THE GERMAN HISTORY CONTINVED. THE SEVENTH PART. Wherein is conteyned the principall passages of the last Summer. Methodically digested into times, places, and actions, and brought down to this present. With the siege and taking of Regenspurg, as also the Siege and Battell of Norlingen, with an exact Mappe thereof. Lastly is added certaine Misselanies of Stories of most parts of Christendome. All which is done not by the former, but another Author.

Quid suecus vel Cimber agit vis forte videre
I, fuge sed poteris doctier esse domi.

LONDON: Printed for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne. 1634.

To the Reader.

HEe that shall adventure to set forth a Story, is as sure to meet with scoffes, as a soul­dier is with knocks. The best Historians hath not scaped uncensured: Livie, so much commended by Quintilian, was condemned by one of too much verbositie: by another of affe­cted Patavinity: I am ready to undergoe the common fate, armed against ill Language, with that innocency which accompanieth Truth, and my desire of communicating, that Intelligence, (which at first was private) to the publick bene­fit: Hee that ingrosseth all to himselfe, may thinke himselfe wise, but will scarce prove him­selfe honest▪ and they which censure the labors of them, who intend a common good, give evi­dence against themselves of a snarling Cyni­cisme, [Page]not Scholasticall ingenuitie. I dare bold­ly say, I have deliuered truth unpartially; and although collected with much labour out of scat­tered papers, yet it is set downe so methodically, that a meane capacity, may runne along with the History; apprehend by Jmagination, what was don by Action: I wish it may in the reading work as well upon the generous English spirits, as Xe­nophons Cyropaedia upon the African Sci­pio, that all may bee inflamed with a desire of honourable actions, and able to undergoe the charge of Commanders, if thereunto required, by their King and Countrey: so hee wisheth who hath exposed himselfe to your censure, and this worke for your information.


The Contents of the whole Booke.

  • Chapter 1. The Actions of the King of Hungary, Generall of the Imperiall Army; and the opposition made a­gainst him by the Duke Bernhard Weymar, Gusta­vus Horne, and Otho the Rhinegrave, principall Commanders for the Princes and Swedes.
  • Chap. 2. Duke Bernhard Weymar, Gustavus Horne, and Otho the Rhinegrave.
  • Chap. 3. The Actions of the King of Hungary, and Duke of Bavaria, in Franconia, and Bavaria, with the procee­dings of Duke Bernhard Weymar, and Gustavus Horne, two principall Commanders for the Princes of the Vnion there; or a relation of what hath beene done on both sides since Iuly the 20.
  • Chap. 4. The continuance of the King of Hungaries Storie, wherein you have the severall Relations of the siege and battell of Nordlingen.
  • Chap. 5. The Actions of Otho Lodowicke the Rhinegrave.
  • Chap. 6. The Actions of the Landtgrave of Hessen, and the[Page]Duke of Lunenburgh, in Westfalia, Paderborne, and Brunswickland, and elsewhere.
  • Chap. 7. Further Actions of proceeding of the Landtgrave of Hessen, and the Duke of Lunenburgh.
  • Chap. 8. The Actions of the Electors of Saxony, and Bran­denburgh.
  • Chap. 9. Saxon and Brandenburghs proceedings conti­nued.
  • Chap. 10. Further proceedings of the Dukes of Saxony and Brandenburgh. Certaine Missellany Relations. The great Deluge in Holsatia.
  • Chap. 11. The Actions of France, Italy, Spaine, and the Low-Countries.
  • Chap. 12. The magnificent interment of the King of Sweden.
  • Chap. 13. Certaine passages of Russia, Poland, and Turkey.
  • Chap. 14. The siege of La Motta in Lorraine.
  • Chap. 15. The returne of Monsieur into France, Paris the 12. of Octob. 1634.
  • Chap. 16. An Edict of the French King concerning the Duke of Lorraine.

In the Misselanies, fol. 32. for Persia, reade Prussia.

A true Delineation of the Swedish and Imperiall Campe neare Nordlingen and in what this Citie was [...]

AFter that the King of Hungarie after the taking of the Imperiall Citie of Regens­purg, had likewise brought under his power, the Citie of Donawerth, and o­ther places thereabout, Hee thereupon tooke a resolution to march into the Country of Wirttenberg, and to refresh there againe his halfe starved Armie. And that the easier hee might per­forme it, he marched first of all directly against the City of Nordlingen, and begun to assault the said Towne in a hostile manner. But Duke Bernhard of Weymar, and the Field Marshall Horn having few dayes before conjoyned their forces, perceived betimes the King of Hungarie his intent; wherefore all their care was, how they might hin­der and divert it. To which end they marched the 9.19. day of August, at Leypheimb over the Danubie, & from thence they marched towards Giengen, Heydenhem, Aalen and Bopffingen: where they, after that they had a­fore cut off and put to the sword about 1000 of the Im­perialists, and some 100 taken prisoners, pitched their Camp upon a Hil near a Forrest over against the Imperi­al camp to expect there the Rhinegravish, Wirtenbergish Franconian and D. William of Saxon Weymar his forces, which were commanded to joyne with them, and then if occasion would serve, to give battell unto the enemy. But that in the mean time the Citie of Nordlingen might not be mastered by the enemy, Duke Bernhard of Wey­mar, and the Feeld-Marshall Horne resolved to streng­then the Garrison in the towne with more forces, and to impart to the Citie their intention. For the effecting of this, and if possibly occasion would serve to give battaile unto the enemy; being by the prisoners certified, that the enemy was much disperced, and had sent many troupes abroad, they the 14.24. of this moneth, put their forces in battaile array, and perceiving the enemy to lay over a passage neare a little River that flowes through the Ci­tie of Nordlingen, and downe from the Hill they could not well discerne, how the passage was, Duke Bernhard with the right wing advanced till unto the passage, and all the Imperialists which he found on this side, He cha­sed over the River, and thereupon made a stand at the passage, seeing he could not well get over the same in the presence of the enemy, till the Feeld-Marshall Horn had brought the succour into the Citie. Whes this was suc­cessefully performed, the Duke intended to retire again. But as soone as hee was gone a little way from the pas­sage, the enemy with all his Regi [...]ents of Crabats, Hun­garians, and German horsemen, sell upon the Arriere­guard, with whom they ingaged themselves so much, that it was impossible to part agai [...]e: wherefore Duke Bernhard was forced to turne ba [...]e againe, and assault them with all his strength, and pu [...] all the Regiments in­to a confusion, and to flight, so th [...]t many of them were slaine, & had not the night so sudd [...]nly fallen upon them, the slaughter would have beene m [...]ch greater. Thereup­on the Duke held all that night nea [...]e the said passage, till the morning, and then he made h [...]re treat againe to the rest of the Armie upon the aforem [...]ntioned Hill. Meane while Colonell Iohn de Werth be [...] [...]an likewise to pursue the Duke, but was quickly beaten [...]cke. In these severall skirmishes above 2000 of the Impe [...]alists party did run over, and partly were slaine or taken prisoners. The Earle of Cratz being also arrived about [...]at time in the Camp. The both the Generalls advanced the 26. day of Aug. 6 of Sep. with their Armie to take [...] hill which comman­ded the Imperiall Campe, and about evening they rou­ted the Spanish and Italian troupes, and obtained 12 Standards, and doubtlesse they would have obtained a great victory, had not the night overtaken them. The next day following, they begun on both sides to skirmish againe, till at last the Feeld-Marshall Horn with the foot forces got a part of the Hill, and brought upon it 6 Pieces of Ordnance, and begun to play with them against the e­nemies Campe, and at the same time some Swedish foot­forces got over the trenches into the campe, and tooke of the Imperialists some Ensignes which they brought backe along with them. But at last the charges being of­ten renewed, the Imperialists drew all their forces toge­ther, and assayled their enemies foot-forces, so that after a long fight, they put them into a confusion, and over­threw them. But the most part of the horsemen retired in reasonable order, the Ordnance being taken away by some runneawayes, was lost, and the baggage was most part plundred and taken away by the Swedes themselves.

  • A. The Citie of Nordlingen.
  • B. The Church upon the Hill, where two Batteries were raised.
  • C. S. Leonhardt, where 1. Regiment had approached already into the Garden.
  • D. The Hill where the Gallows stood.
  • E. The whole Imperiall Campe, upon the Steffel hill.
  • F. Two Demicanons.
  • G. Three field-peeces.
  • H. Three Regiments, and some peeces of Ordnance.
  • I. The Head quarter Emerling.
  • K. One companie of Currassiers, that keepe the watch.
  • L. One Regiment of foot.
  • M. The Tent of the King of Hungarie.
    • N. Crabats.
    • O. Germane horsemen
    • P. Foot forces.
    Which presented themselues in battel-array when D. Bern­hard of Weymar arrived.
  • Q. The River of Eger.
  • R. The Lhoe-mill.
    • S. Vndermeiningen.
    • T. Hollzheim.
    • Ʋ. Ertlingen.
    • W. Baldingen.
    • X. Topffingen.
    • Y. Eringen.
    • Z. Bintzenzimmer.
    • a. Blaumloh.
    • b. Kraulhausen.
    • c. Trohtelfingen.
    • d. Wallerstein.
    • e. Kirchheim.
    • f. Osterholtz.
    • g. An Imperiall Watch.
    In these Villages, and therea­bouts were the Quarters of the Imperiall horsemer
  • 1. Bopffingen.
  • 2. The Ipff.
  • 3. Flohe hill.
  • 4. Oberduffe.
  • 5. In the 8. Mill on the River of Eger.
  • 6. Auff Haysen.
  • 7. The beginning of the River of Eger.
  • 8. The Breitwangel.
  • 9. The Swedish Campe.
  • 10. The Ordnances.
  • 11. The House of Hohenberg.
  • 12. The way to Vlm.
  • 13. The Forrest.
  • 14. Keckingen.

The Actions of the King of Hungaria Generall of the Imperiall Army; and the opposition made against him by the D. Bernhard Weymar, Gustavus Horne, and Otho the Rhinegrave, prin [...]all Commanders for the Princes and Swedes. CAP. 1.

THe siege of Ratisbone by the Impe­riall and Bavarian Armies, with some preparations made by Duke Bernhard of Saxon Weymar, for the defence thereof, concluded our last discourse of his proceedings; wee must now alter the scene, and follow him into another Province, where he falls upon the Enemie, burning, and wasting his Country, whilest his power is imployed in this offensive forraigne war.

It is an Aphorisme among Physitians, whose study only tends to the preservation of the Naturall body, that if a fluxe of sharp humours fall upon the eye, or any such tender part, that if by fit purgative medicines they cannot carry it away, the stream must be turned, and the matter transported to the cōmon ordinary neighbour Emunctories: And many wise Commanders, whose care extends it selfe to the pre­servation of the body politique in peace, have followed this Rule, That when the Armies of aliens in hostile man­ner shall invade their territories, the only expeditious way[Page 2]of securing their own, is to fall upon the Enemies land, that so hee may be called home, and diverted from his former counsels. Thus Pericles in the Peloponnesian war, twice, and both times speedily, and happily delivered the Athenians countrey from the formidable Hoste of the Lacedemoni­ans: Thus Agathocles the King, opposing feare to feare, and force to force, conveighing his Army by sea into Africa, suddenly raised the Siege of Syracusa, when Amilcar was set down before it, the Carthagenians being constrainedly willing to purchase their safety, with the quiet of their Ene­mies. Thus Hannibal when the Romanes had so strongly planted themselves before Capua, that hee esteemed it a matter of extream difficultie, if not impossibility to remove them by force, brought his Army to the gates of Rome, deeming this the surest way to quit his friends from immi­nent danger: and this device was so successeful, that Fulvius Flaccus one of the Consuls, was instantly sent for home from Capua, for the reliefe of the Citie. And the D. attem­pted about May 27. Iune 6. to deliver the Citie of Regens­burg from the fury of the besiegers, by an inroade into Ba­varia, pillaging and spoiling the enemies countrey, blocking up one place, besieging another, and doing him what dam­mage they could in every place. And this course of his was the cause that about Iune 11/1 some Imperiall Regiments were sent back into Bohemia, to assure that Country against the Protestants, & some of the Bavarians Army marched down­wards by Strawbingen into Bavaria to secure those coasts from invasion.

The Fort of Ro [...]berg besie­ged by D. B [...]. And yet the D. Weymar at his first going from Rhegens­burg, looked not towards Bavaria, but Franconia; and there­fore marched by Newmarck a towne in the upper Palatinat towards Altorff, where wee finde him in his head quar­ter May 31 / Iune 10. But hence hee straight dislodged, marching to­wards the river of Pegnitz, and thence hee first applyed himselfe to the strong Fort of Rottenberge, where hee left the Lieutenant Colonel Laverwaldt, with 1500 Musquetiers [Page 3]and sufficient ammunition to besiege it, who so well dis­charged his office there, that by Iune 5/15 he had made his ap­proaches to the very walls neere the Shiniger steeple, se­cured his Army from the danger of the Canon, and much discouraged them within the Fort, who were not onely hemm'd in by Enemies without, but pincht and ready to faint, for want of water within.

Thence hee marched with the rest of his Army to For­chaim, a Citie which had not onely formerly supplyed the Castle of Wilsburg, when it was besieged by the Swedish Colonell Sperreuter, and Landgrave Iohn of Hessen: but now also is a nest of trouble some guests to their Neighbours, daily doing much harme about Megeldorff, Gleishammer, and the places thereabouts, by pillaging. [...] act of a Swe­dish S [...] We cannot here passe over a memorable adventure of a Swedish Serjeant, whose name though it be not discovered to us, is worthy to be recorded for his valour and wisedome. Some ordina­ry men have done strange things casually, but few by praee­lection and judgement; but this man shewed as much dis­cretion in the prosecution of his designe, as boldnesse in the first undertaking; The story is briefly thus: About Iune 1/11. 400 foot, and 80 Horse of the Imperialists at Forchaim▪ ha­ving laid a bridge over the river of Pegnitz above Megell­dorff, went a bootehaling, in the Country thereabouts, and had drove away many of their cattell. This Serjeant accom­panyed with two Horsemen, as he was comming to the D. understanding of it by chance, associates himselfe with them immediately, professing himselfe to be an Imperia­list, till the whole company being divided to seek for more prey, be (under pretence of a faire bootie) had drawne out a Standard, and an Ensigne so far fromt he rest, that hee had sufficient opportunity to dispatch his first intended busi­nesse. And now having thus surprised them, hee discloses himselfe, tells them plainly what hee is, a Swede and their enemie; sets upon them when they looked for no such en­tertainment, and had killed them presently, bad not they[Page 4]craved Quartier. But this suddain unexpected change of his words and behaviour, made them petition for their lives, which he granted upon their disarming, giving up their Pistols, and submitting themselves to his command. This act of his, could not be done so secretly, but that it must needs, and was in the end discovered to the rest of the Im­periall party; and therefore about 20 of them presently pur­sue after him, as wel to avenge themselves upon the Swede, who had thus deluded them, as to recover the Standard, and Ensigne. But he who had gotten a pretty advantage of way before them, posts on with his prize and prisoners toward Noremberg, whither at last, being happily preserved by the fortunate comming in of some Musketiers from the Suburb of Werth, who were marching against these boote-halers, and the Boores of the Country, who had taken up Armes, and were come together to save their cattell, which by this meanes were regained: he speedile arrived, bringing in the prisoners, the Standard, and Ensigne, which the next day were presented to the Duke, who with the Field-Marshall Horne was come thither Iune 2/12 that with their presence they might honour the funeralls of the Generall Major Corville, who was slaine by a wyer-bullet before Regens­burg (as we have related in the supplement to the sixth part of this Historie) and was after the Military manner honou­rably buried in the Suburbs of Werth, Iune 5/15. The Standard had on the one side the picture of the Virgin Mary, on the other, an hand reaching out of a cloud, and the Ensigne was blue, and white, which this adventurous Serjeant thus at­chieved. A strange attempt, and hardly to be paralleld in History. Neither the fact of Zopirus in bringing the Babylo­nians to his master Darius his subjection, nor the stratagem of Hannibal in taking in the Romane Cities by his Africans, whom he had caused to be perfectly instrusted in the Latine tongue, and dressed in the Roman garbe; nor the device of our owne Countrymen in the yeare 1388, in the time of Richard the second, by entring and taking the towne of [Page 5]Mont-ferrat in the lower Auvergne under the shew of merchants, being every way comparable to it: Zopirus by mangling his face, and false tale, had brought the Babyloni­ans into such a fooles paradise, that they could not thinke, but that he was at tearmes of enmity with his master, and would take occasion of vengeance; The device of Hannibal was rather an evidence of a cunning, reaching head, than valiant man; and the designe of our Nation, was without shew of perill, there being many undertakers, and the town unfortified, & without a Garrison, disable to resist them; But this man singly exposing himselfe to certaine death if once discovered, gave a good testimony aswell of his valour as policie. And doubtlesse he was well instructed in his Shib­boleth, being not onely perfect in the Enemies language, but able to conform himself, to their behaviour, & gesture.

Forchaim blocked up. And now to returne to the D. himselfe, wee find him marching towards Forchaim, a citie (if Mercators report be true) belonging to the Bishop of Herbipolis, commonly called Virtzburg, and having the river of Regnitz on the west, and the Wisent on the east, which emptieth it selfe in­to Regnitz at the south point of the Citie; before this place he sat downe with part of his Army, about the 7/17 of Iune, not only for the causes aforementioned, but also because the Norrimbergers received much dammage, as well by the Garrison here, as those in the Fort of Rottenberg, this being not above 15, the other but 9 English miles distant from that citie, and having blockt it up, and cut off that streame of the Wisent which watereth the Citie, left the Field-Marshall Crats before it with some Regiments, who as they write from Norimberge Iune 7/17 hath raised 5 batteries against it, and makes no spare of powder and shot to bat­ter it, Sultzbach taken by Scalado. and sent Colonell Rosa to Sultzbach, wherein the Ambergers had laid a guard of 150 Dragooners, who by Iune 10/20 had taken it by Scaladoe, put the Dragooners to the sword, and made good booty there. He went with the rest of his Army towards Bavaria, being joyned by the way[Page 6]with Gustavus Horne at Donawerth, where now for a while we shall leave him wasting and spoiling the Coun­try.

The continua­tiō of the siege of Regensburg. And now we return to Regensburg, a citie not so famous either for her first Founder, which was Claudius Tiberius Nero the third Romane Emperour, or the royall name hee gave it, which was Tiberina, or Augusta Tiberii, or the pro­per name of Ratisbona, given it in after times, for the good ships which were thence set out, or the many names given it by strangers, as Reginoburgum, Rhaetobonna Rhaetopolis, Hy­aspolis, Imbripolis, Regnipolis, Taetratopolis, Quadrata, & Ger­mansheim, or that it was once the Metropolis of Bavaria, and principall seat of residence of the Kings and Dukes of that Region, as it is now likely to be by this present siege, wherein the besiegers have hitherto shewed no better ar­guments of their purpose to take it, then the besieged have done of resolution to keepe it. Their disputations on both sides are with shot and sword, and the oppositions of the one are not more fierce and fiery, then the answers of the other are round and speedy.

In what estate the D. Bernhard left the Citie, wee have formerly declared; we wil not now look behind us to what was then, but before us to what is done since.

Divers assaults had the Imperialists made upon the citie, before the 17.27. of lune, wherein they gained so little, that as yet they could not be masters of so much as one outwork, though with the losse, and lives of many thousands of men, whereof some part was slaine before the towne, another taken prisoners, and the third ranne away, and starved; it see me that they came on desperately, and were repulsed va­liantly. Thus we are informed in generall, but to give the Reader the more satisfaction, wee shall put downe some memorable particulars.

Whilest the Imperiall and Bavarian Armies were jointly set downe before this citie, with about 150 peeces of Ord­nance, they first battered that place of the wall, where D.[Page 7] Bernhard first made the breach, when he took it; but finding the event not to answer their expectation, their Army being thus quartered, in Regiments, in all making 6000, whereof 2000 were Musquettiers, placed on the North side of the Donaw; neere the Ship-bridge; 7 Regiments of Foot con­sisting of 5000 men, under the command of the Generall Altringer on the Bavarian, or Southside, 6 companies under the command of Gallas; 7 companies of Dragooners under Piccolomini: 9 companies of Pollacks; and 2 of Prench at Kalmuncz; 15 companies of Cuirassiers, at Swandorff, 3 Re­giments consisting of 16 companies, 6 companies under the command of Colonell Hummerton, and 8 under the com­mand of Colonell Butler at Smidhalen. Upon Whitsunday May 25. June 4. when they continued playing with the ca­non upon the City, and the horneworke, till 4 in the after­noone, they made 3 severall assaults upon the horneworke, which though it was not built to the full perfection, was couragiously defended by Count Thurn and his soldiers, whose valour that day was not so commended by his friends, as admired by his enemies. The losse the Garrison had in these assaults, was not great, compared to that of the Imperialists: they lost not above 12 men, amongst which were none of note: the other many, the number is uncer­taine; amonst which was the Baron of Teubrize, who had formerly been Commander in that Citie while it was un­der the Duke of Bavaria, who with the Generall Major Dietrichstein, Colonell Iulidado, and other principall Offi­cers, was slain, Colonel Breuner, who was first wounded in three severall places, and afterward with Mariams Lieutenant Colonell, the Major of Colloredoes Regiment, and other Officers of note in the Army were taken Priso­ners.

These three were the most furious assaults, which the Imperialists have hitherto made against the City: the un­happy events whereof, made them afterwards to goe on more warily, and to endevour by mynes and more secure[Page 8]means to compasse their desires. And herein the defendants apply themselves to defeat them in their manner of wor­king, unwinding the clue as fast as the other make it up, countermining against them, to undoe what the other have done. Two sallyes made by the Garrison upon the Cam [...]pe. And yet these attempts of the Campe, were not alto­gether unrequited in their owne kind by the Garrison, who both upon Whit-munday at night, sallied forth of the ci­tie, beat the Enemy out of some of his trenches, tooke 15 prisoners, got above 100 Muskets, slew many ordinary sol­diers, and some Officers, whose swords they carried away with them into the citie; and upon Iune 10.20. appeared a­gaine without the Hornworke, as if they meant againe to have done the like: whence presently as afraid of their Ene­mie, they retired purposely toward the towne, to draw the Imperialists to pursue them, to the outworks, where they had placed some field-pieces, charged wich small shot, for the slaughter of the assaylants, if they should chance to fol­low them. And this device tooke such effect, that the Camp being incouraged, by this (as they conceived) timorous flight pursued them to the very outworke, where these Murderers being discharged upon them, made such a Mas­sacre, that many of them there lost their lives, to the great discouragement of the Army, and incouragement of the Regensburgers. It is good to looke before we leap; policie is often superiour to power, and wisdome prevaileth against unregulated might.

Hitherto we have discoursed but of the beginning of this siege, the proceedings whereof (with the want of pre­sent provisions for that numerous Army before it) have been terrible, and many Well-willers to the Evangelicall party, have been perswaded, that before this time, the King of Hungarie would have risen from before the Citie: But he who is resolved either to take it or spend himself before it, still maketh great preparations against it, and hath sent for 9 whole Canons, and 2000 barrells of powder, from Brau­na, in Bavaria, and 4000 weights of all sorts of Ammunition[Page 9]to be brought unto him out of Bohemia and Austria.

Kelheim taken by the Imp. While things are thus carried at Regensburg, Colonell Rosa who was then at Kelheim, a town scituated upon the Bavarian side of the Donaw, at the very point where the Altimull comes in, to pay his tribute of waters to that more famous streame, and distant from Regensburg about 10 En­glish miles to the Northward, was besieged there by some Imperiall Regiments of the Army, and as if hee had lost the courage there, which he shewed in the surprisall of Sultz­bach, surrendred it upon composition Iune 6.16. being for­ced to march out without Ensigns, or weapons, to the great offence of the Duke, both because he had not first burnt the Ship-bridge, as also for that he held not out one day longer; which if he had done, he had certainly been relieved. The surprisall of Sultzbach was quickly avenged by the Imperi­alls at Amberg in the upper Palatinat, who presently there­upon set upon 4 companies of the Weymarish Horse, de­feated them, and tooke from them 3 Standards, and the most part of their Baggage: And this action againe was re­quited by the Swedish Garrison in Weygen, which defea­ted an Imperiall convoy, which was going with 40 Wagons loaden with victuals, to the Imperiall Army at Regensburg, and carried away the provision: The Dye falls not alwayes alike, Gamesters must expect to lose, as well as to win, and the fortune of war, doth not alwayes carry the same face: A lowring evening hath sometimes seen him a Captive, whom a glorious flattering morning hath laughed on, as a Conqueror.

A piece of politicall discipline shall conclude this Chap­ter, wherein war appears more illustrious then peace; A Swedish Lieutenant hanged. for that, which in a quiet and setled estate may somtimes with­out danger be neglected, in a tumultuarie hurry cannot safe­ly be omitted. A Swedish Lieutenant having taken upon the Boden-sea (a known lake betwixt Helvetia and Schwaben) 2 ships laden with come and wine, left the ship, and went on shoare with his soldiers to drinke; The Mariners, who[Page 10]were better inclined to the Imperiall, then the Princes par­ty, instantly made use of the time, hoysed up sayles, and carri­ed the prize to the Enemy. It was then in vaine to looke af­ter the Saylors, who were gone out of reach; the Councell of war therefore made inquiry after him, who was in their power, arraigned, and hanged him. An excellent piece of justice; The very name of treason is abominable, and though it discover a malitious mind, and inclination to doe evill, yet it is not alwayes seconded with the occasion, and power of execution; wilfull negligence in matters of importance, is almost, if not altogether, as bad; for hereby the adversary hath fit opportunity of doing what mischiefe hee can desire. A good soldier must have a vigilant eye, and an industrious hand, as well as a loyall heart; for otherwise, hee exposeth himselfe, and confederates, to much necessity.

D. Bernhard Weymar, Gustavus Horne, and Otho the Rhinegrave. CAP. 2.

OPportunity, whether in peace or war, if not neglected, is the best engine, & most advantageous; in peace, the thriving Merchant, by taking the benefit of wind and tide, makes a quick return, and gain­full; and in war, the spoiling bands of the souldiery by seasonable use of their pre­sent occasions, load themselves with the prey of their Ene­mies. The severall ingagements of the Duke Bern: of Sax­on Weymar, and the Field-marshall Horne, and the dis-uni­on of their Armies, which so continued, till Iuly 1.11. when they were united into one body betwixt Donawerth and Augspurg, Iohn de Werth pillageth Ortin­guen. &c. gave opportunity to the Bavarian Commander Iohn de Werth, to range about Franconia, plundering and spoiling those places, which had any relation to the Evan­gelicall party. Iune 2.12. he shewed himselfe with 50 Cor­nets of Horse, all Crabats and Hungarians before Hippol­stein, Windelstein, Heideck, and some other townes in Franckenland, presuming sometimes to advance even to the Gates of Norimberge. But all this was but a bravadoe, his designe lay elsewhere; nor stayed hee long to shew his bra­very, but quickly returning towards Bavaria by Pappen­heim, upon the Altimull, and Donawerth upon the river of Danubie, he straight wheeled about againe, towards Ortin­guen, and Dreutinguen, which hee sacked in the absence of these Generalls, and the particular Commanders of those places, carrying away a great prize, 2000 heads of Cattell, 300 sacks of meat, and 300 prisoners to Ingolstade. In like manner, the Governour of Aicha, knowing that Horne ha­ving[Page 12]other ingagements, could not give attendance only up­on that place, as soone as he understood, that hee was gone from thence with his Army contrary to the agreement, and his promise, returned againe, and re-possest himselfe of the place, from which hee had so lately beene ejected. The town of Aicha re-taken by Horn and the Governour hanged. I know not in this action, whether he was more to be condemned of folly, or falshood, both these appeare plainely in his un­dertaking, folly, in that he could imagine himselfe able to hold the place, which was now unfortifyed, (for the gates were demolished, and the fortifications cast downe by Gustanus Horus) which hee could not keepe fortifyed▪ fals­hood in breaking his word and oath, then which nothing ought to be observed more religiously. Peradventure hee had learned the doctrine of Jesuiticall Equivocation, and only meant to keep his promise of not returning, as long as the Field marshall stayed there; it had beene better for him to have dealt plainly, and kept his word punctually, for by the forfeiture of his credit, hee lost his life ignominiously, and betrayed the Citie to desolation utterly: the treachery was soone discovered to the Marshall, who returned in­stantly, and stayed not to summon the towne, but tooke it by assault, put the most of the to wnsmen and soldiers to the sword, hanged the perfidious Commander before one of the gates, and burned the towne to the ground. This was good justice and required by the law of Armes, for he that doth not punish such faithlesnesses, openeth a gap to all perfidiousnesse.

Iohn de Werth ta­ken prisoner. The Army of the Ba [...]arian Werth, who dealt more fair­ly (for he did nothing but what was lawfull for an Enemy) hath since his practice of hostile pillaging, been once defe [...] ­ [...]d by G [...]shav [...] H [...]rne neare Auspurg, whence hee had the pursuit of his confused Army, almost to [...]achaw, the space of, & German miles, and in the end [...]orly [...]uined by D. B [...]burd I [...] 7.17. betwixt Landshut and Psaltenhoven, where [...] of his Soldier were shine, and himselfe [...]tly [...]s [...]ped.

[Page 13] Dachaw, Fry­sing, Mosburg, and Landshul taken by Duke Bern [...]. And now to passe over the severall encampings and re­movings of these 2. great Commanders before the meeting of their forces, in the first place I finde, that by July 8.18. they had taken by composition, Dachaw, upon the river of Amber; Frysing, and Mosburg, upon the Iser, which Cities to save themselves from pillaging, promised to supply the Army with as much come as they could get, and as much provision, as they could conveniently spare; and from thence marched towards Passaw, with intent to releeve Regens­purgh, in which attempt, I shall for a short space leave them; for now, we must looks abroad towards Alsatia, and the Lake of Constans, where the Swedes, and Souldiers of Otho the Rhinegrave are bickering with the Imperialists, and these againe, returning of blowes to them.

The Rhinegrave Otho Lodowick, to whose care the war in Alsatia was first committed, being gone from thence to­wards Tyroll, to attend the comming downe of the Car­dinall Infante with his Italians (whom he waited upon with 7000. men taken out of his Armie, and 9000. others sent unto him upon the way, by the direction of the Rix­chancellor Oxenstierne) and having deputed his brother Iohn Philip his Lieutenant Generally the Imperials in the garrison neer to Rhinefelden, seeing the Leagues thus weak­ned, entered into a consulation how to deliver the town, and to deliver the Imperiall commander Morcye who kept in, from the Swedish Armies. To this purpose, June 5.15. all the horse in Brissuck, and 400 Mus [...]etiers, being sent from thence, joyned with [...]o [...]in Villinguen, and 1000. Boores, marched directly against the Campe before Rhinefelden. This plot of the enemie, was not caried so closely, but that it was in good time discovered to Iohn Philip the Rhine­grave. And he to secure the Campe, sent out a party of 25. Horse to descry the number of his enemies, and the manner of their March, and upon the view, by shooting off their pistols, to give a general warning to the Leaguer; they were not gone farre from the Campe, but they had espied the Im­perialls[Page 14]upon their march, who at once giving sire upon the Rhinegraves horsemen, did (what they should have done) give notice to the Campe of their approaching; and the vol­ley of shot, was not onely harmelesse, to the 25. horsemen, but beneficiall to the Campe, and hurtfull to themselves. For they presently perceiving, themselves to be discovered, fled in such disorder and confusion, that not above 100. of them went together any one way, and (as it is probably con­jectured) those few horse which were sent out to discover them, might alone have made flaughter of many hundreds of them, if they had pursued them. But they returned to the Campe, and thence some others were sent after them who overtooke some stragling Companies, and slew as ma­ny as they found.

4. Companies of Lorraine Horsemen de­feated by the Garrison at Ensisheim. The same night, and to the same purpose, 4. Companies of Lorraine horse intending to have joyned with the Bris­sackers, Villengueners, and Boares of the hart, (the wood­land of Alsatia) were discovered in their March by the Swedes in the garrison of Ensisheim (situate upon the Ill, a river, in the edge of the Hart) who presently made after them, overtooke them in the Forrest within two German miles of Ensisheim, and sixe from-Rhinefelden, set upon them instantly, slew 40. of them, tooke 16. prisoners, and got 50. faire horses with their sadles, and pistols.

The first defeat of the Brissackers, had not so much dis­heartned them, but that within few dayes after having pee­ced againe their scattered forces, they renewed their former attempt; but how unhappily they proceeded, let this fol­lowing letter of Iohn Philip, to his brother Otho Lodowicke the Rhinegrave speake; whose tenor is as followeth.

A Letter sent by Iohn Philip to his brother Otho, &c.

Noble, &c.

VVHereas I perceived, that the Enemy did strengthen himselfe more and more, with an intention to releeve Rhinefelden; I consulted with my selfe (your Excellency by letters having first ad­vised me thereunto) how I might defeat his coun­sell, and prevent his designe. To this end after I had sent abroad many Spies, at last intelligence was brought me that they lay on an hill, which though it was steepe, and not to be passed without difficul­ty, yet then the passage was more open, then it had been formerly, when besides the acclivitie of the place, the way was stopped up, by trees which were cut downe purposely, and laid athwart it, to make it unpasseable. Wherefore I dislodged the last wed­nesday night July 11.21. with sixe companies of your Life Regiment, the 5. Meckelburghish troops, the 12. companies of Strasborough musketiers; some frēchmen, & 60. Benfeldish Musketiers (in all about 4000. men) and tooke my way directly against the mountaine. Here while the Margyraffish Boores, (who were the first which discovered to me the place of the Enemies abode) and the Lackeyes, fired some houses, opened the passage, and chased away the watch which kept it, the Enemie who lay but 2. houres march from thence, got notice of our comming, and as well as time permitted, fortified himselfe against us. Hereupon I commanded the Count of Nassaw, with 6. Companies, to advance a­gainst him, but hee perceiving our forces, left his Quarters, and went to the cloister of S. Blasius,[Page 16]cutting downe the trees in the Forrest as hee went, to impeach our speedy passage after him. This acti­on of his much hindered, but made us not give o­ver our course, our hard labour undid what hee had done, and we followed him, which thought none had pursued him. At the Cloister our Horsemen first appeared, which when the Enemy saw alone, thinking them to bee unbackt, and not succoured with foot, he made towards them so furiously, that he caused them to retire, with the losse of 4. of their companie. The foot were by this come, and brought in, whom assoone as he had descryed, hee left the Cloyster againe, and betooke himselfe to an hill, thinking verily, so to escape, and retire to Villenguen, and in his flight to surprise the Colonell Gassion, who was quartered in a small Dorp, by the way. I suspected his meaning, and followed him at the heeles; but by climbing up the hills, our forces, as well as his, especially the Horsemen (a thing to be wondered at) so wearied themselves, that neither man, nor Horse (of which many were killed by hard riding) were able to goe a step farther. I know not how it came to passe, (nor can I ascribe it to any other cause, but his providence, which disposeth all things) at last the Enemy craved Quarter, which being granted by us as willingly, as begged by them humbly the Lieutenant Colonell of Shonaw Com­mander of all the forces, althe Officers, which came from Bryssack (whose names are under written) and above 300. common souldiers, were by us taken prisoners. And thus (God be thanked) this Army which intended the succour of Rhinefelden, is to­tally [Page 17]ruined, and dispersed, and no offices escaped, except 2. Lieutenants, which still were foremost in the flight, and (I think) would have beene last in battell. The Villinguenieres, were pursued by the wearied horse, and men, as fast as they could, and some of them put to the sword, many of them lea­ped from their horses, and hid themselves in the hedges, and ditches, the rest, (as the Lantgrave of Stulingen certifieth) fled as fast as ever they could towards. Villinguen, without so much as looking backe. The Forrest, and the Hills were the refuges of them which escaped, for could we have brought them into the open field, few, either of horse, or foot, had escaped our hands, though by those Co­verts, and flight, some have for the present, avoid­ed us. I shall certifie you, upon the first occasion, how the Abbot of S. Bl [...]sius hath hitherto held cor­respondence, with the Enemie, and how the Rhin­felders hereafter shall be have themselves.

P. Script. I have immediately advised the Com­mander Gassion to have an eye at Villinguen, whe­ther, hee hath yet done any thing, I long to heare. To the 3. Zillhartish cōpanies I have given order to march immediately downewards, that none of the Runa wayes might get into Pryssack.

[Page 18] The names of the officers, which were take prisoners are these;

  • 1. Lieutenant Colonell Shonaw which commanded as Generall.
  • 2. Fybues a Rittmaster, and a Lieutenant of the Horse.
  • 3. The Captaine Hydeek, who had formerly beene pri­soner at Ruffach.
  • 4. William Bergher, Captaine of the Commander Mer­cye his Regiment.
  • 5. Iohn George Reich of Plats, Captaine of the Ascanish Regiment.
  • 6. Sebal Meyer of Nieren, Lieutenant of the old Sham­burghish Regiment.
  • 7. Iohn Michel Haller, a Cornet.
  • 8. Wolff Christoph: of Reinach a Captaine of the new Shamburghish Regiment.
  • 9. Nicolas Horneker a Captaine of Colonell Mercyes Regiment.

Thus he expresseth his victorie, modestly and religious­ly, neither extolling his owne wisdome in fore-seeing the danger, nor valour in conquering the Enemie, but imputing the first to his Brothers care, and ascribing the last, to him, who might challenge it justly; and doubtlesse, herein hee speakes truely, for it was not his owne sword, and his bow, but the hand of God which gave him the victory.

This defeature hath not onely much discouraged them at Rhinefelden, but at Bryssack also, for so they write from Colmar, an Imperiall citie in the upper Alsatia, distant from Bryssack about 8. English miles. They at Rhinefelden du­ring the absence of the Swedish Army, had gotten-in two small boates loaden with provision; and because it was per­ceived by the Generall at his returne, that this might make them not come in, therefore about June 24. s [...]ilo n [...]v [...], he in­tended to assault the towne on both sides, and had done it, if he had not beene that morning assured by some which escaped out of the Citie, of the great want, and penurie[Page 19]therein, that they already were glad of Horse-flesh, and had devoured at least 26. Horses, and that the officers had rig­ged a Ship, and intended to escape by the River; this infor­mation diverted him from his first advise; and instead of attempting any thing upon the towne, he put forth many vessels well manned to the Rhine, to attend there, if happi­ly they should attempt that way, to evade him. The Brys­sackers, though they have a strong garrison, yet knowing that the activity of the Souldiers dependeth upon their lea­ders, are much dejected, because their chiefe Commanders are surprized, and may not returne from Colmar, (whither they were brought after the last action) to doe them ser­vice. And now we may briefly see the generall estate of the upper Alsatia, much distracted by these warres, and the particular estate of Rhinefelden, much distressed, and that of Bryssack much perplexed.

About the Bodensea, neither the Swedes, nor Imperia­lists are idle, in that little corner, both parties are interessed, the one endeavoureth both to keepe what he hath gotten by the sword, and inlarge his territories; and the other strives to hold, what he is now, and was, possessed of for­merly, and to recover what he hath lost lately. Buckhorne a little towne, but of much importance, neere this Lake, is daily strengthened, by the Swedes, with new fortifications. Here are many Ship-wrights set on worke, to make men of warre, after the fashion of the Hollanders, twelve whereof were finished about the beginning of June, which since have done so much harme to the Imperialists thereabouts, and put them to such feare, that they dare no longer rove abroad at Sea, as they have done formerly, but are faine to solicite the neighbouring Romishly-affected Sea-townes against these Enemies, who now appeare as terrible upon the water, as they have beene formerly, at land; 5. Ships taken by the Swede [...] upon the Bo­densea. for present­ly, upon their first launcing, they tooke from the Imperia­lists, upon the Lake of Constance, 5. Ships laden with Am­munition, and military instruments, (in one of which they[Page 20]found 1000. Rexdollars, and many Jewels of good value) and put the Souldiers which were in them to the Sword

Ratolfoe Cell, be­leaguered. The Imperialists to avenge their losse at the Lake, fell soone after, with their united forces, upon Ratolfoes Cell, a towne upon the under Lake; this towne, the Vberlingers, they of Lindaw, Bregents and Constance conjoyning their forces battered out of 5. ships by Sea, while their land men strengthened with a supply of Spaniards, about 4000. strong thought to have pent up the Swedish Commander Shavellskie at Arch, and detained him from either comming to releeve of succour his friends in that towne. But hee at length, by the Wirtenbergers, and some of the Rhinegraves forces, being delivered, from that restraint, went immedi­ately to the beleaguered place, whence he wrote to the Ma­jor of his Regiment Iohn Iames Fefferling at Ravenspurg, to informe him of the state of the Citie as followeth. June 26. July 6. P. P. The towne of Zell is not yet in danger, the Enemie hath besieged it by water and land, and battered it hard by the space of 3. dayes on both sides; especially that time, when wee arrived, when, though he ceased not to play upon it the whole night, (thankes be to God) hee got but little of the towne. I am certified, that yesterday they have caried to Constance 2. ships full of dead, and wounded men; that day we sallied forth, and put many of them to the sword, and after our retirement they assaulted us, but to their losse, our souldiers fought couragiously and heat them back. This day they stirre not, and to morrow (God wil­ling) I shall be supplied with some fresh Muskertiers, and will then try all possible meanes to chase them away. God grant us good successe. Thus far the Colonel, And his acti­ons seeme to have kept time with his words, The siege raised. for shortly after being seconded by his friends from the Dukedome of Wirtenberg, hee raised the siege and chased the Enemie from that towne; which he presently supplyed with a gar­rison of 400. men, victuals, Ammunition, and other ne­cessaries for a whole halfe yeere, and himselfe marched to [Page 21]Buckhorne, still keeping a watch over the Imperialists, and attending their future designes. This misadventure of the Imperiall undertaken hath been since that is evill to some of the places from whence they came, as it was then unhap­py to the persons ingaged in the businesse. Vberlingen, which a little before was left by the Swedes, and had got­ten at least a breathing time of liberty, is now againe here­upon blockt up by the Wirtembergers, which lose no time, nor spare no cost to bring their works to perfection, but imploy daily 1500 men to labour in their fortifications. At Constance, besides the mutinies of the Soldiers, who are discontented for not receiving their promised pay; there is daily heard the voice of wofull lamentation, and direfull exclamation, mothers and children bewailing the losse of their husbands and fathers, and exclaiming against the Com­mander Wolffegg, who perswaded many of the Citizens to leave their lawfull occupations, whereby they got their livings, and follow this unfortunate war, wherein they lost their lives.

The state and actions in the upper Palat. The stream of the story should now run to Regensburg, where the Cyclopes in Vulcans forge labour not so hard to make Mars his Armes, as his followers doe the [...] to marre them; but that, the upper Palatinat never so glorious by the famous Citie of Norimberge, (Quâ non Germanis est ulla celebrior oris) as now unhappy by war, commands the quill to distill a few black drops in remembrance of her misery. Bruck & Reiten­bach burned. The Ambergers are still ready to deface some part of the beauty thereof with fire; Bruck and Reitenbach a faire mar­ker townes, being already by their voluntarie hostilitie, consumed by that devouring Element, and Chamb a towne of note in the Easterne part thereof threatned with the like fa [...]e for hospitality, and [...]ertaining (the Swedes) strangers. And yet, why should accuse the Ambergers [...] it was not the natives or in [...]itants which did this evill, but the Sol­diers in the Garrison▪ [...] since that time, being visited with the plague of pestilence, whether by contagion of ayr, putre­faction[Page 22]of their victuals, these secundarie meanes, or the im­mediate h [...]nd of God. The Garrison at Amberg visi­ted with the plague, quit the place. I dispute not: having willingly left this refuge, and held it safer for themselves to adventure upon the sword of their Enemies abroad, then to hazard the deadly shot of that arrow which flyes at noone day, and strikes mortally before it appeare visibly.

Colonel Corpus defeated. But besides the harmes done in those parts by the Garri­son, the Baw [...]rian Colonell Corpus, ranged about the Coun­try, and did much violence; Him, the Weymarish Lieutenant Colonell met withall about Tachaw, June 15.25. (that very day, wherein Aicha was first taken by the Field-marshall H [...]u [...]) and though he was attended with his Regiment of 800 Horsemen, fought with him, foyled him, put a great part of the Horshmen to the sword, amongst which were some Rit-masters and Officers, and tooke many prisoners; in the number whereof, was one Lieutenant, and 2 Ritt-ma­sters. And thus this Country is for the present relieved a little, but if long it will so continue, it is not in us to deter­mine, that is only knowne to him, who disposeth of times and seasons at his pleasure: we may pray for the peace there­of, which is likely so long to be uncertaine, as the warring parties stand in any opposition.

The story of Regens. continu­ [...]. The designes formerly mentioned, are but as light skir­mishes to a fet battell, or as those Myrmitoleones in Plinie, to the Lybian Lyon, in respect of the service at Rhegensburg: The King of Hungarie is yet resolved to take it, or lose his Army, and the besieged have still concluded to hold it, or spend their blouds in the quarrell.

2 Burgundian Regiments rui­nated by a sally. While part of the Imperiall Army was before Ketheim, the Citizens and Soldiers made a sallie upon the Campe, and utterly ruinated 2 whole Regiments of Burgundians, tooke the Officers prisoners and brought them into the Citie, and [...]ew the rest with the edge of the sword. This wound in the Army went fo [...]c [...]hing neere the quick; the King him­selfe (who is said once to have laughed, when he heard that 3 or 400 men had lost their lives in a desperate assault) was[Page 23]sensible of the losse, and sent to Vienna for fresh supplyes, 6000 fresh men sent frō Vienna. whence he was shortly furnished againe with 6000 new soldiers, which hoped in 3 weekes at the furthest, to have their quarter, not without in the trenches, but within the walls and houses of the Citie. This was about Iune 16.26. The D. of Ba­varia in the Camp. Some few dayes after the D. of Bavaria in his owne person came into the Campe, and with his presence and large pro­mises much incouraged the assailants: Other 4000 men come to the Camp. and within a weeke after that, the Commander What went downe from Am­berg with 4000 men, and 4 fire morterers, the better to fi­nish this worke, which at the first they thought so easie, and at last found so difficult. And now began that flame to burst out, which was not to be extinguished, but with rivers of bloud, the swords of these adversaries clashing together strike fire, and a springing fountaine from their owne veines must quench it.

The D. of Bavaria who had taken up his quarter at De­genheim above Donawstauff, perceiving the Prebunner steeple in the wall to be boared in many places with the canon, but not battered downe, promised the Canoniers a summe of money, if they did so beat it downe, that it might fall into the moat, supposing the rubbish thereof would fill up the ditch, and make a plaine way for an assault. The Gun­ners in the Leaguer laboured tooth and nayle to effect it, and they in the towne did their best endevour to prevent it, who sallyed out upon the Campe Iune 22 being Sunday, set upon the Boeckish Regiment at Brull, and brought it to utter ruine.

The Boeckish Regiment rui­nated. In these manners of attempts, wherein they have since that time been frequently practised, the Boores of the upper Palatinat (of which sort of people there were many in the towne) did good service. The Boores within doe much hurt with their morning star. These rustick fellows, being first well lined with liquor, oft-times fel upon the Imperialls in their trenchee, where with an instrument, called by them the morning star, (it is a short club armed with pikes, the same weapon the Boores of the upper Austria used, when they[Page 24]rebelled against the Emperour) they [...]nocked them down [...] with mortal stroakes, every blow they gaue being as dead­ly, as their adventure was desperate. This unkind enter­tainment did yet no whit abate the courage of the besie­gers, the Bavarian on the one side of the Danubie, and the Imperialls on the other, still continued their batteries, and making their approaches nearer to the Out-works, 4000 shot made upon the City. by Iune 30 had made 4000 great shot upon the Citie: and yet, the besieged shewed no token of dejection, themselves by let­ters presently after certifie the D. Born. that they could yet with conveniency expect his succours, that yet there was no want of provision within the towne, that though they had lost some number of men in the Enemies a [...]ulte, and their own sallyes, yet they could make of Boores, Cit [...]ns, and Soldiers, 8000 able fighting men, and that they would rather sacrifice their lives in defence of the city, then leave it to the Enemy for a prey; and the Imperialists themselves testifie, that for all that which had been done hitherto, the Garrison and Citie would heare of no agreement; though they beleeved they would quickly change their mindes, when they found their friends, for w [...]nt of ability, failing them; and themselves pinched with those miseries, which must necessarily fall upon them.

The happy proceedings of the Saxon, and Swedish for­ces in Silesia, and a flying report of Duke Bernhard, and Gustavus Horne their comming downe (which was after­wards confirmed by the Dukes owne letter [...], directed to Count Thurn, and intercepted be the Imperialists) by this was brought to the Campe; and then the Generalls thinking it necessarie to send some Auxiliaries to their Army in Bo­hemia and Silesia, (for a Currier which came poste from thence, brought Letters which certified, that [...]lesse they did so, and did it speedily, all was lost) and [...]willing to have this Swedish Army come upon their backes▪ they inten­ded to make short work of this siege, that so they might anticipate D. Bernhards counsell, and after they had done [Page 25]here, make speed against the Saxon, and Brandeburgher, with a sufficient force to encounter them, though both their Armies should joyne together: and now, they play at all, their batteries are multiplyed, their assaults more frequent, and resoluter, then they had been formerly; their fire mor­terers are imployed, and Granadoes cast into the Citie, that so every way they might impeach it, and bring it to their subjection.

The City as­saulted on both sides. About Iuly 3.13. foure Regiments at once assaulted the Earle of Thurne his quarter, behind and before, and forced him to retire from his Horne-worke, with the losse of 30 men which were [...]laine out right, 10 Soldiers, 1 Captaine, and 1 Lieutenant which were taken prisoners, and carryed to the Campe; and on the other side of the Citie, the Bava­rians set upon the Overwerth and Vnderwerth at once, and tooke the first, with the Sconce belonging to it, but were repulsed from the other, the Soldiers within beha­ving themselves manfully, to defend the Mills upon the Danuby, and building againe by night, what was beaten down by the Canon in the day: Count Thurn in d [...]nger. In the first assault it was re­ported, that Count Thurn himselfe was brought into capti­vity, but the relator was misadvised, it was his Lieutenant Colonell, not himselfe; who, though he was in such perill that he craved quarter, yet that being denyed him, he esca­ped by flight, avoyding a great volly of shot, made after him by lying prostrate on the earth, and his captivitie, by speedy rising, and running before the Enemy could well charge a­gaine. This was the day when the letters sent by D. Bernhard (as is formerly mentioned) were intercepted; and now they set all their instruments at worke, a furious battery, which lasted the space of 2 whole dayes was the first course, and this being seconded by an assault, which lasted from mor­ning till night, about Iuly 8.18. wherein the Imperialists were beaten off, with the losse of 400 men; the Granadoes were set on worke, and they from the Citie, with their hand Granadoes, and hot pitch, returned the like violence to the [Page 26]Campe; and thus they still continued, neither the Imperialls hauing as yet got any assurance of winning the Citie, nor the besieged of keeping it.

The last assault Iuly 10.20. was the day which was indicatory, if not cri­ticall to the Citie; then the Imperiall Army assaulted it on all sides, then the besieged shewed their inclination and po­wer of resistance. Bloud was then spilt like water upon the earth; and the ammunition, hardly got, and dearely purcha­sed, was prodigally wasted and spent in smoake, nothing re­mained of their Salt-peter and brimstone, but an unsavoury fume, whose naturall stench was increased by the ungrate­full savours of dead carkeises, many of the beleaguerd that day (if many may be extracted from few) being forced to pay the debt of mortalitie, and 4000 Imperialists buying the reputation of valiant men, with the losse of their lives.

Courage, if it be not well ordered, is rashnesse; A true va­liant man looketh not behind him to what is past, but about him, and before him, weigheth his businesse in the scale of wisdome, is confident while there is probability, not pre­sumptuous, when he seeth impossibility; the Garrison and Citizens had for a long time behaved themselves in defence of the City stoutly, even to the admiration of the Imperia­lists, who had lost before it (by their owne relation) 8000 men, slaine upon the place, 6000 others who had run away, made 15000 Canon shot upon the towne, cast above 2000 Granadoes into it, the most part whereof weighed seve­rally 150 pound weight; and indured (if the figures be not misplaced) 465 severall sallies from within the Citie. But now, the Dye was turned, the besieged wanted powder, and were not able to fight without weapons, they might sit downe to eat, and drinke (there was still in the City belly timber enough, 4000 simmers of corne, 2000 heads of cattell, 500 barrels of beere, 300 hogsheads of wine) but could not well imagine themselves able to hold out longer against the Imperialists, their powder being totally spent, to 700 pound weight; a small proportion, for so great oppo­sition,[Page 27]and the City undermined in 7 severall places, all which were likely with the touch of a March, to have been as so many severall Gates to give the Imperialists entrance. The white flag was hereupon hung out, and after some few dayes treaty, the City was surrendred upon these Honou­rable Articles (which expresse as much good nature in the yong King of Hungarie, as wisedome on the other side) concluded betwixt his Majesty the King of Hungarie and Bohemia, &c. to the use of his Imperiall Majesty King of the Romanes, &c. and his princely Grace the Elector of Ba­varia, &c. on the one side, and betwixt the Crown of Swe­den; the Protestant confederates appointed Generall Major the Lord Kagge, and the rest of the Commanders; as also the Citie of Regensburg, the Chamberlaine, Senate, and Citizens on the other side, as followeth.

  • 1. The Citie, as it now standeth, shall be surrendred un­to his Majesty, the King of Hungarie and Bohemia, to the use of his Imperiall Majesty.
  • 2. All dammage done, either to the Ecclesiasticall or Ci­vill persons, in the time of the two last sieges, whether in their buildings, goods moveable, or immoveable, corne, cat­tell, or otherwise, shall totally be forgotten, nor shall any thing in liew of it, be desired of the City, the Chamberlain, or Senate of the same.
  • 3. The Citie, Chamberlaine, Senate, Citizens, Ministers, and Schoolemasters of either religion, shall not contrary to the conclusions at Passaw, and against the quality of ei­ther a religious, or prophane peace, be pillaged or molested, but the City shall be left to her Imperiall liberties, privi­ledges, and old customes, free, safe, and without any hin­derance.
  • 4. No other, but an Imperiall Garrison shall be laid into the City, nor shall any other command there, but such an one as hath his immediate dependance upon his Imp: Ma.
  • 5. All Citizens, strangers, and inhabitants in the Citie, which have served under the Crowne of Sweden, or the[Page 28]Confederate princes, shall in no sort be punished for it, nor shall any damage accrew to them thereby.
  • 6. If any Citizen, inhabitant, or stranger, Merchant, or other, which hath traffiqued unto this City, shall desire to goe forth with the Garrison, himselfe, and all that belong to him, shall have free leave so to doe, without any impe­diment.
  • 7. All those of the Senate, all Officers, Ministers, Citizens, Inhabitants, Strangers, Widows, and Orphanes, shall have liberty to depart free, and without hinderance, either in re­spect of Office, or pretence of common debt to the Citie, whatsoever it be, and as many as desire it, shall have a Passe, and Convoy, either by water or land; and if any Merchant or Chapman have occasion to abide still in the City for sale of his wares, hee shall have two moneths assigned him to that purpose, and shall afterward injoy the benesit of a Passe and Convoy, as well as they which depart away pre­sently.
  • 8. The Soldiers, and all which belong unto them, their chiefe and inferiour Officers of Horse and Foot, Masters of the Artillery, and others, shall march forth free, with dis­played Ensignes, erected Standards, Trumpets sounding, D [...] beating, high and low Armes Bullets in the mouth, and Pistols in the hand, with drawne Cocks, with bag and baggage, and whatsoever belonged unto them, they shall be conveyed to Newmarch; and from thence, without any hostile hinderance, shall have liberty to goe towards Norimberg.
  • 9. It shall be permitted to the Garrison to carny along with them 6 pieces of Ordnance, 4 great ones, and 2 lesser, which themselves should choose, and they shall have 6 Wa­gons to carry their ammunition and other materialls.
  • 10. Because there is great want of victuals in the Coun­try, the Garrison shall have leave to take out of the City, as much as will suffice the Soldiers upon the way, and there they should be provided of all other necessaries.
  • [Page 29]11. Provision shall he made for the sick, and maimed, certaine ships shall bee provided to carry them to Do­nawerth, and some officers of the garrison, shall bee left at Regenspurg as Hostages, till the ships and Convoy shall re­turne, who afterward shall be sent in safetie to Donawerth.
  • 12. No officer, or souldier, who had served under the Crowne of Sweden, or any of the confederate Protestant Princes, of what condition or quality soever he be, shall up­on any pretence be stayed, for any space of time, or be com­pelled or inticed, by word or deed, to forsake his colours, and if any of them shall revolt, it shall bee lawfull for the Commanders of the Protestant Army, to punish him, either in life, or body at their discretion.
  • 13. If any officer, or souldier shall be found in the gar­rison, which hath served formerly under his Imperiall Ma­jestie, or the Elector of Bavaria, hee shall not bee attached for it, but remaine still in the Company where hee now is, and not be drawne out of the troopes.
  • 14. If any sicke or wounded souldier bee found in the garrison, which cannot conveniently, and without preju­dice of his health, be brought forth immediately, he, or they shall be left in the Citie, bee well attended, and provided of necessaries, till his or their recovery, and then have a free passe to goe to his, or their owne Regiment, without any hinderance.
  • 15. None shall search the wagons, or cariages, appoin­ted for the garrison, either by water, or land, not take any thing away from them upon any pretense, nor molest them for their customes.
  • 16. All prisoners on both sides shall bee mutually set at liberty without ransome, and permitted to goe to their Re­giments; and all Citizens and inhabitants of the Citie of Regenspurg, which be arrested by the Imperialists, or Bava­rians, and imprisoned to nomine, shall be set free without ransome, and suffered to returne to their houses.
  • 17. This present day July 16.26. before night one gate [Page 30]shall be surrendred, namely the outmost gate, neere the Eastgate, together with the Zuinger, and horneworke neere it, and on the morrow, the other ports shall bee sur­rendred, without any secret hidden fire in the gates, or in the citie, and without further losing of time, all the con­tents of the concluded Articles, be performed.

And now besides the promise made by the Campe, upon the dignitie, word, and faith of his Majestie the King of Hungarie, the Elector of Bavaria, and all the Cavalliers, that all these Articles, with all their clauses, right sense, and meaning, should bee kept firme, constant, and without breach; for their more confirmation, there are 4. severall copies drawne after one and the same forme, one to be kept by his Majestie the King of Hungarie, another by the Duke of Bavaria, a third by the garrison, and the fourth by the Chamberlaine and Senate of the Citie; all which were sub­scribed by his Imperiall Majesties Councellor of war, Lord Chamberlaine, Lieutenant Generall, and appointed Com­mander, the Lord Mathias Earle of Gallas, deputed for his Majestie the King of Hungarie; by his Imperiall Maje­sties and the Duke of Bavaria his Counsellor, Lord Cham­berlaine, master of the Artillery, and ammunition, and ap­pointed Commander, the Lord Otto Henry Fugger, Earle of Kirchberg, and Weissenhorne, Knight of the golden fleece deputed for the Duke of Bavaria, the Lord Generall Ma­jor Lars Kaggen, and the Lord Hieronymus Bergen the go­verning Chamberlaine of Regenspurg, for the City and gar­rison. Signed before, and within the Citie of Regenspurg. July 16.26. 1634.

These were honourable termes wisely concluded, the Commanders being as carefull of the Citie in their compo­sition, as their Army, and faithfully performed, the King of Hungarie shewing no lesse justice in his action, then cle­mency in a willing yeelding to all demands, as if he meant to winne the hearts of the Germanes, not their townes, and held it more glorious and sure, to overcome them with[Page 31]courtesie, then to conquer them with his sword. Questi­onlesse it is the more thriving way, and worketh power­fully upon the affection of men, to reduce them to a willing obedience, when cruelty and blood-thirstinesse, harden them in rebellion, and obstinacie. The gracious proclama­tion, and pardon, granted by his Majestie the King of Hun­garie to the Citie is a full testimony of his goodnesse, and the letters testimoniall subscribed by the Chamberlaine and Se­nate of Regenspurg, sealed with the City seale, and given the Generall Major Kagge, before his departure is a wit­nesse beyond exception, of his wisdome, and valour, in ma­naging the war, wherein he was especially trusted, the Co­pies of both which, we have here inserted, as followeth.

The K. of Hung: Procla­mation of par­don to the Ci­tie. VVEE Ferdinand the third by the grace of God, King of Hungarie, Bohemia, &c. Make it knowne to all men generally, by these presents, That, whereas the Chamberlaine, and Senate of the City of Regenspurg have againe with all humility submitted themselves to his Imperiall Majestie, as their naturall Lord, and have promised to continue in all subjection, obedience, and devotion to his Imperiall Majestie, (as it becommeth the faithfull subjects of the Empire, and the house of Austria) and have humbly requested, that we would be plea­sed to defend and protect them, with the Citizens, Ministers, and Officers, & that we would gratiously pardon all misdemeanours, and behaviour, passed, since the taking of it by the Swedes, according to the Articles agreed upon; Wee as appointed high Generall by his Imperiall Majestie, our most grati­ous, and loving father, and in the name of his Im­periall Majesty, fully, and graciously forgive, and[Page 32]pardon the Chamberlaine, Senate, and Citizens, and all which belong unto them their misbehaviour passed, and will so take them into the Imperiall grace, favour, and protection, that the often men­tioned his Imperiall Majesty, and We also will pro­tect, the aforesaid Chamberlaine, and Senate, against all sorts of men in generall, and every one in parti­cular. For the better assurance whereof, wee have subscribed to these presents, and sealed them, with our Royall hand, and privie signet. Dated in our head quarter at Brielen, July 16.26. in the yeare 1634. in the yeares of our raigne over our King­dome of Hungarie the ninth, and of Bohemia the seventh.

The Letters testimoniall gi­ven to the Ge­nerall Major Kagge.

VVEE the Chamberlaine, and Senate of the Ro­mane Imperiall Citie of Regenspurg, make it knowne to all, and every one; That where as after the ta­king of our Citie, and departure of the Bavarian garri­son, the Noble Lord Lars Kagge appointed generall Ma­jor, and Commander by his Majestie the King of Sweden of ever blessed memorie, was laid into this Citie, with 4. regiments of foote, and 200. Horse, as the chiefe Com­mander in the garrison, in the name of the Crowne of Sweden, and the Protestant confederate Princes, by the Illustrious and high borne Prince, and Lord, the Lord Bernhard, Duke of Saxonie, Gulick, Cleve, Bergk, &c. Hee, the said generall Major after the Citie was belea­gueted by his Majestie the King of Hungarie his Army, and the Army of the Duke of Bavaria, behaved him­selfe, as a carefull, and faithfull Commander, did as much in fortifying the Citie, as could be advised by humane [Page 33]wit, opposed himselfe stoutly in resistance, of the Assai­lants forces, feared no danger, spared no labour, day or night, but performed all duties required of abrave hardy and valiant souldier, the other Commanders, Officers, and Souldiers doing the like in their severall charges, and places. But because we neither had assurance, nor in­telligence, either by word or letter of reliefe, because our ammunition was wasted, even to a dayes spending, if wee had beene againe assaulted, and for that the Enemie, had made all his preparations so ready, that hee might easily and without resistance, againe, and againe attempt upon us, hereupon, and upon our declaration, consent, and re­quest, He, being willing to spare the shedding of innocent blood, agreed with his Majestie, the King of Hungarie, and the Duke of Bavaria upon honourable conditions, wherein respecting principally our good, and benefit of our Citizens, he gave no way to the impeachment of our pri­viledges, immunities, and free exercise of religion, but concluded for us as happily, as we our selves could have desired. F [...] all which we acknowledge our selves much bound to the Generall Major, all the Commanders, and Officers, and shall ever extoll, their valour, wisedome and sinceritie; In confirmation of the assurance whereof, wee have given them these our letters testimoniall, sea­led with the seale of our Citie, Dated in Regenspurg, Iu­ly 17.27. 1634.

How excellent a thing is it, to be faithfull in a matter of trust? What a sweet savour doth the name of an up­right wise man leave behinde him? True vertue needs no trumpet to blazon out her fame; The friends of a good man, unasked will loade him with favours, and his enemies, though they gaine only by his imperfections, and[Page 34]weaknesses, not by his abilitie, and wisdome, will admire his graces, extoll his merit, shake the hand of love with him upon occasion, as the Imperialists in their rankes did with the garrison, when it went forth of this Citie, Iu­ly 18.28.

The Duke Bernhard, and the Field-Marshall, seeing the apparent danger, whereunto they should expose their Ar­my, if they should attempt upon the Leaguer, that being se­cured from hazard, by the many maeanders and windings of the trenches, thought it better to adventure upon some peeces of importance abroad, where there was probability of a proportionable gaine, then to hazard all upon a doubt­full battell, where there was no likelih [...]od, but of losse. Landshut taken by assault. Landshut, a City upon the Iser, built by Lodowick Duke of Bavaria, in the yeare 1208. famous for the excellent Archi­tecture of the private houses, one goodly Church beyond all the rest, and the new palace of the Duke of Bavaria, was the first place they fell upon, after the taking in of the places abovenamed. Altringer slaine. Hither was Altringer, the Bavarian Field­marshall, sent with some troopes to succour it, a man knowne to the world, for a prudent and warie, [...]ldier, but he in a battell being slaine, with a shot through the head, his Army was routed, and the towne laid open to invasion of the Evangelicall Army, who July 12.22. tooke it by assault, fired the Castle, and Suburbs, pillaged the Citie, and put as many as they found in Armes, to the Sword. Dingelfing, and Landaw yeelded by compositi­on. Thence they passed downe the river to Dingelfing, Landaw, both which yeelded upon reasonable composition.

I willingly omit the Actions of the Leaguer before For­chaim, and the untimely death of the Lord Vngnad, basely murdered by his owne servant, as hee was in the way thi­ther, about the end of June; Let this one suffice for all, upon Tuesday July 15.25. when the funerall of the Lieutenant Colonell Frederick William Ebleben, who was slaine before [Page 35]Forchaim, was kept at Norimberge, the Commander with­in conceiving that without doubt all the horsemen, would be commanded, to attend the procession, and honour the fu­nerall rites at Norimberg, The Com­mander in For­cheim attempt­eth upon the Camp, [...]nd is overreached in his owne de­signe. hee purposed with all his forces, to make a sally upon the trenches, and bring the remnant of the Army, which was left behjnde to utter ruine; This Counsell being either suspected, or discovered to the Field­marsht Cratz, he caused some Companies of horse, the same day, with their displayed colours, to march as towards No­rimberge so openly, that the besieged might onely have a sight of them, and no more; but then to wheele about again, when the Enemie could not perceive them, and place them­selves in a convenient ambuscadoe, whence they might have opportunity to returne with violence upon the backs of the Enemie, if he should adventure to sally forth upon the Ar­my; It is a master-piece to kill a man with his owne wea­pon, and to overreach a contriving head, in his owne way. The counterplot must in all circūstances answer the ground, if it faile in the least particular, it is probable to be defective in the totall; and here, as the Fieldmarshall had cast it, all things fell out accordingly. The glimpse of the horsemens march animated the garrison to the enterprize, they stayed but to Arme, and then fell so furiously, and pressed so hardly upon the Leaguer, that many of the Swedes were hurt, and wounded; but the horsemen quickly arose from the Am­bush to their succour, and fell so close to their tackling, that they slew 130. of these adventurers, took some prisoners, and made the rest to take their heeles; and now they keepe close within their wals, they neither being forward to start out, nor the Fieldmarsh: to assault it, having determined not to undertake that course with those small forces (which were rather left to block it up then besiege it,) but to force it to yeeld, for want of necessaries, the river being cut off, as is related formerly, and he by this meanes having a hope to take it.

About the same time the Captaine of the Dragooners in [Page 36]Weyden a towne of the upper Palatimate, understanding that the Imperiall Commander Husman, by reason of the plague at Dachaw, was retired fro thēce to one of his Farms, neere Frawenburg: Colonell Hus­man and his fa­mily surprised▪ Hee and his Dragoniers, being then oc­casionally at Flossenburg, marched from thence by night, early in the morning surprized the Countrey house, tooke the Commander, and his wife and childe, with a Countesse of Guttensteine, his brother in law Colonell Klepping, the Jesuite Father Federle (who before that Weyden was ta­ken in by the Swedes, had openly delivered in the pulpit, that the Lutherans deserved to be tyed together in bundels, like birds upon a stick, and to bee hanged) and all their ser­vants, pillaged the farme, and brought the prisoners into Weyden, where they are close kept, and under a strict watch. And now having taken this short view of the acti­ons in Bavaria, the upper Palatinate, and Alsatia, wee will pause a while, before we are weary, in following the Evan­gelicall, and Imperiall Armies, whose succeeding actions must now be referred to another discourse.

The Actions of the King of Hungarie, and D. of Bavaria, in Franconia and Bavaria; with the proceedings of D. Bernhard Wey­mar, and Gustavus Horne, two principall Commanders for the Princes of the uni­on there: Or, A Relation of what hath been done on both sides, since July 20. CAP. 3.

WHen the K. of Hungary, after his victory at Ratisbone or Regensburg, had appoin­ted a guard of 1000. men under the com­mand of Col: Goltz to defend it (which Souldiers, as they write from Franconia, July 29. were not then lodged in the City, but the Out. works, because of an infecti­ous disease which raigned within, whereof there dyed dai­ly tenne or twelve persons) and the D. of Bavaria had laid the Regiment of the Colonell Comargo, who was slaine be­fore Regenspurgh, into Strawbingen, the King himselfe (it is said from Auspurg) July 28, went towards Passaw, his Lieutenant Gen: Gallas marched towards Bohemia with 11 Regiments, and the rest of the Imperiall Army was con­joyned with the Bavarian. And this report though it was at the first confirmed from divers places, yet at last they all conclude generally, that both the King himselfe, and the Earle of Gallas, returned speedily towards Bavaria, inten­ding to pursue their fortune which had beene so favourable to them in those parts. His first designe was against Dona­werth, wherein the Lieutenant Colonell Termo lay and commanded. The manner of the Kings march thitherward, is thus expressed by Letters from Nordlingen, a citie upon the borders of Wirtemberg, in the mid way betwixt Dona­werth, [Page 38]and Bopffingen, distant from each about; German miles, who had it by relation of two Souldiers which ranne away from the Imperialists, and came to Nordlingen, Aug. 5.15. two souldiers which were of the Field-Marshal Horns Life-Regiment, and had beene taken prisoners by the Im­perialists betwixt Moseburg and Landshut, when they had beene kept in fetters by the space of certaine dayes unranso­med, and unexchanged, were constrained to take pay under Colonell Fugger, but yesterday morning, when the Imperia­lists were measuring out the Camp for the foot forces neere the towne of Raine (a place upon the Bavarian side of the Danubie, upon the Lech, almost opposite to Donawerth, and distant thence about two German miles) faining as if they went to fetch wood to build their tents, came hither, and reported that the Imperiall Horse 15000 strong, and the Infantery consisting of 20 Regiments, were within but lit­tle more than an houres journey from Donawerth; that they had with them 60 pieces of Ordnance, & 2 fire morterers; A true relation, the like being reported from Auspurg Aug. 6.16. and made manifest by the consequence, which was the taking in of Donawerth Aug. 7.17 by composition but afterwards pillaged.

From Donawerth the Imperiall Army marched against Nordlingen, as appeares by these Letters under-written.

THe Enemy before Nordlingen goeth very slow to worke, it is in a manner only blocked up, for the Im­perialists cannot bring their Canons neere the towne, they within the Citie wherein the blew Regiment is lodged, so strenuously oppose them.

And this Story was confirmed by 2 Letters from Bopffingen, and one from Franconia, the first whereof bearing date Aug. 13.23. is thus.

THe Enemy assaulted the City of Nordlingen but few dayes since with some selected troopes, thinking to surprize it unawares, but the Commander there is a brave Soldier, never had his eyes hurt with smoake, and by watch­fulnesse[Page 39]prevented them. Hereupon the King of Hungarie, with his whole Army marched before it, and hath battered it without intermission the space of 3 whole dayes. Now the besieged haue need of present succour and reliefe, assoon as the Rhinegraves Army, which is expected hourely: some forces from the Bodensea, which the Field-marshall Horne hath sent for, and the Wirtembergers shal arrive, (all which may well be within these 2 dayes) then Duke Bernhard, who this day with the Foot-forces and Artillery is arrived here, and the Field-marshal Horn who was come with the Avantgard yesterday, are resolved to try their fortune, and to relieve the City, and to give battell to the Enemy.

The second is thus:

Assoone as the Enemy before Nordlingen heard of the comming of our forces, he dislodged from before it, and sent all his baggage towards Donawerth; It is reported that he standeth in battel array within 1 hours march of this place, that he hath called unto him the Commander Isolan, that he hath sent for those troops which were left about the Danu­bie, and the river of Lech, & the Commander Iohn de Werth with his Horsemen. We never were so neere the Enemy, as now.

The last bearing date Aug. 17.27. is thus:

Even now we receive Avisoes, that Duke Bernhard and Gustavus Horne assaulted the Enemy upon Friday last, Aug. 15.25 before Norlingen, and in the fury out off 2000 Im­periall Curassiers The particulars we expect hereafter.

They wrote from Auspurg, Iuly 30. Aug. 9. the D. Bern: marched from thence over the Danubie, and the Field-mar­shall towards Landsperg and Gongaw, to have an eye upon the Enemy. And yet this division of these Commanders, exposed the Cities and Country of Franconia, and about the Danubie, to the spoile of the Imperiall Army, 14 dayes the D. spent in strengthning his Army with new supplyes, being forced for that purpose to raise the siege of Forcheim, and recall the Field-marshall Cratz from thence, to send for[Page 40]some other troopes which lay in the lower Palatinat, the trained hands of Franconia and Wirtemberg, all which re­quired time, and gave the Imperialists much advantage.

The siege of Forcheim raised. The Field-marshall Cratz as it is written from Franco­nia Iuly 27. Aug. 6. had so insconced himselfe, that hee was secure from danger by assault of the Enemy, and brought the Garison to that extremity, that they within were much scan­ted of victuals, and in such want of ammunition especially, that the Citizens were constrained to give them their Pew­ter dishes (as some prisoners reported) to make bullets, and began to speak of yeelding by composition, but the sudden rising of the Campe eased them of these necessities, and brought much vexation to the neighbouring territory. Du­ring the time of the siege, as they of Norimberge not with­out joy delivered it, the wayes were passable, the Country delivered from Boot-halers, and the price of food brought downe to a reasonable rate; yet that siege was no sooner raised, but the Garison stragled againe abroad, pillaged the Country, till with in halfe a German League of Norimberge, burnt to ashes many Villages, which had not payed contri­bution in that time, as namely, Cros-r [...]th, Klein-re [...]th, Lo [...]e, Malms-hoffe, Crafts-hoffe, Neun-hoffe, Hewltzberg, and Fa [...]h, omitting to doe nothing there, which had a rellish of hostile insolency.

This was a time of sorrow and lamentation to all that Province, which longed for deliverance, but had not as yet strength to bring forth. The Imperiall army ceased not from doing whatsoever might any way molest, or offend their adversaries. Hippolstein as­saulted. Upon Munday Aug. 3.13.130 Imperiall Horse suddenly assaulted Hippolstein, beat downe one of the Ramparts, broke open the outmost gate, & had thought to have plundered the towne, Greding & Diet­furd plundered. as before they had done at Greding, and Dietfurd, but the Citizens quickly betaking themselves to their Arms, and the hinderance by the draw­bridge which was then taken up, did then frustrate that at­tempt, which is reported to have been performed the[Page 41]Thursday following. But that very Munday (though the for­tune of war smiled a little upon the Evangelicall there) was more unfortunat to this party about Norimberge, A Swedish company of 25 Horse surprised for thē 25 Swedish Horsemen, going from thence to the Army, were suddenly set upon by 2 Imperiall-troopes, which being hid­den in a thicket, sallyed upon them in the way, slew some of them, and tooke all the rest prisoners, except the Captain, who alone with his wife escaped; 15 Wagons loa­den with Mer­chants goods, taken by the Imperialists. then 15 Wagons which came from Vlin and Nordlingen, loaden with Merchants goods towards Norimberg, were surprised by 200 Imperial Horsmen, the Convoy for the most part slain or wounded, & al the Wagons but one, which was loaden with bedding, carryed away towards Deversdorff, and little Abenberg.

About the same time they of Forcheim sent out a party al­most as far as the Imperial City of Winshaim, which burned Newstat a Citie in Franconia, upon the River of Aisch, Daxbach, and many other places; the Imperialists surprised Kaufforyern in Schwabenland, carryed away the Garrison soldiers, which were about an hundred Foot, and 25 Horse, prisoners; plundered Ottingen, and Wendlingen; Onspach taken, & the Marqui­sate given to Iohn de Werth. and Iohn de Werth the Bavarian, lately a priso­ner, but then ransomed, took-in the Citie of Onspach, laid into it three Imperiall Regiments for a Garrison, and was rewarded for his service with the honour of the Marquisate thereof, by the K. of Hungarie, who in requitall of his acti­on, conferred that honour freely upon him.

Barreuch, a City in the upper Palatinat, was assaulted by the Imperialists of Averbach by night, Aug. 5.15. but the Lieutenant Colonell that conducted this Army, and com­manded in Averbach, lost himselfe there, being slaine with many others which followed him, and so they were forced to returne without any honourable atchievement

The City of Weyden in the upper Palatinat was twice assaulted by the forces in Amberg, Tershenrent, Partestein, and other places Fryday 8.18. August especially, but then[Page 42]they were va [...]ly [...]a [...]en off, and forced with great losse to return from whence they came.

[...]otenberg an Imperiall City upon the Ta [...]ber in [...]o­ma, was summoned Aug. 10. [...]. by the Kings Army, and threatned, that if it would not surrender, they would put all both yong and old to the sword, but the Citizens having received into the City 130 Swedes the day before, resol­ved to stand out to the last man; and on Munday morning about 7 of the clock, sallyed forth with some selected Boors, whereof there were 600 in the towne, cut off 6 of the Ar­my, without the losse of one man, recovered 150 great cat­tell, which the Imperialists had got by pillage thereabouts: whereupon the Enemy the next day following departed thence.

The Swedes at D [...]gelspiell Aug. 12.22. under the com­mand of Colonel Ros [...], sallied out, tooke 100 prisoners, slew 200 men, and recovered the greatest part of the Cattell, Horse, and other booty, which the Kings Army had gotten in Pranconia.

Three or some dayes before, some Regiments of Horse and Foot were sent against Ger [...]n [...], an Imperiall City in Schwabenland, in the frontier of the Dukedome of Wirtem­berg, but few of them returned back and thereabout as they write from Bopffingen, Aug. 13.23. in the space of two or three dayes, were flame outright above 1200 Imperialists, whereof many were hanged because of their insolencyes, and almost as many taken prisoners, the greatest part whereof were Officers, Lieutenants, Comets, and the like. To this estate matters were brought before the comming downe of the Evangelicall armies, alter they were once di­vided; The taking of Landsh [...], and death of Altrin­ger. Turn we now back to the taking of Landsh [...], and death of the Generall Altringer, which though it be [...]ch­ed before, yet because it is now more fully discovered by out latter intelligence, though it was first in time, may fitly[Page 43]be here inserted, and it is thus set downe in a Letter out of D. Bernhards Campe in Bavaria, Iuly 26. Aug. 5. Wee were fully resolved, if it had been possible, to have releeved Ra­tisbone, but being herein disappointed, wee marched to­wards Landshut, and came before it Iuly 10.20. we hoped that the City would have yeelded upon faire termes, but the Inhabitants were too confident of their own strength, which consisted of 3 new Regiments of Dragoniers, be­sides the ordinary Garison, and relief by the Bavarian Field­marshall Aleringer, who appeared on the other side of the Iser, within a Canons shot of the City, and therefore refu­sed to hearken unto any tearmes of composition, The Duke Bernhard hereupon assaulted the Castle, and Gustavus Horn the City, the walls whereof being battered, were broken down by violence of the Canon, and the breach entred by the Soldiers, who destroyed many in the fury, tooke priso­ner the Commander Hinderson, a Lieutenant Colonell, and many other Officers of note, chasing the remainder over the bridge, and through the Iser.

The Bavarian Generall, which came to rescue the besie­ged, was himselfe so put to it, that he perceived no way of safety left him, but by flight, and this way hee would have used, but his Army being rowted, the bridge was thronged with clusters of men, and the passage so barricadoed with the crowde of his flying soldiers, that he was forced to leap into the streame, where the mortall shot of a musket over­reached him, the watry Element did not cover his head, on which the bullet smote him so deadly, that thereon he died immediately.

The Imperiall Horse posted then with all speed towards Regensburg, being pursued by the Princes forces no farther then Eckenmuhl, because the Foot could not easily passe the Laber.

The Citizens and Soldiers in Landshut spared no paines [Page 44]to defend the breach from invasion, thither they carried hay, straw, brush fagots, and the like fewell, which they kindled, thinking by that meanes to keepe the Swedish Souldiers from scaling the walls, but the sire catching some houses neere, quickly increased so violently, that the Castle and halfe the Citie was burned to the ground, while the o­ther halfe became a prey to the Army.

And now we returne to see the passages of those 2. great Armies in Franconia, upon which the eyes of Germany are more specially fixed, the flower of the Empire, being set to play together, for no lesse a stake, then a large and goodly Countrey. Both parties are now busied in making up their Armies full, the Bavarians rejoyned themselves with the Imperialls, from whom they were gone for a little space, to looke homeward, upon the desolation of their owne Pro­vince, and to avenge themselves as occasion offered it selfe, upon their enemie; The Spanish forces, 12000. strong, under the Cardinal Infants (who had stayed so long at Inspruck, to strengthen his Army, with the remnant of those which served lately under the D. of Feria, & some fresh Germans and Millainers) repaired to the Imperiall colours at Nord­lingen, Duke Bernhard, and the Fieldmarshall Horne, bring their Armies together, that so they might joyntly oppose them. The first intention of the Evangelicall Commanders, was, to releeve the city of Nordlingen, which the King ai­med at in the first place, and then to give battell to the whole Imperiall party. The beginning of these enterprises was prosperous, for as it is written from Weysenburg; Co­lonell Plato, and the Lord of Hoff-Kirchen, having disper­sed 500 Imperiall Curiasseirs, which were set to keep the passage to the City, the Fieldm: Horn, brought in 300. Mus­quetiers, conferred with the Governor the L. Ebrahed Dac­bitz, and the Citizens, and returned back, before the Impe­riall Arm [...] was aware, this was done August. 14.24. The [Page 45]Commander in the towne incouraged by this new supply, the same night about 2. of the clock, sallied forth to assault one of the Kings workes, thinking to burne it, but the bas­kets and wood being green, would not take fire; and so mis­sed this designe; yet the next day about 3. of the clocke in the afternoone, he sallied forth againe, betwixt the Rimlin­ger, and Deininger gare, assaulted another battery, made of dry wood, so large, that 6. Canons might bee well planted upon it; chased the Imperialists out of the trenches, in which they lay insconsed thereabouts, slew some, and took 4. pri­soners, and burned the battery to the ground.

The Citie thus fortified, the Evangelicall Commanders make preparation to assault the Imperiall army, the more in­couraged hereunto, by their good successe in many skirmi­shes, betwixt some Regiments of both Armies, wherein the Swedes had alwayes the best, the alacrity of their owne souldiers, which expressed a cheerefull desire to fight, the multitude of prisoners they had lately taken, all which re­ported, that there was such a famine in the Imperiall Camp, that a little loafe of bread was sold for 2. Rixdollars, that the sicknesse was very hot amongst them, that the Enemie was so far retired from Nordlingen, that hee could scarfe reach it with the Canon, that though it was reported, that the whole Imperiall, Bavarian, and Italian Armies were 40000. strong, yet in truth they were not above 30000. for so it is written from Dunkelspiel Aug: 20.30. that when the rowle of the Imperiall Army was lately examined, it was found that above 3000. men had been lately lost; that the Hungarians would not fight, because Iohn de Werth had opprobriously called them scurvie dogs, that they beleeved verily, that if the Imperiall Army was put to it in earnest, they would not stand to it, because they wanted necessary provision, and ammunition, and the like; the truth of which appeareth for the most part, and the manner by the extract[Page 46]of a letter, written in the swedish campe, at the Imperiall City of Bop [...]in [...]en, Aug. [...]. [...]0. as followeth.

When wee had passed by Keipheim over the Danubie, the next day after in the afte [...]on [...], we matched by Gien­g [...]n, who [...]e Duke Ear [...]hands Life guard, and the Chu [...]la [...] ­dis [...] Regiment, which had the Van, Aug: 10.20. defeated 6 [...]0. of the Imperiall Curi [...]ssi [...]rs, and took many prisoners, which related that the Kings Army was in great perplexity, and that Iohn de W [...]rth, with 7. Regiments, had made an in­vasion into Franconia.

Hereupon a Councell of war was called to advise, whe­ther it was [...]ot be [...]t in the absence of this Commander, to t [...] [...]e the advantage, and give present battell to the Enemy, but it being resolved on, that it was best first to secure the Countrey of Wi [...]tenberg, and then to Attach the Enemy, we marched the same evening to Heyde [...]heim a frontier City of the Dukedome, and thence the next day Aug: 11.21. Duke Bernh: marched betimes with the horse men, to Aw­ [...]en, where he eat off above 1000. stragling Imperialis, and tooke 300. prisoners, thither we also arrived at night, and the next day the Avantguard under the Fieldmarshall Horn arrived here at Bopsingen, tooke a passage (which opened the way to the Imperiall Citie of Nordlingen) from the Crabats, Hungarians, and Pollacks which kept it, before the Duke Bernh: could reach hither, who came not to us till the next day, with the maine body of the Army.

The report of the prisoners, that Iohn de Werth, with his 7. Regiments was not yet returned out of Franconi [...], and that the Imperiall Army was very weake, incouraged us not a little to put some thing to an adventure, and thereupon re­solved to dislodge betimes the next morning Aug: 14.24. that we might take the high ground, which lay before us, and as occasion did present it selfe, fight with the Enemy.

The day following Aug: 15.25. we stood betimes in the [Page 47]morning in battle array, when the Duke Bernhard, with the Avantguard, and some selected Musque [...]rs, beate off the Hungarian [...], and Crabats, from their station, upon the men­tioned Hill, and became master of it. Hence we perceived that the Imperiall armie kept another passage neere a little river, which runneth through the City of Nordlingen, but could not well discerne how it stood, and with what con­veniency we might passe that way. The Duke himselfe ther­fore advanced thitherward, with the right wing of his ar­my, and chased the Imperialists headlong through the Ri­ver; and then perceiving it to be dangerous to attempt any further that way, in the presence of the Enemie, they all concluded with one generall vote, onely how to succour the City of Nordlingen, to furnish it with more souldiers, and to advise the garrison, & citizens of their full intention, and thereupon we stood armed upon the passage, to hinder the Enemie, from marching over it, whiles the Fieldmarsh. Horne might goe in safety to the City, which he did with­out hinderance, and aswell as could be wished. Below the City, some of the Enemies troopes, attempted to goe over, but were encountred by the Lord of Hoff-kirchen, who beate them back▪ and made them tu [...]ne headlong through the River. By this the Fieldmarsh: Horne had releeved the City, and was upon his returne, and then the Duke begin­ning to draw back his forces from the passage; the Enemie with all his Regiments of Crabats, Hungarian, and Ger­mane Horsemen fel upon his Excellencies Reare, and forced the Duke himselfe to returne, who thereupon assaulted them so furiously, that he put them to a confused flight, wherein many were slaine, and more, out of all question, if the darknesse of night had not suddenly hid them, had lost their lives. The Duke then sounded the retreat, and kept upon the passage till the dawning of the day; at which time he repaired to the Army, the which, whilest he would have[Page 48]lodged securely, Iohn de Werth set upon him with 2. Squa­drons, but was beaten backe by his Life Regiment, whilest the rest of our Army were brought to their Quarter. In these skirmishes there was slaine of the Imperiall Army, and taken prisoners, above 3000. and many revolted, and came on our side.

The forces from Wirtenberg, consisting of 500. men, with the Ranzovish Regiment, as also 600. horsemen, and 400. Dragooners are arrived here with Colonell Shaffelitz­kie; wee onely expect the comming downe of the Rhine­grave, with his troopes, and then we intend to reassaile the Imperiall army, with whom we are already so far ingaged, that they must sight of necessity. The Wirtembergers deale with us both faithfully, and friendly, they spare not to send us store of provision, to the great encouragement of our ar­my. Yesterday the Duke Beruh: caused a young Gentleman of Shonefeldt, to be hanged, who was sent by the Enemy to view our army, and yesterday the Swedish Commander at Wallerstein, slew 60. Imperialists, and the Commander in Giengen 50. and tooke many other prisoners. Thus much speakes this letter which shewes the confederate princes in these attempts to have been till then, if not victorious, yet not unhappy.

THE CONTINVANCE of the King of HUNGARIES Storie to bee annexed to the former.

BUt the fairest morning is quickly o­vercast, the wheele soone turneth a­bout, and this fortune which smiled thus at the first aspect, almost in a moment changed his visage, to teach us, (may it be lawfull for a Christian historian to make this application) not to trust to the arme of flesh, in these, and the like occurrences, but refer all to his discretion, and ordinance, which changeth the times and seasons at his pleasure, suffereth the brittle vessels of clay to be dashed in pieces, when they presume too much of their owne temper.

The outrages done by the Imperialists at Hoch­statt in Swaben, if there had beene nothing else, could not but move the Protestant Generalls, to engage themselves in fight with the Kings army that either by victorie they might secure their friends from the like cruelties afterwards, or by[Page 50]the adventure, they might give a testimony of their zeale to the Countrey of which they had underta­ken the protection. The bloody dealing of the Po­lakes, and Crabats sent by the Imperiall Comman­der Isolani to Heckstat, to summon the Citie, is scarse credible, yet it is thus reported by letters from thence, July 21.31. The 12.22. of this moneth when this Citie was first summoned by some troopes of Polakes, and Crabats, the inhabi­tants in generall both Protestants and Catholikes, ranne to the Gates immediately to set them open, to the commanding souldiers. But the Crabats not staying the time while this might bee done, cut downe the gates, and furiously plundered the City from 9 in the morning, to 6. in the evening, tortu­ring many of the inhabitants most barbarously. They ravished of the women, even to death; powred dunghill water, and vineger into the thr [...]at [...] of se­ven men, and women, tyed chaines, and cords a­bout their heads, and twisted them so hard, that they fell downe dead upon the ground; some they hanged up by the privy members, sawed off the legs of some; rubbed off the flesh from the legs of others to the very bones, tyed the armes of others backwards, and so hanged them up by those di­storted parts, drew many through the streetes of the City starke naked, beate and wounded them with axes and hammers, and generally used them with such barbarous cruelty, that every man beg­ged to bee shot, or slaine instantly, rather then to live and be partaker of such misery. The Master of the Hospitall they roasted alive, and sacked the City so miserably, that they spoiled what they could not cary away, as if their intention, was on­ly[Page 51]for waste, and devastation. All the corne and provision of victuals, they tooke away with them, and left the place so bare, that many of the best ranke for the space of 8. dayes after, saw not one bit of bread, but were glad to feede upon unripe fruit, and water, and yet, as if all this had been too little, they spoiled the inhabitants of their garments also, and exposed them to that nakednesse, that nei­ther man, woman, nor childe had clothes to put on, but all went up and downe, in their shirts and smocks, having nothing else to cover them. Thus writeth our discoverer. But this was not all, the Fieldmarshall Horne had given his word to the Commander in Nordlingen, to succour him, the King played fiercely upon the City, and it could not hold out, the Swedes must put forward, if they in­tend to stay the conquest, and on they went, though unfortunately, as will be more particularly discovered by what followeth. I finde the battell expressed diversly, as the relators stood affected, the best relation is ful of horror, both in the present fact and consequents, and have here set them downe, that the readers may be fully informed of each par­ticular.

[Page 52]The first of these is set out by a German Catholike, and is titled Victory, &c.

A True Relation, and as the same is de­livered unto the Elector and Arch­bishop of Main [...]z, by his Noble Coun­sellor and Governor of Pri [...]lar, Christoph Heinrich of Griesheim, Sept. 2.12. Concerning The great and glorious Victory which was ob­tained by His Majesty the King of Hungarie and Sohemia, against the Swedes and their adherents neer Nordlingen the 26 of Aug. the 6. of Sept. An. 1634. where the afore mentioned Governor him­selfe was present.

Illustrious Archbishop and Elector my Gracious Lord,

THough both the Lieutenant Generall Earle of Gallas, and the Field-marshall Altringer pro­ [...]ed to gratifie my desire, in sending some auxi­liary Regiments with me, yet I was forced to wait all this summer, from one week to another, till the day of the happy surrendring of the City of Re­gensburg;[Page 53]after the [...]ng whereof, I againe desi­ring the afore [...] i [...]ned Lieutenant Gen e [...]all Gal­las [...]o [...], [...]ee answered, that at the com­ming of the Italian forces, sufficient mean [...] would be to succour us: I therefore conferred about it with the Imperiall Commissary Ossa, who desired me to go down with all speed, and [...] sten the com­ming of some of our Regiments towards the P [...]on­tiers of Alsa [...]ia, and then we could be succoured a­gain by the Italians.

Now in respect of the long and dangerous jour­ney through Burgundie and Lorraine, I sent from Lindaw with consent and knowledge of the Co­lonell Vi [...]th [...]mb a Trumpeter to Ravenspurg, to the Swedish General Major Colonel Shafflitzky my neare kinsman, and desired of him a Passe to travail into Th [...]ringen to mine owne, which hee not onely granted, but likewise suffered me to goe first to Ulm and Goppingen: But when the afore­said Colonell Shaffelitzkie came to the Duke Bern­ [...]ard of Saxon Weymar, and had there made men­tion of me, the Duke was some what displeased at it, and commanded him that he should bring mee back againe to him: Hee came to me just at that time, when I was taking Poste, and called me back, but promised me by the faith of a Cavallier, that no harme should be done unto me, and the licence of [...]asse which he had given me, should be faithfully observed; which was done according to his pro­mise; & [...] was not (as it was here rumored) held as a pilso [...]?

A [...]oone as I came into the Swedish Campe, a­bout [...]opssingen, the Field marshall Horne sent for m [...]t [...] [...] and dine with him, and entertained[Page 54]me very honourably: but amongst other discourses he said, that we did long very much to come into the Country of Wirtemberge, and wee had beene about [...] th [...]se [...] yeares, we should be patient onely, for the Children of Israel had wandred 40 yeares in the wildernesse, before they came into Canaan. The next evening I was called againe to supper, where the Duke Bernhard of Weymar spoke in this manner to me, Master Griesheim, how come you hither? whereupon I answered him, that hee had graciously commanded it, else certainely I would not have come into the Campe, for my journey was for Thuringen: whereupon he said, that you knew how despised and hated you are, and can you thinke to come safely thither? Yes I answered, by the Passe which the Generall Major Shaffelitzkie had granted unto me; a little while after Duke Bernhard said, that three dayes agoe he had caused a yong Noble man to be hanged, which did come thither to discry the Campe: which dis­course I did not like very well, notwithstanding the Field-marshall Horne, laughing, said, it was not spoken to me, my Passe should faithfully be kept; I must onely expect, till this occasion was passed, and they might see what the issue thereof would be.

Notwithstanding I remained somewhat per­plexed, and the next morning following I made an humble supplication to his Excellency, and promi­sed in it that I would sit still in Thuringen, if so be I could enjoy the liberty of mine owne Religion; if a peace should be treated of therein, [...] doe profitable service, being [...]inted with all the Counsellors in the Imperiall and Catholike Ele­ctors[Page 55]and Princes Courts. In the mean time I would be quiet, and imploy my service no further, hoping that I should be set at liberty. The Duke Bernhard of W [...]y ma [...] [...]enie audien [...]e the space of an hour and a halfe hare headed, spoke about many things with me, especially about a peace, and made men­tion of the Duke of Freidland, saying, hee would not have trusted him, and although hee had come unto him: moreover he told me how much I was bound to his Electorall and Princely house, and yet I had been so zealous in the Imperiall service; my Religion he would put unto mine own conscience, only hee hade [...]work [...] remember, that in the time of Charles the Great, the Pope was onely a Patriarch, like unto the Grecian Patriarch. He asked me how strong the Imperiall and Bavarian Armies were, whereupon I told him, that the Imperiall Army was at least effective 28000 strong, and the Italian 12000 compleat; at which he laughed, and answe­red some what roughly, hee did well enough per­ceive what I had yet in my heart, I should onely tell it none of his men, because none of them would beleeve it: for both the Imperiall and Bavarian Ar­my were not above 9000 Horsemen, and 8000 Foot, and the Italian Army were likewise not so strong, and that the King of Hungarie had done very ill to ingage himselfe againe with the siege before Nordlingen, hee could not now well leave the siege with reputation, and if so be he intended to retire againe, he would be very nimble to attend him. Further he told me, that the Elector of Tryer had done very ill in taking into his Fort the Frenchmen; hee was verily perswaded that they would rather see the Swedes in it; for perhaps they[Page 56] [...] the Imperiall Cou [...] that the Swed [...] could so [...] [...]e goe out of [...].

During this discourse the Swedish Weymarish H [...]n [...] Generall the Lord of [...] hein commeth into the T [...], [...] certifies, that [...]is Co [...]n the King of Hungarie his Marshall of the Court the Lord of S [...]b [...]ry des [...]red to confer with him up­on Cavallions P [...]la, which was likewise done; and the Sweder reparted that their conference had bin about a treaty of a peace: Moreover [...] said, that his Majesty the King of Hungarie was very de­sirous to confer with the Duke Bernhard of Wey­ma [...] himselfe▪ But Duke Bernhard said alwayes, Ye Papis [...] never keepe faith and promise, ye hold still to your old rule, Quod Herelicis non sit servand [...] si­des, but I replyed, if that were thus presupposed, then no treatie of peace could over be instituted; further I said that his Excellency know very well, that if on our side it could not be effected by the German forces, but must be done by the helpe and assistance of outlandish Potentates, then our deare native Country must still remaine the miserable Theater, whereupon all o [...]er nations played their bloudy Tragedies, and thus must needs come to an utter mine.

The conclusion of all was, I must tarry and see how this occasion would fall out, if so be hee ob­tained the victory, they would notwithstanding be [...]lined to a peace, for his part he never thought to keep the Bishoprich of Wertzburg, if so be any other satisfaction had been made unto him, and the contributions which were expressed by the impe­rialists in the Country, were [...] to [...] againe by the Bishops of Wertzburg and Hamberg.

[Page 57]Last Saturday was sevennight, the 22. of Aug. the 2. of Sept. the Italian forces arrived in the Imperiall Campe, whereupon the Citie of Nordlingen was very hard bat­tered with the Cannons, the besieged sent forth a Post, and desired succour else they could not longer hold out: the next day following being the 23 of Aug. the 2. of Septemb. the Swedes held counsell of warre, Well advised, and perhaps it had bin better if they had fol­lowed this counsell. and it was concluded, that they should not fight, but rather loose Nordlingen, then endanger the common affaires of Ger­manie, they should rather stay till the Rhinegrave with his troopes was arrived. On Munday following, being the 24. of August. the 4. of Septemb. the Fieldmarshall Cratz, together with the Generall Major Kagge, and some Durlachish forces arrived not farre from the Swe­dish Armie, whereupon Duke Bernhard tooke againe the resolution to fight; On Tuesday, being the 25. of Aug. the 5. of Septemb. they conjoyned their forces, and sent the Baggage somewhat backe, and about Evening they advanced into the Valley under Goppingen, halfe a league from the Imperiall Campe, whereupon I intreated and obtained it, that I might go to the Baggage, for if so be that any of the Imperialists should see me, they should not know, in what manner I had come hither; this day the Mechelburgish Regiment was defeated by the Cra­bats, and the halfe part of the Fieldmarshall Cratz his Baggage was plundred. This day was sevennight being the 26. of Aug. the 6. of Septemb. on the day of Zepherene Pope and Martyr, the Swedes very early before 6. of the clocke assaulted the Imperiall entrenched Armie with great furie, obtained 2. Standards, and 2. Ensignes, to­gether with some peeces of Ordnance, and tooke one of the Sconces in which the Vitzthombish and Limpachish Regiment tooke their lodging but to their small profit, for the Sconces were either undermined, or by them­selues, in not looking well to the ammunition, were fi­red, and thus both the Regiments flew up into the ayre towards Heaven: the Imperialists had covered all their[Page 58]ordnances great and small, which were charged with haile or small shot, and when the Swedes cam e some what nearer, they discharged and shot them off all at one time, which did incredible harme amongst them, and caused such a confusion, and made partitions amongst them like streets, in so much that our Currassiers assault­ed them with all their force, and within the space of two houres, rather by the cleare assistance of GOD, than by humaine hands obtained the victory; on our side not ma­ny have beene slaine, For as the Swedes themselues con­fesse, although one of their Regiments presented it selfe to fight, it was immediately assaulted by 6. Imperiall Regiments, and ruinated. As for the horsemen, the Duke of Wirttenberg himselfe writes to his Officers, that 2000. of them were slaine upon the very place: of the Foot­forces, few or none escaped, except those that remained about the Baggage, which tooke the horses from the waggons, and saved themselues upon them, the rest were either put to the sword or taken prisoners; and be­sides the Swedes, above 4000. Wirttenbergs of the trained band were put to the sword, the enemies Ord­nances, ammunition, and all their waggons together with Duke Bernhards best goods were apprehended a­bout Neressen: and they themselues confesse, that they have lost above 4000. waggons, loaden with Baggage, provision, and ammunition; hence it may eastly be iudg­ed, how many 1000. horses our forces obtained. The whole Swedish Armie together with the Wirttenbergs Boores was strong about 22000. men, of which some 1000. horsemen fled to the Coppinger Valley, where the Rhinegrave arrived, and conioyned his troopes with them, and made up an Armie of 5. or 6000. horsemen without Foot-forces, ordnances, Baggages, or ammuni­tion, of which they nothing left; which way the same turned, and what end it tooke, with the pursuite after them, I do not know, for when I saw all souldiers to betake themselues to flight, I did the like, and the same[Page 59]night I came to the Fort of Shorendorff, in the Countrey of Wirttenberg, where the General Commissaries Offen­burgers servant, and both the Commanders Tupadels and Obms wiues were yet the same night fetched and carried to Strasburg, in so much that they are not confi­dent to maintaine that strong Fort.

On Thursday in the morning, the relation was brought of those high officers that were slaine and wounded, which I will relate not for certaine, but as I have heard it. Duke Bernard of Weymar was shot through one of his armes, the Landtgrave John of Hessen, was wounded in his face and in his necke, and fled bloudy to Vlm, Field-Marshall Horne is dead or taken prisoner, because he is not found amongst them. Field-Marshall Cratz is dead, Generall Major Vitz dumb dead, Generall Major Kagge dead, Colonell Watchtmaister dead, which was very famous amongst them, Colonell Liebenstein dead, Colonell Lievetenant Grun dead, Colonell Lievetenant Willibardt dead. When I rode forward on Thursday, I found the high waies towards Stutgard, full of fleeing souldiers and inhabitants. The Duke of Wirttenberg po­sted yet the some day in all haste towards Strasburg, all Noble and rich men followed him thither, the inha­bitants ranne out of the Cities, carrying onely their chil­dren in their armes, with great lamentation and crying, and when I asked them, whither they intended to goe, they answered, God knowes it, we doe not know whi­ther to runne in such a haste: they cryed still woe and e­ver woe that the Swedes came into the Empire, afore we could treate with composition; now all goes to ruine: the Imperialists had behaved themselves very well in Shorendorff, but the Swedes now and the Counsell at Franckford had their monies and goods, and would now depart and leave them in such a misery.

Our Armie doubtlesse possesseth now the most part of the Country of Wirttenberg, they finde in it an incredi­ble quantity of Corne and Wine, of which they have[Page 58] [...] [Page 59] [...] [Page 60]now more to drinke, than they had fresh water to drink 10 dayes agoe. The Field-Marshall Horne himselfe spoke to me, that in the Country of Wirttenberg, 1500000 Commisse bread were baken for them, which will doe now much good to the Imperiall Armie. Nordlingen must now needs surrender on discretion, in which are a­bout 3000 horses which were brought thither from the Country to save them, of which our souldiers will make good booty, and the great quantity of corne that is in it, will serve for the victualling of Ingolstatt. In Augspurg is already great famine, they eate dogs and cats. The Granarie of the Citie of Vlm namely the Country of Wirttenberg is no so exhausted, that those Cities will be forced to creepe to the Crosse: all the Garrisons were taken out of all places about the Rhine, except Philips­burg, and the souldiers sent to the Swedish Armie, and now they are massacred, and they themselves confesse, that they cannot bring together againe so many foot-for­ces to forme a new Army. All this I have partly seene with mine owne eyes, partly heard it of many chiefe men of their owne, which I thought to relate according­ly. Thus this Catholike Gallant with a large preface of himselfe, writes gloriously of his owne adventure, and the victory, adding something peradventure to the tale, which is delivered otherwise in the next discourse, which is as followeth.

[Page 61]

The Battell and bloudy Encounter, which happened the 26. and 27. day of August; before the Citie of Nordlingen.

WHereas by the long hoped surrende­ring of the Imperial Citie of Regen­spurge, and the taking of many other places on the Danubie, the courage of the Imperialists was some what increased. The King of Hungarie thereupon, after that he had likewise brought under his power the City of Donawerth, tooke an absolute resolution to march forward towards the country of Wittenberg, and there to refresh his halse starved Army. Now whereas he thereupon marched against Nordlingen. pitched his campe before it, assaulted the said towne with all his force, and likewise drew all his Spanish and Italian forces together. The Swedish forces in the meane time formed their Campe about Bopffin­gen, expecting there the coniunction of the Rhine­gravish, and Cratzish troupes, as also the trained band out of the Palatinate and Swaben. But when in the meane time the Imperialists continued assaul­ting the aforesaid City more and more, and putting the besieged daily harder to it, and surrounded the city in such a manner that the Swedish forces feared that the Commander in it, although he had beaten off manfully divers assaults, and done great harm to the enemie in his workes with his continual sallying[Page 62]forth, would not be able to hold out longer, against so great force, which the enemy used before it. Here▪ upon they, after that the Cratzish troupes, and some troups of the Swabish trained bands were arrived, resolued in Gods name to approach neerer unto the enemy, & to try, whether they could get any advan­tage of him, or constraine him to abandon the siege And thereupon after a precedent deli [...]ration, ad­vanced the 26. day of this moneth in the [...]r noone towards the enemy. Where the Avan [...]g [...]a [...]d of our horsemen, before the Forrest throrow w [...]i [...]h they must needs passe, lighted upon five tro [...]pes of the e­nemies Currassiers, which they charged and put them to flight, and afterwards assaulted three Regi­ments of the enemies horsemen in a valley, which they dispersed, put above a hundred to the Sword. Amongst which the Commander Aldobrundini, to­gether with foure Captains was slaine, and obtayned likewise 7. Standards. But because the Swedish foot forces with the Ordnances, by reason of the scitua­tion of the place, and the inconvenience of the nar­row passage, could not march forward so speedily, & the evening drew night; the same day nothing more was attempted against the Imperialists by the Swedes which stayed behinde in a village, and put their forces in battell array; yet at night they ma­stered one of the enemies workes, in which lay 300 musqu [...]tiers, which they put to the sword: many likewise of the enemies souldiers, which were hidden here and therein the Forrest, they chased out of the same, and put them to the sword. In the mean time, the enemy on the right hand of the Hill planted his Ordnances, and put his foot forces in his entrenched [Page 63]campe in Battell array. Now when the next mor­ning following, at the dawning of the day, the Swedes laboured to get up the Hill; they at last ma­stered an high ground on the left side, although som­what lower than the enemies ground was. Where­upon they could plant the Ordnances, and thus they visited one another with the Canons, the horsemen likewise making divers encounters. In the meane time a part of the Swedish foot forces laboured to master a Sconce, in which the enemy had planted three Demicanons together with some small pieces, and did with them more harme to the Swedes, than the Swedes could do vnto them, by reason they had the lower ground, after many sharpe and bloudy skirmishes, the Swedish forces did beat the enemy out of the said sconce. But being by reason of their improvidence, the powder that was present there happened on fire against al hope: the Swedish souldi­ers receiued not a small hurt by it; yea, such a harme, that they were forced to abandon the same againe; and upon the fierce assaulting of the enemie, to retire againe to the Swedlish armie, that stood in battell ar­ray. Whereupon the enemy with his continuall shooting out of his ordnances from his batteries, put the Swedes so hard to it, that after that they had lost a great many of their officers and souldiers, it was thought best of all to retire in good order a little way off from the hill, downe into the valley, where they might bee free a little of the force of the ememies Canons.

In the meane time 100 men of every Brigade or Regiment of foot with a good Officer, and horsemen adioyning on both sides were commanded to mai­taine[Page 64]the place, where the Swedish stood, till under the favor of the same, they had gained a firm ground in the vnlley, and then these that were left behinde to maintaine the place, might the better retire towards them. But the enemy perceiving their intent, commanded on the right side some Regiments of Crabats, and on the left side the Spanish forces to out off the passage from them which assaulted them, who were left to maintaine the place so furiously, that by reason of the situation of the place, none could second the other, but fell into a confusion, and every one began to save himselfe as well as he could, and retire towards the woods. By which confusion, they lost together with the Ord­nances, the most part of the Ensignes and Baggages. The enemy pursued after the fleeing Swedes with some 1000 Crabats; but because his Excellence the Rhinegrave Otto Ludwig with his forces was nigh at hand to conioyne with the Swedish forces, the Cra­bats retired, and put up the pursuit of the Swedish forces.

What and how many of the Commanders, Offi­cers, and Souldiers on the Swedish side were slaine, we have not yet any certainty of it, except what wee heare by the relation of some Officers and others that were taken prisoners by the enemy, and now released againe, and by other intelligences we under­stand, that the Field-Marshall Horne, together with the Field-Marshall Cr [...]tz, the Generall Maior Roste­in, the Generall Maior Shaffelitztry, and other high and under Officers are taken prisoners. The young Maronesse Fredericke, the Lord of Cherolin, the Commander Shneidwind, which commanded as [Page 65]Generall Maior, Colonell Wettverger, and divers o­ther Officers were slaine. The Lord of Hoff, Kirchen, and many others were wounded and hurt.

After this unhappy accident, Duke Bernhard re­tired first to Constate, from thence to Heylbronne to recollect againe the dispersed troupes, where the Rhinegrave yet continueth, and formeth an Armie to keepe the enemy a little backe, till the Swedish forces are rallyed, and then they will oppose the e­nemy with all their power.

After the battell was ended, the enemy turned a­gaine towards Nordlinge [...], and after that hee had battered the same againe very hard, the said Towne was surrendred the next day following. Thus this battell is related diversly, and wherein the more pro­bability of truth is set downe, we can onely discerne by consequents, doubtlesse a great blow was then gi­ven to the Swedes.

After so great a letting of bloud, we have reason here to conclude this part of our History, and to give time and leave an [...]o the weakened party to re­collect strength againe. Therefore hoping to get both matters and encouragement for the continua­tion of these relations of Germane affaires, and to begin againe here where now we breake off; we will but slightly touch such actions as being befallen since the battell, may require the first place in the next booke.

They are contained in a letter written from Mentz the [...]. of Novemb. 1634. which saith thus much.

Nordlingen being yeelded unto the King of Hun­garie, he turned with the best part of his Armie to­wards [Page 66] Vlm, and summoned, or rather commanded, the same to yeeld. But upon an answer, whereby these of Vlm, declared faithfully to stand to their word given to the united Princes and States. The King tooke his march into the Dukedome of Wir­temberg. There Lieutenant Collonel Gronway (of Generall Hornes Regiment) having beene left to command the garrison in Geppingen, he with foure Companies (being the garrison) entred into the Kings service, and delivering that Towne, was in recompence made Collonel.

There was a Garrison also in Kirchei [...]; an o­ther reasonable strong Army which the Comman­der there (named Li [...]ck) did likewise surrender to the King. This example was followed by all other Townes of that Country, they being (though wai­led not fortified, and especially by the two Imperiall Cities, Eslingen and Reutlingen. But Shorndorf, Ashberg, Aurach and other strong places and Ca­stles, (being well provided with Garrisons and ne­cessaries) doth both hold out and much annoy the enemy. All the open Country of that Dukedome hath beene put under contribution, notwithstan­ding that all such goods (especially Corne and Wine) as was sound, hath beene transported to Ingolstat, Brissach, Lindaw, and other places. And to expresse the cruelties there committed without respect of sexe or condition, would require a whole Booke.

The Imperiall Armie came from thence before Heilbronne, and troubled the same with no ordnance but onely with granadoes; in such manner; that at once there were put on fire and burned to the ground[Page 67]above 140. houses. Lieutenant Collonel Senger of Smidbergs Regiment, commanding in the Citie, be­ing slaine in a sally; The Magistrate began to hear­ken to, and correspond with Wolfgang Rudolf of Ossa, perswading the Inhabitants to forsake their owne Souldiers: who, upon threatnings of the Ma­gistrate and Burghers, were forced to make a com­position with the Imperiallists, which was not better kept than that of Nordlingen, both garrisons being forced to serve under the King of Hungarie. At Heil­bren order is taken by the King to establish a Ma­gazin, and to fortifie the Citie. This being done, the Armie was divided into three: Whereof the Spanish and Italian Army, commanded by the In­sant Cardinall, marched directly by the Forrest cal­led Odenwals towards Miltenberg, which they tooke, as likewise Ashaffenburg, both upon compo­sition, but kept as the former. Thence they went on to Frieberg, and so past the Rhine: using in their march all possible hostilitie and eruelties. Five Impe­riall Regiments of Horse, and divers Regiments of Crabats and Hungarians (commanded by Isolani) did conduct the said Armie; by reason whereof these said light horses did infinitely trouble the wayes and countrey about Francfort and Hanaw; The garri­sons whereof (especially of Hanaw) have by frequent sallyes often requited their unkindnesse. In Franc­fort commandeth Generall Major Vitzdumb, and Collonel Dewitz, who did command in Noralingen, and Collonel Forbus.

The second Army (being Bavarian and Leaguish) is now commanded by the Duke of Lorraine, as Ge­nerall[Page 68]and marched from Hailbr [...] into the Marqui­sa [...] of Durlach, and into Alsatia, where▪ once the Rhinegrave O [...]ta Lewes was almost [...]en had hoe not cast himselfe with his horse into the river. The said Duke having sent monitorie letters to the Citie of Strasburg, and received thereupon a cold answer. He went backe agains to Durlach, and there he yet remaineth, gathering contributions, and appoyn­ting some Rendyvous, as hee doth likewise in Wir­tenberg.

The thirdand, pri [...]pall Army of the King of Hungart, commanded under him, by Gall [...] and Pice [...]lamini, past into Fran [...], and tooke there partly by composition, partly by treasons, and par [...] ­ly by the revolt, of some Boores and other inhabi­tants, severall places, especialls E [...]tenburg Mas g [...] ­thal, Onspach, [...]uenfurt, Kitzing [...], the Towne of Witzburg, and lately Swinefort. Although it was thought, that Army would goe on directly against Bannier, or hinder him and the Lan [...]gr [...] of H [...]ss [...], to ioyne or to make any recto [...]s and [...]deavo [...]. Yet it is discovered, that the said a [...]y inten d [...] to re­tur [...]backe in to Wirtenb [...]rg, le [...]uing onely Isola [...] with the Hung [...]ions and [...]aha [...]in those pag [...] e­specially in the Countrey of Fulds, [...] second the garrisons left in the new reconquered places. Whe­ther they intend to take their Winte qua [...]ers, or to joyne agains into on [...] hody with the Duke of Lor­raine, and make ye [...] some no table [...]p [...]ise,, is no [...]as yet knowne.

Concerning the Swedish and Pro [...]tant [...]imy, the said General Rhinegrave, having b [...]ught his for­ces[Page 69]backe towards Spire, hee fell [...]ke and died at Spire, of a pest [...]l [...]nt [...] all feaves, [...]n the [...] of October last past and in this pince did presently succ [...]d the the old Rhinegrave Ott [...]e. Rhinegrave. Iohn [...]hilip being made his Lieu [...]ant Generall, Collonell Ca­nofsky Generall Major of the Horse, and Colonell Rantzow Major of the foot.

Duke Bernhard hath kept a rendezvous, and the Armie (both Officers and souldiers) have bin sworne againe to him. But whether these armies of the Rhine grave and the Dukes shall bee ioined, is not yet knowne.

The army of Generall Bannier, having past into Thuringia, hath been inquartered about Magdeburg, and Anhault, there to be refreshed; untill some re­crewtes be levied, which goeth so well forward, that that army is shortly to march againe.

Touching the Lantgrave of Hessen, he hath order to [...] if need be) either the Duke of Luneburg, or Duke Bernard, or Bannier. and he now hath mar­ching diverstroups of horse, to follow the leaguish army, which the Intant Cardinall, with other Ger­man troupes hath sent backe under the Count of Mansfield: who seems to intend to [...]ade the coun­trey about Mentz.

The French are leauying an army of Germanes, which is to be commanded by the young Duke of Wirtenberg, who is now Lieutenant for the French King at Philipsburg: And Monsieur de la Force lyes with an army of 20000 men, at and about Landaw; almost whole Alsatia and divers other townes of the Rhine, and neighbouring countries, being in the [Page 70]French protection.

Meane while the Elector of Saxony doth treat of a peace, his Deputies being with the Imperiall De­puties still at Pirna. God grant a good and univer­sall Peace; for

Pax una Triumphis
Inumeris potior.

CHAP. 5. The actions of Otho Lodowick the Rhingrave.

THe care of the Country about the Lake of Constance, was committed by the Princes of the union to the Rhingrave, who in discharge of that trust which was reposed in him, used all meanes pos­sible to keepe what they had, and to winne upon the Imperialists; what was done by the for­ces under his command at Ratolfoes Cell is declared in a former history, where the siege of Renfelden a strong Fort upon the Rhine, five German miles from the famous Vniversitie of Basell, was also mentioned, and yet but mentioned, because our intelligence was not then so full, as to bring it to a period; Now it is surrendred, and shall be the first thing we shall pitch upon in this disco­very. Five moneths fiege the Garrison and inhabitants there had indured with much extremity, while Iohn Phi­lip, brother to Otho Lodowick the Rhingrave lay before it with a little Army, the particulars whereof are remem­bred in the forenamed history; in the end Otho himselfe marched thither-wards in person, Aug. 1. intending briefly to finish this enterprise speedily, that hee might the more conveniently joyne his forces which those of Saxon Weymar to oppose the King of Hungarie who made havocke of the Protestant townes about the Da­nubie. A combat be­twixt the Rhinegrave and the Bryssackers. He then had beene in the Dukedome of Wirten­berg to leavie new forces, and having sent 2000. fresh Muskettiers to Rhinfelden; for the more dispatch, him­selfe lodged one night with 40. horsemen onely at Fry­bourg, within two German miles of Bryssac, from whence going the next day to the Leaguer, hee was set upon by 50 Brissackers, who thought to have surprised him in his journey. But this experienced souldier suspe­cting what might peradventure, and afterwards came to[Page 2]passe, was prepared to battell, and with his retinew en­tred into combat with the assaylants. The fight was long and sharpe, the Brissackers were armed cap a pre, and pressed hard upon him, as if secure from danger because of their Armour: his horsemen were stout and wel disciplined souldiers and knew how to come on, and give fire, to indammage their adversaries, and how to traverse their ground, and retire orderly for their owne safety. A good while the battell lasted, and in the end, the victory fell to the Rhingrave, who slew 10. of these assaylants outright, tooke 20 prisoners, yet had not one of his owne men deadly, though he that scaped best was lightly wounded.

Thence he posted with his prisoners back to Fribourg, and sent to the Campe, whence he heard that the Citie was in an agonie, so distressed for want of victuals, that at all the prisoners related, they had nothing but what they got by stealth in the darkenesse of the night, and this was a great extremity; though yet was it more ne­cessitated by relation of a Clarke of the band to Captaine S [...]mid [...], a Commander in the Fort, who was taken as hee was swimming downe the Rhine with two Burgesses of the Citie, to looke out for succours. His name was Theo­bald Fredericke, borne in the Diocesse of Altkirken; hee was taken Aug. 7/17. and then made this relation. That for the space of 7. dayes before, there had beene no bread in the City, that they had spent what could be made of Akorn [...], that the Commander Mercy had given all his horses for meate to the Garrison, onely one excepted, to incite the other Commanders by his example to doe the like, that amongst the whole troupes, there were but 11. horses left, that the souldiers would bee glad to have the Towne surrendred or taken by assault, for they ra­ther desired to dye valiantly, than be starved; that if they did not receive succour the next day at the farthest, the Commander would be forced to surrender, yet that hee hoped to have good conditions, in respect that hee before[Page 3]time had done a curtesie to the Rhingrave, and that there was no Ammunition left, except one barrell of powder. All this was truth, and the next day the Colonell Mercy sent a letter to the Rhingrave, in which hee intreated him, that himselfe, his Officers and Souldiers, the Cler­gie, Citizens, and inhabitants, might freely depart with­out restraint or molestation, which was answered re­spectfully, and Aug. 9/19. articles of composition were signed in the Campe, and the Towne surrendred accor­dingly; the tenor whereof followeth. Whereas the high borne Earle and Lord, the Lord Iohn Philipsen, Wildt and Rhinegrave, Earle of Salm, Lord of Vlushingen, &c. Generall Major and Commander of the horse by order of the Crowne of Sweden, and the confederate Princes, was humbly requested by the Noble and valiant Otho Ludolfen, and Captaine Ieande Seines, agents for the No­ble and valiant Frantz Mercye, a Colonell of foot, and chiefe Commander in Rhinfelden, to grant him a faire quarter, and honourable termes of composition, in that the said Mercy had done nothing during this siege, which sorted not with the honour and dignity of a soul­dier. Hereupon he the said Iohn Philipsen, &c. propoun­ded, and the said Mercy accepted these conditions. 1 That the souldiers in garrison, should march out with swords at their sides, bag and baggage be safely conveied to Constance, & in the way bee accommodated with ne­cessaries, lodging, and victuals. 2 That at their depar­ture they should not pillage the Citizens, nor Boores, nor receive any goods to carry them away privately, and for the performance of this Article, the Commander Mercy should give a caution upon the faith of a souldier. 3 The Clergie men shall enjoy the liberty of conscience in the free exercise of Religion, and not be troubled therefore, as in all places where there is the like toleration. 4 None of the souldiers shall be compelled to leave the Imperiall Colours, and serve under the Crowne of Sweden, or the Princes. 5 The Citizens shall have the same freedome in[Page 4]matter of Religion, which is granted to the Clergie, and their priviledges shall be maintained. 6 The sicke and wounded souldiers shall be left in Rhinfelden till they bee recovered, and in the meane season be provided for, as if they served under the Rhinegrave. And lastly for the ac­complishment of these conditions, the Commander Mer­cy shall this present day surrender the place, and all the Forts thereunto belonging, with all the pieces of Ord­nance great and small, the ammunition and other provi­sion to the Rhinegrave, if there were any secret mines, or hidden fire he should discover it, dealing sincerely in all points, as it becommeth a Noble Souldier. Dated in the Campe before Rhinfelden, Aug. 9/19. 1634.

During the time of this siege, nothing was done in Alsatia but what is expressed else-where, and would be in vaine repeated; onely the fortification of the Imperiall small Towne of Buckhorne is worth the recording, which in this time the Swedes so surrounded with wa­ter, and strengthened with walls and bulwarks, that it is now held impregnable, and that they built a ship there after the Holland fashion, which carryeth 22. peeces of Ordnance, to scoure the Boden-sea or Lake, and called it after the name of the Queene of Sweden, Christina; and that the garrison at their departure uncompelled (for herein the Rhine-grave observed the conditions pro­pounded) voluntarily, and of their owne accord tooke service under the Princes, the Commanders onely and the Officers excepted. Assoone as he was gone, the garri­sons in Lindaw, Brigents, Constance, and thereabout, as is written out of Schwaben, and the Boden-sea, August 21/ [...]. had an enterprise against Buckhorne, but were defea­ted by the Lord Kanoffskye, who slew the most part of the Cavallarie dispersed the rest, tooke many Officers prisoners, and forced the Imperiall Collonel Vitz-thumbe to leape into the water for safeguard of his life, where after he had indured by the space of an houre, or there­abouts, he got into a small ship, and so escaped.

[Page 5]The neighbouring Cantons, whose union hath beene kept inviolable for many ages, during this time fell into a difference, the Catholickes disagreed with the Prote­stants about the march of the Infante, the one yeelding him, the other denying his passage thorow the countrey, and about the Commander Kesselring, whom the Ca­tholicke Cantons had condemned to death, but the Pro­testants and the French King by his agents desired to have restored to the government of Torgaw, holding him worthy of that Province which the other did esteeme him deservedly deprived of, for some pretended offence. The contention was so sharpe, that two Diets were called to compose the grievance, the one by the Catho­licks, at Lucerne, the other by the Neutrals and Prote­stants, at Solethrane. At Lucerne these two questions were propounded, upon what grounds they should per­swade the Protestant Cantons to keepe the Swedes out of their defenced Townes; and how the strong Fort made by the French neere the Rhine in the Grisons countrey, might be demolished; and at Solethrane, it was questioned whom they should make their Generall in the daily expected warre, and concluded upon the Rhinegrave, whose faith or valour they did not doubt of, in redressing those injuries to which they saw them­selues exposed, they are the words of my Relator, by the. Catholickes confederation with the King of Spaine.

All this businesse in Switzerland, was onely yet in conception, things were not yet brought to maturitie, some hope of agreement was yet remaining, both parties were allyed to two puissant Princes, the Protestants, to the French, who had commanded his agents to divide his pensions onely to the Protestants, the other to the Catholick K. who as it is remēbred formerly in the larger history, had made a speciall league with them; Otho Lo­dowicke was not yet called, to the assistance of the Prote­stants but ingaged by order from the director General to stay at home, and ioyne with the Duke of Saxon Weymar [Page 6]and the Feeld-marshall Horne, to oppose the Imperialists in the confines of Swaben, and Franconia, for the victo­rious proceeding of the King of Hungarie, troubled the Peeres, and Estates assembled at Francfordt, who as they write from Franckeford, August 28. September 7. willing to have the French their friend, conclu­ded that the fort of Philipsburg should be surrendred to the King of France upon these conditions. 1. That the Governour therein should bee a Prince of the Empire. 2. That the Garrison should make their oath of fealtie to the King of France, the Crowne of Sweden, and the Estates of Germanie. 3. The Christian King should have possession of it during his life time onely, and that at his death, it should returne againe to the Estates of the Em­pire; and in lew thereof the King of France should main­taine, to the advantage, and use of the Princes 10000. men; yet this was not all, Otho was presently injoyned to assist the other two forenamed Generals, but how he sped there, it is not here to be repeated, it is set down in the King of Hungaries history.

For conclusion of this Chapter, we have here set down the list of the Princes, assembled in the Diet either in per­son, or by proxie, they are thus marshalled by a French Discoverer. The Princes Fredericke Marquesse of Ba­den. William Lant-grave of Hessen, and Christian Count Palatine of Berken field. And Oxenstiern Rixe-Chancel­cellour of the Crowne of Sweden, Philip Maurice of Ha­naw, Minsberg, William of Solius; Henry Volrad of Stol­berg, Iohn of Nassaw Sarbrug, and his brethren. Wolfgang Henry of Isamburg, and Philip Earnest of Isamburg. The Deputies of the Electorall Houses those of the Electorall House of the Prince Palatine, of the Palatine of the two Bridges. The Palatine of Lautreich. Those of the Ele­ctorall house of Saxony, of the Dukes of Cobourgh, and Isenach, of Sax-VVeymar, and Sax-Altenbourgh. Those of the Electorall house of Brandenburg, of the Dukes of Brandenbourg, Culmach, and Branden­burg[Page 7]Onolshack. The Agents of the other Princes which have place in this honourable assembly, the A­gents of D. Fredericke Ʋlrich of Brunswicke. D. Augu­stus of Luneburg, of the D. of Wirtenberg, the Lantgrave of Hessen Cassell, the Marquesse of Baden, the Duke of Pomerania, the Bishop of Breme, the D. of Mechlinburg Gustraw, Schuerin, Christian and George Ariberth of Au­hault, the Deputies of Silesia, of the Counts George Fre­dericke of Hohenloe, and his brother. Of the Counts of Hanaw Dillembourg, and Hanaw Lichtenbourg, of Iohn and Iames Counts of Eberstein Philip, and Lewes Emich, Counts of Leningben; Lewes Wolfgang Earnest, and Fre­dericke Lewes Counts of Levenstein and Ʋerten, and of Lewes Count of Erbach. The Deputies of the Nobilitie of Franconia, Swaben, the Rhine, and VVeteraw, and to conclude the Agents or Burgesses of the confederate Ci­ties of the foure Circles of Swaben Franconia the Higher and Lower Rhine; to wit, the Burgesses of Strawsbourg, Norimberg, Spire, Franckford, Wormes, Ʋlme; Sweinford, and Ratis-bone, though it is conceived that the last had not now any sufferage at this meeting.

CHAP. 6. The actions of the Lantgrave of Hessen, and D. of Lunenburgh.

AFter the Battel with the army of the Ca­tholicke Leaguers under the command of Boninghausen the Lieutenant Gene­rall, and the Field-Marshall Gehlen, and the taking of Hamme: these two Princes May. 27/27, marched directly towards Mun­ster, the chiefe citie of Westphalia, scituate upon the Ami­sis, or River of Eems, and distant from Hamme (North­ward) about sixteene English miles, to prosecute their victory. The estate of the Catholicke armie at that time[Page 8]the distractions of the Commanders, the hope of succors from the D. of Newburg, who was then mustering of Forces about VVermes-Kircken, Linnep, and other places, the distresse of Munster and the summons thereof, with the propositions made by the D. of Lunenburg, and the request of the Elector of Collen to the Lords estates of Holland, to take the Bishopricke of Munster into their possession, to continue the Neutrality, and to send no suc­cors to the Lantgrave and Duke; put a full point to the discourse of these two Princes proceedings in the supple­ment. The issue of the Leaguish hopes, the effects of the Embassage, the Military actions on both parts, and the For­tunes attending them, as farre as they have gone, and we have understood of them since, must be the subiect of this relation.

Philip of Mansfield, Generalissimo of the leaguish ar­my, being come in person to Boone, May 25, Iune 4, was sent for thence with a strong convoy to come to Collen, to conferre with the Elector, about relieving the army, which being hemmed in at Munster, by the Hassians and Luneburghers were as much necessitated by famin, as threatned by their enemies sword. And here was no time for a long consultation, an expeditious action was the onely meanes to rescue them; and to doe this affectu­ally, more power was required, than could be levied by the Leaguers instantly. Therefore the Earle who had a generall Imperiall Commission to leavie Forces (if oc­casion required) to oppose the Princes, and to cal to the Catholickes to assist him with their auxiliary powers, ha­ving given order to his Commissaries to muster up the souldiers enquartered about Hauff, upper Cassell, and the places adioyning. Philip Earle Mansfield soli­citeth the D. of Newburg to transmit his forces to the Catholicke League. Himselfe went in person to the Duke of Newburg, then at Dusseldorp, to desire him, to transmit his armie which hee had now readie into Westphalia, where beeing seconded by Augustine Spinola, a neere Kinsman to the Arch-dutchesse her late Generall, who was come thither from Bruxels to the same purpose; hee[Page 9]spake to the Duke to this effect, I come not to comple­ment, it neither suits with my vocation, a rough souldier brought up in the campe, not in the Court, nor can it bee suffered by mine occasion, which requires my quicke ex­plication, and your speedy resolution. Your Highnesse cannot bee ignorant of the miserable condition, not of Westphalia only, but all Germany, and the sacred Roman Empire. I cannot thinke of it my selfe without a sor­rowfull passion; nor can I conceive that any other, who hath not put on the Stoicks stupidity can heare it with­out compassion.

The enemies of the Romane Church and Empire, ha­ving made a confederation against his Imperiall Maiesty, his Catholicke friends and Allies, doe not onely make their inrodes into our territories, but strive to lay our dwellings waste and deprive us of our inheritance; and whether it was through our feare and sluggishnesse, or their courage and forwardnesse, I know not, their at­tempts against us have been so unfortunate to us that our armies have turned their backs to these enemies: the same troupes which once were fed with the prey, and cloathed with the spoyle of these Adversaries, have lately been made a prey to them, and Victory which formerly attended the Romane Eagles, now waites upon their Standards, and hath taken up an Habitation in their Pa­villions. I need not tell you, how since the first comming in of the Swedes, we have bin incroacht upon in Silesia, wasted in Franconia, ruined in Pomerania, and other pla­ces, by the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, the D. of Saxon Weymar, and Otho the Rhinegrave, the Dukes of Mecklenburg, and the united forces of these Swedish strangers: It is too well known to the Christian world, I wish it never had been published in Gath, or Askelon among the Turks and Mahometan Haggarenes. But in these regions, my selfe had no particular ingagement, I am onely bound to pitty their deplorable condition, nor to give account of them. Let them answer for it, to whose[Page 10]custody they were deputed. Westphalia is my particular Province, committed to my trust, as well by his Sacred Imperiall Maiestie, as the Spirituall Lords, the Electors and Princes of the catholicke League. For the defence of this Countrey; I shall willingly hazard mine owne per­son, and imploy my forces, not doubting of the best assi­stance of my Catholicke friends, (whereof your Highnes is not the least) who professing with mee one and the same religion, cannot (in probability) bee diuided from me in affection. And now by the file of my discourse, you may easily perceive the intent of my coming hither, not to befor a formall visitation, but the transmission of your army to our Leaguish forces, who being much di­stressed at this present, might themselves soone be relie­ved, by the comming in of your auxiliaries, and the Bi­shopricks of Paderhorne, and Isnabrug lately lost by us, and gained by the Swedes and Hassians, peradventure be happily recovered. I have said, and now expect a quick and effectuall answer, without delay or denyall, if not in politicall respect of your owne conservation; for assure your selfe in this Neutrality, whether we stand or fal, you cannot bee safe; yet in respect of pietie, for I know your Highnesse to be no Meroziri, and would not be lyable to the curse of the Angell, for not going forth to the battell which is for the propagation and defence of our Catho­licke Religion.

This was the speech of the Count Philip to the Duke, who after a short pause thus replied. The Duke of Newburg an­swer, I am too well ac­quainted with the sad history of this bleeding countrey, where every gash which hath been made by the sword of the enemy cryeth lowder than the mouth of a Lazer by the way begging reliefe, [...] more moveingly; than the tongue of an elegant Orator can pers [...]ade. I should long ere this willingly have given my helping hand, to extinguish that Flame, were not mine owne Dominions, in perpetuall danger of combustion. But compassion must not r [...]e, but be governed with [Page 11]discretion; and wisedome first looketh that all be well at home, before she engageth her selfe in any forreine adventure. What you would perswade me unto by poli­cie, and piety, experience and reason disswade me from: The extremities which a neighbour Prince, the Bishop of Wirtzburg, lately suffered, by conjoyning his forces with the Imperiall, when in providence he should have kept them for conservation of his own estate, may teach all after ages to stand upon their owne guard, and not to weaken themselves, to support a Confederate; it was not the titular dignitie of the Duke of Franconia, nor his defenced Citie fortified with ditches, walls, and bul­warks, nor his (supposed impregnable) Castle, that could secure him against forreine invasion, so long as his soul­diers continued with him, he was free from danger, but their absence disarmed him, and exposed him to that mi­serie, which straight pursued him eagerly, and overtooke him speedily. I have resolved, from this precedent, to ward close, and not to lye open, when I may prevent it; if unexpected mischiefe attend this resolution, it is but in doubtfull expectation: time, friends, and meanes may make my peace; which I am certaine would be-lost by (your advised) alteration. And yet I would have my po­licie to serve, not overrule my pietie, and may they sow wheat, and reape bryars, which will not go forth to the battell of the Lord with the mightie, if it be required by necessitie, and may be done with safetie: but the first condition of these (I hope) is not yours, the last (I am sure) is not mine: my Countrey is little, and not so po­pulous as thence to raise two Armies, one to attend you, and another to guard it, and if I could raise them, I have not meanes to keepe them, it being no fit season to plant, or sow, or reape, during the time of such warre-like pre­paration. I must conclude, I speake it sorrowfully, I can­not, I speake it positively, I will not herein condescend to your desire; My good wishes shall go along with you; may the starres from Heaven fight for you, may the stars[Page 12]fight in their courses against the Enemies of the Romane Church, and Empire, but mine Army, I must, and will keepe at home, for mine owne conservation.

The Duke of Luneburgh was all this while before Munster with 8000. horse, and 7000. foot, which were increased with 5000. Hollanders, under the command of Pinsen, Collone [...]l Pin­sen ioyned to the Duke of Lunenb. at Munster. who having first taken his oath of faithful­nesse to the Lants-grave of Hessen was advanced by him, to the office of his Lieutenant Generall, while his Excel­lency at Franckefort negotiates himselfe, with good suc­cesse, in the friendly correspondence and agreement of the Circle of the Lower Saxonie, and the rest of the Cir­cles at the Diet there.

The time thus spent was not lost; His recesse from the Army was not frivolous, it had beene vaine either for himselfe, or the other Princes, to have fought abroad in the Generall cause, if there had beene dissention at home: But by his endeavours the Evangelicall States, were accorded at Franckeford, and an universall hope of prosperous successe in the warre, was conceived to fol­low this union.

At Munster, the Duke of Luneburg rested without doing any thing till the soure dayes, the time set downe, for the Cities answer to his propositions was expired; and then finding that the Articles were not accepted (as in all probabilitie they would not) the strength which was left of the Leaguish Army, being then in and about that place, and the Citie flattering it selfe, that the States of Holland would take it into their protection, (as they had vainely desired) and knowing the wants of provi­sions which they within suffered, as also the differences betwixt the Clergie and lay-citizens; the Clergie being much offended, that the remnant of Boninghaush and Geleens forces was to be maintained, at their sole charge, thought that this Citie would not long hold out, and therefore first attempted by batterie, to shake it, and af­terwards by blocking up the passages, and cutting off [Page 13]their carriages, and convoyes of victuals to starve it, himselfe in the meane time not being carelesse to pro­vide food for his Campe, without which the souldiers would have as small courage to go on, as abilitie of body to do him service: Famine began to shew his deformed meagred visage quickly within, the publicke Magazine was not so stored, as to affoord every man his propor­tion, and those private men which had stored up any thing more then need required, sold what they could spare at an excessive rate; cheese, stockfish, and oates by the eighth of Iune were amounted to u quadruple peece of what they were before. Rashfeld and L'Eremite rou­ted. In this distresse, two Impe­riall Collonels, Rashfeld, and L'Eremite assayed with three Regiments to breake thorow the Hassian Army, and so deliver themselues from that lingring necessitie. And the issue partly answered the Attempt, present death acquitted them of their feare, of languishing miserie, which is a worse evill, then a speedie ruine. They knew, that they must passe the pikes, and fight before they could passe the Army, and had no hope of victory, but by a tu­multuous conflict to purchase their owne libertie, and fight they did valiantly, though unfortunately. The Has­sians who expected such an adventure, stood in Battalia, and notice being given them, by their Sentinels, of the comming on of these Collonels, they entertained them so roughly, that with the losse of seven Standards, the most of them lost their lives, upon their hope of liberty, they two Commanders onely, and some few horsemen escaping, to report the death of the souldiers to their friends at Collen.

This beginning put a good hope into the friends of the Evangelicall Generall, that the Citie could not long hold out, but would certainly be quickly taken in without much time, or labour. But the accidents in warre are most uncertaine, the events here do not alwayes suite themselues to mans hope or desire: the same fate which waited upon the Romane Consull Metellus, in the Spa­nish[Page 14]warre against Sectorius, seemed to attend the La­nenburger at Munster. The Romane presumed to take the Citie of the Lagobietes, within five dayes the Ro­mane, unfurnished of provision for his Army, sent out a strong party to fetch in forrage for his horses, and food for his men, but they being surprised by the vigilancy and valour of Sectorius, he was constrained to raise the siege, and this Generall himselfe conceiving, that this Citie would quickly submit, being thus necessitated, to relieve his owne Army, Welfer the Has­sian Ritmaster surprised by the garrison, at W [...]rendorff, and 40. waggons of victuals taken from him hee sent out the Rittmaster Gechard Welfer, to fetch in provisions, but he in his returne with 40. wagons, loden with victuals, being surprised by the Imperiall garrison at Warendoff, and the food intended for the Hassian and Luneburgish Army carried thither; the Duke in the end was forced also to rise from Mun­ster, and leave it; dividing his Army for a time to severall expeditions, one to be employed abroad, and the other to continue yet, and waite upon the Leaguish Army, which would not be drawne from under the Cannons, though there was faire occasion offered to fight.

The surprisall of the Hassian Riemaster was partly re­compensed by the States forces in the Netherlands, who being advertised of the returne of Augustine Spin [...]la from Dusseldorp to Bru [...]ells, set upon his Convoy, defea­ted them, and carried away 80. good Horse [...]. And yet as if this bad beene too little to repaite the Hessish honours, as not done by themselves but their confederates, or to make amends for their losse, this prize being no way e­quall to the others; the fortune of warre, twice gave them opportunity to avenge themselves, which they both times apprehended quickly, and prosecuted happi­ly. The one was thus.

Paul Dawben taken prisoner by an Hassian Ritmaster. Baltazar Rudiger, an Hassian Ritmaster, having con­veyed some goods from Pader [...]rne in Westphalia, to Cassell, (a prime Citie in Hessen land) as hee was com­ming backe, light upon Paul Da [...]ben, an Imperiall Lievetenant Colonell, with whom hee encoun [...]ted, and[Page 15]the fight was not long ere Dauben himselfe was taken prisoner, his Standard-bearer and many others of that regiment slaine, and the rest so dispersed, that they will scarce piece together againe.

Another thus. L'Eremite, the Colonell, after he had a little breathed himselfe at Collen, accompanied with the Commanders Lohh, and Shartzenburg, and attended with then Regiments, posted from thence into Saver­land, where he intended to repaire his forces, L'Eremite Ioh. & Shwarzen­burgh defeated by the Earle of Eberstein. and ha­ving made up his Companies to follow his former inten­tions against the Hassian Army, his comming thither, and his counsell was revealed to the Earle of Eberstein, then Commander under the Lantgrave in Cassell, and he not deserting time, having mustered up his forces, sought after them, and found them neere Medenbach in the County of Waldecke. His expedition was so speeds, that his Infantry was a great way behinde the Horse, when he first discovered them, and yet he set upon them with his weatie Horsemen (which had beene ranging over the Mountaines there abouts, and almost tyred them­selves before they could spye out their enemy) with such courage and resolution, that he routed them totally, and followed them in execution, till night had drawne a blacke curtaine over them, and the fainting Horses could not longer follow them. Whether through haste, misin­formation or modesty, this defeature is but slenderly reported from them of Medebach, who by letters bea­ring date June 23/23. the next day alter this conflict, report onely of the gaining of 200 Horses by the Hassians, the taking of divers prisoners, amongst whom was the Lea­guish Ritmaster Waldecker, and the winning of 4 or 5 Corne [...]s. They of Collen, who are more sensible of the lo [...]e, and were spectators of the Gallantry of these Ca­valli [...] at their going from thence, and eye-witnesses of their miserable returne, which was Tune 12/2 [...]. relate it though briefly, yet more fully. These are the few words they deliver this story in. Last night arrived here the Co­lonels[Page 16] L'Eremite, Shwartzenburgh, and Loh, very poor­ly, with 25 Horsemen, which were all that escaped in the last encounter with the Hessish forces in Saverland: a great hinderance to Count Philip his leavies, for the Soldiers are hereby much disheartened: 60 Horsmen are already fled to the Enemy, and it is beleeved more will follow. Thus this misfortune of these Catholike Souldi­ers is described by them shortly, I will not stand to in­large it, which neither love to doe it, nor would bee thought to have a delight in insulting over misery. These two defeats given by the Hassians to the Leaguish, might stand for a sufficient requitall of the losse which they su­stained by the Garrison of Warendorp, in surprising of their Convoy of victuals: yet a third occasion presented it selfe, to make them the more full amends, which they neglected not, to their owne advantage, and much hurt to the Enemy. An Imperiall convoy was going out of Westphalia to Collen, with 40. Lasts of corne, some hun­dreds of men were appointed to guard and secure it from the Luneburghers fingers. But they by their scowts be­ing informed thereof, made after them presently, over­tooke them in the way, beat the convoy, and carried a­way the provision, to the supplying their owne wants, and disfurnishing of their adversaries. And thus by the beginning of Iuly (the time wherein this last action was done) they had againe recovered the damage, and resto­red their honour (if it had beene any way impaired by the misfortune of the Ritmaster Gerard Welfer.)

But the seasure made upon the convoy, much avayled the besieged in Munster, where the Luncherger procee­ded not in that rigid manner afterward as he had done formerly. The campe wanted victuals, and so greats bo­dy as an Army of 20000 men, could not, be sustained with that little which was left; the Generall therefore held it fit to dispatch away a part of his Army to a more convenient place, where the Horses might finde pa­sture, and themselves take repast, and with the other to[Page 17]stay before the Citie, and expect the issuing out of Boning-hausen from under the Canons, with whom he had a de­sire to meete in open champagni: and though his course was prosperous the one way, yet it was not so fruitfull the other: for the Leaguish Commander durst not yet put his fortune to the Hazard, which hee knew was safe while he lodged under the Ordnance at Munster, but was questionable if he attempted to range abroad. Once indeed he endeavoured to breake thorow the Leagner, but being driven backe to his former Hold, till the Army was quite risen from thence, hee held it no part of wise­dome to undertake the like adventure. The forces im­ployed abroad, sped better. Ludinghausen taken by as­sault. Vpon Whitsunday May 25. Iune 4. they left the Campe, and sate downe before the strong Fort of Ludinghansen, where after a few houres the Towne was taken, and the Fort of Fishering adjoy­ning unto it, the Castle onely, wherein the Imperiall Souldiers lay, still held out, whether incited thereunto by expectation of reliefe, or trusting to the strength of the place, the Hold therefore was first battered by the Hassians, with 4 pieces of Ordnance, by the space of two dayes, and then taken by assault May 29. Iune 8. when all the Souldiers within were put to the sword, and the Hassians much comforted, by finding much of that pro­vision which was taken from the Convoy, the Warren­dorffers having sent part of it to this Fort, (such piety is a­mongst Souldiers) to the sustentation of this Garrison.

This designe proceeding thus happily, the Generals advised that foure men should be selected out of each company in the Army to march against Limburg upon the Leghne, Limgburg for­saken by Went, and burned. where the Imperiall Commander Went, (unfurnished of victuals for a siege) lay with his troupes to keepe it, if yet, we may beleeve that hee lay therefor the preservation of the Fort. Who not staying the com­ming of his enemy, confirmed the place by fire.

This desolation thus happening at Limburg and Bo­ninghansen, being not to be drawne into the field, there [Page 18]was a counsell of warre called in the Protestant Army at Munster, and a consultation held about the next expedi­tion. Some of the Colonels propounded a march over the River of Lippe into Saverland, to prevent the Leaguish attempts there but the major part concluding it more necessary and honourable, first to take in the other Townes in the Bishopricke of Munster, Borkem besie­ged and taken by compositi­on. the D. of Lune­burgh and the Lievetenant Generall Pinsen marched di­rectly against Borkem, where the Commander Negin­ger lay with a Garrison of 800 old Souldiers; Milander in the meane time watching about Warendorp to pre­vent the excursions of the Imperiall Souldiers there. At Borkem the batteries being raised Iune 11/21. they played up­on the Towne the whole day, with 4 whole Canons, and the Souldiers replyed to the Campe in the same lan­guage, shewing their strength consisted not so much in their wals and Bulwarkes, as wils and valour. The next day many Granadoes, and fire-workes were throwne out of the Campe, into the Towne, and the Swedes to­ward evening began to assault it but were repulsed by the resolute Imperialists within. The Army for all this, was not daunted, here they had pitched, and hence they would not depart, they againe renewed their Batteries, made their approaches, and omitted nothing which was required for the effecting of their designe; the besieged seeing how the Campe was bent to the businesse, for 3 or 4 dayes made as much preparation for their defence, as the other did to offend them; but then whether inforced thereunto by necessity, or perswaded by reason (it is not yet come to our understanding) they yeelded the Towne to the Swedes upon this composition, that the whole Garrison should march out, with their full Armes and Baggage, and be conveyed to Keyserswerth; and thence to passe the Rhine all which was faithfully performed, save onely the stay of the Garrison at Keyserswerth, which should not have abode there, but passed further, as it is thought they would, had they not beene commanded to[Page 19]the contrary by the Generalissimo, who perceiving the Duke of Luneburg, Milander, and Pinsen joyntly and directly marching thitherward, placed these Souldiers as praesidiaries there, to defend that Citie, if these Com­manders should attempt to take it.

This action at Borkem, gave Boninghausen an occasi­on to escape the pursuit of the Hassians; for he seeing the coast cleere about Munster, stood not to dispute the case, whether it were fittest for him to abide still in the Bishopricke, or to goe whilest he might to his friends at Collen, Boninghausen e [...]capeth to Collen. but with his 10 Regiments of Horse which were left, the number whereof was about 2500. the medietie of what they were formerly, made such haste towards Collen, that for the space of 12 houres, they lighted not from their horses, and were faine to leave many wag­gons, and 200 horses behinde him. A speedy flight, they onely staid to bait their Horses a little in the Corne be­fore Wipperfurde.

But this flight preserved him; Grasse-Divell the Im­periall Commander in the Bishopricke, by a little time of abode there, met with a mischiefe which Boninghau­sen thus avoyded, Grasse-Devill defeated by Geise. Geise and Hassian Commander under­standing that this Imperiall Gallant abode in the Dio­cesse of Padorborne, and not farre from the Episcopall Sea, with 500 horsemen, mustered up immediately 150 muskettiers, and 120 horse, experienced Souldiers, and marched directly towards him. He met him quickly, just at the Townes end, where he had billited his men, as hee was going from thence: and here began the skirmish; the Imperialists out-went him in number, his forces onely excelled them in hardinesse, and well practised discipline. The Imperialists seeing the ods betwixt themselves, and their adversaries, went on bravely, and their Dragoones at the first, gave a fierce charge upon his Muskettiers, who, attending till the storme had spent it selfe, and get­ting a little advantage by their enemies carelesnesse, re­turned their pellets amongst them like an Hayle-storme;[Page 20]the fury whereof dis-ranked the horse, and brought them to a confused flight. The Hassian Horse, as well instru­cted to use, as to get a victory, slipt not this advantage, they made after them with all speede, and in the flight of the Enemy, tooke 22 prisoners, amongst whom was one Lievetenant Colonell, two Serjeant majors, and one Captaine; slew about 30 men out-right, wounded many others, themselves all this while having but one mortally hurt, and that with a shot, an invisible dart, not to be discovered, till it be felt, and so not to bee avoyded. Gods blessing (questionlesse) protected them, for had not he covered their heads in the day of this battell, the issue had beene desperate, which by his assistance was thus fortunate.

Here I would stay my pen, (for I meane not yet to fol­low the Lantgrave, who went from the Diet to his Ar­my, Iuly 7/17, and the duke of Lunenburgh towards the Rhine, but that Hildesheim in Brunswicke-land not so fa­mous, either for antiquitie, or the famous Temple there, the Tower whereof (if Hondius his report be truth) is covered with gold, or the Episcopall Sea, or that it was the native Countrey of Ludulphus Coloniensis, that ex­cellent Mathematician as the great opposition these sixe moneths made against the Swedes deserves and requi­reth not to be forgotten.

They which know the miseries of warre, can better conceive than I can expresse, what extremities this place during the time of this siege hath indured. The time for ever since it first began, hath beene a time of anguish and sorrow, affrightes from without, and feares within, have still prosecuted the Inhabitants, that their time of re­pose hath bin nothing else, but a tumultuary dreame; if they found any rest, it was afearefull one; the rest from their trades and occupations, whereby they should get their living. They which had any relation to them, in this distresse, could not but shew some tokens of their commiseration, and their Allies about Iune 1 [...]/21, in this con­sideration[Page 21]did their best to succour them. The event of that attempt, shall conclude this Chapter. The Imperia­lists attempring to relieve Hilde sheim defeated. The Campe before the Citie was conceived to be much weakened; as well because it was thought to be much wasted before this citie, as also because of the absence of the Commissary Generall Anderson, who was reputed then not to have returned to the Armie, because hee had lately gone from thence. Hereupon the Imperialists which were about the River of Weser conioyned their forces, intending to surprise the Brunswickers in their quarters, before they were aware. But the Commissarie, who was no Carpet Knight, and went from the Leaguer not to follow his pleasures, but had an eye to the maine still, had alreadie brought to the Armiefoure fresh Regiments, and was himselfe in person present at that time, though they sup­posed him absent. To his Quarter, their Fortune, and way led them, where they shewed as much bravery in their losse, as he in his Victory. The assault was so furi­ous, and their sudden comming so terrible, that the Bruswickers hopes had failed them, had not the Cou­rage of their Leader something quickened them. But he breaking out like sire coped up in a watery cloud, with more imperiousnesse, at that time againe re-animated his men to fight. And now behold another storme falleth violently upon the besiegers, the Garrison sallied out to the succour of their friends, and renewed a Combate that was not ended but with the deaths of many of both par­ties. The Brunswicke Generall Maior, was here in dan­ger to have been taken, a Lieutenant Colonell had caught him in his armes, and was carrying him into the City, when his souldiers inraged at that disaster, and scorning this affront, as they conceived, not prising their lives, as their Glorie sell upon them so desperatly, as if their own liver had been too small a ransom for his liberty. Armed with this resolution, they recovered the Commander, & with a gr [...] s [...]ughter of the besieged, drove them backe [Page 22]into their Citie. The Candle blazeth most when it bur­neth in the socket: the Rivers there are greatest where they loose their names, and their glorie is buried; and this was then supposed by the assaylants, the last attempt which the besieged would make upon the Leaguer: Hostages given & a treaty of Agreement. for within two daies after, they desired a conference and ex­change of Hostages, till by conference they might make their composition.

But the conclusions of souldiers in warre are only con­jecturall, not demonstrative: there was good probability of agreement, and yet the successe answered not the expe­ctation of the Camp punctually, and vpon the instant the Hostages were kept on both parties, and the treaty con­tinued till Iuly 5/1 [...], the campe and the Citie herein onely differing, That the Leaguer would exclude the Iesuites and Friars, whom they conceived (perhaps not without cause) to have bin abbettors of the souldiers obstinacy; the Garrison unwilling to have them forgotten in the treaty, and left to the mercy of the Conquerors: the Swedes would have proceeded against them as they thought they had deserved in justice; the Garrison protected them against their displeasure, in a religious observancy and re­spect of pierie. But their respective reverence, to their Order of Priesthood, was not the only thing which pro­longed the Treaties the souldiers were as loath to loose the opi [...]ion which the World had of their Valour, in so long with standing the Sweadish army, as to forsake their sooting in H [...]ldesheim, they wanted power and provisi­on to keepe is longer by force, and because they could fish no longer in the troubled wat [...]us, they would cast one hooke in [...]ou the [...]eleare streame▪ Some relie [...]e they expe­cted from the in friends abroad, and till that came, they subtilly delayed the time, by propositions of Articles of peace, which would otherwise have [...]in too lavishly spent in wan: and their confederates Iuly 7/17, again indeauored to have delivered them, by making a suddenassault upon the Sweads in the trenches though, as apppeareth by the[Page 23]sequell it could not be done either so secretly or so for­tunatly, as they imagined: the Story is thus. Three Im­perial Garrisons, one at Neustatt upon the river of Glein, two other at Ny [...]nbourg and Mynden, both upon the We­ser, conioyning with two Spanish Regiments, which came from Munster under the command of the Colonels Waldecken and Shelhamer, A second at­tempt of the Imperialists upō the Army. brought together about 4000 horse and foot to Neustatt, the place for their Rende­vouz, the day above-named, with a purpose to fall upon the Campe before Hildesheim, before the Leaguers should know of their intention. But the Swedish, Com­missarie Erich, Anderson, and the Generall Major Al­brecht of Ʋstar, being informed the same day by their scouts, of their meeting, and suspecting the cause of their banding thus together, immediately called a Councell of Warre, and concluded without delay the same night, before these troopes of strangers could come thither, to make an assault upon the Citie about midnight, and so try whether they could prevent the enemies counsell, in taking that by force, which they had beene about by the space of almost a for tningh [...] by conference and com­position. All things, against the houre appointed were provided for the businesse, the forces were drawne out of all the three quarters before the Citie, lodged, covered, and all things made ready for the assault, save onely the watch-word was not given, which a sudden raine fell so violently, that the Souldiers could neither conveniently handle their [...]pons, nor take firme footing upon the slippery ground, which made the Commissarie give or­der to the Army, to defist from that course, and to conclude upon another, which was (thus) put in pra­ctise the day againe appearing.

The Commanders, first suspecting, by the squibs and fire works within the Citie, and hanging out of lan­ternes upon the steeples, as a signe to their Imperiall friends, and afterwards assured by the spies, that their enemies were upon their march, gave order immediately [Page 24]that the Souldiers should march forward speedily, and meete together, neere the Stier-waldt, and so encoun­ter the Enemie. What the Commanders had injoyned, the Souldiers of the Campe quickly performed, no time was lost, for early in the morning they were gone for­ward as farre as Sachstatt, a Citie upon the River of In­der, about five or sixe English myles from Hildesheim, where, hearing the Enemies Drummes beating a farre off, the Generall major Vslar set the Army in battell a­ray, planted the Ordnance upon the high ground neere Hilperbercke, commended the protection of himselfe, and his forces to God, gave the Army the word IESVS, and presently discovering the Imperialists neerer ap­proaching, began the battell with the Cannon, the Ord­nance of each side playing upon the opposite party: and this manner of sight continued by the space of three houres. The Evangelicall Commanders then perceiving, that the Imperialists would not willingly move out of that posture, commanded the Major of Shonaich with 400. Musketiers of the white Regiment, and some troups of horse, to wheele about, and gall them in their flanc­kers, that so he might either provoke them to joyne in a neerer battell, or breake them of their order, wherein they stood, and were yet as well guarded by observation of their rankes, as protected from the Cannon by conve­niency of the place which they were possest of. It was done accordingly, and the first attempt made against them, was performed so bravely, that the warie Imperi­alists expecting that the maine body of the Evangelicall Army would second the first onset of the Major, and suspecting, their owne power, to be disable to oppose their united force, retyred suddenly, but orderly, to Hey­fede, a neighbouring Village in the Diocesse of Lawen­burgh, and fired the same, thinking by the smoke to hide themselues from sight of their adversaries, and so to avoide them. But the Generall Major, with the maine body of his Army, was already advanced forward, come[Page 25]so neere them, that he had them in his eye, and pursued them so fast, that within an English mile, or little more, they were faine to make a stand, and put it to triall, whe­ther they might save themselues by battell, when they could not escape by flight. The Avantguard of the Evan­gelicall had the first bout with the Imperiall Reare, wherein, though at first the Imperialists stood to it stoutly, yet their power of resistance was soone so much weakened by the courage of the Swedes and Brunswic­kers, and the divers charges made upon them, that with­in one houre, they fled in a disorderly confusion, and the rest of the Army within as short a space, was so utterly routed, that of 2500. horse, scarce 250. returned to New­statt: their foot forces being at the first 1500▪ were al­most all slaine upon the place, save some few which hid themselues in the Forrest, the moorish ground, and the corne. About 1000. prisoners were taken, and carried to Sachstatt, Collenberge, Pattensen, and Hanoner (three Cities upon the Gleine) amongst which were two Lieu­tenant Collonels, two Majors, seven Ritemasters, three Captaines, eleven Lieutenants, and nine Cornets, and the Evangelicall carried away 13. Standards, foure great peeces of Ordnance new cast, and all their Ammunition. This was a memorable victory, as advantageous to the Swedes, as pernitious to the Imperialists (the Cities of Mynden, and Nyenburg were hereby weakened, and the state of Hildesheim, which before was but languishing, hereby grew desperately evill, and out of hope of reme­dy) was not to be passed over, without an Hymne of thanksgiving in the publicke Congregation, which was done so religiously by the whole Army, in the great Church at Sach-stat, the same evening, whence, as soone as they had performed this Christian Office, they retur­ned speedily, and without stay to Hildesheim, to end that worke, which they had beene so long in doing.

The absence of the Campe this short space, was some hinderance to the Brunswickers before the Citie, and [Page 26]might have beene much more, had not their returne bin speedy; the garrison, and Citizens within, in this short vacation, had burned some of the Leaguers works, filled up their trenches againe, and were indeavouring to have brought a new store of provision into the Citie, but the industrie of the Swedes and Brunswickers quickly repai­red the works, and scowred the Trenches anew; and their speedy returne prevented the victualling and new furnishing the Citie with Ammunition; of both which, when they within saw themselues deprived, they quick­ly yeelded upon composition: their agreement being in effect the same which was made at Hammelin, when it was taken in; subscribed to the Articles Iuly 13/23. being Sunday: And upon Thursday, Iuly 17/27, (having first de­livered up the Swedes, and Brunswickers, whom in the time of the siege they had taken prisoners, and a Regi­ment of the Evangelicall horsemen, and two Companies of their foot, being first layed into the Citie) marched forth, and tooke their way towards Munster with a suf­ficient Convoy to guard them, according as it was con­cluded upon in the Articles of agreement, the tenour whereof was as followeth.

  • 1. The Commander in the Garrison shall next Thurs­day in the forenoone (if the Trumpeters which are sent to Minden with the Evangelical hostages be by that time returned) or upon the first returne of the Trumpets, sur­render the Citie to the Lord Generall Major Tylo Al­bert of Vsler, to the use of the high and mighty Prince, Fredericke Vlrich, Duke of Brunswicke, and then give up the keyes of the gates thereof, should have no hidden fire, or private mines, to the danger of the Citie, and that presently upon the subscription of the Articles be­fore the Garrison departed; the Ravelin before the East­gate, shall be guarded by the Brunswicke Generall Ma­jor his forces, 200, men onely being to be appointed to that service, as few as necessitie requireth.
  • 2. All the Ordnance, Ammunition, and whatsoever [Page 27]else appertained to the Artillery, shall bee delivered to him whom the Generall Major shall assigne to receive it, and nothing shall be concealed from him.
  • 3. There shall be granted to the aforesaid Comman­der, the Commissarie Speck, all Officers and common Souldiers, horse and foot, none excepted, free liberty to march out, with their drummes and kettle-drummes beating, their Trumpets sounding, displayed Ensignes, open Standards, high and low Armes, bandeliers filled with powder, bullets in the mouthes, burning matches in the cocks, with their owne baggage, and none other: and to as many Citizens, their wives, widdows, servants, and children as would, freedome of egresse with the soul­diers, and all joyntly to be conveyed with foure troopes of horse the next way to Munster, that they shall bee transported over the Weser, betwixt Rintelin and Ham­melin, be provided of victuals and fodder (that is to say, Grasse-green Oates, Fitches, and Beanes) as is convenient for them on the way, they should not be compelled to march above three German miles in a day. That if it was possible, they should be lodged at night during their iour­ny, in houses, not in the open field: that for the safegard of the Convoy, one Imperiall Rit-master, and one Captain, should be left in the Campe as Hostages, and till the gar­rison was safely arrived at Munster, an Evangelicall Rit­master, and one Captaine should be sent to Minden, and as soone as this Article was performed, the Hostages on each side should be set at liberty.
  • 4 That all the prisoners taken by either party du­ring this siege, should be set free, without any ransome. That those souldiers of the Garrison, which through hun­ger, or by some other accident were constrained, or o­therwise had willingly served in the Leaguer should bee sent backe to their first Colours, and the revolters par­doned.
  • 5. Free leave of departure with the garrison, shall­be granted to all, and every one of the Collonels, Coun­cellors, [Page 28]their officers, and servants, to the Thumbe or Chapiter, and all the Clergie in generall, Monks, Fryars, males or famales, by what name soever they are called, as also all those, which are professours of the Romane Catholicke Religion, and have lived for some time in the Citie, shall have licence to depart, and carry away their proper goods; But if any one, or more, or all of them (except the Iesuites, who shall be gone and are excluded from any benefit of this clausein the Article) would stay in the Citie as private men, and pay their contributions, and impositions, they shall herein have their desire, upon condition, that they abstaine from giving intelligence, holding correspondence, and practising to and with the enemy, and live upon their goods, and lands; and then they shall be protected In juribus & actionibus, in the right of Law, and suites commenced according to Law; not be condemned upon any mans accusation, without due examination, and orderly tryall, be held as the other Subjects, and upon their occasions to travell abroad upon their private businesse, have a licence to passe and repasse, without contradiction. But as for tolleration of the publicke exercise of their Religion, the assigning of one Church to that purpose, and an yearely revenew to the use of the Fryars, for their maintenance, this cannot now be granted, for they must petition his Princely grace F. Ʋlrich Duke of Brunswicke, from whom they may hope for a gracious answer, the Generall Maior promising to promote their cause, and to be an intercessor for them.
  • 6 They shall not carry away any, but deliver up to the officers appointed to receive them, all the Church Ornaments, the Records, Chantries, and Registers of this Bishopricke, the Cloysters, Colledges, Diocesse and Citie; all the Doc [...]es of inheritance, and other convey­ances belonging to the Church, Hospitan, and Mils, and other possessions and jurisdictions particularly, those which they had taken away from the Senate of the Ci­tie, and some private persons, Widowes and citizens, [Page 29]namely Captaine German, Doctor Anthony Walthau­sen, Doctor Susserman, Doctor Ifflands Widow, Ludolf­ten Berling, Henry Hansen, and others: all the Efcrits sent thither from the Bishopricke of Eglem, Magdeburg, and Halberstadt, and now remaining there, the instru­ctions, reversals, obligations, and certificates beloging to the same; much lesse shall they export or carry with them any goods of the Citizens, or any other stranger which brought them thither for the more safety, onely the Clergie shall have liberty to take along with them out of each Cloyster, one habit, with all thereunto appertai­ning, as it is used before the Altar.
  • 7. If any that departeth thence, whether he be a Cler­gie man, or citizen, or souldier, shall leave any of his owne goods in trust with any remaining to be kept for his use, they shall not be diminished, imbezelled, or de­tained from him, upon any colour or pretence, but resto­red when it is sent for, and have a free passe for it.
  • 8 The officers Counsellors of the Citie, and others, shall not be taxed, for what they performe, and sub­scribe ratione officij, nor be accountable to the Imperiall Garrison, for the Corne in the Magazine. The Iewes shall remaine in the Citie, till the Generall Major re­ceive order for them from his Princely Grace, the Duke of Brunswicke, and in the meane time be protected from pillage and plundring.
  • 9 Lastly, to those which march forth, is promised up­on the dignitie and honesty of the Commanders (to which purpose the Hostages are also given) that they shall not be assaulted or molested in their way, either by any Swedish troupes, or any troupe of the confederate Princes, Elector, Peere, or State, and that all fained let­ters which the Imperialists had formerly used by way of stratagem, especially those under the seale of the Se­nate and Citie, should not now bee questioned, or bee prejudiciall to any instrument used in the action, whe­ther [...] was a Senator or ordinary Citizen. These Arti­cles [Page 30]dated in the Campe before Hildesheim, for their better confirmation, were sealed and subscribed on both sides, Iuly 13/23. 1634.

The Trumpetters were in the end returned, and the people which went from Hildesheim, in number about 2000. were brought to Munster, about July 26 old stile. I know not whether to the greater comfort of their Princely friends there, to see them thus happily delive­red from restraint, or griefe of the citie in generall, which being formerly pinched with hunger, and not able to provide for it selfe, must now relieve these guests, espe­cially, being disappointed of the provision which was there expected, 33. Wagons ta­ken by the Hassian Com­mander in Rhenen. the Hassian Commander in Rhenen, by name Raubenhaushampt, having about a day or two be­fore the yeelding of Hildesheim, intercepted 33 Wagons laden with victuals, which should have beene carried thither, but were thus occasionally with their Convoy brought to Rhenen.

The Armies under the Commands of George Duke of Lunembourg, Melander Lievtenant General to the Lants grave of Hessen, and the Netherlander Pinsen, were now disjoyned: Pinsen by command of the States, under whom he served, being inioyned: Melander with his forces entertained for the space of five moneths in the States service: and the Duke required by order of the Director, to looke backe toward Westphalia. The first thing the Duke intended at his returne, was to ioyn with the Swedish Commissary at the Campe before Hilde­sheim, and to hasten the Siege. Beeing upon his March thitherward with five whole Regiments of Horse, as namely the life Regiment, the Commander Kings Regi­ment, the Bremish Regiment, Kniphausens old Regi­ment, and the Commander Kaggen his Dragoniers, and his owne life Regiment, and Burgsdorffe his Regiment of foot: hee received intelligence about Iuly 10/30, of that Victory at Sachstatt, and suddenly changed his course, going with his foot, and the Artillery towards H [...]me­line, [Page 31]directing his Horse towards the Lage, and Gofel­der-bridge: with which armie he is now set downe be­fore Minden, a citie much weakened by the late over­throw of their forces, by the Swedes, Minden blockt up by the D. Lunch. Wolfenbottle by Lohehausen. and now having in Garrison, onely 200 men which he hath blockt up. The Generall Major Lohe-hausen having done the like be­fore to Wolfenbottle, a Citie of strength upon the East­side of the river Alre; in which actions they were still busie; but how successefull, wee must refer it to another discourse. Let this suffice for this time to close up the Chapter, and to make a conclusion of these Princes acti­ons, the Hassians before were ingaged to the States, took in Armsberg, a Citie in the Archbishoprick of Collen be­twixt the Countie of Waldecke and the Marke, being one of the five Servi or Milites Imperij, Servants or Souldi­ers of the Empire (for so I find them reckoned; Waldeck, Hinten, Fulchen, Arnsperg and Rabnaw) and so a place of much importance, and consequence.

CHAP. 7. The actions of the Lantgrave of Hessen, Duke of Luneb. &c.

THe Generalissimo of the Leaguish Ar­my preparing himselfe to make head a­gainst the Hassians, Swedes, and Lune­burghers in Westphalia, sent out some stragling troopes to pillage the Coun­tries which were under either their protection, or in confederation with them, but stayed in person at Collen to make up the maine body of his Ar­my, and to furnish himselfe with money. Hee had often laboured in vaine to perswade the Duke of Newburgh to transmit the forces which hee had leavied, to the Lea­guish Army, and seeing that labour lost, hee desired to be supplyed by him, and the Colleiners with money: A placard made by the Generalissimo against the Duke of New­burgh. and in­treaties not prevailing with the Duke, hee sent a Procla­mation in the name of his Imperiall Majestie, to the Offi­cers, States, and Countries under the Duke of Newburgh, to this effect. Whereas, upon the complaint made to his Majestie by the Estates and townes of the principalities of Gulick, Berg, and the incorporated Countrey, that the Palatine of Newburgh, against their priviledges, & with­out their consent, hath lately laid upon them, many grievous and unsupportable impositions, and especially one monethly contribution; his Imperiall Majestie hath given us an especiall commission to examine and redresse these grievances; for due execution of which, wee have lately summoned the said Estates to appeare at Collen. We now give you to understand, and seriously charge you, by vertue of that power given unto us, that you pay nothing of those contributions, which willingly, or by enforcement you have already subscribed unto, and yeel­ded to pay to the Duke of Newburgh, and that you re­straine your hands from disposing of the money already[Page 34]collected, or to be collected upon the monethly contribu­tions, and to keepe the summes in deposito, till you re­ceive order from us for the paiment thereof. In which case you may be assured of the favour and protection of his Imperiall Majestie, as if you doe the contrary, of his anger and displeasure. This I have advised you of, as be­ing and desiring to be accounted your affectionate and well wishing friend. Mansfield.

The Dukes Countermand This placard being published, Iuly 22. was counter­manded by another from the Duke, who certified his subjects thereby, that the Generalissimo had no Commis­sion from his Imperiall Majestie to take this course, that it was onely a device to affright them, and make them plyant to his motion, and advised them to continue in their faithfull obedience to him whom they had alwaies found their gratious Prince, assuring them also, that hee would never behave himselfe otherwise to them, than lovingly. The people were not more distracted with these charges and countercharges, than the Generalissimo was perplexed with the Dukes refractory and unperswadable obstinacy, and that he might bring something to effect, in the end hee againe summoned the States of Gulick and Berg to appear at Collen about the beginning of August, where he renewed his first propositions; but as it is writ­ten from Collen, Aug. 10/20. could not prevaile.

From these treaties it proceeded to hostile actions, the Generalissimo forced the Citie of Mulhem, a German mile or thereabout distant from Collen, on the East side of the Rhine, to receive an Imperiall Garrison, and Bo­ninghausens souldiers began to pillage the Dukedome of Gulick, as if it had beene the enemies land, and would have proceeded to an higher pitch of violence, if the Boores had not with all their might withstood them; but they bad them welcome in a churlish manner, not stroa­king them lovingly, but striking rudely, beating them downe with clubs, when they saw a fit opportunity. And these dealings, as it is related by the Coloners, made the[Page 35]Duke after many treaties with the Marquesse de Aitona to require the assistance of the States of the Netherlands to defend his territories.

He that hath no enemy, hath no friend; and they which would comply with all, provoke him to be an adversary, which would willingly imbrace his love. The States of Gulick and Berg, it is thought, and so expressed directly from Collen, would have yeelded to Mansfields proposi­tions, had not the Lantgrave in the time of the treaty, sent them an admonition not to doe any thing which might prejudice the Crowne of Sweden, and the confe­derate Princes, lest they smarted for it: and this Menace made them suspitious of their friends too, not daring to entrust themselves with those who had not formerly, (and it is to be hoped) will not hereafter offer them any violence. Some Agents for the D. had conference with the Commander in Sirburg, and it was thence conceived that the Palatine would have joyned his forces with the united Princes; but this was but a conceit, for yet he ho­vereth uncertainly, and hath not declared where he will fasten. Letters from Collen and Dusseldorp affirme, that not onely, while he was mustring one company at Mul­heim upon Tuesday, Iuly 25. Aug. 4. himselfe was shot either casually or wilfully, by some of the trained band thorow the Hat, a Souldier in the side, and a Trumpet­ter thorow the necke, whereof he dyed the next day fol­lowing. Another strange accident is related by a letter from Dusseldorp, Aug. 2/12. the contents whereof are thus.

Iuly 31. Aug. 10. betwitxt the houres of 10. and 11, wee had here exceeding great Thunder and Lightening; the Lightening strooke into a steeple behinde the Cloy­ster against the Cathedrall Church, in which stood aboue 300 barrels of powder: the powder presently tooke fire, and made such a terrible noyse, that it was generally thought in the City, that the end of the world was come. This one stroke in a moment beat in pieces about forty, or[Page 36]fifty houses, and there was scarce one house in the City, which felt not the violence thereof.

The great Church and the upper part of the steeple, were totally ruined. In the Castle the glasse windows were all shattered to peeces, and many houses utterly demolished, by this one blow; a great canon was thrown from the Walls of the citie quite over the Rhine. At Rollingen and Kaysers Werth it hath likewise done much harme. The people of this City were for the most part then in bed and at rest, but many of them rose no more to see another day. Wee have alreadie found by digging above 60 men dead, & many wounded: and many more wee stil heare crying pitifully under the buildings, which are beaten downe. In the beginning, the City beganne to burne in three severall places, but the flame was quen­ched by the industry of some people, who if they had not bestirred themselues, the Citie had bin utterly ruined. The maior part being so astonished, that they had lost the use of reason. A strange accident, the most Highest som­times speakes in Thunder, and happy are they which un­derstand that language.

The Count of Mansfeld thus disappointed of his expe­ctation in the D. of Newburgh, desired of the city of Collen 37500 Rix-dollers to pay his army, and the city of Deutz (divided from that Archiepiscopall Sea, onely by the Rhine, as Southwarke is from London by the Thames) for the service of his Imperiall Maiestie, and a retiring place for his Armie; but the Senat gaue way to neither, beeing unwilling to have the Hassian fall upon them, who lay at Dirlaken with 5000 horse, 4000 Dra­goniers, and six Regiments of foot. And then the Abbot of Seeburg, taking occasion by his necessity, offered him a summe of money to take Seeburg, then, and now pos­sessed by the Swedes. It is a strong Abbey upon the ri­ver of Se [...]g, which falls into the Rhine at Bonne; but hee viewing the place, and considering the fortification of it, returned thence without assayling it. The Generalissimo [Page 37]as it is written from Collen, is now upon his march into the field, but yet we finde him not there, onely some of his troupes have beene late abroad, to plunder the Prote­stant countries. The maine armie is not yet come to in­vade them. July 30. Aug. 9, as it is reported from the Wester-Waldt, 200 Colennish hors, & some foot, made an invasion upon the Nassew Dilling berghish, & Saynish vil­lages, as namely Kirspell, Grand Burhach, & Neunkirchen, caried away their cloaths, victuals, horses, and cattell; for­bare not the Churches, tooke some noble Personages pri­soners, slew some of the Inhabitants and spoyled what they could not carry along, to the great terrour of the countrey people, and about August 12/22, some of the Gene­ralissimo's Horse plundered the Earledome of Henneberg, and carried away some cattell, but that Province beeing under the Protection of the B. of Wertzburg, upon the complaints of the inhabitants to him, and his negotiation with the count, they were promised to bee restored, though it be yet uncertaine whether this promise be per­formed; and to continue the Story of the Generalissimo, it is written from Collen Aug. 5/15, that two Regiments which hee had thought should have served under him, namely that belonging to the Prince of Barbanson, and that of the Count of Isenburgh, marched that present day over the Rhine, towards the Spanish campe neere Ma­strich, as being appointed to the King of Spaines service.

The Lantgraves armie was not yet returned from the Rhine, August 2/12, hee kept his head quarter at Dinslaken, where he expected the returne of his Lieutenant Gene­rall Melander, whom he had sent to the Prince of O­range, who was then with the States Army, at the com­mon Randevouz, Niemegen; The Duke of Luneburg in the meane time slacked not the time of action, but ha­ving blocked up the Citie of Minden, as it is mentioned elsewhere, sent part of his forces from thence to Bucken­burge, which tooke the Towne Iuly 21/ [...]1. The garrison up­on the Luneburgers first comming betaking themselues to the Castle, which they surrendred also; Iuly 28. Aug. [Page 38]7. all the Souldiers which lay in it taking pay under the Duke, except the Commander Iob Henstman who was a Captaine, and his Lieutenant, one Serjeant, and a few of his servants, which were conveyed to Mynden. This Citie famous for its first foundation, as being given by Widekind Duke of Saxony, upon his conversion to Chri­stianitie, to Charles the Emperour, to build there a Bi­shops Sea, and now of note both for traffique, being ac­commodated with the Weeser whereon it stands, and strength, was fully, after the taking of Buckenburge, be­sieged by the Duke; who, Iuly 26. August 4. caused ma­ny bottomes to be brought from Hammeln to Rintelin, that he might make a bridge of boats over the River neere the fort of Berg, for the service of his Army. The Commander Shelhammer, to impeach the Dukes pro­gresse, sallied forth upon him, and gave him fierce charge, but was beaten backe with much losse by the Swedes, and Luneburgers, who entertained him with hostile fu­rie. This is a valiant Gentleman, and it is thought even by the Dukes Army, would have done more for the de­fence of the Citie than he hath done hitherto, had he not beene crossed in his course by the Earle of Wartenberg, which lyeth in the Citie also, who being ambitious of supremacie in command standeth upon tearmes of com­petition with the Collonell, which being a knowne ex­pert Souldier, and deputed to this Province by authority, will not submit to the Count, nor bee over-topped by him. Such heart-burnings, and differences betwixt men of Authoritie, seldome breeds good bloud, they spring from undigested conceits, and these evill humours, make the whole body lyable to sicknesse.

The Duke hereupon caused the Zigell hoff or Tyle host before the Citie to be assaulted, which he tooke, toge­ther with one of the Redoubts, and then immediately assaulting the great Sconce upon the Bridge, hee tooke that also with little losse. Where he presently raised a batterie, and planted his ordnance, and was before mid-August come under the Cannons, and secure from hurt by shot of Cannon.

[Page 39]From Brunswicke the letters bearing date the 23. of August, report that it cannot long hold out. Here it is fit to adde some other letters, which write thus: Vpon Munday last August 11/21 about 4. in the afternoone, Fre­dericke Ʋlrich Duke of Brunswicke, after hee kept his bed 6. weekes, because of a broken legge, dyed, and now it is thought, the Duke of Luneburg who is the next heire to the principalitie, will be more forward in the businesse to cleare his countrey.

The Lantgrave of Hessen after hee had visited the Rhine, and conferred with the Prince of Orange a We­sell, returned to the Ruhr, and I finde him in his head­quarter at Blanken-stein, August 4 14. thence he march­ed to Shwierdt, and came from thence in person upon Munday, Aug. 11.21. to Hamme (which was taken by his forces in the end of May last) where he mustered the 4. Companies consisting of 500. men which lay in the Citie, joyned to them 2. Companies more consisting of 260 men, for whom the Citizens must provide meate, and drinke, because the common contributions of the Countrey are not payed orderly, and returned to his quarter at Shwierdt in the Westhoven, whither he sum­moned the Governours of the Earledome of Hamme to appeare, and had with them some private conference, the effect whereof is not yet discovered. I finde not ei­ther himselfe, or the maine body of his Army yet in the field, onely some Hessish forces I meet withall under the Earle of Eberstein besieging Stathergen, and those againe as it is written from Collin were raised by the Leaguish Collonel Wendt of Cratzenstein, and Perse, who march­ed against them with two small field-peeces, and 2000. men: and that Collonel Giesen having possessed himselfe of the lower Citie of Marsberge, spareth not by batte­rie, to attempt the winning of the higher Citie, but with what successe, it is yet uncertaine; time is mother of truth, and will discover it.

The actions of the Electors of Saxony, &c.

❧ The Actions of the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg. CHAP. VIII.

THe Army of the Saxon Lieutenant Generall Arnheim, after the battell at Liguitz, being refreshed with two dayes r [...]st at Liessa, and prouisions for Viands at Broslaw (as hath beene related in our former booke) was di­uided, by his direction, into two bands, aswell to make the more quick dispatch, as also because be knew that the powers of the Imperiall party, being sca [...]rered, and much impared by his former victory, were not able to make any strong resistance. One part of the Army passed the Oder-bridge at Breslaw, and went directly West-ward toward Oels and Namslaw, the other, which himselfe com­manded in person, marched East-award towards Olaw, a place distant from Namslaw 7. German as English miles. Neither of the Armies, at either of the places, found the least opposition▪ onely, Olaw burnt by the Imperialists at Olaw the Gouernour Rostick being aduartised of the Saxons comming, burnt the towne, and betooke himselfe to the Castell.

[Page 2] Namslaw and Oles taken by the Saxons. At Oels, the Go [...]rnour, D [...]n [...] Languiall yeelded presently to the merry of the Saxons, and was taken priso­ner with his [...]00. souldiers. From Namslaw the Imperia­lists were fled before the Saxons could come thither, yet vpon pursuite were ouertaken, and 100. of them made cap­tiues and brought to the Campe.

The Saxons expeditions were so quicke and fortunate, that within 20 or 22 dayes they had recouered, besides the places aforenamed, Steinaw, Drachenberg▪ Micl [...]ts, Beinstat, and others; almost cleered Silesia of Imperialists, opened the way into Poland, thence to fetch prouision of Victuals: and the price of Cattell, Salt, and other necessaries for sus­tentation of life, was fallen to the moyety of what it had beene formerly.

In the time that the Saxon is thus busied in Silesia, Ge­nerall Banniere marched from Franckford vpon the Oder, Crossen besie­ged by Ban­niere. where, with the Towne, hee had taken 20 Standards and Ensignes) against Crossen, a place of note in the Marquisare bearing the none of Dunehy; and the region about it cal­led by that generall name, being one of the 7 Prouinces of this Elect ore dominion Here being set downe about May 27 Iune 3. hee sent away the Swedish Col [...]hell Borgs­storff, into Silesia, to the Generall Arnheim, to aduertise him of therecou [...]rie of Franckford, and to aduse with him, about further proceedings. Nothing was wanting to serue him in his iourney, had not himselfe been too secure a suffi­cient co [...]oy of har die Souldiers, as well armed and proui­ded of weapons to offend an enemie, as resolued to fight vpon occasion, and as well disciplined, as either armed or resolued; was sent to attend him: With this Guard he pas­sed b [...]y [...]d great Glegaw, when thinking himselfe out of changer he [...] missed his safe-guard (a certaine euidence that hee was more adue [...]ons then wise) for his friends had no sooner left him, Colonell B [...]rgsstor taken by Crabats. but the Crabats▪ or Croatians (for they haue not this name from any peculiar seruice where­in they are imployed, but their Countrey) met him, set vp­on [Page 3]him, wounded, and carried him prisoner to great Glogaw. Hence, some sew dayes after, as hee was to bee transported to Lignitz; the same fortune which appeared in so many formes to the old Romanes in the second punicke warre, seemed also to play in the like manner with this Commander.

There (to speake in the phraise, though not in the lan­guage of Sabellicus) she [...] strooke the Romane Common­wealth at Ticinum, broake it at Trebie, layed it flat downe at Thrasymene, afflicted it at Crunae, began to lift it vp, and cherrish it at Nola, raised it in Spaine, restored it at Metau­rus, and proclaimed it victorious at Zama: and here shee affrighted the Colonell by the vnexpected assault of his enemies, wounded him by his captiuitie, comforted him a­gaine by the sudden comming in of his friends, Collo. Borgs­storff deliue­red by the Saxons. some Saxon troopes, as hee was on the way towards Liguitz, and re­stored him to his former libertie, and dignitie, by meanes of his valliant confederates, which beate the Guard that carried him, deliuered the prisoner, and brought many of them which earst insulted ouer him, to his late restrained estate.

Crossen surren­dted to the Swedes and Brandenbur­guish, by com­position. The Citie of Crossen at the first seemed as if it meant to hold out, and was assured of succours, doing some damage with their Ordnance to the Army▪ But this resolution held not long, in a few dayes their Powder and Shot was spent, and the place surrendred to the Swedes and Brandenbur­gers, vpon these Articles following, which were first sub­scribed by Dauid Dromand, on the behalfe of the Leaguer; and Maximillian of Stegken, on the behalfe of the Imperi­alists, Iune, 2.12. for their further confirmation.

  • I That the Imperiall Garrison, should march forth with white staues, and the Souldiers, as ma­ny as would, should take pay vnder the Swedes.
  • [Page 4]II. That the Commander and the Captaines, should haue each man a Waggon laden with baggage, and with the Lieutenants▪ Ancients, and Sergeants, should bee safely conueyed to­wards Morania.
  • III. That they should not dare, or attempt, to car­ry away Neyle, or spoyle any of the Ordnance, Ammunition, or other instruments of war, which did not belong vnto them.
  • IIII. They should not pillage, oppresse, or robbe any of the Citizens, by taking away their goods, much lesse doe any disparagement to their persons.
  • V. That they should deliuer all the prisoners they had in their custody, and set them at li­berty without any exception.
  • VI. That the Conuoy was returned safe againe to [Page 5]the Army, they should leaue two sufficie [...]e men for Hostages, which afterwards should be carried to places of safety.
  • Lastly, that the Capitulation being subscri­bed, they should instantly surrendes their Our­workes, and the innermost gates, to the Campe, they should guard them that night with their owne men, and early in the morning march forth.

All this was done accordingly, and the next day, Iune 3.13. 900 of the Souldiers taking pay vnder the Swedes, as they write from Leipsig Iune 13.23. the rest of the Gar­rison marched from thence, according to the order of the first Article, leauing behind them, besides their Ordnance and Ammunition, 10 Ensignes; and tooke their way through Poland, to goe into M [...]rania.

This place thus happily taken in, Glogaw be­sieged. the Swedish Bauniore marched directly against the great Glogaw in Silefia, there to ioyne his Forces with the Saxon Lieutenant Generall, because this was a Towne of strength, and had formerly done them much annoyance: Here these two Commanders hauing enquartered their Armies, one on the East side of the Oder, and the other on the West: Nothing was omit­ted by the which was either for their owne defence or of­fence of the enemie; and the besieged shewed as much care in fortifying themselues, to the measure of their meanes, as courage in opposing their weake forces against such warlike preparations: The besiegers planted their Batteries, and made their approaches so neere the Citie, and so speedily, that within lesse then fiue dayes, they were so nigh the walls, that they might cast stones into the Towne, and the beleaguered (forcing the Lutheran citizens within to helpe them) strengthening the walls with palizadoes, to preuent the scaladoe, threw many boards into the ditches, [Page 6]through which they had driuen many nayles, to lame the the feete of the Souldiers, if they should attempt to assault them, and shot fiercely from the Towne, vpon the Campe, as though they intended to pay them in their owne coyne, fight it out to the last, and neuer come to termes of com­position: But their resolutions altered with the occasion; discretion commanded them to yeeld to necessitie, which had broke them vtterly, if they had not bowed of their owne accord, and willingly; succours they expected, and that at the first incouraged them, and foure regiments of Imperiall horse endeauoured to relieue them, but sayling of their purpose, the spirit of the Garrison drooped, Glogaw yeeld­ed to the Saxons. and the Citie was giuen vp by composition, Iune 7.17. vpon these Tearmes following.

  • I. That the Gouernour should march out of the City, Castell, and Thumb, or Cathedrall Church in the Euening, about 4 of the clocke; and sur­render the same to the Saxons.
  • II. The Commander should neither himselfe, pil­lage, doe any iniurie or violence, to the poore Citizens, nor permit any of the Souldiers, at his departure to doe it. A good proposition, and well aduised of, it sheweth that the Army came not against the City to oppresse it as an enemy, but relieue it as a friend.
  • [Page 7]III. That if there were any priuate Mines, or secret fires hidden in the earth, the Commander before his going out, should discouer and reueale them.
  • IIII. That all the Canons and Ammunition should be left in the City, bee deliuered to the Saxon Lieutenant Colonell of the Artillery, no Peece should be concealed from him; if any were hid­den in the earth, or any other secret place, the Commander should disclose it.
  • V That all the prisoners which heretofore had serued in the Saxon, Brandenburgish, or Swedish Army, whether they were taken during the time of the Siege, or before, should be set at liberty.
  • VI. That all the Ensignes and Standards should bee deliuered to the Saxons.
  • VII. That, because it was sufficiently knowne, that [Page 8]some Waggons loaden with Baggage, and be­longing to diuers Regiments which were beaten at Lignitz, were brought into that City; there­fore the Commander should be bound to deliuer them to the Saxon forces.
  • VIII. That none of the Garrison Souldiers should bee compelled to take pay vnder the Swede, Sax­on, or Brandenburger; but that as many as would willingly serue vnder these colours, should not bee hindred.
  • Lastly, that the Commander, his Officers, and Souldiers, should march forth safely, with high and low Armes, their Drums beating, their Ban­deliers full of Powder, Bullets in the mouth, and burning Matches in the Cocke, with all their owne Horses, and Baggage, and whatsoeuer else [...]ppertained vnto them properlie, and for their better securitie in the way, should bee guarded with a sufficient conuoy to Glatz.

This is the summe of the Articles of agreement, and it was an honourable composition on both sides; the Euange­licall Generalls did hereby giue a good remonstrance of pietie, neither thirsting after blood, nor insulting ouer the enemie, by propounding any thing which might be preiu­diciall to his honour and reputation: And the Imperiall Commander gaue a good testimony of his wisdome, not being [...]bstinate, when his estate was desperate, and[Page 9]courage in the two last Articles, whereby hee kept his owne good name vntainted, and the Souldiers credit vn­violated.

The Imperiall Boot-halers of Lignitz sur­prised. During the time of this siege, a troope of 500 Imperia­lists which came forth of Lignitz, had plundered some Villages, and little Townes the labours, intending to re­turne with the spoyle to Lignitz▪ these the Colonell Gers­dorff, Commander of the garrison as G [...]rlitz, surprised with his Regiment; sl [...]w most of them and recouered the booty againe. The Generall Arnheim at Dresden, ac­quaints the Elect. with his good successe. And so fortunate haue the Saxons lately bin in Sile­sia, that vpon Iune 11. when the Lie [...]enant Gener [...]ll Arn­heim was come in person to Dresiden, to acquaint the E­lector with his good successe, and the Generall major D [...] ­mer the same day had pre [...]e [...]ed to the Prince the Cornet [...] and Ensignes which were gotten in the battell or Lignitz▪ The Elector straight gaue order to haue the some day, both in his Chappell at the Court, and in the City Church a Sermon of thankesgiuing for the former blessings which GOD had bestowed vpon him, Publike pray­ers & thankes­giuing. and solemne prayers for continuation of his mercies hereafter. A good eui­dence of a religious gratefull heart, comm [...]ndable in all sorts of men, but especiall in a Prince, whose ex­ample giues life to his actions.

A Treaty of Peace at Leuthmaritz. May 20.30. in that very time when this Elector was so victorious with his Army in Silesia, the King of Hungary sent him a kind Letter; whereby hee ga [...]e him to vnderstand, that his Imperiall Maiesty, his father, had giuen him full power and authority, to Treate with him of a Peace; that hee doubted not of the good issue of the T [...]ea [...]y, the propositions on the Emperours part, being so reasonable, and the meanes hee had to effect it so likely and probable, that he had sent to Leuthmaritz (a Towne bordering vpon the Lower-Saxony) his Commissioners, the Earle of Tran [...] ­mansdorff, the Lord of Qu [...]s [...]nberg, and Doctor Ge [...] ­herd, with full instructions and authority, and did [Page 10]therefore desire him to send his Embassadours or Depu­ties, to the same place, that so this negotiation might be brought to some conclusion.

The name of Peace is so glorious a name, that the Heathens, in their blindnesse, esteemed it as a Deitie; and the Christians yet account it, as a principall Tem­porall blessing, when euery one with security, and dreadlesse of an enemy, may repose himselfe vnder his owne Vine and Figg-tree. He that will not seeke it, hath the character of an vnwise man; but he that shall refuse it, if offered sincerely and without fraud, hath put off all humility; man, by his propper inclina­tion, being a sociable creature not armed by Nature, out by [...]ightinesse of heart [...] malice, and desire of re­uenge: And most true is that Apothegme of Augustus Caesar, mentioned by Caspinian, It is the onely euident taken of an ambitious Spirit, for the pompe of a vaine triumph, or a La [...]rest Wreath, is h [...]zard the [...], and security of the people. This motion therefore was not vnwelcome to the Elector, who, according to the Kings desire, Iune 2.12, sent his Commissioners, The Lord Nicholas Gebbard of Mel [...]itz, a Pricy Counsellor; the Lord Fredericke of Metsh, President of the vpper Con­sistoriall Councells Doctor Oppell, Counsellor of the Count, to the place appointed, to heare the points of re­f [...]rence; where they were brought in, and entertained by the emperiall delegates, in such pompe, and mignifi­cence, as was fit for his dignity whom they repre­sen [...]ed.

The Treaty was then immediately beginne, but the good [...]cesse is much to be feared, for they write from Dresd [...], Iune 7.17. that the Elector had c [...]lled his Agents backe againe from Leuthmaritz, the Imperiall Commis­sioners not descending a [...] any particular, but insisting vpon vniversall propositions, or, if they came to any, it was onely this:

That his Imperiall Maiesty would presently exempt this Elector from the execution of the decree (whereon the whole businesse refled) and leaue the Ecclesiasticall goods which he had in his hands hareditary to him; but the rest of the Ele­ctors and Princes, should suffer the execution to goe on, till the expiration of 100 yeares.

If this report be true, out of question, this Elector hath not forgotten the conclusions in the Diet at Heil­brun, and will not for his owne priuate interest, neglect his Confederates; but thinketh it more sure and honoura­ble, to promote the publike good, and aduance in common, then to stand or fall alone.

The Imperialists about May 25. Iune 4. being 3000 strong, Horse and Foot, marched out of Bohemia towards Annaberg in Misnia, to make an inuasion and spoyle the Countrey thereabouts, but were incountred by the Saxon Colonell Dauben, who fell vpon them with his horsemen, beate them backe, and with the losse of 3. Souldiers and one Lieutenant, slew aboue 20 of them, whereof one was a Ritt-master, and tooke 15. prisoners. And this Elector, as they write write from Dresden, May 31. Iune 10. had then leuied a fresh Army of 1200 men, furnished with all things necessary, which hee late kept in readinesse, with 200 lusty and able Pioners, Horses and Carriages for the Artillery, to he imployed vpon the next occasion; and thus they treate of Peace, with their swords in their hands; and while they speake of it, on both sides they pre­pare to battell.

Nor was it a time indeed to lay downe their Armes, for the Saxon Forces were no sooner gone from Glogaw, but the Imperialists and Crabats began to appeare againe, and to doe much harme in Silesia, where besides their frustrane­ous attempt, for the surprisall of Bernstat, wherein they were preuented by the vigilancy of the Gouernour Kepe. Iune 6.16. ten Cornets of their Horse came a Boot-hailing to the very gates of Breslaw, fired two villages, and carried[Page 12]away much Booty, so preuent which inconueniences, The Lieute­nant Gene­rall Arnheim sent backe to the Army. the Elector hauing honoured his Generall, with a costly gold chaine, which he gaue him, aduised him to confer with Ban­ni [...]r, about their further proceedings, supplied him with 3. Companies of the life Regiment, and two other whole Re­giments; one vnder the command of Colonell Losen, the other vnder Colonell Wickstorff, and appointed all the for­ces lately leuied, to follow him; remitted him to the army, where Banni [...]r and he diuided their forces, the one taking vpon him the charge of Silesia, the other setting forward to Morauia and Bohemia; a countrey so torne and ruined with these late warres, that the face of it is now so much altered, that it appeareth wretch­ed; so poore, that it can call nothing his owne, the the very rest and motion of it, depending vpon the rest and motion of others.

Saxon and Brandenburgs Procee­dings continued. CHAP. IX.

THe first designe of this new raysed Armie, honoured by the presence of the Saxon Elector himselfe, who hath ingaged his owne person in the expedition was against Lignitz, Lignitz forsa­ken by the Im­perialists. which had formerly beene an har­bour of Imperialists in the lesser gusts of Warre, but was now concei­ued by themselues, to be no suffici­ent shelter against this violent storme which threatned them; yet heere the Saxons stayed not, before they came hither; the Imperialists had pillaged the Citie, and forsa­ken it, so without stay, hence they marched in a straight line toward Sittaw, a Towne in the vpper Lusatia, situate vpon the Riuer Nisse, and distant 4 Germane miles from G [...]rlitz. This was a towne of strength, better manned, and of more importance, and not to bee got without stroakes. The Garrison heere was 1200. foote, and two regiments of horse, and were so farre from yeelding to the first sum­mons, that Sunday night, Iune 29, new stile, as soone as [Page 14]the Electour was set downe before it, they made a salley vpon the Armie, so couragiously, that they had much en­damaged the Saxons, had not they behaued themselues in that en counter brauely; but 30, of their aduenterers were slaine out-right, and 80, of them taken Prisoners, by the Saxon Colonell Gristow, vpon whose quarter they fell in this enterprise.

This action of the besieged, so much incensed the Elect­or, that hee hauing made his way a little open by batterie; vpon Thursday night, Iuly 4.14. about 10. of clocke, gaue order to assault it in three seuerall places; the word was no sooner spoken, but his forward Souldiers went to the busi­nesse cheerefully, and by one in the morning, though not without strong opposition, scaled the out-works, beate the Imperialists into the Citie, and followed them so close, that they thrust themselues in at the gates after them; Sittaw taken by assault. and so tooke possession of what their enemies stroue to detaine from them.

The yssue of the assault was bloody on both sices, the Saxon Lieutenant Colonell Wanger, was slaine neere a Gabeon, by a bullet of foure pound waight, and the one halfe of his head erased from the other, by violence of the shot; the Inginere Peter Hart, who was appointed to haue fastened the Petards to the gates, if neede required it, was was likewise slaine▪ with 50. common Souldiers, which a­tended vpon that seruice: and the Master of the Horse to the Duke Francis Albert of Saxon Lawenburg, receiued a mortall wound, whereof hee died within few houres af­ter: This losse had the Saxon, in his winning. But besides, that, the death of these men of note in the Armie, was part­ly auenged, with the like fate of the chiefe Commander within, Lieutenrant Colonell Fuchs, who in the begin­ning of the assault, was deadly wounded, the slaughter of two Captaines, and 50 or 60 Souldiers, and captiuating of the rest; the prize there taken, made some amends for the losse (if the life of men, and men of emenencie may be[Page 15]vallewed) the Cittie being plundered by the Souldi [...]s in the furie, and the Elector not more strengthened, or en­riched with the Ordinance, and plentifull store of Ammu­nition. 70000 measures of meale, and corne, and other neccessaries which hee found there; then honoured with the tokens of a Trophee, twelue Ensignes, and two Stan­dards, the spoiles of the Enemie, and retords of his Vi­ctory.

Before the Saxons had thus taken in Zittaw, the Swe­dish Bannier, Generall for the Brandenburger, and depu­ted to the prouince of Silesia, vpon the 29. of Iune (Saint Peter and Pauls day,) it seemes that the Catholikes tute­lary Saints were at that time otherwise busied; then to looke after them) entered into a set battell with 15000. Imperialists, vnder the conduct of their Generall Colore­doe, and got a noble victory.

Coloredo, his Armie routed neere Griffen­burg, The place where this battell was fought, was neere Griffenburg, a Citie in Silesia, which the Imperialists had burnt, and were going forward to make hauocke of the Countrey, when the Army of Bannier met them, and by a prosent fight, preuented the outrages which they inten­ded: in this battell, the Imperialists are said to haue lost three or foure thousand men slaine vpon the place, many Officers were taken Prisoners: thirty Cornets, 70 En­signes, and 38 peeces of Ordnance, which were gotten by the Swedes from this puissant Army, it was a terrible blow to the Imperiall Partee, their hopes of recouering Silesia, being set vpon those forces, which being thus ruinated, haue in part secured the tenure of Silesia, to the Saxon, and exposed the Kingdome of Bohemia, to the inuasion of the Swedes, and Saxons, which at Sagaw, Iune 25. Iuly 5. con­cluded a ioynt expedition against it; and which our narra­tion must now follow them.

The fortune of a day doth sometimes change the for­tune of a Kingdome. But in the way, I find young Maximilian of Wal [...]enstein, (whom because, I might rather[Page 16]reckon [...]ngst the B [...]ndetties, th [...] noble Souldi [...], ma­king [...]ill [...]g [...] both vpon his friends, and enemies, rebelling against his [...]ate Master, for the death of the Duke of Fried­land, and yet in Hostilitie with the Euangelicall: Maximilian of Wallst [...]in defea­ted by the Saxon Domer. I should willingly passe ou [...]t as not worthy to bee reckored a­mongst these noble Spirits, which without any finister [...]e­spect [...], but perswation of their conscience (as I thinke) [...]n both sides, fight for their religion, and Countrey, but that the Saxon Lieutenant Colonell D [...]nner, deserues an Ho­nourable mention for the defeature of his rouing troopes; let this suffice for him briefely.

As this young Walstei [...] [...] [...]ging ree [...] Glat [...], where hee holds his Randeue [...]z, the Saxon Gommander, who was gunded with 400. Horse, lighted vpon him, routed his trooper, carried away 300 good Horses, and two of his Captaines Prisoners.

After the di [...]at [...]h of the former businesse in Silesia, [...]an­ [...] [...] with his Armyco Sit [...], whether hee came [...] the next day after the Towne was taken; and [...] hee [...]ooke his way by appointment of the Elector, into Bob [...]mia. Leuthmer [...] which earst was appointed the place of treaty for peace, being now the first marke hee ay­me [...]at. A Scirmish neere Luthma­r [...]z. Thither hee came about▪ Iuly, 7.17. and after a small ski [...]ish betwixt part of his Auant-guard, and sixe Imperiall troopes of Horse; vnder the command of Don Balchasar, and the Generall Maior▪ Lamboy, which had beene abroad, and not yet returned into the Citie; his for­ [...] [...]ing defeated them, pursued those that fled, soclose, [...] they had not eseaped, had not the Horse-men ouer­went them, and out off two of the arches of the Beidge▪ which before they could bee repayred, for the Army to follow after (though the worke was hastened as much as might bee by the Generall) got them so much aduantage of the way, that they were not againe to bee ouertaken.

The Elector hauing set led things at Zittaw, ioyned hi [...] owne Lieutenant Generall Arnh [...], to stere his course [Page 17] [...] the [...] peare occasionally.

Ba [...], [...] foured a yes [...] this [...]ing to Beutlment [...] had take [...] G [...]st [...]in, the place of [...] of the [...]ate Generall [...] a Citie there sited, where the Riuer of Mol [...] burieth it selfe, in the chai [...] of the E [...] and part of Ar [...]ei [...] Ar­mie, by Iuly, 16.20. was [...] to the gates of Prague, which being no O [...] of defence and weakely manned, was conceiued could not hold out, but here for the present wee must leaue them.

Two Pro [...] ­gies, the first at Berlin, the second ar Dres­den. I cannot here conceale two [...]wo prodegies, which (a [...] [...]ey write [...] those pa [...]) [...] happened in the Marc [...] ­ [...]ate of Bra [...]d [...], and Duked one of Sa [...]y, and at Ber­lin; where about mid Iune, it rayned Blood and Bri [...] ­stone; the other at Dros [...], Iune 23. Iuly 3. where towards Enening; at fiue of the clooke, the S [...]n was first [...] [...] white as [...], and then sudd [...]ly [...] darke, [...] if a mist went ouer it; It appeared first in forme of [...] Crow [...], and then like a [...]eather, red as [...], in which postures, when it had continued by the space of ha [...]se [...] no [...]re, it returned to [...] the sanguine new till it went downe; [...] he [...] ­sing, retained the [...] bloody [...]spect, till [...] bee [...]eere in that Hor [...]on.

I [...]ow that whatsoeuer the Physiolog [...] [...] of [...] ­rall causes, yet such [...] bodies, is alwayes prodig [...] [...] but expect them, a [...] play on either side, and presage probably, good or [...]ll to [...] ­ther party.

I dare not meddle heere: My wish is — [...] hostes Convert [...] — and my Prayer shall [...] [...] out thine indignation (O LORD) vpon [...], and [...]hy wrath vpon them, which haue not called vpon thy Name.

[Page 18]If [...] it might pear harm beene almost [...]at; the Country was [...] free of the mi­serie of Warr, onely 700. Imperialis [...] Lignitz, and fif­ty or [...] Souldiers at Ola [...]; under the command of a Sparnish Gol [...]n [...]ll [...]here something molested that Pro­ [...]ince; and now the [...]otor of Sani [...]y, (like that Larian King reported by [...]bulous an [...]quitie to haue two faces, because of his pro [...]derce, and [...] circumspection) looked at once, as well behind him [...] before him; prouides both for the f [...]ture quiet of Sile [...]a, and the extending of his victo­ries in Bohemia.

The Diet at Bres [...]. About that time, at Breslaw, was called a Diet, where the P [...]eres of the Countrey being met together, they con­cluded th [...] [...]u [...]tomes of that Territory, should for euer bee p [...]d to the Elector of Saxony; committed the direction of all things to the Commander, and generall field Com­missary, the Lord Da [...] Vitz [...]thumbe, and adiourned their mee [...]ing againetill the moneth of August; when vpon the comming [...] of the Princes and Dukes of Brieg▪ and Lig­ [...], wh [...]aue promised then to meare; a full conclusion should bee made, and the businesse of that Prouince dis­pa [...]ed.

The Generall Comissary was faith full in his trust, and first, ha [...]ing [...] the Lieu [...]ant Colonell Tronsdorff to view the Castle of Olaw, mustered [...]p the Saxon forces, left in that Territory, whereof there were siue Regiments, left vnder the Commander S [...]b [...]der, by the Elector; supplied them with 60 [...] others drawne out of the Citie; and Th [...] o [...] Br [...]s [...] [...]ed them with Ordnance, taken from the Imperialists by his Excellencie, the Generall Arnheim, in the [...]ell a [...] Lig [...]tz, and left by his command in Bre­slaw; assigned them two Morterers, and other materialls, and appointed them to assault Olaw first, and Lignitz, af­terwards, where what their proceedings haue beene, shall bee knowne [...]fter.

[Page 19] The Saxons and Swedes Proceedings in Bohemia. Th [...] Elector of S [...]y, [...] thus ordered the affaires of that [...] with his designe for the King­dome of Bohemia; he [...] hee expected strong opposition: there [...]ort being common that [...] (who for all that, was still at Regenspi [...]g) was marching thither, with a great part of the [...], to assist Color [...]do, loyned with a strong suspition▪ that the King of [...] himselfe, would haue an eye thither ward, where hee clained the Crowne, and professed himselfe to bee a Sou [...]raigne King: and 7. Impe­riall regiments being already P [...]zell, and Fratenaw, to stay the conquest [...] of the S [...]edes, and Saxons, or hinder them in the course of their victories. This made him strengthen his Army with a new supply of Ammuni­tion, and accesse of new forces; at length hauing prepared a 100. Peeces of Ordnance, and sitted them vpon their ca­riages, and ioyned his owne forces with the Swedes and Brandenburgers, vnder the Generall Bannier, whose owne Army consisted of 108. Companies of Horse, 24. whereof were leauied by the Marquesse Elect or of Brandenburg; 5. Companies by the Duke of Pomerania: 8. Companies by the Dukes of Mechkleburg; 9. Companies belonging to, and vnder the Generall himselfe immediately. 8. Com­panies vnder Colonell Wedel. 4. vnder the Earle of Hoditz. 8. vnder Krackhawen. 4. vnder the Lord of Fels. 6. vnder the Commander Boy; and 32. Companies of Swedes and Finlanders, all Cauallary. 126. Companies of Foote, to wit, 30. Companies of the Elector of Brandenburg. 16. Companies of the Duke of Pomerania. 12. Companies of Mechkleburg. 12. Companies vnder the Commander Karr. 12. vnder Colonell Dromond. 12. vnder Porr San­son. 12. vnder the Command of Weduss. 8. vnder the Earle of Hoditz, 12. vnder Lohausen: and 18. Companies of Dragonneers. 6. vnder Lohausen. 6. vnder Colonell Mul­ler, and 6. vnder Porr Sanson: About Iuly 15.25. hauing formerly (as they write from Vienna) taken Shlun, Leuth­maritz, La [...], Brundeise, and other places, marched ouer [Page 20]the [...] M [...]l [...] [...] which [...] is now for [...]ifie [...] [...] as [...]e [...]r [...]y it hath b [...] when it was [...]ine to [...]br [...]it to the Ma [...] of the Field, and t [...] [...] not to be taken but by Armes and a [...]og [...], the Armies, ha [...] [...] [...]g [...]e [...]ed, with what success [...], it is yet vn­cert [...]e, but doubtlesse, it is not to bee expected that it should [...] so easily gained as the [...]axon Commander Paul Daube, tooke the [...] of El [...]g [...], vpon the Eger: He [...] by a strata [...]me though [...] was both well fortified, and manned, and had but one way of [...]o [...]ming to it, quickly entered, [...]nd put the Garrison to the s [...]d.

And now to [...]mo [...] the of [...]o [...]eedings of the [...] Prin­ces, from May, [...]ll the 20. of Iuly; you may [...]ee them come from Fra [...]keford vpon the Oder, to Prague, the sp [...] of of 120 miles, no enemie yet stopping them; a quick expedition done in a sho [...] [...]me, and yet as [...]ppi [...], a [...]peedie.

Further Proceedings of the Duke of Saxony and Brandenburg. CHAP. X.

The Saxo: and Swedes actions at Prague. THe Saxon and Swedish Armies be­ing aduanced from Silesia into Bo­hemia, found more opposition at Prague then was expected; 12 Re­giments of Horse, and 7 of Foot, e­uery Regiment consisting of 12 or 1400 hundred men, were there vn­der the command of Coleredue and Don Balthasar, two expert and vali­ant souldiers, which neither omitted the fortification of the City against assauls, nor shunned the danger of fight, to ann [...]y their aduersaries. The hands of all the inhabitants, whether Christians or Iewes, Priests, or lay men, vpon the first report of the approaching of the Saxon Army, were imployed about Redouts, Sconces, Horneworke and the like pieces for defence, and the Armes of the Imperiall soul­diers were practised to offend the Swedes and Saxons vp­on their first comming.

The Saxon Generall being satedowne about Iuly 15.25, vpon the one side of the City, and Bannier vpon the other, [Page 22]th [...] [...] vpon the C [...]ty [...], by the [...]a [...] of [...] and were replied [...] the [...] in the like kind, not [...] out some [...]osse on both [...]les; 8 ot [...]00 men of the Saxons and Swedes being [...]la [...]e, and 600 [...] cria­li [...]e, who had the aduantage in height of ground and for [...]i­fication.

The City, in this short space, had been so liberall of their Ammunition; that they had spent their shot, and were brought to such an exigent, that they forced the Iewes to deliuer them 4000 weight of Tinne to make bullers: But the besiegers were brought to a greater want, of Victualls; the Imperialists hauing before pillaged the Countrey a­bout, from whence they sought for prouision of which, they were by this meanes disappointed. This made the Gene­ralls vnwillingly rise; Arnheim marching towards Leuth­maritz, to refresh his Army in the Konigritz Circle, and Bannier towards F [...]ger.

This sudden change caused a generall suspi [...]on in the Vnited Princes, that the Elector had mad [...] a [...]ruce for 4. weekes with the Emperour; and this jealou [...] could not be concealed, but burst foorth into a ru [...]our and the tale was augmented by often repetition, the shadow of the trueth thereof being confirmed by report of Trumpets sounding, and Heralds proclaiming a cessation from Armes, during such a season. Icalousie is still proiecting, and workes commonly vpon the worst; It appeared quickly, that all this report was grounded but vpon imagination for the Swedes and Saxons still prepared to warre; [...]id the Embassadors of the Emperour, perceiuing the fruitlesse hopelesse issue of the Treaty, desired leaue to depart, and a Connoy to V [...].

The Duke E­lectors daugh­ter married to the Prince of Denmarke. The Elector himselfe was by this re [...]ned vnto Dresden H [...] [...]ed his company at home [...] aswell as Bellona a­broad; his daughter was espoused to the Prince of Den­marke and the solemnity of the Nup [...]alls requited his per­sonall presence. And yet the time thus spent, was not vp­on [Page 23] [...] and R [...] the com­mon graces of such hono [...]ble actions: In the mid [...] of these sports, he [...]st a serious eye, vpon the maine [...]y [...]esse; an as if, these vsuall exercises, at such an extraordinary time, had beene but rememb [...]rs of what must bee done in ea [...]est; he le [...]ed new F [...] to strengthen his Army, which, August 6.12. as they write from Drosden, marched to the Army in Bohemia, which was afterwards said to bee compleate of 30000 Swedes and Saxons, lasty able men, trained vp is discipline and desir [...] to sight. His Lieu­tenant Generall vpon this occasion, retired himselfe thither also, for the space of 3. or 4. dayes; but as one which moo­ned out of his properelement, while he was not in warre, in this short space dispatched his businesse at Court, and hau­ing giuen the Bride a chaine, worth 8000 Rixdollars, as an acknowledgment of gratitude to the Saxon Family, retur­ned to the Campe at Melnick.

This occasion, though it thus remooued the persons, who had the prime charge in direction, did not call aside those who were deputed to the deuout attendance of the Array in religion; the Chaplaines, appointed to the worship of GOD, remained behind them, and were still busied in their ministery.

A strange ap­parition in the Ayre at Mel­nick. At Melnick was the Randeuouz of the Saxon Army; and here, in time of prayer, Iuly 24 August [...], was a strange token in the Ayre, which is thus deliuered by Letters, bea­ring date the same day.

This day about Euening, when our Electors Chap­laine was at Prayers, there appeared a signe in the Skie, liken fiery Beame: when hee had finished his course and the Lieutenant [...]enerall Arnheim his Chaplaine did his offices, there appeared another in the forme of a Scepter fiery-r [...]d, iust ouer the house where he made hi [...] Sermon, asso [...]e us Prayers were d [...]e, and the Chaplaine had spoke Amen; the signe vanished: It was seene of many, &c.

[Page 24] [...] to from [...] his [...], and [...] o [...] th [...] [...] where they [...] the [...] to preach againe; and hauing [...] things there▪ [...] are kingdome, reso [...]d en [...] [...] in [...] with the [...]iall Army there, or by [...] the chiefe C [...]ses and p [...]ces of [...], to bring the people to obedi [...]. Their march begot a gener [...] [...] throughout the whole [...]gdome of Bohe [...], at [...] e [...]lly, from w [...] the [...]e [...], and all the [...] and Tryars [...]led, except a few [...] which a­bode still in the old Citie.

At Melnick there had beene lately abridge of Boates [...] the [...] for the conuenient passing, and repas­ [...] of the [...]; but the [...] rising high, whether by [...], [...] might [...] the South pare of the kingdome of Boh [...], o [...] by the opening of some Sinces, as some conjectured, the Bridge was broken in pieces, and made vselesse; and a new one was faine to be made, heere [...], not without great charge to the Electon▪ both ma­ [...] and wor [...]en being brought out of M [...] [...] this worke.

The Armies are now joyntly mar [...]ing forward ( [...] a­bout 10000 men which were [...] towards Z [...]ickaw and [...] passage)and August 6, 1 [...], they came [...] the of L [...]miburg, which [...]h vpon the Elue, a­bout [...] from Pragas, and s [...]oned it to [...] the [...] and Ga [...]rison, standing too stiffely [...] to re [...]is acmy, Li [...]g taken by a [...]lt. it was straight­way [...] [...] by the Canon, a breach made in the walles, [...]ed by the Swedes and Saxons, who ca [...]ed the place before them, and in the heate of fury▪ forgot to shew any[Page 25]mercie. In the Citie, th [...] [...]ay [...] Co [...] of I [...] Drago [...]neers, and three companies of foo [...]e, these [...]ou [...] ­ers, assisted with the Ci [...]ons, and [...] (of which there were many is the Citie) and Women, which out of a d [...]spo­rate madnesse, threw burning pitch, & scalding w [...]er vpon the Armie: made what resistance they were able, thinking thereby to saue themselues, but their vnaduised actions prouoked the in [...]aders to anger, which was not pacif [...]ed but with the death of aboue 2000, persons in that Citie The principall Commander, in the midst of the slaughter, with 150. Souldiers retired into the Castle, and [...] called downe to the Euangelicall Commanders, [...]raued quarter, offering to pay a great ransome. But the same tongue, which then begged basely, had formedy rayled a­gainst the persons to whom it was now a Petitioner, de­spirefully; they stopped their cares against the Petitioner, and put him to the Sword also, with all those which were with him, except some few which obtained quarter. Some Imperiall succours were comming to relie [...] this place, but those the Army encountered also, slew many, tooke the Waggons, and carriages, and formed the rest to confused flight; it was a crue [...] victory, but what also can bee expect­ed from an offerded and enragedie [...] There is a fate in Mortalitie; and foolish men by their w [...]rds, and workes, call upon themselues a swift destruction.

This Citie is a place of importance it yeelds a free pas­sage to the Armie, either for Mora [...], or Austria, and as themselues write, they can how at their pleasure, cut off all prouision from their enemie, and force him to come into the open field.

After this victory, the Cenerall Bannier posted to the Elector at Bresden, whither hee arri [...]ed, August 12.22. and his Armie marched towards Br [...]deise, where they first got the bridge from the Imperialists, and broke it downe, then [...]t in pieces 200. [...]abats, which were hin­dred [Page 26]in their flight, by reason of the [...]uec, and lastly tooke the Citie.

Ioachims. Thal yeelded by composition. [...] is, about I [...]ly [...]7. August [...] the Saxon Com­ [...]es Barshe [...], wich 5. Companies of Horse, and [...]00. Masque [...]ires, affaulted the Castle of Ioachims-Thal, in which lay one Company of Imperial foote. They within desen [...]ed themselues well for the space of 3. houres; but then the Saxon being got vnder the palisadoes, and se­cured from the Musquet-shot, they came to agreement, marched forth with Bagge and Baggage, high and low weapons, and were conducted by 3. Companies of Horse [...] Shleckendmald.

The Diet at [...]resl [...]w. The second Sessions of the Prouit crall Diet for Silesia, was held about this time at Breslaw, and thither his Impe­riall Maiestie sent an Agent to aduise the Princes, and Poeres that they would continue in his Imperiall protecti­on, assuring them that vpon their obedience all things should bee and remaine in their former state, and dignitie. The answere of the Poeres in vnknowne; yet they write from Silesias August 4.14. that they consulted principally how to desend themselues, and aide the Consederate Prin­ces; in the meane time it is certaine, that there was on nei­ther part any cessation of Armes; Hirtshberg bur­ned by the Imperialists. Hertshberg a faire Towne in Silesia, vpon then riuer Bober, had afforded much Corne, and other prouision vnto the Imperiall Army, when it went, from that Prouine into the King dome of Bohemia, and had obtained a speciall safe-gard from the Field-Mar­shall Coloredoe, vnder his hand, and seale, yet 2000. Im­perialist afterward, without respect, either of the benefit they had formerly receiued from thence, or the condition made by their principall Commander, assaulted it about Iuly 19.29. and after a small resistance, made by the inha­bitants; set the Suburbs on fire, which was so increased by the whisteling winde, that it tooke hold of the Towne al­so; where the flames so preuailed, that not so much as one [Page 27]house escaped free, but 341. Dwelling-houses, and 56. Barnes were burned to ashes, and there perished in the fire 36. men, and 2000. beasts. Goltz taken by Vitz-thumb About the same time the Saxon Commissarie, Vitz-thu [...]be went with some for­ces against Goltz, a place of strength vpon the riuer of Oder, and hauing forced it to yeeld to the discretion of the Saxons, 100. Souldiers that were therin, tooke pay vnder him, but the Commander, which was a Lieutenant Colonell of Rostocks regiment, 2. Captaines, and other Officers were sent as Prisoners to Breslaw, and then as they write from Breslaw, was the Oder totally cleered, till beyond Oppelen: about which time also, one Partee went from Brieg, towards Neuse, where the Imperiall Generall Maior, lay with 600. men, and brought away aboue 400. head of Cattell, and other booty: and another Party ap­prehended a Captaine of Rostocks regiment, with his 20. horse-men, and brought them Prisoners to Brieg; Lieba taken by Onslat. and the Commander Bosen, which lay in garrison at great Glogam, tooke the Citie of Lieba by Onslat, in the night; put 70. Imperiall Musquetires to the sword, and obtained a rich bootie: so that now as they write from Breslaw, Silesia is fully cleere of Imperialists, saue onely at Neuse, Lignitz, and Olaw, which last, is thought, will quickly be surrende­red, because the Colonell Roland, who commandeth there­in, had some conference about Iuly 24. August 3. with the Saxon Lieutenant Colonell Pebitz, to that purpose.

[Page] [Page 29]

AN Extract of some principall Letters from Holstein; as namely from Husem, Bredstadt and Shlesewick, in which is described an perfect relation, of the terrible and great Flood; and what harme it hath done at Fundren, and in the same Circuite and Countreys; as also at Bredtstedt and in the same Circuite and Countreys, and what Villages, Churches, Schooles, together with an innumerable multitude both of men and Cattell perished, and were drowned in this Flood; as also of the ouerwhelming of the Nordtstrandt; all which hapned the 12.22. of October. 1634.

Deare Brother,

I Cannot but write vnto you of our sor­rowfull and miserable state and condition[Page 30]in these parts, namely, of the late great deluge of water, which subuerted our whole Coun­trey; washed away and ouerwhelmed both Villages, Churches and Schooles, insomuch that it is not knowne where one or oth [...]r neighbour dwelled, and it is not knowne what became of Friends,; Father, Mother, Sister and Brother: So that the misery of this our Countrey is so great, that it cannot sufficient­ly be decribed. Many Market Townes and Villages were drowned and ouerwhelmed, to­gether with many thousand men, some few which escaped, sauing themselues vpon the great and high walled houses. The Ocheholmer Church was whole carryed away by the water, and left in the Long Horn; and in Ocheholm were drowned aboue three hundred men yong and old, together with the Minister of the said Towne, and aboue sixe hundred heads o [...] Cat­tells, besides Sheepe and Hogges: Moreouer, you shall know, that the most part of the Towne of Earoltofft, together with the Ministers and Inhabitants therof are drowned: the Repshlegers Tents, together with all the people that were in them are likewise driuen away and ouerwhel­med; Further, our good friend Peter Shlusen-Bawer, together with his tent and sixty men is carryed away and drowned, and the water did flow ouer all Diecke; hence ye may easi­ly iudge how high the water hath been in these parts: In Bargen Kirchspiel were drowned a­boue[Page 31]250 men, together with all the Cattell; Sted [...], Sandt, the whole Kirchspiel, Sublomers Brugge, and both Krugen, together with all the People, Children and Cattell are also likewise drowned and ouerwhelmed, and no man can see where a dwelling house hath beene: Wideken-hardl and Mohr, and all the Countrey of Hardl are ouerwhelmed, and almost all the people and cattell in it drowned; and betwixt Wannegardt and the old Dicek, in the way towards the Mohr the countrey is so spoiled, that the ground will hardly be tilled any more. The 1828 of Octo­ber, the Breitsleders went abroad with Boates, and rowed vp & downe the countrey, they carry along with them, fresh water, Beere, and Bread, and victuals, thereby to saue some folkes, if they can finde any yet aliue. At Ro [...]rbeck in one of the Kirchspiels, were drowned aboue 1000 per­sons, together with all the Cattell both small and great: Further you shall know, that the whole Nordstrandt is drowned, and all the Goods, Wares, Woods, Formes: Chests, Trunks and other Wares lie on our side in such a quan­tity, that if some hundred Waggons carried all the yeere long, they could not carry all away: there were likewise ships on the othē side of the Nordstrandt, which sayled quite ouer the land, and lie now here in the Geest vpon the dry land in the Sand, and must be carried away againe in pieces. The flood also hath done so great harme in Windinghard and Ries [...]mohr, in Eyder­stade [Page 32]and Nordw [...]t Dilma [...]h [...], that in the m [...]st places, of 100 men, there escaped not aboue 8 of 10. and of the cattell not about 2 or 3. The losse is so great, that no man is able to expresse it; and Church-yards here are dayly used for buriall of the dead bodies; and they haue euery day enough to doe to bury them. In S [...]entebull is not one man lest aliue. There happened like­wise a strange example, for there was found a dead man, which was very well knowne, and neere him was found lying a great Dog, whom the people chased away, and afterwards went for a Waggon to carry him to the Church­yard, but when they came backe againe to fetch away the dead corps, and to burie it, they found there againe the afore-mentioned Dog, which had digged a hole with his feete, and put the dead mans head into the hole, and co­uered it with earth, what hee meant by it, or what the signification of it was, wee doe not know, notwithstanding the people carried the said dead man away, and buryed him. The mi­serable and dolefull estate and condition of [...]d [...]stadt and Stablehalm, for breuities sake, and because I am in haste, I will not describe; By reason of the great sorrow and sadnesse, I can write no more.

[Page 33]

CERTAINE MISCELLANY RELATIONS, OR PASSAGES, Concerning Rome, Italy, France, Spaine, the Low-Countreys, Turkey, Poland, Rushia, Swedland, and else-where. Containing many very remarkeable things, done this last Summer, and since.

THe fourth of Nouember, about foure or fiue in the afternoone, the Cardinall Infante entered into Brux­ells by the Louaine gate, though hee had beene in­treated to stay a little longer, that the Citi­zens[Page 36]might haue time to make there prepa­rations.

Hee was clothed in crimson veluer, trimmed with plate lace, he had his sword by his side, mounted vpon a white horse, attended with Torches of white waxe, and accompanied with aboue a hundred Gentlemen of the Countrey, rich­ly suited.

Betwixt the two gates, in a Bason of Gold inammelled, they presented to him the Keyes of the Towne, which hee tooke, but restored them againe immedi­ately, and it was obserued that hee did it with his left hand.

The Queene-Mother stood at her win­dow to see him passe by, whom as soone as hee perceiued, hee put off his hat tenne paces before hee came before the window, and did not put it on againe, till hee was passed by the like distance.

Hee made his first descent at Saint Ar­goule, where they sung Te Deum: and thence passing by the Towne-house, where[Page 37]triumphant P [...]ge [...]s wo [...]e errected for his entertainement; Queene-Mother of France. hee went to the house of the Queene-Mother, who receiued him with all respect.

As soone as shee was aduertised of his Higenesse approaching, she came from her priuate Chamber, into the Presence-Chamber, whence as shee was making a step or two into the Hall, which looketh downe the stayers, the Jnfante himselfe came vp, did her reuerence, and saluted her, so they entered into the Queenes Chamber, where hee stayed about a quarter of an houre. The Moun­siers Wife. The Princesse Margarite was there before him, and because hee did not salute her at this interview, the Marquise d' Ayto­na excused him saying, that the Infante de­fer'd it onely till hee should come to her House.

From thence his Highnesse went to the Court, where hee supped with the Duke, of Newburg, and the prince Thomas, who left a void space betwixt themselues and him; this night, and two other fol­lowing[Page 38]nights Bon-fires were made in all the streets of Bruxells.

The 5. day he was before Saint Argoule, in the habit of a Cardinall, accompanied with the whole Court.

The 6. the prime Courtiers came in pompe to complement with him; and the Magistrate of the Towne, presented him with the best Wine of the Countrey, according to the custome. All the Pro­uinces also prepared by their deputies, to congratulate his wellcome.

The Chapiters and Churchmen did the like, and they of Tourney sent their Bishop and Deane for the same purpose. But it fell out vnhappily at Milotet, the Guard of the Queene-Mother were for­bidden to wait, by father Campagne com­panion of father Chanteloupe, for not keeping the window before the Queene.

The 8. about noone, the Sieur d' Amon­tot, Lieger of France, went to salute him, and to haue audience, attended with twenty French Gentlemen: But his High­nesse[Page 39]hauing told him, that hee must enter alone, he answered, That it was not the custome of France, and that hee would not come in without his attendants. This was granted, and he complemented with the Prince, who was then in a red Hat, and a Cloake of the same colour.

CHAP. XI. The Actions of France, Italy, Spaine, and the Lowe Countries.

HOw happy are we here, which under a bles­sed King, enjoy the blessed fruits of peace? ☜ the people of forraine Nations speake of it with admiration (for so I finde it in a French abstract of the present affaires of the World, dated Iuly 6. Stilo novo, Come l'Angleterre est détachèe de tout le monde, &c. As England is divided lo­cally from all the world, so is it also disburdened, of those afflictions, with which other people are incombred) and wee our selves cannot thinke of it, without thankful­nesse to God, by whose mercy: and to his Vice-gerent our Soveraigne, by whose wisdome, & justice religiously groun­ded in himselfe concionable & indifferently ministred to us, divinely blessed, and happily continued, wee reape that Har­vest, which other Realmes would faine but see in the blade and cannot; they which know him, may see in him the true character of Kings in the beginning, whom the Histo­rian witnesseth not to have beene raised to the height of Majestie by popularitie, but their knowne moderation; and they which can looke backe to almost 80 yeares past, if they but consider, how mercifully for so long time toge­ther, the Lord hath dealt with this Nation, may conclude that observation of Bodin to bee false, that there is com­monly an intermixture, and successive vicissitude of good, and evill Princes; ever since the first entrance of our Debo­rah, by whose hand the Gospell was so planted, that it tooke roote in this land, we have lived in the Sun-shine of true quiet, by the meanes of those two nursing Fathers of our Israel, the royall Father now which God, and his Son our annointed King now (and may this Now bee long) with us[Page 2]whose prosperitie, wee have just cause to pray for, our safety depending upon his, to whom that Elogium given to Charles the great, the Roman Emperour, suites properly tantae est integritatis ut nulla aetas superiorem, nedum parem habuerit, Looke about the world, inquire into all ages past, and present, in respect of his integritie, it will bee hard to finde his equall, impossible to finde his superiour. Wee that bee his subjects must needs confesse this truth; Wee under him, finde that easie accesse to true sanctimony, by the free passage of the Gospell, which while Rome boasts of, is a Nursery of treason, and conspiracies, the venemous effects of cankred soules.

But to come to our Narration. The Citie of Rome chal­lengeth a superioritie of power (how justly or unjustly, it is not here to bee controverted) and precedency in place over and before all the world, and in this History I shall bee so favourable to her suite as to record her first, though I finde her not so active as passive adorned with robes of triumph, but mourning. The death of the Cardinall Ʋirile, and his superstitious buriall in the habit of Saint Francis, put the Ci­tie for a time to some lamentation, but his large Legacies, and pensions bequeathed by his Will 12000. crownes to one, 100. crownes yearely pensions to others, and 60 crownes given in the same nature to a third sort of people, made them quickly pull the onions from their eyes and for­get the fate, which was naturall to him, and so beneficiall to them. The only memorablething, which is worthy of record is this About May 13. a Friar of Ancona, named Cherubim Saraphim, of the age of 38. yeares, of the order of the Minorites, being clapt in prison by the Commissaries of the inquisition, broke out of his chaines, and by slipping downe by his bed-cords, for a time escaped. Notice hereof being brought to the Bishop of that Sea, a Proclamation was presently published, menacing death, confiscation of goods, and Excommunication to all persons; which should con­ceale him, and promising 500. crownes to him that should[Page 3]reveale him, and deliver him into the hands of Iustice; The people upon this promise, were very carefull in the search after him, the wayes were layd every where, the markes gi­ven out, whereby he might bee easily knowne; and it was almost impossible, but that hee should bee againe apprehen­ded. A Franciscan attempteth to murder the Pope by Sor­cery. And yet for all this, five dayes he travailed undiscove­red, and was gone as farre'as Rietti, a Village within two Italian, or English miles from Naples, 100 miles from Rome, when presently hee returned to Folegni, where he had a fa­miliar friend, in whom he reposed much confidence, and from whom he had received many kinde letters and pre­sents, during the time of his late imprisonment; The ac­quaintance betweene the Friar and the Folignian, was not unknowne to one Martinengoe a Commissarie of the Inqui­sition, who suspecting what the Friar intended, tooke Post, and came to Foligni; about the same time this Fryar entered into the gates of that Citie. At his first arrivall he published the Proclamation made at Rome, against the Minorites, set a strong Watch, at all the gates of the Citie, which ar­tested the Friar, as hee would have fled from thence, upon the markes which he was set out by, and there hee was late­ly in prison, loaden with irons, and watched narrowly, for they proceeded against him, saith the French relation, from whence I had this story, leutement, not speedily, but softly as in matter extraordinary, and of great importance. I know not whether this Franciscan was more wicked, or unfortu­nate, more wretched by his execrable mischiefe, or last ap­prehension; (if yet, that may bee any way ascribed to for­tune, which is done by the providence and finger of God) the powers of Heaven, appeared to bee offended at his for­mer escape, a sudden tempest of thunder and hayle, falling at the same minute of time, when hee broke loose so furiously, that it beate downe foure houses at Bracciano, to the astonishment of the people. The crime whereof hee was accused is this; Hee and certaine others (amongst whom was the Nephew of the Cardicall d' Alcoli) having[Page 4]plotted the death of the present Pope, conspired by Necro­mantie and Witch-craft, to take away his life, intending to have the Cardinall of Alcoly Elected to the Papacy, whom this shaveling affected, especially as being one of his Order, and supposed would easily attaine to that dignitie by his faction in the Consistory of Cardinals. To effect this cursed designe, the Conspirators made a sacrifice to the Divell; and offered, that some one of them upon whom the lotte should fall, should emancipate himselfe, to the service of the prince of darknesse, and make him Lord, both of his body and soule. The Lots were drawne, and hee to whose lot it fell to hee thus made a vassall to Satan, trembling at the horror, either of the fact, or his owne mishap, fled presently, disco­vered the practise to the Inquisition, who thereupon ap­prehended these malefactors, clapt up the Nephew of the Cardinall, (for his safer custody) in the Castle Saint Angelo, and the rest in severall prisons. There leaving them, let us looke upon the preparations for warre made in Italy by the Catholike King, and the progresse of his brother the Cardi­nall Infanta.

Marquess Spi­nola made Viceroy of Sicilie. The Catholike King, whose dominions in Italy are go­verned by Vice-royes and Deputies having deputed the go­vernment of Sicilie to Marquesse Spinola for the space of sixe yeares, upon condition that hee should relinquish his Gene­ralate of the Horse in the Dukedome of Millaine, Don Carlo de Collonna Go­vernour of Millain. and ap­pointed the Government of Millaine, to Don Carlo de Co­loma in the absence of his brother the Cardinall Infanta, a­bout the beginning of May, began to rayse an Army of Ita­lians, who being joyned with some Spanish forces, were to bee commanded by the said Infant Cardinall as their Gene­rall. Whether these forces should be bound, the neighbour Princes which had heard of the preparation knew not the Rhingrave as it is related formerly, attended their comming in the higher Germany, the States provided for them in the Neatherlands, and the French King mistrusting which way they would rake, Piguarola for­tified. caused Pignarola a towne in the East part [Page 5]of Piemont upon the river Poe, and Cassall another strong Towne there to be fortified with five new Regiments. The time of their stay about Millain and Naples increased, the Princes suspitions, for the Army was sixe weekes in rea­dinesse before it set forward, the Catholike King having commanded, that they should not goe forward, till hee had taken order with the Catholike Cantons in Swisserland, (with whom he was to make an offensive and defensive league) for the safeguard of the Dukedome of Milan.

The consede­ration betwixt the King of Spaine, & the Catholike Cantons. To this purpose the Catholike Cantons sent their Embas­sadours to Millan 24, in number, who arrived there Iune 21. old style, where they tooke an oath to continue firme friends to the Crowne of Spayne, during the life of the King, and the Cardinall Infant his brother; promised to fur­nish out an army of 12000. foote, for the securing of the Dukedome of Millaine, against all forraine invasion, and were Princely feasted, and entertained, sutably to the Digni­tie of so great a King, and the weightinesse of the negotia­tion, The relation of the particulars is thus; The Confede­ration betwixt his Majestie of Spaine, and the Cantons being ratified with much solemnitie, in the great Church, a magni­ficent Banquet, was made for the Embassadours in the In­fanta's Pallace, where the Cardinall first began, and the Swiz­zers afterwards pledged the health of the King of Spaine, in a large bowle of wine, and after the feast was ended, the silver plates, were given as a token of Princely bounty, to the Wayters, every one of them being permitted to catch what he could, and to appropriate it to himselfe. Nothing was omitted here, which did but relish of royalty, the walls of the Pallace were as much beautified, with Symbols and artificiall inventions, to give the Helvetians delight and contentation, as the Table was stored with rarities to please the palate. Vpon the porch of the Pallace stood the Armes of the Catholike King, as in a center, the circle whereof was made of divers Scutcheons, of the atchievements of the Catholike Cantons; which there was drawne the[Page 6]picture of two hands joyned, with these words Sic Concor­dia stringit. the Eyes, and palates of the Embassadors, being thus pleased with these severall objects, the Cardinall did al­so delight their eares, with the promise of the full paiment of the remainder of their private and common pensions within the space of five yeares, and the organ of feeling, with the delivery of some duccats in ready money, the free gift of a chaine of gold worth 300 crownes, and 100▪ crownes in coine to each Embassadour for their expence in their journey, and of a lesser chaine of gold, and five Pisto­lets to each of their servants.

Monsieur beta­keth himselfe to the prote­ction of the K. of Spaine. About the time of this League thus confirmed, the Mon­sieur of France made an agreement at Bruxells in the Ne­therlands with the same King of Spaine upon these Articles following: 1. Monsieur doth betake himselfe wholly to the protection of the King of Spaine, and will not enter into any treaty with the King of France; within one yeare and an halfe, without order and consent of the King of Spaine; nor when that time is expired, shall hee make any agreement with the French King but by consent, and approbation of the King of Spaine. 2. Monsieur shall command an Army of 12000. foote and 3000. horse. 3. The same Army shall con­sist of 6000. French, and 6000. strangers, the Officers and inferiour Commanders, for the strangers to bee appointed by Monsieur, and for the French by the King of Spaine. 4. There shall monethly bee paid to Monsieur 45000. crownes for the pay of the 6000. French men. 5. This Ar­my shall bee ready and compleate in the moneth of Sep­tember. 6. The aforesaid Army shall bee enquartered upon the Borders of France, till a fit time shall come to conduct the same into the Countrey. Lastly, if it should happen that there should bee a difference or breach betwixt these two Crownes of Spaine and France, then Monsieur should ad­here to the Spanish partie.

This done Iune 16. the Avantguard of the Cardinall In­fant, betooke themselves to their March toward Como a[Page 7]Citie in Lombardie upon the Lake de Como, distant from Lecco Westward about 8. English miles, himselfe being to follow them Iuly 11. with the other part, which as some say, made about 10000. or as other 12000 men. And here arose some dispute among the Commanders, about the way they should take, the difference being grounded upon a suspition of the French designes, the Christian King, The Cardi­nall Infant's March. having by his speciall Embassadour the Lord D'Emmery not only procured the Duke of Savoy (of whom before hee stood in some jealousie) to lay downe his leavies, but had obtained of him also 10000. sacks of corne for the victualing of Pigna­roll & Cassall, and libertie for the passage of some thousands of men into Montferrat, which way the Italian army inten­ded to have gone; and projecting also the danger wherein­to himselfe and his Allyes were lyable by the Spanish confe­deration, which the Cantons and Monsieur had entertained the States extraordinary Embassadours de Paw and Knuill bad them welcome, given them audience, promised to con­tinue his allyance with them, resolved the next August to send a puissant Army to the reliefe of his confederates, and already published his Patents, to levie 20. Regiments of foote, 12. Cornets of House, and foure Companies of men at armes. But the Controversie was ended by the comming in of the Cardinall himselfe, who without pause tooke his way through the Ʋeltoline into Tyroll, and so passed to Ins­prucke. The beginning of the voyage was somewhat vnto­ward, a storme upon the Comer sea somewhat distempered his body, and caused him to repose himselfe in the Ʋeltoline for the space of three or foure dayes to recover his health: upon the march some part of his Army ran away by 20. or more in a company, whereof some being taken suffered ex­emplary punishment of death for a warning to the rest. But I must now looke to the actions of the Spaniard, and Hol­lander first in the West Indies, and then in the Netherlands, wither the Cardinall is going to take upon him the Go­vernment, in place of the defunct Infanta Isabella Archdu­cheffe of Austria.

[Page 8]Every particular man is best able to tell his owne story; Though there are few which will extenuate their glory, or relate their owne actions too modestly, but swelled with the timpanous winde of ambition, make mountaines of mole­hills. Yet in the American businesse wee will permit the Dutch to tell their owne tale, which I must desire the Rea­der to take it as themselves have delivered it in a letter from the Reciff of Farnambuco dated Aprill 8. as followeth.

The Spanish & Lowe-Countrey actions in A­merica. After the taking of the famous Castle of Riogrande the Deputies of the West-Indian Companies seeing themselves strengthened with a good number of shipping, well manned with souldiers, thought it good to make a new attempt up­on the Spaniard; and gave command to Giseling, and the Colonell Sigismond, to sayle towards the Cape of Saint Augustine, where they arrived the fourth of March last, up­on the end of Winter. The day following Lichard a Dutch Captaine came on bravely, and put in first with his shippe into the Haven, and was followed with 9. others of the same squadron, which entred happily also; notwithstanding the thunder of the Cannon, and hayle-shot of the Musquets from the Fort, and landed their souldiers to the great dis­couragement of the Spaniards, who presently fired their Sugar-houses, and retyred into the Fort Nazarett. The hast of the Spaniards to get into the Fort was such, that they were constrained to leave in the Haven fifteen Carvels and Barques loaden with 1300. chests of Sugar and Brasill wood, as a prey to the Hollander, (who being first seized of that prize) Colonell Sigismond went downe the his Soul­diers to the point of land neere the Fort, the Spaniards sally­ing out to make resistance, were constrained to returne with the losse of some men, who were slaine and deadly woun­ded, beyond the power of Chirurgerie to recover them; This retreat brought time to the Colonell to entrench him­selfe in that Iland, which is called New Ʋalkere, for the re­semblance it hath to an Iland of that name in Holland, and is so fortifird since, that it is master of the Haven, the[Page 9] Spaniards in the Fort being brought to a desperate estate, and without hope of succours; If you now demand what the Spaniards which are in the Countrey doe, while wee of Holland are blocking up the Cape of Saint Augustine they thought to have surpr [...]z [...]d this Peninsula de Reciff, which is a Colonie of Hollanders, and lyes at the very mouth of Fer­nambuck; but the plot held not. Queleun the Governour here, was informed of their designe, expected their comming, attended upon the Haven with all his souliders well appoin­ted, and two Companies of the inhabitants of the place, made them take their going for their comming; so they re­turned upon their departure, having given order to Cap­taine Byma his Lieutenant, to assault the Spanish Fort Roy­all in the next Iland, the Lieutenant wtih a 1000. souldiers, some granadoes and two Morterers marched thither accor­ding as he was directed, repulsed the Spaniards, who sallyed out upon him from the Fort, summoned it to yeeld, but get­ting no other answer, then what was delivered by the mouth of the Ordnance, he returned, content to have thus recove­red the honour of the Nation, which was supposed some­what blemished, by the Spanish adventure in Reciff

It now only remaines, that I give you an accompt of what hath passed lately at the Castle of Riogrande in Brasill. The Captaine Gersman who commanded there, having di­vers times gone abroad, to see if hee could finde any Spani­ards remaining in the Countrey, (for upon them only hee cast his eye) finding the coast cleere, came from thence of his owne accord with all his Ammunition. Hee sent us word, that Rotelet de Tapoier an Indian and native of Brasill (being one of them who had stood in opposition with the Spaniards) first sent unto him an Ambassadour some few dayes since to give him notice, that hee was comming to the Commander, and desire his amitie, and himselfe follow­ed immediately after a Company with 300. men, and that they have made together a fast allyance and confederation: For assurance whereof, the Indian sent his Sonne 18. leagues [Page 10]from hence with 160. souldiers of his owne, and 30. Hollan­ders who have slaine all the Spaniards they could finde; and afterwards when himselfe departed from the Commander, promising to returne quickly with 1700. men, which should be at the Hollanders service, he left his Sonne behinde him (as a pledge of his truth) with forty Savages, which give remonstrance either of their affection towards the Spaniard now, or hope of reconciliation hereafter. Thus much writes the Dutchman; And it is written, this Sugar and Bra­sil to bee lately brought to Amsterdam, where the Saylors confirmed this Letter. And thus much for their actions abroad.

Now wee come to take a short view, of what they have done on both sides lately at home; the place is neerer to us, and the intelligence something fuller; I shall only looke up­on their publike acts of Hostilitie, not the private quarrells, which have beene betwixt some Spaniards and the French belonging to Monsieur; Such as presume to take the sword of vengeance into their hand, without lawfull authority, ought to bee punished with the hand of Iustice, and to have their names forgotten, and they onely which fight for the maintenance of their Religion, and defence of their Coun­trey lawfully warranted, are worthy to bee recorded to eternitie.

An Edict a­gainst the pai­ment of Con­tribution to the States. The Marquesse of Aitona began this yeare, with his Pen and Paper to oppose the purposes of the States, hee publi­shed an Edict, forbidding the subjects of the King to give any more contribution to the Estates, and was replyed unto by a Counter-placart, or Proclamation by the States of the Vnited Province, and the tenor of the first of them run­neth in our English tongue, thus:

[Page 11]

A Coppie of a Proclamation written by his Excellencie to the receavers of the Contribution, for his Maiestie of Spaine particularly in the Quarters of South-Holland, Althen, Bommels-Weerd, Huesden, Maeswael, and Nim­megen.

RIght Well-beloved, you know that the King in the be­halfe of his Subjects, to ease them, and to bring those, who are separated from us to obedience; hath contented himselfe with any indifferent Subsidies and Contributions; But the rebellious States foolishly behaving themselves, have to his Maiesties hinderance, and the griefe of those which pay Contribution, exacted sixe times more, then his Majestie hath done, although his Maiestie hath both right and power, to receive as much as they, especially in those parts where his lawfull title to the royall Government is ac­knowledged. It is also manifest, that the Enemie (not con­tenting himselfe herewith) pretendeth himselfe to be Lord and Master, of the greater part of the aforesaid Contributa­rie Provinces, and not long since endeavoured with a new trick, never heard of before, to forbid the Inhabitants of the Marquisate of Bergen-op-Zome, and the Majoraltie of Sher­togen-bosche, to pay the duties to his Maiestie, concluded by the last meeting of the Counsell of Brabant, to bee due unto him, themselves, (by assaulting of their safeguards, and at­taching the Kings Officers) exacting from his Maiesties Subiects, in the quarter about Antwerp twice as much, as his Maiestie in the processe of the said Counsell had eased them of, which inhabite in the fore-named Marquisate and Maioraltie. And though his Maiestie (who can doe no lesse then maintaine, and defend his true and loyall subiects) hath used all meanes to hinder those rebells, from doing any vio­lence to the inhabitants of the Marquisate of Bergen-op-zome; and Maioraltie of Shertogen-bosch, yet wee have late­ly seene (which is strange,) many Priests and religious per­sons[Page 12]imprisoned and haled away, as well in the Dukedome of Brabant, as in the Earledome of Flanders, upon an order made by the enemie, to imprison all Spirituall persons, as Bishops, Abbots &c. (except those of the said Marquisate and Majoraltie, Over Mase, and Knicke) whom he preten­deth to be his Subjects, against all reason, against the will and well-liking of the King and Cleargie, and the other in­habitants of those parts. It would be a great griefe unto us, to finde that our enemies should insult over our Subjects and our Soveraigntie, and to doe it upon the termes of a lawfull warre, and as though they had right so to doe; It is there­fore requisite that they should now stand to us and obey our command, paying their Subsidies, and Contributions to us, as they have done formerly to the Enemie, and according to the same rates paid the last yeare to the States by the Majo­raltie of S' Hertogen-bosch denying to give way, or make payment of Contribution to the Receivers, or Deputy re­ceivers of the Enemie, according to that good reason which we hope to manifest, and make knowne to all, which shall speake against it.

Wee therefore, as well to uphold our Religion as Sove­raigntie, and for the securitie of our loyall Subjects, and to defend them from so many injuries and wrongs, by a List made by us, and sent to all the Governours of our Frontiers, charge all prisoners, and other persons which pay Contribu­tion to the Enemy; to bee carefull, that our Authoritie bee maintained, and that this inhibition of the said paiment bee observed by the inhabitants of the said Marquisate and Ma­joraltie within 14. dayes after the Date hereof upon Penaltie, that if they take in a safeguard from the Enemie, wee shall carry our selves towards them, as his Maiestie hath com­manded; and yee shall make this our pleasure known to the inhabitants of the said Contributarie Countries, and other Frontiers, by all the expeditions, wayes, and meanes which may be; and so Welbeloved I commit you to Gods prote­ction.

Signed and Subscribed by the Marquesse de Aitona, and by Seig­nieur Della Failla.

[Page 13]THis was the Effect, and the full tenor of the Spanish Edict, which was Countermaunded with another from the States, as followeth:

The States Counter-plachard. The Generall States of the Vnited Provinces of the Nea­therland to all those, which shall see, heare, or reade these send Greeting. Wee give you to understand, that whereas the Enemy, after the Victory gotten by us at S' Hertogen­bosch hath (without ground or foundation) pretended a title to the Majoraltie thereof, and after a kinde of unlawfull V­surpation, as well over the Spiritualtie as Temporaltie, done what is directly against all the Conditions observed, betweene us and them in these Neatherland warres, making themselves Lords, over all which belonged to the said Pro­vince, clayming a jurisdiction over the said Countreys, for­cing them to pay Contribution, against the usuall custome here, and reason, and under pretext of a Title of right to the Majoraltie, disanulling us of our Soveraigntie and Go­vernment thereof; Wee therefore thinking it fit to main­taine our selves and Dominions, by all meanes Wee can de­vise against them (which begun with unreasonablenesse and tyranny, and since continuing to heape wrong upon wrong, are growne to such excesse, that at this present, they extract both from the Spiritualtie and Temporaltie, all that they have, without giving any reason or account of what they doe; by which proceedings, it appeareth cleerely that the Spanish Government tendeth not to the conserva­tion of the Inhabitants and Subjects of the said Coun­trey under Contribution, but rather desires their ruines, that so they may maintaine their tyrannous Vsurpati­on) have thought good upon mature deliberation, [Page 14]and advise, (which wee have used the rather, to bring the enemie fairely to reason) to forbid all Cleargie men, and the other inhabitants of our Majoraltie of Shertogen-bosch, and by these presents doe forbid them, and all others in those Frontiers, to exercise the Romish religion, either in private Conventicles, Churches, or other publike assemblies; upon penaltie of Arbitrarie correction to bee inflicted upon all them, which shall transgresse in that kinde. And because the Enemie hath formerly banished the Ministers, and Prea­chers appointed to Gods service, from the said Majoraltie, our will and meaning is, that not only there should bee any exercise of the Roman religion there, untill the said Mini­sters and Preachers bee restored, but also that the Romish Cleargie-men which live under ue, and goe to other places to exercise their Religion, shall bee held, and counted as Ro­mish Priests of that place where they practise in that Reli­gion, and not as our Subjects. And because it appeareth by the Copie of a Briefe dated the 6. of this Moneth, and di­rected by the Marquesse of Aitona, particularly to the Re­ceavers of Contribution for the King of Spaine in the quar­ters of South Holland, Althen, Bommells-weerd, Heusden, Maes-Well, and Nimmegen, that their intent is after few dayes to breake up all our safeguards in the Countreys afore­said; Therefore wee can doe no lesse but make it appeare by a sudden example, that wee shall doe the like in other quar­ters, where there is any resort of the Enemy, and that wee hold our selves discharged of any condition made betwixt us and the Enemie, in the said Majoraltie. And because no man shall hereafter plead ignorance, but that they may the better know our intention and meaning, this our declaration shall be set up in all places expedient, with all speed writ­ten at the Hage, under our Seale by our speciall Secretary, Iune 20. 1634. Signed by Ʋan-Beaumont the President; ac­cording to the Decree & ordinance of the high and mighty Lords the Estates Generall, subscribed by Cornelius Mush, Sealed with redde Waxe, and imprinted by the Lords[Page 15]the Estates Printer, at the Hage.

The severall Edicts distracted the people, no man thought himselfe safe in those parts, to which these tem­pests tended, and though as yet there was no Sword drawne thereabouts, the people fled with their goods to places of more securitie, all suspecting that this proceeding was but the Prologue to a Tragedie, and not to bee concluded with light words, but mortall stroakes.

It had beene well with this Countrey, if there had been no other but a Paper warre; words cannot wound, but when the Quill and Parchment are turned to fire and sword, then Horror appeareth in its proper Image; dreadfull to looke upon, even with the eye of imagination. But mischiefe growes quickly to the height; a sparke of fire produceth a flame sometimes, which doth not blaze for a while, but like that conserved at Rome by the care of the Vestall Virgins doth last to after-ages. And yet I doe not foretell, but feare the continuance of Warre in that Region, which after the publication of these Edicts, as much cryed out to her friends, to deliver her from her enemies; The Princesse of Orange de­livered of a Daughter. as the the Princesse of O­range did at the same time for a Lucina to discharge her of her Princely Burden. It was with this excellent Lady, after the course of Women, the pangs of her child-birth were soone forgotten, by the birth of a young Princesse, which was Baptized with all solemnitie; Iune 7. in the Court Chappell at the Hage, and named Albertina Agneta; the particular Witnesses, or Gossips being the Eldest Daughter of the Queene of Bohemia. The Lords the Estates of Zea­land and Over-Ysell, the Count William of Nassaw; and the Deputies of the Cities of Amsterdam and Leyden, which the same afternoone were feasted by the Prince of Orange in Princely state, according to his and their Dignities.

Preparatie made by [...] and sand. The Countrey is still in travaile, by Sea, and land prepara­tion is made for Warre; the Spanish and Holland ships like the Trojan Horse, are stuffed with armed men; the one bringing fresh forces to Dunkerke, to bee imployed in the[Page 16]Kings service, and the Hollanders Admirall being sent to Sea with his men of Warre to incounter that Navie, which consisting of 11. great shippes landed at Dunkerke before the Admirall could reach them; The Spanish Souldiers as they write from Antwerpe, being 2000. in number, were very poorely apparelled, but the Catholike King to shew his owne Magnificence, and not to have them despised be­cause of their outward habite, gave them 10000 crownes to furnish them, that they might appeare as brave men out­wardly, as perhaps they were valiant minded, for vertue is often cloathed in ragges and course garments, when fooles and cowards strut in the Poppinjayes feathers, having no­thing to be proud of but a gawdie outside, and gay cloa­thing.

This new supply of Forces being thus brought to the Spanish Army, the Marquesse sent his forces in the field in the end of May, which because they appeared first about Axell in the Earledome of Flanders, the Prince of Orange sent thither Count William of Nassaw, with 60. Companies of men, in all about 6000 to attend upon their doings, to rayse some Sconces and redoubts against the strong Sconce upon the Polder, thereby to secure the Citie of Hulst, which lyes from Axell about 7. English miles, if the Spaniards should happely attempt any thing there. But the Scene where Mars was to be an Actor, lay not here; Thence the Spanish Army marched toward Gulich-land, & first enquar­tered themselves in the little Citie of Berber situate upon the River Erp, belonging to the Earle of Reifensheid, the Hol­lander having a suspition, but very uncertaine of what the Spaniard then intended.

There was sometime spent, before the Counsell of the Marquesse was discovered, they of the Catholike league, hoped that this Army had beene raysed for their succour, that it should march over the Rhine into Westthalia to with­stand the Luneburgher, and Hassian, which had so distressed the Leagnish there, the Prince of Orange suspecting, what [Page 17]in the end proved true, that it would make some enterprise upon Lemburg or Mastrick in the Bishopricke of Liege, marched after with his Forces, caused 400. hundred men to be laid in Lemburge, to the 400. which were there before, claptin 4000. head of great Cattell into Maestrick, gave order that every house-keeper should provide victuals for a yeare and an halfe, and put as many as could not so doe out of the towne, the Garrison there being strong fiftie foure Companies of foote, and eleven Regiments of Horse, and so thought sufficient (if provided of necessa­ries) to keepe the towne, though the Marquesse should besiege it.

The Fort of Argentill taken by the Spa­niards. The first designe of the Spanish Army was against the Ca­stle of Argentill, a Fort strong by nature, and art but weakly manned, and it is to bee thought worse commanded, 35. Souldiers only were in it, and these might peradventure have kept it if their Leader Iunius had not beene either a coward or worse, but hee yeelded upon the first summons, and was arrested afterward at Mastrick by command of the States of the Vnited Provinces, and not undeservedly; a tempest at Sea proves a Pilot, and the affront of the Enemy, discovers the Souldier.

And now the Army being passed the Maese by a Bridge of Boates laid over the River by direction of the Marquesse, they busie themselves in making a Fort upon the River neere Eisden, to blocke up the Citie Maestrick; and this was fini­shed by Iuly 16. the interim of time being spent unhappily in two attempts upon Limburg and Rhineberge, for Iune 27. Iuly 7. 400. Spanish Horsemen going to make bootie of the Cattell about Lemburge, the Garrison there having some notice of it sallyed forth with sixe or seven hun­dred Musquetiers preserved the beastes from plunde­ring, and made the Horse-men flye, having some of their company dead behind them. At Rhinberge their hap was somewhat worse; I shall relate the story as it commeth from Bruxels, though the Hollander make the loss somwhat more,[Page 18]it is thus. The defeate of the Spani­ards at Rhin­berg. A Bourgesse of the towne, having discovered to the Spanish Commander in Guelderen, a way whereby hee might passe the Moate, and come into the Citie secretly, hee revealed it againe to the Count Iohn of Nassaw, who there­upon giving out, as though hee would goe to Collen with his Cavallary, marched directly towards Rhinberge, inten­ding to take it by Onstaught, upon St. Iames his day at night; But a power beyond that of the Spanish (supposed) tutelar Saint protected the Citie, and their designe was prevented by the care of the Governour Colonell Winbergen, who being informed by a Corporall which was privie to the plot of the Spanish project, doubled the Guards that night with his men at armes, and expected when the Spaniard would give the onset. The night was darke, like the sad fate which attended the adventurers; When Count Iohn and the Spanish Commander came before the Towne with 48. Cornets, 2000. Harquebusses a Crocke, and sixe Canons; 200. Spaniards passed the ditch, were clambered upon the Ramparts, and come into the Citie, when some other which followed with more haste then good speed, had no sooner cryed out, The Towne is ours, but the Guards within set up­on them, and being as much encouraged by the bruit of the Alarme as the Spaniards were disheartened by darknesse, and hindered by the raine which then fell abundantly, beate them backe, slew 40 souldiers and two Captaines, as many more in the ditch, and took 50. prisoners, the Count himselfe esca­ped not without a wound, being shrewdly hurt at the Gates as he attended upon the retreat of his souldiers; And thus was that attempt prevented; the States thereupon strengthening the Garrison, and rewarding the Corporall for his service, with 100. Rixedollers paid presently, and a pension of 12. Franks to be paid him monethly, as long as he shall live.

The Fort being finished by the Marquesse, the siege of the Citie of Maestrick was expected daily, but though it was blocked up, it could not bee said to bee beleaguered[Page 12]Iuly 20. New Stile, (at which time this History for the pre­sent concludeth generally) no Enemy being to bee seene in tho field from the highest steeple in the Citie, nor no Mount or banke as yet cast up against it; Three French­men taken by the Garrison, dismissed without ran­some by the Duke of Bo­villon. this is onely memorable here, that upon Iuly 8. a footman of Monsieurs and two ser­vants of the Seigneur de Puylaurens, being taken by the Garrison at Maestricke, as they were stragling from the Spanish Campe; when they were brought into the Citie, were made to drinke by the Duke of Bovillon, who dismis­sed them without ransome, and sent them backe by a Trum­petter because they were Frenchmen; A noble Acte, and sheweth that the Duke loveth his Nation, and was not un­required by Monsieur in the same kinde, within lesse then a weeke after, the chance of warre then ministring oc­casion to the French Prince, The like No­ble favour shewed by the Monsieur to some of the Garrison. to shew the like curtesie to some of the Garrison; it was thus, Iuly 23. The Marquesse de Ai­tona had sent some of his Horse to make a bravadoe before the workes of the Citie; but suddenly the Garrison sallyed forth, tooke some of them, and slew five others: Fleshed with this spoyle, they proceeded further to pursue the Spa­niards, but were suddenly fallen into ae Ambuscado of foot, layd by the Commanders, who slew 7. of the Garrison, and tooke sixe others prisoners, amongst whom were one Scottish Cornet and a Frenchman, whose ransomes Monsieur payed, and sent them backe to the Duke, giving each of them three Pistols, that he might not seeme to come behind the Duke in Noblenesse.

The Prince of Orange in hand with a great designe. The Prince of Orange during this action of the Spaniards, was not idle, he still keptan eye over their actions, and lea­ving his Army for a time at Nimmegen, returned to the Hage, where after a serious Consultation with the Lords the States, hee appointed a generall day of fasting and prayer to be observed through all the Ʋnited Provinces upon the se­cond of August, and then came backe to his Army, where he caused the Bridge layd over the Rhine at Wesell, to bee brought to Rhinberge, for the commodious passage of some[Page 20] Hassian and Swedish troopes, whom the States had retai­ned in service, and with them, and fifty two Regiments of his owne Army departed from Nimmegen about some great adventure; The Duke of Lerma hereupon came into Con­sultation with the Marquesse de Aitona and they conclu­ded to send some Forces towards Dunkerke to strengthen the places thereabouts, and the young Count of Feria went from the Campe Iuly 27. with the Regiment of the Marquesse de Sfondrat, and a Wallon Regiment, to abide in the Vaces for the conservation of that Province, which was deputed to his government. The mistake of the forty five Spaniards of the Regiment of Rouroy, which skirmi­shed with fifty others of the same party, and charged home, holding them for Enemies, till an Italian Ensigne was slaine, and many of the rest wounded, is not worthy of this Story▪ It is usuall in the state of Warre, to suspect all men, and oft-times a misprision surpriseth friends in stead of foes, either by accident, or providence of the all directing power, I shall conclude with the Spanish procee­dings against some Noble personages formerly trusted in the managing of the affaires of State, and now suspected of disloyalty, and either mercifully pardoned, or meritoriously punished. The first is the Duke of Arschot, a Brahantine (for so his title speakes him) who was imprisoned at Pinto, kept under a strict watch: accused of speaking lavishly, con­victed upon his owne Examination, and condemned by the Commissaries appointed thereunto, (which were in num­ber twelue, amongst whom was the President of Castile, Italy, and Arragon, the Secretarie Rocas, and the Father Confessour to his Catholike Majestie) yet afterward merci­fully pardoned by the King, and so had not the sentence of condemnation brought to execution; The next is Don Bona-fides, which lost the Plate fleet about foure years since, and is now condemned▪ and executed; The third the Marquesse De Catarita, who (as some say) being Ad­mirall of the Indian Fleete, is imprisoned, because hee[Page 21]fought with the Hollanders men of Warre without or­der, notwithstanding that hee had the victory; but as others more probably, for imbeaz [...]lling, or concealing the Kings part, there being found in his Navie foure hundred thousand Crownes worth of uncustomed goods, which were thereupon confiscated.

And now in this Story, I am come to the Pillars of Her­cules, where I finde a Nil ultrà Hereafter wee may perhaps adventure upon a further discovery, and eraze that inscription which now forewarnes us to passe no fur­ther.

CHAP. XII. The Magnificent Interment of the King of Sweden.

IF the death of Gustavusses were frequent (to wit, the triumphant Angustusses of the North) their foot in the stirrop, their Sword in their hand, and in gaining of Battells, I might then expect some other occasion might present it selfe, to demonstrate unto the world the manner of their Interment; and from the vanity wherewith the greatest part in these times are in­fected; who affect not to heare one thing twice, easily fur­nish my selfe with an execuse. But intruth all that hath yet been written concerning the Interment of this great King of Sweden, were but the preparatives to the true Pompe: the Reader therefore that desireth an exact Relati­on of the affaires of these times, may one day justly accuse me of negligence; if by forgetting the last act of his trage­dy, I rather apply my selfe to please some particular per­sons, then by the recitall thereof, satisfie the just curiosity of all others.

The 34. Provinces of the State of Sweden, not thinking it enough to have undergone the extremity of griefe: for this yeare and an halfe, since the dolefull newes of their Kings death; having decreed by the common consent of their three Estates, to render unto him their last devotions, assembled for that purpose the 15. of Iune last at Meoping, either in person, or by their Deputies; that great Citie being farre too small to receive the multitude, which from all parts flocked thither. The Ceremony was first disclosed in the great Regall Hall of the Pallace, where the Lord Iohn Skite, Governour generall of Livonia with a masculine eloquence[Page 23]opened againe the wounds, which time seemed to have sal­ved up; whose powerfull Oration was seconded by the Ex­position of the History of King Iosias, made by the Bishop of Westeras, the people often with their heavie sighes, ma­king dolefull periods: But all this was nothing in compari­son of the mournfull, and not studied accents, which the whole multitude made, when they heard the pitifull rum­bling of the Coffin, being shooke as they conveyed it down the staires of the Hall into the great street. The Coffin was made of Silver, and covered with blacke Velvet, which trayled on the ground, with a great Crosse of white Satin, charged with Scutchions of all the Provinces, richly imbro­dered in gold, silver, and silke; from the Hall it was carried to the Gate of the Citie tending towards Stockholme, by 24. Gentlemen, and there put into a Chariot, a 100. other Gentlemen marching before, each one bearing in his hand a Table, wherein all the Victories of this Prince were most accurately represented, as well those by him obtained against the Danes, Polanders, and Muscovite, as his other great Feats of Armes in Germany, the Forts, Cities, and Castles, by him conquered; and the Battailes by him gained: two Regiments of Foote, and as many of Horse, made the Ʋan. and Reare-gard, and in the front of the traine were 8. great Cannons taken from the Enemy, each being drawne by 20. Horses. Before and on each side of the Chariot wherein the Corpes lay, being drawne by sixe white horses covered with blacke cloth hanging to the ground, then marched a 100. Gentlemen in mourning, and mounted on Horse-back, next followed the Counsellours of Estate, and company of the Guards, and last of all, the Count Palatine with the two Queenes, both Mother and Daughter, bathing their cheekes in unfained teares. From Meoping this Convoy went to Sitrosta, distant but two Leagues from thence, and in the Church thereof was the Corps layd, and guarded by the Souldiers and a 100. Gentlemen. The next day about noone they parted from thence and lodged two leagues further,[Page 24]continuing this order and time in their daily marches. Vn­till the 20. of Iune, when they arrived at the Towne of Brewkyekya, distant but halfe a mile from Stock-holme; then began the great preparation for the Funerall show, which on the two and twentieth day of the said moneth entered in this manner into Stockholme.

The Colonell Claz Horn marched in the head of a Re­giment of Swedish Horse, and two Regiments Nobility and Gentry all in Armour, and their horses in mourning, be­ing followed by two Regiments of foot, lead by the Lords Axel Lillie and Otho Sparling likewise in blacke, their armes, and trayling their Pikes. Next followed two hundred Gentlemen which were Officers of Warre, and had assisted the defunct King in his Battailes, every one bearing an Ensigne gained in Germany. After them came the eight Cannons; And next came Gabriell Gabrielson Ox­ensterne, Rector, and eight hundred Schollers of the Vniuer­sitie of Ʋpsall, with all the Officers of the Citie, both Bi­shops, Doctors, Iudges, Ministers, and then came the great red Ensigne borne by Frederick Stenbock, Colonell of the Cavalry; Then 34. Ensignes of the severall Provinces borne by as many Gentlemen; Next followed a Horse led by two Pages, and covered with blacke Taffaty hanging to the ground; each of them trayling after them an Ensigne; then came the Barron Charles Horne clad in the gilt Armes of the dead King, mounted upon a lame Horse covered with blacke Velvet, holding in his hand the Kings Sword as yet all bloody since the Battell of Lutzen, attended by his Pages and Lackies; Next followed the Generall Tortenson trayling along the streets the great mourning Ensigne; Then came the Kings horse for battel, covered with black Velvet, and crossed with white Sattin, and the Armes of Sweden led by the Pages of the Chamber, assisted by Iohn de Rothkerke Master of the Horse; Then followed Charles▪ Morner great Chamberlaine, and Gasper Otho Sparling Marshall of the Campe in the head of 400. Courtiers; Next came the He­raulds [Page 25]of Armes with their silver Maces and after them Ga­briell Kell Colonel of the forte clothed in violet, and Otho Sak Colonel of the horse clothed in Red: next came Co­lonel Knut soop, carrying the garter: and Otho Ʋan Shey­ding Governour of Smaland bearing the Chaine of Dia­monds and the Ensigne of Saint George; next came the fiue Principall officers of the Crowne to wit the Lord Ga­briel Oxensom great treasurer of Sweden bearing the key of Gold then Peter Bannier Vice-Chancellour bearing the Ball of Gold personating the absent director, then Charles Guildenheim Great Admirall bearing the Scepter, and Iames de la Gard great Marshall bearing the greate Sword and last of all another Oxenstern cheife Iustice of Sweden bea­ring the Regall Crowne, next followes the kings body borne by an hundred gentlemen twentie and fiue at a time supporting the Coffin by which foure great Lords went; then followed the Count Palatine with his two young sons and George Guldensterne and after him came another troope of an hundred Gentlemen two heraulds and two masters of the kings household, then came the Queene mother to the Princesse now raigning led by two of the ancient Councellors in the kingdome Asiles Bisike, and Iohn Shytte and after her the young Queene, conducted by the Lords Iohn de la Gard Governour of Stockholme and Ʋpland. And Achatis Aceeli Councellors of Estate, a [...]so then follo­wed Princesse Palatine and her two daughters, each be­ing led by two other Lords, the rest of the Ladies and gentlewomen followed after in white robes, and lastly Burgers and their Wiues without order or number this trayne was closed vp with two Regiments on foote and horse, and in this order were the Corpes conveighed vnto the Gray Friers Church, which is scituate in the I­land which was hung all over with blacke, Doctor Iohn Bothvidi, Bishop of Lincoping made the funerall sermon ta­king his text from the death of Iudas Machabeus, which [Page 26]was ended by a Vollie of fiftie Cannons from one side, and threescore from the other, all cast in Germany, and transported them thither for other uses, which was an­swered by Nymes, so many by all the Vessells in the Port, which is the Capitall of the Kingdome; for they spa­red not Salt Peter at the death of that Prince, who living so much delighted to see it burne.

CHAP. XIII. The Russian, Polander, and Turkes.

THus farre wee have made an Historicall contexture of severall Princes actions; and would have gone forward in the like kinde, with the Polonians and Muscovites, but that themselves have made an happy conclusion of peace. That controversie which is resolved satisfactorily on both sides, was well undertaken, and it is a blessed warre which produceth so sweet an issue, and is the decision of all quar­rells, and ground of friendly Vnion, such was that betwixt his Majestie of Poland, and the great Duke of Mosco which at first though it was prosecuted with all eagernesse, May 29. a peace (some report it for 25. others for forty yeares, others for ever) was made betwixt the Princes, Pro regis Poloni, & reip. dignitate, to the honour of the Polo­nian, and not much to the prejudice of the Dukedome of Muscovia. The siege of Bielha. The Scene for the Warre was Bielha a Citie in Bielskia a Province of Muscovia, scituate upon the West side of the River Hinissa, upon the North side of the great Forrest Wolknoske, & distant from Mosco about 100. English miles. Within the Citie was a very strong Garrison, and well furnished Magazine of provision of victuals and am­munition. The Poles were forty thousand strong, condu­cted by a valiant and wise Generall, well furnished with Militarie instruments, and would not for all the preparation otherwise desist from that designe, which they were resol­ved on, but by Mines and their Ordnance went a­bout to effectuate their intendment, for taking of this Citie. The whole passages on both sides, from the beginning of the Warre to the end, might per­happes (if well knowne) make up a little Volume,[Page 28]but I was not as Polybius in the Warres of Hannibal, an eye-witnesse of the Guests there; nor must I transcend my intelligence by imagination of what might be done occasio­nally (that might suite with the Poet, whose fancy hath li­berty to play in shape of truth not with an Historian tyed to his tedder, and limited without addition or substraction to relate things truly) nor must I looke backward to any time before May, at which time this presented discovery hath it's first beginning. In this space I finde some assaults made by the besiegers upon the Citie, but unhappily being still beaten backe with losse, to the griefe of the King of Poland, who was not used thus to bee repulsed, when hee had undertaken a thing formerly. The besieged made some sallyes upon the assaylants more happily; but of all, this is the most memorable; About the end of Aprill, when they had played upon the Campe all day with their Ordinance, at night they sallied sorth by a Grotte, or Cave under the ground, fell upon the Poles in their trenches, and having slaine many of them, retired into the Citie, by the same way, which they came out, the Earth over them being bet­ter then Armour of proofe to defend them from the injury of the shot made out of the Trenches against them. This was but the first Act which they then performed; this was presently seconded with another of greater consequence, and had the Russians either not neglected, or gone on pru­dently to pursue the occasion, might probably have drawne the King to have offered them more honourable tearmes of agreement, then such as they were glad to accept after­wards: The King had raysed a Fort before the Citie, as de­sensive for his owne Army, as offensive to the Muscovites; in this hee had placed two whole Regiments, one under the command of the Colonell Donhoffe, the other under Rade Welson, this Seonce the Garrison understanding to bee at that time weakely manned, the most part of the Re­giments being gone abroad a boote-haling, they set upon the next, put the Souldiers to the sword, demolisht the[Page 29]Sconce, and carryed away the Ensignes, and all which was there remaining. A prosperous beginning, and might have given resolvedmen hope of a wished End; but opportuni­tie once sleighted, is not easily recovered, and the Crowne of a Souldier is made of Mulberry leaves; called by the Na­turalists Arborum sapientissime, and Primroses discretion must bee mixt with forwardnesse, they must bee valiant in undertaking, and wise in the prosecution of their victory. Thus much they did, and did no more afterwards, as if their only ayme was to gaine their libertie; and had no hope of victory.

The King much displeased with this-unsuspected mis­chiefe, put forth the worke with all meanes and speed pos­sible, besides the batteries with which hee played continu­ally upon the Citie, hee prepared then three Mines to blow up the Walls thereof, which being hindered of their worke by fortune, want of skill in the Miners, and the industrie of the besieged, (for the first was filled up by a violent showre of Raine, and so made uselesse the second, when it was sprung, recoyled backward, and slew foure hundred Poles in the Leaguer, without endamaging the Ci­tie, the last though it wrought it's effect, was prevented by the Byelthers, who had raysed some other workes within, just-against the place where the breach was made, and the King after wards assaulting the Citie, being repulsed by the valour of the Souldiers, who in the fight became Masters of the Colonell Weyers baggage, the Waggon appointed for the carriage of the Silver plates, and some Standards which they carryed into Byala; A Peace con­cluded be­twixt the Pole and Musco­vite. His Majesty offered condi­tions of peace to the Russians, which they accepted in the Name of the great Duke, and are here set downe as follow­eth. First, that the Citie and Territory of Smolenskoshouk remaine for ever to the kingdome of Poland; 2. The King of Poland should have free libertie to passe with his Armies, and repasse at all times through the Dukedome of Musco­vi [...] into Swedland. 3. Because his Majestie the King of Po­land, [Page 30]doth relinquish the title of the Duke of Mosco, the said Duke shall pay unto him two hundred thousand Rubells (every of these is about a Marke English) and one hundred Zimmer-zobels. 4. His Majesty the King of Poland, and the great Duke of Muscovia shall aide and assist each other at all times, when necessity requireth it. Lastly, all the souldi­ours which are willing to serve his Maiestie of Poland, shall have freelibertie to bee in pay underhim, and fight for him. The newes of this Treaty, and conclusion was welcome to the neighbour Countries, the Townes of trade especially Dantzick in Prussia and Lubeck; In Holst gave tokens of joy for the friendly amitie of these two Princes, by singing Te Doum, Bonfires, and discharging their Ordnance; But the Duke himselfe was not so well pleased, the relinquishing of Smolensko a Citie upon the Boristhenes or Nieper a place of importance, and the payment of so much money, upon so small a consideration so distasted him, that it is said hee be­headed the Field-Marshall, for descending, and yeelding to such dishonourable conditions. The execution of this soul­dier, begot by consequence another mischiefe; Hee had a Nephew of a rash fiery spirit, who in revenge of his Vn­cles death, hired some lewd fellowes made for nothing but evill, to set the Citie of Mosco on fire in divers places, which complying with his wicked desire kindled that flame which could not bee extinguished, untill the greatest part of that great Citie was burned to ashes; An horred fact; and it so incensed the great Duke to anger, that hee now threatened vengeance upon all the tribe, imprisoned the Field-Marshalls sonne, Nephew, and all the kindred, and (if our intelligence bee true) hath already executed many of them; so procreative is mischiefe, that it seldome is without issue, and though the first Parent be pernitious, yet the child is commonly worse.

This conclusion was farre more gratefull to the King of Poland who besides the benefit of dis-ingagement from this War, had now time (and it was high time so to doe) to look[Page 31]homeward for the securitie of his owne Countrey, The Turkish and Poles pre­parations. which was threatened with an invasion of Turkes and Tartars, a more populous Army then could be found in Russia, and a more formidable Enemie. Preparing therefore all possible opposition the King sent the Grand Seignieur an Ambassa­dour, to whom though there was at first a fayre tale told, that these forces were not leavied to bee imployed against the Pole, but the Persian who had taken Ierusalem from the Grand Seignieur, yet in the end, it proved a tale indeed, for the Turkish Vant-guard by the beginning of Iuly New Stile. were come over the Nepper, but were hindered of their pre­sent purpose by the Pollack Field-Marshall and Cossacks, which surprized them before they were aware, put two thousand of them to the sword, and going further entered the Turkes Dominions, pillaging and wasting the Countrey, upon hope of present supplies from his Maiestie, whereby they might be the better inabled to encounter so potent an adversary. This fortune of the poles, so inraged the Grand-Seigneur, that he presently sent out his whole Army to oppose them 60000. Tartarians, and 30000. Wallachians were ap­pointed to invade Polonia, whom the Field-Marshall againe encountred but not with like fortune, as formerly his Vant­guard was then cut off by the Mahometanes, and himselfe hardly escaped from being made (if not their slave) their prisoner. This newes put a quicknesse, to the dispatch of businesse at home, The Dyet at Warshaw. A Diet was called before this at (Warshaw, and the Peeres assembled; where the King hastening the bu­sinesse propounded only three generall things to this assem­bly, and inioyned them to give a speedy answer; 1. Granting of Subsidies for payment of his Maiesties debts, which were occasioned by the Muscovian War; 2. the managing and pre­paration for this Turkish Warre, both with men and money; Lastly, a treaty of peace with the Swedes with whom the time of a former Truce was shortly to be expired; and these three were as quickly answered, Subsidies were granted, the managing of the Warre referred to his Meiestie, and pro­mise made to furnish him with the sinewes thereof, [Page 32]money and Commissioners appointed to Treate with the Crowne of Swedland, about setling of peace betwixt these two warlike Kingdomes.

And by the last Letters From Danzike, arrived here the 16. of this Moneth of November 1634. it is assured, that that brave King Vladislaus came no sooner with a great Ar­my towards the Swedeners, but he made and concluded a Treatie of peace (wholly to his owne advantage and ho­nour) with the Turke; and thereupon caused his Army to march backwards towards Persia, there to make as glo­rious Peace with the Swedes.

CHAP. 14. The Siege of La Motta in Lorraine.

THe great preparation made by the Chri­stian King, for his own expeditions, and help of his friends is mentioned former­ly; but advise without execution is fri­volous: Consultations must be produced into Actions, the Hand must second the Heart, that is the Instrument of Instruments which wor­keth effectually; what else but notionall, and concluded in the Fantasie? The King upon his first determination was resolved to proceed accordingly, and unwilling to omit any occasion, having formerly given liberty to the Captaines, and Officers of his army to retire themselves upon their owne private occasions, Iuly 4, new stile, A proclamatiō that al captains should repaire to their severall charges. by a publicke proclamation, hee gave warning to all the Campe Masters, Captaines, and Officers of his troupes of Horse and Foot, in his Army and Garrisons in Picardie, the Frontiers of his kingdome, and other Places, Princi­palities and Dominions, that within 8. daies after the pub­lication of this Decree, without colour or pretence of ex­cuse, they should repaire to their severall charges, upon paine of beeing casheared, and losse of their offices. Enioy­ning the Marshall de la Force his Lieutenant Generall in Germany and Lorraine, all his Governors and Lieute­nants Generals of the several Provinces of the kingdom, the particular Governors of his townes in Picardy, the frontiers of the Realme of France, and other places, that their souldiers should be presently in their Garrisons, that themselves should out of hand take notice of his pleasure to publish it by their common cries, and sound of the trumpet, and to affixe it to their gates and eminent pla­ces of their cities, that no man might plead ignorance of his Maiesties pleasure, and so thinke to excuse him­selfe.

[Page 2] The siege of La Motta in Lorraine. Here I must leave the King in the middest of his pre­parations at home, and set down his proceedings abroad; and his conquest of La Motta in Lorrain, being the prin­cipall; thither our story now bends (omitting the nego­tiation of his Embassadors in the Court of Rome, which was onely for confirmation of that Bishops love to the Nation, and comprotection of the Crowne of France, both which though strenuously opposed at first, at last were granted. The Cardinall Barberino being designed by the Conclave to the last, and this wee shall relate no otherwise, then it is set downe by a French discoverer in­two several Letters, which being taught to speak our lan­guage, thus delivereth it.

Iuly 19. 1634. That I may not yet be ranked among the old men, which can better distinguish of things a far off, than those which be neere. I give you not a nosegay of divers flowers gathered out of the common Garden of the World, but a particular flower, the siege of La Motta; the sprigs whereof will fill the hand, and give ful satisfaction to the nicest curiositie.

The scituation of the place. The towne of La Motta (the strongest peece of Lor­raine and as hard to bee wonne as all the townes of that Dukedome besides, so verrifying that description of it made by the Historians and Topographers which averre it to be impregnable) is 12 leagues from Nancy; scitua­ned upon an high and strong rocke, from whence it hath its denomination. This is that which makes it command the Countrey; there being no hill neare it so high by 500 paces, and the inhabitants lately having fortified, an adia­cent rocke, at this present joyned to the towne, and called the Garden of his Highnesse. The hill is onely a little de­clining vpon the side towards the East, and there onely to be batrered with the Canon. It is fortified by Nature 1000 paces in length, and three or foure hundred broad, compassed with a Mote or ditch 18 paces broad, and se­ven foot onely deep because it is upon a Rocke, without water, save in one place onely deeper digged than the[Page 3]rest to that purpose. Foure mounts east against the towne. The Sieuxd' Ische a Loriner hath the command there of 500 men in the Garrison, and o­thers the Inhabitants. The second week of Lent last, the Viscount of Arpajoux, and the field Marshall de la Force, gave order to blocke it up, at which time the Sieur de Bussi, quartered with his light horse upon the Northside of the towne, repulsed some of the Garrison, which salli­ed out upon the Scottish quarter, and planted three ba [...] ­teries; one upon the next hill on the East side, against the place where the mountaine on which the towne stan­deth a little declineth, & two other upon the North-side, whence we have played with our Ordnance, and made a breach. Our trenches are generally about 400 paces from the towne, and containe neere 4000 in their utmost extent. Wee have raysed heere foure mounts, one against the port of the towne which alone is open. The second upon the West side neer the same gate, which two are commanded by the Viscount d' Arpajoux, and have upon them three batteries: the first of seven peeces of Canon, the third of five, and the third of foure. The se­cond mount is upon the South side of the towne com­manded by the Marquesse de la Force: and here are two batteries, one of foure peeces of Canon, and another of three. The fourth upon the North side of the towne be­twixt his Highnesses Garden, and the towne, comman­ded by the Colonell Hebron, and hath two batteries, one of three and another of foure pieces of Ordnance, besides five mines in the bowels of the earth, so that in the earth and ayre with the helpe of the third Element of fire, wee are now labouring to bring it to obedience. Five mines made in the earth. The first mine is in the quarter of the Viscount d' Arpajoux, 32 pa­ces in length good earth, fit for the use of the Potter. Here wee are constrained to dig 35 perches deeper than in o­ther places, because of the hardnesse of the Rocke, and yet herein we goe forward two perches every day. Here we make five severall chambers or cells, every one of which shall be charged with 10000 weights of powder, & this [Page 4]is the Mine which in the end must give the fatall blow, being not to be prevented with a counter-mine, and sufficient alone to blow up the fourth part of the Towne. The second Mine is in the quarter of the Marquesse de la Force, all Rocke, of white and hard marble, and some peeces of it have beene sent this weeke to his Majestie by the Sieur de Vignoles, who was sent to relate our pro­ceedings in this siege. This is 25. perches long, and is divided into two branches. The third is in the quarter of Collonel Hebron, full of veines of slate, and rockie, and is 26. perches in length. The fourth is also in the quar­ter of the Vicount d Arpajoux, all rocke, and harder than the rest, in length 8. or 10. perches. The fifth and last in the quarter of the Marquesse de la Force, a Rocke also, and of twelue or fifteene perches long. These two last have their mouthes neere the verge walls of the Citie, and are governed by the direction of the Sieurs Sexce, and S. Aman. We cannot above ground peepe so narrowly into the bowels of the earth, as to pre­fixe a certaine day, when these workes will be ready for the intended service, but it is probable, it will be in the beginning of the next moneth. The Sieur de Serre be­side his other imployments, is also busie in making furna­ces in the Docke, wherein he is much eased by the cre­vises which be therein. Some of our forces, though they are already in the Ditch, which they are become masters of by their trenches, and approaches, yet they were there lately subject to many inconveniences by the musket­shot from the Citie, and broken pieces of the Rocke, which are cast upon them so abundantly, that the 6. of this moneth (a thing almost incredible) a religious man, strong and valiant, or other to the Governour, cast from a Gabeon in lesse than three houres more than sixe cart­loads of stones upon the Regiment of Tonneins, every stone weighing 150. pound; the continuation whereof would have much endamaged our Army, the place natu­rally yeel [...]ing to the besieged these offensive weapons [Page 5]plentiously: but the night following the Campe-master the Vicount de Turenne wonne the Gabion, and planted there a counterscarpe which he defended against the be­sieged as couragiously, as dangerously. The Vicount in this designe got himselfe much honour, as well by his wise direction, as valiant action; and though it was but a short combate, yet it was of much consequence, the hearts of the besieged hereupon so fayling them, that they did no more appeare neere the brinke of the ditch. Perpouctier Lieutenant of the Regiment of Turenne, Chelle the Serjeant Major, and Ferriere and Ensigne of the same did bravely in defence of their quarter, though the two last were wounded, the Serieant Maior with a musket-shot in the shoulder, the Ensigne with a blow of a stone in the head. Lartigole, and Falaiche, 2. Serieant Maiors, the one of the Regiment of Normandy, the other of Tonenis were mortally wounded, one with a shot in the thigh, the other in the arme. The Count of Poillea scaped more happily, a shot from a Falcon broke his sad­dle and pistols, threw him to the earth, bruised his thigh, and did him no more harme. There are at this present before the Towne 15. Regiments, besides those of Pi­eardie, Navarre, and others which be not farre off, and 28. Cornets of Horse which are entred into the guards. The 7 and 5. peeces of the two first batteries upon the second mount, play at this present upon the Ravelin by the gate, and the neighbour Bastion, and it is thought they will make a breach, because there is no Rocke to de­fend them. Here are also prepared 3. or 400. scaling lad­ders, to be used in assault as soone as the mines have plai­ned the mountaine, the souldiers being forward to the businesse, granadoes of 250. and 300. pound weight be­ing also in readinesse, and the besieged lately much daun­ted, and not daring to peepe out of the walls, since the Lacquy of the Governour was taken, as he was going forth with letters, which could not bee concealed from us, though he using a strange invention, to hide them, [Page 6]made them up in forme of a suppository, and put them into his fundament. Victuals are here good cheape; the Army is well payed; and the providence of the King is such, that he hath sent divers brethren of the Charitie, and other expert men, to cure the Souldiers of their wounds, and maladies. The besieged cannot suppose the French want courage, they see they have no other hope of succours but in the Kings clemency, and know it dan­gerous to continue in his displeasure, to whom it is all one to have any man his friend, or his enemy: Thus the French makes his first discourse of the siege in his first letter, the event of which worke hee expresseth fully in another, bearing date Iuly 18.28. as followeth.

The hearts of the inhabitants of La Mothe, are no lesse appalled within, than their walls are valiantly as­saulted without by the Kings Army, who with patience and courage have finished their workes under ground. But when the Marshall de la Force perceived that the maine designe of the besieged, was to deprive him of re­ceiving any intelligence out of the City, hee resolved to try what effect his Mines would worke, beginning with the least of all, which was one of the three guided by the Commander Serres, which on the 26 of Iuly, the Mar­shall then assaulting the place, was blowne up two hours before day. The Marquesse of Tonneins being that night in guard in the trenches, who relieved the Baron of Montsvil, and who was to bee relieved by the Vicount de Turenne. This Mine, though little in respect of the o­ther five Mines, was neverthelesse filled with 4500 weight of powder, and sprung with such impetuosity, that it blew up all the forepart of that great Bastion, ex­cept about a fadome, which the Marshall de la Force as­saulted, together with a corner of the Flancher of the said Bastion, the earth which by the violence of the powder, was blowne up into the ayre, fell into the ditch, making the accesse to the breach, so easie, that 25 men might enter abrest; there was on the Bastion when[Page 7]the Mine wrought, but one Sentinell, whose body the next day was found bruised amongst the ruines. The blow was so furious, that there was found an infinite number of huge stones a full quarter of a mile, which stucke deepe in the earth with violence of the fall, yet this Mine wrought so favourably for the besiegers, that there was but one Sentinell of Monsieur de Franciers company slain thereby, who was 800 paces from thence. The designe of the besiegers, besides the inforcing the breach, was to lodge themselves at the foot of the ruines thereof; for which cause the sprung it so soone, that by the favour of the night (which was prolonged for the space of an houre by the clowds of dust) they might ac­complish it. As soone as the Mine had wrought, the de­fendants appeared in the breach, armed with swords, and sh [...]oting incessantly with Muskets, being favoured by their Cannon which played on the same place. The besiegers placed a great many Muskttiers on both sides the breach for to favour their lodging, the time on both sides being entertained with continuall skirmishes. The assaylents being thus ordered; first a Sergeant with 6 Souldiers armed, advanced to discover the breach, at the top whereof, two of them were slaine: but in case these had beene able to force the worke, there was appointed to second them 120 more, commanded by a Lievete­nant, whom also all the Voluntieres, to the number of sixe score followed, who were men chosen out of the Army by the Commanders du Pont, de Courlay, and du Tetrenne: this troupe of Voluntieres was the flowre of the Army; for the greatest part of those Officers that were not that day in guard in the trenches, were of the number: after all these followed a grose of a 100 Pikes and Muskettiers, but the breach by reason of the obscuri­ty, being not to be plainely discovered, every man kept his standing in the trenches, expecting the morning light, which no sooner appeared, but it manifested unto the assaylants, that the advantage they had, was beyond [Page 8]their expectation, wherefore they resolved to force them presently, advancing for that purpose, but the besieged seeing the breach so easie to be forced (which by the ex­treame darkenesse of the night, they were not able to dis­cerne before, although they had cast a great many fire­workes in the ditch, as well for that purpose, as also to shorte on the assaylants with greater facility) they re­solved to parley, and demanded for that purpose of the Commander Vandreour, who was in the quarter of the Vicount Arpajon, if some of them might come forth­with security, which being granted unto them, they were received by the said Vicount, who questioning with them concerning their Commission, and understanding that they went onely with some complements to the Marshall de la Force, answered them, that if their businesse was for nothing else, they might save that labour, and consider by what meanes they might resist the Kings forces, but they finding themselves surprised, with a necessity of treating, demanded an houres respire, promising in that time to returne with full power, which they did; three of the Citie comming forth for that purpose, to wit, the Sieur de Stinuill, sonne to the Governour, a Sarjeant Major, and one of the principall Gentlemen of the countrey (who was to re­maine as hostage for those that should go into the City) the sieur de Vandecour being commanded to enter at the same time (as hostage for them) whilest the Depu­ties made their propositions (which for your satisfaction I will procure you) but considering the strength of the one part, and feeblenesse of the other, it is beleeved that they shall be such as it shall please his Majestie to set downe, wherefore I speake unto you as of a place alrea­die taken: for beside the Marquesse de Tonnins (the abi­litie of whose Regiment (regard we either the conduct of officers or co [...]rage of souldiers) assure us an easie en­trance at that breach. There was fire to be put the same day unto a new Mine made in the quarter of Collonell[Page 9] Hebron, and the Towne to be assaulted in two places to­gether. The Sieur de Manican, master of the Campe of Normandy, who entred that day in guard, having made all things ready for that purpose, insomuch that the place is already in the Kings power, in one fashion or other; which newes the Chevallrie de Roches is gone this eve­ning to carry unto his Majestie from the Marshall: for af­fayres were reduced unto their termes, that the Kings Commissioners were appointed to enter the City the 28 of this present. The besiegers have lost onely seven men in this last action, to wit, the Sieur de Vaux, one of the Vicount de Turrenne's Gentlemen, who was slaine as the assaylants endeavoured to lodge at the foot of the breach, hee being first Sergeant of that Regiment, the three Souldiers that mounted the top of the ruined Bastion, and two others▪ There was 25 hurt, amongst whom was the Sieur Madallie, one Captaine and Lieve­tenant of the same Regiment. The besieged acknow­ledge the losse of some brave men that day, amongst whom was that great caster of stones, that Ecclesiasticke of whom I spake in my last extraordinary named bro­ther Eustall; for untill then, presenting himselfe upon all occasions in the greatest danger, hee had not beene so much as hurt, but being then shot through the arme, hee was therewith no whit discouraged, but retiring for to have it dressed, (which no sooner was done) but hee presently returned unto the breach, on the top whereof he stood dreadlesly in sight of the assaylants, which were there placed to make good their worke begun at the foot of the said breach. The chiefe cause that hath seduced the Garrison unto this extremity they are in, was the death of their Governour, the Sieur de Is [...]he, slaine sixe weekes since by a Cannon that made against the parrapet of the great Bastion, a splinter from thence hitting him on the stomacke, the Sieur de Ʋattervill succeeded him, a Swisse by nation, a man of approved valour, but inferi­our unto the precedent in reputation amongst the Gar­rison.[Page 10]Now if you [...]y take my Prognostication is not pre [...]c [...]y accomplish, which promised the taking of La Mo [...] [...] beginning of his moneth) you may see it rea­dered before the end of the same, which is wholly to be attributed unto the good fortune and conduct of the Kings Armies, who faciliate their victories beyond ex­pectation; and for to teach the enemies of this State, that his Majesties is no lesse redoubted in peace, than warre, seeing the destiny of his Reigne is such, that those that re­fuse the effects of his clemency; are not able to escape his force.

This following Letter, translated out of the French doth expresse the manner of the siege of La Mor­re. The cause why the Christian King invaded the Duke of Lorrains territories, and the termes upon which this strong place was surrendred.

The cause why the King besie­ged La Motta. Whereas the Christian King could not longer keepe off the Duke of Lorraine from plotting and practising with the Spaniares, against his confederates, and allyes, and had [...] notice and good entrance, that he intending to ioyne his forces with those of the Catholicke King would arme his subiects, and imploy them against the friends of his Maiestie, as also that he meant to keepe the sort of La Morta, as a place of safety for he Burgundian Army to retire unto. Hereupon his Maiestie caused the place aforesaid which was held impregnable) to be be­sieged by [...] Marshall [...] Force, and in fire places to be unders [...], one of which mines being spring effectu­ally Iuly [...]6/ [...], Monsieur de Tho [...]eins assaulting the sort im­ [...]e [...]tly thereupon, and taking one of the Bastions, the Governour d' I [...] being formerly slaine, with a shot from a great Ordnance, this agreement following was of­fered by [...] [...]sey, and St. Yo [...], Commanders there, and accepted Iuly [...]/ [...]; upon which day a Regiment of Normans to [...] possession of the place, to the use of his Maiestie, and the Generall de la Force, entered into the town [...] [...] day following. The Articles are these.

  • [Page 11]
    The Articles of the surrender.
    1 That the Governours, Captaines, and Souldiers which lay there, should march out with such furniture as was necessary for souldiers: their Drummes beating, Matches burning, displayed Ensignes, and bee safely con­veied to Luneville.
  • 2. That the moveable goods of the widdow of the deceased Gouernour, the Captains and O [...] [...] which they were at that present seized (of whi [...] [...] give in the particulars upon their faith and [...] be left unto them peaceably, without res [...] [...] passed in the time of the siege, yet they sh [...] [...] to any part of their goods which they had [...], and were gotten by the army from the beginning of the siege to that day.
  • 3. That all the Inbabitants & the Clergy men should haue liberty to remaine there, and hold their lands quiet­ly, or leave to depart at their owne choice, without hin­derance, and in all safety.
  • Lastly, That the garrison should have 20 waggons, & a sufficient convoy to cary away their goods & Baggage. Dated in the Campe before La Motta, Iuly [...]/27. Signed Chaumont La Force, Steinville, Prinsey, and St. Yo [...].

CHAP. 15. The returne of Monsieur [...]to France, Paris 12. of Octob. 1634.

SIr, by my last I advised you of his Maje­sties rest. [...]on for sending his puissant Army into Germany, under the con­duct of the Marshall de la Force, at present I shall give advice more advan­tagious for France; which is, that the Lord d' Elbene atrived yesterday in Court from Mon­sieur with letters to the King, which report that Mon­sieur resolving to retyre himselfe out of the hands of the Spaniard, and returne into France, taking opportunitie of the Marquisse of Ayetone his absence, communica­ting his designe unto some few of his most confidents, who with others to the number of about 15. were ready provided. The 18. of this present about 8. a clocke in the morning, they parted from Brussels under pretence of going a hunting, each man leading an horse in his hand beside that he rid upon, as indeed there was need; for Monsieur spoyled two in riding 25. leagues, for in all the journey he baited but once, by which you may guesse at his haste, Monsieur the same night about nine a clocke arrived at Capelle a frontire Citie, and from thence next day went to Soissons, in perfect health, as he testified by the rejoycings he made for having escaped out of the power of Spaine.

The Enterview of the King and Monsieur.

Saterday last the 21. of this present, an houre after noone, Monsieur the Kings brother arrived from Eco­van at St. Germin, where the Lord of St. Simon chiefe Es [...]ire unto his Majestie, received him in the first Court, the King had then dined, beleeving that Mon­sieur [Page 13]would have deferred his journey untill next day, because the weather was very windie and tempestuous. But when his Majest [...] was advertised of his arrivall, he went forth of his Cabinet into his Bed-chamber, being accompanied by the Dukes of Longeville, Monthazon, and Dechans, the Count de Soyssons, the Marshals of Chastillon, D'Estre, The Keeper of the great Seale and De Bresse, the keeper of the Seale, the great Master of the Artillerie and Superinten­derie of the Finances, his Secretaries of State, Captaines of his guard, and other Lords, and Gentlemen, which either their duty of their charge, or curiositie to see that famous action had drawne thither in so great number, that that spatious Chamber was not able to conteine them, although the Vshers would admit none but those they could not refuse. All the passages unto the lower end of the staires were full, and the preasse so great, that Monsieur was almost a quarter of an houre in breaking through it, which in the end having passed, hee bowed himselfe very low before the King, who attended his comming neere the doore, and said unto his Maiestie, Sir, I know not whether it be feare or ioy that hath be­reft me of speech, for at present I can do no more than demand your pardon for all that is past. The King im­bracing him very streitly, said unto him, My brother, I have pardoned you, speake no more of what is past, but onely of the great ioy I conceive by seeing you here: then embracing him twice more with such tendernesse that it drew teares of ioy from all the spectators. The Lord of Puyllaurans rendered his most humble obey­sance unto his Majestie, who imbracing him, acknow­ledged the remembrance of the dexteritie he used in bringing back the said Monsieur. This done, the King led Monsieur his brother into his private Chamber, whither the Lords and Gentlemen aforesaid followed them. The Cardinall Duke comming from Ruell, entred in also a little after, and saluted Monsieur: who imbraced him with great demonstrations of affection. The King saying[Page 14]unto his brother, My brother, I pray you love my Lord the Cardinall. The M [...]sieur answered, Sir, I love him as my selfe, and am resolved to [...] his counsels. This done, the Monsieur caused the Vshers of the privy Chamber to bring in the rest of his traine that had ac­companied him to this interview, to wit, the Lords of Davaille Captaine of his guard, La f [...]-imb [...] du far­gis Briancon, du Coudray, Montpensier, la Plesse Vi­count d'Autel, the Barons de Rare and Baugefroy de Neves, de Verderonne la Ʋanpot, Count de Montresor, the Baron de Cire, Somerne, Drovart his Esquire, St. Vrin Lieutenant of his guards Charni [...] and divers o­thers who being presented unto the King did their o­besance unto his Maiesty, who graciously received them. These passages were so pleasing unto all, that they lasted almost 2. houres, untill one said unto Monsieur, that it was time for him to go to dinner: (but hee answered him, these foure yeares have I dined without seeing the king, I can do no lesse than prefer this daies good fortune, before any dinner) which beeing prepared for him in the kings secret Chamber, at length he sat downe to table, being served by his Maiesties Officers; the aforesaid mul­titude still following him, that by the violence of their thronging the skreene of the dore was throwne downe, which had [...], but [...] of heads & shoulder [...], and by that means made this happy [...] guilty of no ominous dis­aster. Presently after Dinner, Monsieur went againe to see his Maiestie, but his visite was interrupted by the ex­traordinary Embassadors of the King of Sweden and Ger­ [...] who had that day assigned them for audience: so [...] Chamber, he [...] of the afternoone [...] of Courtiers; hee also [...]ted the Queene, who that day arrived at Paris. That night he supped with the King at his owne table, and the next day was entertained at [...] by the Cardinall Duke, to [...] he would needs goe, where [Page 15]he was received with great magnificence, and his Maie­sties Monsiers and the Cardinals health [...] remembred. At night he returned unto Saint Germaine, from whence on the 23 of this present, he parted for to go to his fair house of Limours, where at this present he now is.

CHAP. 16.

LEWIS, by the grace of God, King of France and Navarre, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting. We having for a long time since, many just causes of suspition, that Charles, Duke of Lorraine hath taken advice, and practi­sed with them which repine at the greatnesse of the Crowne of France, and that afterwards hee many times gave entertainement to the Rebels of this Realme, and drew our Brother the Duke of Orleans into his Country, where, not onely the said Duke was ingaged with stran­gers, the enemies of this estate, to enter into Armes, to the confusion of the Authors of that designe, the end whereof was most unhappy, but also soulely neglecting his respect to us, and abusing the disloyalty of the servants of our said Brother, hath caused him clandestinely, and without our knowledge, to be espoused to the Princesse Margaret his sister, again shall order, as well Ecelesia­sticke as civill, against his own precise word often times given to us in his name by persons directly sent unto us; and against the treaty lately agreed upon betwixt us, and him, wherein he promised not to intermeddle in the af­faires of our Brother, nor to adhere to those designes, to which those Rebels who had gotten into his good opini­on, had drawne him to our prejudice, to cease from all correspondence with strangers ill affectioned to this State, and not to doe any hostile act against us, our friends and allyes: and for the assistance of this promise, had put[Page 16]certaine places of his, into our hands, notwithstanding that he ever persisted in his evill behaviour towards us, continuing his practise and intelligence with the said strangers, enemies of this Realm & using divers hostilities against us and our allies, and in the end caused the pre­tended marriage betwixt our Brother the said Duke of Orleance, to be published by the Cardinall his Brother, thogh he alwayes before kept it seeret from us. The which caused us the last yeer upon a just resentment to trāsport our Armes into his Country, and besiege the Citie of Nancye, which the Duke seeing himselfe unable to de­fend, by a late treaty at Charmes, put into our hands, pro­mising as well then and there, as formerly, to abstaine from practising with the said strangers, from hostility a­gainst our allyes, and to doe what was possible to dis­solve the pretended marriage betwixt our said Brother, and his sister; which promise hee thought himselfe no more bound unto, than was his Brother Nicholas Fran­cis, late Cardinall of Loraine, each of whom refusing be­ing required of our part upon that occasion, to doe some things both just and easie, have thereby, and by many o­ther actions testified, that they would maintaine the said pretended marriage; so that seeing the said Duke to stand off from giving us satisfaction, and to renew this enterprize, than which nothing could bee attempted more in juriously by a vassall of this Crowne (such as hee is) against us his soveraigne Lord.

Now we resolving seriously (as we have done) to give him such a iust ca [...]gation, as hee hath merited, by the means which God hath put into our hands, to the end, that posterity may know, that in this action we have don what we ought, for the good and greatnesse of our State, and that during our Raigne, we wil not suffer the breach of the principall and fundamentall Lawes of this Crown to escape unpunished. In which God hath blessed our iust intentions, having on the one side given such an hap­py successe unto our Armies, that they have brought all [Page 17] Lorraine under our subjection: and on the other, the course we tooke in our Court of Parliament, for punish­ment of the crime of Rape committed by the D. of Lor­raine, upon the person of our said Brother, the D. of Orie­ance, was found so iust and lawfull, that our said Court by an Act of the fifth of this moneth, declared the foresaid pretended marriage of our Brother with the Princesse Margaret not to be contracted valuably, and adiudged the said D. Charles, vassall of our Crown, for the attempt and Rape committed by him, as also the said Nicolas Francis, and Henrietta of Lorraine to be guilty of Trea­son, felony, and Rebellion: that the condemned. Duke for his restitution, should confesse unto us (as to his Sove­raigne) in a place wee should chuse before the Princes, Dukes, Peeres, and Officers of this Crowne, That by trea­son and conspiracy hee attempted to make a contract, of the said pretended marriage not onely against our Will, against the assurance hee had given unto us, against his promise to undertake nothing without our consent, and the prejudice of his fealty due unto us, as being our vassal, but also against the Lawes of France, the Ordinances of the Kings our predecessors, the honour of our Crowne, and the security of the estate, of which he now repenteth, and humbly craveth pardon. To which declaration, the said Nicolas Francis and Henrietta of Lorraine, should also stand: and our Court also banished the said Charles, Nicolas Francis, and Henrietta of Lorraine, out of the Realme for ever; declaring, that all the Estate they held of the Crowne mediatly or immediatly should returne, be reunited, and reincorporated unto it; and that whatso­ever goods they had in France, whether moveable, or im­moveable, should be confiscate unto us; and to the end that the memorie of Iustice done upon such an attemp [...], Rape, Felonie, and Rebellion, might be conserved to all posteritie, a Pyramis should bee raysed in some place of the Citie of Bar, where on an engraven plate of Brasse shall be fixed, containing the Arrest, and the just causes[Page 18]thereof. And because the said D. Charles hath infringed the treaty, broke his word, and violated his Faith, Wee were humbly intreated by the said Arrest of Parliament, by the way of Armes to satisfie our selfe upon his other lands and goods not being in France, which we also iud­ged to be more advantagious for the good of our State, the quiet of our Subiects, and glory of our Crowne. For all which causes, wee had just reason to conquer the said places, which we put into our hands: and upon the oc­casion, the rest of the countrey formerly in his obedience, which we have done by our Armes, the countrey beeing now totally subiected to us. And because wee are desi­rous to keep the people in peace and tranquillity, in their franchises and accustomed liberties, with all sweetnesse and equitie: Wee have aduised hereafter, to administer Iustice in our owne Name, and under our Authority. For these causes, & for other good consideratiōs us thereunto moving, we have declared, willed, and ordained, decla­ring, willing, and ordaining, and it is our pleasure, that hereafter for the Dukedome of Lorraine, and all other places late in the said Dukes obedience, except the liber­ty of the parts adioyning to the Court of Parliament, e­stablished in the towne of S. Michael, Iustice shall be ad­ministred at Nancy, by one supreme Councel, and for the parts adioyning to the said towne of S. Michael, it shall be rendered by one intendant of Iustice & Policy, whom we shall depute to that Office, who shall also be Presi­dent of the said Councell. The supreame Councell wee will, shal be composed of two Presidents, 17. Counsellors one Advocate, one Procurator Generall, and one Secre­tary; giving to the said Councell, all Iurisdiction and cog­nisance of all affaires, Civill and Criminall, of Policie, Do­maine impositions, Aides, Tayles, Finances, and all other generally whatsoever; of which the Councell of Estate, the Parliament of S. Michael, the Chambers of accounts, the Court of Aides, and other supreme Iudges in the ter­titory of Lorrain formerly setled, were wont to take no­tice;[Page 19]that is to say, for the justice and policy in Lorrain, & other places, (except the liberty of the borderers upō the said Parliament of S. Michael) and for all affaires of Do­maine impositions, Ayds, Tailes, and Finances, in all Lor­rain (except the liberty aforesaid) and the Dutchy of Bar with full power and authority of supreme iudicature: and in the last place, all the said affaires, as well those of the first instance, as which shall be brought upon appeale, to the Councell of Bailiffs, their Lieutenants and other Iud­ges, whose appealls have bin to the Councell of State, Parliament, Court of Aides, and other supreame jurisdi­ctions, observing the Customes, and usage of the places, as neere as may be.

To this end we inioyne all Bayliffes, their Lieutenants, and other Iudges to bring the appeales, which shall bee interiected, upon their sentences, and iudgements to the said supreme Councell, to passe nothing to the preiudice thereof, upon paine of nullitie of their sentences, costs, and damages to the interessed partie, and interdiction and suspension from their offices, to which they were deputed by the said Councell. We also will, and require, that immediately after the election of such Bayliffes, their Lieutenants, and other Iudges, they shall be called to take their oath of fealtie to us, and so be admitted to their offices; otherwise, and for default hereof, they shall be put out, and others put into their places by the said Councell, which shall admit of none, to be established in those functions untill they have taken the said oath; after which as well the said Bayliffes, as others, shall execute their places onely provisionally, and untill some other order be made by us. The said supreme Councell shall have authoritie to take the oath of fealtie, of all Ecclesta­sticall persons, Gentlemen, and others, which were for­merly subiects to the Duke of Lorraine, and shall gene­rally take notice, of all things (as it hath beene said) con­cerning the Iustice, politie, and finances of the said Coun­trey of Lorraine, and other places, which have beene[Page 20]formerly subiect to the said Duke, and all this, with a proviso, till it be ordered by us otherwise. Wee have also given in charge to our deare, and faithfull Signior, and Knight, the Keeper of the Seale of France, and our loving, and faithfull Councellors, which shall be appoin­ted by us to compose, and hold the said supreame Coun­cell. That every one of them have these presents transcri­bed, to cause them to be read, published, and observed, according to their forme, and tenure: Commanding al­so, and inioyning all the said Bayliffes, their Lieutenants, and other Iudges, and generally all Ecclesiasticall per­sons, Gentlemen, and others of the said Territory of Lor­raine, and other places subdued, to recognise, and obey the said Councel, and the Arrests, and iudgements which shall be made there: For such is our pleasure. In testi­monie whereof, wee have made our Seale to be affixed to these presents. Given at Monceaux the 17. of Sep­temb. in the yeare of grace 1634. And of our reigne the 25. Signed Lewis. And upon the reply Bouthillior. Vp­on which Replie it is also written, Read, and published by the ordinance of my Lord Signier, Dautri Knight, Keeper of the Seale of France, Moi Councellor to the King in his counsels, and great Audiancer of France. And registred in the Register of the Audience of France, at Paris Septemb. 16. 1634. Signed Olier.

The Kings Commission.

LEWIS by the grace of God, King of France, and Navarre, to our beloved and trusty, the Sieurs, Char­p [...]er, Councellor in our Councell of State, and Presi­dent in our Court of Parliament at Metz: Gobelin, Councellor also of our Councell of State, Master of Re­quests in ordinarie of our Houshold, and Intendant of iustice in our Armie of Lorraine, the Masters of Bullion, M [...]oso [...]; Fremin, Merault, Mallebranche, Gaultier, [...], Fo [...]quet, Royer, Arnold, Ioly, le Feure Trea­surer [Page 21]of France, Intendant of our Finances in Lorraine, Machault, Collomibell, Corberon, de la Motta, le Ragois, greeting. We having by our letters of declaratiō, bearing date this day, and for the causes and considerations there­in contained, created, and erected by provision, and un­till we can order it otherwise, one supreme Councell, in the Citie of Nancy, the chiefe Citie of Lorraine, as well for distribution of supreme Iustice, under our Authority, as to take cognisance of politie, affaires of Domaine, im­positions, aides, tailles, Finances, and all things whatso­ever generally, the cognisance whereof appertained to the Councell of State, Court of Parliament, Chamber of Accounts, Court of Aydes, and other supreme Iurisdicti­ons, formerly established in Lorraine, which appeareth by our letters of declaration. Which said Councell is to consist of 2. Presidents, 17. Councellors, our Advocate, and Procurator generall, and one Secretarie; for which purpose it was needfull to chuse personages of sufficiency, and knowne honestie, and integritie, which would dis­charge their places, according to our intention, to the benefit and incouragement of the inhabitants of the said Citie of Nancy, and Countrey of Lorraine: We adiudg­ing, that we could not fall upon persons more worthie then your selues for this occasion, and trusting to your fidelitie, and affection, sufficience and experience, to pro­mote our service, for these causes we have authorized and appointed you, and by these presents signed with our hand do authorize, and appoint you, the Sienrs, Char­pentier, and Go [...]eli [...] to beare the Offices of Presidents of the said supreme Councell: you of Bullion, Marescot, Fremin, Merault, Mallebranche, Gaultier, Morilon, Fouquet, Royer, Arnand, Ioly, le Faure Treasurer of France, Intendant of our Finances in Lorraine, Ma­chault, Collombell, le Ragois, de la Mothe, Corberon, the offices of Councellors, your Fourer [...]y, the office of our Advocate Generall, Rigault, that of Procuraton Gene­rall, and C [...]thert to do the office of Secretarie. Com­manding, [Page 22]and inioyning you to repaire with all speed to the Citie of Nancy, for the establishment and setling of the said Councell; giving you full power and authoritie to heare all matters, and actions Civill and Criminall; appeales for causes criminall, when there shall bee any question of corporall punishment, or torture, of the offi­cers of Iudicature, or Graduates, if then you bee assem­bled to the number of seven, and with you the Sieurs, Charpentier, and Gobelin, Councellors of our Court of Parliament at Metz, and to proceed (there being the number of seven of you) to iudgement upon them accordingly. In like manner, to heare and judge all matters of polity, Domaine, Impositions, Aides, and fi­nances, the cognisance whereof appertained to the court of Parliament, Councell of Estate, Chamber of accounts, Court of Aides, and other supreame jurisdictions of the countrey of Lorrain, and all this, until we shall order it o­therwise, and according to the purport of our Letters of declaration. To do this, we have given you, and doe give you power, authority, commission, & especially commād by these presents, commanding the inhabitants of the city of Nancy, & all others whom it may concern to acknow­ledge, and obey you in all things, touching, and concer­ning the premises, for such is our pleasure. Dated at Mon­ecaux, Sept. 16. The yere of Grace, 1634, & of our raigne the 25. Signed, Lewis. And a little lower, By the King, Bouthilier, and sealed. Read, published, & registred. Heard and required by the Kings Procurator Generall, to bee obserued according to this forme and tenure: Done, at the supreme Councell at Nancy. Octob. 17. 1634.


The declaration being read and heard by Four croy the K procurator generall, the prime President having colle­cted the Counsell, pronounced the Arrest following.

The supreme Counsell hath ordered, and doth order, that upon the reply, letters shall be drawn, which having been read, published, and registred, heard, and required[Page 23]by the Kings procurator generall, to bee executed accor­ding to their forme and tenure, Copies shall bee sent to the Bayliffes of the liberty, to be there likewise read, pub­lished, and registred. The said Counsell doth expresly forbid, all Bayliffes, their Lievetenants, and other Iudges and officers, as well of the City of Nancy, as the liberty, to exercise their offices, untill they have taken the oath of fealty to the King, either in the chamber of the Coun­sell, or before the Commissaries which shall be appointed to that purpose, under paine of a Fine. Made at the su­preame Counsell at Nancy, Octob. 17. 1634.

The forme of the oath of fealty, which all Ecclesiasticall persons, Gentlemen, Officers, and others the late subjects of Charles, D. of Lorraine shall make to the King.

YOu shall sweare and promise by God well and faith­fully to serve our soveraigne Lord the King in all things, and against all men, in the cause of his Dutchie and Country of Lorraine, the Dutchy of Bar, and the Coun­try of Barrois, and to attempt nothing against his service, or against the security and conservation of the Townes of his said Dutchies and Country in his Majesties obedi­ence; but to obey him, his Ministers, and Officers, and to doe all things which good and loyall subjects ought to doe. Also you shall sweare and promise with the heart, as well as the mouth, without any exception, subtilty, or mentall evasion.

An arrest of the said Counsell, enjoyning publike prayers to be made for the King in the extents of his D. of Lorrain.

VPon that, it is shewed to the Counsell by his procu­rator Generall, that all the townes and places of the D. of Lorraine by the power of God being brought to the Kings obedience, it is just and requisite, that publike prayers should be made for his Majestie in all the Chur­ches of the Country. Requiring also that commandment should be given to all the Curates of parishes, and other [Page 24]persons having charge in the Churches of the said Dut­chy, and Country of Lorraine, of what ranke and quali­ty soever they be, to satisfie him herein, like good and loyall subjects, upon consequence of the oath made to his Majestie, and under such a penalty as the Counsell shall be pleased to order. And that the Arrest to bee made, should be published in the open congregations, and af­fixed to the gates of the Churches. The Counsell doth hereupon injoyne all Curats of Parishes, Primats, Pro­vosts, or Deanes of collegiate Churches, Chanons, Chapi­ters, and Communities, and all persons having the admi­nistration of religious houses, as well in this City of Nancy, as in the whole Country of Lorraine, to make publike prayers for the King in their Liturgies and Mas­ses, upon paine of loosing their temporalties, and be pro­ceeded against as Rebels and disturbers of the publike peace. The said Counsell hath also ordained, that this Arrest shall be read at the publike meeting of the Pari­shes in their Churches, and bee affixed to the Church dores. Inioyning al the deputies of the procurator general to put their hand to the execution hereof, and to certi­fie the Counsell within three weekes, upon paine of loo­sing their places. Made at the supreame Counsell, Octob. 19. 1634. Signed. Colbert.

They have since made an Arrest against five religious persons, who would not take the oath of fealtie to the King, by which they are commanded to avoyd the Citie of Nancy this present, and the Dukedome of Lorraine, within three dayes, and forbidden them to come into the Kingdome, upon paine of death.


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