance of that smile as cheerefully, as the other seemes to doe of the outward man? if so. thy fire is well kindled, the Al­tar burnes clearly, the sauour of thy incense shall pierce the clowds. But is this repentance disguized? hath it a touch of dissimulation in it? is not thy olde rank or cleane dis­gorged, but must thou againe to thy former vomit? hy­pocrite, thy Altar is without fire, thy incense without smoke, it shall neuer touch the nostrils of the Almighty, thy prayers in his eares sound like brasse, and tinkle like an ill-tuned Cimball; all this formality of zeale is but a disease of the lip: giue me thy heart my sonne, I will haue that, or none, and that cleane too, washt both from de­ceit, and guilt. That subtill fallacy of the eye pointing to­wards heauen, that base hypocrisie of the knee kissing the earth, that seeming austerity of the hand martyring thy breast, gaines from me neither applause, nor blessing; the example of a Pharisee could haue chid thee to such an outside of deuotion, — Qui pectus suum tundit, & se non corrigit, aggrauat peccata, non tollit, saith Augustine, where there is an outward percussion of the breast, without re­morse of the inward man, there is rather an aggrauation of sinne, than a release; these blanchings, and guildings, and varnishings of externall zeale, are as odious in the eie of God, as those of body in a true Christian; this glosse, this paint of demurenesse speakes but our whoredomes in religion, & the integrity of that man is open both to censure and suspition, that is exposed either to the pra­ctise of it, or the approbation. A villaine is a villaine howsoever his garbe or habite speake him otherwise, and an hypocrite is no lesse, though sleeked ouer with an externall sanctity, & drest in the affectations of a preciser cut. Let vs be truely that what we seeme to be, and not [Page 38] seeme what we are not; let there be dores & casements in our breasts that men may see the loyalty twixt our heart and tongue, and how our thoughts whisper to our tongue, and how our tongue speakes them to the world. Away with those Meteors and false-fires of Religion, which not onely by path vs in a blinded zeale, but mis­leade others in our steps of errour. Let vs put off the old man in our pride, vaine glorie, hypocrisie, enuy, ha­tred, malice, and (that foule disease of the times, and vs) vncharitablenesse; and let vs put on the new man in sinceritie, faith, repentance, sobrietie, brotherly, kind­nesses, loue, and (what without it disparages the tongue both, of men, and Angels) charitie; then at length all teares shall be wiped away from our eyes, and we shall re­ceiue that euerlasting benediction. —Come yee children, inherit the kingdome prepared for you from the beginning of the world.— To which, the Lord bring vs for Christ Iesus sake, to whom be praise and power ascri­bed now, and for euermore. Amen.

Gloria in excelsis Deo.




  • Beginning.
  • Height.
  • Fall.

In a Sermon preached at Pauls Crosse, Iune 4. 1624.

Being the first Sunday in Trinitie Terme.

BY Humphry Sydenham Mr. of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM Colledge in OXFORD.

LONDON, Printed for IOHN PARKER. 1626.

TO MY APPROVED WORTHY FRIEND Mr. Francis Crossing; This.


I Was neuer yet so pre­posterous in my re­spects, as to value the worth of him I serue, by the title, but the di­sposition; He is noble to me, that is so in his actions, not his des­cent; those high-swolne priuiledges of bloud and fortune are (for the most part) tympa­nies in greatnesse, pricke them, and they proue [Page] windes of honour, not substances. Had I beene ambitious of a high Patronage, this weake peece I send you might haue worne an honourable inscription, but I haue that with­in me which chides those insolencies, and tells me that the name of friend sounds better than of Lord, and hee is lesse mine that doth onely countenance me, than he that feeds me; He onely deserues to be a protector of my Labours which hath beene a cherisher of my fortunes; to you then this at once flies for Patronage, and acceptance, desiring you to receiue it as a mo­nument of his thankfulnesse, who euer deuotes himselfe

Your most-most respectiue HVM: SYDENHAM.


IOHN 8.58.

Before Abraham was, I am.

NEuer age afforded a perfection of that eminencie which was not exposed to enuie, or opposition, or both. Truth is the childe of vertue; and, as the inheritresse of all her glories; so, her suffe­rings. Now, vertue growes by vniust wounds, & so doth truth too; and like steele that is be [...], springeth the other way. She shewes her best lustre vp­on encounter, and like the Sunne shines brightest be­twixt two clowds, malice, errour; both (here) con­spire to ouercast and darken the glory of those beames which enlighten euery man that comes into the world, [Page 2] the sunnes of righteousnesse. It hath euer beene the strata­gem and proiect of that Arch-enemy of man, for the ad­uancement and strengthening of his great title—The Fa­ther of lies—, either to strangle truth in the conception, or smother it in the birth. If he miscarry in his owne particular vndertakings, hee will suborne his Factors, Scribes and Pharisees; and these not onely to question; but to oppose a deity, fit agents put vpon such a damned designe, for it is theirs no lesse by debt, than parentage; —Ye are of your Father the Deuill, v. 44. He hath bequea­thed you a prodigiouslie, and you would faine practise it on the Sauiour of the world, labouring to nullifie his acts, blemish his descent, imposture all his miracles. Where were they euer seconded, but by the finger of a God? or, where contradicted, but by the malice of a Iew? could the powers of the graue, and the shackles and bands of death be dissolued, and broken by the meere hand of Beelzebub? or a dead and stinking carkasse, enliued and quickened by a Samaritan and his deuill? could the king­dome of darknesse, and all those legions below, fetch a soule out of the bosome of your Abraham, and re-in­throne it in a body foure daies entombed? no, that —Magnus hiatus inter te, & nos—, returnes the lie vpon all hellish power, and the prince thereof. —Betweene you, and vs, there is a great gulfe fixed, Luke 16.26. Why then exclaime you on the iniustice and falshood of his te­stimonies? Opera que ego facie—, the workes which I doe beare witnesse of me. Looke on them, and if they vnscale not your wilfull blindnesse, the axioms and principles of your owne law will conuince you. It is written in your Thalmud, —That the testimony of two men is true—. Be­hold then out of your own bloud, and Nation, two strong euidences against you, Iewes both, and both speake him a true God, —A virgin shall conceiue and bring forth a Sonne, and his name shall be called Emmanuell, God with vs, Isa. 7.14. This is our God, and there shall be none in [Page 3] comparison of him, Baruch 3.36. Why then are ye so start­led at his naming Abraham? or why doth your indig­nation swell, that he saies he is before him? Abraham reioyced to see my day, and saw it, and was glad, vers. 56. (My day of eternity, and my day of incarnation, with the eie of faith.) Why enquire you into the number of his yeeres? a whole age to him is as an houre, two thou­sand yeeres but as a minute, and all the wheeles and de­grees of time within his span, and as a nunc or instant; before Abraham was, before the world, before all time I am. Iew, take his word, it is orthodox, or if not, his as­seueration: and if that be too slight and single, loe, hee doubles it, Verily, verily, I say vnto you, before Abraham was, I am.

And now thou that sittest in the chaire of Moses, heare what S. Augustine tells thee, —Appende verba, & cog­nosce mysterium—, the words (indeed) are of a narrow circuit, yet they shrine and inuolue a mystery, and carry with them both maiesty and depth, like rich stones set in Ebonie, where though the ground be darke, yet it giues their lustre and beauty clearer; learne here then both propriety, and weight of language, and how to criticke between a God, and thy owne frailty.—Intellige, fieret, ad humanam facturam, sum verò, ad diuinam pertinere sub­stantiam?—Was, points onely to a humane constitution, —I am, to a diuine substance, and therefore the originall hath a — [...] — for Abraham, & an — [...]—for Christ. Diuinity is not cloistered or confined to time, either past, or future, but commands all as present; and there­fore not —I was, but —I am. Neither doe the Latines giue Abraham an —esset, but a —fieret, nor Christ a —fui, but a —sum. Hereupon the full tide of Expositors, besidesEgo latius ex­tendo, Cal. in 8.10. M. Caluine, and his Marlorate, (who though they a while diuide the streame, yet at length they meet in the same channell, and so make the current a little ful­ler) waue this way, and send vs to that —I am, of Exo­dus, [Page 4] in the 3. chap. 14. vers. where wee finde the roote with an [...]ieh, Asher Ehich, which though the Chaldee renders, — Ero qui ere, I will be that I will be — (which in­deed is the genuine signification of the originall) yet the vulgar Edition giues it in the present, —I am that I am— and the Septuagint [...],—I am he that is- (it be­ing both frequent and necessary with the Hebrewes to place the future for the present) and by this they imply —Gods eternall and vnchangeable being in himselfe. The Thalmudists also (whose authority must passe for current, where there is no power to contradict, or scanne) allow this, —Ehieh— as much as —S [...]—F [...]i—ere- the compre­hension of three times, past present, and to come: So the Rabbins in Elleshemoth Rabbi vpon this Text, reade;—I that haue beene, and I the same now, and I the same for time to come. Howeuer the Chaldee Paraphrast labours an indifferency, and hath charity enough to afford both interpretations,—He that was, and hereafter will be.—Ad de notandam aeternitatem eias (saith Ionathan) to shew the eternall being of him who alone can say —Sum, ero- I am, and I will be; for he is the very source and fountaine of all life and essence, In whom we liue, and moue, and bene our being—, and by reason of this [...]riplicity of time, and power, Ʋatablus would deriue Ihehouah from this word —E [...]ich (though some of the Hebrew Doctors fetch the pedigree a little higher) from —Hanah, —He was, and tels vs that by the first letter is signified, he wil be, and by the second—Ho,—He is; & to this Rabbi Bechai seems to assent, in his 65. page vpon Exodi [...]. But howeuer they war a little in the deriuation, they do not in the substance, proportioning both this triple priuiledg, & where there is such an immensity, we cānot but make a God, & where such a God, eternitie. All things besides him once were not, and being, are limited in their natures, neither could possibly persist, vnlesse God preserued them; many also haue lost or shall loose their proper essence, and whilst [Page 5] they remaine are obnoxious to daily fluctuations; only God eternally —Is— without beginning, limitation, de­pendance, mutation, end, consisting onely of himselfe, and all other creatures of him, and therefore this —Ehieh— I am— is a peculiar attribute of omnipotencie, not de­termining any other, but indeterminatlie signifying all manners of being, for so it imports —The very immensi­tie of Gods substance,— and to this with an vnanimous consent all interpreters subscribe, and the whole quire of Fathers. I haue now brought —Ehieh— close up with Iehouah, this —I am— with him that is -First- and Last, so that we may here rather challenge than borrow that of the Apostle; Iesus Christ yesterday, and to day, and the same for ever. Where S. Chrysostome will put Christ vpō that triple prerogatiue to make him a compleat God, too.—A yesterday, for time past, -to day- present- for euer, to come, though I meet here (as I shall in euery cranny and passage of my discourse) a violent opposer, Eniedinum Samosatenianus, who limits the Apostles —Heri— and Hodie—ad Rem nuperam, & recentem-, so in Iob (he saies) men are called —Hesterni— by the Greekes, [...]yesterday- and to day— for their breuitie of life; but this interpretation is no lesse bold than desperate, and that [...] —which followes in the originall, will cut off all comment and glosse of transitorinesse —The same for euer—and therefore we find him cloathed with peculiar titles of the Almighty, and by Saint Iohn foure seuerall times fronted with an [...],—from him that was, and is and is to come;— so that if any murmu­ring vnbeleeuer should recoile in the acknowledgement of Christs diuinitie; he beats on againe, a third & a fourth time, that if he cannot pierce the stonie heart by a single perswasion, he will batter it by inculcation. Howeuer the malice or peruersenesse of most ages haue brought this truth not onely vpon termes of scruple, but opposition, so that now it is growne disputable, whether Christ suf­fered [Page 6] more in his body by the fury and violence of the hand, or in his diuinitie by the scourge and sting of ve­nomous and deprauing tongues? one would haue him, no God, another no man; this againe would haue him a meere man, and that denies him a true bodie; one strips him quite of flesh, another cloathes him with it, but makes it sinfull; this would haue him an Angell, that little better than a deuill, or at least that he vsed one. One, no bodie, ano­ther (I beleeue) nothing—Est illud mirabile (saith Atha­nasius) Cum omnes haereses inuicem pugnent, in falsitate omnes consentire—.

Euery head is frantike with a strange opinion, and that with some wilde fancie, which all meet in the same Im­probabilitie and (which it euer breeds) falshood. Errour and infidelitie may blow on diuine truth, and shake it too, but not ouerthrow it; 'tis founded on such a Basis and sure ground-worke as is subiect neither to battery nor vndermining. The Rocke, Christ. The Iew and the Arrian lay on fiercely here, not onely to deface this goodly structure, but to demolish it, and ruine (if possi­ble) his diuinitie; but lend me a while your noble atten­tion, Ile shew you with what weaknesse they come off, what dishonour. In the trauersing of which giue mee leaue to make vse of that Apologie which in the same subject Saint Ambrose did to Gratian, —Nolo argumen­to credas (sancte Imperator [...]) & nostrae disputationi; scripturas interrogemus, interrogemus Apostolos, Prophetas, Christum. Leane not so much to my strength of Argu­ment and disputation, as to a sacred authoritie & proofe, Let vs aske the Scriptures, Patriarchs, Prophets, Euange­lists, Apostles, Christ; let me adde (for so both my taske and industrie require) Fathers, Councels, Rabbins, Schoolemen, Histories sacred and prophane, let's giue an­tiquitie her due, and not in a lazy thirst drinke of the streame, (which is either troubled or corrupt) when wee may haue our fill at a cleere fountaine; to traffique here [Page 7] at home with a few moderne Systeames, is no small sinne of the age onely, but our profession too, if we can fleyle downe the transgressions of the time in some few stolne Postellism [...]s, and peece a sacred line with a worme-eaten Apophthegme, so it be done in a frequent and hasty zeale, we are the Sages and the Patriots of the time, and the lights no doubt of this vnder firmament; but our dis­course grouels not so low; we are here to tread a maze, and threed a Labyrinth, sometimes on hils of ice, where, if we slip in the least punctum, we tumble into haeresie; some­times with Peter in the deepe, that if the hand of Christ did not a little succour vs, we should sinke into infidelity. I will ballasse my discourse with as much cautelousnesse as I may, and where I meet with difficulties which are stony and vntrodden, if I cannot fairely master them, I will oppose them with my best strength, and if not finde a way smooth to satisfaction, dig on; I may perchance awaken haeresies, but I will lull them againe in their own slumber, I will onely pull aside the veile and shew you their vglinesse, and shut them vp in their owne deformi­ties. I know I am to speake to an Auditorie, as well sea­soned with faith, as vnderstanding, and yet (perchance) not without some mixture and touch of weaknesse. Here are shallowes then for Lambes to wade, and deepes for Elephants to swimme, passages which lie leuell with humble capacities; others which will venture to stand vp with riper iudgments, if they stoop somtimes and seeme too low for these, and mount againe and proue too high for others, it was euer my desire to keepe a correspon­dence with the best, and so to make vse of that of Augu­stine,—Non fraudabo eos qui possunt capere, dum timeo su­perfluus esse auribus eorum qui non possunt capere—. Yet come I not to fill those eares which are pickt and drest for accuratenesse I am so farre from labouring to please such, that I intend to vex them; if any charitable eare bee prone to a foure discourse, pitch that attention heere one [Page 8] houre, and I shall make good my promise out of the words of the Text.

Before Abraham was, I am.

And here we are first to enter lists with that capitall and Arch-enemy of Christ, the vexation of the Fathers, and the incendiary and firebrand of the Eastern Church, the Arrian, who out of an enuious pride is at once boun­tifull and iniurious, willing to inuest Christ with the title [...], but disrobes him of that glorious, and his owne [...], granting him a like essence with the Father not the same: equall to him in power, not eternitie; but giue me leaue to strip one heriticke to cloath another, and put on ours what Tertullian did on Marcion —Quid dim idias mendacio Christum? why dost thou thus peece-meale and mince a deity, and halfe god (as it were) the Son of the Almighty? —Totus veritas, he is the spirit of truth, and oracle of his Father, the brightnesse of his glory, in whom are hid all the treasures of Wisedome, knowledge, by whom God made the world.

It were too bold a solecisme to ranke transitorinesse with what is sacred, or that which is fleeting with euer­lastingnesse, what below eternall dare we make compati­ble with omnipotencie?

An eternall Intellect, most perfect, and such is God, re­quires an obiect equally perfect, and eternall, which from God, holding a relation to God, can be nothing but God it selfe; and seeing that no Intellect can conceiue without the image of that obiect which it conceiues, it will follow of necessitie that God, since from all eternitie he knew himselfe most perfect, should conceiue and bring forth in himselfe a most perfect image of himselfe, his Sonne. There is no act of vnderstanding without imagination, which naturally presents an image, by so much the more perfect, by how much the obiect, whose [Page 9] image it is, is more diuinely excellent. And this is that the Apostle glanc't at, when he stiled Christ, —Characte­rem hypostasis patris— the expresse image of his Fathers person, a sonne so begotten of and in the substance of the Father, that there can be nothing from it, diuers, or re­pugning. Seeing then, in God to vnderstand and to be are not so much parallels, as equals.Keck. Syst. Theol. l. 1. ca. 2. Intelligi autem sit ipsum filij esse—as the Schoole speakes— strength of consequence will induce, that the substance of Father and Sonne, sound one both in power and euerlasting­nesse; in fine, for as much as the vnderstanding of God is from eternitie, actiue, nay, the very act eternall, and that vnderstanding cannot be without an Image, It followes that this Image which was conceiued, the Sonne, was equall to that which did conceiue, the Father, so that the eternitie of God the Sonne, and his equalitie with God the Father doth arise from that essentiall Identitie of both, for where two persons shall agree in the same essence, if the one be infinite, the other must riuall in the same eternitie.

Here is the Rock then on which we build our Church, and the sure Basis where we foot and fasten our beleefe. —The Sonne is begotten of the essence of the Father, and alwayes begotten, Tom. 2. hom. 6. in Ierem.Non quòd quotidiè renouetur illa gene­ratio, sed quia semper est,—saith Origen, not because it is dailie renouated, but because it euer —Is— or rather —Was. For Saint Gregory in the 29 of his Morals, the first Chapter, plaies as well the Criticke, as the Diuine, and is no lesse nice, than solid,—Dominus noster Iesus Christus in eo quòd virtus & sapientia Dei est, de patre ante tempora natus est, vel potius quia nec coepit nasci, nec desijt, dicam verius, semper natus, non possumus, semper nascitur, nè im­perfectus esse videatur— Our Lord Iesus Christ in that he is the power and wisedome of God is said to be borne of the Father before all times, or rather because there was no beginning or end of his generation, we may speake more [Page 10] congruously, he was alwayes borne, not -Is-, for that pre­supposes some imperfection, and as the same Father pro­secutes.Vt aeternus de­signari valeat, & perfectus, & semper dicimus & natus, quate­nus, & natus ad perfectionem pertineat, & semper ad aeter­nitatem. That we may declare him both perfect and eter­nall, we allow him as well a -semper- as a -Natus- for as much as -Natus- hath reference to perfection, -semper-, to eternitie. Howeuer S. Augustine in his exposition of that of the Psalmist, —Ego hodiè, genui te- Thou art my Son, this day haue I begotten thee, Psal. 2. sayes that -Hodiè- praesen­tiam significat and in eternitie, neither is the time past any thing, as if it should cease to be, nor time to come, as if it were not yet, but onely the time present, Because whatsoeuer is eternall alwaies -Is- yet at length hee vn­derstands that place —de sempiterna generatione sapientiae Dei— And Lombard descants on it in his first booke ninth distinction, who would haue the Prophet to say -Genui- nè nouum putaretur, -hodiè ne praeteritae genera­tio videretur: I haue begotten thee, lest it should be thought new, to day, past, and thence out of the authoritie of the Text or the interpretation concludes a perpetuall gene­ration of the Sonne from the essence of the Father.

But here the Hereticke interposes, and thus subtilly beates at the gates of reason. A thing that is borne, can­not be said that it was euer, for in this respect it is said to bee borne, Lib. 12. de Trin. that it might be. S. Hillarie, by a modest answer or confutation rather, limits his proposition to things meerely secular, which borne here in the course of nature, must necessarily call on time, and tell vs they sometimes were not, it is one thing then to be borne of that which alwayes is not, another of that which alwayes was, for that is temporary, this eternall.

If then it be proper to God the Father, alwayes to be Father, it must be to God the Sonne, alwaies to be Sonne, so the Euangelist.Ioh. 1. v. 31.In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and that word was God, and the same was from the beginning; erat, erat, erat, erat, en quater erat, vbi impius inuenit quod non erat? Saint Ambrose in [Page 11] his first to Gratian 5. c. & indeed it was not without a my­sterie when in that glorious transfiguration on Mount Tabor, Peter saw Christ with Moses, and Elias (when his face did shine as the Sunne, and his raiment was white as Snow) what did that vision portend?Ambros. vt su­pra. Nisi vt appareret nobis quod lex & Prophetae cum Euangelio congruentes sempiternum dei filium quem annunciauerant, reuelarent. But that it should appeare vnto vs that the Law and the Gospell going hand in hand with Euangelicall truth (for vnder Christ and Moses and Elias, Aug. in orat. ad Catech. cap. 6. Saint Augustine also shrines those three) should reveale vnto vs the euerlasting Sonne of God, whom they had both foretold and showne. And loe yet, as if these were not Oracles loude enough for the promulgation of such a Maiestie, the voice of the Almightie fils it vp with a -Hic est meus Dilectissimus- This is my beloued Sonne, My Sonne of eternitie, —Ego ex vtero ante Luciferum genui te—. Psal. 34. And a sonne of mine owne substance, —Ex ore Altissimi prodiui— Wis. 7. —primogenitus—before the day was, I am he, Esay 43.13. —Ʋnigenitus— A iust God, and a Sauiour, There is none beside me, Esay 45.21. A Sonne begotten, not created, not of grace, but nature, before, not in time.

Hereupon Christ taking his farewell of his Disciples, Iohn 20. shewes them this Interuallum and distance of generation and adoption: I goe to my Father, and your Father, and to my God and your, not to our Father, but to mine and yours. This separation implies a diuersitie, and shewes that God is his Father indeed, but our Creator; and therefore he addes. My God and your God; Mine by a priuiledge of nature, yours of grace; Mine out of the wombe (as it were) of euerlastingnesse; yours out of the iawes of time. Yet the Heretique would faine sell vs to vnbeleefe and errour, by cheating Christ of an eternall birth-right, tossing it on the tides of time, and so make him a creature, and no God.

Heere to dissent meerely were both perfunctory and [Page 12] dull, such a falshood merits rather defiance, than deniall, —Negamus? Amb. vt supra. potius horremus vocem-. Errours that are so insolent are to be explos't, not disputed, and spit at rather than contrould. Confutation swayes not heere, but violence, and therefore the Apostle driues this blas­phemy to the head, Coloss. 1.15. Where we finde Christ stiled primogenitus vniuersae Creaturae, The first-borne of euery creature; not the first created, —Vt genitus pro Na­tura, & primus pro perpetuitate credatur—. saith Ambrose; borne presupposes diuine nature- First, perpetuitie, and therefore when the pen of the Holy Ghost sets him out in his full glory, he giues him this title —haeredem om­nium—,Col. 1. -The heire of tall things, by whom God made the world—,Amb. 1. de si. ad Grat. cap. 2. To make the world, and to be made in it, how contradictory? Quis Authorem inter opera sua deputet vt videatur esse quod fecit? saith the Father. Was there euer malice so shod with ignorance, which could not di­uide the Artificer from his worke, the Potter from his clay, the Creator from the thing created? heare him speak in whose mouth there was no guile. -Ego & pater vnum sumus, Ioh. 10. I and the Father are one. Ʋnum- to shew a consent both of power and eternitie, -Sumus- a perfe­ction of nature without confusion. Againe, -Vnum sumus- not -vnus sum- (so Augustine descants) -Ʋnum- to con­fute the Arrian, Orat. ad Catech. cap. 5. -Sumus- the Sabellian, the one disioint­ing and seuering the times of Sonne and Father, the other confounding their persons. -Vnum- than, to shew their essence one, -Sumus- the persons diuers.

I could wish that we were now at truce, but with these there is neither peace nor safety, but in victory; wee are still in the Front and violence of our Aduersary, who puts on here as Philip did to Christ, with a —Domine ostende nobis-Lord shew vs the Father, and it sufficeth vs, but obserue how the Lord replies, and in his reply con­troules, and in his controulement cure's? Haue I been so long time with thee, and hast thou not knowne me Philip? [Page 13] I came to reconcile thee to the Father, and wilt thou sepa­rate me? Why seekest thou another? he that hath seene me, hath seene my Father also. Audi Arriane quid Dominus? (saith Augustine) si errasti cum Apostolo, redi cum Apo­stolo- Hearke Arrius how the Lord rebukes him, and if thou hast digrest with an Apostle, returne with an Apo­stle, so his checke shall be thy conuersion. But whilst we thus shoulder with the Arrian, the Sabellian lies in am­bush, who now comes on like lightning and thunder, but goes off like smoake; for looking backe to those words of our Sauiour, he runnes on boldly to his owne paradox, and by this harmony of Sonne and Father would perswade vs to a confusion of their persons; but the Text beares it not, and one little particle shall redeeme it from such a preposterous interpretation; for it runnes not with a —Qui me videt, videt patrem, — He that sees me, sees my father, as if I were both father and sonne, but with a- Qui me vìdet, videt-&-patrem,- He that sees me, sees my fa­ther also. Vbi interpositio vnius sillabae, &, patrem descer­nit, & filium, teque demonstrat, neque patrem habere, ne­que filium, August. in his contra 5. host. genera cap. 6. It is a rare opinion that hath not something to hearten it either in truth or probability, otherwise it were no lesse erroneous, than desperate. But here there can be no co­lour or pretence for either, where both Diuinity and Arts breathe their defiance; that two natures should dis­solue into one person, religion contradicts; two persons into one nature, reason; but two persons into one person, both reason & religion. —Dixit Dominus Domino meo— saith the Psalmist, The Lord said vnto my Lord, sit at my right hand. Harke Sabellius, here is a Lord and a Lord, two then, not one; where is now thy confusion of per­sons? Ego Deus solus, & non alius extra me, Deut. 32.12. I am God, and there is none beside me-. Arrius where is thy God of eternity, and thy God of power, thy God of time, and operation, and thy God from the beginning? [Page 14] Audi Israel, Dominus noster Deus vnus—, The Lord our God is God onely, no riuall, no sharer in his omnipotency, for if temporary, how a God? if a God, how not eternall? if eternall, how not one? Thou allowest him the power of God, but not the eternity, the operation, not the time; what prodigy of errour? what dearth of reason? what warre of contradiction? what is this but to be God, and no God? temporary, and yet euerlasting? Opinion once seeded in errour, shoots-out into heresie, and after some growth of time, blasphemy. Who (besides an Arri­an) could haue thus molded two Gods out of one? ex­cept a Tritheite, or a Maniche? Who (scarce so grosse­ly neither) denie them not an equality of time, but con­dition, coeternall, but this good, and that euill. Thus men ouer-borne with the strength of a selfe-conceit, are so precipitated and drawne on with the swindge of an vn­ruly fancy, that leauing the road and vsuall wayes of truth, they run into by-paths of errour, and so at length loose both their iudgement, and their faith. Some haue beene so busie with starres, that they haue forgotten him that giues them influence; and like curious Lapida­ries, dally so long with sparkling obiects, that they loose the light of that organ which giues life vnto their Art. Learning (indeed) in many is a disease, not a perfection, a meere surfeit, rather vomited, than emptied, nothing passeth but what is forced, and as sometimes with a fit of weaknesse, so of pitty. A greedy knowledge feeds not our vnderstanding, but oppresseth it, and like a rauenous appetite chewes more to poison, than to nourishment. Were I to drinke freely of what is sacred, I should desire that which flowes, not that which is pumped for, wa­ters that are troubled yeeld mud, and are oftentimes as­well the bane of the receiuer, as the comfort. A Pioner or bold myner which digs on too farre for his rich veine of Ore, meets with a dampe which choakes him; and we may finde some dispositions rather desperate than ven­turous, [Page 15] knowne more by a heady resolution, than a wise cautelousnesse, whom we may resemble to that silly and storme-tost Seaman, who diued so long for a piece of his shipwrackt treasure, that either want of aire, or ponde­rousnesse of water depriued him at once of life and for­tune. Arrius hath been so long conuersant in the schoole of Philosophy, that he forgets hee is a Priest, and now makes that the Mistresse of Diuinity, which was before the handmaid. S. Augustine therefore in his Oration ad Catechum. expostulates with the hereticke, and by way of Prosopopeia doth catechize him thus, — Credis in Deum patrem omnipotentem? Dost thou beleeue in God the father Almighty, & in his sonne Iesus Christ our Lord? I beleeue, thou sayest: here, then thou art mine against the Pagan, and the Mahometan. Dost thou beleeue that the God and man Christ Iesus was conceiued of the holy Ghost, and borne of the Virgin Mary? I beleeue; thou art yet with me against Photinus, and the Iew. Dost thou beleeue the father to be one person, and the sonne another, yet father and sonne but one God? and this also; here thou art mine too against the Sabellian. — Age si mecum es in omnibus, quare litigamus? saith the Father, if wee are one in all these, why contend we? Let there be no strife betweene thee and me, for we are brethren. But it will fall out here anon as betweene Lot and Abraham, by reason of our sub­stance we cannot dwell together, wee must part anon. Tell me then how is the sonne equall to the father, in operati­on or beginning, in power or eternity, or both? In operation and power, the heretique allowes, but not eternitie; for how can that which was begotten be equall to that which was not begotten? Yes, eternitie, and greatnesse, and power in God sound one, for he is not great in one thing, and God in another, but in this great, that hee is God, be­cause his greatnesse is the same with his power, and his es­sence with his greatnesse. Seeing then the sonne is coequall in respect of power, he must be coeternall too in respect of [Page 16] euerlastingnesse. Here the Arrian is on fire, and nothing can allay or quench these flames but that which giues them an vntimely foment, Reason. To proue a princi­ple in nature is both troublesome and difficult, but in re­ligion without the assent of faith, impossible: In matters of reason, it is first discourse, then resolue, but in these of religion, first beleeue, and the effect will follow, whether for confession of the truth, or conuiction of errour, or both. The greatest miracles our Sauiour did in way of cure or restauration was with a—si credas-, and that to the liuing, and the dead, and betweene those, the sicke. To the Centurion for his seruant with a —sicut credis-, As thou beleeuest, so be it vnto thee, Matth. 8.5. To the Ru­ler of the Synagogue for his daughter, with a-Crede- too, —Feare not, but beleeue, Mar. 5.36. To all that are dumbe, or blinde, or lame in mysteries of Diuinity, as to those dumbe, or blinde, or lame in bodie, with a -Vtrum cre­ditis? Doe you beleeue these things? then your faith hath made you whole, Matth. 9.28. but if wee meet with vn­weildy dispositions, such as are not onely vntractable, but opposite to the waies of faith, we shall rather drag than inuite them to beliefe; howeuer the Father labours here by a powerfull perswasion, and where hee failes in the strength of proofe, he makes it out by way of allusion, which he illustrates by a similitude of fire & light, which are distinct things, one proceeds from another, neither can the one be possibly without the other, the father he resembles to the fire, the sonne to the light, and endea­uours to deriue it (though obliquely somewhat) from sacred storie in Deut. 4.24. God is called a fire, —Thy God is a consuming fire; in Psal. 8. Christ the light, Thy word is a light vnto my steps: With this double stone he batters the forehead both of the Sabellian, and the Arrian; first of the Sabellian, for here are two in one, fire and light, yet two still not one, why not so with Sonne, and Father? The Arrian next, for here also is one borne of another, [Page 17] yet the one not possibly to be borne without the other, neither of them first or last; fire and light coeuall, Fa­ther and Sonne, so too. The similitude iarres onely in this, those are temporarie, and these eternall, —pater ergò & filius vnum sunt (saith the Father) —Sunt-dico, quia pater & filius, -vnum- quia Deus; dualitas in prole, vnitas in deitate, cum dico filius, alter est, cum dico Deus, vnus est. cont. 5. host. genera cap. 7. What more obuious and trod­den to the thinnest knowledge, than that there is here -alius and -alius, but not -aliud-, as in bels of equal magni­tude, and dimension (pardon the lownesse of the simili­tude) which though framed out of the same masse, and Art, where the substance and workmanship are one, yet the sound is diuers; for though of Sonne and Father the sub­stance be one as God, yet the appellation and sound is diuers, as Sonne and Father.

The Heretique either impatient of this truth, or ig­norant, once more makes reason his vmpire, but how sinisterly, how iniuriously? that which should be the mistresse of our sence, and the Sterne and arbitresse of all our actions, must now be a promotresse and baud to error. It is bold expostulation that runnes vs on these shelues of danger, and hath been the often wracke of many a blooming and hopefull truth. There are errours besides these desperate, of will, of vnderstanding, which some­times are rather voluntary, than deliberatiue, and balla­ced more by the suggestions of a weake fancy, than any strength of iudgment; If our thoughts thē still lie at Hull in those shallowes of nature, where we coast daily about sence and reason, how can we but dash against vntimely errours? but if we keepe aloofe in principles of Religi­on, where those winds of doubt and distrust swell and bluster not, faith will be at last our waf [...]er vnto truth. Let's not then any longer root our meditations in vallies vnder vs, but looke vp to those hills from whence our sal­uation commeth. Let's conuerse a little with Prophets [Page 18] and Euangelists, and those other Registers and Secreta­ries of the Almightie. -In te est Deus, & non est Deus praeter te, Esay 45.5. Infidell, either deny a diuinity of Father, or Sonne, or confesse an vnitie of both; for one thou must doe; of the Sonne thou canst not, for there is a God in him, the Father, Pater qui in me manet ipse loqui­tur, the Father that is in me he speaketh, and the works which I doe he doth, Ioh. 10. of the Father thou dar'st not, there is a God in him the Sonne, -I am in the Father, and the Father in me, Ioh. 14. Here then is both a proprietie of na­ture, and vnitie of consent. God in God, yet not two, but one, fulnesse of diuinitie in the Father, fulnesse in the Son, yet the Godhead not diuers, but the same, so that now there is no lesse a singlenesse of name than operation. And therefore those words of the Apostle, though in the first encounter and suruay, they offer a shew of contradiction, yet searched to the quicke and kernell, are not without a mysterious weight, Rom. 8.32. It is said of the Father, -Filio proprio non pepercit, sed pro nobis tradidit. He spared not his owne Sonne but gaue him for vs all to death; yet E­phes. 5. It is said of the Sonne, -Tradidit semeteipsum pro nobis—, —He gaue himselfe for vs—, Heere is a double —Tradidit—an a —pro nobis—, and a —se pro nobis-, if he was giuen of the Father, and yet gaue himselfe, how can it follow, but that there must be both a simpathy of nature and operation? And indeed it were a meere sacri­ledge and robbery of their honour, to depriue them of this so sacred a correspondence. We allow to all belee­uers but one soule and one heart, Acts 4 to all those that cleaue to God one spirit 1 Cor. 16. to husband and wife one flesh, to all men in respect of nature, but one substance; If in sublunary matters (where there is no alliance or reference with those more sacred) Scriptures approue many to be one, shall we riffle the Father and the Sonne of the like Iurisdiction, and deny them to be eternally one, where there is no iarre of will, or substance? Heare how the Apostle doth chalke out a way to our beleefe, by the [Page 19] rules of diuine truth, 1 Cor. 8.6. There is one God which is the Father, of whom are all things, and we of him, and one Lord Iesus Christ by whom are all things, and wee by him. Here is -Deus- and -Dominus-, a God and a Lord, and yet no pluralitie of Godhead, and an -ex quo- and a -per quem, -of whom and by whom, yet a vnitie of power, for as in that he sayes one Lord Iesus Christ, he denied not the Fa­ther to be Lord, so by saying one God the Father, he de­nied not the Sonne to be God. —In te igitur est Deus per vnitatem naturae, & non est Deus praeter te propter proprie­tatem substantiae. Ambros. lib. 1. de fide ad Gratian 2. cap. With what sacred inscriptions do we find him blazoned, the ingrauen forme of his Father, the image of his goodnesse, the brightnesse of his glory? and with these three of an Apostle,Esay 9.6. a Prophet rankes other three not subordinate in maiestie, or truth; as if the same inspiration had dictated both matter and forme. Counsellor, the Almighty God, the euerlasting Father, the euerlasting Father in a double sence, either as he is author of it, as Iuball was said to be the Father of Musicke when he was but the Author or inuentor, or in respect of his affection, because hee loues with an euerlasting loue; yet some leaning on the word of the Greeke Interpreter [...], which the vulgar renders, —Pater futuri seculi— would restraine it onely to the life to come,In cap. 9. Esay. but Caluine extends it to a perpetuity of time and continued Series of all ages; And the Chal dee translation (which with the Hebrew is most authen­tique) seemes not onely to assent to it, but applaud it too. -Nomen eius ab antè mirabilis consilio, Deus fortis, perma­nens in saecula saeculorum. Howeuer the Septuagint (ter­rified with the maiestie of so great a name) giue it vs by —Magni consilij Angelus—; which words though they haue no footing in the originall, yet both Augustine and Tertullian approue the sence, taking —Angelus— for —Nancius—, so that Christ tooke not vpon him the na­ture of an Angell (as some would iniuriously foize upon [Page 20] Origens opinion) but the office, by which as a Legate or mediator; rather he appeared to those Patriarches of old, Abraham and the rest, Gen. 18.3.

I haue once more brought Christ as farre as Iacob and Abraham, but the Text tolls me a little farther, and so doth my aduersary too, till I haue verified in Christ the strength of that voice, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Iacob. We may not leaue him here with the bare title of an Angell, we must goe higher, to that of the Son of God, where we shal lagain meet our implacable Ar­rian in his violent opposition. If there be a Son, he must be borne, if borne, there was a time when there was no Sonne, for to be borne, presupposes a beginning, and that time. Saint Augustine diuided (as it seemes) betweene pity and indignation, answeres. Qui hoc dicit non intelligit etiam natum esse, deo sempiternum esse—. To be borne with God, is to be eternall with God, and he opens himselfe by his old similitude, Sicut splendor qui gignitur ab igne, as light which is begotten of fire, and diffused, is coeuall with the fire, and would be coeternall too if fire were eter­nall, so the Sonne with the Father, this being before all time, the other must kisse in the same euerlastingnesse. The Father thinking his reason built too slenderly doth buttresse (as it were) and backe it with the authoritie of an Apostle,1 Cor. [...] such an Apostle as was sometimes a persecu­tor, and therefore his authoritie most potent against a persecutor, where he stiles Christ, the power and wisedome of God. If the Sonne of God be the power and wisdome of God, and that God was neuer without power and wise­dome, how can we scant the Sonne of a coeternitie with the Father? For either we must grant that there was al­wayes a Sonne, or that God had sometimes no wisedome, and impudence or madnesse were neuer at such a growth of blasphemie as to belch the latter. If the reuerend alle­gation of a learned Prelate, or those more sacred of an A­postle, cannot bung vp the mouth of a malicious Here­tique, [Page 21] heare the voice of a Prophet, & a Father warbling vpon that too. Before me there was no other God, and af­ter me there shall be none, Esay. 43.10. Quis hoc dicit, pa­ter, an filius? (saith Ambrose) who is here the speaker, the Father or the Sonne (he comes ouer him with a sub­till Dilemma:) if the Sonne, thus he saith, —before mee there was no other God, if the Father,—After me (saith he) there shall be none, for both the Father in the Sonne, and the Sonne in the Father must be knowne, when thou namest a Father, thou hast also designed a Sonne, because no man is a Father to himselfe; when thou namest a Sonne, thou confessest also a Father, for no man is sonne to himselfe, the Sonne therefore can neither subsist with­out the Father, nor the Father without the Sonne, the one being from euerlasting, we may not depose the o­ther from the like omnipotency. If truth thus twisted in a triple authoritie of Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, cannot allay the turbulency of a contagious heretique, heare the voyce of him who spake as neuer man spake; neuer Father, Apostle, Prophet, (if at length such an authoritie be passable with an Arrian) the Lambe of God; O Father glorifie me with thine owne selfe, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was, Ioh. 17.5. Hearest thou In­fidell? a Sonne, and glorified, with the Father before the world? what chinke now, what by-path for euasion where thou art compassed with such a cloud of witnesses?

Tell me deuill (for hereticke is to cheape and low an attribute, when thou art growne to such a maturity and height of prophanation) was there a time when omni­potent God the Father was not, and yet was there a God? Gird now vp thy loynes, and answer if thou canst, for if he began to be a Father, then he was first a God, and after made a Father, how is God then immutable, how the same, one, when by accesse of generation he shall suf­fer change? Grant mee then a God eternall, and thou must a Father, and if a Father, a sonne too, they are rela­tiues, [Page 22] and cannot digest a separation either in respect of time, or power. And this thou didst once subscribe to (and I know not what deuillish suggestion wrought thy reuolt) in an Epistle to Eusebius, if the authority of Bren­tius will passe for classicall, where thou couldst afford him the stile of [...], plenus Deus, vnigenitus- and a little before that he had his beginning, [...]ante tempora, ante saecula, why shouldst thou now then rip vp the wombe of Deity, and enquire how he was begotten? how borne? and when? as if thou labouredst to bastard his descent, and make it tem­porary. Doe not, doe not out of the custome of humane generation tie eternity to time, or manner, and so at once vomit errour and blasphemy. Heare the voice of the Lord thundring vnto thee, Cui me similem existimas? who is like vnto mee, or to whom is the arme of the Lord re­uealed? Me ante montes generauit Dominus, before the mountaines were setled, or the hills raised, I was brought forth.Ambros. 1. de fi­de, cap. 5. Habeat ergo generationis inusitatae gloriam, qui ha­bet potestatis inusitatae gratiam. He that hath an vnwon­ted Iurisdiction in respect of power, it were a derogation too capitall to lessen his prerogatiue in way of birth; ob­serue what pompe he carrieth of antiquity, what descent, how deriued? by Heraulds of no meane ranke, a King, & a Prophet, and a Prophet that's a King, I was set vp of old, from euerlasting, Prou. 8.24. His goings forth haue beene from euerlasting, Mich. 5.2. Thy throne is established of old, thou art from euerlasting, Psal. 93.2. Harke, from euer­lasting, from euerlasting, from euerlasting, one ecchoing to another, as if the same pen had beene as well the dire­ctrix of the languages, as the truth. If thou shalt then hereafter ball an eternity with a—quando, or a—quomodo natus? Amb. vt supra. I goe one with the Father still, Quid te ista quae­stionum tormenta delectant? Audis Dei filium, aut dele nomen, aut agnosce naturā?—Quaeres that are to nice ra­ther torment the vnderstanding, than informe it, and are [Page 23] more apt to puzzle our Iudgement, than to rectifie it. Subtilty of questions (I know not whether) it hath more conuinced, or begotten errour, or improued vs in our knowledge, or staggered vs. And hence I suppose was the substance of the Apostles aduice to the Romanes, He that is weake in faith receiue you; but not to doubtfull dis­putations, Cap. 14.1. Curiosities of question haue euer beene the engines and stales to heresie, and therfore some of the Fathers haue nicke-named Philosophers with an —Haereticorum Patriarchae—It is no lesse a policy than right in sadder learning to giue Diuinity the chaire,Tertull. for if Arts with their subtle retinue once inuade it, sence and reason will hisse faith out of doores. And therefore we finde the same Apostle vehement in his—Canote ne vos seducat, Beware lest any man spoile you through Philoso­phy and vaine deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ, Coloss. 2.4. In matters of faith he that plaies either the Philosopher, or the criticke displaies neither his Iudgement, nor his Religion, for the kingdome of God is not in word, but in power, 1 Cor. 4.20. Considera (saith Augustine) quod voceris fidelis non rationalis, Faith, not reason, is our an­chor in this depth, and beleefe, not scruple is our steers­man to our port. Wisdome, I meane that which is worldly and feathered (as it were) with transitorinesse, must now stoope to simplicity, strength to weaknesse. How doth the Apostle iumpe with vs? Hee hath chosen the foolish things of this world to confound the wise, and the weake things the mighty, 1 Cor. 1.27. Hence it is that the kingdome of heauen belongs vnto children, Matth. 19.13. And God hath hid it from the prudent, and reuea­led it to babes, Matth. 11.25. And therefore S. Augu­stine makes a proud knowledge strike saile to a modest ignorance in his 188. Serm. de Temp. —Meum est piè ig­norantiam confiteri, quam temere mihi scientiam vendica­re. In sacred matters your nimble Cryticismes are as ob­noxious [Page 24] to desperatnesse, as danger; to be curious (here) is to be quaintly madde, and thus to thrust into the bed-chamber of the Almighty is a franticke sawcinesse. Who can vnlocke those Coffers of omnipotency,Esay 45.2. but he that breakes in peeces the gates of Brasse, and cuts in sunder the barres of Iron? Who those Cabinets of abstruser know­ledge?Jdem, ibid. but he that giues thee the treasure of darknesse, and hidden riches of secret places? How can our low built ap­prehensions but flag in the expression of such a birth, when we finde a Prophet so transported with contem­plation of it, that he dares the world with an Interrogati­on, —Generationem eius quis enarrabit? Who shall de­clare his generation, Esay 53. Yet we haue met with some supercilious and daring wits, which venture here to vn­twist this mysterie of generation, as if they would calcu­late an eternall birthright, leaning vpon the authority of S. Hierom in his Commentaries vpon Eccl. 1. where he asseuers, that in sacred Scriptures—Quis oftentimes is not put for an impossibility, but a difficulty. And hee in­stances in this —Quis—of Esay, Generationem eius quis enarrabit? Lib 1. dist. 19. But Lumbard doth both vindicate and inter­pret the Father, thus, —Non dicit quod generatio filij ae­terna.—He saies not that this eternall generation of the sonne of God can descend to any mortall capacity in an absolute and full knowledge; but in some measure and degree, for so the Apostle doth peece-out our perfection here, We are happy in part, and know onely in part, not a haire,Orat. contra Arrianos. not a feather as we should. Dic mihi (saith Augu­stine) altitudinem Coeli, profundum Abyssi, &c. Shew me the height of Heauen, and the depth of Hell, number (if thou canst) the sands of the Sea, the drops of raine, or the haires of thine owne head. Plane mee out by some per­fect demonstration the truth of those things which gro­uell here below, and I will beleeue thy knowledge may aspire to those which are aboue; but thou hast no power of compassing the one, nor possibility in the atchieue­ment [Page 25] of the other. For when all thy faculties of vnderstan­ding, will, haue fluttered so high as the wings of nature can eleuate and mount them to, yet thou wilt at last make vp the storie of Icarus, and finde that these are but waxen plumes, and will melt at the presence of those glorious beames, and so thy fall will be as dishonourable as thy at­tempt was peremptory; for if the great Doctour of the Gentiles (rapt vp into the third Heauen) said that hee heard words vnexpressable, which no tongue dared to vtter, how canst thou dissolue and vntie —Paternae ge­nerationis Arcana—(as Ambrose stiles them) those knots and Riddles of eternall generation, which can neuer bore a humane intellect, nor lie within the verge of mor­tall apprehension? Mihi enim impossibile est generatio­nis scire secretum (saith the Father) mens deficit, vox silet, non mea tantum, sed & Angelorum, supra potestates, & sepra Cherubin, & supra Seraphin, & supra omnem sen­sum, in his 1. de fide ad Gratian. c. 4. It is not then so much ambition in our desire, as madnesse, to attempt the know­ledge of that where there is an impossibility of reuelati­on. Those enterprizes are temerarious and ouer-head-strong, which put on where there is not onely danger, but a despaire of conquest. How can reasonable man but lie buried vnder the weight of such a mysterie, at which those grand pillars of the Church haue not onely shooke but shrunke? How must wee be strucke dumbe when the tongues of Saints and Angels stutter? How our mindes entranced, when the glorious hoast of Heauen, and all those feathered Hierarchies shal clap their wings? All reasons tongue-tied, all apprehension non-plust, all vnderstanding darkened; so that I may now speake of this metaphoricall depth, as Iob did of that other naturall, —Thou hast made a cloud the garment thereof, and thicke darknesse a swadling band.

Mysteries carry with them such an awe and Maiestie, as if they would be obeyed, not disputed, and assented to, [Page 26] not controuerst. In secrets without bottome (such as carry the stampe of sacred) except faith holds vs vp like children we swimme without bladders, and must either dabble to the shore, or sinke, reason hath not an hand to lend vs. Faith and reason in respect of mysterie, are as a wheele and a bucket at a deepe well; faith hath both the power and safetie of descent, and nimbly fathoms it, whilst reason wheele's, and rounds it, and is strangely giddied in a distracted Gyre. And indeed who durst laue such an Ocean,Esay 44 7. but he that sayes to the deepes be drie? or can shut vp the seas with doores, that they breake not out, and say, Iob 38.8. hither shalt thou come, no farther, there shall thy proud waues stay? What eye that lookes on the Sunne, and dazels not,Ecclus 10.19. but he that sees from euerlasting to euerla­sting? & sends out lightning that they may come and goe, and say, here we are? The star-gazer and bold figure flinger are at a stand here, why lookest thou vp thou proud A­strologer? you men of Galilee, why gaze you into heauen? Thus saith the Lord of hoasts, he that form'd thee from the wombe:Esay 44.24, 25. I am the Lord that maketh all things, that stretcheth out the heauens alone, that frustrateth the tokens of lyars, and maketh diuiners mad, that turneth wisemen backwards, and maketh their knowledge foolishnesse. Thou, O Lord, shalt haue them in derision, thou shalt laugh the heathen to scorne, for the sinne of their mouth, and the words of their lips they shall be taken in their pride, as the dust (O Lord) shalt thou driue and scatter them, and in thy wrath thou shalt consume them, that they may know, that it is God that ruleth in Iaacob, and to the end of the world.

Arrius is now in his pompe and height of glory, and flourisheth like a greene bay-tree, anone looke after him, and hee is no where to bee found. Hee is vp yet, but it is with the proud man in the Psalmes, in slip­pery places, and (anone) with him, how suddenly de­stroyed, perished, and brought to a fearefull end? The whole Easterne Church is now in a strange combusti­on, [Page 27] and he must kindle it, by and by those flames shall light him to his owne ruine. Heresie may root and bud, and branch, and grow to a goodly height, but the hand of vengeance houers ouer it, and when it strikes, it fels it at a blow, and it comes downe like a pine from a steepe mountaine, which in the fall shatters both the branch, and bodie. It is heere, as with mists and fogges which we see first rise as in a thin smoake from a low Fen or Valley, but gathering strength climbe the moun­taine, and at last so thicken in one body of vapours that they seeme to dare the Earth with a second night, till the Sunne (recouering height and power) by the vertue and subtiltie of his beames doth dissipate and open them, and they are seene no more.

Will you haue a president? we find Arrius at first a meane Priest of Alexandria in Aegypt, a man keene and subtill, as well in wit as learning, Specie, & forma magis, Lib. 1. quàm virtute religiosus, sed gloriae, & nouitatis improbè cupidus, (saith Ruffinus) In vertue not so much refined as in the deportment of the outward man, which pro­mised a set grauity, though no truth of Religion, in a thirst and pursuit of honour and noueltie, strangely vio­lent,—Dulcis erat in colloquio, persuadens animas, & blan­diens. In his discourse no lesse sweet, than powerfull, and where he gaines no conquest by perswasion, he mines by flattery; Thus by the sorceries and enchantments of a voluble tong, simplicity is betrayed, and vnder a pretext of truth, silly women (who are euer most affected with leuity and change) are first led captiue; and these for the enhancement & propagation of their new doctrine, commerce with their allies, and these tickled with new fancies, applaud the designe, entertaine the noueltie, conuenticles are both consulted on, and summoned, and in a shorttime,Aduers. Haeres. -Septingent as virginitatē professas in vnam contraxit— So Epiphanius—. Their Religion is yet in the blade, and greene onely in a few she disciples, anone [Page 28] it growes by their league with others, Eudoxius, Eunomi­us, Amb. 1 de side cap 4. Aetius and Demophilus, plura nomina, sed vna perfidia-; Coheires though not to the same title, the same villany; so that those dangerous tumults in the body of the Church could not but now startle the head and gouernour. Con­stantine is informed of those pernicious and desperate proceedings, who calls a Councell of 318. Bishops for the condemnation of the heretique. Some conuersant in subtiltie of question (as there was neuer opinion so de­formed, but found a Champion to propugne it) fauoured Arrius; but at length most of them decreed with one mouth Christ to be [...], 17 a while sticke fast to the opinion of the Heretique, 11 whereof by the menacing of the Emperour subscribed, Manu solum, non mente, and the other 6 are now with Arrius vpon termes of ex­ile; they betake themselues to Palestina, where partly by strength of Argument, partly by the insinuations of a smooth tongue, they gaine other Bishops to their opini­on; Anon, Constantius, and Valens Emperours; some they seduce by subtilty, some by gifts, some by power, some by cruelty; those that affied constantly to the profession of Christs diuinity, they inuade by persecutiō, & all the wit­ty tortures that malice or tyranny could deuise, are now put in practise, for the torment of those professors; inso­much that the hearts of their very enemies, could not but thaw into pitty to heare the cries, but constancy of little children vnder the barbarous hands of their mercilesse tormentors. Christianus sum, Christum verum Deum, credo, & adoro, as the author in his historia tripartita de persequutione Ʋandalorum.

This heresie now is full blowne, and at the growth; one Act more makes it ripe, and ready for the sickle. Alexandria is yet infected, and foule dregs of Arria­nisme reigne not onely here, but in the neighbour Pro­uinces; Insomuch that Alexander (then Bishop) daily pestered with those damned innouations, on a Sunday, [Page 29] (for so my Antiquary tels me) earnestly prayed that God would either take him away lest he should be defiled with the like contagion, or that he would shew some miracle,Epiphanius. either for the conuersion or confusion of the Heretique. Not long after the desires of the holy man were ac­complished, and in such a way of iudgement, that the re­lation would sute better with a ring of Scauengers than a noble throng, his bowels burst, as sometimes Iu­das did, Et sic finem adeptus est, in loco immundo & grane­olenti, -his death was equally odious with his life, and that with the place he died in, no sad retinue or pompe of exequy to embalme him, no hearse or winding sheet, but his owne intrailes, and grau'd vp with excrements, insteed of earth, an end as odious, as vntimely, as if it proceeded from the hand of vengeance, and not Fate.

And so Saint Ambrose dilates on it —Non est fortuita mors vbi in sacrilegio pari, poenae parile processit exemplum, 1 de fide cap. 5. vt idem subirent suppliciū, qui eundem Dominum negaue­runt & eundem Dominum prodiderunt—. It is no casuall, but a destinated end, that in a like sactiledge, there should be a like example of punishment, and so both meet in one way of ruine which had denied and betrayed their Ma­ster.

I haue now brought this heresie to her graue, but the funerall of this is the resurrection of another, and the re­intertainment of that of a third. No part of Christ (either in respect of his diuinitie, or manhood) but is the mint of a new heresie, which (if I should indeuour (heere) either to confute or open) would proue an vndertaking fitter for a volume, than a discourse, and for a Library, than a volume. It cost the houres of an intire age, and the sweat and elaboratenesse of all the Fathers. Those few sands which are now in their constant course will be runne out in the very nomination of Marcionites, Valen­tinians, Hebionites, Apollinarians, and the residue of that cursed rabble, and so I shall be cast vpon your censures, [Page 30] if not as I haue been weake, yet as I haue beene tedious. I will then open the mouthes of very heathens, and they shall both speake, and confirme this truth, and no lesse appose our aduersaries, than conuince them, an authority I know not how vnsauory or vnseasonable to a diuided Auditory, where a prophane quotation sounds some­times as heathenish as a tradition, which in the very name is cri'de downe as apocryphall, and Romanish; but I must put that vpon the hazard, not esteeming the froth either of popular censure or approbation.

Heathens indeed are little aboue the condition of beasts, if that onely actuate a man which animates a Christian, the soule of faith; yet if God please to cast his pearles before these swine, wherefore hath hee made vs Lords ouer them, but to vindicate those hallowed and pretious things from the hands of vniust possessors? Prae­clara Ethnicorum dicta Theologica abijs, tanquàm iniustis possessoribus, in vsum nostrum transferenda. It is Augu­stines in his second booke De doctrina Christiana. 4. chap. Diuine truth in Heathen mouthes is like the Iewels in Egyptian hands, their wants no Alchimist to refine the mettle, onely some discreeter Israelite to transferre the vse; he that was brought vp at the feet of Gamaliel prea­ching to the ignorant Idolaters of Athens, concludes against them from the mouth of their owne Poets, — [...], as some of your owne Poets haue said, Acts 17.28. Text enough to gaine, I say, not autho­ritie, but applause to his discourse, and to conuince the Heathens shame, if not their faith. Diue with me a little farther into their secrets, and we shall find amongst much Hay and Stubble, some Gold and Pretious stones, doctrines which want no truth to make them sound, onely diuine authoritie to make them authentique. It was not impos­sible that the true light which shines on euery man that commeth into the world, should glimpse into those that sate in darknesse, and in the shadow of death; For old [Page 31] Simplicianus in S. Augustines Confessions 8. Booke 2. Chapter, giues incouragement to a particular enquiry, and concludes in certaine books of the Platonists —De­um insinuari, & eius verbum—. And of this God, and the Word, the very Philosophers were not ignorant, for wee meet with a Hermes, and a —Zenon, stiling the maker & orderer of the Vniuerse— [...]The Word—which they inlarge with other attributes of —Fate, necessity, God— & what sauours a little of a heathenish relique—Animū Iouis—taking—Iupiter—in the sence that they doe God as Lactantius in his 4. booke de vera Sapient. cap. 9.

But why doe we rob them of their maiden honour, and take their sayings vpon Tradition meerly? let them speake themselues in their peculiar and mother-tongue. Numenius, a famous Pythagorian (one, who twixt Plato and Moses, put no difference but of Language, calling Plato-Mosen, Attica Lingua Loquentem, —Moses spea­king the Atticke Dialect) Deus primus (saith he) in seip­so quidem existens, est simplex, propterea quòd secum sem­per est, nunquam diuisus; Secundus, & tertius est vnus: The first God is alwaies existent in himselfe, simple, in­diuisible, the second and third one; and a little after, he calls this first God —Creantis Dei patrem,—The father of the creating God. Had they all adored what he here ac­knowledged, a Trinity in vnity (so to be worshipped) I should then propose their precept not onely to be em­braced, but their practice to be imitated. Search on, and loe that rich mine of Truth is not yet at her drosse, or bottome, for Heraclitus next, one who was wont to call S. Iohn, Barbarian, that Euangelist to whom belonged the Eagle, as well for sublimity of Stile, as Contemplation; he —censet verbum Dei in ordine Principij, atque digni­tate constitutum, apud Deum esse, & Deum esse, in quo quicquid factum sit, fuerit viuens, & vita, & ens, tum in corpora Lapsum, carnemque indutum, hominem apparuisse, ostendens etiam tunc naturae suae magnitudinem: Harke [Page 32] how the Frog chaunts like the Nightingale, (It is Maxi­milians, Ethnici audiendi, non tanquam Philomelae, sed Ranae) and curiously counterfeits her in euery straine? How closely this obscure Heathen followes not onely the Gospels truth, but the phrase too? In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and was God, all things were made by him, euery liuing Creature, life, and thing, then this Word was made flesh, and appeared man, & euen then shewed the glory of his nature. How sweetly he warbles with his Barbarian, as if by an easie labour of Translation hee had bereft him both of Truth and Elo­quence? I maruaile not now at that Testimony of Basil the Great, vpon those words, In principio erat verbum—Hoc ego noui, multos etiam extra veritatis rationem positos— I haue knowne many (saith he) and those put without the pale and list of diuine Truth, men meerely secular, aduancing and magnifying this peece of Scrip­ture, and at length bold to mixe it with their owne de­crees and writings. And S. Augustine seconds it with an instance,—Quidam Platonicus,—A certaine Platonist was wont to say that the beginning of S. Iohns Gospell was worthy to be written in letters of gold, and preached in the most eminent Churches and Congregations, in his 10 book de Ciuitate Dei, c. 29. O the diuine raptures and infusions, that God doth sometimes betroth to his very enemies! who can but conceiue that as the very worst of men haue knowledge enough to make them inexcusable; so the best of Heathen had enough to make them Saints, were their faith that he should be their Sauiour, as great as their knowledge, that he was the Sonne of God. With what rich Epithites they bedecke and crowne him. —Mentis Germen, Verbum Lucens, Dei Filius, (it is his saying, who (I know not by what search) found out almost all Truth, Mercurius Trismègistus) the mindes blossome, the word that gaue light, the sonne of God. What else did S. Iohn adde, but that the word was light? And S. Augustine [Page 33] giues this farther testimony of that heathen, that he spake many things of Christ in a propheticke manner—eadem veritate, licèt non eodem Animi affectu— with the same truth the Prophets did, but not with the same affection —pronunciabat illa Hermes, Dolendo, pronunciabat haec Propheta, Gaudendo— in his 8. booke de Ciuitate Dei, 23. chapter. And why should we barre some of their Philo­sophers of a propheticke knowledge, when a Poet shall fill his cheekes with a —Chara Deum Soboles, Magnum Iouis incrementum—? And if wee looke backe to those Oracles of old, the Sybills sacred Raptures, we shall finde them more like a Christians Comment, than a Heathens Prediction.

Tunc ad mortales veniet, mortalibus ipsis
In terris similis, natus Patris omnipotentis
Corpore vestitus—

Whereof if we enquire a little into the originall, Saint Augustine will tell vs that the Greeke coppies giue vs [...]Iesus Christ, the Sonne of God, In oration. contra Arrian. the Sauiour; and it is not onely probable, but euident, that the Gentiles had a knowledge of Christ as he was the Word, as it appeareth by that of Serapis vnto Thulis, [...], &c. King of Egypt. And it is strangely remarkeable: what wonder­full Titles, and inscriptions, the Platonists dedicate to his name and memory, with which as (with a wreath and Lawrell) they girt & beautifie his Temples, -Dei verbum, Mundi Opifex, Idaea boni, Mundi▪ Archetypum, moderat or Distributor, Imago primi entis, rationalis Creaturae exem­plar, Pastor, Sacerdos, vlna bumens, Lux, Sol, coelumque candens, mentis germen Diuinae, verbum Lucidum, filius primog [...]nitus, primi dei semper viuentis vmbra, vita, splen­dor, virtus, candor lucis, character substantiae eius, and the like, which could not but flow from a heart diuinely toucht, and a tongue swolne with inspiration, as Rossélus [Page 34] tels vs in his Trismegisti Pimandrum, 1 booke, 107 page. For these and the like sayings, some of the ancient Fa­thers haue coniectured that Plato either read part of di­uine story, or whilst he trauelled in Egypt, had a taste of sacred truth, out of the sayings of the Hebrewes by an Amanuensis, or interpreter; For then many of the He­brewes (the Persians reigning) wandered in Egypt.

Moreouer, Aristobulus the Iew who flourished in the time of the Machabees, writing to Ptolomy Philometora, King of Egypt, reports that the Pentateuch before the Empire of Alexander the Great, and the Persian Monar­chie was Translated out of Hebrew, into Greeke, part whereof came to the hands of Plato and Pythagoras; and he is after peremptory, that the Peripateticks out of the bookes of Moses, and the writings of the Prophets drew the greatest part of their Philosophy, and it may seeme strange what the Iewish Antiquary traditions of Clear­chus (the most noble of that Sect) who in his first —De somno— brings in his Master Aristotle relating that he met with a certaine Iew, a reuerent and a wise man, with whom he had much conference concerning matters both naturall & diuine, and receiued from him such a hint and specialty of choicer learning wch did much improue him in his after knowledge, especially in that of God, as Iose­phus lib. 1. contra Appionem, & Eusebius in his 11 de praepa­rat. Euangelica. 6.6. Clement. Alexandrin. 5. Stromaton-.

And thus I haue at length (though with some blood and difficultie) trauersed the opinions of the ancient, and shewed you the errours of primitiue Times in their fou­lest shapes. I haue opened the wiles and stratagems of the aduersary, and how defeated by the chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof; what Bulwarkes and Ram­pires the Fathers raised for propugning of Christs diui­nitie, and how besieged by cursed heresies, with what successe, what ruine.

Let vs now returne where we began, and place Christ [Page 35] where we found him, before Abraham, before the world, where (me thinkes) he now stands like a well rooted tree in a rough storm, where though winds blow on him so furiously, that he is sometimes forced to the earth (as if he were meerely humane) yet he bends againe, and nods towards heauen (to shew that hee is diuine, and but a plant taken thence grafted in our Eden here) where though tost vp and downe with blasts of Infidelity, yet when the enuy of their breath is spent (as we see a good­ly Cedar after a tempest) he stands strait, vn-rent, as if he scorned the shocke of his late churlish encounter, and dared his blustring Aduersary to a second opposition.

Gloria in excelsis Deo.


Errata in the Babler.

PAge 6. line 9. reade irregular. ibid. l. 11. r. abstemious; in the mar­gent in the same page, r. Alexand. in marg. p. 8. r. Alexand. p. 7. l. 16. r. [...]. p. 8. l. 25. r. austere. p. 14. l. 3. r. Ianisaries. p. 23. l. 27. r. should. p. 33. l. 35. r. mists. p. 37. l. 18. r. others. p. 41. l. 7. r. per vulnera. p. 13. l. 27. r. morall.

Errata in Moses and Aaron.

PAge 25. line 7. reade Lure. p. 24. l. 31. r. and. ibid. l. 32 r. hauing. ib. l. 34 r. are. p. 21. l. 21. r. crime. p. 18. l. 25. r. from. p. 19. l. 14. after the words Rabbi, Rabbi, reade on out of the Text, viz. they Binde heauie, &c. p. 18. line 8. reade so.

Errata in Iacob and Esau.

PAge 2. line 11. reade these. p. 6. l. 10. r. quality. ib. l. 28. r. hereupon. p. 11. l. 32. r. become. p. 12. l. 32. r. ignorance. p. 19. l. 22. r. both dispenst with. ibid. l. 35. r. duel. p. 33. l. 24. r. consequence.



A SERMON PREACHED AT THE FVNERALL OF SIR IOHN SYDENHAM, Knight, at Brimpton, the 15. of December. 1625.

BY Humphry Sydenham Mr. of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM Colledge in OXFORD.

Studeat quisque sic delicta corrigere vt post mortem non opor­teat poenam tolerare.

August. lib. de verâ & falsa poenitentiâ.

LONDON, Printed for IOHN PARKER. 1626.

TO MY MVCH RESPECTED KINS­MAN, Iohn Sydenham, Esquire, This.


THere is as well an obedience in matters of de­sire, as command, and with me a request hath e­uer been of larger authoritie than a Mandate. You were pleas'd (formerly) to importune me for a transcript of this Sermon; now, for [Page] the impression of it; I haue obeyed you in either; but I feare 'twill loose some of the lustre in the perusall, which it found in the deli­uery. I am not so happy a master of my Pen, as of my tongue, nor you (perchance) of your eare, as of your eye, that, some tinckling fancies may (at once) take and delude: this, is more subtle, and per­spicacious, and will not be gull'd with the barke and shell of things, but pierces the very ker­nell, and the marrow; 'Tis some­times with the eare, and eye of a Schollar, as with his fancy, and his iudgement; the one hath many a cheate put vpon it by weake im­postures, which the other both dis­couer's, and reiects, and sometimes [Page] (as it doth here) pittie's. What you shall meet with of vigour, and solidity, entertaine, cherrish, 'tis yours; yours first in the birth, and occasion; now, in the prote­ction, nourishment; what, more languishing, and abortiue, lay on the author, 'tis mine, like me, I'le father it; Howeuer, 'twill implore your charity, the charitie of your faire interpretation, not of your be­neuolence; which if yov shall vouchsafe, you haue nobly rewar­ded the endeauours of

Your affectionate kinsman, HVM: SYDENHAM.


ECCLES. 12.5.

Man goeth to his long home, and the mour­ners walke about the streets.

MOrtality loue's no de­scant; your plaine song sutes best with blacks, that which is grauly set to compun­ction, sorrow, tun'd heauily, to sighes, and lamentations. What should warbling aires with darted bosomes, & vnbalmed hearts? what your quaint and youthfull raptures, when—Mourners walke about the [Page 2] streets? If Zion be wept for, harpes must be hung vpon the willowes; sad obiects require furrowes in the cheeke, and riuers in the eie, and we then most honour the exe­quies of our friends, when we embalme the deceased with our teares. Away then with eares wanton'd to loo­ser Sonnets; offend not with vnchast attentions these hallowed anthemes, here's broken harmony; dirges as sullen, as they are sacred; panting and heart-broke ele­gies, such as should be rather groan'd, than sung. Aske the Preacher (heere) and he will tell you.Eccles. 12.41.The daugh­ters of Musicke are brought low, and the yeares draw nigh, when we shall say, we haue no pleasure in them. He storie's of a Sunne, vers. 2. and Moone, and Starres which are obscur'd, and of clouds that returne not after raine; as if the world were at her last pang, and gaspe, and ready for her funerall. Be­hold! the little world is —The keepers of the house haue trembled, Vers. 3. the strong men bowed themselues, the grinders cea­sed, and those that looke out of the windowes, darkned; the Almond tree doth flourish, and the grashopper is a burden, and desire shall faile. —Because— Man goeth to his long home, .3. and mourners walke about the streets.

Without any racke, or violence to the words, they offer themselues to this diuision.Diuision. 1 the subiect, Man. 2 his condition, transitory condition, exprest by way of pil­grimage—, —Goeth—. 3 the non vltra, or terminus ad quem, of this his pilgrimage—. To his home- enlarged with an epithet —Long home—. 4 the state and ceremo­ny, it there meets with.—And the mourners walk about the streets—.Pars 1. Of these in their order: first of the subiect, Man.

To dwell with circumstances, and ouerslip the maine, was euer an embleme of negligence, if not of weake­nesse; each fabulist will tell you of a dog, and a shadow, and what they moral. He that iangles (meerly) about no­minalls, where matters of realitie and substance fleet by, may speake himselfe a Grammarian, or a Sophister, scarce a Diuine. Of the name of Man, its source, and pedegree, [Page 3] I list not to discourse; not an ignorance so vntaught, or vnderstanding dull'd, but would forestall me, or should I (by chance) meet with some intellectuals, so thin and tender, that could not (as it is a chance I should) scarce an obiect but would be both your spokesman, and remem­brancer; yonder sad spectacle, that earth, this stone would tell you —Homo ab humo, from the ground, Adam ab Adamah, from the earth, red earth, not that more so­lid part of it, but the brittlelest, dust, so the curse runnes, —Dust thou art, and to dust thou shalt returne—. In the word Man, in the various acceptation of the word Man,Am. Pol. c. 35. Syntag. (wherein some syntagmaticall Diuines haue vnprofitably toil'd) Ile not curiously or impertinently trauaile, but without any figuratiue, or metaphoricall sence, take it properly, and literally, as the Text giues it me,—Man— that is, a reasonable liuing creature, or ra­ther a reasonable liuing soule, for so the Spirit of God Christens it, —The man was made a liuing soule, Gen. 2.7. and the same periphrasis the Apostle vses too, 1 Cor. 15. The first man Adam was made — [...]in ani­mam viuentem, or anima viuens—A liuing soule—vers. the 45. yet in the 44 of the same Chapter, hee cals him, [...]a liuing body. Either cote he is iustly bla­zoned by, so we giue the difference, rationall, a diffe­rence so specificall, and proper, that it diuides him from any other; for reason is an intellectiue power, peculiar to man onely, and not communicable to a second creature; by which [...], or (as the Scholeman termes it) discur­rit; out of one thing he deduces another, and orders this, by that, both in method and discretion. Hence it is called [...], and the worke or office of it, [...],Jdem, vt supra. discur­sus—propter animae celeritatem—, for the volubilitie and nimblenesse of the soule, by which it trauerses & moues from one obiect to another, from effects to causes, and backe againe, from all things to euery thing, and from that (almost) to nothing. And as man was prerogatiu'd aboue others, in respect of perspicacitie, so of Empire, [Page 2] and dominion,Fer. in Gen. for whereas in other passages of creation, we find a kind of commanding dialect, -with a -fiat lux, and a -producat terra-. Let there be light, let the earth bring forth, Gen. 1.27. In that of Adam, words more particular, of deliberation, and aduice. —Let vs make man—, Man, a creature of those exquisite dimensions, for matter of bo­dy, of those supernaturall endowments, of soule, that now omnipotencie bethinkes it selfe, and will consult. The priuy Counsell of Sonne, and Holy Ghost, is required to the moulding and polishing of this glorious peece.Contra Philo. An­gels may looke on, and wonder; touch, or assist, they may not; no, not so much as to temper or prepare the mettle. Here is worke onely for a Trinitie. A taske for Iehouah himselfe,Pur. Pilg. for Iehouah Elohim, the Father, by the Son, in the power of the Spirit. No doubt, somewhat of wonder was a proiecting, when a compleat Deity, was thus studying, it's perfection, somewhat, that should border vpon euer­lastingnes, when the finger of God was so choicely indu­strious, and loe what is produced? Man, the master-peece of his designe and workmanship, the great miracle and monument of nature, not only for externall transcenden­cies, but the glory and pompe of inward faculties, stampt and engrauen to the image of his God, through the righ­teousnesse of an immortall soule; besides, a bodie so sym­metriously composed as if nature had lost it selfe in the harmony of such a feature. Man, the abstract, and mo­dell,Greg. Naz. and briefe story of the vniuerse, —the vtriusque na­turae vinculum—, the cabbonet and store-house of three liuing natures,Beasts. Angels. Men. sensuall, intellectuall, rationall, the Analy­sis, and resolution of the greater world into the lesse, the Epitome, and compendium of that huge tome, that great Manuscript and worke of nature, wherein are written the characters of Gods omnipotencie, and power, framing it, disposing it, all in it, to the vse and benefit of man, of man, especially, of man, wholly; other creatures paying him an awfull obedience, as a tribute, and homage, due to [Page 5] their commander in all things, so neere kinne to Deity, that Melanthon, makes him a terrestriall transitory God: hauing little to diuide him from a -Numen-, but that one part of him was mortall, and that not created so, but occa­sion'd, miserably occasion'd, by disobedience.

A little forbidden fruit (from the hand of a fraile crea­ture) shall disinherite it of an eternall priuiledge, and man is now thrust out of the doores of his euerlasting habita­tion for two pretty toyes, an Apple, and a Woman; how­euer death hung not on the fruit, (saith Chrysostom) but the contempt, which was not so voluntary, as suggested; fond man, that is thus cheated of an assurance of immortality, by a false perswasion that he shall be immortall, that -critis sicut Dij— hath dampt all; the Serpent perswades him, —if he doe but taste, hee shall be as God, when hee hath tasted, findes himselfe worse than man; a worme indeed, no man. Thus he is at once fool'd out of euerlastingnes, and the fauour of his Maker: the anger of the Lord is now sore kindled, and his furie smoaks in a double curse against him, and what he was framed of, earth; that which hath (hitherto) voluntarily presented her fruit­fulnesse, in hearbes, and plants, and all things requisite for his sustenance; now, vndrest, and not watered in the bubble and sweat of an industrious brow, affords him nothing but thornes, and thistles; iust reward of disobe­dience, barrennesse, and death. Lamentable felicity, which (at height) is but conditionary, & then fatall. There is no misery so exquisite, as the sence of a lost happinesse. Ca­lamity is supportable enough, where there is not felt, or seene, a more honourable condition; but, to be tumbled from a blisse we were sometimes master of, is a punctuall wretchednesse. Man, but now on the pinacle and spire of all his glory, in a moment shamefully throwne from it, and with him, all posterity. But loe, there is mercy euen in iustice, and life in the very sentence and iaw of death. —The seed of the woman shall breake the Serpents [Page 6] head—. She that was (ere-while) a chiefe instrument in his fall, shall be now a maine agent in his restauratiō, not to that state wherin he was created, but to that wherein he shall be glorified. The soule (through faith, and grace) shall still be preserued immortall, but the body must lessen of it's primitiue condition, the soule as a Sunne that is eclips'd, or clouded, shall shine againe, the body, like some meteor, for a time exhal'd, falleth to the earth from whence it came; and as some mettals (laid for a space in the bosome of the ground) grow more refined, and puri­fied, so shall the body, interr'd a naturall one, rise a glori­ous. In the Interuallum, as a punishment for transgressi­on, it shall resolue into what it was made of, and it must goe to its long home, the graue; where wee haue now brought it, & would haue laid it in, but that the captious hereticke violently withstands it, and thus he interposes. If man returne into earth, as he is earth, then he was mor­tall before he sinned, and so death seemes to be of nature, and not punishment. —It is not answered by deniall, but di­stinction, and we must (here) criticke betweene mortale, mortuum, and mortiobnoxium, mortall, dead, and liable to death. We call that dead which is actually depriued of life; subiect to death, what is within the fathome and command of deaths power, and tyranny for sinne, though not actually, yet in time. Mortall, two wayes, either for that which by a necessity of nature ought to die, or for that which as the merrit and reward of sinne, can die. The body of Adam (before sinne) was of it selfe mortale (as mortall is taken in the last sence) because mutabile, and that is mutable, which of it selfe can suffer change, al­though it neuer doe, as the good Angells, and God onely is immutable, —Per se, & natura (as Augustine speakes in his booke de vera Relig. cap. 13.) But the body of A­dam was not moriturū, to die, if he had not sinned, but by a glorious change, without death, had beene translated by God into an euerlasting incorruptibility. It was sinne then [Page 7] that made man obnoxious to the stroks of death, not any condition, or necessity of nature, and therefore I know not whether I may call it an errour of the Pelagian, or a blas­phemy, who would haue Adam (had he not transgressed) die by the law of nature. Hence he might inferre, that death was not a punishment for sinne, and so by conse­quence, Christ not died for it; but wee finde this (by a Councell) long since doomed for an heresie, & an heauy Anathema laid on the Patron of that tenent in Concilio Mileuitano cap. 1. and more particularly by Augustine in his first booke de Peccatorum meritis & remissione cap. 2. You see then that death and all corporall defects, were scourges following the disobedience of the first man, not occasioned by any impulsion or languishment of nature, and Aquinas will reason it thus, —If a man for an offence be depriued of some benefit that is giuen him, the wanting of this benefit, is the punishment of that offence. To Adam in his state of innocency there was this boone conferr'd from Heauen, that as long as his minde was subiect vnto God, the inferiour powers of the soule should be obedient vnto reason, and the body vnto the soule. But, because the minde of man (by sinne) did recoile and start backe from this diuine sub­iection, it followed, that those inferiour powers also would not be totally subiect vnto reason; whence grew so great a re­bellion of the carnall appetite, that the body (too) would not be totally subiect to the soule. Vpon this breach death en­ters, and all that pale band of diseases, and corporall infirmi­ties, for the incollumity and life of the body consists in this, that it be subiect vnto the soule, —Sicut perfectibile suae perfectioni,— as the Schooleman speakes, as a thing per­fectable to its perfection. On the other side, death and sick­nesse, and languishments of body, haue reference to the de­fects of the true subiection of the body, to the soule. And therefore necessity of consequence will induce, that, as the rebellion of the carnall appetite to the spirit, was a punish­ment of our first fathers sinne, so, mortality, and all corporall [Page 8] imperfections too, as the Schooleman punctually in his 2a. 2ae. 164. quaest. 1. Artic. The curse then due to the lapse of our first Parents houers not ouer the soule onely, but, for it, the body; the body (before) in a blessed way of incorruptibility, but, not of it selfe, but from the soule, so Augustine tells his Dioscorus, —Tam potenti naturâ Deus fecit animam, vt ex eius beatitudine, redundet in cor­pus, plenitudo sanitatis, & incorruptionis vigor—in his 56 Epistle. His body then was not indissoluble by any vi­gor of immortality existing in it selfe, but there was (su­pernaturally) a power in the soule, diuinely giuen, by which man might preserue his body from all corrupti­on, as long as it remained subiect vnto God. And the Schooleman hath good ground for it; for, seeing the reasonable soule doth exceed the dimensions and proportion of corporall matter, it was conuenient, that, in the beginning, there should be a vertue giuen it, by which the body might be rescued from all infirmities, and conserued aboue the na­ture of that corporall matter, as the same Aquinas par. 1. quaest. 97. Art. 1. The whole man then (mixt of body and soule) was in the creation in a glorious state of im­mortality, but it was with a —Quodammodò— (as Augu­stine tells vs, de Genes. ad Lit. lib. 6. cap. 25.) not abso­lutely, —Ita vt non posset mori, —but conditionally —po­terat non mori—. It is true, he had a power not to dye, if he had not sinned; but it was a necessity he should die, when he had; otherwise God had beene as vniust to his promise, as hee was seuere in his command, for so the charge runnes,Genes. 2.At that day thou eatest thereof thou shalt die the death—. Hee hath eaten, therefore he must die— But from whence commeth this death? from God or from himselfe? or both? originally from neither; not from God, he cannot be the cause of it, death being a pri­uation onely, hauing name (saith Augustine) but no es­sence; besides it is an Omen, and an ill to nature. What­soeuer God made, had an essence, was a species, good; the [Page 9] Text tells vs so, six times tells vs so, in one Chapter, Genes. 1. God made the firmament, and it was good, Hee made the earth, and it was good; in a word, he saw all that he had made, —Et erant valde bona— they were very good—.Genes. 1. vlt. We may not thinke then that God therfore created man, that he should die; or, because death followed his diso­bedience, God was the cause of it. Death may be an in­strument of his iustice, not an effect of his producing. It is one thing to giue the sentence of death, another to be the authour of it. Indeed Augustine sayes (lib. 1. Re­tract. cap. 21.) that death (as a punishment) hath refe­rence to God, not, as an obliquity; Aquinas. and the Schooleman is at hand too, with a distinction for a two-fold death, one, as an ill of humane nature, or a defect incident from mans transgressiō, that, he dares not lay on the Almighty, the other, as it hath some species or resemblance of good, to wit, as it is a iust penance for his rebellion, this he doth in his 2a. 2ae. 164. quaest. Art. 1.

As therefore in the creation of the world God is said to make light, and to separate it from darknesse, Genes. 1. not to make darknesse, as if that were of it selfe some blinde masse and Chaos, and therefore God chid light out of it; so in the creation of man God is said to make life (God breathed into him the breath of life) not death, nay he doth separate that light from this darknesse, and doth chide life not out if it, but from it, with a—Caue ne manducas— take heed thou eat not, for if thou dost, —morte morie­ris—thou shalt die the death. That therefore of the wise man will vindicate the Almighty from this misprision, —God made not death, Wisdome 1.13, 14. neither hath he pleasure in the cor­ruption of the liuing, for he created all things, that they might haue their being, and the generations of the world were healthfull, & there was no poison of destruction in thē.

The wombe then of this great plague of man the Apostle rips vp, —When lust hath conceiued, it bringeth forth sinne, and sinne when it is perfected, [Page 10] bringeth forth death, Iam. 1.15. The birth then of sinne is through a conception of lust, and the strength of death through a perfection of sinne. Loe then the cause of this great calamity discouered! but how came that? original­ly from the man? no. How then? —Through the enuie of the deuill came death into the world, the 2. Chapter of the same booke,Aug. in locum. vers. 24. And therefore Saint Augu­stine calls it,—mors-à morsu— from the biting of the Ser­pent. And our Sauiour tells vs, —Ille homicida ab initio, Iohn 8.—He was a murderer from the beginning; whence perceiuing man (by his then obedience) aduanc'd to that place from which he was headlong'd, now dissolues, and breakes into secret enuie; this enuie wrought deceit, de­ceit concupiscence, that, disobedience, disobedience, sin, sinne, death. So that the enuie of the deuill is the source and spring-head, deceit, the Conduit, concupiscence, the pipe, the waters conueied in it, disobedience, sinne, the Channell or Cisterne into which they fall, death. Tell Adam then of the forbidden fruit, he layes it on his wife, —The woman gaue it me. Aske the woman, she puts it on a third,—The Serpent seduced me—.Aske the Serpent, there it stayes, and in stead of an answer, we finde a curse, —Because thou hast done this, Genes. 3. vpon thy belly thou shalt creepe, and dust thou shalt eat all the daies of thy life. The man then all this while growes not obnoxious in respect of seduction, but assent, the woman of both; so the Apo­stle —Adam was not deceiu'd, —sed mulier in praeuaricati­one suâ—the woman being deceiu'd was in the transgression, 1 Tim. 2.14. If God then aske Adam —num comedisti? Hast thou eaten of that tree of which I commanded thee thou shouldest not eat? He answers not with a—Mulier seduxit,—the woman hath seduced me, but onely with a —dedit—she gaue me, and I did eat. If hee aske Euah, —Quid fecisti? Woman, what is this that thou hast done? she as empty of any other euasion, as of strength, layes all on the shoulders of the seducer, —with a—Serpens se­duxit [Page 11] me,—the Serpent seduced me. God inquires no far­ther, but sentences,Vt supra.I will put enmity betwixt her seed and thy seed, it shall breake thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heele, as it is nimbly obserued on the 2.Egidius de Roma. booke of the Sentences, distinct. 22.

Thus, with some bloud, and trauaile, I haue shewed you man, in his originall, height, fall; how created, in what glory thron'd, how suncke, what the sinne, the oc­casioner, the punishmēt; whence he was, what he is, whi­ther hee must; earth, from earth, to it; thither hee shall without repriuall, the sentence is past, the executioner ready, and hee must goe, for —Man goeth, that's my se­cond part, his transitory condition expressed by way of pilgrimage. Goeth.

PARS II. Man goeth—.

RAre expression of his frailty here, if it may not be more properly said —he is gone, then that hee goeth. Our daies (saith the Kingly Prophet) are gone euen as a tale that's told, Psal. 90. A tale, of no more length than certainty. Againe, they are dayes, not yeeres, as if our be­ing (here) depended vpon moments, more than time, or if time, that which is present, not in future; Daies are enough, and yeeres, too much, or had we both, loe, they are gone, gone euen as a tale that's told, a tale, as momen­tary, as vaine. Seneca tells his Polybius onely of three parts of life answerable to those of time, past, present, to come, What we doe, God knowes is short; what we shall doe, doubtfull; what we haue done, out of doubt; so that our best peece of age is either transitory, or dubious; and where a wise man discouers either, he will at least suspect change, if not slight it. Pitch man at highest, ranke him [Page 12] with Kings, Prophets, Priests; and wee shall there finde him on his hill of ice, whence hee doth not slip so pro­perly, as tumble: one saies hee is a shadow, another a smoake, a third a vapour, braue resemblances of his station (here) and durability, when the best commendation we can bestow on either, is—they passe, or else they fade,—As if it were a sinne to say, they Are, but they Haue beene. The Graecian then scarce shot home to the frailty of man, when he calls him [...]A creature of a day, —he did, that nam'd him —Hesternum—yesterday—, We are but as yesterday, and know nothing, Iob 8.9. Alasse poore man, no better than a watrish Sunne betweene two swolne clouds, or a breathlesse intermission between two feuers, misery, and fatc. Loe how they kisse? Man that is borne of a woman hath but a short time to liue, and is full of mise­ry: accurate calamity; in method, borne, a short time to liue, full of misery; and to make frailty compleat, the thing Woman is inserted too.-Man that is borne of a woman, &c. Dauid was too prodigall in his similitude, when he beat out the age of man to the dimensions of a span; an inch, a punctum, had beene bountifull enough, the least Atome types out his glory here, his glory of life here, 'tis breath on steele, no sooner on than off; Sunne-burnt stubble, at once flame, and ashes. Wee are at a good key of happi­nesse, when we can say—we are transitory—we haue scarce (sometimes) so much life as to know we die, euen in the very threshold and porch of life, death strangles vs; as if there were but one doore of the Sepulchre, and the wombe; so that man is but a liuing ghost, breathing dust, death cloath'd in flesh and bloud.

He goeth, vanisheth rather, vanisheth like lightning, which is so sudden, and so momentary, that wee more properly say we remember it, than that wee see it. How is't then, that life is sometimes spunne to the crimson, and sometimes the siluer thread, from the Downe and tender wooll in childhood, to the Scarlet in the manly checke, [Page 13] and the tinsell and snow in old age? Indeed, the white head, and the wrinkled countenance, may reade you the Annals of threescore and ten, perchance calculate our life to a day longer; what is beyond is trouble, and so was that, and yet hath not this man liu'd long? -diu fuit, De breuit. vitae cap. 3. non diu vixit-, Seneca replies, How canst thou say he hath sai­led much, whom a cruell tempest takes immediately, as soone as he is of the Hauens mouth? and after many a churlish assault, of wind, and billow, much trauersing his way, wau'd, and surg'd to many a danger, he is at length driuen backe the same rode, but now he went out by? this man hath not sailed much, but hath beene much beaten. And indeed we haue here but our -tempestuosa interualla-, 'tis not life truly,Idem Ibidem. but calamitie. A well gloss'd misery, gaudy vnhappinesse, glori­ous vanitie, a troubled Sea, tormented with continuall ebbes, and flowes; sometimes we are shipwracked, alwaies toss't, and thus expos'd to daily blustrings, we finde no Hauen but in death. Heereupon the Grecian call'd the first day of mans life, [...], -a beginning of conflicts-; So that we shall meet with more troupes of sorrow, (heere) than we haue meanes either to resist, or to appease them.

Considerest thou not (saies that graue Philosopher) what a kinde of life it is nature presents vs with, Seneca ad Lucit. Epist. 70. when shee would teares should be the first presages of our condition in this world? How pretily Augustine embleames it in his tender infant, —Nondum loquitur, & tamen Prophetat, cryes are the first Rhetorick he vses, by which e're he can speake, he prophesies; and by a dumbe kinde of diuination, waile's out the story of mans sorrowes heere. And now his odours, sauours, lassitudes, watchings, humours, meats, drinks, repose, all things, without which he could not liue, are but the occasion of his death. And there­fore that famous Romane, receiuing sudden tidings of the death of his onely Sonne, answered without distracti­on nobly. —I knew when I begat him he should die—, life being nothing else but a iournie vnto death, a going to the [Page 14] long home. It is a little part of it we liue, the whole course of our age, being not life, but time rather; wch we cannot recall being spent, or cause it for present, not to spend, but it treades by vs, without noise, and so swiftly, that it is here when we expect it comming, and gone by vs, when we thinke 'tis at vs. Man goeth—, Goes as some curious watch does, wound vp (perchance) for an houre, at most, for a day, and then, 'tis downe; which time, if it minute right, it is a rare peece; sometimes, by distemper, it runnes too fast, sometimes set backe, by the prouidence of the keeper, sometimes, againe, it beates slow, like a dy­ing pulse, by and by, it stands still, as if the whole ma­chine languished; anon some wheele's amisse, or a spring broken, and then we say it is not downe, but disordered, so disordered, that 'tis beyond our Art of rectifying, it must be left to the skill of the maker; who, to ioint it the better, sunders it, and to make it more firme, for a while destroyes it. The great Enginer and framer of the world, will haue it so done to our fleshly tabernacles, who by the workmanship of death, shall take the whole fabricke of the body into peeces, and for a time, lay it by in the graue, till against the great and appointed day, hee shall new wheele and ioint it, and set it more gloriously a go­ing, by the vertue of the resurrection. So that man not onely goeth, (as I told you) but is gone, twise gone, dis­sould, by the frailty of the body, to the captiuitie of a graue, rebodied with the soule, to the honour of a resur­rection. You see then, man is still in a place of fluctuati­on, not residence, and he is said to soiourne in it, not to in­habit. Seneca Epist. 70. ad Lucilium. We saile by our life my Lucilius, (saies that Diuine Heathen, let no squemish eare cauill at the title, for it belongs to Seneca.) And as in the Seas the shores and Ci­ties flie; so in this swift course of time, wee first loose the sight of our childhood, and then of our youth, and at length discouer the straits of old age, at which whether we shall ar­riue, or no, it is doubtfull; and when we haue, dangerous. [Page 15] That late famous (but vnfortunate Historian) who had runne through all ages of man,History of the world, lib. 1. and almost all conditi­ons in them; speakes heere not like a speculatiue, but a practicke and experienced man, and resembleth his seuen ages, to the seuen planets; whereof, our Infancy is compared vnto the Moone, wherein we seeme onely to liue, and to grow as plants doe. Our second age to Mercu­ry, in which we are tutor'd and brought vp in our first Alphabet and forme of discipline. Our third age, to Ve­nus, the dayes of our loue, daliance, vanitie; the fourth to the Sunne, the shining, beautifull, glorious age of man. The fift to Mars, in which through fields of bloud, wee hew out a way to honour and victory, and wherein our thoughts trauaile to ambitious ends. Our sixth age to Iupiter, wherein we begin to take a strict calculation, and account of our mispent times, and bud, and sprout vp to the perfections of our vnderstandings. The seuenth, and last, to Saturne, wherein our dayes are sullen, and ouer­cast, in which we finde by troden experience, and irrepai­rable losse, that our golden delights of youth, are now accompanied with vexation, sorrow; our lackies and retinue, are but sicknesses, and variable infirmities, which whispering vnto vs our euerlasting habitation, and long home, we at length passe vnto it, with many a thorny meditation, and perplexed thought, and at last by the in­dustry of death, finish the sorrowfull businesse of a transi­tory life.

Seeing then our bodies are but earthen cottages, houses of dust, & tenemēts of clay, the anuils wch diseases & distem­pers daily hammer, & beat on; since our life doth passe a­way as the trace of a cloud, Wisd. 2. and is dispersed as a mist driuen by the beames of the Sun, why doe we crowne our dayes with rose buds? why do we fill our selues with voluptuousnes, costly wines, and ointments? why say we not to rottennesse, Iob 17.14. then art my father? to the worme, thou art my mother, and my sister? Why doe we pamper, and exalt this iournie man of corrup­tion? [Page 16] this drudge of frrailtie? this slaue of death? why doe we not remember the imprisonment of the soule? and that which Cyprian cals, her gaole-deliuery? why call we not our actions to the barre? arraigne them? checke them? sentence them? why doe we not something that may entitle vs to Religion, while it is called to day? Foole, this night shall thy soule be taken from thee, this houre (per­chance) this minute, nay this punctistitium of it. Who would not speedily draw water out of a riuer, which he knew would not continue long in it's running? Who would not suddenly extract somewhat from those wholesome foun­taines which should cherish and refresh the thirstie and barren soule?Seneca Epist. 7. ad Lucilium. why doe we gaspe, and pant, and breathe for a little aire, wch nature (for a time) fann's vpon vs, and takes off at her pleasure in a moment? why steere we not with desire to our long home? why prepare we not for our progresse, since we must needes thither? why crush we not this cockatrice in the egge,M [...]rs. and so forestall the ve­nome of that eye whose darting is so fatall? Shall I be­leeue (saies Seneca to his Lucillius) that fortune hath power in all things ouer him that liueth, Epist. 71. and not suppose ra­ther it can doe nothing to him that knoweth how to dye? 'Tis not good to liue, but to liue well; and therefore a wise man liueth as much as he ought, not as much as he can. We see the frailty of others hourely brought vpon the Sceane, and how the daily traffique of disease with vs prompts vs our mortalitie. Those glorious bulwarkes, and fortresses of the soule, are but sanctuaries of weake­nesse; languishing, crazie, and batter'd constitutions, but natures warning peeces, the watch-words of a fraile body, which keepe strict Sentinell or'e the soule, lest it steale from it, vnawares, and so the great enemie both inuade, and ruine it. How frequent euen amongst Pagans haue been their —memento mori'es—? and a deathes head (you know) was a chiefe dish at an Aegyptian feast. So should that (yonder) to euery recollected Christian, but such [Page 17] presents (as those) haue beene of late no great dainties with vs, a service of euery day, almost of euery place (the whole land being little better than a Charnell-house) and we cannot but see it, and chew on't too, if we be not dust already, and that flie in our eyes, and blind vs, and so the complaint of Cyprian whip vs home —Nolumus ag­noscere, quod ignorare non possumus.

Why should then this sad tole of mortalitie dishearten vs? groanes, and sighes, and conuulsions, are the bodies passing-bels, no lesse customary, than naturall; and, more horrid in the circumstance, than the thing. —Pompa mortis magis terret quàm mors ipsa—, the retinue and complement of death, speake more terrour, than the act. The Aduersary, the Iudge, the sentence, the Iailor, the exe­cutioner, more daunt the malefactor, than the very stroke, and cleft of dissolution. Seneca ad Lucil. Epist. 52. Are we so foolish (saies the good Heathen) to thinke death a rocke which will dash or split vs in the whole; no, 'tis the Port which we ought one day to de­sire, neuer to refuse; into which (if any haue beene cast in their younger yeares) they need repine no more than one which with a short cut hath ended his Nauigation. For there are some whom slacker windes mocke, and detaine, Idem Ibidem. and wearie with the gentle tediousnesse of a peaceable calme; others swifter wafted by sudden gusts, whom life hath rather rauish't thither, than sent; which had they a time delai'd, by some flattering intermissions, yet at length, must of necessitie strooke saile to't. Quae nunc abibis in loca, pallidula, rigida, nudula? Some faint-hearted Adrian will (to his power) linger it, and fearefully ex­postulate with a parting soule, as if the diuorce from the body were euerlasting, and there should not be (one day) a more glorious contract; when an heroike Cannius shall rebuke the teares in his friends cheeke, and thus brauely encounter death, and him —Why are you sad? enquire you whether soules be immortall? I shall know presently. Braue resolution, had it beene as Christian-like, as 'twas bold.

Againe, some effeminate Rhodian will rather languish [Page 18] vnder the grindings of a tyrant, than sacrifice the re­mainder of a famin'd body, to an honourable death, when a confident Hilarion, shall dare all those grisly assaults, —Soule get thee out, thou hast seuentie yeares ser­ued Christ, and art thou now loath to die? Once more, some spruce Agag, or kem'd Amalakite would be palsie­strooke with an —amaramors—, Death is bitter, death is bitter, 1 Sam. 15.32. When a Lubentius, and a Maxi­minus haue their breast-plate on, with a —Domine parati sumus—, We are ready to lay of our last garments, the flesh—. And indeed (saith Augustine) Boughes fall from trees, and stones out of buildings, and why should it seeme strange that mortals die? Some haue welcom'd death, some met it in the way, some baffel'd it; in sicknesses, persecution, tor­ments. I instance not in that of Basil to the Arrianated Valens, ('tis too light) that of Ʋincentius was more re­markeable, who with an vnabated constancy, thus stunn's the rage of his mercilesse executioner. —Thou shalt see the Spirit of God strengthen the tormented more, than the diuell can the hands of the tormenter. And that you may know a true Martyrdome, is not dash't either at the ex­pectation, or the sense of torture, a Barlaam will hold his hand ouer the very flame of the Altar, and sport out the horridnesse of such a death with that of the Psalmist. —Thou hast taught my hands to warre, and my fingers to battell. Seeing then we are compass'd with such a cloud of witnesses, what should scare a true Apostle from his—Cu­pio dissolui—? Let vs take his resolution, and his counsell too, —lay aside euery waight, and the sinne that doth easily be set vs, and let vs runne with patience the race that is set before vs, Heb. 12.1. There is no law so inuiolable, as this of Nature, that of the Medes and Persians was but corrupt, to this—Statutum est omnibus semel mori—Eue­ry true Christian knowes it, and feares it not so much out of opinion, as nature; and why should nature doe it, since 'tis call'd our home, our long home, whither 'tis as certaine [Page 19] we shall goe, as doubtfull, when; and therefore I must now presse you with Pauls Obsecro vos tanquàm adue­nas—, I beseech you as strangers, and pilgrimes vpon earth, looke not backe to the onions, and flesh pots here; put forward for your last habitations, know you must at length to them, there is no by-way to auoid them, for —Man goeth to his long home—, that's my third part, the —terminus ad quem—, of this his trauaile. —His long home.

PARS. III. His long home.

LOng home. A periphrasis not of death so properly, as the graue, the bed-chamber of the body when 'tis dead; or rather, the bed it selfe (for so Iob stiles it) —Thou hast made my bed ready for me in the darke, deaths withdrawing roome, corruptions tyring house, natures Golgotha, her exchequer of rotten treasures, hid there till the day of doome, Regia Serpentum, (as the Sonne of Syracke call's it) the randeuouz of creeping things, and beasts, and wormes, Ecclus 10. and 11. verse.

Come hither then, thou darling of the world, thou great fauourite of flesh, and bloud; thou whose honours (here) are as blooming, as the Lillies, and roses in thy youthfull cheeke; know, Image, though thy head be of gold and thy body of siluer, thy feet are but of clay, and they will leade downe to this chamber of death, where thou maist behold the glory of thy ancestors, as Augustine did at Rome, that of Caesars in his sepulchre. —An eyelesse, cheekelesse, worme-gnawne visage; nought but rottennesse, and stench, and wormes, and bones, and dust, and now —V­bi Caesaris praeclarum corpus (saies the Father) vbi diui [...]i­arum magnitudo? vbi caterua Baronum? vbi actes mili­tum? [Page 20] vbi apparatus delictarum? vbi thalamus pictus? vbi lectus Eburneus? vbi regalis thronus? vbi mutatoria ve­stimentorum? vbi magnificentia? vbi omnia? Sibi pariter defecerunt, quandò defecit spiritus, & eum in sepulchro, tri­um brachiorum, reliquerunt cum faetore, & putredine—, in his 48 Sermon,Si saltem opus illud sit Augu­stini. ad fratres in eremo. Crowne, and Scepter, and Robes, and Treasure, and Sword, and Speare, and Valour, and Youth, and Honour, and (what the world could not (but now) either master or containe) his body, trencht in a graue of six cu­bites, no more, there Caesar lies in earthen fetters; and so shall all dissolued bodies too, till that fearefull arraignement at the great assises. In the meane time, the soule shall bee either wafted hence into Abrahams bosome, or else hurried to that caue of darkenesse, and euerlasting horror; no third place, to purge, and re­fine it, after death; no Romish trapdoore (through which a brib'd indulgence may presume to fetch it of at the pleasure of a cheating Consistory) but it hath heere —suum Purgatorium—, One of their Purgatory-mongers tells me so, nay tels a Cardinall so, and bids him pray with Augustine, Cupraeus de 4. hom. nouissimis. Ser. 3. pag. 56.Domine hic vre, hic seca, vt in aeternum parcas.

Thus you see, Man is now brought to his —long home—, his soule gone to it's place of rest; but wee may not yet interre the body; that we shall doe, anon; some ceremony remaines to be perform'd first; for loo, how the Mourners walke about the streets? That's my last part; the state, and ceremony man meetes with: in the consummation of his pilgrimage. —The mourners walke, &c.

PARS IIII. The mourners, &c.

THe triumph, and honour, death challenges in the solemne interment of the deceased, hath beene a ce­remony no lesse venerable, than ancient.Demptis 306. Annis. Salomon enim vixit anno mundi- 2930. Iosiah, Anno mundi. 3324. Iacob 2108. Chyt [...]aeus in Chronol. 'Twas almost 3000 yeares agoe, the Mourners (here) walk't about the streets; after them those of Hadadrimmon, in the valley of Mogiddo, when all Iudah and Ierusalem, mourned for Io­siah, 2 Chron. 35. before both for Iacob, in Goren Atad, be­yond Iordan —where they mourned (saith Moses) with a great, and sore lamentation, Gen. 50.10. Such a pompe of sorrow as was a president to all posteritie; forty dayes the body was embalm'd, than threescore and ten more, mourned for, before the Funerall, seuen after; against the day of interment, all the tribes must be summon'd, their families, their allies, and their retinue; onely their heards, and their little ones, left in Goshen. I reade of no wife, or daughter absent, no tricke of Religion, or pretence of retired sorrow, to keep them of these publique exequies, to whine a dirge or requiem in a corner. No doubt they sadly followed the hearse euen to the sepulchre, thinking a teare wrung ouer a parting bed not halfe so emphati­call, as that which is dropt into the graue. Besides, Ioseph himselfe must be sent for out of Aegypt; no imploiment at court keepes him of these great solemnities, but he [...] goe's vp to Canaan, with all the seruants of Pharaoh, and all the Elders of his house, and all the Elders of the land o [...] Aegypt, and all his brethren, and his fathers house, and his owne too; and they buried him (saies the Text) in the ca [...] of the field Machpela, which Abraham bought of Ephron th [...] Hittite, before Ma [...]e, Gen. 50.13. And indeed, 'twa [...] [Page 22] a religious prouidence the old Patriarches had, in purcha­sing a possession place for their buriall, and posteritie (a long time) kept it vp, euen to superstition, thinking their bones neuer at rest, till they were laid in the Sepul­chre of their fathers, which honourable way of inter­ment, in these tympa [...]ous and swelling times of ours, (wherein we warre more about matters of title, than reli­gion) were a good meanes to preserue our names from rottennesse; if our contention, and pride, and riot, haue left so much of a deuour'd inheritance as will serue the dimensions of a dead body.

Some noble mansions of the kingdome (heretofore) haue now, scarce, that happinesse. A greene turfe, or a weather-beaten stone, will couer that body, which (ere while) a whole Lordship could hardly cloathe; and that life which swome in Tissues, and Imbroideries, in death (scarce) findes a blacke to mourne for't about the streets. Sad Hearse that hath nothing to wait on't to the graue, but the ruines of a familie, nought to weepe ore't, but the blubbrings and languishments of a gentile bloud, farre more wounding & deplorable, than the conditiō of some noble caitife, who rather than hee will allow death the least triumphs in his funeralls, will haue his treasure, ho­nour, religion too (if he had any) earth'd vp together in his—Long home:—a ditch were fitter, and some vnnatu­rall, gouty fisted heire would like it well; ours doth not, you see, the —Mourners haue walkt about the street—'Tis well, and an act no lesse of dutie, than religion; and those which haue beene zealous in't heretofore, haue worne the two rich Epithetes of charitable, blessed,—Blessed are ye of the Lord, 2 Sam. 2.5. (saith Dauid to the men of Iabesh Gilead) that you haue shew'd such charity to your master Saul, and buried him. Buried him, is not enough, 'tis too naked and thin a ceremony, except these Mourners too walkt about the streets. My Sonne (saith Tobit) when I die, bu­rie me honestly, Tob. 14.10. And Iaakob (on his death­bed) [Page 23] coniur'd, his Sonnes to interre him in a prescript solemnity, and therefore the Text saith, —They buried him as they had sworn vnto their father, Gen. 50.6, 12. And indeed those —Officia postremi muneris- (as Augustine calls them) those solemne rites which wee strew on the funeralls of our deceased friend are no effect of cour­tesie, but debt, and from an able successour, no lesse ex­pected, than required. —My sonne (saith Syracides) poure thy teares ouer the dead, and neglect not their buri­all, Ecclus. 38.66.

And therefore those dispositions are little below bar­barous, which snarle at a moderate sorrow, or decent interment of the dead, and had neuer so much learning, or at least so much charity, as to interpret that of the Apo­stle, —Let all things be done decently, and in order, 1 Cor. 14. Had not our Sauiour all the Ceremonies of this -Long home? the cleane linnaen cloathes? the sweet oint­ments? the new Sepulchre? these Mourners (too) about the streets? He then that in a wayward opinion shall dis­allow of either, may well deserue the honour of Ichola­kims funerall, which is not to be named without pitty, and some scorne,Ier. 22.19. for the Text saith —he was to be buried like an Asse—. And, for my part, I wish him the happi­nesse of an Anchoret, his Cell be his Church, and he him­selfe both Priest and Grauesman, not a teare to traile after him to his long home, nor a Mourner -seene- about the streets.

It hath beene a custome of some barbarous Nations (but in this not so despicable) to howle their dead to their long home; others dropt them in with a teare one­ly, no more—In ignem posta est, fletur (saith the Co­micke.) That of the Romanes was too gaudy a sorrow, and comes well home to the excesse of pompe in the fate of great ones, now, who though in their life time haue slau'd themselues to the world by an ignoble retrait to obscurity, and miserable thrift, yet at their farewell, and [Page 24] Going hence, to giue the times a relish and taste of their generousnesse, the -Mourners shall walke about the streets. A monument must be built, a statue rais'd, Escutche­ons hung, for the embalming of his honour, whose name (sometimes) deserues more rottennesse, than his carkasse.

That worth is canonicall, and straight, which is in­rol'd, and registred in the impartiall hearts and memo­ries of the people, not in a perfidious Tombe-stone, or periur'd Epitaph. A vertuous life is a mans best Pyra­mide.

Be thy actions vnblemish'd, squar'd out to Religion, vertue, Euery heart's a Tombe, and euery tongue an Epi­taph. And thus ballac'd thou need'st not feare any flo­tings of the times, any moth or gangrene either on thy state, or name; but when death shall take downe those rotten stickes wherewith thy earthly tent is compos'd, thy gray haires shall go in peace to their long home, and the —Mourners shall walke about the streets.

They haue walk't now, and done their deuoyer in their last way of ceremony. But where's the bodie I promis'd you to interre? sure some Disciple stole't a­way by night, and laid it in its long home, where it is now vnder the bondage of corruption. But there is somewhat left behinde which I would willingly pre­serue from rottenesse, his name: to which, though I may lay some challenge in respect of bloud, little of acquaintance; that, being as great a stranger to me, as the passages of his life, or death; so what I shall speake, is both traditionary, and short, very short, thus.

Hee was a man of more reseruednesse than expressi­on, both in his act, and word, and of the two, hee had rather doe courtesies, than professe them. His out­ward deportment, and face of carriage (where not knowne) sowre, and rough. In his passions (for which [Page 25] the remainder of their age in a discontented contempla­tion of their misfortunes; and (I pray God) not in mur­muring against his Church. And this hath occasion'd a maine reuolt and apostasie of some from the bosome of this our Mother, where not finding shelter vnder those wings which had bred them, flutter abroad in other Pro­uinces, & at length train'd vp to the Romish Cure; witnes those many Proselytes they haue gain'd from vs (not for matter of conscience, but of fortune) who now steeping their pens in Wormewood, and whetting their tongues keener than any Razor, haue wounded & struck through the sides of their sometimes Mother, to her great preiu­dice & dishonor. Where the fault lies, he that hath but slē ­derly traffiquc't with the occurrences of the time, may iudge. Spiritual promotions are slow of foot, & come for the most part haltingly, or in a by-way. A calamity wch best ages haue beene obnoxious to (those of the Fathers) but by them cried downe with as great violence, as dete­station. (S. Ambrose will tell with what iustice,Ambros. de dign. Sacerd. cap. 5. I can­not, it makes me tremble) —Ʋideas in Ecclesia passim quos non merita, sed pecuniae ad presbyteratus ordinem pro­uexerunt, nugacem populum, & indoctum, quos si percun­ctari fideliter velis quis eos praefecerit Sacerdotes, respondent mox & dicunt, Episcopus, & aes dedi, quod si non dederim hodie non essem—. The words are broad enough in their Mother tongue, they need no renderer, but an applier, if there be any guilt here so past blushing, that can doe it, let it thaw into horrour to reade-on the Father in his —de dignitate Sacerdotali cap. vlt.

I haue beene too tedious here, you will say, too bold; but I haue done nothing but what Moses should, fol­lowed the commandement of my God, he bad me goe, I haue obeyed him, and he hath promised to assist me, for he will be in my mouth, that's my second circumstance, —Goe, and I will be in thy mouth, and will teach thee what thou shalt say.

And here I should say more, but time hath silenc'd mee; a second opportunity may perfect all, in the meane time, I shall beg Gods blessing for you, and your charity to these. To God the Father, &c.

Gloria in excelsis Deo. Amen.


MOSES and AARON OR THE AFFINITIE OF Ciuill and Ecclesiasticke power.

A SERMON INTENDED for the Parliament held at Oxon, August. 7. 1625.

But by reason of the sudden and vnhap­py dissolution, then, not preach't, but since vpon occasion, was; at St. MARIES in Oxford, the 26. of February. 1625.

BY Humphry Sydenham Mr. of Arts, and Fellow of WADHAM Colledge in OXFORD.

LONDON, Printed for IOHN PARKER. 1626.



WHil'st others declaime (too iustly) against the dull charities of the times, and the coldnesse of affecti­on in their Allies, and bloud, I cannot but magnifie their worth, in you, where I haue met a vertue, scarce ex­ampled by a second, friendship in a brother. I thought it a high iniustice to smoother such a miracle, and therefore haue heere set it vpon [Page] record; that, as the age may blush at her other prodigies, so glory heere, that she hath (at length) brought forth one who hath not lost either his Nature to his alliance, or piety to his Countrey. A goodnesse seldome paralell'd in these dayes of ours, these degenerate dayes of ours, when we may finde a more naturall cor­respondence, a liuelier heat of affection, amongst those of sauage and barbarous condition, than in the bosome of our owne Tribe and Nation. But I may not taxe, when I am to salute, 'tis out of the roade of gratulation; this is intended so, A meere declaration of my thankfulnes for all those your noble Offices of a reall brother­hood, which though I haue not power (as yet) to satisfie, I shall haue euer will to acknow­ledge, and in that loyaltie I persist,

Your most respectfully engag'd, HVM: SYDENHAM.

Moses and Aaron OR The affinitie of Ciuill and Ecclesi­asticke power.

EXOD. 4.12.

Goe, and I will be in thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say.

HOw strangely God compasses what he proiects for his, by the hands of an obscure Agent?Cap. 3. v. 9.10. Isra­el hath beene long enough vnder the groanes of Egypt, it shall bee now vnyoakt from that heauie seruitude; and this must bee done by no troden meanes, or ordinary instrument, But one that Israel and Egypt too shall stand amaz'd at to see in such a power of substitution, A shepheard. Cap. 3.8. Moses a fee­ding [Page 2] his fathers flocke, not farre from Horeb, the moun­taine of the Lord,Cap. 3.1. Cap. 3.4. when suddenly a voice doth at once astonish and inuite him, Moses, Moses. 'Tshould seeme the affaires were both of necessitie and dispatch, when the person to be imployed was thus prest by a double summons:Cap. 4 18. what shall he doe now? His flocke must bee left with Iethro in Midian, and he shall to Court, there to ransome an engag'd and captiu'd Nation, from the shac­kles of a Tyrant;Cap. 2.17. A simple designe for one season'd in the course conditions of an Hebrew and a Midianite: Men knowne more by the largenesse of their folds, than any eminence for matters of state, most of them being heards­men, or shepheards. But see how God will extract won­ders out of improbabilities, and miracles out of both: Moses shall first see one,Cap. 3.2. Cap. 3.3. & then, do many. Behold an An­gell of the Lord in a flaming fire in a bush, the bush burned (saith the Text) and the Bush was not consumed. A vision as strange as the proiect he is now set vpon, and doth not so much take, as stagger him. That it burned and consu­med not, rauishes his eies only, how it should burn & not consume, his intellectualls; So that he is now doubly en­tranced, in the sense, & in the thought. But there is more of mystery inuol'd here than the Prophet yet dreames of or discouers. God in his affaires requires both heat, and constancie: men of cold and languishing resolution are not fit subiects for his imploiments, but those which can withstand the shocke of many a fiery triall; they whose zeale can burne cheerfully in the seruices of their God and not consume. Moses, therfore shall now to Pharaoh, with as many terrours as messages.Cap. 5. vers. 6, 7, 8, 9. Ten times hee must bid the Tyrant let Israel goe: euery Iniunction shall find a repulse, euery repulse, a plague, and euery plague, a wonder. Somewhat a harsh embassie to a King, and can­not be welcom'd but with a storme, whose disposition is as impatient of rebuke, as not inur'd too't. Those eares which haue been sleekt hitherto with the supple dialect [Page 3] of the Court, (that oile of Sycophants and temporizers) will not be roug'ht now with the course phrase of a re­proofe, much lesse, of menacing. There's no dallying with the eye of a cockatrice; I am sure none, with the paw of a Lion; Ruine sits on the brow of offended Soueraigntie, each looke sparkles indignation, and that indignation, death. Moses is now startled at the imployment,Cap. 3.11. and begins both to expostulate and repine. —Who am I that I should goe vnto Pharaoh? I am not eloquent, Cap. 4.10. but of slow speech and of a slow tongue—? Good Lord! In a Prophet what a piece of modestie with distrust? will God employ any whom he will not accommodate? Hee hath now thrice perswaded Moses to this great vndertaking, The other as often manifests his vnwillingnesse by excuse, as if he would either dispute Gods prouidence, or question his supply. We find therefore this diffidence check't with a new insinuation of rectifying all defects.Cap. 4.10.Who hath made mans mouth, or who makes the dumbe or the deafe, or the seeing, or the blinde, haue not I the Lord? Why should any further scruple or doubt assaile thee? I that am the God of the Hebrewes will protect thee; let no wauerings of Israel, or terrours of Egypt any way dismay thee: par­ticular infirmities in thine owne person I will mould anew to perfection,Cap. 14.14. or if those vacillations and stutterings of the tongue yet dishearten thee, Loe Aaron the Levite is thy brother, I know that he can speake well, take him with thee, and this rod too, wherewith thou shalt doe wonders as dreadfull as vnpattern'd. Deliuer Pharaoh roundly my commands, if he will not vndeafe his eare vpon their first Alarum, I will bore it with my thunder. Why standest thou then any longer so diuided? Goe now, and I will be in thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say—.

Moses, is dispatch't now, hath his commission seal'd, each particle of his message punctually deliuered him, [Page 4] wherein (as in all saecular and subordinate Embassies) we finde A command, Diuision. A direction, and a Promise. The command, Goe; The Promise, I will be in thy mouth; The Direction, teach thee what thou shalt say. So he that is singled out to any seruice of his God for the aduantage of his Israel, must not giue backe or wauer, Goe—. If a wil­ling obedience second this command, God promises to assist, I will be in thy mouth; if there, be not dash't at the slownesse or vnprouidednesse of thy speech, I will teach thee what thou shalt say. Once more is there a retyred worth, which desires to sit downe to obscurity, and seemes vnwilling to the publike seruices of his God, hearest thou not this proficiscere from heauen? Goe. But hast thou once vndertooke them? be not discourag'd, here's an —aperiam, too—. I will be in thy mouth; but am I welcom'd there with reuerence, and awe? speake bold­ly then, for, Ego instruam, I will teach thee what thou shalt say—, Goe then. But let's first cleare the passage. 'Tis not my intent to shew you Moses here in the stormes and troubles of the Court and State, but of the Church. I may not bee too busie with the riddles and Labyrinth's of the two first; the times are both rough and touchie, I will onely shew you a farre off, how this Proteus and that Ca­melion vary both their shape and colour. Moses was in­deed forty yeares a Courtier, and the better part of his life a Statesman, yet he was a Priest too (and so I follow him) if you dare take the authoritie of Saint Augustine, who though on his second booke on Exod. 10. quaest. giues Moses barely Principatum, Aug. lib. 2. in Exod. quaest. 10. Aug. in Psal. 98. and Aaron ministerium, yet in his Commentaries on the 98 Psalm, he thus interrogates, Si Moses Sacerdos non erat, quid erat? numquid maior Sa­cerdote? and the sweet singer of Israel, put's Samuel a­mong them that call vpon Gods Name, and Moses and Aaron amongst the Priests, Psal. 99.6.— I haue now re­mou'd all rubs and obstacles, the way is smooth and pas­sable, what should then hinder Moses any longer, Goe,—.

Command and obedience are the bodie and soule of hu­mane societie, the head and foote of an establish't Empire, Pars 1. Command sits as Soueraigne and hath three Scepters, by which it rules, Authoritie, Courage, Sufficiencie.

Obedience, as 'twere the subiect, and beares vp it's alle­giance with three pillars, necessitie, profit, willingnesse. Sometimes command growes impetuous and rough, and then 'tis no more Soueraigntie but Tyrannie—. Againe, Obedience, vpon distast, is apt to murmure, and growes mutinous, and so 'tis no more a subiect, but a Rebells where they kisse mutually, there is both strength and safetie; but where they scold and iarre, all growes to ruine and com­bustion. And this holds not onely in matters Ciuill, but in those more sacred. Command frō heauen presupposes in vs an obedience no lesse of necessitie, than will, and in God, infallibilitie both of power, and incouragement. Faint­nesse of resolution, or excuse, in his high designements, are but the Teltales of a perfunctory zeale, howeuer they pretend to bashfulnesse, or humilitie.Ier. 1. I cannot speake Lord, or, I am vnworthy, were but course apologies of those that vsed them,Rom. 1. Exod. 3. when God had either matter for their emploiment; or time; And the Quis ego Domine? of Moses, here, finds so little of approbation, that it meetes a checke; the Text will tell you in what heate and tumult, with an — Accensus suror Iehouae, Cap. 4.4. the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and it should seeme, in such violence, that Abulensis, after much trauerse,Tost. in cap. 4. Exod. and dispute makes that tergiuersation of his little lesse than a mortall sinne, & some of the Hebrewes haue strangely pu­nish't it, with the losse of Canaan, perswading vs, the maine reason why he came not thither, was his backwardnesse in obeying this —proficiscere, Goe. Perer. in Exod. But that's a Thalmu­dicall and wilde fancie, fitter for such giddy enrolements, than the eares of a learned throng. And as Moses may not but obey when God layes his command on him, so hee must not goe without it. Matthew must be called [Page 6] from his receipt of custome; Mat. 9.9. Gal. 1.5. & he is not honor'd with a true Apostleship, who wants his —vocatus sicut Aaron. That of God to the Pseudo-prophets, was a fearefull Irony, —I sent them not, Ier. 14. but they ranne—, voluntaries (it should seeme) find here neither countenance, nor entertaine­ment, but whom God hath prest and sealed to this great warfare; yet the other, notwithstanding, in the field, and seasoned once in battell, the retrait is more dangerous, than the aduenture.

Esay cap. 6.We finde Esay more actiue and forward than any of the Prophets, & yet that spontaneousnesse not chid; who (as if he would anticipate the care and choise of God in his owne affaires) makes a hasty tender of his seruice,5 with an —Ecce ego, 8 mitte me; yet, he had his former con­vulsions, and pangs too of feare, and diffidence; Woe is me, 5 for I am a man of polluted lips. But see how God hammers and workes what he intends to file, either in person,7 or by substitute? an Altar must be the Forge, and a Seraphin the workeman, who with his tongs ready, and his coale burning, shall both touch those iniquities, and purge them, and then, and not till then, heere am I, Lord, send me. As therefore to stand still, when God sends out his proficiscere, argues a rustie and sullen lazinesse, so to runne when he sends not, arrogancie, and presumption. That zeale is best qualified, which hath the patience to expect God's summons, and then the boldnesse to doe his errand.

Aqui. 2a. 2ae. qu. 185. art. 1.The Schooleman in his 2a. 2ae. 185. question, being to deale of religious persons, straines not the Myter from his discourse, but moderates the quaere by diuiding it, and thinkes to take away all scruple by making two, whether it be lawfull to desire Ecclesiasticall honour (Episcopall hee Epithites) or to refuse it being enioyned? Greg. de Val. in loc. Aqui. dist. 10. q. 3. par. 2. Gregorie de Va­lentia (his Amanuensis here) turnes the perspectiue from the obiect vpon the Agent, viewing as well the partie de­siring as the thing desired, where, though hee descrie [Page 7] height of sufficiency in personall endowments: Quaer. 1. one Cap-A-Pe, in all points canonicall, yet he allowes not a baite for his eager appetite to feed on; a disopinion'd vnder-valued man may not desire it for the dignity, nor he that's fortune­troden for the reuenue. Be the person otherwise ne're so compleatly accommodated, yet the irregularity in his appetite strangles his other eminencies, and so he is (at once) vnworthy, and vncapable. Reason and conscience, will be­troth Honours to desert, which yet they diuorce from the immodesty and heate of the desire; for, if super-intendencie be in the appetite more than the office, 'tis presumption. A­quinas doth censur't so,Aquinas vt sup. a common practise of the Gen­tiles, reproou'd in the Disciples; Ye know their Princes loue to dominere, Mat. 20. if the honour be superiour, 'tis ambition, and so meerely pharisaicall, —They loue the vp­permost roomes at feasts, and chiefe seats at Synagogues, Matth. 23. If the reuenue, it allies to couetousnesse, Matth. 23. and differs from the sinne of Simon Magus thus, he proffer'd money for the gifts, these couet the gifts for the mo­ney.

On the other side,Quaer. 2. to reiect the Ephod wherewith au­thority would inuest thee, checkes doubly the refuser, in waies of charity, humility. Charity seekes no more her own, Aquin. & Greg. vt sup. than her neighbours good; now the charity we owe vnto our selues, prompts vs to search out —Otium sanctum (as Augustine phrases it) a holy vacancie from these pub­like cures, but that to the Church bindes vs to vnder­goe.—Negotium iustum, Aug. 19. de Ciuil. D [...]i cap. 19. the imposition of any iust em­ployment, —quam sarcinam si nullus imponit, intuendae vacandum est veritati, si autem imponitur, sustinenda est propter charitatis necessitatem, the Father in his 19. de Ciuit. Dei. cap. 19. Againe, humility tie's vs in obedi­ence to Superiours, so that as often as we disobey them we doe oppugne it, and this (in respect of God) is not meeknesse, but pertinacy, Magn Gregor. 1. pars Past. cap. 6Tunc ante Dei oculos vera est humilitas, cum ad respuendum hoc quod vtiliter subire prae­cipitur, [Page 8] pertinax non est—, Gregory 1. part of his Pastorals 6. Chapter.

To auoide then all occasions of publike seruice for the Church, vnder a pretence of humility or reclusenesse, speakes (too broadly) the delinquent, refractarie. Your Anchoret that digges his graue in speculation meerely, and your Moale that is earth'd wholy in an affected soli­tarinesse, are not liable so properly to obscurity, as death; such elaboratnes tends not to perfection, but disease; & we finde an Apoplexy, and sleepe, no lesse on their endeauours than in their name; all knowledge is dusted with them, and 'tis no more a nurserie of vertues, but a Tombe. And (indeed) such Silkewormes spin themselues into Flies, dis­animate, heartlesse Flies, life neither for Church, nor Com­mon-wealth. The Laurell and honour of all secular de­signes is the execution, and the happinesse of those sacred ones is not intail'd barely to the knowledge of them, but to the fac & viues. And that, not at home onely, in thy particular intendments, but abroad also in thy serui­ces for the Church; so that he that retraits at any Ala­rum or summons of his God, for the common affaires of the Church, to hugge and enioy himselfe in his solitary ends, runnes himselfe on the shelues of a rough censure, that of the Father to his Dracontius, Athan. in Epist. ad Drac. Episc. fugient. pars 2. editio vltima.Ʋereor ne dum propter te fugis, propter alios sis in periculo apud Dominum. To stand by, and giue aime onely, whil'st others shoote, and thou thy selfe no markman, proclaimes thy lazinesse, if not thy impotency. What a nothing is thy arme? thy bowe? thy shaft? if not practised, not bent, not drawne vp? or if so glorious a marke, the Church? why not leueld at? either she must be vnworthy of thy trauell, or thine of her. If therefore this thy Mother implore thy aide (so Augustine counsels his Eudoxius) on the one side,August. Epist. 81. hand not with ambition; on the other, leane not to a lazie re­fusall, weigh not thine owne idlenesse with the necessities and greatnesse of her burthens, to which (whiles she is in trauell) [Page 9] if no good men will administer their helpe, Certè quomodo nasceremini non inueniretis; God must then inuent new waies for our new birth: the Father in his 81. Epistle ad Edoxium.

You see then our Moses may not hastily thrust himselfe vpon those weighty designes without authority and commission from his God, and yet once summon'd, not recoile; but thus hauing his Congedeleere and warrant from aboue, wee must now account him in the place of God, God indeed, with a—sicut—the Text tels vs so, thrice tels vs so, God to Aaron, God to Israel, God to Pharaoh. Exod. 3.4, 5. 'Twere then too high a sacriledge to rob him of any title or prerogatiue, which should waite on the greatnesse of such a person. Let's giue him (what all ages haue) Emi­nency of place, Office, their attendants, Honour, Reuenue. I shall dwell my houre with the two first, with the latter on­ly, in Transitu, and vpon the by, they being inuolued in the two former. And that I may punctually go on, I will touch first (where I should) with the Eminency—Goe.

Which as it was sacred in the first instaulement,Eminen. 1. par. so in the propagation most honourable to the times of Hea­thens. Tert. de Coron. militis cap. 10. For Tertullian (speaking of the magnificence and pompe which attended their superstitions) tels vs, that their doores, and Hoasts, and Altars, and dead, and (what glorifies all) their Priests were crown'd: in his Corona mi­litis cap. 10. And the first crowne which the Romanes v­sed, was their spicea Corona, giuen as a religious ensigne in honour of their Priests,—Honosque is, Pliu. lib. 8. cap. 2. non nisi vita fini­tur, & exules etiam, captosque comitatur—sayes my Histo­storian, nought but death could terminate this honour, which was their companion both in exile, and captiuity. They wore the name of Aruales Sacerdotes, Alex. ab. Alex. lib. 1. cap. 26. first institu­ted by Romulus, and Acca Laurentia, his Nurse, who, of her twelue Sonnes hauing lost one, he himselfe made vp the number with that title. But here's not all, —Termi­norum sacrorum, & finium, iurgijs terminandis praeerant, [Page 10] & interuenicbant, they were the peace-makers of the time, and fate as Arbitrators in matters of contestation be­tweene man and man,Plin. vt sup. as the great Naturalist in the 18. booke of his History, 2. chapter. And who fitter for such a morall office than the Priest? an honour which these worst of times allow him, though with some turbu­lency,Numb. 16.3. and indignation: Moses and Aaron, you take too much vpon you, was the crie of a Iew once, so 'tis now, who would manacle and confine them onely to an Ec­clesiasticke power, and deuest them quite of any ciuill au­thority, though Moses here had both. But 'twas not without some shew of mysterie, that in the robes of Aaron (I instance now in him, lest perchance they should cauill with his brother Moses) there was a crowne set vpon the Myter, Exod. 29.6. moralizing a possible coniunction at least of Mi­nister and Magistrate in one person.2 Tim. 2. Chyt. de ordin. minist. pag. 506. And Chytraeus hath a patheticall obseruation from the Apostles [...]deuide aright, that the Metaphor was first taken from the manner of cutting or deuiding the members of the host, Leuit. 7. where the fat and kidneies were burnt as a sacri­fice to God, but the breast and the shoulder were giuen to the Priests: the Allegorie carries with it both weight and maiesty, here's a breast for counsell, and a shoulder for sup­portation in matters of gouernment. And no doubt in times of old (euen these of the Fathers) the Sacerdot all power, was at a great height, in equall scale with that of their honour,Si Regum fulgori & principum Di­ademati inferius est quam si plumbi metallum ad auri fulgorem compares, Ambr. ibid. which was so eminent, that Saint Ambrose rankes not the Myter with the Diadem, but in a zealous Hyperbole (pardon the Epithite) preferres it, and makes this comparatiuely to the other as a sparkle to a flame, or dull Lead to burnisht Gold, in his de dignitate Sacerdotali cap. 2.

I may not follow the Father in his priestly Panegiricke, 'tis too high, and borders too much on the discipline of the triple crowne, such a crowne as ne're yet girt the tem­ples of King or Priest, but of him that tramples on the [Page 11] necke of both; let such insolence inuade the right of Poten­tates, and spurne their Crownes and Scepters in the dust, whil'st we seate our Aaron at the becke of Moses, but the people too at that of Aaron: Let the Priesthood doe obeysance, and kisse the feet of Soueraignty; but let not the Laity turne the heele, and kicke against the sa­crednesse of Priesthood. S. Augustine vpon these words of God to Moses, —Tu eris illi in ijs quae ad Deum. —Hec shall be to thee in stead of a mouth, Exod. 4.16. and thou shalt be to him in stead of God, seemes entranc'd awhile, and bringing them to the ballance,Aug. lib. 2. Exod. 10. quaest. and weighing precisely euery scru­ple, cries out, Magnum Sacramentum cuius figuram ge­rat, as if Moses were a medium betweene God and Aaron, and Aaron betweene Moses and the people. The morall is plaine, Soueraignty stands betweene God and the Priest­hood, and the Priesthood betweene Soueraignty and the peo­ple. Howeuer the Ceremonies due to either heretofore, in matters of Instaulement, stood not at such enmity as we can say they differ'd, they were both anoynted, and both crown'd; and though the authority were vnequall in re­spect of place, yet not of employment, Yee are full of power by the spirit of the Lord, Micah. 3.8. And Elisha could once tell the King, He should know there was a Prophet in Israel, 2 King. 5.8. And in matters of preseruation God was as zealous for the safety of these as them,—Touch not mine anointed, and doe my Prophets no harme, Psal. 105.

But let not my zeale to the Priest dispriuiledge my al­leagiance to my King. I speake not this to set vp Moses in competition with Pharaoh, or riuall the dignity of the Priesthood with that of Soueraignty; but to mind you in what lustre it sometimes shin'd, & how the times now conspire to cloud that glory.

The dayes haue beene, when the Laicke was ambiti­ous, not onely of the title of a Priest, but the office: for Eusebius examples in many of them, who thrusting vpon Bishops of primitiue times, Statim concionandi munus [Page 12] obierunt, in his lib. 6. cap. 15. And Tertullian (speaking of the insolencies and taunts which the Laity then put vpon the Priesthood) tells vs that they iustified their ma­lice & iniuries to the Priest, by vsurping the name, or pro­phaning rather,Tort. lib. de Mo­nog. cap. 12.Quum extollimur & inflamur aduersus clerum, tunc omnes Sacerdotes, quia Sacerdotes nos Deo, & Patri fecit, quum ad peraequationem disciplinae Sacerdotalis prouocamur, deponimus infulas, & pares sumus; in his booke de Monogamia, cap. 12.

It should seeme then the office and name past honoura­bly through all ages, euen those of Infidels, though the person were sometimes exposed to the persecutions of the time, and suffered vnder the blasphemies of vnchristian tongues; but now the very title growes barbarous, and he thinkes he hath wittily discountenanced the greatnes of the calling, that can baffle the professour with the name of Priest. But these, whil'st they intend to wound, they honour vs, and wee account them no scarres, but glories. Let such children mocke on the Prophet, the euent (I beleeue) will proue as horrid as that of old, will you trem­ble to heare it spoken? you may reade it then, and look pale too, in 2 King. 2.24.

Office 2.May it please you now, turne your eyes from the dig­nity, and reflect vpon the office. The office, a taske indeed, such a one as should rather prouoke our endeauours, than appetites. If any man desire the office of a Bishop (let's a­while leaue the word Priest, and fasten vpon this, the au­thority may beare it out the better) desires a good worke, 1 Tim. 3.1.1 Tim. 3.1. Lib. 19. Ciuit. Dei cap. 19. Quia nomen operis est, non honoris (as Augu­stine glosses it) 'tis a name of worke, not honour; a worke no lesse fearefull, than laborious, no where better figur'd than by Moses, here, to Pharaoh, repriuing Israel from Egypt, from which 'tis scarce any way differenc'd, but in the difficulty, and therein it exceeds the type; difficulty worthy the trauells of the best, were not those labours [Page 13] shoulder'd and thrust on by vaine-glory.Greg. de Val. in 2a. 2ae. disp. 10. 43. part. 2. Istaec cathedra cupientem se, & audacter expetentē, non requirit, sed orna­tum, sed cruditum—. So Valentia vpon Aquine. —This chaire of Moses is no seat of ambition, but desert, it hates either an intruder, or pursuer; He that gaines it by coue­tousnesse, or bold desire, doth not possesse, but inuade it, and 'tis not so much his by right of inheritance, as vsur­pation.

These honors fawne onely vpon humble worths, men clad & harnessed with double eminencie, of life, of lear­ning, those whose vertues haue aduanc'd them aboue the ordinary leuell and pitch of popularity. Yet to these nei­ther without this proficiscere— to Moses, Goe. Clemens in his first Epistle, will perswade you: 'tis the con­clusion of Saint Peter. Augustine goes farther,Lib. 19. de Ciuit. Dei, cap. 19.Locus superior sine quo populus regi non potest, et si administretur vt decet, tamen indecenter appetitur—. Suppose the man wor­thy of this place of Eminencie, & comes home in matters of administration, yet he is to blame in those of appetite, Greg. de Val. vt supra. for the desire laies open his vnworthinesse, and the School­man will not flatter him, but concludes it plainely for a mortall sinne. And if we may guesse at the child by the pa­rent, it best countenanceth leuity, or arogance, neuer read to be the proper seedes of any vertue. Notwithstanding this desire (sometimes) comes not within the compasse of presumption,Part. 1. Pastor. cap. 8. if the worke be the obiect of our appe­tite, and not the honour, or, if the honour, not the reuenew, —Appetere colsitudinem Episcopalem, non est semper prae­sumptio, sed appetere Episcopatum, ratione celsitudinis, ap­petit enim celsitudinem, supra dignitatem— Gregorie will haue it so. Howeuer,1 Tim 3.1. if it please you to glance on my for­mer quotation from the Apostle, 'twill not so much whet your appetite, as grauell it;Beza in locum. for first Beza limits the desire, If any man desire? and 'tis not meant —de ambi­tu— of the appetite, or ambition to get the See, but de animo, of the earnest desire to benefit the Church, or ad­mit [Page 14] the words will carry that interpretation, yet the commendation which is annexed truces with the worke, not the desire,—Bonum opus de siderat—, not —benè desi­derat—, though it be good what he desires, yet hee doth not well to desire it. Men vnworthy of what they sue for, onely because they sue for it. And this in Primitiue times hath occasioned in many no lesse a modestie than vn­willingnesse in those sacred vndertakings, when the Fa­thers, with a kind of reluctancie and feare, were towed on to these high imployments. Nay some, whether through maiestie of the place, or roughnesse of the times, or guilt of their owne weakenesse, haue panted and breath'd short in their desires to this great enterprise, and at length ex­chang'd the honour for an exile.Greg Naz in praefat. Apol. Athan. in epist. ad Draconi. Episc. fug: vt Gl [...]ss. in prim. Euan. Marc. Nizianzen flies into Pontus; Dracontius, into the skirts of Alexandria: and it is tradition'd me by Aquinas, (and he quotes Saint Ierome for it) that Saint Marke cut off his thumbe, Ʋt Sacer­dotio reprobus haberetur— They are the Schoolemans owne words in his 2a. 2ae. quaest. 185. Artic. 1. But 'twill not be amisse here to take Saint Ambrose —quamuis no­tandum— with vs; that these things were done in the Churches great extremities, when he that was —pri­mus in presbyterio, Part. 2. past. c. 3. was —primus in Martyrio. 'Twould require the temper of a braue resolution, and a better zeale, to desire this Bonum opus, when 'twas made the touchstone and furnace of mens faith and constancie, not only in leading others to the stake, but their own suffering where they were to be a voluntary Holocaust, and sacri­fice to the Church, there to remaine a monument of their Religion, and others tyranny. 'Tis true, Histories haue fur­nisht vs with examples of some which haue renounc'd an Empire, and (which is strange) a Popedome; Dioclesian did one, and Celestinus, t'other. The times (we may sup­pose) were blustring, and the reuenewes thin at Rome, when the honor of the chaire, was at once not desir'd and scorn'd. No proiect now vnsifted, no stratagem vndig'd [Page 15] for; no reach of policie vnfathom'd for the compassing of that great See, though by synister, though by diuellish attempt, nay, that's the chiefe engine by which it works. Tiberius could once tell a Prince of the Celts, that Rome had a sword for her conquest, not an Apothecaries shop; now they are both too little; Sword, and poyson, and massacre, and Pistoll, and knife, and powder, for the purchase (or at least the strengthening) of the triple crowne.

And I would Mach [...]auell had rendeuouz'd only in Ie­suited Territories, and not knockt at the gates of Prote­stant Dominions; 'tis to be fear'd he hath Factors neerer home, those which not onely know the backdoores to the Staffe, and Myter, but are acquainted with the locke, which if they cannot force or picke by the finger of po­licie or greatnesse, they turne with that golden key which at once opens a way to a purchas'd honour, and a ruine.

Ambition whither wilt thou? nay, where wilt thou not? to the pinacle of the Temple for the glory of the world, though thou tumble for it to thy eternall ruine.

The Greeke Philosopher will beg of the gods, that he may behold the Sunne so neere, as to comprehend the forme, Eudoxus. beautie, greatnesse of it, and afterwards he cares not if hee burne, as if there were no such Martyrdome, as what Ambition fires. Occidar modò imperet—,Tacit. Annals. was the resolution of Agrippina for her Nero; but loe, how the euent crownes the vnsatiatenesse of her desires? He gaines the kingdome, and first dig'd out those bowels which had fostered him, and then that heart which was the throne of such an aspiring thought; cruelty shall I call it, or iustice, when the vaine glory of the mother was penanc'd with the vnnaturalnesse of the son. Thus loftie mindes (furnisht with a strong hope of the successe of their designes) haue embark't themselues into great acti­ons, and proposing humane ends, as scales to their high thoughts, haue bin wasted into strange promotions, but after they haue (a while) spangl'd in that their firmament [Page 16] of honour, they become falling starres, and so the suc­cesse prooues as inglorious as the enterprise was bold, and desperate. We haue seldome met with any eminency that was sodaine and permanent: Those which in their dawne of Fortune breake so gloriously, meet with a storme at noone, or else a cloud at night. The Sunne that rises in a grey and sullen morne, sets clearest; and indeed ambition is too hastie, and is hur [...] [...]d violently to the end it aimes at without cautelousnesse and circumspection to the meane; but humilitie hath a calme and temperate pace, and stoopes it along in a gentle posture, yet at length at­taines her marke, but slowly, as if it went vnwilling to honour, and slighted those proffers which others sue for. I enuie Scipio Africanus, and Marcus Portius (you know whose 'tis, Traianus to Plutarch) more for contempt of offices, than the victories they haue wonne, because a con­querour for the most part is in Fortunes power, but the con­tempt of offices liu'd in prudence. Will you heare the para­phrase? Tacitus giue's it, Sapientibus cupido gloriae nouissi­ma, exuitur—. Wisemen are so little in the drift of honor that they loath the sent, 'tis the vanitie, they last put off, and there was a time when a modest refusall of them, was no by-way to them; for this shadow once followed, flies, but fled,Chrys. Hom. 35. in Matth. followes—primatus fugientem desiderat, deside­ratum horret, saies the Father. 'Tis a tricke of primacie to fawne where 'tis not croocht too, but looke coy where it's ouer courted, like some weather-cocks which in a constant and churlish wind beake fairely towards vs, but in a wanton blast, turne taile.

Hence it is that in matters of authoritie, and prehemi­nence, pride hath for the most part the foile, humilitie the conquest, that stoopes basely to the title, or the profit, and looses either, This in a modest distance keepes a loose, till worth inuite it, and at length gaines both; so that it is in wayes of promotion, as in some water-works, where one Engine raises it to make it fall more violently, [Page 17] another beats it downe that it might mount higher. The aduise then of S. Peter comes seasonably here,1 Pet. 5.6.Hum­ble your selues vnder the mighty hand of God, that hee may exalt you in due time. The words are not without their strength of emphasis, here is an —humiliamini— crown'd with an —vt exaltet, humble your selues, that he may ex­alt, as if humilitie were so necessary a disposition to pre­ferment, that without it God might not exalt. But soft, Impostor; Thou which iuglest both with God and with the times, I call not that humility which is typ'd in the downefall of the looke, or the affected crindge and po­sture of the bodie, but the knee of the inward man, wch the Wiseman of old called the character of an holy soule, leading noble harts slowly to the feasts of friends, but speedi­ly to their succour in calamities; So that true meekenesse is retinu'd with a double worth, charity, resolution; And the Philosopher will tell you,Plato in Timaeo. 'tis A vertue belongs to the couragious part of the soule, seated betweene two base ex­treames, Pusillanimity, Arrogance, No Buffone, and yet no Bafler, supporting sometimes iniuries, not out of cow­ardice, but Patience, allaying all tumults and instigations of the soule to reuenge or choller, not expos'd to any vio­lence of passion, but as temperate in disposition, as setled; no waue in her designe, nor tempest in her thought; she is all calme, not a wind so rough as to moue a storme either in her minde or action. But there is a squint-eiea humilitie, which casts one way, and points another; the looke is deiected, still groueling towards the earth, and with such a dresse of mortification, as if it desired no more of it, than would serue it for a graue; when the thought measures out a Diocesse, or labours on some greater proiect, which gain'd the countenance is chear'd, the bodie droopes not, and he can now safely i [...]st it with that old Abbot,

Quaerebam prius claues monasterij,
Quibus inuentis, nunc rectus incedo.

And this subtle Nauigator neuer steeres as he sets his compasse; the looke (haply) points you to a formall meekenesse, but the thought still coasts vpon Ambition; yet this gluttonous desire seldome anchors any where, but goes on still with a full saile, till 't'ath compassed the cape tis bound for,Seneca.Habet hoc vitiumomnis ambitio, non respicit, The thirst of Eminencie is headstrong, and runs with a loose bridle. 'Tis to see much below satietie, that it still desires, nay 'tis hungry euen in surfet, and is sharpen'd with the fruition of that it coueted; so that the birth of this title is but the conception of another, one honour roomes not the greatnesse of his thought, our Aaron is not contented with an Ephod, the rod of Moses, would doe well too; Authoritie is sleighted, discipline falne, and corruption crept strangely into the times, but

Iumen. Sat. 1.O fortunatam me consule, Romam. What should a mercifull worth doe with a Consulship? 'tis a place for thunder, not clemencie, one that can strike dead exorbi­tancie with the furrowes of the brow, and quell all vice with the tempest of a looke, one that can both vnsheath the sword of authoritie, and brandish it, if not to reforma­tion, yet to ruine; Thus he would make gouernment the stale both of his pride and Tyranny, his proiects are lof­tily cruell, so are his actions too, yet still in a hot sent of promotion, wch (if they want a trumpet for others com­mendation) shall borrow one from his owne, and so at once applaud his designes, and iustifie them. And indeed this titillation and itch of honour, if it once finde in the bosome of the receiuer a faire admittance, doth smooth­ly insinuate and cheat vpon the powers of Reason, But when 'tis throughly seated and enthron'd there, 'tis no more a guest but a Tyrant, and leaues the possessor, not a master, but a captiue, and in this case, I know not whe­ther Saint Augustine will pittie his Aurelius, or excuse him,Aug. Epist. 64. ad Aurel.Et si cuiquam facile sit gloriam non cupere dum negatur, difficile est ea non delectari cum offertur— in his [Page 19] 64 Epistle. Howeuer the Father seemes there to pleade onely for the delight in glories offer'd, not in the vniust prosecution of those denied. But our humble-arrogant walkes not to his temple of honour by that of vertue, but inuasion; and of some of his colleagues, the Fathers com­plain'd of old, Qui nequaquam diuinitus vocati, Greg. part. 1. past. cap. 2. sed sua cupiditate accensi, culmen regimini. rapiunt potiùs, quàm assequuntur 'Tis Saint Gregories line, and a strong one too, such a one as the Prophet once lash't Iudah with,Hos. 8.4. Ho. 8.4. They haue set vp a King but not by me, they would make a Ruler, I knew it not. Mat. 23. Would you haue a more punctuall character, that of the Pharisees is most appo­site: They loue greetings in the markets, and to be cal­led of men, Rabbi, Rabbi, Matth. 23.7. Deuout cruelty, Religious arrogance (the Father will make it out) Ob pie­tatem miseri, ob splendorem infaelices, Greg. Naz. in praefat. Apol. edict. lat. in his Apologie first Oration 44. pag.

But I haue followed Moses too long as a Magistrate, I must now a while as a Priest, and (what I exchang'd him for) a Bishop. I shall not trauell farre, e're I descry them both in a full careere, not farr from the roade I left the Ma­gistrate, Ambition, but in a more couert, and vntroden way; a way, howeuer doubly obnoxious to the passen­ger, because vnwarrantable, because forbidden; no autho­ritie for his progresse, no Letters patents from heauen, no proficiscere from his God, Goe, yet he runnes, runnes without command, nay against it, trebly against it, against that, non dominantes in clerum—, feed,1. Pet. 5.3. Iam. 3.1. But not as Lords ouer Gods heritage, but ensamples, and against that nolite magistri, be not masters, knowing you shall receiue the greater condemnation; nay against the direct prohibition of Christ to his Disciples,Matth 20.27.Will there be any great among you—, [...], let him be your seruant. 'Tis high time then this bladder were a little prickt, and this impostume launc'd. The body of the Church desire's it, cries for't, shee is sicke, sicke euen vnto death, yet no [Page 20] Physitian in Israel will administer, will? durst not; Wee are growne so emasculate, and palsie-strooken, in waies of reprehension, the times so censorious, and in a lust of no­ueltie, that this mount of God which was wont to send out lightnings and thunder to the Israelites below, is now growne a terrour to the Moses that shall climbe it. And whereas the Pulpit hath beene formerly our Tribu­nall to iudge and sentence the lapses and deprauations of the people, they haue made at length a bar for our own ar­raignement, & their doome or mercy passes on vs, as we shall please or not please, but the verdict runnes much to the fancy of the censurer, which is commonly as barba­rous and wilde, as he that giues it. Discourses (and I am sorry I cannot call them Sermons) are so sleeke, and wooing for applause, the eares of the times so coy, and pickt for accuratenesse, that to be plaine or home, entitles the speaker to rudenesse or stoicisme, each offer'd annota­tion is a barbarisme, and euery reproofe a libell. The hew­ing downe of a glorious vice, or the whipping of a sinne in scarlet, Praemunires him that doth it, and hee growes a tributary and slaue to the frownes and dishonours of the time,Iuuen. Sat. 1.Vnde illa priorum—scribendi quodcunque ani­mo flagrante liberet—Simplicitas? 'Tshould seeme An­tiquitie had a priuiledge of venting any thing that pro­ceeded from the simplicitie and truth of an honest breast; But the thoughts of aftertimes were choak't with a —non audeo dicere—, sincerity was turn'd bankrupt, and truth an exile, plaine-dealing, pertinacie, and zeale, madnesse. But what, shall Moses here be tongue-tyed, shall he stut­ter in the Messages of his God? —Quid refert dictis ig­noscat Mutius annon? Iu. ibid. Pusillanimity and deiectednesse of spirit in the imployment of thy Maker, is the basest de­gree of cowardise; for my part, I haue set vp my resolu­tion with that of S. Bernard: Ad Fulc. Epist. 2. Quid me loqui pudeat, quod illis non puduit facere? si pudeat audire quod impudenter egerunt, non pudeat emendare quod libenter non audiant. [Page 21] Let me tell howeuer this child of vaine-glory, that no touch of malecontentednesse, or spirit of inuection puts me on the iustice of these complaints; But that which the deuout Abbot cals, patient anger, humble indignati­on —euen that charity wherewith he catechiz'd his am­bitious pupill, —Quae tibi condolet, quaemuis non dolenti, B [...]rn. ad Fulc. epist. 2. quae tibi miseretur, licet non miserabili, & inde magis dolet, quod cum sis dolendus, non doles, & inde magis miseretur, quod cùm miser sit, miserabilis non es, vult te tuum scire do­lorem, vt iam non habeas vnde dolere, vult te tuam scire miseriam, vt incipias miser non esse, in his 2 Epistle, Ad Fulconem—.

I neuer yet enuied the prosperity of any, I haue some­times wond'red at their waies of aduancement, and now haue trac't them, and finde a double staire by which they ascend, zeale, policie,—(please you to translate the termes, you may, they will beare the christning) Faction, Simo­ny—, one of the chiefe meanes to gaine preferment, is, to crie downe the way to it. And he that will haue three li­uings, must first preach violently against two. Non-resi­dency must be a capitall and indispensable crimes. Plura­lities, damn'd, till they be either offer'd, or possest, when the fish is caught, what makes the net here then? away with it; the question is stated on to'ther side. A double Benefice is but one liuing, and that swallowed with as little reluctation, as 'twas but now thundred against, with all the bitternesse that the power of virulence could suggest; all's well now, the conscience is at peace, and (what is strange) the tongue too. Ere long, Non-residency hangs not in the teeth, but that is easily put off, for the honour of Nicodemus,—To be a great Master in Israel, Sueton.Si vio­landum sit ius, regnandi caus â violandum,—what matter's it for iustice so we gaine an Empire? or for equity so we may insult? The application needs no skrew, 'twill come home of it's owne accord to the murmurings of the guil­ty [Page 22] bosome; In the meane time it much staggers mee, to see the reconcilement of two vertuous friends with a base aduersary? a Saint in the countenance, an Angell in the tongue, with an Hypocrite at the heart.

Thus (beloued) vpon easie enquiry wee may as well descrie an equiuocation in the looke, as in the word, and he that can art it handsomely in wayes of dissimulation, hath not so much two tongues, as two faces; one lookes towards the world, where demurenesse laies on her paint and colour, and this oftentimes deludes, shamefully de­ludes; the other towards heauen, and that's but coursely dawb'd in respect of it, for the eye of the Almighty can­not be dazell'd, that will descrie her furrowes and defor­mities, and at length giue her a reward answerable to the defert, her portion with the Hypocrite, and there I leaue it.

This fruitlesse and pernicious branch prun'd, and lopt off, t'other buds, no lesse dangerous than that, and yet more flourishing, it sprouts now to such a bredth and height, that it hath almost ouershadowed the body of the Church, insomuch, that the Foules of the aire lodge in the branches thereof. No Vulture or Rauen (emblemes of rapine and greedinesse) though they deuoure and ha­uock it (so they haue a tricke of merchandizing) but nests and perches there; nay scarce an Owle or Buzzard (now the metaphors of dulnesse and simplicity) but hoots and reuels there. Times more than calamitous, when the in­heritance and patrimony of the Church, shall be thus leas'd out to auarice and folly, when those her honors wch she entailes vpon desert, shall be heaped vpon a golden ignorant, who rudely treades on those sacred preroga­tiues, without any warranted proficiscere frō God or man. We find Moses trembling here, though encourag'd both by the perswasion and command of the Almighty, —Et [Page 23] infirmquis (que) vt honoris onus suscip at, anhelat, Greg. par. 1. past. cap. 7. & qui ad ca­sum valde vrgetur ex proprijs, humerū libenter opprimen [...]ū ponderibus submittit alienis—. 'Tis Gregories complaint in the 1. part of his Pastorall, chapter 7.

Strange monument of weaknesse! hee that reeles vn­der his owne burthen, stoopes to be opprest with the weight of others, and loe how he tumbles to a mortall sinne (The Schoolemen doth stile it so) directly oppo­site to a paire of vertues, iustice, charity; vniust, that the reuenues due to worth should be pack't vpon bulcklesse and vnable persons,Greg. de Val. in 2a. 2ae. Aqui. dist. 10. q. 3 punc. 2. and vncharitable for him to vnder­take the guidance and pasturing of a flocke who was ne­uer train'd vp in the conditions of a shepherd. Neither is he an enemy onely of a double vertue, but a compani­on of two such sinnes which seeme to braue, and dare the Almighty to reuenge on the prophaner, Intrusion, periurie; first, in rushing on the profession not legitimate­ly call'd, then in purchasing her honours. Yet there are which can say with the Disciple —Master, we haue left all and followed thee— our birth-right for the Church; left did I say? sold it, exchanged the possessions of our Fa­thers (their vineyard) to purchase thine; and in stead of that peny which thou giuest in liew of a Crowne and recompence to thy labourer, we haue giuen thousands to be possest one, and so, thou not hiring vs, wee haue, it. But heare S. Bernard schooling his Eugenius, and doe not so much blush as tremble,—Quis mihi det, Bern. epist. 238. ad Euge. ante quam moriar videre ecclesiam Dei sicut in diebu [...] antiquis quandò Apostoli laxabant retia in capturam, non aurd, sed animae­rum! quàm cupio te illius hareditare vocem cuius ad [...]ptus es sedem? Pecunia tua tecum in perditionem—. O vex to­nitrui! The Abbot goes on deuoutly in the 238. Epi­stle ád Eugenium.

If that Father be too calme and modest in his reproofe, [Page 24] and cannot rouze bloud in the cheekes of the delin­quent: S. Ambrose shall startle it, or else scare you with the vision of Simon Magus, Amb. de dign. sacerd. cap. 5. or Gehazi,—Qui non timen­tes illud Petri, aut Elizei, Sacerdotalem defamant ho­norem, sanctique Episcopatus gratiam pecunijs coemerunt; in his de dignitate Sacerdotali cap. 5.

And indeed, in waies of sufficiency and worth, 'tis the —si nil attuleris—damp's the preferment; The age can instance, in some languishing and weake in their intelle­ctuals, men without sap or kernell, who (hauing their store-house well fraught with that white and red earth) haue stumbled on the glories of the time, as if for­tune would make them happy in despight of vertue; when others of Christs followers (were truely his Disci­ples) are sent abroad with their—ite & praedicate—bare-footed, without bag or scrip, but their Commission large —Omni creaturae—the wide world is their place of resi­dence, no particular roofe to shelter them, or place of re­tirednesse to lay their head in. Nay some that haue seru'd a triple Apprentiship to Arts and Sciences, and spent in these our Athens the strength of their time and patrimo­nie, men throughly ballac'd for those high designes, well kern'd both in yeeres and iudgement, lie mouldring for non-employment, and dasht for slownesse of promotion; when others of cheape and thin abilities, men without growth or bud of knowledge, haue met with the honours of aduancement, and trample on those deiected booke­wormes which dissolue themselues into industry for the seruice of their Church, yet meet neither with her pompe, nor her reuenue; nay, some that haue wasted their Lampe, are burnt their Taper to an inch of yeeres, haue spent those fortunes in the trauailes of Diuinity, wch would largely haue accommodated them for more se­cular courses, and enforced to retire themselues to the solitarinesse of some ten-pound Cure, and so spin out [...] [Page 25] he hath suffer'd strangely in the censures of the world) somewhat windy, & tempestuous, but such as had autho­rity onely from the tongue, not the heart, and as soone ore-blowne, as occasion'd, nought else but a greene leafe in a flame, crack't, sparkled, and so out. His rule of friendship the best, not popular, but choice, & there too, where it found truth, no glosse; there vnshooke, nobly-constant, his, both in his heart, & in his purse; not in his purse, (as Seneca writes of Sicilius, where nought could be extracted but an hundred vpon a hundred) or as your Hackney Mynt-men for the most part doe, ten vpon the same number, but that trebled, many times, for no­thing, as the clemency of some vnpersecuting scroles can testifie. His contribution, and beneuolence in way of almes, rather powr'd out, than giuen, as if pouerty had beene the obiect of his profusenesse, not of his re­leefe; yet that without froth of ostentation, without reference to merit, on the grounds of a true charity. His Religion (wherein the world thought hee had wau'd and totter'd) vpon his accounts to God, and his inlargements and declarations to his friends, on his death-bed, fast to the Church of England; which, (though in the last act) was beleager'd by some emas­culate suggestions, yet, blessed be the circumspection of a carefull Sonne, it stood vnbatter'd, and in that loialty, and strength, he penitently gaue vp his soule in­to the hands of his Redeemer.

And now hee is gone, let his imperfections fol­low, and the memory of them rot, and moulder with his body; hee had many, some preualent; and (good Lord) which of vs haue nor in a large pro­portion! But they are our earthy and dusty, and ashy part, so they were his; let them then be buried with him; shouell them into his graue; earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust; let them spring no more, [Page 26] to the soyling and dishonour of his name, or our owne vncharitablenesse, but let his ashes rest in peace; for hee is now—Gone to his long home, and the mourners haue walkt for him about the streets.

Gloria in excelsis Deo. Amen.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.