THE HISTORY OF the present Warres of GERMANY.


Gathered out of the best Intelligen­ces, and reduced into times, places, and actions.

Briefly Brought down from October last past, to our Lady day 1634.

LONDON, Printed by THO. HARPER, for Nathaniel Butter and Nicholas Bourne. 1634.

The Bookseller to the Reader.

COurteous Reader, the con­tinuation of this our Ger­man Story had come forth immediatly upon our Lady day, but that wee expected (for the more perfecting of the same) certain pa­pers from beyond the Seas. For the more delight of the Reader we have in this Part observed this me­thod, wee have drawn each Com­manders severall actions to its own proper head; therein observing both time and place, and paralelling their actions together, as neere as wee could collect, giving to each side what to them belongeth. If wee [Page]have fayled in any thing, impute it to our want of better information. If either side can, and will hereafter supply us with better intelligence, wee shall willingly embrace it, and give due satisfaction. If what wee now publish you shall well accept of, we shall then bee incouraged to continue this History, and give you ere long something more.

The Contents of the Book.

  • CHap. 1 The History of Duke Bernard Weymar, page 1
  • Chap. 2 The History of Gustavus Horn. page 21
  • Chap. 3 More of Gustavus Horn, and the Palatine Birckenfelt page 29
  • Chap. 4 The History of the Rhinegrave, with the actions of Alsatia page 49
  • Chap. 5 The taking and reducing the City of Hagenaw with the Castle of Aubar page 58
  • Chap. 6 The continuation of the Rhinegrave page 72
  • Chap. 7 The actions of the Landgrave of Hessen page 83
  • Chap. 8 More of Hessen and Kniphausen, and somthing of the Chancellour Oxenstiern, and his Pro­positions for a Diet. page 102
  • Chap. 9 The Conclusion and Articles agreed upon at Halberstat page 124
  • Chap. 10 Of the affaires in Silesia, and of the Genera­lissimo (the Duke of Fridland) his death page 134
  • Chap. 11 Of the Elector of Saxony and Arnheim page 159


CHAP. 1.

AFter the taking of Regensburg, was Colonell Ros sent to take in Burlengenfeld; Ros sent to take in the Fort of Bur­lengenfeld. a Fort of the Duke of Newburghs, three leagues above Amberg, in the upper Palatinate; this being done about November 20. hee found 21. Pieces of Ordnance in it: Chamb, Nab­purg, and Weyden, were about that time also reco­vered, with other places, Deckendorff; namely up­on the Danuby, towards Passaw. Duke Bernards head Quarter was at Albeng, Nov. 24. to make way (it seemed) for the Boores of over Ens in Austria; hee laboured to open all the passages, and had al­ready opened those upon the River Iser. But the [Page 2]Towne of Passaw, and Walenstines sending forces thither, defeated the Boores conioyning with him. Towards the end of the month, a revolt was at­tempted in Strawbing, neer unto Regensburg, which Duke Bernard tooke in soone after Regensburg, whereupon 18000 barrels of salt, divers of the chiefe revolters, and the best of the towne riches, were re­moved unto Regensburg, Nov. 28. 200. imperially-affected Regensburgers, and 60. Fryers, were sent out, to goe for Ingolstad: divers Fryers were also kept in arrest, till those Protestant Regensburgers, which are prisoners in Bavaria and Austria, are re­leased. Donawstauff Fort, having some while beene besieged by the Dukes forces: more troopes by this time were sent against it. Decem. 1. the Duke came into Regensburg to reside. Decem. 3. the Regiments of Stenbock and Ros came to him out of Franconia. Now the Duke disperses his Army into severall pla­ces of Bavaria; for their winter quarters, about Klingen, divers of the Bavarian Boores meeting with a partee of Imperialists, and mistaking them for Swedes, killed 200 of them. Some believe, that the Boores knew them to be Imperialists, and that be­ing discontented with their quartering amongst them,The discon­tent of the Boores of Saltzburg. they at other times knockt downe divers straglers of them. The Boores of the neighbour Bi­shopricke of Saltzburg, were now also discontented with Althringer, who had already sent some troops through Munchen and Wasserburg, to lye upon the Saltzburgers. About the middle of December, Duke Bernard went by boate, under the wooden and stone bridge, to view the under and over Werth, [Page 3]and gaue order for the building a powder Mill. Decemb. 27. he went to Kelberin and Bergen, to meet privately with the Palatine Birkenfield, and Gusta­vus Horne. And Decem. 29. hee was againe to re­turne to Regensburg. Towards the end of Decemb. the Imperialists of Donawstauff Castle, by laying a Shippe bridge ouer the Danow, sallied out, and in­tercepted thirty or forty Wagons of Salt, going to Regensburg. Notice was given of this Salt convoy to the Danowstauffers by some Papists of Regnes­burg, which trechery being discovered, they were ex­amined, and some arrested: thirty Fryers thereupon with as many servants, were sent away to Ingolstadt. The Bishop of Regensburg also was constrained to quit his house in the towne, and to lodge at the golden Starre in the Corne-market; those of Donaw­stauff want water within the Fort, which whilest they are faine to fetch at the Danow, many of them become like Pitchers, which goe so oft to the wa­ter, that at last they come broken home.

The Fort of Donawstauff thus being not able to hold out,Donawstauff rendred to D. Bernard Weymar. nor to be relieved by Iohn de Werth (who now attempted to make some diversion of Duke Bernards Forces by appearing about Deckendorff, towards Austria) was faine to come to a compo­sition, and to surrender. Duke Bernard being thus master of it, and considering that it would require a perpetuall care, charge, and garrison, to keepe it from those of Ingolstadt, resolves to ruine & demo­lish it. For which purpose it was begun to be under­mined, which in February after was effected: So that the Fort being blowne up, the other buildings [Page 4]in the small towne were set on fire Ferbuary 14.

In the meane time (that is, in the month of Ia­nuary) did the Duke send his Captaines abroad a­gainst other places in Bavaria: Colonell Kerberg (a Swede) was commanded towards Hohen Al­dach a strong Cloister,Hohen Al­dach a strong Cloister, ta­ken. neere unto Kendorff in Ba­varia, which was kept by a Lievetenant Colonell and 100 souldiers; Kerberg surprized the place, slew and tooke prisoners the most of the Bauarians, but the Governour escaped. Since this, by a fire that burst forth,Hohen burnt was the Cloister quite ruined, and the Swedes enforced to quit so strong a place, which was the key to all those quarters of Bavaria. The Boores which were risen in the lower Bavaria and the Bishoprick of Saltzburg, were indifferently well quieted by this time, but at the first sight of any souldiers that should offer to enquarter them­selues among them, they would ring out their bels, and assemble together to resist them. And thus indeed the Boores of Saltzburg did about the end of Ianuary, when as they enforced two Regiments to retire with some losse, that volens nolens would haue thrust themselues upon them. About the 20 of Ianuary Duke Bernhard, for the case of Regen­spurg, and the refreshment of his owne people, sent 100 Cornets of Horse, and 148 foot Companies to bee laid in garrison in the townes of Franconia. Great store of all manner of provisions were taken order for to be sent into Norimberg for the making of a magazine in that City.

A defeate gi­ven the Sweds.In the end of the month, did Iohn de Werth, with his Imperiall Leaguers and Bauarian forces, gather [Page 5]together about Deckendorff about 3000 strong, Horsemen and Dragooners; where he fell unawares into the quarters of the Swedish. The chiefe spoil he did, was unto the Satlerish Regiment, which indeed they did great harme unto. The Regiment of Ker­berg they likewise assaulted, but the greatest mis­chiefe which they did to that was, the spoyling of their baggage, and the taking prisoners of some of the Officers. This hapned in the time that the most of the Swedish forces were gone out of Deckendorff upon other employments. At which time this Iohn de Werth was known to bee going upon another way towards the reliefe of Weyden in the upper Pa­latinate; which hearing to be taken by Vitzdumb, he all on the sudden turnes with his Horse and Dra­gooners upon Deckendorff. Having done the afore­said spoyle, hee retired in good time, for that the wayes were hilly. In the meane season did those few Swedish Horsemen and Dragooners that were in the towne, get them to their Armes and Horses, and in several partees made out after their pillagers. Colonell Berekhefer with one Company had the fortune to light upon Iohn de Werths Regiment,The Sweds recovery of their for­mer losse. consisting of a 11 Companies, all which he wholly rowted and dispersed. Some prisoners they tooke, and 200 well mounted Horses, all which were brought into Deckendorff. According to the rela­tion of some prisoners, Iohn de Werth himselfe re­ceived a dangerous shot, whereof some (though falsely) supposed that he died. At the same time the Sergeant Major of the Satlerish Regiment brought back 3 of Iohn de Werths Ritmasters, 3 Lievete­nants, [Page 6]2 Cornets, and above 80 prisoners, which were all sent into Straubingen: In both these con­flicts were full 300 Imperialists slaine, the Bavarian Colonell Schwartz taken prisoner, and the most of the Swedish baggage recovered.

Duke Bernard in the meane time being at Re­genspurg, was busied in fortifying the City, in this very beginning of February, setting upon the forti­fication at the Hoff and the Drawbridge at the stone Bridge. By this also was the Lievetenant Co­lonell Waldan sent by the Duke to besiege the Ca­stle of Falkenstein, which belongs to the Colonell Haslanger: who together with Colonell Sbnetter, that was Governour of Ingolstadt, was lately taken prisoner about the Castle of Wilsburg in Franconia, and now in durance within Regenspurg. In this Falkenstein Castle lay some troopes of Haslangers, which much molested the neighbour Country with their boothalings. Therefore was it besieged, and about the first of February were some Ordnance and Petards set to Waldan, then lying before it, with all violence to hasten the conquest of it. By this means was it in a few dayes brought to a composition,Falkenstain taken by the Swedes. wherein was much Amunition and other provisi­ons taken. It was resolved that this Castle should be demolished, like as that of Donawstauff had bin served. The Bavarian Boores in the Market townes hereabouts were now up in armes, and did some shrewd turnes now and then unto the Swedish: but most especially were they strong and trouble­some in the faire Market towne of Kitringen in the Forrest; which when the Swedish summoned, [Page 7]they would by no meanes surrender it.Kitringen taken by the Swedes. Hereupon it was faine to bee taken by assault, in which the Boores throats were cut, and the towne burned. In this meane time was Duke Ernestu of Saxen Wey­mar, yonger brother to Duke Bernard, gone from Regenspurg to Wultzburg upon the Mayne in Franconia; whither he was come by the 10 of Fe­bruary. Hee had been convoyed thither by a Regi­ment of horse, with which there were other Regi­ments to conjoyne that lay thereabouts; who were all to keep their Rendevouz at Hasfurt. The inten­tion was, that they should block up Forcheim in the Bishoprick of Bamberg.

About the tenth of February went Duke Bern­hard from Regenspurg unto Straubingen to put all things therein good order. Before this time did Duke Francis Albert of Saxon Lawenburg arriue at Regenspurg: hee came from Pilsen in Bohemia, where Walstein then lay, to whom he had been em­ployed by the Elector of Saxony, D. Francis Albert, ne­gotiates for a peace. to treat upon those Articles of peace which the Emperour and Walstein had propounded unto him. There hee came now to tender unto Duke Bernhard from the same Walstein. Generall Arnheim was also expe­cted to be sent to Leutmaritz in Bohemia, which was the place where the treaty was appointed to be held; At which Walsteins selfe was purposed to be present upon the sixth of February, which was the time agreed upon, by which Duke Francis Albert was to haue returned againe to him, with Duke Bernhards answer. They at Regenspurg supposed, that Walsteins first proposition was to haue a cessa­tion [Page 8]of Armes for three moneths, till the treaty of peace might goe forward, There might indeed bee some colour for that, Because that the Lord of Hoff was with some Swedish forces about the Towne of Eger upon the frontiers of Bohemia: whose Gene­rall Major Corvile did about this time certifie Duke Bernhard that he had a hope within eight dayes to take it. What ever Duke Bernhards answer was unto his Cousin Francis Albert, himselfe did in the meane time goe forward with his preparations. For now causes he his Ship bridge to be carried downe the Danuby, which was to be laid over at Olderhau­sen. All the Army likewise that was to be enquarte­red about Regenspurg were warned also to draw to­gether and to march: At Waldmunshen also, Schon­see and other places many hundreds of Wheele­barrowes, pickeaxes, shovells and Iron bullets were made ready, and all for some warlike expedition. Febr. the 19 did the blew Regiment with 5 peeces of Ordnance march out of Regenspurg, Duke Ber­nard himself following after, who was that night to lodge at Schwandorff. In Regenspurg was Generall Major Chog, (a Swede) left for Governour. After the blew Regiment did the Berghauerish Regiment of Horse march thorow Regenspurg, And the black Regiment was laid into the City in stead of the blew one, which heretofore had beene the Garri­son to it. Now was Duke Bernards Army said to be 15000. men, if there be no mistaking in the fi­gures, and his way was towards the Vpper Palati­nate, and so unto Bohemia to see what Wallenstein intended; who being very eager of the peace had [Page 9]sent 13 postes in a few dayes space unto Regenspurg to Duke Bernard. Within a few dayes,Thirteene postes sent from Wal­stein to D. Bernard. Walstein murthered. and as the Duke was then upon his march, had he newes of Walsteins being murthered: For which reason he ha­sted by all meanes to get into Bohemia before the confusion among the Imperialists should be appea­sed. In the meane time Colonell Dubatell had good successe in other parts of Bavaria where he tooke three indifferent strong places,Three townes in Bavaria taken by the Swedes. as Furth, Eshel­cham, and Newkirchen, in which he found aboue 4000 quarters of Corne, 30 peeces of Ordnance, much ammunition and other good provisions. Which done, he Febr. 12/30 arived againe at Regen­spurg.

By this was Duke Bernhards maine Army gotten to Nappurg in the way to Egra. Himselfe with 3000. Horse going before unto Weyden. To this Weyden (which is a good place of importance) hee came Feb. 20/30. whence he dispatched the Colonels Rosse and Karpfen with a good strength of Horse towards Egra to listen how businesses were there carried. About Turschenreyt did these two Colonels light vpon Colonell Corpus with his Regiment of Crabats, Colonell Cor­pus an Impe­defeated. whom falling upon unawares they put them to flight, killed 300. and tooke 200. prisoners, and about 600. well mounted horses. By the 25. of Febr. were these two expected againe to be backe at Weyden, where the report was, that the Crabate Corpus himselfe should haue beene slaine in the late conflict. Duke Bernhards Foote arrived at Weyden Febr. 22. And now was order given for better for­tifying of the towne. For now hee thinkes best to [Page 10]provide for the securing of this upper Palatinate where he now was. Hereupon hee desired of the City of Norimberg to send in some provant bread, and Ammunition to the Townes of Herspruch and Vilseck lately taken by the Birckenfelders. He giues order also unto Clous Hastoort (a Swede) to lay a Swedish Garrison into Sultzbach: For that the Im­periall Garrison of Amberg had threatned to pillage that City, and that the other Townes were in dan­ger of Iohn de Werth and Gallas.

From Weyden did Duke Bernhard send a strong partee towards Danaw: 3000. Birckenfelders he al­so sent towards Furth with whom Dubatell was to ioyne from Regenspurg. This towne being lately ta­ken by this Dubatell, was now againe besieged and taken by Iohn de Werth who passed the riuer Iser in Bavaria 6000. strong, as it was reported. This Furth was taken the day before the Swedes came,Furth taken by the Impe­rialists. and Iohn de Werth having put a garrison into it was retired with the rest of his Army. The Swedes sup­posing the enemy had retired for feare of them, and that the Towne had not beene taken, Dubatells Lief­tenant-Colonell going too neere the walls was shot in the arme, of which he afterwards dyed. This so enraged the Swedish that they burnt downe the Towne: but being not able to master the Castle on the sudden they retired unto Duke Bernhards army unto Averbach. For the Duke, at the same time that he commanded the Birckenfelders towards Furth, went with his owne Army into Kemnath in the beginning of March; which Towne imediately yeelded upon composition, Thence went he to­wards [Page 11] Averbach aforesaid, fully now resolving to besiege the Towne of Cronach, in the Bishopricke of Bamberg.

Whilest this was there a doing, Iohn de Werth, and the Duke of Bavaria, tooke the opportunity of the absence of Duke Bernard, & began to make some menaces about Regenspurg. Straubingen ther­fore in doubt to be besieged, laboured might and maine upon their new fortifications. The Count of Thurn, and Colonell Kevenhiller, being their dire­ctors. These two came from Straubing, into Regen­spurg, March 4. who were followed the next day by the blacke Regiment, which was thence forward to be enquartered in that Citie. It was doubted Iohn de Werth, with 6000. men, as was reported, meant to goe against Abensperg and Mewstettlein, and that for his assistance, there were great preparations of Boats and shippes made in Ingolstadt, whither the Duke of Bavaria was by this time arrived.

Deckendorf and Falken­stein burnt downe by the Sweds.The Swedish therfore perceiving that the Town of Deckendorff was not to bee maintained, burnt downe the gates, and forsooke it. The Castle of Falkenstein, which belonged unto Colonell Haslan­gar, they for the same reason demolished and level­led all the out workes of the Castle of Werth, The out­works of Werth de­molished. bring­ing the souldiers out of both of them into Regen­spurg. Ketheim being an indifferent strong Towne, had a stronger garison laid into it. In Regenspurg was there likewise an exchange of prisoners taken on both sides: Colonell Schnetter the Governour of Ingolstadt was set at liberty about the 10. of March, and suffered to returne into his governement. As [Page 12]for Colonell Haslanger, he was sent into Norimberg, whence hee was to beesent into Frankford on the Mayne. The Bishop of Regenspurg also some few dayes before this was sent to bee kept in Norim­berg.

Cronach besieged by D. Bernard Weymar.Duke Bernard is all this beginning of March, up­on his way towards Cronach, which strong towne had for a long time beene the very denne of theeves and robbers, to the great molestation of the whole Country. The trayned bands of the Marquesse of Brandenburg, Bairrent, (next neighbour to the Bi­shopricke of Bamberg) were now also sent against Cronach with Duke Bernards Forces. From Coburg and Schwemfurt also was there much Ordnance and Provant bread carryed towards the Dukes Army: But the Cronachers being confident upon their owne walls, and the strength of their friends in Ba­varia (who would be able as they hoped to divert their enemies) were resolved to defend their Towne to the last man. Hereupon they not onely gave no courteous answer unto Duke Bernards summons, but a braving and a despightfull one. They also kil­led him some 50 men upon a sally; among which, were one Lievetenant Colonell, one Sergeant ma­jor, and two Captaines, and hurt him above 2 hun­dred.

About this time was to bee the funerall of the Duke of Saxen-Coburg, Vncle unto Duke Bernard: at which solemnity, Duke Bernard of necessity was to be present, as being Heire unto the deceased: and at this funerall he was about mid March, when as it was given out that he should have been killed before Cronach.

[Page 13]In his absence the siege went not on with such carnestnesse; yea the Duke himselfe perceiving it more necessary for him to looke to other places now endangered by the enemy,The siege of Cronach raised. of his owne accord he raised his siege of Cronach about the 20. of March, retyring with his Army betwixt Averbach and Norimberg. For this Averbach by which Duke Bernard first passed unto Cronach, Averbach taken by Vitzdumb. was in the meane time taken by Generall Maior Vitzdumb, and the Birkenfeldish forces being by a furious battery con­strayned to yeeld upon discretion.

The Imperialists being indifferently well pacified in Bohemia, after the death of Walstein were (during Duke Bernards absence) now fallen into the upper Palatinate, where they had burned Weydhausen in­to ashes, which had resisted, and began to recover one towne after another, which Vitzdumb and Duke Bernards selfe had lately taken in: Straubin­gen likewise (by Regenspurg) was by this time also hard besieged by Iohn de Werth and the forces of Bavaria. The Swedish Colonell Berghaver who defended the towne, was resolved to maintaine it to the last man: and he about the tenth of March had 400 hand Granadoes, and some more souldiers sent unto him from Regenspurg. About the 18 of March did 6000 Bavarians present themselves be­fore it, 4000 more being rumored to be coming out of the upper Palatinate. March 21 by 8 in the mor­ning did the Bavarians begin their battery; 11 peeces of greater Canon they had now mounted, and beat the towne in three seuerall places. Three severall as­saults did the Swedish beat off bravely: but before [Page 14]the fourth came, the Townsmen had appeared for the besiegers against their owne souldiers, and constrayned them to hearken to a composition: and thus upon Saturday March 22, were the Straubin­gers enforced to yeeld upon Articles; the chiefe of the Agreement being,Straubingen taken againe by the D. of Bavaria. That the Swedish Horse­men should march out on foot; and the foot go out with no other armes than their Muskets only. But neither were these conditions kept with them, for that as they were marching forth of the towne, the perfidious enemy fell to charge them; yea, and con­trary to the accord made, they tooke all such of them for prisoners who refused to give up their names to serve under them.

The Duke of Bavaria pillaged not the towne, for that the Burgers were all Papists, who by fling­ing of letters over the wals, had both discovered the weaknesse of the garrison to the besiegers: and invited them after three repulses received, to fall on againe. The Duke of Bavaria and Iohn de Werth went not at all to besiege Regenspurg, as it was sup­posed they would have done; but sending their Ordnance and carriages downe the river Danuby, and so into the river Iser; they quit Straubingen a­gaine, and retired with all speed to Lanshut in Bava­ria, for now was Duke Bernard loose from his siege of Drouach: and Horn was upon his march into Bavaria.

Chamb ta­ken by GallasIn the meane time Gallas his troops being as hard the siege of Chamb in the upper Palatinate, in few dayes tooke the same.

Turn we back now to the Palatine of Birkenfelts [Page 15]Army in the upper Palatinate. After the taking of Weyden by the Lievetenant Vitzdumb, the Imperi­all garison of Amberg, had a purpose to have recove­red Vilseck. Hereupon in Ianuary 29. Febr 8. came 18. of their horsemen to the Gates of the said Vil­seck, with a counterfeit Swedish Passe or Certificate. But the true Swedish within the Towne, suspecting some such matter, gave fire upon them from the walles, insomuch that they were faine to retire from the Gate into the Field. After which there came one troope of Ambergers after another into the field, and presented themselves 400 strong. By which those of Vilseck perceived what ascowring they had scaped. The Swedish horsemen issued out of the towne to skirmish with them, with the losse of one Sergeant that was taken prisoner: The Am­bergers afterwards retired also into their towne. They still keep a Count of the Swedish partee there in arrest; as also two Ritmasters, and one Captaine Lieuetenant. But Lievetenant Dyvell, with other officers and souldiers before taken by them, were sent home freely by them. The said late taken Ser­geant was dismissed too: Febr. 7/17. on which day he came to his owne fellowes into Sultzbach. Hee re­ported that the Imperiall garison of Amberg was 1000. strong, horse and foot, of which the halfe part longed for the comming of the Swedes before the towne, for that they would presently give up their names to serve on their side.

From Weyden went the Colonel Vitzdumb to siege Kemnath, which (as one writing saies) he had also taken by the 2/17 of Febr. The Fort of Waldeck [Page 16]made him a very strong resistance,The Fort Waldech taken by the Swedes. beating the Swe­dish twice from their walls; but the place was at last taken by maine force, and all the souldiers put to the sword that were found in resistance. From thence the Birkenfeldish forces went towards Averbach where the Imperiall Garrison marched out against them: but because they were not above 50 strong, they were all put to the sword except 15 that esca­ped. Thence went the full march toward Nappurg where their store of Ordnance lay. And the soul­diers longed very much till they might goe before Amberg. It should seeme (if our writings bee true of the former taking of Kemnath) that this towne of Kemnath was againe taken by the Walsteiners, when the Birckenfelders were gone from it. Sure I am, that Duke Bernard did with some adoe take it afterwards. Presently upon this was Walstein murdered: upon which oc­casion Duke Bernard came into this upper Pala­tinate; For which reason the rest of the Bircken­felders actions are referred to the Chapter of his Story.

And now as an Appendix unto Duke Bernards actions may the siege of the Castle of Weisenburg be added; both for that it was done by his directi­ons and a part of his Army; as also in the Neigh­bourhood of Bavaria, where himselfe was, and of Overland, where his Felt Marshall Horn warred. The place of this Wilsburg Castle is by the Imperi­all City of Weisenburg in the Bishopricke of Aich­stat, and very edge of the Circle of Franconia. It had beene some moneths blockt up by the Swedish [Page 17]Colonel Sperrentter, and the Count Iohn of Hessen, the troopes lying at and about Weissenburg, a mile beneath the high placed Castle: which the Author of the Swedish Intelligencer in his second part tells you to haue been sometimes attempted by the King of Sweden: nor hath it since his time beene gotten in, severall small encounters, ever and anone pas­sed about it, but I come to the chiefest and the latest.

Aichstat ta­ken by Hes­sen.On Munday Ianuary 27. the Landgrave Iohn of Hessen tooke in the City of Aichstat, in which (a mong the rest) lay 60 Muskettiers, 40 Dragooners, and 60 Crabats that had beene sent thither out of Wilsburg. The Towne was taken by assault, and therefore all these put to the sword, excepting the Crabats, who gat up into the Castle. This was ime­diately besieged, and was then hoped it could not hold out long: In such manner also our Writer then comforting himselfe concerning Wilsburg Castle. But this peece being the chiefest passe to all that Country, the Imperialists had more care of, and put hard for the new victualling of it, protecting at one and the same expedition to have recovered the towne of Aichstat, to have surprised Weissenburg, and supplyed Wilsburg. Out of Ingolstadt therefore and the Garrisons of the Bishopricke of Bamberg and Bavaria they draw neere upon 4000 adventu­rers for the feates aforesaid, Colonell Schnetter the present Covernour of Ingolstadt and Colonell Has­langer led them, and 300 of the Boores had they provided with their Hatchets and Teames of horse [Page 18]to serue them in removing of the trees about Wits­burg which the Swedish had cut downe and layd a crosse to hinder sallyes of horse and all sudden sup­plies to be carried by Cart to it.

Early in the morning Febr. 3/13 doe the Imperia­lists come about their businesse, and whilest the Boores were busie in removing of the trees afore­said Schnetter with his souldiers falls upon the Swedes of Weissenburg. At Helft did the Imperia­lists cut of the Swedish Centinels some thirty men in all and so came forward to the Towne. By which time Captaine Simon Rammell Lieftenant-Colonell vnto Sperreuter; and the Landgrave Iohn had got­ten some Horse together dispersed before in many quarters. With 700 Horse they fall out upon the Imperialists, with whom they began the skirmish till their owne foote forces would come in to second them. In the meane time did the Boores get open the passage in the woods and on horsebacke made shift to get in 15 wayne loades of victuals into the Castle: Schnetter having notice that the chiefe of his errand was now dispatched, and for that the Swedish began to presse so hard upon him, retired to wards Aichstat. The Landgrave and Rammell followed, and within a league of Aichstat withall their forces overtooke and charged them. Three hundred Dragooners and Muskettiers they present­ly cut in peeces and tooke 800 prisoners.Colonest Schnetter and Haslan­ger taken prisoners. Amongst which prisoners were the Colonels Schnetter and Haslanger which were after sent unto Duke Ber­nard at Regenspurg. The rest of the Imperialists [Page 19]fled, leaving two peeces of Ordnance, foure En­signes, and the most of their baggage, together with foure Captaines, foure Ancients,A great de­feate given the Imper. one Ritma­ster, and one Lieftenant, and 25 waggons of Am­munition.

This was a great victory for that these forces were supposed to be of the bravest of the Imperiall Regiments of those parts; which the Weissenburgers were the gladder of for that they had by this means gotten so many good prisoners, as might ransome their chiefe Citizens heretofore carryed away cap­tiue by the Imperialists; The Landgrave Iohn per­ceiving the Towne of Aichstat likely to be a bad neighbour to them should the enemies at any time surprize it, as they now intended, burnt it quite downe to ashes; A pitifull prevention! which it had heene farre more humanity to have defen­ded than to have destroyed. The Imperiall pri­soners payd their owne ransomes and had mo­ney to boote by taking pay under the Swe­dish.

In the end of February did Colonell Sperreu­ters Horsemen flye out upon Heydeck where they brought all the Fryers and the Iesuites. In the beginning of March had those of Ingolstadt ano­ther resolution for the victualling of Wilsburg Ca­stle, upon Satturday; therefore March 8/18 did they againe attempt it which was by Sperreuters Horsemen in Weissenburg both discovered and pre­vented. These sallying out upon the Imperiall Convoy killed one Lieftenant-Colonell and eigh­teene [Page 20]souldiers, taking some sixteene prisoners and fourteene Waggons of provision.

And this is the state of Wilsburg Castle, which is likely enough so long to hold out as Ingolstadt in Bavaria, and Cronach and Forcheim in the Bishopricke of Bamberg are able to relieve it.


WHilst Feria and Altringer being hindred in their designe, to fall into the Dukedom of Werten­burg, marched leysurely backe againe towards Bavaria, about the middle of Novem. and a­bout the 21. sate downe at Hu­fingen, and Donaw Estbinging. Gustavus Horne en­quartered about Weylar, and the diocesse of Horne­berg, whither he had come from Offenburg, neere Alsatia, and through the Kitzinger valley. Novem. 19. his head Quarter was at Retweill, and Altrin­gers at Donam Esthinging. Horne desired the Wer­tembergers troopes to ioyne with him, that at next rising of the enemy, he might fall upon their march­ing. [Page 22] Feria and Altringer perceiving Hornes neere­nesse, rose; and whereas their intent was to haue wintred in Wirtemberg land, they now make to­wards the Danow, which the passe at Dutlengen. Novem. 21. Altringers hend quarter was at Miskir­king, some of their struglers, and others that could not march so fast, were cut off by Horne: and Nov. 23. Colonell Brinck, and Colonell Wrangle, being sent out by him, cut off 300 Musketteeres that were dispersed about the Dorps, to get in victuals. Horne with the maine of the Army, stayed for the Rhine­grave Otto Lodowick, that with both their forces, they might take their way through the Elbinger valley towards Riethlingen on the Danubie, to pur­sue the enemy.

A thousand of Altringers men cut off, and he like to be taken.The Rhine-graue being come, both the Swedish Generals passed Danubie in the end of the month: and the Rhine-graues horse regiment falling upon some of Altringers, about Weissenhorn, Botzheim, Dietenheim, and Brandenburg, cut off neare 1000. enemies. And had not two Boores given warning to Altringer, himselfe had beene surprized at Dieten­heim, as he sate at table, whereupon he fled, leaving his victuals all behinde him.

In the beginning of December, both the Rhine­grave, and the Palatine Berkenfelt, met at Vlus: whence they went to Weissenhorne, where Gustavus Horne then held his chiefe quarter. Euery day the Swedish cut off some Imperialists, & one day took a pragmaticall Iesuit of Ingolstadt, who undertooke to espy & survey the country passages of aduantage cō ­cerning which intention of his, the notes and instru­ctions [Page 23]being found about him, he was hanged up with his fellowes, at the Pfallinger passage neere Reitlingen. In the meane time, while Altringer and the Duke de Feria advanced, Hornes army braued their reare, but they would not accept of battell: howeuer now and then were two or three hundred straglers cut off at a time; and at Reutlingen, a whole foot company yeelded to the Swedish, and tooke pay of them, and in the next towne to it, were a troope of Crabats surprized, and the Ritmaster with his Liefetenant taken prisoners.A troope of Crabats ta­ken. Herereupon some few of those Crabats that escaped, giving the alarme to their maine Army that then lay at Mun­derkingen and Emerkingen, the Catholike Generals being assured of Hornes comming to Renthingen, rose with all haste, and went towards Bavaria. Hereupon did Horne follow them upon the other side of the Danubie, which is on the Wirtenbergers side: for that he doubted by the enemies offering to repaire some Bridges betwixt Vlm and Munderkin­gen, that they purposed to passe againe the Danu­bie. Horne to preuent this, marche something be­fere the enemy from Ehingen, as farre as Erbach: by which the enemy perceiuing himselfe to be way­laid euery where, turned from the Danuby, towards the Riuer Iller, where at Brandenburg, hee caused the Bridge to be repayred; intending there to passe ouer towards Wurtenberg: Of this, Horne hauing notice, sends out two strong partees of horse, one of the Rhine graues regiment, commanded by Maior Goldstein, the other under the command of Colonel Wutenberg, with order to passe ouer the Danubie [Page 24]to disturbe the enemy. One of these Commanders passed ouer at Vlm, and the other at Erbach, and both hasted towards Brandenburg. Two hun­dred Impri­alists slaine, two Ritma­sters taken, and two slaine. At Weisenhorn, did Goldenstein rout 200. horse of Aldtbrandini and Gonzagaes regiment, who came to fetch away a company of their owne Dragooners that lay there. Two Imperiall Ritmasters were then slaine; a young Lord Fugger (who was a Ritmaster, and had lately giuen out Patents for new levyes) and Maior Vernemont, were made prisoners. Colonell Wutenberg on the other side of the Iller, in the Vil­lage of Mangen, fell upon some Crabats, killed 60. and tooke a Ritmaster, and had hee bin stronger, (for he was not above 200) hee had done more spoyle. This was upon the fourth of Decem. In this meane time, did Hornes Army of foot, passe the Danubie at Erbach, and his Cavallery march all night towards Brandenburg; hoping there to haue surprized the enemy in their passing of the River Il­ler; but they being terrified by what Wutenberg had done to their Crabats, durst not now passe ouer at Brandenburg, but marcht away to Egelsee, and there went ouer the Iller. Horne pas­seth the Iller after Feria, and cuts off 200. of his reere. After them did Horne send out some horse, who cut off some 200 of their reare, that had not yet passed the Riuer. After that, did all Hornes foot passe the Iller too, and marched into Weissenhorn, where he made his head quarter, and his horse he inquartered about Memingen and those places: Decemb. the sixt very early, his Army brake up to follow the enemy: but having notice that they were gone towards Kauffhauren, and gotten into the aduantagious country of Algow; he returned [Page 25]backe to Weissenhorn. Wutenberg was againe sent out, who in the Village of Apfeldrang, defeated some more of Gonzaga's regiment, and had surpri­sed a troope of Crabats in the next village, had they not run away very manfully. The Catholike Gene­rals are now glad to make towards Bavaria: into which by the riuer Lech, they enter at Schonga and Fnessew: having (as is beleeved) scarce brought a­way the third part of their Army; Spanish, Italians, Germans, and Burgundians. Hornes people were supposed to haue killed 600 Crabats in a few dayes,Feria brings scarce a third part of his army a­live into Ba­varia. and so many of the Duke de Feria's men dyed by the way, by frost and famine: that betwixt Vlm and Bibrack, were found 1000 dead carcasses. Some pri­soners reported likewise, that some horse regiments were not aboue 30 strong, for that their horses be­ing dead, their men were faine to goe on foot Be­fore that Feria and Altringer parted from Raufbau­ren, they left that towne with Kempten and Mem­mingen, very well garrison'd: after which they pas­sed the Lech upon the 8 of Decemb. Then goes Horne and the Palatine Christian of Berkenfeld, from Gunsburg to Lawgingew and Dillingew. Wedle dis­possesses two Regiments of the Imperia­lists. The Impe­rialists being now gotten into Bavaria, Colonell Wedle was sent from Augsburg, with two regiments of horse, and one regiment of Dragooners against them. He going towards Landsberg, Decem. 9. dispersed two regiments of them: but the mayne of their Army comming on, hee retreated without harme taking.Feria and Altringer part. Now doth the Duke of Feria part from Altringer; whom leauing in Bavaria, he goes with his weake Spanish and Italians, to take up his [Page 26]winter quarters in Tyroll. Altringer, as it appea­reth, kept himselfe a while about the bankes of the Lech: for marching at his first entrance, with part of his Army towards Dachaw, he returned eftsoones towards Furssen. Gustavus Horn and Birckenfeld in the meane time, take up their quarters in the Bi­shopricke of Aichstat; and about Ostingen, Nordlin­gen, and those places on the edge of Schwabland to­wards Bavaria. A little before this, was the Rhine­graue gone from Horns Army backe againe towards Alsatia, where new troubles were created. Altrin­ger after a weeke or two, sought to have his winter quarters in the Bishopricke of Saltzburg; which the Boores (so well as they could) resisted. About Christmas time, did Gustavus Horn send part of his Army towards the upper Palatinate, to keepe Wal­lenstein from ioyning that way with Altringer and Feria.

Tis further written from Franckfurt by letters of the 13/23 of Ianuary, that whereas Gustavus Horn and Palatine Berkenfelt, were with a great part of their forces about the upper Palatinate, that Duke Bernard was to come and ioyne with them, for the clearing of that Country. Altringer in the meane time, is still scuffling with the Boores of Saltzburg, and to hinder Weymars and Horns ioyning; he and Walenstein threaten to besiege Regenspurg, but that is not much feared. Altringer since this, hath layd about Landshut and those places: and hath had a moneths mind to breake into the upper Palatinate: but Horns sending in Forces, hath prevented him: and Major Generall Vitzdumb bath there recove­red [Page 27]divers places from the Bavarians. As for Gu­stavus Horn himselfe he made againe to the Fronti­ers of Schwaben towards Bavaria, and Novem. 28. Old Style, himselfe, lodged in Vlm: at which time his foote had their head quarter at Ouer-Rottingen, and his horse at Weissenhorn, whence they are going to besiege Bibrach.

The Duke of Bavaria in person hath some whiles layne at Brauna in the further edge of his owne Countrey: whence be would very faine haue gone for feare of intercepting, but that the Estates of the Countrey intreated him to stay, fearing a confusion, which his flight and absence might put his subiects into. The Boores of Saltzburg have lately defea­ted Altringers Regiment of Furstenberg, and pilla­ged the baggage of Colonell Salis: to restraine whom, the Duke of Bavaria was faine to send some Regiments. Tis written out of Schwaben, Ianuary 9. that the Duke of Feria dyed at Munchen, and indeed his body was afterwards carried into Italy: The death of Feria. and his Army decreaseth very much, because divers have beene slaine, and others doe sterve daily with frost and hunger. And out of Schwaben againe, Ian. 12. No man here doubteth of the death of the Duke of Feria.

In the upper Palatinate about the beginning of the new yeere, did Generall-Major Vitzdumb reco­ver the Towne of Sultzbach; where were 11 Soul­diers onely left by the Bauarians. Sultzbach taken. Amberg the chiefe City of the upper Palatinate hath a good while also expected to be besieged, and for that Co­lonell Illo was rumoured to be comming from Wal­stein [Page 28]out of Bohemia with 6000 men to relieve it and the Countrey: Vitzdumb therefore leaving Sultzbach well provided with 8 troopes of Horse and 300 Foote; made haste to take in Hirschaw, Vil­seck and Averbach. He set forth from Sultzbach Ianuary 8 but it was the 11 by that time he could get to Vilsech; for that the wayes were so durty that their carriages could march but slowly, and they were inforced to leave two Demi cannons behind them.

Vilseck ta­ken by the Swedes.In Vilsech was there a Bavarian ancient onely with 18 souldiers, who making some shew of resi­stance, when he perceived the Castle gates blowne open, and an assault prepared, yeelded. The Fry­ers and chiefe Citizens went to Hirschaw, which was defended by another Ancient and 40 Musket­tiers of Amberg; And these offering to resist Vitz­dumb at his comming, 38 Citizens sonnes ran toge­ther upon the Ancient and compelled him to lay downe armes and agree with the Swedish. Generall Major Whal who is Governour in Amberg was now sending 300 Dragooners and 2 Waggons of Ammunition to the reliefe of this Hirschaw, but the towne was taken before their comming, and the Dragooners with their Waggons taken by the Swe­dish.

Whal hath intertained some more forces into Amberg sent unto him from Rottanberg and For­cheim, and expects from Walenstein to be relieved.

CAP. 3. More of Gustavus Horn and of the Pala­tine Birckenfelt, that is, The Action of Horn in Schwabland after his returne from the frontiers of the upper Palatinate where he left the Palatine Birckenfelts for­ces.

THE suspicion growing stronger that Wal­stein when hee should come into those parts would carnestly attempt Norimberg, was one of the reasons for Duke Bernards taking in of Regenspurg, and of the sending the Palatine Christian of Bircken­feld with the halfe of Gustavus Horns Army into the upper Palatinate. Had the King of Sweden had but time enough, when hee conquered the rest of Bavaria, to have taken in Regenspurg, Walstein the last yeer could never haue coopt him up about No­rimberg, nor could the Generalissime there haue lain, had he not bin Master of the upper Palatinate. The safety of this most considerable City therefore is the cause why Duke Bernard of Saxon Weymar (who is now Generall for the Crowne of Sweden of that which sometime was the Kings army) went and took it: And the Feltmarshall Horn went a­bout to take those parts of Schwabland, betwixt the Lech, the Danuby, and the Bodensee, where Altrin­ger, [Page 30]Ossa, and the Duke of Feria lately left some gar­risons. At which time the Palatine Birckenfelt was (as aforesaid) directed into the upper Palatinate. What the Colonell Vitzdumb (who in the Pala­tines absence had the leading of the Forces) had there performed by the 11 of Ianuary is before told you. He going from Hirshaw, attempts next unto Sultzbach belonging originally to a younger bro­ther a Protestant) of the Catholike Duke of New­burg. This Towne making some resistance, was with the losse of 4 men onely taken in Ianuary 13/23 for that for all their great countenances at first the Gar­rison came timely enough to a composition. Thence went Vitzdumb to Newburg in the Forrest: where finding more opposition, he (though with some blood of his owne party) was put to it, to take the towne by maine force:Newburg taken by assault. For this obstinacy, the re­sisters were in danger to have had the law of Armes passed upon them, had they not yeelded at the mer­cy of the Conquerours. The Imperiall Captaine that lay in it having but 120 men with him. Vpon the 14/24 of Ianuary stood it out till some Cannon shots were made upon him, and the town gotten by a Petard blowne open and entred by his enemies; nor would he so give it over, for having a slight Ca­stle to retire unto, thither he withdrew himselfe and his companies. At that now goe the Bruns­wickfilders, threatning to hang every man of them if they presently yeeld not. Thus when the Im­periall Captaine might have yeelded upon Souldi­erly conditions, he holding out but a very little lon­ger was faine to yeeld at mercy; laying downe both [Page 31]Armes and Ensignes, to have their bare lives saved. This was no such strong peece to make such a stirre about, had not the Captaine beene desperate; seeing one of the Counts of Pappenheim who now lay in it with his Regiment bad for his better safety reti­red himselfe into Parckstein, a league beyond this Weyden.

Vitzdumb in his marching towards this last taken town, had lighted upon Generall Major Whal, Go­vernour of Amberg, who was abroad at that time in his Coach, attended by 40 horsemen, to view some passe or other of the Country. The place of meeting is named to bee the high Warth, neere the new mill: where Vitzdumb having an inckling of his being to come that way, had reasonably enough dressed a fine Ambuscado for him. Whal with his troop comming now in sight, there are 18 Swedish horsemen let fly upon him: against these hee sends out his 40, who being trayned into the Ambush, are there for the most part cut in peeces: Whal him­selfe was faine to quit his Coach, and get upon horseback: in doing of which a Swedish horseman had gotten him by the arme, to haue made him pri­soner, but that some three or foure Dragooners re­scued him. Thus fled he into Amberg, where he ex­pected within two or three dayes to haue been be­sieged; but the season presently fell so snowy, with so extreme a frost after it, that no good could bee done against him on the sudden, it being reported for the hardest winter that hath these many yeeres bin known in Germany.

The report was, that Prince Philip Lodwick, Ad­ministrator [Page 32]for the young Elector Palatine, did a little before this time, send unto the Duke Bernard, the new Swedish Generall, requesting to haue these new conquered towns of the upper Palatinate, resto­red unto his cousin according to promise and agree­ment: Vnto whom Duke Weymars answer was, that the whole country was not yet recouered, which when it should be, then should it altogether be re­stored. In the meane time was there sufficient store of prouisions sent daily into Norimberg, which see­med about this time to bee more threatned out of the ayre, then from any land enemies. Writings re­port of many strange apparitions in the ayre, over and neere unto this Citie, mentioning among the rest, the spectacles of seuerall dead carcasses and fu­nerall processions, to their great terrour and af­frightment.

We left the Lord Feit-Marshall Horne at Vlme, Ianuary 8. old stile, whence upon the 11. in the morning, he set forwards towards Bibrach: 40 Pie­ces of Ordnance, and much amunition being sent after him. His head quarter hee tooke up at Over Summerding, or Simaringen, as others write it, where he still lay, Ian. 15. being unable to doe any thing towards the siege of Bibrach, by reason of the great frost and snow. Besides which hinderance, Altringer upon the suspition of Hornes intention, for Bibrach had with all speed sent in some troopes to that towne-ward thereabouts, to make good the chiefest advantages of the country.

Hornes lying thus at large, and un-engaged upon the siege of any place, made the whole Country in [Page 33]amazement, and the strong towne of Lindaw, espe­cially upon the Bodensee. The Governour Konig (it appeareth) being a suspected person to his partee; there was a pretence made for the outing of him under colour of strengthening his garison. Vpon New yeeres day, therefore does Colonell Vitz­thumb (an Imperialist) goe from the neighbour Bre­gents with 100 souldiers, to put into this Lindaw. Konig refuses to admit them, and thereupon does Vitzthum draw out an Imperiall commission to ar­rest him. He thinking to resist, his souldiers forsake him, and repaire to their generall Court of guard upon the market place. And thus Konig not able to resist, nor escape, was there clapt up in irons, and together with his wife, carried to Ebrach in Tirol; his officers with foure Citizens, being for his sake likewise arrested. The opinions of the Country were divers upon this action. Some gave it out that Konig had intended to kill Ossa; others, that hee had correspondencie with the Duke of Rohan, con­cerning the surrendring of his Citie: and some a­gaine, that he was onely arrested for a matter of money, which was owing to the Imperiall Pagador or Paymaster. However the matter was so ill taken in the towne, that the new Governour was faine to disarme all the Citizens, for feare they should have beaten him out and his Garrison, and have opened their Ports to Rohan, or the Swedish Felt-Mar­shall.

Horn perceiving no good to be done upon Bi­brach, drawes off his troopes towards the Neigh­bour river of Danuby enquartering his people for [Page 34]the time about Reit [...]tling, Simeringen and those pla­ces Taking a resolution at this time to try whether he might part asunder the new-come Imperialists, that so he might lye the quietlyer afterwards in his winter quarters. He goes towards them with the most part of his Horse forces. Ianuary 15/25. That same night towards euening he came to Waldsee be­twixt Bibrach and Ravenspurg, whence he sent some to Middle Bibrach. Here was the quarter of foure Imperiall Horse troopes, although the most of them had the day before beene commanded into Bibrach. Those that were left behind were assaulted by the Swedish, and some of them there killed: 2 Ritma­sters and some Horsemen yeelding themselves pri­soners.Little Bi­brach taken by Horn. Hereupon the same night was the small Towne of middle Bibrach taken, and in it 2 Quar­ter-masters with the Major of the City of Bibrach.

At Waldsee had the Swedish Felt-Marshall in­telligence that the Quarter-master of the Gronsfel­dish Regiment had lodged the same night at Reutta; yea and had made quarter within the same towne. Hereupon the Lord Marshall goes with the A­vantgard towards Reutta, surprised the Quarter and about 200 Horsemen in it, tooke all the officers pri­soners together with some Horsemen, causing the rest together with some Boores to be put to the sword. By the prisoners here he understood, how that there had beene sixe Regiments newly come out of Bavaria over the Lech at Schonga into those parts of Schwabland, and that foure of them were Dutch Regiments commanded by Iohn de Werth, and two of Crabats, over whom Colonell Luyrs was [Page 35]chiefe Commander, and that these sixe together with the Vitzthumbish Regiment, and that of Ko­nigs which had layne all this while in this Over­land, were now enquartered at Vberlingen, Raven­spurg, Leutkirchen, Isne, Wangen, and the Villages neere about them towards the Lech and the Boden­see. His Excellency hereupon sends Colonell Plato with all speed with his owne and Colonell Cratzen­steins Regiment to goe with their Horse towards Ravenspurg to surround and coope up the Imperiall Regiment that lay in it untill himselfe could come up to them with the Foot forces. Himselfe at the same time rode backe to Waldsee unto the rest of the for­ces; From whence he dispatched the Generall Ma­jor Rostein with a strong partee unto Leutkirchen where Colonell Konigs Regiment lay, and Colo­nell Kanofsky hee sent to Wangen where the Ples­kewish Regiment of Crabats lay. These Colo­nels had order that if they sped well, they should then conioyne their forces together at Isne; where Vitzthumbs Regiment then lay, and together to try whether they could destroy that Regiment also. All these three Colonells had very good fortune. In Ravenspurg, against which Colonell Plato was sent, lay the Imperiall Colonell Kesseler with the Regi­ment of Granichfield, and some of Cronbergs that newly escaped in thither. Plato keeping them in for a while, and Horn himselfe comming upon them with his Foote:Ravenspurg taken by sur­prize by Horn this Imperiall City of Ravenspurg was then taken. Kesseler being thus surprised be­fore he could prouide for defence, was forced to ac­cept of such termes of composition as the Swedish [Page 36]Marshall would allow him. Great riches were found in the Towne, Kesseler himselfe was made prisoner,Great riches in the Town taken, and 300 Impe­rialists turned Swedish. together with two Counts of Zeil and their Ladies. So also were the Abbot of Wissenaw, the Baron of Vlaw, a Lord of Middle Bibrach, the Pro­vost of the Towne, a rich Iesuite with a great summe of money about him, together with 2. Rit­masters, 3. Lieutenants of horse, 1. Cornet, 4. Quar­termasters, and other chiefe persons. Three hun­dred Imperiall Souldiers now turned unto the Swedish.

Colonel Kanoffsky that was sent to Wangen (another Imperiall Citie) had as good fortune also upon the Plesknowish Regiment of Crabats whom he there surprised. The Lieutenant Collonel hee tooke prisoner, besides some other officers, and some horsemen, the rest being put unto the sword. Thus was the whole Regiment so destroyed, that few of them escaped. The Imperialists of Isne and Leutkirchen hearing the Swedish to be abroad, fled out of the Townes towards Kempten and Bavaria, before Generall Major Rostein who was sent against them, could come where they were; neverthelesse, hearing which way the birds were flowne, hee cast off his Hawkes after them for pursuing them, even to the very gates of Kempten, he slew and took pri­soners about some thirty or forty of them. Of all these three Regiments thus wholly ruinated, there was not one Ensigne gotten, for that the Imperialists meaning but to winter in those parts, and to pre­vent Gustavus Horns wintering places, had sent their Colours beforehand into Lindaw, to bee kept [Page 37]there in that strong Town, as in a place of safety. And all this was done, namely, three Imperiall Re­giments ruinated, the rest put to flight, and the Country of Overland, which they late possessed,Overland Cleered of Imperialists, with the losse of three whole Regiments of theirs. cleared of them before or about the 24 of Ianuary. After this did Iohn de Werth returne over the Lech into Bavaria again, where finding no safe wintring place, he went over to Deck [...]dorff beyond Regen­spurg, which is towards Austria. Generall Altringer also passes from about, over the river Iser, and so also crosses Bavaria to go towards Austria, for that there being some discontents betwixt him and the Duke and subiects of Bavaria, there would no quar­tering be allowed him.

In the pursuit of this victory did Gustavus Horn make himselfe master of these townes, namely Reut­ta, middle Bibrach, Ravenspurg, and Wangen, the two last being Imperiall.Wangen, Leutkirken, & Isne taken Wangen was taken by as­sault; Leutkirchen (another Imperiall City) yeel­ded upon composition; as Isne did also. Thence the Swedish march directed towards Vberling on the other end of the Bodensee, contrary to Wangen and Lindaw. In the way the Swedish were said to light upon some Imperialists that were carrying a golden Image into Constance, which they tooke for booty Horn made his head quarter at Ravenspurg, where he still was the 8 of February. Before which time he had sent to Ausburg for some of his Com­manders, being then beleeved to have some great enterprize in hand; which was supposed to bee in­tended against the strong towne of Lindaw upon the Bodensee, some few leagues beyond Wangen. [Page 38]All this businesse the Governour of the said Bibrach understanding, was minded (as is reported) to have burnt downe all the villages about the City, for pre­vention of the Swedish lodging in them. But this he was perswaded against, by the much intreating of Major Brandenburger.

Iohn de Werth (as 'tis sayd) thus making towards Deckendorff, was also there beaten off with some losse, as you shall heare the actions of Duke Ber­nard Weymar. As for Generall Altringer, he also was disabled (about this time) for not being so active as otherwise (perhaps) hee might have been, by some accusations now layd against him. And the speech then was, that hee either actually was, or was in danger to bee put out of his Generalship. The pre­sumptions for this report prevailed so farre, that Co­lonell Reinacher was voyced to succeed him in the Command. One of his enemies was said to be the Duke of Bavaria, and the accusation, for that hee had been crosse unto the Duke of Feria. For wher­as the designe of Ferias and Altringers armies was, to maintaine the places in the Empire not yet taken by the Sweds, to recover what they could, and to open the passage towards the Low Countryes: Al­tringer (twas objected) envying the glory of it un­to a stanger, under whose greater title, and the name of the Spanish Army, his own actions should bee overclouded, hee had never well accorded with the projects of the sayd Duke, and had dealt but somnolently and improvidently in the businesse. By which negligence and bad correspondency the de­signe had not only been defeated, but the corpus and [Page 39]bodie of a brave Armie ruinated.Altringer sent for to Vienna to cleere him­selfe. Hereupon was Altringtrer sent for into Austria: where I find him at Vienna, Feb. 12/23. and it was the beginning of Mar. ere he could cleare himselfe of the allegations, and be dispatched to his charge againe in Bavaria. In his absence Iohn de Werth commanded. The Gene­rall and Commissary Ossa was about this time said to be in disgrace too, and to be arrested in Inspruck in Tyrole. The Citizens of Lindaw also were migh­tily now discontented with Colonell Vitz. dumb, who had sent 100 of their chiefest Citizens, prisoners after the former Governour Konig into Bregentz, where they were all hard examined concerning the aforesaid obiected correspondency with the Swedes or French men. These distractions gave Gustavus Horne a hope to get in Lindaw, and to determine to move towards it: but the Townesmen were present­ly curbed, and Gustavus Hornes hopes prevented by the receiving of some new come Italians into his Lindaw.

Moerspurg taken by as­sault.Before the 20 of February, they write from Aus­burg, that he had taken Moerspurg upon the Boden­see, neere unto Vberlingen, where the most of the Garrison were put unto the sword; and that his men beat the Campagnia, and roaved up and downe as farrre as the gates of Lindaw. The neigh­bour Marckdorff belonging to the Bishop of Con­stance, he put a Garrison into. Vberlingen was held blockt up. Kempten had bin summoned by his Trumpet, upon Febr. 11/25. And Lindaw, Constance, and Bregentz, were all in equall suspition, which should be first fallen upon.

[Page 40]About Febr. 26. hee had his head quarter at Stockach upon the North-west end of the Bodensee towards the Danubie, and the land of Wirtenberg. The passage, fort, and bridge of the towne of Stein, upon the Rhine, (which hereabouts runnes thorow the Bodensee, and so goes to the Westward) was now said to be delivered up unto the Swedish Mar­shall by the Protestant Switzers.

The Imperiall towne of Pfullendorff, upon the Northerne side of the Bodensee or Lake of Con­stance, he put a Garrison into,Horn pre­vailes much by the Bo­densee. and so scowred the Coast up and downe all along the Lake side (which is 40 miles long) towards Bavaria and the Lech, that he cut off all passages and entercourse betwixt Kempten, Memmingen, and Lindaw; so that they of Lindaw were faine to have all their provisions come to them upon the backe side thorow the Lake or Bodensee out of Switzerland. And thus neere Italy did this Gustavus advance the terrour of the Swedish Armes, even to the very frontiers of Ty­role, and of Switzerland, one, at the South-East end, and the other on the South side of the Bodensee. By this also was hee gotten neere unto the Rhine­grave to whom upon occassion, he might march up, and receive succours from him. The Protestant Switzers were now his friends, as appeareth by their rendring up the Fort of Stein to him, and they had now a good Army of 6000. or 8000. (15000. I finde it written) in a readinesse; so that there was nothing enemy unto him on that side of the Lake, but the towne and Bishopricke of Constance, who being in league with the Catholique Switzers, they [Page 41]perchance might unseasonably have beene provo­ked by Gustavus Hornes medling too farre that way. And especially now that the 7 Cantons of the Catholique Switzers had some difference with the other 6 Cantons of the Protestant Switzers, as ha­ving lately ioyned in League with the Spaniards. Besides all this, there were 2500 new Italians come thorow Tiroll, into this Constance and Lindaw.

In the end of February did our Swedish Felt-Marshall receiue a good strength of new raised horse into his Army. And there was need of them, for the Imperiall Colonell Luyrs who had before com­manded the Horse which came into this Schwab­land with Iohn de Werth, together with him had (as you have heard) beene beaten out with him, did now againe begin to appeare upon the further side of the Countrey, all along upon the Schwab­land side, betweene the Rivers of Iller and the Lech at Fuessen, namely Frenlaw, Kempten, Mundelheim, Frenten and other places.

To take order with these his Excellency, the Felt-Marshall, sent command unto Colonell Ro­stein, who then lay at Waldsee, something neere unto them, to goe against them, who being now sicke dispatched away his Regiment and the Ba­ron Hoffkircks against those about Fuessen. Heare the successe in the Letter of the said Frederick of Ro­stein, dated from Waldsee, March 8/18.

Consulting earnestly with my selfe how the foure Imperiall Regiments that were enquartered about Fuessen, which were commanded by Colonel Luyrs, [Page 42]might be assaulted and surprised. At last I sent a­gainst them the Lievetenant Colonell of Hoffkirks Regiment, together with mine owne Regiment and Lievetenant Colonell, my selfe being then so weake, that I was not able to goe along with them. Besides this, the enemy at that time also began to appeare about Isne. Foure Regi­ments of the Imperialists surprised and ruinated. The Lievetenant Colonell which I sent against them, invaded their Quarters an houre before day light, where he sorely ruinated the foure Regiments, and tooke the Colonell Zuyrs, with many officers prisoners, putting a great many to the sword. It chanced that some 600 of them ha­ving beene abroad that night, were by that time this execution was done, now returning towards their Quarters: These being met withall by some that escaped, and certified how matters went with their fellowes, were about to retyre backe againe; but our forces also hearing where abouts they were, made out after them, overtooke and killed the most of them. Thus were there not above 50 or 60 which were better mounted then their fellowes, that es­caped killing or being made prisoners; and per­chance these had not so gotten away neither, but our men were too weary to pursue after them. All the Imperialists that lay thereabouts, are rowted by this meanes. As for Ensignes, they had none to lose; as having at their first comming into the Country in Ianuary before, sent them into Lindaw, where if they please, they may make use of the Co­lours in stead of Flagges, to put into their Ships and Boates upon the Bodsea. To morrow wee shall goe against Bibrach, to besiege that Imperiall [Page 43]Citie, in which lye 1300 men in Garrison. And thus were these foure Imperiall Regiments, who now came againe to seeke their Quarters in this Overland or upper Swabland utterly disappointed and dispersed; so that the Coast being thus clee­red on the backeside, as farre as the gates of Lin­daw, and on the foreside to the bankes of the Ri­ver Lech and Bavaria, there remained no more to be done in Overland, but the taking of Bibrach, Memmingen, Kauffbeuren, and Kempten, and to these now turnes our Field-Marshall. That he was to goe against Bibrach, March 9/19. you heard by the former letter, the taking whereof, and the manner of it, as also some more particulars of the ruining of the foure fore named Regiments, you shall with best assurance, receive out of his owne Letter to Duke Bernard, dated March 16/26.

Your Excellency hath understood out of my for­mer Letter, how that for many considerations,Hornes [...] ter to D. Ber. Wey­mar. but especially for the promoting of your Excellencies designe, I had laid siege to the City of Bibrach, my purpose in it being to divert and hinder the enemy in Bavaria from comming upon the backe of your Excellencie. For this purpose did I command two severall strong partees towards the Lech; both of which (God be thanked for it) became very succes­full. The Lievetenant Colonell Pesbick, whom I sent to surprise the enemies Regiments at Frenten, performed his charge most successefully: For he not onely quite ruinated the foure Regiments of Kesler, namely, Gronsfield, Luyrs, and Konig, but moreo­ver, hath taken Colonell Luyrs prisoner, together [Page 44]with the most of his Officers, and many common souldiers. This Colonell Luyrs was the man that had the command of all the Cavallery, which had beene sent by the enemy into Swaben. Colonell Plato was also sent unto Mundelheim, to surround the Crabats Regiment of Budiani in it, and to hold them so long coopt up till the foot forces might bee come up to him, as also the Ordnance which I had sent for unto Ausburg, might be brought to him. Plato had very good successe, for the towne he took in by assault, and put some 300 that lay in it to the sword. The Lievetenant Colonell hee tooke priso­ner, together with many other officers: although a many other birds so soone as they received this a­larme at Mundelheim, had taken their timely flight into the Imperiall City of Kauffbeuren.

For performance now of my foresaid purpose & designe, I upon this day seventhnight (which was the 9/19 of this month) dislodged from Ravenspurg, arriving the next day before the town of Bibrach, together with the troops which I led along with me. The same night I began my approaches, and the next day after, I gave summons unto the City. I profferred unto Colonell Stralsoldo, Governour in the towne, a fayre agreement, but hee would not hearken unto it, saying hee was resolved to defend his town to the uttermost. The third day I got my Ordnance to me, which sooner I could not, for that the wayes were so deep and durty. The Ordnance being mounted, I battered the towne so long, till I first woon the Breastwork from the enemy, and had [Page 45]made a saultable breach into the wals. This done, the foresaid Colonell then sent a Trumpet to mee, together with some Protestant Citizens, to desire a reasonable agreement of me; which was, that him­selfe might march forth with all his forces. The Trumpet moreover then signified unto me, that if his Colonell might not march forth freely, that he would defend the town to the last man. And that first of all he would burne and blow up all the Pro­stestant Citizens which he had already locked up in­to the Town house, and into a Cellar. Notwith­standing all this, for that I supposed the Governour would never offer to deale so barbarously with the poore innocents, and for that hee had already deni­ed my first good offer, and especially indeed for that I had a minde to ruine the said garrison, I refused to grant him any such agreement, propounding a­gain to him, to yeeld upon discretion. After all this, when as all things were now ready for the assault, and that the troops appointed for the scaling were already now advanced towards the Breach, the E­vangelicall Ministers, together with divers women, came forth of the town, making a most pittifull cry and entreaty to me, signifying it would cost all their lives, for that the Town house was already under­mined, and the Myne filled with powder, and that they certainly cxpected to bee blown up immediat­ly. Out of commiseration therefore to those poore people, I offered another agreement unto the Go­vernour, propounding to have Host ages sent out unto me. This hee then did, so that the next mor­ning [Page 46]I sent in the Articles of agreement in writing to him, wherein I granted to him to march out free­ly, though with no other weapons than their swords only. To leaue all their Colours behinde them, upon a promise to be cōvayed into Ingolstadt upon these termes, he the same day marched forth. Of all this whole garrison, which was the Regiment of the said Colonell Stralsoldo, consisting of to Companies, together with 300 commanded men of the Archish and Goish Regiments, in all 1500 men of foot, and one troop of Horse, there went none away with their Colonell but his Lackey on­ly, and some few Officers. All the rest of them took service of us, to which they were no wayes con­strayned, but did it willingly. Thus fell it out bet­ter for us, than I could have imagined, for which wee have great cause to thank God Almighty, and beseech him to continue his favour and fatherly af­fection towards us.

A punctuall letter. Gustavus Horn surely makes his pen with his sword, for that he writeth with the same pulse and spirit with which he fighteth, and is equally happy in either of them.

Tis written from this Bibrach March 1 [...]/ [...]8, that after taking of their City; the Felt-Marshall went to­wards Kempten, Kempten taken by assault. the head towne of the Bishopricke of that name in the very edge of Swabland towards Bavaria. Twas then supposed that the towne could not hold out long against him; for that victuals and all other provisions were very scarce and deare within the City. And indeed hee hath since taken [Page 47] Kempten, which towne by assault March 20/30. And whereas the Imperiall Colonell with his Garrison had retyred themselues into the Castle of Burck­halden, both place and men were enforced the next day to yeeld upon Composition. These were the 5 Articles of Agreement.

1. That the souldiers should march forth Souldier-like, that is, with their Swords and Muskets, And the Colonell have leave to take three Waggons of baggage along with him.

2. The Colonell shall restore all the Swedish priso­ners together with those Souldiers that had runne from their Colours, and that he should not forbid his owne Souldiers to take service on the Swedish side, if themselues had a mind to it.

3. The Colonell should leaue some certaine hosta­ges behinde him till such time as those Protestant Citizens should be set at liberty againe without ran­some which had thence beene carryed Captives.

4. All pretences whatsoever which the Colonell might make against the City should be annulled and acquitted.

5 His Excellency, the Felt-Marshal should Convoy the Colonell into Aicha neere Ausburg.

And these good termes was Gustavus Horn the willinger to affoord, both for that he was desirous [Page 48]to lose no time, and also because the rumour went of the Duke of Bavariaes comming to relieve it.

Towards his Countrey now goes Horn, but the Bavarians not desirous to abide it, retired from Straubingen, which they had even now taken backe againe unto Landshut whence the Duke last came when he went to Ingolstat. Of which in Duke Ber­nards Chapter.

THE RHINEGRAVE: VVith the Actions of Alsatia and about Ʋdenheim or Phi­lipsburg: With the comming vp of the French Forces.

ABout the midst of Nouember, the Duke of Feria withdrew his Forces out of the vpper Alsatia; himselfe and Altrin­ger purposing to haue their wintering in the Dukedome of Wirtenberg, according as order was giuen out from Wallstein and the Em­perour.

Feria and Altringer thus gone out of Alsatia; the Rhinegraue his Regiment set out after them vpon Munday following, within a while con­ioyning with Horn againe, vntill that Feria and Altringer were gone ouer the Danuby, and about parting. Both Swedish and Imperialists had left such Townes as either of them had in pos­session [Page 50]in Alsatia well enough garrisoned. In the meane time, about the end of the moneth, the Imperiall Garrisons of Hagenaw and Elsas-Za­bern, make out 500. Souldiers, and 1000. of the Countrey Boores to take in Buschweiler, a towne in the said Alsatia, but belonging to the Count of Hanaw; foure Canons the Imperialists cary with them, and a morter Piece: Summoning the Towne, they are refused by the Hanawish trayned bands within, being encouraged by a Swedish Lieutenant newly come into the Towne to raise Forces. Some shorts are made against the walls, and some Granadoes shot and flung into the Towne, though with no great operation; their Petars did most dammage, by force of which, one of the gates was blowne open: Against that the townsmen cast vp a trench of earth or Vau-mure. Hereupon the Imperialists sent in a Drum, with Articles of agreement, if the Towne would yeeld to them; but the Conditions were impossible, for that the whole Imperiall contribution was now demanded, which (according to the impo­sition) was behind-hand since last Easter. This if it might not bee satisfied, man, woman and child were threatned to die for it.

The Towne Counsellors and Lieutenant per­ceiuing themselues not able to resist these threatnings, condiscend to pay what they were able, and send out some of theirs to be Hosta­ges for it.

Betwixt this and the time of payment, cer­taine Swedish Horse troopes (both vnawares [Page 51]and vnexpected) vnder the command of Abel Moda were heard of to bee comming to the res­cue,Buschwiler happily relie­ued by the Swedes. whose approaching the besiegers not desi­rous to abide, forsake Buschweiler in all hast, only carrying the poore Hostages along with them. The Towne is now better prouided for, as also its neighbour Ingweiler, some troopes of Meckle-burgish horse being put into them.

This newes being sent vnto the Rhinegraue, some of his Horse had order to put into Ober­kirk, (three leagues from Strasburg) for preuen­tion of these Hagenawers.

By this time also were the French forces come vp to Lutzelstein, within sixe Leagues of Stras­burg, and they also had an eye to those Imperia­lists. For now had the French King giuen or­der to the Martiall de la Force, to march vp into the Bishopricke of Tryers, to hinder the ioyning of the Spaniards, in the countrey of Luxenburg, with the Duke de Feria. The marching of these French forces, was one of the causes for Altrin­gers and the Duke of Feria's former quitting of Alsatia.

Before this time had the French King consen­ted vnto the conclusion with the Crowne of Swe­den, and the confederate Protestant Princes, made at Heilbrun: to whom he now promised his assi­stance.

Another cause, for the sending vp of his army towards those parts of the Rhine, was, to take the Towne and Castell of Vdenheim or Philipsburg into his protection; according as the Lord of it, [Page 52]the Bishop of Spyers (Elector of Tryers) had desired. The cause why these French forces could not effect this, was, for that this Philips­burg had a long time beene besieged by the Rhinegraues forces.

By the 11. of December was the French army come as farre as Landaw and Germersheim, in the edge of the Palatinate; and the same night di­uers of their officers lay in Spyers City.

The 12th. day, a part of them marched to­wards Heydelberg, but did nothing: They were presently receiued into Buschweiler, Ingweiler and Nieuweiler, the Count of Hanaw putting his Countrey into the French Kings protection.

The 8. of December those Imperialists of El­sas-Zabern, went againe towards their consorts of Hagenaw, and the next day some Ordnance fol­lowed them; what they did we heare not.

The Imperialists of Brisack, about this time, making out 700. Muskettiers and 4. troopes of Horse vnder Colonell Eisher, laid siege to Kent­zingen, in the Kentzinger dale towards Wir­tenberg.

These Brisackers also tooke in the Castle of Litchteneck, Lichteneck ta­ken by the Imperialists. euen but a few houres before the Rhinegraue Otto Lodowick's comming: This was about the 20. of December, by which time the Rhinegraue hauing parted from Gustavus Horn, was againe passed the Rhine to looke to the busi­nesse of Philipsburg and Alsatia. Hee had 18. troopes of Horse, besides Foote forces; and his comming was so sodaine, that Eisher with his [Page 53] Brisackers, were faine to thrust themselues into Endingen, not being able to recouer backe againe into their owne Garrison.

Diuers of Eishers souldiers were ouertaken and killed by the Rhinegraue; who sent for some Ordnance with all speede, to bee brought from Hochburick to batter Endingen. The towne, as Lichtentck Castle likewise, came presently to composition; and the Garrisons at their com­ming forth, inrolled themselues vnder the Swedes seruice.

The Rhinegraue presently vpon this, went to Strasburg and Erstein, with the most part of his Forces, which for a while were laid in Breysgaw about Emmedingen: The rest he immediatly sent into the vpper Alsatia. About Christmas time he passed the Rhine againe, by the bridge of Stras­burg, to goe against the Imperialists of Hage­naw, Elsaszabern, and Brisack, who often came a­broad together. In his way hee found some 100 Boores, who had vndertaken the keeping of a pas­sage: But they were quickly either slaine, or scattered. Some of the Rhinegraues troopes had a long time laine before Vdenheim, to block it: Ouer whom Colonell Smidberger commanded. Nouember the 21. The Vdenhemers or Philips­burgers issued forth lustily vpon Smidberger, seeking to get by him into the Countrey for Prouisions; a signe they within wanted it: By the middle of December, Smidberger (to preuent the French) had pressed neerer vpon the Towne, and made a siege of it; and being incouraged by [Page 54]the neighbour-hood of the Rhinegraue, hee had by Christmas time, put them harder to it. The besieged (the weeke before) to shew they had some courage yet left, sallyed forth, both [...]orse and foote, and skirmished two houres with the Swedish; Being at last put to a plaine flight; the Swedish followed them so hard, that they got in­to the fisher-houses by the Rhine's side, hard by the Fort: But the Ordnance from the walls pre­sently beat them out of it. Vpon this, the towne accepted of a parlie, which was about Christmas time. The agreement being in a good forward­nesse, was presently broken off againe by the be­seiged. Heere-vpon the last Saturday of the old yeare, was Captaine Tobias de Bulaw com­maunded to assault the Custome-house; in doe­ing of which, hee put 15. keepers of it to the sword, and tooke the rest Prisoners. Hee went about to set the house on fire, but it would not kindle; insomuch that the Swedes beleeued veri­ly, that there was Witch-craft in it. To hasten the siege, were more forces called. The Towne treated againe, making proposition to render the place vp to the French forces: But Smidberger ha­uing had a long Winter siege of it, would not giue the honour of taking in of the Towne to such as had taken no paines about it. The towne seeing no remedy, concluded vpon the third of Ianuary, new stile; to yeeld vp vnto the Rhine­graue. The conditions were,Vdenhelm or Philipsb [...]rg rendered to the Swedes. to march out vpon the fift with colours flying, full armes, drums beating, bullets in the mouth, double matches [Page 55]burning, two peeces of Ordnance, foure barrells of Powder▪ a sufficient Conuoy, and 30. Wag­gons for the Baggage and sick Souldiers. Some hindrance there was in it; so that they marcht not out till the thursday following; yet in the meane time did the Swedes keepe the watch in all the ports of the Castle. Letters from Fran­furt relate, that the Philipsburgers at their com­ming sorth, did the most of them take pay of the Swedish. So soone as the conditions were a­greed, the Rhinegraue commanded an inuentory to bee taken of all the goods in the Castle, to find out by that meanes such as belonged to those that had fled in thither. Good store of wealth was found in it, but small quantities of prouisions; for the besieged had already eaten vp 100. Horses; and the Italians had made ve­nison of Doggs and Catts flesh.The Articles or Conditions The Clergie had libertie to goe where they pleased, the Cit­tizens had protection without ransome paying▪ all priuiledges were confirmed; Prisoners on both sides released, and freedome of the Popish religion tollerated, both in the Castle and coun­trey belonging to the Bishopricke of Spyers. As the Imperiall garrison (which were about 800. men, vnder 7. Ensignes) were about to march out; they the wednesday before, grew very much discontented: For so soone as 300. Swedish were come in to take possession, the Imperialists fell to such a mutinie, that they care the Ensignes from the staues, and would needs haue pillaged their owne Gouernonrs and Captaines.

[Page 56]But Smidbergers Regiment, with some other forces, comming into the Towne, appeased the tumult, and tooke the tome Ensignes. The 700. Imperialists hereupon turned to the Swedish; Don Piedra, 7. Captaines, 4. Lieutenants, and some other Officers and few Souldiers remai­ning only constant to their party. These went to Spyers, where they obtained leaue to stay some few dayes, as being afraid to goe into Brisack, (whither by agreement they were to haue mar­ched) beeing in doubt that the Towne will shortly bee besieged by the Rhinegraue: Colo­nell Bambergers Wife therefore was conuoyed from Vdenheim vnto Spyers, Ianuary 6. new stile, with 8. Waggons; and her Husband to Heil­brun 4. dayes after: So vncertaine are the Impe­rialists of those parts which way to betake them. Whereas those within Philipsburg or Vdenheim had in the beginning 13000. quarters of Corne, some 100. quarters of meale, and 1500. loads of Wine, they had no more left at their rendring but bread for one weeke, and 12. bottells of Wine, Smidberger now found many faire Pee­ces of Ordnance in the Castle, reasonable quan­titie of Ammunition; 26. Bells; 13. Chests of goods sealed vp, which belonged to Colonell Metternick, sometimes Bauarian gouernour of Heydleburg; with which the Swedish will make merry. The Castle was with all speede refur­nisht, and the battered Works made vp againe: Those of Colonell Smidbergers Regiment haue the keeping of it; And the Sunday after there [Page 57]was a Sermon of Thankes-giuing; and Te Deum sung.

It is written out of Alsatia, Ianuary 3.13. that so soone as the Count of Salm, who is Deane of Strasburg, and State-holder; which is Vicar or Lord Deputie of the Lands of the House of Austria in Alsatia, (whose vsuall resi­dence was in Elsaszauern) heard of the taking in of Philipsburg, and of the Marshall de la Force his drawing downe that way with his French army, and that the Count of Hanaw-Buschweiler had consigned the protection of his Countrey to him; that despairing of strength sufficient to resist both the Rhinegraue and the French, he re­solued to leaue Elsaszauern and Hagenaw well garrisond; and attempted, with the rest of his lit­tle army, to retyre himselfe into Burgundy or the Franche County; which how he was preuented in, may appeare by the following French Relation.

The taking and reducing of the most important City of Hagenaw, and the Castell of Aubar, (in Germany) vnder the obedience of the King: By Mounsieur the Marshall de la Force, Generall of his Maiesties Army: With the Articles agreed vpon by the one and the other Partee, with the Count of Salm.

MOunsieur the Marshall de la Force, Generall of the Kings Army in Germany, being at Saint Auan with his Maie­sties troopes, had intelligence that the Count of Salm was in Hagenaw, and that he was deliberating to put himselfe into the field with his troopes for to march towards the Franche County. Vpon this aduice, this prudent Generall gaue speedy order throughout the Army, for all things necessary to oppose himselfe against the designes of the said Count de Salm, and to im­peach the effect of his enterprises. To this end the said Marshall writ to the Rhinegraue, (who [Page 59]held part of the passage on that side, with the Swedishs forces) giuing him aduice of the Count of Salm's proceedings: And the better to hinder the execution of them, aduising him to keepe firme, all the passages of his quarters; in such sort, that no enemies troopes might in any case whatsoeuer passe by him. All this the said Rhinegraue performed withall diligence.

At the said time also, the Marshall gaue order also to his sonne the Marquise de la Force, to di­uide the army with him; giuing him the charge of Marshall of the field in the said army; and to march towards the said City of Hagenaw, for to stop vp, and cut off the passages on that side. And for to effect this, he gaue him these forces which followeth,

  • Of Caualry: The Master of the Campe, his troope,
    • The Count of Guiche, his troope,
    • The Marquise de la Lucerne, his troope,
    • The Baron de la Fert'e, his troope.
    • Lansac his troope,
    • The troope of Colonell of the Blocquiers,
    • The Marquise of Terrail his troope.
    • The Baron of Crossonneir, his troope,
    • The Count of Vattimont his troope.
  • Of Infantery: The regiment of Nauarre,
    • The regiment of Piedmont,
    • The regiment of Hauquincourt,
    • The regiment of Menillet,
    • The regiment of the Blocquiers.

[Page 60]The Marquise de la Force, not degenerating from the valour of that great Captaine his fa­ther marched valerously with his troopes day and night, directly to Bacara, preferring the ser­uice of the King, aboue the discommodities of the waters and vnseasonablenesse of the weather, which he indured day and night all the march thorow.

Being ariued at Bacara, (the passe by which of necessity the Count of Salm and his troopes must come to put in practise their designe) the Marquise dispersed his Foot into all the passes, and made his Horse continually to scowre vp and downe the coast, the better to discouer all such as should passe by those neighbour places.

The Count of Salm being aduertised of the ariuall of the Marshall de la Force with his troopes, and of the proceedings which hee vsed, to impeach his passage: Now seeing himselfe discouered, and that by this way hee could not effect his designes, hee resolued to write to the Marshall de la Force, to obtaine of him some agreement concerning the liberty of his passage: His Letter was by one of his owne trumpeters brought vnto the Marquise his sonne, who see­ing the superscription of the Letter to be direct­ed to his father and not to himselfe, would not engage himselfe to take any ouerture of agree­ment, but deliuered backe the Letter to the same trumpet, without yeelding to his demand made by word of mouth to him.

The trumpeter hauing no order to passe fur­ther, [Page 61]returned to the Count of Salm, acquain­ting him with the resolution of the Marquis de la Force, and how that hee aduanced continually to assault him. The Count considering the great danger which might happen to him vpon so fu­rious an approach, returned quickly and a fast pace sheltered himselfe in a little Dorpe cal­led Rovure (betweene Hagenaw and Zauerne) fortifying himselfe the best hee could possibly: Hoping that in case of necessitie hee might bee quickly succoured by the Imperiall Garrisons, which were in Hagenaw and Zauerne.

During the time that the Rhinegraue made good the passes on his side the Marquise de la Force aduanced valourously within a League and a halfe of the Quarter of the Count of Salm, whom hee hemed in so well on all sides, that hee berest him of all hope of being relieued from the Cities of Hagenaw and Zuauerne, which were within two or three leagues of his Quarter.

The Count now seeing himselfe in all the ne­cessities of the world, both out of all hope to be relieued, and no wayes able to resist them, and that the said Dorpe into which hee was now for­ced for his refuge, was stript bare of Victualls, and all other commodities by the Swedes to fur­nish the besiegers of Hagenaw; hee dispatched a Trumpet towards the Colonell of the Bloc­quiers (which was the neerest to him) with a bit of a Letter, which consisted of nothing but complements of all sorts, and of prayers that by [Page 62]his meanes he might come to some agreement; The Colonell of the Bloequiers could not deter­mine any thing of himselfe, concerning what he desired; but sent with all diligence toward the Marquis de la Force, who was returned to Bacara, after he had once established and taken order for to hold besieged the said Count of Salm, and his troopes; to make them the sooner to come to composition: To the request of the Count of Salm, this answere was returned; that hee should send the Breuiat of that which hee desired, by some persons of credit, to whom hee should giue power to determine of the one and the other par­tie, the Articles which should bee propounded, to this the Count of Salm readily condiscended, as being now hard put to it.

It was then concluded (Munday the 30. of Ianuary last) as followeth. That the Count of Salm should deliuer the Citie of Hagenaw, and all the fortifications of the same to the obedi­ence of the King, into the hands of Marshall de la Force.

That the morrow being Tuesday, Ianuary 31. the Imperiall troopes which were in Garrison in the said Citie, should march out the same day in the morning; and leaue the place free to the French Troopes.

That the Magazins of Armes and Ammuni­tions should bee deliuered, and put into the hands of such persons as the Marshall should please to name, to take possession of them.

That the Garrisons which were in the Castle [Page 63]of Aubar, neere Zauern, should depart the same day.

And whereas the Marquis de la Force had now all the authoritie of his Farher, hee promiseth to the Count of Salm, to giue him free passage into the Franche County; which hee desired.

The which Articles were the sayd day the 31 day of Ianuary, sealed by the one and the other party.

About eight a Clocke the same morning, there marched out of the Citie of Hagenaw, 6. companies of Foote, and 4. of Horse of the Em­perors Troopes; which were in Garrison in the Citie: And about ten a Clocke after, there en­tered the Quarter-masters of the French Army: And incontinently vpon that, 2. French Regi­ments which tooke possession, and made them­selues masters of the Ports and principall places of the said Citie.

Mounsieur the Marquis de la Force entered a­bout two or three a Clocke, after dinner, with a number of Gentlemen, and his Horse troopes; where hee was receiued with a very good enter­tainement by the inhabitants, who all cryed in their language, God saue the King.

Vpon the finishing of this treaty, Mounsieur the Marshall de la Force made good the promise of the Marquis his Sonne, and gaue passage to the Count of Salm for to goe (as is said) into the Franche County: Neuerthelesse hee was con­uoyed along thorow the Lands possessed by the King, by the Regiment of Nauarre, and [Page 64] Auquincourt, and two Troopes of Horse.

Concerning the City of Zauern, distant 4. Leagues from that of Hagenaw: The Garrison which is in the same for the Duke of Lorraine, vpon the Summons by vs made, hath demanded 4. dayes respit for to giue aduice to his high­nesse. This Citte cannot hold out (as it is re­ported) the Castle of Aubar, which commands most of the said Citie, is vnder the obedience of the King: And hee hath in it 2. French Com­panies.

Thus the Citie of Hagenaw, which in Warre seemed able to resist all the forces that would aduenter themselues against it, came into the power of the French.

And this is a matter of very great conse­quence: For that the French grow very strong in those parts, by hauing this Towne, and the Count of Hanaws countrey: By this is Lorraine hemed in on that side, and the edge of Germany open to them: And had they gotten Vdenheim too, they had beene great masters vpon the edge of the Palatinate.

Thus haue you already heard what the French Nation hath reported of this action, in honour of their owne Nation. But whereas the authour of that relation hath quite left out the Rhinegraue, as if his part had bin no other but the blocking vp of some passages (and that by the Marshall de la Forces direction too) wee shall now afford you a more punctuall story of the [Page 65]same businesse receiued from a better hand, and deliuered from an abler iudgement: From a Gentleman, I meane of the Scottish-Gensd'armes, or compleatly armed Horse-men and Men at Armes, then hauing their share in the action, as part of the French Armie.

From St. Blayse Ianuary 5./15. 1633.

VPon Friday 1. 13. of this present Ianuary 1633. aduertisement was brought to our Generall the Marshall de la Force in his Quarters at St. Auan (12 leagues beyond Metz) that some Imperiall troops were marched out of Ha­genaw with 4. Peeces of Canon, towards Zauern, A French League is 3. miles English, and a German League of the middle sort (which is most commonly v­sed in Mapps and Stories) is 4. of our Miles. which is a place in the edge o [...] Lorraine and Al­satia, belonging to the Duke or Lorraine; but in the Emperors name kept by the Count of Salm, who there recided as Gouernour of it: This be­ing in the way ot the French Armie; and the Mar­shall de la Force, hauing receiued order from the Court not to suffer any of the Emperors Forces to get ooting in Lorraine, which vpon the late Treatie was vnder the Kings protection; the Marshall was the more obliged to looke to it. For this reason sent hee his sonne, the young Marquis de la Force with the Foore Regiments of Nauarre, Piedmont, Hauquincourt, Menillet, with 8. troopes of Horse vnto Lore, where the Scottish Gensd'armes were then enquartered, [Page 66]with order also to take them along with him, which hee did: Vpon Sunday being the 5. were some spies sent out to make discouerie of the enemies forces and intentions, who were then appointed to meet the Armie by mid-night vp­vpon Munday at Freiburg, which was a long march from Lore aforesaid: The Spies made their obseruations very punctually, and brought certaine intelligence to the Marquis, that the enemies exceeded not 2500. Foote with fiue Troopes of Horse, and that their intention was to passe either into Luxemburg, or into the Franche County; And that they had bin constrai­ned to forsake Hagenaw, for scarcity of Victualls; for that the garrison there had found themselues ouercharged by the feeding of them, they being left there by the Duke of Feria, in some disor­der as he passed that way out of Alsatia into Ger­many. Vpon this intelligence, it was disputed a­mong the French, how many wayes there were by which the Count of Salm might get into the Franche County: The young Marquises order be­ing to crosse that part of his designe, whilest his Father the Marshall lay with the body of the Armie betwixt him and Luxemburg. It was dis­couered that they had three wayes to goe, one by Zauern, another by St. Blayse, and the third tho­row Alsatia; which last passage was sufficiently stopt vp by the Swedish, who lie thereabouts in Garrisons. Hereupon it was resolued to march towards Blamont, some 8. Lorraine leagues from Nancy, vpon the roade of Strasburg; it being [Page 67]within halfe a League of the Zauern way, and not so farre siom St. Blayse, but that the French could reach it as soone as could the Imperialists. Friday night which was the 10th. the French a­riued at Blamont, where finding no quarters, and prouision for entertainement, they the next day remoued a League off to Baccara with intention to remaine some few dayes there for refreshing of their horses, and for returning of their Spies, which they looked not for vntill the Tuesday af­ter. Vpon Sunday Ianuary the 12. about noone the Spies came, bringing certaine intelligence with them, that the enemie hauing heard of the Frenches intention to stay at Blamont, had put themselues vpon their march, vpon Saturday in the very beginning of the Night, to goe to­wards S. Blayse, and could not faile of comming to it before Munday in the euening. Hereupon was order sent abroad into all the French quar­ters to march presently towards Badenwiller, and that the Baggage should bee sent vnto Baccara, to bee guarded there altogether. This was in­stantly put in execution, and the whole troopes were vpon their march by two a Clock after din­ner. At 4. they came to Badenwiller, where new order was giuen for holding on the march vnto Raon-Sur plaine. At 6. a Clocke they entered the Hilles▪ and Woods, which continued vntill within halfe a League of Raon, where by 9. a Clock they arriued. The French hauing there fed their horses, march thence againe continu­ing vntill mid-night, all through the Hilles and [Page 68]Woods till Munday noone, the 13.23. By that time had they reached St. Blayse, where they light vpon diuers of the Imperiall Auant Cur­riers which were come thither to take vp lodg­ings for the Armie against night; They being ta­ken prisoners, confessed vnto the French, that the Count of Salm, whom the French then sought for, was then with his Army at Rhode, a Towne about 2. Leagues off; and that certainely hee would by so ne of the peasants bee aduertised of the Frenches being at St. Blayse, the towne be­longing to the Count aforesaid; so that it was not to bee expected, but that vpon these tidings, the Imperialists would presently counter march towards Zauern, and thus indeede it prooued; for that within an houre of the Frenches com­ming to St. Blayse, the Imperialists marched a­way with all diligence, but without any Bag­gage.

And thus did the young Marquise de la Force performe the businesse hee came thither for; which was the hinderance o [...] the Imperialists going into Lorraine, or through it into the Franche County; of which hee the same day fent aduertisment to the King.

This punctuall journall and relation, is thus seconded by another from the same gentleman, to a friend of his in England, and dated from Ha­genaw the 21. of Ianuar [...] old stile.

The French, hauing vpon the 13.23. of Ia­nuary, driuen the Imperialists backe ouer the mountaines Zavern, vpon the 17.27. they [Page 69]were set vpon in their quarters, by the Swedish of Alsatia vnder the command of the Rhinegraue, who chased them into a castle, but halfe a league from Zauern called Aubar, and that with the losse of some men, and a parte of their baggage.

The 18.28. came there a messenger from the Count of Salm vnto the Marquise de la Force, with offer to surrender the afore-said Castle of Aubar into his hands, together with the Towne of Hagenaw, and his retention to the Citadell of Zauern, vpon condition, to be safely conducted through Lorraine into the Franche County.

Vpon the 19.29. two houres before day the Marquise de la Force, marched with the Regi­ments of Nauarre, and Hauquincourt with six troopes of horse and the Scottish Gensd'armes, who altogether hauing passed the hills, came two houres within night, to a quarter within halfe a league of Zauern. There stood the French embattailed all that night, which was occasioned by an Allarum giuen by the Swedish, The Swedish not well plea­sed with the rendring of Hagenaw to the French. The Castell of Auber r [...]n­dred to the French! who were then incamped within a league on the other side of the Towne▪ and were somethinge now displeased, for that Hagenaw was to fall into French-singers, which Swedish were faine for all that the next day, to behold the Castle of Aubar receiued bv de la Force so the King his Master, and the Count of Salm with his whole troops to bee conducted hard by their quarters, and be­twixt the two Regiments of Nauarre and Hau­quincourt to be conueied ouer the hills into Lor­raine, [Page 70]for the Franche County. The French troops of Horse stayed in the quarters a while, to goe forwards towards Hagenaw. The Count of Salm being gone, the Garrison of Zauern were summoned by the French to take in the Kings troopes,Zauern ren­dred to the French. because of the Count of Salm his resignation of the Fort thereof, which hee lately had commanded for the Emperor.

But they of the Towne holding for the Duke of Lorraine, desired 6. dayes respite for their an­swere, that is, vntill their Princes pleasure might be knowne, or the Cardinall of Lorraine (his brother, at leastwise) the Duke himselfe hauing indeede left his owne Countrey.

The French granted them 4. dayes libertie, marching immediately to a quarter within two Leagues of Hagenaw; thither they ariued late at night, after 39. houres hard march; horse and man being all that time fasting.

Ianuary 20.30. was the surrender of Hage­naw capitulated,Hagenaw ren­dred to the French. after which the Towne was en­tered.

The 22. were the French to returne backe to their last quarter, and then to goe onwards to Zauern, to know their resolutions.

And thus far these two accurate Relations of the Scottish Gentleman, by the end of whose for­mer letter it appeareth further that Mounsieur de Harpaiou was heretofore left about Philipburg to receiue in the Towne vnder the French Kings protection: And that about the midst of Ianuary hee still was about it: But the Swedish who had [Page 71]taken in the Towne, would by no meanes con­sent vnto his entering of it, vntill they should from the said French King, receiue some va­luable consideration and composition, for their late paines and charges in the siege and reduction of it.

By comparing of the French Relation with these two latter ones, may the trueth and circumstan- of the action be collected.

THE CONTINVATION of the Rhinergraue.

The French Army after this, fell into the Dukedome of Lorraine, The French blocke vp La Motte. blocking vp the strong and high seated Ca­stell of La Motte; and the rest of the Duchy they totally not long after subdued vnder the obedience of the French Crowne. The Duke of Lorraine hauing by Treaties aswell as Armes, beene enforced the yeere before to make ouer his Countrey into the French Kings hands, had now quitted the gouernment of it to the Cardinall of Lorraine his brother, (who now married a wife) and was himselfe gone towards Germany with a small Army, in ayde of the Emperors. The Cardinall Duke of Lorraine also, was not long after made a French prisoner in Nancy, the chiefest City of Lorraine, whence he escaped.

To hasten the subduing therefore of Lorraine, did the Marshall de la Force march with all [Page 73]speede into it, leauing the Rhinegraue Otto Lo­dowicke in Alsatia to grapple there with the Im­perialists, the Count of Salm, and the new come Duke of Lorraine, with the French Garrisons now put into Hagenaw, Zabern and Reichshofen, had the Rheinegraue so good correspondency, as emulous Captains of strange Nations, that are of the same side, vse to maintaine one with an­other.

The great Towne of Strasburg also, about the beginning of February, sent some deputies of their owne, together with Mounsieur de Lisle, the French Ambassadour, to treate with them also, vpon tearmes of amity, and good neigh­bourhood.

The Duke of Lorraine, about the time of the former surrender of Hagenaw, was vpon his com­ming into Germanie, not to meete with de la Force, but seeking another way to auoide him; he was not reported to be aboue 700. strong, both horse and foote; and with these he passed the Ri­uer of Rhine at Newenburg, staying some few dayes at Bintzheim the vpper Marquisate.

His intentions were either to get thorough the walled Cities (as they called them) to the strong Towne about the Bodensea, or Lake of Constantz, or else ouer the Gottharde Mountaines into Italy, vpon Saturday therefore Ianuary 25. February 3. hee sent his Ambassadour into the Citie of Bassell in Switzerland, desiring that State to grant him free passage through Rur­heim: This being with good words denied him, [Page 74]hee thereupon tooke the higher way through Kensach, and so to Rhinfelden.

Ianuary 30. the said Duke, all vnlooked for, presented himselfe with 200. Horse, conducted by the Count of Lichtenstein, by the Citie of Basell, supposing his owne presence to bee more effectuall to the obtaining of the afore desired passage, but being the second time denied, hee marched on the other side towards Sieuertz, to conioyne with the rest of the ImperialI forces vnder the Count of Salm in Alsatia; de la Force being by this time gone out of the Countrey, in­to Lorraine, as is aforesaid.

About this time fell there out a dissention be­tweene the Imperiall Garrison of the sconce of Hunegin which lies close vpon the North-side of Basell; some of these Imperialists going out a plundering, fell vpon some sheepe and small cat­tell, and some loades of Wine belonging to the Townes-men of Basell, with whom before that they had no emnity: The Citizens hearing of it, immediately gaue order to their Lieutenant Colonel Zornleim with 200. Musquetires, & 50 Horse-men to pursue after them; hee doth so, ouertakes and surrounds them; kills some, takes 8. prisoners, and recouers all the Bootie; this done, the said Lieutenant Colonell commands presently to let flie some Peeces of Ordnance out of St. Iohns Bullwarke, against the fort of Hunigen, the Gouernour of which Fort nor vn­derstanding the meaning of it, hung out a white flag of parly, and sent to desire to know the rea­son [Page 75]of the Townes shooting at him, hee was cer­tified what his Souldiers had committed, where­in hee excused himselfe, as being done without his priuitie: This may bee noated both to shew the termes of Neutralitie (or somthing like it) which the Switzers Citie of Basell bath with the Emperour; As also to giue you to vnderstand how neere in those parts the Emperour hath any Garrison.

All this time is the Rhinegraue busied in ta­king in of places in the vpper Alsatia, where hee had by this time very farre aduanced into, be­yond Colmar, and those parts where Gustavus Horn left conquering the last yeere, euen some 5. or 6. Germane Leagues to the South-west of Colmar, as high vp into the Countrey as the height of Basell, though some 5. or 6. Leagues distant to the West of it; There tooke hee in the Townes of Sultz, and Gebweiler, Sultz and Geb­weiler taken by the Rhine­graue. and neerer to Colmar hee draue the Castle of Ruffach vnto a composition; after hee had taken the Citie by assault: This was done by the beginning of Fe­bruary; In Rufach hee tooke prisoners the old Earle of Lichtenstein, together with many other Officers, and good booty, among the rest a Mule laden with plate, as also the Coach of Herman Marquis of Baden, and his young sonne in it; the Lady Mother hardly escaping ouer the Rhine; Aboue 500. common Souldiers of Rufach, gaue vp their names to the Rhinegraue, but the Boores were all put to the sword, within a weeke or 10. dayes space (about this time) were there a full [Page 76]1OOO. Imperialsits cut off in seuerall places thereabouts, the partners also of Ensisheim, and those parts to the East-ward, being called vp with all speede to Danu and Sennen vpon the South of Sultz and Gebweiler, to stop the Rhine­graues passage any further to the South-West­ward: After them did the Rhinegraue pursue, ma­king himselfe Master of the forsaken Ensisheim, which stands vpon the Riuer Ills towards Basell.

By this time was the Duke of Lorraine con­ioyned with the Count of Salm, who hauing gotten all the Imperialists of the Countrey to­gether, marcht now with great confidence a­gainst the Rhinegraue; To whom were some few also sent from Strasburg, and such other Neigh­bour places as could best spare them: All these together could not make him aboue 2000. men in Field; in the day of the succeeding battell, the aduerse partee were full 6000. men, horse and foote, who made no other account at all but to hembe in the Rhinegraues small number, and to cut them all in pieces; And now did the Im­perialists assemble their strength together about Danu aforesaid, being said to bee 7000. men, that is to say 1000. Foote, and 500. Horse, of the Count of Salmes owne; 300. Foote and 600. Horse of the Duke of Lorraines, whom some writings make mention to bee now in Bur­gundie in person, leuying more forces, and others make to bee present in the following battell of the Lorraine Colonell Mercyes regiment, there were 6oo. and out of the Garrisons there abouts [Page 77]were drawne 500. more, the rest of the Imperiall Armie were Boores, and countrey people; These were drawne together about mid February; about which very time the Colonell Esher marched out of the strong Towne of Brisack, vpon the Rhine; who led along 500. Souldiers, and 1200. Boores gathered out of the Brechler-valley, Elsacke and Seiswaldt, not leauing aboue 400. Souldiers for the guard of Brisack, his expedition was said to bee intended towards Waldkirck, and after­wards to assault Kentzingen, in the Kentzinger-valley, in the edge of Alsatia and Wirtemberg, so to open if it might bee the passages of the For­rest Schwartzwaldt, that succours might come through the Dukedome of Wirtemberg againe into Alsatia, and to diuert and imploy for the time the forces of the Rhinegraue, for by this time had the Emperour thought to haue laid it on thereabouts, and to haue recouered his owne Lands, and his sonnes Bishopricke in Alsatia; To this purpose about this time was there a Captaine (natiue of Tirole, and Reich by name) come with a Post directy from Viena to Brisack, with a strait command in the Emperors name to the Field-marshall Shawenburge, to betake himselfe into the field; immediately hereupon did shawenburge cause 12. Peeces of Ordnance to bee made ready to march, which he meant to take along with him: This Captaine (as it was giuen abroad) made promise that Iohn de Werth should come into those Countries with 1500. horse, and 3. Regiments of Foote, who [Page 78]should trie to breake through the Schwartzwaldt ouer the Mountaines: And for the better show of the trueth of this intention; there was some store of prouant bread at that time sent into Fry­burg: The Captaine also related, how that the Emperour was very much altered with the losse of those Countreyes of Alsatia (which as hee said) his Maiestie would by no meanes forsake, or so giue ouer; He said moreouer, that he would straine himselfe to maintaine Silesia, and his owne hereditary Countreyes, and that hee would conclude an honourable peace with the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, but as for the rest of the Empire, hee did lesse regard it; for seeing they had beene alwayes disobedient and crosse vnto him, hee would find meanes well enough to keepe them vnder; perchance indeede it was the meaning of Iohn de Werth to haue broken through into Alsatia, seeing that hee two seue­rall times appeared in Overland which was the way out of Bauaria to it; both which times were his Troopes and purposes defeated by Gustavus Horn; as you may reade in the chapter of his Storie.

By the end of February, did the Count of Salm, suppose himselfe to be strong enough, to haue wrought his will, vpon the Rhinegraue, espe­cially, seeing he could not on the sudden be assi­sted with his owne forces from other partes of the Country: which the Imperiall parties, now gone out of Brissacke, put to the defensiue; vpon Sunday therefore March 2. 12. the Lorraines [Page 79]and the Imperialists 6000. or 7000. strong, set vpon him, that was little aboue 2000. and be­twixt the Towne of Sennen, and the Dorpe of Ochsenfeldt, about two of the clocke in the af­ternoone; they thought to haue surrounded him.

A great victo­ry obtained by the Rhine­grave.Tis written, that the Rhinegraue, by a despe­rate charger, beate quite through his enemies, and forced his owne libertie. At which time assu­ming a new courage, from his experience of the possibilitie, to pierce die Enemies, hee returned againe vpon them afresh, and vtterly, with small losse of his owne partie, defeated them. The Generalls of which Victorie, are thus reported out of the Conquerors owne writting, thus di­vulged by another hand, to whom the Rhine­graue himselfe writ it.

BY this occasion I giue you to vnderstand, that within this houre, his Excellencie, the Rhinegraue Otto Lodowick hath sent mee a most wellcome letter by his owne Trumpet: how that yesterday in the after-noone, about two of the clock, his ExcelIencie lighted vpon the Enemie, about Sennen, whom by Gods speciall helpe and assistance, he immediatly, and without any con­siderable losse of our forces, hath vtterly routed and dispersed. The old Earle of Salm, that was Vicar at Zabern, the Marquise Bassompier, Gene­rall ouer the Lorraine forces, with the Colonell [Page 80] Mercie, he tooke prisoners; Colonell Philip a gentleman very much esteemed amongst the Lo­raines, was shot and killed by a horseman, of the Rhinegraues life Regiment. The most part of the horsemen, hath he put to the sword, or taken prisoners: divers Ensignes and Cornets were ob­tained, together with all their Ordnance. The foote forces he pursued thorough the Vineyards, which he is still in chase of: the rest of the Offi­cers, and Commaunders, that are taken priso­ners and slayne, he will certifie mee of, by the next occasion: thus farre out of the Rhinegraues owne letter.

Other writings informe vs, that those three great Prisoners, were brought into Colmar, and Colonell Philip, was shot by one that knew him: that there were slayne full 2000. men vpon the place, whereof verie few of the Rhinegraues: the reason of the suddennes, and greatnesse of the victory was, for that the foote, so soone as euer they perceiued their horsemen to be routed, they tooke flight, and thought to haue saued them­selues in the Vineyards: neuerthelesse they were pursued thither, and cut downe, and the Itali­ans especially, who obtained no quarter. And whereas 800. souldiers, tooke conditions of the Rhinegraue, and whereas the baggage of the de­feated was thrust into the Towne of Sennien, that is now hard blocked vp. The Duke of Lorraine was supposed to be gotten into Dann, others imagining, that he retyred amongst the 2. Regi­ments that fled from Brissack. After this, the [Page 81] Rhinegraue sent his owne life regiment with the Nassawish, who cut off a great many of them, and brought backe 600. more Prisoners; which is a very great victory, and especially considering the odds of 3. to one, and that the enemie pre­sumed to hew him all in pieces: I here was pre­sented 10. Cornets, and as many Ensignes vnto the Chancellor Oxenstein, vpon March 27. when hee was at Francford.

The Castell of Befo [...]t and Altkirch taken by the Rhine­graue.Presently vpon this did the Rhinegraue send the Bohemian Colonell Schaualitzki, to take in waldshut, one of those which they call the waldt Cities; This is a passage aboue Bazell, and the Colonell performed it happily; The Rhinegraue himselfe also in the pursute of his victory, tooke in one Towne after another in Alsatia, among the rest the Citie of Befort, together with the Castle Brimtraut, and Altkirch, and the Fort of Hunnigen, close by Bazell, yea the whole Bishop­ricke of Bazell was brought vnder contribution; This was done within 10. dayes after the victo­rie; About which time there was 5. troopes of The Rhinegraues, of Zillards Regiment, set ouer the Rhine not farre from Bazell, who surprised and cut in pieces a troope of Imperiall Horses, which they found in a neere Market-towne toge­ther with some others, insomuch that they sent backe aboue 100. Prisoners into the sconce of Hunnigen: At Rhinefelden were diuers Rhine Ships, already loaden with Victualls and Am­munition, to haue beene sent downe the Riuer vnto Brisack; But the Imperialists were faine to [Page 82]vnloade the Ships againe, because that the pas­sage was already blockt vp by the Swedish, sone o this prouision they notwithstanding sent by land thither.

Some writings relate of another great victory which the Rhinegraue should haue gotten since the former, and 6. Ensignes in it, but these En­signes might rather bee gleaned vp in the seue­rall smaler defeates, then in any one great Con­flict that wee haue particular of.

And thus had the Rhinegraue by mid March aduanced his Conquests as farre as the Citie of Bazell; at which Towne (being Protestants, and Well-willers to his proceedings) I find him now in person, and that there hee passed his Ar­mie ouer to Rhine-bridge to goe towards Brisack; This very st ong and most considerable Towne of Brisack had the French offered many treaties vnto, to surrender vp into his protection, but the Imperiall Gouernour had wit enough to refuse it; And now doe the two Rhinegraues goe seue­rall wayes with their Armies , the Rhinegraue Iohn Phillip marching against the Waldt Cities; and our Generall the Rhinegraue Otto Lodowicke aduancing along the Rhines side, and Easterne banke of it towards Brisack, which standeth on the same shoare of the Rhine to the North of Bazell; Otto Lodowicke goes to Newenburg by the way on the same side of the Riuer with Brisack.

The Actions of the Landgraue of Hessen, and his Lieutenant Gene­rall Molander: As also of the Swedi [...]h Field-Marshall, the Lord Dod [...] Baron of Kniphausen.

THe Catholike Leaguers ha­uing made a new Confedera­tion betwixt them. And in the Cathedrall Church of Cullen, with great solemnitie and laying their hands vpon the Golden-Fleece, new sworne this Confederation: Then did their new raised forces march out of Cullen; They put ouer the Rhine vnto Deutz, whence they went into west­phalia, to ioyne with Boninghausen.

These Leaguish forces made the first shew of themselues vpon the Riuer of Roer, neere which Melander lay, vpon the other side of a bridge, which the Hassians for preuentions sake, but lately had burnt downe.

This was about the middle of Nouember; At which time the Eelt-marshall Kniphausen lay with his forces about the Riuer Lippe, some two [Page 84]leagues from the Riuer Roer, neere the Duke of Newburgs Land of Berg: As namely at Lune, Werne, and those places.

Lieutenant generall Melander, with halfe the Hassian troops, lay to watch the Riuer Roer: and to hinder the conjunction of those of the Bi­shop of Munster, with Colonell Schellhammer, who was the man that now brought the new Ar­mie from Cullen.

Werle taken by Melander.The Hassian Lieutenant Melander, vpon the 11. of Nouember, tooke in Werle: which vpon the comming o [...] these new Leaguers, he fortify­ed after the moderne fashion. For he had found good store of Ammunition in it: that is to say, 12. tunnes of gun-powder, 7. barrells of Mus­quet bullet, a good quantitie of Iron bullets for field-peeces; halfe a barrell of hand Granadoes, one great one, some sheafes of Arrowes, some chaine-bullets, 7. brasse peeces, and 3. broken ones: 4. of Iron, and 5. Chambers, besides a great quantitie and prouision of meale, fruites, and other necessaries.

Amoenenberg taken by Hessen.About this time, was the Landgraue himselfe, before Amoenenberg, which after much battery, and burning part of the Towne, with flinging in of fire-workes and granadoes, was taken.

Boninghausens garrison in it, being forced to yeeld vpon composition. This was done about the middle, or towards the 20. of Nouember, and the garrison being 12. [...]oote Companies, and one troope of horse, they marched foorth vpon the 19. with bagge and baggage. But for that [Page 85] Boninghausen, at his former inroade into those parts, had carried away some Hassian Officers, which hee still kept prisoners: therefore were some of his now kept vnder arrest by the Land­graue, till the others should bee released.

November 21. old stile, did Melander make himselfe master of the libertie of Roerort vpon the riuer Roer, and enquartered his people in it, and in the Countrey betwixt the Riuers of Roer and Lippe. And by that time,Hamm Soest and Lippe ta­ken by Kni­phausen. had Kniphausen taken in all the places about Hamm, Soest, and Lippe, and made his quarters in that Countrey.

The chiefe Land-lords thereupon assembled at Dortmund, to consult what contribution to giue vnto him. Vpon this newes, was Boning­hausen costrained to a retreat towards Cullen: And the Duke of Neuburg went from Cullen to Bruxells, to desire aide and counsell from the Spanish. Kniphausen and Melander followed Bon­ninghausen; and Melander gaue summons to the Towne of Duisburg; which Towne pretending to be vnder protection of the Hollanders, they were commanded within 10. dayes to bring cer­tificate of that; or else to take in Garrison.

The Swedes pursued the retreat vpon Boning­hausen, as farre as the Countrey of Berg, some of them: And others vnto Andernach, neere the Rhine, who attempting vpon that Towne, were beaten off in the night time, about the end of No­uember; on which very night had Boninghausens men an enterprise vpon the Findland Colonell Stalhansh his quarters, who lay on the other side [Page 86]of the Riuer Roer, with 12. troopes of Horse, and some Dragonners.

The Boninghusers put ouer the Rhur at Weni­geren, with most part, or all their horse and Dra­gonners: Colonel Lohe being sent with 600. horse to assault Stalhansh on the back also. The Boning­hausers being come vp to the first watch of Stal­hansh, a Finland Rit-master, who guarded there with 60. horse, tooke the allarme vpon their comming, and charged the foremost of them: two troopes he routed and put to the sword, him­selfe in the conflict being deadly wounded. The Boninghausers supposing Stalhansh himselfe had beene there with all his Regiment, immediately thereupon retyred; as vpon the same feare Colo­nell Lohe also did on the other side. Boninghausen recollecting his men thereupon, and encouraging them to fall on againe, by vowing his owne rea­dinesse to liue and die with them, could not for all that perswade them to their danger againe; Instead of which, they now cryed out for pay and money, and he that last receiued meanes at Cullen let him now fight. Thus went they ouer the Roer againe very much discontented, crying on all hands for their winter quarters.

Boninghausen before his retreating from about Raedu [...]rmwalt Schwelen, Rems heil, Wermerskircken and those places about Sollingen had left 7. Cor­nets of horse to burne downe the bridges at Hat­tungen and other Townes vpon the Roer, that their euemie might goe the further about, ere they could pursue them.

[Page 87]After this, they came towards Dusseldorp vp­on the Rhine; which made the Countrey peo­ple much afraid, wishing these friends of theirs further off them.

But of this feare they were discharged, for that Boninghausen marched backe againe pre­sently; and sent some vp into the Bishopricke of Munster in Westphalia, whither Felt-Marshall Kniphausen sent after him.

Hildesheim be­sieged by Lunenburg.The great Towne of Hildesheim in Brunswick­land, wherein there was an Imperiall Garrison, had some while now been besieged by the Duke of Lunenburgs forces, and some of rhe Boores of the Countrey. The Horse-men within it to­wards the end of Nouember, sallying out vpon the Boores quarters, fowly ruinated and burnt them; but the Lunenburgers Hors-men made the salleyers to retire presently.

The Earth was so hard frozen, that the be­siegers could not worke as they would haue done vpon their approaches: Howeuer November 27. the besieged were beaten out of a mill with­out the Towne, which they possessed; and all things were so prepared for an assault, that the Townes-men sent an Officer to Colonell Chlern at Munden, for his directions how to behaue themselues in the surrendering of the Citie.

The Landgraue of Hessen about this time was come before Bracken in the diocesse of Pader­borne, whereinto Colonell Paul Daube with 300. men was retired, which towne he shortly brought into obedience.

[Page 88] The Towne of Munden sallying out, giue a great defeate to the Brauneckish Regiment.The Imperiall Garrison of Munden, in the meane time fell out vpon the Brauneckish regi­ment about Vffelne, which they so vtterly defea­ted, that they carried away 7. Ensignes and 500. horse backe with them into Munden.

Felt-Marshall Kniphausen toward the middle of December, went into the Dukedome of West­phalia, and presented his army before the Towne of Saltshoten, belonging to the Elector of Cullen.

Hither also came the Landgraue of Hessen: but because vpon the taking of the Towne there was some treachery vsed by the besieged, and fury enough and too much by the conque­rors, which hath beene taxed of cruelty by those of Cullen, you shall haue the manner of it rela­ted by order of Kniphausen.

The manner of the Siege, and taking in of Saltzkoten, with three Letters Concerning it.

SIR I heere giue you to vn­derstand that so soone as the Lord Felt-Marshall Knip­hausen had intelligence how the Imperialists vnder the leading of L'Eremite, and Tauben, hauing first defeated Colonell Seakireken, with his Hassian Regi­ment in the Towne of Brilon, were now aduan­ced to Brackel in the Bishopricke of Paderborn; his Excellency the Felt-Marshall hauing notice likewise of the Hassian Generall Major Dalwigs being ready to march vp into those parts after them, with a good part of the Caualry, hee also with some Horse-troopes and Draggoners ad­uanced vp thither-wards, hoping thereabouts to light vpon the Enemie.

But hauing aduice now brought him that [Page 90] L'eremite, hauing first of all drawne the Colonell Osterholt with his 5. companies vnto him (which The said Osterholt had new leuyed in Brackel) were both together againe retired towards the mountaines; his Excellence vpon the desire of the Landgraue of Hessen, would not let slip the fairenesse of opportunitie.

In the meane time, therefore that Colonell Stalhansh was a coming vp to him back againe out of the Land of Marck; hee put on resoluti­on by all meanes to tempt out the Enemie into the field, and to come out of the mountaines and lurking corners; The best way to doe this hee supposed to bee the besieging of Saltzkoten, one League distant from Paderborne.

The Garrison within the Towne consisted of 340. Foote of Colonell Westphalens Regiment, which had heretofore done spoyle enough in the Countrey thereabouts, both in their march and Counter-march.

The Felt-Marshall hereupon the 19. 9. of the same December, tooke his first view of the said Citie, immediately preparing to assault it. The next day were the Ordnance planted against it, and the Commander and Gouernour within the Towne, by these Letters summoned to Sur­render.

THe Commander in the City of Saltzkoten may sufficiently, by his owne vnderstanding, make iudgement of my maine intention in thus neere approaching vnto himselfe and Garrison: His owne estate moreouer, and the case hee pre­sently is in, himselfe cannot but bee sencible of; How, namely, hee is at present left in a lonely place; where, besides the feeblenesse of his walls, there is no reliefe to bee expected from him; nor will I conceale it from him, how that he is alrea­dy inuironed with a Swedish Army-royall, and that another Hassian Army is euen now hard at hand to come against him: And therefore doe I now desire him to resolue himselfe vpon these points of Warre:

Whether he hath not had honour enough in it, that I haue not onely caused the Ca­non to be planted, but haue already played with them likewise vpon his Towne?

Or whether he desires to see more Forces brought against him?

Or whether to haue a Breach shot in his walls before he would surrender?

To which extreamity if hee suffers it to come, I then assure the Commander and his Souldiers, that I will make such an example of [Page 92]them, that hee shall haue cause enough giuen vnto him, how in time to bethinke himselfe, in good time to deliuer vp the Townes Keyes vnto such an Army so well furnished with Artillery: And this I thought good to let him vnderstand; His answere whereunto I will expect by this present Trumpeter, vnto whom (according to the custome of Warrs) I desire you to giue passe and repasse freely.

His Maiesties of Swedens appointed Felt-Marshall, Dodo, Baron of Inhausen and Kniphausen.

The Townes answere.

To the Illustrious and Noble Lord Dodo Baron of Kniphausen, Lord Lutzburg, Bergum, Jnnelt, and Vpplewert: By his Maiestie, and the Crowne of Sweden appointed Generall Felt-Martiall.

YOur Letter of the 10. 20. of this moneth, was safely deliuered vnto our hands, by this bearer the Trumpeter, and the Contents thereof wee haue seriously considered: whereupon wee here send this our answere vnto you; which is, That although wee bee somewhat farre off from our Army, yet neuerthelesse, haue wee Sufficient signes and assurance giuen vs, in very good time to bee relieued. For this cause doe wee hold our selues obliged, seriously to con­sider vpon our oath, and to maintaine this our Towne so long as possible wee are able. At this moreouer wee reioyce, that so renowned a Ca­uallery is already presented before our Towne; And that more are comming after: As also that there bee Articles of agreement already propounded vnto vs, and these firmed with his Princely Eccllencies Seale manuall. That the Lord Felt-Marshall hath vouchsafed vs a [Page 94]Salue with his Canon, we haue not beene able to withstand it. But as for shewing so much ho­nour vnto him and to his Army, as to present the Towne Keyes to him, wee intreat him to spare vs at this present: For whereas wee have no greater thing to loose then our honours and good names, wee should in doing otherwise, en­danger both of them; especially, seeing at this present time wee are not reduced to the necessi­ty of comming to a composition. Wee are there­fore resolued to doe our best; Both our selues and souldiers fully being purposed to defend our selues vnto the vttermost of our abilities, vntill our succours may come vp to vs. And thus wee take our leaues, being otherwise very ready to doe our best seruice vnto the Lord Felt-Marshall and all his Cauallers.

Elmerhus of Nihusen, Captaine and Commander of the Towne. Iohn Iames of Stotzingen, Gouernour.

[Page 95]Vpon receit of this Letter, the Felt-Marshall kept his men quiet all this day, expecting with patience a more considerate answere from them; as also whilst the Landgraue of Hessens Armie might bee come vp neerer to him. In the Eue­ning was order giuen by the Felt-Marshall for the mounting of all his Canons; which by breake of day next morning, December 12.22. began to play. The whole Army likewise, horse and Foote, was presented in Battaglia, before the noses of the besieged : And that it might plainely appeare how vnwilling hee was to haue the matter brought vnto extreamities; His Ex­cellencie the said Felt-Marshall, so soone as hee perceiued his Canon to haue made the breach, saultable for the auoyding of Christian blood­shed, once againe sent into the Towne; as in this Letter following.

I Vnderstand by the Answere of the Comman­ders and other Captaines, which is yesterday receiued, that the City Saltzkoten resolued to hold out vntill their reliefes be come vp to them. Their humours in trueth I must very well approoue off; but I would haue them with­all to vnderstand, that there was no such thing as reliefes to be expected. For mine owne part, I would giue 1000. Duckets to their Armies, that they once had but the courage to shew their [Page 96]faces, and to present themselues before Saltz­koten; seeing both their Armies, yours within the City, and your reliefes without, should by Gods assistance find breake-necke entertaine­ment enough from vs. What you meane by the agreement by you mentioned I vnderstand not. But if you forthwith conclude not vpon a reaso­nable agreement with me, there shall no composi­tion be euer againe offered: And of this let you and your be well assured, as God liueth. But if your pleasures bee to see more Forces, you may easily obtaine that fauour, but to your owne ruine it will prooue, for that you shall not haue so much as any hope of mercy euer after it. And thus by this present Trumpet you shall send me your direct and categoricall answere, and withall, grant free passe and repasse vnto him, withall according to the custome of Armes.

By his Maiestie and the Crowne of Swedens appointed Felt-marshall, Dodo, Baron of Inhausen and Kniphausen.

[Page 97]This Trumpetter did the Commander Ni­hausen detaine aboue two houers in the Towne: Whereupon was order giuen to his Armie by the Felt-Marshall, that euery man should doe his vttermost.

The Trumpeter being at last dismissed, and hee after his comming out, giuing Summons to the Towne by sounding o [...] his Trumpet: The Commander sent out his Drum after him to ex­cuse his owne delay vnto the Felt-Martiall: His pretence for it was, that hee must first call a Councell of Warre of all his Officers, that hee might bee able to answere the better for him­selfe hereafter, for all these his behauiours.

Hereupon was the same Trumpet dispatched backe againe, to signifie to the Commander, how that his Excellencie would loose no more time; and therefore must the Commander now absolutely declare himselfe, whether or no hee would set open his gates presently? Vpon the comming of this messenger to the gates, the Go­uernour Iohn Iames Stotzingen, desired confe­rence with some Officer of the field of the Swe­dish partee; Vpon which newes, the Felt-Mar­shall sends his owne Sergiant Major to him. A cessation of Armes being commanded vpon it: The Governour comming foorth of the Towne vnro the Swedish Maior, tells him that his Com­mission was personally to treate with the Felt-Martiall; and in the meane time is the Trumpet detained in the Citie.

By this time was his Princely Excellencie [Page 98]the Landgraue of Hessen, come to his owne Troopes before the Towne, whose opinion was, that the best way were to goe to the House of Verneburg (as being the head quarter) and there in writing to set downe the agreement, and that in the meane time, the truce should be continu­ed: Whilest this was a doing, the Citizens and Souldiers of the Towne, inuite the Swedish Soul­diers to a cup of their owne Beere; telling them that very shortly they should bee good friends together.

The Swedish and Hassian Souldiers giuing credit to their faire inuitation, approach vnto the very gates, and there drinke with them. His Excellencie hearing this, gaue command vnto his Officers to keepe their Souldiers well toge­ther, and to take heed of comming too neere the gates of an enemie, and to shun all occasion of confusion.

The Officers hereupon going to performe their charge, and to bring off the Souldiers; A Captaine of the Dragonners, was by a Citizen shot thorow and thorow the body;Those of Saltz­koten deale treacherously with the Swedes. At which instant there was such hot fire giuen vpon the vnarmed Swedish (both horse and foote) that a great many were then wounded, and a many more killed right out vpon the place; Yea, the besieged not contented herewith, were so impu­dent as to reuile and giue base words vnto those whom they dealt thus treacherously with, saying; Thus must the Hereticke Swedes bee fetcht ouer, this is the way to handle them.

[Page 99]Newes being brought of this Barbarisme vn­to the Landgraue and Kniphausen, iust as they were setting downe the Articles of Agreement; They were not to bee blamed if they were tho­rowly enraged to see such a cheate, and affront put vpon them.

Immediately hereupon, they both riding to their Troopes, gaue order to let flie their Ord­nance, and to make the breach wider, and that their whole Army should turne into it.

To performe this were the Souldiers now most eager, not onely out of courage and hope of Booty, but to reuenge withall the death of their fellowes and comrades, thus basely murdered. But before the Souldiers fell on, there was ano­ther Trumpet sent into the Towne, to desire them to leaue shooting till the Swedish might fetch off their dead and wounded fellow Souldi­ers. This would not the besieged hearken vn­to, but answered with their Musquets againe, and an hideous shooting.

But so soone as they by and by perceiued the Swedes and Hassians to bee falling in among them, and without mercy eagerlie to haue be­gun the execution, then they caused one Drum to beate a Parlee heere, and another there: Then could they hang a white Flag and a Hat in the mouth of their breach; and then on all hands they could crie for quarter, and for mercy. But now were the Victors eares as close slopped, as the others had beene heretofore: For by this time had the Felt-Martiall lead on, and encou­raged [Page 100]his people to the Assault, put them into the breach, and had giuen them this watchword, Thus Fortunate.

And now did both Citizens and Souldiers thinke how to saue themselues; some leaping ouer the Towne Walles on the further sied, o­thers getting into the Church, and turrets of the Gates; but so there could but few escape away, and the most of them were put vnto the sword.

The Gouernour of the Towne (who went vp­on two Crutches) hauing hid himselfe in the Church Steeple, was vpon promise of a great ransome taken prisoner by a Lieutenant. But it is beleeued verily that the Landgraue will put him vpon a Martiall Court, for the tryall of his life; to see whether hee had behaued himselfe in this Action according to the Law of Armes, or not; For assured it is by those prisoners that were saued, that hee had not aboue halfe a Tun of Powder left to hold out the Towne withall; so that hee had neither reason, nor policie with him, to be thus obstinate, but hath to answere rather (and that very deepely) for so much blood-shedding, and for the destruction of such a Citie.

Saltzkoten set on fire, and then taken.A little before the assault had beene giuen, was the Towne set on fire, by heauing and shoo­ting in of Granadoes in two seuerall places; which burned so fiercely, that had the besieged beene neuer so well prouided and resolued to haue holden out, yet had they neuer beene able to haue stayed in the breach, the heate of the [Page 101]burning Citie was so vehement. And this hath added vnto the obstinacie of the besieged.

By this fire was the whole Towne (excepting some few houses) quite consumed vnto Ashes, and the whole prouision of Corne spoiled.

The Salt-coates, or Salt-houses from whence this Towne had her name, and did get her liuing, were not at all touched by the fire. The most part of the Souldiers found good bootie both in the Houses, and vnder ground, so that they could be contented to haue such a day euery weeke.

That Euening did the Landgraue and the Felt-Martiall draw off their Troopes, causing them to stand the whole night following in the open field, in Battaglia: The reason for which was, for that the Gouernour of the Towne had very confidently giuen it out, that Boninghausen would bee there that night to relieue him. But this prouing false, the Victors next morning marcht againe to Paderborn, leauing a small gar­rison onely in Saltzkoten to keepe those few hou­ses that are yet standing: And now was the whole Bishoprick of Paderborn quite freed from Imperialists.

CHAP. VIII. More of Hessen and Kniphausen, and something of the Chancelor Oxenstiern, and of his propositions for a Diet.
As also of Boninghausen, and the new Spanish Armie of Celada.

MVch complaint was made a­mongst the Catholikes of Cullen, concerning the hard Vsage and burning of Saltz­koten, which belonged vnto their Elector, as a Towne of his comendam Bishopricke of Paderborn. The ordinary Auisoes also prin­ted at Cullen, Number 1. and 2. to make the Protestants more odious; had inuented I know not what miracle of a Crosse, which was repai­red againe by some of the Hassians, with the crueltie of Magdenburg, and of the dead Prote­stants, then cast into the Elbe, who contrary to the course of Nature, swome vp the streame [Page 103]with hands foulded vp and erected. The Ca­tholike tholike Miracle-monger, was also put in mind of the late crueltie vsed by his Partee at the taking of the Citie of Munden, situate vpon the Riuer Fulda and Weira; And to iustifie the burning of Saltzkoten, the former Relation divulged, with the Letters to it.

Saltzkoten being thus taken, Kniphausen and Stalhansh made toward the City of Warburg, whereabouts were some of Boninghausens and L'eremites men, as if they had come so far to re­lieue the lost Citie; these retiring vpon the com­ming of the Swedish Kniphausen, intended not to follow them, leaues the Landgraue of Hessen to looke to them, and to those parts; And at the Towne of Huxter, passeth the Weser into Bruns­wick-land, with 14. Regiments. Now the inten­tion was to take in the great Citie of Hildesheim, which had sometimes beene weakly blocked vp by the Lunenburg and Brunswick forces.

To goe the roundlier to worke with that siege, was the Finnish Colonell Stalhansh reported to bee sent away with some 2000. horse, and 1000 foote, which if they should proue too weake to force Hildesheim then was Gonrtzen (the second man of the army vnto Kniphausen) to follow with other 4. Regiments. But Stalhansh went not for­wards, for that he went backe to the Landgraue. And wheras the Garrison of Hildisheim had to­wards the end of December, fallen out into the neighbour Bishopricke of Osna, and had pil­laged Quackenburg, Padburg, Bramshe, and other [Page 104]places thereabouts; against these in person ad­uanceth Kniphausen. And at this Towne of Osna­burg I find mention of him Ianuary 9.19. where the beliefe then was, that he would very shortly set forward against Hildesheim: The Garrison of which Towne, vpon his comming vpon them retired home with all speede vnto their Quarter.

As for Stalhansh hee either went not at all to Hildesheim, or else was quickly countermanded; for the Lord Chancellor Oxenstiern, generall di­rector of the warre, hauing beene at Erfurt and Duringen, to meet there with the great persona­ges and Ambassadors of these parts and Princes, to prepare them for the appointed Diet at Franckford, to be held the first of March follow-this Lord Chancellor going from Erfurt Ianu­ary 14.24. towards Hall and Magdenburg; by his direction was Stalhansh sent backe to Erfurt: And there (as the Letters from thence assure) was he with 7. regiments ariued, a few dayes af­ter the 20th. of Ianuary: What his designe was the said Letters could not guesse. And by that time was the Lord Kniphausen himselfe gone before Hildesheim in Brunswick-land, the fiege whereof, he hoped in a short time to bring vnto perfection.

Oxenstien [...]ns propositin to the diet of Halberstat.About Ianuary 25. was the Lord Chancellor Oxenstiern at Magdenburg, to attend there vpon the States of the great circle of the Lower Sax­onie, who Ianuary 27. were to begin their diet at Halberstat, whether the Lord Cancellor repai­red. The Chancellors maine proposition to [Page 105]them was to come into the vnion of Heilburn, with those 4. Circles of the Empire which had leagued there together the last Aprill, and ac­knowledged the Prince Palatine for elector. The intended diet of Franckford was also to bee a generall one for all the Protestants, and would the lower Saxony giue a good answere, it would bee a faire induction to the Electors of Saxony, and Brandenburg to come in also. Saxony had not appeared at Erfurt as was expected, but Brandenburg was said to haue giuen content­ment.

But whereas it was reported that Saxony was vnwilling to haue the Lord Oxenstiern to continue the Office of Directorship, and that himselfe began againe to hearken to a Treatie with the Emperour, the feare was, that either it would put off the dyet of Franckford vntill the first of May following, or else that the backward­nes of so great a Prince, would be a great hinde­rance either vnto the dispatch or good resoluti­on which was expected from it, whereof we shall speake more hereafter.

To returne to the Landgraue of Hessen in the Bishopricke of Paderborne: The Swedes being thus passed the Weser, the Landgraue presently gaue summons vnto the Countrie of Lippe, com­manding in particular the Deputy of the Towne of Lipstat to appeare before him, and to treate a­bout receiuing of a tolerable Garrison from him. They pretended Neutralitie, and hee pres­sed for their Categoricall answere the next mor­ning. [Page 106]Whereupon on Wednesday,Lipstat surren­dred to Hessen vpon compo­sition. December 18. he aduanceth from Paderborne Towne with his owne people, and some Swedish led by Stal­hansh. That night he presented himselfe on both sides of Lipstat, and made himselfe Master of a Port or two: Whereupon after summons giuen, and a long dispute about Neutralitie, they were faine to admit of conditions, and the next day receiued the Landgraue into their Citie. That day did Melanders Regiment light vpon a horse troope of Colonell Wendles, where killing the Lieutenant and Cornet, they tooke some 30. Prisoners, and 40. horses.

Heere at Lipstat the Landgraue stayd some dayes to treate with the Townes of the Mark, as Ham, Sorst Lunen, and the rest whom their Lord the Elector of Brandenburg was willing for a time to put vnder the Landgraues protection; And by the putting in of Hassian garrisons into these townes is Munster quite blocked. This was concluded about the Christmas holy-dayes; Stal­hansh in the meane time assaulted some of Bon­ninghausens forces, and droue them into Wipper­furd; and about this time the Citie of Lemburg in Westphalia was taken by the Swedish. Others of Boninghausens people in the meane time, fell vp­on Patherg, and Bernighausen, on the Countrey of Walbeck to fetch from the Earle thereof, the remainder of the old contribution, Boninghausens aduantage was, for that Hessen was at that time to the further and lower parts of the Countrie, but he hauing notice of it, sent some good for­ces [Page 107]to encounter them, besides which there were foure Regiments of Horse and Foote to defend the Countrey, besides the Trayne-bands.

In the end of December, the Landgraue sent messengers to the Towne of Brielon, with whom it was agreed to turne out the Imperiall Garri­son in the Towne, and to take in a Hashish. To take possession of this Towne, was the Horse re­giment of Nassaw sent, & two weake foote com­panies, December 27. These marching along sent their Quarter-master towards the Towne before them: Him the Imperialists light vpon, and by him learned the strength and purposes of the Hassians, whereupon they deuided themselues into two Ambushes, disposing of them in the Gardens before Brielen, and the other into the Forrests. The Hassians mistrusting something by the not returnihg of their Quarter-master, part themselues immeditely into 4. bodies, and so aduanced. That diuison which was to goe by the Gardens were let fly at by the Imperiall am­bush, who so readily returned their fire, and leade againe to them, that with the losse of some liues, and 30. Prisoners, the rest were chased into Brie­len. Of these prisoners did the Hassians learne out the other Ambush in the forrest, and that they were two strong for them; retreating thereupon, two companies of theirs were set vpon by the others and beaten, many of the Has­sians there lost their liberties, and one Ensigne: The others 2. companies that went another way, heard nothing at all of this bickering, but retur­ned [Page 108]safely to their appointed rendeuous with 14 prisoners of the enemy.

In the end of December, or beginning of Ianu­ary, went the Landgraue himselfe backe into Hess­en, being at his Pallace of Cassel to entertaine the yong Baron Oxenstiern, eldest sonne vnto the Chancellor who was come thus farre onward of his way to goe Ambassador into England. There was a French Ambassador also comming to the Landgraue, with offer to make him first Marshall of France, and 12000. French crownes yeerely pension. These the Landgraue accepted of, yet vpon condition not to serue the French King a gainst the Protestants.

The Landgraue being thus absent, and Kni­phausen gone farre enough off, then begin the Imperialists to peepe abroad againe. Osterholtz, Paul Daube and Ermite, about the 22. of Ianuary comes out of the Bishopricke of Munden, with a purpose to recouer Ibaderborne, but being beaten backe by the Garison in it, they went towards Warburg, where finding no Hassian Garison, they pillaged the Towne, and tooke all the prouisions along with them, going into Flota vpon the riuer Weser, where they sate downe. Boninghausen also about the same time put abroad againe; He vn­derstanding of 9. companies of Hassians then ly­ing in the Towne of Ruden, in the Bishopricke of Cullen, and close vpon the Bishopricke of Pader­borne, thought vnawares to haue surprised them. Ianuary 29. very early in the morning, from a­bout the riuer Roer he falls vpon them of Rinden, [Page 109]but they hauing notice of his comming, prepared so well to entertaine him, that they killed him 300. men, & tooke 200. prisoners. Amongst the rest was La Molli said to bee slaine, a man of great esteeme. Boninghausens friends of Cullen (who write this) sup­pose, that if he had led on his troopes presently, and not kept them so long in the frost, the enterprise might haue taken his effect. From thence went Bo­ninghausen backe againe towards the Roer, enquarte­ring at the Townes of Iserlon, Altena, and Aeusperg. Boninghausen kept to these parts, both to preuent the Hassian Lieutenant generall Melander, who lay now vpon the Bishopricke of Cutten, some few leagues to the left hand of him, betwixt the riuers Roer, Lippe and Rhine; he there expected also to haue some 7. re­giments of the Spanish Marquise of Celeda to come ouer the Rhine to him, which hauing beene leuied a­bout Cullen with the King of Spaines money, had layne some time already in the Countrey of Luxem­burg: But they could not so soone be gotten ouer the Rhine; for want of money, (as some write) they were also vncertaine which way to be led, either to ioyne with Boninghausen, or to fall into the Westerwalt by Franckford, or vpon any other place, where there was least appearance of opposition.

About the end of Ianuary, had the Imperiall or Leaguish Colonell Grimberger, Gouernour of An­dernach, a designe of retaking the Towne of Roroert vpon the Rhine, before taken by Melander; but his comming was not so sudden as to surprise the garri­son; who very ill entertained him and his people; himselfe they deadly wounded, whereof hee shortly [Page 110]after died at Ordingen: This was a valiant Gentle­man, and his losse very much bemoaned at the court of the Elector of Cullen. In his place was Captaine Pafman made gouernour of Andernach, by the said Elector. Presently vpon this did the Imperialists which had been turned pout of the garisons of Hage­naw and Zabern, by the Marshall de la Force, come to the Riuer of Mosell, sending for entertainement vnder the Bishop of Cullen. These also, together with some others cashiered by the Duke of Lorraine, were said to be appointed to be ioyned to Boninghausen. The report at Cullen now, was, that Count Wolff of Mans­field was there expected, and that he was to be Gene­rall ouer Boninghausens forces, and of the 7. Regi­ments of Celada; which last, at this time were no neerer to fassing the Rhine then about Reymbach; and the Horse troopes about Munster-Eyfell in the edge of Luxemburg; nor were they very hasty to goe fur­ther, for that there were some Swedish drawing toge­ther on the other side the Rhine. To requite Colo­nell Grimbergers former visit of the Swedish and Has­sians in Roeroert; they about the first weeke of Febru­ary put ouer the Rhine, and surprised 25. horsmen of the Elector of Gullens owne life guard, whom they carried away prisoners with them. The 12. or 14 of February, the 7. Celadish Regiments were come to Meienfeldt behind Andernach; to which Towne di­uers flat-bottom'd Boates were come together from Boune and Cullen, to transport them ouer the Rhine. The Marquesse of Celada was now treating with the Culleners: His 7. Regiments were now said to bee 1600. Horse, and 300. Foote, to which were added [Page 111]those of Zabern and Hagenaw, 5. Companies; con­sisting of 300. a peece, were also to be sent from Cul­len after them. To confront them, were the Hassian troopes drawne together about Geissen. And now was the Protestants diet of Franckford, which was first appointed to haue begun the first of March, put off for a while; not so much for feare of these 7. Re­giments, as because the diet of the lower Saxony, & the treaties which the Electors of Brandenburg and Saxony detained the Lord Director Oxenstiern for a while, yet about those parts. About the 24. of Fe­bruary, the 7. Regiments passed ouer the Rhine; and of the way they tooke, wee shall speake by and by.

The Hassian Lieutenant Melander, in the meane time tooke in the Citie of Essen, betwixt the Rhine Lippe, and Boer, notwithstanding the Boninghausen was so neere to him : this was in the beginning of February. After which, that the Imperialists of Dor­ken, in the edge of the Bishopricke of Munster, had surprised the Castle of Raeswelt, and taken the Swe­dish Commissary Dorhorff in it: Hee passed the Ri­uer Lippe at Dorsten, to goe against them; for the hinderance of their further progresse in Munsterland; vpon this did Colonell Ketelar Gouernour there for the Emperour, assemble all his forces together to op­pose him. The Imperialists of Munster also, about 2000. strong, sallyed forth North-ward, and plun­dered the little countrey or Lord-ship of Steeneford; which belonged vnto the Earle of Bentheim.

In the meane time went the Felt-Martiall Knip­hausen, to hasten on the siege of Hildesheim; before [Page 112]which it is said that he ariued, Ianuary the 22. it was written from the Neighbour towne of Hamelen vpon the Weser, that Duke George of Lunenburg, who had till then beene Generall ouer that Armie; did at that time giue ouer and surrender vnto Knip­hausen.

And whereas the Catholike Leaguers at Cullen, had appointed their Colonell Paul Daube to goe to the reliefe of Hildesheim, hee durst not passe the Ri­uer Weser to doe it; but retired againe from Flota, into the Bishopricke of Paderborne.

By mid February, had Kniphausen made himselfe master of one great Rauelen before Hildesheim; and was said to labour hard about drawing the water out of the towne ditch.

By this time, the Imperialists in Munster and Weydeburg, tooke the House or Castle of Ludinhau­sen from the Hassian: In which action they lost Captaine Bergun before it, together with 200. men; which Bergun was sometimes Gouernour in Osna­brug. This Osnabrug being the chiefe Towne of the great Bishopricke of that name, which ioynes with [...]he Bishoprick of Munster vpon the North, was now [...]n possession of the Swedish; yea and the Lord Gusta­ueson, Naturall Son to the deceased King of Sweden; was by this time enstalled Bishop of Osnaburg. The solemnitie of it was performed vpon Wednesday, Ianuary 29. the Lord Resident Diechman giuing him possession. The Gentry and Commons of the Bishopricke then also tooke their oathes to him, and the next day was the first Euangelicall Sermon preached in the Iesuites Colledge.

[Page 113] Boninghausens people in the meane time, were faine to range about the Earledome of Waldeck for their victualls: and some of them about Mid Febru­ary, hoping to pillage Brenna, lost 12 men before it. Attempting upon Mengerickhausen, they were worse used: loosing a Ritmaster among the rest, who was slaine: by a stone throwne from the Towne­wall upon his head. Boninghausens head quarter was still, Febr. 23. about Arusperg upon the Roer; where he had now laine a whole moneth together: The Imperialists under Eremite and Osterholtz, now fall in with Boninghausens rangers to plunder the said Earledome of Waldeck: yea, Eremites peo­ple had like to haue pillaged the Earles owne Ca­stle of Aeolfe. Others fell upon the Towne of Roden: but the subiects every where beate them from their walled places. But by that time that the 7 Spanish Regiments of Celada, were set over the Rhine at Andernatht, a great part of them under the leading of Colonell Roveroy, marching North-East-ward thorow the countrey of the Westerwaldt, fell likewise into this Countrey of Waldeck; where they pillaged all the Westerne side and middle of it, for 14 or 16 miles about. So that in this Coun­trey about this end of February, lay the most part of the Leaguers forces: which North and South is contiguous with the Land of Hessen: Out of which Hessen, there came 3000 or 4000 men, into the Westerwaldt by the principality of Beylsteim, to confront them. Another part of these 7. Spanish Regiments, put themselues Southward, into the Bishopricke of Triers, to recover that from the [Page 114] French and Swedish. They tooke their way to the river Lh [...]n or Leau, but the Swedish breake downe all the Bridges, to hinder their passage.

The French Governour of Hermansteyne, sent 800 men unto the Swedish Commander Laenstein, to succour them against the Spanish. And whereas the Swedish (which were but 200 strong in the towne of Limburg) supposed themselues too weake to maintaine the place, they therefore for the time surrendred it up unto the French, who were better able from Hermansteyn, to maintaine and suc­cour it. The Spaniards comming before this Lim­burg, fell to assault the bridge, but the French gaue so fierce fire upon them, that they were constrained to retire againe, without doing what they came for: Hence retur [...]d they ouer the Rhine, into their for­mer quarters in Lawemburg. The other 4 Regi­ments likewise, that had done so much mischiefe in Waldeck, being not able to get further, either into Hessen or Paderborn: were enforced to retire again towards Cullen: to conioyne with whom, Boning­hausen was said to march Southward from the Ri­ver of Roer, cleane thorow the land of Berg, in the beginning of March. About this time Boninghau­sen, indeed, came towards them with 1500 men as farre as Wipperford, upon the river Wipper, but he did not yet march up to them.

He being gone from about the Roer; some Has­sians of Melanders men then lying in Hattingen, upon the same river, March 12/22 sally out upon some which he had left behind him: and slew 50 men, and gate Booty some 200 Horses. Now were 1500 [Page 115]fresh men, together with 2 great fire mortars, and 2 other peeces of Ordnance, sent from Cullen to the 4 Spanish Regiments: with which they after a while laid siege unto the towne of Sieberg, on the River of Sieg not farre from the Rhine: against Boun, almost. March 19/29 betwixt 3 and 4 in the mor­ning they strooke up the Alarme before the gates of Sieberg: but the Swedes within having notice of their comming, beate them off againe. Other Sweds and Hassians also comming downe upon them, which had made them to retire out of the Earledome of Waldeck: they were saine to put o­ver the Rhine againe, into the Bishopricke of Cui­len.

In this meane white was Marshall Kniphausen, at the siege of Hildesheim: but he leaues his com­mand there, about the beginning of March, or end of February: and resignes his army: notwithstan­ding which, the siege is continued by Albert Vssler Lieftenant of the Horse, and by Generall Major Stolhansh: Colonel Gonig also, after a while, was sent with 3000 men to re-enforce the siege of Hilde­sheim; and Generall Major Leslie as the report was, should succeed in the Felt-Marshals place unto Do­do Kniphausen. Some new Swedish, out of the Marck or land of Brandenburg, were about mid March, sent against Hildesheim: the Garrison whereof was so strong, that they were able to sally out still: Turne we now to the Hessians.

Melander, being in Munsterland in the meane time, sends out the Ritmaster Motzpach with two troops of 150 Horse, to discover out some loose [Page 116]Companies of the enemies. Hee brought word home againe, that Colonell Schwartzburger was at that time enquartered in the small City of Bracken­feld, with five troopes of Horse, & 80 Muskettiers. A short resolution was thereupon taken, to assault him; which was done so succesfully about the 6 of March, that the Hassians slew one Lieftenant Colonell, one Captain Lieftenant, and some other Officers, with many horsemen and souldiers. Three cornets, and some prisoners were brought away, with about 300 horses. The Colonell himselfe, with the rest of his Officers and Horsemen fled, but the Hassians had not time enough to pursue them; contenting themselves to have thus ruinated so great a part of the Regiment. March the 7 went Melander towards the towne of Werne, upon the river of Lippe; where there lay some 60 horse and 200 foot of Boninghausens. Vpon the Heath before the towne did the Hassians draw out into battaglia; which the Boninghausens perceiving, betook them­selves to their heeles and horses immediatly, and forsooke their garrison. After them, was the Count of Hanaw sent off, by Melander, who overtaking them the same night betwixt Herbaren and the Ci­ty of Munster (whither they thought to have esca­ped) killed Captain Shenking, with many other Officers and common souldiers: Hee likewise brought away 70 prisoners, two Lieftenants, two Ancients, and a good booty.

About the 10 or 12 of March did some 140 Companies of the States of the Low Countryes souldiers, led by Pinsen, come up the Rhine, and [Page 117]landed betwixt Rhineberg and Orsoy; marching presently into Hammecken betwixt Wesel and Dinxlaken. This was close at the back of Melander; and gave great offence (sayes my Writer) at the Court of Cullen, that the States should give any assistance unto their enemies the Hassians, which were in the Bishoprick of Munster.

Melander after this, cleering some other towns about the river Lippe, went and besieged Dulmen, a good strong towne, about two leagues North of the river Lippe, towards Munster City. This made all the Leaguers and Imperialists to looke about them. Gelehn that was Governour of Munster, he makes towards it; and so does Boninghausen, and the foure Spanish Regiments; all were sayd at Cul­len, to be a going to the releefe of Dulmen. Gelehn marcht first of all into the Bishoprick of Osnabrug, to stay for Paul Daube and Eremite with their for­ces; that so they might go the stronger against Me­lander. The Swedish Commissary Generall Erich Anderson, having now intelligence about the 13 of March, how that Gelehn was at that time in the lit­tle City of Melle in the Bishoprik of Osnabrug, with 800 Musketiers, and 400 Horse; and that the troopes of the two other Colonels were en­quartered in the villages next unto Melle; he went out himselfe with a good strong partee to surprize some of them. Hee fell upon those that lay in the village called Rimsel; which he so surrounded, that but a few of them escaped: above [...]30 men (but the most of them Boores) he had the slaughter of, and obtayned 250 horses, with a good booty, Gelehn [Page 118]in the meane time marcht away by a narrow pas­sage; in which the Swedish were not able to hin­der him, for that their foot forces could not get to it time enough. The Swedish Horse neverthelesse, skirmished with him, though they could make no­thing of it. Hence went Gelehn over the moun­taines towards Werendorff, two leagues to the East of Munster; whence he prepared to go to the re­leefe of Dulmen. The foure Celadish Regiments began also to march against Melander, March 22; after they had 10 dayes of provant bread sent them from the City of Cullen; the most of which they sold againe for halfe the worth, pretending they had enough to do to carry their own weapons.

Vpon the 20 of March, about the towne of Munster, the Hassian Colonell Merode, surprized the Quarters of the Imperiall Colonell Eremite; of which hee dispersed foure Companies, and tooke three Cornets, with the most part of ther horses. The same Letters that write this from Hervorden, affirme withall, that they then (March 23) received it from all places, how that there had lately hap­ned an encounter betwixt the Hassians and Impe­rialists about Munster, and that the Hassians ob­tained the victory, and had taken Colonell Oster­holtz prisoner. But of this (say they) we expect the confirmation.

Melander for all these petty victories, percei­ving their whole strength to come upon him, was faine to raise his siege of Dulmen, towards the end of March, and to retire himselfe into the Bishop­rick of Reclinhusen, betwixt the Lippe and the Roer, [Page 119]which had beene his former Quarters. Hereupon they write from Cullen, Apill 3/13, that Boninghau­sen had by that time taken in the townes of Pader­borne and Rogen againe: and that he was marched 16000 strong to the reliefe of Hildesheim. The same letters also affirme, that Melander, Stolhansh, and all the Hassian forces, were conioyned to goe against him.

Of the Duke of NewburgAnd whereas something hath beene before spo­ken concerning the Duke of Newburg, (a Prince Palatine by birth, whose house of residence is at Dusseldorp at this time; neere unto the place of the warres now last spoken of) it shall not be from our matter to bring in him into the action. And this will also be the more pertinent, because of the late mention of these Hollanders, which landed about Rhineberck, and went to lye in Hammecken.

This Duke of Newburg hoping to obtaine Neu­trality from the Swedish, was very secret in his pro­ceedings. It was by some supposed that he had ac­cepted of the invitation of the Catholike Princes of the German League; who offered him to be Ge­neralissimo of their forces. And that this title (up­on confidence perhaps, he had in the Duke of Fe­ria then comming into Germany) after he had so­lemnely accepted of, yet upon the thriving of the Swedes and Hassians aboue in Germany, (and espe­cially, seeing that after the Duke of Feria and his Army were come to nothing, and that the strong and most important towne of V denheim or Phi­lipsburg in the Palatinate was taken; and the French marcht up into Germany) upon all these [Page 120]considerations, tis beleeved, the Duke of Newburg fell off againe from his Generalissimo-ship, and sent no souldiers along, either with the Culleners, or the 7 Spanish Regiments. He was afraid, withall, of the Hollanders: with whom he had Neutrality for his lands in the Dukedome of Cleve. And whereas he had suffered some of these new levied Spanish forces, to quarter in this his Country, he sent an Ambassadour unto the States to excuse this, as no breach of the Neutrality; because though the Spanish nation be enemies to the Hollanders; yet were not these very Spanish forces, intended against them. The States answer was said to be to this pur­pose: That they saw the Duke of Newburg was a good hospitable Prince: and therefore they will send him some guests too. Therefore (tis said) that Pinsen went up to his Countrey, with forces: who had instructions from the Lords the States, to haue an eye unto the Dukes leuyes and motions. They also sent their Ambassadours to him, to disarme a­gaine: and to give over his levies. For notwithstan­ding his Neutrality, both with the Swedes and Hollanders; yet gaue he out Patents for the leuy­ing of 12000 men: yea and imposed contributi­ons upon his subiects, proportionable to the main­tenance of those numbers. Yea he had already, in the beginning of February, made some Musters; and baked provant bread. Thus much also hee put his subiects unto; that such as were not able to pay for others, must serue personally. The Lords the States thereupon, sent their 2 Ambassadours, (the Lord of Arnheim, and Ripperoda, as their [Page 121]names are written) about midd February, to ad­vise him to disband his new forces; and those espe­cially which he had levied upon Spanish pay. His answer was, That he did it to secure his Countrey against the Swedish: to which their replye was, That they would be his warrant for it. And wher­as, all this notwithstanding, the Duke continued his levies: then did the States send up their Pinsent, in March following, both to have an eye to him; and to be neere at hand with his land of Cleve; upon the least breach of the Neutrality, or ayding of their enemies. And this, (for the generall) is the present estate of the Duke of Newburg: who armes, and yet does nothing: who would faine ayde his fellow Catholicks; pretends to feare the Swedes; does actually feare to offend the Hol­landers: and therefore, (openly) dares not aide the Catholicks.

Of the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Director, Oxenstiern.And now for the Lord Director Oxenstiern: Of whose preparations for the Diet of the Lower Circle of Saxony, first: and then for a more ge­nerall Diet of the Evangeliacalls to bee held at Franckford, afterwards: we have before said some­thing in the title to this Chapter.

This Circle of the Lower Saxonye, is one of the potentest, and most considerable, of all the Empire. The Princes, Cities, and States, of it, be most Lutheranes▪ It containes, the two Arch­bishopricks of Bremen and Magdenburg: the fiue Bishopricks of Hildesheim, Lubeck, Swerin, Ratzenburg, and Schleswick. Of secular Princes, these be the chiefest. The King of Denmark, for [Page 122]these lands here, which bee of the body of the Empire. The Dukes of Saxon-Lawenburg, of Brunswick, of Lunenburg, of Mecklenburg; and of Holstein; with the Counts of Roffayn and Delmenhorst. Of free Cities and Hanse townes, these five, Hamborow, Mulhausen, Northansen, Gos­lar, Rostock, and Gottingen: besides those of the Bishops and Dukes before mentioned. All these be States of the Circle; and of their Land-dayes or generall Diets.

That those of this Circle had before leagued to­gether (excepting the towne of Hamborow) and had raised a ioynt army for their owne defence, which was commanded by the Duke of Lunen­burg; the author of the Swedish Intelligencer hath told you in his second part. The Vnion, there­fore, which the Lord Director now desired in this Diet, was not a strengthening of their owne league onely; but to bring them in to agree with the Crowne of Sweden, and the Vnion of the 4 Circles; made last yeere in the Diet of Heilbrun: The place of the Diet, was Halberstat: and the day of the beginning, was Ianuary 27, February 6. These were said to be some of the first Propositi­ons, to be consulted upon.

1. In what manner the Circle might be brought about, to the Heilbrunish conclusions.

2. How the Armie might bee raised for their owne defence, in case of necessity, against the enemy.

[Page 123]3. What recompence and thankes should be given to the Crowne of Sweden.

4. How there might be a streighter confederation made among the Protestant Germane Princes; so that they might be able best to defend themselues and succour one another.

THE CONCLVSION and Articles agreed upon at Hal­berstat the 17/27 of February, 1634. be­twixt the Generall Ambassadour and Rixchancellour of the Crown of Swe­den, Axel Oxenstiern, and the Pro­testant Princes, Peeres, and Cities of the Circle of Lower Saxony.

BEE it known, &c. Whereas the present Princes and States, and also the Counsel­lours, Ambassadours, and Deputies of such as could not come themselves, of the Circle of Lower Saxony, being upon weighty and urgent reasons and motives, here assembled, have carefully and ripely considered, in what great dan­ger, disorder, and extreme ruinous condition, this famous Circle hath been in for this longtime; and moreover, taken it into especiall consideration, how their adversaries have in their-possession and power divers chiefe, strong, and well fortified townes; and withall do still continue their great leavies and preparations for war, both within and without this Circle, bending all their endeavours wholly to con­quer this Circle▪ and to make the same the seat of warre, thereby to hasten the undoubted oppressi­on [Page 125]and ruine of all the Evangelicall States and Re­ligion; Therefore they could not do otherwise, but to think and to resolve upon Christian, honest, excusable, and by all Lawes, but especially by the Statutes and Constitutions of the Roman Empire, permitted and approved meanes, whereby the said States might recover what hitherto both against God and the humane Lawes, hath been taken and with holden from them; and withall redresse and deliver their poore oppressed and distressed subiects from the miseries and calamities which this great while they suffer: defend and maintaine them from all wrong, unlawfull force and power; and thus leave behinde them to the posterity, a true testimony of the dutifull care they have for the glory of God, for the preservation of the true Re­ligion, and of the liberty of their Country, and their owne protection, and of their friends.

1 And accordingly having in the name of God, well considered and maturely weighed the first, second, third, and fourth Article of the proposition, they have found it very necessary, to make before all things among themselves, the Princes and States of this Circle, a true, faithfull, and unfained con­junction, confederation, and union of their Coun­sels, Minds, and Armes; And therefore as they are already bound together as united members of the said Circle, according to the Constitution of the Empire; so now by these presents they do conjoyn and binde themselves together in the firmest sort, to stand and to keep faithfull together, and none to forsake the other, but willingly to spend together [Page 126]their blood, goods, and lives; and withall patient­ly to undergo and suffer together, what prosperity and adversity the warre usually doth afford.

2 And calling to minde how the Circle of Vpper Saxony (as their neerest neighbours) hath alwayes kept a good correspondence with this Lower Cir­cle, They do think fit with all possible speed to in­vite the same to the like streighter conjunction and union, not doubting, but the Elector, Princes, and States of the said Circle, will not dislike, but rather approve of this well intended care, and reso­lution; and as they hitherto (to their immortall honour) have done, so hereafter they will assist the Evangelicall affaires, advancing the same with an unanimous and constant counsell and assistance: and to the same end shall also the Evangelicall States of the Circle of Westphalia be invited.

3 Wheras it cannot be denied, what the daily ex­perience more than sufficiently doth witnesse, name­ly, that it doth much concern all the Evangelicks to joyne and frame by their good intelligence, love, and conjunction, one body together; and withall to direct all their intentions, counsels, actions, and affections, to one and the same end: Therefore the Princes and States of this Circle of Lower Saxony, have concluded to enter into a Christian, most just, and reasonable confederation, alliance, and conjun­ction with the foure confederate Vpper Circles, and withall with the renowned Crown of Sweden, and instead thereof, with the Chancellour and authori­zed Ambassadour of the said Crown in Germany, the Lord Axel Oxenstiern, Baron, &c. And they [Page 127]intend to agree and conclude about the manner and conditions of the said conjunction, at the next in­tended meeting or assembly at Franckfort.

Meane while, because the Catholick league and her adherents are not idle, but still labouring and endeavoring with their uttermost power, to go on in their warlike preparations, and to advance their bloody designes both within and without the Em­pire:

4 Therfore it is agreed and concluded, to prevent and avoid the extreme danger which hangs (as it were) over our heads, and also to free and assure this Circle from further perill, that forthwith there shall bee raysed and brought together, the eighteen times double Roman army, amounting to the num­ber expressed in the last Matricular book of the Circles: and to this effect, assignation, and order is to be given for the leavying both of the Recrewhes and other Regiments, unto every member of this Circle: And concerning the mony, it is also agreed, that there shall be payd monthly into the common treasure of the Circle, the contribution contained under the title of the twelve times double Roman army.

5 In consideration wherof, all other subsidies and contributions, promised and agreed upon in for­mer particular alliances or treaties, are to cease, all exemptions bee taken away: and also all troopes both of horse and foot, now enquartered in the Dominions of the Princes and States of this Circle, especially in the Earldomes of Hohn and Reinstein, are to be withdrawn without any exactions, except [Page 128]the foresaid assigned Regiments of the new inten­ded army; Item the townes of Muhlhausen and Northausen are to remain in the liberties of the Cir­cle, and bee henceforth freed from the impositions layd upon them by the orders made at Erfort.

6 The generall direction of the said army, ha­ving been presented unto the Lord Rixchancellour: his Excellency both upon the earnest instance of these States, and out of the affection he bears to the Evangelick affaires, hath accepted thereof: and upon his advice, the most illustrious Prince, George Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, hath been na­med and appointed Generall; and the Right ho­nourable Iohn Banier Knight, Counsellour of the Crown of Sweden, Field marshall of the said army. Other particularities touching this matter are re­ferred to the said assembly at Franckfort.

7 And that in the meane time all things might the better speed, a reasonable equality observed, none more than his neighbor charged or troubled, and all mis-intelligence removed; there is presently established a Councell of this Circle, carefully to observe, provide, and take order in all that shall be done, that it do tend and turn to the good of this Circle, and of the common cause: And particular­ly, that in all the marchings, passings, and enquar­terings of the forces, the fittest times and places be observed, all misbehaviours and unrulinesse avoy­ded, and punished; all possible and equitable e­quality kept: And therefore no State or member of this Circle shall be bound hereafter to receive or give passage or quarter to any troops, without ex­presse [Page 129]order from the said Councell of the Circle: and whensoever any such passing and enquattering shall bee requisit, the States and members of the Circles shall then first bee advertised by the said Councell, the better and in good time to provide all necessary victuals and other things.

8 Particularly it is found most necesary, that henceforth there bee not suffered any superfluity of baggage, nor visctualers horses, the same being most prejudicious & combersome to the expedition and army, and most harmfull by reason of the forrage: and thefore the Councell of the Circle is well to consider and resolve to reforme and use the Lord Directors advice and help in the same.

9 There are appointed certain townes for the Magasins, and the treasure or contributions; and withall there hath been made a consent and a­greement by the States for the gathering of all needfull and requisit provision of victuals, ammu­nition, and other things; wherein every one will not faile to do his duty: and for the receipt thereof there are now named a generall Treasurer and other officers for the said corn, mony, and munition.

10 The Law of warre, and whatsoever concerns the same, shall not serve against any amongst the confederates; but whatsoever shall bee taken or gotten from the enemy at common expences, and by generall assistance, not belonging either proper­ly or by reason of treaty or alliance unto some other State, and where other Evangelick States have no right nor intrest in, the same shall bee converted to the common good and use of the warre.

[Page 130]11 It is also agreed upon and concluded, whatsoe­ver the Evangelick States of the neighbouring Cir­cle of Westphalia, whether they be Cities, Towns, or Dominions, Castles, or houses of Noblmen, shall pay and bee obliged to contribute unto this warre, wholly intended for the common good, and for the deliverance and defence as well of the sayd Circle of Westphalia, as of the States of this Circle of Lower Saxen.

12 Item, whatsoever shall be recovered and got­ten, whether by way of contribution, conquest, or other advantage, from the enemies countryes; that the same shall bee brought into the Treasury esta­blished for this Circle, whereby the same may bee releeved: as also the quarters that shall bee gotten from the enemies by our said army, shall ease and supply those of this Circle.

13 Whereas unevitable necessity hath enforced this Circle to lay siege before the City of Hilde­sheim, and to block up both the strong towne of Wolfenbuttel, and other places lying on the Weeser; therefore, according to the sessing and appoint­ment made of the necessaries thereunto belonging, every Prince and State of this Circle is to pay his quo [...] or portion with all expedition; and deliver or send without misse, the sayd imposition and as­signation for the maintenance of the Regiments imployed in the sayd siege, as long is it shall last.

14 Forasmuch as it will bee needfull, and doth much concern the desirable generall conjunction and alliance of all the Evangelick States (which is to bee hoped and looked for at the said universall [Page 131]assembly at Franckfort) principally to think and conclude upon a conformity and equallity. There­fore the States of this Circle of Low-Saxen do e­steem it both behoofull and necessary, to commu­municate, advise, and conclude about all these most important and weighty matters, that the fittest re­solution be taken in whatsoever shall bee thought good to do, to change, to amend in, or to adde to this conclusion.

15 And because this arming is by our enemies enforced upon us, and only undertaken by us for our defence and safety, and especially for the reco­vering and reestablishing a Christian, honest, and assured generall Peace in the holy Roman Empire: Therefore upon mature deliberation of the fift Ar­ticle of the Proposition, the Princes, and States, and Deputies here assembled, have been very glad to understand, that his royall Majesty of Denmark, &c. doth intend to reassume and take againe in hand, and go on in his former laudable interpositi­on, and Treaty of Peace; and for the same reason, it is desired that both the present Princes and States, as also those that are absent (being advised by their Ambassadours and Deputies) do carefully consult and communicate their opinions together about the manner, meanes, and assurances, con­cerning the said desired Peace; that with the more hope and successe they may thereof sufficiently o­pen their minds unto and conferre with the rest of the Evangelick Electors, Princes, States, at the said generall assembly at Franckfort, whereby may ap­peare both their great inclination to a good peace [Page 132]and quiet, and also their gratefull affection towards the Crown of Sweden, for the great merits and de­serts in Evangelick affaires.

16 And forasmuch as the house of Holstein and the City of Lubeck have neither been invited, nor present by their Deputies at this assembly of this Circle; it is concluded that the conclusion thereof shall bee dispatched unto them by the present Prin­ces and States, who do not doubt, but that they al­so will not refuse to contribute, cooperate, and to pay their due portion (according to the Constitu­ons) in this most dangerous condition and perillous state of this Circle.

Lastly, the Princes and States of this Circle of Lower Saxen, do here unanimously attest and pro­test, that this their conclusion and resolution, taken by them upon urgent occasions and reasons, is not meant to offend or trouble in any wise any Evan­gelick Elector, Prince, or State; much lesse to pre­judice or hinder any of them in their Soveraignties, Principalities, Highnesse, Liberties, Iurisdictions, Rights, or Iustices; and particularly, the holy Ro­man Empire, or the fundamentall Lawes, Rights, Constitutions, or other wholsome and laudable Conclusions and Orders of the said Empire or Cir­cles, or the dignity and preheminence thereof.

In witnesse whereof, the present Princes, States, and Ambassadours, and Deputies, and Counsellors of this Circle have signed and confirmed this Act with their own hands and seales. Given at Halber­stat the 17 of February. 1634.

[Page 133]The Diet being ended, with this good conclu­sion, namely to raise 22000 men, whereof it was sayd Lunenburg should bee Generall, and Banier Feltmarshall, the Lord Director went from thence to Stendel, to meet with the Elector of Branden­burg, who went from his Court of Berlin on Thurs­day February 6/16 towards the same Stendel, to treat with the Director. This Elector likewise had al­ready sent his Chancellour Gotz, with other De­puties, onwards to the future Diet of Frankfort on the Mayne. Tis said that the Elector agreed ve­ry well to the Diet of Halberstat and the Lord Di­rector. From thence went the Lord Director homewards towards Franckfort, treating by the way at Wittemberg, with the Elector of Saxony; whereupon Arnheim sent some Regiments to joyn with Duke Bernard. Thence went hee to Erfort, and so to Franckfort; where hee was pompously entertained, March 24: and on our Easter eve, the Diet tooke his beginning. There was the Land­grave of Hessen in person; with many other Prin­ces.

OF THE AFFAIRES IN Silesia, and of the Generalissimo (the Duke of Fridland) his death. CHAP. X.

WHereas it will not be amisse (we hope) to bestow here some few leaues or lines on the lamentable death of him, who by the actions of his life hath oftentimes afforded us many a discourse. Therefore wee will present unto you a short view, of what past a little before, at, and after, the murther committed on the person and friends of that great Imperiall Genera­lissimo, the Duke of Friedland; as things coadhe­rent to what we treat of.

About such time as the Duke of Friedland pre­tended a peace with the Swedes and Princes of the Vnion, (whereof we haue spoken in our fifth part) certaine Letters written at Vienna in Austria Sept. the 13 were intercepted, by which not onely the end of the Treaty of peace in Silesia, but other plots, and counsels of the Popish party were also clearely discovered. The tenor of which letters was as followeth;

P. P. I have privately learned by some princi­pall Officers, that as long as the chiefe comman­ders [Page 135]in Silesia and Saxonie are Masters of the field, the Imperiall army is secure from danger. For by our promises and late devised treaties of peace, we have already gained more then we could haue done with 20000 souldiers, which putteth us in hope that the blessed Mother Mary, will both be present with us, and further us in our designes. For the for­ces of the Duke of Fridland, by these actions, are not onely much increased, but the Heretikes are al­so so troubled, and divided amongst themselues, that now they will scarce trust each other, but eve­ry man looking to his owne private ends, gapeth after his owne peculiar gaine, his owne particular pacification, like so many snarling Curres, snapping each at other. The Swedish government, begin­neth to be so odious to the Heretickes, that it is no question but like a ship without a Pilot, they will quickely split upon the Rocks, and lose them­selues. The Elector of Saxen (as things now stand) will much promote the businesse. The King of Denmarke will attempt the destruction of Swed­land, and perswade the other Princes to his opini­on. The most Christian King shall shortly be sent to his grave, and his brother advanced to the Kingdome. The Catholike King will give the Hol­landers more then their hands full; his Plate-Fleete returning yeerely laden with treasure from the In­dies, and the King of Denmarke hath raised the Custome in the Sound , the Elve and Weser, to the great offence of the people, which yet he intendeth to continue, and by all meanes assist our party.

[Page 136]Into the County of Tyroll, and the Country of Swaben, the Duke of Feria joyning with the Bava­rians, shall first take the places neere the Danube, and then breake thorow the Dukedome of Wir­temberg into the Palatinate, to disperse the scatte­red handfulls of the enemy there, and deliver the Duke of Lorraine. The Duke of Fridland with one part of his Army shall invade Thuringia, Franconia and Hessen, with the other, passing the Oder, the Elue, and the straights of Vpper and Low­er Saxony, shutting up the passages after him, shall bring these parts to his subiection. It is almost in­credible, how happily our councells goe forward, and with what earnestnesse, our Pensioners weary of the Swedes, prosecute their intentions. The heavens at last, will take away these troubles, bet­ter things will follow, that after the conquest of the Heretickes, wee may render thankes to all the Saints.

N B. The Elector of Cullen, supported with the helpe of the Spaniards will not cease, till hee have restored the whole Countrey of Westphalia, with the other Bishops into their former estate. This is our generall peace, one Sheapheard, one Sheepfold, and one Monarke.

Thus much said those intercepted letters. But how the said last treaty betwixt the Duke of Frid­land and Arnheim did proceed, and how on a sud­den it broke off to the great confusion of the pro­testants in Silesia, that you have understood for­merly, in the latter end of the fifth part of our Ger­man History; Where even as the unexpected brea­king [Page 137]of that false treaty did almost breake the necke of the protestant army and affaires: So the unlook­ed for taking of Ratisbone brake the necke of the Duke of Fridlands prosperous proceedings in Po­merania and Silesia; for the advises that were brought of the losse of the said City, made Fridland to change his minde, and forced him to speed his march backe againe towards Bohemia and Austria, Where Duke Bernhard caused great feare. But the yeere being farre spent, snow and frost did freeze Fridlands further designes; Who having, by the sending of 4 Regiments into Passaw, assured that passage and country to the Emperour, retired him­selfe to Pilsen; Where, instead to assault others, he was assaulted (and almost carried away) by the gout.

Notwithstanding this sicknesse, was Friedland carefull enough to giue and receiue dispatches, and to advance the Emperours service. About the be­ginning of Ianuary last, the troopes which he had left under Gallas and Shafgotz in Silesia, tooke the towne of Wartenberg upon composition, but con­trary to the same, they tooke and detained all the Swedish garrison prisoners there. Some few dayes after they also tooke by assault the towne of Nam­slaw. But least the Swedes might be blamed of un­thankefulnesse, in not requitting those new-yeeres-gifts, which the Imperialists in the said two places had bestowed on them: Therefore Colonell Trans­torf, commanding the Swedish troopes that lay in St. Iohn and Sanda, sent some troops of Dragoons and other horse towards Zedlitz (about 3 leagues from thence) there to visite the enquartered Impe­rialists [Page 138]under Collonel Hesenburg. This Collonel being advertised of the Swedes comming, drew his troopes together, and with some 4 companies came out or the towne into the field, where meeting too soone with the said Sweds, he was in the beginning of the skirmish slain by a bullet, wherby the Sweds got the advantage, that they put the Imperialists to flight, and slew of them about 200. The like new-yeers-gift did the Swedish Garrisons of Oppeln and Brieg bestow on the Imperiall troopes that lay en­quartered in the places neere about them; Whereof in the space of 14 dayes by divers visits they over­threw 14 companies. This befell betwixt the tenth and fiue and twentieth of Ianuary last.

And about the very same time, Friedland, who hitherto had alwayes plaid both the Foxe and the Wolfe, well to serue his Master, could not es­cape the trap, which envie and slander had laid for him at the Imperiall Court.

But because the causes of his disgrace and death, by severall relations, are made as different, as divers are the affections of the relators: We therefore (without any partiality) will here impart unto you some of the one and the other party. The first taken out of Mercurius Gallobelgicus, lately come over, saith thus.

Friedlands Story and death.

THe Duke of Fried. hitherto with all care and faithfulnesse had both opposed the Swedes and to his power promoted the welfare of the house of [Page 139] Austria, yet could not avoide the informations, and accusations of some malicious persons, for some there were,The Duke of Friedland is suspectea of treason. who charging him with suspition of treason, as plotting the destruction of the Austrian family, not onely perswaded, but also preuailed with Caesar to remove him from his office and to appoint another Generall; all which was to him dis­covered not unseasonably. Therefore having cal­led his Colonels, and prime Officers together at Pilsen the 22 of Ian. he shewed them, that now he would relinquish his place of Generall, not concea­ling the reasons which moved him thereunto. But at the earned request of the Commanders, and Offi­cers he altered his mind, adiourning the Abdicati­on of his Office, untill he got meanes to satisfie his souldiers, they againe by writing assuring him, that they would still attend him with all faith and dili­gence, that they would omit nothing, which should be for the benefit and safety of himselfe and the army▪ that if need required, they would spend their bloud and lives for him, and punish them as tra [...]tors, and periured persons, which should forsake his par­ty, and doe otherwise.

The relation of which proceedings being brought to the Emperour by the adversaries of the Duke,The Empe­rour absol­veth his soul­diers from the oath of fealty to the Duke of Friedland who left out no argument of exaggeration to make the thing more odious, He presently by a proclamation affixed to the Gates and sent to the principall Officers of the army, absolved the soul­diers from the oath of fealty made to the Duke, and commanded them to yeeld their obedience to Mathias Gallas the Lieftenant▪ Generall, till [Page 140]there was another Generall ordained, under penal­ty of an heauy punishment to them, which should doe otherwise, proclaiming also a pardon to all them which at Pilsen had obliged themselues to the Duke if they would returne to his obedience, two onely excepted, whom he had understood, to haue beene principall agents in this rebellion.

A Procla­mation a­gainst the D.The former Proclamation against the Duke was seconded by another, the purport and effect whereof, was as followeth: That he doubted not but that it was sufficiently knowne to all the Co­lonels, Officers, and all the souldiers of what ranke soever, to what honours and dignities he had ad­vanced, what benefits he had done to the Duke of Fried. and contrariwise, what pernicious conspira­cies the 12 of Ian. the Duke had made against the house of Austria, perswading the principall Com­manders of the army, to subscribe to the combina­tion. But now since this confederation was of no effect, ipso jure, he by this present proclamation did nullifie and annihilate it. And that whereas he cer­tainely understood, that the Duke gaping after his Empire, and Kingdomes, did traiterously devise the destruction of him and his family, and striue to draw the Officer▪ of the army to his party, he was now resolved to cashiere him of his Office, and did therefore will and command, that the whole army, should give their obedience, to Matthias Gallas, the Count Altringer, Ballhasar de Marradas, Fran­cis Octavius Piccolomini, Rodolph Collorede, and their under Officers, and obey their commands.

By this Proclamation thus published, the Duke [Page 141]easily perceived the danger which hung over his head; for avoyding whereof, he resolved to joyne with the Evangeliacall party, and not onely under­taketh a treaty with Francis Albert Duke of Sax­on Lawenburg, the Saxon Field-Marshall, but sen­deth his Chancellour also to Christian Marquesse of Culmbach, who upon admittance spake as fol­loweth.

The D. de­termineth to take part with the E­vangelicall party.Although the Duke of Fried. as it is evidently knowne to all men, neglecting his owne profits and private occasions, onely endeavoureth to settle a peace in Germany and to put a period to the late bloody warres, he hath now to his great griefe un­derstood, that (his faithfull offices hitherto done, altogether unrespected) he is enviously accused, and with cunning calumniations traduced in the Empe­rours Court, that his souldiers are injoyned no lon­ger to be under his command, and that Gallas is deputed to his office and charge; who with his complices, labour to take the Duke prisoner, and bring him captive to Vienna;. Yet neverthelesse hee not desisting from his first determination of e­stablishing a peace, would desire the Marquesse first to nominate the time, and place, when, and whi­ther he himselfe might come with a small retinew, for conference, and afterwards if he would send any man to Egra, whither he knowes, Arnheim and Duke Bernard would both come, he would further declare his intention, and then, when he had spoke with the Marquesse himselfe; he would give a mee­ting to the Chancellour of Sweden and the French Embassadour, with whom he would consult for [Page 142]what was to bee done afterwards.

A little time before Francis Albert Duke of Sax­en Lawenburg, at Ratubon had informed Duke Bernard of Fridlands intention, desiring him with­out delay to post to Egra, Fridland himselfe also by his letters, and some Curriers, urging him to make haste thither with all his army But Duke Ber­nard not thinking it wisdome to beleeve him easily, who had formerly deluded others with faire pre­tences; though his forces were ready, yet still pro­vided against all casualties, and made no expedition thither, untill the unexpected murder of the Duke and his followers was openly known and divul­ged.

The Duke of Fried. and some of his followers slaine at Egra.For when the Duke of Fridland Febr▪ 14, with the Camp marshall Illow, the Counts Tersky, and Kinsky, Butler a Colonell, Newman a Captaine of horse, and other officers, guarded with 5 troops of horse, and 200 foot, were come from Pilsen to Egra, Iohn, Gordon Lieftenant to Count Tersky, then Go­vernour there, and Walter Lesley Captaine of the Court of Guard, both Scots, and Butler, who was afterwards of their combination conspired to mur­der them, because they understood they would turn to the Evangelicall partie, which they thus effected, Febr. 15. The conspirators invited Illow the Fieldmarshall, the two Counts Tersky and Kin­sky Newman Captain of horse, and 3 other officers to supper in the Castle, who suspecting no evill came accordingly. But supper being done, at the time appointed by the conspirators, betwixt nine and ten of the clock, the number of the Guard, both [Page 143]in the Castle and Market place was augmented with a new supply, and the upper gate of the Castle be­ing opened (no man observing it) there entered suddenly a company of Irish Muskeriers, Dra­goons, which served under Butler, who presently enter into the chamber where the guests were still suspecting nothing, and with their swords drawn, cry out, Who is for Caesar, who? Gordon, Butler, and Lesley returne this acclamation for an answer, Long live Ferdinand, long live Ferd. and drawing their swords, stand aside. This done, the Irish fall upon the two Counts, Tersky and Kinsky, Illow, Newman, and the rest, so impetuously, that Illow & Kinsky were instantly slain: Tersky who was repu­ted to bee fortified by enchantment, as carefull of his safety, flyeth into another roome, but there was shot, and dyed; Newman deadly wounded, craw­led into a Storehouse, and there fell down dead. The attendants of the slain were purposely carried to another roome under colour of supper, which made this massacre the more casie for the conspira­tors, of whom Gordon and Butler were chiefe.

When these murders were done in the Castle, Gordon had charge of the Castle, and Lesley of the Court of Guard. But Butler with the Captain of his Musketiers, and twelve Harquebushers, and many other which followed him, set upon the Dukes lodging, where breaking up the gates, and wounding the Cup-bearer in the shoulder, as hee was bringing his Lord a Bowle of Beere, the Cap­tain with his partizan runs the Duke through stan­ding in his shirt at the table, who not speaking one [Page 144]word, fell down and gave up the ghost. Thence the Dukes corps was carried into the Castle, and they which were slain, were given to be pillaged by the souldiers, who left them not so much as a ragge be­sides their shirts. A wonderfull tempest without ceasing, lasted all the time of the massacre, the very firmament (it seemed) detesting such execrable vil­lanies.

And yet this Butchery was not intended to bee done at Egra only, but at Prague also many of the principall Officers who adhered to the partee of Fridland, were slain, and many captivated. Then Piccolomineus having gotten into Pilsen by a wile, having slain the Captain of the Garrison, because hee favoured the Duke of Fridland, took in the town, and subjected it to Caesar.

Thus much relates Mercurius of this matter: now we will give you what soone after this executi­on was published thereof at Brussels, whereof the title is:

The later, truer, and more particular report of what past from the 14 of Febru. untill the end of that month, concerning the rebellious & traitrous Albert of Walstein, late Duke of Fridland &c.


IN the yeare 1634. in the moneth of Februa­ry, Fridland being at Pilsen, sent order to all the Imperiall Forces to be present on the 22 of that moneth with Armes and Baggage on the White hill neare to the Citie of Prague, and there hee intended to make them to take an oath , and sweare to acknowledge none but him, & after­wards to make his entry into Prague, and be crowned King of Bohemia, and whilest he should be busied in making this assembly of forces, and his rendez­vous, the enemy should enter into the [Page 146] Kingdome of Bohemia, there to joyne with him, and effect his designes. And belee­ving that the said souldiers were already at the appointed place, to wit, on the White Hill, he sent the Count of Tertzki his brother in law from Pilsen, to pre­pare all necessaries; take possession of the said City of Prague, & to take the charge over the Garrison, which consisted of two Regiments of infantery: Tertzki being arrived three leagues neare the towne, understood the Emperours souldi­ers had order not to suffer any to enter, nor to receive any body, or command from Freidland, and that they had alrea­dy sworne to his Imperiall Majesty; for which cause hee returned towards Pil­sen, and advertised Freidland therof, who answered him: Our designes are discove­red, since neither Gallas, Altringer, nor Pic­colomini come, and that the Regiment of Deodati marcheth towards Budweis. And therefore hee commanded those Regiments which were about Pilsen, & [Page 147]on the borders of the enemy, to wit, the Regiment (of a thousand dragons) of Colonell Butler an Irish man, the Regi­ment of Cavalry, of the Count of Tertzki of 600 horse, and the Regiment of Iules Henry of Saxen, 600. horse more, leaving the said Dukes Regiment of infantery in the said Citie of Pilsen; and caused the Lieutenant Colonell to sweare that hee would never deliver the place without his order, and that the Artillery consi­sting of 70 Pieces, with all the ammuni­tion, should be ready to march whither, and when it should bee commanded. And in case the Imperialists should come and besiege the said Towne of Pilsen, that hee should set the ammunition on fire, and naile the Ordnance, and then render themselves upon composition. Thus Freidland tooke his journey to­wards Egra, with the aforesaid Regi­ments, where his two best Regimēts of foot did expect him; the one of the said Tertzki, whose Lieutenant Collonel [Page 148] Gordon a Scotchman, was lodged in the said towne; the other of Collonel Preiner, without the towne.

Meane while Collonel Butler consi­dering apart with himselfe how hee might doe a worthy service (with the Officers of his Irish Nation, on whom he most trusted) both to God, to the Em­perour, and to the house of Austria and a publike good to all Christendome, to take the said Fridland prisoner, and so to send him to his Imperiall Ma­jesty: on the other side considering the great difficulty of such an attempt, because he trusted no other Nations, hee did delay his enterprise untill hee came to Egra, where he imparted the business to the said Gordon, Governour of that Towne, who was his great friend; as likewise Gordons Sergeant Major named Walter Lesley, foreseeing all the perill which threatned them, for as much as Fridland himselfe had formerly infor­med them, that the King of Hungary [Page 149]would goe into the field against the Emperour his Fathers will, with intenti­on to take the chiefest forces of the Ar­my; and that therefore he was resolved to assist the Emperour; that hee had yet ready money enough to leavy 30000 men; and likewise that he expected the enemy, for his succours, praying them to remaine with him, and that he would largely recompence them, shewing them thereupon a letter of Frances Al­bert Duke of Saxen. They having heard him thus discover his treason, secretly met together and joyning with them the Sergeant Major of the said Butler na­med Robert Giraldine, an Irish-man, and these Captains Walter d' Ebrox, Dionysius Macdaniel, Edmund Bierk, and Captaine Iohn Braun, who had order to keepe and watch the streets, and let none goe out of dores, whilest they made the preme­ditated execution, having first sworne to one another, to performe it or to dye, choosing amongst them a Sergeant Ma­jor [Page 150]and two Captaines; to wit, the said Captaine Robert Geraldin, with order to goe with a certain number of Irish soul­diers, to the house of Illo, and Captaine Dionysio Mac-daniel with twenty Irish men towards Fridlands; Captained d' E­brox with other twenty Irish souldiers, to Tertzki's and Kinsky's lodging, who were lodged together, not trusting any other Nation, nor the souldiers of the Garrison. Afterwards considering that so many separations might occasion some uproare or tumult in the City, they deliberated to invite to supper into the Castle these foure, Tertzky, Kinsky, Illo, & Tertzki his Captaine of the Guard, who heretofore had bin Secretary and Chan­celor to Fridland, named Newmā. And as indeed they were invited by Sergeant Major Lesly in the name of Coll. Butler, and of Lieutenant Collonel Gordon, so they all came in a Coach, and being at Table at the dessert, those three Cap­taines entred, who had undertaken that [Page 151]execution, causing the said Irish souldi­ers to come also in, two and two, three and three, and in greater number toge­ther, till they came to the number of forty, as well Officers, as souldiers, and amongst them was one Spanyard, pas­sing through the Guard of the German souldiers, who was at the Castle gate, trusting the Dutch Lieutenant would let them enter without contradiction, who notwithstanding knew not to what end they came, because they had all their Armes and Muskets hid. Some amongst them went to keepe the secōd gate, and others in divers places to make themselves masters of the Castle, if there should arise any noyse or tumult at the first gate. Sergeant Major Geraldine took eight souldiers, Captaine d' Ebrox 12, and Dionysio twenty to keepe the said first gate (if it should be need) and pre­sently to kill the first that would goe forth. Then the said Sergeant Major en­tred with his men at the one dore (for [Page 152]there were two doores to goe into the great roome) and likewise Captaine d' Ebrox came with his twelve souldiers into the other; When the said Sergeant Major standing with his men under his doore, said, Live Ferdinand; and the said Captain answered, And the whole house of Austria: wherat they at table being trou­bled, arose and went to take their swords, but Butler and the others who supped with them did kill Kinsky and Newman; and Illo thinking to defend himself, was also presently slain. Tertzky fled towards the doore, where hee met Captaine Dionysio with his men, of whō craving quarter, the Captaine asked him the word, and hee answered Fridlands watchword, which was, S. Iames: To which the Captaine replying, that for the present that word availed nothing, but onely that of Austria, whereupon he with his men invironed & killed him. Some servants of the dead men would have defended their Masters, and came [Page 153]with naked swords and hurt two soul­diers, but two of the said servants were presently killed; whereupon all was ap­peased in the Castle.

After this execution finished, Sergeant Major Lesley wēt towards the gate of the citie to let in 100 dragōs, with two Irish Captaines, and a Scotch one, whom hee trusted, to keep the streets, & not to suffer any souldier or Burger to go out of their houses: That being done hee went to­wards the Guard on the Market place, and there gave order that they should not move out of their places, although they heard some noyse, and he remained with them, keeping watch, being of the same Regiment, untill Fridlands executi­on was finished, who was not lodged in the said Castle. To his executiō went Collonel Butler, Sergeant Major Geral­dino, Captaine Debrox, and Captaine Dio­nisio. Lieutenant Coll Gordon, keeping watch in the Castle, untill they returned from the execution. And going towards [Page 154] Fridlands house they heard a great noyse of the cries and lamētasions of Tertzky & Kinsky their Ladies, who had already understood the cause of their griefe from a Page. Which the said Collonel hea­ring, presently commanded the Cap­taines to hasten and finish the service of his Imperiall Majesty, and divided them; appointing Captaine Dionysius to goe to the Market place to Sergeant Major Lesley, and to cause him in the Collonels name to cōmand the rest of the dragons to goe watch and guard the streets, for it was time; and to bid Captaine Debrox to goe to Fridlands quarter, who was up and at the window, hearing the cries & lamentations of the said two women: and because the house had divers doors, Collonel Butler commanded Giraldine to place about it Guards of his Nation, that no body should get out. The said captaine Debrox going up, the Collonel staid below, and captaine Dionysio re­turning from the market, was by Col­lonel Butler presently commanded to [Page 155]goe up to assist at Fridlands execution, and take heed that he did not escape, be­cause the chāber had two doores. Being gone up, he found both the chamber o­pen, and that captaine Debrox had alrea­dy fulfilled the execution, having heard the body of the Traytor Fridland fall to the ground with a great noise, who had beene killed with a Partisan, in this maner. When Debrox went up hee found two servants of his chamber, whereof the one asked him what he would have? saying further, that his Highnesse rested, and that they must not make a noyse: whom a soul­dier presently thrust thorow, which cau­sed all the other servants to flie away, leaving his Highnesse al alone. The said Captaine advancing to the doore of the chamber, which was locked, with his foote quickly opened it, and found Frid­land right against the doore in his shirt; to whom he said, Thou Traitor to the Em­peror, now thou must dye: to which he an­swered [Page 156]nothing, and was thrust thorow with a broad and two edged Partisan; and as he was falling an Irish souldier, as tall as a Gyant, named Nielcarf, em­braced the body, to cast it downe out of the window, but the Captaines who were present, would not consent there­to, but having wrapped it up in a Table Carpet, caused it to bee brought downe and laid into a Cart, and carried to the Castle. Afterwards the Collonel went to the Chancery, where he seazed upon all the Papers, leading a good Guard there; as likewise in Illo's lodging, and in the Fridlands Chamberlaines lodging, (the Baron of Shaffenberg, brother to him that is prisoner at Vienna.) At last they all retyred, after this execution, into the Ca­stle againe, where Lieutenant Collonel Gordon was with his Guard: And to thē came also Sergeant Major Lesley, who during Fridlands execution, kept watch in the Market place. This was done on Saturday the 25 of February this present yeare, 1634.

[Page 157]The next day being Shrove-Sunday, the gates of the Town of Egra remai­ned locked up, not any one being suffe­red to goe out; and the aforesaid Officers held counsell what would be most con­venient to bee done, because they trusted not the souldiers of the Garrison, nor the Burgers: at last they resolved to bring in one hundred Musquetiers more, with the Officers of Collonel Preiner's Regiment, who stayed all the said day in Armes, with bullets in their mouthes, and burning matches.

The 27 of February (being Munday) Collonel Butler, accompanied by some others, went out of the Town, and con­ferred with the Officers of the Count of Tertzki his horse Regimēt, telling them what was past, & asking them whether they would be faithfull souldiers to his Imp: Majesty: who answered unani­mously, that they would live and dye in his service. That being done, hee went with fifty horse, as well of his owne, as [Page 158]of the said Regiment, to descry some­what of the enemy about Egra, on the Frontiers, but he returned the same day, without learning any thing.

The 28 and last of February went out a troope of Dragons, and of Cavallery, with a Lieutenant, to heare newes of Duke Frances Albert of Saxen, or some other enemy: and having met with the said Duke, a League from Egra, with his traine of servants and two Trumpets, thinking to come (as hee had done for­merly) with all assurance to Fridland his great friend, of whose death he knew as yet nothing. The said Lieutenant asked him by the way, What would you say, sir, if Butler should sent you prisoner to the Em­perour? Whereat he did but laugh being ignorant of the businesse, but they sea­zing on his person, visited his Coach, searching for papers, where they found some, with letters of importance, which they delivered to the said Collonel But­ler. And the said Duke seeing them re­move▪ [Page 159]his baggag told them, they should at least leave him some linnen to change himlelfe. After this visite was done they brought him to Egra, and put him into the hands of the said Butler, who had already sent with letters to his Imperiall Majestie Captaine Dionysio, particularly advising him of the executi­on performed on the persons of Fridlād, and his Complices; but seeing that they had brought him the said Prisoner, Hee sent to recall the said Captaine Dionysio▪ (who was not gone very far off) that he might joyntly carry newes to his said Imperiall Majesty of the taking of the person of the said Duke Frances Albert of Saxen, field Marshall Generall of the Ar­mie of the Prince Elector of Saxen, who plotted the Treason with the said Frid­land. Captain Dionysio being come, Col­lonel Butler who was at table with the Prisoner Duke said, You may tell his Imperi­all Majesty, that we have here the bird in the Cage, that you likewise have seene him with [Page 160]your eyes, that for feare of delay I did not write of that particular, and that I send him the letters which you have.

The names of the Persons who have beene Conductors and Actors in this execution.
  • Collonel Butler.
  • Lieutenant Collenel Gordon, Governour of Egra.
  • Sergeant Major Walther Lesley.
  • Sergeant Major Robert Geraldino.
  • Captaine Walther Debrox, who killed with his hand Fridland.
  • Captaine Dionysio Macdoniel.
  • Captaine Edmund Bierke.
  • Captaine John Braun.
Names of them that were killed.
  • Fridland.
  • Tertzki.
  • Kinsky.
  • Illo.
  • Newman.
  • Two of the Collonels servants.
  • One of Fridlands servants.

Thus having given you a double relation of that renowned Generalissimo the Duke of Fridlands death, we leave him and passe over to those with whom he was said to have too familiarly treated.

CHAP. XI. ❧ Of the Elector of Saxony and Arnheim.
Saxonies constancy to the Protestants.

ABout Nouember 16.26. doth the Elector send his Lieu­tenant Generall Arnheim out of Misnia, towards Franckford on the Order, in the edges of Silesia and Brandenburg; which Wall­stein had lately recouered.

Thereabouts doth Arnheim defeate 300. Horse, and blocks vp the Citie.

Nouember 15. doth Buckersdorff, who is ge­nerall for the Elector of Brandenburg, recouer Coppenick in Brandenburg-land. The Counts of Tertzki, and of Mansfeld, are within Franck­ford on the Oder; a company of whose, being [Page 160]now abroad, are defeated by the Saxish Colo­nell Forchawer, with 50. of his Horse-men. Arn­heim now had 11. Regiments of Horse, and 9. of Foote, with him; but nothing neere com­pleate ones. Nouember 22, old stile, he comes in sight of Franckford; and about the 26. hee began to besiege it: To helpe forward which, hee had 16. Canons sent him from Custrine, by the Elector of Brandenburg.

Duke William of Saxon-Weymar, came like­wise with some forces to helpe Arnheim; A­bout Nouember 31. the Brandenburgish sup­plies being at hand too. Moreouer there were 3000. new Swedes arriued at Wolgast in Pomer­land, which came out of Prussia; 3500. more, being then at Piritz in the said Pomerania. Arnheim sending halfe of his Armie to take in the strong Citie of Landsburg, towards Polonia, with the rest, intends the siege of Franckford. Hee sets vp 1000. burning marches vpon sticks in the night season: Which the besie­ged taking for men, shot all night at. In the meane time, Arnheim on another side, casts vp two Batteries; Sommoned the Towne the next day; and is refused: Thereupon hee passeth the Oder with two regiments of Horse, to the Towne-bridge, which hee hoped to master: But the Imperialists sallying out, put him to the repulse. Hee perceiuing the Garrison to bee very strong, and the frost so hard, that his people could not worke the earth for Trenches [Page 161]or Approaches: Hee was faine to raise his siege vpon the 10th. of December.

Those that were sent against Landsburg, did onely beate a conuoy going into the Towne: And perceiuing the same inconueniences which Arnheim did, they could not besiege it. Arnheim hereupon, goes to the Elector of Brandenburg, to get order for Winter quarters for the Armie, intending after the frost, to goe against Franckford the second time.

About Christmas, part of Arnheims Armie went homewards towards Dresden, The rest being quartered in the Townes of Branden­burg.

In the end of December, doth Generall Maior Lesle send Colonell Crakew out of Ber­lin with 500. Horse, and 2. Foote Regiments; who cut in pieces 10. foote Companies, and one Cornet of Imperialists, comming from Landssperg towards Franckford, and tooke all their Ensignes from them.

And now doth the Elector of Brandenburg, and the two Dukes of Mecklenburg, begin to make new leuies; being sure of the Elector of Sazonies constancie.

The Generall Bannier likewise, hath a great strength of Swedish in the lands of Pomerland and Mecklenburg.

Arnheims Armie being now in the Winter-quarters, part in their owne Countreys, and part in marke of Brandenburg; Arnheims selfe [Page 162]goes also home to Dresden: For thither vnto his master the Elector of Saxony, had the Em­perour now sent about the propositions of a peace. These hauing some time beene con­sulted of at Dresden: Arnheim goes to Berlin, the Elector of Brandenburgs Court, with them, and his masters resolution: Where hee arriued Ianuary 29. and was lodged in the Pallace, The speech then went at Berlin, how that Arn­heim would deliuer vp his charge, and returne with his forces yet left in those parts, vnto Misnia.

There was a resolution now it seemes, that the Elector of Brandenburg should goe to the Citie of Brandenburg, and Arnheim with him; whilest the Elector was to goe to Stendel to the Lord Director Oxenstiern. And hee, it ap­peares, by hastening or the resolution of the diet of the lower Saxony, more then halfe spoy­led the two Electors, further listning to a peace oF treaty: Notwithstanding the Duke Iulius of Saxon Lawenburg, had frequent ex­cesse to his Cosen of Saxony, with new propo­sitions from the Emperour.

In this meane time (that is, about Ianuary 22.) did there more Imperiall forces thrust themselues into Franckford on the Oder: Yea 600. Crabats more, arriued at the Neighbour little Citie of Cotbus, which like Crabats in­deede, disturbed all the Countrey with their pillages.

[Page 163]There was beleeued to bee some wants in Franckford on the Oder; but their long keeping of the place, shewed it to be otherwise. In the beginning of February, those Swedish forces which at present were in the Duke-dome of Pomer-land, vnder Generall Banniers Charge, part of which were but lately come ouer out of Sweden, begun to mooue: A list also was giuen out of their numbers; And of the seuerall pla­ces they were to be distributed into, for their Winter Quarters,

A List of the Forces that came out of Pomerania, in 60. Companies strong, and shall be enquartered in these Countreys.
  • [Page 164]IN the Earledome of Querfurt, two Companies.
  • In the vpper and lower Diocesse, three Companies.
  • In the Principality of Seaburg, three Com­panies of Findlanders.
  • In the Principality of Gruppenhagen, eight Companies of West Goths.
  • In the City of Brunswick, foure Compa­nies of Axlandes.
  • In Eysfield, two Companies.
  • In Northausen, two companies of Sudder­manlanders.
  • In the Dukedome of Weymar sixe Com­panies.
  • In the Dukedome of Altemburg, two Companies of Wallds.
  • In Eysenach, Gotha, and the Earledome of Hohenstein, some Companies of Plest­ners.
  • In the vpper and lower Earledome of Schwartzburg, fiue Companies.

[Page 165]They now also write from Leipsich, that the whole Saxon armie was now again, February 8, enquartred about the Marcks of Brandenburg; but they staid not long there: By this time was the Colonell Bem (and du Verge with him) tried by a Martiall Court at Setin in Pomer­land, where it was beleeued they would hardly get off with their liues; for hauing surrende­red vp Landsberg last yeere vnto the Wallstein­ers, before there was necessitie.

By mid February, are the Saxon forces recal­led out of the land of Brandenburg; and the Warres in those parts, against Franckford and Landsberg, were to be pursued by Lieutenant Generall Banniers, and Sergeant Maior Gene­rall Leslye.

And now (as they write from Berlin) doe the Swedish forces, together with the Pomerish, and the Mecklenburgish trayned bands march strongly against Landsburg; this is much stronger then Franckford; although there were said to be but 300. men in it, and 1700. in Franckford on the Oder.

In the end of February were 8. Field-peeces which stood in the Castell of Berlin, and be­longed to the Elector of Saxony, sent home­wards towards Misnia, together with the rest of the Saxon Forces; so that Arnheim had now no more to doe in the land of Brandenburg.

After Wallsteins murther, the Emperor hath better hopes of making peace (or of doing [Page 166]himselfe good with the shew of it) with the Elector of Saxony: About the 13th. of March, therefore comes Duke Frances Iu­lius of Saxon Lawenburg, from Vienna vnto Dresden.

For all this treaty of peace, the Warres went forward in the meane time.

On Saturday, March 8.18. a Partee of the Elector of Saxonies owne life regiment, fell into Bohemia, out of which they returned the Wednesday after. They had killed 70. Imperialists there, and brought away a booty of 500. head of Cattell: And still (say these Letters of Dresden) doe our leuies goe on very strongly. For by this time were the Ambassadors as the lower Circle of Saxony, arriued at Dresden, with the resolutions of the Diet at Halberstat: They passed through Leipsich March 6.16. and there comming was seasonable enough, to prepossesse the E­lector of Saxony against the Spanish Am­bassador Paradies, who was to come to him from Vienna; for whose admission (it ap­peares) Duke Francis Iulius of Lauenburg had made way for; And now the talke of Peace began to bee something turned: The noyse now was of Arnheims preparing to send 7. or eight Regiments to Duke Ber­nard Weymar, and of his owne personall go­ing to speake with him.

They write from Berlin at this time, that [Page 167]12000. new Swedes and Finlanders were now arriued in the Dukedomes of Mecklinburg and Pomerland, and that more were expected dayly.

The newes of this, too, would something drowne the whisperinges of the peace trea­ties.

Add to this that the Elector of Brandenburg now made some great preparations to goe himselfe into the field: The towne of Lands­berg was by this time so straightned, that by the 10. of March it began to hearken to a Treaty: But it appeares that then it came to nothing, it held out so long after; and whereas there was a conuoy of Men and Victualls, now a comming to the reliefe thereof; it was beaten by Lieutenant Co­lonell Vorhawer, about March, 13.23. who tooke 40. of the Conuoy Prisoners, and obtained much prouisions : About this time doe 8. Companies of fresh Souldiers put themselues into Franckford on the Oder; whom the Countrey supposed to bee of the factious of the Wallsteiners, for that they at­tempted nothing by their sallyes against the Countrey people: But now was this Towne resolued vpon to bee blocked vp too: 800. Swedes which then lay on the other side of Spandaw, were to bee imployed against it. To whom were 12. Companies of the Brandenburg new leuied Fores to bee con­ioyned.

[Page 168]Of the Saxon forces some were now sending towards Egra in Bohemia, where Wallstein had beene murdered: And other­some were marching towards Duke Ber­nard.

Those within Franckford now build Forts and workes in the Vineyards; and against Landsberg, is Verhawer imployed to blocke it vp, neere Lyar, which till this time had not beene done, but onely by watching it with Partees: For this seruice were the Ordnance and Ammunition shipped vp the Riuer Oder, Generall Bannier, about mid March sends Colonell King with 3. re­giments, to hasten on the siege of Hilde­sheim in the land of Brunswick, after that Knip­hausen had giuen ouer his charge there; these were some of those Swedes, that were come as farre as Spandaw, and were to goe for Lands­berg or Franckford, but they turne the other way in all haste, being accompanied with those Horse-men that lay in Brandenburg, Britzen, Bolitz, and Sarmond.

Vpon the Tuesday March 11.21. some of the Swedish then lying in Pomer-land, set forward towards Landsburg: Marching first to Stargard and Arnswald, where the Earle Casper of Eberstein, with Colonell Proke, then kept their Rendezuous; within a day or two, did the Generall Maior Lesle fol­low them to carried a strong Bridge of [Page 169]Cables and Shippe-reapes along with him, hee was to besiege Landsberg; which towne if it could bee taken, Franckford could not long hold out, and then should the Swedish of all those parts of Brandenburg­land, goe into Silesia.

Of the Saxon businesse, they write from Dresden; That Arnheim bad spoken with Duke Bernard; and before the end of March, was returned againe to Dresden: That there were 12000. Saxon forces (all strong and lusty bodies) there inquartered a­bout Leispsich, and those places of Misnia; and that all the Saxon forces, were to keepe their generall Rendezuous at Targau, vpon the 10th. of Aprill,(of which they reported) that some should goe to Duke Bernard, some be sent towards Lusatia, and others stay vpon the frontiers for the safeguard of the Countrey.

At Dresden, they dayly consulted concer­ning the going on of the Warres: Where they made ready great store of Grana­does.

A 1000. Horse, with 3000. Musqui­tires, were in the end of March, sent to­wards Chemnitz, who as it was thought should also goe to take in Bautzen▪ in Al­satia.

They write out of the Countrey like­wise, that the Imperiall Ambassadour, [Page 170]Duke Francis Iulius of Lawenburg, recei­ued but a slight answere, concerning his hopes in peace making.

In Brandenburg-land, towardes this end of March: these were the Actions. A­bout the twentieth of the Moneth, did young Colonell Buckersdorff, surprize 200. Imperialistes, in the little Citie of Sek­len, whome hee put vnto the sword. In another Markett Towne, the same day, hee surprized Colonell Wins, taking 700. horses from him, and put the Souldiers to the sword. Wins himselfe escaped nar­rowly. And thus in one day, did young Buckersdorff make prize of about 300. hor­ses.

By this time, were the Swedish gotten so neere to the walles of Landsberg, that the besieged offered to come to an agree­ment; But whereas they desired 4. dayes Cessation of Armes vpon it, the respite was denyed them.

Where vpon, after an houre and halfes parliance, the besieged, began againe to discharge their Ordnance; but the besigers were gotten so neere them, that their great shot could doe them little injury.

And thus they write out of the neigh­bour Countrey, of Newmarke.

March 23. or Aprill the 2, new stile. and againe Aprill 7.17. It is certaine, [Page 171]that Landsberg, is taken by the generall Ma­jor Lesle, to whome the Ditector hath gi­uen comaund ouer Kniphausens Army: but hee will not take it vpon him till hee hath first spoken with the said Rix Chancellor, to know in what case the Armie standeth.

The Swedes are now going against Franck­ford on he Oder: And as soone as that is taken, all the Swedish shall march into Silesia.


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