THE SWEDISH INTELLIGENCER.

The first part. WHEREIN, OVT OF THE TRVEST And choysest Informations, are the famous Actions of that warlike Prince Historically led along: from his Maje­sties first entring into the EMPIRE, vntill his great Victory over the Generall TILLY, at the Battell of Leipsich.

The times and places of every Action being so sufficiently observed and descri­bed; that the Reader may finde both Truth and Reason in it.

LONDON. Printed for Nath: Butter and Nicolas Bourne. 1632.

¶ The Contents and Methode of the whole.

  • I. A Discourse vpon the Dyet of Ratisbone: which Dyet, bred the Discontents of the Protestants; and enforced them to the Conclusions of Leipsich.
  • II. The Dyet of the Protestant Princes of Leipsich: and their Resolutions and Ac­tions vpon it: Historically led along, vnto the day of their joyning with the King of Sweden.
  • III. A briefe Chronicle of the King of Swe­dens, Actions, from his first landing in Germany, vntill his great Ʋictory over Tilly.
  • IIII. The Proceedings of Monsieur Tilly, Generall of the Catholike League, by himselfe; from his first comming against the King, vntill his great defeate before Leipsich.

¶ THE PREFACE TO THE READER.

IVdicious and favoura­ble Reader. Out of our high respect vnto that Caesar and Alexander of our times, that admira­bly victorious King of Sweden: wee haue here (and for thy pleasure too) adventured vpon an Essay of his Story; which if liked, may en­courage vs to continue it. Not out of any confidence, that ours is a Chronicle worthy enough, for such heroick performances (a Polibius, or a Tacitus were little enough for that) but our intention chiefly is, to provoke some abler Pen, some better instructed In­telligencer, to doe it: and if such a one con­troll [Page] or mend vs, wee will not be angry. If you here demaund, out of what Instruc­tions wee haue furnisht our Intelligencer; be pleased to know; that nothing is willingly feigned, or wilfully falsified. The errors that be in it, are errors of ignorance, all. Some part of it was received from the papers of an honourable personage; a Commaunder of prime credit and activitie, with that victo­rious King. Wee haue beene made to vn­derstand much of these Actions, by discourse with another gallant Gentleman: and he al­so a great Commaunder in the Army. Some printed High Dutch bookes wee haue had. For some things we haue had private wri­ting, and from good hands too. In other things we haue made vse of Gallobelgicus: e­specially where he deales vpon publick Re­cord, and where we thought the poore man durst speake freely: Some times, sure, he writes but by Commission; and is every where sparing in reporting the Emperours losses. And yet in this, to take away all ex­ception, we haue followed him too; not­withstanding wee by others found greater numbers and defeates, specified. Very good [Page] vse haue wee made of the Weekely Currantoes too: which if a man of judgement reades, he shall for the most part finde (especially of latter times) very true, and very punctuall. Whosoever will be cunning in the Topogra­phy of Germany, and would vnderstand these warres, let him not despise Currantoes. All this, lastly hath passed the allowance of a Gentleman (of the best judgement and in­telligence for these matters) in the King­dome.

Wee haue every where dealt candidely, not magnifying the King, nor derogating from his enemies: not left out, or put in, for favour or advantage. Our methode is this: to handle every Story by it selfe, and then to bring all together at the day of Battell. Carefull haue we beene, (yea no small paines haue we taken;) to note the times and to de­scribe the places of the most famous actions. We haue examined the dates with diligēce; and still had fiue Maps before vs of the same place. The Imperiall Dyet of Ratisbone, wch was well hoped would haue mended all, leaving things farre more desperate on the Protestants partie; necessitated a Resolution in the Prin­ces [Page] of that Confession; rather to dye free, then to liue slaues. Hence their Dyet of Leip­sich. And because these Leaguers were at first of an Vnion by themselues; we haue briefly therefore, and vpon the Bye, first handled their warlike preparations; vntill the day of their joyning with the King. The same haue we done with the Kings Story: gone along with it from his Majesties first landing. The Kings having of many Armies in the field at once, troubled vs not a little at the first, to finde with which of all these Armyes the King in person should be: but wee after a while perceived, that this most industrious Chieftaine, was able to serve more Cures at once then one: and that he was so vigilant vpon every occasion, that there were few great Actions which himselfe was not at one end of. Many a brave Generall he hath; The Lord Oxensterne, a Sweden borne, and Lord Chancellor of that Kingdome; Generall all this while of a particular Army in Prussia, to waite vpon the Po [...]e, and his motions: The Lord Falkenburg, a Germane borne, and Lord Chamberlayn of his Majesties houshold; vnfortunately slaine in Magdenburg. The Lord [Page] Gustavus Horne a Finlander: and still Generall of a particular Army by himselfe: with whom the Lord Marquesse Hamilton is associated, The Lord Otho Todt, for brevities sake call'd Otty-todt, or Todt, a Swede, Generall of his Ma­jesties Horse; Sir Iohn Bannier, a Germane, and a braue Souldier, Generall of the Foote or In­fantery: all these you finde frequent and ho­norable mention of; and yet hath the King himselfe beene at the most of the businesse. All particular actions it had beene impossi­ble for vs to haue toucht vpon; therefore haue we endevored to relate the famousest: whether Sieges, Battels, Marches, Encam­pings, or Removings: orderly leading all a­long vnto the great day of battell. It would haue perplexed our methode to haue men­tioned every particular supply that the King hath had: those therefore wee desire the Readers to imagine. For example: he landed but 11. Regiments or thousands of Foote at first: yet within a moneth was his Army full 20000. strong: which daily increased also.

His numbers, indeede, were never great: he had but 5000. men, for the most part, and [Page] never aboue 7000. in all his late warres of Prussia against the Pole: and yet with them hath he fought severall Battels, beaten out, or wearied out, two Imperiall Armies; taken in the great and strong Citie of Elbing, with others: and obtained his purpose finally, vpon his enemy; who was able at once to haue come downe with such a power of Horse vpon him, as had beene sufficient to haue carryed away himselfe and fiue such Armies. That which hath made his Majestie so victorious, (next to the assistance of Al­mightie God,) is his most exact observing of military Discipline; wherein with an admi­rable temper, he is both strict and sweete: the Majestie of a King in him, commanding more willing obedience from his Army, then the awfull directions of a bare Generall alone, possibly could. Adde to his strict Dis­cipline, his many poynts of new invented Discipline, peculiar vnto himselfe, too long here to describe. His justice, finally, and his mercy; his exemplary and his indefatigable industry: his affabilitie, and his easinesse of accesse: the goodnesse of his cause, and the common Libertie which his victories bring [Page] with them: haue conquered more then his sword. What now shall hinder this braue and princely Warriour, to arriue vnto that height of reputation which Gonsalvo did in the warres of Naples; whom the Historians of that age, worthily stile, the great Captaine? yea so great a Conquerour hath the King hi­therto beene, that I dare challenge the skil­fullest Historian, to set (for all particulars) such another by him. God blesse the King of Swedens Majestie: and thoroughly enable him, to be the glorious Assertor of the Germane Libertie. Vale.

If the Readers desire the continuance of our Relations: our Intelligencer shall be much the better furnished to giue Content, if they please to send vs in their owne Intelligence.

For that it seemes impossible for vs English to a­voyde that observation of Philip de Commines, That in all great actions, wee are still hark­ning after Prophecies; which the taking of some things in this kinde, hath even now verified: wee will therefore feede the humor of the times a little, with a Prediction of a great Astronomer of our owne Nati­on, vpon that great Conjunction of Saturne and [Page] Iupiter, Iuly 18▪ 1623. And the second a Prophecy of the famous Paulus Grebnerus his Booke, now in Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge.

The Astronomers judgement is this. That the effect of that Conjunction would be felt in the North and Northeast parts of Europe in particular: and in gene­rall over all. That it would produce Famines, Plagues, Warres, &c. Places subiect to this, he nameth Italy, France, Bohemia, Silesia, and Germany. Of Provinces he nameth Prussia, Brandenburg, Sti­ria, Hassia, and Saxony. Yea he descends to Cities: naming Rome, Prague, Magdenburg, Cob­lents betwixt Mentz and Cullen, Vlmes, Bruns­wick, Ausburg, &c. He sayes it is likely to goe hard with the Romane Empire, Clergie, and Iesuites. He speakes of a King of a true Religion that should doe all this: and of much happinesse that should succeede it. The whole Discourse will perchance shortly be imprin­ted.

PROPHETIA IN LEONEM DOMVS SAXONIAE.

DIV aspectavi & connivi ego huic actui, & fidem Domui Austriacae & Philippo syn­ceram praestiti, ne in victissimum Regis Philippi Belgium jamdudum ad extra­neos de veniret, quod mihi Hispania ac­ceptum referre habet. I am vero diutiùs sopitum quiescere, & quasi micare in tenebris, mihi & filio meo Christiano in­toleranda & irrecuperabilis jactura et damnum videtur. Ideo arcum intendo meum & jacula mitto, & sagittae meae ac tela fortunae filij mei Christiani eti­am [Page] directè collimant metam & inva­dentes feriunt, ac disijciunt Burgundi­cum illum, ac Austriacum Leonem, vnde meum, ac filij mei regnum ac do­minatio, amplè dilatatur. Quod ego Haerés (que) meus faeliciter consummavi­mus.

A Prophecy of Paulus Grebnerus, vpon the Lyon of the House of Saxony.

I Haue long lookt on and winked at the businesse: and still haue I kept my faith vntainted vnto the house of Austria and to Philip: that so the vnconqueredThe Low-Countries, and the Wallon Countries. Belgium might not long agoe haue falne into the hands of Strangers: and thus much Spaine owes me. But for me to lye still a­sleepe, and to be hoodwinkt as it were any longer: seemes an intolle­rable and an irrecoverable losse and [Page] detriment vnto my selfe and my son Christianus. Now therefore bend I my bow, and shoot abroad my darts: whereupon the arrowes and darts of mine owne fortune and Christianus my Sonne, doe directly hitte the marke, and smite those that invade me: yea they cast downe that Bur­gundian and Austrian Lyon: wher­upon is the Kingdome and Domini­on of my selfe and Sonne, very am­ply enlarged. Thus much haue I and mine heyre, most happily at­chieved.

OF THE MEETING Given by the Emperor, vnto cer­certaine Electors of the Empire, at the Dyet of Ratisbone, 1630.
Acurately and truely described in a Letter, by one that very well vnder­stood how matters were there carryed. Faithfully translated out of the Latine Prin­ted Copie; with some Marginall Notes added, for cleering of the Story.
The Letter.

COncerning the passages of the E­lectorall Dyet, truely my noble friend N: N: I had according to my promise, dispatcht a more early advice vnto you, but that vpon my returne to Ratisbone, there were more dayes spent in mutuall visits and Entertainments of friends, then indeed I was wil­ling withall: But having now gotten loose of this troublesome kinde of Courtesie, and that the dispatch of my businesse, together with the retyrednesse of the place where I now reside, had afforded me some ley­sure, I would no longer delay the discharge of that obligatiō, in which I stood engaged vnto you.

[Page 2]Now after twelue yeares of most bloudy warres, and al­most vtter desolation brought vpon a goodly Countrey; ve­ry probable surely it was, that a peace would be desired on all hands, and that for the full concluding thereof, this very Dyet had principally beene Convoked. As for the Prote­stants, they verily had even vnto this day vndergone the har­dest of all hardship, being still overlaid with most heavy im­positions, and with the billettings of the Souldiers of the Ca­tholike The Catho­like Princes of the Empire, who haue en­tred into a League for the recovery of the Church lands, and for the rooting out of the Protestant Religion. Leaguers: Yea the Catholickes themselues, having had often tryall of the insolencies of the Imperiall Souldiers, and of the chargeablenesse of the warre; beganne now also mightily to distast the Covetousnesse of their owne partner, the Duke of Bavaria. Vpon this discontentment was the Palatine ofThe Duke of Newburgh, a yonger house of the Pals­grave, & who put in for the Electorate: lately before, turnd Papist. Newburg reported, to haue fallen off from the League: as for the Archbishop of Saltsburg, he (as having no share among the other Princes in what should be conque­red or recovered by the warre,) had for many yeares past withdrawne his Contribution. The Bishop Elector of Triers also very earnestly complained of the damages received by the Spanish: namely, of the pillaging of his Country, and the plundering of his Subjects houses: yea, and the BishopBrother to the Duke of Bavaria. E­lector of Colein also gaue off among the rest. In this one point notwithstanding, did the counsels and desires of the Prote­stant party differ from the Catholickes; for that They out of a well meaning simplicitie desired an vtter forgetfulnesse of things passed, and a right downe peace: whereas These, tis true, seemed to be contented to lay downe Armes; but not except the Church goods withheld by the Protestants, might first be restored. Furthermore, that the Emperour was for his part heartily desirous both of the Peace, and this Dyet; we are in courtesie bound to beleeue it. For when it was talkt on in every mans mouth at Vienna, how that both the Peace and Agreement were but given out for a meere showe, the Dyet not really intended, and that the Emperour never meant to goe to Ratisbone; He gaue the Count of Schwarzenburg (Marshall of his house) a shrewd checke, for that he had not already given order to the household, gotten the carriages to­gether, [Page 3] made provision of Wagons andFor both Vi­enna and Ra­tisbone are sci­tuated vpō the Danubie. Shipping, and for that by his slacknesse and negligence, matter was ministred for the people diversly to descant vpon: and credible it was, that Himselfe being a Prince of milde disposition, vsed to liue in peace heretofore; did now begin to consider vpon the va­riable changes of fortune, and after so many yeares of prospe­rously atchieved warres, was at length desirous of ease and quietnesse. To be feared besides it was, lest that these conti­nued warres, these immortall Impositions, these violences, iniuries, and Ravages; would be beleeved to be commanded, for that they were not forbidden: and that when people saw no other helpe for it, they would seeke a remedie even out of despayre it selfe.

But as for those whose mindes were fully taken vp with the opinion of Caesars affecting to Rule all (people being ve­ry apt to imagine the worst) they mainly suspected His de­signe in summoning this Dyet, Peoples suspi­tions of Caesar [...] intentions. not to proceed out of any care of the publicke, or his desire of an equall peace; but that He was partly constrained vnto it by some pressing necessitie of his owne, and that he might lay such a ground-worke for the house of Austria, as he might build vpon hereafter.Their Argu­mēts for their suspition ta­ken, from the opinion of the Courtiers. And that because every thing now helpt forward his businesse as he could desire. That whatsoever had any strength (to resist him) in the whole Empire, what through warres, tributes, and ac­cusations, lay now a drawing on, vpon an easie death as it were. That it was the part of a wiseman to follow his for­tune, which had hitherto beene alwayes favourable vnto Cae­sar. That a man must make his best vse of what ever befalls him. That many things were to be brought about by putting to the venter, which were accounted difficult in the begin­ning. That by the ayde of the Catholike Leaguers, the Prote­stant Princes first; and those being made a hand with, even the Catholikes themselues, might very possibly be brought vnder the Dominion of the house of Austria. That the Conde D'Ognate of the house of Guevaras, the late Spanish Embas­sador with the Emperour, (a man not ignorant of the designes then on foote) was wont to cast out a word now and then a­mongst [Page 4] his friends, How that the Gownes of the Germane Bi­shops were with the longest, and that their traynes must therefore be clipt.

Furthermore, suppose the Peace did never so much please, (the Emperour) yet the Dyet, by which it was to be con­cluded, ought by all meanes to be avoyded. For by this course, should Caesars both words and actions come vnder censure; and the authoritie of Majestie be by that meanes much weakned: that this is the Condition of Ruling, that the Accompt be allowed vpon no other Termes, then as gi­ven vp to one man onely.

But whereas there was an Army already now on foote; the warre not onely begun, but farre advanc't; Contributions imposed, divers Princes deposed, andThey meane Walsteyn, whō the Emperour made Duk [...] of Meckleburg. new men set vp by the Court; every thing (to conclude) passed quite contrary to the Lawes; the States of the Empire; yea the Electors them­selues eyther vnwitting of them, or vnwilling with them; how could all these things be defended; yea which way could they possibly be excused? Furthermore, how ever Caesar might be earnestly enclined to a peace, yet must his power be necessarily kept vp by force and strong hand. That both the Nobilitie & the Commons had beene too highly exasperated, with a shew of varietie of injuries; yea, and that they would take Courage to revenge themselues, so soone as ever they should see Caesar disarme.

These reasons, no doubt, had beene throughly canvassed at Court,Reasons to perswade to the Dyet. and had a long time exercised both Caesar and his Courtiers with suspence; against all which, the necessitie of going forward with the Dyet prevayled notwithstanding: for, as for such spirits as having beene throughly chafed, were eager vpon the warres; they were to be pacified with the hopes of Peace, and the mending of the times: and against so many enemies, the French, the Sweden, and the Hollanders, comming all like a tempest at once vpon them; the Princes of the Empire were to be brought about: and to be perswa­ded, That these being not the private enemies of the house of Austria alone, but the publique adversaries of the Empire; [Page 5] were to be beaten off at the common charges, and with their vnited forces. Nor was Caesar ignorant, that very many there were, so farre forth Maisters of themselues as fayrely to obey, though not slavishly to serue, that argued among themselues vpon the miseries of servitude; raked vp the injuries recei­ved; and that aggravated all, by construing things to the worst sence: and, as for the defeating of the Imperialists By the King of Sweden: a­gainst whom, Holsteyn first, and Arnheim next, had bin sent. in Prussia; the cutting them off in Holland; their incountrings with so much hardship in Italy; the taking in of St. Hertoghenbusck, and of Wesel; the falling of the King of Sweden into theThat is, in­to Prussia. Em­pire; many, he well knew, did openly talke of all these things, as not much amisse. But another reason for this Dyet there was, (nor was there any other cause that so neerely concer­ned Caesars going to it) to settle (namely) the Empire in his owne family, to shew his Sonne vnto the Princes, and to win the Electors vnto him. Thus the Catholikes, the Protestants, and the Emperour, for diverse respects, and with equall de­sires, all sought the Peace. The Protestants desired such a one, as might promise a forgetfulnesse of matters passed, and secu­ritie for all sides: the Catholikes, they were earnest to haue the Lands first of all restored vnto the Churches, and the Churches vnto the old Religion: as for Caesar, that He cald a Peace, to haue his Rebells curbed, and all submitted to his disposing: which Peace notwithstanding did no way per­swade the disbanding the Armies, nor the easing of the Im­positions. And this was the state of the Empire, thus stood mens mindes disposed, when as Caesar and the Electors met at the Dyet of Ratisbone.

Now were the heads of the Consultation proposed:The summe of the Empe­rours Orati­on, in six Ar­ticles. in the beginning whereof, Caesar in a long Oration pleaded for him­selfe, That He might not be thought to be eyther the Causer of so cruell a warre, or the hinderer of the Peace: imputing all the mischiefes that fell out vpon the warre, vnto the Pals­graue, and his associates, Mansfeild, Brunswicke, and the King of Denmarke: That himselfe being the forwardest, there had beene divers Conferences concerning an Agreement; but through the stubbornnesse of the adverse partie, all the Trea­ties [Page 4] [...] [Page 5] [...] [Page 6] had come to nothing; now at length therefore high time it was, seriously to bethinke themselues of a good Peace; or if that could not at the best hand be obtained, then to devise vpon the way of a joynt league, both betweene themselues and with the Emperor, against the disturbers of this so neces­sary a Peace; be they natiues of the Empire, or be they for­reigners; and in as much as the Palsgraue Fredericke, (the Causerboth of these warres and miseries) after those most e­quall Conditions propounded to him by the Elestors in their Dyet at Mulhausen, is not to this day come in; nor hath ever since desisted from such Courses, as haue beene troublesome both vnto his Countrey and common peace; but hath stirr'd vp others heretofore, and the Hollanders of latter times, vnto the destruction of his owne Countrey: The Emperors re­quest therefore was, that the Electors would be pleased to passe an Act of Counsell, whereby the Palsgrane should con­tinue a banished man without all hopes of returning, and that they would never vouchsafe to entertaine eyther peace or amitie with him. He furthermore declared, how that the Hollanders having long since shaken off all due reverence vn­to the Empire, had with a sacrilegious boldnesse of late, both besieged and taken in, certaine of his good Cities and Domi­nions: now therefore it must be lookt vnto, that the Empire suffer no damage: and the remedies must now be consulted vpon, how the boldnesse of these robbers might best be re­strained; and how that which vnjustly they had taken away, might be recovered. The fourth poynt to be considered vp­on, was the warres of Italy, and the French King: who now invaded the rights of the Empire, and made himselfe an Vm­pire of such matters, as belong'd not vnto his Cognizance; which is not to be endured,But the King of Sweden sayd otherwise in his Defence, which see af­ [...]erwards. sayth the Emperour. As for the King of Sweden, there be no causes of enmitie betwixt vs: but if he will not condescend vnto the Imperiall Ambassador the Burgraue of Dhona, and the King of Denmarke the Me­diator of the Peace; then verily he is to be threatned with the power of the Romane Empire; and if he gaue not over, then was his bold attempt to be chastised by force of Armes. [Page 7] Last of all, were the Princes advised to consult vpon the meanes, of maintaining a standing Army, and of the restoring of Martiall Discipline; and of the manner of laying, and of le­vying the Impositions.

So soone as ever these Propositions were noysed abroad,The Peoples construction of the Empe­rours Orati­on. they were variously descanted vpon by diverse: most men admi­ring, that whereas the first Proposition tooke care how to e­stablish a good Peace; the fiue other Articles breathed out nothing but menaces of warres and Armies. That the Sove­raigntie of the house of Austria, and the base enduring of ser­vitude by the other side, was the thing (forsooth) that must be called Peace. That all was now excused, by the rebellion of the Bohemians, the oversight of the Palsgraue, and the stubborne spirits of Mansfeild, and the rest. That those Armes which were at first taken vp against enemies, were now turnd against the Common-wealth: For, after the diffe­rences were compounded with the King of Denmarke, there remained no enemy in the whole Empire; and yet the Army and the Impositions, were neverthelesse commanded to be kept on foote. But now plainely was this driven at, that the private quarrels of the house of Austria, might be maintai­ned by the power of the Romane Empire: which must there­by make another mans quarrell, her owne interest. But as forThe King of Bohemia. Fredericke, the Hollanders, theNovv Duke of Mantua, vvhose Ance­stors being of a yōger house of Mantua, setled them­selues in Frāce; to whom for want of Issue, Mātua is now falne: the In­vestiture wher­of being deni­ed him by the Emperour, and the King of Spaine set on; the French King appea­red with an Army in fa­vour of him. Duke de Nivers, and for his sake the French King, and the King of Sweden; to con­clude, they all professe themselues injuried by the Austrians, and to keepe firme amitie with the Empire. And suppose that Frederick had invaded the Crowne of Bohemia vnjustly, and had merited punishment in that regard; yet had his Ele­ctorall dignitie beene taken from him, and conferred vpon the Duke of Bavaria; before ever the consent of the Prin­ces of the Empire had beene asked; the Electors gainesaying it: yea, the King of Spaine himselfe, being vtterly against it. People, moreover, were bold to Prophecy, That never should Peace returne into the Empire, vnlesse the Prince Palatine were first restored into all, or into a good part of his lost dig­nitie and Dominions. For not he in his owne person alone, [Page 8] and his so many Children, and their posteritie, (which soe­ver of them were so minded,) would sometime or other be­come the subject of more troubles; but the Austrians and Spaniard, with the Hollander; and the Protestants (who by putting the Prince Palatine out of the Colledge of Electors, should alwayes hereafter be too weake in number of voyces) with the Catholikes; would ever jarre with a perpetuated heart-burning. But were that Prince re-estated in his anci­ent place; then should that too great power of the Duke of Bavaria, the heart-burning against the house of Austria, and the feares which the Protestants now stood in, be all taken away.

And now that the Duke of Bavaria might neither be a­fraid, nor asham'd, to lay aside the Electorship, obtained by his valour andDeserts to the Emperor, vnderstand; and not to his Cosin the Prince Pa­latine. deserts; they interposed this Counsell: to leaue (namely) a part of the Palatinate, vnto him and his heires for ever; and, (which is sayd not to be without ex­ample) to haue the Electorship goe by turnes between them, from one vnto another; eyther by terme of yeares, or liues. Moreover, as for the Hollanders, notwithstanding they had renounced their allegiance to the King of Spaine; yet they fayrely conserved the Majestie of the Empire; yea and that with their neighbouring Princes, (though Catholikes) they did religiously maintaine the Articles and Quarter of Neu­tralitie. True it is, that by the right of Warre they had made thēselues Masters of certaine places, which either the Spani­ard before held; or they feared he would take in: whereas the Emperour on the contrary; not by them provoked by any in­jury, had without any Decree of the Empire to that purpose, all out of a private desire of his owne for the assisting of the King his Cosin; sent the Count de Monte-Cuculi, even into the very heart ofWhile the Prince of O­range lay be­fore St. Her­toghenbosch. Holland it selfe, with an Army. This was the cause of the revenge which they tooke afterward: nor did they more then enough in so doing, or committed any thing contrary to the Law of Armes. That for the WarresAbout the Dukedome of Mantua; which the Spaniard per­chance could ha [...] bin wil­ling to haue seised for himselfe in the Emperors name; who pretended the Dukedome to be a Fee or Forfeiture of the Empire. of Italy, the Rights of the Empire, tis true, were pretended; but yet were they with the bloud, and at the charges of the [Page 9] Germane Nation, maintained in behalfe of the King of Spaine. For as for the Duke de Nivers, he was ever ready to haue sworne fealtie, and done his homage to the Emperour: but indeed it no way stood with the Spaniards designes, to haue a Prince so neere a neighbour vnto his Dutchy of Millaine, that were infected with a French spirit. Against the King of Sweden they affirmed, how that the Emperour in ayde of his Cosin the King of Poland had sent a strong Army: and there­fore ought not to take it ill, if by the same Law of Armes, that King should now assist his owne Cosins the Dukes of Mecklenburg condemned,By the Em­peror, to leese their Estates: Whereupon, Walsteyn with his Army fell vpon the Dut­chy of Meck­lenburg, whom the Emperour having Crea­ted Duke of Freidlandt be­fore, now made him Duke of Meck­lenburg. before they were heard: re­venging withall, the private injuries offered vnto himselfe. These and the like Discourses passed vp and downe.

The summe of the Princes Answer vnto the Emperors Propositions.But the Electors in a graue and a solemne Answere, insi­sted vpō the miseries of the present times, the outrages com­mitted in the Warres, and the excessiuenesse of the Impositi­ons; laying all the fault vpon the author of all these, the new Duke of Mecklenburg, Generall of the Emperors great Ar­mie; through his sides, thus girding even at the Emperour himselfe; seeing, that vnto him He had given so large a Com­mission (and that without the consent of the Princes of the Empire) as never before him any had: That there had an infinite Army beene gathered; to no vse, vnlesse to the de­struction of their Country: that warre had beene commen­ced against such, as it had never beene denounced: That the Impositions, which by the Law of the Empire it had beene fit to haue assessed by the joynt consent of the Princes; had at the pleasure of the sayd Duke beene imposed, and most ri­gorously exacted. They at the same time also affirmed, how that the Elector of Brandenburg alone in these few yeares past, (besides those inestimable damages, which vsually ac­company the Warres, and the vnruly Souldiers,) had beene faine to contribute (and that vnder the name of a Tribute) to the value of twentie Millions ofA Florens, is about two shillings Eng­lish. Florens.

At which time these severall complaints were also given vp: The Duke of Pomerland complained himselfe for ten Millions drawne out of his Principalitie of Stetin alone; and [Page 10] that in one onely yeare, besides an vnnecessary rabble of Hang-byes, Drablers, and the Skullery of the Armie; there had beene one and thirtie thousand foote, and seaven thou­sand fiue hundred and fortie horse, billetted vp n Pomer­land. William, Landtgrave of Hessen, for his tribute of some certaine yeares, seaven Millions; the Duke of Wirtemberg, monethly contributed an hundred and twentie thousand Flo­rens. The Citie and State of Norimberg, twentie thousand a moneth: others likewise complained, of some more, some lesse, that had beene raked from them. They highly accused thereupon the prodigall luxury of the sayd Duke, his Collo­nells & Captaines, for their flanting of it in such rich Cloaths and household-stuffe, of gold and silver; and the incredible high keeping and trappings of their horses.

At the same time there was a little Booke shewed vp and downe, wherein the ordinary provisions ofWalsteyns. his house, the offices of his Court, and the names of those that had prin­cipall charge about him, were conteined; and all these with larger allowance (as it was sayd) then those of the Empe­rours owne pallace. Then was his so much envied house, built at Prage out of the spoyles of the Empire, and vpon the ruines of an hundred houses, purposely pluckt downe for him, every wherespoken of.

Nor could any of these things be denied. But those times (as the Emperour excused it) and the power the enemy was then growne vnto, and, the victory, depending vpon speedy pursuite alone (nothing being safer in Civill Warres, then expedition) could not away with that scrupulous order of the ancient Customes. Many a Dispute in writing hereupon passed too and againe, on both sides: in all which, the Em­perour pressed no new Proposition or request: but the Elec­tors mainly vrged the casheering of the newWalsteyn. Duke and his Army; to haue a Peace made with the French King, and the Princes of Italy; yea with the King of Sweden also; whose Fleete was not as yet arrived vpon the Coasts of Pomer­land. TheMr. Russdorff by name. Ambassador of Fredericke the Palatine, they were very earnest to haue admitted to Audience, vnto whom now [Page 11] comming to the Dyet in company of the King of great Bri­taines Sir Robert Austruther. Ambassador, they gaue assurance for his safe comming and returning. With the Hollanders last of all, they all, (but especially the Bishop Elector of Colein, who lyes nearest to the danger) desired peace vpon any termes: a buisinesse of which moment, they all affirmed worthy to be referred vn­to a Dyet of the whole Empire. Many things therefore the Electors by voyces at length carried, which fell heavy vpon the Emperour and his Courtiers.

Vnto Walensteyn therefore first of all, were there sent Iohn Baptista Verdenberg, and Gerard Questenberg; Barons both of them, and both of them enriched by him with many a mightie gift; and both of them alwayes beleeved to be at Court the great advancers of his Projects. But even there­fore were they made choyce of before any others, as the fit­test men to perswade with him. The taske which they vn­dertooke, seemed to be the difficultest of all the rest; it be­ing beleeved that Walenstein being a man of a most haughtie spirit, accustomed to a military command, one that had beene Courted by the greatest Princes, and vpheld by infinite ri­ches; would never dully endure such an affront, nor by his good will ever stoope againe vnto a private life. Cause to feare moreover he had, lest they who never durst doe it when he was a Generall, would yet require their own of him when he should become a private man. And the Dutchy of Meck­lenburg They feared left he would vse it, as the Devill did the Possessed; all to teare it, when he knew he wat to leaue it. (they beleevd) likely hereby to be exposed to most certaine danger. All mens mindes now full of expectation what would be the event of that message; all men now a­fraid of new hurly-burlies; behold now (what everyPeoples gues­ses at the rea­son, of Walen­steins so easie quitting of his Armie. body much admired at) Walenstein immediately obeyes the com­mandement of the Emperour. Some indeede surmised, that he being a fast servant to the Emperour, though a gallantly magnificent spirited person; yet being now become inexora­ble by the many faults committed by his Souldiers, he would never be wrought to it, eyther by gifts or threatnings; or by any other devises, such as vulgar spirits vse to be troubled withall, did therefore in his owne judgement account it his [Page 12] better course, to giue way vnto envie; being in possibilitie one day to see both times and men favourably disposed to­wards him, who turning with the times, might be changed to repentance. Others suspected him to be weighed downe with great promises, and to haue that way fallen off from the Emperour. There were some that said, that even by the skill of some in the Starres (wherein besides others he made vse of Kepler, a great Master) and by the Chaldeans art, was fore­signified, his times and fates to be come, and that they gaue him this Counsell. Others, to conclude, beleeved him to be forced vnto it by necessitie; and that by the cunning even of Caesar himselfe, he was fetcht over, and quit that way of his great forces: and that his vaine heart, out of a hope and de­sire of warres with France, and the glory of a new prey; was thus suddenly taken off from his mightie Army: and that he now remaind at Memmingen a prisoner as it were. But what ever the matter was, a very great thing it is, and neere vnto a prodigie; first, that Caesar condescended vnto the Electors; and secondly, that Walenstein so soone yeelded vnto the Em­perour.

Another thing there is which the Electors now obteined; namely, that those innumerable numbers should be lessened, and the greatest part of the Souldiers disbanded. Then, Cae­sar promised also, that there should be no warres made vpon any, without the consent of the Princes. And that no Im­positions should hereafter be layd, at the pleasure of the Ge­nerall of the Army, but in the Land-dayes of the severallThe whole Empire is di­vided into ten Circles or Provinces: each of which (besides their [...]verall Prin­ces,) hath a President and [...] Coun­ [...]ll [...]rs to assist [...] who call [...] or Land-dayes to [...] for the publike. All the Princes of the same Cir­ [...]le, be of one League. Cir­cles, as they call them. Beyond all this, the desires both of Caesar, the Electors, and of the French Ambassador conspired in one consort, to make vp a Peace so vnwelcome and hated of the Spaniard: seeing that by it sure order was taken, first, for re-estating of the Duke de Nivers in the possession of Mantua and Montferat: secondly, that the (Germane) Troopes should be recalled out of Italy: and lastly, that the passages of the mountaines in the Grisons The Valte­ [...]. Countrey, should be layd open as before. None of which Lawes verily are of that nature, that for the obteining of them, there was any [Page 13] neede to disturbe the quiet of so many Nations, to expend such vast treasures, and to shed the bloud of so many thou­sands.

The Treatie with the English Ambassador, and the Prince Palatines Procurator, although it came to no head; yet thereby way was obteined for Prince Frederike to finde Grace: and that those parts of his Dominions which are in the Spaniards hands, are now to be quitted vnto him: and he hath the libertie yet left him, to fulfill the Conditions offered him at Mulhausen. And thus, (which God turne to a good end,) doe we owe vnto Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, Goths, and Vandalls, that we are not vtterly despoyled of our Armes, nor too streightly curbed by the Electors; nor, final­ly, made the tenants of the Clergie.

For when as in the heate of these contentions yet continu­ing, newes was brought, both that the Baron of Dhona was come away from Dantzik without any hope of a Peace: and that the King of Sweden had already landed an Armie in Pomerlandt; made himselfe Master of Stetin, and at the same time put the Imperialists to flight; Caesar, supposing that to be an occasion to be made vse of; affirmed, that his despising of the Majesty of the Germane Empire ought to be revenged vpon him; and that, that error was to be rectified by vertue, which they had run intoIn the time spent in the Treatie of Peace; which had better bin employed in sending an Army, to withstand his so neare ap­proaching. by delaying. These Propositions of Casars were not a little helped forward by a private feare of the Catholikes: which was, least that not Gustavus alone, (a Prince but of small power) did thus stirre vp the massie weight of so great a warre; but that there were more of the Protestants, who out of a hatred to the present estate of things, and a desire of innovation; and those, perchance, for­reigne Princes too, should be deeply in the plot with him. These (Catholike Princes) therefore, thus drawne vnto it, not so much out of their loue vnto the Emperour, as out of their owne feares, agreed to the warres, and aydes against him.

In the meane time (which thing was cunningly and close­ly conveighed, and whereof there had beene no mention [Page 14] made, among any of the heads of the Consultation) was the designe for the Election and Crowning of the King of the Romanes mainly intended; and that by most cunning sollici­tations, and the earnestest of their devises. Egenberg, The Empe­rours Coun­seller. a man continually troubled with the Gowt, for which he seldome vsed to come out of his bed; gaue particular Ʋisites vnto the foure Electors present, and vnto the Ambassadors of the Duke of Saxony, and the Marquesse of Brandenburgh, at their severall lodgings: finely insinuating vnto them, how that the Emperour now well in yeares, was even weary of paines ta­king, and was a man subject to many diseases besides: that his affection was very good towards the Common-wealth, which he was now able to doe no greater service for, then to settle in it a good Successor. He put them in minde now and then, of the miseries of an Inter-regnum: intimated vnto them, the high deservings of the house of Austria; wonder­fully setting out the towardly hopefulnesse of KingThe Empe­rours Sonne, King of Hun­garta; whom the Emperour would fayne now haue pro­cured to haue beene chosen King of the Romans: which is as much as Heyre appa­rant to the Empire. Ferdi­nand.

To the same purpose, (for that the Ambassadours of the two absent Electors excused themselues, as having no instru­ctions or Commission to treate vpon that poynt) were there Letters dispatched vnto the Electors themselues; yea, the E­lectors good will was so little doubted of, that a certaine Phy­sician of the Emperours Court, (and he none of the obscurest, as having a speciall veyne in Poetry) in a set Poeme which was printed at Norimberg, congratulated the Father, for the Crowne set vpon his sonne Ferdinand the third his head, none almost contradicting it. Vnto which intimation (of E­genbergs) they all returned answere, magnificent enough for words, but emptie for realitie: highly thanking the Emperour for his Care of the Common-wealth; but that the Lawes of the Empire forbad them, to condescend at this time vnto his desires:Non nisi causa cognita. seeing that by that Law, the Electors without parti­cular knowledge of the Cause, could not appoint a Dyet for the Creating of the King of the Romanes: and that the full knowledge of the Cause conteined many particulars, which require both time and serious consultation. Then, that Franck­ford [Page 15] was by the same Law, the place appointed for the Elec­tion. That it were wisely done to take away all matter of ru­mors; that people might haue no cause to say, how all things in that Dyet, were in the middle now of Caesars Armies frighting them on every side, not passed by the free voyces of the Electors, but by force and feare rather. Thus by a wise dilatory answere, were those requests turn'd off, which in right-downe termes, the Electors would not willingly haue denied. But whither it were their Care of the publick good, and to keepe their owne liberties; or that the ambitious coun­sell of the Duke of Bavaria stept in betweene, I know not: but very certaine it is, that great offence was taken at it, that King Ferdinand in his Caroach, in all meetings, and where­soever; still ambitiously affected the vpper hand; which was denied to belong vnto him, whilest his Father was living. And the report was, that the Bishop Elector of Mentz, gaue Stralendorff Vice-chancellor of the Empire, a privie Item to that purpose.

The Law of Soveraigntie eagerly raged in the meane time; and diverse of the Gentry of Franckenlandt, Schwabenland, and the Palatinate, were there accused to haue borne Armes, vnder Mansfeild, The Mar­quesse of Ba­den; Lieute­nant of the Army of the Princes of the Vnion, for the keeping of the Palatinate, and the Protestant Countryes. After the dis­solving of the Vnion, in the yeare 1621. he the next yeare fought with his owne forces about Sinsin, betwixt the Palatinate and Wirtem­berg: where the good old man was defeated by Tilly and Don Cordova. Durlack, and Brunswick, against the Em­perour. Some affirmed them to be guiltie: themselues sayd they onely found themselues guiltie, by suffering their punish­ment. The execution of this businesse, did the Emperour now commit vnto Wolfgang Rudolph Ossa: (a man accounted rather great, then good; taken to'ther day out of the service of the Counts of Hanaw, into the number of the Court Flyes or Instruments:) Commanding the goods of the condemned persons to be confiscated into his owne Exchequer: the E­lectors and other Princes, earnestly protesting against the proceedings; claiming, those Gentlemen to be within their Dominions: and that these Fees which Caesar now Confis­cated into his owne Coffers, the Gentlemen did hold of them, and of their Ancestors; and that all such Forfeitures and At­teinders were by the favour of former Emperours, and long Custome, due vnto them. Caesar continued resolute notwith­standing; [Page 16] and dispatcht away Ossa with a most ample Com­mission: then which action of Caesars, none was generally taken in worse part. Because even bad Princes, though some­times they punished such as were actually proov'd traytors, yet they alwayes too narrowly searcht not into every man, that was to himselfe guiltie: that they husht vp many a fowle thing, by a wise dissimulation, rather then by bringing it to open punishments. That he that takes away one ene­my, makes way for many. That he especially who hath any thoughts of Peace-making in him, is not to take notice of e­very thing: for feare lest the whirlewindes after much adoe being now scarce layd, should bluster out againe into a vehe­menter tempest. That bodies weakned by a sicknesse, are not presently againe to be tampered withall by Physicke; but to be recovered with quiet. That scarcely can the acti­ons of the best Princes be defended, much lesse theirs, which are alwayes suspected of avarice: That vpon these grounds, Cosimo de Medicis, (a most wiseDuke of Flo­ [...]nce in Italy. Prince,) alwayes left the Estates of such as were attaynted, vnto their Children and next kindred. Finally, the businesse which of its owne na­ture was grievous enough, would be made much heavier by the sharking of the Officers.

But these Court-Harpyes forsooth, now after that vnder the pretence of treasons against the Emperour, and exer­cise of forbidden Religions; they had with their vncleane­ly talons, foully gryped Bohemia, Moravia, and both the Austria's, and wrung the Nobilitie and Gentry (whose case was rather to be pittied) out of their inheritances: their insatiable mawes being not yet full cramb'd, they now whet­ted their Clawes and infamous beakes againe, to devoure the wealth of the Empire. That their yawning gullets, were yet set wider vpon the tenterhookes, by the easinesse of the Em­perour; in whose service (he being a Prince too much go­verned by his Officers) men might offend with lesse feare, and greater reward. One thing there was that added more matter to these speeches; a word (namely) that scaping from Werdenberg, was presently taken vp by the people: how that [Page 17] the goods of the Gentry of Franckenlandt, were already gran­ted away vnto the Lords of the Emperours privy Councell; both for the payment of their Pensions now many yeares behinde, and also for the reward of their paines and faithful­nesse, yet for all this, the names of theI beleeue that these 3. having thus gotten estates, had also new titles given them by the Emperour; for the first of which they were hated, and for the last, scorned by the Ger­mane Nation, that stand much vpon their ancient Nobilitie. This Abbot of Cremsmun­ster, was pre­ferred to the Bishopricke of Vienna in Au­gust follow­ing. Counts of Meggau and Trautmanstorff, and of the Abbot of Cremsmunster (which three personages, by what title I know not, had out of the Exchequer received some of the escheated goods) they much scorned and despised, as new and strange preferments: for a disposition there is bred in the bone of vs mortalls; with ill eyes to looke asquint at other mens newly acquired happi­nesse; and with an equall repining to measure other mens good, and our owne injuries. But Caesar, shall I say, or these that beare all the sway at Court, remained resolute and pe­remptory in the matter: all loath to loose so plentifull a Fish­ing.

You haue long expected, my noble Friend, to heare what hath beene moved, argued, and decreed in this Dyet, concer­ning the restitution of the Church goods. That shall I brief­ly tell you of. It stood not with the Emperours honor, againe to submit a case already decided by himselfe, and wherein he had by his Proclamation declared his pleasure, vnto the Cen­sure of others. Nor any whit of favour was there all this while shewed vnto the Duke of Wirtemberg, the Marquesse of Brandenburg, the Counts of Hohenloe and Waldeck, the Ci­ties of Strasburg, and Norimberg: who by sentences every day passed against them, were commanded to quit the goods of the Church. And thus may it hereby sufficiently appeare, how that that distinction of time agreed vpon, and the Tran­saction of Passaw, hath not hitherto beene observed, no not by Caesar himselfe; but that of the following time hath beene observed: seeing, that the Credit of all proofes, though ne­ver so cleare, hath beene overthrowne by cavills and by sub­tleties. Certaine it is, that the Count of Furstemberg, Presi­dent Iudicij Pra­ses. of the Iudgement, returned no other answere vnto Cas­par Vrban à Feiltsch, Chancellor to the Marquesse of Bran­denburg, [Page 18] complaining of the vnjust sentence decreed against the Counts of Hohenlo, than this vulgar Verse.

Fronte capillata est, posthac occasio calva.

That, Occasion is to be taken by the foretop, because shee is bald behind. Which same man in a familiar manner thus an­swered vnto George Muller (whom you well know) and to my selfe: that seeing our Counts The Masters of George Mul­ler, and of the Author. had confessed them­selues, for the space of fourescore yeares and vpwards, to haue kept the possession of the Church Goods; it followed ne­cessarily that they must with a good will leaue them for as long time vnto the Catholikes: and that after that terme, they might possibly returne vnto the Protestants againe. These mocks were added, vnto Iustice denyed vs.

And yet about the latter end of the Dyet, the Ambassadors of Franckenlandt, Schwaben, of the Saxon Princes also, and the Duke of Brunswick, and of certaine Cities besides; delive­red in writing the Forme and the Decrees of thatOf Passaw as before: where (Anno 1553.) there had beene a former Dyet held; wherein the Protestant Princes had received some confirmation or consent from the Em­perour, for their Appro­priated church goods. Against which Trans­action the Em­perour had since taken them away, by sentences and Commis­sions against them. Transacti­on, vnto the Chancellor of the Bishop Elector of Mentz: and he on the other side, in another writing declared vnto them, the Conditions vnto which the Catholike Princes see­med to haue consented. And to this passe the matter at last came, That for the further Compounding of all Differences, the time was appointed to be in February, and the place Franckford.

The Catholike partie treatedThat the or­ders of Pas­saw might be kept, and the Protestāts not be too sud­denly cast out of the Church Lands. the businesse in good ear­nest: but whether the reason of it were, for that intelligence being even now given them by their Spies of certaine secret levies of Souldiers, at that instant made by the Elector of Sax­ony and some others in Franckenlandt; and that they standing in feare thereupon of further troubles, were desirous to main­taine the hope of a good agreement in the Protestants; I can­not easily determine: time will discover all. Of all which; as also how things now stand betwixt the Princes of the Ca­tholike League: and of the Orders taken (for showe rather, [Page 19] than for continuance) about the manner of paying the Soul­diery; wee shall at my comming into — land, more com­modiously speake together. Farewell my noble Friend, N: N: and loue me still.

Your Observant, N. N.

THE PROTESTANTS DYET OF LEIPSICH, February 8. 1631. And what followed vpon it, vntill their joyning with the King of Sweden.

THe Imperiall Dyet thus ending November 3/23. left matters in farre worse estate than it found them: for that men perceived now their very hopes to be taken away, as their liberties and goods had beene before. And the Protestant Princes find­ing themselues startled by foure things especially, perceived it high time now for them to take the Alarme. The first of the foure was this: that whereas the Duke of Saxony had in the time of the Dyet written advice vnto the Emperour, of the King of Swedens approaching; the Emperour tells him againe, how he hoped that himselfe (Saxony) and Brandenburg would well ayde him, with mo­ney, munition, and other necessaries. By which answere, Saxony perceived a new bill of Charges comming vpon the Protestants next those parts, where the King of Sweden was landed. The second was this: the round course taken by the Emperour for the recovering of the Church Lands: which neither the Elector of Saxony was able to stay by his Letters vnto the Emperour; nor the Elector of Brandenburg and o­ther Princes, with their presence at the Dyet: but that even before their owne faces, daily Commissions were sent out a­gainst them. A third was this: that rigide course (taken by [Page 21] advise of the Iesuites) for Reformation of the Protestant Churches and Schooles, and the forbidding of the libertie of the Augustane Confession. The fourth was, that Decree of the Emperours (published foure dayes before the breaking vp of the Dyet, though hammered vpon long before:) for the continuance of the Warres against the King of Sweden: whereas the way had beene propounded and advised vpon before, how to compound the matter, rather then how to continue the troubles. And that which aggravated the De­cree for the warres being; not onely that the Princes were to be at the charges of it, but that the levies were to be layd and collected, not by the consent of those who should pay them, but at the pleasure of the Imperiall Commissaries: for the moderating of whose power, and repressing the numbers and insolencies of the Souldiers, notwithstanding some slight promises were now made; yet how far they would be kept, was in their owne pleasures. The Protestants by these argu­ments being not onely made suspitious, but sensible too; that there were not too many good intentions in the Emperour towards them, their Estates or Religions: begin to enter in­to a Consultation for their owne safetie. The plot for it was layd thus. That whereas there had beene a Conference be­twixt them and the Catholikes at the former Dyet, concer­ning the Church Lands; the further treatie thereupon, was referred vnto a Dyet (procured by the Catholikes) to be held at Franckford vpon Mayn, in August following; the Duke of Saxony should write his Letters vnto the Emperor, (which was seconded by the mediation of the Electors of Mentz and Bavaria, The Empe­rour graunts the Dyet.) entreating libertie for the Protestants to hold a Dyet by themselues, in some convenient place; that so by their vnited Counsells they might be provided, for an an­swere at the future Dyet of Franckford.

The Imperiall assent being thus obteyned; the Protestant Princes by their Letters and Ambassadours agree vpon the Dyet: the place to be Leipsich, and the time the 8.th of Febru­ary. That the severall Princes and States therefore might know before-hand, what Instructions to giue vnto the Am­bassadors [Page 22] they were to send; [...] the Duke of Saxony in his Invi­tatory Letters to each of them, layes open the purpose of the intended Dyet; fayrely communicating the mayne proposi­tions, both vnto them, and to the Emperour. The contents whereof were; First, To consult how the Church might with a good Conscience be maintained in her ancient liber­ties and happie estate. Secondly, How to keepe their due o­bedience to the Emperor, and yet preserue the ancient Con­stitutions and Peace of the Empire. Thirdly; How to main­taine correspōdency with the Catholike Princes. And fourth­ly, What to answer for themselues both in generall and par­ticular, as well concerning the maintenance of the reformed Religion, as to the Emperours Edict concerning the Church-Lands, when they should come to meete at the Dyet of Franckford.

The Princes thus invited, and the time now come; vpon the fourth of February 1631. the Elector of Saxony enters Lypsich in great state: and the Elector of Brandenburg a little after him.The Prote­stant partie in the Em­pire. Thither in person came these Protestant Princes also. Christianus (another) Marquesse of Brandenburg. Iohn William, and Bernard, Dukes of Saxon Weymar. William, Landtgrave of Hessen, Frederick Marquesse of Baden. Au­gustus Prince of Anhalt. Frederick Count of Solmes. Iohn George, and Ernest Lodowike, Counts of Mansfeilt, and the (deposed) Dukes of Mecklenburg. These Princes sent their Ambassadors. The Duke of Deuxponts. Iohn Ernestus another Duke of Saxony. Frederick Vlrick, Duke of Brunswicke. The Duke of Lunenburg. The severall Princes of the Circles of Schwaben and Franckenlandt. The Lady of the Abbey of Quedlinburg. The Bishops Administrators of Mecklenburg and of Bremen. The Counts of Stolberg. The Barons of Reus­sen and Schonberg. These Townes and States send their A­gents also. Norimberg, Strasburg, Franckford, Lubeck, Bre­men, Brunswick, Hildesheim, Mullhuisen and Northhuisen. Duke Lodowick Frederick, Administrator of the Dukedome of Wirtenberg was newly dead; and Duke Iulius not yet set­led: and therefore being not able to come himselfe, he sent [Page 23] the Vice-Chancelor of the Dukedome called Doctor Loester, and some other Counsellors, as Deputies for that Dutchie. And these be the Protestant party in the Empire: some where­of being Lutherans, and some Calvinists; they first of all a­gree to haue that distinction of names (which had caused so much schisme and hatred heretofore) to be vtterly taken a­way: making a generall Decree, that both Professions should from thence forth be called by one name of Evangeliacalls. That is, Pro­fessors of the Gospell.

No man was suffered to stay within the Towne, whose bu­sinesse was not knowne: the streets ends were chained vp and barricadoed; guards set at the severall ports; and the keyes of the gates every night brought into the Dukes cham­ber. And all this, was, to prevent Spyes and surprisalls. The Duke Elector of Saxony (on whose greatnesse and coun­tenance, the Partie and Action very much depended) makes a speech first of all,Saxonyes O­ration. which had reference vnto his former Let­ters of Invitation vnto them: protesting withall, his owne firmenesse and forwardnesse for the peace of the Empire, and the maintenance of the Religion; and that he would be ready to adventure, both life and goods in the Cause: so desiring e­very man freely to giue his Counsell in such manner, as they might be able to render a fayre accompt of it vnto the Em­perour. Vnto this meeting, the King of Sweden also sends his Ambassador Doctor Chemnitius; who in his Maisters name delivers them this assurance. That his Majesties in­tentions were no other, then to restore the Empire to her an­cient peace, the Princes to their liberties, and to defend the Church in her Religion: telling them moreover, how that the French King was newly entred into a League with him for fiue yeares to come. The Ambassador had both speedie Audience, and honorable entertainement. The Dyet (to be briefe) brake vp vpon Palme-Sunday the third of Aprill fol­lowing. The Conclusions agreed vpon, themselues expresse in their Letters, in humble and complaining manner, enlar­ged in many sheetes of Paper, sent by an expresse Curryer vnto the Emperour: in which their joynt desires were thus signified.

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[Page 24] Their hum­ble Remon­strance vnto the Emperor.Their Complaint and Remonstrance, I reduce into these Propositions.

That the Golden Bull and Constitutions of the Empire, had of late beene all abused. That the Emperours late Edict for restitution of the Church Lands; and his endevours to roote out the Protestant Religion, were the maine Causes of these late troubles. The first of these, breeding jealousies and dis­contents betwixt the Protestants and the Papists: and the se­cond, tending to the vtter ruine of the two Electors of Saxo­ny and Brandenburg. Then they complaine of injustice done vnto particular Princes and Cities: some of which, were in­juried by the violent taking away of their Church Lands: as the Dukes of Wirtenberg, and Brunswick, the Prince of Anhalt; the Counts Hohenloe, Stolberg, Lippe, Valdecht, Ver­thimb, Erpach, &c. the Towne of Ausburg, and others. Some hindered in the exercise of their Religion: as Augu­stus and Frederike, Princes Palatines, and yonger brethren vn­to Wolfgang William, Palatine of Newburg now turnd Papist. Others had their Estates confiscated: as the LadyThe mother and brother of the King of Bohemia: Lewis being Duke of Sim­mern. Electresse Palatine, and her Sonne Lewis, Prince Palatine; the Dukes of Mecklenburg, &c. for whom the whole Colledge of E­lectors had interceded in the late Dyet, but not prevayled. Others complaine of the violent altering of their Feods and Tenures of their Lands and Lordships; as the last before na­med Princes, and Iohn Casimire Elector of Saxony; into whose Lands the Imperiall Commissaries haue with force and Armes intruded; changing the tenures of the tenants, and altering the Religion. Ernestus Marquesse and Elector of Brandenburg complaines of the same wrongs offered vnto his Pupils, the yong MarquessesWhich are of the house of Brandenburg: their Lands lying by Nu­renberg. of Onspach. Vlme Duke of Brunswick complaines, first of the ravages of his Lands done by Tilly: vpon pretence of moneyes owing to the King of Denmarke; and made over by the said King vnto the Empe­rour: who imployed Tilly thus to streyne for them: Second­ly, of the seisure of his Bishopricke of Hildesheim: and third­ly, that the chiefe Towne of his owne residence Wolffenbut­tle, had beene forced to take an Imperiall Garrison.

[Page 25]Others complaine, how they might not haue the benefit of the Law; but were driven away by threatnings and dis­courtesies. The Electors and Princes complaine of contempts and indignities offered vnto their persons: some of them ha­ving beene threatned the Bastonado by some of the Empe­rors Souldiers. The Cities and Circles of the Empire com­plaine, that vndue and excessiue Impositions and Taxes haue beene layd vpon them: not by the consent of themselues, (as the Imperiall Lawes command) but at the pleasure of a­ny of the Emperours Commissaries. That vnder colour of protecting them, they haue beene forced to afford Quarter and maintenance, vnto the Imperiall Armies: who when they should indeede haue defended them, most cowardly ran away. That when they would not endure the Souldiers in­solencies, they haue beene declared enemies of the Empire, and forbidden to defend themselues. That their Lands haue beene given to Souldiers, as if they had beene Conquered. That they haue beene forced to contribute to imaginary com­panies of Souldiers, (perchance to foure or fiue) as if they had beene a compleat band. That the Commissaries haue as­signed Quarters and passages vnto the Souldiers, without e­ver asking leaue of the Princes or Countries. That people haue beene tortured for their money, had their Cattell driven away, their houses fired, and all Commerce driven out of their Country. That the Souldiers neither observed martiall discipline, nor morall honestie: neither keeping the Lawes, nor fearing God. That virgins and women haue beene ra­vished, vpon the high Altars. That if the weekely Contri­butions were not payd at the Commissaries absolute plea­sure, the souldiers then spoyled the Country. The Mar­quesse of Brandenburg complaines, that notwithstanding the King of Sweden had two parts of his Country (the old and the new Mark) yet was he forced to pay a full Contribu­tion, for the whole Marquisate. That himselfe, by the Soul­diers so long lying in his Country, was left so poore, that he was not able to entertaine a Garrison for the defence of his owne Palace: and was faine to abridge even the necessary [Page 24] [...] [Page 25] [...] [Page 26] provisions of his owne Table and family. That the Souldiers enterteyn'd by the Protestants for their owne defence, haue beene turn'd against them, to take away the Church Lands. That treble more Contributions haue beene raysed against no enemy, then ever were when the Turke was in Germany. That when the Princes of the house of Saxony, as namely, Altemberg, Weymar, and Colburg, had excused themselues of disabilitie to pay each of them 1454. Dollars a moneth, which the Commissary Ossa had required of them; then Til­ly threatned to fetch 10000. Dollars a moneth out of them. That considering all this, they could perceiue nothing else, but that the Emperour had intended their vtter ruine: whereas he had dealt more gently with those of his owne hereditary Dominions. That all this is most contrary vnto the Oath of the Emperour, and vnto the Lawes of the Em­pire: and for such, hath beene complained vpon, by the seve­rall Electors and Princes; and by them protested against in the late Dyet of Ratisbone. Wherefore they now humbly pe­tition to be relieved; protesting otherwise, that they are no longer able to endure it: but shall be enforced to defend their persons, their Consciences, their Estates and Subjects. Re­solving notwithstanding to continue their due loyaltie and obedience vnto the Emperour: humbly now desiring a faire and a gracious Answere from him. Lypsich, March 18. 1631.

Their Con­clusions pub­lished.Their Conclusions were answerable vnto their Proposi­tions.

1. That considering it was their sinnes which deserved these punishments; they command publike prayers to be made vnto Almightie God for the averting of these mise­ries.

2. That meanes might be thought vpon, and a friendly Treatie appointed with the Catholike Princes; for removing of all jealousies, and restoring of good termes and concord betwixt them, as for seaventie yeares before it had beene.

3. That when the time and place for this Treatie were once appointed; the Protestants should there appeare a little [Page 27] before, to prepare themselues what to say in it.

4. And the fayrelier to dispose both Caesar and the Catho­likes vnto their intentions; that their grievances should in humble manner be before-hand by Letter presented, both vn­to the Emperour, and the three Catholike Electors.

5. That these grievances should in those Letters be pres­sed; to be contrary vnto the Emperors Oath, the Imperiall Lawes, the priviledges of the Princes, the honour and safetie of the Empire. That the warres would vndoe all, the inso­lencies of Commissaries and Souldiers were so insufferable, as that it stood neither with their Consciences, their safeties, nor their honours, to suffer themselues and Subjects, to be a­ny longer thus abused: and that they would herevpon desire the benefit of the Emperours so often promised protecti­on.

6. That seeing these greater and fuller Assemblies were both chargeable and tedious; they agreed that certaine De­puties should as necessitie required be in the names of all the rest appointed, both to treate and determine of what should seeme convenient for the Common cause.

7. They decree of levies of Souldiers (both of horse and foote) to be made in their severall Dominions and Divisi­ons: without crossing the Constitutions of the Empire, or offence of any; and onely in their owne defence.

8. That whereas in a Dyet of the Empire held 1555. it had beene Decreed; how that neighbouring Princes should liue neighbourly, and if any oppressed others, the rest should re­lieue them: this reliefe they now promise one another; de­siring that if in these troublesome times, the levies and other carriages could not possibly be every way agreeable to the Constitutions of the Empire, that it might not be interpreted to be done of purpose.

9. They decree the continuance of their loyaltie and obe­dience vnto his Imperiall Majestie.

10. They agree also vpon the proportion of the Levies.

Thus the Elector of Saxony engages himselfe to rayse six. Regiments. Brandenburg three. The severall Circles of Swa­ben, [Page 26] [...] [Page 27] [...] [Page 28] the Rhine, and Franckenlandt, three Regiments a peece: and the Circle of the Lower Saxony agreed to furnish mo­neyes for the raysing and paying of one Regiment. Each Re­giment of foote was to be 3000. strong: and of horse 1000. And thus the Dyet being ended vpon Palme Sunday with a Sermon; Saxony displayes his Defensiue Banner, beates vp his Drummes, begins his Levies: and so at their comming home, doe the rest of the Princes.

These Conclusions and Resolutions of the Protestants, were not a little boggled at, at Court; did not slightly dis­please the Emperour; and startle the Catholike Leaguers, with their Adherents. The Protestants heare of it on both eares: For this, are they both by words and writings, both threatned, and reviled: yea their new League and strength were by some Confidents, not a little scoffed and scorned at. But they that had beene vsed to hard deeds before, were suf­ficiently hardned against fowle words now; they were not to be discouraged this way: they did their businesse, and let the others talke their talkes. Things going thus on; it was by the middle of May every where perceived, How that these Leaguers of Leipsich, were now in very good earnest. For now vpon the taking of Magdenburg, the Protestants strongly suspecting by the inhumane crueltie there vsed by the Imperialists; that it was not a heate of warre alone, but that there was a Coare of malice discovered in it: not an Im­periall, but a Popish spite, vnto that Citie aboue others; for having beene one of the first that harboured Luther and his Religion: they beginne to make it their owne case, and that for their Religions sake, all they were likely not to be much better vsed. Some therefore of the neighbour Princes (those namely of Saxony and Swaben) demaund of the Cities of Vlmes and Memmingen, &c. Scituate in Swaben by the River of Danubius, (which were of the Protestant League with them) to enterteyne for Garrisons some of these new levyed Forces. Memmingen consents: but Vlme being a greater Ci­tie, relyes vpon her owne strength. These things being done, Command is given by the Emperour vnto Eggon Count of [Page 29] Furstenberg, (appointed Generall for the Circle of Swaben) to imploy those 8000. (lately come out of Italy, after that the warres of Mantua were ended) together with some 8. or 10000. more, against those Townes aforesayd. Fur­stenberg presses so hard vpon Memmingen; that about the be­ginning of Iune, he enforceth it to renounce the new League, and to purchase the Emperors pardon, at the rate of 50000. Florens readie pay, and 25000. monethly Contribution. The Protestants League being now noysed abroad, and ano­ther meeting at the latter end of May, at the same Leipsich in­tended; thither come the Ambassadors of England, Sweden, Saxony, and Brandenburg: There is the vniting of their for­ces with the King of Sweden propounded, but not conclu­ded: onely the passage of Wittemberg heretofore denied him by Saxony, is now yeelded vnto, to be open for his Army. Mr. Tilly about the same time, dispeedes a message vnto Saxony with overtures of a peace; promising shortly to come himselfe with sufficient Commission to conclude it. This being suspected to be a plot, eyther to divert or stagger the resolution of the Duke, or a tricke to gaine time; and that Tillyes Commission might perchance be in his scabbard; the message was not accepted: notwithstanding that Tilly did in mid Iune following, come in person indeede, and at Oldsleben had treatie with the Dukes Ambassadors.

When this would not doe,The Empe­rours Procla­matiō against them. and the Emperour by the Dukes second Letters (dated the day after the end of the late Dyet) vnderstanding the resolution of the Leaguers, which by their generall levies he perceived them readie to main­taine: And hearing withall, the King of Sweden to be victo­riously already advanc't, quite through Pomerland and Meck­lenburg, into some places of Brandenburg: out-thunders He his Imperiall Bann against the Leipsich Leaguers, dated at Vienna, May 14. peremptorily forbidding any place of the Empire, to grant either reliefe, passage, or place of quarter, muster, or rendezvous, vnto any of their forces: comman­ding every man, to destroy, kill, and persecute them as ene­mies: and the easier to dehort the Leaguers, his Majestie of­fers [Page 28] [...] [Page 29] [...] [Page 30] to release them of their Oaths, taken in prejudice of him at Leipsich; and to grant pardon to as many as should come in: vpon paine of death forbidding all their Subjects, eyther to contribute to their levies, or to serue vnder their Ensignes; but to turne both their moneyes and persons towards the ad­vancement of his Imperiall service; promising the freedome of Conscience and Estates to all that should thus obey him.

Diverse people are naturally afrayd of thunder: some of the Leaguers therefore, (and especially the grave-headed Burgers in the richer Cities) began now to quake at the noyse of this so hideous a Proclamation. Which feare of theirs, much coold their blouds, made them the lesse zealous and warme in the resolution. But he that hath not courage enough to fight, hath wit enough commonly to excuse his cowar­dice: So fell it out here; diverse of the backwardest pallia­ting their owne remissenesse, with the newes they pretended to haue heard, of the mammering of the chiefe man in the action, the Duke of Saxony. And this had like to haue arre­sted the whole Designe. Saxony hearing of all this, notwith­standing he was at the instant hard layd at by Hagen Muller the Emperours Ambassadour, to come over to his Maister; yet (to prevent jealousie) would he not so much as once speake with him then at Torgau, but referred him for Audi­ence over vnto his privie Councell.

Hagen Mullers Prepositions were these foure:

1. To consult how the businesse about the Church Lands might best be compounded.

2. How the inconveniences occasioned by the Warres, might be eased.

3. That the agreement of Leipsich for standing vpon their owne defence, might be Cancelled.

4. That he would advise how a peace might honorably be concluded with the Swede; and that the Duke would medi­ate it. The answere of the Dukes Councell is too long to in­sert: and to be briefe, the Ambassadour returnes not well sa­tisfied. Immediately hereupon, the Duke dispatches his Let­ters vnto the severall Leaguers: assuring them of his owne [Page 31] Constancy; and inviting them with all speed, to hasten their preparations.

These Letters of Saxony brought about the matter againe; and he, to shew that he meant to doe more then write Let­ters; layes sure guardes vpon his owne Frontiers, some eight or ten thousand men: proceeding warily hitherto, and all vpon the defensiue. The Protestant Princes of Swaben, (which lye along the Danubie, betweene the Dukes of Wirtenburg and Bavaria) doe herevpon assemble at Essingen; resolving to sticke close to the Articles of Leipsich: reenforcing their levies therevpon. And now the fayre City of Norenberg in the vpper Palatinate, returnes to her former resolution; not­withstanding the particular threatnings of the Emperour, to giue the spoyle of it vnto their great neighbour, the Duke of Bavaria. The Citie of Strasburg armes also: and the Ci­tie of Vlme, encouraged by the new Administrator of Wirten­burg, Duke Iulius; refuses to giue passage to the late troopes, comming that way out of Italy: and send three hundred Mus­kettiers to ayde their neighbours of Memmingen against them.

The Landgraue of Hessen (against whose Country, it was generally reported that Tilly would forthwith come; and that he was already for that purpose vpon his March as farre as Saxony) bestirres himselfe all this while; levies men, and fortifies his Frontiers. Tilly sends, before he comes to him: and that these foure Demands.

  • 1.
    Tillyes quar­rell to Hessen.
    To pay the arrier of the contribution due vnto the Em­perour.
  • 2. To giue sufficiently hostages or securitie for the future. Directly professing him eyther a friend or a foe, to the Em­perour.
  • 3. Immediately to cashiere his Army.
  • 4. To lay open his passages for the Emperours forces: to receiue Imperiall Garrisons into Cassell and Sichenheim; and to giue quarter to fiue other Regiments.

Hard termes all. Vnto which the Landgrave returnes though a Negatiue, yet a modest answere. This way not [Page 30] [...] [Page 31] [...] [Page 32] speeding; it seemes the way of practise and of trechery was attempted: for the Landgraue presently vpon this, discovers some correspondency enterteind by two or three of his owne chiefe Lords with Tilly, for the delivering vp his two chiefe Townes of Cassell and Sichenheim; for which they are exe­cuted. Tilly after this in a rage sends three severall troupes into his Countrey: his owne intended expedition against him being diverted by newes of the King of Sweden.

All this while (namely vntill the latter end of Iune) was there no assurance of the Protestant Princes purpose to vnite with the King of Sweden: but they all stood vpon termes of neutralitie; kept their obedience vnto the Emperour, standing onely vpon the Defensiue; without once offering a­ny Act of hostilitie, where they were not first provoked. Saxony had now 17000. foote, and 3000. horse, all in a rea­dinesse. Vpon the same termes stands the Marquesse Elector of Brandenburg: who notwithstanding the neere alliance be­twixt the King of Sweden and himselfe, (the King having married the Sister of the sayd Marquesse:) yet that he see­med farre enough from vniting with him, appeares by an action of his, which had like to haue cost him dearely. The Elector denies a request of the Kings for provision for his Army, (now in the Brandenburghers Country) and e­specially for that the Marquesse now desired his Towne of Spandau againe, which vpon some termes had at the first bin lent vnto the King. Which the King taking very vnkindly, (divers Circumstances perchance occurring) all of a sudden besieges the Electors Towne of Berlin, Vnkindnesse betwixt Swe­den and Bran­denburg. Of which see more in the Actions of the King of Sweden. bending his Canon vpon the very Pallace; threatning to pillage it. The diffe­rence is at length appeased by the Electresse; together with the promise of 30000. Ryx Dollars a moneth, and to haue the Towne of Spandau (Custrine he also now againe desired as before he had done, as some say) againe consigned over vnto him as before, as a Depositum of assurance, for preventing of such like vnkindnesses in time to come. This done, the King about the middle of Iune, returnes from his Campe vnto Ste­tin; there to giue Audience vnto the Russian Ambassadour, [Page 33] who brought him an offer from his Emperour, of a great power of money towards the maintenance of his Warres: requesting on the other side, some Commanders of the King to guide his Army against the Pole; for which Army he al­so desired passage through the Kings Country.

About the beginning of Iuly, the Crabats, it seemes, being the fore-runners of those 18000. that had some while layn a­bout Vlme and Memmingen; passe over the Danuby into the Duke of Wirtenburgs Country; where they plunder and spoyle 11. Townes and Villages: whom, Duke Iulius, (new­ly chosen Administrator) meeting withall; what with his owne forces, and what with three Companies of foote and two Cornets of horse now sent vnto him from Vlm, vtterly defeates three troopes of their horse. Thus farre this new Administrator did brauely. But the rest of the Emperours Army vnder Furstenberg, (having now brought Memmingen vnder Contribution) passing the Danuby after their Crabats; first take in Reitling, an Imperiall Towne, Duke Iulius look­ing on: who no sooner perceiues them to make towards his Army, now lying at Tubing; The Prote­stant partie weakned, by the revolt of Wirtenburg. but his heart presently fayles him; and vpon the second day of Iuly being Friday, shame­fully yeelds to the signing of these Articles, which Fursten­berg presents vnto him.

1. To disclaime the Dyet of Leipsich; to yeeld obedience vnto the Emperour: and as Hostages thereof, to resigne vp his brothers widow and Children, into the Emperours pro­tection.

2. To dismisse his Army: giving leaue to those that would to serue the Emperour: the rest to sweare, never to beare Armes against the Emperour.

3. To giue Billet and Provisions vnto the Imperiall Ar­mie.

Tubing is hereupon yeelded vnto the Emperour: the for­tune and example whereof, is followed by other Cities, both in that Dukedome, and throughout Swaben; & by Vlme among the rest. The terror strikes one way, as farre as Heil­br [...] in the same Dutchy; within halfe a dayes journey of the [Page 32] [...] [Page 33] [...] [Page 34] lower Palatinate; who thereupon dismisse their forces: and on the other side, the Citie of Norimberg quakes, in the vpper Palatinate. In so much, as (in a manner) all Swaben and Franckenland, fall off from the League, and come vnder the Emperours devotion.

Hessen stands firme.The Landtgraue of Hessen remaines firme for all this: and Duke Bernard of Saxon-Weymar now peicing in with him; Hessen reyses a new Fort here Isenach: and some of Tillyes Vant-curriers having now pressed vpon him as farre as the River Warra, yea and assaulted his new Fort (though with some losse:) he withdrawes his troupes dispersed be­fore vpon his Frontiers; and formes a standing Campe be­twixt Cassell and Eschwegen. Wee are by this time come into the middle of Iuly. About which season the Duke of Saxony (now much moved with the revolt of Wirtenburg & Schwa­ben; Saxony calls a Parliament.) cals his Parliament together to Dresden: and propounds these seaven Articles vnto them.

  • 1. Whether he were best to send any body to appeare for him, at the approaching Dyet of Franckford?
  • 2. What to answere the Emperour, now pressing him to renounce the Conclusions of Leipsich?
  • 3. How to behaue himselfe towards Tilly, who now be­gan to vse hostilitie towards those in Duringen?
  • 4. How to answere the Duke of Bavaria, demanding him to lay downe Armes?
  • 5. How to pay, and where to quarter their owne Soul­diers.
  • 6. Whether they were best to joyne with a certaine great Prince,
    They meane the King of Swedē, though they thinke not good to name him.
    or not.
  • 7. What were best to be done, for the relieving of the Bi­shopricke of Magdenburg?

What their resolution was, appeares by the successe: for within ten dayes after this, (that is, vpon August the second) the Duke with his Feild-Marshall Arnheym, Musters 13000. foote, and 5000. horse; provides his Pioners and Carriages; Commands all to be readie to March at an houres warning; fortifies Leipsich; goes to visite his Frontiers; and to the [Page 35] Towne of Torgaw especially: which being a frontier towne, next vnto the Emperours Countrey of Lusatia; and scituate also vpon the River Elve; lay very fit therefore both to cleare that Streame, and to hinder Tillyes further intrusions that way; who lay all along vpon it, betwixt Magdenburg & Sax­ony. The Landtgrave of Hessen (againe) about mid-August, Of Hessen againe. flyes out vpon his vnfriendly neighbours, in the Bishopricke of Hiersfelt: brings that vnder contribution; but meddles not with the Clergie, Tilly now writes vnto the Landt­graves people; complaining of their Maisters purposes to joyne with the enemy. The Landtgrave goes on for all this; and Marches vp into the Bishopricke of Fulda. To oppose him, is Fugger first sent vp with an Army,Fuggar and Altringer sent against him. sayd to be some 16. or 18000. men: which for the service of the Catholike Leaguers, had beene before times raysed in the lower Saxony and the Palatinate. Within a while after whom, Altringer followes; with some two Regiments more: which had heretofore layn about Strasburg & Hagenaw. Some of Tillyes also lye vpon him about the River Werra: and thus hath Hessen his hands full. Privately therefore goes he over vnto the King of Swedens Camp at Werben; Some overtures of v­niting are (perchance) there made: and he returnes home from the King, with three Regiments of horse, and one of foote; with an able Commander over them: all lent vnto him for his assistance. Brandenburg, about August 22. sends Ambas­sadors vnto Saxony: and Saxony about the same time, sends privately vnto the King of Sweden. And now (perchance) were the overtures to the future vnion first agreed vnto on the Dukes part: in which vntill then he not declared him­selfe. And thus appeares by a word of his, spoken about this time at Torgau, namely; That if he thought his owne shirt knew his intention, he would teare it. Which reservednesse of his notwithstanding, there appeared (ever since the late Parliament of Dresden) a good inclination and confidence in the Duke towards the King. So that notwithstanding his shirt knew nothing, yet this may we guesse to haue beene the great secret: That if so be the Emperor would not come [Page 36] off, or did so fiercely presse vpon him to take in his Country: that then, if the King of Sweden by his joyning with him were likely to prevaile; he would rather side in with him, then suffer himselfe to be over-run by the Emperour. And that he carried a more private good affection vnto the King, then he thought it convenient as yet to discover; appeares by his desiring of some expert Commanders of the King, (and Colonell Teuffell by name) to leade his Army: But this did not the King at this present yeeld vnto; because that had rather engaged the King vnto him, then him vnto the King. Surely it is, that Teuffell was not sent vnto the Duke; he being one of those that were on the Kings side, slaine af­terwards in the great Battle.

Where the Battell was after fought.About the twentieth of August, Saxony Musters his for­ces vpon that fayre plaine or heath by Leipsich: namely, sixtie Companies of foote; (ten Companies to every Regiment) and 1000. Muskettiers for his owne guards. Horse 4300. (of which 1000. to a Regiment) and 400. for his owne guards: over and aboue all which, were 1400. Curiassers or men at Armes. These be the names of his chiefe Comman­ders. On Foote, Swalbach, Generall of the Artillery. Arn­heim, Feild-Marshall. Hans-George of Solms, Glitzwick, Loo­ser, Star-Schedel, Colonels. Of the Cavallery these. The Duke of Saxon Altenberg, Generall Bindtorp, Sergeant Ma­jor. Hoftkerk, Steinau, Colonels. Dove, Lieutenant Generall. All these troupes being thus Mustered; they were presently furnished with 400. Wagons of Provision and Ammunition, and sixe peices of Ordnance, out of the Dukes Magazine. While the Armie stayes thereabouts, there is first a Trumpet sent from Tillyes Hoast, to demaund passage of the Duke. He returning with no satisfying answere; Tilly sends these foure Propositions vnto him; to which he must haue a sud­den and a Categoricall Answere.

1. Whether he would, like other Princes, yeeld vp his forces to the Emperour; to beate Sweden out of the Coun­trey?

2. And as a Subject furnish the Imperiall Army with pro­visions?

[Page 35]3. And renounce the Conclusions of Leipsich?

4. And restore the Church Lands?

To all which, the Duke about the beginning of September, returnes not onely a negatiue resolution; but aggravated it also with some Circumstances of vnkindnesse offered him by the Emperour, in requitall of his so many good services; be­moaning himselfe, of the vntrustinesse of the Catholike Prin­ces: yea even before the Emperours Ambassador then with him, he protests; that they should not finde a Duke of Wir­tenberg of him, he would not suffer himselfe to be led by the nose: but bade the Ambassador tell his Lord and spare not, that he would liue and dye in defence of the Conclusions of Leipsich. This resolution in the Duke, was quickned (per­chance) by the French Ambassador, then with him; so that having discovered himselfe thus farre against the Emperor, he sees no way but eyther to be vndone by Tilly, or to joyne with Sweden. And now while the termes of vniting might be concluded with that King (to meete with whom, and the Marquesse of Brandenburg, himselfe the Tuesday following goes vnto Wittemberg) the Duke thinkes of keeping out of Tilly. Having gotten intelligence therefore, that the Count of Furstenberg (now joyned with Tilly) was by him sent as a Vantcurryer vnto Hall; and that he made provisions of Bridges: the Duke fearing, that his meaning was to passe over the Rivers of Sala and Mulda, and so to make for the Citie Torgau vpon the Elve; which Towne lying betwixt Leipsich and Wittemberg, had he once made himselfe Maister of; he had quite cut off the King of Sweden, from ever com­ming into Saxony; and had gotten all the commaund of the Elve besides, Saxony therefore suspecting Furstenbergs inten­tion; rises with his whole Army from about Leipsich, and makes with all speed towards Torgau: both to secure that, and there to meete with the King of Sweden also. By this time was the sayd Kings Army drawne downe as farre as Wirtemberg; himselfe is now at the Consultation of Torgau: Brandenburg was already joyned with him: and nothing hindred Saxonyes vniting too; but some termes partly of cau­tion, [Page 38] and partly of honour; whether he were to yeeld the whole Command of his owne Army vnto the King, or not? Which the King absolutely desiring, and the Duke making some Objections against, the Vnion was the longer a con­cluding.

Well! if Saxony will not joyne, Tillyes hast (for he longs to be beaten) shall quicken his slownesse. For no sooner doth Furstenberg perceiue his designe for Torgau defeated; but thitherward marches he. Tilly was now come vp to him. With 3000. foote, and 1500. horse therefore, first he takes in Mursenburg, Tilly going towards Welsenfels, and other places about Leipsich: blocking vp by this meanes, even the Towne it selfe. And now there was no remedie; Saxony must joyne, or be lost: vpon the 14. of September therefore he thoroughly condescends vnto the King of Swedens Proposi­tions. And thus haue wee brought Saxony and Brandenburg into the King of Swedens Army. Turne wee backe againe vnto that King, to shew by what degrees and approaches, he gained thus farre into the Empire.

The SVVEDISH Intelligencer.

RELATING THE PROCEEDINGS Of that PRINCE, from his first Landing in GERMANY 1630. vntill his great Victory over TILLY. HISTORICALLY DIGESTED. For the Readers better vnderstanding of the King of Sweden, wee haue here given you his Ma­jesties Pedigree: which may serve in stead of an In­troduction. THE PEDIGREE Of the High and Mightie Prince Gustavus Adolphus, by the Grace of God, King of Swe­dens, Goths, and Vandals, great Prince of Finland, Duke of Esthonia and Carelia, Lord of Ingria.

  • Gustavus Ericus.
    • Ericus,
    • Iohannes.
      • Sigismundus.
        • Ladislaus.
    • Carolus.
      • Gustavus
      • Adolphus.

GVSTAVVS ERICVS,Briefe notes vpon this Pedigree. first of that name and 1 bloud, was one of those six Hostages sent vnto (that scarce to be paralleld Tyrant) Christiern King of Denmark, Anno 1518. Which Hosta­ges he having gotten into his power, most per­fidiously reteined as his prisoners; carrying them away with [Page 38] [...] [Page 39] [...] [Page 40] him into Denmarke. But Gustavus having found both favour and libertie one day to goe a hunting; disguises himselfe, and escapes: after many dangers arriving in his owne Countrey, Anno 1520. About which time the sayd King Christiern contrary vnto his promise made vnto the Swedes vpon their submission, vpon which he promised to remit all offences: beyond all examples of Christianitie within foure dayes after his Coronation, causes all the Nobilitie, Gentry, Bishops, Counsellors, and prime Citizens of the Kingdome of Sweden, to be eyther hang'd or beheaded: the streetes of Stockholme, where he was Crowned, to runne with bloud; the carcasses to lye three dayes vnburied, and then to be burned, &c. A­mongst the number of the massacred, the Father of Gustavus was one. When Gustavus had once heard of this hideous newes; he, having that winter time gathered some small company together, exciteth the Swedes to vindicate their Countryes libertie. In the valourous successe whereof, him­selfe having beene a chiefe Author, is in the yeare 1523. by consent of all the States of the Country, chosen King. He thus elected, refuseth to be Crowned: contenting himselfe onely with the title of Governour. By authoritie of which dignitie, Anno 1527. he summons a Parliament; where he propounds the Reformation of Religion: in which finding much opposi­tion, and little hope; he surrenders the Kingdome vnto the States againe. The Land thus brought into a streight, hum­bly beseech Gustavus, once againe to accept of the Kingdome. Thus was he Crowned Anno 1527. becomming the first Protestant King that ever was in the world. This same yeare was Rome taken by Charles Duke of Burbon. This Gustavus from the time of his Coronation reigned 33. yeares.

Ericus, the eldest sonne of Gustavus succeeded his Father. Anno 1560. who reigning eight yeares, dyes without Is­sue.

Iohn, the second sonne of Gustavus succeeded his Brother, Anno 1568. Reigned 24. yeares. His onely Issue was Sigis­mund; chosen in his Fathers life time (viz. 1587.) King of Poland, and is yet living.

[Page 41] Sigismund, King of Poland succeeded his Father Iohn in 4 the Kingdome of Sweden, Anno 1594. He tooke an Oath to maintaine the priviledges of the Kingdome, to admit no o­ther Religion then that of the Augustane Confession; and to bring in no Strangers. Which Oath he palpably now vio­lating; first, by going about to alter the Religion; then by endevouring to enslaue Sweden, by making it to be a Pro­vince of the Kingdome of Poland, Anno 1599. he was in a full assembly of the States of Sweden, rejected and deposed: and his Sonne Ladislaus (then an Infant) chosen in his place: But with this Condition, If within six moneths he were sent into Sweden, there to be brought vp in the Protestant Reli­gion.

Ladislaus, Sonne of Sigismund, not being sent into Sweden 5 according to the Condition of his Election, lost his title vnto the Kingdome. And

Charles Duke of Suderman, the third and youngest Sonne 6 of Gustavus, & the deliverer of his Country from the oppres­sion of the Polacks, was chosen King, in the yeare 1601.

Gustavus Adolphus, the Sonne of Charles, succeeded his Father Anno 1612. being the present, and hitherto the suc­cesse-full Assertor of the Germane libertie.

Here may it fayrely be observed. 1. That all the posteri­tie 7 of Gustavus (which with himselfe are seaven in number) were eyther Kings, or elected to a Kingdome, vnto the third and fourth generation. The last whereof, and the seaventh in order, is the present Gustavus. 2. Obserue. That Gustavus Ericus, the Grandfather of this Gustavus Adolphus, obtained a Kingdome by delivering his Country from the Tyranny of the Danes: Charles his Father, for delivering it from the Pole. In which heroicall disposition of his Ancestors, Gusta­vus Adolphus now succeeds his Father and Grandfather, in vndertaking this present warre, for the asserting of Germa­ny, from the pressures of the present Emperour. 3. Besides that this Prince is descended of a Family of Deliverers; there seemes to be another Omen in his Stile, as well as in his Pedi­gree: he writes himselfe King of the Goths and Vandals; [Page 40] [...] [Page 41] [...] [Page 42] which Nations haue once heretofore beene fatall vnto the Empire.

This braue Prince having in the yeare 16 [...]9. had first a warre with the Pole, and then a Peace; was by the complaints & invitations of the Germane Princes, the next yeare brought over into the Empire. You haue before heard of the miseries of Germany: and yet had the Protestant Princes in their Dyet of Leipsich beene modest in their Remonstrance: they had not told you all. Stralesundt and Stetin, Mecklenburg and Pomer­land, were so heavily oppressed, so sorely over-layd, that they had not breath enough left, to be heard sigh so farre as the Emperours Court. A sound (we know) is vsually conveighed further along the water, then over-land: which may (per­chance) be one of the reasons, why their complaints are soo­ner listned vnto in Sweden, then at Ʋienna. These Maritime people therefore finding no reliefe ashoare; are forced to fetch their succours, whence they vsually did their Merchan­dize, out of the Baltick Sea. The King of Sweden is allyed with Bogislaus Duke of Stetin; and with Iohn Albert and his brother, Dukes of Mecklenburg: is confederate with Stralesundt and Pomerland, and therefore likeliest to be their Friend. His safetie much depended vpon theirs: had the Em­perour beene Maister of those Ports and Sea-coasts; he would neither haue beene so fayre a Merchant to him; and might withall haue proved a more dangerous and over-maisterly a neighbour. Againe, this King now having a good Peace, had therfore the better leisure. His Army being not yet cashier'd, the reliefe would not altogether be so chargeable. His expe­rience in the warres being great, his fame (now after the beating of the Pole, and two Imperiall Armies in Prussia,) more; he was also thought to be the ablest to deliver them. His Majestie therefore being by the pittifull and redoubled complaints of his Allyes, his Confederates, his Neighbours, sollicited over and over againe to come in vnto their rescue; that this bare invitation of his Friends might not be censu­red for a plot betwixt them, or not to be cause enough for his comming: loe, he is even puld over by his enemies provo­cations. [Page 43] But for the greater Authoritie with the Reader, we will giue you the just Apologie of that Prince: the pres­sing reasons for his moving with an Army into Germany, himselfe having caused to be Printed: the Arguments where­of, we here abbreviate into Propositions.

His Majestie first protests; That he had not stirr'd at all;The King of Swedens Apo­logy & com­plaints. no not though he had often beene warned to looke vnto him­selfe: nor would he take any notice of it, vntill some affront or maine occasion of quarrell, had beene actually offered by the Emperour. That having beene by his oppressed neigh­bours and Confederates invited vnto their reliefe, he for a long time rather expected the Emperours goodnesse towards the Subjects of Germany, then desired to interesse himselfe against him, with whom he so much desired the continuati­on of Amitie. That the quarrell was first begunne by the Em­perour; who in the late warres of Prussia betwixt Sweden and Poland, had prohibited the King of Sweden to make any Levies of men, or provision of victualls or Ammunition in Germany, apparently granting the same libertie vnto his ene­my the King of Poland. That the Emperour himselfe had heretofore sent two severall Armies vnder his own Ensignes into Prussia, in ayde of the Pole his enemy: the first in the yeare 1627. vnder the Command of the Duke of Holsteyn; Walstein was sayd to haue given Arnheim his Commis­sion in these vvords: Arn­heim, goe take 10000 men; you must beat the King of Sweden out of Prussia: and if you cannot doe it, tell him that Walstein vvill come. and the second, sent 1630. was conducted by Arnheim, Marshall of the Feild vnto Walstein. That his Curryer ryding Post with his packetts, hath beene stayed; his Letters vnto Bethlem Gabor opened, and false Copies published of them. That his Ambassadours haue beene slighted; not admitted to Audience; not vouchsafed answere; forbidden to stay in Germany. That vpon his seeking of peace, by mediation of the King of Denmarke, he obtained nothing but affronts and delayes: and that writing to the Colledge of Electors, then assembled at Lubeck, 1629. he found in their answeres by their Letters, the maine poynt of the busines not once toucht vpon: and so no remedie that way neyther. That the poore Towne of Stralesundt (notwithstanding it had no way wronged the Emperour, and had received Assecurations and [Page 42] [...] [Page 43] [...] [Page 44] promises of protection from him) yet had it beene blockt vp by the Duke ofWalstein. Freidlandt; and the Island of Rugen lying in the Sea right against it, taken by the sayd Freidlandt. That the Towne and Iland aforesaid, his Confederates, had often complained vnto him of this injustice, and desired his peace­full mediation first, and his Armed assistance afterwardes. That considering how things stood betwixt the Emperour and himselfe, it much concerned him not to suffer that Island and Towne, to be possessed by his enemies: seeing they lye so commodiously for the commaund of the Balticke Sea; and so dangerously for infesting of the Coasts of Sweden, which be right against it. That the Emperour had actually molested those Coasts with shipping; which he had newly gotten from Dantzick and other Hanse Townes thereabouts: had hindered the Swedish trade, and merchandizing vpon the Coasts of Germany: taken his Shippes by reprisall at Sea; layd imbargoes vpon them to arrest them in the Ports and Havens: and had purposed to make the Sound and Sea there­abouts, to be the seate of their pyracies; to the vtter vndo­ing of the Swedish trade that way, and the great molestation of all Nations that trafficke in those Seas. That in ayding of Stralesundt, he had done no more then the King of Denmark had done before him: who had lent them a garrison; which vpon the agreement of Denmarke with the Emperour, the Towne had been enforced to discharge (the King vpon some occasions being now become their enemy) and that not till then, had he taken the Towne vnder his protection. That his owne comming with an Army into the bounds of the Empire, was vnder publicke protestation of no hostilitie meant vnto the Empire, or person of the Emperour. That his comming was principally to relieue that distressed Prince his Cosin and Confederate, the Duke of Stetin and Pomeren, miserably at that time, and so for three yeares had beene, in­juriously oppressed by the Emperour. That he was not one­ly ingaged by ancient Allyances and Confederacies, to ayde the state of Pomerland thus distressed, spoyled, taken, and disarmed; but it concern'd him also in poynt of State and [Page 45] good policie, not to suffer his enemy to be Maister of those Coasts of the Baltick Sea; whence he might at pleasure in­fest Sweden, and at leisure and opportunitie invade it. That his League with the sayd Duke, was Defensiue onely: and not for any offensiue warre against the Emperour. That in recovering of the Ile of Rugen, he had rather fayrely turn'd out, then beaten out, the Imperialists. That the end of his comming, was no more then the reliefe of Stralesundt and Pomerlandt; and the securing of his owne Dominions of Sweden: too neere vnto which he perceived the Emperour to be now encroaching, with no good intention. That if peace and safetie might on those parts be assured, he would no further enter into the Empire.

These Complaints, Aggrievances, and Provocations of the King of Sweden, were in fayre and respectfull manner, by Let­ters first presented vnto the Emperour: and when that course brought no redresse, then for justification of his proceedings, and by way of Apologie, were the Circumstances enlarged, and the whole Printed, for the world to judge vpon: and that all indifferent Readers might there receiue an Accompt of the Causes, which at length constrained him to mooue with an Army into Germany.

These Reasons much satisfied the world, made the pre­tence of his comming fayre. And that the enterprize of this great Champion of the Germane Libertie, might bring Cre­dit with it, as well as Strength; both rumored and feared e­very where in the Empire it was, that diverse other potent Princes were with him interessed in the Action: and that there was a private Vnion made betwixt England, France, Russia, Sweden, Venice, and Holland, (all then at difference with the Princes of the house of Austria) and that He was the Head of the Vnion. The presumption for this suspition was, that the Ambassadours of these Princes were observed lately to haue beene together in his Camp; and beleeved to haue communicated both Counsells and Intelligence with him. How much redoubted his comming was, appeares by the preparations made against him, in the places neerest vn­to [Page 44] [...] [Page 45] [...] [Page 46] his Landing.The Empe­rours prepa­rations a­gainst him. The Townes of Pomerland and its neigh­bour Brandenburg, were full of Imperiall Garrisons. In Meck­lenburg was the new intruded Duke Walstein, and his forces. In Silesia were all those Bridges and passages vpon the Ri­ver Oder next vnto Brandenburg, stopt vp, mannd and forti­fied, about the beginning of Iune 1630. To make good the Bridge of Dessaw vpon the Elve, (which was the passage to­wards Magdenburg:) are fourscore Companies of Horse and Foote sent downe from Swartzenburg, Coburg, and other places. Into Pomerland are there more Forces sent out of Magdenburg. Torquato Conti was now appointed Generall of the Imperiall Forces in Pomerland. He and Colonell Hatz­felt are very pressing with the Duke of Stetin, absolutely to deliver them vp the passages of Gartz and Grippenhagen vp­on the Oder: which it seemes that they wrung out of him. The King of Sweden, finally hath no Towne to friend but the distressed Stralesundt onely, where he might safely Land his Forces. Much for the Kings advantage perchance it made, and the lesse resistance he found;The Kings advantages. that Walstein, who had here­tofore domineerd in those parts, and who had left those troopes there which the King now found engarrisoned; was now out of the way; and that Torquato Conti, a man not beloved, then commaunded in those parts. Walstein was a­bout the time of the Kings first coming eyther busied about his new Dutchy of Mecklenburg, or else waiting at Mem­mengen by Regenspurg, to receiue a new Commission to goe Generall against the French: and vpon the Princes of the Em­pires sore complaining against him, he was by the Emperour (as you haue heard) quite discharged of his Armie. Tilly was not yet come so high vp, since the warres with Den­marke. Of Pappenheim we heare not thereabouts, till October following. Plainly, the King of Swedens great advantage it was, that he was too much slighted by the Emperour: who though he fortified places, yet did he not time enough em­ploy any of his great Captaines against him. And that the Emperour abused himselfe too much, in too much slighting the King; appeares by his Answere vnto the Duke of Saxo­nyes [Page 47] Letters, in August giving him intelligence how farre the King was alreadie advanced in Pomerland, Which was; how that himselfe was so well provided for him, that he was confident to scatter any power of the enemy. ‘A despised enemy we haue by experience seene to haue made fowle worke: and God mostly workes by such despised meanes, that himselfe may therein be observed to be the Lord of Hosts. Further then this, wee will neither Comment nor Devine.

Before the Kings setting foote within the Empire, he in Aprill sends forth his gracious Declaration of his intent to maintaine Stralesundt, &c. Which the Emperour might well take for a Herald at Armes to proclaime his comming, and so prevent it; and not complaine afterwards (as he did) that he stoale in vpon him. His Majestie having thus declared himselfe for Stralesundt, makes his first warre for the free­ing of that. A small Iland there is in the Baltick Sea within some halfe league off Stralesundt, called Rugen. A ragged square plot it is, some seaven Dutch leagues over. This Ile being a Principalitie of the Duke of Pomerlands; was (like other of his Lands) rather infested now, then guarded, by the Imperialists. That the King therefore might cleare that Ile, and his owne way both at once; and leave no enemy to trouble his Landing, or to come vpon his backe; he giues or­der before his owne setting forth of Stockholme (the chiefe Citie of Sweden) to haue that Iland begunne withall.The Ile of Rugen taken. About mid-Aprill therefore, did the people of Stralesundt, assisted with some 18. shippes of Sweden (which had wintered in the Pilau, and other Ports thereby) prepare to fall vpon that, and Hiddenzee another little Ilet hard-by on the North-west: both which being open places, were by the end of May well cleared of the Imperialists. One indifferent strong Sconce by Brandishagen vpon Rugen there is, into which the Imperialists betooke themselues; not so easie to be taken as the rest. These of Stralesundt therefore now newly strength­ned from Sweden; vpon the 17.th of Iune following, with 3000. foote and foure troupe of horse, resolue to set vpon the Fort. Marching vp therefore from the old Ferry into the [Page 46] [...] [Page 47] [...] [Page 48] Ile, they in Battle array showe themselues before the Fort: twelue great Shallops and two Gallyes, well mand and fur­nisht with shot, in the meane time besieging them by water. The Fort perceiving this, by a resolute Sally labour to hin­der their Landing: but the Swedish discharging eight peices of Ordnance from their Boats amongst them, quickly make them to retyre. Landing being thus gained, and their batte­ries raised; they readily dismount the enemies Canon, and put him from his Ordnance. The 18. day, the Swedish Gene­rall demaunds vp the Fort: their answere was, to defend it to the last drop of bloud. The next morning, there was from Brandishagen (which lyes over against the Fort) a boate of fresh water sent vnto their reliefe. The Swedish Shallops giue fire apace vpon the Boate; in rescue of it, doth the Garrison sally out: a great smoake arising from their shooting in the skirmish, is by the winde carryed full into the Fort; the Swedish apprehending the advantage, fall pell mell vpon it, getting among the sallyers into the Fort, ere ever they were aware of it.The Fort of Brandishagen taken. Thus was it taken without the losse of one man. The Swedish being Maisters of the peice, put all to the sword whom the next day they found in Armes. Two hun­dred prisoners they tooke; six peices of Ordnance; sixtie bar­rels of Bisket; much Beere and provisions.

Whilest these things were there a doing, his Majestie is in his owne Countrey busie about imbarking his men. Some 12000. brought he out of Sweden with him, for so ma­ny were seene march: His Fleete was about some hundred and thirtie Shippes of all sorts. With these having beene fiue weekes at Sea, (whereof a whole moneth in one place) he came to an Anchor neare the Iland of Rugen, which lyes a mile distant from one of the mouthes of the River Oder cal­led Pennemundt. The King of Sweden lands. Immediately hereupon, his Majestie gaue order for the Landing of the Foote or Infantery: which was done in great Sloopes or flat bottomd Boates, provided for that purpose; whereof each one would well carry an hun­dred Souldiers, with two Feild-peices. His Majestie him­selfe in person landed first, at that Dorp or Village in the Ile [Page 49] of Vsedome, called Pennemundt; being at that present waited vpon by two Swedish Earles, that were brethren, Grave Neeles and Grave Ioachim by name. Next him were landed Colonel Lillie, Colonel Cag, and Colonel Hansson, all Swedish, with their Regiments. Next to them Landed the Lord Reay Colonel; together with Colonel Spence and Colonel Mag­dongall, with their three Scottish Regiments. Last of all lan­ded the Lord Falkenberg, Lord Marshall of his Majesties household; together with Colonel Hall, and Colonel Derick­son, with their three Regiments of High-Dutch-men. All these eleven foresayd Regiments, were landed and entrenched be­fore day-light. Vpon the second of Iuly, after the Souldiers had a little reposed and refreshed themselues; his Majestie commaunded the Canon, baggage, and victualls to be landed; and because the Army had beene so long at Sea, he thought it expedient to rest them there for two dayes; in which space he landed his Cavalry or Horse also.

This Ile of Vsedome where the King was new landed,The Ile of Vsedome ta­ken. is sci­tuate not farre from Stralesundt, and to the South-east of it, towards Stetin: betwixt the Baltick Sea on the North, the mouth of the Oder (which from the River Pene disembogu­ing into it, is called Penemundt,) on the West; the great fresh Lake called the Frischhaff on the South, and the Ile of Wollin on the East. Vpon the fourth of Iuly, twelue troupes of the Kings Horse, together with three thousand Musketti­ers, went out vpon a partie; the King himselfe commanding them. They marched vpwards three miles into the Ile of Vsedome; where they saw diverse troopes of the enemies, but all of them ranne away. The 5.th and 6.th dayes were spent in hearing of Ambassadors, from the Dukes of Meck­lenburg, Pomeren, and the Towne of Stralesundt. On the 7.th day, his Majestie leaving Colonel Knip-howsen, then Serge­geant Major Generall, with two Regiments of foote to de­fend the workes at Penemundt; with the rest of the Army passing over the water on the West side of the Ile; marches vp to the Towne of Wolgast. Here had the enemy a strong Sconce on the water-side, directly against the Castle vpon the [Page 48] [...] [Page 49] [...] [Page 50] Ile of Vsedome: which Sconce, his Majestie thought fittest to be first assaulted. As he marched towardes this Castle, the Crabats falling out, begun the Skirmish with the Kings Horse: who being presently seconded by the foote, constrai­ned the Crabats to giue ground with great losse. Those of them which were not killed in the fight, making great hast vnto the River, by which they thought to swimme over vn­to the Castle; were all miserably drowned. Those within the Sconce, thus perceiving their fellowes misfortune; in great hast retyred into their boates: where being hardly charged by the Kings men, the most of them were also drow­ned. Their confusion was so great; that three hundred of them then perished by the sword, or in the water. The whole night following, the Canon from the Castle playd very hard vpon the Kings folke, but with little or no losse vnto his Ma­jestie. Vpon the 8.th of Iuly, his Majestie leaving Sir Iohn Bannier to keepe the Sconce that was taken; marched from thence vnto a Cloyster called Pudegla; which was a strong passage vpon the Ile of Vsedome. But the enemy, before the Kings comming, had spoyled and pillaged all that there was, and then ranne away. Here the King lodged all night.

The Ile of [...]ellin taken.Vpon the 9.th of Iuly, the King marched to the Swing, on the East-side of the Iland; where the other mouth of the O­der, disemboketh into the Baltick Sea. There found he a Sconce, strongly builded indeede, yet but weakly defended: the Gar­rison vpon the first sight of the Kings troopes, abandoning the place, and shifting themselues over the River into the neighbour Ile of Wollin. This place, which the Oder, the Frischhaff, the Sea, and a little Fret of water, make into an Iland; lyes on the East-side of Vsedome: and here the King having found Boates, immediately followes the Imperialists. Here had the Duke of Saxonyes Sister a Castle; which the e­nemy fleeing out of, miserably deface with fire. And now those that lately fled into the Ile, as also the rest that were there in severall Garrisons before; did not onely abandon their strong Sconces and Fortifications; but left, not their Canon onely for hast, but their very Horses also; together [Page 51] with a great deale of their baggage; with two Leopards in a Cage; left there by the Duke of Freidlandt, who had thought to haue presented them vnto the Emperour.

In these two Ilands of Ʋsedome and Wollin, the King re­mained some twelue dayes; vntill he had made sufficient provision of Gallyes and other Vessells, for the transporting of his Army through that great Frisch haff, and from thence vp the River of Oder, vnto Stetin: which was done the 26. of Iuly. This Towne of Stetin, is the Seate and Title of the Duke of Pomeren and Stetin: Scituate within Land it is,Stetin taken. South of the Frisch haff, being the chiefe Towne of the Coun­trey, and the onely good Towne of the Countrey in sole pos­session of the Duke, that was free from Imperiall Garrisons. And now the King landing his men at a Castle within an En­glish mile of the Towne, about ten a clocke in the forenoone, presently puts them into Battalia. Grave Neeles and the Lord of Reay commaunding foure hundred Muskettiers, that day had the Vantguard; and were both commanded to march towards the North Port of the Citie, called the Mill-doore: the King in the meane time with three hundred Muskettiers, making towards a Horn-worke, that was then a building, within a Musket-shot of the Dukes Palace. While this was a doing, all the Ladies and Gentlewomen, were in the win­dowes, and vpon the Leades, looking vpon the King and his folkes. All this while there appeared not any one man out of the Towne, to make any defence: which the King now ob­serving, at last sends a Trumpet towards the Ports, to de­maund entrance. This message made knowne vnto the Duke, a Colonel, who had the Commaund of some 1200. Mus­kettiers within the Towne, is sent to parlie with the King. His message was, an Assurance from the Duke his Maister, that he had resolved to stand Neuter. His Majestie nothing contented with this message; sends the Colonel backe againe vnto the Duke: commaunding him to tell his Maister from him; That he was not come into Germany for any private ends of his owne: but sent for, by him especially, and other distressed Princes; that by the force of his Armes, they might [Page 50] [...] [Page 51] [...] [Page 52] be free from the yoke, which lay so heavie vpon their necks: and therefore, great reason had the Duke to open his Ports, and to receiue him into his Towne. And this if the Duke re­fused to doe; he bad the Messenger assure him, that he would enter it, by a breach made through his Castle: giving present order thereupon to haue the Canon mounted. The Duke vp­on the receipt of this round message, advises with his Coun­sell a while: who having concluded what was on the sud­den to be done, the Port is opened, and the draw bridge let downe, and the Duke in his Coach issues out, waited vpon by some Gentlemen on Horsebacke: addressing himselfe di­rectly towards the King. Vpon the meeting, much confe­rence passes about surrendring of the Towne; the King pres­sing; and the Duke excusing, altogether desirous to stand Neuter. Of this would not the King heare at any hand: ma­king vse of that (which in Dutch is a Proverbiall saying,) They that are not with me, are against me. And now the King taking notice of the Ladies and Gentlewomen on the Leades and Windowes; Cosin (sayes he to the Duke) if you meane to keepe me out of the Towne, you must set other manner of people to guard it, then these Ladies; for Ile assure you, they will never be able to hold out against any one company of my Souldiers. The Duke perceiving his Majestie, though pleasant, yet earnest; desires leave to goe againe into the Towne. The King consents vnto the motion: but sent order withall vnto the Lord Reay, to guard the Dukes person thi­therward: and that when the draw-bridge was let downe, and the Ports set open for the Dukes Coach; to enter the Towne together with it; and if it were possible, to make good the Port. The Lord Rcay having enough of his instruc­tions, so disposes his Muskettiers (which were Scottish) that two hundred of them marcht before the Coach; and must needs therefore enter before the Dukes Coach could: so that this peice of service was done, even as the King would haue it. Thus the Lord Reay being entred within the outter Port, the Towne Garrison retyred from thence within the inner Port: and the Scots entring pell-mell with them, that Port [Page 53] was also taken. By this did the King presently enter the Towne, with his whole Army. The Duke seeing this, dis­misses his owne forces, which he had till then, there kept in Garrison: who thereupon tooke present oath and pay, for the Kings service.

The next morning, the King commaunds Sir Iohn Bannier Generall of his Infantery, to take with him 600. Swedish Mus­kettiers, vnder the commaund of Grave Ioachim, and 600. Scottish Muskettiers, vnder the commaund of the Lord Reay; to make an assault vpon the Towne of Damme, lying a mile to the South-East of Stetin. The Towne had on that side but one approach vnto it; and that was a narrow causey leading thorough the marish, vpon which the Towne stood. Those 12000. men now advanc't almost as farre as a Sconce, which guarded the end of the Towne; a Country-boore comming vp to the Commanders, proffers them his service to leade them a secret way thorough the marish: by which meanes, they might more easily fall on, vpon the other side of the Towne. But the Burgers of the Towne, (who it seemes had intelligence with the Kings forces) now sending vnto them; desired them to haue the patience but to stay vntill night, and then they promised to giue them entrance by a private posterne gate. This delay was cunningly projected by the Townesmen; and served them to very good purpose: for had the Kings forces taken the Towne by assault, then, by the Law of Armes, had the pillage of the whole Towne beene their owne. Thus, (vpon what reasons or feares I know not) the enemies Garrison consisting of some two hundred and fiftie Muskettiers, and fortie horse, forsooke the Towne that very evening; taking their way East-ward, towards the next Towne of Stargard. With the Burgers of this Towne of Stargard, the King having also intelligence; instantly sends thither also. But whether it was, that he thought not fit too farre to giue trust vnto those Burgers, and to adventure his owne men vpon their honesties; especially since the Garri­son was thus lately reenforced: sure it is, that he employed none of his owne men, but committed the charge vnto that [Page 54] Colonell and his men, who had layn in Garrison in Stetin, before his Majesties comming thither. This Colonel know­ing the Country perfectly, came by night vpon the Towne: and having given advertisement vnto these Burgers within, with whom he had correspondency; they secretly opening a Port vnto him, giue him present entrance. He thus got in, presently cuts in peices the Corps du guard, which had the Watch vpon the Market-place. This done, he without stay goes towards another Port, which had two strong Sconces before it; these he presently assaulted, killing three hundred and fiftie Souldiers which he found within them. This act, had like to haue lost him the towne: for the rest of the towne Garrison, (which were asleepe in their beds when he at first entred,) now hearing the noyse, start vp, and betake them­selues vnto their Armes; shutting withall, the Port behinde the Kings Colonell, who was now busily employed, vpon the execution within the Sconces. Very hard had it beene for him to haue entred the Towne againe, but that the Bur­gers at the same time taking Armes; by force opened ano­ther Port for him. The Garrison by this time having gathe­red into a head vpon the Market-place, now finding them­selues too weake to resist so great forces; retire themselues into the Church-steeple: but now the Swedish turning the Canon which they had gotten in the two Sconces, against the steeple; the Garrison forthwith yeeld themselues, con­ditioning to goe off with their liues and Armes saved.

There were found in this Towne of Stargard, 500. barrels of meale; much powder and shott, and some Ordnance. The King after fortifies the place, with fiue new Bulwarkes, three halfe Moones, and such other Outworkes. Whilest this was a doing,The Ile of Cammin taken. Cammin another Ilet and Bishops See, butting vpon Wollin, is also taken. The rough methode of warre should haue fallen vpon the Towne of Colbergen next: but this being too tough a peice, is let alone till afterwards.

The City of Stetin being thus taken, and the King vsing the people royally, they beginne to bethinke themselues of the good alteratiō they began to feele, holding themselues happy, [Page 55] were but the King made their Protector. The overture of a League first, and the Articles afterward, were therefore now treated vpon, concluded, and published, about the tenth of August. This League conquered him the whole Countrey. The King, in a Preface prefixed to the Articles,A League be­twixt the King and Begislaus Duke of Stetin and Pomeren. excuses the Duke; professing to haue taken the Towne against his will. The Duke also subjoynes his owne Apologie; That he had beene forced to this League. 1. For that having no ayd from others. 2. He was too weake to haue resisted the King. 3. And that his Subjects having beene disarmed by their pre­tended Defenders the Imperialists. 4. Yea so impoverished, that they had not meanes sufficient left, barely to liue vpon; were thereby disabled to defend themselues. 5. So that ha­ving for three yeares together endured the hardest of oppres­sions; they were desirous rather to be freed, then further en­gaged, in a new warre and dangers. 6. Especially having beene so much discouraged to serue the Emperour, who ne­ver kept promise with them. 7. As for the Kings procee­dings, his courses taken to ease them, were just and Christi­an. 8. And seeing that very chary he was, to oppose the Em­perour. 9. As purposing onely to restraine the insolency of these new oppressors. 10. Therefore he thought this League to be his best course, both to recover his owne estate, and to secure Swedens. Seing therefore the King had past his royall word, to be a friend and not a foe, vnto all places which he should recover: he professes himselfe willinger to entrust his Countrey in the Kings hands, then hazard the losse of all. Foureteene Articles the King and Duke then agree vpon: of all which, these two chiefly concerne our Story. 1. That this warre was onely for Defence of the wronged, and not to injure the Emperour. 2. That all places recovered by the King, should be restored vnto the Duke. An Excuse besides these ten former Reasons, is by the Duke sent vnto the Empe­rour: which with the rest of the Articles we leaue to be read in the English Printed Booke of them.

Stetin being thus agreed with the King, willingly giues him 50000. Rixe Dollars, and the Countrey as many: The Mer­chants [Page 54] [...] [Page 55] [...] [Page 56] also granting him a Subsidie of Tonnage and Poun­dage, of three and a halfe per Centum. The King takes care first, for the guarding of the Citie: to which end it is not one­ly fortified with new and strange workes, but with a stan­ding Leaguer or Camp-royall also;A Camp for­med by Ste­tin. formed at the Towne-bridge, on the East banke of the Oder; over which the noble Gustavus Horne, Feild-Marshall to his Majestie, in his absence commands in chiefe. And here the Army being mustered and payd, is sent abroad vpon the errand they came for: and that one place might not helpe another, he with severall troopes fals at once vpon severall peices. To shew what every troope every day did, were to write a Diary, not a Story; and to take away the pleasure of the reading. In a continued narra­tion therefore, will wee prosecute the Story of every Citie, and Action by it selfe, from the beginning to the end of it; and then goe backe againe to another:The methode of the Story. taking each in his or­der of place, and time; that the Kings proceedings may the more clearely be discerned.

By this time are we come to the middle of August: and the King by the taking of Stargard, advanc't as farre into the Countrey as right against Gartz and Grippenhagen; is desired by these of Stetin to besiege these two Townes; because the Garrisons that lay in them, vsed to ramble over all the Coun­trey, to spoyle, and plunder, and fetch in Contribution. But the King perceiving those strong places would take vp too much time, and he having a designe to cleare the Dutchy of Mecklenburg, as well as Pomeren; turnes his Army backe a­gaine to these quarters: with a purpose in time to take the chiefe passages thither, before the enemy should prevent him, and put him thereby to more trouble; Passing therefore be­yond Stetin and towards Stralesundt againe, he sets him downe before Wolgast; whose Port (as you heard) he had before taken.Wolgast be­sieged. This is the chiefe Citie of the little Dutchy of Wolgast in Pomeren: The Towne he by fine force tooke in, wherein he found good store of provision, both of Corne and Ammunition. In the heate of the assault, the Garrison and chiefe Citizens retyre themselues into the Cittadel or Castle: [Page 57] This now the King asseiges. Torquati Conti the Emperours Generall in those parts, lay with his Army at that time at Ancklam, a Towne hard by Wolgast: he hoping to rescue the peice, comes with three Regiments towards the reliefe of it: but is well beaten for his labour; said to loose 12. Ensignes and 3. Cornets in the Skirmish. The Castle thus defeated of her succours, parlies: the conditions desired by the Garrison, were, To march out like Souldiers with full Armes, Colours flying, matches lighted, and their swords by their sides. The King will let them goe out with no more then white staues in their hands. Those termes refused, the King falls to mining: and with two boats well mann'd and furnisht with Ordnance, he comes to the Oder-bridge, there landing and enquartering his men. Sends for the Duke of Stetin; he come, they make their approaches towards the walls; which he round besets from the Oder-bridge vnto the mill-gate, ray­sing Sconces and Batteries every where, where the ground was highest. Eight thousand Canon-shot are bestowed vp­on the walles. They parlie againe; and the King condescends: six hundred Souldiers thereupon in fiue Companies, all vn­der the command of Colonel Sclecter, come forth:The Castle taken. Three Companies of these fiue, presently take Oath and pay for the Kings service: the rest march away. This was done in the end of August: about which time the Queene of Sweden be­ing newly come over, the Castle is repayred and furnished for her Majesties residence. In this Siege, the King lost an hundred and twentie men.

Whilest the King besieges this Castle;Aucklam ta­ken. Torquati percei­ving no good to be done vpon him; and that the Queene of Sweden had newly brought over 8000. fresh men (as it was reported) with her, which might make the place too hot for him; rises with his Army from his Quarter at Ancklam, marching directly towards Gartz: about which the Imperia­lists by the King turnd out of other places, and others newly sent into Pomerland, began now to assemble. There he formes a Camp; which continued till the Towne was taken. He thus departing from Ancklam, leaues Eystat Governour in it: be­fore [Page 56] [...] [Page 57] [...] [Page 58] which, so soone as the King presented his forces; the Citizens rise vp for the King against the Garrison; and let the Swedens into the Towne. This was done while the King was yet at the siege of Wolgast.

Ancklam thus obtained, the King purposing a designe for a voyage into Mecklenburg, Stolp taken. first causes the passage of Stolp to be taken. This Towne is neere vnto Ancklam, some fiue Leagues to the West of Stetin, and towards the Sea: by which he had a full passage into Mecklenburg. After which he at severall times also takes Trebbeses, Gripnitz, and Treptow, three other chiefe passages, as we shall tell when we speake of the Kings expedition into Mecklenburg.

A Fast.We are now come to September: vpon the first Friday whereof the King commaunds a solemne Fast to be kept throughout his Army and Leaguer at Stetin. Vpon that day the Imperialists being led by oneThis Quint was set on, to haue killd the King. Quint, who had before run away from the King, fall vpon the outter Guards of the Kings Camp, and cuts them off; putting the whole Army in­to danger. But they taking the Alarme, fall out vpon Quint, and beate him off with losse and shame enough. The next day also making a bravadoe againe, some thirty more of them are taken prisoners by the Swedens. The King a little after this, Musters and payes his Forces newly arrived to him out of Prussia, for which he a while stayed, without doing much: and now abroad are they againe going, his Army being very much encreased by these, and thirtie-six troopes of horse newly entertained.

Towards the middle of this September he sends abroad 3000. horse and 12000. foote to be doing, and to take in pas­sages: sends also to view the strong places of Gartz and Grip­penhagen: of which more when we come to those Seiges. But here let me insert an vnheard-of Crueltie of the Imperia­lists vpon the Townes of Pasewalk and Vckermund, some few leagues West of Stetin: about mid-September, old stile, the Imperiall Garrison vnder the Commaund of the cruell Colo­nell G [...]ze, having plundred and forsaken the Towne, and car­ried the chiefe men away; on the 4.th of September 2. troupes [Page 59] of Swedish horse being 140. strong, enter the forsaken Towne: fall with the Citizens to repayre and fortifie: 3000. Imperia­lists of the Army by Gartz hearing of this,The crueltie of the Impe­rialists at Pasewalk, take it againe from them Sept. 7th. and after most valiant resistance, beate, kill, and driue out the Swedish; fall to torturing of the Townesmen for their money, crying giue vs money or bloud; ravish wo­men and girles, even in the open streets, and Church-yards; yea women in Child-bed: kill and abuse the men, fire the houses and the people in them: thrust strawe into Cellars where Children are hidden, and then set fire to it: burne the Churches; massacre the Ministers, and then maske vp and downe the streets in their Coapes & Surplisses; and at length burne downe the whole Towne, laughing at it, how finely doth Pasewalk burne? Thus their rapes and ravages continue till the 11.th or 12.th of September: and at Vekermundt. After which they goe to Vckermundt, a Towne hard by (from whence these 140. Swe­dish were thought to haue come) this they fall vpon and take: vse as before; keepe the gates shut, and so burne the people in the Towne.

To returne to the King. About this time it seemes had his Majestie taken the oppressions and complaints of the people of Magdenburg into his royall consideration; and therefore sends some forces by Sea thither, to joyne with the Duke of Saxon Lawenburg; which Swedish aydes, Sept. 25. land at Dos­sou three leagues from Lubeck: of which more when we han­dle the whole Story of Magdenburg Namely, where wee speake of Tilly. together. And about that time himselfe in person goes to Ribbenitz in Mecklen­burg: where his Campe is pitcht Sept. 28. of which more when we speake of Mecklenburg.

About the same time of September, is the brave Lieutenant Generall Bauditzen sent to the siege of Colbergen; and the noble Feild-Marshall Gustavus Horne commands the standing Army at Stetin. Thus hath the King foure Armies at once: and thus are they all imployed. October 5th. certaine Crabats making a braue before the trenches at Stetin, driue away the Cattell thereby feeding. In rescue of them, out sally 1000. Swedens: the Crabats faine a slight; the Swedes too rashly [Page 58] [...] [Page 59] [...] [Page 60] pursuing,The Swedes beaten by the Imperialists. fall into an Ambush: there beginnes a fierce skir­mish; in which the Swedes overlayd by numbers, loose some 300. braue men, two Captaines of horse, and one Sergeant Major; the rest being glad to get off with their liues. The Swedes meditating revenge, fall out a while after vpon the Imperialists Cattell by Grippenhagen and Gartz, driving away some 300. from both places, and come fayrely with them to their quarter. Many the like feates of Armes were daily pra­ctised betwixt them.

And now leaving the other Armies to their businesse in o­ther places,Colbergen be­sieged. we will turne to the siege of Colbergen: not be­cause it was first taken, but first besieged: and because it is a peice of Story by it selfe, vpon which no other depends; no other Towne being in those quarters. This Towne is scituate on the Sea-coast, further from Stralesundt, and neerer vnto Prussia, then the King had yet conquered. So strong a place, that Torquati and the rest, had made choyce of it, there to lay vp their pillage, and what treasure they had gotten in the warres. About the 4th. of September, was Colonel Kniphow­sen sent by the King to try what he could doe vpon it. His troupes being too weake, Bauditzen is sent with 4000. men, and 18. peices of Ordnance. Vpon him the Crabats and o­ther Imperialists set amaine: a hote skirmish there is, and much losse on both sides. Bauditzen thereupon receiues two more Regiments from the King: so that now he is 5. Regi­ments of foote, and certaine horse strong before the Towne; The Gentlemen of the Country are also drawne into the acti­on. The Garrison within is 11. Companies of foote but ve­ry weake ones.

The famous Onslaught of Colbergen. Torquati Conti not ignorant of this, hath a designe about the beginning of November, for the relieving of the Towne, and his owne treasure in it; hoping eyther vtterly to defeate Bauditzen and Kniphowsen, that now blockt it vp, or at least to beate vp a Quarter, and so to thrust some succours into it. Gustavus Horne, then in the Camp at Stetin, having notice of it, immediately calls a Councell of Warre. The resolution is, first to send Bauditzen and Kniphowsen word of it: wishing [Page 61] them to stand vpon their guard a while, assuring them by such a time to be with them. This done, they draw out halfe of every Regiment, to goe along; every Colonel to command his owne: all being Commanded men, such as had no Colours with them: and for defence of the Camp leaving the other halfe, with all the Lieutenant-Colonells, and Sir Arthur Les­lye to command all. Word also is sent vnto the Swedish Gar­risons of Griffenberg & Golnaw, (just in the way) to come and meete them. So that with these, and their fellowes before Colbergen, they might make some 8000. foote & 4000. horse. The enemy was also some 9. or 10000. men; and those vpon their march, at least a day or two before Gustavus Horne had notice of it: but they going the further way about, through the Marck, and so along behinde Schiffelbien, (as farre from the Swedish Garrisons as they could, for feare of being disco­vered,) the Swedish were at Colbergen before them. There found they their owne men in battell array, and no newes of any Imperialists yet. Consulting what to doe, they there resolved to stay in sight of the Towne, to amaze and affray the enemy all that day; and then to take as many out of the Leaguer as might well be spared, and so to march away by night, to meete with the enemy. Gustavus Horne comman­ded the Foote, the Lord Reay led the valiant Scottish-men of his owne Nation, and Bauditzen the horse. About midnight comes a Countrey-Boore vnto them, with assurance that the enemy had then taken vp their Quarter in two or three little Dorps, that were hard before them: els might they haue marcht by them, and so the enemy might haue gone on, and defeated those before Colbergen first, and perchance those at Stetin afterwards. Here the Colonells consult what to doe. All, but Kniphowsen, resolue to surprize them as they now lay scattered and devided in these Villages: but Kniphowsens ad­vise was to stay till morning. His reasons were, first they knew not the strength and lodging of the enemy: so that if by any error they should be defeated, Colberg, and Stetin, and all were lost. Againe, it was a very good peice of service, to haue prevented the enemy in his designe; and if they could [Page 62] not beate him, it were enough to turne him backe againe. And these reasons prevailed: so that the Army being hard­marcht, sate there downe to refresh themselues. Whilest here they were, eyther the same Boore, or some other, goes and tells the Imperialists, that the Swedish were hard by them: so that by three a clocke in the morning they might perceiue the enemies Dorps, all on a flame: for they rising to be gone homewards, had now set fire vpon their Quarters. The Swedish perceiving this, fall generally to blame Kniphowsen; resolving instantly to pursue them. Comming to the forsa­ken Dorps, there knocke they downe some sixtie men, that the enemy had left behinde, and so follow on the rest. At breake of day, they had sight of the retyring enemy, vpon a fayre Heath: whereupon the Swedish horse making more speede, by eight a clocke were vpon the neckes of them. The enemy making Alt, turnes faces about to them: where­upon the Swedish horse forbeare to charge, till their owne Foote should be come vp to them: who now doubling their march, were hard at hand with them. Thus when the enemy makes a stand, so doe the Swedish too; and when the enemy marches, the other lyes beating vpon their Reere. The Cra­bats (or Imperiall horse) perceiving themselues likely to be overmatcht with numbers, play the Pultrons, and run away. The Foote goe on in this fashion, till they came to a Dorpe, or Village, called Faldinbruch, there was a passage at a wa­ter-mill; over whose bridge they were to goe: and there one of the carriages of their Ordnance breaking, fowlly stopt vp their passage. Here being crowded and disordered, the for­most began also to flee. And now fell there so sudden and so strange a mist, that a man could hardly discerne two Pikes length before him. The enemies Foote that could not get o­ver the bridge, betooke themselues into the marish by the Rivers side: standing there vpon their owne defence, with matches Cockt, and Muskets vpon their Rests. The Swedish comming vp to them, they demaund Quarter: proffering to serue the King of Sweden, vpon condition every Officer to be vnder the King, the same they were vnder the Emperour: [Page 63] otherwise, they would dye like braue men, and sell their liues as deare as they could. Quarter and Conditions are both granted them: so that there still a while they stood. But to see the lucke of it; just in the meane time, returnes Baudit­zen: who having beene pursuing the enemies horse that fled, and now so vtterly rowted them, that scarce ten of them re­mained in a Company: and lost them in the mist withall: he seeing the enemy stand whole in a body together, and not knowing of the agreement; falls to charge them with his horse. They perceiving this, began to suspect trechery in it; that the Swedish horse should fall vpon their Reere, and the Foot vpon their Van; & so they should perish betwixt both. To prevent which, they putting themselues into two divisi­ons, turne backe to backe; those next to Bauditzen, all at once giving fayre fire vpon him. That volley made a Fell of many a braue man. Bauditzen charges againe, charges home, and thorough them: vtterly breakes and defeats them. The other Swedish body of horse hearing the fight, and the mist not suffering them to discerne the matter, imagined verily, that the enemy had beene come backe againe: yea messenger comes vpon messenger with the newes,A strange co­fusion & mis­take among the Swedish. Our men are vtterly defeated. And when as some of the horse that had the Van of the Swedens Foote, came towards them; they certainly be­leeved them to be enemies, and their owne men to be defea­ted: and thereupon giue fire vpon them. The other, thinke the Devill to be in it; and that their Foote had beene defea­ted, and these to be enemies: and therefore fly backe againe to their fellowes. Others also comming vpon our Van, they fall to charge them: the other as fast letting fly at them a­gaine. Thus having no Colours with vs, wee knew not friends from foes, our enemies, from our fellowes. In this miserable error, and mysticall meddly wee continue, vntill 4. a clocke at night: when by finding some of our owne to be slaine, (whom we well knew) we began to find our mi­stake. The Emperours whole forces, both foote and horse, were defeated: their Canon, all their baggage and foure Cornets, taken from them. All our owne horse, except Bau­ditzens [Page 64] owne Regiment, ran away: as also the body of our Foote did, which were led by the yong Grave of Thurne, and Colonell Wallenstein: onely the Van of the Swedish Foote stood firme; Commanded by Baron Teuffell, the Lord Reay, and Sir Iohn Haibron. So that both the Armies had run away in the mist; except Bauditzen and his Regiment of horse, and the Van of Foote aforesaid. These stayed after the fight, to bury their slaine fellowes. This prettie kinde of battell hapned vpon the 11.th of November, 1630. In which, what with those that were slaine by the enemy, and what they had killed themselues; were 500. men lost. The rest, partly laugh­ing at their owne mistake, partly sorry for their fellowes and Comrades; and partly glad to haue defeated the enemy; they returne homewards againe: Bauditzen and Kniphowsen vnto their siege; and the other vnto their Leaguer.

Presently after this, in the middle of the same November, were there 182. houses burnt within the Citie: the fault was layd vpon the negligence of a servant: though others suspec­ted it to be a villany of the besieged: Sure it is, that there were Letters intercepted by the Swedish, which should haue per­swaded the Garrison, that seeing they could not be relieved, the best way were to fire the Towne, and by a resolute sally to breake through the enemy. This is like vnto the Imperia­lists practises in other places: who at Gartz and Grippenhagen about the same time, made stay of all the Boats that came vp the Oder, having a designe to fire Stargard with them; by that meanes to haue delivered Colbergen. The same they threatned vnto Stetin also: which made those Townes stand vpon their guard the surer. Towards the end of November, the Swedes cut off the fresh water that serv'd the Citie. In the begin­ning of December, the besieged vpon an advantage sallying out, surprize a Lieutenant, with some thirtie of their enemies; and the Swedish within a while after, cut off a Convoy of 180 Wagons laden with Corne and other provisions, which was going into the Citie: an hundred of which they bring away; the rest which they had not time nor meanes to doe, they set fire on. In February when the King was gone towards Meck­lenburg, [Page 65] the Garrison making abroad, fetch in 500. head of Cattell one with another. Thus past there encounters too and againe betwixt them, till the end of February. the 26. where­of, they now finding their provisions to fayle within, & their hopes without; send to parlie with the Swedish Generall, who acquaints the King with it. His Majestie condescends,Colbergen yeel­ded vp. to let them come out with Colours flying, matches light, full Armes, bag and baggage, and two peices of Ordnance. They were in all 1500. men; whereof 9. Companies of foote, and two of horse: all which were by the Swedish conueyed to Schiffelben: whence they were to march vnto Landtsbergen. Thus that strong Towne which had been three yeares in for­tifying, (the Country-people for ten or twelue miles com­passe, having beene enforced to labour at it,) is now after fiue moneths siege vpon the second of March (old stile) taken in by the King: who found in it, 51. peices of Ordnance of a greater bore, and 19. smaller Feild-peices: 224. barrells of powder, with proportionable Ammunition. The day after the yeelding, a shippe comming with men and victualls for their reliefe, not knowing of it, falls into the hands of the Swedens.

A report was also spread abroad in the Country, that before their giving vp of the Towne, they had digd mines, and layd gun-powder and burning matches by it; which after two or three dayes should take fire, and blow vp the Towne; which the Swedes in good time discovering, sent after them in all hast, to call them backe to an account for their base trechery. But this we cannot affirme. True it is, that they were sent for backe, and stayd at Friberg in the New-Marke: but this was by reason of Tillyes crueltie, at his taking of New Bran­denburg at this very time, where he put all to the sword.

The day before Colberg was taken;A new league betwixt the Kings of France and Sweden. was there a League concluded betwixt the Kings of France and Sweden: in these termes.

1. That it be for the defence of either of their Friends re­spectiuely, for the securing of the Ocean and Baltick Seas, and the freedome of Commerce in them: as also for the restoring [Page 66] of the oppressed States and Princes of the Romane Empire: and that the Forts newly erected vpon the Ports or Coasts of eyther Sea, or inThe Grisins Country. Rhetia; be demolished; and all reduced to the estate they were in, before the Germane warre.

2. That because the Adverse partie hath had no minde hi­therto, to repayre offered injuries; and hath rejected all in­tercessions; therefore is there no remedie, but to vindicate their safetie by strong hand: for effecting whereof, the King of Sweden is at his owne charges to maintaine 30000. foote and 6000. horse in Germany. And the King of France to pay his yearely share in Rixe Dollars: whereof the one halfe, May 15 and the other, November 15. eyther at Paris or Amsterdam, as the King of Sweden shall thinke fit, who is to appoint his owne Receivers.

3. The levying of Souldiers or Mariners, the passages of ship­ping and ammunition, shall be in eyther of their Dominions free for either partie, and be denied to the enemy. Offenders against military discipline, and such as runne away from their Colours, to be left to their owne Princes to be punished.

4. If it pleases God to giue the King of Sweden good suc­cesse, he shall not deale otherwise in poynt of Religion to those places that he shall conquer, or haue yeelded vp to him; then the Lawes and Constitutions of the Empire appoynt: and the Romane religion shall still be left free, where it is now practised.

5. Into this League, may any other States or Princes, ey­ther within Germany or without, be admitted, that desire it: but let due care be had, that whosoever be so admitted, may neither privily nor openly, favour the adverse partie, vnder their owne name, or pretence of others; or offer wrong vnto the foresaid Kings, or the common cause: but let each of them rather contribute vnto this warre so much as they are able, or concernes their interest: Which is to be determined vpon by a particular Treatie.

6. With the Duke of Bavaria and the Catholike Leaguers, in the Romane Empire, let termes of amitie, or neutralitie at least, be observed: if so be, they doe the like againe.

[Page 67]7. And if by Gods grace any occasion of Treatie offers it selfe; let it be by the common Counsells of the Leaguers: nor let any of these conclude a peace without the other.

8. This League to endure for fiue yeares to come: that is, from the day of the date hereof, vnto the first of March, old stile, in the yeare 1636. to come. Within which terme vn­lesse a secure peace may be obtained; vpon a generall Treaty of the Confederates, let this League be further againe pro­rogued.

It is moreover agreed; that because the last yeare this League had beene begun to be treated vpon, to continue for six yeares; and that the King of Sweden had in the meane time beene at the sole charges of the warre: therefore in re­gard of the yeare passed, the King of France vpon the day of Signing these Articles, is to giue him Bills of Exchange for 300000. pounds Turon, which amount vnto 120000 Rixe Dollars; which summe is not to be reckoned in, vnto the payments to be made in the next fiue yeares.

Of this League the King of Sweden giues present notice vnto the Protestant Princes now at the Dyet of Leipsich; as­suring them that his intentions were no other, but to defend and restore, the Germane Princes, and their Liberties, &c.

All the backe of Pomeren being thus cleered by the taking of Colberg, turne we backe now againe, to what was in the meane time done in other places. The King (who would see to the doing of all) leaving his Army in Mecklenburg, was now come backe into Pomeren; The siege of Grippenhagen. and now casts his eye vpon Grippenhagen. This Towne scituate vpon the North banke of the Oder some three Leagues from Stetin, is naturally a ve­ry strong place. A peice of much importance withall, by rea­son of the bridge which it hath over the Oder, by which there is easie passage eyther to offend or relieve, the Land of Marck on the East side, and Pomeren and Brandenburg on the West. In it lay an Imperiall Garrison of some 3000. men: and Don Capua a Spaniard their Governour. In Iuly 1630. therefore, the King taking some fiue Regiments of foote, and one of horse along with him, and sending his Ammunition vp the [Page 68] Oder, goes to looke vpon the place, as those of Stetin had re­quested him. Being desirous one day to satisfie himselfe in viewing of a passage, with 24 horse onely in his attendance; he falls into an Ambush of 60. horse: where valiantly defen­ding himselfe a while;The King in danger. he is very timely fetcht off by foure troopes of his owne horse, which came in vpon the spurre, so soone as they heard the Pistols goe off. The place he findes not onely hot, but heavie: not so easie to be carried: and e­specially for that the Imperiall Army then lay at Gartz, some few miles aboue it on the other side of the Oder. Therefore giues he it over for that time. After his cōming from Meck­lenburg now, his Majestie December 23. (old stile) with 12. Regiments of foote and 85. troopes of horse, in person drawes downe toward the Towne, about the Evening shewing him­selfe in battell array before it. The advantage of the ensuing night, he takes for the planting of his Ordnance; whereof he had brought 80. peices along with him: of which, 32. be­ing Demy-Canons, he mounts 10. of them vpon the place of execution;The Townes of Germany haue vsually neere without their walles a goodly payre of stone Gal­lowes, vpon a little hill, which is for a heading place; which is often tim [...]s low wal­led or fenced in. Having given order the day before for prayers and Sermons throughout the Camp; on Christmas Eve by fiue a clocke in the morning, he begins a most furious battery: 10. 15. or 20. peices of Canon continually going off together. A fayre and large breach being made, the Swedens twice at­tempt to enter, and are twice most valiantly repulsed. But 2500. men (for no more are now left) being vnable to hold out against 20000. the Towne is at the third assault taken. The Governour received a shot in his thigh, whereof in pri­son at Stetin he afterwards dyed. With him is the Sergeant Major Antonio also taken: many chiefe Commanders, and 100. common Souldiers. 200. were flame; some fled; the rest flinging away their Armes, craved Quarter, and had it. The King had but six men slaine out right, though many wounded: for which he tooke eight peices of Ordnance in the Towne.

The siege of Gartz.At Gartz (before described) another strong Towne, with a bridge also over the Oder, had the Imperiall Army ever since their removing from Ancklam, layne. To dare Torquati [Page 69] Conti their Generall into the feild; the King with some ten thousand foote and twenty-foure troupes of horse, presents himselfe before his Trenches about mid-August 1630. He not disposed to come out, nor the King to assault him in his Quarters, returnes home againe. In his returne he lights vpon Walensteyns Sonne, (the Emperours great Generall) drawne in a Coach and six horses; guarded with an indiffe­rent Convoy. Whom the Kings horse forthwith charging, take 120. prisoners, and some 35. horses. The yong Gentle­man quitting his Coach, escapes away on horsebacke. The plague much raging in Sūmer time about the Army at Gartz, Torquats sends the diseased into other Quarters, enterteyning 2000. Crabats in their places. About mid-September there fell out a most bloudy fight:The Imperia­lists beaten. wherein those of Gartz were sayd to loose more then 1000. men; and yet I report but the third part. They about the same time,The Sweden beaten. beate a Convoy of the Swedes also; and bring away 100. horses into their Campe. In the beginning of December, some are sent thence into Mecklenburg: at other times some others are sent to lye in Garrison in the Townes of the Land of Marck, beyond Grip­penhagen. Others had beene sent to the reliefe of Colbergen: some slaine; and very many dyed of the plague. And thus had this Army beene impayred. Grippenhagen therefore be­ing now taken, and setled: within a day or two after Christ­mas day, the King sends his whole Army to the strong Sconce of Morewitz, which served for the guard of the bridge: ful­ly beleeving, that rather then the Imperialists would loose so important a peice, they would bid him battell. But the Count of Schamberg (who now commanded the Army in stead of Torquato, that had lately given vp his Charge) notwithstan­ding he were some 15000. strong; perceiving his Army to be ill discip [...]in'd, vsed rather to plunder, then fight; durst not hazard the encounter: but calling the Garrison out of the Towne, he sets fire to the Ammunition, drownes such pow­der and Ordnance, as he could not draw away;Gartz forsa­ [...] [...] the Imperialists. and so with­out one shot making, very confusedly marches [...]ff; leaving the emptie Towne vnto the King; himselfe with all speede [Page 70] hasting, to get through Custrine, into Landtsbergen, a very strong place in the way towards Silesia. The King followes him with as much speed, as the other fled, still beating vpon his Reere. The Saxonish, Gotish, and Swertzenhallish Regi­ments he so vtterly dispersed, that they were fayne to leaue their baggage behinde them: They that name least, tell vs of 300. Wagons with their burdens; besides 14. Ensignes. Colonell Sparre with some few Wagons of his owne bag­gage, saved himselfe in Custrine: Some others gat through into Landtsberg, and others recovered Franckford vpon O­der: about which last place, they after rallied their forces to­gether againe. This was certainly a notable defeate; yea so notable, that had the King then had Custrine in his hands (which he had before desired of the Elector of Brandenburg) the enemy had gotten no passage over the Oder at all; eyther into Franckford or Landtsbergen: yea he had gotten them in fayre Campagnia among his owne garrisons, had still follow­ed beating vpon their Reere; yea being once in rowt, eyther they could never haue made head againe, or if they had, he had instantly beene vpon the powles of them; and so haue vtterly defeated the Imperiall Army. Then had Pomeren been quite cleered, Franckford & Landtsbergen taken at one blow. Silesia also had beene left naked: yea and Tilly being not yet come vp, Magdenburg had beene saved, and all Mecklenburg besieged by the Kings Armies. But all this fayled, for want of Custrine.

The King returning from the Chase, even while the feare and dread of his Armes, and the loue of his justice, were vp­on all the Countrey:Coninxberg ta­ken. goes in person towards Coninxberg, a Towne on the East-side of the Oder, not farre from Custrine. Here had he not much to doe; for that the Townesmen vo­luntarily brought their keyes, and layd them downe at his Majesties feete. Thence in person goes he towards Lubus, a Fort within a Dutch mile of Franckford, almost betwixt it and Custrine: and there he pitches his Campe about the 8.th of Ianuary, Lockonitz, ta­ken. old stile. About the same time goes Colonell Les­lye towards Lockonitz, a Castle in the very Frontiers of Po­meren, [Page 71] belonging vnto Schulenburg, and kept by an hundred Imperialists: vpon which place Sir Arthur Leslye comming by night, so thunders with his Ordnance vpon them, that having beaten downe the gates, he falls to enter: killing some twentie of those that made resistance, and taking some 80. prisoners. The Castle was by the King freely given vnto the Colonell, that thus tooke it in. At the selfe same time, falls Bauditzen vpon the Garrison of Piritz, Piritz taken. a Towne betwixt Grippenhagen & Coninxberg: in which were some 1400. men: these he defeates, and so is that Towne taken.

But the chiefe designe, was at the strongest place,A designe vp­on Landtsberg defeated. Landts­berg by name; whither Gustavus Horne was sent; the King hoping at this same one voyage, to haue taken in that also. But this designe was for that time put by, as we shall hereaf­ter shew, when we come to speake of that siege. Yet doth not Gustavus Horne loose all his labour: for hearing in his returne, of fiue troopes of Crabats, which vsed with strong parties to make sallies and cavalcadoes, and plundering voy­ages out vpon the Country, from out of Himmelstadt (a towne some League or two to the Northward:) some of these he cuts short; and others of their Nation in other places, about this Landtsberg.

Thus having in eight dayes space (which is admirable) taken in so many Cities, defeated so many enemies; gotten many a great prisoner, and now cleered Pomeren and Marck­land, even from Prussia side, all betweene the Rivers of War­ta and Oder (except Landtsberg:) he calls his Army together againe, sitting downe with it at Coninxberg aforesaid, (whi­ther he brought 70. peices of Ordnance) where he stayed vntill he had increased it with some new levies, made for him in the New Marck; and had begunne to rayse some Sconces for the securing of the Country. Of these Sconces, one was hard by Custrine, and another neerer vnto Silesia: for the guarding of which workes, and the blocking vp of Himmel­stadt and Landtsberg withall, he at his going away, leaues 9000. men in Brandenburg-land. Whilest this is a doing, the King in person goes towards Custrine (the chiefe Towne, [Page 72] and the strongest of all Brandenburg:) demaunding to haue that Towne consign'd over into his protection, that he might put a Garrison into it, and so keepe the enemy from returning over the Oder. This request, notwithstanding it were by the Elector denyed, (not daring to doe it as yet, the Im­perialists being not onely in that Towne, but in his whole Country beside, and the Governour Krachten disswading it mainly) yet thus much courage the Elector after that tooke vnto himselfe; that he presently set out a Proclamation a­gainst the sharking and stroy-good Imperialists: commaun­ding his Subjects, by strong hand to restraine their insolen­cies; and to let none ramble vp and downe the Country, but such as had lawfull Passes. Now had the King an Army of some 18. Regiments of Foote, and 86. Cornets of Horse: and now by mid-Ianuary was Generall Tilly come vp to Franck­ford, Tillyes com­ming. there to succour and take on those troupes, which the King had before scattered: which (as we sayd) began now to gather head againe about this Franckford. Of his comming the King now hearing, sends Gustavus Horne with a reasona­ble Army towards the Frontiers of Silesia to staue off Tilly from comming downe that way, vnto any of the new con­quered places: himselfe instantly marching into the Land of Mecklenburg. The whole story of which, and his Majesties proceedings in that Country; we will now present you with altogether; beginning with his former expedition thi­ther.

This Country of Mecklenburg lyes Westward of Pomer­land, along the coast betwixt Brandenburg and the Sea. Two Dukedomes it hath, Schwerin and Gustrow; lately possessed by two brothers, Iohn Albert the elder brother, and Adolph Frederike the younger: both the right heires, and both stiled Dukes of Mecklenburg. These Princes had the Emperour of late, very injuriously devested of their Estates, and given them vnto Walensteyn his great Generall, with the Title of Duke of Mecklenburg. The disseized Dukes, complaine vnto th [...]ir Cosin the King of Sweden; their reliefe was another [Page 73] mayne cause of his comming in Germany. His Majestie there­fore having made so victorious an entrance into Pomeren, and cleered all those parts vpon the confines of Pomerland, (except Gripswald) next vnto Mecklenburg: resolues vpon an expedition thither in person. About August 6. 1630. he prepares his owne way by taking the passage of Stolp, neere Ancklam, some fiue leagues below Stetin towards the Sea, whereby he hath a full passage into Mecklenburg. The Kings first expediti­on into Meck­lenburg. Towards the end of September, his Majesty makes stay of all great boats and ships vpon the Oder, and the mouth of it: wherein ha­ving shipt some 12000 men and their Ammunition; he sayles by Wolgast (taken some moneth before) and Stralesundt; He takes Bart, Damgarden, & Rubenitz. passing vnto Bart, a Towne in Mecklenburg, standing vpon an arme of the Sea, a little within the shoare. That takes he in first. Then hasts he to Damgarden the next Towne on the East side of that arme of the Sea: which Towne & the Sconce to it, he presently takes in by assault: many of the Souldiers being flung out at the windowes, and some others by mis­chance burnt. Three dayes after this, to Rubenitz he comes: a Towne in the very bottome of that Indraught or arme of the Sea: and that he by force takes also. Mescord the Gover­nour is taken prisoner, and his Lieutenant Iers, slaine with a Musket shot. Here pitches he his Camp; giving order for the fortifying of this, and Damgarden and Trubbesees, ano­ther late taken passage towards Pomeren. Being here setled;He summons the Country. he first of all by a Proclamation dated from Rubenitz Sept. 28. summons the Gentry and people of the Country, to remem­ber their oath once taken to their naturall Princes: to forsake Walensteyns title and service: to come armed into his Camp, or other his troupes; to prosecute and kill all the Walsteyners: and to fight with him for the libertie of their Countrey. Those which doe not, he threatens to pursue as traytors and enemies: those which did, to affoord his royall protection vnto. A second mandate he then sends to the Towne of Ro­stock: of which more, when we come to speake of that City. Sir Iohn Bannier, (his Majesties Lieutenant for those parts) being about that time also vpon the frontiers of Mecklenburg [Page 74] towards Pomeren; directs his Letters vnto these borderers, to this purpose. That seeing the Imperialists thereabouts did nothing but pillage and plunder them of their Cattell and goods; and that the King his Maisters intention was, onely to defend them: therefore they should send their Corne and Cattle towards Rubenitz or Stralesundt. Which if they refu­sed, the King would thinke those pillages wilfully endured by them to relieue his enemies, and that they meant to fall a­way from their owne Princes: and must therefore take their goods where ever he found them, persecuting them as tray­tors and enemies.

Whilest here at Rubenitz the King lyes encamped, and his forces in the meane time busie about the Country: there ar­riues an Imperiall Curryer in his Camp.The Empe­rours Letters vnto him. His Letters con­tained an admiration of the Emperours, why the King should come armed into the Empire: offering him a treatie of peace, if so be he would first lay downe Armes. These seeme writ­ten from Ratisbone. The Kings answere. To this he answers; That his Imperiall Majestie would cease to wonder, if he pleased to remember the two Armies sent against him into Prussia; the wronging of his Friends; and the endangering of his owne Sweden. As for the offer of peace, he desires pardon if he thinkes it not sincerely meant; seeing it had beene before scorned: and that now the Emperour while he spake of peace, did still continue his Levies. As for laying downe of Armes, he vt­terly refuses that; or to trust any more vnto verball promi­ses: and for treatie of peace, he would be most glad to enter­taine it: which vpon these termes he will agree vnto; name­ly, That all Germany be so setled and re-estated, as it was be­fore the beginning of these warres. This was written after the Kings returne to Stralesundt, the same moneth of October, in which it was received. The Emperour perceiving that words and papers would not beate Swedens sword out of his hand, at the breaking vp of the Dyet of Ratisbone, in the be­ginning of November, sets out his Imperiall mandate, for the continuing of the warres; and against the King of Sweden by name; procuring the Electors also to decree the same: and to [Page 75] agree to ayde him in it. And by this time was the King come from Stralesundt againe, vnto his Army at Rubenitz; where he for a while held the head quarter of his Camp: the rest of the Army, being partly neerer advanc't vnto Rostock, and part employed with Bannier in other places. And now (it seemes) some of his,These, I sup­pose, were some of those forces, which the King had sent towardes Magdenburg: & which had landed at Das­sow, within a lea [...]ue or two of Lubeck, a­bout Sept. 25. having beene as farre as Lubeck (one of the Hanse Townes vpon the Frontiers of Mecklenburg and Hol­satia) and there imprisoned and vncourteously vsed: the King writes his Letters vnto the Towne, to this purpose: That seeing such discourtesie had beene offered, he could not but admonish them to forbeare: as they would looke for the like vsage, where he had to doe. And now had not the King an Army alone hereabouts, but a navy too vpon those coasts; to confront the Imperiall Navy gathered amongst the Hanse Townes thereabouts. For in the beginning of December, I finde a Sea-fight betwixt Gabriel de Roy, the Emperous Ad­mirall with 15. shippes, and 9. Swedish men of warre, neere vnto Wismar (another Hanse Towne betwixt Rost [...]ck and Lubeck: A Sea-fight.) in which the sayd Imperiall Admirall shippe was foure times shot through, forced to saue himselfe in Wismar, and to leaue three of his Ships vnto the Swedish.

Turne we now vnto Rostock This Hanse Towne,The siege of Rostock. scituate in Mecklenburg vgon the River Warnow. West of Rubenitz; and some few miles from the Sea; had till now beene freed from Imperiall Garrisons: but vpon the Kings comming to Bart, was surprised by this devise following.1000 Imperi­all horse get into it. A thousand Im­periall Horse send some before them to demaund passage through the Towne; pretending to goe against the King of Sweden: being beleeved and admitted, they keepe possession of the gates, let in their followes; breake the lockes off the posts, which fastned the chaines drawne crosse the streets: and so finally possesse themselues of the Market place. This done, they compell the Citizens to bring all their Armes into the Statehouse, making them sweare they had no more: then they billet themselues vpon the Citizens, and keepe such a racket, that the Townesmen dare hardly open their dores, for feare of being pillaged. The King at his comming to Ru­benitz [Page 76] hearing of this Garrison,The Kings Letters to those of Ro­stock. writes thus vnto the Townes­men. That seeing by his comming into the Country, there had beene a doore opened for their freedome; they should now remember the Oath sometimes taken to their Duke, cast out the Garrison, and restore their Citie to her ancient freedome. Which if they did, he would take it for an argu­ment of their innocency; become their friend, and inlarge their Cities priviledges. If they neglected it, he must like e­nemies pursue them, both by Sea and Land.

The Towne eyther not willing, or perchance not able to doe this, the King beginnes to make some approaches vnto it;He blocks vp the Towne. to blocke vp the passages, to build Sconces and Redoubts: yea and causes his Fleet to hover vp and downe their coasts. This was in the beginning of October. These proceedings the Walsteyners in other Garrisons hearing of, send out a strong Convoy of 4000. men, to open the passages againe, and to thrust some men and victuals into the Citie. [...]000. Imperi­alists defea­ [...]ed. These the Swe­dish grapling withall, shrewdly defeated, and kill the most of them; vtterly frustrating their designe. In the beginning of November, he approaches within two English miles, or lesse, of the very Citie; still raysing Sconces and Retrenchments against them. About the beginning of December, some seven Cornets of Imperiall horse issue out of the Towne on the cleerer side, to goe a boote-haling: these the Swedish having by their espyalls notice of,& 7. Cornets of horse. pursue. In the Skirmish, are 200. Imperialists slaine vpon the place: 280. taken prisoners; and some 400. horse brought away: scarcely 20. soundmen, reco­vering into the Towne againe: a pitifull boothaling for them. In this fight, a certaine Swedish Colonell of Finland, for try­all of his valour, did twice charge quite through the Imperi­all troupes; in his returne the second time, by maine strength taking a Captaine out of his saddle, and bringing him away vnder his arme. About the middle of Ianuary, is Hatzfeldt, Governour of the Towne, in his owne lodging murthered by one Warmier, a Lawyer. And in this state wee leaue the Citie still besieged by the King, though not with a great, yet with a well ordered Army: himselfe being (as we before told [Page 77] you) in person long before gone backe, to see to other things in Pomeren.

Thus continues Rostock blockt vp both by Sea and Land, rather then besieged; vntill after the Reinstallment of their Lords the Dukes of Mecklenburg againe, and the taking of Gripswald in Pomeren in mid-Iune following. After which time, the Swedish Generall Toodt being at good leisure, is commaunded by the King to conjoyne 10000. foote & horse, of those forces which had taken Gripswald, with 5000. of the two Dukes of Mecklenburg; and more strongly to pursue the siege of Rostock: and to beginne to blocke vp Wismar also. Againe; the Queene of Sweden a little after this arriving with 8000. new men at Wolgast; 5000. more are sent into Meck­lenburg; as speedily as might be, to rid out all the Imperialists. The Imperiall Garrisons in Butzon and Gustrow hearing of the comming of these last 5000. conjoyne their faces in one body, resolving to try their fortunes vpon them, and to giue them their wellcome into the Countrey. But Doodt and Mecklenburg provided better for them: commaunding all the horse they could spare, to convoy in their 5000. friends; and then together, to set vpon their enemies. They did so; sur­prised, defeated, and slew the most of them: having the chase of them, even vnto their owne Frontiers: and had the Swe­dish had but 1000. Muskettiers more with them, they had (as 'tis verily thought) at the same instant taken Rostock also. The Swedish Army being thus re-enforced, and the enemies weakned; they become bold to divide their Armyes vpon it: Duke Iohn of Mecklenburg with 8000. men continuing the siege of Rostock; and Doodt with Duke Adolph of Meck­lenburg going to besiege Wismar, with the rest of the Army; which might be as many more. And thus I finde them still both lying August 25. About the end of which moneth, Duke Iohn so well plyed his busines, that he tooke the strong Fort or Blockhouse of Warnemund; so called of the River Warnow, which is the Haven to the Towne of Rostock; the Fort standing on the West side, and neere vnto the necke of that River, which next vnto the Sea is so narrow, that this [Page 78] Fort hath the commaund of all the Ships that come into it. This Fort taken, the Garrison presently tooke pay vnder the Duke. By mid-September, had the Duke made his approa­ches, [...]ermund cau­ses all the mils to be burnt, the Shallops to be sunke in the Warnow, to keepe out the Swedish Ships; makes his Crabats ride vp and downe the streets, to pre­vent the prac [...]ses of the [...]wnesmen. even vnder the very walles and Canon of the Towne of Rostock: Tilly in vaine attempting the reliefe of the Citie, ey­ther with men or victualls. Now was the Garrison in the Towne wasted away to 1500. men: and the Citizens weary of a siege, and fearing to loose all, if the Towne should be ta­ken by assault: beginne not onely to wish well, but to speake well, in favour of the King, and their Lord the Duke. Thus much the new Governourm Fermund observing in them; be­ginnes to take notice of their carriages: and to put both the Duke and them, out of all hope of fayre compounding vpon treatie, or any yeelding; he causes a fayre Streamer to be hang'd out vpon the turrets of the Towne: to shew, that he would hold out as long as he had any thing that was red in him.

Wismar besie­ged.This Wismar is another of the Hanse Townes; and in the same Dutchy of Mecklenburg also. Distant some seaven or eight leagues to the West of Rostock: and almost so scituate, but the haven much larger. Here did Duke Adolph and the Generall Toodt entrench themselues by land; the Swedish fleet waiting vpon it by Sea, as it did vpon Rostock also. Of this siege I can adde, but this vnto the former Sea-fight, That a­bout the beginning of August the Swedish Shallops boldly go­ing into the haven, brought away the Admirall and another Ship, brauely towing them both away with them.

The Kings [...]econd expe­ [...]ion into Mecklenburg. Tilly about the 24. of Ianuary being now advanced as neere the King as Franckford on the Oder: his Majestie fearing if he marcht vp into Mecklenburg, he might there make fowle worke; leaues Gustavus Honne with the Army about Coninx­berg; and writes his Letters vnto those of the New Marcke, on the East side of the Oder; to this purpose: That seeing he haddow cleered their whole Country from their oppressors the Imperialists; every man should a Gods name returne to his owne house,His Letters to [...] of the [...]w Marcke. trade, and husbandry: he professing to be their friend, and promising to be their protector. That which he [Page 79] desired of them was; such provisions for his Army left a­mongst them, as they could well spare, and the other wan­ted. Those that did not, he would take for his, and their Countries enemies. Vpon which gracious Monitory, divers return'd againe, without molestation falling vnto their busi­nesse. This done, the King calls off the most of his Army from the siege of Landtsberg, and his troupes from other pla­ces; appoynting their Rendezvous to be at Dam, the 28. of Ianuary, Stilo novo: and so Feb. 4. he againe passes Stetin to­wards Mecklenburg: where with an Army of 16000. horse and foote, he vnlookt for arrived. There he first of all takes in New Brandenburg, within 8. leagues of Stetin: Takes New Brandenburg. Cononel Marezan the Governour taking composition, and marching with six Companies of foote, and three of horse, of Monte-Cuculi his Regiment; and 120. of Colonell Putlars Regi­ment. There did the King leaue Colonell Kniphowsen for his Governour. To this Towne Feb. 6. he summons the people of the Country of Stargard: with whom he treates, concer­ning the maintayning of the forces left for their guard. The newes of this being brought, to those of Treptow, Treptow the same day. another good Towne and a passage thereby; away run the Imperiall Garrison: of which his Majestie having speedy notice, he the same day sends some troupes thither, and takes it. Those of Dammin (a very strong Towne) fearing to be taken vn­furnished, with all speede send to Gripswald, nere Stralesundt, for more Ordnance: but neyther this, nor their so strong for­tifications will serue their turne. For Feb. 14.The strong Towne of Dammin as­saulted. the King sets downe to the siege; after a hideous battery, is the Castle first of all taken by assault, and the Garrison put to the sword; of whom there were seaven Companies, as 'tis sayd; besides 150. others, that had newly joyned with them. Finding the Citie too strong to take by assault; the 15.th day, he thunders vpon that againe, beates downe the workes, and makes so vast a breach in the very hard walles; that the Governour, the Duke de Savelli, an Italian, finding the place not to be tenable against such thunder and resolutions;Taken. parlyes and yeelds. Vpon the surrender, he receiues the King vnder the [Page 80] gate; and the King carryes him backe towards the Market­place: Here the King sitting armed vpon his horse, makes a speech vnto the Townesmen; assuring them of all favour: and turning to the Duke, wills him to depart the Towne, to salute the Emperour from him; and to tell him, That he was no enemy vnto his person: and that his endevour should onely be, to restore the libertie of Religion, and of the Prin­ces. Thus with six Ensignes flying, bag and baggage, and two peices of Ordnance, the Duke marches out of the Towne; leaving 36. peices of brasse Ordnance behinde him; 60. bar­rells of powder, with victualls and Ammunition proportio­nable. The King lost about 200. men; himselfe (as some say) receiving a light shot. Letters were intercepted from the Generally Tilly, desiring the Governour to hold out but foure dayes longer; at which time he should vndoubtedly be re­lieved. Some say, that Savelli was afterwards questioned vpon his life; for that being over-confident of his owne strength, he had refused to take in some more forces that came to offer their service. This Towne, much stronger then Ro­stock, is now by new fortifications doubly strengthened.

Whilest the King himselfe is here busied; his Lieutenant Banier goes to Loczin (hard by Dammin) and takes in that. And Malchin another good Towne is by a stratagem surpri­sed also. Freidlandt is likewise so served; and all the other strong places, vpon the Frontiers of Pomerland: and so is Westrow by the Sea-side. Yea all the strongest places, to con­clude, in that Dutchy, except the foure strong great Townes of Wismar, Rostock, Butrow, and Dammitz: which last, is an exceeding strong Towne vpon the River Elve. Thus be­twixt Iuly the first, and February the last, (that is in eight moneths space) hath he (which is scarce credible to report) taken full 80. Cities, Castles, and Sconces in Pomerland and in Mecklenburg.

Tilly marches [...]to Meck­lenburg.By the end of February, hath Tilly heard of the Kings pro­ceedings in Mecklenburg: and from Franckford on the Oder, beginnes to set forward into that Dutchy against him. The King now after the taking of Dammin, sets downe with his [Page 81] Army betwixt it and Treptow: himselfe in person one of the last dayes of February, going through Pomerland, vnto Ber­walt neere Coninxberg: where the first of March he concludes the League with France, as is aforesaid. Within a day or two, that is, March the third, was Colbergen taken, as hath beene sayd. The next day, the King goes from Stetin towards New Angermund, on the same side of the Oder with Mecklenburg. By this time are some forces come to him out of Scotland: and there being no more neede of any Garrisons in the Ile of Rugen, those he calls out. Thus drawes he all that might well be spared out of all his other Garrisons of Pomerland, taking to him the 9000. which before were in Brandenburg, & those that lately besieged Colbergen: the States and Gentry of Po­merland, he now commaunds, at their owne charge, to levie 10000. men for their owne defence: which forces, should take oath to himselfe, the Duke, and States of Pomeren. And now hath he 13. Regiments newly come to him out of Prussia also. Thus makes he himselfe as strong against Tilly as possible may be; bringing his Army from Coninxbergen, over the Oder, and forming an Army of some 15000. men, betwixt this New Angermund & Frejenwald, at a little Dorpe called Swedt. Hither he brings some 60. peices of Ordnance:The Leaguer of Swedt. hither also brings he his Ship-bridge from Stetin; which here he layes over the Oder; over which he hath a free passage, both towards Franckford, Landtsbergen, and Mecklenburg; and a Retreate too, if neede were. This Leaguer he fortifies with all art & strength possible: that if Generall Tilly should adventure to fall on, he should come vpon the pikes. Ano­ther Army he at the same time hath, (and that very strongly fortified also) betwixt Treptow and Demmin aforesaid: and some forces at the same time likewise, at the siege of Grips­wald, a Towne hard by: which might, vpon occasion, easily conjoyne themselues with the standing Army.

At this present is Monsieur Tilly vpon his march thither­ward, with an Army of some 22000. men, and 26. peices of Ordnance. From Franckford, comes he first to Rapin, passing in his march, not farre from the Kings Leaguer: leaving it not [Page 82] aboue a league or two, vpon his right hand. If some make doubt, why being so neere he set not vpon the King; the question is easily answered; for that the Kings Camp was so strong, that he durst not. Secondly, Tillyes designe was, ra­ther to haue drawne the King out into the field, to a pitcht battell (for so was it given out) then with so much hazard to assault him in his trenches. The more therefore to provoke the King, he falls vpon some of his Garrisons, even midway betwixt the Kings two Armies. Tilly therefore having some few dayes expected the King at Rapin; rises and marches for­wards. And to tempt out the Kings forces by the way, is Colonell Bernsteyn (a forward Gentleman and a valiant, but vnfortunate, who was afterwards met withall) sent out with 500. horse, to make a Cavalcado vpon Templin, (a towne hard by) thinking there on the sudden to haue surprised the Swedish Garrison. But their spyes having given them timely notice of it, they in fayre order expect these hot-spurr'd Im­perialists. So that hard to it they fall; and many on both sides fall in the Encounter. But the worst plainely fell vnto the Imperialists, who carryed not home so many as they brought out; and yet they returned full as fast as ever they came.

Tilly perceiving the King not to be tempted out, procee­deth forwards:Tilly takes Feldsberg. setting himselfe downe at the siege of Felds­berg; a Castle neere vnto New Brandenburg, now kept by the Swedish: & which by assault he tooke in, putting all to the sword in it. Thence he goes to New Brandenburg, which he forth­with streightly besieges, [...] Branden­berg. and most fiercely assaults. There are his men soundly knockt many a time, by the Swedens sal­lyes out of the Towne, and by others from the Army by Dammin. Tilly thus enraged with the losse of his men, after a large breach in the walles made with his Ordnance; he March 9. resolues vpon a generall assault; by fine force brea­king into the Towne, he takes it; kills all that he findes in Armes: except the Governour, Colonell Kniphusen, his wife and daughter; foure Captaines, some Lieutenants, and Anci­ents, with about sixtie common Souldiers: all which he sends prisoners into Stargard. Newes of this being brought into [Page 83] Friedland some foure Leagues off, which was kept by one Regiment of foote and 17. troupes of horse; away packe the Swedens, late in the night towards Ancklam. The King also hearing of Tillyes hard dealing with his men, sends back to haue those Imperialists sent after and stayd, which had newly yeelded vp Colbergen: and these he causes to be kept in durance at Friedberg.

Tilly after this sends his Army towards Demmin: Tilly turnes backe againe towards Mag­denburg. but fin­ding no good to be done, eyther vpon the Army or Towne, and now perceiving that the King was not disposed to fight with him; and that his two Armies kept him from going further that way; bethinkes himselfe, and turnes back againe towards Rapin: loosing his Ordnance in the fennes, as the re­port was. Hearing of the Kings Ship-bridge in his returne, he sends Coleredo with twentie troupes of horse through Botsaw towards the Oder, to hinder the worke if it might be: but they finding the bridge not onely finished, but with a strong Sconce fortified also; are faine to turne back againe. In the tayle of them, follow 600. Swedish horse, pursuing them even vnto Botsaw: where other of their fellowes joy­ning with them, they passe beyond Bernau vnto Munchen­berg: falling there on the sudden vpon seaven hundred Cra­bats; of which many they kill; an hundred they take, their Colonell hardly escaping into Franckford, was faine to leaue all he had behinde him. Tilly having thus left the Country; the King resolues vpon the taking of Franckford: in his going whither, his Vantcurryers surprise Zednick; kill three hun­dred Crabats; obtaine three Cornets, and 460. horses, with a great bootie besides.

The King resolving now vpon the siege of Franckford, The siege of Franckford vp­on the Oder. vp­on our Lady day in March, beginnes to passe his Army over the Oder: vpon the 27. he advances forwards in good order, with some 18000. men in his whole Army, besides those of Gustavus Horne, who were to goe for Landtsbergen. Count Schomburg (who commanded in chiefe within the towne) now suspecting the Kings purpose; takes in 7000. more into the Garrison: whereof twelue troupes of horse: and rayses [Page 84] outworkes in the destroyed Vineyards. The first of Aprill, comesOr Dupen­bach. Teuffenbach newly made Marshall, of the Imperiall Army. He burnes downe one of the Suburbs of Lubus, to disappoint the enemy from lodging in it. The very same day, arrives the King at Lubus within a league of the Towne. The next day, he entrenches in the Vineyards aforesaid; whereupon the view of the Towne being taken, the batteries are raysed. That evening, the Imperialists make a brave sal­lye through the Gubens-gate: and with the losse of a Lieute­nant and many men, are beaten into the Church-yard, by the gate aforesaid; and glad to get in at it. In this Skirmish were many lost on the Kings side too, and Colonell Teuffell among the rest wounded in the arme. The next day being Palme Sunday, Aprill the third, old stile: the King keepes the so­lemnitie of the day, with prayers and Sermons in his Camp. All this while had there not beene one shot made against the Citie. Wherupon those of the Towne thinking the King had not as yet brought many peices with him, begin to revile the Swedes that had the guard next their workes: What you Ba­con-eaters, haue you eaten vp all your Leather-gunnes for hun­ger? Out of a Bulwarke at the same time vpon a pike, hung they a Goose; calling the King a wild Goose, lately come over the Sea. The King regards none of this, till both Sermon and dinner too was done. About two a clocke, the Swedens fall to worke vpon their Trench, raysed the night before, close vnto the Gubens-gate: and while the pioners worke, the Souldiers with pike and sword, beate the Imperialists out of an Outworke they thereby had, into the Towne. That worke being perfected; the King himselfe (then who there is scarce a better Gunner in the world) bends twelue peices of Ordnance vpon that gate: vnder favour of those peices, clap­ping two Petards also vnto it. Through the gate, partly thus beaten open, and partly blowne vp, doe the Swedes towards Evening enter; others getting in by scaladoe: others enter pell mell with the Imperialists, that now forsooke their stati­ons: the King himselfe getting over the wall also by the old Colledge, was every where encouraging his Souldiers. [Page 85] Now began a most bloudy fight: the Swedes running into the danger, like flyes into the Candle, as if they had beene blind, and not seene it, when as there was nothing else to be seene. From a Turret neere the place where the King entred, the Iwperialists shot amayne: the Swedes threatned to cut all their throats if they gaue not over: vnto which, they now percei­ving how the game went, quickly hearkned. By this time, were all the Swedes entred by the Gubens-gate. Schawenberg, with valour enough, encourages his men to hinder it. Vpon him, now comes Bauditzen with fresh troupes of horse and foote, and beates him quite out of the place.Franckford taken. Now was the Towne wonne: now they beginne to flee. Some of the chiefe officers of the Army, that had heretofore gotten great spoyles (for in this Towne were most of the old Servitors of the Emperours side) being now afraid to loose, what they had so hardly before gotten; were carefull in the heate of the medly, to send their Wagons towards Silesia, over the Oder bridge. Thus while the bridge was clustered with carriages, the flee­ing people so throng'd and wedg'd in one another, that many were stifled, and many thrust into the Oder: The Swedes al­so now in the backes of them, could not bestow eyther blow or shot, which did not some mischiefe. Schawenberg, Teuf­fenbach, and Monte Cuculi, with diverse horsemen, escaped into Great Glogow in Silesia. Lieutenant Generall Hiberstein was slaine: so were Heidu, Walstein, and Iour; all Colonells; with fiftie other Captaines and Officers: and 1703. Souldi­ers at the least, dead vpon the place: besides those that were drowned; and others found in Cellars, Chambers, and else­where, as many more perchance. Colonell Sparre a Sweden borne, (who had once before escaped the King (as you haue heard) had the honour to be pulld by the hayre of the head from off his horse, by the Kings owne hand; being with seaven other Lieutenant Colonells, and some seaven hundred common Souldiers, sent prisoners into Stetin. Ensignes were there 23. (some say 41. and sure there could be little lesse) with 8. Cornets, presented vnto the King. There were 300. Swedes slaine, and 100. more hurt: whereof some mortally. [Page 86] The rest were so fierce vpon the slaughter and pillage, that the King and Bauditzen had much adoe with intreaties, threats and blowes, to staue them off. To increase the mise­ry of the Citizens, there fell a fire that night, which burnt downe 17. houses. Thus was the Imperialists Goose sawced, and thus roasted. Here found he very much riches, 100000. pound of powder, 18. great peices of Ordnance, besides ma­ny lesser ones, and a very great quantitie of Armes and Am­munition. Solemne thankes being given to GOD for this Victory; the King immediately dispatches 4000. horse to­wards Landtsbergen, The passages and siege of Landtsbergen. whither Gustavus Horne (as you heard) was before gone: himselfe the 5.th of Aprill with more for­ces following after. This strong Towne of Landtsbergen in the New Marck, scituate vpon the East side of the Oder, neere vnto Poland and Silesia too: lyes vpon the River War­ta; which running out of Poland, falls into the Oder about Custrine. This Towne lying so neere the Pole, with whom he had his late warres; makes it of the more consequence vn­to the King. Faine therefore would he haue surprised it at his first comming into Pomerland. Immediately after which, Au­gust 15. he sends 2000. horse to try their fortunes vpon it. But they could doe no good. In the beginning of December were some strong parties of horse looking that way: so that some Swedish over-confident of their valour and fortune, would needs set vpon certaine troopes of Imperialists, which they heard were then abroad, betwixt that Towne and Schif­felbein. The Swedes beaten. Of which the other (2000. in number) having also notice; provide in very good order and resolution to enter­taine them. The Swedes are well beaten; 300. of them lost, and three Cornets: the rest glad to runne away. In the be­ginning of Ianuary, when vpon the taking of Gartz, the King had the pursuite of the fleeing Imperiall Armie; he thought at the same time to haue surprised this Towne also. Thither is Gustavus Horne then sent: and from thence by the valour of Count Cratz, Governour in the Towne, is he for that time put. Horne returning hereupon, hath notice by the Countrey Boores, of some fiue troupes of Crabats, which out of Him­melstadt, [Page 87] a Towne some league or two to the Northward; vsed much to infest those places. To hinder them, and to blocke vp the Towne of Landtsbergen withall,Landtsbergen blockt vp. he leaues some 9000. men thereabouts. The King also himselfe more strong­ly blocks it vp, when he sate downe with his Army at Co­ninxbergen; and perchance had not Tilly then beene about to come; he might then haue had a purpose to haue besieged it: but a sudden and a great frost hapning withall in the end of Ianuary, the King rises, and passes into Mecklenburg. Yet still was the Towne blockt vp; and (to passe by other en­counters) in the beginning of March, the Imperialists sallying out, are beaten in againe all but two hundred; which were left behinde, as prisoners. In mid-March, the King passes o­ver the River Warta, nere vnto it. Towards the end of March, he laying a bridge over the Oder at Swedt (where he held his strong Leaguer) he had from thence a fayre passage both to that Towne, and vnto Franckford: vnto which siege when as himselfe in person went; then was Gustavus Horne againe sent towards this Landtsbergen, with twentie Cornets of horse, and foote proportionable: Banier then going as Lieu­tenant Generall, convoyes the Ordnance and Ammunition. No sooner was Franckford taken; but the King the very next day, dispatches 4000. horse thitherward: himselfe the 5.th of Aprill likewise following. And now goe they to it in good earnest: the King on one side of the River Warta, and Horne on the other. On the Kings side was the Towne natu­rally guarded, by a certaine morasse or marish: over which, the King by the guidance of a Boore so suddenly passes, that he was before the Towne, before the amazed Garrison lookt for it. Within a while after, yong Colonel Cratz, (sonne to the Governour) would needes sally out: but a musket-bullet stopt his retreate, for ever going to tell his Father. Vpon the 15.th of Aprill (the King having fully finisht his workes) by three a clocke in the morning, falls strongly vpon their outworkes, and takes them: and three hundred Souldiers in them, which were willing to serue vnder the Kings Colours. The rest seeing all hope of reliefe to be cut off,Taken. by the taking [Page 86] [...] [Page 87] [...] [Page 88] of Franckford: demaund Conditions and haue them. The next day therefore being Satterday by eight a clocke in the morning, out they march with bag and baggage, and 4. feild peices; and as much powder, as would discharge them foure times over. The Garrison was some 4500. in all; of which 25. companies of foote, and 12. troupes of horse; whom the Swedes convoyed vnto Great Glogow in Silesia. And that you may not wonder, why so strong a Garrison would so soone giue vp so strong a place; know this, that they had no more provisions but for one day more: which had the King but gotten intelligence of, he had had the glory by holding out that other day, to haue had them all at his mercy: and to haue given them their liues, which now they had vpon bargaine. About this siege first and last, the King of Sweden lost 600. men. Thus are all those parts of Pomeren and Marckland quite cleered; and all passages open into Silesia.

At the same time therefore that he sent one Army against Landtsbergen; he dispatches the Rhynegrave and Bauditzen with other forces into Silesia; which is hard by Franckford. They fall vpon Crossen; Crossen in Sile­sia taken. the next great Towne vpon the Oder: which they presently take vpon agreement: after which they fetch in Contribution out of the Countrey as farre as Sagan and Great Glogow also. This put the Imperialists in such feare, that with all speede (namely, about the end of Aprill) the Emperour sends his Ambassadours to the States of Silesia: vnto whom (now met at Breslaw, the chiefe Citie of Silesia) are these grating Propositions offered.

The Emperor demaunds a terrible Excise of Silesia.1. That for every Oxe pastured betwixt the Rivers Oder and Baber, the Country people should pay the Emperour three Cretzers a weeke, and for those beyond, two Cretzers. And for every 25. sheepe, as much.

two Pfennings make 1. Creit­zer 4 Creitzers 1 Baizen 5 Rai­zen are about an English shil­ling. 21. Grosh make a Ryxe Dollar.2. For every bushell of Corne grownd in Silesia, a Toll to be payd to the Emperour.

3. Out of every hundred Rixe Dollars lent vpon Vsury, the Emperour to haue one Florence.

4. Out of every pound of flesh two Pfennings.

5. Out of every tunne of Beere, twelue Grosh to be payd. [Page 89] And this Excise to continue for two yeares.

The Emperour is now enforced to lay Contributions vpon his owne natiue Subjects and Tenants of Gratz and therea­bouts: whom (as the Princes of Leipsich sayd) he had hither­to spared. And now he victualls and new fortifies Vienna al­so. Thus begins the Eagle to looke to her owne nest.

And now is the Dyet of Leipsich concluded: which brake vpon the same Palme Sunday, that the King tooke Franck­ford vpon. And now are Don Balthasar and the Baron Dho­na, sent with more forces into Silesia; which Diepenbach Ge­nerall for those parts, complaines vnto the Emperour that he much wanted. By this time is the most of Aprill spent; Franckford, Crossen, and Landtsbergen, Garrisond and forti­fied by the King: and his Armyes from severall parts, now come together and refreshed. Vpon May-day therefore 1631. (himselfe the next day being to come into Franck­ford) he sends some ten Regiments of foote from Fursten­wald, (which is about a league from Franckford) towards Kopenick backe againe into the Land of Brandenburg: after whom, are 80. troupes of horse presently dispatched. Vpon which May-day, is Count Ortenburg sent in ambassage from the King vnto the Marquesse Elector of Brandenburg; the Propositions were, to desire Spandan and Custrine to be con­signed over into his hands during the time of these warres, because they lay so convenient for him: both for the passage of his forces out of Mecklenburg and Pomerland vnto him; and for his owne retreat backe againe vnto them, if he should be put to it. A moneths pay was further required for the Ar­mie; or else will the King leaue all. Ortenburg returning without a satisfying answere, Gustavus Horne is sent: and he fayling, the King himselfe goes to the Elector; taking fiue troupe of horse, 1000. Muskettiers and foure feild peices a­long with him. May 3. the Elector meets him in a little wood vpon the Copenicker-heath, some English mile from Berlin: here the King receiving no contentment, offers to returne to his Leaguer againe; but the Electresse and the Court Ladies prevaile so farre with their feminine irresistibilitie, that his [Page 88] [...] [Page 89] [...] [Page 90] Majestie takes his lodging in Berlin for that night, with a thousand Muskettiers for his guard. May 5. the treatie begins againe: and by this time was the Kings whole Army come vp to Berlin; the sight of an Army, is a very fierce argument, 'tis a very prevailing Logike. The Elector is with much adoe brought to yeeld Spandau vnto the King for one moneth: whereupon the next day, the Governour Buckersdorp with a Garrison of six hundred men, goes out of the Towne; and the Kings forces come in. Custrine (the strongest Fort of all the Country, over whose bridge the Imperialists fleeing fromSee pag 70. Gartz, had escaped into Franckford:) he could not obtaine from the Elector: Crachten the Governour mainly resisting the Kings desires in it. That which made the King, now all on the sudden, to desire these passages and Retreates of the Elector, was; that now despayring both of the holding out of the Towne of Magdenburg, and of his owne relieving of it: he feared Generall Tillyes comming backe vpon him o­ver the Dessau bridge, (after the taking of the Towne) which was now at the last cast. Cause withall had he to suspect, that if Tilly should indeede come backe, the feare of his fame and Armes, would so prevaile with his brother of Branden­burg, that he might (perchance) be enforced to the cooping of him vp at these Townes, whereby he should be hindered of his retreate backe into Pomerland. Hearing by this time that the Towne of Magdenburg, The King en­camps at Pot­stayn. was actually now taken, May 10.th, his Majestie with all speede encamps at Potstayn, a Towne in the Old Marck of Brandenburg, betwixt Berlin and the Towne of Old Brandenburg; whither a little before he had caused his Army to retyre. At this Leaguer the mayn of his Army stayes, from about the 8th or 10th of May vn­till Iune following. Here having formed a Camp, he first of all sends a Trumpet to summon the Imperialists in old Bran­denburg & Rattenaw, two good Townes vpon the River Ha­vel: laying his passage this way towards the River of Elve; so to blocke out Tilly, Old Branden­burg and Rat­tenaw taken. from breaking in that way vpon him. Brandenburg and Rattenaw thus summoned, and Tilly yet so busied at Magdenburg, that he could not helpe them; and the [Page 91] King presenting his Canon before their towns, granting them no respite to consider vpon it, and laying hold of all the boats vpon the river Havel, from thence even to Havelberg towne, they are forced to yeeld, and to be packing.Some actions in Silesia. In this time the Imperialists attempted the recovery of Crossen in Silesia: but the Garrison being assisted by their fellowes out of Franck­ford and Landtsbergen; kill some 150. or 200. of them vpon the place, driving the rest into Great Glogaw. And the Im­perialists a little after that, lighting vpon a partie of 100. Swedish horse, take 25 [...]f them, and driue the rest to take the Oder.

To returne to the King. Rattenaw thus taken: and the Countrey of Brandenburg now quite cleered of the Imperia­lists: the King ships 100. peices of Ordnance, and other ne­cessaries for the building of a Sconce, in those new gotten boates aforesaid; to be readie for a new designe. The mayne of his foote forces, he still keepes in the Campe at Potstayn, and about Brandenburg, Nawen, Spandaw, &c: and his horse in their Quarters betwixt that, and the Dessau bridge. Vpon the first of Iune, he commaunds foure Regiments towardes Gutterbogen, a Towne towards the 2 passages over the Elve; at Dessau bridge namely, and at Wittenberg. A little after this, Bauditzen in the night time passing a foord of the river Elve, surprises the Imperialists at Werben. About which designe we must for a while leave him, to speake of three other acti­ons of the Kings, done on this side the Country: for the do­ing of which, now after Tillyes going towards Saxony, he had the better leisure.

The first of which was,The Dukes of Mecklenburg againe In­stalled. his r'impatriating and installing of the two Dukes of Mecklenburg, into their ancient and pater­nall inheritance, which the Emperour had before deprived them of, and given vnto his Generall Wallensteyn. This Coun­try being by the Kings Armes now almost cleered (excepting Rostock, Wismar, Dammitz, and another Towne or two;) he on the 5th of Iune, causes the people to be new sworne againe vnto their naturall Lords; & Wallensteyn to be abjured. Which triumph himselfe honored, with his royall & victorious pre­sence.

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[Page 92]The second Action was done in that part of Pomerland next vnto Mecklenburg; namely the taking in of the strong towne of Gripswald; done by his LieutenantThe Lord Otho Toedt, or Otly-todt. Colonell Toodt. This strong towne of Gripswald (which is also honored with an V­niuersity) is scituated in the little Dukedome of Wolgast, in the mouth of the Oder, not farre from Stralesundt, whereabouts the King first landed. Why it was not taken in till now, I know not.Gripswald be­sieged. I finde it to haue beene besieged, (or blockt vp ra­ther) with 5. Regiments of foote, and one of horse, about the 20th of Iuly 1630. I finde some about it August 8. also: Men­tion is made of it in mid-Ianuary likewise: about which time the Imperialists fearing that Dammin would be besieged, fetch some peices of Canon out of Gripswald into that Towne. This Dāmin being taken; Gripswald is left naked; & now in March, in good earnest set vpon: 10000. men being layd at a distance to blocke it vp. Of any assaults or attempts vpon the Towne, I reade not: nor of any sallyes made by the besieged; but that fatall one, made by Perusie, then Governor there: in which skirmish, himselfe and his Ritmaister were both slaine. The occasion of it was thus: Iune 10th very early in the morning a partie of Swedish horse adventure to driue away some Cat­tell, feeding close by one of the Ports: which one of the Senti­nels descrying, discharges his Musket, the Towne taking the Alarme vpon it. The Swedish suspecting some such matter, dresse a fine Ambuscado for them. Out sallyes 4. companies; and amongst them Perusie, his Sergeant major or Ritmaister, and a Knight of the Dutch order. These sallyers being in a de­sperate case within, become the more adventurous without. Well! the Governors courage carrying him too farre in the pursuit of those, that did but feigne to flie; the ambush starts vp, and cuts betweene the Towne and him. The Crabats per­ceiving the danger, avoyde it by forsaking of their Maister. The Dutch Knight is slaine first; and the Governor not long after. By this time are there more forces of the King come in; which had marcht hard all night for that purpose; the plot being layd, that the game should thus be begun, before they were discovered. Now doe the Swedens make their approa­ches [Page 93] to the walls: and after an houres space, the Towne is most streightly besieged. First the besiegers shew the Towne that they haue Canon, and then send to summon them by a Trum­pet: Their answer was, that they would fight it out. Now are the Ordnance set to worke (which some call playing:) a faire saultable breach is made. The Garrison is as good as their words, for by that breach which the Swedens thought to en­ter, the other sally: yea so hard they lay vpon the Swedish foot, that had not the horse struck in, they had made foule worke: but being by this meanes beaten into the Towne, they pre­sently sound a parlie. The assault is given over; Conditions of yeelding agreed vpon; which came to thus much:Taken. That vpon Iune 16. they should depart with flying ensignes, bag and bag­gage, and be convoyed vnto Loitz first, and to march into Rostock afterwards. The Swedish convoy being something too weake for them, they would not keepe conditions and goe to Rostock; but into Havelberg would they goe, that they would. This had crost the Kings designe, which he was now about for this Havelberg. The Swedish Generall Banier ha­ving notice of the way they tooke; sends Captaine Hall to meete with them: who falling fowle vpon them; kills a ma­ny, and takes the rest prisoners. Thus payd they for breach of Conditions. The King not knowing of the taking of the Towne, was now comming from Stetin with a great power to doe it: but is by the newes of it turn'd backe againe.

The third Action on this side,Brandenburg demaunds Spandaw againe. was a passage betwixt the King, and the Elector of Brandenburg; thus. The King having in the beginning of May before, obteined the towne of Span­daw, but for one moneth, and that moneth now out; the Elec­tor demaunds his towne againe. The proposition very much displeased the King, because it very much crost him: yet for his promise sake, he delivers it, Iune 8. The next day he sends word into Berlin (the town where the Elector held his Court) of a Ʋisite he meant to giue it: and a Protestation withall, that if any thing fell out foule vpō it, the bloud should not be layd to his charge. The same day, he streightly beleaguers Berlin; bending his Canon directly vpō the Electors palace. Out sends the Elector to treate; 3 dayes are spent about it; & all to no pur­pose.

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[Page 94]Thus at last when the men could not agree, the women draw downe the King to milder resolutions. Two Regiments are received into the Towne for that night: & the conclusion is, that vpon Iune 12. the Kings Garrison is againe admitted in­to Spandau: Spandaw, rede­livered vnto the King. and Brandenburg is to giue 30000. Rixe Dollars a moneth, towards the payment of the Kings foote; the Dut­chies of Pomerland and Mecklenburg, being at the charges of maintaining most of the horse. Some may imagine, that this was but a colourable deniall in Brandenburg; and rather Art then force, in the King. Their reason is; because the King of Sweden, is brother in Law to the Elector of Brandenburg; as having married his sister; and therefore not likely to doe him violence: he besides, being one of those oppressed Princes, whom the King came to relieue. So that this they judge to haue beene such a practise, as that (as they say) before of the Duke of Pomerlands was; and that Brandenburg seem'd to be vnwilling, with what he was glad of; that he might haue this answere, to giue the Emperour, That he was forced to it. I cannot tell: but this I beleeve, that would Brandenburg haue done the King a service, he might haue before done it, by granting Custrine vnto him: and that might haue beene the saving of Magdenburg. This I rather beleeue, that Magden­burg being thus taken and destroyed, the Elector was terribly affrighted, and therefore durst not but desire Spandau againe: but hearing now that Tilly was gone a fortnights march from him; engaged otherwhere; and the Dessau bridge broken downe, that he could not returne; he cōsented vnto the King. Well! the agreement being made, the King on the same 12. of Iune goes thence by water vnto Stetin, there to giue audi­ence vnto the Russian Ambassadour: which he did vpon the 14th after.

By this time, there having beene some murmuring amongst the Protestants against the King, concerning the taking of Magdenburg; as if he had beene too slow or defectiue in his aydes or counsells, vnto that Citie: His Majestie, though in himselfe guiltlesse; yet considering that he is cruell to him­selfe, who is negligent of his owne fame or reputation; he [Page 95] thinkes himselfe bound in honour to excuse himselfe; and therefore sends abroad this his Apologie, which wee haue here abbreviated.

That he could never by any perswasions or assurances draw in the Citizens of Magdenburg, The Kings Apologie concerning Magdenburg. to disburse any moneyes to­wards the levying of any forces for his service, and their own safeties: no nor so much as to billet or quarter any of his troopes vpon them; vntill by the blocking vp of their towne, they were compelled vnto it. That neither could their owne Prince the Administrator of Magdenburg, when in the end of Iuly 1630. he came into their Citie, obtaine so much of them: which had it beene done, Pappenheim had then beene diver­ted; an inexpugnable Fort might haue beene raysed; and the Seate of warre haue beene turn'd off from the Citie. That the enemy had such potent Agents within the Towne, that all good resolutions in others, were hindered by them: and vn­to their trecheries, is the ruine of their owne Countrey to be imputed. That notwithstanding all this, the Citie can wit­nesse his great care in borrowing moneyes from Hambrough and Lubeck for them; which had beene sent vnto them. As for any promise from his Majestie, which the Citizens may alledge that they relyed vpon; they must know, that this is to be regulated according to conveniencie, possibilitie, and the present state of things: so that the King might not then endanger the whole action, for the particular of one Citie; especially seeing their owne negligence, had now made his promise impossible to be kept. Moreover, other most insu­perable difficulties haue since fallen out and made his relie­ving of them impossible. As that Imperiall Armie in Pome­ren and Mecklenburg: which besides that it was farre too strong for him in horse; had even then blockt vp all passages from the East Sea vnto Magdenburg. That it had beene in vaine for him to haue attempted any further, vntill he had first taken in, those two mightie passages of Gartz and Grip­penhagen. That notwithstanding all his diligence, he could not conveigh any troopes vnto Magdenburg, (to any pur­pose) vntill November last; by which time, the enemy had [Page 94] [...] [Page 95] [...] [Page 96] encroached too farre vpon them That Gartz and Grippenha­gen being taken, he might haue ruined the whole Emperours Army, could he but haue obteined the passage of Custrine: but this had bin denyed him by Krachten, then Governour of it. That hereupon, he was faine to let the enemy escape (in their flight from Gartz) into Landtsbergen: nor was he able after that, to cleere the Elve of the enemies; & all this, through Krachtens deniall. If it had beene expected, that his Majesty should then haue joyned battell with Tilly: they are to consi­der, the many labours and weaknesse of his forces: the hard­nesse of the winter; and the over-matching power of the e­nemy: who had he wonne the battell, had at that blow con­quered both Magdenburg and Germany. That after Tillyes re­tyring from him to besiege Magdenburg, he had strengthe­ned the Imperiall Army left against his Majesty, with 12000 new men: laying them vpon all the passages and advantages of Pomeren, Brandenburg, and Silesia and especially vpon the River Oder; and in the Townes of Franckford and Landts­bergen: that had he stirr'd to relieue Magdenburg, they had come vpon his backe. That to shew his willingnesse, to re­lieue Magdenburg, he had adventured vpon the taking of Franckford; and after that advanced as farre as Spandaw and Potstayn, towards it. That notwithstanding the Towne so much concerned the Elector of Saxony, yet could his Majesty never obtaine of him, any aydes towards the reliefe of it; or any passage by Wittenberg, or the Dessau bridge, towards it. That the Elector of Brandenburg had not, or could not in time deliver him such victualls and shipping, as were necessary to it: as having a respect vnto what the Elector of Saxony did, or would doe. That he yet knew not, whether these two E­lectors were or would be, his friends or his enemies. All this considered, his Majesties Councell of warre assured him, That with so over-wearied an Army, first to passe so many e­nemies in the way; and then to haue set vpon Tilly, had ruind all. Lastly, that he would haue relieved the Towne, appeares by the neede himselfe stood in of it: seeing vpon the newes of the taking of it, he was faine to retyre with his Army; and [Page 97] project new designes for his securitie and proceeding. This was his Majesties Apologie.

Suppose now in the meane time the Generall Tilly to be removed from Magdenburg; whence in Whitsun weeke a­bout the end of May, he departed. This knowne, the King presently hath a designe of recovering those places; and he having forsaken the Elve, the King sends towards it. Now doth the gallant Bauditzen all of a sudden one night with his Dragonniers, passe a shallow place or Foord of the Elve: whereby the Imperialists in Werben are taken sleepers, kill'd,Werben taken and Borg. rowted or imprisoned; their Lieutenant-Colonell, their chiefe Quarter-maister, and their Towne surprised: Others at the same time doe as much to Borg, within 4. leagues of Mag­denburg. Tilly now vpon his march hearing of these tydings, and fearing withall that the King had an intention to lay a bridge over the Elve; away dispatches he foure Regiments vnder Pappenheims Commaund; to secure Havelberg, Pappenheym sent to resist the King. and those neighbour places. Werben thus surprised, now begins some of the Kings Army to remooue from about Potstayn; and the Navie of boates with their provisions, are sent to­wards Copenick, to passe by Berlin and Potstain, into the Ri­ver Havel: both Armie and Fleete moving towards old Bran­denburg, Rattenaw, and so on towards Havelberg. At this time the King having received a supply of foure Regiments out of Prussia, and some new troupes levied about Branden­burg, with some others drawne out of their Garrisons, he di­vides his forces: the Lord Oxensterne Chancellor of the King­dome of Sweden, hath 38. troupes of old Souldiers added vn­to his former Army in Prussia: Gustavus Horne hath his strength in Silesia, againe reinforced with Recruites; and a bridge is layd by him over the Oder at Schamburg, a mile be­neath Custrine. By this time (that is in the end of Iune) is the King come backe againe from Stetin vnto his Armie; and that dislodged and advanced. Vpon the last of Iune there­fore in the night, is Colonel Duwaldt sent outOthers name 98. companies of foote, and 60 troupes of horse. with 2000. horse, and 2000. Dragoniers, or Muskettiers on horseback; who passing through the Elve at a shallow passage (as Bau­ditzen [Page 96] [...] [Page 97] [...] [Page 98] had done before,) now falls vpon the Citie of Tanger­mu [...]; Tan [...]er [...]und [...]. where both Towne and Castle being taken, the most of the Garrison are slaine in the resistance. The next day, thi­ther also comes his Majestie. The Imperialists of Garleben (another neighbour Garrison) hearing of this, presently flee away towards Halberstadt: Wolmerstat is presently also taken: yea th [...] Swedish fly out so farre, that they tooke away fiftie horses which were grasing even vnder the walls & Ordnance of the Citie of Magdenburg. Tangermund thus taken; a bridge is laid over the Elve, and there the King entrenches himselfe, there he fortifies, and formes a Camp. And now begins the bustling, and not till now.

Papenheym [...]eaten. Papenheym with his 4 Regiments of Crabats and others, with the expulsed Garrisons thereabouts, being sent by Tilly to keep those places; does his best to hinder the proceedings. The Rhyne-graue Charles Lodowicke therefore with some Swedish forces being there abroad about Borg and Wolmer­stadt, not farre from Magdenburg, upon them fals Papenheym: of whose approach the King having notice, with all the horse he could make, and some 2000 Musketiers, comes time e­nough to make one in the medlye.A bartell. Papenheym's Foote are al­most all cut off, most of the Horse play'd the Pultrons, and ranne away: himselfe escaped into Magdenburg first, from whence he hastned towards Halberstat, there to expect his Master the Generall Tilly. [...]teindal taken. It was said that some 20 Compa­nies were here defeated, and some 14 Ensignes taken. The Garrison of Steyndall beyond Tangermund hearing of this, presently trusse up their bag and baggage, and away are they packing.

Papenheym thus removed from about Havelberg; early in the morning Iuly 9th. comes Sr Iohn Bannier, the Kings Lieutenant generall at that time, [...]avelberg ta­ [...]. and he fals vpon Havelberg: so called from the river Havell, on which it standeth. All that are found in Armes are put to the sword, and the Towne taken. This the King having notice of, the same day begins to remoue his Campe from Tangermund, shipping all his pro­visions downe the Elbe towards Werben. This Towne was [Page 99] held the more advantageous place to encampe in, for that it had the commaund and passage not of the Elbe alone, but of the Havell also, which here at Werben runnes into the Elbe. The King for [...]es a strong Campe at Werben. The Campe lay on both sides the river, the Towne it selfe being comprehended within it, this he fortifies most main­ly, as strong as ever he did that of Swedt upon the Oder, when Tilly before came by him into Mecklenburg, this hee doth upon the same grounds and wisedome too. Tilly was then neere unto him, and now is hee againe upon his march to­wards him. Papenheym had sent for him: [...]derfully [...] ­vered. Mansfield Gover­nour of Magdenburg had dispatcht 4 posts in one day to­wards him; helpe, haste, come away, or all is lost. Tilly therefore then about Saxonie, is inforced to put off his owne invasion of Hessen, and to countermaund his Forces backe a­gaine already sent thither: and now is Tilly come backe al­most as farre as Halberstadt, the King cals out all his Garri­sons out of the Townes which could not be defended. This was about Iuly 14th, 1631 from whence hee advances vn­to Wolmerstadt in the Arch-bishopricke of Magdenburgh.

Hither being come vpon the 16th or 17th of Iuly, hee first of all dispe [...]ds away 4 Regiments of Horse for his Vant­curriers, to stay the Kings proceedings, whilst himselfe with his whole Army might come vp to him: and if it were pos­sible to tempt the King out of his trenches, to pitch a battell in the field.Bernsteyn sent against the King. These gallant Troupes most of them old soul­diers, were Papenheyms men, and very forward therefore now to revenge their fellowes. Colonell Bernsteyn, a valiant Gentleman was now their Leader: his Regiment was all Cu­riassers, or men at Armes. The second Regiment was the I­talian Count Monte Cuculies (himselfe not there) consi­sting of 12 Cornets of Rutters. The third was Holicke his Regiment, and in that 5 Cornets of Curiassers, and 5 more with fire-lockes. The fourth belonged vnto Coronino, and 10 Cornets had he vnder him. All these were verily perswa­ded, that the King would not fight, and in this perswasion they continued, till they came to Tanger, a Dorpe within one Germane league of Tangermund: not a Swede all that [Page 100] while appearing to oppose them. Here (about Tanger) doe these braue Imperialists take vp their Quarter; the Swe­dish having before forsaken that, and some other open places.

Whilest the wearie Troupes there rest; out goes Bernsteyn with some 600 Curiassers to set the watch, and to guard the passages for that night.A battell. The King of Sweden fully enformed by his skowtes, both of their lodging and strength; that ve­ry day sends out 2000 chosen Musketiers, and 500 Drago­niers, vnder the commaund of Colonell Collenbach, and the Rhyne-graue: before breake of day had approacht the Enemie. The 500 Dragoniers, they set to fall vpon Bern­steyns 600 Curiassers; Collenbach with his Musketiers on foote encompassing the Dorps, where the Imperialists lay en­quartered. The Dragoniers charging, presently tumble downe a many of the Curiassers;Bernsteyn slaine. Colonell Bernsteyn himselfe being slaine among the first, and in him a Familie, for he was the last of his name. The rest neither able with their horses and pistols, to hold out against horses and muskets; nor yet knowing the strength of their Enemies, make a disorderly retreate into the Dorp: thither the Dragoniers pursue them, and there leaping from their horses, they with their muskets still let flie amongst them. The other Imperialists cannot bee said to haue taken the Alarme, but the fright at it; some get horses to fight, and some to flie: well, which way soever they issue out of the Towne, one Troupe or other of Collen­bach's muskettiers are ready to entertaine them. Thus are 1500 slaine, all the 4 Regiments defeated, Bernsteyn kild, Holck and Coronino fled, some 28 or 29 Cornets taken: wher­of of Bernsteyns 10, of Holcks 6, of Monte Cuculies 5, of Co­roninoes 7, besides those that were burnt. Great bootie got­ten of silver-vessell &c. some one souldier lighting vpon 1000 Rix-Dollars, and another vpon as many Duckets. This defeate hapned vpon Sunday morning Iuly 17: vpon which day these Imperialsts were dispenced withall for being at Morrow-Masse, as having before day light beene at a Black-Sanctus. This defeate was given, Tilly himselfe being in sight of it.

[Page 101]Generall Tilly resolving now vpon a revenge, vpon Tues­day and Wednesday following, he musters and over-veiwes his Armie and Ammunition, gets all things ready for a battell. Vpon Thursday Iuly 21, forward he sets towards the King, by faire and easie marches (not to over-tyre his Armie) com­ming vnto Tangermund, where the King had before encam­ped, and from whence he had given order for his Garrison to retyre, if they perceived Tilly about to come vpon them. Til­ly at this time (reckoning those that were before slaine) brought some 26000 men along with him, and all these like himselfe, full of anger, resolution, and desire of revenge. Be­fore he would assault the Kings Trenches, he was said secret­ly to haue sent vnto some confederates and well-wishers of his, or otherwise corrupted with promises, to doe a peice of trecherous service for him: and that was, to naile the Kings Ordnance, (at least in that part of the Camp where he meant to fall on) that so it might be made vnserviceable against him.Tilly 3 times assaults the King in his Trenches. The plot being (by I know not what remorse in the conscience of one of the vndertakers) discovered; The King (tis said) gaue not Tilly one Canon shot when hee first fell on, notwithstanding he were come even vnder the Ordnance; and that Tilly was said to haue made about 60. This made him confident, and his men braue; who pressing now on in great multitudes, all of a sudden was such a tempest of shot, chaine-shot, murthering-shot, and what ever was cruellest to doe execution, showred in amongst them; that there was made a miserable butcherie. By another Avenue at the same time, out sallies Bauditzen with 3 Regiments of horse, who set so rudely vpon the Enemies Curiassers, that had the King seconded him with the rest of the Armie, it had beene (as tis thought) a very miserable defeate. Thus is the retreat soun­ded for that night. Within a day or two, another revenge must be attempted, before which, tis reported also, that Tilly should haue hired some Boores to haue fired the Towne of Werben, round about which the Kings Leaguer was: but these two reports wee doe onely relate, but presse not vpon our Readers, these perchance are but devised. Well; Tilly can [Page 100] [...] [Page 101] [...] [Page 102] make nothing of it neither this day, nor the next, (which was S. Iames his day Iuly 25, and the last day that hee attempted any thing vpon the Trenches:Tilly beaten off. and is therefore forced to re­tire towards Tangermund. In which retreat the King him­selfe setting vpon him, so over-laid the Crabats, that they were driven backe vpon their owne Foote; who to keepe them from disordering of their rancks, were faine to staue them off, by charging their pikes vpon them. Tilly percei­ving the King comming, made Alt or a stand, putting his men in order, & bringing forward his Canon as the King also did. A skirmish now beginning, was by the night taken off, both sides retyring to their quarters. Some say that the King himselfe was in one of these fights, in some danger and too farre engaged: and that Bauditzen was so hemb'd in, that he was faine by maine force to breake through: and that in the comming off, he should breake his sword in the body of a great Commaunder, bringing out nothing but the hilts, and some two handfuls of the blade: and that his horse was 4 times shot, and a peice of his saddle carried away. The Ge­nerall Tilly not vsing thus to be foiled, and having a good mind to be revenged, layes a Bridge over the Elbe at his Campe at Tangermund, daily sending some out to spie their opportunitie and advantage: but perceiving many of those which he sent out, never to returne againe, and victuals to proue excessiue deare, yea scarce to be gotten for any money; he having beene almost a whole moneth about the King and all that to doe as the blind cat did to the flie,Tilly retires from the King lickt the skinne off her owne tongue: about the 10 of August hee dislodges with his Armie, marching directly towards Garleben, Wol­merstadt, Hall, and so to the Duke of Saxonies Countrie. His wants may well be beleeved to be many, seeing he was now enquartered vpon that Country, which himselfe had before dispeopled, and eaten up. Fiue hundred starved horses left he behind him, (a most rich prey for a kennell of hounds) and 800 wagons for want of horses to draw them: with much else perchance, which otherwise he would not haue left be­hind. Some report him to haue lost 6000 or 7000 men; [Page 103] perchance in all these 3 great defeates of Papenheyms, Bern­steyns, and his owne hee might, and yet is halfe so many, a great many for so great a Generall to loose, nor would the side haue it so many confessed.

Generall Tilly thus marcht off, and the King having now no need to keepe so many Forces together, (it being both in­convenient, and chargeable besides) he divides his Army in­to 3 severall Quarters: of which we shall by and by tell you more.

During this time,The Queene of Sweden ar­riues in Pome­ren. her Majestie the Queene of Sweden ar­rives with 8000 men at Wolgast, by Stralesunt, where the King had before appointed a Pallace to entertaine her. And now also is the Lord Marquis Hamilton arrived. His Lord­ship after his going from London, vpon Iuly 18 met with the Forces that were to joyne with him out of Scotland, in Yar­mouth roade in Norfolke: which was their appointed place of meeting. Thence setting saile the 19th, (being a fleete of some 38 or 40) on the 25th they came before Elsemore Ca­stle in the Sowndt of Denmarke. Marquis Ha­milton arriues in Pomeren. There went the Marquis a shoare to kisse the King of Denmarkes hand, who then lay at Frederickstadt. The 29th they set saile againe, comming to anchor the next day by the Isle of Rugen. The 31th they sail'd into the mouth of the Oder betwixt Wolgast and the Isle of Ʋsedome. The 2 and 3 of August were the Forces landed: being vpon muster found to bee aboue 6000 able men; a­mongst which but a very few sicke, and two dead in all the voyage. The two next dayes they were all armed, and waf­ted over the river from the Ile of Vsedome vnto Wolgast side; and there billetted in 5 Villages. Here-abouts for a while they stay, and that, for the comming of 4 or 5000 Swedish which were to be sent vnto them. These being at hand to meete them about September 20, vp the Oder from Stetin they goe; being about some 41 Companies: some peices of Ordnance they carry with them by water, and some (tis said) are drawne over-land along by them. Their way was to­wards Silesia, where Gustavus Horne was now with an Ar­mie. They were afterwards engarrison'd in Custrine, Franck­ford, [Page 104] Landtsbergen, His men put into Garrison and Crossen: in whose places the old soul­diers were drawne out into the field. A report we here had of a defeate they should giue, but this we leaue to be confirmed in our second part. The newes of the English-mens comming being reported at the Emperours Court at Vienna, did some­thing startle and amaze some of the Courtiers: but the Hub­bub was ere long well allaied, by a letter (from a good Catho­licke hand no doubt) received out of England. Catholike In­telligence. The Contents were; how that few or none could here (in England) bee gotten, to come at the beating of the drummes, or to serue a­gainst the Emperour: wherevpon a most strict presse was faine to be set abroad, vpon which few or none except rogues or jayle-birds were taken; so that those Forces were not much to be feared. You see how much this Army was be­holden to their Countrey-man, this Spaniolized Intelligen­cer.

Suppose his Majestie of Sweden employed all this while, a­bout the emptying of his great Camp at Werben, The King dis­lodges his Ar­ [...]ie. into other Stations. Some he keepes there still, others are sent into Rat­tenaw; and a third division into old Brandenburg. This was about mid-August. About which time he hath 4000 new men come to reenforce him out of Sweden. Some Ordnance and Engines of warre they brought with them: and they tooke their way thorough Brandenburg-land towards Franckford; And these (I suppose) were the men, whose comming the English stayed for. The King leaving Bauditzen with chiefe Commaund for the time, in the Camp at Werben, with some ten Regiments of horse, and six of foote: vpon the 29. of Au­gust, himselfe in person departs from Rattenaw towards old Brandenburg; carrying foure Regiments of Dutch, and one of Finlanders along with him. By this time was the Generall Tilly a very busie enemy, in taking of Townes in Saxony: and that Duke with an Army of 20000. men in the field about Torgau, one of his chiefe Frontier Townes, towards the Kings Army. The Duke must now declare with the King, or perish vnder Tilly: and there had not onely many treaties passed with the Duke, concerning the conjoyning of their [Page 105] Armes; but, as it seemes, some assurances of late times: little or nothing now remaining to be concluded, but some circum­stantiall particulars, poynts of honour, and proportions of payments to the Kings Army. All these, it was not hard to be fayrely accommodated; and the Dukes pressing necessities his Majestie well perceived, would suddenly enforce him to condescend. Vpon these grounds,The King moues to­wards the Duke of Saxony. the King moues forward towards the Duke of Saxonyes Country. So then; the Kings Infantery or Foote, being fayrely sent a little before; the Ca­valry the same 29. of August, in number 73. Cornets of horse, and 1000. Dragoniers, marches from old Brandenburg: ta­king vp their Quarter the same night, some two leagues from that Citie; and for that he would not hinder his march by taking of Townes, or going thorough them;A hard Quar­ter. he that night pitcht in the feilds, neere the Towne of Zegesern; where the Army was but very poorely accōmodated; as being constrey­ned to content themselues with the hospitality of the warres, and to lodge all night in the open ayre, vnder the blew skies, and to accept of as cold Commons vnto it: and all by reason that the Kings carriages, (in which their baggage and neces­saries were,) was not yet come vp vnto them. The next day August 30. so soone as the Army appear'd in battell array, his Majesty the King of Sweden, rode vp and downe amongst them from Regiment to Regiment, and from ranck to ranck, giving them this gracious Encouragement.The Kings Oration to his Souldiers. Yee Lords and Gentlemen; much grieved I am at this your hard lodging and entertainement: But courage my hearts; we are now as good as in the Dukedome of Saxony; and there, indeede, our intention is to enter. Assure your selues, that things will mend there; there shall you haue victualls sufficient, and provision enough: then also shall we fully pay you the arrier, of what­soever meanes is now due vnto you. Let vs onely make this condition with you; that you there behaue your selues more civilly and gentely, then in some other places you haue done: and in the Marquisate of Brandenburg especially; where, in deede, it much grieved Vs, to see things carryed so ill-favou­redly. Hearke! at this present the Drummes beate a march, [Page 106] and the Trumpet sounds to Arme; the signals and summons of our moving forward. To morrow our Army breakes vp from Werben; and that also is to follow vs. Tilly, notwith­standing his great Army, stands already in so much awe of vs, that he proceeds with more leisure and warinesse, then he was heretofore wont to doe; for they haue beene beaten to it. It doth nothing daunt your valiant hearts, I know, that his Army is called Invincible; seeing you haue found it not to be so. On therefore, my hearts, a Gods name: Wee daily pray vnto the LORD of Hoasts for you, and we desire you to doe the same for Vs; that he would be graciously pleased to goe along with vs, to assist vs, and to giue vs good successe, in whatsoever just and religious enterprise we vndertake.

The Army thus encouraged, and assured of their enterprise; now rise and march. So that taking their way by Beltzig they arriue at Coswig, within two leagues of Wittenberg, Au­gust 31. Hither now the same day came the Lord Arnheym, Feild-Marshall to the Duke of Saxony: and at this time his Ambassadour to the King.Saxons vnion with the King The case is now altered with that Duke; Tilly had taught him to request of the King, what he had before eyther denyed him, or would not time enough declare himselfe in: aydes, and joyning with him. Arnheym humbly now declaring his Maisters estate, requests his Ma­jesties speedy assistance: the Conditions and manner where­of being Sept. 1. on the Kings part consented vnto, and sent vnto the Duke; are the next day returned in writing, and signed. The Vnion had these foure Conditions now yeel­ded vnto by the Duke, which he so much before stood vpon.

And the con­ditions of it.1. That his Majestie of Sweden might freely from hence­forth, passe and repasse through Saxony.

2. That the Elector of Saxony should at his owne charges provide the Swedish Army, with powder, shot, and provi­sions.

3. That the King should haue the absolute and vniversall Commaund of the whole Armie: and the Dukes Souldiers to submit themselues vnto his direction.

[Page 107]4. That the Duke should conclude no peace with the Em­perour, without the Kings consent: but that both of them should stand as one man, vntill the end of the warres.

The first defeate that this Vnion made, was of the Papists expectation: who verily beleeving that the Conclusions of Leipsich would haue made the Protestants fall out among themselues; are now frustrated of that hope. This done, the bridge at Wittenberg over the Elve, is freed for the King; who Sept. 3. passes his whole Army over it, into the Dukes Country. Sept. 4. the Kings Army from Wittenberg, and the Dukes from Torgau, advanced as farre as Dieben vpon the River Multa, within three leagues of Leipsich: whither al­so the Elector of Brandenburgs troopes now came. Both Ar­mies here meeting, in signe that the Duke had yeelded vnto what the King would haue, (namely the superioritie & com­maund of the Saxon Armie,) the Horsemen as they came by, vayled and stooped their Cornets, and the Foote, their En­signes, towards the Kings Armie. The 5th day both Armies putting themselues into fayre Battalia, the King tooke a par­ticular view of the Saxon forces, and of the order and con­stitution of the Army, resolving the next day to visite the great Generall Tilly in his trenches, and to levie his siege of Leipsich: but hearing that Tilly had that morning prevented them by taking of the Towne; the King and Duke were both put vnto new consultations: So that the 6th day was spent in providing for the great day, the day of battell, which fell out to be the next day following. And here now leaving both the King and the Duke employed, let vs goe aside a while, to fetch their valiant Adversary into the field, the Imperiall Generall Til­ly; whom wee lately left retyring this way, from the Kings Leaguer of Werben.

Generall Tilly his proceedings from the time of his retyring from the Kings Campes in Mecklenburg and Pomerland: Historically led along vnto the day of his de­feate, at the Battell of Leipsich.

THE Generall Tilly perceiving the King neither willing to adventure his Armies, now (like their swords) already worne out with so many winter-victories) in­to the plaine field against such fresh for­ces, who would bee desperate, because they must either fight or bee gone: and that he lay too strongly entrenched (in both places) to bee forced: and that by carrying away all provisions, hee had left him no meanes there long to stay without starving:Tilly retyres from the King and now hearing newes from Coloredo, that there was no forcing of the Kings new Bridge layd over the Oder at Swedt: bethinks himselfe therefore of an expedition against Magdenburg; rises, and retires with his Armie. In the end of March mind­ing wholy to leaue these Quarters vnto the King, hee first of all dismantles New Brandenburg, which he had so lately con­quered: becomming now as cruell to the Towne, as hee be­fore had beene vnto the Townsmen, and their Garrison: for he beates downe the walles, layes all the fortifications levell with the ground, and so takes his leaue of it.

[Page 109]Order is given vnto the Count of Schomberg to looke well vnto Franckford vpon Oder, and for the better securing of it, hee giues directions for 7000 fresh men to bee sent in, and that Diepenbach should also come into the Towne to assist Schomberg, as you haue heard before. And whereas there were yet two Townes with Imperiall Garrisons in them, neere vnto the Kings Campe at Swedt, (in Britsen namely, and Moncheberg) which to bee sure, the King would fall vp­on so soone as ever his backe was turn'd; those Garrisons he therefore sends for, and away he marches backe againe, the same way (almost) that he came: to Ferberlin first, and so to Old Brandenburg. Now he cleerely discovers himselfe, that his purpose was to vndertake what Pappenheym had all this while beene about; the taking of the Towne and Arch-bi­shopricke of Magdenburg. Part therefore of his Cavalrie he sends to Havelberg: himselfe with the rest of the horse, & fiue Regiments of foote passing the River Havell, takes vp his head-quarter at Mockeren. His magazine for the whole warre to come, he appoints at Zerbst, and that he might goe the roundlier to worke, he sends for his Ordnance from Hall and Halberstadt, which he commaunds to meete him at the Towne of Magdenburg.

Thus having brought the gallant Generall Tilly so farre on­ward on his way; and entred withall in that manner into our discourse, as a man should doe either into a goodly Pallace or Historie, namely in the midst of it: we will leaue our Ge­nerall a while taking order for his businesse, and goe to fetch vp our Storie from the beginning of these latter trou­bles.

The Countrey of Magdenburg is situated vpon the West of Brandenburg, from which the river Elbe parts it: vpon the South it touches vpon Saxonie: vpon the West joyning with Brunswicke and Halberstadt: and vpon the North of it is the Elbe againe, with the two Dutchies of Lunenburg and Lawenburg. The Countrey hath the name from the cheife Citie Magdenburg, which is one of the ancient Hanse Townes of the Empire: and that honored with an Arch-bi­shops [Page 108] [...] [Page 109] [...] [Page 110] See, and he the Primate of all Germanie.

The people be Lutheranes, of the Augustane Confession: the Arch-bishopricke in the hands of a Lay-man; Christian William, a Prince of the Electorall house of Brandenburg. His Title is, Administrator of the Bishoprickes of Magdenburgh and Hall, For of that Bishopricke is he Admini­strator also. and Primate of Germanie. This bred the quarrell; for he not giving way to the Reformation of the Religion (that is, the bringing in of Poperie againe) and the restoring of the Church-lands, hee is proscribed and Bandited by the Emperor: and some Forces sent into his Countrey actually to seaze vpon them. His Subjects notwitstanding they were also farre out with the Emperor, as having consented with o­ther Hans-Townes not to suffer any Imperiall Souldiers to be quartered or billetted vpon them, and had raised some 2000 souldiers for their owne guards, yet being now terrified by the Emperor durst not assist their Prince: vntill at last being encouraged by the King of Sweden, they receiue him, and promise to sticke close by him, for which the King sends his heartie thankes vnto them. This fals out about the end of Iuly 1630. The Administrator thus returned, sets forth his Declaration: protesting in it against the wrongs done him by the Emperor, and putting himselfe vnder the protection of the King of Sweden.

The Duke of Saxon-Lawen­burg riseth with the Ad­ministrator.With this Prince, had Francis Charles Duke of Saxon-Lawenburg (and for the same respects) now conjoyned him­selfe. In ayde of them, had the King of Sweden sent some troupes into the Country. And because the next way through Mecklenburg was full of Imperiall Garrisons, these aydes are sent from Stralesundt along by Sea, landing beyond all Meck­lenburg at Dassow, not farre short of Lubeck. These, the Duke of Saxon-Lawenburg aforesaid, vndertakes to let into Mag­denburg, thorow his owne Country and the passages of Lu­nenburg; in the Kings name also levying forces from about Hamborough, Lubeck, and those quarters: with whom about the end of September, he makes himselfe Master of the townes of Boutzenburg, Lawenburg, Nyehusen, and other places vp­on the Elve. Against him, towards the end of September, is [Page 111] the Generall Pappenheym sent with more Imperiall forces:Is taken priso­ner by Pappen­heym. who quickly snaps vp the Duke, taking him prisoner in his owne brother Duke Augustus of Saxon-Lawenburg his Ca­stle of Ratzenburg: and there an end of him for that time.And Colonel Bock defeated. Colonell Bock with ayde of the Administrators forces takes the Citie of Hall; and otherwhere holds some play a while: but in October following is he taken off also.

In the end of November the King sends a noble Gentleman and well-beloved by him, the Lord Diderick Falkenburg, The Lord Falkenburg sent by the King. Lord Marshall or Chamberlayn of his Majesties owne hous­hold. He being with his forces come into the towne of Mag­denburg; the Country-Gentlemen and the Souldiery resort apace vnto him; and the course of things begin to turne about againe. Then is Colonell Schneidewin sent out with 600. Muskettiers and 200. horse; and he in December, takes in New Allensleben: slaying there some 60. Imperialists, and bringing 100. more, away prisoners with him. The towne of Egelen is a little after that taken also. In the beginning of Ianuary an Imperiall Captaine surprises some 50. or 60. of the Magdenburgers; and they falling out vpon a strong Partie, fetch in a bootie of 800. sheepe and some 84. head of cowes and oxen: setting fire at the same time vpon some of their owne Dorps vpon the Elbes side, that the Enemie might not there nestle. I will not stand vpon every pettie encounter that passed this Winter time. The Spring comming on, they be­come more busie, on the second of March the Count Ladron, together with his Lieutenant Colonell Kirckner, are snapt vp and slaine by the Magdenburgers at Coswick, neere vn­to the Citie. The Citizens making out all their strength, cast vp three Out-workes hard without their Ports; and the Im­perialists falling on vpon two of them at once: Falkenburg with 2 peices of Ordnance sallying the same time out of the Citie, sets vpon their Quarters, fires and spoiles all their Huts and Cabbins, where they had all this while wintered. Thus these lesser fishes play a while with one another, till at length the great Pike Generall Tilly comes amongst them, and devoures them altogether. To him now turne we.

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[Page 112]Suppose him now at Mockeren (where wee last left him) already within the Bishoprick of Magdenburg, and within two or three leagues of the very Towne: in which of Soul­diers and Burgers, there were some 4000. fighting men. Vpon the 12.th of Aprill he first presents himselfe in full Battaglia within a mile of the Citie:The [...]iege of [...]enburg. at which time beleeved it was, that he would at least haue fallen vpon the great Starre-Sconce by the old Elve: but that day attempted he no more then to beate some Guards out of their Redoubts into the Citie. The 13. he planted 12. peices of Canon against the bridge over the Elve; against which he made 568. shot that same day: his intent being to cut that passage off, that the Towne by it might send no succours to the foresaid Sconce or Toll-house; but the Generall Falkenburg conveniently planting some peices vpon the Toll-house, quite at last dis­mounted the enemies Canon. This not succeeding, Tilly falls pell mell at once vpon both these places, giving eight seve­rall assaults vnto them: but the Lord Falkenburg with foure whole Canon double charged with stones, old iron, &c. a­bout 12. a clocke at night made them to giue over. Some pri­soners the next day taken, confesse there were 2000. men that day slaine of the assaylants. This [...] Toll-house, was a no­cable peice of Fortification, built on the other side the Elve. To this Tilly now turnes all his battery; here falls he to my­ning: and all to no purpose. On the 15th, both by land and water he layes at it: but 300. Muskettiers being by him sent in boates, to assayle it on the waters side, were by those of the Fort driven ashoare, and eyther all drownd or slaine by the Citizens; 200. also at the same time, lost their liues on the land-side. Now was there newes brought into Tillyes Camp of the King of Swedens being vpon his march, for the relieving of the besieged: a Councell of war being thervpon being call'd, some troupes are sent towards Wittenberg, and the Dessau bridge; there to staue off the Kings forces. The newes of his comming now slackning, Aprill 21. to worke he falls againe: and giving on vpon the Toll-house, he finds that notable peice forsaken by the Magdenburgers; who at [Page 113] their retreate offering to fire it, the place was rescued by the Imperialists. Vpon this, were all the Forts on that side of the Elve, eyther taken or given over; the bridge also by Tilly burned: and approaches made vnto the Citie, which was from thence immediately battered. Now were the besieged forced to burne their owne new Towne: where 2000. Impe­rialists immediately lodging themselues, fell to myning, and shooting of Granadoes into the Towne. The 29. by a sally out vpon these in the new Towne, are some 100. slaine. The mynes doe no hurt, vntill one Farenbacke, a notable Enginer takes them in hand, who sapps himselfe vnder the Towne-ditches to the very hard walls: in reward of which service, the Emperour makes him a Colonell; granting him Commis­sion to rayse two new Regiments. May 2. the Imperialists in the new Citie having suddenly in the night-time cast vp a battery, shrewdly punish the besieged. May 7. Generall Tilly comes himselfe into the new Towne, together with Pappenheym then Generall of the Ordnance, and Schomberg Sergeant Major generall; & a great show of Ladders is made, as if there were a purpose of a generall scaladoe. Tillyes hope was, that the Towne would presently parly, vpon sight of these preparations: but they taking the Alarme at it, instant­ly man all their bullwarkes. The 8th day is spent in shooting at a certaine high Tower, from which the Towne-Canon much plagued the besiegers. This day Tilly sends a Trumpet to summon the Towne: they send another to him; signify­ing their willingnesse to yeeld, might but their Administrator still enjoy his Bishopricke, and the Towne their priviledges. This not consented vnto, the 9th day Pappenheym attempting to scale the walls, is by a sally beaten off: in which some of the enemies mynes being discovered, are by countermynes in the Towne defeated. That day is another Trumpet sent into the Towne: towards Evening, was there much bustling ob­served, and carriages too and againe in the enemies Leaguer: yea they were perceived to rise with their whole Army, (as the Towne thought) and to march to Ottersleben, halfe a mile from them. All that night was the Lord Falkenburg [Page 112] [...] [Page 113] [...] [Page 114] vpon the walls: and perceiving in the morning no danger of assault, he calls the Citie together to giue answere to the ene­mies Trumpet; yea so secure they were, that the overwatcht Souldiers are suffered to goe from their Courts of guard, to take some sleepe: and some say, that the Townesmen were gone to Church to giue God thankes for their deliverance from the siege. Thus the walles being found emptie, about 7. on the tuesday morning, May 10. Pappenheym having given the word Iesu-Maria to his Souldiers,Magdenburg taken. and a white string a­bout their Armes; makes towards the Heidecker port: where having thrown turffs and faggots into the Ditch to fill it, thorow it vp to the middle the Imperialists runne, with sca­ling ladders vpon their backes. The walls are in a trice moun­ted, the Towne entered, and the Souldiers fall to killing. Falkenberg now flying in vpon them, beates them backe to the very walls againe: but a Port being by this time opened, and the enemies horse let in, the valiant Falkenberg is slaine with a shot, the Administrator hurt, both in the thigh and head, and so taken. Whilest all thus goes to wrack, a migh­tie fire breakes out (how, none knowes) and it being a great windie day, all was on the sudden become one great flame: the whole Towne was in twelue houres space, wholly turnd to Cinders, excepting 139. houses. Sixe goodly Churches are burnt; the Cathedrall together with S. Maries Church, were by the Monkes and Souldiers diligence, preserved. Twentie thousand people at least, were here killed, burned, and smoothered: six thousand being observed to be drowned in the Elve. Tillyes Wallons would giue Quarter to few: and the Crabats, never vse to giue, or beg any: so that all were kill'd. May 12. came Tilly into the Towne; and find­ing some hundreds of women and Children in the Church, he giues them their liues, and some bread to maintaine it too. Next day he forbids pillaging. Vpon Sunday May 15. be­cause he would haue this fayre Cathedrall as like to Rome as might be, that is, Consecrated in bloud; he causes it to be clean­sed and new consecrated; Masse andWith a ven­geance, can the Papists now say, that this Masse was [...]ruen [...]um [...]acrificium, an [...]nbloudy sa­crifice? Te Deum being sung in it, in thankesgiving for the Victory. Future ages may per­haps [Page 115] compare the destruction of this goodly Citie, vnto that of Troy, or of Ierusalem. The King of Sweden, (who for want of horses to draw his Carriages and Ordnance, could not come time enough to the reliefe) hearing of it, vowed (as some say) to be revenged; rising and retyring a little with his Army. There is a prodigie reported in Gallobelgicus, por­tending some dire abodement vnto the Citie. Thus. A Citie-Captaines wife dying in Child-bed, desires to be ript: the childe was found a boy,In capite cass [...] ­dem, thoracem ferreum, ocreas amplas, quas alla modo vo­cant. almost as big as one of three yeares old. He had, an head-peice, and an iron breast-plate vpon him: great bootes of the French fashion: and a bag by his side, with two like Musket-bullets in it. This take vpon his credit, or vpon theirs that told it him.

The same day that Magdenhurg was taken, had Count Tilly given order for the burning of the Dessau bridge vpon the Elbe where the Multa runnes into it: which was the only passage, by which the King of Swedē might endanger to disturb his siege: of this act he much repented him after the ta­king of the Citie, seeing that by destroying of that Bridge, he had cut of himself from having any more to do on the further side of the River. Being not able therfore to returne that way, and hearing of some levies of Souldiers now making by the Leaguers of Leipsich, in Saxonie, Hessen, and Durengen; those he resolues by his presence to hinder. In the end of May therefore from Magdenburg he remoues; leaving 3 Regi­ments in the Towne, to defend what the fire had left.The Count of Tilly mar­ches towards Duringen. Forsa­king the bancks of the Elbe, and bending a little westerly, at first through the Hercynian forrest he goes; with some 20000 men after him: in passing through which, many of his strag­ling Souldiers were knockt downe, by the Boores of the Country: his Ordnance are sent to Gruningen, & so forward to Allesleben. Thither being come, he there pitches;Pitches at Al­dersleben. for hither had the Dukes of the house of Saxonie (whose Lands lay there about) now sent their Ambassadors.

Pappenheym is now dispatcht towards Havelburg, (as you haue hefore heard:) and part of Tillies Cavallerie is sent into Saxon-Weymars, Altenburgs, Coburgs, & Swartzenburgs [Page 114] [...] [Page 115] [...] [Page 116] Countries. Thence goes he to Eisleben: out of which Towne hee drawes a present contribution of 8000 loaues of btead, and 40 tunne of beere: the Citie of Ertfurt (who there had their Ambassadors) is forced to yeeld to contributions. Thus goes his Army on-wards by slow marches, like a Droue or Hoard of Tartars, as if they meant to grase and eate vp the Countrey as they went.

His cheife designe is vpon the great Citie of Ertfurt in Duringen, and its neighbour Hessen, that lie to the South-west of Saxonie, now bearing due West of him. Passing therefore into the Countie of Mansfelt, he over-spreads the Countries with his Armies: for Iune the 9th I find some of them at Sangerhausen, others then at Alstedt, and some at Arnsteyn; all three Townes neere vnto Eysleben, and Mansfelt, some leagues to the west of Hall. Iune the 13th is the greatest part of his Armie, so far advanc'd into the Countrey as with­in three miles of Weymar: but these bee his Horses, which had layne vpon them ever since Whitsuntide. Iune the 15th 112. Cornets of Horse passe the River Ʋnstrut: his Foote at the same time being about Sacbsenburgh and Heildreygen; and himselfe then lodged at a Cloister by Oldsleben, within 4 leagues of Ertford.

From hence goes he with part of his Armie to Mulhau­sen, a Citie vpon the River Vnstrut in the Countie of Durin­gen, and neerer to the Land of Hessen; whereabouts for a while he stayes. Now hath he two designes in hand: 1 one for the taking of the great Citie Ertfurt in Duringen: for which he had these three reasons. 1. besides the wealth of the Towne, it would bring about all the Gentrie of the Country. 2. If once conquered by the sword, then were it the Empe­rors for ever: so that Saxonie must loose his Title of Prote­ctor of it, and that would breed a quarrell with him, which they desired. 3. That would breake Saxonies and Hessens le­vies, and saue their spoyling of the Spiritualtie in those parts, and in Franconia. Round about this Citie therefore hee still lies, sometimes at Mulhausen, and sometimes at Oldsleben, till towards the end of the moneth. His second designe was vp­on [Page 117] Hessen: to whom at this time hee sends those 4 (which some make 5) Articles, of whichSee Page. [...] we before told you: con­cerning which he receiving no contentment, resolues to fall into the Countrey.

Iune 28. I find Tilly come to Mulhausen, from whence he sends his Vant-curriers before him into Hessen: Colonel Cratz goes to one place; Coloredo vnto Saltzurgen and Creutzberg: others towards Eischweg and Vach: himselfe speedily resol­ving to follow with the whole Armie.

But now is the hooke put into his nose,Tilly Marches towards the King. and hee is turned backe (just) by the way that he came. For now hearing of the King of Swedens Conquests about the Elbe; of Pappen­heyms defeate; and of Mansfelts poast hast from Magden­burgh: he is faine to call off his Vant-curriers againe, and a­bout the 10 of Iuly to turne with all speed towards the King of Sweden at Werben: forsaking the halfe-destroyed Coun­tries of the Princes of the house of Saxonie. How hee there sped wee haue before * told you. After which hee againe betooke himselfe into Garleben, Wolmerstadt, and so at last in­to Hall.

And hither now haue wee brought him backe againe, the same way he went: for he beates over this ground as often, as if he were the ordinary Post of the place.Tilly counter-marches, and returnes into Saxony. Perceiving his forces by the 3 late defeates beginning to weaken, hee sends for the Count of Furstenberg with his Italian and Bavarian Troupes: who was now (as weeSee Page 33 told you) with 18000 men busied in the Dutchie of Wirtemburg: which Countrey together with the Circles of Swaben and Franconia, he having constrained to renounce the conclusions of Leipsich, was at this instant ready to fall vpon the Landtgraue of Hessen also. Now was the Generall Tilly throughly chafed; and seing he was not strong enough of himselfe to beate the King, he re­solv'd to be made strong enough by Furstenberg to beat some body.

Furstenberg was to come to him by the way of Erdfurt, & to meete him about Mansfeldt: whereabouts he after joyned with him Aug. 16, not that the two Armies vnited them­selues [Page 116] [...] [Page 117] [...] [Page 118] into one body; for victuals were now so deare that Tilly would not suffer that, but, for that Furstenburg was now at Tillyes devotion. Having thus made vp a compleat Armie of some 45000 men, of his owne Wallons, and old Germane Troupes, Furstenberg's, Italians, and Bavarians, with other old Souldiers: they now cald themselues The invincible Army; Now was the Generall Tillyes intention with those mightie Forces, first of all to haue constrained the Duke of Saxonie to haue renounced the conclusions of Leipsich, and to haue made him resigne over his own Army vnto him, with which being made vp aboue 60000 strong; he was purposed at the Citie and Bridge of Wittenberg to haue passed the Elbe, and there to haue set vpon the King of Sweden, or haue fallen into Bran­denburg, Mecklenburg, and Pomerland againe.

Furstenberg being thus joyned, the Duke of Saxonie (now about Torgau with his Armie at which Towne there is a Bridge over the Elbe) is sent vnto by Tilly, and invited into Mersburg; where a meeting, was given him by the Lords Mitternicht and Schomburg, Ambassadors from the Emperor: together with Bernard, cheife Secretary vnto the Generall Tilly. The Ambassadors peremptorily in the Emperors name propound vnto the Duke, that his Majesties great pleasure and intention was, to annihilate and to breake the Conclusions of Leipsich: to commaund there should no more Souldiers be levied by the Protestants: but that all their Troupes should be cast and licenced: and his Imperiall Mandate in all things obeyed, vpon their perills. There must be no nay, excuse, nor delay in the Duke: and his finall resolution must be had with­in a few dayes. The Duke desires to consult with his Coun­sell vpon it, and so takes his leaue of them. His returne not being speedie enough, a Trumpet is sent vnto him for his an­swer vnto these 4 Propositions, whieh weSee Page 36. [...] where (by [...]he way) there [...]a smal error [...]f time; the Dukes ansvver [...]ing there [...]d to be in [...]e beginning [...]f September, [...]hereas it was [...]out the 24. [...] August. before told you of: and then vpon the Dukes deniall before the Emperours Ambassador (whom he then dismisses from his Court) the General Tilly not regarding that the Princes of both Leagues and Religions, were even now met at Franckford vpon Main for the compounding of differences concerning that which [Page 119] bred rhe quarrell; the Reformation, and the Church-Lands: About Aug. 26.Tilly takes Mersburg. takes hee the Episcopall Town of Mersburg aforesaid, 3 leagues from Leipsich, belonging vnto the said Duke: fairely turning out the Garrison with bag and bag­gage; and an oath never to serue against the Emperor, and the Catholicke League againe. Betwixt this Towne and Hall some 2 or 3 leagues to the North of it, he now pitches his Ar­my: thence sends he some to pillage the two other Bishop­prickes of the Dukes Naumburg; Mersburg, Naumburg & Zeitz which were 3 appro­priate Bishop­prickes whose Temporalties the Duke held in his owne hands. By this it appeares that Tilly had private com­mission to take the Church-lands from Saxonie also though it had not been discove­red till now. vpon the same River of Sala with Mersburg, and Zeitz vpon Elster, the River of Leipsich, with other of his Townes and Mannors. Aug. 28. Schomberg, Generall of the Artillery, with the Commissary Walmerode come to the Citie of Hall; & within a day or two of that time, Furstenberg comes thither from Eisleben: ad­vancing forwards to get the passage, (if it might be,) be­twixt Wittenberg and Saxony: but that the Dukes goingPag. 37. to Torgau and Dieben, prevented. Aug. 29. Count Tilly sends to the Citie of Leipsich to demaund provisions for his Army. This denyed, vnlesse he brought their Electors consent; he the next day plunders all the Country for 3. leagues about, and comming by the way of Ranstadt, he on that side places his Guards before the very Ports, takes possession of the Suburbs, peremptorily demaunding their speedy and finall resolution. Their answere is, that their Duke having lately sent in six Companies of Foote, and the Lieutenant-Colonel Pforten to commaund in the Towne; seemd rather desirous to defend his owne, then to yeeld vnto any such violent motion. Hereupon, Sept. 3. Tilly with full 40000. men sets downe before the Towne; out-come the Deputies to de­maund his reasons:Leipsich besie­ged. They are threatned with fire and sword if they yeeld not. The Citizens resolue to stand to it; and the enemy makes his approaches. Some greater peices be mounts on that side towards Pfaffendorff, vpon the hill nere the Euteritzch Sconces: so to cut off all provisions from com­ming in. On Sunday Sept. 4. the Towne sets fire on their owne faire Suburbs, to prevent the enemies lodging in [...]m: killing that day with a peice of Ordnance, one that stood hard [Page 120] besides the Generall Tilly. He thus enraged, batters them with peices of full Canon, and shootes wild-fire and Grana­does in amongst them. Next day he sends in something, more terrible then all the former: most thundering vowes and threats, from himselfe and Pappenheym, to serve them like Magdenburg, Parlyes. if they presently yeelded not. This quayld their courages, and brought them vnto a parlie. The condi­tions are; Free exercise of Religion; not to be drawne from their obedience to the Duke; nor to be overcharged with too great a Garrison.Yeeldes. The Governour Pforten with his men of warre, haue Souldiers conditions, and so the same munday the Townesmen signing the Articles, the next morning they forsake the Towne. One company with the Defensiue Ban­ner of Saxony goes into the Fort of Pleisenburg, (which Fort the next day also yeelded it selfe) and the other fiue, into Ei­tenbergh. One thing fell out ominously for Generall Tilly; that at his entring the Towne, he stayd to talke with the De­puties in the Town Graue-makers house neer the Grimischen port. This done, he out of the sayd Graue-makers house now mounting vp on horsebacke, returnes into his Leaguer, be­cause he now heard the King of Sweden to haue passed the Elve, and the Duke of Saxony to be joyned with him.

In the time of this siege, was the whole neighbour Coun­try ravaged and plundered: the Souldiers, with licentious­nesse enough, there exercising their wonted crueltie & beast­linesse. Now were Pegaw, Lutzen, Luca, Weisenfels and other places spoyled. Here were the Ladies, Gentlewomen, and others, like beasts and dogs yoked and coupled together, to be led into the Woods and ravished: who for resisting, had their cloaths stript off, their bodies whipt, their eares cut off, and so sent home againe. Hereabouts gat they to­gether betwixt three and foure thousand head of Cat­tell: and what beast soever could not, or did not readily follow them, they either houghed, or killed; least (as they said) it should serue some Hereticke.

THE BATTELL OF LEIPSICH.

GEnerall Tilly, having now intel­ligence of the King of Swedens passing of the Elve, and of Sax­onyes joyning with him: sends (as it is reported) a Letter by a Trumpet vnto the King, To in­vite him, as he was a brave Cava­lier, to giue him Battell. This low terme of Cavalier, Tilly invites the King to pitcht field. the Kings heroicall spirit taking dis­dainfully, stamps vpon the Letter; replying thus vnto the Trumpet; What doth your Generall thinke mee worthy of no better a stile then of Cavalier? I am a King: and tell him, I shall well finde him out. Tilly vpon receipt of this message, pre­pares his Army, as if to accept of a Victory, rather then to fight much for it: so confident they were of themselues, and so glad of the oportunitie. Proclamation is made, that vpon the hearing of certaine warning peices, every man should re­payre to his Colours and to his order. Vpon the fatall sea­venth of September therefore being Wednesday, he with 44000. braue men, in goodly order of battell first takes the field; which was vpon a fayre plaine or heath (about a mile from Leipsich) called Gods Aker: sayd to be the very same place, wher the Emperor Charles the 5 heretofore overthrew the Duke of Saxony. Tilly like a prudent Generall, being care­full for all advantages, had placed himselfe vpon a little hill thereabouts, (where the place of execution is,) having a wood also to hide his men, and for their retreate. The watch-word for his Armie wasThe high Dutch relati­on sayes, Mary the mother of God, Sancta Maria: the token to know one another by, was white strings or ribbands about their [Page 122] armes, and in their helmets, as if they had beene Diademes, and that that day would haue made them all Kings.

The King moues to­wardes the field.The King of Sweden having prepared his Army by prayers vnto God, and encouragements to his men the day before, vpon the same Wednesday morning before day, he advances from Dieben towards the place of battell. His owne Troupes were some 18000: and the Duke of Saxonie, together with the Marquis of Brandenburg some 20000 or 22000.His strength. Two Regiments of Saxonies, I find not to haue beene this day in the field: the Foote-Regiment (namely) of the Count of Solmes, and Hoftkerks Horse-Regiment. The watch-word was Godt mit Vns, God with vs: their token, greene branches in their hats or helmets; with which ere night their browes were crowned, as if with victorious Lawrell. The King be­ing come as farre as Seehausen and Podelwitz, A good Omen. & now in sight of the Enemie; behold an Omen, which a Romane Augur would haue esteemed for a most fortunate abodement. Vpon the place of battell which the Enemie had left for the King, there sate a flocke of birds; which being sprung by the Kings comming, tooke their flight directly over Tillyes Armie; and fetching there a circle about, (and that also the Romanes would haue accounted an happy presage) they turn'd againe towards the Kings Army: as who should say, wee went to fetch you victory. But the King had a better Augury on his side then a flight of birds, God with vs; and that which the Romane Ge­nerall sometimes preferr'd before the birds: Romano milite dignus, Ensis adest augur; his valour, namely, and his sword.

The Armies meete.Being now ready to come vnto the Shocke; the Battels were thus ordered, Tilly made choice of the ancient order, to fight in great square bodies, himselfe leading now the right wing,Their order. the Duke of Holsteyn the left, and the Count of Fur­stenburg the Battaile. The King dividing his men into many smaller bodies; takes the right wing to himselfe, committing the left vnto the Duke of Saxonie and his men: the wings of either battaile, tooke vp two English miles in length. The wind was now at the West; which Tilly had gotten of Saxo­nie: and was so desirous afterwards to compasse from the King, that in wheeling about, he came within the commaund [Page 123] of the Kings Ordnance, who also to saue the wind turned a little to the right hand. The fight was about 12 a clocke,The fight be­gins with great Ordnance. first begun with their Canon, for that purpose placed before eve­ry division. Their roare made the very earth to tremble, and men to groane their last; for two houres together: about which time, the Generall Tilly drawing out of the wood, passes by the Kings wing, (which had also gotten one end of the same wood) and set amaine vpon the Duke of Saxonie. Two charges the Saxons endured well enough: but the Ene­mie having direction to laye hardest vpon the Dukes owne Guards (amongst whom himselfe fought;) they not able longer to endure it, begin to giue ground a little. The rest of the Saxons now perceiving their Duke,The Duke of Saxonie flees. and bravest men thus to retyre, thinke all lost; and all in confusion away they flie, leaving 3 Canons to the mercy of the Enemie; and pillaging their owne wagons by the way: that so they might at least seeme to be Conquerors; in carrying home spoiles of the warres, though not of their Enemies. Yet all fled not; for the Lord Arnheym (Field-Marshall to the Duke, and an old Souldier) together with Colonell Bindauff, Some write him Taub. Doue, and Vitzthimb, with their 4 Regiments, brauely yet stood vnto it. Steinau, a Colonell of Horse, was with 4 Cornets taken prisoner by the Enemie; who at length perceiving the Kings partie to prevaile, brake through the Enemie, and assisted his owne side. The Imperialists now seeing the Saxons flying, cry Ʋictoria, Ʋictoria, follow, follow, follow: but the old Lad their Generall quickly countermaunded that; saying, Let them goe, wee shall overtake them time enough: but let vs beate the Swede too, and then all Germany is our owne. In this med­lie, Furstenberg with his old Regiment of Italian Horse, ha­ving charged quite thorow the Saxons, The Count of Furstenberg defeated. was now comming vpon the Swedens backe: which they perceiving, with such resolution second his charge, and follow their owne, that they chase him almost an English mile from the place, so vt­terly cutting off & dispersing the whole Regiment, that they could not recover it all that battell:Slaine. and here perchance him­selfe was slaine.

In this time, the Duke of Holsteyn with his left wing ha­ving [Page 124] charged the King;The Duke of Hossteyn defea­ted. [...]nd slaine. was with such resolution and valour answered, that after 5 or 6 charges bewixt them, the Duke was mortally wounded, and taken prisoner; his whole Ar­mie defeated, and 3 peices of Ordnance taken.

By this time the King having notice of the Duke of Saxo­nies leaving the field, and that Tilly was ready to charge his battaile: presently drawes out 2000 commaunded Musket­tiers of the braue Scottish Nation led by Colonell Havord, they having some 2000 horse vpon their flancks; to staue off the enemie a while.The Scots of the Lord Reayes Regi­ments, as tis said, first breake Tillyes rancks. The Scots ordering themselues in seve­rall small battagliaes, about 6 or 700 in a body, presently now double their rankes, making their files then but 3 deepe (the discipline of the King of Sweden being, never to march aboue 6 deepe) this done, the formost rancke falling on their knees; the second stooping forward; and the third rancke standing right vp; and all giving fire together, they powred so much lead at one instant in amongst the enemies horse, that their ranckes were much broken with it. This advantage the Swe­dish Horse (lined with Muskettiers) apprehending; reso­lutely falling amongst them vpon their Croopes, vtterly now disperse them. The foote perceiving their horse (vpon whose braverie they so much depended) to be thus put to rowte, stand sore amazed at that which they so little expected. And now the King with his Foote falling in vpon their Ʋan, and with his Horse vpon their flancks;Tilly vtterly defeated and taken prisoner after 4 houres hard fight, vtterly defeated them. In this hot service was the Generall Tilly himselfe much distressed, and some say prisoner a while (though vnknowne) vnto the Kings Armie: certaine it is, that he was twice or thrice wounded with pistoll-shot,Wounded. which the Saxon writers say, was done by their men: most af­firme, that he was fetcht off by the valour ofBrother to him that Pap [...]enheym had before taken prisoner a­bout Magden­burgh. Rodolp Maxi­milian Duke of Saxon-Lawenburg, that day serving on the Emperors side, who fought like a lyon: with whom and two other horsemen, Tilly came, and conjoyned himselfe vnto the valiant Baron of Cronenberg. This bold Baron and his Re­giment serving in the right wing, had 4 times in those 4 houres,Tilly rescued. charged the Kings Forces: and hee at last, when no more could be done, brauely carried away his Generall, in the midst of his owne (now flying) Troupes.

[Page 125]Thus, notwithstanding that the left wings of both Armies had beene rowted and defeated, yet the right wings vnder their old and experienced Cheiftaines, stood stiffely & braue­ly to it, from 2 in the afternoone, till 6 at night: by which time, the Imperialists were quite defeated, and beaten out of the field,The Chase. being miserably slaine and trodden downe in the chace. Had the King had but 3 houres more of day light, scarcely had 1000 Enemies come off aliue: but the darkenes which was safest for them to flie, being not so for him to pursue; the joyfull retreate is sounded, and the chace given over for that night. There were full 15000 of the Enemies slaine vpon the place of battell, or in the chace; the same night and the dayes following, as one of our High-Dutch Relati­ons assures us: 14 peices of halfeThe Dutch word is, Kar­tunen whence ours. The bootie and losses. Curtoes or Demi-canons: and 16 lesser peices of 8 or 10 pound ball, taken. Some of them having the Armes of the Emperour, Duke of Bavaria, and Wallensteyn: others those of the Pals-graue, the Elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Brunswick, &c.

The Enemies whole Leaguer neere vnto Leipsich, was ta­ken full standing; and in it 3000 Wagons, and all their bag­gage, Tents, and Pavilions: together with a great number of Cattell, oxen, sheepe, Asses, poultry, bread & wine; much cost­ly stuffe, with some gold and silver. Before the Leaguer, was there a great square sconce, wch the Defendants had forsaken.

And this was as compleate a victorie as possibly could bee gotten. Not stolen by night, which Alexander scorned: but atcheived by fine force in the broad day-light, betwixt 12 and 6 in the afternoone. No advantage of place to assist the King; twas vpon a faire levell, and Campagnia. No casuall ad­vantage, but was against him; the wind, the wood and higher ground; all possessed by the Enemie. No advantage in num­bers, or reputation of men: Tillyes were the more; the ol­der Souldiers, and their Armie was called Invincible. Nay, one disadvantage had the King, as great as possibly could be; a maine fleshing to the Enemy, a weakning of halfe his own Armie, and a discouragement to the rest; by the early defeat of the Duke of Saxonie. So that all the advantages lay on the Enemies side, and the disadvantages vpon the Kings. His [Page 126] Majesty lost not aboue 1200 men in the whole fight,Cheife men slaine on the Kings side. & the Duke of Saxonie not full 2000. Of cheife Cōmaunders on the Kings side, these slaine. Baron Teuffell, Collenbach, Corwille, Hall, Adergast, all Colonells: with divers Captaines and Lieutenants. On the Duke of Saxonies side these. Coll He is called B [...]ud [...]orp, page 36. Bind­tauff, Starchedell, Serjeant Major Holbeirsdorff, and Lemmin­ger, both Lieutenants, Colonells: Hans George of Humrott, Generall Adjutant: On the Dukes. Gerstorff, Musculus, Count Mansfield, Lubers, Lemminger, Carlowitz, Willenstein, Rockonitz, Hen­neger, Lord Otto of Villaz, all Captaines of Foote or Horse, with Serjeant Major Drandorff: whereof some died the same day, and some the next.

Of Tillyes side slaine.Of Tillyes side slaine these following. Duke Adolp of Hol­steyn; the Generall the Count of Furstenberg; Schomberg, Generall of the Ordnance: Erfft, Serjeant Major Generall: Baumgarten, Coloredo, Gallas, Wallensteyn, Lebel, and Zabil­li, all Colonels; Caratelle, Lieutenant Colonell: together with the Lieutenant Colonels of the Regiments of Saricour, Hartzfeldt, and of the Duke of Saxon Lawenberg: with di­vers others whose dead and naked bodies were not knowne: besides Captaines and Lieutenants both of horse and foote, and many braue Cavaliers moe; which died either vpon the place, or in the Townes of Delitz, Eylenberg, and Leipsich, whither they had fled.Prisoners. Taken prisoners, the Generall Adju­tant Zinzendorff, the Imperiall Commissaries Generall, Wal­merode, and Graff: with Coronino, Blankhard, Barcelli, Kratz, Hazelung, Larme, Klinzi, and Wincleman, all Colonels: to­gether with Bernhard, that was Tillyes Treasurer and Secre­tarie; divers Captaines and some Iesuites: who, no doubt, came thither to blesse the Armie. Divers Protestants were also taken, who betooke themselues vnto his Majesties ser­vice. Tillyes manly heart (tis said) could not refraine his teares, when he perceived his braue old Souldiers thus going to wracke. The whole fault he laid vpon his own Horsmen, who after a few hard charges, cowardly ran away, and never made head againe.

Tilly and Pap­ [...]e [...]heym flee. Tilly himselfe thus wounded as he was, made shift to flie into Hall that night, 7 Dutch miles from the place of battell: [Page 127] from whence in a hackney Coach, both hee and Pappenheym, fled the next day towards Halberstadt. Some 200 Muskettiers followed their Generall, & about 2000 Horse rallying them­selues together, in all haste went also after him. Reported it was that Tilly should haue his wounds dressed by the Town-Barbar of Hall, who (it seemes) affirmed to the King, that Tillyes body was hard-shot, or shot-free: and that the bullets had not peirced the flesh, but made bruises rather in his arme, necke, and shoulder: and that to his horrible torment, he was faine to endure to haue the bruised flesh cut out to the very hard bone. Whether this were so or no, wee leaue vpon the Barbars credit: and because we haue not heard it seconded out of Germanie, we are loath to charge so braue a Warriour, with so base an imputation, as to owe his life vnto aMost surely, such a practise there is; of which no souldier in Germanie makes doubt: The Charme which they weare makes their bodies Gefrorn, that is, frozen, and hard: If they shew it by day time, it looses its force. No bullet nor iron weapon can pierce them. 100. shots at least, haue bin made vpon one fellow, that braved the English at Stoade: his cloathes were shot to peices, and the wast­band of his breeches: which he ta­king vp, went his way. This hath beene an old practise of Mithraes soul­diers, 2000. yeares agoe: who made themselues in­vulnerable both against weapons, frost and fire. Charm; which is practised by none, but the reprobate raskalitie of the Armie. No man (since the King of Portugall) hath been so often kill'd and revin'd by report, as Tilly hath beene: yea that side would haue him to bee yet aliue. Hee was said to speake of nothing but peace, and of making a good Peace, which is indeed farre more happy then victorie.

The Chase and slaughter being done, (which continued all the next day) the day after Sept. 9. went the King on to Mers­burg, whence he ferretted out the Imperialists that had fled thither from the battell; 3000 whereof hee entertained into his own service: by which, & others of Tillyes, takē on before and after, he was made 7000 stronger then he was in the day of battell. Sept. 10. he besieged Hall, which the next day was yeelded vnto him. The Castle of Morisberg hee tooke in Sept. 12. where he made Sergeant Major Groschen, and Cap­taine Wincleman prisoners: whom he delivered to the Duke of Saxonie; redeeming Colonell Vrseler, with some others, that had beene taken prisoners at Magdenburg: taking the Protestants which lay in Garrison in it, into his owne service. From Hall his Majestie commaunded divers Regiments of Horse and Foote to goe towards Halberstadt, Mansfeldt, Re­genstein, Stolberg, Hohenstein, Magdenburg, and Brunswicke, to scoure those Coasts of the Imperi [...]lists: who hearing of the Swedens comming, packt with all speed away towards the River Weser; after their Generall Tilly. And hereabouts (the [Page 126] [...] [Page 127] [...] [Page 128] Priests & Monkes lately put in by the Emperors commissiō, now flying away) were the late-exiled Ministers, by the King restored vnto their Churches. Whilest the King was busie hereabouts; the Elector of Saxonie employes himselfe about the reducing of his owne Towne of Leipsich, and the Fort Pleisenbergh vnto his obedience. This Fort, had Iohn Vopelius (a Saxon) the Captaine of it, cowardly delivered vp vnto Tilly, before ever any force was offered to it; and that vpon the day of battell, so soone as he heard the fight begin. Leipsich being besieged by the Duke,Leipsich taken againe. vpon Sept. 12. in the evening come there 350 Imperialists out of the Fort aforesaid into the Citie: Sept. 13. before noone, Colonell Wangler left Gover­nour in the Towne by Tilly, parlies, and yeelds: wherevpon 3000 souldiers (almost) are suffered to depart. The conditi­ons were to haue 18 wagons of bag and baggage; 10 red En­signes furled, (not displayed or flying) swords by their sides onely, and without sound of drumme. Some of these forth­with betooke themselues vnto the Dukes service: and wher­as after the fight some had gotten themselues into the Town, more then were by agreement to come in when the Towne was first yeelded vnto Tilly; these the Duke layes hold of, and retaines as prisoners. Among these, was Coronino, and Count Walmerod the Commissary, & Zintzendorff, (all afore mentioned) with some Iesuites. The rest were to be condu­cted into Bohemia: where the Boores were ready, with club-law to entertaine them.

Altringer and F [...]gger retire.Whilest this is done, the other 2 Imperial Generals Altrin­ger and Fugger, who were with 6000 men come as farre as Erdfurt to haue joyned with Tilly; hearing of his defeate, runne about the Duringer forrest like mice whose holes were stopt: retiring now with all speed: and seeking by some o­therway to conjoyne themselues with him. And now no e­nemie being neere; the King of Sweden sends for the Duke of Saxonie, & other the great Commaunders of his Army, to come to Hall vnto him.The King cals a Coun­cell of warre. A Councell of warre is there held, which way to keepe the enemie from gathering head againe; and how to pursue the [...]torie: the second part of a Conque­ror being, to know as well how to vse his victorie, as how to winne it. And at this consultation we leaue them, much about Mi­chaelmas.

FINIS.

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