By C.A. to his friend P.R. Student of the Lawes in the Middle Temple.

[elaborate fleur-de-lis]
Matth. 10 vers. 8.

Gratis accepistis, gratis date.

Permissu Superiorum, M.DC.XVII.


CHRISTIAN discreet Rea­der, by example of this A­postata, thou maist perceiue how easy a thing it is for a­ny man, of the meanest ca­pacity, to build many wind-mills and Ca­stles in the ayre alone with himselfe: and how impossible to discouer but one of thē to the iudgment of others, without incon­ueniences. For things not found in truth, fall of themselues and often oppresse the builders: but howsoeuer, they cannot stand, if they be duely oppugned.

I had compassion of this poore mans simplicity, reading the Booke which he published for excuse of his flight, fraught with so many disaduantages against him­selfe, which we should not haue knowne, if he had byn so wise as to haue kept his owne counsaile. They are so many, as they [Page]would require a greater volume to handle them all at large: but some of the chiefest thou shalt find examined in this Treatise.

And because we may expect the like workmanship from the same workman in the other ten Bookes which he promiseth, if he be not holpen by others, better mai­sters of Art then himselfe: to ease the la­bour of further censure hereafter, if he be so bold as to publish them; I haue thought good to preoccupate the answere of what­soeuer he hath allready written, or his friends may say for him hereafter, vnder his name, vpon the same subiect: And to giue thee at once, aforehand, sufficiēt prin­ciples of Catholike truth, wherewith, by thy selfe, thou maist easily confute his er­rours, & without further help ouerthrow the phantasticall Tower of Babel which he hath imagined. For the Leuell layed to a crooked worke (without any more) dis­couereth what is out of order, as the Phi­losopher teacheth, Quod rectum est index sui & curui. And with this forewarning, I be­take thee to our Sauiour. This 10. of No­uember 1617.


  • SECTION I. The Bishop his first Reason tur­ned against himselfe: And from thence are deduced three arguments, which do plainly proue, that he was deluded by the Diuell. pag. 7.
  • SECTION II. The three former Arguments, inforced by three other Circumstances. pag. 17.
  • SECTION III. The Bishop his second Negatiue Argument is dis­cussed. pag. 22.
  • SECTION IIII. Of the Bishop his Affirmatiue proofes: and in par­ticuler of those things, that disposed his mind to make mutation of Religion. pag. 30.
  • SECTION V. The Bishops Motiues to change his Religion are dis­cussed: and the arguments of the ten bookes he promi­sed are all reduceth to one question alone, of the Popes Supremacy. pag. 43.
  • SECTION VI. Concerning the Popes Supremacy: The state of the question is proposed, and S. Peters Supremacy is proued by Scripture. pag. 52.
  • SECTION VII. The former Expositions of the two places aforesayd, togeather with S. Peters Supremacy in dignity, do­ctrine, and gouerement, are proued out of the testi­monyes [Page]of the ancient Fathers. pag. 58.
  • SECTION VIII. The conclusion of the first point of this Controuer­sy: which is also further confirmed by the Confession of the Protestants themselues. pag. 70.
  • SECTION IX. The continuance of S. Peters authority is proued by Scripture, and by the Fathers, and by the confession of many Protestants: and therof is inferred the succession of the Pope to S. Peter. pag. 74.
  • SECTION X. The Supremacy of the Pope and his succession to S. Peter, is proued by the titles of his supreme dignity, in the ancient Fathers; and by the foure first generall Councells. pag. 78.
  • SECTION XI. The Popes Supremacy is proued out of the point of the infallibility of his doctrine, by the Authorityes of the ancient Fathers. pag. 87.
  • SECTION XII. The Popes Supremacy is proued by his being priui­ledged from errour in doctrine of Fayth; out of the Authorityes of the Popes themselues. pag. 99.
  • SECTION XIII. The Popes supremacy in Iudiciall authority is pro­ued out of the testimonyes of the Popes theselus. p. 104
  • SECTION XIIII. The Popes Supremacy is proued by the ancient, and continuall practise thereof, in the Catholicke Church. pag. 107.
  • SECTION XV. The Conclusion of this discourse, of the Popes Su­premacy. pag. 115.
  • SECTION XVI. The absurd and pernicious grounds of the Bishops ten Bookes, and his Christian Commonwealth, are fur­ther discouered, and confuted. pag. 119.
  • SECTION XVII. The substance of the Bishops ten books being thus confuted, the mayne paynt of this other Booke, which he maketh the ground of his Conuersion, That the doctrine of the Protestants differeth little or no­thing [Page]from the doctrine of the ancient Fathers, is disproued, by sundry generall reasons, and by the Fa­thers themselues, condemning the Protestants opinions for no lesse then Heresies. pag. 130.
  • SECTION XVIII. The dissent of the Protestāts from the Fathers, is proued out of the Protestants themselues, condem­ning the Fathers. pag. 141.
  • SECTION XIX. That the Protestants dissent very much from the doctrine of the Church, is proued out of the Protestāts themselues, condemning one another. pag. 145.
  • SECTION XX. The conclusion of this Tract, concerning the Bishops motiues, by occasion wherof the nature of a Motiue is declared; & the first Catholike motiue, of the holynes, & sanctity of Catholike doctrine is propounded. p. 152.
  • SECTION XXI. The former motiue is confirmed: and by occasion thereof the necessity of keeping the Commaundments to obtaine Saluation, is declared. pag. 164.
  • SECTION XXII. The force of the second Motiue signifyed by the word Catholike, in the Creed of the Apostles, is de­clared. pag. 176.
  • SECTION XXIII. The force of the former Motiue, is further de­clared, out of the authorityes of S. Augustine, and out of the effect, of the contrary doctrine. pag. 181.
  • SECTION XXIIII Foure other particuler motiues, of the Conuer­sion of Nations, of the Miracles of the Martyrdoms, and of the vnion of the members of the Catholike Church, are briefly propounded. pag. 194.
  • SECTION XXV. Of the authority of the Catholike Church in ge­nerall. pag. 202.
  • SECTION XXVI. The same authority, and the grounds of Chri­stian Fayth are further declared. pag. 217.
  • SECTION XXVII. Wherein two motiues, that is to say, Feare of [Page]danger, and the Instigation of a certaine spirit, which induced the Bishop to change the place of his aboad, are propounded, and examined. pag. 232.
  • SECTION XXVIII. Wherein the Bishop his zeale, and desire to try which is the last Motiue, that induced him to for­sake his Countrey, is discussed. pag. 240.
  • SECTION XXIX. The first obiection of the Bishop against himself, is discussed: Wherein he affirmeth, That albeit the King ought to be feared, and may not be repre­hended: yet the Pope is not to be feared pag. 247.
  • SECTION XXX. Of Schisme, which is the last obiection of the Bishop against himselfe, wherein he is proued to be not only a Schismatike, but also a manifest Heretik. p. 253.
  • SECTION XXXI. Wherein is shewed, that the authority and ex­ample of S. Cyprian, alleadged by the Bishop against the Pope, [...]erthroweth the principall grounds of the Protestant Religion pag. 259.
  • SECTION XXXII. Wherin is declared how the Bishop, in all a [...] ­ging the example of S. Cyprian, and S. Stephen, fal­sifieth the truth of the story against himselfe, p. 264.
  • SECTION XXXIII. Wherein the Bishop is manifestly conuinced of Schisme, out of the Authority, and example of S. Cyprian alleadged by himselfe: and the same autho­rity, for as much as it seemeth to concerne the Pope, is sufficiently answered. pag. 269.
  • SECTION XXXIIII. Many testimonyes & plaine places are pro­duced out of S. Cyprian, whereby the Bishop is eui­dently conuinced, both of Schisme & Heresy p. 274.
  • SECTION XXXV. The conclusion of the Bishops booke, togeather with a short Conclusion of the whole Treatise. p. 277.



I haue receaued your Letter,The Oc­casion of this Trea­tise. togeather with a little Lattin Booke, or rather a Preface to our fugitiue Bishop dated at Venice, & printed in London. In my mynd you wilbe able to make no other vse of him, but only to shew him for a tyme vp and downe the streets: and after that, he may serue you for a stale to publish more Bookes in his name. For giuing him his diet, and some other small contentment, you may do with him what you please. In which res­pect, I thinke he may be fitly surnamed Monsignor [Page 2]fate voi: wherof euery one that hath been in Italy may be able to giue you the reason, by recounting vnto you the Originall story of this application. But if you suffer him to write himselfe, or that the Booke he promiseth, come forth as it came from him; though it were as big as the horse of Troy, cōtayning in it an innumerable number of our errours, besides the Confutation of them, as he pretendeth: and though it were longer a making,Pag. 4.14.21. then the warre of Tray indured, as himselfe confesseth: yet in my opi­nion, as he hath shamed himselfe already, by lea­uing his Countrey; so will he shame you also by his comming thither. Which I am bold to say, because in this his first peece, which he hath exposed to your view like a greene Bush, for the sale of his new wyne, euery body may easily see the Diuell sitting. And in those few degrees, which he maketh of the course of his Conuersion, he discouereth so many vices, that it cannot be denyed, the way he tooke could no more bring him to the knowledge of the truth, then the fall of Lucifer could end in heauen. Which, to giue you some tast of the mans wyne, and some knowledg of that which hereafter may be expected from him, I will take the paines to shew vnto you, out of his owne words, and out of the seuerall passages of the booke you sent me, which for this time I will suppose to be his owne, without any addition or alteration, by such a speciall priui­ledge, as now a dayes is not vsually giuen or per­mitted in that Kingdome.

His meaning therfore, and scope therein, is only to proue (as he professeth) that his sodayne [Page 3]flight from Venice, which he calleth his Profection, The argu­ment of the Bi­shops booke. and change of place in going for England, was vn­doubtedly the vocation of Almighty God: intending by this discourse to preuent, in time, those stormes of false imputations ‘(as he saith) that are like to come vpon him: Not that he feareth any thing (if yee will belieue him) but least it might hinder the fruit of good edification in some, and occasion some others to take scandall therat. Wherfore he is now pleased to reueale the Secrets of his Counsells, and writeth this booke to iustify the same; and to make it so manifest vnto the world that God himselfe was the Authour of it, as that no indifferent Reader shal­be able to doubt therof; and they that will presume to write against it, being so fully answered before hand, shalbe wholy confounded by this Apology.

The old Prouerb saith, it is good to expect the lame Post, and the last newes are euer truest. In the meane time, the Bishop excusing himselfe before he be accused, which is an ill signe; & setting that good face vpon the matter which you haue seene; and knowing, as he saith, that we ought not to belieue euery spirit, but that spirits must be tryed according to S. Iohn; he putteth himselfe to the tryall of his spi­rit,1. Ioan. 4. and seemeth to proue his Vocation and Profection to haue proceeded from the Spirit of God. First Negatiuely, because it could not proceed from any other. And secondly Affirmatiuely, by some other reason. His Negatiue proofes are two. The first be­gineth in his probationibus pag. 4. and endeth with Curergo pag. 5. ‘And briefly it is this in effect. Con­tinuing in this probation and triall of spirit full ten [Page 4]yeares togeather, I neuer aduised nor spake with any mortall man about it; nor euer read any Authour against the Roman doctrine, whome I detested all that while (supra modum) aboue measure: and there­fore this change of mynd neuer came from man. But on the other side during all this long space of time, I gouerned my thoughts, by those rules of spi­rit, which the holy Ghost hath set downe in Scrip­ture, and by the Fathers: Therfore I haue no cause to suspect it came from an euill spirit: And therfore it came from the spirit of God.’ I will not stand to shew the insufficiency of the consequence. But I would haue you begin to obserue, how contrary to that which he pretended, he seemeth now altogeather to neglect his Reader, who should haue been edified: and as you will perceiue more plainely anone, he laboureth as it were to satify himselfe: And which is a strange thing, seemeth to haue published a Book to persuade himself alone of the truth of the matter. Marke therfore, I beseech you, how with this first argument of his, consisting of 2. parts as he sets it downe, he so concludeth, as he leaueth his Reader altogeather a stranger to the truth of either. For who knoweth but himselfe with whome he spake, what he read, and what rules he obserued? And if the rest of his proofes be such as these, surely in my opi­nion, it had been better for him, that men should haue trusted him still, with their courteous constru­ction of the cause of his comming, rather then by meanes of this Booke, first to bring the matter in question, and afterwards for iustification therof to take vp in great, all that he saith, vpon the courtesy of [Page 5]his Readers credit: and to set the truth of this whole booke vpon his score of Trust. But especially in the latter part of his argument he was much to blame; wherein he proueth that his change proceded from the spirit of God, because he obserued those rules for the triall of spirit which the holy Ghost hath left in Scripture. For if his proofe be not all one, it is at the least no lesse vncertayne then the thing he proueth euen to himself, as euery Reader may easily perceiue. And therfore to perswade his friends, that he him­selfe at the least is well perswaded of it, he should haue declared, what rules of Scripture they were that he obserued, which perchance would haue troubled him more, then his great booke with the 10. hornes, which was no lesse then 10. whole yeares a making. But this man, hauing lost his credit at home, and be­ing new come into a strange Countrey, taketh vp all vpon trust without pawne, or surety; which is another point wherein he also resembleth Monsig­nor fate voi. And in the end withall his borrowing like vnto his predecessour, he may chance, though in another kind, to be well beaten for his labour.

And now I might here dispute, how impro­bable the story is which he telleth, and how grosse the inuention which he seeketh to put vpon you; That hauing no knowledge of your doctrine ei­ther by Speach, or Reading any of your bookes, he should fall iust vpon your Parlamentall Religion. For first both Geneua, and Saxony were in his way; and supposing that the English Angells might haue more power with him, then the poore Guardian spirits of those other Countryes. Secondly, I might [Page 6]obiect his vehement suspition (wherof he speaketh pag. 8.) That Catholike Authours did not faithfully deliuer the opinions of the Protestants against whom they wrote: Which if it be true, no man can tell, how possibly he should know, what points they held, ei­ther in England, or in any other Countrey against the Church of Rome. Wherof it would follow, that at his comming from Venice, he could only be per­swaded, that the Romane Religion was false, and that all other were sufficiently true; and that there­vpon he resolued to carry his sheres with him, and to cut out his Religion, according to the fashion of the Countrey where he came. In the meane time forsaking his former fayth, which though neuer so white, his owne pride and malice against the Pope made him thinke to be black, and bedecking him­selfe with the party-coloured feathers of all other moderne Religions, to be the better welcome in all places;Pag. 15. we shall plucke him anone like Esops crow, and shew him to be naked without any re­ligion at all; as you will see heereafter. But for the present, letting his strange conuersion passe for a Pro­testant Myracle, that which I lay hold on at this tyme, and whereupon I must insist a little, before I go any further, is the first part of his Argument, wherein he calleth God and his conscience to wit­nesse; That the persuasion of no mortall man, of any sort, ‘came euer to his eaves, which might moue him to this determination; That no man at any time, did euer inuite him to it; That he vsed the counsell of none at all, nor euer conferred or spake with any man about it;Pag. 4. That he neuer read any Protestant [Page 7]booke; And that if any Roman Prelate detested such bookes, he detested them aboue measure.’ For if this be true, then, say I, that hereof it wil euidently follow, that he was deluded by the Diuell, and was not directed by the spirit of God, as he preten­deth. And so without any more ado, as our Sauiour sayd of the wicked seruant, Out of his owne mouth you may condemne him. For the first part of his ar­gument ouerthroweth not only the second, but also the principall conclusion of his whole booke, and sheweth that the alteration he hath made, could not proceed from God. Which now I will proue vnto you by three arguments, very plaine, and in my o­pinion most conuincing.

SECTION I. The Bishop his first Reason turned against him­selfe: And from thence are deduced three arguments, which do plainly proue, that he was deluded by the Diuell.

BVT first you must note, that being in Venice, if he had listed to conferre, he could not haue wanted sufficient meanes, and choice of men, with whome he might haue treated most securely. For besids al Catholike Deuines, with whome he might haue dealt in Confession, and vnder the seale of secresy, there were others inough of his owne hayre, both Italians and strangers, and some also of our owne Nation, Qui se putant aliquid esse, by whose acquaintance also, he might haue procured [Page 8]bookes of al your Authours, out of Germany, France, and England. And perchance in those declining parts, vnder the State of Venice, there be too many of such bookes already. Supposing therfore (which cannot be denied) that he might easily haue gotten both men and bookes, if he would (as they say) but haue wished for them; out of his owne mouth against himselfe, and against the spirit that brought him thither, I reason thus:

The spirit of God is the spirit of wisdome, in which respect Goodnes in Scripture is tearmed the Wisdome of God, as Vice on the contrary is cal­led Folly: And therfore such as are gouerned by the spirit of God,Prou. 8.12. are gouerned by wisdome, and by the rules of wisdome set down in Scripture. But Wisdom dwelleth in Counsell, according whereunto it was prophesied of our Sauiour, who is the wisdom of his Father,Esa. 9.6. that his name should be called Admirable, Counsellour, Esa. 11.2. and that the Spirit of Counsell should rest vpon him; with which agreeth that which he sayd, where two, or three be gathered togeather in my name, I am there in the midst of them. Matth. 18.20. And who knoweth not, that one of the principall gifts of his Holy Spi­rit is called Donum Consilij? Which is nothing els, but a certaine effect of his grace in the harts of al his children, wherby they are aptly disposed to receiue spirituall aduice, and wholesom counsell. Whereof it followeth, that the Bishop, who so much despised all kind of counsell, in this his probation of spirit, could not be gouerned by the spirit of God, nor by the rules of wisedome set downe in Scripture. For further profe wherof you may remember, how in [Page 9]the bookes of Wisdom, there is nothing more recō ­mended vnto vs,Prou. 2.12. then to order our affayres by coun­sell. Counsell shall keep thee, that thou mayst be deliuered from the euill way, and from the man that speaketh per­uersly: That is to say, from the way of perdition, and from the Diuell; from whom the Bishop admitting no counsell, had no meanes to be deliuered. Againe;Eccles. 38.27. Confer thy buysines with thy friend. My Sonne, do no­thing without counsell, and of thy doing thou shalt ne­uer repent thee. Which the Bishop in this weighty busines of his soule not forseeing, may be sure that the scourge of repentance will follow after him.Prou. 15.22. Againe: Where there is no counsell, there is distraction, or dissipation of thoughts: But where there are many Counsellours, cogitations are confirmed. Now the thoughts of the Bishop in this case, wanting Coun­sellours to confirme them, could therefore tend to no other end, but only to that dissipation & diui­sion, which is found in Heresy. Many more places there be which yow know full well,Prou. 20.12. and therfore it shall suffice me to alleadg the least part. Hast thou seen a man wise in his owne conceit? Prou. There is more hope of a foole then of him. He that confideth in his owne hart: (that is to say, aduiseth with himselfe in secret) is a foole, but he that walketh wisely shalbe saued. Prou. 12.15. The way of a foole is right in his owne cyes, but the wise man heareth counsell. Which places I will in modesty for­beare to apply to the Bishop in particuler; only it shall suffice me, to haue produced sentence of iudg­ment against him, from the mouth of Salomon. Wherfore I wil leaue it vnto the same spirit to be the executioner that was his deceiuer; which I pray [Page 10]God he may foresee and preuent. But by this it ap­peareth sufficiently, that he hath not followed those rules of discerning spirits, which with a little humi­lity he might haue learned in Scripture. And there­fore, where he doth aske, why he should suspect that he was carried away, or misled with a wicked spirit? I answere, that only because he is misled, he doth not see it.

And now, because Pryde is nothing els, but a vice of the mynd, whereby one presumeth of him­selfe more then he ought, and magnifying himselfe dispiseth others; and that the greatest Pryde of all, consisteth in an ouerwening conceit of ones owne vnderstanding, proper wit, and priuate Iudgment; therefore the Bishop in his owne wordes, condem­neth himselfe deeply of the sinne of pryde; which as it is the roote of other vices in generall, so hath it euer been the very Mother, and Dam of Here­sy in particuler. For besides the impertiment narra­tions of his learned Lectures, and labourious life among the Iesuites: of his aduancement to be made a Bishop, an Archbishop, & Primate of 2. straung Kingdomes: of his Ecclesiasticall Common wealth, which he paynteth out in many pages of his Pam­phet (wherein he thinketh to excell all other Prote­stant writers, whome he vouchsafeth not the rea­ding, and which he hopeth, like another Leutathan, shall be able to drinke vp Iordan, and to ouerthrow the Popes Supremacy:) Of his pretence to be sent from God to iudge, to reforme, and to reunite the christian world. I say, besids all this, which com­meth in, little to the purpose, and whereby he see­meth [Page 11]to sound a tryumph before the victory; to let passe likewise how finally he likeneth himselfe to Abraham, in leauing at the voyce of God, his house, his parentage, and his countrey: Wherein he would giue vs to vnderstand, that as Abraham preuented with his heroyicall act, that excellent saying of the heathen, Sequere Deum; so he in this our age, hath notably reuiued the same: Forsaking Dalmatia his noble Countrey, to liue heere in England amongst barbarous people, for so I must needs vnderstand him page 27. where he confideth, that as God rewarded Abraham with the preseruation of the Chastity of his beautifull wife in the hands of Pharao: so also he will preserue the beauty of his good name vntouched and vnspotted, euen in the hands of barbarous people, to edi­difie them, and not to suffer them to be scandalized there­by. To omit all this, and likewise to let passe, how familiarly he compareth himselfe with S. Paul, in his former zeale against the true religion (as he sayth:) in the māner of his conuersion miraculously effected: in receiuing his Ghospell, as he would haue it seem not from man, but imediatly from God: in being an vniuersall Apostle, as he pretendeth, and sent to preach to al Nations: And lastly, in that high degree of Charity, whereby he offereth him­selfe to be made anathema for his brethren, which the Fathers so much admired, but could not imitate: permitting I say all these impertinēt insinuations of his owne excellency, which for the most part are brought in by head & shoulders, and serue nothing to the purpose; I come to the poynt which I haue in hand. Wherein let any man be iudge, whether it [Page 12]were not a strang kind of arrogancy, and exorbi­tant Pride in him, that wauering in his Faith for more then ten years space, and all that while study­ing controuersies, and intending to turne Prote­testant, as he did, he neuer vouchsafed to read any one Protestant authour, or to conferre with any mortall man about it.

Wherefore hauing made his owne pride so manifest, and notorious to all the world, I frame my second argument against the spirit that moued him to change Religion in this manner. The spirit that giueth true faith, is the spirit of Humility. Which is testified by our Sauiour, where he sayth: vnles you become little children, Matt. 18.3. Gal. 4.1. who differ nothing from seruants, but are vnder maisters, and tutours (accor­ding to S. Paul) you shall not enter into the kingdome of heauen. 1. Cor. 3.18. And to the same purpose S. Paul doth also admonish, that if any man thinke himselfe wise, he should become a foole, that he might be made wise. And a­gaine, not to pretend the knowledg of high thinges, Rom. for the which others might admire vs, but to agree and conferre with the humble, forbidding vs also, to be wise in our owne conceite. But the spirit that moued the Bishop to change his religion, was no spirit of Hu­mility, as hath by a shewed; nor regenerated him to become like a child, subiecting himselfe to others, as to new spirituall parents: nor aduised him to confesse his owne ignorance that he might be made wise: nor brought him to conferre with humble men, & simple people for his instruction. Therfore the spirit that moued the Bishop to turne his Faith and chang religion, could not be the spirit of God.

Which Argument, to make the matter more euident, may be framed in this manner. The spirit of pride, not permitting a man to subiect his vnder­standing to he taught by others, is the spirit of He­resy: And the reason is, because Faith is the know­ledge of those thinges, which do far surpasse all hu­mane vnderstanding; and therfore before we come to beleeue, we must acknowledge our owne igno­rance, and captiuate our owne iudgment, submitting the same, to obey those that are appointed to instruct vs. For which reason our Sauiour told the Iewes that they could not beleeue, because they sought glory one of another: That is to say,Ioan. 5.44. because desiring the chief prayse of knowledge aboue others, they could not submit themselues to beleeue another.1. Cor. 8.1.2. And S. Paul hauing sayd; that scientia inflat, addeth thereunto, that if any man thinke he knoweth something (as from himself without a teacher) be hath not yet vnderstood how he ought to know: That is to say, he hath not yet learned, which is the way to come to knowledge. And therefore els where describing an Heretike, he affirmeth that he is proud and knoweth nothing: mea­ning that he knew nothing,1. Tim. 6.4. because he was proud So that you see, in what sense it may be truly sayd, that the spirit of Pride is the spirit of Heresy. And as it blindeth the vnderstanding, and with-holdeth the same from confessing his owne ignorance, and from submitting it selfe to beleeue Gods word, as it is taught by others: so it exposeth and putteth men forth to teach, and to make profession of that which they neuer learned.1. Tim. 1.17. They will be Doctours of the law (sayth S. Paul) neither vnderstanding what they say; nor [Page 14]whereof they affirme. In which sense one sayd very well of Heretiks, thatFulber­tus Carno­tensis Epist. 1. while they refuse to become disciples or schollers of the truth, they make themselues the maisters of errour. And that which Optatus wrot of Victor may be also affirmed of other Heretikes,Opt. l. 1. That they are sonnes without fathers, soldiers with­out captaines, disciples without maisters &c. Because they do not acknowledge that any haue the autho­rity to bring them vp, to lead, and instruct them in such manner, as that they are bound to obey and beleeue them.

No meruaile therfore, that the Bishop seeming vnto himselfe to be a man of so great and perfect vnderstanding, as not to need the help of others, could not penetrate the deuine misteryes conteyned in Scripture. For Almighty God is so far from re­uealing to such as are proud the secrets of his grace, that he is playnely sayd to oppose himselfe against them.Iac. 4.6. And our Sauiour thanketh his Father for cōcealing his secrets from them:Luc. 10.21. I thanke thee Father (sayth he) that thou hast hidden these things from the wise and prudent (in their one conceit) and hast re­uealed them to little ones (such as wilbe content to be instructed.) Yea though his first comming were in all mercy:Ioan. 9.39.40, 41. yet against such kind of persons, he affirmeth that he came to iudgment, saying: I came into this world to do iudgment, that such as see not (con­fessing their owne ignorance) might see and vnder­stand: and that those who see (presuming v­pon their owne priuate vnderstanding) might be made blind with their owne folly. And when the Iewes asked him therupon, whether they were [Page 15]blind, or no, he answered vnto them: If you were blind (acknowledging your owne blindnes) you should haue no sinne, because your blyndnes should haue been forgiuen you.Apoc. 3.17 But now saying that you see, (not acknowledging him that he sent to teach you) your sinne remayneth.

By all which it is more then manifest, That the spirit of Pryde, blinding a mans iudgment from penetrating the sense of Scripture, and imboldning him like another Bayard to expound the same to o­thers, is most properly the spirit of heresie. But now it cannot be denyed, that the Fayry which led away your Bishop was the spirit of pryde, as appeareth by those effects which it produced in him, and especi­ally in telling him, that he was rich, and neded no body to assist him, making him appeare so prudent, circumspect, and all sufficient in his owne conceyt; as that he neded not the aduice of any, perswading him to write bookes of those things, which no mor­tall man had euer taught him, and to professe him­selfe an vniuersall Doctour, sent from God to teach the world; hauing neuer been any mans Scholler from whome he might receiue his doctrine; There­fore the spirit that moued him hereunto, could be no other then the spirit of heresy. Whereby you see, that the vayne man, did not try his spirit by the rules of Scripture, as he ought to haue done, but that he be­lieued his spirit before he tryed him; & suffred him­selfe very easily to be deluded by him. And thus much of my second Argument, taken out of him­selfe against himself; and out of his owne words, a­gainst his owne conclusion. From whence, I also [Page 16]drawe my third, and last argument, and briefly thus I propound it:

The spirit of true Faith is neuer giuen but by meanes of a Preacher or Teacher,Rom. 10.14. which is all one. And therefore according to S. Paul, no man can truely beleeue without a lawfull Preacher, because prea­ching is the meanes which God hath ordained to cō ­uert those that shalbe saued. And so we read, that (to shew the necessity therof) S. Paul himselfe be­ing conuerted by Christ, who appeared to him in his way to Damascus, was sent for his further instru­ction to Ananias. Act. 9.6. Rise (saith the text) and go into the Citty, and it shalbe told thee what thou oughtest to do. And the Centurion of the Italian Band, albeit he de­serued that an Angell should appeare vnto him:Act. yet he was commaunded to send for such a man in such a house, in such a Citty, which man should tell him what he ought to do. So likewise the Eunuch of Queene Candaces, Act. 8.27. &c. could not be conuerted without a Preacher, because Almighty God being a louer of order, would in no case dispence or breake this or­dinance of his owne Decree. And therfore S. Phi­lip was sent to instruct this potent Eunuch, although he were as it seemeth very wise and very vertuous, and wanted neither a Bible (which he had in his Coach with him) nor Gods holy Angell to assist him. Who when S. Philip had done his office rapuit eum (saith the text) carried him sodainely out of sight, thereby to confirme the Eunuch so much the more, in that faith which he had receiued.

But this new Ghospeller as himselfe boa­steth, neuer conferred with any mortall man, nor [Page 17]neuer read any Authour of this his new Religion, before he was fully resolued to be a perfect English Protestant; from whence it may also be inferred, that he neuer came in the ayre, nor that any body els was myraculously transported thither to instruct him, least any man should imagine the contrary. And therfore it is most certayne, that he could neuer receiue the spirit of true fayth, which cōmeth only by a lawfull Preacher: and that he did not obserue the rules set downe for the receiuing of it, in holy Scripture, which is against the true triall of spirits, that he pretendeth: and which, though he would make you belieue yet he neuer proueth, and his owne words, as I haue shewed by 3. most manifest, and most conuincing reasons, do euidently disproue him.

SECTION II. The three former Arguments inforced by three other Circumstances.

VVHICH three Arguments haue the more force against him, in respect of three other circumstances, very worthy your good considera­tion. For first, hauing been so long a Religions man as he reporteth, he must needs haue learned, that there is no vice whereby the Diuell taketh such hold to draw a man headlong on, and to bring him per­force to euerlasting ruyne, as by perswading him to neglect the counsell of others, and to confide in his owne wit and priuate vnderstanding. The Diuell is fitly compared to a dishonest louer, who, as long [Page 18]as the maiden or matrone whom he soliciteth is con­tent to keep his counsell, so long he pursueth his wicked purpose. But if once he vnderstand, that she doth communicate the matter with her Father or Husband, he presently knows his sute is could; and fearing a worse matter, he not only forbeareth to molest her, but also auoydeth her sight, and flyeth her company. When a doubtfull thought of good or euill, ariseth in our mynd, if we neglect to take aduice, and contemne spirituall counsell, it is an euident signe, that our Ghostly enemy either hath already, or that he will deceiue vs very shortly. For the suggestions of the Diuell haue force, and po­wer so long vpon vs, as we couer, and hyde them within vs. On the other side, no sooner are those cōmotions, and imbroylements discouered where­with the Diuell laboreth to insnare vs: but being a­shamed of his owne workes, like a serpent brought to that light which he cannot indure, he flyeth out of his den wherin he lurked, and is forced to seeke an­other habitation. For confirmation wherof, I haue hard it obserued often tymes by very many, both Catholikes and Protestants, that more are brought to mischrefe, & compelled to murther themselues in England, by the instigation of the Diuell then in all Christendome besides that is Catholike, put togea­ther: Because say they in other Catholike Countreys, there be many alwayes ready and dayly exposed in their Churches, vnto whome such, as fynd them­selues in great anguish and affliction of mynd, may open their harts vnder seale of confession, with as much secrecy, and security as they can desire. Wher­as [Page 19]in England, there being none vnto whome men in such cases are accustomed to haue recourse, their affliction boyleth more and more within them, vpon the fire which the Diuell increaseth, vntill at last they be inforced (like the swyne of the Gerasens) to cast themselues headlong downe into the sea, Mat. 8.32. of despera­tion. Which obseruation of theirs seemeth to be groūded not only vpon experience, but also to stand with great reason. For God and Nature hath so or­dained, that not only for the wants of our bodyes, but also for our necessityes and vexations of mynd, we should craue the help and assistance one of ano­ther; to the end that by this meanes, we might be the more obliged to keep respectiue company, associa­tion and mutuall loue togeather. For as a vehement burning feauer is no way to be cured but with ope­ning a veyne, whereat the infected bloud hauing vent, may carry away with it the putrified matter that did molest the body: so, against any strong temptation or affliction of the mynd, there is no remedy more secure, then to open the hart vnto a spirituall friend, whereby, our vnquiet Cogita­tions breaking forth, they leaue our mynd cased of those raging passions, that did before molest our soule. And therfore our Sauiour out of his infinite Wisedome and goodnes towards vs, hath so recom­mended vnto vs the vttering of our griefes, and the manifestation of our conscience vnto others, that he hath gruen his benediction, with the effects of vn­speakable grace vnto it; whereby he hath also made it a Sacrament,Mat. 18.18. inioyning all men that will haue Ab­solution of their sinnes at his hands, to the Religious [Page 20]vse and practise of it. And further he gaue aduice to such as would be perfect: That selling all they had and giuing it to the poore, and taking vp their Crosse, they should follow him, renouncing their owne wills, in perfect obedience to those whom he should send to direct them. Whereby, obyeing their Superiour, they obayed him; & might be sure by this meanes, that the Diuell himselfe should not deceiue them. Wherefore the Bishop hauing been a Religious man, and hauing vnderstood the necessity of this doctrine, and the conformity thereof to the light both of Grace and Nature, and hauing tyed himselfe by vow to the practice of it; in reiecting and cōtem­ning the same, he hath offended most grieuously, not only against his Vow, but also against the rule of Faith: and which is worst of all, against the light of Nature, and common sense of humane Vnderstan­ding.

The second circumstance that did aggrauate his Fault is this; that he knew right well the busines he had in hand to be full of danger, both temporall and eternall; and also to surpasse the deepest reach of the wit of man. And therefore he might also haue knowne that the holy Scripture could neuer be well expounded by any particuler Sense, or priuate inter­pretation. All which respects did oblige him so much the more to read other mens opinions, and to con­ferre with others. For all Heresyes are grounded, though falsly, vpon the Scripture: and all Heretikes deceased are iustly damnd, for hauing confided ouer much in their owne priuate iudgment, the sug­gestions whereof they beheued vndoubtedly to be [Page 21]the meaning of the holy Ghost, in their false expo­suions which they framed to themselues of Holy Scripture.

Thirdly, his Fault is much more augmented, because as himselfe confesseth, he neuer knew what the Protestants held. For he saith as you haue heard, that he neuer spake with any of them: that he dete­sted to read their bookes: and that he doubted most vehemently, that the Catholike Doctours did not deliuer faithfully the Protestants opinions. Where­fore in all these circumstances, not to learne, not to consult, not to read, not to conferre, not to aske one question, in a busines which he debated with himselfe for the space of ten years, so important as is the matter of Religion, so obscure, so dangerous, and wherof he was ignorant by his owne cōfession: and therewith all to forsake his Countrey, and to make profession of a Religion which he knew not, contrary to that which he had taught vnto more then two whole Kingdomes for so many yeares to­geather; besides too much Folly and madnes, she­weth a mynd no lesse proud and arrogant, and con­sident in his owne wit, then is fit for the spirit of he­ [...]esy, and for the chayre of Sathan; exalting his seat aboue the starrs of God; that is to say, aboue all other spirituall and learned men; and setting himselfe downe vpon the mount of the Teslamons (old and new) in the side of the North. Esa. 14.13. What though the English were no better then Barbarous people, in the sight of this Sclaue? Yet I can see no reason, why being in his case, he should then haue scorned their Counsell, more then now he contemmeth their money, their [Page 22]meat, and their company. And if all the Tramontani, by this mans Logick, were to be put in the same pre­dicament of Barbarisme with the English Nation: yet, he neither wanted Ven [...]tians, nor Dalmatians nor Italians, both Catholiks, Protestants, and New­ters, with whome he might haue dolt in this impor­tant affayre. What though he be not sicut ceteri homi­num, but one that hath read Logick among the Ie­suits, a Primate of two strang Kingdomes, to be cō ­pared with Abraham, and with S. Paul? What of all this? is he therfore in so high estate, as that he should debase and discredit himselfe by admitting any little instruction, aduice, or counsell, and that in a matter whereof he is ignorant? being to go into a strange Countrey, would he not aske the way? being to sayle, and not knowing the are of nauiga­tion, would he not care for a Pilot? Much more madnes is it, to chuse a Religion which he knowes not, and not to take aduice, nor to aske so much as one question about it.

And thus much concerning his first Argu­ment. Wherein you see, how in despite of the spi­rit that brought him thither; it hath pleased God for the good of others, that his owne tale should betray him, and that his owne mouth should giue sentence against him.

SECTION III. The Bishop his second Negatiue Argument is discussed.

NOvv therfore let vs come to examine his se­cond negatiue Argument, which beginneth, [Page 23] A qua me illud. page 5. and endeth with, Non igitur. The substance whereof is this. I protest before God that I did neuer respect any worldly end, ‘and there­fore no euill spirit could deceaue me. Which conse­quence, he goeth about to proue in this manner. I did not seeke any ecclesiasticall dignity, being then a Primate, and might easily haue gotten more pre­ferment, both in Rome (but that I abhorred the manners of that Court) and also in Venice, where myIn be­traying of the Scocchi. deserts were great. Nor did I respect any tom­porall meanes, possessing sufficient for a moderate mind, which I haue alwayes carryed, God be than­ked for it. But in this my change I haue for saken, both honour and goods, and therefore no worldly and, no vnbridled affection no temporall necessity, no soday ne euent or sharpe misfortune, which are wont to carry men away, did compell me to leaue my countrey.’ But what it was, without fraud or deceit, I will tell you sincerely. Thus he in effect.

In which discourse, as in his former Argu­ment, so heere, I would haue you obserue, that he taketh vp all vpon trust, and giueth no other secu­rity, but only his bare word, to content the Reader. For my part, I do verily thinke that he was once a Primate, but yet I must needs say, that boasting & craking of his owne worth in euery lease, saying much and prouing nothing, he resembleth more then a little such a counterfaire Prelate as Monsignor fate not is supposed to be. For who was euer in his conscience to see the truth of what he protesteth? Who knoweth what dignity he might haue had in the Court of Rome? What his merits were in Ve­nice, [Page 24]what wealth, what moderate mind he had, and what he hath lost by his comming thither? Which particulers before I go any further, I thinke good to touch a little, as I passe along.

And first to omit that he knoweth not himselfe, and that he must needs be ignorant of his owne conscience, being so much blinded, and so strongly deluded by the deceiuer himselfe, as I haue proued, and therfore, that in no case he should be trusted: letting this passe, I say, it is most ridiculous which he sayth; that he estranged himselfe from Rome, because he euer abhorred the manners of that court. For first there haue liued in his tyme as many worthy Popes, and Cardinalls in the court of Rome, as haue flourished in many aget before them. For there haue raigned Popes, Paulus 5. Clemens 8. Si [...] 5 Gregorius 14. Gregorius 13. Pius 5. Pius 4. Paulus 4. and others. All which, although some of their na­mes are not very gratefull to our Kingdome, yet are most renowned for their vertues in all Chri­stian countreys. And as for Cardinalls, there hath liued famous Horromaeus, who since his death was canonized for a Saint, Paliottus, Caraffa, Baronius, Tarugius, most exemplar for their pastorall life, and for the rare sanctity of their domeanour. To speak nothing of Bellarmine, the mirrour of Christendom at this day, Sfondratus, de Monte, Borromaus, Pero­nius, Roofacautius, and others now aliue. Besides a great many more of his tyme, not to be accompted inferiour to these, as Comus, Verona, Moronius, San-Seuerinus, Sirlettus, Toletus, Alanus, Alciatus, Ho­sius, Mellinus, Aragonius, Ara-calius, and others too [Page 25]many to be named, men most famous to the better part of the world, for their learning piety, wisdome and splendour in all kind of vertue. All which no­table men, were so farre from the abhorring of the Court of Rome, or taking any hurt thereby, that they increased the spiritual Tallents which they brought with them, and arriued to the fullnes of their per­fection, by frequenting the same, and liuing in it. And to speake of them all in generall at this day, their Courts are meruailously well gouerned, and cannot be touched with any crime of apparant scandall, which may easily be belequed by all that please to consider their great occupations, which exclude idlenes, the mother of all corruption of manners in Princes houses. For the Cardinalls in Rome are not only the protectours of Colledges, Re­ligiour Ordere, and whole Nations, which doth cost them much lubour, but haue also the gouernement of the temporall estate, in the Popes possession, and of the whole Church of God vnder his Holynes: and are therfore deuided into many Cōgregations, to he are, and examine, and referre to the Pope, and afterward to determine of all kind of busines. And befides this, to say nothing of their Visitations, as well of one another, as also of the Ambassadours which come thither from all Catholike Countreys, according as Ciuility Charity, and the custome of that place requireth. They cannot omit to frequent the Consistoryes, and the solemnityes of the Popes chappel, places of deuotion, of Statiōs, of the prayer of 40 houres, of sermons, of the meetings of learned men, and of disputations; to al which they are dayly [Page 26]inuited. And as for women, who ioyned with idle­nes are the 2. capitall heads of all scandall and dis­order in Princes pallaces, their Courts are so free from them, that their own kinswomen do not lodge in their houses; nor do women at any tyme resort to their pallaces, but vpon speciall busines, accompa­nied with their husbands, or other neer kinsmen, which also is done very seldome. Their familyes for the most part, confesselland communicate once a moneth. There is no disorder of gaming for much money, no excesse in drinking, no riot, no mortall quarrels, nor open contention to be noted in their houses. But the [...]desty, ciuility, and good gouer­nement of their courtiers, and seruants, in apparell, speach, and exteriour behauiour is such, as it giueth great edification to all stranges resorting thither. For proofe wher coft I might appeale to the report of many English Gentleman, who on my knowledg hauing obtained the heanes to see it, haue admirred at it In so much as without disgrace of other Princes any man may iustly affirme, that there is no count in Christendome, which for vertue, piety, & ciuility may be compared with it.

And therefore, in that the absurd nicenes of this Dalmatian, abhorred the Court of Rome, it doth not argue any euill in the place, but discone­reth a corrupt stomache in him, who (like the pro­digall child when he was at worst) loathing the bread of his Fathers house, tooke such delight in Swynes meate, that it seemeth he can receiue no o­ther nourishment. And to say nothing that the quea­sy stomake of this holy man, can now so well dis­gest [Page 27]the manners and examples of our Court, Citty and Country, which by your leaue (speaking of the die [...] of the soule) is a signe, that he hath not beene vsed a long time to any cleane, and wholesome fee­ding; it cannot be denyed, but that for a Prelate to abhorre the Court of Rome, and to god well in Venice for edification, is no lesse ridiculous (sauing the ho­nour of many Noble, Gentle, and Worthy Cittizens therein) then if he should haue gone from some Col­ledge of the Iesuites, wherein he liued, vnto some handsome stewes for his recollection. For besides that hath been sayd before, in Rome the law is most seuere against Wantonnes, and Licentiousnes in the Clergy, which is punished not only with degra­dation and perpetual infamy, but also with the strap­pado at least. And in my tyme a Priest of good exte­riour quality, being taken in a vineyard-house with a naughty woman, his coach & horses were con­fiscate, she was whipt, and he himselfe was sent to the Gallies. But in Venice (the more is the pitty) there is no punishment at all for those crymes, but that Prelates, and Religious men, if they should be so affected, without publique rebuke, or any great note of infamy, might frequent dishonest houses at their pleasure, which perchance made the Bishop like the better of the seruice, or rather of the free­dome of that Citty.

And now as touching his merits with the Venetians, whereof he speaketh in the next place, I feare they are no better then may well be compared to the merits of Iudas with the Sinagogue: For as i [...] appeareth by his owne discourse a little after, he [Page 28]ioyned with thē in the time of the Interdict against the Pope his Lord and Maister. And albeit among other his good offices, he wrote those Bookes in their defence, wherof now he vaunteth: yet he went so farre, and discouered so much Heresy in them, as the Venetians themselues, could not chuse but be a­shamed of them. And therefore he could not expect at their hands any recompence for such a labour. What riches he had, I know not, nor whether or no they were sufficient for that moderate mind which God had giuen him. But considering that he left the Iesuites, where he wanted nothing, and there­upon sought am bitiously one preferment after an­other;Pag 7.10.11. considering also how he was in strife, & suite of law with his owne Suffragans, wherein he was ouerthrownas it should seeme by his owne relation;Pag. 14. it had beene better perchance that he had knocke his breast with the Publican, crauing pardon for his vnbridled passion, then with the Pharisy, to haue pray sed God for the moderate mind he gaue him.

As concerning that, which in this case he sayth he hath left for Gods sake: You must vnder­stand, that although he were a Primate, yet the rents of his Bishopricke might be somewhat lesse then the fruits of a good benefice are there with you. And I haue heard it very credibly reported, that they scarsly amount to the value of two hundred pounds per annum. And though they were more, yet I dare say, that hauing leaue to come for England, he ne­uer thought that he should loose much by the bar­gaine, especially imagining himselfe a much greater and worthyer man, then Isaac Casaubon was, whome [Page 29]the Clergy of England was inforced to pay sweetly, and to reward so bountifully as the world knoweth for his comming thither. But the truth is (and so you will find it) that at his comming away, he was neither Primate, nor had any Bishopricke at all: for long before he had resigned the same to his Nephew, reseruing a pension to himselfe, of three hundred crownes a yeare, or there about, which not sufficing to maintayne his fat paunch, it is most probable that he came into England for the same cause a­mongst other, that the prodigall child went to feed Swyne: that is to say, for meer want, as not hauing sufficient to fill his belly

Lastly therefore, before I make an end with his second reason, because he sayth, that he hath read Logicke amongst his Fathers of the Socie­ty; do but marke a little I pray you, the conclusion of his argument, wherein you must needs see, that the summe of his accompt is a great deale more then the particulers of his reckoning. For hauing sayd, that neither Ambition, nor Auarice did draw him from his countrey, he concludeth that no vnbridled affection, no temporall necessity, no strange euent, nor grieuous mischance did compell him to depart: which you see is a great deale more then these two particulers alone, of the absence of Ambition and Auarice, can excuse him from. But it is no mer­uaile the old man should haue forgot the Art of rea­son, whome Pride, and discontentment haue made to forget in great part euen reason it selfe. The halfe wherof which concerneth his Pride, I haue shewed already, and the other halfe concerning his discon­tentment [Page 30](if I be not deceiued) you shall heare him confesse himselfe anone; for he saith, he will tell vs sincerely, without fraud or guile, what it was that mo­ued him to this departure.

SECTION IIII. Of the Bishop his Affirmatiue proofes: and in particuler of those things, that disposed his mind to make mutation of Religion.

AND with this he beginneth (pag. 7.) those his proofes of spirit, which I call affirmatiue, and which (reducing them into three heads) I wil brie­ly set downe vnto you, that you may see the sub­stance of his booke, and afterward I shall examine them as I shall haue occasion. In the first ranke he setteth downe certaine dispositions (as I take it) which might prepare his mind to this change. In the second, he layeth down the reasons that moned him to alter his Religion. In the third he produceth those considerations, that inforced him to leaue his Countrey, and so shewing how much he confided in the prouidence of God that conducted him he laboureth to defend himselfe from Schisme, accu­sing the Pope, as the authour thereof, and conclu­deth his whole booke, inuiting the Pope to accept of the conditions he offereth, and to come to agree­ment with him.

Beginning therefore with those thinges, that somewhat a far off might dispose his mind to change Religion, he saith first, pag. 7. That from a [Page 31]boye he was much troubled with a vehement suspi­tion, that the Roman doctrine was not true, which suspition he euer resisted. Secondly, he sayth pag. 8. and 9. That this suspition was much increased in him, because he saw, that neither students were permitted to read such writers, as were contrary to the doctrine of Rome, being inforced to beleeue, that the opinions of those writers were truly deli­uered vnto them by their Maisters: nor such as had heard their deuinity, and were preferred to Ecclesi­asticall dignity could be allowed to read any such authours. Thirdly he sayth, that from the first yeare of his Clergy, he had nourished in himselfe, an in­borne desire of the vnion of al Christian Churches, inquyring what might be the cause of their Schisme, which did excruciate and torment his mynd, and doth still consume and wast him (as you may per­ceiue by looking vpon him) with such grief and sorrow as is wonderfull. Fourthly, telling you vn­der hand, pag. 11. That leauing the Society of Iesus where he had read Mathematickes, Rethoricke, Logicke, and Philosophy, preached often, & done them other domesticall seruice, for the which they were very sory to leaue him, he sayth, Fiftly, page 11. and 12. That being made a Bishop, and falling to read bookes of printted Sermons; Quadragesimalls, and others, for the exercise of his Episcopall functi­on in preaching, he found great abuse of Scripture in them, apocriphall, and ridiculous examples, in­uentions of Auarice, and Ambition, not without superstition, wherewith the people were deluded. Sixtly he sayth, pag. 13. That in reading the Fathers [Page 32]he obserued that his maisters had taught him many thinges against them, and that the Ecclesiasticall discipline of our tyme did differ very much from the auncient practise therof.

These considerations I haue called disposi­tions which somewhat prepared his mynd to make mutation of Religion, because (as he saith) they made him to see, as it were a farre off, that matters went not well, and because all this while he did not fully consent, but made some kind of resistance vn­to them. Wherein before we passe any further, not to confound you with too much matter togeather, let vs consider, whether that which he hath brought be of any moment to perswade his Reader that his new beleefe proceded from God.

And to begin with his vehement suspition, which was the first seed, from whence his vocation sprung (wherein, and in the other three assertions which follow, I wilbe content to do him that cour­tesy, which he refused to shew vnto his Maisters, and to suppose he cyteth the booke of his consci­ence aright, though none but himselfe can looke into it) it appeareth euidently thereby, that this new seed of suspition, was nothing els but the worst kind of cockle, which our enemy and his, the Father of Heresy, is wont to sow vpon the good Corne of Christ. For suspition is nothing els, but an opinion of euill without any iust or sufficient ground, as the Rhetoritians,S. Thom. 2.2. q. 60. art. 3.4. Philosophers, and Deuines define it. And therefore it alwayes importeth some fault, and some iniury done to the party who is thereby wronged, because vniustly suspected; whereof I [Page 33]maruell, how your learned Bishop could be ignorant. Wherefore to suspect, and concerue an ill opinion of so many as he did, in a matter of such importance, without any reason or sufficient cause, was a sinne, and that a great one; especially in him, who at that tyme thought himselfe bound in conscience, to belieue entirely the whole doctrine of the Church of Rome.

For if to doubt of any article of Faith without inclyning to either side, be an act of Heresy (as all Deuines do affirme) then much more to suspect, which is to inclyne, and to giue some consent to any motion contrary to the very ground of Faith, must needs be Heresy. But you will say, the Bishop made resistance thereunto, and therefore he did not sinne against his conscience. To which I answere. If when the thought therof came first to his mynd, he did repell it, that then in that case it neuer grew to be any suspition: but if once it came to be suspition, as he affirmeth it was; then hauing cōceiued an opi­nion of so great euil vpon sleight occasion (or rather no occasion at all) it cannot be denyed, but that he sinned in admitting the same, though he might do well afterward in changing his mynd, and in oppo­sing himselfe against it. And therefore this suspition being so great a sinne, it could not be inspired into him from God Almighty. So as it can no way be de­nyed, but that this first motion arising in the Bi­shops mynd against the Catholike Religion, was the bad seed sowne by the Diuell, which sprung vp out of his owne Malice, Pryde, Leuity, and Incon­stancy; from whence neither a good tree, nor good [Page 34]fruite can be expected. For as you know, Paruus error in principio, magnus in fine: and if the light it selfe, wherewith he began to worke, be darkenes, then the works themselues, that proceded from it, must needs be the workes of extreme darkenes.

Let vs now proceed to the increase of this his strong and vehement suspition (as he tearmeth it) occasioned (as he saith) by the strict prohibition of such books as are cōtrary to the Roman doctrine. Which likewise we shall find, that as it begun with­out reason so was it augmented vpon a very false and friuolous reason; and as it sprung out of pryde and leuity, so was it fed and nourished with pryde and curiosity. And therefore the new strength or force which it receiued, could not proceed from the spirit of God. For supposing (as all Catholikes do, and as he then did) that such kind of bookes are full fraught with the poyson of Heresy, which is the most damnable vice of all other; it standeth with great reason, that they should in no case, admit such dangerous warres amongst them: for such bookes being once admitted, they easily passe from maisters and learned men, to the hands, not only of Schollers, but also of other simple people; who not knowing what they are, but feeding of all the bread that comes from the Baker, and of all the dishes that are set before them, insteed of wholesome meat should fall vpon poyson; for whose soules their negligent pastors should answere to God at the day of Iudg­ment. For I pray you, if some vnquiet and ambitious spirit in other Countreys, should make clayme to the Crowne of England, and call in question the Kings [Page 35]title, though neuer so cleere with vs; do you thinke that the Pleas, and Processe of such a man, should be remitted to the reading of euery yong student, or Counsellour at Law in the Ins of Court? espe­cially if this Claymer, or Pretender had got some Lawyers to be of his side, and had made a party which followed him, and sought to set footing in England? Much more is it necessary for those that haue the gouerment of soules to be iealous of their safty, & to be vigilant for the preseruation of peace amongst them. But you will say vnto me, why then are Catholike Latin writers permitted to be read by our ministers and others here in England? to which I answere; that the case is farre different.

For first England was neuer yet fully Pro­testant, the Catholike number remayning still very great: and therefore the state of England in this res­pect, might do well to follow the example of the primitiue Church, wherein, after that the Chri­stian Religion was publiquely professed, because a great part of the Gentills were not then conuerted, not only their bookes and writings were tolerated, but their religion it selfe, although it were most grosse Idolatry, was permitted. Besides in England, the Catholikes being many, wise, and learned, do not cease, by alledging most pregnant proofes, im­portant reasons, and authenticall testimonyes, to mayntaine the truth of their cause, and to draw o­thers to imbrace their doctrine.

In which regard it standeth the Protestants vpon, and especially the Ministers, to read their bookes, thereby to defend themselues and others, as [Page 36]well as they can from the force of the Catholike ar­guments brought against them. And for the same cause in France, and in Germany, and in all other Countreyes where many religions are allowed; the Catholike Students, and other secular men are vs­ually permitted to read all kind of bookes, the better therby to refute their errours. Which this good Bi­shop thought good to conceale for his owne aduan­tage. But in those other Catholike Countreys, which were neuer yet infected with Heresy; and where there is no occasion to impugne it: there it im­porteth that the Pastours be very vigilant to keep it out. For Heresy being once gotten in, it crepeth like a canker, and at last breaketh out like a raging fire; and burneth so dreadfully, that whole Cittyes, and Kingdomes, and Nations haue been consumed with it in a very short space, as may appeare in Greece, in Asia, in Africa, & other Countreys. And therfore in all ages, not only the Fathers, Doctours and Pre­lates, but also Men, Women, and Children of the Catholike Church, haue euer concurred with all speed, and with might and mayne, to quench and ex inguish the least sparke therof. By which meanes it is wonderfull to consider, in how short a tyme the bookes and writings of all the ancient Heretikes in former ages haue been consumed, and abolished by the zeale of Catholikes. In so much, as of so many millions of their Volumes, there is not at this day one left remayning.

But this good man, the Bishop, is of another mynd, who if it were possible, would dig those au­thours out of hell againe, to see whether they were [Page 37]truely cited by chose that wrote against them. And for the present he would permit, without any occa­sion, such mens workes to be familiarly read, whom the Apostle forbiddeth to be saluted. Our mother Eue, out of a vayne curiosity, conferring with the serpent, whome she might thinke to be an Angell,Gen. 3.2. fell into Heresy: but this man out of a curiosity more then monstrous,Ioan. 10.3.5 would perswade the sheep of Christ to heare the voyce of a stranger; and to conferre with that serpent whome they know and confesse to be the Diuell. Wherfore this spirit of his, being so con­trary to the spirit of the Church, to the spirit of the Apostle, to the spirit of Christ himselfe, and in fine contrary to the light of reason in the Gouernement both of Church and Common Wealth; you may easily indge from whence it commeth, and to what end it tendeth. Whereby you will also coniecture what vnion, and coniunction may be of the East and of the West, of the North and South; with the desire whereof this good Bishop is so much tormen­ted. For it can be nothing els, but a horrible confu­sion of them all, and the vtter ouerthrow of Chri­stian Religion, as we shall see hereafter.

In the meane tyme, that you may the better perceiue, his naturall and inborne desire of vnity, wherewith his poore hart is so much tormented, he wil make it knowne himselfe you vnto by the effects thereof. For presently after he tells you, that he de­uided himself from the vnion of that Society wher­unto he was vowed, and separated himselfe from the body of that order whereof he was a member, like a branch from his vyne; from the which being once [Page 38]cut of, it was likely he could be good for nothing but to be cast into the fire. The great comendations he giueth of his owne learned & laborious life, whiles he was in Religion, I can hardly belieue. For wri­ting this booke as he doth to no other end, but only to blaze his owne prayses, you need not doubt, but that euery where he speaketh the most of himselfe, or more then the most. And supposing it to be true, it amounteth (God he knoweth) but to a very small matter; especially being done for humane prayse, wherewith he payeth himselfe insteed of others that should reward him for it. It may be, that in respect of his proud and vnquiet spirit, his Superiours were inforced to proue him in many things, to see what good they might make of him. But in the end, it should seeme by his going forth (which was like to be vpon some discontentment) that they found him fit for nothing.

The Order of the Society of Iesus may fittly be compared to the sea, that casteth forth the dead bodyes, or to a vessell of new wine, which purgeth all the trash and corrupt matter that is mingled with it, and therefore they easily permit such as be not fit for them, to depart from them, least by staying a­mongst them, being stopt vp close like corruption togeather with the pure wine, they should breake the vessell it selfe wherein they are inclosed. And albeit for this cause, it be more easy for such as are ill disposed to quit themselues of the Society, then for any other Religious men to be freed frō other Orders: yet the dreadfull iudgments of God haue beene so many, and so wonderfull vpon those, that haue [Page 39]wrought themselues out of their Company, that an honest and a pious mind, should be more terrified therewith, then with the prisons and fetters of other Orders. Whereby also God himselfe hath made ma­nifest to the world, that the dispensation which is somtime giuen to those that are dismissed the Society doth acquit them of their vowes, according to the cause of their departure; which if it be good and sufficient, it taketh away the whole obligation, but if it be not (as I feare me this mans was not) they are not discharged before God and their conscience, but they remayne still in the laps, and in the state of Apostasy from their Religion.

But you will say, he wanted not sufficient cause to depart: for he that desireth to be made a Bishop, desireth a good worke, and this man went forth to be made a Bishop. To which I answere, that the worke of a Bishop is good, but not the desire to be made a Bishop.Chry. hom. 3. in oper. imperf hō. 3. in Matt. To desire Primacy in the Church (according to S. Chrysostome,) is neither iust, nor profitable. And Primacy (sayth he) desireth those that desire it not, and abhorreth those that desire it. And the reason is, because the worke of a Bishop, is a calling of such perfection, and such dignity, & also danger ioyned with it, that whosoeuer he be, that thinketh himselfe so sufficient for it, and so worthy of it, as to sue and seek after it, sheweth to haue so much pride and selfe-conceit; as is sufficient to make him vnworthy. Besides that, it is a thing expresly & directly against the institute of the Society, where­in this man liued, to seeke and hunt for preferment. Euery man in the vocation, whereunto he is called, let him [Page 40]remaine (sayth S. Paul).1. Cor. 7.20. And our Sauiour.He that putteth his hand to the plough, and looketh backe, is not fit for the Kingdome of God. Luc. 9.61. according whereunto such as are professed in any Religious Order, being afterward made Bishops, are bound to the obserua­tion of their vowes, so farre forth, as the exercise of their digdity and function will permit. But this man, though forsaking Gods plough, wherunto his hand was consecrated, & though breaking his first vowes, for the which according to S. Paul, he should feare to be damned, doth thereby thinke to haue made himselfe fit to be made a gouernour in Gods kingdome, which is the Church of Christ; truly suspecting, as he did, the Catholike doctrine to be false and fraudulent, he might better haue suspe­cted, that being in this case, he was no fit man to be made a Bishop, whose office it is, to maintayne and defend it. And I meruaile knowing himselfe to be a dog,Pag. 24. that began to take part with the wolues more then with the sheep, not thinking it fit that they should trust their shepheards, but rather desiring that they might heare what the wolues could say for themselues, and hand to hand debate their reasons with them: I maruaile I say, with what good con­science, such a dog could thinke himselfe fit to be made a sheepheard.

To that which he sayeth of printed Sermons, and his Maisters dictates: I answere first, that al­though it were true, yet because they be no rules of faith, and that the Catholikes are not bound to de­fend in all thinges, either the one, or the other, as himselfe knoweth well inough; therfore such scan­dalls [Page 41]as these, should not haue moued him to depart from the vnity of the Church of God. Secondly I say, that if it were not altogeather false, it should haue beene proued by him one way or other; some­thing would had beene alleadged out of those Ser­monaries, whome he so much reuyleth; and some one point or other would haue beene vrged for an instance, wherein his Maisters did contradict the Fathers. Vnles he thought his Readers to be so many Pots without couers, that should receiue any thing by infusion, which he pleaseth to powre, or let fall into them. Or vnlesse you will excuse him by saying, that as when he was conuerted to your Re­ligion he disdayned to heare reason: so now inten­ding to conuert others, he scorneth as much to af­foard any reason for that he sayth. Wherin he doth wisely in one respect; for bringing no proofe in par­tiduler, he saw, that albeit no man could in reason beleeue him, yet it should be hard for any man to disproue him. But notwithstanding all his policy, to put something more in the ballance of your iudg­ment, besides his yea, and my no, for the deciding of this matter betwixt vs, I will giue you the testi­mony of Syr Edwyn Sands, Syr Edwin Sands rela­tion of re­lig. Sect. 6. a man as I heare much esteemed in England, in his owne words which are these: In their Sermons much matter of faith and piety is eloquently deliuered, by men surely of wonderfull zeale and spirit. And for your better information herein, I pray you do but inquyre of others, that haue been in those parts, and are men of vnderstanding, what kind of preachers there are: and inquire likewise of your Schollers at home, what they thinke of those [Page 42]Schoole-deuines whose bookes are brought from thence, and are commonly sould and much read in England. For it is very probable, that neuer in any age since Christian Religion began to flourish in the world, there haue beene so many (I say so many) the like excellent Preachers, and profound Deuines in the Catholike Church, as we haue seen and heard in this age of ours.

And thus much may suffice to haue obser­ued in the first kind of those his proofes, which I called Affirmatiue, alleadged by him as vndoubted signes to shew that God was the author of his com­ming thither. Wherein notwithstanding you see, how the serpent hauing found him to haue but a weake head of his owne, with a giddy spirit, and a shallow vnconstant brayne, first deluded him with vayne surmyses, and false suspitions that the truth was errour, and afterward thrust him out of his Order which protected him, that thereby he might haue the more force vpon him. And lastly set him vp to be seen aloft, as it were vpon the pinacle of the Temple, where he knew, that in respect of his gid­dynes and Pride, he was not able to stand, to the end that his owne victory might be the more glorious, and the Bishops fall more famous.

SECTION V. The Bishops Motiues to change his Religion are discussed: and the arguments of the ten books he promised are all reduced to one question alone, of the Popes Supremacy.

HITHERTO you haue heard of those things that did somewhat prepare him to change Re­ligion, and hitherto (as he sayth) he resisted in him­selfe more or lesse, these motions or suggestions that were contrary to his former faith. It followeth now to consider, what moued him directly to this strange mutation, which must needs be very wel worth the consideration: For you may easily imagine, that being a man of his quality, learning, & experience, he will say what may be sayd, and lay downe such prudent motiues, sound reasons, and well grounded proofes, if any such may be found, as the truth of them shalbe so apparant and conuincing, that no indifferent, or well disposed mynd shalbe able to re­sist them.

He beginneth therfore and sayth; that of a Bishop, being made an Archbishop, two accidents fell out, that compelled him to study these matters more earnestly, and more eagerly then before he did, and made him to ouerthrow, or to ouerturne, or turne ouer (as you please to expound him) more then once or twice the Fathers, the Canons, the Councells, and ancient Records of the Catholike Church.

The first occasion was, that the Court of Rome & his Suffragan Bishops that were vnder him began to perturbe his Metropolitan rights. The se­cond, that a little after the Interdict of Venice, there came bookes from Rome, taxing the Bishops of the Venetian State who did not obey, to be but sheepish, rude, and ignorant men, without courage or con­science; in which second passage, he discouereth not only his pride and contentious spirit in seeking to supprese his owne Suffragans, and in resisting the publique authority of the Court of Rome in the Interdict, and in maintayning the sheep against the sheepheard, which is far against the vnity which he pretendeth: but also he doth manifest so much ha­tred, malice, and enuy against the Pope, because he opposed himselfe to his vniust pretences, and defen­ded his Suffragans against him, as was no lesse then sufficient to make a man in his state, and of his opi­nion become a formall Heretike. This therefore I take to be the last disposition that made him a fit in­strument for the spirit of Heresy: and whereby his enemy intred into him, as he entred into Iudas, and tooke full possession of him. To the which I am ra­ther induced, because a man may easily see, that his ouerthrow in his Suite against his Suffragans sticks deeply in his mynd, & moueth him to seek reuenge, by the ouerthrow of that authority which stood a­gainst him. For afterward, page 22. he maketh it one of the principall causes of his departure, and complaineth with no lesse vntruth, then malicious spirit, and extreme bitternes of hart; that Bishops now a dayes vnder the Pope, haue but the name of [Page 45]Bishops: that al their Iurisdiction is taken from thē: ‘that they are become vile, contemptible and mise­rable: subiect not only to the Pope, but also to Car­dinalls, Congregations, Legates, Inquisitors, and innumerable Orders of Religious men, who now haue greater facultyes then Bishops, and drowne their authority. Where also he sayth, that the Pope is now a temporall Monarch, and that the Church is become a vineyard, to make him drunke,’ and a flocke to feed him with her owne bloud. All which considered, I do thinke verily, that they who intend to write against him, and to accuse and calumniate (as he sayth) his departure from them, will hardly be able to produce more pregnant and vehement ar­guments, to shew that he was expulsed and driuen forth by the Diuell; then he himselfe hath derected in his owne discourse, which he maketh to proue that he was sent away by God Almighty.

For besides his leuity and inconstancy, with­out any cause, suspecting the Catholike Church to be erroneous his disobedience and Apostasy in for­saking his Order, his ābition in seeking one prefer­ment after another, being most vnworthy of any, & his vniust contention with those that were vnder him, he paynteth out his owne malice and euny a­gainst the Pope, togeather with the occasions therof in such manner, as if he desired the whole world should take notice of it. Whereunto if we adde his extreme pride which he discouereth in the manner of his conuersion, disdayning to read any booke, or to speake with any man about it, and in all the pas­sages of his former natration: & also in that which [Page 46]followeth where he sayth, that he hath no Superi­our aboue him, making himselfe equall with the Pope in spirituall matters, and in authority to repre­hend and amend all other Bishops. What can be ima­gined that his aduersaries will bring against him, which himself vnder the pretence of his own prayse hath not heere confessed? Tatianus the authour of the Encratite Heresy (as Nicephorus reporteth) be­ing blowne great with the swelling opiniō of much learning,Niceph. l. 4. hist. c. 4. as Superiour to others in knowledge, be­gan to promulgate a particuler doctrine. This man contemning the counsel or help of others, protesteth to promulgate that doctrine, which he neuer recei­ued of any. Thebutes, one of the seauen first Arch­heretikes, depraued the virginity of the Church,Euseb. l. 5. cap 5. as Eusebius reporteth, because he had the repulse in his suit for a Bishopricke. This man seeketh to defame the Church, because he was ouerthrowne in his sute against the Bishops that were vnder him. Nouatus, Valentine, Niceph. l. 5. cap. 4. and Aerius, separated themselues from the Church,Tertull. & Epiphan. her. 75. because they could not obtaine to be Bi­shops of Rome, as Nicephorus, Tertullian, and Epipha­nius do record. And this man deuydeth himselfe from the same Church, because he would not be subiect to the Bishop of Rome.

Now therefore to go forward: this zealous man by those two occasions of discontentment cō ­ming to read the Fathers, and other records of the Catholike Church, with those spectacles of Pryde, Ambition, Malice, and the rest, whereof I haue spoken before, let vs see what he findeth in them. For now he saith, that his eyes were opened, and [Page 47]that he saw easily, plainely, and perfectly that the Churches, ‘whome Rome had made her enemyes, (which are very many, saith he) did differ little or nothing frō the pure doctrine of the ancient Church. That in Rome there are coyned euery day innume­rable articles of Faith, without any foundation, with extreme violence. That Rome hath puld out the eyes of the Church of Christ, by suppressing the sacred Councells. That the Catholike Church, is now confined to be made the Court of Rome. That in it, nay in the Pope alone, the whole spirit of Christ promised to the Catholike Church, is belieued to reside. That whatsoeuer hath been spoken heerto­fore in honour of the vniuersal Church, is now most wrongfully inforced vpon the Court of Rome alone, whereof it followeth, that the soules of men being thereby miserably deceiued, and blinded, they fall togeather with their blind guydes into the pit of perdition. Thus he, & these are the principall causes which he setteth downe for the chang of his religiō. But what proofe, what euidence, what instance,’ what reason or probability doth he alledge to per­suade his reader of the truth of these things, or any of them? truely none at all, but only this; that him­selfe sayth it. A man altogeather a stranger to you, no way recommended, either for wisedome, hone­sty, or learning: but rather if not iustly to be suspe­cted of worse, yet at the least, to be iustly condem­ned of that extreme Malice, Pryde, and Vanity of hart, which himselfe, discouereth.

If any man be made of such rotten earth, as to suffer this Ignoramus to set in him such leekes as [Page 48]these, without any other stick, but with his finger: or to shew himselfe such an vncouered pot (as I said before) as to receiue what liquor soeuer this strang Bishop should please to infuse into him; such a one is worthy to be guld indeed by this Dalmatian. But he that is wise, should cōsider at least with what false eyes he found these things, if it be true, that he hath read any part of the Fathers, the Canons, and the Councells, as himselfe reporteth. For he that consi­dereth this, will no more belieue him (though he should speake as he thinketh, which I thinke he doth not) then he will belieue the Father of lyes that doth delude him. If the question had been, whether or no he would haue sayd as much as here he doth, he had indeed conuinced his reader, and confounded all those that should haue writ against him. But the question being, not what he could say, but what he could proue; and whether it be true that he sayth; and intending as he doth to arme his reader, against the accusations that are like to come against him, to make it manifest that his spirit is from God; and in fine to edify all the world with his narration; you must needes graunt that he sheweth extreme weaknes in making no better defence no lesse po­uerty of meanes and matter in buylding without a foundation, & as much want of proofe to persuade, in giuing you nothing but wordes insteed of other substance. But you will reply; whatsoeuer he sayth here, he promiseth to proue, and pursue hereafter, in his Booke of Ecclesiasticall Common Wealth I pray you, were it fit, that when a souldier cometh in­to the feild to fight, he should come without wea­pons, [Page 49]and should thinke either to ouercome his ad­uersary, or to satisfy the beholders of his prowesse, by saying, that he hath an excellent sword a making? Were it not absurd, that a Scholler comming to dis­pute of any Probleme, should thinke to satisfy the arguments of his aduersary, or to perswade his au­ditours, that the truth were of his side, by affirming that he would, or that he had composed a great vo­lume of that matter? This booke being made by the Bishop to proue his spirit, to disproue his aduersa­ryes, and to approue his change of Religion, to all those that should here thereof; now was the tyme to vse his Weapons, to shew his Wisedome, and to bring forth his euidence. And therefore if he sayle of his proofes, it is an euident signe, that he is al­togeather destitute and vnprouided of them.

Neither is it true which he sayth: That when his worke cometh forth, whatsoeuer he hath heere affirmed shalbe there proued. For how will he proue, that Rome hath coyned, not a 100. or a 1000. new articles of Fayth in one day, but as he sayth in­numerable, and that euery day? How will he proue that the Church of Rome suppresseth the Councells? Doth it not make them a rule of Fayth? hath it not alwayes preserued them? doth it not mayntayne, and defend them from the calumniations and con­tradictions which the Heretikes of these dayes op­pose against them? How will he proue, that we be­lieue the whole spirit of Christ to remayne in the Pope alone? and that all which hath been sayd here­tofore, in the honour of the vniuersall Church, must be applyed to the Court and Pallace of the Pope a­lone? [Page 50]Do we belieue that to be Catholike, one, holy, visible, to haue conuerted Nations and King­domes, which are some of the supernaturall prayses, and excellencyes of the Catholike Church, where­by she shyneth like the sunne in the Firmament, a­boue all other Congregations or assemblyes? Do we belieue I say, as an article of our Fayth, that these things agree to the Pope and his Pallace alone? That the Pope or his Court is extended ouer al the world? That the Vnity, Holynes, Visibility, and Miracles of the Church, and of the Pastors and Saints thereof, are only to be found in the Pope and his Pallace? and that all other Catholike Nations, and King­domes, are excluded from the participation of these graces? can this be proued thinke you? And can it stand with the grauity, and reuerent authority of a Bishop to affirme these things, with promise to con­firme them, making them also the ground of his conuersion? Could any ignorant shamelesse Mini­ster, whose learning were nothing els but lying: Could any Zani, or Counterfait that had been hyred to rayle against the Pope, haue spoken more fond­ly, more intemperatly, or more absurdly?

The innumerable new articles whereof he speaketh, and the whole doctrine of so many Chur­ches, impugned by the Church of Rome, which he vndertaketh to defend, can surely contayne no lesse then all the points in Controuersy betwene you, and vs; which are so farre from being decided in his Ec­clesiasticall cōmon Wealth, that for the greater part of them, they cannot be so much as mentioned ther­in. For as it appeareth by his owne description ther­of, [Page 51]the 4. first bookes proue only in effect, that all Bi­shops and their Churches by the Law of God are equall. And that neither S. Peter, nor the Pope, nor the Roman Clergy, should haue any Primacy, or Papacy, or Prehemynence aboue the rest. In his 5. and 6. Booke, he taketh away all kind of iurisdiction from the whole Church, not only in temporall, but also in Ecclesiasticall matters. In his 7. booke he dis­puteth of the rule of Fayth. In the rest that follow he speaketh of nothing els, but only of the tempo­ralityes, and immunityes of the Church. In the 8. he considereth the external gouernemēt of the Church, by Lawes and Canons, which if he affirme to be lawfull, it is directly contrary to his 5. and 6. booke, wherein he reiecteth all kind of Iurisdiction from the Church of Christ. So that this great booke wherof he braggeth so much, contayneth in effect but one Controuersy alone. And he that should proue the Popes Primacy and Supreme Iurisdiction ouer the Church of God, should ouerthrow the substance of this whole Volume. For thereof it would follow di­rectly; that the gouernement of Christs church vpon earth, is Monarchicall, against his first and se­cond booke; that the gouernours of the Church are not equall in authority by the Law of God, against his third booke. That the Pope and Church of Rome hath preheminence ouer other Churches, against his fourth booke. That the Church of God hath Iuris­diction, both Ecclesiasticall directly, and temporall indirectly, the latter being necessary for the main­taynance of the former, against his 5. and 6. booke. That the decree of the Pope as Head of the Church [Page 52]in a generall Councell is a sufficient rule of Fayth a­gainst his 7. booke. The resolution also of the mat­ters contayned in his 3. other bookes, is of no great importance, and may easily be deduced from the former conclusion.

Wherefore, if he thinke to discharge him­selfe of all other poynts in Controuesy, by hand­ling the titles of these bookes alone, he shall behaue himselfe like a Banquerupt, who insteed of the whole debt, should scarce make payment of one in the hundred.

SECTION VI. Concerning the Popes Supremacy: The state of the question is proposed, and S. Peters Supre­macy is proued by Scripture.

BVT now, as oftentymes it falleth out, that vn­der the fayre shewes of Banquerupt Merchants, vnder their goodly inscriptions of many rich com­modityes, and dissembling text letters, vpon pots, packs, and boxes, there is nothing to be found, ex­cept perhaps some poore refused brockage that is not salable: so to make it manifest that vnder these glorious titles of the ten Bookes which the Bishop promiseth, there is nothing contayned, but false wares, and idle tryfles, lapt vp in so many bundles of wast paper. And to giue you withall, some sa­tisfaction in this one point of Controuersy, of the Popes Supremacy, the occasion being so fit, the la­bour not great, & the way so well beaten by others; [Page 53]I will briefly set you downe, some of those euident proofes wherewith the Catholikes are wont to de­monstrate the Popes Supremacy in spiritual matters. Whereby also it will appeare, how well the Bishop hath spent his 10. yeares in reading of the Fathers, & whether he haue more attended to his study, or to his belly.

For the greater breuity, and more perspicu­ity in handling this ample, and copious matter; I will reduce all that I haue to say into one argument alone, which I frame in this manner. S. Peter the Apostle had Supremacy ouer the whole Church of Christ: but the Pope of Rome is only the true Succes­sour of S. Peter: therefore the Pope of Rome, in the place of S. Peter, hath also Supremacy ouer the whole Church of Christ. Out of which argument you may obserue, that the state of this Controuersy consi­steth in the proofe of two points. The first of S. Peters Supremacy, and the second of the Popes suc­cession to S. Peter.

For probation of the first point, out of al­most twenty places of Scripture alleadged by Bel­larmine, togeather with the exposition of the holy Fathers thereupon, acknowledging therein the Pri­macy, or Principality of S. Peter, in the gouerne­ment of the Church of God; I will produce but two places alone. The first out of the sixten of S. Matth. Matt. 10.17. where the same was promised in these words. And Iesus answering, sayd vnto him: Blessed art thou Sy­mon Bariona, because flesh and bioud hath not reuealed it vnto thee, but my Father which is in heauen. And I say to thee, that thou art Peter (that is to say a Rock) [Page 54]and vpon this rocke will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not preuatle against it. And I will giue to thee the keyes of the kingdome of Heauen. And whatso­euer thou shalt bind on earth, it shall be bound also in the heauens. And whatsoeuer thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in the Heauens. Concerning which words, there are three thinges which I find to be questionable. The first, what our Sauiour promised vnder those tearmes of a Rocke, or Foundation, of the keyes of the kingdome of Heauen, and of bin­ding and loosing in earth and heauen. Which, be­cause the foundation is the rule and strength of the whole buylding, and that the keyes commaund the whole Citty, opening and shutting the gates ther­of, and that the sentence of a Supreme iudge, doth bind and loose vpon earth; It seemeth to be mani­fest that nothing els can be meant thereby, but only the rule, the commaund, and the gouernement of the Church, as it is compared to a building, or to a Citty, and as it is called the kingdome of God in Scripture. In which sense, our Sauiour himselfe, who of himselfe is the supreme King, Head, and gouernour of the whole Church, is many tymes cal­led a Rocke therein. And he is also sayd to beare the key of Dauid, and to haue the key of Hell. And he him­selfe affirmeth,Da. 2.34. 1. Cor. 10.4. 1. Pet. 28 Esa. 22.22. Apoc. Matt. 11.30. the yoake which he imposeth to be sweet, and the burthen, which he byndeth vpon vs, to easy. And in the same sense all the ancient Fathers haue euer vnderstood this text of Scripture, with­out any difference or variation betweene them.

The second thing which may be questio­nable herein, is the person to whome these thinges [Page 55]were promised, which being described to be S. Peter, with so many circumstances of his Name, and Syr­name, and the Name of his Father, of the prayse of his former speach, and Christs answere thereunto, and so many particles applyable only to S. Peter, as Iesus answering, sayd to Him, blessed art Thou, flesh and bloud hath not reuealed to Thee, and I say to Thee; Thou art Peter, and vpon this Rocke (which accor­ding to the originall is this in English: Thou art Peter, and vpon this Peter, or thou art Rocke, and vpon this Rocke I will build my Church). And a­gaine, vnto Thee will I giue the keyes &c. Whatso­euer Thou shalt bind &c. whatsoeuer Thou shalt loose &c. I say, if all these things considered, & the person of S. Peter being thus particulerly described, doubt may be made vnto whom the Gouernemēt was pro­mised, then we may well say, that nothing is plaine, but that all thinges are most ambiguous in holy Scripture. Wherefore in this also, the Fathers do all agree, and all of them do gather out of this place, that the gouernement of Gods Church was giuen to S. Peter. Only S. Augustine who maketh no que­stion to whome the keyes, and the authority of bin­ding and loosing, was giuen in this place, expoun­deth sometymes the word Rocke, to be meant of Christ, whome S. Peter confessed: Because (saith he) our Sauiour sayd not, tu es Petra, but tu es Petrus, wherein he was deceiued (as all men acknowledg) not vnderstanding the Syriack tongue, which ma­keth no more difference betweene the Masculine and Feminine, then doth our English.Aug. lib. 1. Retract. cap. 21. And S. Au­gustine himselfe also hauing oftentymes expounded [Page 56]the word Rocke to be meant of S. Peter, leaueth both these expositiōs to the choyce of the Reader, without condemning either of them. The rest of the Fathers out of this place, do all affirme the Church to be built both vpon Peter, and vpon the Faith of Peter, or vpon Peter in respect of his faith, which is al one. For which faith our Sauiour promised to reward him, by building his Church vpon him, and by gi­uing such solidity and stability thereunto, that the gates of Hell should not prenayle against it. Lastly, because the Fathers do oftentymes affirme, that S. Peter receiued this power and authority, in the per­son of the Church, & for the benefit of the Church, the last thing questionable cōcerning these words is this. Whether he receiued the same as a Procter, or substitute alone, or as the head and chief of all the Apostles. For in both of these respects, one man may represent the persons of many, as in it selfe it is manifest. But it seemeth also, that this is a question of that, wherof no question can be made. For al the Apostles being present, there was no necessity nor apparence, neither why, nor how they should make S. Peter their atturney. And our Sauiour naming S. Peter in particuler, Symon Bariona, commending him in particuler, Blessed art thou, and confirming vnto him the name of Rocke in particuler; it must needs be vnderstood that to him in particuler these promises were made of the regiment of Gods Church, and of founding the same vpon him, in such manner, as that the gates of Hell should not preuayle against it. And in this also, the Fathers do generally agree, as you will perceiue, by those testi­monyes [Page 57]which shall be produced thereby.

The second place of Scripture, which I will alleadge for the proofe of S. Peters supreme au­thority is in the second of S. Iohn: Ioan. 21.15. for what was promised in the 16. of S. Matthew, was there per­formed. For calling him by the name of Symon, & by the name of Peter, and by the name of Symon the sonne of Iona, to signify that he applyed his speach to himselfe alone, and asking him first, whether he loued our Sauiour more then the rest, and twice more, whether he loued him, whereby our Sauiour would signify, that he commended to his loue, the thing that was most deare vnto him; he commaunded him twise to feed his lambs, and the third tyme to feed his sheep, whereby he made him the Pastour of his flocke. And for a conclusion, to keep him in Humi­lity, he gaue him warning, that as he was to follow him in his place, so also he should imitate him in his death; signifying what death he should dye. That is to say, the death of the Crosse. In the exposition of which place, there is no diuersity of opinion a­mongst the Fathers, neither do they make any doubt or questiō, but that our Sauiours speach in this place was directed only to S. Peter, that by the word Sheep, the whole flocke of Christ was recommended vnto him, for the rest of the Apostles themselues were not excepted. And that by the word Feed, he was commaunded not only to teach, but also to go­uerne the Church of Christ, so far forth, as should be necessary for the conduction of the members thereof, vnto their supernaturall end, which is life euerlasting. And therefore, albeit all the Apostles, [Page 58]in respect of their Apostolike power, which was extraordinary, and dyed with them, had equall Iu­risdiction ouer the rest of the Church; yet were they not equall amongst themselues, but S. Peter in respect of his supreme Episcopall, and ordinary au­thority, was the chief and head of them all; and es­pecially as they were Bishops, or capable of Bisho­prickes, wherein others might succeed them, they were all subiect to S. Peter. And for this cause albeit the Church is sayd to be built vpon the other Apo­stles in generall, and that they are also called the Pastours therof; yet you shall neuer find, that any of them in particuler, as for example S. Iohn, or S. Iames, is tearmed the foundation, or the Pastour of the Church, without any other limitation, but that these titles, and the like are giuen by the Fathers to S. Peter alone, in respect of the excellency of his dignity, and plenarity of ordinary power ouer the Church of Christ.

SECTION VII. The former Expositions of the two places afore­sayd, togeather with S. Peters Supremacy in dignity, doctrine, and gouernement, are proued out of the testimonyes of the ancient Fathers.

FOR manifestation whereof, and for the more euident proofe, that the expositiōs which I haue deliuered of those two places of Scripture aforesayd, are conformable to the doctrine of the Fathers; I [Page 59]will alleadge some of their authorityes, as briefly and succinctly as possible I can. And first, the same is proued by those titles, with the Fathers haue gi­uen to S. Peter alone. By the Councell of Chalcedon Act. 1. therefore he is styled, the Rocke, and Top of the Church. By Origenhom. 5. in exod. the most solide Rocke. By Cy­rillLib. 2. c. 2. in Ioā. the Rocke, and Stone most firme. By Euthymi­us.In cap. 16. Matt. the foundation of the beleeuers. By Ambrose.Lib. 4. de fide c. 3. the firmament of the Church. By HilaryIn cap. 16. Matt. the happy foundation of the Church, and blessed porter of hea­uen. By AugustineSer. 15. de Sanctis. the foundation of the Church, which the Church doth worthily worship. By DamascenOrat. de Transsig. the key-bearer of the kingdome of heauen. By ChrysostomeHom. in psal. 50.1. part. the basis, or bearing-stone of fayth. By S. HieromeLib. 1. cont. Iouin. the Rocke of Christ.

Out of which titles, or appellations giuen to none of the Apostles, but only to S. Peter; it must needs be gathered that the words of our Sauiour in the 16. of S. Matthew, are to be vnderstood of him alone; and that, as he was the foundation of the whole buylding; so (which is all one) that he was also the head of the whole body: which may be fur­ther declared, and more expresly proued if need be, out of the Fathers. For therfore, S. Cyril Lib. 12. in Ioan. cap. 64. doth call him, the Prince, and head of the rest. S. HieromeLib. 1. cont. Iouin. the head of the Apostles. S. AugustineSerm. 124. de tempore. Verticem, the Crowne. OptatusLib. 2. & 7. cont. Parmen. Apicem, the top, or highest perfection of the Apostles. EuthymiusInc. vlt. Ioan. the Maister of the whole world. EpiphaniusEpiph. haeres. 51. Ducem, the Cap­taine, or Leader of the disciples. Ambroselib. 10. in Luc. sc. 24. the vicar of the loue of Christ towards vs. S. CyprianLib. de vnit. Eccl. sayth that, the Primacy was giuen to Peter. S. LeoSerm. 2. de SS. Pet. & Paul, that [Page 60]he (Peter) who was the first in confession, was the first in Apostolicall dignity. S. AthanasiusEpist. au Pelic. That vpon the foundation of Peter, the Pillars of the Church, that is to say the Bishops, are set, or confirmed. S. Am­broseSer. 47. that he was the immoueable Rock, contayning the whole Pyle, and Iuncture of the whole Christian worke or buylding. S. BasilSer. de neditio Dei. that he was happy, in being preferted before the rest of the Disciples, to whome the keyes of the kingdome of heauen were commit­ted. S. Augustine Lib 2, de Baptis. hath these words: Loe, where Cy­prian relateth, that which we also haue learned in the Scriptures, that the Apostle Peter, in whome the Primacy of the Apostles appeared aloft, with such an excellēt grace, was corrected by Paul, a later Apostle. And againeSerm. 29. de SS. he alone among the Apostles deserued to heer: Thou art Peter &c. Truly a man, worthy to be a stone for founda­tion, a Pillar for sustentation, a key of the kingdom vnto the people which were to be built vp in the house of God. To which purpose S. AmbroseIn cap. vlt. Luc. sayd, therefore because he alone professed of all the rest, he alone is prefer­red before all the rest. And why, sayth S. ChrysostomHom. 87. in loā. omitting the rest, doth he speak of these thinges to Peter alone? He was the mouth of the Apostles, the prince and top of that company, therfore Paul ascended to visit him before the rest. Among the most blessed Apo­stles, sayth LeoEp 85. ad An ast. there was a certayne distinction of power, and though the election of all was equall, yet vnto one, it was after giuen, to excell aboue the rest. S. Cy­prianEp. ad Iubaia. sayth; that the Church is one, founded vpon one, who receiued the keyes thereof by the word of our Lord.

The prerogatiues also of the three first Chayres, [Page 61]that is to say, of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, the Bishops whereof, were anciently the three first Pa­triarcks, and are so acknowledged in the first gene­rall Councell of Nice, do euidently proue the Su­premacy of S. Peter, whereof S. Gregory writeth in this manner: Albeit there were many Apostles, Greg. l 6. epist. 37. ad Eulogium Alexan. yet the only seat of the prince of the Apostles preuayled in authori­ty of principality, which was of one man in three places: For he aduanced the seat wherein he was pleased to rest, and to end this present life (that is to say Rome.) He ho­nored the seat, to the which he sent his disciple the Euan­gelist (that is to say, the seat of Alexandria) whither he sent S. Marke. He confirmed the seat wherein he sate six years before he left it, (that is to say wherein he left Euodius to succeed him.) Thus S. Gregory. And as S. Peter, S. Marke, and Euodius, were in Order, one aboue another, so also the seat, wherin S. Peter dyed, was the first, that of S. Marke was the second, and the other of Euodius was the third. And each of the three hauing been some wayes the seat of Peter, was in respect thereof preferred in honour & authority, before all the other seats of the rest of the Apostles.Epist. 3. Epist. 53 ad Anatholiū. Of this also do make mention S. Anacletus, and S. Leo. And in particuler, in the honour of the seat of Rome, the Church did anciently celebrate a feastiual day, called the Feast of the Chayre of Peter, which also hath beene euer since obserued.August. serm. 15. de SS. Whereof S. Augu­stine sayth, in one of his sermons; the institution of this dayes solemnity, by our Elders, tooke the name of the Chayre &c. Worthily therefore, do the Churches cele­brate, the originall day of that Chayre, which the Apostles vnder tooke for the welfare, or safty of the Churches.

Vnto these testimonyes, which are more then sufficient, I will adde some other authorityes, which make mention of gouernement, to declare what manner of superiority it was, that was confer­red to S. Peter. Eusebius Euseb. serm. de S. Ioan. Euā. Emissenus calleth him, the Pastour of Pastours. S. Augustine In cap. 21. Ioan. sayth, he com­mitted to Peter his sheep to be fed, that is, to be taught & gouerned. S. ChrysostomeIn cap. 21. Ioan. Others omitted, he spea­keth to Peter alone, to whome he committed the care of his brethren &c. and the care of the world. S. AmbroseSerm. 48. detem. pore. He (Peter) was assumed to be the Pastour, and receiued the others to be gouerned. And againead Gal­latas 1. vnto him among the Apostles, our Sauiour delegated the care of Churches. And againeLib. 4. de fide. c. 3. Could he not confirme his fayth (Peters) to whome with proper authority he gaue a kingdome? S. CyprianDe vni­tat. Eccl. vpon him alone, he built his Church, and commaunded him to feed his sheep: and although he gaue all his Apostles &c. equall power, yet that he might shew vnity, he appointed one Chayre alone, where also he calleth him, the head, the well, and the root of the Church. S. ChrysostomeHo. 11. in Matt. he made Peter the Pastour of the Church to come, and after; God only can grant, that among so many, and so great flowds brea­king in with fury, the Church to come may remaine im­moueable, whose Pastour and head, is but a poore fisher, & ignoble. And againe, God the Father did set Hieremy ouer one Nation alone, but him (Peter) Christ hath set ouer the whole world. TheophilactIn cap. vlt. Ioan. dinner being en­ded, he commended to Peter the Prefectship of the sheep of all the world: not vnto another, but vnto him he gaue it. And againeIn cap. 22. Luc. S. Peter after his denyall, was to receiue the Primacy of all men, and the Prefectship of the [Page 63]world. DamasceneOrat. de transfig. as Prclate he receiued the stern or gouernemeut of the whole Church. S. MaximusSer. 3. de Apost. of how great merit was S. Peter with our Lord, that vnto him after the Oare or guidance of a little boat, the sterne, or gouernement of the whole Church should be deliuered. LeoSer. 3. de an. assū. out of the whole world, Peter alone was chosen, who was set ouer the vocation of al Natiōs, & ouer all the Apostles, and all the Fathers of the Church; that there being in the people of God, many Priests, and many Pastors Peter might properly gouerne all, whome Christ also doth principally gouerne. Eusebius Emissenusvbi su­pra. He (Peter) gouerneth subiects and Prelates, therfore he is the Pastour of all, because, besides lambs and sheep, there is nothing in the Church. BernardusLib. 2. de confid. Thou alone art the Pastour of all, not only of the sheep alone, but also of the Pastours. You will aske me how I proue it out of the words of our Lord, (to which) I do not say of the Bishops alone, but also of the Apostles, were all the sheep committed so absolutly, and without distinction? feed my sheep sayth he: to whome is it not plaine, that he designed not some, but assigned all? Nothing is excepted, where nothing is distinguished. And not to cloy you with ouer many testimonyes, in a matter so euident, I will conclude with our Countrey man S. BedeHom. in vigil. 3. Andreae. Therefore (sayth he) did S. Peter specially receiue the keyes of the kingdome of heauen, and the principality of Iudiciall power, that all the faithfull through the world might vnderstand, that no such, as separate themselues, any kind of way, from the vnity of his fayth, and society can be absolued from the bands of their sinnes, nor enter into the gate of the kingdome of Heauen.

Out of that which hath beene so copiously [Page 64]alleadged, if you please to reflect a little thereupon, you may gather the reason and ground of this insti­tution, of one Supreme herd in the Church of God Which also because it doth more confirme the truth of that which hath beene sayd, I will open a little, & briefly declare vnto you. First then; there is no question to be made, but that our Sauiour Christ, whose workes are perfect, did therfore ordayne his Spouse, the Church, to be gouerned by one alone, in his owne place vpon earth, because this is the most excellent, and most perfect kind of Gouernement, as Bellarmine proueth at large, out of all the ancient Fathers, and Philosophers. And therefore the go­uernement of the Church, and Commonwealth of the Iewes, in the old Testament, being ordayned by God himself, was Monarchicall, or of one in chief. Which was also a Type and figure of the same kind of gouernement of the Church of Christ, to be esta­blished in the new Testament. The originall cause therfore and formall reason of this kind of gouerne­ment, and institution in the Church of Christ, was the perfect vnity of the members therof, which our Sauiour specially intended: For the which also he prayed, Ioan. 17.21.22. Ioan. 13.35. Lib. 1. ep. 8. and would that his Disciples might be knowne thereby, from the rest of the world. God is one (sayth S. Cyprian) and Christ is one, and the Church is but one, and the Chayre (therof) but one, founded vpon Peter by the voice of our Lord. Where he sheweth, that as Christ is one with God; so the Church being founded vpon S. Peter, is one with Christ; and according to the prayer of our Sauiour to his Father saying, That they may be one, as we are one. And then [Page 65]followeth in S. Cyprian: No other Altar or Priesthood can be established: whosoeuer gathereth els where, scatte­reth. Lib. de past. c. 13. To which purpose, S. Augustine also hath these words: For Peter himselfe, to whome he commended his sheep, as one man should do to another; he (our Sauiour) made one with himselfe, that so he might commend his sheep vnto him (that is to say, as to the other part of himselfe,) that as one was the head, the other might beare the figure of the body, to wit, of the Church; and that like the Brydegrome and the Bryde, they might be two in one flesh. Whereby he meaneth, that S. Peter representing the whole Church, as the head vnder Christ, was made one with Christ, the Supreme head thereof; according to his owne words in other places saying: That Peter the Apostle, in respect of the Primacy of his Apostleship, did beare the person of the Church, by a figuratiue generality. And againe,Tract. vlt. in Ioan. he is acknowledged to beare the person of the Church, in respect of his Primacy, and as holding the principality of the Apostleship. More expresly,In psal. 108. Ser de ver­bis Dom. Ser. 2. de an. assum. S. Leo declareth this vnity, saying: For so he (Peter) was ordinated before the rest, as while he is called a Rocke, whil he is pronoū ­ced to be the foundation, while he is constituted the Porter of the kingdome of Heauen, we might vnderstand, by the misteryes of these appellations, the society which he had with Christ. And yet more fully els where:Serm. 3. de an. assump. As my Father manifested vnto thee my diuinity, so also I make known vnto thee, thy excellency, for thou art Peter, that is, though I be the Rocke inuiolable, the stone of the corner which maketh both to be one, I the foundation, besides which no man can lay another: yet thou also art the Rock, because by my vertue thou art made solide, to the end that [Page 66]those thinges which by my power are proper to me, by participation with thee, might be made cōmon with thee, and me. By which wordes these holy Fathers labour to declare the vnspeakable vnity of Christ and his Church, teaching how the head thereof in earth, is made one by Gods diuine grace in name, in place, and dignity with the head in heauen.

For the further explicatiō wherof you shall vn­derstād, that the vnity which the Church possesseth by this means, doth especially consist in 3. thinges: the first, is vnity of Iurisdiction, or Iudiciall power, which that it dependeth wholy of one head vpon earth, and of the authority giuen to S. Peter, is ma­nifestly proued out of those places of the Fathers, wherein he is acknowledged to haue the Primacy, to be the head Pastour and gouernour of the vniuer­sall world, which also shalbe further cōfirmed when we come to speake of the Popes succession to S. Peter. The second is vnity, and consent in fayth, for the mantainance whereof, that solidity and strength, was giuen to the fayth of Peter, vpon which the Fa­thers, according to the Scripture, do aknowledg the Church of Christ to be built so strongly, as that the gates of hell shall not preuayle against it. And ther­fore S. Cyprian in his booke de vaitate Ecclesiae, ha­uing declared, that the Diuell to diminish the great mulutude of the beleeuers increasing so fast, had denised Schismes and Heresyes wherby many were blinded and carryed away, discouereth the cause therof, in these words: This is done sayth he, beloued brethren) because men haue not recourse to the origine of the truth, neither seeking the head, nor following the [Page 67]doctrine of their celestiall maister. And then expoun­ding himselfe, he addeth: Our Lord speaketh vnto Peter: I say vnto thee, Thou art Peter, and vpon this Rocke &c. And againe, after his resurrection he sayd vn­to him: Feed my sheep. In which words this glorious Martyr sheweth, that according to the doctrine of Christ our maister, for the finding out of the truth, we must haue recourse to Peter, the foundation of the Church, and the Pastour therof. And thereof he concludeth, that albeit the Apostles were all equall in honour and power (that is to say of Apostle­ship) yet the Primacy was giuen to Peter, that there might be one Church, and one Chayre, & one flock fed by many Pastors, with one mynd and consent.

The like words he also vseth in his epistle to Pope Cornelius, where he sayth:Lib. 1. ep. 3. ad Cornel. For neither from a­ny other cause do Heresyes come vp, or Schismes do arise, but only from this, that obedience is not giuen to the Priest of God; and that one Priest for the tyme, or one Iudge for the tyme, is not acknowlelged in the Church, in the place of Christ. Whome, if according to the diuine documents of their Maister, the whole fraternity obeyed, no man would (or could) moue any thing at all against the colledge of Priests, that is to say, collected & vni­ted vnder one Priest, & one Iudge vpon earth in the place of Christ.Epist. 46. inter epist. Cypriani. And Pope Cornelius himselfe wri­ting to S. Cyprian signifieth, that some being repen­tant of their Schisme, which ignorantly they had made against him; confessed their errours in these words. We know that Cornelius was elected by God al­mighty, and by Christ our Lord, to be the Bishop of the holy Catholike Church &c. Our mind was alwayes in the [Page 68]Catholike Church. For we are not ignorant, that there is one God, one Christ, one holy Ghost, and that in the Catholike Church there ought to be one Bishop so they. which is the same in effect, with the doctrine related out of S. Cyprian himselfe, with which confession of theirs, Cornelius sayth, that he was much moued, & willed S. Cyprian, to send his letters of the relation thereof to other Churches. And to conclude this poynt, the saying of S. Hierome is common in euery booke of Controuersy. Among the twelue one was chosē, that an head being established, the occasion of schism might be taken away.

Thirdly therefore, the vnity of the Church is increased and perfected, by the vnity in power of Ecclesiasticall Order, which as it dependeth of one alone to be rightly conferred: so it is more then pro­bable, that our Sauiour ordayned, it should descend from onealone:Epist. 1. & so I vnderstand, with Bellarmine, those words of Anacletus, that, in the new Testament after Christ, the Sacerdotall Order came from Peter: by which he must meane, not the order of Priests, who were ordayned by our Sauiour himselfe in his last supper, but of Bishops, who, according to Anacle­tus, receiued their Episcopal ordination from Peter, as Peter receiued the same from Christ. Which In­nocentius doth signify more expresly saying:Innocent. epist. 91. & ep. 93. inter epist. August. From whome (Peter) ipse Episcopatus, the Episcopall power it selfe, and all the authority of this name proceeded. And againe, whensoeuer any matter of fayth is called in que­stion; I thinke all our brethren and fellow-Bishops should defer the same to none but to Peter, that is, to the authour of their name and honour. The like words hath Iulius [Page 69]the first, in his first epist. to the Bishops of the East. Which fault you should not haue incurred, if from whence you receiued the honour of consecration, from thence you had taken the law of all obseruance. And, the seate of the blessed Apostle S. Peter, which is the mother vnto vs of sacerdotall dignity, was also the Mistresse of Ecclesiastical discipline. Which is further confirmed by S. Leo,Leo ser. 3. de assump. say­ing: If his will were, that any thing should be common with Peter, and the rest of the Princes (meaning the A­postles) he neuer gaue but by him, whatsoeuer he denyed not to others. And againe,Epist. 89. Our Lord would, that the sacrament of this function, should so appertayne to the office of all the Apostles, that in the most blessed Peter, Hom. vlt. in illud sequere me. the chief of all the Apostles, it should be principally placed, to the end that his gifts might be diffused frō him, as it were from the head to all the body. With these also notably agreeth S. Cyprian saying:Ep. 27. Our Lord disposing the manner or forme of his Church, speaketh in the Ghospell and sayth to Peter: I say vnto thee, that thou art Peter &c. And a little after, from thence, with the changes of tymes, and successions, the ordination of Bishops, & the state or forme of the Church doth follow. If any body aske me, sayth S. Chrysostome, how Iames got the seat of Hierusalem? I answere, that Peter the Maister of the whole world did set him therein.

These three poynts of vnity, in gouernment, in faith, and in the ordination of Bishops, are further confirmed out of S. Cyprian Lib. de vnit. Eccle. by his comparisons of the Church to many sunne beams, many bowes, and many brookes proceeding from the same sunne, the same tree, and the same fountaine. For so sayth he, that albeit the Church haue many beames, and [Page 70]many branches, and many riulets diffused through the world, yet there is but one head, one origen, & one mother of all this fecundity. Likewise, out of the authour of the question of the old and new Te­stament, amongst the workes of S.Apud S. Thomam opusc. 1. cont. err. Grec. c. 23. §. Habetur. Augustine, say­ing, As in our Sauiour were all the causes of maistership, so also after our Sauiour, they were all conteyned in Peter. Also out of S. Cyrill, who doubted not to say, that as Christ receiued most full power from his Father, so also most fully, he committed the same to Peter, and his Suc­cessours. And againe, vnto no other then vnto Peter, but to him alone he gaue, quod suum est plenum, fully that which was his. And briefly the same is gathered out of the vnspeakable vnion which the Fathers acknow­ledge in the Church of Christ, with their head on earth, and of her head on earth, with her head in Heauen.

SECTION VIII. The conclusion of the first poynt of this Contro­uersy: which is also further confirmed by the Confession of the Protestants themselues.

AND thus much may suffice for the first poynt of this Controuersy, wherein I haue shewed, how the Catholikes demonstrate the Primacy of S. Peter by two especiall places of holy Scripture, and by the vniforme consent and exposition of the holy Fathers, who thereupon do giue such titles, and appellations to Peter, as are giuen to no other Apo­stle in particuler, but were only communicated by [Page 71]Christ to S. Peter alone, who do also expresly teach out of the former places, that he was the head, the Prince, and the supreme gouernour of the Church of Christ, and that to him alone in particuler man­ner, was committed the care of his brethen, of the Churches, and of all the faythfull throughout the world. And lastly they agree, that the cause of the institution of this kind of gouernement in the Church of Christ, was for the mantainance and preseruation of perfect vnity therein, as well among the members, as also of all the members with the head thereof, from whence it deriueth that vnifor­mity of Fayth, and that singular vnity, both of Iu­diciall power, and Episcopall order, wherewith it shyneth like the Sunne throughout the world.

A thing so euident, that albeit the Bishop could not find it in the Fathers, because he looked ano­ther way, and neuer sawe them, or neuer vnder­stood them: yet the greatest part of the Protestant writers, being ashamed to deny a matter so mani­fest, haue thought it better to accuse them, then to bely them. And namely they reprehend S. Hierome, Conturia­tores. S. Hilary, S. Gregory Nozianz [...]n, S. Cyprian, Origen, and in one word many Fathers, for affirming the Church to be built vpon Peter: reprouing also others, for calling him the head of the Apostles; M. Fulk. and affirming that in these poynts, the Church then in those pure tymes, was corrupted, bewitched, and made blynde with errour. That many of the ancient Fathers were de­ceiued (and in particuler, S. Leo, and S. Gregory, of whome the last liued about the yeare 590.) with the long contynuance of this errour. And that the mi­stery [Page 72]of iniquity wrought in the seat of Rome, neer 500. or 600. yeares before them. And many Protestants pro­ceed so far, as that they do not only confesse, but also defend the same, as doth M. Doctor Whitegift saying;Whitegift Among the Apostles there was one chiefe &c. that had chiefe authority ouer the rest, that Schisms might be compounded. Caluin. Who also citeth Caluin, affirming, that the twelue Apostles had one among them, to gouerne the rest: Musculus. and Musculus in these words, the celestiall Spirits are not equall, the Apostles themselues were not equall, Peter is found in many places to haue beene chief among the rest, which we deny not.

Maister Doctour Couell likewise,Couel. doth not only defend it, but also layeth downe the gene­rall receiued reason therof. If this (sayth he) were the prin ipall meanes, to preuent Schismes, and dissenti­ons in the Primitiue Church, when the graces of God were far more abundant and eminent then now they are: Nay, if the twelue were not like to agree, except there had beene one chiefe among them: For sayth Hyerome, among the twelue one was therefore chosen, that a chief being appoynted, occasion of dissention might be pre­uented &c. So he. And againe, how can they thinke (sayth he of the Puritans) that equality would keep all the Pastours in the world in peace and vnity &c. For in all societyes, authority (which cannot be where all are equall) must procure vnity and obedience. Thus Doctor Couell, who goeth further and sayth. If it concerne all persons and ages, in the Church of Christ (as surely it doth) the gouernement must not cease with the Apostles, but so much of that authority must remayne to them, who from time to time supply that charge &c. Which also is [Page 73]the doctrine of Melancthon, who further confesseth,Melanthō. that, as certayn Bishops are presidēt ouer many Churches, so the Bishop of Rome is President ouer all Bishops. Luther. And Luther himselfe is inforced to acknowledge, that for the vnity of the Catholike Church, consisting of al Nations, ‘with infinite diuersity of māners & condi­tions, it was necessary that one should be chosen, vnto whome, and his Successors,’ the whole world being made one fold, might belong or pertayne.Cart w­right. M. Cartwright likewise vrgeth the Protestāt Doctors with their owne argument saying, that the peace of the whole Church, requireth as well a Pope ouer all Arch­bishops, as one Archbishop ouer all Bishops in a Realme. Iacob. And to conclue, M. Iacob another Puritan sayth; if a visible Catholike Church be once aknowledged, there is no place in all the world so likely as Rome, to be the visible and spring head of the gouernement thereof. Protestant Apology. See the Protestants Apology, tract. 1. sect. 3. subdiu. 10. And thus appeareth the force of this truth, which God almighty hath caused to be iustifyed, euen by the mouthes of our aduersaries themselues.

And now by the resolution of this first point alone, hauing clearly ouer throwne, and disproued whatsoeuer the Bishop can say, in the fiue first books of his Commonwealth, against the Monarchy, Prima­cy, and Papacy of the Church of Rome, the succes­sion therof, the subiection of other Bishops therūto, and in fine, against all Iurisdictions of the Church of Christ; I come to the explication and proofe of the second poynt, concerning the succession of the Bishop of Rome to S. Peter, wherein the folly, and impudency of this man willbe more discouered, and [Page 74]his whole Volume of Ecclesiasticall Cōmonwealth, either extant, or not extant willbe sufficiently an­swered.

SECTION IX. The continuance of S. Peters authority is proued by Scripture, and by the Fathers, and by the confession of many Protestants: and therof is inferred the succession of the Pope to S. Peter.

IN the beginning of the former point, concerning S. Peters authority, I shewed how the Catholiks considered, and distinguished a double power in the Apostles of Christ, the one extraordinary & Apo­stolicall, whereby they had equall Iurisdiction ouer the Church of Christ, which is therfore called Ex­traordinary, because it dyed with them; for if others had succeeded them therin, their successours also by vertue therof, had beene all Apostles: The other ordinary, and Episcopall, wherein others were to succeed them for the gouernement of the Church, and which in S. Peter alone, was supreme, absolute, and independant, but in the rest, it was limitted to particuler places: and therefore albeit, as Apostles, they had all equall authority ouer the rest of the Church, yet they were not equall amongst them­selues, but S. Peter, by vertue of his supreme Epis­copall authority, was the chiefe Pastour and head of the rest. And now likewise for your greater light, in the handling of this second poynt, we must di­stinguish [Page 75]in S. Peter, a double Episcopall power, the one in particuler, & proper to the diocesse of Rome, wherof he was the immediate Bishop, the other vni­uersall ouer the whole Church of Christ, whereby albeit he be not the immediate Bishop of the parti­culer Churches, yet is he the vniuersall & supreme Pastour ouer them all. As the Bishop of Canterbury for example, although he be the immediate Bishop of Canterbury alone, yet as he is Archbishop, he hath the care of those other Churches, and Bishop­ricks of our Nation, which are vnder his charge.

This distinction therefore being granted, first there is no question to be made, but that the Bishop of Rome doth succeed vnto S. Peter as he was the immediate Bishop of that Diocesse. For this is euident, not only by the catalogue of the Bishops of Rome, and tradition of the Church: but also by the testimony of all Historiographers and ancient Fa­thers, and in particuler of S. Irenaeus, Tertullian, S. Hierome, S. Augustine, Optatus, and others, as we shal see anone. Which being commonly granted by all the learned Protestants, because if the supreme au­thority of S. Peter, did not dye with him, as the generall power of the Apostles ouer the whole Church did cease with them, but remayned and continued in the Church after his death; thereof it would follow, that the Pope who succeeded him in the one, should succeed him also in the other, as he who is made Bishop of Canterbury is thereby also made Archbishop and Primate of all the kingdome. For this cause diuers Protestants haue affirmed, that albeit the Pope do succeed to S. Peter, as he was [Page 76]Bishop of Rome, yet they deny, that he succeeded him in his vniuersall Pastorall function, because they say, it dyed with him. And therefore on the other side, if the Catholikes can shew, that the Pri­macy of S. Peter doth still remayne in the Church; that being proued, there willbe no difficulty, but that the Pope doth succeed to S. Peter, as wel in his Primacy ouer the whole Church, as in his particuler authority ouer the Church of Rome, especially no other Bishop hauing euer pretended, or made claime to that Succession, but only the Bishop of Rome.

Wherefore, that the Primacy of S. Peter, was to descend and remayne to his successors, is proued by these two places of Scripture,Matt. 16. Ioan. 21. alleadged for the proofe of his Supremacy. For in the first place, our Sauiour promised, that he would make him the foundation, and build his Church vpon him in such manner, as the gates of Hell should not preuayle a­gainst it. Whereby as he signifieth, that the Church was to remayne and indure perpetually; so much more he promised, that the Foundation therof was likewise to remayne, from whence the Church it selfe was to receiue her perpetuall strength, and duration.origen. in 16. Matt. Which Origen considering, sayd very well; that it was manifest, albeit not expressed, that the gates of Hell cannot preuaile neither against Peter, nor against the Church, for if they preuailed against the Rock, where­on the Church is founded, they should also preuaile against the Church it selfe.

The like also may be easily inferred out of the second place, where S. Peter was made the vniuer­sall Pastour of the sheep of Christ, and by conse­quence [Page 77]the sheep of all ages were commended vnto him; and therfore, not only to him in person, but also to his seat, and to his successours represented, and contayned in him, as in theyr seed and founda­tion. In which respect, S. Augustine said,Aug. l. de pasto. c. 13. as you haue heard; that S. Peter receiued his authority in the person of the Church, (that is to say) present, and to come, for himselfe and his successors. And in the same sense he teacheth els where, that all good Pastors, are in one Pastor. And S. Cyprian affirmed, as I haue alleadged,Cyp. ep. 4 [...]. & 55. that in the Church, there is one God, one Christ, one Chayre, founded vpon Peter, one Priest, one Iudge for the tyme, in the place of Christ. Which is also confir­med by the words of our Sauiour, where he sayth, There should be one sheepfold, and one Pastour. Ioan. 10.16. For as we gather thereof, that the fold must alwayes be one: so also the Pastour thereof being One, who was S. Peter, must alwayes remayne One in his successors; and our Sauiour would thereby signify, that the vni­ty of the fold, depended of the vnity of that one Pastor, to whom he meant to giue the charge, and to commend the feeding of it. Which also, the Fathers demonstrate to be most necessary, for the auoyding and extinguishing of Schismes and Heresyes in the Church of God, as you haue seene before. And some of the Protestants themselues; as Whitgift, Protestant Apology vbi supra. Melan­cthon, Luther, and others do willingly confesse it: and especially Doctour Couell, who affirmeth that, the Church should be in far worse case then the meanest common Wealth, nay almost, then a den of theeues with­out it. I cannot omit his reason, which is also the common reason of the Catholikes: That if this Su­periority, [Page 78]were necessary amongst the Apostles, much more was it necessary among other Bishops after their decease; neither will I omit, that it be­longed vnto the charge and Pastorall Office of S. Peter, to prouide that the sheep of Christ after his death, might not be scattered and deuided for the want of one common and vniuersall Pastour. Wher­fore by this it is euident, that the Pastorall fun­ction of S. Peter, was to remayne in the Church of God. And therefore it descended to the Bishop of Rome his only successour, which is a most strong ar­gument in it selfe, & may serue vs withall for a good step or degree to the rest of the proofes that follow.

SECTION X. The Supremacy of the Pope and his succession to S. Peter, is proued by the titles of his supreme dignity, in the ancient Fathers; and by the foure first generall Councells.

VVHEREIN we will begin with those titles & appellations, which haue byn giuen by the Councells and ancient Fathers to the Bishops of Rome, being the same that were giuen to S. Peter a­lone, with many others equiualēt therunto. For as in the Cōmonwealth, none can haue the title of Cesar, but he that succedeth vnto Cesar: so also in the Church, if the Pope inherite the same titles that were proper to S. Peter, in respect of his supreme di­gnity; it must needs be graunted, that he succedeth likewise in the place of the same dignity to S. Peter.

First therefore, he is called the head of the Church, Chalcedon. act. 1 which title the whole Councell of Chalce­don (for example) being one of the foure first, and receiued in England by act of Parliament, gaue to S. Leo, Bishop of Rome, in their Epistle to him; where also the Church of Rome is called the head of all Churches. Secondly,Epist. ad Dam. S. Hierome calleth Pope Da­masus, the foundation and Rock of the Church; and said, that he knew the Church to be buylt vpon him. S. Au­gustine likewise tearmeth the sea of Rome, the Rock of the Church. Thirdly, S. Ambrose intitleth Pope Si­ricius, the Pastour of the flock of our Lord. Fourthly,Epist. 81. ad Cyril. he is tearmed the Apostolicall man, his seat the Apostolicall Seat, his Office Apostleship, and his dignity Apostolicall sanctity, as you may easily obserue in the authori­tyes that follow; which words, without any other addition of place, or person, cannot be giuen to any, but to him alone. For, the like supreame au­thority and Iurisdiction vnto his, ouer the whole Church, hauing been granted only to the Apostles, and after there decease, being deriued from S. Peter the Prince of the Apostles, vnto the Pope alone; in these two respects the excellency of his vniuersall au­thority, descending from the Prince of the Apostles, is properly called Apostolicall; which tearme, by it selfe alone, without limitation, cannot therefor be giuen to any other. Fiftly, in the Councell of Chal­cedon, he was intitled, the vniuersall Archbishop, and Patriarch of great Rome; which stile, albeit S. Grego­ry refused, in the sense as it was vsed by Iohn Bishop of Constantinople, and that to abate his pryde, S. Gregory began to write himselfe neither Patriarch, [Page 80]nor Bishop, but Seruus seruorum Dei: yet he admitted the Councell of Chalcedon,Ioan Diac. in eius vita l. 2. cap. 1. in the particuler vse of this tearme, signifying, that the Pope was Bishop of the vniuersall Church; as also many of S. Gregoryes Predecessours had intitled themselues before him. Sixthly,Greg. l. 4. epist. 32. Bern. l. 2. de consid. S. Bernard among others, called the Pope, the Vicar of Christ. Stephen, Archbishop of Carthage, writing to Pope Damasus, in the name of three Affri­can Councells, directeth his Epistle, To the most Blessed Lord, aduanced with Apostolicall dignity, Apo­stolico culmine sublimato, the holy Father of Fathers, Damasus, Pope and chiefe Bishop of all Prelates. Last­ly, to be short, the word Pope, without any addition, is giuen only to the Pope. In which sense we read in the Chalcedon Councell, The most blessed and Aposto­licall Man, the Pope giueth vs this in charge: where also he is called,Act. 16. Pope of the vniuersall Church. And in the Breuiary of Liberatus we read, that none is Pope ouer the Church of the whole world, but only the Roman Bi­shop.

Thirdly, the succession of the Pope to S. Peter and the supreame authority of the Roman Church in regard thereof, is proued by the Councells; wher­of a long treatise might be made, but for breuityes sake, because the Protestants seeme to respect and reuerence, with S Gregory the great, the foure first generall Councells, as the foure Euangelists; and that they are also receiued by act of Parliament anno 10. of Queene Elizabeth, I will alleadge no other but those, and out of them so much alone, as may be sufficient to establish the Popes Supremacy: and to let you see, That if the Catholikes might be ad­mitted, [Page 81]to any kind of iust and equall try all; how easily it were for them to claime Toleration, & to iu­stify the Religion euen by the statutes at the cōmon Law, which are now in force in England.

The sixt Canon therefore, of the first Councell of Nice, beginneth in this manner: The Roman Church hath alwayes had Primacy: and, lot the ancient custome contynue in Aegypt, or Lybia, and Pen­tapolis; that the Bishop of Alexandria, haue power ouer them all, wherof (the reasō followeth) quoniam quidem & Episcopo Romano parilis mos est, which Bellarmine sheweth very well, that it can beare no other sense, but only this; That the Bishop of Alexandria ought to gouerne those prouinces, because the Roman Bi­shop hath been so accustomed; that is to say, because the Roman Bishop before this tyme, hath alwayes permitted the Bishop of Alexandria to gouerne those Countreyes, or because he hath alwayes vsed to go­uerne them by the Bishop of Alexandria. And so Ni­colas the first, in his Epistle to Michael, vnderstood the same. Vpon the reading of which Canon of the Councell of Nice, the Iudges in the Calcedon Coun­cell began and sayd: That they had well considered (per­pendimus) all Primacy and chiefe honour to be consirued according to the Canons, vnto the most beloued of God, the Archbishop of old Rome. Where you see the Prima­cy of the Pope acknowledged, not only in the Nicen, but also in the Calcedon Councells; which was ano­ther of the foure first, wherein this Canon was re­cyted, and allowed as hath been sayd.

Also in the third booke of the Nicen Coun­cell, in the three first Canons, taken out of the [Page 82]Epistle of Pope Iulius the first, are found these words: Councells ought not to be celebrated, Con̄. Nic. l. 3. Socra. l. 2. c. 13. Zozom. l. 3. cap 9. Nicepho. l. 9. cap. 5. Synod. A­lexand. without the sentence of the Roman Bishop. And againe: Bishops in more weighty causes may freely appedle to the Apostolike Sea, and sly thereunto, as to their Mother. And lastly: While the Bishop of the Apostolike Sea doth iudge againe (that is to say vpon appeale) the cause of any Bishop, no other may be ordayned in his place, that is then vpō his tryal. And the reason is giuen, because it is not permitted to end, or define such causes, before the Roman Bishop be con­sulted withall. For our Lord sayd vnto Peter: whatsoeuer thou shalt bynd &c. By which words you see, that the Pope is acknowledged to be the head of all Coun­cells; without whose sentence, they cannot be ce­lebrated or confirmed; and that he is the supreame head of the Church, vnto whome it is lawfull for all other Bishops to make their appeales.

Which last poynt of appellation is also more fully expressed and confirmed in the foruth and sea­uenth Canon of the generall Councell of Sardis, which was celebrated a very short tyme after the Nicen Councell, and is accompted to be as one ther­with, because the same Fathers for the most part were present in both, & nothing concerning Faith, was added of new in the latter. And therefore, not only Sozimus, but also Iulius, Innocentius, and Leo, seeme to cite these Canons, vnder the name of the Canons of the Nicen Councell. Lastly, in the 39. Canon of those of Nice, translated out of Greeke & Arabick, it is sayd in this mannor: A Patriarch is so aboue al those that are vnder his power, as he that holdeth the Sea of Rome, is head and Prince of all Patriarches; [Page 83]because he is the first, as Peter was, to whome was giuen power ouer all Christian Princes, and ouer all their people, as he that is the Vicar of Christ our Lord, ouer all people, & the vniuersall Christiā Church. And whosoeuer shall cōtra­dict it, is excōmunicated by the Synod. See the notes vpō this Canon, in the first Tome of the Councells, espe­cially in Binnius. And so much for the Nicen Coūcel.

The second Councell was that of Constantinople, where in the 3. alias 5. Canon, it is said, that the Bi­shop of Cōstantinople should haue the Primacy of honour after the Romā Bishop: wherby it is supposed as a thing most certayne, and a thing out of question; that the Romā Bishop had the Primacy, not only in honour, but also in Gouerment and Iurisdiction, wherof the Councell speaketh in that place, as appeareth out of the second Canon next preceding. The other part of this Canon, was not receiued for many hundred yeares after, because it was not cōfirmed by the Bi­shop of Rome (which also proueth his Primacy) vn­till at last the Roman Church consented, & then it began to take offect, as is manifest in the Coūcell of Lateran. Theod. l. 5. hist. c. 9. Also the same Councell in their Epistle to Pope Damasus, which is extant in Theodoret, do say; that they met togeather at Constantinople, by the commandement of the Popes letters sent vnto them by the Emperour, wherein they further acknowledge the Roman Church, to be the head, and they the members.

The third generall Councell was that of Ephe­sus, the Fathers whereof in their Epistle to Pope Celestine, acknowledge the Popes care of them, for fincerity in matter of Faith, to be most gratefull and plea­sing vnto the Sauiour of all. And say; that they imbrare [Page 84]it with all a miration and reuerence: and that it was the custome of those, in that high place (Vobis tam eximijs in more positum) to be renowned in all things, and to moke their studdyes, the solide stayes, and grounds of Churches. Wherein also they sayd, that necessity re­quired they should declare to his Holynes, all things which had passed in that Councell, shewing thereby their de­pendance of the Roman Bishop. And when the whole Councell had applauded the Popes letters, and followed his instructions, and that the Legates, comming in afterwards, had vnderstood the same, one of them,Tomo. 2. cap. 15. called Philip, thanked them; that with there pious voices and acclamations, they had submitted themselues, as holy members, to their holy head. For, sayth he; your happynes is not ignorant, that the Blessed Apostle Peter, was the head of the whole Fayth, and of all the rest of the Apostles. And further he saith, that Peter was the Vicar of Christ, constituted by him, and that he yet liued in his successour: and that, his successor and holy Vicar was the Roman Bishop: which speaches, the sacred Synode, was so far from detesting, that shewing conformity in the same fayth, they subscri­bed with them.Euag. lib. 1. hist. c. 4. Also the same Councell, as Euagrius recordeth, affirmed, that it deposed Nestorius (ex man­dato) by a commandement of the Popes letters. And the Fathers thereof in their Epistle to the Pope do write: that they presumed not to determine the cause of Iohn Patriarch of Antioch, which was more doubtfull then the cause of Nestorius, but that they reserued the same to the Pope himselfe.

The fourth generall Councell was that of Chalcedon, which confirmed the sixth Canon of [Page 85]the Councell of Nice, concerning the Primacy of the Bishop of Rome, as you haue heard. The superscrip­tions of the letters, or petitions to the Councell (all or many) were in this forme: To the most holy, and the most Bl [...]ssed, the vniuersall Archbishop, & Patriarch of great Rome, Leo; whereby he was acknowledged the head of the Councell: and those superscriptions were recorded by the Notaries, togeather with the acts of the sayd Councell. In the beginning wher­of Paschasius said in this manner: we haue in our hands the precepts of the most Blessed, and most Apostolike man, the Pope of Rome, who is head of all Churches, whereby his Apostleship hath pleased to cōmaund, that Dioscorus the Archbishop of the Alexandrians, should not sit in the Councell, & all the Councell obayed. And afterwards the letters of Pope Leo being read,Act. 2. all the Fathers of the Councell sayd, so we belieue; Peter hath spoken so by Leo. And in the third action, Leo is often called vniuersall Patriarch, and vniuersall Archbishop. And Iutianus one of the Bishops, sayd vnto one of the Po­pes Legates: that they held the Primacy of the most holy Leo, and desired them, as holding his place, to giue sen­tence against Dioscorus, wherunto the Councell con­sented, and sentence was giuen accordingly in the Popes name against him. In which Councell also Theodoretus, who was deposed by a Synod of Ephesus, being restored by the Pope, was admitted to enter with these words: Let the most reuerend B. Theodoret come in, and be made partaker of the Councell, because the most holy Archbishop Leo hath restored his Bishoprick vnto him. S. Thomas of Aquin recitoth out of the same Councell, the confirmation of appeales, of all [Page 86]Bishops accused of any great cryme to the Pope of Rome, and that other things defined by him should be held or receiued, as from the Vicar of the Apostolike Throne: and that the whole Councel made this acclamation to Pope Leo; Let the most holy. Apostolike, and vniuer­sall Patriarch liue many yeares. Lastly, the same Coū ­cell in their Epistle to Leo, confesse him to be their head, and they the members; & speaking of the wic­kednes of Eutiches; after all this, say they, ouer and aboue, he extended his madnes, euen against him, to whom the custody of the vineyard was committed by our Sauiour (that is) against thy Apostolicall Holynes: and he thought to excommunicate thee, that doest hasten to vnite the body of the Church. And in cōclusion with many faire words, they desire him to grant vnto them, that the Church of Constantinople, might haue the second place, after the Apostolike Sea: which notwith­standing he would not grant them, nor was it gran­ted by his successours, for a long tyme after.

And thus much of the foure first generall Coūcells, which they that receiue them according to the Statute, must needs grant, that the Pope hath al­ways had Primacy; that he is the successor to S. Peter, the head of the whole fayth, & of all the rest of the Apostles, and the vicar of Christ, & the like: That his care and study, is the ground and foundation of the Church; that he is the vniuersall Archbishop & head of the Church; that no Councells ought to be celebrated without his sentence; that it is necessary the Councells should declare vnto him what passed in them; that whatsoeuer he defined, should be re­ceiued, as from the vicar of Christ; That causes of [Page 87]great difficulty must be referred vnto him; that all Bishops may appeale vnto him, & to the Church of Rome, as to their Mother; that he commaundeth in Councells; that he may depose Patriarches, & restore them that be deposed. And lastly, that the decrees of Councells take no effect, without his confent and confirmation.

SECTION XI. The Popes Supremacy is proued out of the point of the infallibility of his doctrine, by the Authorityes of the ancient Fathers.

FOVRTHLY therefore, the Catholikes in de­fence of this doctrine of the Popes Supremacy, produce the authorityes of all the ancient Fathers, nubem testium, a bright and great cloud of witnesses to inlighten the obscurity of fayth, in this vale of darknes. Which if I should go about to set downe at large, I should be infinite. Wherefore to contract this copious matter, I will alleadg some of those who teach, that the authority of the Pope of Rome, and the Church of Rome, as vnited with the Pope, ought to be receiued in matters of Faith; whereof it must needs follow, that the Pope succeedeth S. Peter, and that, as vpon S. Peter, in respect of his faith, so also in his place vpon the Pope the Church is so built in such manner, as that the gates of Hell shall not preuayle against it.

But before I begin, I would haue you ob­serue, that it is all one to affirme the sea of Rome, to [Page 88]be the Rocke of the Church, or the Pope to succeed S. Peter in his Pastorall Office, or to giue vnto the Pope any of those titles, which are proper to S. Peter, as to say expresly, that neither the one, nor the o­ther can fayle in teaching the true faith, because these former assertions, and the like do imply, that the promise made vnto S. Peter, doth belong also to the Pope & his seat, and that the fayth or doctrine, which the Pope teacheth, can suffer no defect, be­cause, according to the words of our Sauiour, the stability and duration of the Church dependeth of it. And therefore it is manifest, that the Fathers do signify thereby, that the Church of Rome, was not only the true Church in their dayes, or that the Pope did not teach any false doctrine in their times, as some Protestants seeme to vnderstand them; but also that the truth was alwayes to continue therein, and that the Pope could neuer erre in matter of Fayth, grounding themselues, as I haue sayd, vpon the promise of Christ to S. Peter: and that you may not doubt of this, I thought good to proue the su­premacy of the Pope out of the infalibility of do­ctrine, which the Fathers acknowledge to be inse­parable from the Pope, and sea of Rome.

The first that I thinke fit to produce in this matter is the great Athanasius, who withstood himselfe alone, the force and fury of foure Empe­rours, and sustained the persecution of all the Arian heretikes, and (a man may say) of all the Easterne world against him. He was Patriarch of Alexan­dria, at that tyme the second seat after Rome, & was a principall man both in the Councell of Nice, and [Page 89]also in that of Sardis. In which sacred Schooles in respect of his excellent vertues, it might perchance be truly sayd, that he deserued the place of a maister. But it is prayse sufficient, that he shewed himselfe a most renowned scholer of those renowned maisters. He therfore that had receiued the spirit of the Nicen Councell, and wrote according to the sense and do­ctrine of the Fathers therof, saluted Marke the Bi­shop of Rome in this manner:Athan. ep. ad Marc. To our most holy Lord venerable with Apostolicall dignity, Marke, the Father of the holy, Roman, and Apostolicall seat, and of the vni­uersall Church, Athanasius & the Bishops of East health, and afterwards in his letters, he acknowledgeth the Roman Church, to be the Mother of all Churches; and vseth also these words: We are yours, and vnto you, with all those committed to our charge, we are obedient, and euer will be. And in his epistle to Felix the second, he with the other Bishops of Aegipt do say,In tom. 1. Concil. that they suggest to his holy Apostleship, that it would please him, according to his custome to haue care of them; ‘that they and theirancestors had receiued help from his holy Apostolike seat; that according to the de­crees of the Canons, they beseech the sayd Aposto­like, & highest seat, to giue them help, from whence their Predecessours had receiued ordinations, rules of doctrine, and other helpes; that they haue recour­se vnto the Roman Church, as to their Mother; that he was Peter, and vpon his foundation the pillars of the Church, that is the Bishops (say they) are set and confirmed, that they presume not without his counsell to define any matter of fayth, the Ca­nons commaunding, that without the Roman Bi­shop, [Page 90]in the more weighty causes, nothing ought to be determyned;’ that the iudgment of all Bishops is committed to his seat. And they expound the place of Matthew 16. of the Primacy thereof, and confirme all that they say with the authority of the Nicen Councell: whereupon you must needs grant, that none can write a better cōment, then those ex­cellent men, that were present at it.

After Athanasius, shall follow those other Fathers, who haue recorded the succession of the Popes of Rome to S. Peter, & thereupon compare the fayth of the one, with the faith of other, & the fayth of the Catholike Church, with that of Rome, in re­gard of the Popes person, in whome the immediate gouernement of that sea, & the supremacy of S. Peter are both vnited.Ireneaeus lib. 3. cap. 3. Ancient Irenaeus, scholler to Policarp the disciple of S. Iohn teacheth, that the Church of Rome, is the greatest, and the most ancient; that it is knowne to all men, founded and established by the two glo­rious Apostles Peter, and Paul; and that the Catholikes shewing the tradition, which it receiued from the Apo­stles, and that faith which was deliuered to all, comming downe by succession of the Bishops thereof, euen vnto their tyme, they did thereby confound all those that gathered otherwise then they ought, by selfe conceit, or vayne glory, or blindnes, or false knowledge. Wherein you see, he supposeth the true fayth to be preserued in the Ro­man seat, by meanes of the succession of the Bishop therof, to S. Peter, and S. Paul, and that all those are confounded thereby, that do hold any contrary doctrine; whereof immediatly after he giueth the reason, saying: For necessarily euery Church, must haue [Page 91]recourse and accord with the Church of Rome, in respect of her more powerfull principality: So that all those that do not accord therewith, hauing their principality from the Apostles, are vtterly confounded by it. And a little after: The blessed Apostles (sayth he) founding and instructing the Church, deliuered the Episcopall care of the gouernment therof to Linus, setting downe suc­cessiuely the names of all the Popes vntill his tyme. Where I would haue you note, that he maketh no difference betweene the Roman Church, and the Church in generall, which he sayth, the Apostles instructed and left to Linus.

Epiphanius also relating exactly the same suc­cession of the Popes to S. Peter, Epiphan. har. 27. addeth that no man should meruaile, why the same is so particulerly recounted. For, sayth he, by those thinges (that is to say,In ancorat. circaprinc. by this particuler succession) clarity is alwayes shewed, mea­ning that the knowledge of this succession, was ne­cessary for the clarity, and knowledge of the Ca­tholike doctrine. And therefore els where he sayth, that his succession is the firme Rocke, vpon the which the Church is built, and that the gates of hell, which are He­retikes, and Arch-heretikes, shall not preuayle against it. For absolutely, the fayth is firmed in him, that receiued the keyes, and looseth in earth, and bindeth in Heauen. So Epiphanius, who teacheth plainly as you see, that the true Fayth cannot be separated from the Seat of S. Peter.

S. Hierome likewiseLib. de praescript. Eccles. in Clemen. briefly declareth this succession, and notablyEpist. ad Dam. deliuereth his sentencè concerning his doctrine. Although (sayth he to Pope Damasus) thy greatnes doth feare me, yet thy [Page 92]humanity doth inuite me; being a sheep, I craue the help of my Sheepheard. I speake with the successour of the Fi­sher, and with the disciple of the Crosse. I following no chiefe but Christ, do associate my selfe with the commu­nion of thy Beatitude, that is, of the Chayre of Peter. Vpon that Rocke, I know the Church to be buylt: whosoe­uer out of this house shall eate the lamb, he is prophane: whosoeuer is not found in the Arke of Noë, shall perish with the floud. And a little after, he that gathereth not with thee, scattereth, that is, he that is not of Christ, is of Antichrist. Where most euidently, he calleth the Chayre of the Pope, the Chayre of Peter, and the Rocke of that Church, out of which there is no sal­uation; and that he, who gathereth not with the Pope, is not of Christ, but of Antichrist. Yea so much he grounded him selfe vpon the authority of the Pope, that he affirmed he would not be affrayd to say, that there were three hypostases in the Tri­nity, if the Pope should bid him. And againe, in the end of his exposition of the Creed to Pope Da­masus. This is the Catholike fayth (sayth he) most bles­sed Pope, which we haue learned of the Catholike Church, wherein if any thing be lesse skillfully, or lesse warily set downe, we desire that it may be corrected by thee, that dost hold the fayth, and the seat of Peter. But if this our confession shall be approued by thy Apostleship, whosoeuer will accuse me, shall shew himselfe, either to be ignorant, or maleuolous, or perchance no Catholike, but me to be an heretike he shall not proue. Where he fignifyeth, that none can be heretikes,Lib. 1. ap­pol cont. Ruff. who suffer themselues to be corrected by the Popes authority. And concerning the Roman Church, speaking against Ruffinus he [Page 93]sayth: What fayth is that, which he calleth his? If he answere, the Roman fayth: ergo, Catholici sumus, then are we both Catholikes; where he teacheth plainly the Catholike and the Roman fayth to be the same.Lib. 3. ap­pol. cont. Ruff. And in the same treatise, know (sayth he) that the Roman fayth praysed by the voyce of the Apostles, doth not receiue any such illusions, although an Angell should teach otherwise, then hath beene once preached.

With S. Hierome must go accompanyed S. Augustine, who in his answere to the letters of a cer­taine Donatist, vrging the perpetuall duration of the Catholike Church, built vpon Peter according to the promisse of our Sauiour, recounteth aboue fourty Popes, deducing them successiuely from S. Peter to Anastasius, who was Pope at that tyme, and then concludeth; that in all that order of succession, Epist. 165. no Donatist Bishop could be found: by which discourse he would proue, that the Donatists were not the true Church, because no Pope, or head of the Church was euer Donatist. Which in the same place he fur­ther confirmeth, by answering a secret obiection, that the Pope might erre, because a wicked man might be Pope: For (sayth he) though some traytor or Iudas should haue entred into that rancke or order, yet this could nothing preiudice the Church, nor the innocent Christians, or beleeuers, for whom our Lord had prouided by saying of euill gouernours, do what they say, but do not what they do, for they say, and do not; to the end, that the assured hope of the faythfull relying it selfe not vpon mā, but vpon God (or vpon the word of our Sauiour) they might neuer be deuyded by tempest of sacrilegious Schism. Where he proueth, that no euill Pope can erre, be­cause [Page 94]if that could be, the innocent Christians fol­lowing our Sauiours commaundment, should be thereby deceiued,Cont. ep. Fundamē ­ti cap. 4. and deuyded in Schisme. And therfore he also professeth, that the succession of Priests from the seat of Peter vnto the Bishop liuing in his time, held him in the Catholike Church; making that an ar­gument of the true doctrine therof. And comparing the communion of the Apostolike head, with the members, to the vnion of the mystical vine with the branches;In psal. cont. part. Donat. he exhorteth the Donatists thereunto in these words. Come brethren, if you please, that you may be grafted in the vyne: It is a grief vnto vs, when we see you to lye thus cut off. Number the Priests euen from the very seat of Peter, and in that order of Fathers, see who, and to whome each one succeeded. That seat is the Rocke, which the proude gates of Hell do not ouercome, vnder standing thereby, that they who were cut off from the communion of that seat and succession, were also cut off from the Church of Christ; and that according to the promise of our Sauiour, neither they, nor their errours should be able to prouayle a­gainst it.Lib. 2. cōt. duas epist. Pelag. Lib. 1. cont. lūli. cap. 4. And affirming against the Pelagians, that the antiquity of the Catholike fayth, was cleerly knowne, by the letters of venerable Innocentius the Pope, he infer­reth; that to departe from his sentence, was to straggle from the Roman Church; making it by this inferrence a certaine signe of departure from the Church of Christ. And rebuking a certaine Pelagian: Me thinkes (sayth he) that part of the world should suffice thee (meaning for his beliefe in matters of fayth) wherein our Lord would that the chiefe of his Apostles, should be crowned with a most glorious Martyrdome; vnto [Page 95]the President of which Church, being the blessed Inno­centius, if thou wouldest haue giuen care, long since in the dangerous tyme of thy youth, thou hadst freed thy selfe from the snares of Pelagians. For what could that holy man answeare to the Affrican Countells, but that which the Apostolike seat, and the Roman Church doth anciently hold with other? Wherein he teacheth, that the definition of the Pope ought to suffice vs, and that he cannot determine otherwise then according to the ancient Fayth.

Optatus likewise, recounteth the lyneall suc­cession of the Popes, and beginneth the same in this manner. Therefore the Chayre is vnited, which is the first of her gists: therein Peter sate the first, to whome succeeded Linus &c. numbring the rest vnto Siricius, who liued in his tyme. And a little before he sayth, it ought to be seene, who sate first in the Chayre, & where he sate. And afterwards; tho [...] canst not deny; but thou knowest that the Episcopall Chayre was giuen first to S. Peter, in the Citty of Rome, wherin Peter the head of all the Apostles sate: in which one Chayre, vnity ought to be kept of all men: Signifying therby, that Peter the head of all the Apostles, sate first therin, to shew that all those, that are members of the Church, are bound to vnite themselues vnto it.

Tertullian is also one of those, that describeth the Catalogue of the Roman Bishops, which he composeth in verse, beginning with S. Peter, and ending with Higinius, Pius, Anicetus. And in his booke of Prescriptions he sayth: thou hast Rome, whose authority vnto vs also is ready at hand; so giuing his reader to vnderstand, that the authority of Rome [Page 96]was an argument euer ready to confute an heretike. And thē followeth, A Church happy in her state, to whō the Apostles powred forth (or gaue abundantly) their whole doctrine, togeather with their bloud; meaning no doubt, that they powred forth their whole doctrine into it, to be preserued therin for euer, in respect wherof he tearmeth it happy per excellentiam, which Irenaeus doth more fully expresse, when he sayth, that we must not go to others to seeke the truth, which we may easily haue from the Church, Irenaeus l. 3. cap 3. wherein the Apostles, as it were in a most rich treasure, haue layd togeather all those things, which are of truth, that from thence, euery one who will may receiue the same. And thus much of those Fathers that do not only set downe the Popes suc­cession to S. Peter, Tom. 1. Cōcil. ante Concil. Calced. but also plainly teach, that his fayth cannot fayle, because he holdeth the place of Peter, wherein none of the other Fathers disagree, or dissent from thē. Petrus Chrysologus in his epistle to Euthiches the Heretike, condemned afterward in the Calcedon Councel, exhorteth him in this māner. We exhort thēe venerable brother, to attend attentiuely vnto those things which are written from the most blessed Pope of the Citty of Rome. For blessed Peter liuing and gouerning in that his proper seat, gaue the truth of fayth, to all those that secke it: which may serue for a cleere exposition of the words of Tertullian, and Irenaeus a­fore sayd.

Prosper, S. Augustines Scholler, inferreth as most absurd,Prosp. cōt. Collit. cap. 20. that according to the cēsure of his aduersary, Pope Innocentius should haue erred, a man (sayth he) most worthy of the Seat of Peter. And likewise, that the holy Seat of Blessed Peter should haue erred, which spake [Page 97]vnto the whole world, by the mouth of Pope Sozimus.Cap. 41. And againe; that Pope Innocentius strock the heads of wicked errour, with the Apostolicall dagger. And that Pope Sozimus with his sentence gaue force to the Affrican Councells: and armed the hands of all the Fathers with the sword of Peter, to the cutting off, of the wicked. And that Rome by the principality of Apostolicall Preisthood, De vocat. gentium lib. 2. was made greater by the Arke of Religion, then by the Throne of secular power.

S. Ambrose sayth,Ambros. cap. 3 1. ad Tim. that though all the world be of God, yet his house is sayd to be the Church, wherof at this day Damasus is the Rector. And els where. He de­maunded the Bishop (sayth he) whether he agreed with the Catholike Bishops; that is, whether he agreed with the Roman Church. Orat. in Satyrum. In which words he maketh it all one, to agree with the Church of Rome, and with the Catholike Church. And againe he saith,Lib. 1. ep. 4. ad Im­peratores. that the clemency of the Pope should be intreated, not to suf­fer the head of the whole Reman world, the Romā Church and that inuiolable Fayth of the Apostles to be disquieted, because from thence did flow the Lawes of venerable com­munion vnto all.

Saint Cyprian, besides that he teacheth as you haue heard, the cause of an Heresy & Schisme to be,Epist. 55. ad Cornel. Epist. 40. Ib. lib. 4. epist. 8. for that one Priest, and one Iudge for the tyme, is not acknowledged in the Church of God: And that there is one chayre, buylt by the voyce of our Lord, vpon S. Peter, that whosoeuer gathereth els where scattereth, which S. Hierome expoundeth (as you haue heard) not to be with Christ, but with Antichrist; being to signify vnto the Pope, that one to whome he wrote, did communicate with the Pope, expounding himselfe [Page 98]he sayth:Epist. 52. that is, with the Catholike Church. Where he also maketh it all one, to communicate with the Pope, and to accord with the Catholike Church. And complayning of certayne Heretikes, he vseth these words:Epist. 55. ad Cornelium. They are so bold as to sayle vnto the chayre of Peter, & to the principall Church, from whence Priest­ly vnity doth proceed: not considering that they are Ro­manes, whose Faith is praysed by the preaching of the Apostle; vnto whome, no falshood can haue accesse. Gi­uing thereby to vnderstand, that it was in vayne for Heretikes to imagine that the Sea of Peter, or the Roman Church could be deceiued by them.

S. Cyril desired to know of Pope Celestine, Cyril. ep. 18. & tom. 1. Concil. Ephes. cap. 10. & cap. 14. whether he would communicate any longer with Nestorius the Heretike, for that he presumed not to separate himselfe frō him, without the Popes know­ledge: vnto whome Pope Celessine answered: that with the authority of his Sea (the Popes) and with the power of his place, as his Vicar, he should with all diligence execute the sentence of excommunication &c. Where­unto S. Cyril obayed. Who also, in his booke, called the booke of Treasury, as S. Thomas doth alledge him, hath these words: as Christ receiued most full po­wer from his Father; Opusc. 1. cont. err. Graec. cap. 32. §. Ha­betur. so also most fully he committed the same to S. Peter and his Successours. Againe, vnto no other then vnto Peter, but vnto him alone, he gaue; quod suum est plenum, the fulnes of his power. And a­gaine,D. Thom. in catena. Matt. 16. according to this promise of our Lord (meaning that of the 16. of S. Matthew) the Apostolike Church of Peter, doth remayne immaculate from all seduction, and Hereticall circumuention, in the Bishops thereof, in the most full Faith and authority of Peter, ouer all the [Page 99]Primates of the Churches, and their people. Againe,D. Tho. op. cōt. Graec. all according to the diuine law bow downe their heads to Peter, and the Primates of the world obayed him as our Lord Iesus Christ himselfe. And S. Thomas sayth fur­ther, that it is necessary to saluation to be vnder the Roman Bishop: prouing the same out of other words of S. Cyril in the same booke, saying. Therefore bre­thren, if we follow Christ, let vs heare his voyce as his sheep, remayning in the Church of Peter: which testimo­nyes, albeit now they are not found in that volume of S. Cyrils, because (as it is knowne) many bookes thereof haue perished; yet in respect of the authority of S. Thomas, no question can be made of the true allegation of them.

Lastly, not to be ouer tedious, I will conclude with the testimony of S. Bernard, who imploring the Popes authority against a new Heresy then arising, saith: All dangers and scandalls arising in the Kingdome of God, especially which concerne Faith, ought to be refer­red to your Apostleship. For I thinke it conuenient, that the domages of the Faith, should there especially be amen­ded, where Faith can feele no defect. For this is the pre­rogatiue of that sea &c.

SECTION XII. The Popes Supremacy is proued by his being priuiledged from errour in doctrine of Faith; out of the Authorityes of the Popes themselues.

HAVING thus proued the Popes Supremacy, by the foure first general Councells, and by the [Page 100]testimonyes of the Fathers, not only in generall: but also in the particuler poynt of their infallible do­ctrine, which is most in Controuersy betwene you and vs; according as your patience and the straitnes of a letter will permit: It is now expedient in this place, to shew how the Catholikes demonstrate the same, by the authorityes of the Popes themselues. For how much lesse the protestants esteem of them, so much the more, the holy Fathers as you haue seen, do magnify and extoll them: submitting themselues no lesse to their decrees, then to the sentences, and definitions of generall Councells. Suarez in his an­swere to the Kings booke, alleadgeth the authori­tyes of more then fourty Popes within the first 600. yeares, for the power, dignity, and succession of their Supremacy. Who being men, chosen by the spirit of God, and of the primitiue Church, in respect of their wisedome, and excellent gifts for the go­uerment thereof: and the most of them being decla­red and acknowledged for Saints and Martyrs, by the whole Christian world; I cannot tell with what face any man that beareth but the name of a Chri­stian, can deny their authority. For breuities sake o­mitting the most and greatest part, I will first pro­duce some of those Popes, that challenge to them­selues the like stability in Faith and doctrine, as the Fathers grant vnto them, according to the word and promise of our Sauiour made to S. Peter their predecessour: and afterwards, I will likewise proue their Supremacy in gouernment, and Iudiciall po­wer ouer the Church of Christ.

Fabianus, acknowledgeth, that he was bound by [Page 101]the diuine precepts and Apostolicall ordinations, to watch ouer the state of all Churches. Epist. 1. That others were bound to know the sacred rites of the Roman Church, which was called their Mother. Epist. 3. ad Hilarium. And that he was aduanced to that Priestly height, to forbid those things which were vnlaw­full, and to teach those things that were to be followed.

Lucius the first, in his Epistle to the Bishops of Spayne, and France, saith;Epist. 1. that the Roman Church is Apostolike, and the Mother of all Churches, which was proued neuer to haue erred from the path of the Apo­stolike tradition, nor to haue byn depraued with Hereticall nouelty: according to the promise of our Lord, saying: I haue prayed for thee &c. which promise you know can neuer fayle; and therefore the Roman Church can neuer erre, as being vnited to S. Peter and his successours, to whome the promise was made.

Felix the first, likewise sayth, that as the Ro­man Church, receiued in the beginning, Epist. ad Benignū. the rule of Chri­stian Faith, from her authours, or founders, the Princes of Christs Apostles; so it remayneth vntouched, according to that, I haue prayed for thee &c.

Agatho likewise, in his Epistle to the Em­perour Constantine, which was read and and approued in the 6 generall Councell, sayth. This is the rule of the true Faith, which the Apostolike Church of Christ, both in prosperity and aduersity hath liuely held &c. be­cause, it was sayd to Peter, I haue prayed &c. here our Lord promised, that the Faith of Peter should not fayle; and admonished him to confirme his brethren, which the Apostolike Bishops, the predecessours of my littlenesse, as all men know, haue alwayes fulfilled.

Simplicius, Epist. 1. in his Epistle to Zeno the Empe­rour [Page 104]calling him sonne, and exhorting him to defend the Faith, he sayth; for the same rule of Apostolicall do­ctrine doth abyde fast in his successours (speaking of Pope Leo) to whome our Lord inloyned the care of his whole flock: where you see, he acknowledgeth tho doctrine of the Pope to be a rule of Faith, which was to remayne according to the institution of our Saui­our. And els where he saith notably as followeth. The doctrine of the holy memory of our Predecessors being extant (against the which it is not lawfull to dispute) whosoeuer doth seeme to be rightly wise, hath no need of new instructions.

Eusebius, in his Epistle to the Bishops of Tus­cany and Campania sayth,Epist. 3. that the sentence of our Lord Iesus Christ, cannot be pretermitted, which sayth, thou art Peter &c. And those words which were then spoken, are proued true, by the effects of things; because in the A­postolike sea, the Catholike religion hath alwayes byn kept without spot.

Gelasius likewise sayth: That the Apostolicall sea is very carefull, not to be stained with any contagion of prauity, or false doctrine, because the glorious confession of the Apostle (Peter) is the roote. For, sayth he: If any such thing should happen, Epist. ad Anastas. August. which we assure our selues can neuer be, how should we presume to resist any errour &c. Where you see he proueth, that the Apostolike seat, is priuiledged from errour; being grounded vpon the confession of S. Peter, whereunto our Sa­uiour promised that stability, which is fit for the roote, and rocke of truth.

Felix the 2. in his answere to Athanasius, and to the Aegyptian Bishops, vnderstandeth like­wise [Page 103]the words of Christ, Matthew 16.23. to be meant of the Roman Sea.Lib. 4. ep. 32. cont. Ioan. Ep. Constant.

Gregory the Great sayth: That it is manifest to all that know the Ghospell, that vnto S. Peter the prince of the Apostles, the care of the whole Church was com­mitted, to whome it was sayd, Feed my sheep;Lib. 6. in­dict. 15. c. 37. alias 201. I haue prayed for thee &c. thou art Peter &c. And els where he relate than epistle of Enlogius the Patriarch of A­lexandria, acknowledging the Chayre of Peter to be the sea of Rome, and then he addeth: Who is it, Lib. 7. ep. 125. that knoweth not, the holy Church to be founded on the solidity of the prince of the Apostles? For the which cause he teacheth also, that those things, Lib. 3. ep. 41. which haue beene once decreed, by the authority of the Apostolike sea, do need no other confirmation. And he admonisheth Bonifacius, in one of his epistles, to take heed that his soule be not found deuyded from the Church [...] Blessed Peter, least he being despised heere in this worth should shut the gate of life against him in the next.

And to adde one or two more of some what latter tymes, Nicolaus 1. in his epistle to Michael the Emperour sayth: The priuiledges of that [...] the Ro­man) are perpetually rooted, and planned by God; they may be thrust at, they cannot be transferred; they may be pulled, they cannot be placked vp. The same which were before your raigne, remaine, God be thanked, hither to vn­touched, and shall remaine after you, and as long as the name of Christ is preached, they shall not leaue to subsist.

To conclude, Leo the 9. auoucheth: That by the sea of the Prince of the Apostles, the Roman Church, and as well by S. Peter himselfe, as by his successours, the deuices of all Heretikes haue beene reproued, conuicted, & [Page 104]beaten downe, and the harts of the brethren haue beene confirmed in the fayth of Peter, which hitherto hath not fayled, nor shall euer sayle hereafter.

SECTION XIII. The Popes supremacy in Iudiciall authority is proued out of the testimonies of the Popes themselues.

THVS far we haue alleadged the authority of the Popes themselues for their supremacy, in mat­ters of Fayth, and for the infallibility of their do­ctrine. It followeth now to produce the like resti­monyes of Popes for their Supremacy, in some spe­ciall poynts of Iurisdiction and gouernement ouer the Church of God [...]rst therfore, concerning their authority, in calling and confirming of Councells, besides that which hath beene sayd already; out of the first foure generall Councells;Marcel. Marcellus, who dyed about the yeare of Christ 310. in his epistle to the Bishops of the prouince of Antioch affirmeth, that [...]o Synod, or Councell can be lawfully made, without au­thority of the Roman sea. Iulius. Iulius the first, in his epist­le ad Orientales, calling the Roman sea the first, sayth, That vnto it, belongeth the right of assembling Synodes, of iudging Bishops, and of reseruing the greater causes vnto it selfe, because it is preferred before the rest, not only by the decrees of Canons and holy Fathers, but also by the voice of our Lord and Saniour. Leo. Epist. 47. Leo the first, in his epistle to the Calcedon Councell, signifyed; that it was the will of the Emperour, that the Councell [Page 105]should be assembled, sauing the right and honour of the most blessed Peter the Apostle. And further he sayth: That by his vicar, he was the President therof. And in his epistle to Putcheria the Empresse, speaking of the decrees of that Synod, concerning the honour of the second seat to be giuen to the Church of Constanti­nople, he sayth, that by the authority of Blessed Peter the Apostle, with a generall definition, he did vtterly disanull them, and make them voyd. Gelasius likewise,Gelasius. in his epistle ad Dardanos, doth auouch, that the A­postolicall seat confirmed all Synods, and that no Bishop can auoyd his iudgment.

More in particuler concerning the Iuris­diction of the Roman sea ouer Bishops, and in grea­ter causes, Anicetus in his Epistle doth say:Anicetus. That it belongeth to him, to determine the iudgments of all Bi­shops. The like hath Elcutherius in his epist. cap. 2.Eleuthe­rius. Victor. And Victor in his epistle to Theophilus sayth, that to do the contrary, is nothing els, but to transgresse the bounds of the Apostles, and their successours, & to violate their decrees. Felix likewise sayd,Felix. ep. 1. that the greater causes of the whole Church, were reserued vnto him.

Melchiades in his epistle to the Bishops of Spaine saying, that it appertayned vnto him to iudg of Bishops, addeth these wordes following:Melchia­des. For these (meaning Bishops) our Lord reserued to his owne iud­gment, and this priuiledge he committed alone to the Blessed key-bearer Peter in his place; which prerogatiue doth iustly accrew to his sea, to hold and inherit the same, in all future tymes; because euen among the Apostles, there was some distinction of power. Bonifacius in his 2. epistle to the Bishops of France,Bonifacius. speaking of the [Page 106]iudgment of Bishops,In Apol. 2. pro A­thans. in weighty causes, concludeth thus: It is necessary, that they be confirmed by our au­thority. Iulius the first, in his epistle ad Orientales, in the cause of Athanasius the Patriarch of Alexan­dria,Iulius. asketh them, whether they were ignorant that it was the custome to write vnto his Church; if any Bishop were called in question of suspition, that from thence, that which was iust, might be defined? And a little after he sayth therof: Those thinges, which we receiued from the blessed Peter the Apostle, we fignify vnto you, which I would not haue written, imagining that they were known vnto you, vnles the facts themselues had troubled you.

Gelasius in his epistle to the Bishops of Dar­dania sayth:Gelasius. ‘That the Church of Rome, hath the knowledge of all things through the world, because the sea of the Blessed Peter the Apostle, hath autho­rity to dissolue whatsoeuer hath beene bound by the sentence of any other Bishops as vnto whome it be­longeth to iudge of all Churches; neither is it law­full for any other to iudge of her iudgment.Sixtus 2. Epist. 1. Sixtus 2. pronounceth, that it is lawfull for Bishops to ap­peale, vnto the Apostolike sea, to whose dispositi­on the ancient authority of the Apostles, and their successours, and of the Canons, hath reserued all the greater Ecclesiasticall causes, and the iudgment of Bishops, because Bishops are blamed, that deale o­therwise with their brethren, then is pleasing to the Pope of that seat.Damasus Theod. lib. 5. hist. c. 1 Damasus, in his epistle to the Bi­shops of Numidia, admonisheth them, that they should not permit, to deferre vnto him, as their head, all things which might be subiect to disputation,’ or question, as the custome (sayth he) hath alwayes [Page 107]beene. Lastly, concerning the ordination of Bi­shops,Leo. Epist. 82. Leo, writing to his vicar in the East, the Bi­shop of Thessalonia, commaundeth, that the Metropo­litan should certify his vicar of the person of the Bishop that was to be consecrated, & of the consent of the clergy, and of the people, that with his authority, the ordination which was duly celebrated, might be confirmed. And S. Gregory, in his epistle to Constantia the Empresse,Gregorius aduertising her, that the Bishop of Salonae (a Prede­cessour of this our fugitiue Bishop; who is now with you) was ordayned without his knowledge, or the priuity of his vicar, or legate (Responsalis) addeth concerning the same, & facta res est; and such a thing is done, as neuer hapned vnder any of our former Princes.

SECTION XIIII. The Popes Supremacy is proued by the auncient and continuall practise thereof, in the Catholike Church.

THVS hauing proued the Supremacy of the Pope, as well in matter of fayth, as in iurisdi­ction and gouernement, by the sentences of so many Popes, which according to the doctrine of the Fathers, are aboue all exceptions, and permit no answere from any man that would be accompted a Catholike: It remayneth for the conclusion, and most full and absolute proofe of this matter to con­firme the same, by the receiued practise therof, and approued execution of this authority in the Church [Page 108]of God, which I will do very briefly, because I con­sider, that I haue dwelt too long in this, matter al­ready. Wherefore concerning Councells, it shall be sufficient to say; that such as haue resisted the Pope, or his Legates in their definitions, haue al­wayes erred, as the second Councell of Ephesus, and the Councell of Constantinople, in the tyme of Ni­colaus the first, and that such Councells as were reie­cted by the Pope, haue had no authority in the Church of Christ. Whereof Gelasius the Pope giueth many examples in his booke (de Anathemate) and in his epistle to the Bishops of Dardania. And in par­ticuler, Theodoretus speaking of the Councell of Ari­minum sayth: That it ought not to haue any force, the Bishop of Rome, whose sentence before all other was to be expected, not consenting thereunto. And in the Coun­cell of Chalcedon, Dioscorus the Patriarch of Alexan­dria, was commaunded not to sit amongst the Bi­shops, because he presumed to call a Councell with­out the authority of the Apostolike seat:Epist. ad Solitar. Quod num­quam licuit, numquam factum est, which (say they) was neuer lawfull, was neuer done. And the famous Atha­nasius speaking of Constantius the Arian Emperour, who tooke vpon him to be president in a Councell which he assembled at Millane: Who (sayth he) see­ing him to make himself Prince of Bishops in their decrees and president in their Ecclesiasticall iudgment, may not worthily say, that he is the same abhomination of desola­tion, which was fortold by the Prophet Daniel?

And as for the sentence of the Pope, all­wayes receiued in matter of fayth, that may suffice, which Bellarmine sayth: That if for the extinguishing [Page 109]of 7. Heresyes, the first seauen generall Councells were called, aboue a 100. heresyes haue been extin­guished by the Apostolike sea alone, with the help of particuler Councells; yet I cannot omit to con­firme the same by some few examples. A Cōtrouer­sy being risen about the dignity of the holy Ghost, Zozomenus recordeth: That the Bishop of Rome, Lib. 6. cap. 22. being aduertised therof, wrote his letters to the Bi­shops of the East, that they should belieue, togea­ther with the Bishops and Priests of the West, the Blessed Trinity to be consubstantiall, and equall in glory: Which being done (sayth he) and the matter being iudged by the Roman Church, all men were quiet: and so that Cōtrouersy seemed to haue an end. Prosper. cōt. Collat. cap. 41. S. Prosper sayth, that Innocentius of blessed memory, stroke vpon the head of the wicked Pelagian heresy, with his Aposto­licall dagger: and that Celestine deliuered our Countrey from that disease. And a little after, that by his care Scotland was made Christian.

In the second age or Century of the Church, in the tyme of those horrible persecutions, the Con­trouersy of rebaptizing those that were bapti­zed by heretikes, began to grow hoat, and the tem­pest was so great, that if it did not cast downe some principall bulwarkes of the Church, it made the strongest Towers to shake. At which tyme, in ha­tred of Heretikes, Firmilianus an excellent man; with the other Bishops of the East decreed rebaptization in the case aforesayd, and that those were to be pu­nished, that doubted thereof. In Africa S. Cyprian, and very many other Bishops ioyning with him, in sundry Councells declared their opinions in fauour [Page 110]thereof, though they would not condemne the rest of the world, that practised the contrary. In Aegipt also Dionisius Patriarch of Alexandria, any other sin­guler ornament of that age, inclyned to the opinion of S. Cyprian But then the authority of S. Peter, in his successor Pope Steuen, did well appeare, who with no other armes, but with the tradition of his Predecessors sustavned the brunt of so many most famous, both Orientall, and Occidentall Bishops, who excommunicating those that had made a de­cree against the ancient custome of the Church, & threatning the rest, that taught rebaptization to be lawfull, preuailed so much, that all the Orientall Churches conspyring togeather mone mind, as Dionysius sayd,Euseb. l. 7. and changing their opinions, were reunited againe with the band of peace. And Dionysius himselfe, changing also his opiniō, became so scrupulous, that he refused to baptize one that had not beene suffici­ently baptized of the Heretiks, retourning to the Catholike Church, before he had made the Pope acquainted with it. And the Bishops of Africa like­wise, that had followed S. Cypriā, made a new decree to the contrary, as witnesseth S. Hierome. And S. Augustine sayth:Hier. cōt. Luciferiā. August. epist. 48. that it is very probable, that S. Cypriā also corrected himselfe, and that his change in opinion was suppressed by the Heretikes. And truly, who can ima­gine; that such a man as he, tendring so much the peace of the Church as he did, should remayne ob­stinate alone in his owne opinion? See this more at large in Baronius, Vin. cont. Lyrin. c. 9. in the yeare of our Lord 158. and 159. And Vincentius Lirinensis, who notably descry­beth the successe of this victory.

Lastly Pope Pius the first, hauing made a decree, that the Feast of Easter, should be cele­brated only vpon Sunday, against those,Euseb l. 5. cap. 24. that pre­tended the example and tradition of S. Iohn to the contrary; and 3. of his successors forbearing to cō ­pell them for quietnes sake,Tertul. de praescrip. cap. 53. Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 14. by Ecclesiasticall censure therunto; Pope Victor succeding, and perceyuing them to be much confirmed in their opinion, called a Councell in Italy, and caused others to be assem­bled in France, and also in other Countreys. And Theophilus Bishop of Cesarea, and Palestina, Beda de equinocti­ali in ver­no. receiuing his command (as Bede our Countreyman recor­deth) assembled Bishops, not only out of his owne Pro­uince, but also out of diuers other countreys: and shewed the authority, that Pope Victor had sent him, and declared, quid sibi operis fuit iniunctum: and in all the Easterne Councells, it being determined, that the Feast of Easter should be kept vpon Sunday, ac­cording to the custome of the Roman Church,Euseb. l. 5. cap. 24. Niceph. l. 4. c. 38.39. Pope Victor denounced excommunication against all the Churches of Asia, that would not conforme them­selues thereunto. Whereupon (though some did thinke it rigourously done) not only the greatest part of the Churches of Asia did yield therein: but also as Nicephorus testifyeth it was decreed through­out the world, that the Feast of Easter should be kept vpon Sunday: and they that refused so to do, were holden for Heretakes, and called Quartadecimani.

The same Controuersy being growne very great in Britany,August. haeres. 29. Beda lib. 3. hist. cap. 2. betwen the English that mantay­ned the custome of Rome, and the Scottish that stood out in schisme: and the matter being debated in the [Page 112]presence of King Oswy, Colomannus with the Scottish Clergy relyed vpon the authority of Anatolins and Columba his predecessours. Wilfrid on the other side answered; That Columba, albeit a holy man, could not be preferred before Peter, to whome our Lord sayd, thou art Peter, and vpon this Rock &c. King Oswy, that had beene infected with the Scottish schisme, asked Colomannus, whether he could proue the like authority to haue been giuen to Columba, as was giuen to Peter, who answering no: Nay then quoth the King merily, I assure you, I will not in any thing contradict that Porter; but to my knowledge and power I will obay his comaundements. Whereupon, all that were present (sayth S. Bede) allowed therof, and yielded to receiue the Catholike custome of keping Easter on the Sunday.

And now to go forward with the receiued practise, and execution of the Popes authority in o­ther Iudiciall matters,Leo. Ep. 89. Pope Leo writing vnto the Bishops of France, biddeth them, remember and ac­knowledge with him, that the Priests of their Prouince, had consulted with the Apostolike sea, in innumerable matters, and according to the diuersity of their causes and appeales, their former Iudgments had been retracted, or confirmed. As touching deposition of Bishops, you haue already hard of the deposition of Dioscorus in the fourth generall Councell, by the Popes Legates, which was done in these formall words:Conc. Chal. act. 3. Leo, the most holy and Blessed Pope, and head of the vniuersall Church, indued with the dignity of Peter the Apostle, who is intituled the foundation of the Church, the Rock of Faith, and the doore-keper of the Kingdome of Heauen: [Page 113]By vs his Legates, the holy Synode consenting, hath de­pryued Dioscorus of Episcopall dignity, and excluded him from all Priestly function. Cypr. lib. 5. epist. 13. S. Cyprian wrote to Pope Stephen, to excommunicate and depose Mar­cian the Bishop of Arles in France, and to aduertise him who should succeed him; that he & the Bishops of Affrick might know to whome to direct their letters. Peter the Patriarch of Alexandria, Soc. lib. 4. hist. cap. 3. as Socrates relateth, returning with the letters of Damasus the Ro­man Bishop, the people confiding in them, Nicol. ep. ad Micha. expelled Lu­cius, and receaued Peter into his place. Nicolaus the first, writing to Michael the Emperour, reckoneth vp 8. Patriarches of that Church, deposed by the Bi­shops of Rome before his tyme.Theod. l. 5. hist. c. 23. Soc. lib. 5. hist. c. 15. Sozom. l. 8. cap. 3. Flauianus Patriarch of Antioch was deposed by Pope Damasus: and both S. Chrysostome Bishop of Constantinople, and Theophilus Patriarch of Alexandria were intercessors for him to the Pope. And to conclude, Polichronius Patriarch of Hierusalem, was deposed by Sixtus the 3.Tom. 2. Concil. in actis 60. So that you see, the exercise of the Popes authority in the deposition of many of the foure principall Patri­archs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Hierusalem.

And as for those, that appealed to the Sea Apostolike, and were restored by the same, the ex­amples are infinit. Let it suffice, that Athanasius the great Patriarch of Alexandria, Paulus Bishop of Con­stantinople, Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra, Asclepas Bi­shop of Gaza, and Lucianus Bishop of Adrianopolis, Sozom. l. 3. hist. c. 8. Tripart. hist. l. 4. cap 15. were all at Rome, at one tyme, iniustly deposed and expelled by the Orientall Synode: And that Pope Iulius, as Sozomeus hath recorded, vnderstanding [Page 114]whereof they were accused, receiued them into his commu­nion: & that (the care of all belonging vnto him in respect of the dignity of his sea) he restored to euery one of them their Churches; and wrote to the Bishops of the East, bla­ming them, and gaue commaundement, that some in the name of the rest should appeare before him, at a day pre­fixed, Many other excellent men and great Saintes of God appealed to the Pope, as S. Chrysostome and Flauianus, Chryst. ep. ad Innoc. Theod. ep. ad Leon. Bishops of Constantinople. So did Theodo­ret Bishop of Cyrus, who was also restored by him, as testy fieth the great Councell of Chalcedon saying: The most holy Archbishop Leo restoreth to him his Bisho­prick. And Gregory the great,Gregor. l. 2. cap. 6. did excommunicate a B. of Greece called Iohn, for that he had presumed to iudge another Bishop, that had appealed to the sea Apostolike. To this might be added their cen­sures, and excommunications of Kings and Empe­rous. In a word Philip, Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 25. the first Christian Emperour, was excluded from the Cōmunion of the Sacrament of the Altar, vpon Easter day, for some publick sinnes of his,Niceph l. 3. cap. 34. by Pope Fabianus; neither could he be admitted before he had purged himselfe, by Confes­sion and Pennance.Innoc, ep. 17. ad Arcad. Imp. Innocentius the first, hauing hard of the death of S. Chrysastome, excommunicated the Emperour Arcadius, and his Wife Eudoxia, for not permitting S. Chrysostome to be restored to his seat, as Innocentius commaunded: which he did in these words: I, the least, & a sinner, to whom the Throne of the great Apostle Peter is commended in charge, do segregate thee, and her, from receiuing the immacu­late Misteryes of Christ our God &c.

The exercise of the Popes authority, is yet [Page 115]more confirmed, and euidently proued by the au­thority of the Common Lawes, which for the most part are nothing els but the decrees of Popes, and of Councells confirmed by the Pope, which hauing byn alwayes receiued and practised among all Catholike Nations, professing the name of Christ, do make an inuincible argument for the Popes Supremacy: and which is most especially to be noted, in all ages since Christ, there cānot be found one Catholike Doctor, or Deuyne, that euer opposed himself, either against the doctrine, or against the practise of this authori­ty, as vnlawfull, or vsurped by the Popes of Rome. In so much, that albeit the Popes haue been sometymes admonished, and accused to haue proceeded with much rigour,Cypr. l. 1. ep. 3. & 4. Euseb. l. 5. hist. c. 24. or with too little information in their censures, as by S. Cyprian for example, and S. Ire­naeus, and others: yet none haue euer doubted of the lawfulnes of their authority. And as you haue heard,Epist. ad Martian. & Valēt. Imp. & ep. ad Leonē. Con. Chal. act. 3. in the Calcedon Councell, it was accompted no lesse their fury and madnes of presumption in Eutiches, that attempted to call a generall Councell, and to excommunicate the Pope thereby.

SECTION XV. The Conclusion of this discourse of the Popes Supremacy.

I Haue shewed vnto you as orderly, as clerely, and as breifly as I could some of those euident proofes, which the Catholikes are wont to bring for the Po­pes Supremacy, deducing the same from manifest [Page 116]places of Scripture, which conuince the continu­ance and perpetuall duration thereof in the Church of God; from the lineall descent therof, vpon those that succeded S. Peter in the Church of Rome, abun­dantly testifyed by tradition, and by the Fathers; from the definitions of the foure first generall Coun­cells; from the authorityes of the ancient Fathers in the poynt of the Popes infallable doctrine, groun­ded vpon the words and promises of our Saniour; from the sentences of the Popes themselues iustly clayming their Supremacy, not only in teaching and admonishing, but also in ruling and gouerning the Church of God; and lastly from the ancient, con­tinuall, and vncontrolled practise of their authori­ty, which, whether you respect the diuine Law, or the vtility, and necessity of the matter it selfe, or the opinions of Lawyers, and Sages; or the a­uouchement of most lawfull witnesses; or the sen­tences of most venerable Iudges; or the Iudgment of Supreme Iudiciall Courts; or the practise, ex­perience, and custome of the whole world; make the euidence so strong, the proofe so full, and the de­monstration so cleare, as the like in no sort can euer be brought before any Iudicial Bench, for the proofe of any matter whatsoeuer may come in question. And therfore no doubt, all those shallbe inexcusable before God, that continuing obstinate in their owne opinions, do either reiect or contemne it.

And truly, if it might be permitted vnto vs, to plead the statute of the first yeare of Queene Eli­zabeth, whereby the foure first generall Councells were approued, and made to be Law: and that we [Page 117]might vpon those points of learning contayned in them which I haue before recited, confirming them not only by the opinions of the Fathers, which are the Doctors and Aduocates, but also by so many decrees and sentences of the Popes, which are the iudges of the Church; concluding, and bynding all those proofes aforsayd, with the practise & custome of the Church, tyme out of mynd, which is the best interpreter of all Lawes, both humane and diuine: And if we might be suffered withal to plead the Sta­tute of Magna Charta, for the exemption of Priests from temporall iurisdiction, which is the most an­cient written Law of England, and continueth still in force, and vnrepealed: and to omit, that King Henry the 8. is now commonly reputed a Tyrant, as is testyfied in your owne historyes, which is suffi­cient to make all his acts and Lawes vnlawfull, that concerne not the interest of particuler persons: If we might shew, that those branches of the statutes made against vs in the first yeare of the Queene, are of no force or validity, being enacted by the Lords temporall alone, against the ancient for me of Parlia­ment, and the priuiledges of our Kingdome, and therefore, that the confirmation of them in the tyme of our gracious King that now raigneth, ought to be of no effect.

And lastly, if our complaints might be heard, that in the execution of those bloudy Lawes against vs, so many wayes vniust in themselues, no forme of Iustice is obserued, the Iudges condemning vs without any sufficient witnesses produced against vs, that can affirme, according to the words of the [Page 118]statute wherupon we are indited, that we are Priests, and that we were made Priests in the Seminaryes be­yond the seas, whereby so much innocent bloud hath been so vnchristianly shed vnder the cloake of Iustice, in our peacefull Countrey. I say, if we might be permitted to plead all this, though it were in West minster Hall, before the Iudges themselues that are so cruelly bent against vs, and in the audi­ence of those Puritan Lawyers, and common Iu­stices, who as being most ignorant of our cause, are more our enemyes then the Ministers themselues: & that we might set before their eyes, how vngent­ly, dishonourably, vnciuilly, and vnnaturally, they haue persecuted many tymes, their own bloud, their friends, and nearest kynred, to whome in vertue & piety they were not comparable, & against whome no other cryme could be proued, but the ancient re­ligion of Christendome, commonly either iustified, or not condemned, euen in the consciences of those that apprehended them, & prosecuted, and executed the former lawes vpon them: and if we might shew vnto them, how by this means, they haue crucifyed our Sauiour, not once, or twise, but againe and a­gaine for so many yeares togeather in his holy mem­bers; I cannot but thinke, that representing these things vnto them, in vertue of that Word, which deuideth betweene the soule & the spirit, the ioints and the marrow, awaking in them the guilt of their owne consciences, and the feare of Gods iugments, we should inforce them to knock their breasts with the Iewes, conuerted at the Sermon of S. Peter, and to cry out vnto vs with teares of repentance,Act. 2.17. Quid [Page 119]faciemus viri fratres? men and brethren what shal we do?

SECTION XVI. The absurd and pernicious grounds of the Bishops 10. Bookes, and his Christian Commonwealth, are further discouered and confuted.

AND now to returne to our Bishop, I thinke by this tyme you perceiue, that albeit this little booke of his, be great bellyed like the Father, yet his other ten bookes conceaued therin, are but like so many bladders full of wind, which if euer they come forth, are like to shame, not only himselfe, but you also: Not only because the former proofes of the Popes Supremacy are in themselues vnanswerable, especially admitting as he doth, the authority of the Councells, Canons, and Fathers of the Church; but also in respect of that most absurd, and most perni­cious Position, which he maketh the argument of his fifth booke, and is indeed the very foundation of his Christian Commonwealth, and the mayne ground of his Diuinity, wherein he professeth to hold, that there is no Iurisdiction in the Church of Christ: Iurisdictionem omnem ab Ecclesia procul reijcio: all Iurisdiction (sayth he) I cast far away from the Church; that is to say, all power and authority to commaund, or to make spiritual lawes, or to impose any punishment for the transgression of them. A miserable deuise, no lesse furious, then dangerous, and no more repugnant to the Popes Supremacy, [Page 120]then directly contrary to the Councells & Fathers, and to the practise of the Primitiue Church, in ma­king lawes & Canons, and imposing censures vpon transgressours; directly contrary as well to the in­stitution of Christ, in the authority which he gaue to S. Peter, as you haue seene, as also to the doctrine and proceeding of the Apostles themselues, wherof no man that can read the Scriptures should be igno­rant: Let euery soule be subiect to the higher powers (sayth S. Paul) for there is no power, Rom. 13.1. but of God &c. Therefore he that resisteth the power, resisteth the ordi­nance of God; and they that resist, purchase to themselues damnation. Rom. 13.5. And a little after: Therefore be yee subiect of necessity, not only for auoyding wrath, but also for Con­science sake.

Out of which place, we may argue thus. The Church hath receiued power and authority from God, and therefore they that resist the same, resist, and disobey the ordinance of God, and pur­chast to themselues damnation. That the Church hath receiued power and authority to gouerne from Almighty God, is to too manifest; for so all the Fa­thers expound the words of our Sauiour to S. Peter, Whatsoeuer thou shalt bind &c. and to the Apostles,Matt. 16.19. Matt. 18.18. whatsoeuer you shall bind &c. And that binding signi­fieth the imposing of some law or commaundment, we find in the 23.Matt. 23.4. of S. Matthew: They bind (sayth our Sauiour) burdens heauy and importable vpon the shoulders of men, but they with their finger will not moue them; and in the same manner the Fathers expound those other words,Ioan. feed my sheep. of the gouernment of Christs sheep, as you haue heard. And our Saui­our [Page 121]signifying, how much we are bound in con­science to obey our Prelates, sayd vnto them:Luc. 1 [...].16. He that heareth you, heareth me, and he that despiseth you, despiseth me. And againe, as my Father sent me, Ioā. 20.21. so send I you, and he that will not heare the Church, let him be to thee, as an heathen, and Publican. Act. 16.4. According where­unto it is sayd of S. Paul, & S. Timothy, that passing through the Gittyes, they deliuered vnto them to keep the precept of the Apostles, and of the Elders. 1. Thes. 2.23. And to the Thessalonians he sayth: You know what commaund­ments I haue giuen vnto you; he that despiseth them, despiseth not man, but God that gaue his holy spirit vnto vs: and if any do not obey our word, note him by an epi­stle, 1. Tim. 5. and do not accompany with him, that he may be con­founded. So he writeth to Timothy, not to receiue my accusation against a Priest, vnder 2. or 3. witnesses. And to the Corinthians, the weapons of our warrefare sayth he, are not carnall; but mighty to God, 1. Cor. 10.7. vnto the de­struction of munitions, destroying Councells, and all lof­tynes extolling it selfe against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captiuity all vnderstanding, vnto the obe­dience of Christ, Act. 15.20. and hauing in a readynesse to reuenge all disobedience &c. And in the first Coūcell the Church of Hierusalem made this Decree: It seemeth good to the holy Ghost and to vs, not to impose any other burthen vpon you, but only these necessary things, to abstayne from meats offered to Idolls from strangled meats, from bloud, Can. A­post. Can. 62. and fornication. And the punishment of those that did eate bloud, or strangled meat, afterward was so great in the Primitiue Church, as that Clarks were deposed, and lay men were excommunicated for the same.

Neither is this most pestilent assertion of the Bishop contrary to Scripture alone, and to the Fa­thers and Councells, as hath been shewed, but also to the practise and doctrine of the Church of En­gland. For I would aske this wild Bishop, whether the authority the English Bishops, in their spirituall Courts be from God or no? If it be, then according to S. Paul, all men are bound to obey them, in that which is iust, vpon paine of damnation. If it be not, then it is no small vsurpation in them, to take vpon them such authority: whereof the Bishop should do well, to admonish them as his friends, before he go about to reforme the Catholike Bishops, whome he supposeth to be his enemyes. In conclusion, the ne­cessity of Iurisdiction is so euident in it selfe, and the institution thereof so palpable in Scripture, that the Puritans themselues, who deny the same to Bi­shops, are inforced notwithstanding to challenge so much to themselues, as may suffice to excommu­nicate all those, who are obstinatly disobedient in their Congregations. And therefore I thinke there is none but himselfe so drunke at this day with he­resy in Christendome, as to deny the lawfullnes of all Iurisdiction in the Church of God.

And as this position is most pernicious to all kind of Churches, or spirituall Cōgregations what­soeuer they be, in taking away al obligation of obe­dience from them; so also, it is most dangerous to kingdomes and commonwealthes: for such as in our tyme, haue opposed themselues to the Iurisdiction of the Church, haue likewise for the most part de­nyed their band of obedience to all temporall go­uernement. [Page 123]And their principall ground or reason is the same in both: For no man, say they, that seeth not another mans conscience, can bind the conscience of his brother: And that all being made free by Baptisme, ought to enioy the liberty of the Ghospell. Whereof it followeth, that neither sonnes, nor seruants, nor wyues, nor subiects, are bound to obay their Superiours for conscience sake, but only, and at the most, either for feare, or els for the auoyding of some publike scandall: which do­ctrine, if it were once receiued, would in short space make Christians worse then Heathens.

And therefore, I marueile how your English Bishops, could let such doctrine passe, being no lesse contrary to their authority, then to the Popes Supre­macy, and no lesse perillous to themselues, then to the gouernement of the whole kingdome; vnles per­haps, finding their case to be desperate, they desire more to offend their enemy, then to defend them­selues, & would be cōtent their heresy should sinke, so the Catholike Religion might be drowned with it. But the Bishop being reputed to haue gotten some learning, when he was yong, and not being yet so old as to dote for age; aboue all it is to be marueiled, how he could suster himself to be so much deceiued by the Diuell, as to ground his 10. yeares studyes, (the 10. books of his Christian commonwealth, and in a word his whole religion, and the saluation of his soule) vpon an absurdity so grosse, so fowle, e­normous, & dangerous to Church and Common­wealth as this is: and the strangenes of his illusion, is so much the greater, because he was so blinded [Page 124]therewith, that he saw not how manifestly he was inforced to contradict himselfe, not only in other places of this his booke, where he grāteth that Chri­stian Princes haue power to do many thinges in the Church, and challengeth vnto himselfe I know not what authority ouer Bishops in some cases (which should make the Bishop of Canterbury to looke a­bout him:) but also in the very title of his Booke, which he calleth his Ecclesiasticall Cōmonwealth, because it doth inuolue a manifest contradiction, to this his strange position. For vnles it be meerly a dreame, and much more fantasticall, then Platoes Idaea, no man can imagine, how any Cōmonwealth should be framed, or est ablished without some Iuris­diction or power of gouernement giuen thereunto.

If he had contayned himselfe within any reasonable bounds, and relyed his proofes vpon the Scripture alone, interpreting the same according to his own sense, how strang soeuer; he might perhaps haue made some shift therewith for a while, as his fellowes haue done before him. But to pretend and contend, as he doth, that according to the Fathers, Councells, and Canons, there is neither superiority of gouernment in the head, nor power of Iurisdi­ction in the body of Christs Church, is an euident signe, that as he hath forsaken God, so also God in his iustice, hath not only forsaken him, but also in great part hath taken his wits and reason from him. For as S. Augustine sayth of the Prophesyes of the Church, that they are more cleere in Scripture, then the prophesyes of Christ himselfe, because the tryall of all other Controuersyes, dependeth: vpon the [Page 125]knowledge of the Church: so also for the same rea­son, God Almighty in his prouidence hath so orday­ned, that the Iurisdiction of the Church, and the au­thority of the head therof, should be more expresly taught, and aboundantly proued by the Doctours, Pastours, and ancient Fathers, then any other point in Controuersy. So that he might better haue gone about to proue and maintayne out of the Fathers Canons, or Councells, that the Sonne is not equall with the Father, or the holy Ghost not equall to the Sonne, or not proceeding from the Father and the Sonne, or that our Blessed Lady ought not to be cal­led the Mother of God, or some other of those an­ciently condemned and rotten heresyes; then to proue, that there is no Iurisdiction in the Church, nor any inequality of gouernment amongst the Pa­stours thereof. And therefore, as most impudently he denyeth the latter, so it is much to be feared, that he faltereth also in the former, whereof he giueth many shrewd signes, and apparant tokens in this little booke; and much more is it likely he will bewray himself in the greater whē it cometh forth. For being borne vpon the confines of Turky, and Greece, in which Countrey those ancient heresyes haue tirannized heeretofore, and worse succeeded them in latter ages; the suspitions wherewith (as he professeth) he was troubled when he was yong, by all reason were more in fauour of the Easterne heresyes, which he knew, then of these of the West, which he knew not. And the bookes of the Arian & Greciin heresyes, being no lesse forbidden in Italy, then the hereticall writers of these westerne parts, [Page 126]whereby his suspitions were much more increased, it is very probable, that they swayed his mind more to that side, then to this.

His maisters also, do commonly dispute more against them, then against these, whome they are content to pretermit, in these parts, there being no vse of the knowledge of them. And therefore by al likelihood his suspitions increased most in fauour of those opinions, whereunto he was naturally most affected, and wherewith he had more to do, and which did more belong vnto him to know, then the other did. And besides all this, that which he ma­keth his chiefe quarrell against the Pope, is only the excommunication and condemnation of those opi­nions for heresyes, which he sayth are not suffici­ently condemned by the Church; although it be manifest, and he denyeth it not, that they haue byn condemned by generall Councells. And that in­borne desire of peace,Pag. 35. and vnity, which he preten­deth of the East and West, seemeth to consist in no­thing els, but only in permitting euery Bishop, at the least, to abound in his owne sense, and to hold what he list, as long as he doth not separate himselfe from the rest, nor condemne their opinions.

And lastly, to returne to the matter, which we haue in hand, by taking away all Iurisdiction from the Church of God, he maketh voyd and re­pealeth the Anathema, and excommunication of all former heretikes: and by condemning the Fathers and Councells, for condemning them without iu­diciall authority, he restoreth them all to their first pretended pleas, and old forged titles, And the re­newing [Page 127]of these ancient censures & condemnations of Heretikes by the Churche of Rome at this day, I take to be some part of those innumerable heresyes, whereof he accuseth the Sea of Rome, to be euery day an authour; for otherwise that monstrous Hy­perbole of his could haue no proportion: and within the number of those other very many Churches, which heere he sayth, that Rome hath vniustly made her aduersaries, must be contayned, not only those of the West, which are but two or three notoriously knowne, but also the other of the East, that is to say, the Grecians and Arians at the least, if the Turkes and Iewes do not also come in, to make vp the reckoning of so great a number.

The fury of Heresy being now ouerblowne, wherewith it entred first into our miserable Coun­trey, and the Kingdome hauing been a long tyme setled in a reposed kind of gouernemēt, many stran­gers of good iudgment, and well affected to our Na­tion, do wonder to see, that it receiueth with try­umph, all kind of Fugitiues, and Apostata Fryars, that come running thither, of what life, or what re­ligion soeuer they be, so long as they professe them­selues enemyes to the Church of Rome; which many wise men, our friends, who are lookers on, esteeme and affirme, to be no lesse dishonorable then dange­rous to any well ordered, and well gouerned socie­ty. And in very deed, what reputation I pray you, can it giue vnto you, in the eye of your Neighbour Countreys, to see the scumme, and vomit of other Nations, and their Religious Orders to be so much esteemed and magnifyed among you? or what con­ceit [Page 128]can they make either of your zeale in religion, or wisedome in gouernement; that open your armes to euery Sectary, and your pulpits to euery renegate pretending to preach, although his conuersation, his intention, his priuate opinions, or the cause of his comming, be neuer so much vnknowne vnto you? And at this tyme, I pray God it proue not too true, that in the shape of a Bishop, you haue recei­ued a most venomous, and pestiferous serpent in­to your bosome. For albert as yet he doth not shew his head by discouering his opinions in all the parti­culer poynts of Christian Religion (making de­monstration of malice against the Pope alone:) yet in the windings & turnings of this little booke (as I haue shewed) and especially in destroying all iuris­diction, in arrogating to his owne iudgment aboue measure, and in challenging liberty to abound in his owne sense, he discouereth a most fearefull and deformed body. For, if this which he pretendeth, may be permitted to himselfe and others, there is no poynt of Religion, which will not presently be cal­led in question: euery thing wilbe made a quodli­bet; & as the Academikes in Philosophy, so you also in Diuinity, must hold all things probable, and pro­blematicall: whereof it will shortly follow, that as all the wisedome of the Academy, was summed in this one sentence, Hoc tantùm scio, quòd nihil scio; so the Religion of England wilbe wholy reduced to this one article, hoc tantùm credo, quòd nihil credo.

And the danger hereof is the greater at this tyme, because as I vnderstand it is an opinion grow­ing into fashion among you, that a man may be sa­ued [Page 129]in any Religion, so he belieue in Christ: and I haue seene one of your principall Doctours cyted,D. Morton in his trea­tise of the kingdome of Israel. pag. 94. who durst to publish in prynt; that an Arian might be saued, because albeit he deny the Deumity of Christ, yet he confesseth Christ to be the true Mes­sies: which your Doctour thinketh sufficient for sal­uation. From whence, euery man being permitted to abound in his owne sense, as the Bishop would haue it, your selfe may iudge, how easy a matter it is to passe a little further, and to thinke that it may suf­fice to hold, that Christ was a great Prophet, as the Turkes do, or that it is indifferent to belieue whe­ther he be come or no, which disposeth to Iudaisme; or that a morall life may be sufficient to saue vs in any Religion, which is playne Gentility. And if this be the vnion of the East and West, and of the North and South, which the Bishop so much desireth to establish in his Ecclesiasticall Common Wealth; I am sure, that none but the Diuell can be the head therof: and to satisfy the mans ambition, if it were to do him good, I should be contented for my part, that he himselfe should be made the Vicar. But thus you see, how such as once fall from the Catholike Church, which is the body, do easily contemne the head thereof, who is Christ himselfe, and come to loose not only their dewine faith, which none can haue but they that belieue the true Church: but also to renounce their morall beliefe, and former persuasion of that truth of Christianity, wherin they were bred; which hitherto God be thanked, hath been constantly mayntained in our Countrey.

SECTION XVII. The substance of the Bishops 10. bookes being thus confuted, the mayne poynt of this other Booke, which he maketh the ground of his Conuersion, That the doctrine of the Protestants differeth little or nothing from the do­ctrine of the ancient Fathers, is dispro­ued, by sundry generall reasons, and by the Fathers themselues, codemning the Protestants opinions for no lesse then Heresies.

FOR this important consideration, and to meete with the danger of Neutrality in Religion, so fast increasing in our Countrey; as I fynd it most easy, so I thinke it most necessary, in these desperate tymes, to make some cōfutation of these idle dreams and sottish illusions of the Diuell, by shewing plain­ly out of the rule of Fayth, and according to the ground of naturall reason, that no man can be saued without the perfect loue of God: which requyreth perfect obedience, both of the vnderstanding in be­leeuing the Catholike Church, whome God hath appoynted to teach vs; and also of the will in keping Gods Precepts, and Commaundements. Which in­deed were a medicyne most appropriate to the dis­eases of the tyme, and a hatchet layd to that root, from whence the Bishops tree is already sprung, and which spreadeth a pace, in the harts, not only of [Page 131]the idle youth, which I feare, but also of those that take themselues to be the wisest men in our Countrey.

But because, I am loath to be ouer trouble­some at this tyme, and that this Treatise requyreth some hast, which growing in my hand from a letter to a booke, should haue been dispatched long since, not only to giue iust contentment to your selfe ex­pecting my answere to your letter: but also to satis­fy others, who hauing hard: the Bishops tale, keep one eare open all this while to heare the reply of the contrary party; I will reserue the handling of this matter for a fresher pen, and for this tyme I will coment my selfe with those authorityes which I haue a leady produced out of the Fathers, pronoun­cing such, as are not vnited with the Pope, it be con­founded with the succession of his seat, built vpon the pre­mise of our Saniour, to be propbane, to be out of the Arke, Iren. lib. 3. cap. 3. Hier. epist. ad Dam. Aug. in psal. cont. part. Don. not to gather, but to seatter, not to be of Christ, but of Antichrist, to be branches cut off from the byne, and members denided from the body, that in the next life, the gate of heauen shall be shut against them, & the like. For the which I reserre me to the 14. and 15. Se­ction of this treatise. Wherunto shall be added more anone, when by occasion of these friuolous motions and illusions, which made the Bishop to forsake his religion, we come to propound some of those solid, and substantiall motiues, which are sufficient to in­duce any man, that is not willfully obstinate, to be­come a Gatholike. And for the present, because he seemeth to set downe the mayne ground of his per­uorsion, or conuersion (as you please to tearme it) [Page 132]in those words especially, where he saith, That rea­ding the Fathers, and perusing the Councells, and ancient customes of the Church, with great labour and busy diligence, for so many yeares togeather, he plainly saw at the length, that the doctrine of those Churches, being very many in number, which Rome hath made her aduersaryes, do little, or no­thing differ from the ancient doctrine of the pure Church; the discussion hereof will also fall out to be very fit for our present purpose, wherin you shall heare the Fathers vtterly to condemne the Religion now commonly professed in England, and the Pro­testants themselues not only to reiect the Fathers, but also most spitefully to inueigh, & most grieuous­ly to censure one the other. For that man, whome neither the Authority of the Fathers, nor the testy-monyes of his owne Doctors, can moue or persuade, neither if one should be sent from the dead toaffright him, would be thereby conuerted.

Wherefore, that you may as yet more fully perceiue the vanity and impudency of this man, in affirming that all the Fathers are directly for him, albeit he proue nothing: I will take the paynes to shew you by some generall arguments, that the Fa­thers do manifestly make against him. First therfore you must know, that the Catholikes prefesse the ge­nerall Consent of the Fathers, or the doctrine of a few not contradicted by the rest, to be a rule of faith; and that all men are bound vpon payne of damna­tion to belieue it: whose authority, as the Protestants will not receiue, so the Catholikes would not admit in such absolute manner, if they were not fully per­swaded [Page 133]that their religion were all one with the faith of the Pathers. In confirmation wherof, some indu­strious and zealous men amongst vs, haue made certayne bookes of common places, vnder the titles of the poynts in Controuersy betwixt vs and them, wherin they hade recorded the sayings of the Fa­thers, in approbation of our doctrine. And therfore they call them the Confessions of the auncient Fa­thers. So haue you the confession of S. Augustine in one volume; of S. Hierome in another. So likewise of S. Basil, S. Bernard, and others, which it is impos­sible for any Protestant to see, but he must needs confesse, that the Fathers were all Papists; and that they haue said so much in the proofe and defence of our opinions, as all that we can bring, is but taken from them.

And if the Bishop had but made the signe of the Crosse to driue away the Diuell, that blynded him before he had turned ouer the Fathers workes, he must needs haue seen, euen by their titles, and the argument of there seuerall treatises how much they make against him. S. Basil, S. Gregory Nazianzen, & S. Chrysostome haue written most excellent Sermons of the Lent, and of other dayes to be fasted vpon payne of great sinne, by the custome & commaun­dement of the Catholike Church. S. Basil, S. Chry­sostome, S. Hierome, and S. Augustine haue written bookes of the institute and rule of Monkes, and of their vertues. S. Chrysostome in particuler, wrote a booke against the disgracers of Monasticall life. And S. Augustine againe, hath written three bookes of Free-will: wherunto Luther opposing himselfe [Page 134]wrote a booke, de seruo arbitrio, of slauish will. S. Augustine wrote also a whole booke of the Care of the dead, and a long Chapter besides other sermons of Miracles wrought at the memories & monuments of Martyrs. Optatus, whome S. Augustine compa­reth with S. Ambrose, and S. Cyprian, confuted the Donatists out of the Catholike Communion, reprehended their wickednes out of the decree of Pope Melchiades, refuted their heresy out of the suc­cession of the Roman Bishops, made knowne their madnes in contaminating chrisme, & the holy Eu­charist, abhorred their sacriledge in breaking down of Altars, whereupon sayth he, the mēbots of Christ were born, and in polluting Chalices, which he affirmeth to haue held the bloud of Christ, S. Atha­nasius wrote a curious booke in the prayse of S. An­tony the Aegiptian Eremit: and in an epistle which he wrote in the name of the whole Synod of Alex­andria, whereof he was the Patriarch, he appealed to the iudgment of the Apostolicall sea, and of S. Peter. Prudentius euery where in his Hymnes, at the ashes & bones of Martyrs, adoreth the king of Martyrs S. Hierome. hath written against Vigilantius in defence of reliques, and honour due to Saints. He hath writ­ten also against Iouinian, for the state and vowes of virginity. S. Ambrose did honour his Patrons S. Geruasius and S. Protasius with a most famous solem­nity, whose fact it pleased God to commend with more then one prodigy. And therefore to omit the rest, if it were not manifest by the Bishops leanesse, how much he hath consumed his body with his ten yeares study of the Fathers and Councells; by [Page 135]these contrary deuises which he sayth he hath found in them, a man might wel imagine that he had neuer seene them.

Amongst other bookes of Controuersy very learned and profitable, set forth in our English ton­gue, by the direction of Gods holy spirit, wherewith so many haue been conuerted to the Catholike faith, there is no one that I would rather commend to the reading of a iudicious Protestant, then the booke intituled the Protestants Apology for the Roman Chruch. In which authour I cannot tell, whether I should more cōmend the substance of the matter, or the labour, or the method, or the breuity, or the perspicuity, or the fidelity, or in fine, the modesty of the manner wherewith it is written, & wherein you in particuler of the Innes of Court haue a speciall interest: For as in the beginning it is in tytled to the King, so in the end it is recōmended to the exami­nation and consure of the learned Sages of our Cō ­mon law, wherein you shall find three Chapters a­mongst the rest, which do especially make for our present purpose. The first, folio 74. & sequentibus, where he sheweth, by the confession of the Prote­stants themselues, that the Catholike Roman Reli­gion, which is now professed, in very many the most important matters in Controuersy betwene you and vs, was, the professed doctrine of the ancient Fa­thers, in the first 500. yeares after Christ: and con­sequently, out of those rules, which the Protestants admit for currant and authenticall, he proueth, that it was likewise taught, in the most Apostolicall tymes. The second fol. 207. where he sheweth, that [Page 136]the Protestants do not deny, very many of their o­pinions to haue been condemned for heresyes, with­in the aforsayd tyme, by the auncient Fathers. The third, fol. 127. where he alleadgeth the Protestants condemning the Fathers. Out of which places also, to saue you a labour, if need should be, I will serue my selfe of many things, in the poynts that follow.

You shall therefore vnderstand, that the Fa­thers of the Church, being those Pastours, and Do­ctours of whome S. Paul speaketh,Ephes. Esa. [...]6.6. Ephes. 4.14. who were to continue by suecession for euer, and must not be si­lent, but to the end we be not carryed away, with euery wind of new doctrine, norcircumuented with the malice of men, and craft of errour, they must alwayes resist euery new and false opinion arising in the Church of God: and as hitherto they haue withstood the innouations of the Valentinians, Ta­cians, Manicheans, Arians, Pelagians, Nestorians, Donatists &c. so while the Church was pure by the Protestants owne confession, that is to say, within the space of the first 500. yeares after Christ, they impugned also diuers others, for attempting to bring in sundry poynts of doctrine, which are now pro­fessed by the Protestants, whom for the same cause they haue not spared to record for Heretikes.

In Aerius therfore, they condemned the de­nyall of prayer, Aug. haer. 53. Epiph. haer. 75. Hier. cont. Vigil. c. 2. Aug. eccl. dog. c. 73. and of offering sacrifice for the dead, and the denyall of appointed fasts. In Vigilantius they reprehend in like māner, the denyal of prayer to Saints, and of worshiping Saints reliques: wherof S. Augustine speaketh thus: The bodyes of Saints, and especially of blessed Martyrs, are most sincerely to be [...]ed, as the [Page 137]members of Christ: whosoeuer goeth against this semece, is belieued not to be a Christian, but an Eunomian, and Vigilantian. In Xenaias, they condemne the denyall of Images, which Nicephorus recordeth in this man­ner: This Kenaias was the first (o audacious soule, and face impudent!) who vemited forth that voyce, Nieeph. bist. lib. 16. cap. 27. that the Images of Christ, and of those that were pleasing to him, ought not to be worshiped.

In Vigilantius and others they condemned the denyall of voluntary pouerty, & monasticall profession; against whome S. Hierome writing,Hier. cont. vigil prope finem. vseth these words amongst many other. Neither are Monkes to be terrified by thee, from their good purpose, of whome vsing thy viperous tongue, and biting most fiercely, thou disputest, saying: If all should shut themselues vp, or abide in the desert, who should frequent the Churches? And S. Augustine, reprouing Petilian for the same er­rour, sayth thus of him: From hence, Aug. cont. literas Fe­til. lib. 3. c. 40. he did put him­selfe foward with a foule speaking mouth, in disgrace of Monkes and Monasteryes.

In the Nouatians, they condemned the denyall of the power of Priests, to remit sinnes, of whome S. Ambrose writeth thus: But they affirme that they giue due honour vnto God, to whome alone they reserue power of remitting sinnes: Nay (sayth he) none do greater in­iury vnto him, then such as go about to repeale his com­maundments, for when our Sauiour himselfe had sayd in his Ghospell, Receiue the holy Ghost, whose sinnes you for­giue, they are forgiuen &c. And a little after he con­cludeth: Who therefore is he, that doth most honour him, he who [...]yeth his commaundment, Amb. lib. 1. de paeniten. cap 2. & 7. or he that doth resist him? [...] the 7. Chapter, why do you baptize, [Page 138]if it be not lawfull to forgiue sinnes? Pacian. in ep. ad Sim­thō. Noua. For in Baptisme all sinnes are forgiuen. What matter is it whether the Priests do challenge this power to be giuen vnto them, either by prunince or by Baptisme, Soc. in hist. tripart. l. 2. cap. 23. in both which there is the some mystery? And Pacianus writing to a Nouatian he­retike, vseth these words This thou wilt say God alone can do: it is true, but that which he doth by his Priests, is his owne power. For what is that which to the Apostles he sayth, that which yee bind in earth &c. And Socra­tes reporteth, that when Acetius affirmed, that hope of remission was not to be expected from Priests, but from God alone: the Emperour Constantine reproued him merily, and sayd. O Acetius, set vp a ladder if thou canst, & clibme alone to Heauen, meaning that he could not climbe thither vnles the Priest vn­bound him.

In the ManicheesHier in Symbol. Aug, de fide cont. Mantch. cap. 9. Whitaker l 10. cont. Duraetem pag 883. they condemned the de­nyall of free will, and of remission of sinnes, and of grace conferred in Baptisme. The affirming of God to be the authour of sinne, in Symon MagusVin­cent. Iren. August ad artic. sibi falso. art. 10. and others. The denyall of the necessity of childrens Baptisme, in theAug. haeres. 88. Cyril. ad Calosyr. Pelagians. The denyall of the reseruation of the blessed Sacramēt, in the Anthropomorphites, for the which S. Cyrill sayth, they were mad: for that (sayth he) the vertue of the blessing, and the liuely grace (giuen vnto it) do alwayes remaine in it. They condemned the impugning of vowed Chastity, inHier. cōt Vigil. cap. 1. Iouinian. The denyall of the vowed, and vnmarried life of Priests, inHier l. 1. cōt. Iou. & ad Pa­mach. Apol. c. 8. Vigilantius, Iouinian, and others. The denyall of enioyned tymes of pennance, in the heretikes calledTheod. l 4 haer. fab. Andiani. The denyall of the diuersity of merits for the which S.Aug. ser. de tem­pore 191. Augustine sayth, we condemne the errours [Page 139]of Iouinian. And S.Hier l. 1 cōt. Io­uin. cap. 2. Hierome reproueth him, for teaching, that marriage & virginity were of equall merit. AndConeil. Te len & reserip. Ambr. all Syric. ib. S. Ambrose and others do call it, a sauage howling speach &c promiscuously confounding al thinges thereby &c. and abrogating the degrees of diuers kinds of merits. In others they condemne the denyall of the possibility of keeping the commaundments. We do execrate or curse, sayth S. HieromeHier. expl. Simb. Aug. ser. detempore 191. Prot. A­pol. p. 218. August de nuptijs l. 2. cap. 29. Epiphan. haer. [...]4. the blasphemy of those, who say, that God hath commaunded any thing to man, which is impossible: which are also the very words of S. Augustine. Whereupon Christopher Hoff­man (whom Melancton greatly condemneth) asked this question: Why Hierome should not rather be accur­sed, who wrote Anathema against those, who say that God had commaunded things impossible? In Iulianus the Pelagian, they condēned the denyall of exercisme, and exsufflation vsed in Baptisme.

In Proclus, they condemned the affirming, that the sioue of Comupiscence was not taken away by Baptisme, but only cast a sleep by Faith. In the Dona­tiste, they condemned the euer throwing of Altars, and the easting away of sacred Chrisme; for what is so sacri­legiaus (sayth Optatus) as to breake, raze; Optatus l. 6. cont. Donatist. and remoue the Altars of God, wheren on you your selues haue some tyms offered &c. For what is the Altar, but the seat of the bo­dy, and bleud of Christ? All these your fury hath razed, or broken, or remoued &c. what had Christ offended you, whese body, and bloud as tertayne ordinary tymes did dwell opens [...]? What haue you offended your serues al­so, that you should breake these Altars &c? Epiphan. haer. 64. & 70. In the Ori­genists, they condēned the affirming that Adam had lost the image of God, according wherunto he was oreated? [Page 140]In the Nouations, the deniall of Chrisme, or Cōfirmation to the baptized by a Bishop.

And lastely,Euseb. hist. lib. 6. c. 35. Theod. l. 4. haer. Pab. Aug. in psal. [...]. [...]o [...]e. 2. not to be ouer tedious with this discourse. In the Donatists and Luciferians, they cōdemned the denyall of the Churches continuing visible, wherupon S. Augustine cryeth out and sayth: O impudentem vocem! o impudent voyce. I omit that vnion, and communion with the Pope, and his sea, which the Fathers do teach to be necessary for salua­tion, because I haue treated thereof in sundry places before: whereunto I will adde one testimony more in this place out of S. Cyprian, the Bishops great friend,Cypr. de vnitate Eccles. as he pretendeth, who teaching as you haue heard, that in the Church of God, there is one Priest, one Priesthood, one Altar, one Iudge, one Chayre built vpon Peter, that whosoeuer gathereth els where, scattreth (which S. Hierome expoundeth, not to be of Christ, but of Antichrist) in his booke de vnitate Ecclesiae, he maketh this interrogation: He who keepeth not the v­nity of the Church, doth he thinke, that he keepeth his fayth? He that resisteth and striueth against the Church, he that forsaketh the Chayre of Peter, vpon the which the Church is founded, doth he presume, that he is in the Church? S [...]nce the blessed Apostle S. Paul doth teach and shew, this Sacrament of vnity sayings one body, one spirit, one hope of our vocation, one Lord, one Fayth, one [...], one God? Where S. Cyprian teacheth notably, all these vnityes to be one and the same with the unity of the Church; and with the Com­m [...]on of the Chayre of Peter.

Thus the Fathers of the first 500. yeares: wherein it is also to be noted, that none of them [Page 141]was impugned or contradicted by the other; wher­by it appeareth, that it was the generall verdict, and sentence of them all, and therefore you must needs grant, that he is in a very miserable and most feare­full case, who standeth so generally cast, and deeply condemned by them. For of the Fathers of the Ca­tholike Church, the words of our Sauiour must needs be specially vnderstood, where he sayth: He that heareth you, heareth me, and he that despiseth you, Lue. 10.16. despiseth me. Wherfore if the sentence of the Fathers, be as the iudgment of Christ himselfe,Rom. 8.33. then as S. Paul asketh, who shall be able to condemne those, whome God doth iustify? so giue vs leaue to aske you, who shall iustify those, whome God condemneth? They therefore, that tell you all is well, and that your Re­ligion dissereth little or nothing from the doctrine of the primitiue Church, albeit they may haue the name of Bishops, yet are they no better thē wolues in sheeps clothing, and so many false Prophets, sent out to sow pillowes vnder your elbowes, and to lull you so fast a sleep in sinne and heresy, that nothing but the fire of hell (when it wilbe too late) shalbe able to awake you.

SECTION XVIII. The dissent of the Protestants from the Fathers, is proued out of the Protestants themselues, condemning the Fathers.

THIS Condemnation and Censure of the Pro­testant doctrine by the voyce of the Fathers, [Page 142]being of such great force, as well for the gayning of any well meaning soule, who is not will fully ob­stinate, but of the nuber of those that shalbe laued; as also for the eternal confusion of others, who with intollerable pride of mind, and presumption of spi­rit condemne the vniforme consent of Fathers, to iustify their owne opinions; it hath pleased God, that it should be so confirmed, by the testimonyes and confessions of the Protestants themselues, that neither the brasen face of this Bishop, nor of any o­ther, though more shamelesse and impudent then the Diuell himselfe, should be able to make doubt of it, or to call it againe into question. Attend ther­fore, and admire the Luciferian arrogancy of your owne Doctours, in condemning the Ancient Fa­thers on the one side, and the obdurate impudency of this out-cast Bishop, in affirming that the Fathers dissent not from them, on the other.

And to beginne with the most ancient; S. Dionysius Arcopagita, is cōdemned to haueLuther in Com. ad 1 [...]. & 14. Deut. & incap. Bab. written bookes most like to dreames, and most pernicions, and forCaus. dial. 5. & 11. a doting old man. S. Ignatius, to haueCaluin. inst. l. 1. c. 13. nū. 29. deformed moales, and filthy gigs in his epistles. S. Irenaeus, thatCent. 2. cap. 5. he set forth a phanaticall, or a furious frantick thing: and the Fathers of that age Cent. 1. l. cap. 10. & sequen. to haue left blasphemys and monsters to posterity. Tertullian Perkins probl. pag. 184. and Cyprian, for Montanist Heretikes, or at least for hauing erred filthily, in making Confirmation a Sacrament S. Irenaeus Mid­dleton Papistom. p. 179. & 180. Hilary, and Epiphanius for Pelagian heretikes, in defending Free-will. S. Siluester Luther in Colloq. mensal. wotton in defence of Perkins p. 402. Beza in c. 3. ad Roman. that baptized Constantine, accused to be Antichrist. Origen Caus. dial. 2. Cartw­right in M. Whit­gifes deféce pag. 352. for accursed, and generally condemned, a chosen instrument [Page 143]of the Diuell. S. Augustine Mid­dleton Pa­pistom. p. 136. & 618. numbred for one a­mong other Fathers, that were doting & foolish men, deuoyd of the spirit of God, and therefore vnworthy, that any man should giue them credit. And that to allow S. Augustines rules, is to bring in all Popery. S. Cyprian Caus. dial. 8. & 11. Cent. 3. cap. 5. to be stupide, destitute of God, and a deprauer of pen­nance. Nazianzen Caus. dial. 6.7.8. to be a prating fellow, and that he knew not what he sayd. S. Ambrose, that he had the Diuell dwelling within him: and that for teaching Tran­substantiation he was guilty of presumtuous and desperate blasphemy. S. Hierom Luther in Coloq. c. de Past. Eccl. Beza ad cap. 13. act. Apost. Caus dial. 6.7.8. that in his writings, he had not one word of Faith & true Religiō: that he was manifestly blasphemous, impious and intollerable bold in the detor­ting of Scriptures: that if he perseuered in his opinions, he was no lesse damned then Lucifer. ThatCartw­righ in his Reply pag. 562. Damasus spake in the Dragons voyce. ThatPer­kin Probl. p. 93.94. Paulinus, Fortu­natus, Fulgentius, Petrus Damianus were stayned with sinne, and guilty of Sacriledge. ThatWhi­taker de Cone. cōt. Bell. p. 37. Beza in confes. Ge­neuen. c. 7. sect. 11. Perkins vbi supra. S. Leo was a great Archeretike of the antichristian kingdome: that he breatheth out the arrogancy of the Antichristian Roman sea. ThatLuther in Colloq. mens. c. de patr. Eccl. S. Basil was of no worth, and was wholy a Monke.Luther in Colloq. Germ. p. 499. Melauth. in cap. 14. ad Rom. That S Gregory was grossly deceiuedly the Diuell, and he that fell into open impiety & tyranny.

And of the Fathers in general Schastianus Fran­eus(b) concludeth, that presently after the Apostles tyme, all things were turned vp side downe &c. and that for certayne, through the worke of Antichrist, the exter­nall Church, togeather with the faith and Sacraments, vanished cleane away pre [...]ētly after the Apostles departure. D. Downham (c) affirmeth, that the generall defe­ction [Page 122]of the visible Church foretold (2. Thessal. 2.) began to worke in the Apostles tyme. M. Fulke Fulk. answere to a Counter­fait Catho­like. pag. 35. a­uerreth, that the true Church decayed immediatly after the Apostles tyme. Luther Luther l. de seruo arbitrio. VVitemb. pag. 434. presumed to say, that vnlesse the Fathers repented and amended, they were nei­ther Saints, nor Members of the Church. Caluin Lib. 3. inst. cap. 3. num. 10. saith, that the Fathers were carried away with errour. Peter Martyr De vo­tis pag. 476. refrained not to say, as long as we do insist vpon the Councells and Fathers, we shall alwayes be con­uersant in the same errours. Beza In his preface to the new te­stamēt de­dicated to the Pr. of Condy. affirmeth, that in the best tymes Sathan was president, euen in their assem­blyes and Councells. Cartwright Cartw­right l. 1. p. 5.13. & 154. affirmeth, that see­king in the Fathers writings, is a raking in ditches, a mo­uing, and sommoning of hell, a mensuring of truth, by the crooked yard of tyme. Whitaker Cont. Duraeum l. 6. p. 423. auoucheth, the Popish religion to be apatched couerlet of the Fathers er­rours sowed togeather. Doctor Hūph. in vita le­wel. p. 212. Humfrey, did grie­uously reprehend M. Iewell, for his so bould appea­ling to the Fathers, affirming, that M. Iewell herein gaue the Papists too large a scope, was iniurious to himselfe, and after a manner spoyled himself and the Church. And M. Fulk Pulk Reioynder pag. 4. Aug. cōt. Iul. l. 1. c. 2. De verbis Apostol. serm. 14. lib. 2. cout. Iul. 6.10. being charged with M. Iewells confes­sion, in his reioynder to M. Bristowes reply, sayth; I answere, if he charge me with the contynuing of the Church in incorruption for 600. yeares next after Christ, he lieth in his throate.

Thus as S. Augustine saith, they persecute those with hostility whom they should follow with fidelity: which we cannot impute to their ignorance, but to their impudency. Alas they kick against they prick, and as he sayth againe; they push against that wall which will break them to peeces: what the Fathers deliuered, that they re­ceiued: [Page 145] and therfore as Tertullian noteth very well,Tert de praesc. c. condemne them, is nothing els, but to con­demne the Apostles, and Christ himselfe that taught them.

SECTION XIX. That the Protestants dissent very much from the doctrine of the pure Church, is proued out of the Protestants themselues, condem­ning one another.

LIKE as a peece of earth deuyding it selfe from a high Mountayne, and falling downe, is againe deuyded into many peeces wherunto it breaketh: or, as the Kingdome of this world, which was giuen by God to our Father Adam, being separated by him from the obedience, and from the Kingdome of God, fell preent; thereupon into many factions, and was afflicted with many contrarietyes, of Angells, and men, and beasts, and Elements, and the foure hu­mours of the body, and of sense, and reason, one a­gainst the other, so it fareth with those that deuide themselues from the vnity of the Citty, set vpon the mountayne, and from the Kingdome of God, which is the Church of Christ. For now being destitute of that publick and inuincible authority, which Christ hath ordayned, to keep the members of his body in which they must needs deuyde themselues one from another, euery man abounding in his owne sense, and in the self pleasing loue of his owne iud­gement. The examples whereof, haue been such in [Page 146]this miserable age; as nothing is more to be admyred or lamented, then to see so many Sects, and diuer­sityes of opinions in these tymes, as perchance do surmount the number of all the heresyes of former ages put togeather. The most notorious heere with vs, are the Lutherans, the Protestants the Puritans, and the Brownists.Protest. Apology. pag. 502.503 504.684. The Lutherans differ from other Protestants, in 33. seuerall articles, whereof in par­ticuler haue written Schlusselburg, Osiander, and Sa­muel Haberus. The Lutherans are againe subdeuided into very many sects: and the Protestants into more then seauenty seuerall opinions of most important matters, the most of them set downe by M. Doctor Willet, in his meditation vpon the 122. Psal. prin­ted anno 1603. pag. 91.

Wherefore, as sinne is punished with it selfe: so it is the nature of falshood to ouerthrow and con­found it selfe. Which as it appeareth to be true, in the infinite contrariety and confusion of doctrine, among the Protestants themselues: so alse, it wilbe manifest in the bold assertion of this vayne man, which we haue now in hand. And therefore hauing shewed already that to be most contrary to the Fa­thers which he sayth he hath found in the Fathers, and that both by the testimony of the Fathers, con­demning the Protestants doctrine for heresy, and also by the Protestants themselues, who spare not to re­uyle, and blaspheme the Fathers; before I conclude this whole matter, you shall also heare both him and them condemned out of their owne mouthes.

Wherfore, supposing that our Bishop is now a perfect English Protestant: and that he belieueth [Page 147]his owne words to be true, affirming those Charches, which Rome hath made her aduersaryes, to differ little or nothing from the ancient, pure, and true doctrine of the Church of Christ, I argue in this manner.

The Church, which followeth Luthers do­ctrine,Luth. tom. Witemb. f. 381.382. differeth little or nothing from the pure do­ctrine of Christ: But Luther & his disciples teach, that all Sacramentaries, or such as deny, Christ to be taken with the mouth in the blessed Sacrament, are Heretikes, alienated from the Church of God, who driue away, and kill the sheep of Chritt: that their errour, Ioan. Schutz in 50. Cans. in praefat. Tigurni in prafat. Apol. Tig. tract. 3. cont. su­premam Luth. con­fes. p. 61. is a blasphemous defence of many horrible heresyes; an abne­gation of the power and truth of Christ, and a preparation to Nestorianisme, Arianisme, and Turcisme. That their breast is insathanized, supersathanized, & persathanized, that their mouth is oueruled by Sathan, being infused, perfused, and transfused into the same. Therefore it differeth little or nothing from the pure doctrine of Christ, to hold the Bishop and is fellowes, who are Sacramentaryes to be heretiks, alienated from God, deceiuers and killers of the sheep of Christ &c.

Secondly, I argue in this manner,Caluin. in admonit. vlt. ad Westfalū & cont. Hesshusiā. according to the doctrine of Caluin, which differeth nothing from the purity of the Ghospell. Such as refuse to con­dimne the opinions of Luther, are malepers, wicked, fu­rious heretikes, and slaues of the Diuell. But the Bishop doth not condemne the opinion of Luther, therefore ac­cording to that doctrine, which differeth nothing from the purity of the Ghospell, the Bishop is a ma­lepert, wicked, furious heretike &c.

Thirdly in the behalfe of the Puritans, I ar­gue thus. The doctrine of the Puritans according to [Page 148]the Bishop, differeth nothing from the purity of the Ghospell. But the Puritans affirmeDange­rous positi­ons l. 2. c. 9. & 11. that the Pro­testants put no difference betwixt truth and falseshood, Christ and Antichrist, God and the Diuell; that their Clergy are an Antichristian swynish rabble, and the ene­myes of the Ghospell. Therefore it differeth nothing from the purity of the Ghospell, to affirme, that the Bishop being a Protestant, putteth no difference be­twixt truth and falshood, Christ and Antichrist, God and the Diuell &c.

To be short,Bernard Minister of VVorsop in his book of the Se­parists Schisme p. 71. in the behalfe of the Brownists, his other yonger brethren, I argue thus. The Brow­nists according to the Bishop, do not dissent from the purity of the Ghospel: But the Brownists affirme, that the Ministers of the Church of England, are Aegip­tian inchanters, lymms of the Diuell, Sycophants, Angels of hell, an Antichristian Clergy. Therfore it differeth little or nothing from the purity of the Ghospell, to affirme; that the Bishop, being now a Minister of the Church of England, is an Aegiptian inchanter, a limme of the Diuell, a Sicophant &c.

Lastly, in the behalfe of the Protestants against the Puritans, I argue thus. The Protestants doctrine according to the Bishop, differeth little or nothing from the purity of the Ghospell. But the Protestants affirme,Ormerode dis ouery of Puritan Papisme dial. 1. f. 5. that the Puritans, who are the Bishops brothers in Christ, and make one Church with him, haue ioyned themselues with the Pharisies, Apostolikes, Aerians, Pepuzians, Petrobusians, Floriniās, Cerinthians, Nazarens, Begardines, Ebionists, Cata­baptides, Euthusiests, Donatists, Iouinians, and Catha­rists. Therfore the Bishop is a Pharisy, Aerian &c.

Neither are these the dissentions of priuate men alone, whose quarells the Bishop hath vnder­taken,Protest. Apology pag. 505. but of whole bodyes, Countreys, and Soci­etyes, who haue mutually opposed themselues with such rage and fury, as that they not only condem­ned, but also banished ech other for heretiks, from their seuerall Dominions, prohibiting bookes, ma­king articles of Inquisition, examining, imprisoning entring into open armes one against another, & the Lutherans in particuler vsing cruelty, euen to the dead corps of the Caluinists.

The Church of England hath decreed, as you know: that Whosoeuer shall affirme any of the 39. Ar­ticles agreed vpon in the yeare of our Lord 1562. to be in any part erroneous, or such as may not with a good con­science be subscribed vnto, is ipso facto excommunicated, and not to be restored, but after repentance, and publike reuocation of his wicked errour: whereunto it is eui­dent, that the Lutherans will neuer subscribe,Luth. tom. 7. Witēb. f. 382. Luth. de coena Do­mini Tom. 2. Germ. fol. 174. their Father Luther hauing layd a curse vpon all Charity and Concord with the Sacramentaryes for euer, and euer, to all eternity And a little before his death he protested, that hauing now one of his feet in the graue, he would carry this testimony and glory to the Trybunall of God, That he did contemne, and eschew the Sacramen­tayes with all his hart: and that he would not haue any familiarity with them, neither by letters, nor by words, nor deeds, accordingly as the Lord had commounded. And Eccard a Lutheran sayth, it is manifest, Eccard. in fasciculo Cont. in praefat. ad Ducē Sax. that the diuini­ty of the Lutherans & Caluinists can neuer be reconciled: and that none but a most light Epicure, can affirme that the differences betwene them are but light. For (sayth [Page 150]he) they are most weighty, and concerne the foundation both of Churth & fayth. Schlussch. l. 2. Theol. Caluinist. art. 8. And Schlusselburge hath the like with others.

The like may be sayd of the Puritans in Ge­nena, France, Flaunders, and other places, who do all oppose themselues against the Supremacy of the King in spirituall matters, and against the Episco­pall Hierarchy of the Clergy of Englād. Whom also the Puritans of England haue intituled the Refor­med Church, and prepose them to the Parliament for example of imitation. Two of the chiefe articles of the Scottish Puritās be these: first, Bishops & Arch­bishops haue no authority, their very names he antichri­stian, and diabolicall. Secondly, it is Heresy for any Prince to call himselfe head of the Church: T. C. re­ply p. 144. but he may be excommunicated, and deposed by his Ministers. Thomas Cartwright sayth, that the English Puritans are bound to defend their doctrine, with losse of as many liues, as they haue hayres on their heads. And that Princes must submit their Scepters, and throwe downe thir Crownet, and licke the dust of their feet. Our English Puritans in their admonition to the Parliament,Admonit. tract. 2.3. complaine, that there is no right religion, nor so much as the outward face of a Church, rightly reformed in England. That the titles of Bishops were deuised by Antichrist, & plainely forbiden in Gods word. And at last they conclude, de­siring God to confound all them, who will not allowe of their admonitions and holy Eldership. That (say they) his peace may be vpon Israel, Tract. 23. and his sauing health vpon this Nation. So that you see, into what straytes this Protheus is brought; Into what forme of reli­gion soeuer he shift himselfe, of those which he de­fendeth, [Page 151]Lutheran, Protestant, Caluinist, or Puri­tant he is euery where taken, reuiled, reiected, and condomned.

Wherefore, that from hence forward, you may know this man to be one of those, of whom S. Paul speaketh; who taking vpon them to be Doctours of the Law, do not vnderstand neither what they speake, nor of what they affirme: Let vs suppose it were true, that his eyes were opened as he saith, and that he saw manifestly and clerely, in the Fathers, Canons, and Councells, those so many Churches, whome Rome hath made her aduersaryes, do differ little or nothing from the ancient and pare doctrine of the pure Church: What other thing I pray you did he see, with his eyes broad open, so plainly, but only this; that he is alienated from the Church of God: a deceiuer and a killer of the sheep of Christs a blasphemous defender of many horrible Heresyes; a disposer to Arianisme and Turcisme, insa­thanized, and [...] &c. according to the purity of the Lutheran Ghospell. That he is amalepert wicked, furious herecike, and a slane of the Diuell, in de­fenthing Luther, according to the purity of Caluins doctrine. That he putteth no difference betwene truth and falshould, Christ and Antichrist, God and the Diuell, but it one of the Antichristian Swyntsh rabble, accor­ding to the purity of the Puritants themselues. And lastly, that he is excommunicated and guilty of a wicked errour, according to the purity of the Protestants, for de­fending most impurely, that all these Sects togea­ther, do differ little or nothing from the purity of the Ghospell.

SECTION XX. The conclusion of this Tract cōcerning the Bishops motiues, by occasion wherof the nature of a mo­tiue is declared; and the first Catholike mo­tiue, of the holynes, and sanctity of Ca­tholike doctrine is propounded.

AND this much concerning the Bishops Mo­tiues, and the formall Reasons of his conuer­sion; which I haue shewed, that being in themselues, not only strang but also incredible, he neither goeth about to proue in this place, nor can possibly proue them in his other bookes hereafter: because in them he doth not descend to those particuler points which are in Controuersy betwene vs, as is manifest by the titles of his bookes themselues. And this one Con­trouersy alone, of the Popes Supremacy, according to the doctrine of the ancient Church I which is the substance of all the bookes he promiseth, is found (as I haue shewed) to he most extreme against him: and that which he maketh the ground thereof, hath been also discouered to be a most absurd, and most pernicious position, as much contrary to the autho­rity of your Bishops, and to the Puritan Eldership, and to the title of his owne booke, as to the Popes Supremacy: and if all were true which he pretendeth to proue in his Common wealth, it might shew per­haps, the Catholike Religion to be false, but yours to be the right it could not proue.

I haue also made it euident vnto you, that [Page 153]the Bishops motiues as they are heere set downe in his little booke, are as monstrous vntruths as can be deuised: and albeit he may saue them from broad lyes perchance, vnder the title of some rhetoricall fi­gure, whereof he hath been a Maister: yet too much of one thing is good for nothing, and he cannot de­ny, but that it is a great disgrace, euen to the Art of lying to vse this one figure of manifest vntruth so often.

By this also that hath beene sayd concerning this matter, you will further perceiue (the Bishop being a man so deeply learned, and after ten yeares study, hauing produced such reasons as these for the proofe of your Religion) how hard, or rather how impossible it is, for any man whatsoeuer, to giue any sound, or good reason for it. Wherin also by the way it wilbe worthy your knowledge to consider, that such reasons as may induce a man to be of any Reli­gion, are of two sorts. For either they proue euery point of Religion in particuler to be true, or els they open, and declare the euidence of certaine generall principles, which being once receiued, draw after them the consent of the mind to all those thinges in speciall, which are taught or practised in that Reli­gion. Vnto the first kind do belong all those books, which treat of particuler Controuersyes, as of the Masse; of prayer for the dead; of prayer to Saints; Purgatory; and the like, which indeed to a man that hath but little will, or little leasure to read, is a wearisome course, and tedious way to tryall. Vnto the other doth belong those shorter discourses which some haue tearmed motiues, and for the Catholike [Page 154]party, may be seen in such as haue handled the notes of the Church, in Canipian his ten Reasons, in the booke of the Three Conuersions of England, in Bristow, and others. Whereunto besides, that they must be generall reasons as I haue shewed, two things againe are necessary. The one, that the truth of them be more euident then the truth of other particulers, which depend vpon them. The other, that they induce almen Heathens, or Christiās, of what belief soeuer they be, to change opinion, and to submit their iugdments to the obedience of that Religion, for which they are produced.

This being seene, if you please but to examine a little all those Protestants books, which haue been published in this kind, you shall not find any one argument in them, which may be called a generall reason, or an vniuersall motiue for the truth of your Religion: but either they are no lesse obscure, then the Religion it selfe; as that the word of God is tru­ly preached, and the Sacraments rightly administred amongst you: or most improbable; as that the Pro­testants haue beene alwayes the most visible Con­gregation of all other Christian Churches: or that your religion accordeth with the doctrine of the an­cient Fathers, as here the Bishop pretendeth: or el; they concerne some particuler point in Controuer­sy, and commonly are not only most improbable, as that the Masse is Idolatry, that the Pope is An­tichrist, and the like; but also most palbably false, as that we hope to be saued without the merits of Christ, that we worship stockes and stones, that for nication is a veniall sinne, & such other iniuries [Page 155]of like nature, as it pleaseth your vnlearned Mini­sters for want of knowledge, or of better matter, to lay vpon vs.

Whereas on the other side, euery Catholike, whether learned or vnlearned, wise or simple, is able to giue you such a reason of his fayth, as may be sufficient to moue any indifferent mind, of what belief soeuer, to like and imbrace it. For Almighty God, not inforcing man against his wil, but draw­ing him according to his Nature, and demaunding a reasonable obedience of him, hath ordayned in the sweetnes of his prouidence, that all Christians should make profession of some principall motiues of their fayth, wherein many others are vertually conrayned, saying in their Creed: I beleeue the holy Church Catholike: Not only to moue others therby, but also more and more to confirme themselues in their beliefe. For albeit matter of diuine fayth, be infinitly aboue the knowledge of naturall reason, which is not able to comprehend it: yet is it not cō ­trary vnto reason, but so agreable thereunto, that it maketh vs euidently to see, and confesse how much we are bound in conscience to imbrace it, and to captiuate our vnderstanding vnto the obedience of it. And therfore it is further to be considered, that the ponderations and inducements which make men Catholiks, are commonly the same with those that make men Christians. In which respect, as all Christians are bound to know them more or lesse, according to their capacity: so none can re [...]ect or cōdemne them, without contempt of Christianity, being of such importance therunto, as that Christiā [Page 154] [...] [Page 155] [...] [Page 156]Religion cānot stand without them. Wherfore that you may the better conceiue, what difference there is, betweene shewes and substance, truth & errour, light and darknes, hauing examined the Bishops grounds, published in fauour of your Religion, I will heere propound, and declare vnto you, some generall motiues in the befalfe of our Catholike do­ctrine.

The first thing therfore that we will consider, shalbe the holynes, and sanctity of the Catholike Church, which laying a sound foundation of obe­dience and Humility in the harts of her children, & teaching them before all thinges, to captiuate their vnderstanding, and to subiect their will, in matters concerning their soule, to their spirituall Pastours, goeth forward with them, prescribing them other lessons; first of Contrition, which consisteth in the loue of God aboue all things that are to be beloued, and in the hatred of their owne sinnes, with sorrow for them aboue all things that are to be hated; Se­condly, of confession, calling themselues to a strict accompt for all their sinnes past, in the bitternes of their soule, remembring euery sinne in particuler, & accusing themselues intierly of them to their spiritu­all Father; Thirdly of satisfaction, in doing pen­nance for their offences against the Maiesty of God, in making amends for iniuryes done to others, and in restitution of other mens good name, whom they may haue defamed, or goods which they haue wrongfully taken or detayned. By which meanes, hauing reobtayned the fauour, and loue, and grace of God, and thereby being inabled and strengthned [Page 157]to do his will, and to keep his Commaundements; they are afterward exercised in all kind of vertue. And lastly, such as wil be perfect, the Catholike faith leadeth further on, and giueth them yet a higher lesson, teaching them to renoūce the riches; the plea­sures, and the vayne glory of this world, and to offer themselues vp a perfect Holocaust, or Sa­crifice to Almighty God, by consecrating them­selues wholy to his seruice; in the state of Chastity, voluntary Pouerty, and perpetuall Obedience, vn­der the will of their Superiour.

From which heauenly doctrine, deliuered vnto them by Christ himselfe, haue proceded those excellent effects of Godly life, which the Protestants themselues haue commended in them.Centur. 7. cap. 7. colum. 181. As the besto­wing of almost the whole day inprayer: their obedience to the Magistrate: their amity and concord: easily remit­ting iniuryes: carefull to spend their tyme in honest voca­tion and labour: curteous and liberall to the poore, and to strangers: and in their iudgments and contracts most true and faithfull. Vpon the same foundations, also haue been raised all those notable and famous workes of mercy, which some Protestants, otherwise no friends of ours, haue obserued in our Countrey, and pro­pounded them to their Protestant brethren, for ex­ample of Imitation: their memorable buildings, and ancient Monuments, Churches, Chappells, and other Re­ligious houses; numbers of goodly Bridges: Almes-houses, Hospitalls and Spittles: High wayes, Pauements, and Cawseys: Famous Colledges, Halls, Vniuersityes, Scholes and Free-scholes. Thus M. Stubs, who was such an enemy to Catholikes, that rayling against them in [Page 158]very many places, among other opprobrious spea­ches, he tearmeth them Blasphemers, and sacrile­gious Papists.

From this doctrine also hath proceded the in finite number of those that forsake all they haue, abandoning the world, and entring into religion? and many amongst them, haue left their large pos­sessions, offices, and dignityes, Crownes, and Sep­ters, to take vp their Crosse, and follow Christ. Hence hath proceded that austerity of life aboue the course of nature, which the world admyreth in ma­ny of them, and could not be otherwise supported but only by the vnspeakable consolations, and in­finite ioyes, wherwith it pleaseth God to [...] and require them for there extraordinary seruice. And to omit their excellent bookes of piety and deuotion and perfect kynd of knowledge in all kynd of lear­ning, hence also procedeth that great zeale of the saluation of others, forsaking their Countreys, in­during great labours, and exposing themselues to all kind of imminent daungers, in the conuersion of other Countreys, though neuer so far remote, neuer so cruell, fierce on barbarous. To conclude, out of this Schoole, haue proceded those infinit nūbers of Saints and Martyrs, among whom we reckon aboue fourscore of the bloud Royall of England, besides infinit numbers of our owne Nation. And this age of ours hath not fayled to bring forth great plenty of the same fruites, in our owne, and in forrayne Countreys, whose imminent vertues, it hath plea­sed God to recōmend to the world with his Letters Pattents, and broad Seale of supernaturall effects, [Page 159]and the ostension of many myracles.

These vertues therefore of Humility, Obe­dience, Pennance, Prayer, Amity, Liberality, Iu­stice, Chastity, Pouerty, Patience,Holinshed last Edit. part. 1. pag. 100. Austerity vpon there owne bodyes, Charity and Zeale in the con­uersion of others, were the arguments wherewith S. Augustine the Monke, conuerred our an cestours; and wherewith as the Apostles in the Primitiue Church, so now the Iesuits and other Religious men of this tyme, do ouercome the ignorance of the bar­barous, the fallacies of Hereticks, the pollicyes, pryde and ostentation of worldly wisedome, in the conuersion of sundry Nations to the Faith of Christ. For being sent by the ordinary meanes which God himselfe hath appoynted in his Church, and out of obedience to their superiours to preach the Ghospel. (which in effect is nothing els but this good news, that all men of what state or condition soeuer, rich, or poore whole or sick, at liberty or in thraldome, may easily attaine vnto perfect felicity, hauing grace abound antly offered vnto them, through the Fayth & meries of Iesus Christ to become the sons of God in this life, by louing him, and keping his Com­maundements, and to enioy him in the next, by se­ing him eternally as he is, the absolute perfection of infinit vertue in himselfe, and the indeficient foun­tay no of infynit goodnes to those that behold him)) all men, that heare and see such Preachers, may easily know them to be sent from God, and as the Propher sayd of them, to be the seed whome God hath blessed, by the workes of God which they do, and by that most diuine doctrine of theirs, and most Ange­licall [Page 160]perfection of life, which they teach and pra­ctise.

And now to turne ouer the leafe, and to consider the manners of the Protestants; they on the other side, begin with Pryde, which is the root of all vice, as the Catholikes begin with Humility which is the mother of all vertue. For they teach their followers, not to submit themselues to the iud­gement of others in matters of Faith, nor to any au­thority vpon earth, of Church or Councell: but ra­ther to confide in the sense of their owne vnderstan­ding, though they be neuer so simple, which is the greatest, and highest kynd of pryde that can be ima­gined, next to the pryde of Lucifer. For as he would haue made himselfe equall to God, so euery Prote­stant, if he follow his owne grounds, compareth, or rather preferreth himself in knowledge of the truth, before the Church, which is the Spouse of God, in­fallibly assisted by his holy spirit, as hereafter shall be proued.

Neither can they show one act of Christian humility, or of those other supernaturall vertues a­boue mentioned, exercised or practised in any de­gree amongst them: nor can they name any other commendable action of theirs, wherin the heathens and such as are no Christians, do not equalize, and (at least heretofore) haue not much excelled them.

Many other poynts of doctrine also they teach, which no vertuous mynd, or well disposed nature amongst them would not be a shamed to follow, be­ing vtterly to be condemned, by the very light of nature. For they teach, that we haue no free will to do [Page 161]well or ill, which togeather with their doctrine of re­probation, doth not only take away all meanes of do­ing well, but also maketh it impossible to auoyd any sinne, whereunto they affirme, that men are compel­led, by the vnresistable power of God: as in their opinion, by the same necessity all men that do well, are likewise im­pelled to vertue. They teach also, that it is impossible to keep the Commaundements, and that Christians are de­liuered from the obedience of them. That Chastity is not to be vowed, because it is not in our power: VVhitak. cont. Camp. rat. 8. p. 153 from whence it followeth that it is not in the power of a man, to be without a woman, nor of a woman to be with­out a man; which is a wholsome doctrine for yong vnmarried men and women,Iacobus Andraeas Cont. 4. in cap. 22. Lu­cae. Luther de captiu. Babylon. Perkins re­formed Cath. pa. 9. M. Fulk. against the. Rem. Test. fol. 447. willet Sy­nop. p. 560 and for such as are married whose partners are sick or absent from thē. They contemne voluntary pouerty, obedience, set dayes of Easting, Order of holy disciplyne, and other good workes: which as a pryme Protestant affirmeth, is censured as new Papistry, and new Monachisme amongst them. They teach likewise, that menare instified by only faith: that they cannot loose their saluation vnlesse they will not belieue: that he that doth once belieue can neuer loose his fayth, by Adultery, or any other sinne: that sinne is not hurtfull to him that actually belieueth: that vnto the faithfull professours all sinnes are veniall, and vnto others all sinnes are mortall.

By which you see, what a wyde gate they set open to all kind of sinne and sensuality; the fruits whereof the Protestants themselues,Luther in poliella cone. 1. Dom. Ad­uent. haue not been ashamed to confesse, nor spared to publish, that the seauenth head Diuell, had inuaded the most part (of their Ghospellers) and made them worse then they were vnder [Page 162]the Pope, that now euery man is possest with seauen Diuells, whereas before (to witt vnder the Pope) they were but possest with one. That in the Papacy, men were religious in their errour, euery man did willingly follow good workes: Now in the light of the knowne truth, they are more pro­phane, then the sonnes of the world. Looke vpon this cuan­gelicall people (sayth Erasmus) bring me forth one, Prot. A­pol. pag. 414.415. whom this Ghospell of a gormandizer hath made sober, of lewd chast: I will shew thee many, who are become worse then they were before. And againe, those whom before I haue knowne pure, sincere, and voyd of dissimulation, hauing afterwards giuen themselues to this Ghospell, they began to talke of wenches, to become dycers, to cast away their prayers, most impatient, reuengers of euery iniury, vaine, vypers in their manners, and to haue cleane put off the nature of men. I speake what I haue found by experience. So far Erasmus. You shall heare also how Muscu­lus describeth his owne Lutherans:Andraeas Muscul. Dominica pruna Ad­uentus. With vs Luthe­rans (sayth he) at this present, thus standeth the case: That if any be desirous to see a great rabble of knaues, of persons turbulent, deceitfull, coseners, and vsurers, let him go to any Citty where the Ghospell is purely preached, and he shall find them there by multitudes: For it is more manifest then the day light, that there were neuer among the Ethnicks, Turkes, and other Infidels more vnbridled, vnruly persons, with whome all vertue and honesty is quite extinct, then are amongst the professors of the Ghospell.

The like description Castalio maketh vnto you,Castalio apud Resci­um p. 54. of them of Geneua, who dwelled long among them, and was a most particuler friend of Beza: They are praud (sayth he) pufft vp with glory and re­uenge, [Page 163]their life is infamous and villanous, they are Maisters of Art in reproches, lyes, cruelty, treason, and insupportable arrogancy. They name their Geneua, the holy Citty, and their assemblyes Hierusalem: but in very truth, we should call it; O Babylon, Babylon! ô most infa­mous Sodomy, and children of Gomorrha! Caluin lib. de scand. p. 118.127. Whereunto Caluin himselfe giueth sufficient testimony, where he asketh, what other intention had the most that be­tooke themselues to the Ghospell, but only, the yoake of superstitiont being shaken off (solutiùs in omnem lasciuiā diffluerent) that with more liberty they might flow a­broad, and run out into all lasciuiousnes.

And to come nearer to you, I must intreat you to be content, to heare what some other good Protestants of our Nation, haue writen of the man­ners of our owne Countrey. For first, of your Pu­ritan preachers, M. Sutcliffe writeth thus:Sutcliffs answere to a ubell sup­plicatory pag. 89. Their pride (sayth he) malice, cruelty, couetousnes, vsury, glutony, and chamber cheere, which they call fasting, and colour with tearmes of godly exercises, do notoriously con­uince them. Neither yet (sayth he further) do I tell all: for other matters I haue thought good to keep for a rare banquet &c. And concerning the rest, M. Stubs hauing told of his trauell, in compassing the whole Realme about with a long and wearisom iourney, sayth thus thereof: As concerning the people, Stubs in motiues to good works, in the epistle ante med. I haue found them in most places dissolute, proud, enuious, mali­cious, disdaynefull, couetous, ambitious, carelesse of good workes, a generall decay of good workes, or rather a plaine defection and falling away from God; and the an­cient monuments, Churches, Schooles &c. either quite dissolued, or els so ruined and decayed, as if the first foun­ders [Page 164]were now liuing, they could not take them for their owne: Which generall tearmes, M. Geffreyes re­turning from his trauells in forraine Coūtreys, doth explicate more in particuler, in his Sermon preached at Paules Crosse, where it is like he spake the truth, for the testimony and perpetuall memory, whereof it was afterward put in print. His words are these: I may freely speake what I haue plainly seene, in the course of some traucils, Geffrey in his serm. preached 1604. prin­ted 1605. pag. 31. and obseruations of some courses: That in Flaunders was neuer more drunkennes: In Italy more wantonnesse: In Iury more hypocrisy: In Turky more im­piety: In Tartary more iniquity, then is practised gene­rally in England, particulerly in London.

SECTION XXI. The former Motiue is confirmed: and by occasion thereof the necessity of keeping the Commaund­ments to obtaine Saluation is declared.

CONSIDERING with no little grief of mind the great dissolution of life, and corruption of manners in our Countrey, which your owne wri­ters haue published to the world, as hath been sayd; we comfort our selues somwhat in this, that it can­not be imputed to the euil disposition of the people, who are known for the most part, to be of a nature as much inclynod to vertue, as any other people of Christendome whatsoeuer, but the fault of all must be layd where it is, vpon the Maisters, and first Apo­stles of this new Ghospell. Who as they were most vicious themselues, so they left that pestilent seed of [Page 165]their doctrine before mentioned, to their posterity, from whence no better fruit can be expected Which doctrine of theirs, as I know, that your selfe & many other ciuill Gentlemen, do vtterly detest: so I doubt not, but that you are free from the guilt of those crymes, wherof you are so deeply accused by your own maisters. Neither do I thinke, that any honest morall man, whatsoeuer he say with his lipps, can deny in his hart, his owne freewill, wherof he hath dayly experience in all his actions and operations, or that he can be brought to thinke, that God doth either command, or counsell any thing, which he giueth no grace to performe: or that he can belieue in his conscience to be saued by fayth alone, though he dyelin sin;1. Cor. 5.10. but rather I presume he beleeueth ac­cording to the Apostle, that we must all appeare before the tribunall of God, where euery one shall receiue accor­ding as he hath done in his life tyme, good or euill.

Wherein to giue you some further light, and to say something heere by way, as I haue promi­sed els where, of the necessity of keeping Gods Cō ­maundments, if we meane to be saued; I shall pray you to vnderstand, and to take notice heer with me, that the Commaundments may be considered two manner of wayes, either simply and materially, as they are the law of God, or more fully and formally, according to the end for which they were giuen, in­cluding in them the loue of God: according where­unto it is sayd, that the loue of God is the first and greatest Commaundment: and that he who loueth God, hath fullfilled the law. Which loue and friend­ship with God, because all kind of sinne doth not [Page 166]breake or extinguish: therefore according to the holy Fathers,Tertul. l. de anima. c. 17 S. Chrysost. bom. 24. in Matth. S. Hier. lib. 2. cont. Iouin. some sinnes are called great crymes, & some others little, small, or dayly offences. Great sins, are sayd to be against the Cōmaundmēts, as they in­clude the loue of God, because great crymes depriue vs of it. Little and small offences, are sayd in the same sense, not to be against, but besides the Com­maundments, because they may stand with the loue and friendship of God: and though they be neuer so many, yet they do not deserue, that Almighty God, in respect of them alone, should take his grace and fauour from vs.Matth. 7.3. Mat. 23.24 2. Cor. 3.11. Mat. And so in Scripture, some sinnes are compared to motes in the eye, some to great beames, some to gnats in the throat, and some to Cammells, some enter into the building of God (which is of gould and siluer) like vnto hay, and stubble, which shallbe purged with fire, and some ouerthrow the whole building, which shall burne eternally: Some are in danger of Iudgment, Iac. 1.15. or of a Councell, and some are to be punished with the fire of Hell: some are vn­perfect, because no perfect consent is giuen vnto them, and some are consumated which ingender death.

Those that are little in their owne Nature, and do not depriue vs of the friendship of God, but deserue to be pardoned with some kind of punish­ment in this life,Aug. l. de Natura & gratiac. 22 or in the next; S. Augustine doth exemplify in Abel the iust, who perchance (sayth he) did laugh a little immoderatly, or did iest too much, or co­ueted some little thing intemperatly, or plucke some fruite ouer greedily; for the which no man of vnderstanding can imagine, that God who loued him so deerly, would damne him: for they are so little, either in [Page 167]respect of the smalnes of the matter, or of the imper­fect consent of the will, which is giuen to them, that (with some temporall punishment) of their owne Nature they deserue to be pardoned. In which res­pect S. Augustine doth call them Veniall sinnes: whereas the other that extinguish the loue of God in vs, which is the life of the soule, are therfore called Mortall, or deadly sinnes. And from S. Augustine,August. Enchirid. lib. c. 1.22. the Church hath borrowed these termes of the distin­ction of sinnes, and teach that some are Veniall, and some are Mortall. Of Veniall sinnes therefore, these places of Scripture are to be vnderstood, where it is sayd, For this (or for the forgiuenesse of this sinne) euery Saint shall pray vnto thee: The iust man shall fall seauen times a day. Where you see,Psal. 31.6. Iac. 3.2. 1. Ioan. 1.8. Rom. 6.23. Ezech. 18.4. that there are some sinnes, which do not exclude sanctity, & may stand with iustice. In which sense it is also sayd: In many things we do all offend: if we shal say, that we haue no sin, we deceiue our selues, and the truth of God is not in vs. Of Mortal sinne, these other places must needs be meant where it is writen, the rewards of sinne is death, 1. Ioan. 3.8. Iac. 2.10. Deut. 17.26 Ezech. 18.24. the sting of death is sinne, that is to say, the instrument wherewith it killeth: the soule that sinneth, she shal dye: he that sinneth is of the Diuell: he that offendeth in one is guilty of all; accursed be he, that doth not remayne in all these words of the law, and doth not fullfill them in his worke. If the iust man turne away from his iustice &c. shall he liue? All the iustice which he hath done, shall not be remembred: in the prcuarication wherein he hath strayed, and in the sinne wherein he hath sinned, in them shall he dye.

This distinction therefore of Mortall and [Page 168]Venyal sin being thus declared, it will be an easy mat­ter to vnderstand, or rather it is impossible for any man to be ignorant, that whosoeuer committeth Mortall sinne, becometh an enemy of God: and that no man loueth God aboue all things, who hateth not sinne aboue all thinges, and keepeth not his Com­maundments, wherein the loue of God is included. For conscience being nothing els, but the light of reason, either accusing, or excusing our actions, the fountayne of which light, is the image of God with­in vs, and the very essence of our humanity, to iu­stify our selues in doing ill, by the externall iustice of Christ; what is it but to be deliuered ouer into a reprobate sense, seeking as Luther did, to become senselesse of sin, to put out the light of the soule, to murther cōscience, to deface Gods image, & to per­uert the very essence of our human Nature? And sin againe, being nothing els, but the consent of the will, to some thing against the rule of reason, and especially of the reason of God, which giueth a rule and a law to all things, and being therfore contra­ry to God himselfe, as it is impossible that God should not hate it, or that he should hate any thing but it, being goodnes itselfe; so is it impossible, that he should not hate the author, or the doer of it. God doth equally hate the sinner, & his sin: his eyes are cleare that they may not see euill, Sap. 14.9. Habac. 1. & 13. & they cannot looke fauorably vpon iniquity. And therfore to abuse the mercy and goodnes of God so much, as to thinke that he may be corrupted to loue vs remayning in sinne, or not hating the same aboue all things to be hated, is one of the greatest blasphemies, and iniuries that can be [Page 169]done against God, and the most vnnaturall, sottish, and diabolicall presumption in our selues, that can be thought or deuised.

The difference also between the law, and the Ghospell, doth yet further discouer the monstrous prophanesse of this blasphemous opinion. For being borne in sinne, which is the greatest euill of any o­ther without comparison, alother euils being good in their owne Nature, and proceeding from God, either as the iust punishment of sinne, or as the meanes to make vs better; the law was giuen vnto vs, that we might know sinnes and offences more perfectly thereby, then otherwise we could, by the obscure light of our owne corrupted nature. Wher­by also not being able to obserue it, our wicked Na­ture taketh occasion to be more peruerse, & to hate the law, and to oppose it selfe against it.Rom. 7.9.11. I liued with­out the law sometime (that is to say, without the per­fect knowledge of sinne, which I receiued by the law) but when the Commaundment was come, sinne re­uided (it grew stronger, & had more force vpon me) for sinne (that is the cōcupiscence of our wicked na­ture) taking occasion, by the Commaundment, seduced me, and by it killed me. Wherefore the law was so far from the iustifying of vs, or deliuering vs from the bands of syn, that it was an occasion to increase the same, and to augment all those other miseryes, which do follow of it. But by the Ghospell, that is to say, by fayth in Christ, through the merits of his Passion, we receiue not only light to know our sins, but also aboundant grace, to auoyd and ouercome them. And therfore, being thus redeemed from the [Page 170]bondage, as well of sinne, as also of the law, as it was an occasion of sinne, and the iust punisher ther­of, we are likewise deliuered from the malice of all our other miseries, which (sinne being taken away from whence it proceeded) can hurt vs no longer, except we list our selues, but they turne to our grea­ter good in this life, and in the next to our greater glory. Wherfore to hold, that our Sauiour Christ hath not obtayned sufficient grace for all those, that sincerely demaund it, whereby to ouer come sinne, and to keep the Commaundments of God; what is it, but to confesse, that we are still subiect to the curse of the law? What is it, but to make voyd the power of the Ghospell to saluation? What it is, but to affirme that Christ dyed in vaine, and to deny him to be our Redeemer? who not being able to de­liuer vs from the bondage of sinne in this life, can lesse deliuer vs from the paynes thereof in the next, because it is impossible, but that God in his owne nature should hate it: and therfore it must needs be granted, that he will also punish it as long as it re­mayneth in vs, or we in it; that is to say, eternally, according to the Protestants doctrine and practise, in whose Church is no remedy to clense vs of deadly sinnes, committed after Baptisme, nor to wash out of our soules the malice and filth of sinne, which re­mayning, as it must needs with them, being once committed, it is but a poore shift to tell vs, that it shall not be imputed vnto vs.

To conclude, what is the Scripture it selfe, but a deed of Couenant betweene God and man, for the punishment of sinne, and for the reward of ver­tue, [Page 171]with temporall afflictions, and benedictions in this life, which are especially contayned in the old Testament, and with eternall payne, or endlesse fe­licity in the next, which is especially declared in the new, whereunto are adioyned many historyes, ex­amples & counsells, exhortations, incouragements and prayses, disuasions, repronements & disprayses in the hatred of the one, and in the fauour of the o­ther? Wherfore to hold, that we are iustifyed by faith alone, though we liue in sinne; what is it, but to ouerthrow the whole Bible, togeather with the truth, the mercy, and the iustice of God? And in a word, to make a hell of heauen, and a heauen of hell? And therfore no maruell, that S. Hierome, Hier. in expl. Sim. Aug. ser. de tempore 191. & S. Augustine, do call this heresy execrable blasphemy. We do execrate, or curse (say they) the blasphemy of those, who say: that God hath commaunded any thing to a man, which as impossible.

Do you not know (sayth S. Paul) that the wicked shall not inherit the kingdome of God, as if he should say,1. Cor. 6.9. how can yee be ignorant, it being euident by the light of nature? And then followeth, Nolite errare, (as forseeing the monstrous errour of Luther, and Caluin) be not deceiued, neither fornicators, nor seruers of Idolls, nor aduouterers, nor effeminate, nor such as sin carnally by themselues alone, nor the lyers with man-kind, nor raylers, nor extorsioners, shall possesse the Kingdom of God. Where you see, he ioyneth those other sinnes with the sinne of Idolatry, and excludeth the one,1. Cor. 5.11. as well as the other from the kingdome of heauen. And therefore he forbiddeth vs, to keep company, or to eate with such kind of persons, if they be Christians. [Page 172]And againe:Ephes. 5.6. For vnderstanding, know yee (as if men of vnderstanding could not be ignorant of it) that no fornicator, or vncleane, or couetous person, hath in­heritance in the kingdome of Christ and of God. And thē followeth: Let no man seduce you with vaine wordes (speaking directly of the seducers of these tymes) for from these thinges come the anger of God vpon the children of diffidence; become not therefore partakers with them &c. In which place he goeth further on, spea­king much more to the same purpose. And els wher: The works of the flesh are manifest, which are fornicatiō, vncleanes, Gal. 5.19. dissensions, sects &c. which I fortell you; as I haue fortold you, that they who do such things, shall not obtayne the kingdome of God. All which most expresse places, being written to saythfull, and meant of the saythfull, euen in the most pure and sincere tymes of the Apostolike Church, it is manifest, that no faith could excuse them, but did rather augment their sinne in such cases, and increase their damna­tion, according to the sentence of our Sauiour: The child that knoweth the will of his Father, Luc. 12.47. Hebr. & doth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes. Which is also con­firmed by S. Paul, where he sayth: If we sinne wil­lingly, after the knowledge of the truth receiued, now is there not left an host for sinnes. Where his meaning is, that albeit in Baptisme, all sinnes are easily forgi­uen, yet such as belieue, offending after Baptisme, haue no such easy means to be forgiuen, but must redeeme their sinnes by pennance, and such other hard remedies,Cyril. l. in 10. cap. 17. as the Church prescribeth after Bap­tisme: For if they do not, nothing remayneth, but a cer­tayne terrible expectation of iudgment, and rage of fire, [Page 173]which shall consume the aduersaries, as it followeth in the same place. And he addeth immediatly: If a man making frustrate the law of Moyses, without mercy dyeth, how much more thinke you, doth he deserue worse punish­ments, who hath troaden the Sonne of God vnder foot, and esteemed the bloud of the testament polluted, wherein he is sanctified; and hath done contumely to the spirit of grace. Which words, although they be principally spoken of Heresy, and Apostasy from the Catholike Church, yet must they needs be also vnderstood of all other Mortall sinnes, which S. Paul placeth in the same ranke with Idolatry, and sects, and diui­sions as you haue heard, and do equally exclude the doers of them from the kingdome of Heauen.

Wherefore to draw to an end, I say with the holy Ghost (whome I beseech to open the harts of all those, that with indifferent mind shall read this Sectiō, Rom. 1.2. to see the truth of this cleare doctrine) that as all those are inexcusable before God, who do not giue him thanks, nor glorify him by obeying his Commaund­ments,Rom. 1.25. Rom. 1. [...]2. Rom. 2.1.2. but dishonour him, preferring the loue of the creature, before the loue of God, doing those thinges, which they know to be worthy of death, which they con­demne in others; and for the which they beleeue, Rom. 5. that God himselfe doth lastly condemne them, whome they confesse to be no excepter of persons, but to giue euery one according to his wokes: 1. Ioan. 5.3. Matt. 11.30. Rom. 8.3. So there can be no other true ground of our iustification, but only the loue of God, [...]owred not abound [...]tly into out harts, by the holy Ghost, who is giuen vnto vs, which maketh his Com­maundments not to be heauy, his yoake sweet, & his bur­den easy: For that which was impossible to our weake [Page 174]flesh, the Sonne of God taking flesh, aid conquer sinne in the flesh, Rom. 8.4. Gal. 5.17. Rom. 8.6. Rom. 8.5. that the iustification, or obseruation of Gods Commaundment might be fullfilled is vs. Not walking according to the flesh, but according to the spirit: for the spirit, and the flesh are contrary, lusting and couetting one against the other. The wisedome, loue and pleasure of the flesh is death, but the wisedome of the spirit, is life and peace;Gal. 5.14. Rom. 8.7. they that liue according to the flesh, sa­uour those thinges, that are pleasing to the flesh: but they that liue according to the spirit, delight in that, which is pleasing to the spirit, and haue crucified their flesh, with her vices and concupiscences. Rom. 8.13.14. Rom. 6.11.16. They that are in the flesh, or giue way to the desires thereof, cannot please God: for the wisedome of the flesh, is an enemy to God; for it is not subiect to his law, nor can be subiect, and therfore they that liue according to the flesh, shall dye: but such as are led by the spirit of God, Rō. 7.20. are the sonnes of God, and because by the spirit they mortify the deeds of the flesh,Apoc. 2.16. Tit. 4.7. therefore they shall liue. If we consent to the motions of the flesh, to obey the concupiscence therof, sin raigneth in vs: For we are the seruants of him, whome we obey either in sinne vnto death, or of obedience to iustice and life euerlasting. But if we consent not, and oppose our wills against it, it is the outward man that doth it, but the inward man will not do it. And therfore because it is not his worke, he shall not be punished for it, but rather shall be rewarded for his fight against it.

And this is the greatest assurance, which the state of faith can affoard vs; that our consciences do not reprehend vs, 1. Ioan. 3.21. but rather giue testimony vnto vs, that we resist, and oppose our selues constantly [Page 175]against our spirituall enemyes; not yeilding at any tyme vnto them, but euermore obseruing faithfully the will of God, in keeping his Commaundements; because this conquest being impossible by nature, we may be sure that we are assisted therin by the holy grace of God, without the which we could not ob­tayne it. But he that sayth, he is the sonne of God,1 Ioan 2.4. and doth not loue him; or who sayth that he knoweth God, and doth not keep his Commaundements, is a lyer; and the truth of God is not in him. Ioan. 14.23.24. Who keepeth his Commaundements, he it is that loueth God; and he that loueth him not, keepeth not his word. And this is the mayne, and the great argument, wherin S. Paul see­meth to glory, and was not ashamed to preach Christ Crucified, to the mighty men, both of the Iewes, and of the Gentils: because, saith he, the doctrine thereof, is the vertue and power of God to saluation. Rom. 1. For it reuealeth vnto vs, how we should obtayne the grace of inward goodnes, & of true inherent iustice, at the hand of God, by vniting our selues vnto Christ the sonne of God; which we cannot do, but by ma­king our selues the members of his body, which is the Church of God. Out of the which, as all are con­cluded vnder sinne: so all remayne in their sinnes; which they may change, but cannot put of; and the more they striue against them, the more (because of our corrupted nature) they find themselues subiect vnto them, and especially heretikes, in whome God punisheth one sinne with another, by with-drawing from them more and more, the assistance of his holy grace, to the end that their Pryde, may either be humbled thereby, or els confirmed.

And thus much for the first Catholike mo­tiue, expressed in the Creed, vnder the signification of the word Holy; which, as I thinke, you will graunt is most sufficient to persuade any well dispo­sed mynd to imbrace the Catholike Faith: by means whereof, all men are inabled to resist sinne, to ob­serue the Law, and to preserue their loue and friend­ship with God. And as all Christians belieue, that very many in former ages, haue attayned thereby to wonderfull sanctity, holynes, and perfection of life: so none can deny, but that this age of ours, hath af­foarded sundry the like examples. Whereas, on the other side, experience teacheth, that through the want therof, many Christian Countreys, and ours among the rest, haue lost their ancient practise of good workes, their former exercises of piety and de­uotion, and their exemplar disciplyne of Christian conuersation; and insteed of these things, changing the liberty of the spirit, into the liberty of the flesh, they are fallen into such corruption, dissolution, and prophanes of life & manners, that their owne Maisters and Doctours are ashamed of them.

SECTION XXII. The force of the second Motiue signifyed by the word Catholike, in the Creed of the Apostles, is declared.

IT followeth to declare the second Catholike mo­tiue, comprehended vnder the name Catholike, and contayned in the Apostles Creed: which signi­fyeth [Page 177]the vniuersality of the Church, in tyme and place; and that the Catholike Faith was to be spred ouer all the world, and to contynue in all ages, vn­till the day of iudgment: which, as in it selfe, it is sufficient to moue any man of iudgement to follow this vniuersall, and eternall Truth: so is it set downe so clerely, and aboundantly in the Scriptures them­selues, which prophesy thereof, that a man would wonder (if any blyndenes were to be wondered at, in those that are obstynate) how it is possible, that such as professe to be much cōuersant in the reading of them, should not see and discerne them. A stone Dan. 2.34. cut without hands from the Mountayne, was made a great Mountayne, and filled the whole earth. All Esa. na­tions shall flow into it. Thou Esa. 60.10.11. shalt see and abound, thy hart shālbe astonied, and inlarged; because the multitude of the sea shalbe conuerted vnto thee. The Iles expect thee, their Kings shall minister vnto thee; & thy gates shallbe continually open, neither day nor night shall they be shut, that men may bring to thee the riches of the Gentiles. Esa. 49.23. Kings shallbe thy nursing Fathers, and Queenes thy Mothers. Esa. 54.2.3. The place is strait for me, giue roome that I may inhabit. Inlarge the place of thy tents, spread out the Curtaynes of thy habitation: for thou shalt increase on the right hand and on the left; thy seed shall possesse the Gentiles. These, and infinit others like to these, are the Prophesies of the extension of Christs Church vniuersally to all Kingdomes and Nations: accor­ding whereunto our Sauiour compared his Church to a little Mustard-seed, Matt. [...]3.31. Mar. 16.15.16. Acts. 1.8. which after should come to be a great tree: bidding his disciples to preach to euery creature, to go forth into all the world, to teach all Nations, [Page 178]from Hierusalem to Samaria, and so forward euen to the ends of the earth. The continuance therof, was like­wise foretold, that their watchmen, or Pastors should not be silent. Esa. 62.6. That their Priests should not want to offer Sacrifice all the dayes: That Gods Ierem. couenant with them should be like his couenant with the day and night: that is to say, to contynue foreuer. That they should be multiplied like the starres of heauen, and the sand of the sea, which you know can neuer fayle. Ministring Esa. 66.21.23. to him euen from moneth to moneth, and from Sabbaoth to Sabbaoth; that is to say, allwayes. In Dan 2.44. the dayes of those Kingdomes, God shall rayse the Kingdome of heauen, which shall neuer be dispersed, and his Kingdome shall not be giuen to any other people, and it shall consume all those other Kingdomes, and it shall stand for euer from generation to generation. Psal. Gods Couenant therewith shall not be broken for any offence committed by her chil­dren, but shall contynue like the Sunne and the Moone for euer. According whereunto our Sauouir also sayd, that the Gates of hell should not preuaile against it: and that he himselfe would be with it to preserue it, all the dayes, vnto the consummation of the world. From the which, as you see, no tyme, nor any one day can be excepted.

From these two propertyes is euidently dedu­ced the visibility of the Church: for it being so great, as that morally it may be sayd to fill the earth; and also of such emynent glory, as to haue so many Kingdomes & Nations subiect vnto it, according to the former prophesies thereof: no man can be igno­rant where it is, nor what people they are, who are members of it. Also the Priests therof being compa­red [Page 179]by the Prophets for their number and quality to the starres of heauen, their Sacrifices, their Lawes and executions of them, their Sacraments, and the administration of them, their preachings, and tea­chings; and to let passe many other things, their continuall, and glorious fight against heretiks, and Infidelles, and wicked Christians, must needs be so well knowne, that no man dwelling neere the most inhabited, and best part of the world possessed by them, can be ignorant therof. For as the Assyrians, Persians, Grecians, and Romans, in respect of the great­nes, force, and fame of their dominions, were mor­rally sayd to haue conquered the world, and to haue possessed the Empyre therof, in which respect it can be no lesse then madnes to affirme, that they were inuisible: so also, the Kingdome of Christ, in respect of the extension, inuincibility, eminent apparence, and great fame which it hath euer enioyed aboue any other sects of Religion whatsoeuer, may be said more properly, to fill the earth, and to be the only Catholike or vniuersall Religion, diffused through the world, as you shal heare anone out of S. Augustine.

And for this cause God himselfe sayd;Esa. 61.9. that he would make an euerlasting Couenant with them: that their seed should be knowne among the Nations. And that, all who did see them, shall know them to be the seed which our Lord hath blessed. And the prophets hauing fortold that it should be a mountayne,Matt 5.14 prepared in the top of Mountaines, & exalted aboue other hills; our Sauiour accordingly sayd of it. That being a Citty placed vpon a Mountayne, it could not be hidden. What shall I say more, sayth S. Augustine vpon these [Page 180]words of our Sauiour, but that they are blynd, who cannot see so great a mountayne.

From hence also it doth necessarily follow, that the doctrine of the Church is infallible, and priuiledged from errour. For according to the Protestants themselus, that only is the true Church, wherein the word of God is truly preached, and the Sacraments truely administred. And therefore, if the Church should erre, it should cease to be the true Church, and should not contynue, but the Gates of hell should haue preuayled against it, Matt. 16.18. which is directly a­gainst the Scriptures. And in particuler this priui­ledge from errour, is expresly promised in the old Testament,Esa. 59.21. in many places; as where the Prophet Esay speaketh therof in these wordes: This is my co­uenant with them, sayth our Lord: My spirit which is in thee, and my wordes which I haue put in thy mouth, shall not depart from thy mouth, nor from the mouth of thy seed, Oze. 2.19.20. nor from the mouth of thy seeds seed, from this tyme forth for euermore. And where in Oze God sayth of his Church: I will espouse thee for euer, and I will espouse thee to me in iustice and iudgment, in mer­cy and commiseration; and I will espouse thee vnto me in sayth for euer: Ephes. 4.11. Epipha. in A [...]corato circa princ. Matt. 16.18. Matt. 17.18. 1. Tim. 3.5. Ioā. 14.26. according whereunto, it is also sayd in the new Testament: That there should be Pastours, and Doctours in the Church for euer, that we be not carryed about, nor deceiued with new doctrine; that the Gates of hell, by which is meant Heresy, shall not preuayle against it: that he who did not beleeue the Church, should be compted as a Heathen or Publican: that it is the Piller and foundation of truth: that the holy Ghost should teach all things, and suggest all things to the Pastours therof: [Page 181]that God would giue them the spirit of truth, Ioā. 14.16. to remayne with them for euer. In conclusion, if you list to see more of the largenesse of these induments, and of the flourishing greatnes of the Church of Christ, you may read 4. whole Chapters of the Prophesyes therof in Esay 60.61. and 62. and Micheas the 4. which I thinke no man can read, without the ac­knowledgement and admiration of them.

SECTION XXIII. The force of the former Motiue, is further decla­red, out of the authorityes of S. Augustine, and out of the effects of the contrary Doctrine.

AMONG all the ancient Fathers, as there is none more opposite to the Protestant Mini­sters, then S. Augustine: so there is none more respe­cted in outward shew, and more esteemed by them; which is vnto vs on the other side a notable argu­ment of the excellency of the one, and of the impu­dency of the other. Now therfore if the word of S. Augustine be of force with you, whome in regard of his antiquity, learning, wit, & vertue, his aduer­saryes themselues do so much respect; read but the 6. Chapter of the first booke of that worke, which is called Confessio Augustiniana: for it cannot be, that re­lying vpon the sayth of S. Augustine, which could be no other then the sayth of the whole Church, but that your vnderstanding should be wholy con­uinced by it.

In regard wherof, considering that it would be to long to alleadge the testimonyes of the rest of the Fathers, and that men now a dayes, are loath to seeke after that, which they are affrayd to find with some temporall preiudice, although it be the means of their saluation. I thinke good to shew vnto you, before I go any further, the weight and force of this motiue, out of the iudgment, sayth and perswasion of S. Augustine For this was that which oueruled him so much, as that he spared not to say: IAug. cont. epist. Fundam. c. 5. would not beliue the Ghospell, vnles the authority of the Catholike Church did mooue me thereunto. Icont. Faustum. lib. 15. c. 3. must needs beleeue the acts of the Apostles, if I be­leeue the Ghospell, because both those Scriptures, the Catholike authority doth equally commend vnto me.

It being of necessity, that one of those bookes must be fals (speaking of the acts of the A­postles, and of some other Apocriphy booke,) to which do you thinke we should rather giue credit? either vnto it, which the Church, began by Christ himselfe, continued by the Apostles with a constant course of succession, euen vnto those tymes, dilated ouer all the world, doth acknowledge & approue to haue beene deliuered and conserued; or vnto that which the same Church doth reiect as vnknowne? Those whom I beleeued, saying vnto me, Beleeue the Ghospell; why should I not obey saying vnto me, beleeue not Manichaeus? Choose which thou wilt: If thou sayst, Beleeue the Catholikes, they admonish me not to beleeue you. Wherfore beleeuing them, it is of necessity, that I beleeue not you. If thou say, Beleeue not the Catholiks, thou canst not with any [Page 183]reason compell me to beleeue Manichaeus, because I beleeued the Ghospel it selfe by the preaching of the Catholikes. If thou say, thou didst well to beleeue them preaching the Ghospell, but thou didest not well to beleeue them discommending Manichaeus; dost thou thinke me such a foole, as (without any reason giuen) to beleeue what thou wilt haue me, and what thou wilt not, not to beleeue?

Be not deceiued with the name of truth (speaking as to the person of the Catholike Church:) the truth thou only hast in thy milke, and in thy bread. but in this Church (of the Manichies, or any other, which is not Catholike) there is the name of truth, but the truth it selfe is not. And of thy great ones, thou art secure, I frame my speach to thy little ones, I call to thy tender issue, that with garrulous curiosity they be not seduced from thee, but rather let him be accursed of them, who shall preach otherwise, then that which they haue receiued in thee. KnowConc. ad Cathecum. cap. 20. beloued, that true sayth, true peace, and eternall saluation, is only in the Catholike Faith: For it is not in a Corner, but it is euery where: if any man depart from it, and deliuer himselfe ouer to the errour of Heretikes, he shall be iudged [...] fugitiue seruant, and no adopted sonne; neither shall he rise to eter­nall life, but rather to eternall damnation.

Bycort. Faust. l. 13. cap. 13. what manifest signe therefore, I be­ing yet a little one, or a yong scholler, and not able to discerne the pure truth from so many errours: by what manifest token shall I know the Church of Christ, in whome with so great manifestation of things fortold, I am compelled to belieue? the Pro­phet [Page 184]followeth on, and hauing as it were orderly heard the difficulty or doubt of mynd of this new beginner,Hier. 17. he sheweth him the Church of Christ, fortold to be the same, which is more apparant, and more eminent then any other: For she is the seat of glory, our sanctifycation. And our Sauiour also prouiding (an Answere) against such doubts of little ones, that might be led away from the mani­festation of the clarity of the Church sayth: A Cit­ty placed vpon a hill cannot be hid; for to this end, the seat of glory, our sanctify cation is so exalted, that no eare be giuen to them who would draw others a­way, to certayne remnants or peeces of religions, saying, Behold heere is Christ, behold there: for by such speaches, behold heere, behold there, they shew but some parts; whereas that Citty standeth vpon a hill: what hill? but that which according to the Prophet Daniel, grew, and was made a great moun­tayne.

Thencont. Cresconiū l. 1. c. 33. we hold and belieue the truth of Scripture, when we do that which is pleasing to the vniuersall Church, whome the Scripture recōmen­deth vnto vs: whosoeuer is affrayd to be deceiued by the obscurity of this question (of not rebaptising Heretikes, whereof in Scripture there is no example:) let him informe himselfe therein of that Church, whom whithout any ambiguity the Scripture doth demonstrate. But if thou doubt whether the Scrip­ture commend that Church vnto thee, which is di­lated ouer all Nations, with most copious numero­sity, I will load thee with many, & most manifest testimonyes out of the same authority.Epist. 161. Because [Page 185]we see the Church of God, which is called Catho­licke, dissused through the world; me thinkes we should not doubt of the most euident fullfilling of the whole Prophesy therof. IfDe [...]ni­tat. Eccl. the Church of Christ be described by the diuine, and most certaine testimonyes of Canonicall Scripture to be in al Na­tions; whatsoeuer they say (Heretikes) whatsoeuer they bring, let vs not beleeue them. In many Nati­ons, where the Church is, they are not; where they are, the Church is, which is euery where.

HowEp. 48. do we trust to haue receiued Christ manifested in Scriptures, if from thence we haue not receiued the Church, which is also manifested therein? As he shall be accursed, who sayth, that Christ hath not suffered, nor risen againe the third day, because we haue learned in the Euangelicall truth, that Christ ought to suffer, and the third day to rise againe, from the dead: So likewise he shall be accursed, who shall teach a Church, beside the cō ­munion of all Nations; because it followeth in the same place of truth, that pennance and forgiuenes of sinnes shall be preached in his name to al Nations. TheIn psal. 30. Con. 2. Prophets haue spoken more obscurely of Christ then of the Church, I thinke the reason was, because they saw in spirit, that men would make partyes against the Church, and not striuing so much about Christ, would rayse vp great conten­tions about the Church: Therefore that was more plainly foretold, and more openly prophesied con­cerning which the greater strife and contention was after to insue. WeEp. 48. indeauour to demonstrate by this name Catholike, that the Church is in all [Page 186]Nations, according to the promisses of God, and so many, and manifest or a [...]les of the truth it selfe.

WhoDe vni­tat. Eccles. is so deafe? who it so beside himselfe? who is so blind-mynded, as to speake against those most euident tests monyes (alleadging in my places for the vniuersality of the Church) but he that knoweth not what he speaketh? ByQuaest Euang. l. 1. quaest. 38. the East, and by the West, our Lord would signify the whole world, through the which his Church was to be diffused, &c. aptly he tea [...]eth the Church, lightning, which is wont to come forth with brightnes frō the clouds. Therfore the authority of the Church, being cleer­ly and manifestly established, he admonisheth all that would beleeue in him, not to beleeue Schisma­tickes and Heretiks. That which he sayth, his com­ming should be known from the East to the West, is against those, who are named to be in some part of the world, and say that Christ is with them that which he sayth, his comming shall be knowne, like vnto lightning, is against those, that gather secretly, and are hidden as it were in secret places, and in the desart; for the name of lightning, doth appertaine to the manifestation, and clarity of the Church. Therecont. ep. Parm. cap. 5. is no security, or assurance of vnity, vn­lesse, according to the promises of God, the Church declared to be placed vpon a mountayne, cannot be hid.

BeholdIn epist. Ioā. tract. 1. thou hast the Church ouer all the world, do not follow false iustifyers & true distroy­ers, be in that hill which hath filled the world. They ( [...]) stumble at this mountayne, and when you bid them ascend, they say there is no mountain, [Page 187]and they sooner breake their foreheads against it, then seeke to haue their dwelling in it. HowIn psal. 47. great is the hill, whereupon we should pray to be heard of God? so great, sayth he, as that it filleth the world. VponIn psal. 44. that mountaine, which hath filled the face of the earth, there let him adore, that will receaue: there let him aske, that will be heard: there let him confesse, that will be forgiuen. InEpist. 165. thy seed all Nations shalbe blessed: wherfore trusting to these promises, if an Angell from heauen should say vnto thee, leaue the Christianity of the whole world, and follow the part of Donatus, thou shouldest hold him accursed, because he would separate thee from the whole, and thrust thee into a part, & aliene thee from the promises of God. TakingIn psal. 56. a part, and loosing the whole, they will not communicate with the whole world. Oh hereticall madnes! thou dost beleeue with me, that which thou seest not, & that which thou seest thou denyest. Thou beleeuest with me, that Christ is exalted aboue the heauens, which we do not see, and thou denyest his glory to be ouer all the earth, which we see.

TheDe vni­tat. Eccles. cap. 2. Church is one, whom our Ance­stors named Catholike, that they might shew, out of the very Name, how she is euery vera relig. c. 7. We must keep the Christian Religion, and Communion with that Church, which is Catholike, and which is called Catholike, not only by her owne, but also by all her enemyes For whether they will or no, the he­retikes themselues, when they speake not with their owne, but with strangers, they call the Catholike Church, by no other name, but Catholike. For they [Page 188]cannot be vnderstood vnlesse they distingnish her by that name, whereby she is knowne of all the world.In psal. 57. Let not certayne flouds, my brethren, trouble you, which are called torrents; their water runs a­way, it makes a noyse for a while, and will quick­ly cease, they cannot long contunue. Many Here­syes, are already dead and gone, they ran in their brooks as long as they could; they haue run them­selues out, theyr brookes are dry, their memory is scarce to be found, or that they haue been.In psal. 203. con. 1. Thou shalt alwayes be firme, if thou departest not from this foundation, for she is the predestinated piller and, foundation of truth.In psal. 110. con. 1. It shall not be incly­ned from age to age; because it is predestinated the foundation and piller of truth.

Tyconius cōt ep. Parm. l. 1. cap. 1. (all the voyces of the sacred Lea­ues, beating about him) awaked; and he saw tho Church diffused ouer all the world, as it was fore­seene, and foretold, by the harts, and mouths of the holy Prophets. Which hauing perceiued he be­gan to auouch, and to make manifest to his fellows, that no foule sinne, or wicked cryme of any man whatsoeuer, could preuaile against the promises of God, nor effect, that Gods word of the Church to come, & to be diffused euen to the ends of the earth, which was promised to the Fathers, and is now exhibited or performed, should come to nothingDe vni­tat. Eccl. Why do you make voyde the testament of God, say­ing, that it is not fullfilled in all Nations: and that the seed of Abraham hath fay led in all those Nations where it was?In psal. 47. But perchance, that Citty which hath possessed all the world, shall one day be ouer­throwne, [Page 189]God forbid. God hath founded it for euer: If therfore, God hath founded it for euer, what doest thou feare, least the foundation should fayle?In psal. 101. conc. 2. But that Church, which was the Church of all Nations is now no more; it is perished. So say they, that are not in her. Oh impudent voyce. Is not she, because thou art not in her? Take heed, least for the same cause, thou thy selfe be not; for she shallbe though thou art not. This abhominable speach, detestable, full of presumption and falshood, not supported by any truth, not inlightned by any wisedome, not seasoned with any salt, vayne, temerarious, head­strong, pernicious; the spirit of God foresaw &c.

Thus S. Augustine, whome perchance you neuer imagined to haue spoken so much; so playn­ly, and so vehemently, for the infallible authority, and vniuersall extension, with equall visibility, and perpetuall continuance of the Church of Christ, as you see he hath; and yet this is the least part of that which might be alleadged out of S. Augustine alone to the same purpose. Whereunto, if you add those former testimonyes, for the proofe of the Popes Su­premacy, which I haue cited in the 11. Section of this Treatise; thereby you may easily iudge, if S. Au­gustine had been an English man, and were now a­liue, whether he deserued not to be hanged at Ty­borne, as well as other Priests and Iesuits, that haue been martyred there. That is to say, whether hea­ring your Ministers teach, that the Pope, with the whole Catholike Church, haue erred, and deceiued the world: or that the Church hath fayled or remay­ned inuisible for more then a thousand yeares togea­ther; [Page 190]he would not haue admyred, as much as we do now at their deafnes to the voyce of the Prophets, at their blyndnes in reading the Scriptures, at their impu­dency, temerity, and madnes of their abhominable, and detestable doctrine; and whether he would not pro­nounce them, many tymes accursed, as he did the Donatists, and other Heretikes of his tyme, for the same opinions.

And now that you may the better perceiue with what great reason S. Augustine was so vehe­ment, against this their pernicious doctrine: Let vs consider a little I pray you, the consequence, and effects therof, in many of the greatest Maisters, and Apostles of the Protestant religion. For this made Sebastian Castalio in his Preface to the great Latin Bible, dedicated to King Edward the 6. to doubt of those promises of God to his Church, set downe in Scripture.See Prot. Apology p. 106. & sequent. For if any man, sayth he, will affirme, that they haue been performed, I will demaund of him, when? If he say, in the Apostles tymes; I will demaund how it chaunceth, that neither then the knowledge of God was altogeather perfect: and afterward, how in so short a tyme it vanished away, which was promissed, that at should be eternall, and more aboundant, then the flouds in the sea? The more I do peruse the Scriptures, the lesse do I find the same performed, howsoeuer you vnderstand the foresayd Prophesies. And Dauid George, vpon the same grounds, came to deny Iesus our Sauiour to be Christ. For if that he had beene the true Christ, the Church erected by him, should haue continued for euer. Whereupon also he fell to that madnes, that he tooke to himselfe, the name and office of Christ, [Page 191]and secretly drew many to his opinion; for the which he was taken vp, & burned three yeares af­ter his death, by the Protestants of Basil, vnto whom he fled before, being expelled from the low Coun­trys, for holding the opinion of the Sacramentaries against the doctrine of Luther, then there professed. His story was written by them of Basil, about the yeare 1559.

In like manner Bernardinus Ochinus, a man so renowned amongst the Protestants, as Caluin de­maundeth, whom Italy it selfe could oppose against him? and Iohn Bale sayth of him, That he made England happy with his presence, and miserable in his absence? This renowned man, as he confesseth in the preface of his dialogues, began to wonder, how it was possible, that the Church which was founded by the power, wise­dome, and goodnes of Christ, washed with his bloud, and enriched with his spirit, should be vtterly ouerthrowne, wherof he sayth, the Popes were the cause: and after­wards began to teach Circumcision, and wrote a booke of Poligamy, which Beza sayth, that the afor­sayd Sebastian Castalio translated out of Italian into Latin, and finally became, as Beza sayth, an im­pure Apostata against the diuinity of Christ. Alinia­nus a learned Swynglian, for the same cause, came to be of opinion, that the Messias was not yet come, & so renouncing Christianity, became a blasphemous Iew.

And to omit Adam Neuserus a learned Cal­uinist, chiefe Pastour at Heidelberg, who in the end turned Turke, and was circumcised at Constantino­ple, and diuers other Protestants, as well of forraine [Page 192]Countreyes, as of our owne Nation, who haue at length denyed the diuinity of Christ; Caluin him­selfe was greatly suspected therof, in so much, as Doctor Hunnius publick Professor in the Vniuersity of Wittemberge, wrote a booke called Caluinus In­daizans: and since that tyme, there is another booke published by a Protestant Lutheran with this title. A demonstratiō out of Gods word, that the Caluinists are not Christians, but only Baptized Iewes, and Mahomets, which was also reprinted. And of this argumēt you may see sufficient matter, in that learned booke of M. William Reynolds, intituled Caluino-Turcismus: which euidence also, that according to the Prote­stants opinion God hath fayled of his promise, in aduancing and defending his Church according to the Scriptures, must needs haue been one chiefe cause of those swarmes of Athiests in Protestant Countreyes, whereof their principall writers do so much complayne.

Whereat I wonder nothing at all. For to what end did our Sauiour come into the world, but only to espouse his Church in Faith? To what end did he instruct her with his preaching, redeeme her with his death and Passion, and sanctify her with his holy Spirit, augment and confirme her with the la­bours of his Apostles, and with the bloud of so many millions of Martyrs, but only to make her such a glorious Kingdome, euen vpon earth, according to all the former Prophesies; so constant, so stronge, so imoueable, that she should vphold the glory of his name, against Princes, and Potentats, against Kings and Emperours, against Schismaticks, Heretikes, [Page 193]and wicked Christians, and against all the force of the world, and on the Diuell himselfe, that would seeke withall his arts, and engines to suppresse it. Wherefore, if our Sauiour be the true Messias, whose Name was foretold to be Deusfortis, & Emmanuel, Esa. 9 6. Esa. 7.15. the strong God, & God with vs; and who according to his owne speach came into the world, to bynd the strong man, which is to say, the Diuell, that held all the world in peaceful captiuity before his comming: then it must needs follow, that the Kingdome which he erected shall stand for euer;Matt. 16.18. and that the Gates of h [...]ll shall not preuaile against it. But on the contrary side, if it were true which the Protestants affirme, that his Church hath erred, ceasing to be the true Church, or which is all one, that his Kingdome was destroyed, and that there came one after him stronger then himselfe, that is to say, the Diuell, who did bynd his body, whereof he was the head, defiled his Spouse, bereaued him of this Kingdome, Matt. 12.20. and tooke his vessells and riches from him: then of necessity it must be granted, either that the former Prophesies of him were not true, and that the Scrip­ture is false; or els that our Sauiour was not the true Messias, who contrary to the Prophets, and to his owne promises, and protestations, to maintayne his Church for euer, hath suffered it to perish, and therfore was not able to defend it.

This argument therefore of the largnes, glory, contynuance, visibility, and inuincible con­stancy of the Church, is of great force to induce any man whatsoeuer, whether he haue the Name, or not so much as the Name of a Christiā, to become a Ca­tholike. [Page 194]For the Scriptures euen as they are in the hands of our enemyes the Iewes [...]i [...]t full of the Pro­phesies of those excellent perfectiōs of the Kingdom of Christ; which according to the present tymes, and according to the historyes of all former ages, we shewe to haue been performed since the death of Christ, in the Catholike Church, that was planted by himselfe, and propagated by his holy spirit; which according to his promise, was giuen to his Apostles, and their successours after them, to remayne with them for euer. And if it be manifest, that this world, in respect of the beauty and perfection therof,Rom. 1. is the worke of Gods hand, condemning all those that do not acknowledge him to be the Creatour of it: much more manifest is it,Eph. 5.27. that this glorious Kingdome and Church is the worke of God; wherein he sheweth the riches of his power, of his wisedome, and of his in­fynit goodnes, condemning all those that will not acknowledge it, and subiect themselues to the go­uerment therof.

SECTION XXIIII. Foure other particuler motiues, of the Conuersion of Nations, of the Miracles, of the Martyrdoms, and of the vnion of the members of the Ca­tholike Church, are briefly propounded.

VNDER these generall tearmes of Holy Catho­like Church, are comprised many other parti­ticuler gifts and graces; which being all superna­turall and diuine, ech of them is a sufficient motiue, [Page 195]to perswade any mans cōscience, that the Catholike Church, is the only blessed of God, and the elected spouse of Christ our Sauiour. Whereof, being en­tred into this matter of Motiues, I thinke good to giue instance in some few, remitting you for the rest to other Catholike authours, who haue treated more largely of this matter.

Diuers therfore haue been induced to belieue, that the Catholike Fayth, is the only true Religion, by obseruing, that all Nations and Countreys, which at any tyme professed the Name of Christ haue been conuerted by Catholikes alone. And in this last age, since the Protestant religion began, they haue redu­ced and subiected very many Kingdomes, vnto the yoke of Christ, whereof Philippus Nicolaus, Coment. de reg. Chri­stil. 1. pag. 315. & p. 52. Sym. Lyth. in respons. altera ad alteram Gretseri Apol. p. 331. Tertul. de praescrip. c. 42. a Pro­testant, numbreth more then 20. In so much, as ano­ther Protestant in his answere to Gretser the Iesuit sayth: The Iesuits within the space of a few yeares &c. haue filled Asia, Affrick, and America with their Idols. Whereas in the meane tyme the Protestants haue only sowne tares among the wheat: attēding, as Ter­tullian sayd of the Heretikes of his tyme, not to conuert the heathen, but to peruert those that were before con­uerted. And although they haue sundry tymes at­tempted to conuert some heathen, with hope to pos­sesse their Countreys: yet no King, or Kingdome, or Countrey, or Prouince,Sarauia in defension. tract. de di­uersis gra­dibus Mi­nistrorum. pag. 309. was euer conuerted by them. And Beza sayth plainly, that the Protestants may leaue such peregrinatious to those locusts, that belieue the Name Iesus. Which conuersions of so many sa­uage, and barbarous Nations, by the words of a few poore men, with a little broken language, to imbrace [Page 196]a Religion so far aboue the reach of Nature, and in respect of the austerity therof, so contrary to flesh & bloud, and especially to their former intemperate liues, and brutish customes, as it shewath Gods pro­mises by the Prophets to be dayly fullfilled in them, and proueth our Church thereby to be the Church of Christ: So it is most euident, that their conuer­ters were supernaturally assisted by the strength of Gods Arme, which is sufficient to perswade any in­different man, that the doctrine they preach can be no other, then the true Ghospell, reuealed by Christ to his owne Apostles. Which also is a manifest to­ken, that the grounds of Christianity, and of our Catholike doctrine are the very same. And that the Protestants for want of them, can neuer conuert any Heathen Nation to Christian religion, denying as they do, the grounds therof, which are the same with the grounds of the Catholike doctrine.

Secondly therefore, many haue submitted themselues, to the obedience of the Catholike Church by consideratiō of those notorious miracles, which in all ages haue beene wrought therin, being such marks of truth, as no man can deny them to be the seales of God, and the signes of his owne hand. If I should descend to particulers in this kind, I should neuer make an end, and many bookes haue beene written of the miracles of the B. Sacrament alone, of our B. Lady in fauour of those, that in their necessityes haue recommended themselues to her prayers, of the soules in Purgatory demaunding reliefe of Masses, and other pious workes, or gi­uing thanks for help receiued by those meanes, and [Page 197]so forth, of other miracles, which God hath vouch­safed to worke by the hands of his holy seruāts aliue and dead, that were pleasing vnto him; not deri­ued from any Apocriphall or vnapproued writers, whom the Protestants are wont to deride, but testi­fied either by the ancient Fathers themselues, S. Au­gustine, S. Hierome, S. Bernard, S. Bede, and the rest, or by the oathes and depositions of many lawfull witnesses, taken before Bishops, or other secular Magistrats. Wherunto not to giue so much as mor­rall credit, were to extinguish one chiefe part of rea­son, and to take away all credulity, and so by con­sequence, all beleife, both human and diuine, out of the world.

Thirdly, many haue relented, and rendred thēselues, beholding or reading the admirable con­stancy of Catholike Martyrs. For albeit there haue not wanted those, that haue dyed for the mainte­nance of most ridiculous heresyes, and their owne absurd opinions: yet there is a great difference, both in life, and death, between our Catholike Martyrs, and those other mad men, or malefactors. For as our Martyrs haue for the most part beene men of rare perfection, most exemplar life, and of excellent talents, both of grace and nature: so the others haue beene no lesse scandalous, and infamous for their former lewd conditions, & commonly very meanly qualified, of no extraordinary parts, but rather de­sperate, or sottish, or halfe besides themselues. And in their deaths, as our Martyrs haue all suffred con­trary to the inclination of the pride and selfe loue of our corrupted nature, in obedience to God, and his [Page 198]Church, for the same truth, and the same poynts of doctrine, without any disagreement between them, which could not be done without the speciall assi­stance of Gods grace: so the others haue beene iustly punished, for the mantaynance of their own peeuish opinions, out of pride, and selfe loue, and euer more haue obstinatly dissented, not only from the commō iudgmēt of others, but also from the priuate deuices of one another. And therfore, as the humility, mo­desty, meeknes, discretion, charity, and other ver­tues of our Martyrs, haue made their passions, or suf­ferings to be pleasing sacrifices in the eyes, both of God and men, and their deaths most amyable, and admyrable to the beholders: so on the other side, the pride, vaine glory, arrogancy, presumption, fury, and folly of the others, is sufficient to make their deaths most odious, detestable, and infamous to all posterity. Which, if you please to read the exa­mination of Fox his Calendar of Saints, you will easily see, and ingenuously acknowledge this diuer­sity and difference, which I haue noted, betweene the Martyrdomes of those Catholikes, whom you may haue seene to suffer in our time, and the grace­lesse, and distempered ends of those, which Fox re­lateth.

And to omit the innumerable companyes of those, that haue giuen their liues for the testimony of the Catholike fayth in former ages, which are at least 1000. for one of those that haue suffred for he­resy, and their owne priuate opinions: and likewise to omit those excellent men, and women, that haue suffered, from the beginning of the last Queens rai­gne, [Page 199]vnto this present in our infortunate Countrey, whome not only vertue, piety, and wisdome, but also their nobility, dignity, and highest Maiesty, haue made famous to the world; what man of iudg­ment is there, that will not be more moued with the death of Bi. Fisher, and Sr. Thomas More alone, the two great lights of the Clergy & Laity of England, then with al the rabblement of Foxes new Martyrs, though they were ten tymes so many, as he doth fal­sly make them.

Fourthly, many others obseruing the obedi­ence of all Catholiks through the world, to one su­preme head, and the vnity which thereby is preser­ued amongst them: and on the other side, being a­shamed of the infinite dissentions amongst the Pro­testants, euery man following his owne head, and being the founder of his owne religion; haue beene induced thereby to forsake the troublesome incon­stancy of the one, and imbrace the constant peace of the other. For this also is so euident on both sides, as the principal Protestants themselues are infor­ced to confesse it. M. Whitaker sayth:Whita. de Eccl. cont. 2.9.5. pag. 327. That the contentions amongst the Protestants are for Fayth and Religion, the contentions amongst the Papists are vaine, and friuolous, as much to say, not for Religion, but about matters of no moment. The consent and peace of the Popish Church (sayth M. Fulk) proueth nothing, M. Fulk against Heskins &c. p. 295. Sands rela­tion fol. 8. but that the Diuell then had all things at his will, and therefore might sleepe. More expresly Syr Edwin Sands declareth the same in these words: The Papists haue the Pope, as a common Father, aduiser and condu­cter to reconcile their iarres, to decyde their differences, to [Page 200]draw their religion by consent of Councells into vnity &c. whereas on the contrary side, Protestants are as seuered, or rather scattered troupes, ech drawing a diuers way, with­out any meanes to pacify their quarrells. Who also fur­ther obserueth, That in all this age, they could not find the meanes to assemble a generall Councell on their side, for the composing of their differences.

Beza also,Beza ep. theol. ad Andr. Du­ditium. in an epistle to his great friend Andreas Duditius, whom he estemed a most emi­nent and adorned man, and much respected of him for his piety, learning, and elegant wit; repeateth the words of his friend, in a letter to him, which make this poynt yet more manifest. Although (say you) there are many horrible things defended in the Ro­man Church, vpon a weake and rotten foundation, yet it is not deuided with so much dissention; and it hath the plausible shew of venerable antiquity, ordinary succession, and perpetuall consent: and if that be the truth, which the auncient Fathers did professe, with one mutuall con­sent, it stands wholy for the Papists. Thus say you of the Papists. But ours at length what are they? scattered, say you, whirled about with euery wynd of doctryne, and be­ing blowne vp aloft, are carried sometymes to this part and sometymes to that: what their opinion of Religion is to day, perchance you may know, but what it willbe to mor­row, you cannot certainely affirme. In what poynt of re­ligion do these Churches agree among themselues, that haue proclaymed war against the Church of Rome? If you run them all ouer from head to foote, you shall scarce finde any thing affirmed of one, but that another will presently cry, It is impiety. These things you write, my Duditius, in the same words as I haue set them downe. Thus farre [Page 201]Bexa. Where himselfe confesseth: That he also was a long tyme very much troubled with these cogitations.

Melancthon also spared not say:Melāclhon Cōc. theol. part. 1. p. 249. Mirror for Martinists pag. 24. The same hath And. Duditius vbi supra. Castal. in his preface to his La­tin Bible. Geor. Ma. orat. de cō ­fusio. dog. Bull. Fir­mam. part. 1. cap. 1. Powell grounds of the new re­ligiō part. 2. cap. 1. Perks ep. dedic. be­fore bis Apology. That nothing did so much terrify others from the Ghospell, as their own discord, & was wont to complaine with others: that they knew whome they should auoyd, meaning the Papists, but whome they might follow, they did not vnderstand. This, that learned Sebastianus Castalio tooke for a signe: that the Protestants being thus deuided, were stil drowned inextreme darknes, and most grosse ignorance. This (sayth Georgius Maior a principall Lutheran) did so much tempt and trouble the minds of the simple, as they altogeather doubted, where to find the truth, and whether any true Church of God were remayning in the world. This vehement and implacable dissention (sayth Bullinger) maketh many, as it were in despayre, & to giue out, that from hence forward, they will beleeue nothing; exclayming, What credit should we giue to that fayth, which is distracted into so many factions? Many thereby (sayth M. Powell) do not call vpon God, but fly from God: many fall into an Epicurean contention of Religion, and are oppressed with despaire. These contentions (sayth M. Perks) are no small preparatiues to Atheisme &c. in so much, as many are brought to their wits end, not knowing what to do. Amidst all which miseryes and mis­chiefs, the Papists insult and triumph, to see those that professe themselues brethren, Relatiō of Rel sect. 45.6. Whitaker defensio. tract. 3. c. 6. p. 278. to be at such deadly iarres a­mongst themselues. Syr Edwyn Sands affirmeth, that the contentiōs of Protestants, tend maynly to the increase of Atheisme within, & Mahometisme abroad. And D. Whitaker complayneth, that the Church of England, is replenished with Atheists, whome no doubt since [Page 202]his tyme are much increased.

This therfore is a vehement perswasion to draw any man from the Protestant Religion: and on the contrary side, men of iudgment that behold so many sundry Nations, and people so different, or rather so opposite in many other respects of cly­mate, language, complexion, lawes, and customs, vnder so many seuerall Kings, and Gouernours, & alwayes in warres more or lesse, one against the o­ther, to conspyre in the vnity of one Fayth, for so many ages togeather, subiecting thēselues. volunta­rily to one head, who hath no temporall force to cō ­pell them; and beleeuing so many things, aboue the reach of human vnderstanding, so contrary to flesh and bloud, and to the vehement motions of mans peruerted Nature, must needs confesse & acknow­ledge, that it is a supernaturall worke, and a most miraculous effect of the Spirit of God, who is the God of peace, and not of contention.

SECTION XXV. Of the authority of the Catholike Church in generall.

THE last generall argument, which I intend to propound, for the euidence and truth of the Christian, and, which is al one, of our Catholike re­ligion, shall be the great authority of the Catholike Church, to the end it may serue, as well for a fur­ther explication and confirmation, as also for a full conclusion of all the former motiues. For the capa­city [Page 203]of the best vnderstandings, amongst vs misera­ble men, being but small and shallow; and there be­ing a greater difference betweene man and man, in the parts of the mynd, then in the sharpnes of sense, or strength of body; and the mynd of man being of it owne nature but like a fayre table, or a lease of white paper, which at the first contayneth nothing, and by little and little, receiueth the pictures, or the writings for the which it was ordayned, more or lesse, better or worse, according to the skill and in­dustry of the Paynter, or Writer, and the aptnes of the matter, and the goodnes of the instruments wherewith they worke: Hence it is, that as Nature inclineth the poore to depend of the rich, and the weake to defend thēselues by those that are strong, and the blind, or bad sighted to be guided and dire­cted in discerning, by those that are endued with more perfect sense: so by the same law and voyce of Nature, all men are taught and obliged to rest their minds, and to rely their vnderstandings vpon the authority of those that are generally most approued for their vertue and wisdome aboue the rest; and alwayse (ceteris paribus) other circumstances being equall, the fewer in number to yeild & submit them­selues to the iudgment; and opinion of the greater party.

And so in all speculatiue sciences, where our end is nothing els, but the delightfull aspect & fayr sight of truth; the authority of Maisters, and skillfull men in those facultyes, is necessarily required for our direction to teach vs, which way we ought to bend, and whereupon to sixe the eye of our vnder­standing, [Page 204]to shew how to proceed from poynt to poynt, and to giue vs the print of those markes, whereby we may best discouer the forme of that truth, which we seeke to find, or labour to conceiue or comprehend. And if the sight of our wit be so short, as that we cānot perfectly discerne the same, yet it is better to see with another mans eye, or as it were by the candle of another, then altogeather ei­ther to be ignorant of it, or els, which is far worse, to be deceiued therein. And as this is true in science: so in those arts and facultyes, where our end is the do­ing or the attayning of something which is necessa­ry or profitable for mans life, the benefit of autho­rity is much more apparent. For in extremity of sicknes, or in law matters of great importance, or in deliberations about the preseruation or gouerne­ment of Commonwealths, to contemne the dire­ction of Phisitians, the aduice of Lawyers, and the counsell of men experienced in matter of State, or not to admit therof in some cases, nor to suffer our selues to be oueruled thereby; albeit it seeme neuer so much contrary to the sense, or imagination of our owne priuate iudgment, were to be esteemed rather obstinate madnes, then any other errour within the degree of human weaknes.

But especially the necessity and vtility of the approbation of other mens assertions, either of all, or of such as are wise and honest, appeareth in those things which we can neuer know, or make vse of, but from the report of others. As for example hi­storyes of former ages, Relations of the present state, and condition of forrayne Countreys; or constant [Page 205]reports of such things, as were sayd or done in our absence; or as S. Augustine noteth, that we are the sonnes of such Parents, borne in this Countrey or that (which is the beginning and foundation of all permanent societyes) and the like. In which respect this kind of knowledge, is properly called beliefe, because our iudgment giueth consent thereunto, not being moued, by any inward experimentall light of our owne reason: but only by giuing credit vnto others; which, as you see, being as it were not only the other hand or Canonicall eye of reason, but also the Schole-maister thereunto, is of such necessity, that neither the state of Church and Cōmon Wealth, nor the life of man can stand without it.

Wherefore, as in all questions and Contro­uersyes it is a generall rule and a receiued Maxime, that the iudgment of all men, or of the most, or a­mong the most of the best and wysest, ought al­wayes to be followed: so especially, it must needs haue place in the Schoole of Christ; the Learning whereof, being as it is, not only one kind of belief, and therefore wholy depending of authority: but also such a practicall science, as concerneth a matter of no lesse moment, then our eternall felicity, and endlesse misery. And consequently, if wisedome will that in sicknes we should follow the directions of all Phisitians, or of the most, and best learned, reiecting such desperate medicynes, as a few vnskil­full Empericks, or Quacksaluers (as they tearme them) should propound vnto vs. Or as in matter of law, or State busines of great consequence, all rea­son commandeth vs to preferre the iudgment of the [Page 206]most auncient Sages, and grauest Counsellours, es­pecially being many in number, before the instiga­tions of a few Pettyfoggers, or yong ambitious heads that aspyre to be Politicks: so in the case of the eternall damnation, or saluation of our soules, it stands vs more vpon, most exactly to obserue the for­mer principle, as well in relying our selues vpon the doctrine and authority of the most, the best, and the wisest Deuines, as in flying the new deuices of a few disorderly, factious, and infamous vpstarts, that seeke to with draw vs from them.

First therefore, that the truth of Catholike Religion is recommended vnto vs by the testimony of the most, is euident in it selfe. The Catholike Church possessing so many Countreyes, not only in Europe, but also in Asia, Africa, and America, both East and West, as the Protestants themselues auouch; and there being no other Sect of Religion wherein so many do so constantly agree togeather, not only the Pagans and Infidells, as is notoriously knowne, but also the Heretikes being infinitly de­uyded among themselues, as I haue shewed. And that, if you respect honesty, vertue, and good life, the Catholikes are also the best, is likewise confessed by their enemyes themselues, as hath been declared; and setting all other considerations apart, there being so many Orders and great Religious bodyes among them, following the Counsells of Christ, in renoun­cing the riches, the pleasures, and the pryde and am­bition of the world, which are the only occasions of sinne, submitting themselues to the direction of those, who by long practise, and tradition, and [Page 207]prayer, and their owne exact obedience, haue lear­ned how to commaund with sweetnes, how to de­fend their Ghostly children from their spirituall ene­myes, and how to conduct them to the highest per­fection of all Christian vertues; in which course of spirituall life, as S. Bernard sayth very notably, he that willbe his owne Maister, shall haue a foole to his Scholler: & to conclude, their whole life being spent in nothing els, but in assisting the Sacrifice of the Church, in hearing and reading the word of God, in pryuate and publike prayer, in mortification of their senses and naturall desires, and in other deuout exercises of religious obedience, of which sort alone, there being many hundred thousands in the Catho­like Church, besides other innumerable secular people that imitate the liues of Religious persons; it must needs be granted, that in all human reason, so great a number of the like deuout and holy people, consecrated to the pure seruice of God, cannot be found by the hundreth part in all the rest of the world that is not Catholike, being put togeather.

And lastly, that the Catholikes excell (es­pecially speaking of the Clergy) the rest of the world in all kind of learning, knowledge and wise­dome, both human and diuine, may sufficiently ap­peare by the meanes they haue to attaine thereunto before others, & by the effects therof in their workes and writings. For first, as concerning the meanes and helps, which God hath prouided for them to arriue to the perfection of knowledge, as all the world in respect of Christendome, is nothing els, but barbarisme: so amongst those, that beare the [Page 208]name of Christians, if any Countreyes excell the rest, in quicknes of wit, maturity of iudgment, and capacity of great vnderstanding; they are those that still remayne vntaynted, and vntouched from the Schismes, and Heresies of this present tyme. And besides this knowne aduantage of naturall tallents, the manner, and constant course of study amongst them is such, as that to speake, for examples sake, of the Iesuites alone, doubtles a meane vnderstanding may sooner attayne, to be an excellent learned man by their education, then an excellēt wit, may come to any mediocrity by the slacke & disorderly course of teaching, which is held in England, or in any o­ther Countrey that is not Catholike. Which Syr Francis Bacon in one of his bookes doth acknowledg in great part, and your selfe will easily beleeue by their manner of study in Philosophy and Deuinity alone, which heer I will briefly set downe vnto you.

First therefore, all their Schollers in these sciences, do write for an houre in the forenone, and another houre after dinner, two seuerall Lectures, which their Maisters do dictate vnto them, repea­ting their wordes so leasurely, that they need not loose one word of their Maisters readings. In this manner, they continue in hearing their Philosophy 3. yeares togeather, vnder one & the same Maister. The first yeare, is appropriated to Logicke, the se­cond to Phisickes, and the third to the Metaphisicks of Aristotle. In which manner, all the questions of moment, & profit, as they depend of one another: so likewise they are methodically, & orderly deliuered vnto them, togeather with the explication of the [Page 209]Text, and meaning of Aristotle where it importeth. The Lecture being ended, and they being deuyded into many classes, vnder so many seuerall repetitors or moderators, appointed to heare them, they repeat for halfe an houre their precedent lessons, and dis­pute vpon them one against the other in the Schoole before they departe, their Maister being present. And afterward, they returne to make the like repe­titions, and disputations for an houre togeather, more exactly then before, at a certaine tyme prefi­xed euery day, in their seuerall Colledges, and A­cademyes, and other places of priuate meetings: which tyme being put togeather maketh 4. houres. The rest of the day is imployed in study and prayer; sauing that in the yeare of Phisickes, they bestow halfe an houre euery day vpon Mathematickes, and in the yeare of Metaphisickes vpon morall Philoso­phy, which is read vnto them by other Maisters. As euery day they dispute of the Lectures giuen them the dayes before, so also euery weeke, they haue dis­putations of the matter giuen them in that weeke. And euery moneth, as the 3. Maisters of Logicke, Phisicke, and Metaphisicke can agree, they meete togeather in the same Schoole, withall their Schol­lers, and dispute one against another in the matters of that moneth, wherunto, as being more publique, other Maisters and Doctors are inuited. And besides all this, they haue other priuate exercises, and helps of learning in their particuler Colledges. At the end of the yeare such as haue studyed best, are preferred to defend Conclusions publique of the whole yeare, and they that haue heard their course of three years, [Page 210]and are the most worthy of all their fellows, defend conclusions of all Philosophy, with great solemnity and concourse of people. Which course of study breedeth such emulation among them, and draweth them on with such delight of their owne profit, that their Superiours haue more ado, to keep them from studying too much, then els where Maisters are wont to haue, in keeping their schollers from doing nothing.

Their course of Diuinity lasteth foure years. The manner of their Lectures & disputations is al­most the same with the former of the Philosophers; sauing that they haue three seuerall Maisters, who read euery day in seuerall matters, and explicate the most difficult places of the Scripture and Fathers, as their former Maister did expound Aristotle, and o­ther Philosophers. And insteed of Mathematikes & morall Philosophy, they haue other Lectures of Tongues, & of the Text of Scripture. Besides Philo­sophy and Diuinity, for such as haue lesse tyme, or lesse strength of mynd or body, there are two other Lectures euery day of Positiue Diuinity, which cō ­monly is called Cases of Conscience: a study as litle knowne to Protestants, as there is little care, or vse of Conscience amongst them. Their course of Phi­losophy and Diuinity being thus ended, such a­mongst the Iesuits themselues, as are thought to be most fit for Schooles, are permitted for two yeares to go ouer the whole body of their studyes agayne, by their owne priuate industry, conferring the same with the doctrine and opinions of other writers, & afterward they are appoynted and made Maisters to [Page 211]read Philosophy, and with tyme Diuinity, if their strength and talents do so deserue. By this meanes you see that almost of necessity they must haue ex­cellent Maisters, and excellent schollers, & the one is a great help, and a great encouragment to perfect the other.

Besides all this that hath beene sayd of their course of study, it is of great moment to consider. that all the Maisters, and the greatest part of their schollers, are Religious men, or liue religiously, in Seminaryes and Colledges, where being freed frō all kind of worldly care, and occasion of passion, disorder or temptation, hauing their set tymes for prayer, and honest recreation, and such as be Priests offering dayly sacrifice to Almighty God, and such as are none, confessing and communicating once a weeke at the least, they enioy that quietnes of mind & sweet peace of conscience, which togeather with Gods benediction is most fit for science. And thus they cōtinue, not only for a while, as elswher schol­lers are wont to do, vntill they marry, or get prefer­ment; but al their lines long, without any secular di­straction, or deniation whatsoeuer. And that which I haue sayd of the Iesuites, may be also affirmed, ei­ther wholy, or in great part, of many other secular Doctours, and almost of all Religious Orders, the Dominicans, Franciscant, Augustines, Carmelits, Bene­dictins, Bernardines, and the rest, who for euery houre, which your schollers or Ministers do com­monly spend in study, or prayer, they that study & pray least, spend 2. at the least one with the other, especially considering the constancy & continuance [Page 212]of ours, in these exercisus for all their liues, and the great inconstancy and discontinuance of yours, which is notorious. And therfore if the grounds of all kind of learning being soundly layd, & constant prayer; and good life, and the study of Scripture be the fittest meanes to find out the truth of Religion, and to obtaine true wisedome at the hands of God: It cannot be denyed, but that the possession and per­fection therof must rather be found in the Catholike Clergy, then among the Ministord of any other sect of Religion in the world.

Whereof our Catholike Deuynes in this pre­sent age haue also made euident demonstration by their workes and wrytings, For whether you res­pact their erudition in the sacred Tongnes, their explications of all arts and scyences, and especially their readings vpon all questions of Diuinity, their commentaryes vpon all the parts of Scripture, their treatises, as well of deuntion, piety, and perfection of Christian life, with the meanes to attayne there­unto, as also of prayer, both vocall and mentall, which is againe deuided into meditation, and su­pernaturall contemplation (of which later parts, the Protestants haue neither the practise nor scarce vnderstand the meaning) the number and the ex­cellency of those bookes which the Catholikes haue published in this age of ours, is so great, and so emi­ment, that no former ages of the world, for aboun­dance, and perfection of Scyence put togeather, may be compared with it. Wheras if you will reflect a little; and iudge indifferently, you shall scarce find three bookes published by the Protestants (vnlesse [Page 213]you will except those of Poetry printed in vulgar languages, and in respect of the matter are not wor­thy to be excepted) which are not already contem­ned by the Protestants themselues, and are therfore no way likely to remayne vnto posterity.

Thus we haue shewed the authority of the Catholike professours for the truth of their Reli­gion, whether you respect their number, or wise­dome, or learning, or perfection of life, to be such as doth most euidently, and notoriously exceed the te­stimony of any other Church, or Congregation whatsoeuer. Vnto which authority of the secular Clergy, and Layty, and of all the seuerall Orders and Religious bodyes of the Catholike Church at this tyme; if you ioyne the authorityes of all the holy and ancient Fathers, whose naturall tallents, and su­pernaturall gifts of learning, sanctity & wisedome, are aboue all comparison: And if vnto these againe, you ioyne the authorityes of so many general Coun­cells, as haue been receaued by the vniuersal Church, wherein so many tymes all the learning and wise­dome of the whole world haue met togeather: And lastly vnto all this if you adde the testimonyes of all Christians for a 1000. yeares togeather, as the Pro­testants themselues confesse, and of all the former ages, euen from the tyme of Christ, as we haue pro­ued by the Fathers of those times, vtterly cōdemning the opinions of the Protestants, and being mutually condemued by them; they come to be so many worlds of witnesses, as there hath been ages since the tyme of Christ, and visibly make vp that great Mountayne of authority, which filleth the world [Page 214]and which all those that will not ascend to know the truth must needs be crushed by it, if they resist it, and eternally perish vnder it, if they contemne it.

This is that great benefit which S. Augustine in his booke de vtilitate Credends, acknowledgeth, that the world in these latter tymes, hath receiued of Almighty God, who of his infinit goodnes hath prouided, that the Catholike Faith, being so austere to the eye of flesh and bloud, so much aboue reason, and so contrary as it is, to our corrupted nature, should be recommended vnto vs, as it were, by the generall consent, and common beliefe of all people. This (saith S. Augustine) the diuine prouydence hath brought to passe by the predictions of the Prophets, by the humanity and doctrine of Christ, by the trauells of the Apostles, Aug. de vtil. Cred. cap. 7. by the contumelyes, crosses, bloud, and death of Martyrs, by the laudable life of Saints; and in all these things, by such myracles, as were fit for matters, and ver­tues so great as these, according as the oportunity of times required. Wherefore, seing the assistance of God to be so great, and so great the fruite and benefit thereof; shall we doubt to cast our selues, into the lap of his Church? Con­sidering (that now) euen by the confession of mankind it selfe, she hath receaued the prohemynence of all authority, from the Apostolike seat by succession of Bishops: the He­retikes in the meane tyme, hauing barked about her all in vayne, & partly by the iudgment of the people themselues, partly by the grauity of Councells, and partly by the Ma­iesty of miracles, hauing been all condemned. To which Church not to grant the highest degree of authority, is ei­ther extreme impiety, or precipitate arrogancy. For if our, soules haue no certayne way to attayne true wisedome [Page 215]and saluation, but where fayth & beliefe prepareth, and adorneth our reason: what is it els to resist authority in­dued or est abbshed with so great labour, but to be vngrate­full to this help and assistance of Almighty God?

Thus far S. Augustine, of the notable benefit that our faith hath receiued from the Common con­sent of so many Nations therein, which he calleth the confession of mankind, and of the wonderfull meanes which God hath vsed for the procurement of this vniuersall testimony, vnto the truth thereof. For albeit, when the Apostles began first to preach, all rules and principles of humayne wisedome were inforced to giue place vnto that diuine authority wherewith they were sent, to their gifts of Tongues to the myracles they wrought, to the power of that spirit which spake by them, and to the splendour of those celestiall vertues, which proceded from them: yet since that time, the sweetnes of Gods prouidence hath so ordayned, that both these authorityes Hu­mayne, and Diuine, the wisedome of God, and the wisedome that naturally directeth worldly men, should be ioyned togeather; to the end, that all mens wills might be drawne more easily, gently, and connaturally, to imbrace the doctrine of Christ; And that all vnderstandings, great or small, might either be conuinced, or conuicted by it.

The voice of the most, the testimony of those that are true and honest, and the iudgment, example, and practise of the wisest, being the best part of that light of nature which God hath lent vs for the direction of our liues; his infinit goodnes, and perfect iustice, could neuer haue permitted this [Page 216]authority of the Catholike Church, to haue grown [...] to this vnmeasurable greatnes, nor could haue made it so inuincibly victorious against all those that haue opposed themselues vnto it: confirming the same with so many Prophesies of Scripture, and promises of his owne, and not only with the ostension of miracles, and heroycall constancy of innumerable Martyrs; but also with the glory and splendour of so many other benedictions of excellent learning, di­uine wisedome, admirable vnity, piety, and perfe­ction of vertue, as hath been shewed; vnlesse it had been so ordayned by him, for the recommendation, and preseruation of that Truth which himselfe de­scended from heauen to teach the world, and to dye the death of the Crosse, for the eternall memory, and fructification of it. For if in any thing we should be deceiued by the power and greatnes of his autho­rity, we might well say, it was no fault of ours, but rather, as S. Augustine affirmeth, it were either ex­treme impiety, or precipitate arrogancy. Not to be so de­ceiued, what need there any other reuelations, or miracles, as S. Augustine also obserueth, in a case so cleere as this? If so many Nations haue been conuer­ted to the obedience of this supernaturall faith, and for so many ages haue been preserued in vnity ther­by, without signes and miracles; this it selfe is a most sufficient, apparent, and perpetuall miracle for the testimony of the truth thereof.

SECTION XXVI. The same Authority, and the grounds of Christian Fayth are further declared.

AS the obiect of reason doth farre exceed the knowledge of our senses: so the truth of things supernaturall and diuine, do no lesse surmount the light of reason. And therfore, the end of man, and the meanes to attaine vnto it, being both of them su­pernaturall & diuine; as it was necessary that God should reueale, and deliuer the knowledge thereof to his Prophets and Apostles, obliging all men to beleeue them: so it was also expedient, that there should be some certayne meanes ordained and esta­blished by Almighty God, wherby we might infal­libly know what it was, that was so reuealed vnto them. For otherwise if there be not such superna­turall and certaine help to attaine the knowledge of those Diuine Misteryes, which do so much exceed the power and faculty of human vnderstanding; to perswade our selues that we shall be able to arriue to any certaine knowledge of them by any human di­ligence, or naturall endeauour alone, were as wise a matter, as for a man to go about to read in the darke, or for him that hath no eyes to iudge of colours. Nay, it were much more ridiculous: For such a kind of darke reading, or blind iudgment might be pra­ctised or aduentured for some little wager, or to make men pastyme: but Christians that make their beliefe the rule of their life and death, laying not [Page 218]only their fortunes, but also their soules vpon it, vnles they haue some Diuine help, and infallible assistance of the spirit of God, to know those things which they beleeue to haue beene reuealed to the A­postles, and can no way be discerned by human rea­son; they can neuer be excused from meer madnes, and ridiculous folly.

Vpon what grounds the Catholiks beleeue the doctrine and preaching of the Apostles, which is the Ghospell, and the obiect of their fayth to haue beene reuealed from the mouth of God, and that the Church is perpetually & infallibly assisted by God himself, in the preseruation of the foresayd doctrine from all stayne, or touch of errours, hath beene shewed already: Almighty God hauing so magnified and fortifyed the authority of his Church, as if the will of man be not too much peruerted, it is impo­ssible for his vnderstanding to resist it. And there­fore as S. Augustine sayd notably:Cont. epist. Fundam. That be would not beleeue the Ghospell, except the authority of the Catholike Church did mooue him thereunto: so also he sayth as plainly,August. epist. 18. that it was most insolent pride, to dispute a­gainst it.

And therefore, the mind of man being insa­tiable of knowledge, for which it was created, and according to the Philosopher, it being better to know a little of Diuine thinges, then to haue great intelligence of other matters: hence it followeth, that to know so many celestiall Misteryes, as the do­ctrine of Christ containeth, in so short a tyme, with such great ease, and infallible certainty, being groū ­ded vpon so many conuincing arguments and appa­rent [Page 219]testimonyes of Diuine authority; which do­ctrine being also that pretious stone, that bringeth with it all good thinges, and beginneth that hap­pynes in this life, which is perfected, and rewarded with eternall felicity in the next: This I say, must needs be a wonderfull strong and excellent motiue to compell all those to enter into the Schoole and Church of Christ, whose mynds haue any dominiō ouer their bodyes, and are not wholy transported with the pride of life, or altogeather drowned in worldly desires, or brutish sensuality.

Whereas the Protestants on the other side, professing to haue no other ground of Fayth, but only the bare Scripture, do shew therein, that they haue neither sufficient ground to beleeue that God hath reuealed his secrets to the world, nor any Di­uino assistance to know, and discerne what seerets they are that were so reuealed. For first as concer­ning Scripture, denying the authority of the Church as they do, if S. Augustine for example, should deny the Scripture, which he sayth plainely, that he would not beleeue, vnlosse the authority of the Church did moue him thereunto; how I pray you, could they perswade S. Augustine by Scripture alone, which he would flatly deny, that any thing was euer reuealed by God? or being reuealed, that it was truely deliuered againe? or that any part of those thinges, which were reuealed, was writen by the spirit of God, and so recommended to posterity? Secondly, the Scrip­ture it selfe making mention of many other bookes of Scripture, that are not extant, though one should graunt, that some part of Gods word was written, [Page 220]which the Protestants without cause beleeue, how could they proue, that any part therof remayneth? For if some bookes are lost, why may not all haue perished? Thirdly, the malice of the Iewes, and the fraud of Heretikes being so great as they are, and the diligence of Scribes in writing being no more but humane, and the copyes of Scripture being very many, and very different one from another: and the Hebrew Text, hauing beene written a long tyme without vowells, and the adding or giuing of diuers vowells, making diuers and contrary senses, & the vowells themselues being but little prickes set vn­der the letters, and the Characters being so strange, and many of them so like one another as they are, and therefore, it being not only an easy matter to change them, but also it seeming almost impossible that they should not haue beene mistaken among so many writers, in so many seuerall Countreyes, for so many yeares togeather; all this considered, though a man should graunt, that some bookes of Scripture were not lost: how I beseech you, can the Prote­stants shew, that any part thereof is free from errour and foule corruption, especially granting as they do, that many places of the Originalls are actually corrupted?

Fourthly, supposing the originalls, either to haue remayned perfect all this while, or els to be re­stored by them to their perfection, whereof they can haue no other ground, but their owne wilfull imagination; considering that all their interpreters haue translated with passion and preiudice in fauour of their owne opinions, and in opposition to the [Page 221]Roman Church, and to the auncient vulgar tran­slation; following therein,See the Protestant Apol. p. 256. 257. 258. rather the exposition of the Iewish Rabbins, the enemyes of Christ, then of the ancient Fathers: And likewise considering, that as their translatours are all deuided among them­selues, euery one seeking his owne glory; so also, that they condemne one another, of mangling, dis­membring, forging, and of corrupting the Scrip­ture; with what colourable reason, can the Prote­stants belieue, any of their Bibles, or particuler ver­sions, to be the word of God, & not rather the word of Tyndall, or Caluin, or Luther, or of some other translatour?

Fifthly, giuing vnto them, that some things haue been reuealed by God, and were truly deliue­red, and truly written: and that some of those wri­tings haue been preserued by God, and still remaine, miraculously vncorrupted: And that the Caluinists alone, or the Protestants of England alone, haue only the true version, or translation therof; theDiony. de Eccles. hierar. c. 1. Orig. in prin. peria. & tract. 23. in Mat. Tertul. in l. praescrip. & l. de co­rona Milit. Clemens in ep. Iren. l. 3. cont. haer. c. 2. & 3. Bafil. l. de spiritu sā ­ctoc. 27 & l. cont. Eu­nom. Epiphan. haeres. 61. Hier. l. cōt. Lueif. August. ep. 118.119.86. Cypr. l. de card. Chris­oper. c. de ablut. peaū Theoph in 2. ad Thes. 2. Chrysost. orat. 4. in eandem ep. Theod. ibi. auncient Fathers of the Church, prouing not only by tradition, but also by the writen-word it selfe, that the word of God is partly written, and partly vn­written; what infallible proofes can the Protestants bring out of Scripture, that we ought to belieue no­thing, which is not expresly contayned in the Scrip­ture? Especially considering that contrary to their owne ground, they pretend to belieue many things which indeed are true, but no where expresly con­tayned in the Scripture: as that the Scripture it selfe is the word of God: that children may be baptized before they belieue: That Baptisme in rose water, [Page 222]or any liquour, then naturall Elementary water, or in the Name of Christ alone, is not good and suffi­cient. That the Baptisme of Turkes, and Iewes, and Heretikes, is good in some cases. That it is allwayes a sinne to rebaptize. That God the Father hath no Father, which among many others is one instance of S. Augustine, against the Heretikes of his tyme, acknowledging no other ground of their Fayth, but only Scripture. That the Sabaoth day which is Sa­turday, ought not to be publickly obserued as holy, which is against the Commaundement of the Law: and that all Christians are obliged to obserue the Sunday, whereof there is not commaundement to be found in the written word of the Ghospell. That our Blessed Lady remayned, and continued still a Virgin. That Easter day ought to be kept vpon a Sunday. That it is lawfull to eat bloud, and strang­led meats, contrary to the words of the Decree of the Church, in the Acts of Apostles, and the like. Many things also they belieue, that are meerly fals, and not only not contayned in the words of Scrip­ture: but also expresly contrary thereunto. As, thatEphes. 5.32. Matrimony is no Sacrament: that theMatt. 26. Marc. 14. Luc. 22. 1. Cor. 11. Ioan. 6.51. Bles­sed Sacrament of the Altar is not Christs Body: that men are1. Cor. 13.2.3. Iacoh. 2.14. &c. iustifyed by Faith alone: thatIac. 2.21. &c. Eccles. 18. Rom. 6.19. no good workes do merit: that theMatt. 11.30.1. Ioan. 5.3.3. Reg. 14.4. Reg. 23. keping of Gods Commaundements is impossible: that we haue3. Rag. 3.5. Eccl. 31.10. Gen. 4.6.7. 1. Cor. 7.37. no Freewill to do well: that ChristAct. 1. Pet. 3.18. descended not into Hell: And to be short that the Church of God isSee be­fore Sect. 21. inuisible; that it hath erred, and that many true Prophets or preachers haue been sent to reforme it: whereas the Scripture only tells of false [Page 223]Prophets to come, and saith expressy, that the gates of hell shall not preuayle against it.

Lastly, if you will but barre the Protestants their owne expositions and argumentations vpon the Scripture, which they confesse themselues to be no part of the written word, they cannot produce so much as one expresse place of Scripture for any of those opinions, so peremptorily defended, and stifly obiected against vs: which me thinkes, considering how much they vaunt of Scripture, is sufficient of it selfe. to make such as are good amongst them asha­med of their errours; and sheweth most euidently, that the first authours of this new Ghospell, haue founded the same vpon nothing els, but only vpon their owne impudency, the malice of the tyme, and the weaknes of their hearers. By all which conside­rations, it is more then manifest, that the Prote­stants denying the authority of the Church, they ouerthrow the authority of the Scripture: and that refusing to receiue the same from the Church, they haue no Scripture at all, but that diuers wayes con­tradicting their owne grounds, insteed of Scripture they miserably abuse themselues, with their owne translations, and their owne imaginations, and haue nothing els, but only the bare name, and outward shew of Scripture.

And now to come to the second Stone of their foundation which is the point of their pryuate spirit First, they can produce no place of Scripture, to proue either that the Scripture alone is a suffici­ent ruie of Faith or that God hath promised his holy spirit to euery particuler man, in expounding the [Page 224]Scripture. And therefore belieuing either the one or the other, they ouerthrow their owne grounds, and belieue something more then Scripture, which is not expresly contayned therein. Secondly, this man­ner of interpreting the Scripture, according to the priuate spirit of euery particuler man, is not only warranted by the Scripture, but also expresly contra­ry thereunto. For the Scripture commaundeth vs, for the deciding of controuersyes about the same, to ascend to the high Priest for the tyme, Deu. 17.9.12. Matth. 2.7. Mat. 18.17. Mat. 23.2. and to obay him vpon payne of death: to require the Law from the lips of the Priests: to heare the Church: and, that such as will not heare it, shalbe accompted as Heathens, and Infidells: to do as they say who shall sit in the Chayre of Moyses, and the like. Which places are contrary to that infallible assistance of euery mans priuate spirit, which the Protestants pretend, and are further confirmed by the practise, and execution of them, in the primitiue Church, recorded also by the Scripture. For all the Apostles were not commaunded to write, but to preach, Mar. 16.15. and the world was obliged, not to belieue any particuler spirit, but the words and writings pro­ceding from the spirit of the Apostles.Act. 15.28. And the que­stion of the obseruation of the Legall Cerimonyes, was not left to the arbitrement of euery mans priuate spi­rit, but was reserued to the common spirit of the Church. And therfore as the Church was founded not only by Scripture, but also by the vnwritten word of God: so also it must be preserued. And as the world at that tyme belieued the words and wrytings of the Apostles, deliuered by themselues: so now it must giue credit therunto, being likewise deliuered [Page 225]by their Successors. We haue a more firme Propheticall speach, whereunto you do well to attend (sayth S. Peter:2. Petr. 1.20.21.) and after adioyneth; first vnderstanding this, that no Prophesy of Scripture is made by priuate interpretation; for not by mans will was Prophesy brought at any tyme, but the holy men of God spake, inspired with the holy Ghost. Whereof you see it followeth, that the Scrip­ture must be interpreted by the same spirit, where­with it was written, & being communicated by the spirit of God for the publike benefit of the Church, with the publike authority of those that wrote it, it must also be expounded by the same spirit for the publike weale of the Church; with the like publike authority of those that haue the keeping of it: so vn­derstanding this, that no Prophesy of Scripture is made with priuate interpretation. The spirit (sayth S. Paul) deuideth vnto all in particuler, according as he will: 1. Cor. 12.17. All the members of the body, haue not the same act, for if the whole body be ancye, where is the hearing? Where also he denyeth, that all haue the gift of Prophesy,Matt. 18.17. Hebr. 13.17. 2. Thes. 2.23. Phil. 4.9. Gal. 1.8. Marc. 7.15.24. Marc. 13.22. 2. Pet. 2.1. 1. Ioā. 4.1. 2. Thes. 2.2. the interpretation of Tongues, discretion to discerne of spirit, which is expresly against the Protestants &c.

In conclusion, as the Scripture exhorteth vs to heare the Church, to obay our Pastours and spirituall Superiours, to remayne in those thinges, which we haue heard of them, & not to beleeue an Angell from heauen, but rather to hold him accursed that should preach contrary thereunto, and the like, which do signify the great authority giuen to the publike spirit of the Church; promised to be sent vnto it, and to remaine with it for euer: so all those places of Scripture, which aduise vs to beware of false Prophets (that is to [Page 226]say) of Heretikes, to try the spirit, not to be terrifyed neither by spirit or speach, and the like, must needs be vnderstood of those, who out of a priuate spirit should oppose themselues against the common do­ctrine of the Church, or publique authority of the gouernour thereof, wherein also consisteth the very essence of heresy: Aug. ep. 162. deci­uit. l 18. c. 51. de Bapt. cont. Don. l. 4. c. 16. and in this sense S. Paul affirmethTit. 3.11. that an hereticke is subuerted and sinneth, being condem­ned by his owne iudgment: That is to say, opposing his priuate iudgment against the Church, and so giuing sentence against his owne soule to his eternall dam­nation.

And as this Protestant ground is most oppo­site to Scripture: so also it is no lesse contrary to rea­son it selfe. For as in a Commonwealth or King­dome, the law being publique and common to all, the interpretation of the law and the finall sentence of all suits & causes, concerning the law, is likewise publique: for otherwise there could be no peace, nor concord made betweene priuate men, if euery one might interprete the law to his owne aduantage: so likewise the Catholike Fayth, being common and publique, propounded to all, and all men being com­maunded to agree togeather in the same fayth with vnity and concord; it must needs follow, that the definition and sinall sentence of all controuersyes & causes of faith be also publique. For otherwise there could be no end of differences, euery man obstinat­ly defending the sense of his owne spirit, and pre­sumptuously condemning all those,Hier cont. Lucif. c. 14. that oppose themselues against it. If in the Church (sayth S. Hie­rome) there be no imminent power, there will be so many [Page 227]Schismes, as there are Priests. And among twelue one was chosen, that a head being appointed, Idem cont. Iouin. the occasiō of Schism might be taken away. But of this we haue spoken suf­ficiently els where, and haue also shewed by expe­rience, that the Protestants for want of this publike authority, are infinitly deuided among themselues, and censure most terribly, and condemne most ex­tremly the seuerall opinions of one another.

Wherefore to proceed, and to omit for bre­uityes sake, that this rule of priuate interpretation being once admitted, there would follow nothing els, but an infinite confusion of little truth, & much falsehood in the Church of God: And that the mē ­bers thereof should haue no meanes to discerne with whome they ought to hold communion, as sincere and orthodoxall, nor whome to auoyd, as corrupt and hereticall. What can be more contrary to the light of Nature, then where all haue equall meanes to know the truth, or that some for sundry good respects may be thought to excell the rest, euery par­ticuler man, though neuer so simple, should more cō ­fide in his owne priuate vnderstanding, then in the iudgment of the best and wisest? which as it is most absurd in all kind of knowledge: so especially in the right vnderstanding & interpretation of Scripture, being in great part most obscure, and euery where subiect to errour, as you may easily iudge by the controuersyes, decrees, and generall Councells of the Church concerning the same; by the condem­nations of so many excellent wits, & learned men, that haue erred therein; and by the explications, ser­mons, and cōmentaryes, that without end are made [Page 228]vpon them. And truely that euery Protestant, man, woman, and child. plough-man, artificer, or of what profession soeuer, learned or vnlearned, whe­ther they can read or no, should take it vpon them, and vpon their saluation, as they do, and as they are bound to do, according to the ground of their Reli­gion, to iudge infallibly by the Scripture alone, which bookes are Scripture, and which not; and to know euery verse, and euery line of the Cano­nicall, from that which is not Canonicall, better then the ancient Fathers, or Laodicean Councell for example, who doubted of many of them, and better then that famous Councell of Carthage, where at S. Augustine was present, & is thought to haue been the Secretary and penner of it, which decreed many bookes to be Scripture that are now contradicted & reiected by the Protestants; is so strange a madnes, as it seemeth impossible, that it should sinke into any mans hart to imagine, or that the mind of any sober man could be deluded with it.

And the same we may say of the interpreta­tion of Scripture. For beleeuing as an article of their Fayth, that there is no external means, wherby they may infallibly know the meaning of Scripture, but by the Scripture; euery idle companiō preferreth his owne priuate iudgment therin, not only before the iudgment of all the Fathers in particuler, who haue doubted of many poynts of Fayth, and of the mea­ning of many places in Scripture, vntill by a gene­rall Councell their doubts were cleared; but also be­fore the sentence of the vniuersall Church, which euery Protestant doth imagine to haue grosly erred, [Page 229]beleeuing in the meane tyme his owne opinion to be most infallible. Which is yet more strang, in that the Protestants perswading themselues to be most certaine, that they haue the Scripture, and the true interpretation of Scripture, they confesse notwith­standing the meanes which they vse for the attay­ning of this certainty, to be most vncertayne: That is to say, the reading of Scripture, their conference of places, their diligence, prayer, and the like.

Whereof the two last alone are common to all, and euery one of these meanes being by their owne confession but human endeauours, are therefore subiect to the errour of our frayle Nature, & to the common ouersight of mans infirmity. And as all partyes among them condemne ech other: so there was neuer any Protestant in the world, whom they beleeue or acknowledge, notwithstanding the vse of all these meanes, not to haue been very much decei­ued in the interpretation of the Scripture. And ther­fore, as the authority of the Catholicke Church, in respect of the clarity and extension therof is fitly ex­pounded by S. Augustine, to be that Lightning of the comming of Christ, which breaking forth out of heauen, is scene from the East to the West, Matth. 24.27. and filleth the world, inforcing all men to behold it: so it is no great mystery to vnderstand, that the Protestants shutting their eyes against it, haue chosen to them­selues such a ground of their fayth, as by it self alone is not only most vncertaine vnto them, for diuers & sundry causes; but also in respect of the formality therof is most contrary to Scripture, most opposite to reason, and most euidently ouerthrowing it selfe, [Page 230]as hath beene shewed. Whereof because no man, that is not willfully blind among you, can be igno­rant, therfore I can blame none of those great num­bers, of whome your authors do so much cōplaine, who preferre the light of sense, or naturall reason, before the fayth of the Protestants, and chuse rather to beleeue nothing, then to be so grossly, and so manifestly deceiued. For such a kind fayth, as hath been shewed, doth not perfect the light of naturall reason, but abuse it, nor maketh men spiritually wise but rather diabolically contentious, and absurdly foolish. And the ground therof being false and fri­uolous, they who rely the most thereupon, are the most deceiued.

And albeit they may hold many things that are true, yet speaking properly of diuine faith, they haue no faith at all, whereof I gaue you the reason, in the beginning of this Section: because to ayme at the secrets of God, or to mooue any dispute about them, without some infallible meanes, which him­selfe hath ordayned for the preseruation, tradition and preaching, or deliuery of them, is no lesse ridi­culous, then for blind men, as I haue sayd, to cōtend of colours; or as S. Paul affirmeth, no better then vayne and idle talking; 1. Tim. 1.6.7. not vnderstanding, neither what is spoken, nor of what to affirme. But as the Turkes, al­beit they are perswaded that there is one God, yet receiuing it from their Alcaron which is the ground of their fayth, and teacheth them many vntruths; their perswasion of the vnity of God, is no beliefe, but errour. Or as the Iewes, albeit they receiue the old Testament as you know: yet because they rely [Page 231]vpon the interpretation of their Rabbins, which is subiect to errour, their ground being deceitfull; their faith is nothing but deceipt, and therefore no faith at all. So in like manner the Protestants, albeit they follow a rule, which according as they vse it, doth propound vnto them many things that are true: yet propounding likewise very many that are false, and being thereby deceitfull, as hath been declared, they belieue the truth, it sheweth no more then they be­lieue the falshood, whereof it is manifest they be­lieue nothing at all. And for this cause the authority of the Church being the only ordinary meanes to make vs know the rule of faith,Matt. 18.17. our Sauiour himself sayd, that such as would not heare the Church, were no better then Infidells; because consequently depryuing themselues of the rule of Faith, they loose all true Faith, and diuine fidelity. From whence likewise is inferred that common principle of Christendome, that out of the Church there is no saluation: because without Faith, it is impossible to please God, and without obedience to the Church in matter of be­liefe, there can be no faith at all. From hence also the Councell of Nyce, as witnesseth the Creed of A­thanasius, read in your Churches euery Sunday, to­geather with the auncient Fathers, hath concluded; that denying one article of the Catholike Faith, or not be­lieuing the same wholy, and inuiolably, no man can be saued. Because he that obstinatly denyeth, or doub­teth of any one poynt of Faith, denieth the authority of the Church, without which we cannot certainly know the rule of Faith, & therby loosing his faith, is no better thē an Infidel, as our Sauiour hath declared.

SECTION XXVII. VVherein two Motiues, that is to say, Feare of danger, and the Instigation of a certayne spirit, which induced the Bishop to change the place of his aboad, are propounded and examined.

THESE therfore are some of the reasons which euery Catholike man, though neuer so simple, is able to giue of his beliefe, and are so euident and iustified in themselues, that there is no man hauing sense of God, if he put them in the Ballance of his Iudgment, but he must needs feele their weight in his mind, and in his will the diuine power and ver­tue of them. Whereas on the other side, this lear­ned man the Bishop, after 10. yeares study, writing to edify the world with his Motiues, can bring forth nothing, but that which appeareth at the first sight to be false, & as you haue heard, hath receiued sentence of Iudgment three tymes already, being once of old condemned by the auncient Fathers, and twyce more in our age by the Protestāts themselues, who first condemned the Fathers as being against them, and afterwards also condemned the heretical doctrine of one another.

And this may suffice to haue spoken of those dispositions and other considerations which the Bi­shop accuseth to haue been the causes and motiues of his change in religion. It followeth now to examine the groundes that induced him to change the place of his aboad. Which albeit he setteth downe very [Page 233]confusedly, I find they may be reduced to 3. prin­cipall heads. The first therfore was his danger in staying. The second, his spirit that compelled him to go. And the third, his zeale (forsooth) of truth and peace, that drew him on. As concerning his danger, he confesseth, that in Rome notice was taken of his writing against the Roman doctrine, and that more then once he had been admonished, and reprehended for it by the Popes Nuntio, or Agent, residing in Venice. In which respect he had iust cause to feare, that the Venetians, not to main­tayne a manifest heretike in their State, might easily be induced to deliuer him vp to the Nuntio, especial­ly at that tyme, they hauing need of the Pope in res­pect of their warrs: and that the Nuntio would haue sent him vp to the Holy House in Rome, where he should haue byn receiued with such kindnes as was agreable to his deserts. Wherby it appeareth vpon the matter, that being entred so far into Heresy, as he could not go back without great infamy, he sound I­taly to hoat for his foot, & fled from thencefor no o­ther good respect, but only because he could stay no longer without the horrible feare of extreme danger.

By the way of this discourse, he putteth himselfe into a great chafe against the Pope, & lay­ing aside his disguise of Monsignor fate voi, he sheweth himselfe a plaine Italian Facchine, without any truth, ciuility, or modesty. And like your Col­lyer of Croydon, being a myte out of Towne, he ta­keth his pleasure of the Pope, & rayleth against him most despiciously. And who is there that hath but soone the state of Germany, Spaine, France, or Italy, [Page 234]and thereby knoweth, as he must needs, the great reputation and authority of the Catholike Clergy, and especially of the Bishops the heads of the Clergy, but will admire at his impudency, to heare him say: ‘That Catholike Bishops, now adayes, haue nothing but the name of Bishops: That they are not permit­ted by the Pope to haue any gouennement of their Churches: That they are vilde and contemptible: and which is no lesse vntrue, then the former: That they are made subiect to Religious Orders;’ for Reli­gious men except they be Bishops, or indued with Episcopall authority, haue no exteriour iurisdiction at all, neither ouer Bishops, nor any secular persons.

To the rest where he sayth: That the Church of Rome, is wholy become a temporall Monarchy, a vineyard only to make Noë drunke, a flocke whose bloud the Pastours sucke, and the like; What shall we say, but that he sheweth himself to be far worse, then one of Noë his accursed children, and to be no better then a wilde Boore, that would destroy the vineyard of Christ, or a rauenous Wolfe, that howleth against the Shepheard? Neither (all that went before being most false) will I grant that to be true, where he sayth. That Christ hath placed him for a dog in his flocke. For the truth is, that he thrust himselfe in for a dogge, as I haue shewed long ago. But now at length it hath pleased God to put him out for a Curre, and so he sheweth himselfe to be, in barking against his Maister. In the end, ma­king these vntruthes some colour and occasion of his departure, at length he concludeth, that to a­uoyd the Popes malice, which was so neer vnto him, [Page 235]and the ordinary effects therof, which he sayth to be poyson, and punyards, it was altogeather ne­cessary for him to run away.Leuit. 26.36. Iob. 15.21. An ill conscience feareth the sound of a flying leafe: and the noyse of feare is all­wayes in his eare, & where peace is, he suspecteth treason. In which respect, although it be not altogeather im­probable, that he feared poyson and punyards as he sayth, and it may very well be, that he had deserued no better of some priuat Citizens in the place wher he liued: yet it is more likely that herein he would only shew his Rhetorike, thereby to draw the Pope into suspition and enuy: And that he feareth no o­ther poyson, but the fire, nor any other knife, but the sword of the hangman, which I must needs say, setting all other causes apart, he well deserueth for these monstrous slaunders and foule imputations alone, wherwith he chargeth so worthy a Prince as the Pope, and a Seat so reuerend and sacred as the Church of Rome

Where he sayth: That now adayes, the contro­uersies of the Church are not cōmitted to the deci­ding of Deuines or Councells, but for the defence of Rome, ‘& from Rome, to Parricides, villaines, and murtherers; who knoweth not that all the poynts in Controuersy at this day, were for many yeares to­geather disputed, and discussed in the Councell of Trent:’ and that the learned Deuines of the Church of Rome, haue defended thēselues most gloriously, as well by their excellent writings, as constant suf­ferings, wherof you need not go far to seeke exam­ples: Not striking others treacherously, as this wolf pretendeth, but being strucken vniustly: not giuing [Page 236]blowes, but receauing blow after blow: not murthe­ring others, but willingly suffering themselues to be murthered: not seeking other mens liues, but giuing their owne liues for the testimony of their cause, and for the saluation of the soules of others.

The Bishop being thus couragiously resolued to run away, with most extreme feare to be stayed or taken, he telleth you of a great conflict betweene himselfe on the one party, and his hand-maid Agar with her Sonne Ismaell on the other, viz. betweene the flesh and the spirit. Of what colour the spirit was, I make no question: but what flesh he meaneth, whether his own, or some other bodys that tempted him to stay, I cannot so easily resolue. For his own flesh stood in feare of torture and torment, as you haue heard, and was already cloathed with the in­famy of heresy, that was bruted in him, and there­fore by al reason should take part with his spirit that did so vehemently perswade him to run away. But the flesh that heere he bringeth into combat, putteth him in hope of ease, of pleasure, & preferment, and in feare of the infamy that might meet him in his iourney. Besides it moueth a doubt vnto him, whe­ther he were wiser, then other innumerable Bishops that stayed behind him, which his owne flesh could neuer haue done. For he knew, that he made no question of the matter, and therfore he neuer ad­mitted any of them to counsell. as he confessed be­fore, nor heere doth he vouchsafe any answere at all to that needlesse obiection.

On the other side; considering how like his flesh is to the flesh of Agar, Gen. 16.4. that despised her Mistresse, [Page 237]and being therefore corrected by her, fed from her, vntill at length not only her selfe, but also her son Ismaell were both cast forth into the desert; as this man despised the Pope his Maister, & being reprehended for it, ran quite away & in the end was thrown forth out of the family of Christ, into the desert of heresy and infidelity: I say, all this considered, me thinks by Agar, he should meane no other flesh, but his owne. But whose flesh soeuer this Agar was, I haue reason to thinke, that when he came to you, he carryed her sonne Ismaell with him into England. As concer­ning the spirit, which pleaded, as he sayth, against the flesh, & did so much sollicit his hasty departure, vnlesse himselfe had written it, I should not haue thought, that with any reason, I could haue accused the Diuell to haue beene the authour of it. For what should any spirit need to pray him go, that was al­ready vpon running, and nothing els, but a chayne could hold him. But now I see, that his old acquain­tance, not content with his readynes, did push, and driue him healong on: & that as before he had cast him out of his order; so at this tyme he was at hand to cast him forth out of the Catholike Church.

This spirit he calleth Diuine, and sayth, that with vehement impulsion it did not permit him to make any longer delay. And that he followed the same, as Abraham followed the voyce of God.Gen. 22.10. Alas poore man, if he be of any religion (whereof I haue great cause to doubt, for the causes aforesayd) he is not the first, that trusting to his owne iudgment, and confiding himselfe in the pleasing phansy of a priuate spirit, insteed of God, hath adored the Di­uell: [Page 238]by whose meanes also he further saith, going from Venice towards England, he hopeth that his fame or good name, of what forme and beauty so­euer it be, shalbe preserued from all blemish, euen in the hands of the Barbarous. Which new Name of Barbarous (for any thing that I can see) you must be contented to receiue at the hands of your new God father, instead of a better blessing. And surely, albeit some insolent Italians haue not spared to lay this rude imputation vpon other Nations: yet this Dalmatian, being scarsely an Italian himselfe, and going to liue among them, and to be mayntained by them, both in discretion and ciuility, should haue affoarded them some better title.

As touching the preseruation of his fame, whereof he speaketh with great zeale and no little feare, as it seemeth, both heere and in other places of his booke; I cannot so easily coniecture, what it is he would haue, or what it is he feareth. For to be reputed an Heretike in Italy, in respect of his depar­ture thence, and his going into England, is a thing farre off; and being of his mynd, and where he is, a man would thinke, he should rather glory therein, then be ashamed thereof. Wherefore it is very pro­bable, that there is some great matter in the straw, which is not yet discouered; & that either he feareth the workes he left behind him, will come after him thither, and claime him for their Father: or els he is troubled with such passions still, as will quickly dis­credit him, if prouision be not made, that his infir­mityes may either be cured, or well couered.

And to this purpose perchance, he insinua­teth [Page 239]the reward of Abraham, whose beautifull wife was preserued from reproach in the hands of Pharao: and the saying of S. Ambrose, that neither Countrey nor Parents, nor wife, nor children, ought to with­draw vs, from the execution of Gods will. For God saith he, giueth all things to vs (which words I would haue you marke) and is able to preserue that which he giueth. Whereby it may be, that his mo­desty would giue you to vnderstand, that either he hath a wife already, which I will not say; or that he would haue one, which is more likely, for the preser­uation of his same amongst you. Which if it be so, he need not to haue been so much ashamed thereof, as to conceale it, if he had knowne in what playne termes some of his ancestours, whose course he fol­loweth, domaunded the like sauour.

And that you may the lesse maruell thereat, if such a thing should happen, I will set you downe part of an Epistle to the Bishop of Constance, written and subscribed vnto by Swinglius, Leo, Iude, Eras­mus, and 8. other Ministers, who all of them cry out for wyues therein, and after some intimation made, of the heauenly doctrine so long hydden, Prot Apol. fol 572. & sequent. and in their tyme restored, confesse and say: Hitherto we haue tryed that this gift of Chastity hath been denyed vnto vs, we haue burned (O for shame!) so greatly, that we haue committed many things vnseemely. To speake freely with­out boasting, we are not otherwise of such vnciuill man­ners, that we should be euill spoken of among the people to vs committed, this one poynt only excepted. Thus they: Which if you please to see in the Protestāts Apology, when you are at leasure, you shall find also another [Page 240]longer petition to the purpose, that will either make you laugh or lament at the weaknes of your first A­postles. But thus the Bishop recommending his good name vnto you, concludeth his 2. first Motiues of change of place, and saith: That being admonished by these dangers, drawne by this vocation, and thus animated therein, he toke himselfe to flight then most nimbly.

SECTION XXVIII. VVherein the Bishop his zeale, and desire to try which is the last Motiue, that induced him to forsake his Countrey, is discussed.

HIS third Motiue which he seemeth all this while to haue forgotten, he beginneth in this manner, pag. 28. Charuas tamen Christi super omnia vrget me: but yet the Charity of Christ vrgeth me a­boue all things. Which when I read, I could not chuse but smyle, remēbring how one that was trou­bled with vermyne in Italy, went shrugging vp and downe, and singing that verse of Petrarch; S'amor non è, che dunque è quel ch'to sento? If loue it be not, what is that I feele? For it is very probable that po­uerty and famine began to pinch him, as not hauing sufficient to feed his maw, after he had resigned his poore Bishoprike to his Nephew, as I haue shewed: And the Italian might better compare his life to naughty loue, then the Bishop his counterfeit chari­ty to the diuine loue of Iesus Christ; so that the one, if he had thought his life to be loue, should haue [Page 241]been no lesse mistaken then the other. This charity (sayth he) did vrge him to cry. And to get him vp to some high place, that his cry might be heard the further, if you had euer been in Venice, you would imagine him to be possest with the spirit of some Montebanck, not only in respect of his mounting and crying: but also in respect of his discourse. For with a great many arrogant tearmes, and boasting words cōfusedly vttered, you would thinke he meant to sell the wares of his new booke, as Montebancks sell boxes.

But for orders sake, I will reduce all that he sayth to three heads. For either he sheweth what it is that he intendeth to cry, or what authority he hath to cry, or answereth certayne obiections that might be made against his crying. I expected iudge­ment, Isa. 5. & 7. and behold iniquity; and iustice, and behold a cry. Me thinkes (as S. Augustine said to a Donatist) that part of the world should suffice him, wherein our Lord would, that the chiefe of his Apostles should be crowned with a most glorious Martyrdome. For what could the Pre­sident of that Church answere, but that which the Apo­stolike Seat, and the Roman Church doth anciently hold with others? or at least, that the authority of Christ­endome, which S. Augustine calleth the Confession of mankind, might haue suffised to haue kept this man in quietnesse, and obedience: but insteed of iudgment behold iniquity; and insteed of iustice, behold a cry. For this man is so farre from hearing, and obaying the Church, which our Sauiour hath appointed to teach him, that being worse then an Infidell, he cryeth against the Church; and with extreme arrogancy [Page 242]would inforce the Church to belieue him, and to be obedient vnto him. That which he intendeth to cry, is the matter of his booke of Christian Common Wealth, whereof he vaunteth, as if therby the world should know,Pag. 28.33. what a champion the Protestants haue gotten for them. For by meanes thereof, the er­rours of Rome must be made manifest, ‘and the puri­ty of the Protestant doctrine shalbe no longer hid­den, and a number of their Churches, reiected by that of Rome, shalbe declared Catholike; and the way of making peace and vnion ouer all the world,’ shalbe cleerly manifested. And all this, he preten­deth with such confidence, and presumption, as if with him the Catholike verity were turned Prote­stant: or as if he had gotten a Monopoly of the do­ctrine of Christ, and that no part thereof were war­rantable, without his marke, or licence and with his approbation, that any Religion might passe for currant. Of this booke of his he speaketh euery where with such admiration, as a man may easily perceiue, it is the Idol that he adoreth; and was doubtlesse the principall cause of his fall; and for the loue of it, more then any thing els, he was content to renounce both his Faith and Countrey. But as Idolls are nothing, so I haue shewed sufficiently, that this Idoll of his contayneth nothing. And though it were neuer so strong and substantiall: yet cōming once forth, and falling vpon the stone of Peter, which is the Rock of the Church, wherat it aymeth, it must needs be broken all to peeces.

And considering with my selfe what the cause might be, that all this while it is not published, I [Page 243]am perswaded, that the Protestants themselues per­ceiuing the deformity thereof, and especially the clouen foot of the Diuell, I meane the deniall of all Iurisdiction in the Church of God, which is the crutch wheron it standeth, were either affrayed, or ashamed to prynt it: which if it be true, we shall shortly heare that either he will take the course, that Achitophel did when his Counsell was contemned, or els that before it be long, forsaking Kent and Christendome, he will turne himselfe towards the Turkes and Gentiles. And indeed intending as he doth, to take away the occasion of Schisme, not by establishing one head vpon earth, as our Sauiour did, but by beating downe the same: not by order of Iurisdiction, but by the disorder of licentious li­berty, any man may perceiue it is a Diuellish de­uice, not to bring forth vnion, but to breed con­fusion, nor to gather with Christ, but to scatter with Antichrist. And therefore the Cryer himselfe, considering the matter a little better, and being asha­med to discouer in playne tearmes his wicked mea­ning, correcteth himselfe afterward, and instead of demonstrating the way of this vnion which he pro­mised before, he saith afterward, that if he do not open the same, he wilbe contented to nod, and poynt at it with his finger. As for his defence of the Protestant doctrine, I haue sufficiently declared al­ready, that by taking the same vpon him, he is not only 20. tymes condemned for an Heretike by the auncient Fathers, but also pronounced to be Insatha­nized, supersathanized, a slaue of the Diuell, one of the Antichristian swynish Rabble, and a thousand tymes [Page 244]as bad by the Protestants themselues: wherein, as in other things, the Bishop himselfe will needes con­tend, that you may safely belieue them.

As touching the second poynt, he sheweth that being a Bishop, he hath sufficient authority, not only to reprehend the mannets & vices of the tyme, for the which no man perchance would haue blamed him, if he had done it with charity and discretion; but also to cry as he doth against the errours of the Roman Church, and of all other Churches vnited with it. For that the vniuersall Church, sayth he, in some cases is committed to the care of euery particu­ler Bishop: wherof will follow this strange position, that it should belong to the office of euery particuler Bishop in some occasion to accuse the whole Church of errour, wherunto this Cryer himselfe, according to his owne doctrine, must haue thought himselfe obliged in conscience, if he had beene borne in the tyme of his Father Luther: of the absurdity wherof I haue spoken sufficiently already.

And no lesse strange and absurd is the con­sequence, which he himselfe inferreth, that any Bi­shop whatsouer hath authority to correct and re­forme any other Bishop. For example: That the Bi­shop of Spalato in Dalmatia, hath authority to visit and reforme the Bishop of Canterbury, when the Dalmatiā shal iudg & esteeme it to be so expedient. But because he thought it might seeme to be some new deuise, being no lesse contrary to the Prote­stant, then to the Catholike Religion, Monsignor fate voi hauing al this while taken vp whatsoeuer he sayd, vpon the credit of his reader; in this place, as [Page 245]fearing at length to be discouered for a counterfeit, beginneth a little to proue his assertion, and to pay his Reader with such money, as he receiued of those that hyred him to play the Episcopall Doctour on your side the mountaynes. But I thinke you will easily discerne by the false sound, what coyne it is, be­ing as far different from any currant proofe, as Fate voi, from a reuerend Bishop. For thus he reasoneth.

All Bishops togeather haue the gouernment of the whole Church of Christ, as he proueth out of the Scripture, out of S. Eleutherius, and S. Cyprian: therefore euery Bishop in particuler hath the like au­thority. As if one should say, All the Officers of the Court do gouerne the whole Court vnder the King: therefore euery Officer in particuler hath authority ouer the whole Court vnder the King. Or thus, All the Britans togeather are the Lords of great Britany: therefore euery Britan in particuler is Lord ouer all Britany. Which miserable argument he likewise confirmeth in this pittifull manner: Euery Bishop may counsell, help, & succour the necessityes of any other Church or Bishopricke, as it is manifest by the example of many ancient Fathers: Therfore euery Bishop hath authority ouer all other Churches. As much as to say, euery man may help the necessityes of his Neighbour, and the seruant of his Maister: therfore Euery man hath authority ouer his Neigh­bour, or the seruant ouer his Maister.

But letting passe the weaknes of his argu­ment, because it is the first, and because it may be, that for want of vse, he hath forgotten how to ar­gue; let him shew you, but one auncient Father. [Page 240] [...] [Page 241] [...] [Page 242] [...] [Page 243] [...] [Page 244] [...] [Page 245] [...] [Page 246]that euer reprehēded the Bishop of Rome of any Ca­thedrall doctrine, or erroneous Decree in matter of faith: or any holy or laudable Bishop, that euer gaue sentence against any other of his Collegues, depo­sed, or excommunicated him, or called him iuridi­cally to make his defence, by vertue of any such ge­nerall authority, and I will be content you shall be­lieue this insolent Intruder in all other things, and subiect your selfe vnto him. Besides, though it should be granted, that heretofore he had no lesse authority then himselfe pretendeth; being now deposed by the Pope that now is, as Dioscorus, or Eutiches were by the Popes of their tymes, or as the Bishop of Arles whome S. Cyprian not presuming to iudge, wrote vnto the Pope to excommunicate, and appoynt ano­ther in his place; I would aske him what he can pre­tend, which those Heretikes might not likewise al­leadge why he should not confesse, that by sentence of deposition against him, the authority which he had, is iustly taken from him?

Againe, quia Episcopatum eius accepit alter, be­cause, as it was sayd of Iudas, another hath receiued his Bishoprick, I would aske him, what authority he hath to cry, being lawfully deposed from his Bisho­prick, more then the other hath, who did lawfully succeed him? And why we should belieue him, being an excommunicate Heretike, more then the other being an approued Catholike? For if he pretend ei­ther the Scriptures, or the Fathers to be for him; it is no more then other Heretikes haue pleaded before him, and we haue sufficiently shewed, that most manifestly they make against him.

Wherfore, though he cry neuer so loud: yet by this it is manifest that he cryeth no other wayes, then as the Diuell did, when he was cast forth by our Sauiour. And I hope vnlesse he cry with better reason, then heare he doth alleadge, he shall sooner burst with crying, then mooue either your selfe, or any other to belieue him.

SECTION XXIX. The first obiection of the Bishop against himselfe, is discussed: VVherin he affirmeth, tha al­beit the King ought to be feared, and may not be reprehended: yet that the Pope is not to be feared &c.

THE obiections which he answereth as suppo­sed to be made against himselfe, are 2. in num­ber. But the first, vnder the colour of an obiection is nothing els, but an egregious peece of flattery, de­riued from the Turkish Diuinity of his Neighbour Coūtrey. The obiection may be framed in this man­ner: The Maiesty of an earthly King is to be feared: ‘and he ought not to be reprehended or admonished of his fault, but by a Prophet sent from God: Ther­fore the Maiesty of the Pope, ought likewise to be feared, and ought not to be accused of Heresy, but by a Prophet raysed vp by God for that purpose.’ The Antecedent, that a King ought not to be rebuked or admonished of his fault, but by a Prophet sent from heauen, he easily admitteth, being the poynt of bar­barous [Page 248]adulation which he intendeth, and thereby as it seemeth, would gladly bring in the Turkish manner of Gouernement into our Countrey: gi­uing vnto the King such absolute commaund, and Tyrannicall power, ouer the liues, and fortunes, and soules of his subiects, that whatsoeuer he did, or what Heresy or false worship soeuer he should pro­fesse, no man might reprehend him for his fault, or put him in mind of his duty. Wherein I am sure, the gracious Maiesty of our Prince, is so farre from ap­plauding his Sycophancy, that he detesteth his Di­uinity. But this proposition, your Turkish Doctour doth not only teach out of the Alcaron: but also goeth about to proue out of the Bible. For King Dauid, sayth he, hauing committed Adultery and Mur­ther, was not rebuked for it by any Priest or Leuit, but by Nathan the Prophet. From which particuler the silly man, not considering that the sinne of Da­uid was secret, for the which cause a Prophet was sent to reproue him, inferreth a generall: That no King ought to be reproued but by a Prophet. Mea­ning by all likelyhood, that Dauid was not to be cor­rected but by the Prophet Nathan, as the Turkes be­lieue, that their Emperours ought to be reformed by no other, but by their Prophet Mahomet, when he commeth. And his argument is as good, as if he should haue sayd; Sarah when she laughed, was not rebuked by Abraham her husband, but by an Angell: therefore no marryed woman when she offendeth ought to be reprehended by her husband, but by an Angell. Which argument, if he can make good, he might perhaps haue many followers that would re­ward [Page 249]him well, for intituling them with such aun­cient right to weare the breeches.

Or to come nearer to him, so well he might haue argued in this manner: Balaams Asse was beaten by a Prophet, and therefore no Asse ought to be beaten, but only by a Prophet. Which if it were true, Monsignor fate voi might haue escaped with fewer blowes then he is like to do if his bookes come forth, there being so many that stand ready with Bastina­does in their hands to wayt vpon him. Hauing gran­ted and proued the Antecedent of his flattering Ob­iection in such māner as you haue heard, he denyeth the consequence, and saith. That the Maiesty of the Pope is not to be feared; and that we must not ex­pect Almighty God should send any particuler mes­senger to reforme him. Our Sauiour in the Ghospell teacheth vs, not to feare any man,Mat. 10.28. that can kill the body, but to feare him, that can kill the soute. Cyp. l 1 ep. 11 Deutr. 17. And the auncient Fathers, and among the rest Saint Cyprian teacheth vs: That while the Circumcision remayned carnall, such as would not obay their Priests and Iudges for the tyme, were slayne with the materiall sword: But now since the Circumcision began to be spirituall, such as are proude, and obstynate, are put to death with the spi­rituall sword, when they are excommunicated, and cast forth out of the Church of God. Aug. l. 1. cōt. aduer­sarium le­gis &c. cap. 17. Which also S. Augu­stine affirmeth to be more grieuous, then to perish by the sword, to be consumed with syre, or to be deuoured of wyld beasts: In so much, as S. Gregory sayd; that euen an vniust excōmunication ought to be feared. Wherfore this Godly man teaching vs another lesson, that he is to be feared, who beareth the temporall sword, [Page 250]and that he is to be contemned to whome especially the spirituall sword belongeth, contrary to the do­ctrine of Christ, and the auncient Fathers; iudge (I pray you) whether the spirit of this man be of Christ or of Antichrist.

That which he sayth, We are not to expect, that any Prophet should be sent from God to re­forme the Pope: if he meant for professing heresy, or false doctrine, were most true in one respect. For in the old Law which was vnperfect, we neuer read that any Prophet was sent to reproue the hygh Priest of errour;Deut. 17.8. but rather, as S. Cyprian obserued a little before, such as would not obay him, in the decision of all Controuersies brought before him, were to dye the death, by the sentence of the Iudge: that all the people hearing, might feare; and that none should swell with pryde thence forward. And therefore in the new Law, which is the perfection of the old, and wher­in our Sauiour Christ himselfe hath founded his Church vpon S. Peter and his successours, with Pro­mise, that the Gates of hell (which principally are errours and heresies) shall not preuaile against it, as hath been shewed at large,Mat. 16.18. through many Sections of this treatise, much lesse can any such Prophet be expected, except he be one of those, that shall come cloathed like a sheep without,Mat. 7.15. but within is a rauening wolfe, and must be sent from the Diuell to deceiue the world, & to oppose himself against the Church, and against the foundation of the Church, which is the Chayre of Peter. But how, I pray you, doth he proue, that the Pope ought not to be feared, but that he may be corrected of euery Bishop? In truth, [Page 251]as wisely as he proued before, that the King in no case ought to be told of his fault, or to be reproued by any but a Prophet. For (saith he) all Bishops are brothers, and fellow-seruants. And may not the same be likewise affirmed of all Christians, that they are brethren and fellow seruants? Wherfore, if no brother be to be feared, it will follow thereof, that the King himselfe is not much to be respected. And this is likely to be the Bishops doctrine in priuate, howsoeuer in publike, with neuer so much flattery and adulation, he pretend the contrary. For his rea­son to proue, that we ought not to stand in awe of the Pope, concludeth, that we should not dread the King, as before I haue shewed; that taking away all spirituall iurisdiction, it followeth vpon the same ground, that he must likewise deny the temporall. All Bishops are brethren indeed, but as they are to reuerence our Sauiour their Elder brother: so like­wise they are to be subiect to the successour of S. Peter, whome our Sauiour appoynted to supply his place, and to feed them as his sheep in his absence. As all Bishops are brethren, so likewise it is true that they are fellow seruants, but yet notwithstanding one was principally appoynted ouer the family, Matth. 24.25. to giue them bread in due season. In an army sent forth by the King to warre, all the soldiours are fellow seruants; but yet there is such great difference betweene the Generall, and euery priuate Captayne, that they are all obliged vpon payne of death to be obedient vnto him.

In a ship set forth by a Merchant Aduentu­rer, all those that are hired to conduct the ship, may [Page 252]truly be called fellow seruants, but yet it doth not follow therof, that euery Marriner is as good a man as the Maister, or that he may take the gouernement of the ship vpon him. And so it is of the Church, which is sometyms called the ship of Christ, & som­tyms an army set in order of battell, wherin though Bishops be marriners and captaynes, yet they ought all to be subiect to their Maister and Generall, the head of the Church, as hath beene proued. There­fore S. Augustine writing to Pope Bonifacius, Aug. ad Bonif. l. 1. cap. 1. for­getteth not to vse tearmes of due reuerence; saying in this manner: Neither dost thou disdaine that art not proud, though thou gouernest in a higher place, to be a friend to these of low condition, and to returne loue for loue. And you haue heard what words of great res­pect, S. Hierom vsed to Pope Damasus, Hier. ad Damasum. when he sayd: Although thy greatnes doth feare me, yet thy humanity doth inuite me; being a sheep, I craue the help of my sheep­heard &c. And how the great Athanasius Patriarch of Alexandria with the Bishops of the East, thought it no disgrace to call the Pope, their holy Lord, vene­rable with Apostolicall dignity, the Father of the vniuer­sall Church; Athan. ad Marcum. tom. 1. Con. affirming themselues to be his, and that vnto him, with all those committed to them, they were obedient, and euer would be. Whereof I thought good briefly to remember you, that you might perceiue the difference betweene the Christian humility of the ancient Fathers, and the saucy presumption of this new contentious Heretike.

SECTION XXX. Of Schisme, which is the last obiection of the Bi­shop against himselfe, wherein hee is proued to be not only a Schismatike, but also a manifest Heretike.

HIS second & last obiection, which he maketh against himselfe is this: That forsaking the Church of Rome, which he calleth Babylon, he may seeme to haue incurred the cryme of Schisme, wher­unto he answereth saying: I will that this my flight or profectiō, be free from all suspition of Schisme. If Monsignor fate voy when he fell into the hands of the Merchants, that had beene deceiued by him, should haue sayd, I will be free from beating; do you thinke it would haue serued his turne? Truly, both these Monsignors hauing so well deserued their fees, as the blowes fell vpon the one, notwithstanding his good desire to the contrary: so not only the suspition, but also the infamy both of Schisme and Heresy, whe­ther he will or will not, must light vpon the other. But because it is manifest, that there is a Schisme, or diuision betweene the Pope and him, he would in­sinuate, that all things considered, not himselfe, but the Pope must needs be the Schismatike, which he seemeth to proue: first by reason, and secondly by the authority, and example of S. Cyprian. His reason is this in effect. ‘He that maketh new Articles of fayth, either cōtrary, or not contayned in the Scrip­tures, and ancient Creeds; and admitteth for Arti­cles [Page 254]of Fayth, such things as are indifferent in them­selues, and were neuer sufficiently defyned by the Church, and condemneth those for heretiks, whom the Church hath not sufficiently condemned, he is the Schismaticke. But such is the Pope, who doth these things, & not the Bishop, who detesteth them: Ergo &c. Wherein what he meaneth, by not being sufficiently defined, or condemned by the Church, I know not.

But to giue you some light heerin, you must vnderstand, that according to the Catholike doctrine, any Controuersy in matter of Faith, may be sufficiently defyned foure manner of wayes. That is to say: First by the vniuersall consent and gene­rall beliefe of all the Faithfull: for, as hath been pro­ued, it is impossible the vniuersal Church should erre in matter of Faith.Aug. l. de haeres. in fine. And therfore S. Augustine sayth: It is sufficient to know, that the Church reputeth any do­ctrine not to be of Fayth, that it be not receiued by any of the Faithfull. Lib 1 cont. Cresc. c. 31. & 33 & ep. 48.99. & in ep. 118. c 5. l. de v [...]lit. cred. c. 17. And you know how he affirmeth, that to dispute against the doctrine of the vniuersall Church, is most insolent madnes: and that not to giue thereunto the first place of authority, is either extreme impiety, or preci­pitate ignorance. Secondly, any thing may be defined to be matter of fayth, by the vniforme consent of the Doctours of the Church, who if they should erre, the whole Church being bound to beleeue them, must fall of necessity into errours with them. Third­ly by a generall Councell confirmed by the Pope: or lastly by the definition of the Pope himselfe, decre­ing the same for the direction of the faythfull, and establishment of the peace of the Church, as hath [Page 255]been proued at large in the former Sections of the Popes Supremacy.

And because the question between the Pope and the Bishop in this place concerneth Schisme & Heresy, you are further to vnderstand; that Schism according to the sense of the word, signifieth a scis­sure, or diuision of minds, which is opposed to vni­ty, and consequently to Charity, which doth vnite the minds of the Faythfull. And because the greatest vnity in the Church, is that of the whole body, which proceedeth from all the members with the head, and whereunto the vnity and Charity of the particuler members among themselues, is naturally referred, as the part to the whole: from hence it is, that Schisme being taken for such a great dissention,S. Thom. 2.2. quaest. 39. art. c. in corpore. Hier. in c. 3. ad Tit. as is most contrary to the vnity of the Church, is defined to be a rebellion against the head of the Church, refusing to communicate with the members therof, as they are subiect vnto him. According whereunto S. Hierome giueth vs this doctrine: between Heresy and Schisme, sayth he, we make this difference, that Heresy holdeth some peruerse opinion, Schisme also separateth from the Church by Episcopall dissention, Epiph. sect. 68. Aug. l de Haer. haer. 69. &. l 2. cont Crese. c. 4. & 7. or dissention from the Bishop. So Miletius making a proper con­gregation against Peter Bishop of Alexandria his Superiour, was accompted a Schismaticke, and no Heretike: For as Epiphanius sayth, his faith was neuer changed from the Catholike Church. So likewise Ceci­lian being made Bishop of Carthage, against the will of Donatus, who obiected many crimes vnto him, and with his followers departed from him; the Do­natists in the beginning were accōpted Schismatiks.

And in the same manner Optatus to proue Par­menian & not Cecilian to be the Schismatike, argueth in this manner. For Cecilian (sayth he) went not out from Maiorinus thy predecessour, but Maiorinus from Cecilian: Neither did Cecilian depart from the Chayre of Peter, or of Cyprian, but Maiorinus, in whose chayre thou succeedest, and which before him had no beginning. Wherfore in our case, it wilbe an easy matter to find out of these two, the Pope, or this Bishop, which is the Scismatike. For the Bishop rebelling against the Pope his Superiour, if not by diuine, yet at least by humaine law, as himselfe will confesse, dissenting from the chiefe Bishop of the Church of Christ, go­ing out, and departing from the Chayre of Peter, and ioy­ning himselfe vnto another Congregation, most o­posite thereunto; it is more absurd for him to accuse the Pope of schisme, then for a subiect taking armes against his Prince, or ioyning with his enemyes, to acuse the Prince himselfe of rebellion and treason: Especially charging the Pope, as he doth, with false doctrine, which he would haue you belieue to be the cause of his schisme. For the Pope being the immo­uable Rock, and the foundation of true Fayth, which Christ himselfe hath layd; the Bishop in this case fit­ly resembleth one, that launching from the shore whereupon he fixeth his eye, should sweare and con­test, that the land departed from the boat, and that the boat it selfe stood still, or remayned imoueable. In which case, I cannot tell, whether he in the boat should shew himselfe more ridiculous to the behol­ders, then the Bishop doth manifest himselfe by this occasion to his iudicious Readers.

And thus much may suffice for the Bishops schisme. Heresy is defined by S. Augustine, August. de vera Rel. c. 5. & 6. & 7. to be a peruerse doctrine, contrary to the rule of truth: which himselfe doth better expound, where he sayth: That it is an opinion, declyning from the rule, and turning men away from the cōmunion of the Catholike Church: where he vnderstandeth, the rule of truth, to be no other, then the doctrine of the Catholike Church: for without this ground all other rules are insufficient, as hath been shewed, and the same if it were necessa­ry, might easily be confirmed out of the rest of the Fathers. Wherefore the doctrine of the Catholike Church, being made knowne and manifested vnto vs, either by the common beliefe of all the faithfull; or by the vniforme consent, and common doctrine of all the Fathers, or by a generall Councell, or by the definition of the Pope, as before I noted, hauing conuinced the Bishop of schisme, though much a­gainst his will; let vs see how he can cleare and shift himselfe from the imputation of heresy. For first, it cannot be denied; That whatsoeuer the Catholikes at this day, do maintaine to be the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles against the Protestants, was the generall beliefe of the vniuersall Church, when Lu­ther began to broach his new doctrine. And there­fore the Bishop condemning the Pope of many er­rours in poynts of Controuersy betweene him and the Protestants,Vbi supra. condemneth likewise the vniuersall Church of that tyme, which as S. Augustine sayth, is most insolent madnes, extreme impiety, and hayre-bray­nd, or furious ignorance. Secondly, you haue heard, how the auncient Fathers of the primitiue Church, [Page 258]haue condemned for heresyes, aboue twenty seue­rall opinions of the Protestants. And therefore the Bishop being now a Protestant, is likewise aboue twenty tymes condemned by them.

And to omit, that other seuerall sects of Pro­testants, do all condemne him in like manner; the generall Councell of Trent, hath defined the do­ctrine of the Pope against the Protestants to be Or­thodoxall, and the contrary opinions to be likewise hereticall. And the Bishop seeming to belieue, that a generall Councell lawfully called and confirmed, cannot erre in matter of fayth, as hauing the speciall assistance of the holy Ghost, leading vnto all truth, according to the promise of our Sauiour; hath no more reason to contemne the Councel of Trent, then to reiect the Councell of Nyce, or any other generall Councell. Lastly, hauing proued by the common doctrine of all the Fathers, that the Bishop of Rome, being successour of S. Peter, cannot erre, in defy­ning of Controuersyes that belong to fayth, and that the Fathers put no difference, betweene the Ca­tholike and the Roman Church, but that the same Church, which is surmaned Catholike, because it is vniuersall is also called the Roman Church, be­cause the Roman Church, being founded in the Seat of Peter, is alwayes conioyned, and vnyted with the Catholike Church: it followeth thereof, that the Bishop being condemned for an Heretike by the Bi­shop of Rome, successour vnto S. Peter, and by the Church of Rome, founded in the Seat of Peter, accor­ding to the iudgment of the auncient Fathers, stan­deth likewise condemned in this respect also by the [Page 259]whole Church. And therefore hauing so many dreadfull sentences lying heauily vpon him, vn­lesse he amend and make peace with his aduersary, Mat. 5.25. while he is yet vpon the way: what can he expect at the day of iudgement, but that Christ himselfe withall his Saints and Angells, togeather with the whole world should condemne him? And with this we will pro­ceed to his second defence, which is, the authority and example of S. Cyprian, wherein he seemeth to set vp his rest.

SECTION XXXI. VVherein is shewed, that the authority and ex­ample of S. Cyprian, alleadged by the Bishop against the Pope, ouerthroweth the principall grounds of the Protestant Religion.

THE words therfore of S. Cyprian in the Coun­cell of Carthage to the Bishops there assembled, alleadged by him, are these that follow. Iudging no man (sayth S. Cyprian) or depryning no man of our communion, though he shalbe of a contrary opinion. For none of vs doth make himselfe Bishop of Bishops, or com­pelleth his followers with tyrannicall terror to the necessary of yeilding to him: whereas euery Bishop is to haue his owne proper iudgement, in respect of the liberty and power which is giuen vnto him; so that he cannot be iudged of another, as he himselfe cannot iudge another. But let vs all expect the iudgment of our Lord Iesus Christ, who only and alone hath power to place vs in the gouernement of his Church; and to iudge of our actions. The example of S. [Page 260] Cyprian, he propoundeth in such manner, as that ac­cusing S. Stephen of indiscretion; and that with his excommunications he was falling headlong into the mischiefe of schisme, he sayth: That S. Cyprian dissen­ting from the Roman, ‘and almost from the vniuersal Church about the Baptisme of Heretikes, and being strong in his owne opinion, and esteeming Stephen the Pope to erre vehemently, and all the rest to be in manifest errour; yet notwithstanding, he neuer suf­fered the band of vnion, and Christian charity, to be broken betweene them; but chose to communicate not only with Stephen, being of a contrary opinion, and indeauour against him; but also with those, whome he reputed to be altogeather impure, being moued thereunto, because Stephen had receiued them into communion with him; rather then by schisme to make a diuision in the Church of God.’

By which authority and example of S. Cyprian, he thinketh to haue clearely discouered where the fault lyeth, and to whom the crime of Schisme is to be imputed, and so thinke I too. And here to curry a little fauour with him, or rather to curry him with some fauour, because he hath so well deserued it in this allegation of S. Cyprian; albeit I cannot learne that euer he read, or heard Rhetorike among the Ie­suits, as he himselfe affirmeth; yet I will not deny it, but rather I will acknowledge, that he hath not been altogeather a Truant in the Schoole of Elo­quence. For though his booke be very small, yet he hath been able to deliuer little or no matter at all in very many words. And he seemeth to couer many vn­truths, vnder the colour of Rhetoricall Hyperboles. [Page 261]And in this place by way of a friendly exhortation to peace and amendement he accuseth the Pope of many foule crymes, and addresseth his speach vnto him, in this manner. Let vs obserue the famous say­ing of S. Cyprian, iudging no man, excōmunicating no man: let vs imitate Cyprian &c. as if he being free from all fault himselfe, he had great compassion of the Popes vniust proceeding, perswading him with all charity to reforme himselfe; only he hath one trick which I know not how it can stand with the art of Rhetorick, and it is this; that commonly through all his booke he speaketh against himselfe, or produceth such matter, as most easily, and most strongly may be vrged against him. Whether it be his ill luck, or a fault in Nature, or the iudgment of God vpon those that falling from the Catholike Re­ligion, attempt to write against it, I know not But this I dare say, that he neuer learned this poynt of Rhetorike among the Iesuits. First therefore, as in other passages of his booke, you haue seene all that he hath sayd, to haue been retorted against him: so in the same manner, we will examyne in this place, how much this allegatiō of S. Cyprian doth make for his purpose. For the Cōtrouersy betweene S Stephen and S. Cyprian, being about the baptizing of those that were before baptized by heretikes, which could not be determyned by Scripture alone; the decision thereof, by the tradition of the Church, and the con­demnation of S. Cyprians opinion by the Nicen Coū ­cell, doth euidently proue the necessity of tradition against the Protestants, of whome the Bishop hath made himselfe one: and that the Scripture alone can­not [Page 262]be in all matters a sufficient Iudge of Cōtrouer­syes. For as S. Augustine sayth: that custome which was opposed to Cyprian,Aug. de bapt. cont. Donat. l. 5. c. 23. ought to be belieued to haue taken his beginning from the tradition of the Apostles; as there are many things, which the vniuersall Church doth hold, and for this cause, are rightly belieued to haue been com­maunded by the Apostles, albeit they be not found to be written. Thus S. Augustine.

Secondly, I would know the reason of this great change and strang conuersion of things, why, as Vincentius sayth, the authors of the selfe same opi­nion, should be acknowledged for Catholikes, and the followers therfore should be iudged Heretikes: the Maisters should be acquitted, the disciples con­demned: The writers of the same bookes should be receiued into heauen, and the mayntainers of them shut vp in hell: For the latter did no more oppose themselues, against the Scripture, then the former; and both of them seeme to haue alleadged more Scripture in the defence of their opinions, then the Catholikes that opposed themselues against them. Wherfore no other reason can be giuen thereof, but only this: That in the time of S. Cyprian, and his predecessors, who were the authors of this opinion of rebaptizing Hereticks, the controuersie was no way defined; which being afterwards determined, the Donatists that reuiued the same against the be­leife of the whole Church, were iustly condemned: and this kind of condemnation being once admitted, the Protestants that haue broached and retayned so many opinions, against the generall beleife of the v­niuersall Church, since the time of Luther, and haue [Page 263]been most authentically condemned by the generall Councell of Trent; can neuer be secured from the infamy of Heresie, which followed the Donatists in this life, nor from the same eternall punishment which they receiued in the other.

Thirdly, wheras S. Cyprian sayd to the rest of the Councell, that none amongst them did make himselfe the Bishop of Bishops: because Marke An­thony would haue it seeme, that he taxed Pope Ste­phen therin, who subscribed his letters with that ti­tle; it must needs be graūted that those words were improuidently alleadged by this Protestant Apolo­ger. For as to haue vsurped so great a title had bene as great a crime as could be imagined, and such as that all the Bishops in the world had bene bound in conscience to haue opposed themselues against S. Stephen for it, more then against any heresie which those times produced: so S. Stephen liuing in the 2. age, and being a man so renowned for sanctity and martyrdome as he is, by the vse of this title, affordeth vs a most forcible, and inuincible argument of the Popes Supremacy. For writing himselfe the Bishop of Bishops, he could intend no lesse, nor be no other­wise vnderstood, then that he professed himselfe the head, and the chiefe of all other Bishops. Which al­so may be further confirmed, because he inuented not this title of himself, but receiued it from his pre­decessors.

Wherof his zeale in preseruing the tradition of antiquity against all kind of nouelty, may serue for a sufficient argument; and Baronius proueth out of Tertullian, that it was an ancient custome before the [Page 264]time of S. Stephen: which is also confirmed by other titles giuen to the Pope by S. Athanasius, and other Bishops, in the foure first generall Councels, as hath byn shewed.

SECTION XXXII. VVherein is declared, how the Bishop in alleadg­ing the example of S. Cyprian and S. Ste­phen, falsfieth the truth of the story, against himselfe.

HAVING shewed how much the authority and example of S. Cyprian alleadged by the Bishop, doth make against his owne cause, & ouerthroweth the principall grounds of all Protestant Religion; that you may the better perceiue what a notable Champion he is like to proue of the Protestant faith: I may not omit to shew you, with what falshood he relateth the story of S. Cyprian and S. Stephen, and how much to his owne disgrace. For first in my o­pinion, he wrongeth S. Cyprian not a little, whom he semeth so much to extoll. For he maketh him so stiffe in his owne opinion (his words are, propria o­pinione firmatus) as to oppose himselfe, not onely a­gainst the Roman, but also against almost the vni­uersall Church: and so voyd of conscience, as both to dissent almost from all others in matter of faith, and yet to communicate with them. For with what conscience could he eyther perseuere in his owne o­pinion, wherein he condemned almost the whole Church of errour: or condemning allmost all the [Page 265]members therof in such manner, as this man sayth he did, with what conscience, could he communicate with them?

These things therefore, as they redound very much to the dishonour of S. Cyprian, so in themselues they are not true,Cyp. ep. 2. but are most vniustly layd vpon him, by this back friend of his, as may easily be pro­ued. For S. Cyprian was not the first that began to defend the baptisme of heretikes to be of no force: but he receiued this custome from his predecessour Agrippinus, as himselfe declareth in these words: But with vs it is no now, or sodayne matter, that we should thinke, that they ought to be baptized which come vnto the Church from heretikes, there hauing passed now ma­ny years, & a long age, sithence that vnder Agrippinus, very many Bishops agreeing togeather in one, decreed the same: and from that day to this, so many thousand Here­tikes in our Prouinces being conuerted to the Church, haue not thought much, or been vnwilling, but rather both reasonably, and willingly haue obtayned the grace of baptisme. And as this custome had contynued a long while in the Churches of Affrica: so in the tyme of S. Cyprian, it was not only confirmed by many and sundry Councells in that Countrey:Apud Cyp. Epist. 75. but also in the East, by Firmilianus, a man of most excellent tallents with the Councell of other Bishops: and in Aegypt by Dionysius Patriarch of Alexandria, Hier. de scrip. Eccl. in Dionys. cont. hae­res. cap. 9. another singu­lar ornament of that age: whereof Vincentius Liri­nensis writeth thus: But perchance (sayth he) this new inuention wanted defence. Noc (sayth he) but so great was the force of wyt, which assisted the same: so great the flouds of Eloquence: so great the number of the Professors [Page 258] [...] [Page 259] [...] [Page 260] [...] [Page 261] [...] [Page 262] [...] [Page 263] [...] [Page 264] [...] [Page 265] [...] [Page 266]thereof: so great the similitude of truth: so many the oracles of the Diuine Law, cited for the same; that in my opinion, such a conspiracy, and consent, could haue no way been distroyed, vnlesse &c. Thus he.

Whereby it appeareth, that S. Cyprian did nei­ther confide so much in his owne priuate opinion, nor did oppose himselfe almost against all others, as in this place he is falsely calumniated by his dis­sembling enemy. Nor is it true, that he was so strong­ly perswaded, either that S. Stephen, or the rest were in a manifest errour; or that such as had been conuerted from heresy were altogeather impure, as his audacious censurer would make vs belieue. For in the very words alleaged by him, S. Cyprian profes­seth to iudge of no man: and the cause of his Anger against Pope Stephen was, because the Pope had written vnto him, that he thought those who rebap­tized heretikes, were to be condemned of errour. Wherefore, it is euident that S. Cyprian, held it only a matter indifferent; albeit in hatred of heretikes, he thought it best at that tyme to baptize all those that were conuerted from them. So that you see how fal­sly and how fondly, this Moisten of Rhetorike char­geth S. Stephen with no little want of conscience, & obstinacy in his owne opinion, whom he thought to extoll aboue measure.

Secondly, in this allegation, he discouereth such malice against the Popes of Rome, that it rea­cheth & exrendeth it selfe, euen to the Saints of hea­uen; and condemneth S Stephen of indiscretion, of importune excōmunicating of others, & of casting himselfe into extreme perill of schisme and diuision: [Page 267]and instifyeth S. Cypriā vndertaking a wrong cause, and proceeding more violently against the Pope, then was conuenient, euen by the iudgment of all antiquity. For S Stephen the Pope, who liued in the second age after Christ, gouerned the Church with great renowne, & dyed a glorious Martyr, and be­haued himselfe in such manner, in this very Con­trouersy of rebaptization, that hauing the flower of Christendome, and so many Bishops both of the East and of the West, of Greece, Aegypt, and of Affrica in such number against him, in the tyme of a most ter­rible persecution, he brought them all to renounce their opinions, and to make peace and concord in their seuerall Countreys,Euseb. l. 7. cap. 3.4 Hier. cont. Lucif. as Dionysius testy fieth of those of the East; and S. Hierome relateth of the Bi­shops of Affrica in these words: To conclude, those very Bishops who had decreed with S. Cyprian, that heretikes ought to be rebaptized, made a new decree to the contrary.

And S. Augustine speaking of S. Cyprian him­selfe,Aug. Ep. 48. sayth, that it is very agreable, that we should iudge of such a man, that he corrected his opinion. And the reason for it is most apparant. For who can ima­gine, that all the rest recanting, and all the world agreeing in one, S. Cyprian alone, being a man of such emynent vertue, and dying as he did a glorious Martyr, should obstinatly persist in his owne opini­on. So that it may be truly sayd, that by the care and indeauour of Pope Stephen, this opinion was vni­uersally condemned by the whole Church, before it receiued sentence in the Nicen Councell, as after­ward it did. Whereof the aforesayd Vincentius Liri­nensis writeth with great admiration in this manner: [Page 268] Wherefore, as all, from all parts, began to reclayme a­gainst the nouelty of the matter, and that all Priests euery where, each one for his owne part, did striue against it: so Stephen the Pope of blessed memory, the Antistes of the Apostolicall Seat, with the rest of his Colleagues, but yet more then the rest, made resistance thereunto: Thinking it agreable, as may be imagined, to go beyond all others in the deuotion of his faith, as he did surpasse them in the au­thority of his place. To conclude; in his Epistle which was sent into Affrick, he made this solemne Decree: Nothing must be innouated, only that which was deliuered must be conserued. For the holy and prudent man did iudge, that nothing was to be admitted vnder the colour of piety, but that all things should be consigned with the same faith to the children, with which fayth they were receiued from the Fathers. And a little after, he concludeth. But what was the end of all those buysnesses? what end could it haue, but that which is vsuall and accustomed: That is to say, antiquity was retayned, and nouelty was reiected.

Thus that famous man Vincentius Li [...]inensis, of the proceding of S. Stephen in this matter, and of the decree it selfe, which S. Cyprian tooke so vnkind­ly, & of the finall end of the busines; for the which this holy Pope, is so impiously condemned by the Bishop against all antiquity, as that he deserueth thereby neuer more to be belieued in any matter which may concerne the Pope heereafter. For not only the Latins, but also the Greekes, did annually celebrate his memory, which is an honour that few Martyrs of the Westerne Church haue receiued. And the Donatists themselues who reuyled the opi­nion of S. Stephen, did so much respect the eminent [Page 269]authority of his holynesse and wisedome, that as S. Augustine writeth and admyreth, they confessed,Episco­patum illi­batègessisse. August. de vnic. bapt. cont. Petil. cap. 14. he could not be touched with any fault in the discharge of his Office. And therefore, if S. Augustine were now li­uing, much more would he admire the audacious presumption of this later heretike, in calumniating, and condemning his proceedings.

And as for S. Cyprian, whose carriage of him­selfe he so much cōmendeth in this cause; albeit his care of peace, in not breaking with the Pope be lau­dable: yet S. Augustine could not deny,August. de bapt. cont. Donat. lib. 5. cap. 25. but that he was too much moued in his anger, commotiùs indigna­batur, and that, being irritated, he ran out into such termes against Pope Stephen, as S. Augustine thought not good to touch, quia periculū habuerunt perniciosae dissentionis, because they gaue occasion, or did put the Church in danger of pernicious dissention. But it is no maruell, though his intention were not bad, that an ill cause should be no better defended; wherein the greatest commendation of S. Cyprian, in my opinion is this, that (as it is most credible) he repented him­selfe, both of the matter, and of the manner.

SECTION XXXIII. VVherein the Bishop is manifestly conuinced of schisme, out of the Authority and example of S. Cyprian alleadged by himselfe: and the same authority, for as much as it seemeth to con­cerne the Pope, is sufficiently answered.

VVHERFORE this one authority alone pro­duced by the Bishop being almost all the [Page 270]matter of substance, and almost the only proofe which he bringeth for any thing he sayth in his whole booke, taking vp all things vpon trust, as hath been obserued: you see notwithstanding, how that out of this one place of S. Cyprian alleadged by him, we haue proued the Popes Supremacy, and the necessity not only of tradition, but also of the iudg­ment of the Church, for the defyning of matters in Controuersy, and for the condemning of heresy. Besides, we haue shewed how notoriously he falsifi­eth the Ecclesiastical history, & how he cōdemneth not only S Stephen most impiously: but also S. Cy­prian most absurdly, whome he sought most to com­mend. And now, that you may perceiue, how much this authority of S. Cyprian maketh not only against his cause in generall, and his owne credit in parti­culer, but also against himselfe, in the very poynt, for the proofe and declaration whereof, it is inserted by him; Thus I argue.

He that without authority, condemneth any other Bishop, and refuseth to hold communion with him, according to S. Cyprian, may be iudged a Schis­matike, or to giue occasion of schisme: but Marcus Antonius condemneth without authority, not only his Colleague, but also his Superiour the Bishop of Rome; not of one errour, but of inumerable heresies: not of any ordinary fault, but of suppressing the Councells, of deprauing the Scriptures, and ancient Fathers: of vsurpation and tyrany ouer the Church of God, oppressing, pilling, and spoyling the same, and sucking the bloud of the members thereof: And by consequence he condemneth likewise all other [Page 271]Bishops, that communicate with him, and are sub­iect to him: & calleth the vniuersall Church, which is vnder the obedience of the Pope, by the name of Babylon that is to say, the Citty or congregation of the Diuell. Therefore Marcus Antonius is a Schis­matike, according to his owne discourse, and accor­ding to the words of S. Cyprian: which he fondly al­leadgeth to proue the contrary. Secondly according to the processe of his owne discourse, I argue thus. He that goeth against the example of S. Cyprian, pro­posed to the vniuersall Church, for the auoyding of schisme, falleth into the cryme of schisme: But Marcus Antonius goeth directly against the example of S. Cyprian, propounded by himselfe, as a rule for the auoyding of schisme: Therfore Marcus Antonius according to his owne rule, is falne into the cryme of schisme. That Marcus Antonius, hath proceeded against his owne rule, and the example of S Cyprian which he propoundeth, is a thing most manifest. For, whereas S. Cyprian notwithstanding that he re­puted the Pope & almost all the vniuersall Church, to be in manifest errour; would neuer depart from the communion of the Pope, but respected him so much, that he communicated with those whome he held impure, only because the Pope receiued them into his communion: Marcus Antonius in the same case, hath not only forsaken the Pope, but also all those that are vnited with him, whome otherwise, he thinketh not impur; e only because they do not se­parate themselues from the Pope, but still remayne in his communion. Wherfore these two arguments produced by himselfe, are so conuincing, that there [Page 272]needeth nothing els to confound him. So that this proofe of his out of S. Cyprian, being the substance of his booke, and being withall so contrary to his cause, to his credit, and to himselfe in the poynt of Schisme, whereof he intended to cleare himselfe therby, may be sufficient to giue you to vnderstand of what substance, the matter of his other booke is like to be when it shalbe printed. For my part I am verily perswaded, if it be well vnderstood, it wilbe found, to be more against the Protestants, then the Catholikes, and more contrary to himselfe, then to either of the other

And now to draw towards an end of this matter in the allegation of this authority out of S. Cyprian, he is so much the more to be blamed, in that being of such force against himselfe, for as much thereof as concerneth the Popes authority, it may full easily be answered. For those words of S. Cyprian, That none of them made himselfe the Bishop of Bi­shops &c. may very well be vnderstood of those that were present at that Councell, and not to con­clude, in that sentence, the Bishop of Rome, who truly may be sayd to be the Bishop of Bishops, the Father of Fathers, the Bishop and Father of the vni­uersall Church, and the like, as hath been shewed. That which he sayth, A Bishop cannot be iudged but by God alone, as he receiueth his authority from God alone; ought to be vnderstood, that he cannot be iudged in those things which are doubtfull, ob­scure, and hidden.Aug. l. 3. de baptis. cap. 3. For so S. Augustine himselfe doth expound him. For hauing recited these words of S. Cyprian: As I take it (sayth he) he meaneth in those [Page 273]questions, which are not yet discussed with most cleere per­spection. And that S. Cyprian belieued, that Bishops in cases of heresy, or schisme,Cyp. lib 5. epist. 13. might be iudged and deposed by the Pope is euident, in one of his Epi­stles to Pope Stephen, where he exhorteth him, that he would commaund the Bishop of Arles in France to be deposed, and to appoint another in his place. So that you see, the childish arrow of this Bishop, as it is shot vpward against the Pope, doth not aryue vnto him, but returneth with greater force, to fall vpon his owne head, and woundeth him in many places, as hath been declared.

But now to do him a pleasure, let vs suppose that Cyprian in these words did glance at S. Stephen, and that he meant to taxe him, for proceding as he thought too rigorously against him: with what con­science, or with what honesty, I pray you, can this strange Bishop alleadge these words of S. Cyprian, spoken in the defence of a wrong cause, as he know­eth, and in his cōmotion & anger against the Pope (of the which it is most probable, and according to S. Augustine we ought to thinke, that he repented himselfe) against so many playne places, & expresse doctrine of S. Cyprian as I haue cyted before, and which for the full satisfactions of your selfe and the Reader in this poynt, I shalbe content to repeat in part at this present.

SECTION XXXIIII. Many testimonyes and playne places are produced out of S. Cyprian, wherby the Bishop is euident­ly conuinced both of Schisme and Heresy.

IN the tyme of S. Cyprian, as the Nouatian Here­tikes on the one side denyed, that such as were once fallen,Cyp. ep. 55 ad Cornel. were to be receiued into the Church a­gaine vpon any tearmes whatsoeuer: so there were other heretikes who affirmed, that all were to be re­ceiued, without any pennance, or satisfaction for their former sinne. For the which cause S. Cyprian sayth of them, that they endeauored, that sinnes might not be redeemed by iust satisfaction & lamentation: that wounds might not be washed by teares: That weeping and wayling might not be heard to proceed from the brest, and from the mouth of such as were fallen: that such as were inuolued in defrauding, and deceyuing, or defyled with adultery, or polluted with the cōtagion of sacryfiee to Idols might not make confession of their crymes in the Church; whereby all hope of satisfaction and pennance being taken away, they lost both the sense, and the fruit thereof. Which heresy, whether it be reuiued by the Bishop, or by those congregations wherunto he hath vnited himselfe, I shall leaue to your iudgment to consider. But one of those heretikes called Florentius Pupianus, writing vnto S. Cyprian in the same māner, as heere the Bishop in the latter end of his booke addresseth his speach to thē Pope, to giue them satisfaction, and to purge himselfe of his proceeding against them, S. [Page 275] Cyprian to abate his Pryde, & to make him acknow­ledge, that it was the cause of the schisme and here­sy wherinto he was fallen, vseth these words among others, and sayth. From hence Schismes and Heresyes haue risen, and do arise, because the Bishop which is one, and gouerneth the Church, is cōdemned by the proud pre­sumption of some: and the man whome God hath vou­chsafed to honour, is iudged of men to be vnworthy. And after a while he sayth: There speaketh Peter, vpon whom the Church was buylt, shewing, and teaching in the name of the Church: That albeit, the proud & stifnecked mul­titude of those that would not obay, departed from Christ, yet the Church departeth not: wherefore thou oughtest to know, sayth he, that the Bishop is in the Church, and the Church in the Bishop: And so he who is not with the Bi­shop, is not in the Church; wherof he concludeth, that such do flatter themselues in vayne, who not hauing peace with the Priests of God, thinke it sufficient to com­municate with others.

The like words S. Cyprian vseth in his epi­stle to Pope Cornelius, where he sayth:Cyp. lib. 1. epist. 3. That there is no other cause of Heresyes and Schismes, but that the Priest of God is not obayed: and that one Priest, and one Iudge is not acknowledged in the place of Christ, in the Church for the tyme. Where also hauing sayd as be­fore, that the Church was built vpon Peter, at length speaking of the former Heretikes, that presumed to go, and complaine of him to Pope Cornelius, he sayth: That they were so audacious, as to sayle vnto the Chayre of Peter, and to the principall Church, from whence the vnity of Priesthood did proceed; not considering that they were Romans, whose fayth was praysed by the mouth [Page 276]of the Apostle, and vnto whome perfidiousnes (or error in fayth) can haue no accesse. The like words againe he wrote in his Treatise of the vnity of the Church, where he sayth: That men are transported by the Diuell, into Heresy and Schisme out of the Church of God, because they do not returne to the origen of truth, nor seeke the head, nor follow the doctrine of their heauenly Maister. Which if they considered, there were no need of any long treatise or argument, but that the tryall of Fayth would be very easy. And then shewing what was this hea­uenly doctrine, and what the head, and origen of truth, which is taught vnto vs; he addeth immedi­atly: Our Lord sayd vnto Peter, I say vnto thee, thou art Peter, and vpon this Rocke &c. and vnto the same man after his resurrection he sayd: Feed my sheep; and so con­cludeth, that our Sauiour built his Church vpon him alone, and committed vnto him his sheep to be fed, and gaue him the Primacy, that there might be one Church &c. And a little after he addeth: This vnity of the Church, he that doth not keep, doth he beleeue that he keepeth the Fayth? He that resisteth the Church, and striueth a­gainst the same, he that forsaketh the Chayre of Peter, doth he confide that he is in the Church? And to the same purpose els where he sayth:Epist. 8. ad plevē vni­uersam. God is one, & Christ one, and the Church one, and the Chayre one, built vpon Enter by the voyce of our Lord: any other Altar or new Priesthood, beside one Altar and one Priesthood cannot be erected and made. Whosoeuer gathereth els where, scat­tereth.

Out of which places, because it is euident, that our fugitiue Bishop with proud presumption, cōtemneth that one Bishop, who hath the chiefe place [Page 277]in the gouernement of Gods Church, and likewise, that he contemneth the Successor of him, vpon whom the Church was built, and who is in the Church, and the Church in him; because the Chuych is nothing els, but the people vnited to the Priest, and the flocke adhering to the Pastour. And againe, because it is euident, that he disobeyeth the Priest of God, and doth not acknow­ledge one Priest, and one iudge for the tyme, in the place of Christ, and forsaketh the Chayre of Peter, and the princi­pall Church, from whence the vnity of Priesthood procee­deth, and wherunto no falshood in Fayth can haue accesse: that he obserueth not the dostrine of our heauēly Maister, neither returning to the origen of truth, nor seeking the head which is S. Peter, vpon whome alone our Sauiour built his Church, and committed the feeding of his sheep vnto him (which course, according to S. Cyprian is the only cause, and occasion, and only meanes, whereby the Diuel transporteth men out of the Church into Schism and Heresy) it cannot be denyed, but that your Bi­shop forsaking the successor of S. Peter, & the Chayr of Peter, who holdeth the place of Christ in the Church, forsaketh the Church, and in vayne belee­ueth to be therein, and gathereth not with Christ, but scattereth with Antichrist. And thus much cōcerning the obiections, which he pleased to frame against himselfe.

SECTION XXXV. The conclusion of the Bishops booke, togeather with a short Conclusion of this whole Treatise.

THERE remayneth only the conclusion of his booke; wherein, because I haue wearied my [Page 278]selfe too much already with sweeping a way the cob­webs of his idle discourse, whereunto in respect of the sleightnes, and vnprofitablenes, and foulnes of the matter, the substance thereof may fitly be com­pared; I will only note two or three things vnto you very briefly. First therefore, as Iudas saluted Christ and sayd,Marc. 14.45. hayle Maister, and kissed him, whom a little before be had sould to the Iewes as a false Prophet so the charity of this man is no lesse to be obserued and admired, in calling the Pope his most holy Father, and the Bishops vnited with him, his most blessed Brethren, giuing them thereby his kisse of peace, whom before through all his booke, he had sould to the Protestants for blind guydes, teaching innumerable errours, for corrupters of Gods word, tyrants, oppressors of the Church, Babylonians, and the like. Which termes, albeit no lesse falsely, then impiously, they are applyed by him to the Pope and his Bishops, whether you respect the former, wherein he should shew his loue, or the later, wherein he expresseth his hatred vnto them yet because, as it appeareth by his owne words, he describeth therein his owne spi­rituall kindred, it cannot be denyed, but that he is ready to acknowledge, if need were, the author of lyes himselfe for his holy Father, and his wickedest children for his most blessed Brethren. Wherefore considering his zeale, wherof he boasteth so much, to be so large, and the armes of his charity to be so far extended from East to West, as to imbrace the fellowship of Babylon, which is the Citty of the Di­uell; it is manifest that he excludeth neither Turks, nor Iufidells from his Communion. And therefore [Page 279]me thinks, that as no good Protestant can be much delighted with it: so euery good Christian should abhorre and detest it.

The second poynt to be noted in his conclu­sion is this, that he rather ordereth & commaundeth, then aduiseth the Pope to restore peace, and charity to all those Churches, that professe to receiue the essentiall Creeds of Fayth. By which he must needs meane, the three Creeds, of the Apostles, of the Councel of Nice against Arius, and of the Councell of Constantino­ple against Macedonius: and therefore supposeth all other poynts of Cōtrouersy, not contayned in those Creeds to be matters indifferent, not sufficiently de­fyned, and not to be beleeued as articles of Fayth. Which is such a monstrous opinion, as doth euidētly shew him to be of no Religion at all: and therefore I maruell, how he could be suffered to publish such wicked doctrine in England. For if the Pope must haue peace, and communion with all those that re­ceiue the Creeds alone, howsoeuer they please to vnderstand them; thereof it will follow, that all Councells, which haue beene celebrated since the making of those Creeds, haue beene the authors of Schisme and dissention, in condemning later Here­syes, and that albeit a man should deny al Sacramēts, yea and al Scripture at this day yet according to this Antichristian doctrine, it should be Schisme to re­fuse him, or to accompt him no good Christian for the same And how easy a matter is it, not beleeuing the Scripture, to contemne the Creeds? or rather how impossible, contemning the one, to beleeue the other? This therefore may be another signe to be [Page 280]added vnto those, which I haue touched before, that the Bishop being fallen frō the Church, is fallen likewise to Neutrality in Religion, & may be a cause of greater mischiefe, and of greater dishonour to our Countrey, then they that feed him, haue yet disco­uered in him.

I cannot omit his incredible ignorance, which he discouereth, where among other poynts of idle Counsell, which he pleaseth to bestow vpon the Pope, and the rest of the Bishops of the Catho­like Church (himselfe being so wyse, as to admit no Counsell at all, neither from them, nor any other) he telleth them, that he will haue them belieue for certaine, that Schisme in the Church is a greater e­uell then Heresy it selfe. Wherin it is to be admyred, how he could presume to teach the whole Church such a notable falshood, with such arrogant temeri­ty, as heere he doth. For as he that hath no faith can haue no charity: so Heresy, that destroyeth Faith, bringeth also schisme with it, which is opposed to Charity. So that, albeit there may be schisme in the Church without heresy, as faith may remayne with­out charity: yet charity without faith, or heresy without schisme there cannot be. And therefore all Deuines haue euer held, that heresy is far the greater mischiefe, which bereaueth a man of all supernatural vertue, and maketh him worse then an Infidell.

The rest of his conclusion is much of the same nature, wherein no lesse insolently then ignorantly, he taketh vpon him to schoole, and to catechize the Pope & all his Prelates, prescribing vnto them what they ought to belieue: and with what tearmes and [Page 281]conditions they may giue him satisfaction, & make their peace and concord with him. Whereunto, I thinke no better answere can be giuen, in the Popes behalfe, then that which S. Cyprian made to Floren­tius Pupianus, of whom we haue spoken before: for no man can be thought of, so fit as S. Cyprian to rebuke his Pryde, whom a little before vnder the colour of much respect, he so much abused. And in his arro­gant and insolent behauiour towards the Pope, he doth so perfectly resemble, the presumptuous deme­nour of Pupianus towards S. Cyprian, Cyp. ep. 65. as that the one seemeth to haue been but the figure of the other: the words therefore of S. Cyprian are these that fol­low. What swelling Pryde is this? what arrogancy of hart? what inflation of mynd? to call vnto the trybunall of thy Iudgment the Priests (that is to say the Bishops) and those that are set ouer thee? that vnlesse we can purge ourselues to thee, and be absolued by thy sentence, now for so many yeares (for more then a thousand) the Frater­nity must be condemned to haue had no Bishop, the people no Prelate, the flock no Pastour, the Church no Gouernour, Christ no Antistes, and God no Priest. Let Pupianus (or Marcus Antonius) be pleased to help vs, let him giue his sentence, and be contented to make good the iudgment of God & of Christ, that so great a number of faythfull people ranged vnder vs, may not be thought to haue departed without hope of saluation: and that so many Nations of new beleeuers, be not accompted to haue receiued from vs no grace at all of the spirit of God: that the Communion, and reconcilement giuen by vs to so many that haue repen­ted, be not dissolued, and taken from them by the authority of thy decree, vouchsafe at length to grant our request, [Page 282]giue vs thy fauourable sentence, confirme vs in our place by thy iudiciall authority, that God and his Christ may giue thee thanks; that by thee their Prelate is restored to their Alter againe, and their Rector to the gouernement of their people. Truly me thinks these words of S. Cy­prian, being so applyable to your Bishop as they are, should make any man that seemeth to respect him, euen to blush, and to be ashamed for him.

And as concerning his Vertue of peace and concord, S. Cyprian in the same place doth answer him so fitly, as if he had penned the same directly for Marcus Antonius, vnder the name of Florentius Pu­pianus: For the which cause it being no way seemly for me, to adde any thing thereunto, I will make it the conclusion of this whole Treatise. Wherefore Brother (sayth S. Cyprian) if thou wilt dayly consider the Maiesty of God, from whome the ordinance of Priests proceedeth: If thou wilt beare respect vnto Christ, who with his holy pleasure and continuall presence gouerneth, both the Prelates themselues, & the Church with the Pre­lates; If thou wilt esteeme of the innocency of Priests, not according to the hatred of man, but according to the iudg­ment of God: If thou wilt begin at length to repent thy [...] ­merity, and pride, and insolency; If thou be contented to make a full and perfect satisfaction to God and his Christ, whome I serue, and vnto whome, with a pure and imma­culate mouth, I offer continuall sacrifice, both in peace & persecution: vpon these tearmes, we may be brought to haue peace, and communion with thee.

Thus, though I haue beene much longer, then I thought, yet at length, as I take it, I haue sufficiētly cōfuted, not only the little booke you sent me, & the [Page 283]other great volume, which it threatneth; but also the Author himselfe. For I haue proued out of his own mouth, that in the whole course of his turning and flying from the Catholike Religion, there was nei­ther wisdome, nor humility, nor obedience; but only extreme confidence, pride, and presumption in his owne wit, idle suspitions, and iniurious surmyses of fraud and falshood in his own Maisters, great ambi­tion, with great signes of fearefull Apostasy from that Order whereunto he was vowed, strife & con­tention with his Suffragans, hatred & malice against the Pope who defended them, extreme ignorance, or extreme impudency in accusing the Catholiks of innumerable errours, & in affirming the Protestant Religion to be the doctrine of the Fathers, oppro­brious and most intemperate speaches against the Pope his Superiour, and as, himselfe calleth him, his most blessed Father, impious indifferency, and neu­trality in Religion, admiration of himselfe and his booke, hypocrisy vnder the cloke of Charity. Tur­kish sicophancy, and most vnchristian adulation, indiscretion, falshood, and dishonesty in producing the authority of S. Cyprian, so much against his own cause, against the truth of the story, against himselfe in that poynt, & against the common and knowne doctrine of S. Cyprian to the contrary.

And therfore to omit, that in this maister-peece of worke, which he made to gayne himselfe credit, for the rest of his books that are to follow, he proueth nothing, but euery where beggeth the question, & sheweth to dissent from the Protestants themselues, whom he taketh vpon him to defend all [Page 284]his former vertues, which I haue brieflly rehearsed, being put togeather, I thinke will be sufficient to make any thing that shall come from his penne, to be vehemently suspected, or altogeather despysed hereafter. And truly these good qualityes of his, which I may call his prayses, because he hath no bet­ter, do so manifest themselues, in all the passages of his booke, to euery iudicious Reader, that there was little need of me, or of any other to haue beene his Brother.

And now, that according as I affirmed in the beginning, you may perceiue the entrance of this strange Bishop into England, to haue beene no other, then the comming of a foule spanell to fawne vpon you, who can do no lesse then beray you; I frame this Sillogisme. The Diuell perswadeth, or-indu­ceth no man to forsake the false, or to imbrace the true Religion: But as hath been shewed, it was no other then the spirit of the Diuell, that induced the Bishop to forsake the Catholike, and to imbrace the Protestant Religion: Therfore, neither the Catholike can be the false, nor the Protestant the true Religion.

If I had meant nothing els, but to discouer the spirit of this man, three or foure of the first Sections might haue sufficed for the tryall thereof. But be­cause I was desirous, by this occasion, to lay open and approue vnto you, some of the chiefest grounds of the Catholike Religion, by which your selues might easily refute whatsoeuer the same author may herafter publish in prosecution of his purposes, I went forward, and as the matter of his booke requy­red: First, I gaue you a full, and euident proofe of [Page 285]the Popes Supremacy. And secondly, I made it ap­peare most manifestly, that the auncient Fathers taught the same doctrine, which the Catholikes now professe; and that they vtterly condemned the Pro­testants, and were likewise condemned by them. And lastly I haue shewed, that as the Protestants of their part, can giue no fundamentall reason of their faith, nor shew any ground thereof, and there­fore haue no fayth at all: so on the other side, I haue declared, that the motiues of the Catholike and of the Christian Religion, are both the same, and be in themselues most reasonable, and most forceable to any mans iudgment or vnderstanding, that shall duely consider, or reflect vpon them. Which three poynts, being so clerely and manifestly proued, doe plainly conuince, that out of the Catholike Roman Church there is no saluation. Whereof, in seuerall places, I haue also declared the reasons at large vnto you; because that without obedyence vnto the Church, as I haue proued, there can neither be true fayth, nor true iustice; without both which, it is im­possible that God should be pleased; or the soule of man be saued.

Wherefore considering, how ready and de­sirous you haue alwayes professed your selfe to im­brace the truth, if euer you came to vnderstand with whom it remayned; I will vse no other perswasion, but only for a conclusion of my former discourse,Iren. l. 4. cont. haer. cap. 25. I will referre you to the graue Counsell of the most auncient Iraeneus, whose words being very worthy of most attentiue consideration, are these that fol­low. Where the gifts and graces of God are bestowed, [Page 286]there we ought to learne the truth. With whom that suc­cession of the Church, which is from the Apostles remay­neth, and that which is sound, and irreprouable in conuer­sation, and that which is vndefiled, and incorruptible in doctrine, doth still continue. For these be they, who both keep and preserue our fayth, and expound the Scriptures vnto vs, without danger.

And now, because this answere to your friendly Letter, is growne to the iust bignesse of a booke; for your greater ease, and for the benefit of others, it wilbe sent to the print. And although by meanes thereof, it may be very long before you re­ceiue it; yet I imagine that when it cōmeth, it wil­be somewhat the better welcome. And because I am verily perswaded, Almighty God hath so orday­ned, that the fall of this Bishop, shalbe the occasion of the rysing and conuersion of many, I will hope, in respect of those excellent parts wherewith I know you are indued, that if you be not the first, you will not be the last, that must be cōuerted by this meanes. And so with the remembrance of ourauncient loue, which I beseech Almighty God to make eternall, I rest.

Your friend and seruant in Christ Iesus C. A. sufficiently knowne vnto you by this subscription.


TRVTH is the daughter of tyme; and as I ob­serued in the beginning, it is good to expect the lame post, and the last newes is euer truest. Hauing ended this my Treatise, there came to my hands, a short information of the life and manners of this our Dalmatian Bishop (whome before out of his owne words I had sufficiently discouered) taken authen­tically and iuridically vnder the oathes and testimo­nyes of many lawfull witnesses.

Whereby it appeareth, that he had no lesse cause to feare the manifestation, and publication of his former lewdnesse, then he discouereth in diuers places of his booke, to be exceeding iealous of such a matter: many of the particulers related therin, be­ing so foule and abhominable, that modesty, and good manners do not permit me to set them downe. For hauing byn lewdly brought vpin his youth, be­fore he entred into Religion (which it is very pro­bable that he concealed) after his Apostacy he re­turned to his vomit againe, and his old gift, accor­ding to the words of our Sauiour, bringing seauen more with him, worse then himselfe, entred into him, and the last of this man was made farre worse, then his foule beginning. And assure your selfe that nothing doth so much saue his good name (if he haue any among you) as the turpitude of his former life; wherein all men had rather it should be buryed still, then defile their pennes, themselues, and the world with the [Page 288]discouery of it, except they be inforced to it.

But because among other heads of his infor­mation, there is a poynt or two, which will declare by what meanes he attayned to those titles of Eccle­siasticall dignity, wherof he vaunteth so much, and from whence doth flow all the grace, and particu­ler respect which is giuen vnto him, of those that do not know him; I thought it expedient to adde this short addition, to the end they be not longer igno­rant, what a Saint they haue gotten to honour their cause, and what a pillar he is like to proue to support their Religion.

You shall therfore vnderstand, that Segnia (which was his first Bishopricke) is a little Citty, but most impregnable, vpon the Confines of Germany & Italy; the people wherof (commonly called Iscocehi) do neither plow nor plant for their sustenance, nor card nor spin for their cloathing, nor trade with other Nations by way of merchandize, but liue al­togeather vpon spoyle, either of the Turkes, which is their profession, or els of Christians, when they please to mistake the one for the other. In which res­pect, it is easier to find those that would refuse (if they were either wise or honest) then such as would willingly accept the Ecclesiastcall gouerment of this Martiall people.

Wherefore to come to our purpose; it appea­reth by the information aforsayd, that the Bishop of Segnia being slaine in some enterpize of warre, a­mōg certaine soldiars of the Emperour, with whom he was in company, Marcus Antonius de Dominis; who was then a Iesuit in profession, though not in [Page 289]purpose, but desirous to be at liberty, forged letters from the friends and kindred of the late Bishop to himselfe, as to their kinsman (which as it seemeth he was not) signifying, that the Bishop was not slayne, but taken prisoner, and entreating him to come to Segnia, from whence he might worke some meanes to set him at liberty. Vpon the credit of which let­ters, his Superiours (as it should seeme) gaue him leaue to go thither, where first he obtained to supply the place of the late desceased Bishop, & afterwards to be made Bishop himselfe. Which Episcopall fun­ction, as he got by forgery, and Apostasy from his owne Order so he behaued himselfe accordingly, in the administration therof. For he had his part (if not his hand) in the prey with the souldiars of that place, became a pot companion with them, and in how sing and got m [...]ndi [...]ing nothing behind them. Being then their Pastour and spirituall Father, he defrauded them of foure or fiue hundred Crownes; which beget from them, vnder pretence of building a Quire in their Church, but conuerted the mony to his owne vse.

And taking occasion to go to Venice, he wrot backe to the Iscocchi his gostly children, that he had made their peace with the Venetiās, & that they might safely sayle in the Venetian seas: vpon which assu­rance fourty of them sayling to wards Turky, were intrapped, and slaine by the Venetian souldiars, at a certaine [...] where they fell into the snare, which their reuerend Father in God had layd for them.

Of which bloudy treachery, this audacious Prelate, being come to the prefoundnes of iniquity, Prou. 1863. was [Page 290]so little ashamed, as he was accustomed to boast of his seruice therein done to the Commonwealth of Venice; saying, that if the Iscocchi could lay hands of him, they would make a bagge of his skin (as they are accustomed to make of Swines skins, for wine and oyle in those countryes,) and that he expected the first good Bishopricke, which might fall in the State of Venice, should be giuen him for his desert. And so (as it seemeth) in recompence of this his seruice, and expectation of the like when occasion should be offered for policy of State, the Church of Spalato was giuen him, which though poore in re­uenews, yet in respect of the Metropolitan dignity, was fit to satisfy his ambition.

By this you may see, how truly, and litte­rally that saying is verified of the Church of Segnia vnder his Cure, which falsely and impudently he applyeth to the Church of Christ vnder the Pope, affirming, that it was become a vinyeard to make Noe drunke, and a flocke which the Pastour did ouermilke, and not only sheer and sha [...]e, but also flea and slea; for so it is testified against him (as you haue heard) that he liued a drunken life, and not only fleesed his flocke and imbezelled their money, but betrayed his sheep into the bloudy hands of their enemyes. Wherein the greiuousnesses of his sinne may be compared to the sinne of Iudas Iudas betrayed the innocent bloud of Christ, vnder the shew of peace for a little mo­ney; this second Iudas betrayed in the same māner the innocent bloud of fourty Christians his spiritual children, not for mony, but for spiritual preferment, which of all other things being most opposite to the [Page 291]sheeding of innocent bloud, was a far fouler Symo­ny, & more damnable price therof, then any money could be. And whereas Iudas repented him of his sinne, and threw the money from him: this other Iudas did glory in his cryme, and as yet boasteth of his dignity, being the vniust reward of so barbarous a treachery.

This man, notwithstanding his forgery, a­postasy, sacriledge, gluttony, murther in the fou­lest, and ambition in the highest degree that may be imagined (besides his other sinnes not to be named) without any amendement, or satisfaction to the world for his former life, with incredible hypocrisy and impudency,Pro. 30.20. only wiping his mouth with the shamles woman, in Salomons Prouerbes, as if he had done no­thing amisse; setting a brasen face vpō the matter, and telling before hand, that he should be calūniated by his aduersaryes (thinking by this deuice, to make that his purgation and defence, which he had cause to feare, as the condemnation and punishment of his former wickednesse) he dispatched himselfe from Venice in the shape of a Saint,See his own booke pag. 10. & 28. compareth him­selfe to Abraham, and to S. Paul, and speaketh of his great zeale, as if it had brought him into a consump­tion, and of his Charity, as if it put him in danger to burst with crying. And this he doth with such cōfi­dence of his owne worth, & with such authority, as one may plainly see, that he assureth himself not only to be able to deceiue you in the opinion of his hone­sty, but to giue rules of beleef, and a law of Religion like a new Prophet sent from God to all the world about you. Wherein you may choose, whether you [Page 292]will admire his strange impudency & vnaccustomed boldnesse, or the supposition he brought with him, of your credulity and simplicity in beleeuing.

But the iudgment of God hath ouertaken him, and that which he feared, is come vpon him. For not only he is become reprobate in sense; but also the little wit and learning he had, seemeth to be ta­ken from him. And as in his booke he discouereth himselfe to be nothing els but an arrogant Impostor, and an irreligious sycophant: so also this other Iu­ridicall testimony which is brought against him, be­ing aboue all exception, and perchance more au­thenticall then was euer produced against any other Heretike; doth set his abominations against his face in such manner, as (though it be of brasse) it can­not defend him from extreme confusion, accor­ding to that of the Psalmist: God hath sayd vnto the sinner, Psal. 49.26. &c. why doest thou declare my Iustice, and takest my Testament into thy mouth? thou hast hated discipline (in forsaking thy Order) and thou hast cast my words behind thee (which thou hadst learned therein.) If thou sawest a theefe (in Segnia) thou didst run with him: and thou didst put thy portion with adulterers (liuing in all vncleanesse.) Thy mouth abounded with malice (iustifying thy sinne) and thy tongue contriued fraud (betraying the innocent bloud.) Sitting, thou didst speake against thy brother (writing bookes against the Catholike Religion;) & didst giue scandall to the senne of thy mother (and the Children of the Church.) These things thou hast done, and I haue held my peace. Wherupon, thou didst thinke (o wicked man) that I would become like vnto thee (not punishing thee for thy [Page 293]offences:) but, I will reproue, or confound thee, and bring forth thy sinnes to plead before thy face against thee. Vnderstand these things you that forget God, least sud­dainly he take you away. and there be none to deliuer you.

To conclude, considering that such as forsake our Church to come to yours, wax cōmonly worse then they were before, which as I haue noted, your owne Authors haue obserued; I doubt not, but this mans life hereafter, if it be looked into but a little (especially when his new maske of strangnesse and grauity, which he thought good to put on, at his first comming among you; with tyme and familiar custome shall be worne away) will make him to be no more knowne then hated, and no lesse contem­ned then abhorred.

In the meane [...]me, the infamous shipwrack wherinto he is fallen, first of all Vertue, which is the merchandize, and secondly of Fayth, which is the shippe of eternall life, & lastly of all good name and common honesty (without the which this present life is farre worse then any temporall death) hath made him a perpetuall, and a most dreadfull ex­ample for all Religious men, to take heed how they breake their first fayth, and depart from their Order, whereby this miserable man first entred into the way of perdition: and for the whole Clergy to be­ware of ambition, which was the morsell where­with the Diuell entred into him: & for euery good Christian of the Catholike Church, that they haue care aboue all things, to keep a good conscience, which he neglecting made shipwrack of his Fayth, and was therfore giuen ouer by Almighty God into [Page 294]impenitency, and hardnesse of hart, to heape or store vp wrath to himselfe, against the day of wrath: and to increase the waight of his owne damnation, a­gainst the tyme of the reuelation of Gods iust iudge­ment, who shall render vnto euery man according to his workes.

And thus wishing him no more hurt, then I do to your selfe, whose good I specially intend by this discourse: and making my humble prayer vnto God, that once againe he may awake out of the in­fernall slumber in which he now lyeth, and receiue new grace, to follow the example of the poore Capuchin his Predecessor (who notwithstan­ding his former Apostasy from vs to you, is lately returned from you to the Catho­like Church againe) [...] bid you, as before, most hartily farewell.


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