REDDE DEBITVM. OR, A DISCOVRSE IN defence of three chiefe Fatherhoods, grounded upon a Text dilated to the Lati­tude of the Fift Commandement; and is ther­fore grounded thereupon, because 'twas first intended for the Pulpit, and should have beene concluded in one or two Sermons.

BVT IS EXTENDED SINCE to a larger Tract; AND WRITTEN CHIEFELY in confutation of all disobedient and factious kinde of People, who are ene­mies both to the Church, and State.


Greg. mag. lib. 7. Indict. 2. Epist. 78.

In causa in qua Deo placere cupio, homines non formido.

LONDON, Printed by I.D. for Iohn Williams, at the Signe of the Crane, in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1640.

TO ALL SVCH FAMOVS WORTHIES as are both able, and zealous Patrons of the Church, and State, and of such as endeavour the good thereof; Grace, Mercie, and Peace be multiplied from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

Right worthie of Renowne,

THIS is a Piece which craves your Patronage. It con­taines nothing but what is just and honest; and yet is like enough to meet with such as shall oppose it: For I both know [Page]and finde it true by experience, that hee who sides not with the humours of the common multitude, incurres the odium of not a few. And indeed my comfort is, 'twas alwaies so: Obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit. That great Apostle could have said as much;Galae. 4.15.16. for whereas he remembers the good will that the Galatians once bore towards him, he findes the case quite alte­red, and is now become their enemie, be­cause he telleth them what is truth: Not that he ever taught them other, but be­cause hee presseth the more earnestly, where he fears or findes their reluctation. They had (as well appeareth) a minde to go astray; and he not yeelding to them, but directing otherwise, is slighted for his labour. But if it be good (as he also spea­keth) to be zealously affected alwaies in a good thing; 'tis fit that men submit and learne with patience, till they come to the knowledge of what is good; otherwise their zeale cannot but be preposterous, and violent passions take place of true and [Page]righteous informations. This is that which I only ayme at, a rectifying of such as walke amisse: and if herein my poore endeavours may but finde a curteous ac­ceptation, I account my paines as much as nothing; being alwaies willing to pro­mote what I can, the happie prosperitie both of the Church and State. When therefore this Booke which I now send abroad, shall be so happie as to kisse any of your hands; be pleased to shelter it under the zealous wings of your favou­rable protection. And so praying God to blesse you alwaies; I rest devoted to do you the best service that I can,

Iohn Swan.

TO THE CHRISTIAN and courteous Reader.

WElcome prosperitie knowes not how to advance her stately Standard in any such society; which by means of fa­ction and want of unitie, is misera­bly dis-joynted. For, let the bodie be without ligaments, and it cannot stand; the joynts that should helpe to uphold it, will be quickly bro­ken: and so fatall ruine steps on too fast, and pro­claimes that mischiefe, which for the want of con­cord, followes as an effect of such a want. In consi­deration whereof, my unfeigned wishes and good desires have put me forward, to cast in one poore Mite among others, who are not onely joyfull and glad to see, but willing also to advance the desired beautie, and happie prosperitie both of the Church and State; whose mutuall dependance is such, that the welfare of the one, is the prosperitie of the other, both helping to uphold the good of one another: [Page]Whereto is pertinent that famous speech of Guliel­mus Occam, to Lewis the fift: Domine Impera­tor, defende me gladio, & ego te defendam cala­mo. Protect thou me with thy sword Lord Empe­ror, and I will defend thee with my Pen. And indeed 'twas right. For as Moses, and Aaron were sent to­gether; and as the Priests of old were employed even inbidding battell to the enemie, and inquirie not sel­dome made at the mouth of the Prophets concerning affairs of the like nature: So should still the Church, and State be truly united each to other, and be mu­tuall upholders one of another.

Turbulent dispositions wish well, I feare to nei­ther; for with them, the troubled waters are the sweeetest streames, and to kindle the fire of conten­tiou, their highest ayme. But farre be it from any sonne of Peace, to have either his heart, tongue, or penne defiled with the filth of such proceedings. Rather let it be the care of us all, not onely to marke them who cause divisions, and avoyd them, as St. Paul directeth:Rom. 16.17. but to oppose what we can, the dis­obedient disturbers of this our Israel. For if Saint Peter were resisted, when he tooke a wrong course to knit well together the Jewes, Gala. and the Gentiles; then let not others thinke it strange, that in a way which is unwarrantable, they meete with such as shall oppose them.

As for my sefe, I know both mine owne strength, and mine owne wants: It is little, I confesse that I am able to doe; but am not therefore discouraged to [Page]doe what I can. Saint Austine did as much (or more) in the Churches quarrell, as any Father of them all; and yet Saint Hierome was a better Lin­guist. There be diver sitie of gifts,1 Cor. 12. sayth the Apo­stle, but they proceed all from one Spirit, and are given also for one end: namely, for the edification or good of one another.

Reade therefore, and judge impartially, let by­respect be set aside: For though it oftentimes pre­vailes so farre with no few Readers, that according as they either valew or dis-esteeme the Author, they receive, or slight his writings; yet 'tis a fault, and faults we know must bee amended; otherwise the worst must needes be theirs who march unmindfull of their reckoning. Whereunto let me adde that which is also common; namely, That be a mans in­tentions never so sincere, yet if the subject of his discourse, be not agreeable to the ignorant fancies of every resolved and selfe-will'd opposite, his bookes shall be either not read at all, or look't upon with a scornefull and supercilious eye; the lash of censure not being wanting, where a prejudicate opinion bears the sway. And this I may the rather mention, because (among such as these) I have somewhat felt in my former booke, the truth hereof: Yea, and have beene blamed also even for the very Title that I put unto it; that is to say, for giving it the name of Profano-Mastix. Which, howsoever distasted, cannot be so impertinent as some imagine: For rudenesse and irreverence, savours too much [Page]of prophanation, which takes (I dare say) firme hold of them, who obstinately refuse to worshippe God in the beautie of holinesse, notwithstanding there be manifest proofes for such a practice. And for their sakes it is, that I chiefely prefixed so smart a title; which to others of a better temper, may be mitigated to a more milde and gentle meaning; serving onely as a caution to let them know, that they might be more zealous of Gods glory, if they were lesse indifferent, and more forward to mani­fest their inward feare and reverence, by their out­ward devotion: for so shall they glorifie God, both in their soules, and in their bodies; even as they looke to have both partake in the heavenly joyes of the life to come: At which Saint Paul hath plain­ly pointed, in the 1 Cor. 6.20. Nor is it but cer­taine that a reward presupposeth a worke: If there­fore we live in hope of an happie resurrection; why then doe we exempt our bodies from the service of God, and lay the totall of this dutie upon the soule? Or if we know that the happinesse of the soule sepa­rate from the bodie, neither is, nor shall be consum­mate, till the bodie be againe united to it, Why doe we not for the present joyne both together; and grant, that as the outward worship, without the in­ward is but dead, so the inward without the outward is incompleat, even as is that happinesse alreadie mentioned?

I will not be tedious to adde any more, save only this: The discourse now tendred, desires thee (good [Page]Reader) to be taken up, as an exposition of the first Precept in the Second Table. For though it be groun­ded upon a Text in Salomon, yet my acceptation of of it, aymes chiefely at such a latitude, as may not cause it to be excluded, from out the bounds of the Fift Commandement, but suffer it to be considered in a Catechesticall way. Farewell.

Thine (to his power) in all the offices of charitie, and truth, IOHN SVVAN.


PROV. 30.11.

There is is a generation that curseth their Father, and doth not blesse their Mother.

THis text in generall is the decla­ration of an offence, wherein we have two parts. The first is a Denomination of the parties of­fending: The second is an ex­pression of the particularities of their offence.

The denomination is in the word generation for (saith the Text) There is a generation.

The offence is twofold. First, that they curse: Secondly, that they doe not blesse. For as there is a generation, so there is even such a gene­ration as curseth their father and doth not blesse their Mother.

Concerning the first of which, there lurkes [Page 2](perhaps) some ambiguity in the word generati­on. I shall by degrees therefore unfold or expli­cate what a generation is, together with the kinds thereof, that thereby it may appeare what the text meaneth by saying, There is a genera­tion.

A Generation is either in respect of successi­on, or in respect of qualities.

That of succession is either generall or in more particular.

The Generall hath respect to the succeeding times of all ages and all persons in every nation under heaven. Thus were the chronologicall periods of time, and ages of the world, Genera­tions: as from the Creation to the Floud; from the Floud to the Promise; from the Promise to the Law; from the Law to the Temple; from the Temple to the captivity; from the captivi­ty to Christ; from Christ to us; and from us to the end of the world. Or (if they be accoun­ted according to that distinction of 6. Ages, wherein men suffer the labours and travells of this present world) they are from the Creation to the Floud, from the Floud to Abraham; from Abraham to David; from David to the capti­vity: from the captivity to Christ; and from Christ to the end of the world. These are the ge­nerall.

The more particular were pertinent either to some one nation, or to a private descent of parti­cular [Page 3]families. Of the first of these in the Gos­pell it is said that This generation shall not passe till all bee fulfilled, And of the second,L [...]k. 21.32. in the Psalmist thus we read,Psal. 109.12 that In the next generati­on his name shall be cleane put out, which (if we respect the time) is seldome or never more then an hundred yeares;Gen. 15.13.16. as is witnessed by that of Moses [in Gen. 15.] where we read of foure ge­nerations in the compasse or space of foure hun­dred yeares.

Now because a generation in these large ex­tents produce a diversity of factions, and se­verall multitudes of dispositions, some following the streame of one thing, some another, it is that I have secondly observed another kind of gene­ration: viz. in respect of qualities. And unto this the text adhereth as most pertinent, for that's a generation in respect of quality, wherin a race, Sect, or company of people follow ei­ther the doing of that which is good, or the do­ing of that which is bad.

The first of which is a generation not so much pure in their owne eyes as in Gods. The second is a froward perverse and crooked generation; from which (as the Apostle speaketh) every good Christian must save himselfe. The kinds of these perverse or crooked ones are many and among the rest, this in the text is one, and as one, so none of the best, For There is a genera­tion that curseth their father, and doth not blesse [Page 4]their mother. And thus much of the denomi­nation of the offenders,

2 Their offence followeth, and it is two fold. First, that they curse. Secondly, that they doe not blesse.

The first is a sinne of commission: The second of omission: the one commits the evill he should not do; the other omits the good that he should doe: And so (like erring sheepe) both have wan­dred and gone astray.

In the commissive part the sinne of the gene­ration is set downe positively. In the omissive pri­vatively. Or in the commissive part there is the act and the object. The Act is cursing: The ob­ject is the father.

The Act, in it selfe single and alone, is bad enough: but is made so much the worse by rea­son of the circumstances, or by reason of that speciall object at which it aymeth. For such relation as is between the Father and the Sonne; such (yea the same) is between this Act or and his Object.

The omissive part affords an object also, but 'tis detained in the privation of such an act, as of right should looke towards, and not from it; for although the power of a Father be in many respects greater then the power of a Mother; yet (as saith Chemnitius) there must be an exequati­on of dutie and honour,Chemnit. in Loc. as well to the one as to the other; as well to the inferiour as the no bler [Page 5]sexe; as well to the weaker as the stronger ves­sell. Neither are sinnes of omission (in knowne duties) but every way as bad (nay rather worse) then sinnes of commission. So that if it be a sin to curse the Father, it must needs bee no lesse not to blesse the mother.

But who are they to whom this right be­longs? Are they onely such, as in respect of be­ing,The summo & extention of the Text. begat and brought us forth? My answer must be negative, for the text wil beare it, as well as that of the 5. Commandement. Give mee leave therefore, in as plaine a method as I can to set before your eyes, not onely these, but even the severall sorts of other parents, which in a peevish, perverse and crooked Generation, are rather cursed then blessed, dishonoured then ho­noured, despised then cherished, contemned then obeyed, with a thousand other such desperate dealings, which a wicked generation casts upon them.

And indeed to take up the matter aright, it must needs be a true conclusion that it can be but a lame and a disobedient dutie, to acknowledge none to be our parents but those who begat and brought us forth. For, although I speake no­thing of masters, who are Patres familias, 2 Kin. 5.13. Fa­thers of a family, or although I speake nothing of the Aged who are Elders, and must bee ho­noured as fathers.1 Tim. 5.1.2. Although (I say) nothing be spoken of these, or of some others which by [Page 4] [...] [Page 5] [...] [Page 6]way of eminency have a prerogative that pleads for their honour, we have besides them, yea and besides our Natural parents also, even fathers of the Church, and of the common wealth. And therefore they are not onely our parents who give us a beeing; but such also as give vs a safe and well-being. Our naturall parents give us the first: Our politicall parents give us the second: And from our spirituall parents we receive the third or last which is the perfection of all the rest.

Now, if to give the first bee something; then something sure it needs must be to give or up­hold the second; and if the second then the next. That is, If hee who gives the first being must have honour and the like: then hee who gives the second: And if this be due to the first and second, then also to the third.

Neither secondly can I thinke, that a mans first being is as any thing to him if he wants the next: that is, if he bee oppressed by the migh­ty and finds no comforter. For what a poore thing it is to bee without a deliverer from the hard usage of wicked men, Solomon declareth in the fourth chapter of Ecclesiastes, at the first, se­cond, and third verses.

Or thirdly, having both these and wanting that which is the instrumentall cause of the best or last, is to bee without the happinesse of that which is sure to crowne even the second and first. For saith our Saviour concerning Iudas, [Page 7]Woe be to that man by whom the Sonne of man is be­trayed, Math. 26.24. it had beene good for that man if hee had never beene borne. Intimating, that the not be­ing of a creature is farre better then the ill being especially when the end, which should crowne the act, must abide for ever in the never ending sadnesse of a sad catastrophe.

And therefore as wee may not curse, revile harme, contemne, or despise those from whom wee have our first being; So neither may wee revile, harme, curse, contemne, or despise those from whom we have either our safe, or our well-being. For, as thou art a man, it is that thou ho­nourest thy naturall father, and as a member of a politicall bodie or societie, thou canst not but honour thy civill father: yea, and as a Christi­an (which is more then a man) thou must likewise see that thou honour thy Spirituall, Ecclesiasti­call, or Ghostly father.

Thy naturall parent is Gods instrument for thy naturall being: Thy prince Gods instrument for thy safe, quiet & civill being; and thy pastor Gods instrument for thy spiritual, well and holy being. Without the first thou couldest not be any thing. Without the second thou couldest not be safe­ly what thou art: And without the next, thou couldst not be what thou wouldest. For as the sword of the civill Governour keepes thee from the forreigne and domesticke power of such wic­ked builders and bloody hunters, as were Cain [Page 8]and Nimrod: So the sword of Gods Minister keepeth thee from the snatching pawes of Sa­than, that sworn enemy of all mankind,1 Pet. 5.8. who (like a roaring Lyon) ramps up and downe, seeking whom he may devoure.

These then are the chiefe Fatherhoods of greatest note: the one wherof may be no more cursed then the other, nor the other lesse blessed then the first. Concerning whom, I will both resolve the doubtfull, and convince the di­velish, that thus they are; yea, and thus must they be honoured: Aequè, but not aequalitèr; Iustly and fitly as of right is meet and due, but not all of a just and equall portion.

I. The first, which be our naturall parents, are called Fathers of our flesh, Heb. 12.9. For we have had fathers of the flesh that corrected us, and wee gave them reverence, saith the Apostle. And not without just cause,Prov. 20.20. for Who so curseth his father or his Mother, shall have his lampe put out in ob­scure darknesse. Looke therefore what it mea­neth, and perhaps you shall finde that they die the death of the damned, Prov. 20.20. Or, as it is at the 17th. verse of this very Chapter, The ravens of the vallies shall picke out their eyes, and the young eagles shall eate them. Shall pick out the eye saith Iunius? Iun. in annot. in Prov. 30.17. that is, Filium immorige­rum, aut parentibus iniquum, in malam rem con­demnabit Deus. God (saith hee) shall condemne he disobedient and wicked child into some great [Page 9]mischeife, signified by that phrase of picking out and eating up their eyes To which I cannot but adde a second glosse, namely that if the speech be figurative, then may these birds of prey (by an allegorie) bee taken for the damned Divels, with whom these desperate sinners shall (with­out repentance) have their deserved punishment; For he that honoureth not his earthly parents whom he hath seene, will scarce honour God as his heavenly father whom he hath not seene: and so being obstinately rebellious; and wilful­ly guilty of the breach of both Tables, must needs (continuing so) be damned, die and perish everlastingly.

These are the first.

II. The second are Patres Patriae, Fathers of their countrey, as Kings, cheife Magistrates, and Rulers bearing office in the common-weale. Thus was Ioseph stiled, even by the Law of na­ture, among the Egyptians. For being advanced unto honour by Pharaoh King of Egypt (as we read in Genesis, chap. 41.43.) the people went before him with a joyful acclamation, crying out and saying, Abrech: which (as St. Hierome ex­pounds it) signifies a young and tender Father, Hier. trad. [...] Genes from Abb, Father, and rech, young or ten­der.

Thus also did the ancient Romans call their Se­natours; They were Patres conscripti, Fathers upon record: and to attaine to this, to be entitu­led [Page 10]a father of their country, they esteemed it the best and the greatest honor. For thus (I say) did even the Law of nature, teach them to reverence the persons of their governours, and to give them that honourable title and stile of Fathers.

So also Ioshua (the cheife Magistrate after Mo­ses was dead,) called Achan by the name of son Iosh. 7.19. Now sonne, by way of relation, im­plyes a Father, as even in the termes of Logick is apparent where both the relative and correla­tive answer to one another. David also (in the first booke of Samuel) spake thus unto the King and said;1 Sam. 24.11. My father see, yea see the skirt of thy robe in my hand.

So also (in the second booke of the Chronicles) the cheife rulers are called the chiefe fathers of Israel. 2 Chron. 23.2.

Neither doe the scriptures but affirme, that king Hezekiah was a father over the fathers of his people, even over the Priests, and therfore much more over the rest of his subjects as it is in 2 Chron. 29.11.

And againe, Kings and Queenes are stiled by the prophet Esay, Esay. 49.23. nursing fathers, and nursing mothers of the Church, and are therefore the nursing fathers and mothers of the Common­weale: these two societies having such a mutu­all dependance that the welfare of the one is the prosperity of the other. For (as mine authour speaketh) tam arcto inter se nenu colligatae funt, D [...]s et Re [...] pag [...] [Page 11] ut altera ab alterius salute et incolumitate pendere quodammodo videatur. Whereto agreeth that ex­quisite saying of Gulielmus Occam, to the Empe­rour Lewis the fift: Domine Imperator, defende me gladio, et ego te defendam calamo. Protect thou mee with thy sword, Lord Emperour, and I will defend thee with my Pen.

So also, when the government was in the hands of awoman; The inhabitants of the villa­ges ceased, they ceased (saith shee) in Israel, untill that I deborah arose, that I arose a Mother in Israel, Iudg. 5.7.

And of Ioseph it is againe recorded, that God made him a father with Pharaoh; as Iunius rea­deth it, Gen. 45.8. A father with him, although not above him: for in this, both he, and all the o­ther governours, must be inferiour. A King is the primum mobile, and from him it is that the other moove. A King is like the sun in the fir­mament; from whom the other starres receiue their light. He may have many fathers with him but none at all above him, for this is that one, of which Sr. Peter speaketh,1 Pet. 2.13. who is supereminent and high aboue the rest: to which even all the rest (either as they are powers subordinate;Rom. 13.1.5. or as they are men, and so members of some society) must out of dutie and for conscience sake, be sub­ject and obedient.

Here then the fierce frenzie of Anabaptisti­call Doctrine, knowes not how to abolish Ma­gistiacie [Page 12]as abhominable. Nor may the Consi­storian tenets of dangerous puritans be granted as authenticall. Kings hold their crownes of God, and are not to bee limited at the peoples plea­sure, they erre who thinke they may correct or punish them. Nor may the bloody practise of Pope and Puritane-papists be allowed. The Miter may not trample on the neckes of Princes, and dispose of kingdomes when and where it pleaseth: no not in ordine ad spiritualia, Not in defence of Christs spouse the Church; be­cause there is no firme warrant for such a practise, as by degrees shall bee further shewed, both out of the Scriptures and the Fathers. But before I make myful encounter with these adver­saries severally and apart, I have to tell them in the generall that they are mischievous miscre­ants, and doe but give their right hands of fel­lowship to that wicked generation here men­tioned, who curse their father and doe not blesse their Mother. If it were otherwise the scriptures would not teach, that we may not curse the King, no not in our thoughts, Eccles. 10.20. Nor, that it were unlawfull to revile or curse the ruler of the people, Mat. 15.4. Prov. 20.20. & 30.11. Exod. 22.28. Nor that we should honour our fathers, and blesse our mothers, Deut. 27.16 Nor that every soule should bee subject to the higher powers, Rom. 13.1. Nor, that the birds of prey should be our punishers. For (as hath been said) The eye that mocketh at his Father, Prov. 30.17. and di­spiseth [Page 13]to obey his Mother, the Ravens of the vallie shall picke it out, and the young Eagles shall eate it.

Where againe observe, that the blessing or du­ty which is pertinent to the Mother (who is the weaker vessell) may in this place stand to signi­fie that not the meanest officer, which the King (our supreame governour here on earth) shall constitute, may bee cursed or despised. For know that such honour and dutie as is propor­tionable to the places wherein they are, must be conferred; nay rather must be rendred as a thing which of right belongeth to them. For this, in some sort, is that exequation formerly menti­oned, wherein the mother is blessed as well as the Father, and wherein the children are taught the full extent of their duties; not finding all to bee fully done, untill the Mother and the Father bee proportionably honoured,

The Mother then (as herein doth well appeare) stands not for a meere cypher, and therefore secondly shee also must see, that shee bee more then a cypher to fill up roome in the place wherein shee is. Scar-crowes and no more are to little purpose. They be but as David speaketh of the heathen Images, who have eyes and see not, mouths and speake not, eares and heare not, and therefore such as are unfit to beare an of­fice, For the life of the law is the execution there­of, whilst on the contrary (through ignorance, [Page 14]floth, briberie, feare, or favour) it is either dead or lives a languishing life to all offenders.

I hold it therefore requisite that an officer be endued chiefly with two things: Knowledge and Practice.

The Knowledge requires Cor sapiens, a wise heart:Kin. 3.9. such a one as Solomon prayed for, sha­dowes will not serve the turne where substance is required; Nor scarre-crowes frey but where the birds are foolish, perhaps at the first they may affright; but afterwards, being knowne to be what they are, vices grow impudent and (like unto the fearelesse birds) boldly take their swindg without any regard at all to those who are set to looke at what is done.

And next, for the execution of this knowledg there must be Cor magnanimum; a magnanimous heart. Not an heart of waxe which will meltin­to feare, nor an heart of lead, which will bend into favour: but a coutagious, stout, and vali­ant heart.Kin. 10 20. To which purpose let Solomons throne be looked on: view well the manner or fashion thereof, and it will so one appeare that it was not for nothing that every of those stept unto his throue of judgement were supported by Lyons; because it fitly served to teach Kings and all Ma­gistrates, that a Lyon-like, courage and resoluti­on was to be of no meane importance or regard among them.

Beside which (that the execution may be just [Page 15]as well as fearelesse) there must be also Cor ho­nestum; An honest, upright, and religious heart. Such an heart as will not suffer envie, or malici­ous hatred, to satisfie spleen under the colour of executing good and honest lawes: For with­out this, justice may beturned into wormewood and Physick be made as bad as poyson: no good at all being found in that which otherwise, in it selfe is (as hath beene said) the very life of the Law; yea in a word, such an heart is here requi­site as will abandon all favour and by respect; even as the first will be free from ignorance, and the second from feare. It was well done there­fore of that honest Roman who being knowne sufficient to exercise the place of a Iudge, was chosen by the Senate as one fit for that office and at the first was much unwilling to meddle with it: but at the last (though with much adoe) undertaking it, he made a great feast, to which he caled all his kinsfolkes, friends, and best ac­quaintance, and in solemne manner tooke his leave of them all; pretending that he was to tra­vell farre way from them into a strange coun­trey, at which they waxed sorrowfull, where­upon he related to them the whole matter, name­ly; that now being called to execute the office of a Iudge, he must be a stranger to them all, and bee as if indeed hee were travelled farre away from them, for looke what hee did must bee without respect of persons, leaning to one no [Page 16]more then to another, but doing justice and judg­ment with an even hand; punishing even friends, as well as others, if they fall within the com­passe of careles offenders. And indeed there was good reason for all this, for when men bee put in place of authoritie, and bee either ignorant envious, partiall, or regardlesse, they must needs do harme in the stead of good, not onely in giving cause of scandall to their callings, but in hin­dring also the increase of Religion, which by the meanes of them, who both know and up­rightly do their offices, is the better both uphol­den and increased.

But leaving these, and returning againe to amplifie this point concerning the chiefe head: It is not as the Anabaptist would have it, for then there should bee none at all, neither head nor Bodie: all should be equall, nothing proper all common. But what ground for this? It is a tenet which hath neither good nor ground, wit­nesse the very frame of the world, the Hierarchy of Angels, the degrees of that glory which is Celestiall, and the parts of mans naturall body.

For in the frame and order of nature all crea­tures are subordinate unto their superiours, even untill they come to the highest supreame pow­er, beyond which there is no transcending.

And among the Elements, the Earth is under the water, the water under the ayre, the ayre under the fire, and among the starres one starre is [Page 17]higher, bigger and brighter then another; For one starre differeth from another starre in glo­ry. In which order the superiour bodies, by their influences, the elements by their alterations, not onely bring perfection to the whole, but is even the preservation of the whole, without which it would fall, and that instantly run into ruine, and meet with that first Chaos from out of which within the space of one bare week of daies, it was orderly produced, & beautifully builded.

Nay go a little higher, and in the heavens are Archangels, Angels, Principalities, Powers, Do­minions, Thrones, Cherubins, and Seraphins. There are also diversities of degrees in glorie. For in my fathers house (saith Christ) are many mansion places, Iohn 14.2. if it were not so, I would have told you. Ioh. 14.2. And how are they many? They are many; First in respect of the object, because they be not ordained for Christ onely, or for the Angels, or for the blessed and holy Apostles but for all the Saints, Martyrs and Confessours; Even for as many (in every ranke) as shall con­tinue faithfull untill the death, for they are sure of the crowne of life, Revel. 2.10. Many also (secondly) in respect of the subject, or large­nesse of the place, which is able to containe those many soules which from time to time have wrought out their salvation with feare and trem­bling, and walked in the holy wayes of Gods Commandements. And many last of all in re­spect [Page 18]of the diversitie of the adjoyned glory; even as in hell (Luke 12.47.) be degrees of tor­ment. For if there bee a difference in torment then also a difference in glory, according to that of Saint Paul, who by a comparison taken from the starres, proveth a difference in such as are raysed to eternall happinesse. And of this opini­on is Saint Austin and many other of the holy fathers, together with the greatest streame of our moderne Divines (and they prove it cheifly out of Math. 10.41. Luk. 12.47. Luke 16.23. 1 Cor. 15.41. and 2 Cor. 9.6.) namely that the Saints in heaven have divers degrees of glory, some more, some lesse, according to their mea­sure of faith and charity, zeale and godlines in this present life.

And in the body naturall there bee likewise many parts, severall members and ligaments, of which some are more honourable than other: the head above the foote, the eye above the legge, and so of the rest. The one part cannot say to the other, I have no need of thee, nor thou of mee; For in their functions each one serves to helpe anothers need, and are all necessary to the mutuall succour and defence of one another. So in the body politicke there must be an head, eyes and hands, as well as feete. The wise the noble, the noble, the mighty, must governe the foolish ignorant, and weake, suppresse the stub­borne, and bridle the obstinate. For thus doth [Page 19]order maintaine the brittle fabricke of the world from ruine, inlarge heavens happi­nesse, and take away from man the shape of monster, in stead whereof he standeth as the best most exquisite, harmonious, and perfect peice of Gods building, for in the visible world there is nought excells him. And shall then the body po­liticke be all feet and no head, it cannot, it may not, it must not be. For beside all this we have heard the Scripture mentioning subjection to the higher powers; And wee have heard of a power superiour to the rest. In which regard the adverse tenets are nothing worth.

Nor is it secondly, as the consistorian or dan­gerous Puritane would have it, for By me Kings reigne, saith the Lord, Prov. 8.15. which the King of Babylon was taught, not onely in a dreame, but by a voice sent downe from heaven; namely, that the most high ruleth in the king­domes of men, and to whomsoever hee will hee giveth it, Dan 4.25.32. And so also else-where Kings are plainly said to hold their crownes of God. For I (and not the people, saith the Lord,) have said, yee are Gods, Psal. 82.6. Yee are Gods; See some o­ther proofes in 2 Sam. 11.7 1 Kin. 2.24. 1 Kin. 11.31. Iob 36.7. and tis I that have advanced you to that high honour. Ye are Gods in title though not equall in power. I have given yee my name although not my nature. I have said yee are Gods and chil­dren of the highest, that thereby the dignity of him who swayes the Scepter, and royall prero­gative [Page 20]of a lawfull King may be made apparent, to the purblind opposites of a crooked genera­tion. And verily all this the Queene of Sheba uttered to the very full, for when she came from the South to heare the wisedome of Solomon, Bles­sed (saith shee) bee the Lord thy God which deligh­ted in thee to set thee on his throne, that thou migh­rest bee King for the Lord thy God, 2 Chron. 9.8. Howbeit as if climats altered truths, these men wil granthim no prerogative but what they please Will he do they thinke, who hath said, ye are Gods and children of the highest, be wel pleased to see the people limit the power of a King to their owne tedder? or hath he set up Kings so high in place & dignity as that their throns are said to be his, and all this with an intent or purpose that the people should curb them? surely no: For as a King may do whatsoever hee pleaseth, so none (saith the scripture) may say unto him what dost thou? Eccles. 8.3.4. Si quis é nobis, O rex justitiae trami­tes transcendere voluerit, ate corripi potest, si vero tu accesseris, quis te corripiet? was that which Gregory of Tours said once to a King of France. And so a Lawyer likewise of our owne king­dome, a long while since, Omnem esse sub Rege et ipsum sub nullo, sed tantum sub Deo, meaning that all are under their King, and he under none but God alone. Nor did the heathen but ac­knowledge it, and therefore Horace hath ex­presly said, Reges in ipsos imperium est Iovis: that [Page 21]is, Against Kings themselves there is no power, but that of Iupiter. Why then I say seeing the case stands thus, doe these men grant him no pre­rogative but what they please? Why do they limit his power to their ownetedder? make him but the Bailiffe of the Common weale, or why doe they not tremble to maintaine, that it rest­eth in the peoples hands to set the crowne up­on whose head they please? yea that which is worse, why doe they in some cases expose him to the violence of the multitude to kill, correct or otherwise to punish as they list? ò infandum facinus! This last is more divelish then all the rest, because Kings are Gods annointed ones, and may not [vel eo nomine] even in that re­spect, be touched with any virulent tongue, nor invectives of a bitter penne, much lesse with any violent or lessive hand, for so the destroying Spider useth to give a touch to the painfull and laborious Bee. But Nolite tangere Christos meos Touch not mine annointed and doe my Pro­phets no harme, is that which cries against such desperate wickednesse.Bish. Andr. Serm. upon those words of touch not mine annoin­ted ones. Nay (saith one whose words are admirable) There is a further matter yet, (for if we marke it well) it is not Ne tangi­te, but Nolite tangere: Nolite, that is, have not so much as the will once to goe about it. So that not onely tactus the touch is forbidden; but voluntas tangendi, the very will to doe it. And therefore I am sure that in no case, that which [Page 22]these factious braines dare be bold to vent, may be done without treason to a lawfull soveraigne no, though hee be a tyrant that reignes over them, or an heathen for Religion. This there­fore is a true rule, and worthy of observation, that if it bee the hard hap of any people to be oppressed with the too heavie hands of their su­preame Governours, they must not doe as Al­sted teacheth,Alsted. Syst. Polit. 2. cap. 3. Buch. de jure regni. Iobannes Sa­risberienses de nugis curi­al. lib. 8. cap. 20 that is take away the government from them which use it not well, and set up o­thers in their stead, nor as Buchanan directeth, kill them like wolues or beares, nor pray for them in such fort as for theeues, that is pray for them both, and punish them both, but let them alone; They must bee untouched. So that the people have no more to doe but this; They must fly to the patronage of Gods mercy, and with devoute prayer strive to turn away the whip wherewith they are scourged, Peccata enim de­linquentium, sunt vires tyrannorum; The sinnes of offenders, are the strength of tyrants; where­upon it is that the Lord doth not onely some­times set up a wicked man to reigne over a nati­on, but sometimes also useth the forraigne pow­er of wicked Princes to scourge a sinfull peo­ple. And if so then by no meanes may the peo­ple seeke a remedy by rebellion, against those (though wicked) who are over them, for civill obedience is due even to such as these; And so long as they command nothing which is cer­tainly [Page 23]knowne to be contrary to the word of God, it is the duty of their loyall subjects to performe obedience to their precepts: not out of constraint; but willingly, freely, and ex a­nimo; for though it be indeed most certaine that in things which are directly contrarie to the Law of God, and such as carry in them a plain and manifest impietie, there is no question to be made but it is better to obey God than man,Act. 4.19. yet neverthelesse when the matter is either not so at all, or onely seemeth so in misapplying or mis-vnderstanding the word of God, then the subject is bound to obey, not for feare of wrath alone, but for conscience sake, Rom. 13.5.

And now for further inlargement of this truth who hath not heard of Saul, how like a1 Sam. 22.18.23. and chap. 24.12. tyrant he hunted David as a Partridge, and how hee gave command to Doeg to runne with violence upon the Priests and slay them? Howbeit, nei­ther did the Priests, either by themselves or others, raise head against him: Nor yet would David lay violent hands upon him, no not in the cave, when there was as fit an opportuni­ty as could be offered, for without any conflict hee might have changed a publike warre into a private slaughter, and have ended those trou­bles which by the meanes of this Kings cruelty were fallen upon him, shall we say that he was a Coward, and therefore did it not? He was no coward sure, witnesse the Lyon and the Beare, [Page 24]and that great Goliah subdued by him. There was nothing then that hindred him, but the un­lawfulnesse of the act. 'Twas this and only this which kept his hand from the sword, and that from the blood of Saul. For oh victorie (saith one, in the behalfe of David) thou dost in vain provoke and invite me with thy triumphs, I would willingly conquer mine enmie, but I must rather keepe the Commandements of my God, I will not (saith he) lay my hands upon the Lords annointed. And so (saith Optatus) he repressed his hand together with his sword, and whilst he feared the oyle he saved his enemy; of which read more at large in 1 Sam. 24. and 26. chapters.

And againe was not Tiberius an heathen, and yet Christ living in his time refused not to pay him tribute?

Also did not the Apostles afterwards teach and maintaine the same doctrine, and yet they never saw any other Emperours then such as were still unchristned, oftentimes bloody, and alwaies wicked? St Peter, in his first Epistle and second chapter,Compare the first verse of the 1. chapt. with chapt. 2. verse 13. writeth to those of Pontus, Ga­latia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bythinia (which were Provinces belonging to the Empire) that they should not onely feare God, but also ho­nour the King. And in whose time was it that Saint Peter wrote this Epistle? was it not in theBaron in his Annal. Tom 1. Anno dom. 45. dayes of Claudius? And what was Clau­dius, [Page 25]but a King or Emperour, who for his religion was as fouly bedaubed with the Ethnicke superstition, and blockish Idols of his Ancestours, as was any before him? was he not likewise by nature blood-thirstie, cruell, and extreamely libidin use? Let Suctonius speake and we shall heare him tell no lesse. For (saith he) Claudius upon sight of the least prodigie, wor­shipped the heathen Gods after the custome of the ancient Romans. Suet. cap. 22.29. & cap. 33.34. He was naturally so mercilesse, and given to bloodshed, that hee would have tortures used in examinations. He had cruell searchers for all those who came but to salute him, Hee was greatly delighted to see the faces of Fencers, as they lay gasping and yeelding up their latest breath, (for if it were but their chance to stumble in their pri­zes, or sword-fights, he caused their throats to be cut for stumbling.) Neither was he but ex­cessively given to the wanton love of foolish women,Rom. 13.5. that as they affected honourable dig­nities were granted, conducts of Armies ap­pointed, and freedomes from punishment de­creed.’ And yet to such a one as this Saint Pe­ter exhorts to yeeld obedience. So also doth Saint Paul for when he wrote his Epistle to the Romanes, he made it no lesse then a matter of con­science to have every soule bee subject to the higher powers. And if at this time Claudius wereIt makes no matter whe­ther these A­postles wrote either under Claudius or Nero seeing neither of them both were Chri­stians but cru­ell wicked Emperours. 1 Tim. 2.1.2 dead, as some men thinke, yet Nero was aliue, [Page 26]and of his bloodie practises, who is there that hath not heard? And againe, in his first Epistle to Timothie (which was wrote much about the same time) as he desired prayers and intercessi­ons to be made for all men, so for Kings chief­ly, and such as be in authority, no where at all in any of his writings shewing, that either diver­sity of religion, or any hard kind of governing, should incourage subjects to take up armes, or otherwise to hurt and molest a lawfull Sove­raigne.

Neither did the holy Fathes and good Chri­stians, who lighted their candles from these bright burning torches, but oftentimes iterate the same divinity. For was not Iustine Martyr in the dayes of Marcus Antonius? (who was an un­beleeving and a persecuting Emperour) and yet saith he,Helvic. in Chronol. & Calvis. Nos solum Deum adoramus, Iust. Mart. Apol. 2. ad Antonin. et vobis in rebus alijs laeti inservimus We onely adore God and in all other things cheerefully performe our service unto you: meaning to the Emperours. God in the first place, they in the next.

And againe did not Tertullian speake to like purpose, when (in theEuseb. in Chronol. dayes of Severus, ano­ther bloody Infidell) he inferred that if it were unlawfull to offer injuries to ordinary men,Tertul. in Apol. 6.36. then much more unlawfull to a King or Emperour. Quod in neminem licet eo for sitan magis nec in ipsum qui per Deum tantus est.

Nor did the Orthodoxe Christians decline in [Page 27]their obedience from the Arrian Emperours. Nor did the Christian souldiers refuse to serue that Apostata Iulian; but in civill affaires were willinglyRuffin. bist. Eccles. lib. 2. cap. 1. et Aug. in 124. Psal. subject to his royall commands. Not that they wanted power to proue rebellious (as I shall afterwards shew you;) but rather as holy Austin observeth, upon the 124. Psalme; They were subject to him their temporall Lord, for his sake that was their eternal Lord. For if the ground of their obedience had not proceeded from that which is the rule of every ones conscience, I doe not doubt but that he might have spoken as to men without eares, and so have wanted suffici­ent forces to have fought his battels.

And now from hence I inferre, that if such wicked and bloodie ones as these,An inference from the premises. shall out of dutie be honoured and obeyed, then much more those who are godly and pious Princes, in whose Realmes the Gospell is cherished, learning ad­vanced, wholesome Lawes inacted, factions su­pressed, the Bond of vnitie maintained, and in a word where things are carefully studied and put in practise for the good and defence both of the Church and state: perhaps the successe doth not alwaies answer; because the unruly are pestilent lets to good proceedings, yet the care and intent remaine still the same.

Or put the case, that in some such kingdome as I now mention the loving subjects of his ma­jestie doe sometimes meet with just grievances, [Page 28]yet I dare say, it is more then the chiefe head of such a place, either knoweth, or intendeth. I sup­pose it to be without question, that some ill dis­posed members may sometimes worke their owne ends by grants obtained from their Prince, craftily (under pretence of common good) for things which redound to their owne private pro­fit. For though righteous lips (as Solo non spea­keth, in the sixteenth chapter of the Prov rbs at the thirteenth verse) be the delight of Kings, and they love him that speaketh right things. yet the innocencie and goodnesse of Princes, doe what they can, may sometimes be beguiled: And in that when things are thus, they suffer surely farre enough although they come not likewise within the gun-shot of their wicked mouths Who curse their Father, and doe not blesse their Mother.

Nor secondly, is every thing to be taken as a just grievance, at which some one or other will be ever and anon ready to grudge and mur­mure. For who hath not heard, that in state af­faires there be many misteries? And misteries of state appertaine not to private persons: What have they to doe to meddle with them; or to whet and repine at that, the intent or end where­of they know not, Quae supra nos, nihil ad nos. And therefore they that will (either in publike as much as they dare; or in private as much as they can) kicke and spurne at such proceedings and inveigle others to the same faction, do with­out [Page 29]out question deserve the heavie wrath of a King, and strict hand of justice to bridle their pee­vish frenzie. For if all things were according to the filth of their fancies who are the heads of this faction, or the chiefe sticklers in it, there should be neither Ecclesiasticall nor temporal superiori­tie. And looke how the old cocks crow, the yong will soone learne, the little spawne and nibling frie will scarce degenerate: For although (before they be well grounded in this rebellious way) they may be somewhat better minded than their Captaines; yet by degrees they are like enough to grow up into bigger fishes; and so the more bu­sie to stop the cleere current of a Kings Prero­gative, and to trouble the faire waters of Church governement. But for matters of the Church I forbeare to shew their malice till anone: In the meane time wondring that nothing but a Parity (which breeds an Anarchy) can please their distastfull palates. I would to God that they were of another minde, for I am sorrie to see that they should digest nothing but what agrees to their factious humors. This argues either a foule or weake stomacke, when wholesome food is dis­respected. Or if you will beleeue them in their outward shewes or owne pretences, they are a queasie kind of people. But what need is there of words, when deedes are manifest? Let them but abate their high minded wills, and they may soone informe their weakenesse; otherwise they [Page 30]must be curbed as with bit and bridle, least (in their head-strong courses) they fall at last upon their Soveraigne. For before that any of their grounds shall bee impugned (as our late King Iames of blessed memory hath well observed) let King,See the pre­face to his Ba­silicon Doron. and his Pre­monit. to all Christian Monarchs, Pag. 45. people, Law, and all be trodden under foote. Meaning, that they care for neither; but thinke it their greatest honour to contend with Kings, and perturbe whole Kingdomes, calling those mischiefes by the name of holy warres: and therefore preferre them farre before true loyal­ty and obedience; which (as they wickedly tearme it) is in it selfe an vngodly peace.

These then are those serpents which have a desire to sting, but a power greater then their owne prevailes against them, their wishes would be actions, were it not that (like curst Cowes) they finde themselues hindred in nothing more then in their short hornes. But shall a King be our fa­ther and shall we cease to honour him? Shal God put the sword into his hand, and shall wee bee so seditious or disobedient, as to wrest it into our owne? Or shall a King take care over us that what wee have we may possesse it in peace, fit every man under his owne Vine and Fig-tree and shall we have no care at all to be loving and liberall unto him, but be as blockish and chur­lish as was that foolish Nabal, notwithstanding David secured his goods and cattell?1 Sam. 25.7.10.

The beauty of a crowne to him that weares [Page 31]it not, seemes (perhaps) as if it were all of gold and precious stones, but to him that weares it I doe beleeve it sits not seldome like a crowne of thornes; by reason of those many cares which pricke and vexe the head. To which purpose I may recite a storie of a certaine King, mentioned by Valerius Maximus who when the Diadem or Crowne was brought unto unto him, before he would set it upon his head, held it long in his hand, considering and looking seriously upon it; and at the last burst forth into these or the like words and said, O nobilem magis quam foelicem or­natum! quem si quis penitus cognascat quam multis s [...]licitudinibus, et periculis, et miserijs sit refertus ne humi quidem iacentem tollere vellet. That is, Oh more noble then happie crowne! which if any one did but throughly know with how ma­ny troubles, and dangers, and miseries it is atten­ded, he would not doe so much as stoope to take it from the ground, although he saw it lie be­fore him. And the reason seemes to bee plaine for he that hath many thousands of people un­der his governement, must provide that his care be the cause of their safetie, his labour their rest, and his troubled thoughts the quiet of their minds: it being with him and his, as with the starres and planets, by whose light and motion the world thrives in all the parts both of times and seasons, soiles and climates. For as the course of nature would suffer detriment, if the Heavens [Page 32]should leave their motions; So a Prince cannot be void of care, without the great dammage of his people; whose studie is no lesse to maintaine them in peace, then to defend them both in and from the warres.

These be then in part those pricking thornes which they have for a counterpoyse of their brightnes and royal dignities, yea these, and such like, are the common calamities that accompa­ny Scepters, Crownes, and Diademes; whereof a meane estate never findeth any taste.

To which adde the cost as well as care, and can yee not then conclude, that he who keeps our tillage must have tribute out of our Lands: he that keepes the Sea must have custome from those who traffique in and out from thence: And if the walls of such a kingdome want repairing or the channells want scouring, the subiects must set to their willing hands to build them up, and make them cleane from the perturbation of in­festers, theeues and robbers. Which as it con­cerneth us, is no more but this: We have un­der God no other walls but Ships: nor Scaven­gers for the seas, but such Royall forces.

And next looke that as by how much the beau­ty of succession shall more and more appeare in the welcome Stemmes, and royall branches of a Kings increase, by so much there is the more need of taxe or subsidie. For Kings and Princes must not live like Peasants; Neither may Pea­sants [Page 33]live like Princes: And yet (contrarie to all order and decorum) each peasent among us be­gins to be a kind of Prince. For do we not see how the toes of the inferiour sort tread upon the heels of the Court? there cannot bee a Midianitish Ca­mel, but he must shine with Gold; for Labou­rers strive to be as good as their Masters: Far­mers despise yeomen: yeomen would bee gen­tlemen: Artizans (in our very countrie townes and villages) would bee Citizens: Gentlemen and Citizens though of ordinarie ranke doe not alwayes delight to keepe within the compasse of their tedder. But saith our Saviour,Luke 7. [...]. They that weare sofe rayment bee in Kings courts. In Kings courts, and not in rude hovils and country farms: No not in Citizens, or Tradesmens shops or o­ther houses of the inferiour sort; unlesse an or­derly proportion bee well observed. For these thus disordered, promise scarcenesse in the grea­test plenty, and dearenesse in a land of Promise. And therefore they do ill to complaine of deare times, when they themselves are without doubt in this vaine way, maine helpes (although notsole causes) to make them such. And herein there is one thing more which I grieve to utter; that hospi­talitie, charity and means of doing good, should in a manner be quite dead and gone. And why is that, but by reason that all is too little to main­taine this their apish pride, these their foolish fashions, with other as vaine and idle spendings, for by how much we are the more in wast unto [Page 34]our selves; by so much we are the lesse to God, the King, the poore and honest neighbourly so­cietie. Whereas on the contrary, if every one would be orderly contained within their owne bounds, and unthrifts wast lesse by unwarranta­ble courses, I dare be bold to say that many sorts of men might have where with all, the better to shew their zeale to the Church and state where­in they live; might be hospitable, charitable, yea and might entertaine many friends and acquain­tance with that, which to the entertaining of a Prince or Prince his Ambassadour, is scarce so much as the Widdowes two mites cast into the treasury.

Beside all which, (with much more that are the charges of a watchfull Prince) there be times also of more then ordinary necessity: and then a King may not spare, out of his royall preroga­tive to raise an Army, or presse of men, from a­mong his subjects, and have a stricter hand over mens persons, children, and goods, then at o­ther times. The testimony of which truth is in the first booke of Samuel the 8. chapter, at the 11. [...] Sam. 8.11. verse, and so on to the end of the 17. verse: where the words be these, This shall be the man­ner (or right) of the King that shal reigne over you: Hee shall take your sonnes and appoint them for him­selfe, for his charets, and to be his horsemen, and some to runne before his charet. Hee shall appoint some to be captaines over thousands, and captaines [Page 35]over fifties; and some to make him weapons for the warre. He shall take your daughters, your fields, the tenth of your seed, your Men-servants and Maid­servants, together with the best of your yong-men and Asses. And at the 17. verse. The tenth of your sheepe and ye also shall be his servants.

But to this (perhaps) it may be objected, Object. that the drift or intent of the foresaid speech was to deterre the people from having a King; and not to shew the rights or the Royalties of a King.

Whereto I answer, that the main drift was in­deed to deterre them. Answ. But as there cannot be an effect without a cause: so that the thing intended might be effected, he sheweth how farre the pow­er and right of a King, once set over them, might extend it selfe.

I say might: For it no where appeareth, that Saul put in practise all these things here menti­oned. And therefore should it [in the second place] be objected, that Samuel deterres them (not by shewing the lawfull power of a King but) by declaring the customes of a Tyrant: it must be granted that Saul was to be such a one as is there described; or else, in my judgement, they are wide from the matter. Saul I grant was tyrannous enough in his cruelties against Da­vid, and bloodie practises against the Priests, formerly mentioned. But, if in case of necessity, he had beene forced to doe what this scripture declareth, I doubt not but he might have done [Page 36]it without the imputation of injustice, or of any tyrannous usurpation. For be it granted, that if the extreamity of this were ordinarily urged by a King, or put in practise upon every tri­viall slight occasion, or without just cause, it were not better then tyrannie, as wee are taught, in Deut. 17.20. yet on the contrarie, for a King to exercise such or the like autho­ritie over his Subjects, when any imminent danger or knowne necessity shall compell him to it, is no tyrannie, but the toppe and high branch of his regall power, and royall preroga­tive. For if not in such cases, then in what is it that A King may doe whatsoever he pleaseth, where his word is there is power, Ecelos. 8.3.4. and who may say unto him what dost thou?

And be it granted, that this be not done out of tyrannie but necessity, it serues not onely for safetie, but for tryall also of a subjects incli­nation, or affection towards his Prince. Yea and thus also may be said, even when we speake more generally not onely of this, but of all the foresaid occasions, comparing one time and busi­nesse with another.

Neither do I finde, that there is, or can be a­ny time, wherein the head ought not to bee strengthened. For by suffering the head to bee weake how can the body prosper? Or if the Kings treasury be not like a spring, how can the waters of safetie be conveyed into the Cisternes [Page 37]of his subjects? And therefore to bee, as some are, so much be witched to what wee have, that we had rather loose all, then part with some, argues as well folly as malignity. For, as the Moone and starres would fall infinitely short of that bright lustre which now they have, if the Sunne were stripped of his abundant shining; So, take from a King his Royall prerogative, with the Consistorians and their peevish adhe­rents; stint him to the modicums of the chur­lish Nabalists, and let him be as if hee were a King and no King; and then his very people will in a short space find, that as from his flou­rishing comes their happinesse, So from his want comes their miserie.

But here (perhaps) will some man object, Object. out of Deut. 17.17. That a King may not ga­ther unto himselfe much silver and gold, and therefore it is in vaine to urge, that he should have a full treasury.

To which I answer, Answ. that this text toucheth none but those who are tyrannous, cruell, gri­ping, oppressing Princes, who ayme at nothing more then at their owne private profit, no whit regarding the safety and welfare of their sub­jects whom God hath committed to their care & trust. But as for others, whose care and employ­ments are such as I have alredy mētioned, it med­dles not with them, for they may not onely have tribute paid them, Subjectionis testificandae gratia [Page 38]in token of subjection; but also that they may be inabled to undergoe with cheerefulnesse, the costs and charges appertaining to the manifold and unknowne affaires of the common-weale, together with the education of their off-spring, which in hereditarie Kingdomes cannot but be acknowledged (among loyall subjects) as the welcome Stemmes, and hopefull branches for the future times. For these are indeed those roy­all spirits of life, which can put full measures of wished joy into a peoples heart; for where the case stands thus, though the Sunne may set no night appeares, but the day is still kept in bright­nesse by the happie arising of another Sunne.

In a word therfore to looke (yet once againe) unto our selues, our land hath beene and still is, a treasury and a storehouse for Gods blessings; but God grant that (among our other sinnes) our disobedience, ryot, pride, and covetousnes, be not a meanes (as the Prophet speaketh) to remove these good things from us;Ier. 5.25. For wee are yet happie if wee could but see it, whereas our neighbour countries have beene, yea and still are the onely cock-pits for all Christendome to fight their battels in, wee have beene raised to our labours by the noise of the cocke, who (in his cheerefull crowing) can merrily greete the morning and bid good day unto the rising Sunne, whereas others have beene roused up with the sound of Drumme and Trumpet: And [Page 39]for what? Not to plow, but to fight their fields; Not to banquets, but to battels; Not to the me­ry pastimes of hawks and hounds, or some other harmelesse sports, but to the noise of gunnes; Not to the sound of axes and hammers but ra­ther to the clashing of Armes; We have not sel­dome had the light of bone fires, in token of triumph; They the light of Beacons in token of trouble. Wee have had peace the child of hea­ven, and plentie the child of peace; whilst they have beene measured with theSee the 2 Kin. 21.1 [...]. line of Samaria, and felt the force, not onely of him who rides upon the Red or bloodie horse, but sometimes also even of him who rides upon the blacke, in whose hands are ballances to weigh, and there­by to stint the people in their needfull viands. For if the Blacke horse shall once appeare, and with his rider shew himselfe to any people, then presently (as saith Saint Iohn) may a voice bee heard from among the foure living creatures,Revel. 6.5.6. crying out and saying, A measure of wheate for a peny, and three measures of Barlie for as much, upon which place no few expositours obserue, that the Bushell of wheate was sold for five ac­customed prizes, and the Bushell of Barlie for three. Or put the case, that our Harvests have beene sometimes lesse plentifull then other: yet what is that to the penurie and want of sundry o­ther nations, where warre makes a spoile of what they have? O fortunatos nimium, bona si sua no­rint, [Page 40]Agricolas! is true of our husbandmen, but seldom or never can it be fitly applyed to theirs. And therefore let it bee our care, that by no kind of meanes wee goe about to darken that Sunne, which next under the God of heaven, gives us all this light, all this comfort, tran­quilitie, peace, and safety which we have: least otherwise, we be of that generation here men­tioned, Who curse their father and doe not blesse their mother.

Nor is it thirdly as the Pope and Puritan-pa­pists would have it: for Deus transfert regna; God (and not the Pope) disposeth of Kingdomes Dan. 2.21. and Dan. 4.32. For as by him Kings reign; even so it is, that by him kingdoms are dis­posed, and therefore to intrench upon anothers right, is bold presumption; nay rather (in such a case as this) 'tis divelish desperate dea­ling.

But I partly know what they have to object: and therefore I answer: First, that it was not Samuel that set up Saul no otherwise then by the immediate direction of the holy Spirit. Nei­ther was it Samuel that deposed Saul. Samuel deposed him not by any authoritie in himselfe existing; What was done was by the speciall direction of God Almightie, as cannot but ap­peare to him who reades the Scripture, in the 1 Sam. 15.16. Suffer mee (said Samuel to the King) and I will declare unto thee what the Lord [Page 41]hath spoken to mee in the night. And then forth­with hee delivered his message which God had revealed to him; namely that although he were in his own person to enioy the Kingdome as long as hee lived (as by the event of things appeared) yet the Lord had so rejected him and his pro­genie from being King, that none of his race should have any right of claime, or place of suc­cession ever after, to or in the Crowne.

And secondly,2. Kin. 11. as for the fact of the high-Priest Ioiada; it proveth indeed that it is and ever was lawfull for a state or common-weale to de­pose an Usurper, and restore the true heire to his right: but to depose any lawfull Prince (be he otherwise never so exorbitant in life, man­ners and beleife, or cruell in his governement) cannot from thence be proved. For if the Syna­gogue, or chiefe Priests, had ever such ordina­ry power granted to them, why did they not practise it on the persons of sundry wicked Kings which sometimes reigned both in Iudah and Is­rael? it seemes they might not, and therefore we find they did not.

Samuels example then proves nothing; for it was by immediate direction. And Ioiada's proves as little unlest it be in the like case. For Athalia was no lawfull Queen, but an usurping Tyrant; from whose bloodie hands Ioash the right heire was strangely preserved by the meanes of his aunt Iosaba the wife of Ioiada the Priest, who [Page 42]tooke him privily from among the number of the Kings children appointed to be slaine, and hid him in the Lords house sixe yeares: Then Ioiada brings him forth not as he was Priest, but rather as a Guardian and Protectour, having married the sister of the former King, and pre­sents him to the people like a good and loyall subject, that thereby the crowne might bee set upon the right head, and the Scepter taken from an usurping Tyrant.

If therefore the Pope can shew more for himselfe, then in plaine truth can be shewed a­gainst him, let him take all that he claimeth, and we on our side will freely acknowledge that we have done him wrong. But till the scriptures of God deny themselves (which I am sure is never) his tyrannie and pride herein too well must needs appeare. Let him therefore forbeare to send out his thunders against Christian Princes; and let not the simple bee deceived with his dispen­sations: for hee neither can nor may authorise Subjects to curse these their Parents, nor to to take up Armes against their lawfull Sove­raigne.

Nay more; it is also certaine, that even the very Priests (although Rome denie it) doe owe a subjection and obedience to the civill powers: for, that they be not exempted by any divine right,Act. 25.10. appeares even in this one instance; I stand at Cesars judgement seate, where I ought [Page 43]to be judged. Not where I will suffer mp selfe to be judged, or where I may be judged if I will; but [...], sayth that blessed Apostle, that is, where I ought to bee judged. Is it to bee thought that he would have said, he ought there to be judged, if de jure he had not beene sub­ject to that tribunall? Or that he did it for feare of death, who was readie before, not onely to be bound and imprisoned, but also to die at Ie­rusalem for the name of Iesus? It cannot be that these by-respects tooke place in him: for even his Master Christ (whose steps hee followed) would have Peter carefull to avoid offence, in not refusing to pay the tribute money; Goepay (saith he) formee and thee. Mat. 17.27. Where though Christ might have pleaded a freedome which was more then they knew who gathered the tribute; yet Peter could not: because it crosseth that of Saint Paul whose doctrine is, as well as his practise Let every soule bee subject to the higher powers: tribute to whom tribute, custome to whom custome is due, And if every soule, then Peter and Paul and Iames and Iohn; and Thomas and Mathew with all the rest.

Nor againe can it be shewed, that any of the ancient fathers understood these things otherwise For first I shall make mention of Saint Cyprian who saith that in his time the number of Chri­stians was growne to be very great.Cypr. in De­metrianum. Tertul. in Apo­togetico cap. 37 Tertullian also writeth thus: Were we disposed to practise [Page 44]not secret revenge, but even to professe open hostilitie, should we want number of men, or or force of armes? Are the Moores or the Parthi­ans or any one nation whatsoever, more in num­ber then wee who are spread over all the world? Wee are not of you (saith he, speaking to the hea­thens) and yet we have filled all the places and roomes which yee have, your Cities, Ilands, Castles, Towns, Assemblies; your Tents, Tribes and Wards. How then is it true which Bellar­mine alledgeth, that the Church in her nonage wanted sufficient forces to rebell against the Em­perours? Tis sure shee might not; and therefore we find shee did not. And againe secondly Ter­tullian elsewhere speaking both in respect of himselfe and of other Christians also,Terrul. ad Sca­pulam. Coli­mus ergo et Imperatorem sie, quomodo et nobis licet et ipsi expedit, ut hominem a Deo se [...]undum et quicquid est a Deo consecu­tum, et solo deo minerens. affirmed, plainely that they honoured the Emperour in such sort as was lawfull for them, and expedi­ent for him a man next unto God, and obtai­ning from God whatsoever he hath; Solo Deo minorem being only inferiour unto God. Pelagi­us also the first Roman bishop of that name, wri­teth to Childebert King of France, that the scrip­ture commandeth even Bishops to performe o­bedience unto Kings. And Gregorie the great in an Epistle to Mauritius and Augusta, calleth himselfe their unworthy servant; Indignus pie­tatis vestrae Famulus: saith also (without com­plement) that he is subject to their command; and have paied (saith he) what I ought because [Page 45]I have yeelded obedience to the Emperour, and not holden my peace in what I thought for God.

And againe, to speake more neerely of that text of Saint Paul formerly mentioned, even Pe­rerius the Iesuite witnesseth that Augustine, Chry­sostome, at (que) omnes fere Chrysost. in 13. Rom. hom. 23. Aug. in lib. exposit. quo­rundam pro­pos. ex epist. ad Rom. cui The­od. Tbeophyl. Oecum assenti­untur. veteres, and almost all the Ancients,Perer disput, 10 in 1 [...]. cap. ad Rom. by those higher powers under­stand the secular powers: and by every soule, they understand likewise all sorts of people, as well Priests as Laickes, Etiamsi Apostolus sis, si Evang lista, si Propheta, sive quiisquis tandem fueris: Neque enim pietatem subvertit ista sub­jectio. That is, whether thou be an Apostle, an Evangelist, a Prophet, or whosoever else: for this subjection subverteth no piety or religion, saith Chrysostome. No, nor yet doth piety or re­ligion subvert this civill subjection: For Chri­stus leges suas non ad hoc induxit; Christ hath not made lawes to overthrow policies and states, but for the better ordering and establishing them as Saint Chrysostome, among the rest, againe ob­serveth.

Till therefore ambition secretly got the start of piety, the Great commanders of the world had their every soule to be subject unto them. For it is easie to finde, not onely that it is a new claime or challengofor men of the Church to re­sist the civill Magistrates, and not to be obedient to them, but also the times of stirring up Subjects [Page 46]to rebell against their Soveraignes, are well e­nough knowne to all such as have an eye to histo­rie, truths herald,Anno 726. and times register. And thus we find that it first was about the yeare 726 when Gregory the second caused all Itaby to withdraw their obedience from the Emperour Leo, and to denie their tributes, because he had comman­ded Images to be broken and burned And for the same cause also the said Pope excommunica­ted him, and tooke from him the Cottian Alpes, under a colour of a gift, by which they were granted to him from the Lumbards. Then al­so about the yeare 752.Anno 752. Pope Zacharie encou­rageth and assisteth Pipin to depose his Master Childericke King of France, and to take upon him the governement of the said Kingdome; which caused Pipin to give to the Popes the ex­archy of Ravenna, which of right belonged to the Grecian Emperour.Anno 772. In the yeare 772. A­drian the first began, in his time there was held a Counsell at Rome, wherein the Pope with consent of the Counsell, clearely to casheire the the Greeke Emperours, and to thrust them out of all, made Charlemaine Prince of the Senate, giving vnto him the power of investing the Pope; and (as Du Plessie collecteth out of Sigo­nius and others) the Pope acknowledged to hold of him Ravenna, and other pieces by feal­ty and allegiance, adoring him after the manner that was used to the ancient princes, yet no soo­ner [Page 47]was Charlemaine dead, but Rome wrought upon the good nature of his sonne Lewis. And so againe, about the yeare 817.Anno 817. Pope Paschall the first procured himselfe to bee chosen and consecrated without the consent of the Empe­rour; but pleads an excuse for it afterwards. In the yeare 868. was Adrian the second:Anno 868. He also was chosen without the Emperour, and ex­cusing the matter, the Emperour was appeased.Anno 884. But Adrian the third who was in the yeare 884 decreeed that the election should be free to the Clergy only; and that no Prince or Potentate should meddle with chusing any men of the Church. Then in the yeare 964,Anno 964. was Leo the eight, in whose time he, with all the Clergy and people of Rome, to avoid the French as they had before avoided the Grecians, granted and confir­med to Otho the first, and his successours after him, authority to elect and ordaine the Bishop of Rome; pronouncing Anathema and banish­ment or death to them that should doe the con­trary, and confirmed by oath to him and his successours, all that which they held by Dona­tian or otherwise from lustinian, Pipin, Charle­maine, or Arithpertus, declaring moreover, that whosoever should hinder the effect there of should incurre the punishment of high treason. Yet neverthelesse, no sooner was Otho dead but in the yeare 974 Boniface the seventh was made Pope by sedition and murder,Anno 974. having strangled [Page 48]his predecessour Benet the eight, and put out the eyes of Iohn that was chosen against him. Some say that Damasus the second was set up by the Emperour,Anno 1048. in the yeare 1048. but Pan­taleon out of Platina affirmeth that he entred by force. After all which to adde life to the fore­said practises, came Hildebrand (otherwise cal­led Gregory the VII.) in the yeere of our Lord 1073.Anno 1073. and he most of all exalted himselfe above the Emperours, arrogating as a thing proper to the Popes, the power of constituting Kings and Emperours; causing the Emperour Henery the IV. to attend three daies barefoot at his palace gate,Anno 1095. Anno 1102. Vrban the second, and Paschall the second gave nourishment to Gregories proceedings. A­drian the IV. chides with the Emperour for holding his wrong stirrop. Alexander the third treads vpon the Emperours necke. Celestine the third crownes him with his foote: then kickes the crowne off againe to shew his power. And to make it appeare that all was now in these Pre­lates hands: Boniface the eight proclaimed it in an open Iubilee,Anno 1300. in the yeere of our Lord 1300 cloathing himselfe the one day in the pontificials of a Bishop, and the other day in the robe royall of an Emperonr, causing two swords to be car­ried before him, and these words to be uttered: Ecce duo gladij: Behold the two swords: mea­ning that both the spirituall and temporall pow­er were now in the hands of the Church, and [Page 49]that therefore none of the Clergie ought to be obedient to the civill Magistrate.

In which tenets and practises, both he and his fellowes did not onely transgresse the truth pure­ly taught, maintained, and practised in the first times of the Gospell; but also went contrary to the ancient times of those many godly Prophets and Priests under the Law: witnesse in the Court of the Iewes, one for all; even Nathan, who when he came before the King made his obeysance, called him his Lord, and acknow­ledged himselfe a subject, or servant to him,1 Kin. 1.24. as it is in the 1 Kin. 1.24. And in a strange common weale, Daniel (in the court of Darius) shal suffice,Dan. 6.21. who prayed for the life and prosperity of the King, Dan. 6.21.

The reason of which obedience and subjecti­on, is not as they are Prophets, Prelates or other Priests but as they are Citizens and mem­bers of a body politicke: Igitur ut tales, subjecti esse debent eivili potestati; Therfore as such they ought out of duty to be subject to the civil pow­er. But otherwise in causes meerly Ecclesiastical, they are exempted by a divine right, from secular judgements. For in all such causes as pertaine to men bearing office in the Church (whether it have respect to the function of their ministery, or to the key of their governement in foro exte­riori) Priests also must be honoured, reveren­ced, and obeyed; than whose office I know (as [Page 50]Saint Ambrose witnesseth) none more excellent,A [...]br. de dig. [...]it. sacerdot. cap. 3. Iosepb. antiq. lib. 11. cap. 8. none more honourable, which was also decla­red by Alexander the Great, when he met with Iaduah the high Priest of the Iewes; as Iosephus tels the story. Or to come more neerely to our selves which was also declared by Theodsius the first, who was willingly content to submit and yeeld himselfe to the reproofe and admonition of the aforesaid Ambrose, by whom hee was (though not excommunicated,) yet prohibited to come as at other times into the holy Tem­ple by reason of that great and rash Massacre of the Thessalonians, untill upon his heartie sorrow he obtained at length the assent of that holy Fa­ther. For thus he (though an Emperour) was subject Domino spirituali (as wee Domino tem­porali) propter dominum aeternum. Of which act even as it was done on either side, Theodoret speakes after this manner,Theod. lib. 5. cap. 17. saying that when all was done, both by the Bishop and Emperour, Tali tantaque virtute, et Pontifex, et Imperator e­rant illustres; as it is in the latine version. Mea­ning, that what they both did the Bishop in using his power and the Emperour in submitting unto it) made them both famous.Sozom. lib. 7. cap. 24. And in Sozomen the same story is againe recorded: To which is added that by the appointment of this holy Fa­ther, the Emperour was placed, or seated in the Church, so as was thought to be most coveni­ent. And yet this man was no papall, but a [Page 51]painefull Bishop, one that feared not to speake or rebuke the greatest, if need or occasion re­quired him so to do. For Neque imperiale est liber­tatem dicendi negare; Neque sacerdotale, Ambr. Epist. 29. quod sentit non dicere. It is (saith he) neither Prince­like to denie libertie of speech, nor Priest like not to speake what he thinketh: The one argues an affront offered to God, whose messenger he is that speaketh; The other is a signe of cowar­dise in Gods Minister, who may not hold his peace, if there be iust cause to reprehend. And of him Saint Hierome witnesseth that his wri­tings and books are incorrupt, and that his sen­tences are most firme pillars of the faith, and of all vertues beside. The like to which doth Saint Austin also testifie. Yea, and the very Empe­rour himselfe confesseth freely that the sentence of the said Ambrose was just and right Nota enim est mihi (saith he,) justiciae sententia Ambrosij; Theod lib. 5. cap. 17. neque ille reverentia Imperatoriae po [...]estatis divi­nam transgressurus est l [...]gem. Long before the which times was one Fabianus (about the yeare of our Lord 239.Euseb. lib. 6. cap. 33.) who would not suffer the Emperour Philip to joyne tanquam consors in precationibus multitudini ecclesiasticae: would not suffer him (I say) to joyne with the faithfull in their prayers when they were met in the Church untill hee had first stood in loco poenitentium, because although he wished well to Christiani­tie, yet in multis culpabilis effet: that is, be­cause [Page 52]in many things he was still faultie.

And therefore to spurne against the power and authoritie of Gods Ministers, and to draw backe from a mutuall or reciprocall subordina­tion betweene the officers of the Church and common weale, is but to kicke against the pricks and to joyne with Corah and his company, who cry against the Priests, Downe with them, downe with them, even to the ground: for ye take to much upon ye, oh ye sons of Levi! cry such as these. And so doing they be also in the number of those who curse their Father and do not blesse their mother.

And thus I am come to the next sort of Parents; the Fathers of the Church. Now, though in this discourse, I come not to these untill the last, yet are they not therfore to be disrespected. For pre­judicate opinions may not rob another of what is right: Nor is it any breach of piety to see the Church in dignity I shall shew it, that there bee Lords spirituall as well as Lords temporall: and that the best times and ages of the world, have thought it religion to countenance the Clergie.

When therfore that famousK. Iames in his Basilicon Doron, lib. 2. pag. 38. King of blessed memory, was about to speake severally of those 3. estates into which the subjects of England are di­vided, he begins after this manner. First (saith he) that I prejudge not the Church of her ancient pri­viledges, reason would she should have the first place, for orders sake in this catalogue the groūd of which priviledge I do beleeve came first, from [Page 53]among Gods people of old; with whom the highest Priest was second in the Kingdome.

And albeit every one who is a Priest: or man of God among us, be not a Prelate, nor may looke to be of as high dignities as Aaron, Na­than or Zadoc; nor to have the like honours and employments that Archbishops, and Bishops have: yet know that we are all the men of God being lawfully called; et pro Christo legatione fungimur, and Ambassadours of Christ.2 Cor 5.20. And therefore (besides what hath beene else) this I may say; Let a man so account of us (even in ge­uerall) as of the Ministers of Christ, 1 Cor. 4.1. and stewards of the mysteries of God; For to esteeme otherwise of us, is to have an evill eye at that calling which the Lord hath honoured, and to vilifie those per­sons whom he hath magnified & would that they should be in high account because they are pla­ced in an holy function, which must at all times put a difference between them and other men: Nor is it but observed, till we meete with those who curse their Father and doe not blesse their Mother.

But enough of this till by and by; Wee shall have it again at another turning; till when I leave it; and come now to the proofe of such things pertinent to all, and every of the Fathers in this body, as must be first handled.

Wherfore to proceed orderly, let the scriptures, and constant practise of the Church built there­upon [Page 54]First testifie that Churchmen have the name of Fathers, Secondly that they bee not all of one equall ranke, but of differing degrees. And last of all that there is reverence and honour due to them; as in the following Chapters, Secti­ons, and Divisions shall be further shewed.

CHAPTER I. That the name or title of Father is pertinent to Churchmen.

THis truth I shall first prove out of the words of Saint Paul, who witnesseth to the Corinthians that he had begotten them in Christ Iesus through the Gospell:1 Cor. 4.15. And so, though he were no carnall, yet a spirituall Father to them. Where note that because he makes the word to be the means of their begetting it must needs follow that every other Minister who converteth soules, is a spi­rituall Father because he, by the word doth also beget children unto Christ. In like manner hee also speaketh to the people of Galatia: My little children of whom I travell in birth, Gal 4.19. 1 Tim. 5.1. till Christ bee formed in you. And againe, Rebuke not an Elder, but exh [...]rt him as a Father, which (albeit he there meanes it of such in speciall as are Fathers for [Page 55]their age; yet it) prooveth the title of Father to be due to all who beare the name of Elders, whe­ther in Church or Common-weale. For when he speaks afterwards of such into whose hands, in respect of discipline, the governement of the Church is committed,1 Tim. 5.17. hee calleth them by the name of Elders; Seniores officij: and would that (if they rule well) they should have double ho­nour: especially if they labour in the word and doctrine, as well as in governement. This is also proved out of the words of Saint Iohn: For, to those whom he writeth in his first epistle he spea­keth as a Father; using these words often, My lit­tle children. And at the fourth verse of his third Epistle, I have (saith hee) no greater joy, then to heare that my children walke in love. And in his old age (as St. Ierome tels the story) being carried to the Church in the armes of his schollers, and lifted into the Pulpit, and not able to speake many words, he used onely this sweet saying, Filioli diligite alterutrum: Little children (or my sons) love one another.

Neither was it, but that in the times of the Law, the Prophets also and Priests were called Fathers. Oh my Father, my Father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof: So said Elisha to Elias; 2 Kin. 2.12. So said King Ioash also to Elisha; 2 Kin. 13.14. Yea, and thus saith the Scripture likewise of the Priests; as we read in the 2 Chron. 29.11.



BUt from hence I come to their rankes or orders. And in the first place stands the King or cheife Magistrate, whom Esay calleth a Nursing Father of the Church:Esa. 49.23. 2 Sam. 5.1. and by the tenne tribes was acknow­ledged to be their Pastour. And so indeed he was although in a differing manner from the Pa­stourship of Priests.

And yet not so farre differing neither as that hee beeSee Bishop Iewell against Hard defence of Apol part. 6 chap. 15. divis. 1. p. 612 mere laicus: for then hee must bee tyed altogether to the State, and meddle nothing with the Church in matters Ecclesiasti­call, how negligently, wrongfully, or disorder­ly soever he see things to be carried. But being the keeper of both Tables, he must have an eye to the Church as well as to the State; not one­ly ordering that the Church be obeyed but that Bishops and other Priests doe their office, as well as they who belong to the affaires of the Common wealth. Yea in a word he is to mair­taine Gods worship,K. Iames in his Apol. for the oath of alle­giance, pag. 108. printed Anno 1609. as well as the peoples wel­fare, for thus as that second Salomon hath recor­ded doe godly and Christian Kings within their owne dominions, sit to governe their Church, as well as the rest of their people; assisting the [Page 57]spirituall pover with the temporall sword, ma­king no new Articles of Faith, but commanding obedience to be given to what the word of God approveth, suffering no Sects and Schismes, but reforming corruptions, and also ordering that a decorum be observed in every thing, that there­by the inward dulnes of the heart may bee the better awaked to a more reverent respect, both towards God and his holy worship: for if the outward beauty of Churches stirreth up devoti­on; then much more the decent and comely manner of the service there. Both doe well; and well is it, when both can bee found to goe toge­ther.

Now if any should suppose that this power of a King takes away the power of Bishops; I an­swer that they are much deceived. For this is not to annihilate or take away the jurisdiction or power of Bishops; but to nurse, cherish and o­versee it. For the Christian Church had Episco­pall power granted (as afterwards shall be shew­ed) before ever there was any Christian Magi­strate. Kings and Princes therefore are not sent to abolish this power and order, but (where they find the same) to nourish it; yea, and to see that it goe on and doe that which shall be for the glory of God and the good of the Church. For wherreas Church officers might be resisted and disabled, without the assistance of such a chiefe governour; and whereas they might [Page 58]bee either negligent, or otherwise in their office then beseemes them, it is the goodnesse of God to send Christian Kings as chiefe fathers both for and over them, that thereby all may goe well among such as professe the name of Christ in a Christian Church. To which pur­pose the words of Saint Austin are not imperti­nent: In hoc Reges Deo serviunt, sicut eis divini­tus praecipitur, Aug. contra C [...]esconium lib. 3. c. 15. in quantum sunt Reges, si in suo Regno bena jubeant, mala prohibeant; non solum quae pertinent ad humanam societatem, verum eti­am quae ad divinam religionem. Meaning, that Kings herein serve God, as it is commanded them from above in that they be Kings, if with­in their Kingdome they command good things and forbid evill; not onely in things pertaining to humane fellowship or civill order, but also in things pertaining to Gods Religion. Now hee that does this must needs bee supreame Gover­nour over all persons, in all causes, as well Ec­clesiasticall as civill within his owne dominions, or else he cannot doe it. But seeing God hath gi­ven him this power doth he not therefore call Councels to have Lawes and orders made, and matters (where need is) to be setled for the good of his Church? Yea, and because this power of supremacie comes to him from aboue, it cannot be in Man to take it from him. Factibi, et erunt tibi (saithB [...] Andr in his Sermon upon Numb. [...] 1.2. one of whom we may learne to speake) was that which God said to Moses; and to him [Page 59]onely: There was no Fac tibi said to Aaron. And therefore, the propriety, or right of both Trumpets, commanded to be made for the cal­ling of Assemblies, both in the Church and State, must rest in Moses. From whence it came to passe, that ever after, whosoever was in Mo­ses his place, must have the same right and pow­er that Moses had. Sometimes I confesse there was no such magistrate; but no sooner did God send one againe, then that this power was put in practise: witnesse Nehemias after the captivity;Neh. 7.64. 1 Mac. 14.4 [...]. Simon after the fury of Antiochus: yea, and wit­nesse also that famous Constantine, whom God raysed up to overthrow the power of the per­secuting Dragons, and to reduce things to their former order.

Yet neverthelesse this power of correcting, ordering, calling, and disposing of men in mat­ters of the Church, gives no authoritie to Kings or cheife Magistrates, to make new Articles of faith, to preach the Gospell, administer the Sacra­ments, denounce excommuication, or exercise the function of the Priests in their Church-ser­vice. For in these things Princes must forbeare to meddle, and acknowledge Priests to bee their pastours, submitting their greatnesse to be obe­dient to them in their directions; yea even to the meanest of Gods Ministers, sincerely declaring the will of God. For though they may force the Priests (where they find them negligent) to [Page 60]doe their duties: yet the duties themselves they cannot doe.Defence of the Apolog part. 6. cap. 9 Divi [...]. 1. [...]. pa. 558. Whereto agreeth that of Bishop Iewell: Christ (saith he) is evermore mindfull of his promise, for when hee seeth his Church de­faced, and laid waste, hee raiseth up faithfull Magistrates, and godly Princes, not to doe the Priests or Bishops duties, but to force the priests and Bishops to doe their duties. The duties them­selves then must not be done, but by the Priests: and doing of them Princes must bee obedient to them, not despising (as hath beene said) the meanest of Gods Ministers, sincerely declaring the will of God For as Gods Ambassadours they beseech, exhort, admonish, and reprove even them (if need be) as well as any other of Gods heritage.Num c. 16, &c. 17. Who can be ignorant that it was a Co­rah and his company, which would have all the Congreation alike holy, whereas it was Aa­rons rod among all the rods of the Tribes that flourished?1 Sam. 13. 2 Chron 26. So [...]om lib. 7. cap. 4. Also who hath not heard that it was a Saul who dared to offer sacrifice in the stead of Samuel? and Vzziah that invades the Priests office? But it was the part of a good Theodosi­us toSo also did K. David to the [...]ssage of the Pro­phet Nathan 2 Sam 1 [...].13. [...] in [...]ronol. submit to the censure of an upright and holy Ambrose: And yet neverthelesse the said Father granted, that it was the right and power of Princes to summon Councels. For, about the yeare of our Lord 381. there was a Synod at Aquileia, in which Saint Ambrose was president: Who (with the rest there assembled) did fully te­stifie, [Page 61]that by the appointment of the Empe­rour, and power of his authoritie, they held their Synod: And hereupon it was that they gave notice to him of all their proceedings therein. These are the first.


THE second follow: and they are those whom theSo King Iames cals the Puritans in his Basilicon Doron. lib. 1. pag. 41. Pests of the Church (but not the scriptures, or primitive times) account ab­hominable: I meane the reverend Hierarchie of renowned Bishops, so much condemned by the fiery Zelots of our peevish Puritans, whom nothing can please but their owne fancies. They contend for parity, and would have all be intitle as high as Aaron: They would that all should be Governours, rather then private Ministers, whereupon they urge, that of right there are no Diocesan, but onely parochi­all Bishops; That the authoritie, and jurisdicti­on and rights of a Bishop, are no other then what belongeth to all Parsons and Vicars of parish Churches, and consequently, that every such Parson and Vicar is as good a Bishop as the best. Neither doe some but thinke that the Church [Page 62]cannot, or ought not to bee governed with­out a wise worshipfull company of Lay El­ders, which may annually be removed, and re­turne at the years end to their trades and occupa­tions againe,

But that these, and the like are but idle fancies appeareth both in regard of Christs owne order or institution, when he laid the foundation of his Church; in regard of the Apostles owne times; and also in regard of the Primitive times after them.

As for the first, thus it was: The Apostles did not ordaine the difference; They onely pro­ceeded as Christ had ordained. For as there were chiefe and inferiour Priests in the times before Christ: in like manner, at the first preaching of the Gospell the foundation of the Church was so laid, that all Priests were not in all things e­quall, for the twelue Apostles were first called and sent;See Mat. 10. and Luk. ch. 2.8. 10. ver. 3. Then after them the seventie Disciples; Christ likened the first to sheepe; the second to lambes: thereby declaring, that there was a greater dignity in the one then in the other: and that the first-sent, had not onely the priority of time, but of place and authoritie. It was Christs owne act: and therefore let no man presume not so much as to thinke of joyning together those whom Christ hath put asunder. And so saith the ordinary glosse; Sicut in Apostolis forma est Episcoporum, sic in septuaginta Dis­cipulis [Page 63]forma est Presbyterorum secundi ordinis, as it is alledged by Stella and Aquinas. It is also so understood by Theophilact, and sundry others upon the tenth of Luke, viz. that the seventy were inferiour to the twelve. Some expresse it thus; that the seventy in stead of Aarons sonnes, should be amongst us as inferiour Priests, others thus, that the twelve were as the chiefe Cap­taines and Commanders in the Church. And al­though in these ordinances, it is as if Christ tooke patterne from the Law, (wherein all Priests were not equall;) yet is it nothing against the abrogation of the Law. For the Ceremo­nies both might be and were abolished, although the forme of the old governement bee still retai­ned, seeing that was a thing which pertained not so much to types and figures, as to that [...], or rule of doing things decently and in order, for paritie is the next way to bring all things to an Anarchy, and so no order, unlesse there bee an order in confusion. And without doubt, when our Saviour said, Dic Ecclesiae: Tell it to the Church, he had an eye to those whom hee had made cheife in authority above the rest. And all this whilst Christ lived.

Next, if we have respect to the times of the Apostles, we shall find that Saint Paul, though last called,2 Cor. 11.5. yet not a whit inferiour to the [...]hi [...]fest Aposles, by warrant from the holy Ghost appointed Timothie to bee a Bishop over [Page 62] [...] [Page 63] [...] [Page 64]all the Churches of Ephesus, saying; I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Maced [...]nia, 1 Tim. 1 3. to charge some that they teach no other doctrine. At the end therefore of the second E­pistle to Timothy it is said, that it was written from Rome to Timotheus, the first elected Bishop of Ephesus. Tit. 1.5. And to Titus he also writeth thus; For this cause I left thee still in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordaine Elders in every City. The end like­wise of that Epistle witnesseth, that it was di­rected to Titus the first elected Bishop of the Cre­tians.

And in the stories of the Church, declaring the Acts and Monuments of ancient times, thus we read Eusebius reporteth in his third book and fourth Chapter of Ecclesiasticall historie, that Timothy was the first Bishop of the whole precinct of Ephesus, in as ample manner as Ti­tus was cheife Bishop of all the Churches of Crete. [...] 2. c. 16. Hee also writeth that Saint Marke did in­stitute the Churches of Alexandria. lib. 2. c. 24. And in ano­ther place, that Anianus did immediately succeed Marke the Apostle, in the said Churches of A­lexandria. And againe Iulian the tenth had the Bishopricke of the same Churches, [...]. 5. c 9. and in his third booke, and 20. chapter speaking of Saint Iohn; When he returned (saith he) out of Path­mos to Ephesus, at the request of others, he vi­sited the places bordering thereupon, that he [Page 65]might ordaine Bishops, constitute Churches, and elect Clergie men by lots, whom the Holy Ghost had assigned: and comming to a City not farre of, he cast his eyes upon that Bishop which was set over all the rest, and unto him hee com­mitted the tuition of a young Gentleman, say­ing I doe earnestly commend this young man unto thee, witnesse Christ and his Church.

Nay, before this alledged of these Apostles, we read in scripture of Philip, one of the seven Deacons, who being sent forth an Evangelist, preached and baptized; but neither might, nor did ordaine others to doe the like: For when the Apostles heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they send thither Peter and Iohn because they had power of imposition of hands which Philip had not as is recorded in the eight chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.Act. 8.14.17. Nor did Saint Paul but set downe rules how Bishops should behave themselves, which were in vaine if the Church ought of right to bee without them.

But among all passages, this may not slip; namely, that the seven Churches of Asiae, had their Bishops, even at the very time when the Spirit of God endeavoured to lay open the parti­culars of their faults: And yet amongst all the things worthy of blame wherewith they were charged, there is not a word against them for be­ing governed by Bishops, and surely, that or­der [Page 66]had not escaped reprehension, if it had not beene knowne to have beene of divine Insti­tution.

And next (the testimonies being thus cleare) can any but a mad-man thinke, that they are meant only of ordinary Parish Priests, such as are now; as if every such Priest should bee a Bishop? Or if of other Bishops, is there any co­lour for it, that they should be Bishops onely in title without jurisdiction, when one (as we see) is plainly said to have the governement of many Churches, which by the Apostles were founded, planted, constituted, or appointed? Certainly the word Churches in the plurall number, doth not import more Catholike Churches then one for there is but one, and therfore by Churches is meant the severall plantation of Churches to be setled and governed by their Bishops: some one having the cheife oversight of as many as were within the bounds of one precinct, and some o­ther of as many as were within the bounds and li­mits of another precinct. For, that word [...], used by Eusebius, is thus to be taken, both the word Churches formerly mentioned, as also the grammaticall signification thereof doe fully wit­nesse. Of which Scapula in his Lexicon writeth after this manner: namely that it signifieth Ac­colarum conventus, et Accolatus, sacraque vici­nia: And therefore may bee taken for many Churches within any limited Precinct or juris­diction: [Page 67]namely, for a Diocesse, either large or small; which is but as a great and generall Pa­rish:Mr. Seld. hist. of Tithes, c. 6 page 80. the lesser being since called by the same name, because they limit the people unto which particular Church they are to go, and unto which to pay their tythes.

Thus were the first beginnings: The imitati­ons, continuations and inlargements, were after­wards, and built upon the same grounds, when as the number of beleevers increased there was a more generall division of Congregations into a greater number of particular parishes: Yet so as they were to have their dependance on the mo­ther Churches first erected, and to be governed by every such Bishop as was the Bishop of their bounds and limits: yea, and also, according to the said increase or growth of Churches, and consequently of Diocesses, it was held agreeable to the divine institution of this order, to have not onely Arch-bishops, as well as Bishops, but Patriarchs as well as either of both, that there­by all things might be the better ordered in the Church of God. And albeit the Church of Rome, by the subtiltie of Sathan, turned this honie into poyson; yet what is that against the divine right of the Churches Hierarchy? I like not to loath my meate, because some have surfetted; nor to abhorre my drinke, be­cause many a disordered person hath been drun­ken: No more mayOr as the H [...]erar [...]hy by of Angels is not to be rejected because the T [...]ll is fal­len; no more may the order of Bishops be therefore de­spised be­cause the Pope is in­deed degene­rate. Irenaeus lib 3. cap. 3. Romes arrogancie cause us [Page 66] [...] [Page 67] [...] [Page 68]to contemne or sight against Christs ordinance. Christian Emperours, even in generall Coun­cels, have benenursing Fathers to it; and upon all occasions, devoute and pious reverencers of it: The whole strcame of religious and holy fathers had nothing to say against it: For all the Or­thodoxe generally beleeved, that they even in this followed the divine institution, and Apo­stolicall practise of what Christ had first foun­ded. Irenaeus saith in his third booke, and 3. chapter against heresies, Traditionem Aposto­lorum in toto mundo manifestam, in Ecclesia adest perspicere omnibus qui vera velint audire, et habe­mus annumerare eos qui ab Apostolis instituti sunt Episcopi in Ecclesi [...]s, et successores corum usque ad nes. Capr. lib. 4. epist. 9. seu edit recent. epist. 69. And in Saint Cyprian, Vnde schismata et haereses obortae sunt et oriuntur, nisi dum Episco­pus qui unus est, et Ecclesiae praeest, superba quo­rundam praesumptione contemnitur; Et home dig­natione Dei honoratus, ab indignis hominibus ju­dicatur? That is, whereof do Schismes and he­resies spring but of this, that the Bishop who isWhich he meaneth of but one Bi­shop in a Di­ocesse. one, and governeth the Church, is through the proud and arrogant presumption of some, contemned and set at nought; and being a man honoured by the appointment of God, is judg­ed of unworthy men? And in Saint Austin thus; Nemo ignorat (saith hee) Episcopos salvatorem Ecclesiis instituisse. Aug. quaest. ex Novo Pest. Tom. a quell. 97 sub sinem. Ipse enim prius quam in coelos ascenderet imponens manum Apostolis, ordinavit [Page 69]eos Episcopos. Meaning, that although Christ had formerly put a difference betweene one Mi­nister and another; yet that there might be a more full instalment of the Apostles into their office of Episcopall authority, he laid his hands upon them before he would ascend away from them; as is expressed in Luke 24.50.51. From whence they were onely to expect till the day of Pente­cost: and* then they were compleatly authorized,See Act 1.8. had power sufficient, and might put it in practise, even to the ordaining of Elders and Bishops, as occasion required: The laying on of hands ap­pertained then to them, Acts 8.14.17. and not to them onely but to whomsoever else, by vertue of their power, the office of a Bishop was con­veighed; according to that of Saint Paul to Ti­mothie, Lay hands upon no man suddenly neither bee partaker of other mens sinnes, 1 Tim. 5.22.

The opinion therefore of Aerius was recko­ned for an heresie, because he put no difference betweene the Bishops and other Presbyters. For although every Bishop be a Presbyter or Priest, yet every Priest is not a Bishop; Bishops may create Priests, and make them spirituall Fathers to beget children unto Christ; but Priests can­not make Fathers or create Bishops: For how can it be (saithAlledged by Saravia de divers. Minist. grid. c. 22. vide etiam A. quin. sum. 2.2. q. 184 Art. 6. Epiphanius) that a Priest should create, qui potestatatem imponendi manus non ha­bet, who hath no power of imposition of hands, Thus Epiphanius: And so also Austin, before [Page 70]whom by many yeares, was Ignatius that holy Martyr of Christ who, writing to those of Smyr­na, hath these wordsLaici subje­cti sunto Dia­coms, Diaconi Presbyteris, Presbytert E­piscopo, Epis­copus Christo vt Chrislus Patri. Ignat. Epist. ad Smyrn. [...], &c. That is, let lay-men bee subject to the Deacons, the Deacons to the Priests; the Priests to a Bi­shop, and a Bishop to Christ, as Christ to his Father. Tertullian also (as Ireneus formerly men­tioned) accounts them for heretickes who could not shew when their Church began or declare how it was founded by some among the Apo­stles: which hee knew they could not, for sine Matre, Tertul. de prae­script. cap. 32. & cap. 42. sine sede extorres vagantur, et Ecclesias non habent. And Ambrose, explaining that place in the fourth Chapter to the Ephesians, ver. 11. saith: In Episcopo omnes ordines sunt quia primus sacerdos est.

Saint Hierome I thinke of all the Fathers speakes the most sparingly of these things;Hier. in Titum cap. 1. in some place seeming to affirme that it was an hu­mane invention to put a difference in authority betweene the Bishops and other Priests or El­ders. But I wonder much at him, that he should tread so neere upon the heeles of Aerius, especi­ally, seeing hee else-where confesseth,contra Lucife­ [...]nos. that the Church consists of many degrees, the highest whereof he endeth in the Bishops. And in ano­ther place, where hee expoundeth those words in the 44. Psalme, namely, that in the stead [Page 71]of Fathers thou shalt have children; thus he spea­keth: Fuerint (O Ecclesia) Apostoli Patres tui, quia ipsi te genuerunt; Nunc autem, quia illi recesse­runt a mundo, habes pro his Episcopos filios. See also his second booke against Iovin an. To which let mee adde that of Saint Bernard; Vae tibi si praees, et non prodes: sed vae gravius, si quia praeesse metuis, prodesse refugis.

I shall need to say no more: for if this or­der had beene against Gods ordinance, neither would the Apostles allowed it, nor the seven Churches of Asia escaped the rebukes of the ho­ly Ghost for using it, nor yet the godly fathers at all embraced it.

Let none therefore deceive themselves, for it is more then manifest, that there ever was a difference. An inequalitie was laid, even in the first foundation of the Church. All Priests have idem Ministerium, sed diversam potestatem. For although it bee, that as all are bound to feed the flocke of Christ, there is no difference other­wise then it pleaseth God to give diversity of gifts: Or although the Ministeriall offices of one are as truly ministeriall as if they were done by another, because both have an equalitie of Priest­hood; Or although in respect of the generall service of Christ (as in the dispensation of his word and mysteries) Bishops and inferiour Priests, whether they bee Doctors, or others, are all Brethren and fellow Presbyters; yet, in [Page 72]the power of governement, equall authority belongs not to them, nor ever did since first the Churches of Christ began to be planted. One in a certaine Sermon of his, upon Acts the 15.36. doth thus declare it; namely, that although a Bishop doth not differ from an ordinary Pa­stour Quoad virtutem Sacerdotij: yet there is and must be a difference Quoad potentiam juris­dictionis. And againe, although a Bishop and an Arch-Bishop differ not in potestate ordinis; yet there is a difference in potestate regiminis.


WHat then shall become of those an­nuall offices of Lay-Elders, which the Genevian Factours would put upon us? I find no such thing in Scripture, as these men dreame of. All the Elders there mentioned which have a­ny thing to doe in the Church, and appertaine to the governement thereof, are no silent or un­preaching Governours. In Gods booke we have neither example for instance that ever there was, nor precept for direction that ever there may be any such Lay-Eldership. And although [Page 73]they alledge that saying of Saint Paul to Timo­thy [The Elders that rule well are worthy of dou­ble honour; 1 Tim. 5.17. especially they that labour in the word and doctrine] yet can it be no good consequence to argue from thence; that there were some El­ders in the Church which taught nothing: For doe we not all know, that it is one thing to teach another to labour or be painefull in teaching? It may be granted, that although all be in some measure painfull, yet some againe have beene more painfull than others. If either their con­stitution of body, yeares, gifts, or carefull using of them were such that they could both rule well, and be painfull also in teaching, they are worthy not only of honour, but of double ho­nour. So that out of these words can bee col­lected no such distinction as they doe imagine, of preaching Elders, and governing Elders, which are no Preachers.

The office then of Eldership which the scrip­ture mentions, must be in a lawfull Minister, and not in a Lay-man out of orders.1 Pet. 5.1.2. Saint Peter was a Preacher; yea, and a chiefe Elder: Hee char­geth therefore other Elders to feed their flocks. The word which the Scripture useth is [...], an appellation pertinent to all Priests, as being [...], fellow Presbyters, although not of equall power, as hath beene shewed.Act. 20.17.28. Saint Paul also chargeth the Elders of Ephesus to feed the Church of Christ, which he hath purchased [Page 74]with his owne blood. And to Titus hee giveth charge,Tit 1.59. that he appoint Elders in every citie: shewing, that by these he meaneth such as must be able to exhort with wholesome doctrine, and to convince them which say against it: not one word being mentioned of Elders out of orders to be in the stead of Bishops, & to take upon them the governing of the Church. Which last testi­mony puts into my mind that speech of the thrice famous man Erasmus, E [...]asmus in an Epistle to Iohn Alasco prefixed to the workes of Ambrose. viz. That if wee had more Bishops like vnto Ambrose, we should have more Emperours like unto Theodosius And tis as true likewise of inferiour Priests; The sitter for their office the better for the people. For what is there, which brings more harme then either ignorance, or want of courage. They who be tainted with either of these are. rather led by the people, then the people by them: For either they cannot or they dare not be what they ought in their holy functions.


BUt now I mention that holy Father Ambrose, Quest. some perhaps may propound it as a question; whether the said fa­ther doth not, in a certaine place of his writings (viz. where he expounds that of Saint Paul to Timothy, Rebuke not an Elder &c.) give some allowance to this office of Lay-elder­ships.

Nothing at all. Hee giveth I confesse, Answ. some light concerning those officers belonging to the Church of England, which wee call by the name of Sworne-men, Gardians, or wardens of the Church, into whose hands the care of Church provisions is committed, both in the providing of things wanting, in repayring of things decayed, and in the trustie keeping of things had. These are those men who present to the Arch-bishop, Bishop, Arch-deacon, or their Chancellours, the faults and disorders done in their parish against those Articles to which they are sworne, against the Canons, and against his Majesties Lawes Ecclesiasti­call. and so the Arch-bishoppe, Bishoppe, Arch-deacon, or their officers, proceed accor­ding to the information of the said Wardens of [Page 76]every such Parish. For albeit the love of monie, rather then of vertue and reformation, bee ready (among some under-officers) to send out the Apparatour as a close spie, into the Countrey; yet we know that the Canons of our Church doe in no wise tollerate such indirect courses. Whereupon, in the 138. Canon, thus wee read; that They (meaning Aparatours) shall not take upon them the office of Promoters or in­formers for the Court. Which in some sort a­greeth also to that of Saint Ambrose saying; that there is nothing done in the Church without those Elders of which hee speaketh: because such disorders as are proceeded against, according to the tenour of their informations, are legally proceeded against, and justly puni­shed; there being an oath taken for the discharge of this office in a pious and conscionable way.

Thus it is with us; And thus also (or not far o­therwise) it was in the dayes of old; St. Ambrose complained of the want of it, and we doe well to retaine still these usefull footings appertaining to it.

Onely sometimes we have a double fault com­mitted: The one in the choise of those annual offi­cers; The other in that too high prerogative which some men give them above their Minister.

First of all, in many country parishes, the lowest & meanest of the people are chosen although they be but yong and ignorant boies in comparison of [Page 77]others: whereas they ought of right to be grave, sober, and able Seniors (if not for yeeres yet for parts) who both know their office, and are not a­fraid to do it. And yet be they whom they will, either in this office for the Church, or in that of Constable for the common-weale, if they would or could but tell how to make conscience of an oath, there would not come in so many omnia be­ne's, when there be Multa passim mala. Howbeit I do not mention this to incourage the envious bu­sie practises of some ill disposed officers, but only to stir up the negligent to a more carefull conside­ration of the wrong done to themselves, through their slight regarding of knowne evills.

And next as for that exaltation which some men give them, tis fit they have all that of right belon­geth to them: but to be exalted above their Mini­ster, is more then can, may, or ought to be gran­ted. The subordination rests in them, and not in him; at whose hand I dare say they ought to bee alwaies ready to do, and to take advice as occasi­on shall require. For although no private Pastor be a Prelate, yet I take it to be without doubt, that hee is a kind of Rectour in his owne Parish by way of reference to the higher powers; and not to bee a meere cypher among his people. Ig­natius I suppose knew it well enough, in the subordination before mentioned. And yet, now adayes, there is a generation to be found, who would bee very glad (for the disrespect [Page 78]they beare to the Clergie) to see the Church-wardens made superiour to their Priest, and he to be but a dull spectator in all matter of busi­nesse, to stand with his finger in his mouth, and not dare to meddle with any thing, but be gain­sayed, over-topped, and not suffered to beare any sway at all; whilst they goe on as they list, and rule all the rost, as the common proverbe spea­keth. 'Tis sure that such a generation there is: But I dare not be he that should maintaine such doctrine for good divinitie: for if it be not (in them that doe) a tricke to please the people, or a sowing of pillowes under their Elbowes, I am certainly much deceived. But let them tell me if they can (for I would bee glad to know it) what Canon in our Church, or Rubricke in our Liturgy, will serve any whit to countenance such a proud and ambitious faction. The 113. canon giveth Ministers power to present, for feare if all should be left to the Churchwardens there would be nothing done to rectifie things amisse. The 89. canon makes it lawfull for the Minister to choose one of the Churchwardens and side­men, and to take notice of their accounts. The 91. cannon alowes him (and not the Church­wardens) to niake choice of the Parish clerke. Also he (& not the Churchwardens) isCan. 26. & Rubr. before Communion allowed to be a judge betweene two offenders, and whom he findes to be obstinare in malice, not to admit him (but the other) to the holy Communion. It [Page 79]is also left to hisRubr. after the Commu. discretion to judge whether the number bee sufficient to bee administred unto. Also the ChurchwardensCan. 20 and Rubrick after the Commu. are to take advice from him (and not he from them) recei­ving his direction for the providing of Bread and Wine for Communions.

Also the time for baptizing of children (whe­ther in the Morning, or in the Afternoone) isRubr. before publick Bapt. left to his discretion. It is likewise left to his discretion to determine whether theRubr. before private Bapt. excu­ses alledged by Parents for not bringing their children to holy Baptisme, on the next Sunday or Holy-day after they bee borne, bee just and reasonable. Also if he shall perceive any to come to the Font (who never received the Commu­nion) to answer for a child, hee shall notCan. 2 [...]. suffer the said party to be an undertaker. He shall alsoCan. 28. put backe strangers from the Communion, and hathRubr. after Confirmati [...]. it also in his power to order such as shall be catechised, according to his discretion. He is also to have a key of the almes-box and other chest: and to be imployed in taking a Terrier of Glebe lands, and other possessions belonging to the Church: For which see canon 84 70. and 87. And againe by vertue of the 88. cannon he may either forbid the ringing of Bells, or give leave to have them rung, as he thinketh fit­ting, where though the Church wardens (as in some other things be also mentioned; yet sure we find it not, The Churchwardens and the Mi­nister, [Page 80]but the Minister and the Churchwardens; Hee in the first place, they in the next. So that now it well appeareth, that every Minister is more then a dull spectator in his parish for the ordering and disposing of things there, and that the Churchwardens are so farre from being su­periour to their Minister, as that they be his ser­vants rather, and at his command in the absence of the ordinary, to whom they are bound to pre­sent that which cannot bee amended or orde­red otherwise: for there be indeed those courts to which offenders must bee cited, and from whence the censure for their faults must be recei­ved.

But I hasten: for all hitherto is plaine enough especially against those who would have the Church governement committed to the Lay­ty; or if to the Priests, in a confused parity.

Neither (last of all) shall I neede to speake much of some others, who whilst they decline the name of Bishop, retaine the office under other names: which they doe (I dare say) in hatred of tyrannicall proud papall Bishops: For what o­ther colour can they have? But (alas) what harme is there in the name, seeing the Tyrannie resteth not in the name, but in the person; other­wise every King should be no better then a Ty­rant, because Tarquin, and many other Kings haue used Tyrannie. The Hierarchie of Bishops is as ancient (you see) as Christ and his Apo­stles; [Page 81]The institution was not Apostolicall, but divine in a more high alloy: Christ first founded it, and the Apostles tooke it up from him, in their administration of the publique governe­ment; and so it descended to the succeeding times of all ages, as formerly hath beene shewed. And therfore to be stubborne, disobedient, re­bellious, or dis-respective towards it, is to fight against Gods ordinance, to trouble the peace of the Church with fond fiery factions, and to joyn with that generation, who curse their Father, and doe not blesse their Mother.


THE next thing considerable, is the Reverence, Obedience, and Honour which the people owe to their spirituall Fathers; not to some, but to all in every or­der, ranke, or degree amongst them.

And herein five things are considerable. First that the people have a reverent respect toward the persons of such as are Ministers. Secondly, that they disdaine not to heare their Preachings, Rebukes, and Exhortations. Thirdly, that they obey both Doctrine, and Discipline, [Page 82]conforming themselves to the orders, rites, or ceremonies of the Church under which they live. Fourthly, that they be peaceable towards them. Fiftly, that they robbe them not, but render to them their true and just dues out of all their goods.


AND why I begin first with this, viz. that the people are bound to shew a reverent re­spect toward the very person of a Minister; is not because their persons are more honourable then their doctrine; but because their doctrine cannot profit, where their persons are despised. Cujus persona despicitur, ejus doctrina contemnitur, sayth Saint Bernard. Bern. Serm. 2. deresur. Demini. And the reason is plaine; for whil'st men are so wicked as to slight, mocke, contemne, and despise our persons, they forget that we are the Ambassadours of Christ; and forgetting this, the message likewise will bee thought our owne, and none of Gods. Men will forget that Gods authoritie shineth in us; and so the message be set at nought, as well as he that brings it. Which whil'st the Devill percei­veth, he helpeth the world forward what he can, in this desperate mischiefe; casting a black thick foggie cloud, before the bright beautie of their glittering feet, who are sent to bring the glad ty­dings of good things, to a wicked and ill-deser­ving [Page 83]people. Wherefore in the second Councell of Matiscon (Canon 15.) it was strictly ordai­ned, that all secular men should doe reverence to the Clergie, even to the lowest degree of them. whersoever they met them. Neither is it but just with God, that their profit should little be in the graces of the Spirit, who kicke at those by whom his SpiritSee the right mea­ning of this afterwards, in Chapter 3. Sect. 2. speaketh. Were it so, that the hurt went no further then our selves, we should make the lesse account of it: But seeing by our re­proach and infamie, the Doctrine which wee teach is greatly hindered, and God dishonoured; it is our duties to let you see and know the dan­ger of our disgraces. This is the cause of all evill (sayth Saint Chrysostome) that the authoritie of spirituall governours is decayed; no reverence, Chrysost. in [...]. Epist. ad Ti. moth. c. [...] verse [...]. no honour, no feare is shewed towards them, &c. which I doe not speake (sayth he) for their sakes, but for your owne. And a little after, He that honoureth the Priest, honoureth God; and hee that despiseth the Priest, by little and little falleth to this also, that he will use reproach against God himselfe.

But am I not loth to mention what the Hea­thens have done in this, even to the very dispraise of Christians? and yet they were led therunto by nothing more, then by the light of nature left still in the soule of man. Loth (I say) to men­tion their actions, least the Christians blush at their owne pride, which steales away so greedily the honour of their Priests; thinking all too little [Page 84]which is given to themselves, all too much which is given to them. But if they blush, it is a signe of Grace (I hope) as well as guiltinesse. And therefore whil'st the knowledge may be profita­ble; let them all know, that by that light of na­ture which is left still in the soules of men, and by which the very Heathens have judged, that either a God, or gods ought to be worshiped; they have esteemed their Priests worthie of no meane honour, reverence, and observation: And better is it to learne from these men now, then that hereafter they rise up in judgement a­gainst you. Wherefore let mee mention what is written of the Medes, and Persians, that they reckoned none fit to weare a Crowne, sway the Scepter, or bee a King, who had not first beene taught the learning of their Magi. Virgil speaks of Anius, Aeneid. lib. 3. vers. 80. that he was both a King, and a Priest. Rex Anius, Rex idem hominum Phoebique Sacer­dos. In Aegpt (sayth Plato, alledged by Sara­via) it was not lawfull for a King to command, without the Priesthood. Strabo in one place sayth,Strab. lib. 12. & Alexand ab Alexandro, lib. 2. c. 8. Strab. lib. 17. that the chiefe Priests of Bellona's Tem­ple (though subject to their King,) were twice in a yeare to be are the Diademe. And in ano­ther place, that the Priests were conversant, and of councell with the Kings.Nerodot. in [...]terp. Herodotus, and Di­odorus testifie, that they had their Ordinary from the King; which agreeth to that of Moses, in Gen. 47.22. witnessing that the King of Ae­gypt [Page 85]provided for the Priests, and would not that Ioseph should meddle with their lands. Which cannot but be a condemnation to all them, who neglect the true Ministers of Gods word, as some have noted upon that Text. In a word,Alexand. ab Alexandro, lib. 2. c. 8. such was their honour, that as from the Philoso­phers they chose their Priests; so out of their Priests, they chose or made their Kings. And againe, to looke among other Nations, the first Kings of the Romans were Priests: The Empe­rours afterwards would be Pontifices Maximi. Tull. lib. 2. De legih. And the Augurs (sayth Tullie) were chiefe in the Common-werle. The Flamines, and other Priests were of no meane account.Caes. com. lib. 6. Here also with Us, and in France, the Druides were of great esteeme among the chiefe ranks of honour: To which also adde, that our Auncestours of latter times, accounted none to be Milites le­gitimi; who had not first offered their swords upon the Altar, and received their consecration to the trade of warre, from the Bishop or Priest of their place;B. Hall. which is also a cause why it still is, that some orders of Knighthood (sayth one) are held religious. And indeed, seeing all No­bilitie came at the first from the Pen, or the Pike;Dr. Boyse. that is from Learning, or Chivalrie, as another speaketh; there is a plea for the Scholler, as well as the Souldier, and consequently for the Divine; and for him chiefely in his profession above the rest, because Divinitie is the most ex­cellent, [Page 86]no other studie or profession being fit to be compared with it.

But if all this bee able to move you nothing, cast (I beseech you) your eyes from hence to a better light, to the sacred sheetes of holy Scrip­ture, and there observe what Gods Spirit hath recorded. And first I shall shew you, that the Iewes were esteemed to mur [...]urre against the Lord, yea, and to despise the Lord; when they murmured against Moses, and Aaron, and made but a small account of those his servants: For so you may read in Exod. 16.7. Numb. 16.11.1 Sam. 8.8. and chap. 26.9. And to Samuel (saith God) They have not despised thee, but mee: Esay 57. & Ezek. 3.7. Luke 10.16. And in the Prophecies of Esay, and Ezekiel 'tis re­corded; that whil'st the people jeered at the Pro­phets, they reproached God. Christ also taketh the wrong done to his Messengers, as done to himselfe. For who hath not heard it, that who so despiseth us that bee sent, despiseth Christ? and if Christ bee despised, then also God. For hee that despiseth you (sayth our Saviour) despi­seth mee; and hee that despiseth mee, despiseth him that sent me. As on the contrary, he that receiveth you, receiveth me; and he that receiveth me, recei­veth him that sent me, as it is in Luke 10.16, and in Math. 9.41. Hee that receiveth a Prophet in the name of a Prophet, shall have a Prophets re­ward: And in the 1. Cor. 14.1. it is the Doct­rine of Saint Paul, that men esteeme of their Mi­nisters, [Page 87]as of the Ambassadours of Christ: And in another place,1 Thes. 5.12. Know them (sayth he) which la­bour among you, and are over you in the Lord. Which knowledge hee also explaineth, andVerse 13. sheweth, it not to be a scornefull kinde of know­ledge, such as is in many; who in contempt and derision can say, Loe, yonder goes a Priest, that man's a Divine, &c. But such a knowledge [reade the place] as carries with it a reverent esteeme and regard: and this not after a meane manner neither, but after an eminent or high manner; yea, sayth he, let it be [...]; that is, super exabundanti; or in English very highly; nor this out of constraint, or through feare, but out of love. All which hee further sheweth, must be, if for no other cause, yet for this; namely, for their workes sake: that is, vel co nomine, even in regard of their holy function, wherein they are set apart to be the men of God,2 Cor. 6.1. Christs Ambassadours, and such labourours as labour among you for your edification,Ephes. 5.30. into that mysticall bodie of Christ Iesus.

Out of which Seripture (seeing the Apostle speakes so generally) 'tis easie to learne, that in case the Heralds booke (as some have scornfully objected) should either denie, or be sparing of civill honour, to those of our Tribe, who are not able to derive their pedigree from renowned Auncestours. Gods booke is of use to supply even that defect; for we see that the booke of [Page 88]God neither denieth, nor is sparing of any such thing to us; but would have us knowne with respect, and not meanely esteemed, but bee of high account in regard of that office whereunto we are called. And whereas againe these prat­lers speake of spirituall honour, which they say they are willing to bestow upon us; I wonder what's their meaning! I am sure they will not worship us, nor is there cause why wee should desire it. But bee their meaning what it will, that which they grant us must appeare, or else in conclusion they grant us nothing. And in­deed, that I may not flatter them, they stand so much upon spirit, in the respects which they owe to God, and his Ministers; that it may well bee feared they decline from truth in either of both, let them prate, or prattle to the contrary what they please.

And from whence comes all this? doth it not proceed from the ambitious hearts, and swelling mindes of the proud emulatours, ignorant, rude contemners, and irreligious despisers among the Laitie? I beleeve it doth; for these things chiefely are the prime roots, or causes, why Corah, and his company live still among us; and why the spirit of those dead Children (taught by their worser Fathers) who mocked the Pro­phet, breathes still in the breasts of our oppo­sers. But why may not two She-Beares,2 King. 2.24. or some worse punishment light upon them? Shall a [Page 89]judgement seize upon some, and will not others be warned? Saint Austine sayth, The Children were strucken, that their elders might bee taught. For when the pride of the Iewes was growne ex­travagant, and that the very Children could scoffe at the Prophets; the holy Spirit was grie­ved, and the Children torne in peeces. Vt per­cussis parvulis, majores reciperent disciplinam; St. August. de Temp. Se [...]. 204. & mors filiorum, fieret disciplina Parentum, & Pro­phetam, quem mirabilia facientem nolebant amare, discerent vel timere. And if so, then why doe these mad people strive to let the world bee wit­nesse, that they care not for the Scriptures, al­though they speake both by precepts, and ex­amples? Certes if they had any true regard to what is written in them; they would surcease at the last to dis-respect us, and not labour still to have our heads tyed under their girdles. Bee not deceived, God is not mocked. It were a wrong to our callings (and so to that sacred Majestie from whom we are sent) to dance attendance on proud contemner, or to yeeld with willingnes to such servilitie. Hertofore theHier. tradi [...]. in Genes. first borne had the right of Priesthood; but now the world strives to make Priests of younger brothers, and youn­ger brothers of the Priests. Repentance may come when it is too late, and therefore learne be­times to know God's Ministers.

I goe not about to finde fault with all, wee have no such ill measure (God bee thanked) at [Page 90]every ones hands. Howbeit, this is a theame which I might extend to that which many (and they perhaps such as are usually accounted the best in a Parish) would be loth to heare it. But I forbeare them all, and shall rather make my inlargement, by setting down the pious patterns of holy Christians; who like the true servants of God, have honoured his Messengers.

And first I will begin with the Galatians, Gala. 4.14.15. of whom it is written, that they received Saint Paul as an Angell of God; yea, even as Christ Iesus: and would if it had beene possible, have pulled out their owne eyes,Aug. homil. de Pasloribus, in­ter opera Hie­rom. to have done him good. And yet (as one speaketh) accedit ad ovem langui­dam, adovem putridam, secare vul [...]us, non parcere putredini: that is, He came to a sick and an infected sheep; to launce the wound, not to spare the rottennes.

Thus also did the Carthaginians, Dieteri [...]. ex Vict. de Per­secut. vanda­lic. lib. 2. who (as Victor relateth) were so well affected toward Eugenius their Bishop, that (if it might have beene) every each one of them would have layd downe their lives to have redeemed his.

And as for the noble Matrons of Rome, 'tis thus recorded: That when their Bishop Liberius was banished, because he would not condemne that holy man Athanasius; Theod. lib. 2. cap. 17. being ruled by the advice of their husbands, they came to the Emperour Constantius, being cloathed with their most precious ornaments; and desired that he would restore againe their Bishop, and take [Page 91]pitty of so great a Citie, which (being deprived of her Pastour) was exposed to the treacheries of devouring wolves.

Nay more, for even that famous Constantine; under whom the Church began to flourish, used the Clergie with no meane respect. Neither did the pious Princes after him but remember it.

Yea, and thus also did the godly Kings and Princes before Christ. They honoured the Prophets, Priests, and Levites with an high re­gard, had them in great price; and (which in these dayes is most envied) chose from among them such as should be employed in matters of State, be Iudges, and Iustices in Courts of civill affaires; the High-Priest being alwaies the se­cond man in their Kingdome.

And that these were best able in matters of greatest difficultie to bee thus employed, read God's owne Sanction in Deut. 17.18.See also what God had appoin­ted concer­ning this, in Deut. 21.5. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgement, &c. then shalt thou arise and goe unto the place which the Lord thy God shall chuse; and thou shalt come to the Priests of the Levites, and to the Iudge that shall hee in those dayes, and aske; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgement. Upon which ground, David setting the Kingdome in better order then in processe of time it was growne into,1 Chro. 23.4. appointed sixe thousand Levites to bee Indges, and Magistrates over the people: and beyond Iordan towards the West,1 Chron. 26.30. a thou­sand [Page 92]and seven hundred, both to serve God in the place of Levites, and also to serve the King in offices of State.ibid. verse 32. Hee also set two thousand and seven hundred to bee over the Tribes of Ruben, Gad, and Manasseth, to heare and deter­mine in causes, both Ecclesiasticall, and Civill.

The like also did Iehosophat in his reformation of the Church and Common-weale.2 Chron.

Ezra was a Priest,Ezr. c. 7. & 8. yet who but he that first of all after the Captivitie, ordered all matters both for the Church,Nehe. c. 1. and State. Nehemiah came not up untill 13. yeares after; for Nehemiah was in the twentieth, and Ezra in the 7. yeare of Artaxerxes. Zorobabel I grant was long before; but he did little or nothing for the reducing of things into a forme of government; or suppose he did, Ezra we are sure did a great deale more.

Neither was it,1 Sam. c. 2.18 &c. 7.15.16. but that (even before all these) Samuel as a Priest ministered before the Lord in a linnen Ephod, and as a Iudge did ride his cir­cuit every yeare, over all the land: yea, and in the daies of Saul, although he was the annointed King; yet Samuel ruled joyntly with him so long as they lived each with other: or at the least was such a Counseller to him, as that after hee was dead and buried, he seeks to heare what he would advise, or answer, standing then destitute of such direction as he had usually received from him.

Nay sooner yet, for Phineas was sent Ambassa­dour to proclaim war against the Rubenites, & the [Page 93] Gadites, & the half tribe of Manasses. Iosh. 22.12.3.

The Priests overthrew the Citie Iericho, Iosh. 6. Nor did they afterwards but sound their Trum­pets, and bid the battell in the warre of Ahiiah a­gainst Ieroboam. 2 Chron. 13.12.14.

The land also is divided among the Tribes, by Eleazar, and Ioshua. Numb. 34.17.

A thousand likewise of every Tribe is sent out to war against the Midianites, under the conduct of Phineas, Numb. 31.6. And in the same warre, the spoyles were divided among the Souldiers, by Moses, and Eleazar the Priest, and the cheife Fathers of the Congregation. verse 26.

The people also were numbred by Moses, and Eleazar in the plaine of Moab; as they had been numbred formerly by Moses, and Aaron in the wildernesse of Sinai, Numb. 26.63.64.

From which testimonies it is plaine and mani­fest, that some such Priests as the King thinks fit, may (when he pleaseth) be lawfully employed in civill affaires or offices; and may even thus be honoured, as were those Priests of old.

And whereas some object, that arguments drawne from the old. Testament,An objection answered. prove no­thing now under the New: it is answered. First, that they may as well deny the arguments taken from thence against the Popes authority, and domineering power over Christian Kings, and Princes, as denie these arguments, for proofe of that civill honour which is thus [Page 94]given to the Ministers of the Gospell. And therefore it is not love, but envie, which would seeme to bolster out things with such new Divinitie.

Secondly, the Ministers of the Gospell (as one hath well observed) may with more conve­nience be employed in civill offices, then those Priests under the Law; whose time is not now taken up (as then it was) with attendance on the daily sacrifices; great number of feasts, solem­nities, and such like occasions, by which their leisure was lesse to heare civill matters, then now to the Minister under the Gospell.

Thirdly, the Ministers of the Gospell have succeeded in a place of the Levites, and looke what in that kinde was lawfull for them to doe, is not unlawfull now, especially seeing these employments pertained not to things typicall, figurative, or ceremoniall. And fourthly, al­though Christ and his Apostles were never thus employed, yet is that nothing against our tenet: For who made me a judge over you, sayth Christ? Intimating,Luke 12.14. that unlesse the supreame Magistrate shall assigne Clergie-men to such offices, they may not meddle with them. But had the Church and Common-wealth been both one, then it had beene as lawfull as in the daies of old; which appointment or assignation was never like to bee, so long as the Church was in the King­dome of heathen tyrants.

Certain it is, that when the Emperours became Christians, some men of the Church were thus employed. And although the condition of the Ministers of Christ, differed not in this from that of the Levites, yet it could not shew it selfe till then. Examples are not wanting.Theod. lib. 2. c. 30. Theodorit. makes mention of one Iames Bishop ofCalled al­so Nysibit. Antioch in Mygdonia, who shined with Apostolicall grace; and yet was both Bishop, and governour of the aforesaid Citie.

Or if this testimonie be obscure, see another; Saint Ambrose was twice employed in the office of an Ambassadour, by the Emperour Valen­tinian, and not without good successe.

Socrates also makes mention of one Marutha, Socrat. lib. 7. c. [...]. Bishop of Mesopotamia, whom the Emperour of Rome sent in an Ambassage to the King of Persia; which employment likewise proved good, both to the Church, and Common-weale.

Neither can this bee called an inuasion of the offices of the civill Magistrate, or be contrary to the rule of any auncient Canon, when it is done by the consent and appointment of the chiefe Magistrate; as in the lawes of Iustinian (alled­ged by Saravia) is apparent.Lib. de honore Prasulibus et Presbyt. debi­to. cap. 20. And although the the Popes lawes have decreed the contrary; yet it is not fit (sayth one) that we which are a refor­med Church, and have long since abandoned the Popes authority,Dr Dove of Church go­vern. pag. 40. should now forsake God and the examples of the holy Bible, to follow [Page 96]the Pope, and his Canons.

Fiftly, and lastly, Saint Paul thought it lawfull to spend his spare time in the worke of his hands: But if the necessitie of Domesticke affaires may excuse a Pastour of the Church for so doing; then much more may they be excused for doing such offices (when the King thinkes it fit that they bee called thereunto) as shall benefit the common wealth wherein they live.

Neither doth this appertaine to the entangling of our selves with the things of this World. For that text where this is mentioned; striketh at those whose covetous hands and greedie hearts are so glewed to the earth, for the gathering to themselves a private estate, that they forget every such thing as may tend to the good, either of the Church, or State wherein they live; which every good Christian, and therefore every upright man of God will be carefull to avoid.

Nor againe, doth that of our Saviour [in Luke 22.25.] denie the titles of civill honours to men of the Church. Titles of civill honour are not their denied; for it doth not (as shall appeare) forbid honour and authority, or the titles thereunto belonging: but ambitious seek­ing of it, or them; together with that tyrannicall using of it, which the wicked kings of the Na­tions, through the conceit of their owne great­nesse, and soothings of their flatterers proudly take upon them.

And that this is the meaning of that Text, ap­peareth by these reasons.

First, because Christ acknowledged that the title Rabbi (which signifieth a Master, an ho­nourable person, or a man that is eminent by reason of his many dignities and places of ho­nour that he holdeth) was a title of right be­longing to him: Hee disclaimed it not, but em­braced it. Ye call mee Master, and Lord, and ye say well, for so I am. Iohn 13.13.

Secondly, Iohn Baptist was called Master, and not refused it. Luke 3.12.

Thirdly, although Saint Paul, and Barnabas Act. 14.15. denied to be worshipped with Divine honour; yet when Paul, and Silas were reverenced with civill honour, and called [...] [Lords] by the Master of the Prison, they made no scruple of it, but onely sayd; Beleeve in the Lord Iesus, and thou shalt be saved. Acts 16.30.

Fourthly, the change of Abram, to Abraham; and of Sarai, to Sarah witnesse no lesse: for their names being thus changed, were not onely a token of confirming the promise; but also an honourable favour which God himselfe vouch­safed to them,Dr. Willet ex Mercer. in Gen. for their greater grace and respect among those with whom they lived; as was seene when Abraham communed with the Chil­dren of Heth; who answering, sayd unto him: Heare us my Lord, thou art a mighty Prince among us. Gen. 23.6. And God also told Abimilech, [Page 98]that he was a Prophet. Gen. 20.7.

Fiftly, because when Obadiah met Elias, he fell on his face, and sayd; Art thou my Lord E­lias? He answered, yea; Goe and tell thy Lord, behold, Elias is here. 1 Kings 18.7.8.

Sixtly, because Elisha accepted of the like title, as it is in the 2 Kings 4.16.

In which regard Beza noted not amisse upon these words [in Mat. 23.8.] Bee not yee called Rabbi, &c. Ne vocemini, id est, Ne ambiatis. Bee not ye called; that is, doe not ambitiously seeke after that title, or pride your selves in it: for otherwise our Sauiour doth not accept against any, either for not denying the titles of their office, or for not refusing the honour due un­to them. And here an end of this Section.


THE next thing that followeth, is, That the people give eare, and come where they may heare the Doctrines, rebukes, and exhor­tations of their ghostly Fathers. For though they be men whom the Lord hath assigned to this holy office: yet men, to whom hee hath con­veighed a peculiar grace,2 Tim. 1.6. ibid. which the Orthodox and right do so stirre up, that when they preach, they preach not themselves, but Iesus Christ. 2 Cor. 4.5. Heb. 5.4. They have power to officiate, but they take it not; it is given them before they have it. It came to those of Christs schoole, from Christ him­selfe; but was not to end with them, for there is a * building which cannot be perfected with­out it: And being therefore appointed for it,Ephes 4.12. Mat. 28. ult. it hath beene conveighed ever since by the im­position of hands, to such as are not otherwise any lawfull Priests of God. And finally, that care may be had in the conveighance hereof; It is the counsell of Saint Paul to Timothie, 1 Tim. 5.22. That he lay hands upon no man suddenly.

Thus then we have it, and are by this meanes become persons sacred, and have authoritie to deale in holy things. We blesse in the name of him that blesseth: The dispensation of the Word and Sacraments is committed to us; We have power to binde,Mat. 18.18. 2 Cor. 5.20. wee have power to loose, wee are Ambassadours for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us.

The message is from Heaven, as delivering to you God's blessed will, out of his holy Word: And therefore to be received,1 Thess. 2.13 not as the word of men, but as the Word of God. So that as we, if we love the Lord,Ioh. 21.15.16 will feede his Lambes, and Sheepe: In like manner ye, if ye despise not Christ,Luke 21.16. Acts 7.51. nor resist the holy Ghost; will be con­tent to hearken to the words of those by whom he speaketh.

For this he doth, hee speaketh by us, though not by immediate inspiration (as some phanta­stickes fondly dreame;) yet by our rightly divi­ding that Word of truth, which is properly and indeed the Word of God:Aug. cont. E­pist. Parmeni­oni l. 2. c. 11. In cujus praedica­tione spiritus Sanctus operatur, as Saint Austine speaketh. So that though our Sermons ought to have no greater credit, then they can gaine unto themselves by their agreement with the Scrip­tures, yet not dissenting from them, they are truely and indeed the Truth and Doctrine of God, and though not his Word by immediate in­spiration; yet the Word of God, in a secundarie [Page 101]sence; as being the sober explication, and appli­cation of some such part or portion of the Word as we then pitch upon. In which regard, the Preachers of it are Co-workers, or jont-labou­rers with God, as even the Apostles were: For though we cannot bee compared with them in worthinesse of grace and vertue; yet in likenesse of office and Ministerie, we may, and must. And indeed tis a perpetuall Sanction,Mal. 2.7. that the Priests lippes are to preserve knowledge, and that the people seeke the Law at their mouthes; for even in this they are the messengers of the Lord of Hosts. So that in what way so ever they convey or give notification of the object of faith (which is the Word) unto the people, whether it be by reading, or otherwise; it is to be of more esteem, then when tis done by any other. Which I doe not note to deterre Lay-people from reading of the Scripture, but to shew the difference that is betweene their reading, and ours; as also to sig­nifie, that no Scripture is of private interpreta­tion,1 Pet. 1.20. as Saint Peter hath declared.

And now to the amplifying of all this, thus I proceed.

The Lord's Day [or Sunday] is God's chiefe Schoole-day, wherein God's people must come to the Church, for that's his Schoole-house; wherein (among other duties to bee done) they must heare his Word, for that's their lesson.

Some be Truants, and care not for comming. [Page 102]Others be Recusants, and may not come to joyn themselves with us. A third sort be Schismaticks, and will not come, except where they affect, and when they please. And last of all, others be in­different, and will sometimes come; but in re­spect of the end, their comming and hearing is in vaine, they are yet in their sinnes.

I shall speake of these in their order: Of the time, the place, the persons.

I. And as for the chiefe time, I call it (as I ought) the Lord's Day, or Sunday; because the Sabbath as ceremoniall, was abolished at the death of Christ; as in the second Chapter to the Collossians is declared.

And why a day must be still observed, is in­regard of what is morall in the fourth Comman­dement: For it is absolutely and directly of the Law of Nature, that some time be set apart, for the publique worshippe, and solemne services of God. And why one day in seven, is not in re­gard of what is strictly morall, in respect of Na­ture dictating; but in respect of Nature infor­med by the Divine instruction of the God of Heaven. For whereas Nature knew not how to make choice, or put a difference betweene one number, and another, it pleased God to instruct and informe Nature; that thereby that which is not strictly morall ratione naturae, might bee knowne and accounted as morall ratione disci­plinae: of which condition, is the quota pars. [Page 103]both for Tythes, and for the time of God's pub­lique worshippe.

And next, why this part of one in seven, hath (since the ceasing of the Sabbath) beene obser­ved by us rathē ron the first, then second, third, or any other day of the weeke; is, not in regard of any precept expressely commanding it; but in regard of the Churches practice at all times, and in all Ages ever since.

Now they that began it, were the Apostles; being led thereunto by our (and their) Lords resurrection, and by his often apparitions to them upon that very day, rather then upon any other day beside: For, as they knew the Sabbath to be abolished by Christs death; In like man­ner, by his resurrection they had ground suffi­cient to direct them to the choice of a peculiar day, for the observation of a new and chiefe Fe­stivall; and so much the rather, because Christ used then (as I sayd) to appeare unto them.

Hence therefore it is,Revel. 1.10. Ignat. epist. ad Magnes. that Saint Iohn makes mention of a Day, which he calleth Dies Domi­nicus, the Lord's Day: And Ignatius (one of Saint Iohns Disciples) telleth us, that it was the first day of the weeke; the very Queene and chiefe of Dayes, renowned by our Lord's resurrection. So also sayth Saint Austine, Aug ad Ianua. epist. 119. c. 13 the Lord's Day was de­clared to Christians by the resurrection of the Lord; and from that time began to be celebraeted. De verb. A­post. Serm. 15. And in another place, The raysing of the Lord, hath pro­mised [Page 104]to us an eternall day, and hath consecrated for us the Lord's Day. By which he meaneth, that Christ thus honouring this day; did thereby (as it were) point it out as the onely day to be made choice of, for the religious and solemne services of God. Or to use againe his owne words, De­monstrare & consecrare dignatus est; Ad Ianuar. epist. 119. c. 9. He did vouch­safe to demonstrate, and consecrate it.

Thus they and their successours first tooke it up. Apostoli & Apostolici viri: This was their ground; and from them to us the observation thereof hath proceeded, and is still retained in the Christian Church.

Yea,Iust apol. 2. ad Anton. Impe­rat. ppope fi­nem. and further; even this Day which was thus frequently called the Lord's Day: Iustine Martyr calls also Sunday; and may fitly be so named, not because the Pagans dedicated that day to their Idoll of the Sunne; but because (as another Father speaketh) The Sonne of righteous­nesse which enlightneth every one of us, Saint Ambr. Serm. 61. did then arise. Neither was it knowne to have so much as the name of Sabbath ever after in the Church of God, without some distinction added, to di­stinguish it from that of the Iewes. For in a pro­per and litterall sence, it cannot bee called the Sabbath Day, as being neither that day which the Iewes observed, nor of such strickt rest as was that Day of theirs.

And indeed the very stricktnesse of their rest, gave the name of Sabbath to the Day which they [Page 105]were to keepe; but was not the principall thing wherein the sanctification of it consisted. For though the rest was strictly exacted, yet but ac­cidentally annexed: and therefore now removed in the removall of that yoke of outward obser­vances, which for the time was laid upon them.Gala. 4. For as the effect abideth so long as the cause re­maineth, but perisheth when the cause ceaseth; so the strictnesse of Rest, was to remaine so long as the Day and memo [...]y of the things vailed un­der the strict rest thereof abided. But the Day being taken away, the end and reason of the sayd Rest is gone, and also the strict Rest it selfe; which being figurative, could not be too strict. For the more exact the figure is, the better it signi­fieth; as in the Lambe for the Passeover well appeareth, which was to be alwaies such, as had no blemish.

And that this Rest of theirs thus strictly ex­acted, was but accidentally annexed; will be manifest: if we consider the many causes, more then the chiefe and principall, for which they were to keepe it. For though such a Rest be al­waies requisite, as may promote the divine du­ties of God's publique worship; and not be con­trary to the observance of that precept which requires the performance of them. Yet if there be other ends beyond that which the solemne service of God requireth; those ends must bee examined whether they be connected, with that [Page 106]end which participates with the moralitie of that Commandement, which leades us to the setting apart of some time, for God's publique and so­lemne service. We denie nothing to be aboli­shed, which is as a meanes requisite to that end, for which a Day is set apart. But if in the Iewish rest there were things figurative; and to signifie something which was either past, present, or then to come: We are nothing bound either to the name of their day, to the day it selfe; or to the strict observance of such a rest, as that day of theirs required. For if this be not granted, wee retaine not onely the substance, but ceremonie likewise of the Sabbath: their many ends of rest, beside that for which the day was chiefely set apart, must needes be the cause of an extreame stricknesse: But being to signifie, as aforesayd; it was to them, and not to us, that God intended such a Rest.

For first they rested in memorie of the Crea­tion, which on that particular day was ended, sixe dayes being spent in Creating,Exod. 20.11. before that day of Rest approached. From the memorie of which (after the manner that they remembred it) we are now called; in regard that the obser­vation of the day it selfe is ceased. Col. 2.16.17. Not that we doe hereby deny God to bee our Creatour, but acknowledge Christ to be our Redeemer. And indeed the benefit of Redemp­tion being greater then that of Creation; the [Page 107]memorie of the first, is obscured by the last, and so the one is to give place unto the other; as in a case not much unlike it, the Prophet Ierem [...]e hath declared. Ier. 16.14 15.

Nor againe, doth this last impose a like com­memoration with the former, in regard of Rest; because our Saviour did not so much rest upon that day whereon he arose, as valiantly over­come the powers of death. It may be rather said that he rested before whil'st he lay in the Grave; and so they who are dead, bee sayd to rest from their labours: but to rise againe, implyes a breaking off from rest, and a beginning of labour, which even in this cannot but be granted; if the consideration be taken up, with relation to that rest which went before it, whil'st the bodie lay in the quiet Grave till the time appointed. Nor doe I thinke it strange to say, that on our Day of the Lord, the memorie of the Redemption be come in place of that of Creation. For tho we have the proper solemnitie of Christ's Resur­rection, upon that day which is called Easter; yet this weekely day of publique worship, being (as Saint Austine speaketh) consecrated to us by our Lords Resurrection; doth not onely deserve to be made choice of, for the peculiar day of our solemne Assemblies, but to be judged also to re­late in some sort to the benefit of Redemption.

Secondly, their strict resting was a memoriall of their deliverance from the hard labours which [Page 108]they had lately suffered in the Land of Aegypt; as is expressely mentioned in Deut. 5.15. Now this was a thing peculiarly belonging unto them, and not to us: Therefore they, and we are not both bound to one and the same strictnesse, un­lesse their condition and ours were both alike.

Thirdly,Ezek. 20 12. this their Sabbath was given them for a signe,Psal. 147.20. that God had then chosen them from a­mong all the Nations of the earth, to be his peo­ple: For the Heathen had no knowledge of his Lawes; but they had: the partition wall was then unbroken. In token of which favour they had the Sabbath, which they were strictly to ob­serve; not doing their owne will, nor speaking so much as their owne words, as in these Scrip­tures is declared. Exod. 31.13. Ezek. 20.12. and Esa. 58.13.

And albeit all Christians now be likewise the people of God; yet because they are of more Nations then one, and live in times of more ma­turitie; they are not tyed to such a strict yoake, as if they were still in the dayes of the Law, but differenced from that Heire, who whil'st he is a Child, must live as a servant, as the Apostle speaketh, Gala. 4.1. For when the fulnesse of time was come; the condition of God's people was altered, as at the fift verse of the foresayd Chapter is declared. And at the seventh verse, thus; Thou art no more a servant, but a Sonne. And therefore though bound to bee obedient; [Page 109]yet freed from those hard taskes, which of old were strictly required from the Jewish people.

Last of all, their Sabbath was a type whereby was prefigured that Rest,Heb. 9.4. which (as the Apostle speaketh, and of which their Canaaen likewise was a figure) remained for the people of God, to be purchased for them by Christ: who being come, and gone into his Fathers house,Ioh. 14.2. wherein are ma­ny mansion places, went to prepare them; as was prefigured in the foresaid Rest of the Jewish Sab­bath. And therefore, seeing Christ hath actually purchased, that which was then prefigured, it were injurious to Christ to lay the same yoake still upon our neckes.

Yea in a word, by what hath beene said, it can­not but appeare, that although our Lord's Day or Sunday, hath of late yeares beene vulgarly knowne and called by the name of the Sabbath; yet of right, neither the name, nor manner of keeping it, appertaines thereunto: For there is so great a difference betweene the old Sabbath and our Sunday, that it is a manifest mistake to urge those Scriptures upon us, which peculiarly belonged to them in the observation of their Day.

But if the Sunday be no Sabbath, Quest. why then doth the Church in her Liturgie retaine still the fourth Commandement, and say; Remember that thou keepe holy the Sabbath day, &c. yea and why are the people bound to pray at the end thereof, [Page 110] Lord have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keepe this Law?

For answer whereunto,Sol. this is first; that al­though all the other Commandements are to be kept, ut sonant, according to the letter, as St Au­stin speaketh: yet this of the Sabbath is of ano­ther kinde; being partly morall, partly ceremo­niall. And if so, then in part it is abolished, and in part retained. And being but in part abolished, it must upon necessity have still a place among the other precepts. For so farre as 'tis morall, 'tis still of force; and is therefore put among the Precepts of the Decalogue for that which is mo­rall in it. For (as I said formerly) it proceedeth from the Law of Nature, that some time be set apart for Gods publicke service. And therefore this being revived in the Law of the fourth Com­mandement, ought to be remembred and kept upon one day in seven: which last, though un­knowne till Nature was informed, is now to be reckoned as that principal portion of time which God requireth. And so last of all, being bound to the morality of the precept, there is good rea­son that we pray to have the Lord incline our hearts to the keeping of it: for being strengthned by his assistance, there will be care had, that we decline not away from the observation thereof.

And whereas I formerly gave notice, that it is the very chiefe of Dayes; or (as I then expressed it) Gods chiefe Schoole-day, I had reason for it: [Page 111]because there is no Holy Day, which the Church hath appointed to be kept, of such eminency and excellency as is this Day of the Lord; according to that of St. Austin, in his 251 Sermon De tem­pore, at the very beginning therof, in these words, saying: Sciendum est (Fratres charissimi) quod ideo à sanctis patribus nostris constitutum est christianis, & mandatum, ut in solennitatibus Sanctorum, & ma­xime in Dominicis diebus, otium haberent, & à ter­reno negotio vacarent, ut paratiores & promptiores essent ad divinum cultum. In which words appea­reth, not only the excellency of this Day above other Festivalls; but the necessity also of such a Rest, as may be no hindrance, but a furtherance to Gods publicke worship. For such a Rest as this, is as a means requisite for that end for which the Day is set apart. The ancient Sabbath had (as hath beene shewed) other ends, which here in this Day can take no place, because the Day it selfe is now abolished and gone, and the armes of the Church extended further then to one only Nation. All that can be added more, is this; Nature requireth some refreshment, & Religion teacheth us to be mercifull to our very Beasts;Prov. 12.10. Deut. 5.14. and if to them, much more to our servants: In which regard the other parts of the Day (and so the whole Day) are fitly freed from all servile labours, except in urgent cases of extreame ne­cessity; which also makes it not unlawfull, to take in hand some harmlesse recreation for refresh­ment, [Page 112]after the ends of all Divine-services in the publike assemblies. For when all the publike du­ties of the Day be ended, then is that accom­plished for which the day is chiefly set apart.

And because this cannot be done without Rest, there is a cessation from ordinary labours, both before, and at the times of publike worship. Before, for preparation; that thereby we bring not with us Cor fatui, Eccles. 5.1. Exod. 3.5. A fooles heart, as Solomon speaketh: but be fitted aforehand for the sacred employments to which we are going. And at the times likewise; because the one cannot be done without the other: that is, our owne pri­vate businesses, and the generall and publike du­ties of piety and devotion, cannot be followed both at once.

And because the Rest also of the Day points at mercy as well as sacrifice, (of which there is something spoken in Deut. 5.14.) harmlesse re­creation, which is a meanes of refreshment, claimes her priviledge; and steps in at the last, af­ter all the publike services for the Day be ended: yea, and as the case with some may at sometimes stand, is not so long denied them; no, not so long as then.

But some singular priviledge is not to be al­ledged as a generall practice. And therefore, as it is both a pious and prudent constitution of the Church,Can. 14. Ec­cles. Anglic. & Aug. de temp. Ser. 251. to appoint (by way of preparation) certain holy offices to be vsed on the Eve before: [Page 113]In like manner as pious and prudent is it for a Christian Magistrate,See this in his Majesties Declarat. not to suffer any sportings or recreations, till all the publike Services of our God be ended for that present Day; and that none should enjoy the benefit of this liberty, who hath not first resorted to the Church; nor that it be abused, but used in a moderate, discreet, and pious way.

Now albeit this liberty be both thus qualified, and comes not in place till God be first served; yet there want not those, who trouble both the peace of the Church and State, by setting them­selves against it. But he who hath said,Hos. 6.6. & Math. 12.7. I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, hath said enough to sig­nifie, that he will not then be displeased at it; especially in those, whose education, or parts be such, as are unfit for long meditation; the rigid tye whereof being laid upon them, makes the Rest of this Day more burthensome unto them, then their weekly labours. Or if Christ could say of the Jewish Sabbath, that it was made for man, and not man for it; Math. 12.8. then much more may we affirme it of our Festivall, in as much as their yoake of ceremonious bondage belongs not to us.

Howbeit they are not to be excused, who have more minde of their Pastime, then of their pious and holy worship; wishing in their hearts that the Priest would make a quicke dispatch, by cut­ting short the service of the Day: For what is [Page 114]this but to have hell set at liberty, there being no better concord then thus betweene them and hea­ven. They doe indeed desire to have a Day set apart: but because they preferre the lesse princi­pall end of its separation before the chiefe; they observe a Day, not as they which observe it to the Lord, but as they that observe it to them­selves. And therefore we justly reckon these a­mong such, as are willingly desirous to prophane this blessed Day, although it be now the Queene of dayes, and time of greatest eminency for Gods publike worship.

Nor againe do we blame those, who (without hypocrisie and superstition) spend the whole day in workes of piety and devotion. For, as Christ said in some cases, so may we say in this; it is a thing commendable:Math. 19.12. and therefore, Let him that is able to receive it, receive it, without judg­ing of anothers liberty. The one may not be ac­counted irreligious or prophane, in the lawfulll use of his Christian freedome; nor the other over strict (if he judge not his brother) in the co­pious measure of his more plentifull devo­tions.

II. And thus I have done with the first thing, the circumstance of time. That of the place is next. This is the Temple, or Church: Gods House, and his earthly Sanctuary, whereunto they who seeke his face will resort: Which is as Abraham sayd, In the Mountaine will the Lord [Page 115]be seene. For though the Heaven of Heavens cannot containe him; or although in a strict sense hee dwelleth not in Temples made with hands, because of his Omni-presence. Yet ne­verthelesse he hath vouchsafed to afford different manners and degrees of his Presence; and is o­therwise in Heaven, otherwise in earth.

Nor on earth is he every where alike; for in such places as are dedicated to his Name,1 King. 9 3. Psal. 132.15. he hath promised a more speciall dispensation of his Presence, then in places of common use, and to accept of them as his peculiar houses. In to­ken whereof, we doe not onely reade,Psal. 87.2. that the Lord loveth the gates of Sion, more then all the dwellings of Iacob; and that he sayd, his eyes and his heart should be in that house which Solo­mon had builded for him:Psal 42.2. Psal 105.4. Psal. 132.8. 2 Chro. 6.41 Gen. 4.14.15 Gen. 28.16 17. but also that the sayd Temple, Tabernacle, and first places of his wor­shippe, are not seldome called the Rest, and Face of God, and the gate of Heaven. Enough to signifie, that both by his more speciall Presence, and by a peculiaritie of proprietie, these places are become sacred, and are so the Lords, as that they be no longer ours. He also herein vouch­safing it as a speciall honour, even to the places themselves, that they be so called, named, and esteemed; the comfortable effects of that by which the place is thus named, being alwaies such as shall be sure to shew themselves,Mat. 18.20. Psal. 145.18. by the religious sinceritie of devoute worshippers.

And if in the generall such be not onely the peculiaritie of proprietie, but honour likewise of sett and prepared places; then in particular, that which hath the most neere relation to his Presence, must needs carry with it both the highest proprietie; and be also taken up in our regard, as the most Presentiall place in all his House. This the Ancients (as some also now adayes) did so well observe, that doing their obeysance, they turned their faces this very way, and yet were neither superstitious, nor idolatrous for doing so. We professe and say indeed the Lord is there, but not the Lord is this; and therefore are no more idolatrous then was David, in the fift Psalme at the seventh verse. Yea, in a word; if men were disposed to be right, there stands before us in our assem­blies, a chiefe signe of God's presence; as being that from whence we have our perfectest com­munion with the God of Heaven: For though it begins in Baptisme, it ends in the Supper, nee­rer then which we cannot goe, till we passe from hence to a better place. So that although he give us good assurance of his Presence in sundry things, and by many testimonies tells us truely, that he is with us; yet in nothing so much, nor so really, as in this high mysterie of our Re­ligion.

And next, albeit every circumstance, in re­spect of the forme and fashion of these places [Page 117]not knowne at the first: yet 'twas a Dictate of the Law of nature, that some place, as well as some time, should be holy to the Lord.

It had footing as soone as might be, Some say in Paradise, Gen. 3.8. But more plainely after­wards: for the place mentioned in Gen. 4. unto which Cain and Abel brought their offerings (that their Father Adam, as a Priest might of­fer them to God for them) is, at the 14. and 16. verses, called the Face or Presence of God: that is, the House of God, being that place where the publique and solemne services of the Lord were usually performed. For first they came unto it, sayth the Text. Secondly, they brought their offerings thither. Thirdly, Cain also confesseth that he was excommunicated or driven away from thence; that is, he was ex­pelled from the Congregation of the faithfull; (for Adam had sundry other Children at the same time) as is signified at the fourteene verse. How else could he be sayd to goe out, or be dri­ven away from the presence of the Lord, who in other respects is every where? And last of all, 'tis thus to be expounded, because the Scriptures afterwards do so explaine the like phrases; speak­ing so punctually to our capacities, that whereas in one place it is, Bring an offering, and come be­fore him: in another, 'tis, Bring an offering, and come into his Courts. See the proofes in the 1 Chron. 16.29. and in Psal. 96.8.

By the face then, or Presence of God, is here signified a peculiar sacred place; where teaching, hearing, praying, sacrificing, and other duties of Gods publique worship used to be performed. And so also in other the like phrases of holy Scripture; for by them we know how to take up the true sense of this.

Afterwards we also finde that the Patriarchs used Altars, Groves, and Mountaines, to the selfe-same purpose that Adam and his Sonnes before them, had used their foresayd place of meeting. As for example, it is recorded in Gen. 13.4. that Abraham with all his houshold went up from Egypt unto the place of the Altar which he had made there at the first; and there Abraham called on the name of the Lord. And againe [in Gen. 13.18.] we also finde, that when he came to Mamre and dwelled there, he built in that very place an Altar unto the Lord. And [in Gen. 21.33.] when he sojourned in the Philistims land, he planted a Grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the Lord, the everlasting God. And in the next Chapter 'tis also thus written, that when he was to offer up his sonne Isaac, he is directed to a Mountaine in the land of Moriab; which signifieth The feare of God, as be­ing a place not of common use, but for God's ho­nour: as was signified afterwards more openly, when Solomon built there the holy Temple. Next look upon Isaac, who where he spread his Tent, [Page 119]built an Altar, Gen. 26.25. But above all, that of Iacob is most remarkable; who, when he came to Luz, found that there was an house of God, which at the first he knew not, and is therefore said to be afraid lest perhaps he had offended in not ordering of himselfe so there, as of right he knew he ought to doe in all such places. For in­deed had he beene a stranger to such chosen places, had he beene ignorant of their holinesse, or had the knowledge of them been a new thing never heard of before among the Patriarchs, he had not now suspected this to be God's house, nor the Gate of heaven.See Gen. He lodged (saith the Text) in a certaine place, had there a vision, and by vertue thereof he presently declared, that this was no other then the house of God; and there­fore a place of feare and reverence. Intellexit Ia­cob (saith one) quod prius nesciebat, Lipp. in Gen. 28. ex Cajet. tum Deum esse in illo loco tanquam in loco appropriato auditorii sui. Briefly, if we look at nothing but his feare, 'tis enough to signifie, that he was no stranger to chosen places. For supposing it to be granted, that none of the Patriarchs had ever used to wor­ship here: yet, that they had peculiar places, set apart from common use, is still apparent: for lesse then so cannot possibly be gathered hence.

Now then, if these things were thus before the Law, they are ill advised who care not for the difference of places after the Law: for if we be still the worshippers of our God, we must still [Page 120]have places for his holy worship, which must be dedicated and set apart only for him and his ser­vices.

Nay, if we look no further then the dayes of Moses, and from thence cast an eye to the times of David and Solomon, it is sufficient. For, as the Christian religion is come in place of the Jewish: so are our Churches come in place of theirs. Their Tabernacle (saith one) was a patterne of their Temple, and their Temple a type of our Churches, even as all their service was a type of our Christ. And also, as it was of old, Ye shall keepe my Sabbath, and reverence my Sanctuary; so now, the Sunday being God's holy day in stead of the Sabbath, the Church must be the place of his holy worship. These two (in that very say­ing) hath the Lord ioyned together; and there­fore it is not for man to divorce, or put them a­sunder. If we deny the place, we are against the day: but if we acknowledge the one, we grant the other.

In which regard,Act. 18.11. although St. Paul at the first, when he had iust occasion given him to renounce the Iewes and their Synagogues,Act. 28.8. was necessitated to preach in a private house; yet, as soon as might be,1 Cor. he took order for the building of Churches: teaching moreover, how both men and women should behave themselves in them. And so did other godly Christians after him: They were carefull (even in the times of persecution) to have [Page 121]such speciall places erected. And although Dio­clesian made fearfull havock of them; yet no soo­ner was that godly Constantine become a Nursing Father to the Church, but they were againe re­stored, their number much increased, and their beauty made apparent in a glorious and well be­seeming manner. Which, because it was not so at the first, the Gentiles made a mock at Christi­ans, as if they had neither Churches nor Altars: whereas in very deed they had them both. Chur­ches, though no such stately structures as were erected by the Gentiles: and Altars too, though not for such sacrifices as were theirs. For indeed, though persecution kept the Christians under, yet they laboured what they could to have pre­pared places for their holy worship, never meet­ing elsewhere but when necessity urged them to it. And in this, though dead, they cry against our sick-braine Schismaticks, who (upon no ne­cessity are in a manner as well devoted to any one place, they care not where, (either to a wood, a Chamber, a Parlour, or a Barne) as to a place separated and dedicated on purpose to the God of heaven. This therefore makes them preach in chaires, and maintaine their faction in private conventicles, to the harme and detriment of God his Church. For 'tis without question, that although Churches are not necessay necessi­tate absoluta; yet necessary necessitate conditiona­ta: that is, when we may enjoy them we must [Page 122](upon necessity) provide them; and being pro­vided, we must frequent, maintaine, honour, and reverence them as the Houses of God, and pla­ces of his speciall presence here upon earth. So that as on the one side we blame all Schismaticks in that already mentioned: in like manner on the other side we blame both them and all rude kindes of people, who are not afraid to make as bold with God's house as with their owne, put­ting no difference betweene things sacred and prophane, betweene things set apart, and things of common use. God grant they repent not when it is too late: For it is Theodorets observa­tion, that against all Senacharibs army the Lord sent forth but one Angel only; but against the prophaners of his Temple, six. For when Eze­kiel painted forth the abominations of the Tem­ple,Ezek. c. 8. &c. 9. he saith, Behold there came six from the way of the upper gate, which looked towards the North, and every one of them had vasa interfectionis, the ves­sels of slaughter in his hand. Dan. 5.23.24. &c. And when Balthasar was quaffing in the vessels of the Temple, the hand-writing came against him; to signifie that he was weighed in the Ballance and found too light. And in times which do more neerly touch us, who hath not heard of that filthy Iulian, who was uncle to the Apostata? who hath not heard (I say) both of his irreligious actions, and his pu­nishment? This Iulian comming into a Church, beautified and adorned by that zealous Constan­tine, [Page 123]made no more regard of it then if he had beene in a common Iakes or Stable; whereupon we reade, that he feared not to pisse against the Holy Table, as Theodoret hath recorded.Theod. lib. 3. c. 12.13. But the God of heaven, abhorring this wrong done to his House and Altar in it, soone after laid his hea­vie hand upon him, and struck him with such a fearfull disease, that his excrements forgat all their former passages, and found no other way then his wicked mouth, to evacuate themselves from his hatefull body. So in like manner do we read of Felix, who only for scoffing at the plate belonging to that blessed Sacrament of the body and blood of our Saviour, was pursued by di­vine punishment: For so it was, that both night and day [quickly after] he never ceased to vo­mit blood, till the rivolets of his veines,Idem ibid. and every other part of his body, became empty; and so he dyed, being overcome by the immediate hand of a just Revenger. And therefore, Procul ite prophani! for neither is this a place of common use, nor in these vessels may you drink your mor­nings draughts, nor use them safely at your com­mon boards. The case you see is not altered yet; 'Tis nune ut olim still: Christs comming hath not altered it. For as before he came, Balthasar was punished: so since his comming, not only were the buyers and sellers whipt out of the Temple, but Iulian and Felix have beene met with. In which passage I would that this should be like­wise [Page 124]marked, that it was not in the time of divine Service when Iulian pissed against the Table; no holy congregation was then assembled: nor yet were the vessels employed about holy actions, when filthy Felix scoffed at them: and therefore in these things and places, there is such a relative propriety as never ceaseth; but makes them al­wayes Holy, and alwayes His, to whom they be dedicated and set apart. Which how it makes for those, who think that they have yeelded farre enough, if they honour God's house on the Sun­day, though they disrespect it, or behave them­selves rudely in it all the week after, let any man be Iudge: for such thoughts are apparently de­ceitfull; and therefore such men must rectifie themselves, and returne to a better minde, other­wise they persist in a banefull evill. Saint Au­stin, I remember, reporteth, that the Goths ha­ving sackt Rome, as many of the people as betook themselves to the Churches of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, remained free; so much could the respect of sacred places prevaile, even with those cruell Barbarians.Ambr. lib. 5. epist 33. Saint Ambrose also witnesseth, that the reverence of holy Altars prevailed so far with the foresaid Souldiers, that they willingly fell downe and kissed them. And Saint Hierom against Vigilantius, saith; Confiteor timorem meum; I confesse my feare, when entring into the Temple of theChurches are not crect­ed to Saints or Martyrs, but to their and our God, in memory of them. So also concerning Holy dayes. Martyrs, I conceive any anger or evill thought in my minde. But what shall I [Page 125]need to say any more, seeing the very feasts of Charitie were driven hence; as in the Councell of Laodicea, at the twenty eighth Canon is declared.

And next, whereas some make doubt whether it be lawfull for Christians in the contriving of their Churches, to have an eye upon the Fabrick of Solomons Temple: My answere is; that as that proportion of time for Gods holy worship is most warrantable, which he himselfe ordained; So that forme or fashion of place is best to be fol­lowed, which he himselfe delivered: other fa­shions have no warrant. It is true indeed, that they were Iewes, and we are Christians; and therefore there must be a difference between us: Yet the difference herein, needs not to be in the forme of our Fabricks, but in the use of the Courts and places, which are so divided, as if the one tooke patterne from the other. And so indeed they did; for as to the one there was an Atrium exterius, an Atrium interius, a Sanctum, and a Sanctum Sanctorum: So to the other, a Locus Poen tentium, Auditorium, Presbyterium, and Sacrarium. Of the first and second Euse­bius speaketh, in the sixt booke, and 33th. Chap­ter of his Ecclesiasticall history; where he shew­eth, that when the Emperour Philip (who was long before Constantine) would have joyned him­selfe with the Congregations of Christians; he might not, untill he had first stood in Loco Poe­nitentium. [Page 122]And of the two last, Theod ret makes mention, in the relation of that passage which was betweene Theodosius, and Saint Ambrose. For Saint Ambrose putting the Emperour in mind of the difference of places;Theod lib. 5. c. 17. telleth him plainly, that the Locainteriora should not be entred, but by the Priests onely. And this he sayd, not onely in regard of the Altar-place, but of the whole Quire, or Chancell, which was severed from the bodie of the Church per Cancellos, whereupon it was called a Chancell; even as the proprietie thereof caused it bee named Presbyterium; that is, a place only for the Priests, peculiarly and solely belonging unto them.Revel. c. 4. &c. 7. vers. 11. At which Saint Iohn also pointed, when he saw the Presbyters, or 24. Elders neerer to the Throne, then the foure living Creatures,viz. the word for the living crea­tures. See Psal. 68.10. whose word is else-where used to signifie the Congregation of the people.

The Throne then and place of Majestie must be first; that's the holy Table within the Sacra­rium, and answers to the Mercie Seate, and Sanctum Sanctorum among the Iewes; in which the most excellent part of their typicall service was perfomed. And well may I say that it an­swers thereunto; For as then there was to be a proper and selected place for that Ceremony of expiating of the people: So now, for the Commemorating thereof (not as it was a Cere­monie, but as it was in act performed by our [Page 123]Saviour) There is to be in our Churches a Sanctum Sanctorum still, wherein we are to cele­brate the memorie of Christs sacrifice, in those holy Mysteries which he himselfe ordained, and commanded to be done.

The Presbyterium must bee next, being the Court of the Priests: In which Saint Ambrose would not that so much as the Emperour should have a seate,Sozom. lib. 7. c. 24. but ordered that he should be pla­ced without, immediately next to those barres or lattices which severed the Church from the Chancell. Nor was the Emperour any whit a­gainst it; for he knew (as the sayd Father told him) that Purple made no Priests: and there­fore such places as belonged unto them, he would bee carefull ever after not to meddle with.

Then next after this must be the Court of the people; for though the booke of the Revelation be very mysticall, yet (as I have else-where shewed) seeing the visions there mentioned of things appertaining to the Christians, do so fre­quently allude to the fashions of the Iewes, and are expressed as if they were represented to Saint Iohn in the Heavens; it is as if it should be sayd, Gods Church is in it selfe but one, though the parte be two; Militant, and Triumphant. And there­fore as the Church of the Iewes was ordered accor­ding to what this holy Man saw in the Heaven re­presented to him: so ought the Church of the Chri­stians, [Page 128]as being surrogated into their roome for whom the Temple was built.

I shall not need to speake much more; for the Locus Poenitentium is the Porch, and answereth to those outward Courts which were of old. Onely herein ther's one thing yet to be discussed, concerning the Presbyterium, and Sacrarium, for some have gone about to perswade, that they were not at the end of the Church, because Eu­sebius seemes [to them] to speake as if they were in the middest,Euseb. lib. 10. eccles. bist. c. 4. ex orat. pa­rugyrica in Encaniss. and so our moderne Fabrickes are differing from those among the first Chri­stians. But I answer, that in case it were so in some Churches, yet are they but exceptions in particular, and nothing at all against a generall order. Nor is it cleare to be so at all, by that which is urged; for Eusebius doth more plainly say, that the Altar in the Church there men­tioned, was in the middle of the Chancell, than that the Chancell and Altar were in the middle of the Church. And yet this [even thus; that is, supposing the Altar there to be in the middle of the Chancell, rather than at the upper end thereof, in the middle betweene North, and South] being but a particular instance, can be no fit president to be opposed against a generall practise: For generally the Altarium, or place allotted for the Altar (which I have formerly mentioned by the name of Sacrarium) was in the East, at the upper end of the Quire or Chan­cell; [Page 129]as is apparent by that of Socrates; who takes speciall notice of that Church at Antioch of Syria, Socrat. hist. Eccles lib. 5. cap. 21. in which the Altarstood at the western end thereof, contrary to the scituation of it in other Churches. And againe, that the Presby­terium, Quire, or Chancell was not in the middle of the Church, and all the people round about it; appeareth by that of Saint Ambrose, in al­lotting the Emperour Theodosius a place within the bodie of the Church, immediately before those bars or lattices which severed the Church, from the Chancell, of which I have spoken a little before. And this the sayd Ambrose did, that so the Emperour might have a place before the people, as had the Priests before the Empe­rour: for as a learned D. hath fully proved,See Dr. Hey­lyn, Antid. Lincoln. c. 7. the Quires or Chancells had in them, First, the seates appointed generally for the Clergie, then the Bishops chaire; and last of all the [...], Altarium, or Sacrarium; this being the whole space purposely set apart for the Altar, or holy Table, and was severed from the rest of the Chancell, by Rayles, or Curtaine. To which may be added that ancient custome of praying East-ward, and then ther's nothing to be obje­cted further.

And now if this be not enough to prove, that God must have his house on earth [yea and thus contrived too, if a right order be well observed, and not otherwise stopped] then nothing can. [Page 130]For though the Iewes indeed had their highest Court at the other end, because their times were darke in respect of ours; yet we having been vi­sited by that Day-spring from on high, do turne our faces toward the East, have there the place of highest Majestie: and by turning thither, pro­fesse our times, to be those very times of light, wherein the signification of their shadowes is accomplished, as I have else where shewed more at large. And last of all, to speake more gene­rally; the Lord being to have such peculiar pla­ces as Temples, or Churches, it is the peoples duties to resort unto them, there to expresse their praises, poure out their prayers, and heare the preachings of his Priests.1 Tim 2.8. For although pri­vately a man may pray any where, as occasion shall require,1 Cor. 11.22. lifting up pure hands, &c. yet ne­verthelesse to abhorre publicke meetings; is to deny ourselves to be any of Gods people. For as we are all members of one body, we must joyntly assemble to one place; so shall we keep the unitie of the spirit in the bond of peace, and be so in the number of Gods people here, that we may the better know how to be taken into the number of them heareafter: For the Prophet is witnesse, that God will teach his wayes to those who shall go and say; Come, and let us ascend to the Mountaine of the Lord, to the house of the God of Iacob. Esay. 2.3.

III. But (as I sayd before) some be Truants [Page 131]and care not for comming. Others be Recusants, and may not come to joyne themselves with us. A third sort be Schismaticks, and will not come except where they affect, and when they please. And last of all, there be others which make no great scruple of comming; but in respect of the end, their comming and hearing is in vaine, they are yet in their sinnes.

First, the Truants are of two sorts; either such as hate the Word in respect of it selfe, or such as are ill affected towards it for some by respect.

The first of these esteeme preaching but folly. There is much adoe in it and about it; but it is to small purpose. They can see no good that it doth to have one stand an houre together perking in a pulpit: for this doth but hinder the people from their businesse, as Pharaoh once said to Moses and Aaron. Let him that is a Preacher say there what he list, they will beleeve but what they please. The Minister must doe something for his living, and if he could not talke for it, he could doe little. And yet that which he doth, seemes (in their judgement) to be as much as nothing. Wherefore, if all were of their mindes, he might speak long enough before he be regarded.

To whom I answer, that although the wise­dome of God be foolishnes to the wicked world, yet it hath pleased God by the foolishnesse of preaching to save those that beleeve.1 Cor. 1.18. to ver. 28. & chap. 2.14. And there fore, if our Gospell be hid, it is hid to them that [Page 132]be lost; whose mindes are darkned by the god of this world,2 Co. 4.3 4. Sathan, that prince of darknesse, who striveth to extinguish the glorious light that it bringeth with it. It is without question that the time may come, when these men (since they call it talking) may talke for mercy too,Prov. 28.9. Rom. 1.16. and go with­out it. Wherefore I am not ashamed of the Gos­pell of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that beleeveth; to the Jew first, and also to the Centile. And in a word, as lightly as these account of the Gospell,Rom. 2.16. and the preaching thereof, it shall one day judge them. Yea and now, whilst they live in this valley of the shadow of death, if they were well grounded in it, and humbly devoted towards it, they might finde comfort in what they have learned from thence, when all the world beside is but a dry and a barren tree, and can afford nothing of so sweet a nature. We are not mad men to macc­rate our selves in studying away our blood, spirits, strengty, and health: but that we know God hath ordain'd us to be Labourers in his harvest,2 Pet. 3.9. and would that the worst under us, should of tares become good corne. If therefore these men pe­rish, let them thanke themselves; for they resist the Holy Ghost. There is no fault in the Word, but in them, who doe so lightly and slightly e­steeme it. For, though to them it be meere foo­lishnesse, yet to God and the faithfull it is farre otherwise.

And as for the second, they be such as hate the Word and the hearing of it, because it crosseth them in their wicked projects, and divelish pra­ctices. For cannot a Tyrant be bloody, an Op­pressour crush and grinde the poore, a Tradesman lye and sweare, a Flatterer dissemble, an Hypo­crite weare a mask, a Gallant frequent the stews, an Usurer undoe his brother, an Incloser depo­pulate, a Drunkard reele in the streets, and know the way to an Ale-house better then to God's house; or cannot a Blasphemer curse and sweare, a Church-robber commit sacriledge, a Back­biter detract, a Malicious man wreck his spleene, a Monopolist engrosse, a Proud man look aloft, a wanton Dame use her paintings, a Cormorant withhold his corne to the starving of the poore, a Poore man despise the rich, a Land-lord undoe his tenants, a Voluptuous man bath himselfe in sinfull lusts, vanities, and wicked pleasures, but the Pulpit must needs proclaime it? Hinc illa lachrymae; this is their great Cordolium. If we could but let them alone, and not hinder them in their travell to Tophet, then all were well: But because we call them back from their evill wayes, crosse them in their proiects, and in the cleare glasse of God's word let them see their faces, they hate the hearing of the Word, detract and back­bite the Preachers of it;1 King. 22.8. like unto Ahab King of Israel, who hated Michaiah because he prophesi­ed contrary to his liking: He prophesieth (saith [Page 134]he) no good to me, but evill. Or like unto those in the Acts, Act. 16.19. & Act. 19 24 who abominated the doctrine of the Apostles, because it crossed those wicked gaines which their divelish and heathenish practices brought in unto them. By which it appeareth, that as Truth loves no corners: so neither would they beare hatred to it, if their deeds were but such as might abide the tryall.

2. The next are Papists, or Recusants; a peo­ple so wedded to the Church of Rome, that they may not ioyne themselves with us in our Assem­blies: and this, not because they have any iust quarrell against our Liturgy; but because they are afraid of the Popes curse. As for our doctrine, if That displease them, I am sory the Truth should prove distastfull. Or if we have enough in our Religion necessary to salvation, what need we more? And that we have so much, is witnessed by a Pope, Pius Quintus by name; who signifi­ed in a Letter to Queene Elizabeth of blessed memory (before the time of his excommunica­tion denounced against her) that he did allow our Bible and Book of Divine Service,See Iudge Cook in his Charge at Norwich As­sises, Anno Dom. 1606. as it is now used among us, to be authentick, and not repugnant to truth; and that therein was con­tained enough necessary to salvation: as in a charge given at Norwich Assises, in the yeare of our Lord 1606, was openly avowed. And if enough, then without question we need not the help of any Pope to supply us with more. Unto [Page 135]which, this I adde, that it can be no harme to the Papists to turne unto us: for, in departing from them, we made not a New Church, but refor­med the old: and, among the Churches refor­med, this of England comes (I dare say) nearest to those of the Primitive times; and shall (I hope) come every day more neare then other to them: insomuch, that if then it might be truly said, not only that the Kings daughter was all glorious with­in, but that her clothing likewise was of wrought gold; so also now. For whereas the factious from time to time, together with their silly Pro­selytes, have endeavoured to cry downe that uniformity which best becommeth God's pub­like worship, it is more like to be advanced now then ever, since the dayes of Reformation. And 'tis for certaine a good and pious worke: God's blessing therefore light upon them, who do their best to set it forward: for it will cause that beauty of holinesse to be apparent, which best beseemes devote, sincere, and pious worshippers.

3. The third sort are Schismaticks; a perverse and peevish generation, who will not come but where they affect, and when they please: and yet these be they who are all for hearing. For were it not for Sermons, it were more then a miracle to see them approach God's holy Temple. And so Saint Chrysostome observed of some in his time,Chrysost. hom. 3. in 2 Thess. saying thus, Why therefore do we enter the Church, except we may heare one stand up and preach. And [Page 136]yet not every one neither: For it is seldome when that their owne Pastor can please them. They have an itch in their braines, and must be fed by such as they best affect: and as for Learning and Conformity, they grinne and snarle against it. This maketh them runne to and fro to seeke out such as spit against set forms of prayer, disrespect Churches, delight in the breach of Canons, hate Discipline, contemne orders, and despise Bishops, although the Scriptures teach them a lesson which is cleane contrary; and in particular telleth not obscurely, that He who wil not obey the Church must be accounted as an Heathen and a Publican: Math. 18.17.

But let the Scripture say what it wil, if it makes against them, such is their humour that they care not for it: and therefore, they who be most dis­ordered, are best affected. These they will follow from parish to parish, from town to towne, from city to city, from one kingdome to another peo­ple; yea from one England to another. And if it be that upon necessity they must sometimes fre­quent their owne parish Churches, they will (if it be possible) be Tardè venientes, Late commers; for what care they for Common prayers? That kinde of Service may not be touched; they con­temne, they scoffe, they inveigh against it. But let them take heed, that this foule sinne be never laid unto their charge. They sinke without re­covery, who persisting kicke at what they should [Page 137]embrace. And therefore let them take heed (I say) that God wipe not out their names out of the Booke of life, for scorning that Booke which (as I have else where shewed) containes the ser­vices of the living God, in which I know no­thing contrary to his holy Word. For although the Prayers be short, mixed with many ejacula­tions; and the forme of them be set, and not con­ceived by men ex tempore, yet is it no just plea to except against them. It is enough for Heathens, and bragging Pharisees,Math. & Math. 23.14. Mark 12.14. Luke [...]0.47. Eccles. 5.2. to make long and idle babling prayers: but as for those who will avoid the censure of our Saviour, and vanities which Solomon observed in divine Service; it is for them not only to let their words be few, but also to re­gard that they be not rash with their mouthes, nor hasty to utter any thing before God. It was certainely in another case, that Christ would not have his Apostles to be carefull what to speake; for this was in cases of persecution,Math. 10.19. when they should be enabled to speake before those, unto whose judgement Seate they should be brought; a singular gift in those dayes to the holy Martyrs. But for Prayer, he gave his rule of Pray thus: and that even then, when he bla­med such as prayed otherwise. Thus, or after this manner. That's first, Let thy words be few; and next, Let the forme be Set. And so thou hast a perfect Thus made up of these two, as hath been the Churches practise in all Ages ever [Page 138]since. For first, they did not onely pray in those very words, and season all their service with that Prayer of the Lord; but even the Prayers that they made were Creberrimae & brevissimae, frequent, and full of fervent brevitie: Because in a long and tedious Prayer, not well com­pacted, as there may be many vaine and idle re­petitions;1 Cor. 14.16 so a weake devotion may be lost, but being short, often Amens, and answers are re­quired, and so the attention kept the better wa­king. And by how much the more earnest, by so much the shorter and fuller of ejaculations, as in the end of our Letanie well appeareth. We doe not conjure then, nor cut our Service into shreds; when with instant cryings, the eager spi­rit doth shew how fervently it Askes, it Seekes, it Knocks.

And so also for the second, they used formes, set and digested; least somewhat might be utte­red through ignorance or carelessenesse, which might be contrary to the Faith, as in ancient councells is declared.Concil. 3. of Carth c. 23. Concil. Milv. Chrysost. hom. 18. in 2 Cor. 8 And so also speaketh holy Chrysostome; Our Prayers (sayth he) are com­mon, all say the same Prayer.

Nor was it but an injuction to Aaron and his Sonnes, to use a short set forme, when they bles­sed the people. Numb. 6.23.

Nor was it likewise but the practise of holy Meses (who was faithfull in the house of God) to have one set forme of blessing,Heb. 3.2. which he [Page 139]used at the removing and resting of the Arke. Numb. 10.35.36.

And did not Saint Paul blesse often in the same words? read his Epistles, and 'tis apparent: and chiefely see what he sayth in the 1 Cor. 14.26. How is it when ye come together, that every one of you hath a Psalme, hath a Doctrine, hath a Tongue, &c. Let all things bee done unto edi­fying.

Nay more, even he who taught his Disciples to pray in that manner formerly mentioned; did also pray before his Passion, more then once or twice, not in other, but in the same words. For looke in what words he prayed to the Fa­ther at the first of the three times there recor­ded, in those he prayed at the second and third time also.

And will none of these things move thee to come betimes to Gods house, and to performe all duties as well as some? or art thou so singu­lar by thy selfe, as that thou scornest to pray with thy neighbours at the appointed time, after the appointed manner, and in the appoin­ted place? If thou art, then Scalam in Coelum erigito; Make thee a Ladder, and ascend up into heaven from us; as Constintine once said to Ace­sius: Sozom. lib. 1. c. 21. for what dost thou here, if thou art too pure to be one among us?

Verily, might these men have their wills, there should be no face of religion, nor order in the [Page 140]Christian world. They professe themselves to be Hearers; but if you talke with them, they are then become Preachers rather then Hearers; bragging that Lay-men know the meaning of the Scriptures as well as Priests, and therefore need none of their directions, excepting when they direct according to what is already fixed in such a peoples fancy. For I know well enough the bent of their bowes: either we must preach what and how they will heare, or they will not heare what or how we preach. All, or the most of them, hate a written Sermon as abominable. But, as before they might have remembred, not only that the Scriptures are not of private inter preta­tion, and that the Priests lips are to preserve knowledge,Mal. 2 7. Jer. 36. & Baruck 1.5. and that inquiry is to be made at his mouth; so also now, that Baruck wrote at the mouth of Ieremie: that is, as Ieremy did indite, so Baruck wrote. Yea, and Baruck also declareth, that he wrote and read his owne Sermons.

To which purpose I may likewise adde what I have often read in the stories of the Church, of one Atticus, Bishop of Constantinople, who prea­ched many Sermons, yet because they were done extempore, [...]. l. 7. c. 2 Non ejus genoris fuere (saith mine au­thor) ut merito vel ab auditoribus studiose perdisce­rentur, vel monumentis mandarentur literarum ad posteritatem.

But what care they for this? and therefore, to please the fancies of not a few, we must roll out [Page 141]our Sermons without premeditation, or else their tongues are fierce against us. And now, because every one will not produce such abortives, nor doe the worke of the Lord so negligently, for feare of that curse in the Scriptures, they cry out and say, We have an unpreaching Minister, Ier. 48.10. a dumb Dog, an idle Drone: not at all considering, that even they themselves are in the meane time pos­sessed with that Divell which makes them deafe. For, if it were otherwise, they could not but be better husbands and huswives of what they have heard; and shew the truth of their zeale, by the light of their practice. Beside which, this also should be remembred, that as all have not recei­ved a like measure of gifts; so neither have all a like measure of strength, but are impaired either through age, sicknesse, want, or other calamities. Now in such cases, if they stand so much upon Sacrifice, that they forget Mercy, where is their charity?

But do I speak any jot of this to beget a dearth of Sermons? it is farre from me: for I know that there is no famine, like that of the Word. Doe I not rather speake it to correct our Schis­matickes in their idle wandrings, and to inkindle the fire of a godly zeale in them, towards the or­ders of our Church, and forme of our prayers? They may remember (if they please) that Hee who was daily teaching in the Temple, said also that his Fathers House was an house of prayer; [Page 142]not to one only people, but to all nations, Math. 21.13. Nay more, there is this order to be ob­served in Gods service, that prayer is to have the first place. For, We will give our selves continu­ally to prayer, and to the ministration of the Word; say the blessed Apostles, Act. 6.4. Or againe; Doe I speake it to incourage the idle to goe and hide their talents, glut themselves with pleasures, or leave the Word, to follow the world? That be also farre from me: for he that hath the mean­est gift,Math. 25.28.29. 1 Tim. 4 14.15.16. as by using it he may increase it; so by hi­ding it, he may chance to lose it. And therefore let every one of God's Ministers be conscionably carefull to feed that flock, over which the Holy Ghost hath placed him, to the utmost of his power: and withall let his sheepe know, that they are bound to hearken and listen to him, and not forsake him to follow strangers. For if the worst be said of him (thus set over thee) that can be, I hope he will be able so long as he is with thee,Act 15.21. to preach unto thee as Moses was preached, being read in the Synagogue every Sabbath day: or as the Epistles of Saint Paul were preached in the Churches wither he sent them:1 Thess. 5.27 Act. 16.4. or, as the orders of our Church injoyne us, by the reading of Homilies. Can 49. All which is called Preaching, and may (without question) be profitable to such as apply themselves to be taught thereby.Rom. 10.17. Mark 4 24. 1 Tim. 4.2. Esa. 18.1. Heb. 4.12. For as faith cometh (is increased, and mannersamended) by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God; [Page 143]So also by this kinde of hearing, in which (or in nothing) you heare the Word of God: For it came to passe, when Shaphan read the booke of the Law before the King, that herent his clothes, 2 King. 2 [...].11.19. enquired of the Lord, humbled himselfe, and was moved in his heart; as the Scriptures beare us wit­nesse, in 2 King. And last of all, nei­ther is it but the opinion of Martin Bucer, that our Homilies were penned by some eminent Prea­chers, such as that age did then afford: of which kinde of PreachingSunt sanè quidam, qui henè pronun­ciare possunt; quod si ab altis sumant elo­quenter sapi­enter est con­scriptum, me­morie que commendent at que ad popu­lum proserart. si eam perso­nam gerunt, non improbe faciunt. Aug. de doct. Christ. lib. 4. Saint Austin well approveth, as may be seene towards the latter end of his fourth booke De doctrina Christiana. For, if he holds concerning some in his time, who knew better how to pronounce then to make a Sermon, that they did not amisse to seeke the benefit of their people by preaching what others had writ­ten; then it must needs follow, as an order fit to be embraced, that we neglect not the reading of Homilies, at such times as we have no other Ser­mons: for hereby, having the more time to pro­vide us, our owne Sermons will be the better, and fitter to be preached. They who have a charge under them, and be not able to doe this, if aged, must be helped; if indiscreet and ignorant, doing things ridiculously, or abusing things they meddle with, ought to be removed; for they have but crept in, to the dishonour of the Mini­stery, (like him among the guests) and want their wedding garment. Wherefore, all these things [Page 144]being well weighed, they be more nice then wise, more rude then learned, more envious then cha­ritable, who inveigh so much at they know not what.

4. The last are next: Let them be summed up, and thus they stand. The wandring hearer; the wondring, or curious hearer; the accidentall hearer; the pleasing hearer; the scoffing hearer; the criticall or cavilling hearer; and the envious hearer.

By the first of these I doe not meane such wan­derers as the former, who trot up and downe the country and the world for fresh pasture; but such, as comming to the Church (either because they would not be accounted Atheists, or because they are loath to fall into the hazard of forfei­tures) & there being set, presently fall either a mu­sing, a gazing, or apratling: their corn, their cattel, their market, or other such like worldly busines; or in some, the thoughts of their pleasures, sports, and pastimes, make them forget themselves, and transport their minds from the matter for which they were called: for by these they are captiva­ted; and so (though they come to heare) the pil­lars of the Church, or stones in the wall (except­ing the sound of words) heare as much as they. Neither is it but that sometimes this their brown study of wandring, shuts up their eyes as well as their eares; and so they scarce heare so much as before; not the sound of words: but are even as a dead corps before the Preacher: and he un­to [Page 145]them, as if he were preaching at their unworthy funerals. But [in Act. 20.7.] Paul preached, and the people heard him till midnight: One on­ly, (namely Eutichus) fell asleepe; and he (as ye know) was taken up dead; the rest watched. Whereupon a Father thus observeth, Media nocte vigilant, ut eos condemnent qui media die dormi­unt. Or if they wander not in musing, nor drown their senses in a silent sleepe, they runne in the maze of uncomely gazing, looking about to see what others doe, how the time passeth, who comes in, or what they weare; who hath the best flowers, the newest fashion, or the finest dresse. But while they looke thus after such things, they harme their soules, they lose their God. Or if they wander neither in musing, nor gazing, they are carried away with vaine talking, and pri­vate whispering one with another; it being an ordinary thing for such as these, to tattle toyes in the eares of their neighbours. But the very Turks doe farre excell them; they goe beyond them, and shall therefore rise up in judgement against them, as is said of Tyre and Sidon, against the Jews: for they doe not only put off their shooes from their feet, when they enter into their Churches, otherwise called their Moschits; but doe also so attend their seruice, that (as some have said it) if by chance they doe but scratch their heads, they think all their former devotion to be lost. How­ever this I am sure of, that when Christ preached [Page 146]in the Synagogue,Luke 4.20. the eyes of all the people were fixed on him. And when Peter and Iohn stood and talked to the Cripple,Act. 3.4. whom they intended to heale, they commanded him that he should attend them, saying, Looke on us.

The second (as I said) is the wondring or curi­ous hearer. For first, though hee comes not to wander, he comes many times to wonder; and in conclusion can tell you nothing but this, The Preacher made an excellent Sermon, Is a rare man, and the like. But what good doth this excellent Sermon to such an Hearer? Little or nothing. For indeed how can it, unlesse he comes with a purpose to lead his life as the Word (and not as the world, flesh, and the divell) shall teach him. Or secondly, put the case that this hearer bee sometimes such a one as is more expert in witty conceits then the vulgar: if so, then his curiosity goeth yet a little higher. For as the Oyster lyes and gapes for a fresh Tide, so he for fine words, compt phrases, smackes of eloquence; and by these he intends to better his discourse. But if it chance that he meet no such passage, he thinks the time tedious, and his labour lost: for it was not Matter, but Words that he came to heare; and so he goes home, and will not stick to say, He hath heard nothing. How beit I doe not condemne ele­gancy of phrase; it is a singular gift: and to cloth good matter in elegant words, winneth many times even an unwilling hearer. But as Preachers [Page 147]may not ayme at Words without Matter; so nei­ther may the people catch at the shadow, and lose the substance.

The third of this sort be Accidentall hearers; such as thinke themselves more bound to Man then God: for it is by reason of the service which they owe to the one, that they sometimes come and seeme to serve the other. The world hath many such, who care not for coming, were it not upon that occasion: and these chiefly are those idle Serving-men, who (having crept into the service of some great man here upon earth) forget, that both they and their masters have a Master in heaven.

The fourth is the Pleasing hearer, neare of con­dition to the former: for hoping for some por­tion, or preferment, from some friend or other, who is better devoted then himselfe, he dares not displease him: This makes him come, although he leaves his eares behinde him. So his body be there, it makes no matter for his heart, his minde, his soule: The one he knowes is seene, the other hid. But because he halts where he should bee sound, 'tis morethen probable that both he and his companions goe out of the Church as the un­cleane beasts went out of the Arke; that is, they goe out uncleane, as they came in uncleane: and for having no greater love to God's house here upon earth, are not unlike to lose the faire beauty of it in the glorious heaven.

The fift is the scoffing Hearer: he hath learned of the naturall man to be a kinde of Atheist; and though he hath (as a man may think) the outward formality of a Christian, yet doe but marke him, and you shall finde, that he mocketh at nothing more, then at the Ordinances of God: like unto that wicked miscreant,Theod. lib. 3. c. 12. &c. 13. revolting Felix; who, see­ing the costly vessels of the Temple, which Con­stantine and Constantius had bestowed, said: En qualibus vasis ministratur Mariae silio: See with what plate the sonne of Mary must be served. But what was his end, already hath beene shewed.

The next are the Critical or Cavilling hearers, such as love well the society of factious opposites: for they come as the Pharisees came to heare Christ; to intrap and traduce the Preacher for his doctrine. These commonly have a Theology of their owne; and all that makes against it, is (in their esteeme) but false Divinity: Or if it be not, they wish it were, that thereby the Mini­ster may be questioned; and sometimes, rather then he shall be innocent, they will wrest his words to a contrary sense. But to these may be said, as that Father, holy Nazianzen, once said to his carping Hearers:Greg. Naz. in Orat. quâ se purgat. Ye sheepe, feed not your Pa­stours, nor be ye lift up above them: —Iudge not your Iudges, nor give lawes to your Law-givers: for God is not a God of tumults, but of peace and order.

The seventh and last, is the envious hearer; not [Page 149]so much against the Priest, as against his neigh­bour. Ye may easily know him: for he sits like a malecontent, very sad and sorrowfull (as if he were a deafe man and heard not) untill he think­eth that the Preacher hath a speciall ayme at some one or other whom he himselfe hateth: up­on thought of which he cheeres up his spirits, be­gins to looke like a willing hearer, and is exceed­ing well content to drinke up with greedinesse such a passage; thinking it no small happinesse to have his eares blessed with the vineger and gall of that particular. But if this be hearing, I am much deceived:Luk. 8.8.18. For he that hath an care to heare (saith our Saviour) let him heare: yea, and take heed likewise how he heareth. Not turne aside and stop his eare: for then he doth not heare at all. Nor heare as himselfe pleaseth: for then he hears amisse. But heare as he ought; that thereby he may heare indeed: and so at the last, he shall be one day taken to that happy and joyfull place of seeing: yea, and sing that song;Psal. 48.8. As we have heard, so have we seene in the City of our God.


THis therefore brings mee unto a third thing propounded; viz. That the people obey, as well as heare.

The obedience is two-fold:Deut. 30.14. Heb. 13.17. concerning Doctrine, and Govern­ment.

1. That of Doctrine is first; and is no more but the submitting unto, and practising of what their Pastors teach them. For except it manifest­ly appeare,Ezek. 33.31. that the Doctrine delivered be false, thou art bound to reverence, to receive it, and to obey it as the word of God.Jam. 1.17. Yea, though the preacher have much out of humane writers, and ancient Fathers: for what saying soever is agree­able to the word of God, and fitly applyed, is to be received as the word; because, if it be truth, it must needs come downe from God; who is the fountaine,1 Cor. 4.7. not only of every perfect gift, but of every good gift. For what good is there in man which he hath not received? To which purpose Saint Austin, speaking of such truths as are many times delivered even by Philosophers them­selves, saith;Aug. de Doct. Christ. lib. 2. Si quae vera Philosophi dixerunt, ab eis sunt (tanquam ab injustis possessoribus) vendi­canda [Page 151]in usum nostrum: meaning, that what truths soever Philosophers have spoken, are to be taken from them, into our use, as from unjust possessours. Nay further, should the life of the Minister distaste thee, yet flye not his doctrine: For when the wic­ked Scribes and Pharisees satin Moses his chaire,Math. 23.2.3 they said, but did not. In which case it was Christs owne advice, That what they taught should bee observed, but what they did should be avoided. Dicunt enim quae Dei sunt, faciunt quae sua sunt; Aug. contra liter as Petil: l. 2. c. 6. as Saint Austin speaketh. Whereto I adde, that an Eagles eye an [...] an Adders eare, are badly chosen: for who is there among the sonnes of Men that can acquit himselfe from humane frailties? But why doe I talke of frailties? The world (especi­ally in looking on us) is not so charitable as to put a difference between grosse offences and infirmi­ties. Nay, should we live like Angels,Math. 10.24.25. or like Christ himselfe, there would not bee wanting some or other to traduce us. If we suffer not our selves to be defrauded, but seeke for our owne; we are accounted covetous, and seeke not you but yours: although in this we doe but call you backe from that blacke sinne of foule Sacriledge; wherein you doe not so much rob us, as God, Malac. 3.8. Or if we will not suffer our selves to be contemned, we are proud and ambitious: al­though in this, God's honour, and the dignity of our callings be defaced. Or if we endeavour to have things rectified that be amisse, we are ac­counted [Page 152]busie and troublesome: although in this we goe about to discharge the duties of our pla­ces. For thus can the world extract something out of nothing, and multiply molehils into moun­taines, concerning the steps of our proceedings. I excuse not all, but rather teach you to be caute­lous and well advised in accusing those who bee your Pastours. Nor doe I thinke all to be free from scandalous living: Howbeit, even in this, sport not with accursed Cham at your Fathers na­kednesse: but rather pray with the Church; that both by our life and doctrine we may set forth God's true and lively word, and rightly and duly admini­ster his holy Sacraments: For indeed they preach most who live best; and why is that, but because such is the nature of fraile mortall men, that they are more prone to be led by example, than by precept: howbeit our Saviours rule directeth o­therwise, as a little before hath been declared.

Let it therefore be that you heare; and not on­ly so,Math. 7.26. Jam. 1.22.24. but that ye heare and doe: For he that hea­reth and doeth not, is like unto him who built his house upon the sands: or like unto one who be­holdeth his naturall face in a glasse, who when he hath considered himselfe, goes his way, and for­gets immediately what manner of one he was. Therefore be ye hearers of the word, Rom. 2.13. and not hearers only, but doers also: for not the hearers of the Law, but the doers shall be justified. Deut. 7.12.13. Or, as it is in Deute­ronomy, If thou hearken to my Lawes and observe [Page 153]them, then the Lord shall keepe with thee his cove­nant: he shall love thee, and blesse thee.

Nor againe, may the nature of the Doctrine distaste thee: For in case thou hadst rather have sugar than salt, honey than gall, oyle than vine­ger, liberty than restraint; know that God hath sent his Spirit to rebuke the world of sinne, Iohn 16.8. And therefore being reproved out of the word of God, neither despise nor murmure: but rather remember your obedience, shew your thankfulnesse, acknowledge your sinnes, bewaile your iniquities, abstaine from your wickednesse,Heb. 3.8. [...]8. slack not your conversion, nor put it off from day to day, lest (by delaying) your danger be past re­covery. Ye may vow (perhaps) to sacrifice your Minister upon the unsanctified Altar of your owne scorne, for speaking (as you thinke) too home unto your soules: But doe ye not know, that obedience was preferred in a farre better sa­crifice than this; and rebellion branded withan hellish marke? It is divellish sure to disobey:1 Sam. 19.22.23. Disobedience is coupled to the sinne of witch­craft. And in Physicke, ye also know, it is not required that it should please, but rather that it should helpe and heale. Wherefore, although the word, to flesh and blood, be not tooth some; yet let it suffice, that in it selfe 'tis wholesome. For conclusion therefore, (with that of Saint Ber­nard, and that of Saint Hierom) let me close up this point, and say; Auris bona est quae libentèr [Page 154]audit utilia, prudentèr discernit audita, obedientèr operatur inteliecta. Meaning, that That is a good eare which willingly heareth things profitable, wise­ly discerneth things heard, and obediently perfor­meth hirgs discerned. For (as Hierom speaketh) Ille plus didicit qui plus facit: He hath learned most, who practiseth or doth most.

2. And now from Obedience unto Doctrine, I passe to that of Government. This hath rela­tion to those Fathers in especiall, who (as the A­postle saith) are [...],Heb. 13.17. Praelati: that is, such as are set to have the oversight and government of the Church; watching & labouring for the good of mens soules, not only like unto other ordinary Priests, where & when occasion shal require; who are indeed [...], id est, intendere: but much more, in caring for the Church, as men peculiarly set over it; and are therefore said [...], id est, superintendere, & supervigilare. For [...] is one thing, and belongs to every Priest: but [...] is another, and pertaines solely to such of the Clergy, as have a Key of Jurisdiction, as well as a Key of Order. These then are they, who (as I said) doe watch and labour for the good of mens soules, not only like unto other ordinary Mini­sters, where and when occasion shall require; but much more in caring for the Church, as men pe­culiarly set over it, to see to the preserving of peace and truth, order and decency in Gods pub­like worship: without which, neither could the [Page 155]Church consist, nor Gods worship be maintain­ed; but soules sinke for want of helpe. Such watchmen then are not set up in vaine, but are (without doubt) as needfull, as was pitch was for the Ark of Noah, to keep it from drowning under the waters. Obey them therefore, and submit your selves unto them: 'tis the voice of God, and not of man, which calls you to it.Heb. 13.17.

Nor is there cause why ye should refuse it: For if the politicall lawes of [even Heathen] Princes,Rom. 13.1.5. Dan 3. Acts 4.15. are to be obeyed for conscience sake, (except where they enjoine disobedience unto God) then much more these that are for the maintenance of truth, concord, order, and decency in his publike worship. Or, if you will, take up the reason thus; Civill powers appertaine to the defence of cor­porall life, and civill society; and cannot there­fore be disobeyed without detriment to the Common weale. But powers Ecclesiasticall have to doe with Religion and the worship of God. They meddle with men, not as men, but as men called to lead a spirituall life; and there­fore cannot be disobeyed, without harme or de­triment to that end for which they were first or­dained. Or thus, there is but one God who is the authour of both powers: so that if we must obey on the one hand, we may not disobey on the o­ther; except we make it a thing of nothing to fight against the ordinances of our heavenly Fa­ther.Tit. 3.2. Put them in remembrance (saith the Apostle) [Page 156] that they be subject to Principalities and Powers, and that they be obedient. This for the one. So also; Obey them that have the over sight of you, Heb. 13.17. and sub­mit your selves: for they watch for your soules. That for the other. Herein agreeing to the doctrine of our Saviour delivered by himselfe; Goe and tell the Church, Math. 18.17. and if he refuse to heare the Church, let him be unto thee as an Ethnicke and a Publican. Christian Princes have indeed to doe in these things; as (in the rankes of Church Governours I have already shewed:) but not to the disanulling of the power. For they be sent of God as Nur­sing Fathers to his Church; and are therefore to defend and maintaine the power thereof, against all sorts of opposites that oppose themselves a­gainst it.

And verily, a law and custome of the Church, was heretofore of greater weight, than to be of light esteeme: The ancients thought it to be a good argument of it selfe alone, to convince o­thers in their strugglings. Hereupon that holy Father Saint Austin could urge, This is the autho­rity of our Mother the Church; Hoc habet authori­tas Matris Ecclesiae. Hoc Ecclesia commendat sa­luberrima authoritas. Premitur mole Matris Ec­clesiae, &c. In which testimonies we see, that this blessed pillar of Gods House, accounted the Laws and Ordinances of the Church to be a strong and conquering weapon against the adversaries of the Church. But such are the humours of these times, [Page 157]and so thwart to all lawfull authority, that one and the same act, which would be willingly per­formed, if it were left to every ones free choice, may not be done when it comes backt with au­thority. For though it were accounted lawfull, or indifferent before, is now as if the nature of it were altered, or not so warrantable as before it was commanded. Why else doe they question what the Church enjoyneth, and like quarrel­some high-minded people, love to dwell in the fiery flames of contention? It is a signe of some distemper; a distemper that commeth of an heat or humour of pride: for (as Solomon speaketh) Only by pride commeth contention; Prov. 13.10. but with the well advised is wisedome. But what care they for that? for let it but be that they may cry loudest, and have the last word, they are still bigger in conceit, and falsely take it as a truth that they have answered all sufficiently: whereas, on the other side, a modest disputer knoweth it is to little purpose to contend with a man full of words, or reason with a resolved and selfe willed opposite. Quid prodest Simiae, si videatur esse Leo?

But be not, you who are such;See the 2d E­pish to Tim. chap. 3. & 2 Pet. 2.10. be not (I be­seech you) so heady, high-minded, fierce, despisers of government, presumptuous, selfe-willed, &c. as to disobey or speake evill of dignities: for these are humours best befitting the lewdnesse of lawlesse persons, and loosenesse of licentious livers; who have indeed an outward forme of [Page 158]godlinesse, but have denyed the power thereof; witnesse their creeping into houses to lead cap­tive simple women, who (as the Apostle speak­eth) are laden with sinnes, [...] Tim. 3.6. and led with divers lusts. These are like Iannes and Iambres, which resisted Moses, as if God had not given him that power and authority which he had. After whom was Corah and his company; a seditious sect, but smar­ted for it by a suddaine judgement. Or, to speake with Saint Peter, 2 Pet. 2.10. They are bold, and stand in their owne conceit, not fearing to speake evill of them that be in place of dignity or authority; especially a­gainst men of the Church. But as Saint Iohn saith of Love, so may I say of Obedience; namely, How can they obey God whom they have not seene, if they will not obey the officers of his Church whom they have seene? For as judici­ous Hooker truly speaketh, It doth not stand with the duty which we owe to our heavenly Father, (who is the universall Father of us all) that to the ordinances of our mother the Church, we should shew our selves disobedient. Let us not say wee keepe the Commandements of the one, when we breake the Lawes of the other: for unlesse wee observe both, we obey neither. And againe, see­ing Christ (saith he) hath promised to be with his Church untill the end of the world, her Laws and Ordinances cannot be contemned or broken, without wrong and despight to Christ him­selfe.

Neither doe the words of Solomon but tend to the same purpose. For he doth not only say,Prov. 1.8. Heare thy fathers instruction; but addeth also, and forsake not thy mothers teaching. By Father, meaning ei­ther God who is the universall Father of all crea­tures; or the Pastours of the Church, who are sent of God as Ghostly Fathers, to teach and in­struct the people: And by Mother, meaning the Governours of the Church; as even the Genevae note declareth. Or more plainly thus; They who teach and instruct thee in the Word, must be heard: and not only so, but even the laws and directions of the Guides and Rulers (who sit to governe) may not be neglected. And what our Saviours doctrine likewise is, concerning this, you have heard already; and may heare more afterwards, when you have read a little further.

In the mean time if I be desired to speak more plainely concerning the word Church, What is meant by the word Church and of chan­ging the phrase from Father to Mother. whose lawes must be obeyed. My answer is, that here is not meant the whole popular or collective company of beleevers, but the Church in her Officers; which is differing from the popular and promiscuous bodie thereof. For the Church is either representative, or collective. By the first is meant onely the spiritualitie, and chiefely the governing Fathers, or highest Priests. By the second, all others (as well as the former, them and all) who live within the compasse or pale of one & the same Church. And because the [Page 160]whole Church together is oftentimes resem­bled to a woman bringing forth, and nourishing up of Children unto Christ; we sometimes alter the phrase from Father, to Mother, although we speake but of the Church in a representative bodie, where (by a Synecdoche) one part is put for the whole.

But I proceed.A twofold objection. And here some object, that the Church officers either bring in rites, and orders, at which their conscience stumbleth. Or secondly, that Bishops ought not to have any Courts Ecclesiastical, for the correction of those who break such lawes as are sayd to be the lawes of the Church.

Answer. [...]. Answ. to the first ob­jection. Who can speake more like loose Libertines then these? But I answere more di­stinctly.

First,See the Con­ference at Hampton Court, pag. 66. that it is an ordinarie thing for those who affect singularitie, to turne all into a subtill inquirie, rather then into an harmelesse desire of being satisfied; and under an outward cloake of religion and conscience, hypocritically to cover the grossenesse of their disobeience: which is as Christ sayd of the Pharisees, They doe things under pretence. For it is to be feared, that some of them which pretend weaknesse and doubting, are (as King Iames observeth) strong enough, and such as think themselves able to teach the King, and all the Bishops of the Land. In which case there is (I thinke) no better way to cure them, [Page 161]then that Aarons rod should devoure their Ser­pents: otherwise they will not only hisse against, but also sting (where they can) the bosome of the Church. Now in this, perhaps (as their custome is) they will be ready to complaine of cruelty and persecution. But doe they not know, Non est cru­delit as pro Deo pietas: as saith Saint Hierom? Zeale for God and the Churches peace, is no cru­elty: neither are they persecuted whom the hand of Justice punisheth for breaking the Law. They may beare the world in hand, that they suf­fer for their conscience; and abuse the credulity of the simple herein: but wise and moderate men know the contrary. For as Seminary Priests and Jesuites give it out, that they are martyred for their Religion; when the very truth is, they are justly executed for ther prodigious treasons, and felonious or treacherous practices against lawfull Princes and Estates. So the disturbers of the Churches peace pretend they are persecuted for their consciences; when they are indeed but just­ly censured for their obstinate and pertinacious contempt of lawfull authority. Could they well remember it, 'tis they who be the true Ismaels; not ceasing to infest their better brethren: making head against their Heads; and crying out like un­to Libertines, that all their Christian liberty is destroyed: And why, but because in these mat­ters of order, the private fancies of every idle head, or addle braine, may not countermand the [Page 162]warrantable authority of a publike Law, nor set downe such Rites as shall better please them, or (in their judgements) be thought more fitting then such as the Church ordaineth. This were indeed to invade anothers right; to give Lawes to our Law-givers; an Husteron Proteron: and therefore may not be. Nay were it so, that every man should be left to his owne liberty, then look how many Congregations, so many varieties. There would be (I dare say) little or no concord, but in diversities and disagreements; and so the Church of God, in one and the same Kingdome, should be rent and torne most miserably. The fourth Councell of Toledo had an eye hereunto,Symson hist. of the Church, lib. 4. pag. 527 and did therefore (in the second Canon thereof) enjoyne one uniforme order in their Church ser­vice. And surely, seeing Christ's coat was with­out seame, there is no reason why in one and the same Kingdome the orders should be different. It were rather to be wished that the whole Catho­licke Church throughout the Christian world, under her several governours in every Kingdome or Church Nationall, were ordered after one and the same manner: but because this cannot be in every respect (either in regard of the places, times, or conditions of the people) it is left to the discre­tion of every Church to appoint such as shall best serve them for decency, order, and edification: For if they be destitute of these properties, they are but brutish and insignificant, altogether unfit [Page 163]to stirre up the dull minde of man to the remem­brance or expression of his duty to God. For as it is with Tongues, so with Ceremonies: if they be darke and obscure, or not understood, they cannot edifie. Many such are at this day in the Church of Rome: and I thanke God that we of this Church are free enough from them. It were well therefore that what appertaines unto us, were better observed: for, in the generall, their institution is divine, though in many of the par­ticulars they be but humane. And yet not alto­gether humane neither: For even the particulars are partly humane, partly divine; as being a part of that order and decorum which God hath com­manded in generall, leaving the particulars to the discretion of the Church, to be framed according to that generall rule in holy Scripture: which being observed, they cannot but be good, true, holy, and pleasing unto God. Adde moreover, that there be some particulars warrantable from Text, as wel as Canon, as uncovering of the head, bowing at the name of Jesus, kneeling, &c.1 Cor. 11.4. Philip. 2.10. Exod. 20.5. Psal. 95.6. To which may be added many such customes as were of old in the Primitive times; as Saint Paul insinuateth against all Innovatours, saying; We have no such custome, nor yet the Churches of God, 1 Cor. 11.16. So that from hence we have a plain Text in confutation of those, who love to con­tend against the old ancient customes of the Church; as bowing towards the Altar, praying [Page 164]towards the East, standing up at the Creed, Gospell, and at Gloria Patri; with such o­ther like. Yea, and may from hence also gather, that the restoring of ancient Canons, and practi­ces of the best times, (such as are some of those already mentioned) may better be revived, than sottish devices of I know not whom; especially such customes as the circumstances of our times and places will best permit, or be as well for de­cent order and edification to us as to them. For even Beza himselfe confesseth,Bez. Confess. Christ. sidei, c. 5. sect. 22. that particular Synods, called by the Metropolitan of a place, are of singular use, as amongst other things, so to reduce matters of Ceremony to edification: Vt omnia ad aedisicationem referantur, saith he; That all things may be referred to edification. And if all things, then also Ceremonies; Veteribus ipsis Ca­nonibus ad hunc finem revocatis. The ancient Canons themselves being called backe againe for the same purpose. If therefore either our or any other Church shall have officers which endeavour to revive ancient orders, let not the ignorant either cry out of Popery, or accuse them for trouble­some Innovatours. For as they may appoint new ones, if occasion so require: in like manner they may revive old ones; and for both have war­rant from the Scripture.

Or secondly,A second an­swer to the first obje­ction. be it so, that what some of the Brethren pretend is true, namely, that their con­science is indeed tender, doth truly stumble, and [Page 165]that they stand in doubt: ought they therefore to persevere in their disobedience? ought they not rather to have their weake consciences better informed, and that as soone as they can? Sure­ly, yes. For conscience not grounded upon sure knowledge, is a meere Bug-beare: or (as one bet­ter expresseth it) is either an ignorant fantasie,See M. Iames in Basilie. Doron, lib. 1. pag. 18. or an arrogant vanity. Neither may private scruples in particular parties, against a generall Law, bee accounted sure grounds to give warrant to any mans actions. Master Hooker, in the Preface to his workes, speakes to the full concerning this: affirming, that when publike consent of the whole hath established any thing, every mans judge­ment being thereunto compared, is private, how­soever his calling bee to some kinde of publike charge. And againe, as for the thing pretended; There is Conscience, and there is an errour of Con­science: for conscience may, and doth erre many times for want of due information; and so becom­meth over strict, counting that to be evill and un­lawfull, which indeed is both good and lawfull. And although this be an ignorance, yet no invin­cible ignorance; there is meanes sufficient where­by such a conscience both may, and ought to be better informed. It is rather a supine negligence, a neglected, or affected ignorance, which mis­leads both it selfe, and others too; and therefore sinfull to persevere or continue in it. Peccat, Aug lib 3. c. 15. de lib. arbitr. saith Saint Austin, qui damnat quasi pectata, quae nulla [Page 166]sunt. And in another place, speaking concerning needlesse scrupulosity, he well affirmeth that it is Superstitiosa timiditas a superstitious fearfulnesse:Epist. 118. ad Ianuar. c. 2. for it tyes a man so strictly not to offend against his owne private opinion, as that it will not afford him so much Religion as shall lead to a dutifull and Christian obedience. And yet the Scripture teacheth, that where the authority of the supe­riour goeth before, there the conscience of the inferiour ought to lead him after. Whereto a­greeth that of Tertullian, Tertul. lib. de coron. cap. 2. saying; Laudo fidem quae ante credit observandum esse, quàm did cit. And what doth Saint Paul to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 1.10. but be­seech them as brethren, in the name of the Lord Iesus, that they all speake one thing, that there be no dissentions among them, that they be knit to­gether in one minde, and in one judgement. For the tying of which knot, the consciences of a few must not oversway the rest, nor the foot u­surpe authority over the head, but bee regulated by the wisedome of the Church wherein they live: which may be proved, as well by example, as by precept. For when certaine brethren at An­tioch varied from the rest about Circumcision,Act. 15.1. they were overswayed by the censure of the Councell held at Ierusalem, and not the Councell overswayed by them. Whereto, in generall a­greeth the doctrine of Saint Peter, 1 Pet. 2.13. that we submit our selves not only to the Law of God, but also unto the ordinances of men; and that, for the [Page 167]Lord's sake: Or, as Saint Paul speaketh,Rom. 13.5. for con­science sake. And in more particular, as it relates to Church officers, 'tis still the same: (not thinke it warrantable to cherish and nourish your owne peccant humours; but) obey and submit, as in the Text above mentioned out of the Hebrewes is de­clared. To which also joyne that which is writ­ten in Act. 15.28. and then be rather fearfull to offend the Law, than your owne opinion. For,Act. 15.28. It seemeth good (say the Apostles) to the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay upon you no greater burthen. Where note, that what some thought burthen some, was rather good and necessary: and therefore to slip downe this bitter pill of disobedience, and to give way to an erroneous conscience, is to straine at a Gnat, and swallow a Camell.Eccles. 7.16. But be not righteous over much, neither make thy self over wise. for why shouldest thou destroy thy selfe? as the Scrip­ture elsewhere speaketh. In which words (mee thinkes) it is, as if a finger were pointed from thence to the Precisians of our times, whose very doubting is dangerous: for it corrupts their obe­dience; and so, makes them guilty of a certaine sinne. Wherefore it is more safe to obey doubt­ingly, than to disobey doubtingly: for wee may not by disobeying commit a certaine sinne, in seeking to prevent a probable, but contingent in­convenience; as even the Authour of the Holy Table hath declared.

Furthermore, doubts (saith another) may be [Page 168]of two kindes; either Speculative, or Practicall. If a doubt be only speculative, of the lawfulnesse of such things as lye in a mans owne liberty to doe or forbeare, then to doe a thing doubting­ly, is a sinne; Rom. 14.23. But if the doubt bee practicall, and the matter of it a thing comman­ded by authority, that doubting doth neither in­fer, nor excuse disobedience; Heb. 13.17.

The exceptions from this Rule are very few; to wit, in cases only when Superiours command that which doth expresly oppose an Article of our Faith, one of the ten Commandements, or the generall state and subsistence of God's Ca­tholicke Church. So then, bee a man never so zealous, strict of life, or highly esteemed for his personall endowments; yet he may be more ti­merous than he needs, or contentious than hee should: For it were a madnesse not to know, that the most sanctified and zealous men are men, and may therefore have some faults as well as others: For though all be not guilty of sinnes in one kind; yet In multis labimur omnes, in many things wee sinne all. And if all in many things, then the best have some faults: and this (whilst thus) is one, even among those of high esteeme, be all their other actions never so good, zealous, devote, or what you please to call them. One, did I say? Yes; and that a great one too: why else is diso­bedience likened to the sinne of witchcraft, and every soule (without exception) commanded to [Page 169]obey and submit? as formerly hath been shew­ed. Nor is it but augmented also in regard of cir­cumstances: for whilst they whom we take to bee good men shall stumble, and refuse to yeeld to the government under which they live, others are the sooner brought to doe the like; and so the Church troubled, not only by themselves, but by such also as are too forward to tread in the steps of their proceedings. Let them be loath therefore to cherish such timerous conceits, as shall from an errour in judgement, make them at the last be guilty of some sinful practice arising from thence. For no mans goodnesse is good in this, nor may exempt them from the obedience unto Lawes, nor make them be1 Pet. 4.15. priviledged to put their hands into bad actions: especially since such mens im­munity would but incourage others to presume upon the like favour.

Saint Paul, I confesse speaketh to the Romans; Let not him that eateth, despise him that eateth not: and let not him that eateth not, judge him that eat­eth. Rom. 14.3. But from thence can bee no warrant to take liberty, either for conforming, or not conforming, for the case is not the same. There the marter of difference was not onely in­different in the nature of it, but was also left so as concerning the use; the Church had set down no Law concerning it. But is it so with us? 'tis not; and therefore obedience is required on our parts, without any question for conscience sake; [Page 170]we are else no dutifull Sonnes of the Church, but a peevish and perverse generation, who are not afraid to act the Vipers part, within the bow­ells of our holy Mother.

I shall tell you what Saint Austine did: That pious Father once (in the behalfe of his Mother Monica) consulted with Saint Ambrose about the like occasion, about matters of ceremonie. For she being doubtfull what to doe, he went to Saint Ambrose, who told him thus: When I come to the Church of Rome, I fast on the Saturday; and when I am here, I doe not. So thou also, unto whatsoever Church thou commest, follow the orders thereof; if thou wouldest not scandalize any, nor have any to offend thee: which when he had told to his Mother, she rested satisfied. In which re­gard, even Saint Austine also giveth this coun­sell, In his rebus in quibus nihil certi statuit Scrip­tura divina, mos populi Dei, vel instituta majo­rum pro lege tenenda sunt.

Neither doe our owne Stories of the Church but tell us, that even such as suffered Martyrdome for the truth, made no scruple of conscience a­gainst the orders of our Church. Bucer (for his owne part) approved of our English Liturgie, although at the first he made some doubt. Bishop Ridley went to the stake cheerefully, wearing a Tippet of Velvet, and a corner Cap: and yet (as that good old Father Latimer Prophecied) at his burning, there was such a candle lighted in [Page 171] England, as shall never be put out. Iohn Philpot was an Arch-deacon, and Dr. Rowland Taylour used the Service booke to his great comfort, all the time of his imprisonment; and commended it at his death, a the last token of his love to his deare wife. Master Hullier also a godly Minister, burnt at Cambridge, most joyfully embraced the sayd booke, even in the very flames, These you will say were good and gooly men; but had they sacrificed their lives in a factious quarrell against Clericall habits, or other comely ceremonies of the Church, enjoyned by King Edward the sixt, their Religious Soveraigne; the authour of the Acts and Monuments had never numbe­red them among the glorious Martyrs of Christ, as a reverend Doctour well observeth.

And now also secondly,An answer to the 2d obje­ction. whereas some make doubt of the lawfulnes of Spirituall jurisdiction, or Courts Ecclesiasticall: I think there is enough in the former answer, to yeeld satisfaction even in this, here therefore I shall need to say the lesse. For can a Superiour have power to make Lawes, and not have power to punish where they bee transgressed? or shall the civill Magistrate not hold his sword in vaine,Rom. 13.4. and must the Prelates stand for cyphers with their keyes? No, sayth our Saviour: Goe and tell the Church. Math. 18.17. But to what purpose, if there be in the Church no power of jurisdiction? Yes, to perswade say some; or to rebuke with words. Nay sure, 'tis more then [Page 172]so: for in our Saviours speech, there is mention made of binding and loosing.Verse 18. And, what will you (sayth Saint Paul) shall I come unto you with a rod, 1 Cor. 4.21. or in love, and in the spirit of weekenesse? that is, as one truely speaketh, will you be per­swaded by faire words, or shall I exercise my judi­ciall authoritie over you, shall I punish you? For punish sure he might, or else it had beene to little purpose to have told them of his Rod.

But to put all out of question, see what the Apostle writes to Timothie, the first Bishop of the Ephesians: namely, that against a Priest [or Elder] he must receive no accusation,1 Tim. 5.19. under two or three witnesses: where I would that you marke these particulars, viz. That here is an accuser, here is a person accused, here is an examination of witnesses, here is a judgement and deciding of the matter; therefore here is an exercise of jurisdiction, and a Court for determining of Ec­clesiasticall affaires.

What then remaineth, but that the Officers belonging to such Iudicatures, make upright­nesse their ayme; that thereby all just cause of scandall may bee taken away from these their lawfull Courts. For when they have done their best, either ignorance, or malice, or both, will be readie enough to traduce them: and there­fore, so much the more are they like to be exclai­med against, when indirect courses are plaine and manifest. But herein care must be had, that the [Page 173]scandall of injustice be not layd upon such as are free enough from it. If some base minded under Officers abuse their places; it is no good argument to prove, that therefore Bishops are maintainers of unjust practises. For we know for certaine, the Church (like a carefull Mother) hath provided Laws to suppresse such abuses, as she feared might be fostered in these her Courts. Witnesse those many Canons concerning the ju­risdiction of Arch bishops,See the Ca­nons of out Church. Bishops and Arch­deacons; yea, concerning Iudges, Proctors, Re­gisters, and Apparatours. As in Canon the 92. that none bee cited into divers Courts for Pro­bate of the same Will. And in Canon 115, that Ministers and Churchwardens bee not sued for presenting: And in the 116, and 117 Canons, that Churchwardens bee not troubled for not presenting oftner then twice a yeare, excepting at Visitations, or that the custome of the Dioces be otherwise: And, in Canon the 121, that none be cited into severall Courts for one and the same crime, but that the officers cerrifie each to other what hath beene presented to them: And, in Ca­non the 123, that no act be sped but in open Court: And in Can. 127. 128. that Iudges and Surrogates be well qualified: And in Canon the 129, that no Proctors retaine causes unlawfully: And, in Canon the 133, that Proctors be not cla­morous in Courts: And, in Canon the 134, that Registers abuse not their places: And, in Canon [Page 174]the 135, that no Ecclesiasticall officer exact more than his ordinary fees: And, in Can. 136, that a Table of their said feees be set up in open view in Courts and Registers: And, in Canon the 138, that Apparitours shall not take upon them the office of Promoters or Informers for the Court. All which had beene never done, if the Prelates had intended the upholding of wrong and rob­bery: for by these Constitutions it well appea­reth, that they are no wayes bent to countenance the courses of unjust proceedings, but to punish and subdue all such offenders. And therefore to be (as many I thinke are) too ready to blame Bi­shops, for maintainers of pouling Courts, is (as one truly speakes) a matter in a slanderer to be pu­nished, and not a fault in a Bishop to be blamed. In a word, such is the generall loosenesse of these miserable times,This was proved true a long while since; as may be seen in an old ancient booke called an Admoni­tion to the people of England; printed, anno Dom 1589. that all kinde of justice (among too many) is growne into hatred and contempt: and men disdaine to bee ruled by it. And there­fore when they are called, convented, and punish­ed for such things wherein they have offended, or be bridled from that they would do disorder­ly, they grudge at it; their stomackes rise against it, and thinke all that is done to be unlawfull, al­though it be never so just. And because they are not able otherwise to be revenged, they cry out that they be cruell and pouling Courts. But as I said before in advice to officers, Let uprightnesse be their ayme: so now to offenders, in the words [Page 175]of God by his holy Prophet;Esay 5.18.20, 21. Woe be to them that draw on iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cartrope; that call good evil & evil good, that put light for darknes, and darknes in the stead of light: that thereby they may the better nouzle themselves in feigned colours, and imagined ex­cuses; although in so doing, they do but like un­to that wicked generation, Who curse their Father, and doe not blesse their Mother.

I should now come to the next particular, were it not that stil I find another thing, which the fa­ctious first, and others next, distaste and sleight too much. And that's the celebration of such holy dayes, as they who live within the pale of our Church are urg'd to keepe. But let mee tell them, that in this they also go astray. For though some sticke not to affirme, that it is aThis they affirme, be­cause the Commande­ment saith, Six da [...]es [...] on shalt labour. breach of the fourth Commandement, and so a sinne, to make more Holy Dayes than one in seven: yet shall they never be able to prove why it should be a sinne rather now than heretofore. For shall the Iewes be no transgressors of the Law, though they have more daies than their weekly Sabbath; and must the Christian offend in consecrating dayes beside the Sunday? Yes, say some; for they were led thereunto by God's expresse com­mand. For some, I grant, they were: but for o­ther some againe they were appointed no other­wise than their Church ordained.Ester 9.21. For did they not every yeare solemnize and keepe holy the [Page 176]fourteenth and fifteenth day of the moneth Adar, in remembrance of their great delivery from the treason of Haman? 1 Mac. 4.59. And had they not likewise their yearly feast of Dedication; Ioh. 10.22.23 for the observa­tion of which there was no precept, and yet Christ himselfe refused not to observe it with them? 'Tis sure they had. And therefore to say, Sixe dayes thou shalt labour, and not let to keepe holy any other day than one, is an idle cavil, and scarce worth the answering. Howbeit, for thy further satisfaction, take this also with thee; that God, who might challenge all our time for his worke, doth there shew that he is willing to remitWhich part is ordinarily six dayes, though not alwayes; as the Iewes themselves do beare us witnesse. part of his right for thine owne workes: yet so, as he doth not restraine thee from doing publike ser­vice to him, on any of those dayes which the Church shall appoint: for except there be super­stitious ends aymed at on the dayes set apart, this which I say must needs be granted.

But say some againe, though we yeeld to the observing of such weekly dayes as are either in honour of the Saviour of the world, for the di­verting of some judgment, or for the testification of thankes for some great benefit; yet why should the Church presse upon us the keeping of Saints dayes too as well as these? Why? because the righteous shall be had in everlasting remem­brance; as the Psalmist speaketh:Psal. 112.6. and the memo­ry of the just be blessed;Prov. 10.8. as the sonne of the Psal­mist hath expressed. Or because of that knot of [Page 177]fellowship which is betweene the dead Saints and the living, this being that Communion which we confesse and beleeve in the Apostles Creed: so that as they pray to God for our good in gene­rall; in like manner we praise God for them in particular, account their memory precious, set their examples before us, as the glasses of our lives, and desire to be made partakers with them of the glorious resurrection in the life to come.

I would to God therefore that none but Puri­tanes were guilty of this sinne in sleighting such Holy Dayes: others also cut off their esteeme more than is meet. For, that I may close up all with full satisfaction, our Church appoints no set dayes for titular Saints, such is are many in the Church of Rome: but for such as were Apo­stles, Evangelists, and Martyrs indeed; whom Christ honoured so much as to make some of them establishers, and others as it were founders of that Kingdome which cost him his dearest blood; and accounted them worthy to suffer death for his sake: so that (as one truly saith,Mr Dow of the Sabbath and Lords Day, pag. 62.64. and I speake it in his owne words) we may justly so­lemnize either the dayes wherein those burning and shining Lights first appeared to the world, or the dayes of their departure hence, which were the dayes of their happy inauguration into the Kingdome of Glory, when they both left to the Church Militant the glorious example of their Christian fortitude, and became an occasion of [Page 179]new joy to the Church Triumphant, by the ac­cession of new citizens to that heavenly society. On which dayes we honour God as the authour of all that good which either they, or we by them are partakers of: for our prayers and prayses are to him, though with reference to them in what they have done. So that they are honoured only as God's instruments, and as those who having beene imitatours of our blessed Saviour, are wor­thy patternes of our imitation. Neither is such a day more holy than another, but in relation to the separation of it to such holy and religious duties, which the Church ordaineth to be performed on it. And therefore, lest in the revolution of time, ingratefull forgetfulnesse should obliterate the blessed memory of such just ones, we have these solemne Feasts, and set Dayes, in an annuall me­moriall of them, to the glory of him whose In­struments they were.

And so an end to this Section.


I Come now to a fourth particu­lar; namely, that the people no way hinder their spiritual Fathers (whether Bishops or others) from going on cheerfully in their offi­ces: for if through default of their flocke they goe on Gementes, it cannot in conclu­sion but be wofully grievous unto those over whom they watch, Heb. 13.17. Consider there­fore and marke it well; and withall observe, that he who hath said, Touch not mine Anointed; 1 Chron. 16.22. Psal. 105.15. said also, And doe my Prophets no harme. Yea and fur­ther, that the word of God may have a free pas­sage, Pray for us, saith another Scripture. For as we desire, that to you may be a doore of entrance,Ephes. 6.19. whereby you may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus: so is it also on your parts to provide that our doore of utterance bee not barred through your occasion.

All which, in a word, tends to this; that you afflict not, trouble, or molest your ghostly Fa­thers: For if you must study to be quiet,1 Thess. 4.1. Rom. 12.18. 1 Thess 5.13 Ephes. 6.15. Esa. 32.17. and have peace with all men, then much more with those who preach the glad tidings of such good things as Peace, and divide aright unto you the Bread [Page 180]of Life, on which your soules (except you meane to be damned, dye, and perish) must bee sure to feed. What (I wonder) is it thatYou who vex your Pa­stors peace. Luke 10.3. you thinke? You are but Wolves if you worry those who are sent like Lambes among you. Christ hath said it; nay, did foresee it: and the Church of God (especially the Ministers of truth,Gal. 4.16. have al­wayes found it; and may therefore, in the He­rauldry of their Divinity, take up the Crosse (as their most significant Armes) and paint it forth in a sable field: portraying for the Crest a Wolfe rampant, crushing in his pawes an Innocent Dove, or an Harmlesse Lambe; out of whose mouth may come this Posie or Motto, Facere bonum, & ha­bere malum. For thus it was with Christ: Hee pittied,Iohn 7. and was mocked; hee healed, and was hurt. Yea, and thus hath it beene not seldome since with those whom he sendeth after him, bee they never so wary how they walke, or never so carefull how they instruct.


BUt here is not all. Impoverish not, is another branch:Luke 10.7. Jam. 5.4. For the Labourer is alwayes worthy of his hire; and to detaine it from him is a crying sin.

The old Pharisee was therefore in this an ho­nest man. Hee would not rob the Church, but payed tithes of all that he possessed: not neglect­ing so much as Mint, Annise, and Rue. Which practice of his was welapproved by our Saviour: not as a thing arbitrary; but as a thing necessary. Christ setteth an oportet upon it,Math. 23.23. Luke 11.42. or a necessity of so doing: [...], These things ought ye to have done. And Saint Paul also teacheth it, in such Texts of Scripture as I shall afterwards mention.

Howbeit men (for the most part) now are of another minde. For that which God requires (not only as a token of his Universall dominion, and liberall donation, but) as a meanes to uphold his worship and service, is too eagerly cried down by them who rob the Church; saying, (as did Iudas of the precious ointment) Ad quid perdito haec? Wherefore is all this waste? For thus do the sacrilegious worldlings in their hungry zeale, gape after the spoile and ruine of the Church. [Page 182]And although many of them may perhaps seeme more devote than the residue of that crew, yet may we expect as little good from them to the Church of God, as from the rest who march more openly. For many will goe with the Wisemen from the East to seeke Christ; yea, and will fall downe and worship him: but they are grown too wise to open their treasures; except it be in a man­ner of a scant almes to a wandring Levite, fitting to their fancies: or if more, perhaps some mise­rable mod cum by way of stipend to a disconten­ted Separatist, who beareth as little love to the Church in her Governours, as they in her reve­newes or honourable maintenance. This makes us heare much talke many times of compe­tencies, stipends, and benevolence: But as for tythes, if the Clergy should have them all, then farewell to the Laity, cry these small friends to God Almighty. They would therfore that tythes should be every where abolished (excepting from their owne hands) that thereby they may the bet­ter bring the Priests to impotency, scorne and misery: Not remembring, that (whilst they con­tend to make these things Lay fees) they them­selves are like to suffer for it, both in the want of a zealous and learned Ministery, as also for de­vouring of holy things. I will a little touch upon both these.

Want of meanes is (first of all) a means to hin­der free speaking. To live upon courtesie, is to [Page 183]be kept in awe; the Prophets shall bee no better than shadowes; such as may not teach but as their hearers fancy: for they shall bee even forced,Burg. of per­sonall tithes. Hos 9.8. Ezek. 13.10, 19. Fidler like, to play nothing but what their good masters please to call for. And, for an handfull of Barley, or a peece of Bread, they must not re­fuse to ensnare the people; to sow cushions under their elbowes; or to bedaube over such sinnes as they should reprove. Secondly, this wee also know, that Honos alitartes. Wherefore if the di­vell shall by any cunning be able to weaken the props, or pull away the rewards of learning, he doubteth not but that in short time he shal worry the face of true Religion, and make a faire way to the devouring of Christs flock. If the state of the clergy (saith one) shall be made contemptible,Admonit to the Church and people of England, pag 29. and the best reward of Learning a meane pension: he [viz. the divell] foreseeth that neither young flourishing wits will easily incline themselves to godly learning, neither will their parents suffer them to make that the end of their travell. Wee may flatter our selves (saith another) and say,Tho. Ryves Dr of the Ci­vill Law, in his poore Vi­cars plea, pag 146. That men ought to take this calling upon them, not for any worldly respect, but only for devoti­on unto God: But experience hath ever proved, that if there be no maintenance, there will be no Ministery. The saying of Demosthenes to the A­thenians, is sure and true: Never looke for a man (saith he) who to doe you service will undoe him­selfe; for you shall never finde any such. And [Page 184]therefore (as it followeth in the said author) wee may not hope that any man will set his sonne to Schoole, and traine him up in the study of Divi­nity, unlesse there be an hope of maintenance for him. To which agreeth that of Panormitan; Ad tenuitatem Benificiorum necessario sequitur igno­rantia Sacerdotium: Small Livings make wooden Priests: and for want of learning in the Minister, proceedeth a generall decay of Religion. For where no Prophet, there no vision; and where no vision is, there the people decay, Prov. 29.18. Yea,Neh. 13.10. faith another Scripture, when the portion of the Levites was not given them, they left the Lord's house, and fled into the field. Which ther­fore caused Nehemiah to bring things into a bet­ter order, and to helpe this defect by restoring to the Priests their former maintenance; as in the place quoted in the margine may be seene. Before whom Hezekiah did the like; He commanded the people that dwelt at Ierusalem, to give to the Priests and Levites their portion,2 Chron. 31.4. that they might be encouraged in the Law of the Lord. For as St Pauls words insinuate, If God take care for oxen, much more for Ministers. And therefore saith he, For oursakes no doubt is this written, that he who ploweth should plow in hope; and that he who thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hopee: 1 Cor. 9.10. The words therefore of thatWinchest. Posthum. pag. 19. thrice famous man cannot but be true; Nemo vos sedu­cat verbis falacibus: Vt salus non sine verbo, nec [Page 185]sine Propheta verbum; sic sine author amento suo, ne (que) Prophetas ne (que) Prophetarum Scholas, diu fore certum est. To which is consonant that obervation of a great Lawyer (I meane* Judge Cook) who wel ob­served,in the Bishop of Winchest. case. that Iulian the Apostata having a purpose wholly to ruine the profession of Christianity,Ruffin. l. 1. c. 32. Socrat. lib. 3. c. 10. Theod. lib. 3. c. 6. Dr. Ryves obr out of Plowd. used not the sword (as Dioclesian and others did) but tooke away the meanes of the Clergy; know­ingfull well, that if those once faild, the number of the Preachers would not long continue. The reverend Iudges of England (saith Plowden in his Commentaries) long since observed, that by the abuse of the Monkes, in applying all to their own bellies, and leaving little or nothing to the Vi­cars, many abuses came creeping in. Adding moreover, that as the revenew of Parish Chur­ches decayed, so likewise did Preaching.Winchest. Posth. Conc. ad Cler. pro grad. Doct. pag. 19. Non ergo vectigalium medò, sed & Prophetarum, & Concionum, & Animarum—gurgites sunt, qui sacra deglutiunt. which is as if it should be said, They doe not only devoure the meanes of the Priests, but even the Priests also, Sermons, and Soules, who rob the Church.

Next, for a destruction to themselves in more particular, see this Text of Scripture, Prov. 20.25. By reason of which testimony I remember these words: Let it be proved (saith one) that God hath assigned tythes to Gentlemen, and I will cleare them from that menace of Solomon [in the foresaid Text] namely, that It is a destruction [Page 186]to devoure that which is holy. Which is as if it should be said, They that are guilty of this sinne, doe but sucke in a bitter sweet, a faire-seeming purchase, but a destroying possession; a desired bait with a wounding hooke; a sacrificed morsell with a burning coale, apt and fit to kindle a judg­ment both against them and theirs, who desire (as the Psalmist speaketh) to take unto themselves the houses of God in possession.Psal. 83. It is therefore generally observed among all nations, that there was ever a maine difference set betwixt that which was dedicated to divine worship, and that which was for common or vulgar use. Which difference not observed, was judged even by the Heathens themselves, to be an incurable crime; and the actour thereof, not to be ordinarily evill, but a creature composed of inexpiable villanies, as Saravia observeth out of Plato de Legibus, Dial. 9. And verily we finde it to be one of the most capitall offences tha is pursued with Divine revenge, as both the holy Scriptures, and stories Ecclesiasticall have recorded.

As for example; When Achan had stollen from the consecrated stuffe of Iericho two hun­dred shekells of silver, with a wedge of gold, and added it to his owne goods;Iosh 7.25. all Israel suffe­red the wrath of God, till both he, and his were punished:Malac. 3.11. and when Tythes and offerings were not duely pa [...]d, the whole Land of the Iewes was cursed. Balthazar also, even whil'st he was [Page 187]quaffing in the Vessells of the Temple (not taken away by himselfe, but by his Grandfather) was an eye-witnesse to the inscription of his owne doome,Dan. 5. written upon the plaistered wall of his stately Palace. Alchimus likewise, who sought to overthrow the Temple at Ierusalem; was stricken with a palsey, and died miserablie.1 Mac. 9.55.56. Heli­odorus, and his companions, who came to take away the holy treasures, both saw, and felt the power of God against them. Antiochus, 2 Mac. 3.24. who had spoyled the Temple,2 Mac. c. 5. &c. 9. & vowed to make Ierusalem a place of buriall; was (in the height of his pride) pursued by divine punishment. Iudas, John 12.6: Matth. c. 26. &c. 27. who first of alrobbed Christ, and afterwards sold him to the chiefe Priests, became his owne accuser, judge, and hangman. Ananias, and Saphyra, Act. 5.3.4. for keeping backe part of what they had devoted to the Church, were suddenly destroyed: which fact of theirs (as Saravia hath well observed) though it were more excuseable then if they had done so with others monie, could not avoyd the high hand of Heaven; and therefore remaines as the great terrour to all Christians. Their death was coelitus immissa; and therefore God therein de­clared, that even now in the times of the Gospel. he himselfe is a punisher of these wicked offences. Nay more, in that example may be observed.

First, that God is well pleased to see us dedi­cate our goods to holy uses.

Secondly, that things so dedicated, are (after [Page 188]that act) none of ours; and therefore may not be taken backe againe, or detained from that use for which they were devoted; without the dan­ger of that great impietie which calls for a dire­full judgement to attend upon it. Of which na­ture bee our Bishops lands, Gleabe lands, and such like other portions given to the Church by pious Princes, and other zealous Christians. I doe not say that Abbie lands are of the same nature: For as it is certaine that the Popes, and Monkes did in many things rob the Church of what belonged to those who did the services therein. So they did also in as many things (or more) robbe and wrong the Common-weale; which was done, not upon the calling, and plan­ting, but upon the corrupting of Churches; whereas the lands of Bishopricks were given pre­sently upon the planting of Churches, before they were corrupted with prevailing Heresies, or Superstion;Dr. Carlton. of tythes. c. 5. no storie being able to shew, that ever there was a Church planted in the best times; but either lands were committed to the government of the Bishops, for the use of the Church, and them in their government, or else the price was brought to them who had the go­vernment, as in this of Ananias, and Saphira, is apparent. And therefore though such Ecclesia­sticall possessions (as they commonly called them) which were gotten by fraud, or force, and usurped against all right, or given at first to a [Page 189]meer esupersticious use,Sarav. of the honour and maintenance of the Cler­gy. c. 7. are in the power of the chief Magistrate to take them away, and employ them to better uses: yet on the contrary, what hath lawfully been given to the Church, & recei­ved, is without doubt consecrated to God, nor may without sacriledge be otherwise transferred. In which regard the Impropriations also, though taken from the Monkes, who tooke them from the Church, cannot be of right given to any other use, then to the upholding and maintaining of Gods worship, and those who do the services be­longing to it.

Thirdly, and last of all, from hence we like­wise learne; that they who do either keep back, or take away any part of that portion lawfully de­voted; doe it because they want the true feare of God, or (as it is in the words of that Text) be­cause Sathan hath filled their hearts. See the whole passage in Acts 5.

And againe, how many Stories relate the plagues which fell upon Iulian for his Aposta­cie, and Sacriledge? who (in derision of Christ and Christians) when hee had stripped the Church and Bishops of all they had; told them that in so doing, he had an especiall care of their soules health, because the Gospell commended poverty to them. We also know what became of that other Iulian, this mans uncle; viz. how his privie members first,Sozom. lib. 5. c. 7. and afterwards his o­ther parts rotted and corrupted, for his sacri­ledge, [Page 190]scorne, and blasphemie; the rottennesse whereof turned so fast into filthie vermine, that no phisicke could helpe him.Theod. lib. 3. c. 12.13. Neither are we ig­norant how miserable was the end of that scof­fing Felix, formerly mentioned.

Besides which,Malac 3.9. even the very negligence of paying Tythes, and Offerings hath beene puni­shed. And although all and every offender a­gainst the Churches right, hath not on the sud­den met with speedie vengeance; yet let not this embolden any: for God punisheth some with sudden and remarkeable judgements, that others may take warning. But if after all they will not be warned, he is as just to them (in what way best pleaseth him) as to others guilty of the like wickednesse: They fare no better then their Pre­decessours; their judgement sleepeth not. It is a favour (if men could see it) that hee proceeds many times but slowly to revenge: But his pa­tience being abused, he turnes his favour into the more bitter frownes: and so, though it be Lento saepe interitu; yet it is certo tamen to every one not freeing themselves out of that snare where­with they are taken. Remember therefore, that Optimum est aliena frui insania; or to be warned by another mans harmes, is a great happi­nesse.

Or otherwise thus. The wrath of God (sayth one) is either a ruine suddainly throwing downe, or a net catching; and after a certaine [Page 191]time destroying: Yea, the Lord threatneth, that sometimes Ephraim should finde him as a moth,Hos. 5.12.14 sometime as a Lyon: As a Lyon hee devoureth speedily; and as a moth, hee consumeth by de­grees. Which is fitly applied to the Robbers of the Church; for whil'st they are bent wholy upon the prey, they forget the snare; and on the sudden are not able to feele it. Yea, though for the present they bee frolicke, fresh, and flouri­shing; yet their foundation [...]ayleth, as being built upon the devouring quick sands of covered quagmires. And therefore a man cannot be bet­ter secured from this sometimes slow comming evill, then by removing the moth, which un­removed must needes consume him. I say no more, For aliter perit navis sentina neglecta, ae­liter obruente fluctu, sed utroque perit: They bee the words of Bishop Andrewes, in his learned Posthumus.

I might now make mention of the Heathens, but I suppose it needlesse; for although they have been punished by an invisiblehand for rob­bing of Idol Temples, yet it was by the Devill; who being Gods Ape, strives to come neere him in the imitation of such things, as shall best make for his owne purpose: as is seene in that answere which he gave to his Priests at Delphos, when Brennus with his Souldiers came to robbe the Temple there.Livius, lib. 38. For when they asked counsell of the Or [...]cle what they should doe, he willed them [Page 192]to take no care for the matter, because he would defend his owne Church; as he did, by throw­ing part of an hill upon the Host by a strange earth quake, terrifying the rest that remained with tempests of haile, thunder, and lightnings; wherein Brennus was also so sorely wounded, that like one impatient of his sufferings, hee slew himselfe with his owne hand.

I will not therefore stand to tell you of Cambi­ses, Xerxes, or the gold of Tholouse: Nor will I speake of Pyrrhus, who (with his whole Fleet) perished in the waters, even whil'st the prize of his sacriledge was heavie in his ships.

But I will rather proceed to that which I first intended; namely, to shew the divine right of Tythes, and to declare that where they are im­propriated, there God and his Church are rob­bed. For can it be thought that man is wiser to order these things, better than God hath done? Or is it reasonable that the rewards of our la­bours should bee imbezeled into the hands of Lay-possessours for doing nothing? What is become of Conscience, or true pietie, if in main­taining that they may, men tremble not at it?

It is not enough to vouch prescription for the infeofment of Lay-patrons: for if nullum tem­pus occurit Regi, that is; if no custome can pre­scribe against an earthly King, much lesse against the King of Heaven and earth. For first, by right originall Tythes are the Lords: And secondly, [Page 193]by way of assignation they appertaine to the Church in the officers thereof, and this for the service that they doe. To put us therefore off with stipends, courtesie, and benevolence; is to alter Gods order, and to tye us to such meane modicums, as are commonly both scant, and uncertaine; which is a thing miserable, and not honourable. And yet sayth the Apostle,1 Tim. 5.17. He that ruleth well is not onely worthie of honour, but of double honour. Wherefore let mee tell you in a storie what I have read in print to the same pur­pose. There was once a certaine Seigniour, who came to one of the Images of our Ladie, and threw into the bason an angel of gold; at which the Image made a low & humble courtesie: Now his manstanding by, and seeing this, did much admire the matter; and because hee also would have a curtesie, hee purposed to throw in something; whereupon hee put in sixe pence, and tooke out his Masters angell. So also they that robbe the Church, of what was once her ancient revenews, if they leave her but any thing (be the moitie ne­ver so small) they looke for curtesie and obser­vance, and would that the Clergie should thinke themselves well that they have any thing left.

But be not deceived; For as Malachie saith,Malach. [...]. Galat. 6. God, in so doing is robbed: So Paul affirmeth, that he is mocked. Shels will not serve, where the kernell is due; nor a small something acquit you (my Bretheren) from doing of wrong. For as you [Page 194]are bound to communicate to your teachers; so [...], in all good things, Gala. 6.6. And if in all good things, or in every thing of the best and highest esteeme, then much more in things of a lower and meaner reckoning: For Omne magis continetin se minus, the lesser is compre­hended in the greater. This first.

And secondly, as there is nothing too good to bee dedicated to God, and his service; so no­thing so meane which wee can possibly have, without his blessing. All comes from the bounty and goodnesse of Almightie God: To be thank­full therefore for every thing, is to pay a tribute out of all, as Iacob did, Gen. 28. Cunctorum quae dederis mihi, Decimas offer am tibi, saith that bles­sed Patriarch. Sed omnia quae homo habet, sunt ei data divinitus: ergo de omnibus debet Decimas dare, Aquin. Sum. 22. q. 87. art. 2. sayth Aquinas. Yea, and sayth the Scrip­ture also in another place, Remember the Lord thy God, it is he that giveth thee power to get rich­es, Deut. 8.18. And so some (following the true sence of the place) translate it; Communi­cate to thy teachers in all thy goods. although it be litterally [...], in all good things.

Neither thirdly, doth that of our Saviour (for­merly mentioned) but speake as much. For it is most certaine that he did well approve of those smaller Tythes of Mint, Annise, and Rue; there­byMr. Rob. Revenue of the Gospell, c. 12. intimating: that whereas the Providence of God doth order and bring forth, as well the least [Page 195]branch of little hearbes, as the whole vallyes of Corne, and whole heards of Cattell; so it is good reason that the Lord be payd his Tribute or tenth out of those smaller and tender cropps, as well as out of those more plentifull encrea­sings. Yea, so exactly doth the Lord require his Tenth, as he cannot in any case endure the di­minishing thereof: Encreased it may be, by the more zealous, and thankefull; but not dimini­shed. Whereupon the people of Israel were strictly charged, that no man should exchange, or make composition for his Tythes, except he would give for them a sist part more then the price thereof, Levit. 27.31. The Apostle there­fore meaneth [by [...]] that he who is taught in the Word, should make him that taught him, partaker in all his goods.

It is proved then, that we may claime a part in all: and if a part in all, why not that part or por­tion, which in all ages hath beene paid, untill the Church was robbed? For though in those words of the Apostle formerly mentioned, there be no expresse mention of a tenth part; yet if Scripture, may be expounded by Scripture, wee shall find no other part assigned than a tenth: No not now. For,

First were the law of Tythes abrogated, then he would have shewed some other way, how the people might make their Teachers to communi­cate in all their goods; but seeing hee sheweth no [Page 196]other way, it must needs be as it was before; for no positive sanction can reverse Gods appoint­ment. If he hath once spoken thus, or thus it shal be; shew me then I pray you who can alter it but himselfe: Si princeps causam inter partes audierit, et sententiam dixerit; lex est in omnibus similibus: which rule doth much more hold, as it is applia­ble to the King of Heaven. And therefore what hath beene once commanded in the Old Testa­ment, doth remaine a Law for ever, except (as Mr. Robarts truly speaketh) it hath beene since re­pealed; which is no where to be shewed concer­ning tythes, either directly or indirectly. Never was this right disclaimed, nor removed to a new rate: And therefore, whereas the Lord having formerly both challenged and received; under the Law, and before the Law, not only a part, but specially, and by name a tenth part, (as I shall af­terwards shew you;) it is our duty still to ac­knowledge and performe for Gods due, not a part (wee know not which) but even this knowne particularly described Tenth. For as in the case of divorce, Christ sent the Scribes and Pharisees, to see how it was, Ab initio; so in this case of main­tenance for Gods Ministers, Inquire of the old wayes, and when you find that in the beginning it was not so, as sacrilegious persons now would have it, nor commanded since that it should be so, you may conclude without any more adoe, that the Quota pars is still a tenth. And indeed (that [Page 197]wee may bring the totall of this dispute home to the Apostles Text) that very way, of paying tithes, is a reall communication of all kind of goods; whereas in stipens, taxing of houses, or rating of persons, cannot but bee much errour: Pars celatur, pars subducitur; ausim dicere [ [...]] Omnia bona non communican­tur, saith that famousBishop. And. in his Posth. De de­cimis. pag. 148 Worthy of happy me­mory.

And againe, secondly, that it ought stil to be as in diebus illis, St. Paul (1 Cor. 9.13, 14. in another place) speaks it more plainely; expresly setting downe the practice of the Old Testament for a President un­to the New. He fetcheth proofesDeut. 2 [...] 1. from Moses awnot only to confirm the equity of providing maintenance for Gods Ministers; but also to shew and confirme the manner how, even to the measure thereof. For it must be granted,Dr. Carlet of tythes. c. 4. that the Apostles words concluding sometime certainly, doe rather conclude that which was the ordinary maintenance commonly received in the Church, than that which was never in use, insomuch, that as the Levites lived by tthes, and offerings, so should we: For it is in the Text, plainely, and di­rectly, [...] Even so: Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they who preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel. And if even so, then by tithes and offerings: for so was the Ministery of Law maintained. Nay, marke it yet a little better, and it cannot but be yeelded, that whereas [Page 198]the Apostle saith, The Lord hath ordained, that they who preach the Gospel, should liue of the Gospel, there must be some ordinance of the Lord shew­ed concerning this of which hee speaketh: but none can be shewed, excepting that of old. The Apostles times were extraordinary, and such as they could be, where Persecution put all things out of square; yea, such as they could be in the first founding of a Church, the Planters and Wa­terers being sent from place to place, and things not setled till a long while after, as anon shall bee further shewed. Here therefore was no ordinance for a continued maintenance: Their taking of benevolence proves no such thing, no more than their going from place to place, proveth that a Church should be always unsetled. And therfore his Ordinance was of old; & so this [Even so] can plead for nothing else to bee ordinarily received, than tythes and offerings; for Even so hath the Lord ordained. And why, Even so, or after the same manner? but because Gods part is certainly annexed to Gods worship: the rate or measure whereof (beside offerings) is said to be a tenth of all that, wherewith the Lord (yeare by yeare) blesseth his people; this being that maine and principall tithe,Deut. 18.1. which (in Deuteronomy) is called the Tythe of Inheritance, as afterwards more fully shall be shewed.

Bullinger, in the tenth Sermon of his fift De­cade, speakes not so much of tithes, as of sti­pends, [Page 199]to bee given to the Ministers of the Go­spell: yet when hee commeth to this of Saint Paul, [...], Even so hath the Lord ordained, hee then concludeth thus. But I judge (saith he) this especially to be observed, which the Apostle speaketh in plaine words, viz. That the Lord instituted his Ordinance, concerning the maintenance of the Ministers, unto the imitati [...] of the ANCIENT LAVVES of of the Iewish people. Hereof wee gather, that wee misse not much the worke, if in this, and such like cases, wee doe not utterl reject the ancient institutions of the Fathers. Thus he. Another, speaking of our owne countrey, saith: Here onely was the errour of that marke, the King did not restore the Tenths to the constant maintenance of the Ministery; which portion, whether it now be­long to the Church, or no, Iure divine, I intend not to dispute pro or con: But this I dare say, Gods owne order hath manifested it to be both compe­tent and convenient for that purpose beyond all old exceptions, or new inventions, and so proves it to agree with the Law of Nature, if not to flow immediatel from thence; deserving ther­fore to live after the honourable buriall of the Ceremoniall Law, as it breathed long before it. Thus that other.

Neither, thirdly is it, but that in the seventh Chapter to the Hebrewes, Levi is said to pay tythes unto Christ, because Abraham, (in whose [Page 200]loines Levie then was) paied tithes to Melchise­dech, the type of Christ: which, whether it bee pertinent to our right and claime, who are the Ministers of Christ, I shall need to say little. Only this I would should be well observed, that as un­der the Law it was not so much the Levites, as God by them who received this sacred tribute; So before the Law, not so much Melchisedech, as the Lord in Melchisedech: yea, and now also un­der the Gospel, not so much the Ministers, as Christ receiveth Tythes. For hee (saith the Apo­stle) Of whom these things are spoken, is Christ our Lord, who sprang out of another Tribe, then that of Levi, even out of Iudah, Heb. 7.13, 14. Quod de­behat Ahraham Deo, solvit in manum Melchisedeck, saith Calmin; Calvin. in Heb. 7. That which Abraham owed unto God, hee paied into the hands of Melchisedeck. Or, as Saint Chrysostome speaketh: Abraham, the Father of the faithfull,Chrysost. hous. 5. adversus Iudaeo; paying his Tythes to Melchisedeck, shadowed out all the faithfull, pay­ing Tythes unto Christ. Againe, Tythes payed to Melchisedeek, are here brought by the Apostle to prove (not onely the greatnesse, but) the per­petuity of Christ's Priesthood: and therefore Tythes ought to bee payed as long as Christ's Priesthood standeth.

And, as I said before, although the Priests have alwayes received them yet (the originall right is none of theirs. They have them but by way of Deputation, or Assignment: and this but [Page 201]once made manifest by any written Law. How­beit, that once was enough, because the end was ever the same, namely, for the service that they do. This very end made it be practised in Nature, towards them that then were the Lords Priests: thoughBishop Mount. a­gainst Mr. Seld. [...]. 1. pag. 210. no doubt the Patriarkes had for this (as for all other points of Divine service) speciall instruction and direction, by Illumination, An­gelicall information or divine Revelation, which was the Pedagogy God trained them up in, untill that Scripture came in place wherein the Assigna­tion, and reason of it, was recorded. And from thence also it was, that before the Law they were taught (not the duty; for Nature it selfe could teach them that, but) the proportion of Gods due: this being (as I said before, concerning the particularity of a seventh day for Gods pub­like worship) a thing morall, not in respect of na­ture dictating, but in regard of Nature informed by the divine instruction, or angelicall Illumi­nation of God Almighty: and so the very par­ticular part is Morall; although not Ratione na­turae, yet Ratione Disciplinae.

Thus then you see, that Ratione originis, or by right Originall, Tythes are the Lords. For all the Tythe of the Land is the Lords, Levit. 27.30. And therefore, in Malachie, thus wee reade:Malac. 3.8. Will a man rob God? yet yee have robbed me, (saith the Lord) in Tythes and offerings.

Now this was knowne before, but not recor­ded; [Page 202]and how knowne, I have already shewed. For better proofe whereof, marke well the man­ner of the words. It is not said, Thou shalt pay all Tythes to the Lord; for such a Precept might ar­gue an Institution of Tythes, as Dr. Carleton wel observeth.Dr. Carlt. of tythes, c. 3. But it is said, All Tythes are the Lords which words doe not expresse any new Institu­tion, but declare that ancient Right which God had alwayes in them, long before the Law.

But how are they his? not as all things else are his: but by a speciall propriety. Otherwise when hee gave them to the Levites (because he chose them into the priesthood) he had given them althe Cattell upon a thousand hils,Psal. 50.10. as well as the tenth. And indeed, so ought men to thinke of whatso­ever it is that here they enjoy. They hold what they have from the Lord; and in token of sub­jection, thankefulnesse, and obedience, hee ex­pecteth back againe one part of ten, as a sacred tribute to himselfe. And therefore, saith Solo­mon, Honour the Lord with thy substance: Prov. 3.9. Nam qui nobis totum dedit, a nobis decimum dignatus est recipere; For hee who hath given us the whole, vouchsafeth to receive backe againe a Tenth; as in the doctrine of the Canonists is fitly affirmed. And so Saint Austine also makes his descant;Vide Win­chest. in Posthum. de Decimis, pag. 156 & Aug de temp. Serm. 219. Quid enim si diceret Deus, Meuses, ô homo; mea est terra quam colis; measunt Semina quae spargis; mea animalia quaefatigas: Meaesunt pluviae; mens solis hic ardor. Haec cum omnia mea sint, tu (qui [Page 203]manum tantum accommodas) solam decimam mere­baeris: sed servo tibi novem; da mihi decimam. Si non dederis decimam, auferam novem. Si dede­ris decimam, multiplicabo novem. That is, what if the Lord should say, Thou art mine O man, mine is the earth which thou plowest, mine are the seeds which thou sowest, mine are the beasts which thou toylest: Mine are the drops of raine, mine is this heate of the Sunne. Seeing all these things are mine, thou (which dost only lend thy hand) deservest onely a Tenth: But I keepe for thee nine parts, give mee a Tenth. If thou wilt not give a Tenth, I will take away the Nine: But if thou wilt give a Tenth, I will then increase thy Nine. And again, Nolite de cuncta substantia vestra fraudare Decimam, ne vobis novem partes aufer an­tur, et sola decima remaneat. And again,Idem. Serm. 219. de teusp. Quod si de­cimas non habes fructunm terrenorum, quod habet Agricola; quod cunque te pascit ingenium, Dei est: et inde Decimas expetit unde vivis.

Besides which, the Lord is also well pleased with the Free-wil-offrings and oblations of holy men; and although hee require both,Exod. 25.2. & chap. 35.5 & 1 Chron. 29 9. yet not both alike: He left the one free, to the pious consi­derations of the godly, but not the other. For offe­ringsPsal. 36.8 are but as his Presents; but tythesLevit. 27.30.32. are his Rents, or speciall portion reserved to himselfe.

And verely, it is even a shame to Christians, if wee consider how forward the Heathens were in these duties: For, as nature taught them to ac­knowledge a God, or gods; so it also taught them [Page 204]to bee open handed, and to consecrate unto them both Tythes and Offerings; insomuch, that they, who denied the one, were accounted as if they denied the other also: Namely, that if they with-held to give of their increase to their gods, they were called, [...], Atheists, Irreligious peo­ple; not serving God; without piety, and the like: which is enough to shew (it cannot bee a­voided) that generally they practised the paying of tythes, as a necessary duty. I shall nee [...] there­fore to say little of that which might be alledged out of Herodotus, Xenophon, Plutarch, Macrobius, Diodorus Siculus, Livie, Plinie and others; con­cerning either the Egyptians, Persians, Grecians, Sabaeans, Ethiopians, Carthaginians, or Ro­mans, with many more besides, who gave to their gods, both tythes and offerings: For beside their ordinary payments, they offered likewise (in token of thankefulnesse) gifts and sacrifices. Vpon recovery of health they remembred to gratifie Esculapius: If they had successe at sea, they sacrificed to Neptune: If their Vintage was good, they made their offerings to Bacchus: If their flocks thrived, they payed their vowes to Pan and Faunus: or if their harvest was plenti­full, they were thankefull to Ceres: And al this, because Nature taught them, that upon the re­ceit of every benefit, there is a tribute due to the Author and Donour of it.

By this very light, it was that the Heathen Em­perour [Page 205] Alexander Severus could say,Emperator re­spondit quo­quo modo esse satius in illo loco Deum co­lero, quam cauponariam ibiexercert. Diez. Sumne. Tom 1. ex Baptisla Ful­gosie. in a case of contestation between the pagans & the Christians, concerning a piece of ground employed to a re­ligious use, that it was honest and fit to have God served before Ale-houses. And the Athenians likewise bad Phidias hold his peace, and talke no more of cheanesse; for in such things as belong­ed to Gods service, they could not endure to have cheapnesse, or saving of charges named. Doe wee not also reade, that the Heathens belee­ved Prometheus to be chained to Mount Caucasus, and tormented by an Eagle, for coosening Iupiter in his sacrifices? It is no shame for us to gather good out of their examples. It were a shame ra­ther that a false God should bee more honoured than the true. Wee may avoid their superstition, but imitate their zeale: otherwise they walke better by the dimme light of Nature, than wee who have both the light of Nature, and of Scrip­ture to direct us.

I doe not say, or thinke, that in the payment of their tythes, Nature taught them the just portion of a Tenth: For though the substance of this duty was Lex inscita, yet the other was by way of imitation, taken from the example of the ancient Patriarkes, to whom the will of God was better revealed then to the Heathens. Thus also think­eth that learned Brentius, in his Comment upon Leviticus, Chap. 27. Verse the 30th. How they had it from them, is not much materiall. It was, [Page 206]without question, time out of mind among them, as well as amongst Gods people: And a man may as wel declare, who was the first that taught, Deos esse colendos; as who was the first that de­livered, the Tenth part [rather then any other part] to bee the reserved, and speciall portion, appropriated to a Deitie.

In briefe, all these practises serve to shew, that by the law of Nature (as a part of Gods service) all people knew themselves bound to give some­thing to God, of those temporall blessings, which God giveth unto them. This Something was no will worship unrequired, but looked for and ex­pected by the Giver of all; even from the first times of the worlds beginning, Gen. 4. It was likewise [for the Quetitie]Gen. 14.20. Heb. 7.4. Gen. 28.22. Levit. 27.30. declared by the practice of the Patriarkes before the Law, and by the words recorded in the Law, to bee a Tenth. What was beside, were those Free-will Offerings and Oblations already mentioned: Presents, but not Rents; And yet such as God was, and is, wel pleased to receive.

Thus, then you have seene Gods right; name­ly, that Tythes are the Lords, holy to the Lord: and therefore out of the power of man to turne them into common uses.

Next, for the Assignation or Deputement of them to the Priesthood, wee have againe to ob­serve: That as the Lord did not begin to have a right in them, when the Law was given; so the [Page 207]Assignment was not then, although but then de­clared by a written Law: And therefore, as the Right was perpetuall; so the Assignment. For when God declared, why the Priests were to re­ceive them, hee affirmeth, That it was for the ser­vice which they doe, Numb. 18.21. & Deut. 18 5. And if for the service, then not due to the Le­vites as the sonnes of Levi, but as the Priests of God: Or, being due principally to the Service, and not to the Men, but for the sake of the holy Function, & maintenance of them in their places, it must needs follow, That where God is served, there tythes are due to those (in a secondary right) who administer in the Priests office, and doe the services belonging to it. Yea, thus have they al­wayes followed Gods worship; as well before the Law, as under it: and why not now also under the Gospel cannot bee shewed: For the end of their deputation ceaseth not, no more now then it did before. Are not therefore Priesthood and Tythes fitly called Twins? or (as Logicians speake) are they not Relatives; have ever gone together: and (of Right) ought so to doe so long as God hath a Church, and Officers belonging to it? For in Gods Church the worke, for which Tythes were given, can never end: and therefore the wages cannot (without wrong) bee detained from those, who doe the Services.

Neither can it bee denied, but that the sub­stance, even of the legall Services (as reading the [Page 208]Law, expounding the Law, performing of pub­like prayers, blessing the people, and such like) is still of force. For there is nothing ceased but what was typicall: all else abideth, with what hath ever belonged to it. So that although it bee granted, thatViz. parts of sacrifices, and such like. some portions belonging to the Levites are now ceased, because the parts of those Services, for which they were due, are abolished and gone; yet that which was payed for the maine duties, and principall services belonging to the substance of Religion, before any such Ceremonies were commanded, is still of force; and of right our lawfull hire: this being the full Tenth of all that increase, wherewith the Lord Almighty blesseth his people.

And although Cajetan by the name of Tenth, doth not understand the tenth part, but a certaine portion, which in Moses his time was called a Tenth.Lippom. in Gen 14. Yet Lippoman, seeking no such eva­sion, overthrowes his supposition, with a more downe-right dealing. For, in that storie of Abraham, paying tythes Melchisedech, hee renders it from the Hebrew, and saith 'tis thus: Dedit ei decimam ex omnibus; Hee gave him a Tenth out of all: which (as the Chal­dee interpreteth) Is one out of ten. And there­fore, Iuxta legem naturae & Dei, solvuntur Sa­cerdoti; saith the same Authour. So also in that vow of Iacob [Genesis 28.Idem in Gen. 28.22.] Et ne forte ali­cui [Page 209]dubitare contigeret de portione quam pro Decima se soluturum Patriarcha promittit, oc­currit Chaldaica (inquiens) Et omnium quae dederis mihi, unum ex decem seperabo coram te. Meaning (as before) That this Patriarke would separate, one part of tenne. And a­gaine, to shew how the old Patriarkes came to the knowledge of this part, rather then of any other, the said Authour recordeth out of Hugo de Sancto Victore, Deum docu sse Adam divinum cultum, quo ejus benevolentiam recu­peraret, quam per peccatum transgres sionis ami­serat, ipsumquè docuisse filios sues dare deo Decimas & Primitias. Meaning, that Gods Divine Worship was immediately taught unto Adam by God himselfe, &c. And that Adam taught his sonnes to give Tythes and First fruits to the Lord. Certaine it is, that they brought their Offerings at a set time, and to a chosen place [Gods House] called by reason of the Lords more speciall presence there,See Gen. 4. Gods Face; that then and there they might offer unto the Lord, not immediately, but ra­ther mediately by Adam, the Priest of God: for so the Lord expounds our offering to him, Numbers 5.8. To the Lord, even to the Priest. Or, as it is in the 2 Chron. 15.11. The people are said to offer, when as they onely brought their Sacrifices, and the Priest offered for them.

Neither may this seeme strange: For among Gods people, from Adam to Moses, he that was the eldest of every family, was both the King, and the Priest over his owne family. Thus do the Hebrewes tell us, that the Priesthood was a per­petuall annexum to the Birth-right. Yea, thus doth Saint Hierome witnesse in more places of his writings,Hier. quaest. hebraic. et in Epist. 126. ad Evagr. then one. And wee also find it in those many priestly practises of the blessed Patriarkes. Saint Chrysostome likewise saith, that the Preroga­tive of Birth-right was great, whether it were by nature, or of grace. When Iacob and Esau there­fore strove about their Birth-right, they conten­ded not about a trifle, but about a matter of great weight and moment. And howsoever it was that in sundry families, there were sundry Priests; yet the eldest Patriarke then living, was as it were high Priest among them all:Bp. Mount. against Mr. Seld. c. 1. pag. 207, 208. Gen. 14.18. their office ceasing, or being suspended for a time, when a greater high Priest was present then themselves; witnesse that passage, which was betweene Abraham and Melchisedech. For though when Melchisedech was King and Priest of Salem, Abraham also was King and Priest over his owne family; yet Abra­hams office, yeelded, and gave place to Melchi­sedech, because hee was of an elder house, and so greater then Abraham. For this Melchisedech was Sem, Hier. tradit. in Genes. as the Hebrew Doctors also witnesse; and made the First-borne, not by birth, but by his FathersGen. 9.26.27. blessing. And indeed, seeing that [Page 211] Iaphets sonsAct. 2.5. fetch their religion from Salem; (whom God would perswade toGen 9.27. fetch it from Sems tents) who should ruleOr Ierusa­lem, as in Psal. 76.2. Salem, where God his Tabernacle should bee, rather then Sem?

Wherein wee may also note, that although there were Priests, and offerings before, yet is Melchisedech the first, who is directly said to be a Priest: and the first also that in direct termes is said to take Gods portion by the name of tythes. Yea, no sooner is hee said to be a Priest of God, but tythes areAbraham gave him tythes of all [Gen. 14.19 20] not by voluntary contribution, but by ne­cessary in­junction. witnesse both Melchisedechs superiority, as also the mea­ning of the word [...] in Heb. 7.6. paied to him; and those (even as was afterwards mentioned in the written Law) for the service that hee did. And what was that speciall service? As aFor thut doe Iosephus Rabbt Solo­mon (among the Iewes) and Cajetan among the the Papists, understand the place. Num. 6.23. & Num. 8.16. King hee brought forth Bread and Wine, to comfort both Abraham, and his souldiers: but as a Priest hee blessed him, namely, Abraham; and then tooke tythes, thesa cred due belonging to his holy function. It was no Ceremoniall, but Substantiall part, of the Priests office. It was among the Levites after­wards, who were chosen in stead of the First­born: Yea, and hath stil followed the Priesthood, from the times of Christ, and his Apostles, to our very dayes. It was done by Christ himselfe, Marke 10.16. Luke 24.50. It was by him commanded, and a promise granted to second it upon such, as readily received them that he sent, Luke 10.5. It was also practised by the blessed Apo­stles: and hath (as I said) still followed the Priesthood ever since, For according to that [Page 212]forme in the 2. Cor. 13.14. the Ministers of the Gospel, in all ages thereof, have continued to blesse the people: or, if otherwise, 'tis according to what is else where taught them; as in Phil. 4.7. Rom 15.33. Shall then the wages for this service be abolished? it cannot, it may not, it must not be. For to whom the selfe same power, and duty of blessing belongeth, as did to Melchisedech before the Law, and to the Priests and Levites under the Law, to them from the blessed ought the same dutie to be performed; that is, the tithes of all: but the Ministers of the Gospel have (as hath beene shewed) the same power and right of bles­sing the people; Therefore tythes are their due, as well as the due of the Priests before them. Thus then (as I said before) Priest-hood and Tythes are Relatives, Quorum uno posito, ponitur et alterum; et uno sublato, tollitur et alterum. For hee blessed Abraham, and received tythes of all; that for Melchisedech. Gen. 14 19.20. Heb. 7.1.2. Deut. 10, 9. Numb. 18.22. And againe, to blesse in his name: Wherefore the Lord is their Inheritance, and hath given them all the Tenth in Israel; That for the Levites.

Object. Object. 1 But it is objected, that Abraham paied the tythes of his spoyles, and not of his other goods: and therefore was not necessarily bound to the performance of this duty perpetually, at other times, and out of his other substance.

Answ. It is answered, that the word [...], Answ. (in Heb. 7.4.) translated, The spoyles of warre, [Page 213]doth signifie the Top, the Chiefe, the Principal, or best of anything; as well, or rather, then the spoyles of warre. And therefore, as hee gave Tythes of all [which is mentioned at the second verse] so de praecipuis, of the best of all: [...] that learned Authour speaketh) Hee give him the best of all for tythe. pag. [...]

But say wee should grant, that at this time Abraham gave onely the tythes of the spoyles; yet is it so farre from hindring the right of tythes, that it rather confirmeth all more fully. For if Abraham gave tythes of the spoyles, much more then of his owne goods, ordinarily, and at other times. The vow of Iacob doth well confirme it: where I am sure is nothing spoken concerning spoyles. For of all (saith he) which thou shalt give me, I will give the Tenth unto thee, Gen. 28.22. out of which words it appeareth how generall this practise was of paying tythes. It is most ma­nifest, that when hee spoke them,Gen. 32.10. hee had not wherewithall to performe the duty of such a payment: howbeit, because hee knew the equity of it, and had ordinarily seene the zealous per­formance of it, hee voweth not to be deficient in it, whensoever it should please the Lord to ena­ble him for the performance of it, as well as others of his kindred. Besides, if there were no other tythes given by Abraham to Melchisedech, but of those spoyles onely, why is this compared with Leviticall tythes, which were payed [Page 214]yeerely? It was therefore a common practise, as well then, as under the Law, to pay their tythes to Gods Priests: and so, what was done before the Law in these duties, can no more cease now after the Law, then Christ ceaseth to be a Priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedech.

Object. Object. 2 And secondly, whereas some object, that vowes are onely to be made of things indiffe­rent, and not of things necessary.Mr. Perrot Append. to Iacobs vow, pag 5. It is answered very fitly, that to forsake the Devill, and all his workes is a duty necessary; but wee may not onely vow this in Baptisme, but take the Sacra­ment afterwards of the Lords Supper, to bind us to the performance of the same vow.

Object. Object. 3 Oh, but say some, Iacob vowed tythes with condition; therefore they are not such as are contained in the Law of Nature.

Answ. It is answered, Answ. that albeit wee are bound without a vow, to the performance of Morall duties;See Doctor Carlt. of tythes. 6.2. pag. 8. yet neverthelesse it is nothing unlawfull to vow them, that thereby wee may be stirred up to the performance of them, with the more exact care, and fervent zeale. For be­side that, a vow serveth to shew a resolved, and willing mind, it also serveth to stirre up a diligent care. And so, though David was bound without an oath, or vow, to keepe the righteous judge­ments of the Lord, yet heeSee also concerning the vowing of morall du­ties, in 2 Chron. 15.12.13. bound himselfe by a solemne oath, Psalme 119. Verse 106. In like manner Iacob shewes his resolved, and wil­ling mind, desiring to be prompted forward to [Page 215]this duty by making of a vow. And whereas, it was conditionall; how could it bee otherwise? for hee that shall make a vow for the payment of his tythes, repairing Gods House, or giving almes to the poore, whilst hee wants meanes to per­forme these duties cannot make his vow de pre­senti, but de futuro; and that but sub conditione neither: namely, that when God shall blesse him with goods, he will then performe what now hee voweth. And thus I am sure it was with Ia­cob: for when he fled from his Fathers house, by reason of his brothers hatred, what had he more then his staffe, that he caried with him? Gen. 32.10

Hitherto then it well appeareth, that tythes be­long not, either to the Ceremoniail or Iudiciall Laws, for tythes were long before them; and are therefore due by the Morall Law, which bindeth all men, & at al times. And though perhaps Cap­tivity, War, or Persecution may sometimes put all things out of square, and cause them to be (as it were) suspended for a while de facto; yet the Ins, or right remaines in it selfe inalterable. Which ought therfore to teach, that in setled times, the fact be reduced again to his true Sic, as abinitio.

Obiect. Object. 4 But 'tis objected, that tythes were Cere­monies before the Law, as well as sacrifices.

Answ. To which I answer, Answ. that if tythes be com­pared with sacrifices, they cannot bee compared with any, but with such as were meerely; Eu­charisticall, nothing relating to Christ, as types of his great Sacrifice upon the Crosse. [Page 216]They come neer indeed to that of Cain and Abel, who payed to the supreme Lord of all a part of what he gave them; as formerly hath bin shewed: But to ranke them among the Figures, or Types of Christ, is altogether beside the scope of any thing intended in them. For first they are Gods; then by him assigned: and in that, if wee marke their end, there is no cause to dream of Ceremo­nie. For ( [...]s wee have already heard) their end of payment to the Priests, was for the maintenance of Gods worship; being due principally to the Service, and not to the Men, but for their Ser­vice sake. Insomuch, that so long as God hath his Church, and Officers belonging to it, tythes are due to those, who exercise therein the fun­ctions of their office: For why else were they paid to the Priests before the Law, as well as to the Priests under the Law? at which time in ex­presse words, it was thus written; I have chosen them in the stead of the first-borne; I have given the tythes for the service that they doe.

And albeit, some would make ten to be a num­ber of perfection,Aquin. sum. 2.2. q. 87. art. 1. resp. ad 1. Argument. and so a type of Christ; yet why it should be a more perfect number then se­ven, I cannot see. Aquinas himselfe cannot say, that it is any other then Quodam modo perfectus: and yet the Lambe, which was indeed a type of Christ, was to be without any blemish. And as for seven,Lib. 1. Moral. c. 11. as in Lip. in Gen. 2 in ancient times it was reckoned to bee the very summe of perfection. Certis simè scimus, [Page 217](sayth Saint Gegorie) quod Septenarium numerum Scriptura sacra pro perfectione ponere consvevit, &c. We know for certaine that the holy Scrip­ture useth to put the Seventh for a number of perfection: For sixe daies were spent before the workes of Creation were perfected, and on the Seventh God rested. Hinc etiam est, quod septi­mus dies in requiem hominibus, id est, in Sabbatho datus est. Hinc est quod Iubileus annus, in quo plena requies exprimitur, septem heb domadibus consumatur. Saint Austine likewise sayth, De septenarij numeri perfectione dici quidem plura pos­sunt, &c. Sed hoc satis sit admonere, De civit. Dei lib. 11. c. 31. quod totus impar primus numerus ternarius est; totus par qua­ternarius: ex quibus duobus Septenarius constat. Thus he: by which it appeareth, that Seven (rather than Ten) was held to be the most perfect number.

Besides, all that perfectnesse which is sayd to be in Ten, is not so much as it is a number, but as Art hath taught us how to write our numbers, or how to divide them into Simple and Com­pound; which I take to bee for plainnesse of teaching, and reckoning, rather than for any thing else. Men I confesse may straine their wits if they please, to bring a Quidlibet ex quolibet, and yet may be farre enough from the thing ay­med at, which in this case is plaine enough: be­cause the end mentioned in Gods assignation, sheweth why Tythes were paid, although we in­vent [Page 218]no new causes never read nor heard off, till the corrupt times of the Church.

Oh but though they were no ceremonies, Object. 5 yet they might be judicialls: that is, they might be paid in their proportion of a Tenth, by determi­nation of the judiciall Law.

Whereto I answere, Answ. that this also must needs be false, as is apparent even in what hath beene said to prove that they are not ceremoniall. Be­side which, this may be added; namely, that the judiciall Lawes of Moses, were onely concer­ning things common, or outward actions; wher­by the civill societie of the Israelites ought to be governed. It was a Law medling onely in things appertaining to men, not at all belonging to any other than to things of common use. And if so, then Tythes are beyond the reach of such a Law: for they are seperated from common use,Levit. 27. Numb 18. they are holy to the Lord; and devoted to the Priests for the service that they doe.

And againe, the newnesse of these two last o­pinions overthrow them. For first, that Tythes are ceremonies, no man ever thought, till about an hundred yeares agoe, or little more. Second­ly, that they are judicialls, was first broached by one of our owne Countrimen; Alexander de Hales, the Master of Bonaventure, and of Tho­mas Aquinas. He flourished about the yeare of our LordOr 1230. as some o­thers reckon. 1240, and dyed in the tenth yeare after; to wit, in the yeare 1250. In which pas­sage [Page 219]I cannot but take up D. Carletons observa­tion: Namely, that after the Pope had through corruption made Tythes away from their proper Churches by Impropriations, then to salve up this corruption, least it might have been thought open sacriledge; these devices were first inven­ted, being as pat for the Popes purpose as could be imagined; of which more shall bee spoken afterwards.

Oh but some (perhaps) will say, Object. 6 that the ci­vill Magistrate may deale in matters of Religion, and may therefore set downe the quotitie, or stint of the Priests maintenance.

I answer here with Master Robarts, Answ. that the Magistrate may provide, that God may receive what he hath required, but may not appoint him what he shall require. For when hee tooke the Levites to himselfe, and for his service (instead of the first-borne) no man might be suffered to proportion the quota pars of their allowance,Numb. 18.21. what they were to have was by Gods appoint­ment. For I (sayth he) I have given, &c.

The Lawes therefore which have beene made insundry places of the Christian world, concer­ning the paying of Tythes, are not to be recko­ned as the fountaines from whence wee claime our right; but rather to bee taken as good and wholesome Laws, made in favour of the Church, for the maintenance of divine right, and for re­strayning the filthie wickednesse of such devou­rers, [Page 220]as would not have payd them, had not the feare of humane Lawes beene more powerfull with them, than the Law of God. Audi ergo in­devota mortalitas! for this is the true and onely end of such Christian Lawes, as will better ap­peare if I mention some; which I shall do, and those of no farre fetcht proceedings neither: but of the ancient Kings, Bishops, and Nobles of our owne Land.

I. And first in the yeare 786, with the full consent of the Lords, both spirituall and tempo­rall, there was a generall Synod held under Elf­wold King of Northumberland, and Offa King of Merceland; where among other words to the same purpose, thus we reade: Therefore we adjure all men that they studiously endeavoure to pay the Tenth of all that they have [quia speciale domini Dei est] because the Tenth is God's speciall part.

II. In the yeare 855, King Ethelulph made a Law concerning Tythes: Totam terram suam ad opus Ecclesiarum decumavit propter amorem Dei & redemptionem sui: In the conclusion of which grant, this is added. Qui autem augere voluerit nostram donationem, augeat, &c. That is, But if any will be willing to augment this our donation, the Lord Almightie make his dayes prosperous: Si quis vero minuere vel matare praesumpserit, &c. But if any shall presume either to lessen or change the same, let him know that he shall give an account for [Page 221]it: Ante Tribunal Christi, nisi prius satisfactione emendaverit: that is, Hee shall give an account for it before the Tribunall of Christ, unlesse before that time he make satisfaction for the same.

III. In the yeare 930, or thereabouts, King Athelstan made a Law for Tythes, and grounded it upon the example of Iacob, and athoritie of certaine Texts in the holy Scripture; whose words, concerning his owne goods, to his Stew­ards and Overseers, be these. Vt imprimis de meo proprio reddant Deo decimas.

IV. About the yeare 940, in a great Synod held under King Edmond, it was strictly enacted; That all Christians should pay their Tythes, upon forfeitur, of their Christendome.

V. Neere about the same time were certaine Constitutions made by Odo. Arch-bishop of Canterburie: in the tenth Chapter whereof we reade the same adjuration which we read before in the lawes of Elfwold, and Offa.

VI. And in a Councell held under King E­theldred, about the yeare 1010, Declmationes frugum & vitulorum & agnorum &c. Domino, per singulos annos, temporibus rependantur con­gruis.

VII. Also in some of the Lawes of the sayd Etheldred, thus. Et nemo auferat Deo, quod ad Deum pertinet, the words being spoken concer­ning Tythes.

VIII. And in the Lawes of King Knout, thus [Page 222]we reade: Reddantur Deo debitae rectitudines an­nis singulis: that is, let God have his dues year­ly payd him.

IX. And againe, in the Lawes made by King Edward the Confessour concerning Tythes, this is written: Decima garba Deo debita est, & ideo reddenda: that is, The tenth sheafe is due to God, &c. And againe, Decima pars ei reddenda est qui novem partes simul cum decima largitur: that is, The tenth part ought to be payd unto him, who giveth the nine parts together with the tenth.

X. And in the 21 yeare of King Henry the Second, among other things, this was decreed; as in a Synod at Rosne, viz. Omnes Decimae terrae (sive de frugibus, sive de fructibus) Domini sunt, & illi sanctificantur: All the Tythes of the Land (whether the increase of the Earth, or of Trees) are the Lords, and sanctified to him.

By all which Tenne testimonies (beside other which might be gathered.) it well appeareth, that these godly Kings grounded their Lawes, for the performance of this dutie of paying Tythes upon the Law of God: and did not declare that by vertue of their Lawes they were first of all due; but, that by vertue of their Lawes the jus divinum was upheld, and the obedience there­unto commanded. Wherfore, where such lawes are enacted, the Clergie may take up that old Grace, and say,

Deo gratias, quod nos satias, bonis Rusticorum, contra voluntates eorum.

Which I English thus:

The Lord be thanked for this good banket,
Which comes from the Hinds, against their minds

And sure (mee thinks) hitherto the passages are all cleare; and nothing to the contrary, but that the Tenth is stil the Churches due. Lesse cannot, because the Ministery of the Gospel is in it selfe farre more glorious, than the Ministery of the Law. When we therefore speake unto Lay-men concerning these things, wee may fitly say unto them, as Pilates wife said unto her husband. For as shee said, Have thou nothing to doe with that just man; so may wee say, Have yee nothing to doe with these holy things; They are separate, and set apart from common use: which separation of such a portion, in case it had beene made but by men, yet were it dangerous to alter it: wit­nesse that direfull judgement in the fatall storie of Ananias and Saphira, of which I have spoken a little before.

Oh, but say some, Object. 7 the Clergy doth but betray their covetousnesse, in pleading thus strongly for outward things.

And is it so indeed? Answ. why then have Lay-men (the more their honour) wrote in defence of what [Page 224]wee claime?See his re­ports, in Bp. of Winch. case. Sir Edward Cook, Sir Henry Spil­man, Sir Iames Sempill; those men of note have laboured to expell this sinne of Sacriledge, have bent their forces point blanke against it; and shal Clergy-men (whom it more neerely concernes to rebuke the world of sinne) bee forced to hold their peace, and stay their pens, or else be cove­tous? Wee plead indeed, but doe not strive im­modestly, when wee demand by an orderly pro­ceeding, that portion which the word of God assigneth to us. Nor secondly, is hee to bee ac­counted covetous, who asketh but his own. They are indeed covetous, and injurious too, who de­taine the good from the owner thereof, who rob Aram Dominicam to furnish Haram Domesticam: Or, in a word, thus; some who thus object are covetous: others are prodigall, and some are proud. The very covetous are scarce content to allow themselves things necessary and conveni­ent; and therefore no marvell to see them grudge at their payments to the Church, Poore, or to their Ministers. The Prodigall thinkes all too little for himselfe; and therefore is loath to spare any thing from the feeding of his owne unthrifty vanities. And last of all, the proud (like Corah and his company) thinke Ministers take too much upon them; They scorne, they contemne, they despise to be ruled by them: and therefore (being without religion) they judge it good policie to curtall the Ministers maintenance, that by that [Page 225]meanes they may keepe him under, and do what they list.

Object. Oh, Object. 8 but Christ and his Apostles tooke no tythes; they were content with a poore and meane estate: therefore the Ministers of the Go­spel may not be rich; they may not claime the Tenth as their proper due.

Answ. This was (as Master Robarts well obser­veth) at the first the subtilty of the crafty Friars to undermine the Incumbents, Answ. and beneficed Cu­rates, and is now the practise of not a few to se­duce such, as are either envious, or ignorant. It is indeed requisite as well for Ministers, as for all other Christians, both to bee, and to seeme re­gardlesse of worldly things: yet must we not be (as hee againe observeth) either so superstitious, as to fling away and abhorre, or so carelesse as to despise, or specially so bad as to betray that faire portion, wherewith God hath endowed our callings.

Neither againe secondly, is it a fit argument to say, because things were thus and thus in the be­ginning of the Gospel, under an heathen Magi­strate, and in such times, as persecution made ha­vocke of the Church, and put all things out of square, that therefore they ought not to have bin otherwise. Things were then so well, as the times and occasions would suffer; not so well as by de­grees they came afterwards to be: and yet (even then) could the Apostle urge the Lords ordi­nance [Page 226]to be still of force; and that the Hearers ought to communicate to their Teachers in all their goods. Which liberty (though lawfull) they could not but suspend for a time, for feare of hin­dring a new plantation: and so the Apostle speak­eth in the first Epistle to the Corinthians, Chap. 9. Verse 12. Howbeit, the fact doth not alwayes prove the Right; no not in this very thing: as it is at the 4.5, and 6. verses of the forenamed Chapter; nor ever were things setled, or brought into their due order on a sudden; witnesse both our owne experience in what wee have seene, as also the experience which Paul himselfe had of the first times: why else did hee say, That the rest he would set in order when he came, 1 Cor. 11.34? And therefore (to speake in the words of a learned Writer) as Circumcision was laide aside for a time,Dr. Carlt. of tythes, c. 4. pag 22. whilst Israel travelled through the wildernesse: not because the people of right ought not then also to have used it: but because it was so incommodious for that estate and time of the Church,See Iosh. Chap. 5. that it could not without great trouble be practised: Even so the use of tythes in the time of Christ and his Apostles was laid aside; not because it ought not, but because it could not, on the suddaine, without great incon­venience be admitted. And as Circumcision was resumed as soon as the estate of the Church could beare it: so tythes were reestablished, as so one as the condition of the Church could suffer it.

Besides; the Apostles, as their callings to the Ministery were immediate; so their gifts were extraordinary: and therefore Saint Paul could preach without study; and so had much spare time for other busines, wherein it was conveni­ent for the present to get his living, rather then to require the tythes and offerings, as was wont to be done of old, by those who did the service; And why not require them, I have already shew­ed: Wereas wee, though God hath given us gifts, and these of sundry measures, yet without study wee cannot doe so with them, as is fit wee should. Wee therefore study both to increase them, and also profitably to employ them. And so doing wee have more reason to claime our just dues, then they of the first times: For meanes you know is requisite; if for no other cause, yet for this: that wee may bee the better furnished with Bookes, and such necessary helpes, as may make us the more able, to goe on the more powerfully in the workes of our calling; praying alwayes for Gods blessing upon our labours, and studious endeavours: for it is not labour alone without prayer; nor prayer without paines-taking that can doe it. I my selfe have knowne this example, of Saint Pauls working with his owne hands, not seldome urged against the honourable main­tenance of our present Clergy: but we see (God be thanked) that it is to very little purpose. It was not ordinary for all the Apostle to doe the [Page 226] [...] [Page 227] [...] [Page 228]like: nor yet out of the power of either Paul or Barnabas to have done other wise. For which see the proofe, in the 1 Cor. 9.5.6.

Moreover, tythes were payed to the Priests and Levites, in the time of Christ and his Apo­stles. And we know that the Iewish Synagogue must be first buried, before these duties could bee ordinarily performed towards the Ministers of the Gospel: and so, when the Synagogue was buried, and the state of the Church of Christ such, as could beare the practise of paying tythes, they were brought into use, in the Church of Christ, as formerly in the dayes of the Iewish Synagogue.

Also, in the Churches nonage, or first infancy, her Ministers were but few, and unsetled: where­as afterwards they were otherwise, and must then be hospitable, ready to entertaine, and be freely devoted to workes of Charity: but without thier due revenew how could they performe any part of this duty? for Charity wee know begins at home; and a man must first have wherewithall, before he can give.

It was not long therefore, before order was taken for their honourable maintenance. Some­thing vvas done at the very first; vvherein some Churches (as Saint Paul speaketh) vvere more forward then others were: and unto this vvas added daily more and more; not in one kind alone,Mr. Rob. pag. 61. but in a second. Insomuch, that in a short [Page 229]space provision was made for the Ministers of the Church two manner of wayes; partly by the bounty of well disposed people, which tooke place at the first: and partly by tythes and offe­rings (as soone as might bee) which were paid them More Levitarum, as formerly to the Le­vites. And herein Zanchie hath well collected what wee find in ancient Writers, viz. that these revenues both of tythes and offerings were wont to be paid to the Bishop of each Diocesse; at whose direction they were distributed among the Ministers, appertaining to every such division. For in the beginning of those times, the whole Clergy did in common attend the whole flocke, the Bishop and the Ministers for the most part li­ving (as it were) in common together. But when the Church began more and more to stretch out her armes over the world, or when the state of it did require another course; namely, that par­ticular men should bee assigned to particular Cures, constantly to reside among them (for by that meanes they could the better see to them, ad­monish, exhort, and comfort them) then every Minister had the tythes and oblations of his own parish: which fitly agreeth to that questionary direction of blessed Saint Paul; Who feedeth a flocke, and eateth not of the milke of the stocke? Say I these things as a man? or saith not the Law the same also?

And now suppose it could be proved, that the [Page 230]Primitive times paied no tythes for a long while together; no, not till towards the end of the first foure hundred yeeres; yet were this nothing against that right which the Church had alwayes to them. If the inconveniences which Persecu­tion brought upon the Church, was an hinde­rance concerning practise, what were this against the Right. A facto ad jus (as I have already shew­ed) is no good argument. And indeed [without suppose] this is certaine, that the practise, as well as the right, was manifested long before foure hundred yeares. I shall produce some testimo­nies, and then passe on to the first times of their alienation; declaring likewise the successe that it found in after-times among such as delighted to strip the Church of these holy dues.

1. Origen shall be first: he was famous about the yeare of our Lord 226, and thus hee sayth. Quia unus est author omnium, Homil. 16. in Genes. & fons & initium unus est Christus: ideirco & populus Decimas quidem Ministris & Sacerdotibus praestat, which is, Becacuse there is one Authour of all, one foun­taine, one beginning, even one Christ; therefore the people payeth Tythes to the Ministers and Priests.

2. Saint Austine also (who was borne in the yeare 350) hath recorded, that the paying of Tythes was practised long before his time. For Majores nostri Decimas dabant: Homil. 48. in­ter quinque bomil. Our Ancestours payed tythes. And if his Ancestors, then a pra­ctice [Page 231]of greater antiquitie than himselfe. Ideo co­pijs abundant, quia Deo Decimas dabant, &c. They therefore abounded with plenty, because they payed their Tythes unto God. See also his 219 Sermon De tempore, which is wholy for paying of Tythes.

3. And Saint Ambrose, who was famous a­bout the yeare 374; admonisheth concerning due care in the practice of this dutie:Serm. 34. in­seria 3. post prim. Dom. Quadrages. whose words be these. Quicunque recognoscit in se quod sideliter Decimas suas non dederit, modo emendet quod minus secit: That is, whosoever knowes in himselfe, that he hath not faithfully payed his Tythes, let him amend what's amisse.

4. And in the imperfect worke upon Saint Mathew, sayd to be Chrysostomes (who flouri­shed about the yeare 398) it is thus written.Homil. 44. Quod si Decimas populus non attulerit, murmurant om­nes.

All which wee see is spoken concerning pra­ctice, which must needes be more ancient than these men (as by their words appeareth) although we cannot declare in what yeare of the Primitive times it first began.

Neither (upon a further view) can we finde that there was any manifest or remarkeable cor­ruption in this practice, untill a long while after. No manifest corruption in practise concerning the alienation of Tythes, from the Ministers do­ing the service, into any other hand, untill the [Page 232]dayes of Carolus Martellus Major of France, who came to that office about the yeare 714, as Cal­visius writeth: and looke what he did was upon this occasion. When those Barbarous people, the Hunnes, Gothes, [...] Rob pag. 74. out of Gagwin hist. of France, lib. 4. and Vandals were become lords of Italie, and the Sarazens began to set themselves against France; Charles Martell was chosen to goe out with an Armie against them, but would by no meanes undertake that charge, untill he had gotten the Clergie of the sayd king­dome to resigne their Tythes into his hands, that thereby he might maintaine the Warre; promi­sing and protesting that when the Warres were ended, he would restore againe unto them their owne, and that with advantage. To which re­quest, the Church and Clergie there yeelded; partly through feare of being spoyled by the enemie, and partly by the faire promises of this new chosen Captaine. But the Warre being en­ded, and the enemie conquered; he broke his promise with the Clergie, dealt perfidiously with them, and gave the Revenue of Tythes among such of his Souldiers as hee thought good to re­ward. This was done about the yeare of our Lord 740,Calvis. Chron. little lesse than a yeare (or therea­bouts) before the sayd Martells death: for hee dyed in the yeare 741, upon the 22 day of Octo­ber. His story is recorded by many, and they very ancient Authours.See Dr. Til­lesely, c. 5. Ivo in his Chronicle, calls him Tutudi, and sayth; this Tutudi (who [Page 233]by his people was called Martellus) because siel­dome he had peace in his Kingdome, gave (for the most part) the Church estate for wages to his Souldiers: who being dead, and buried in St. Dennis Church, on the left side of the great Altar, was seene by night in the shape of a great Dragon, breaking the Sepulchre, to go out of the glasse windowes with great terrour. Thus he. But whether this last of his carrying out of the Grave betrue, yea, or no, it makes no matter, nor will I contend about it. Certaine it is, that he was a notable Church-robber: For Boniface Arch­bishop of Mentz (who lived at the same time) complaines likewise of him; and is a witnesse that he tooke away Monasteries, Bishoprickes, Church-rents, and possessions from the Clergie, and prophaned them, to Lay-hands as are ward of their military service then done against the Sa­razens. And for any man to thinke that Tythes were no part of this great Sacriledge, is to affirme that the Church as yet had no such Rents: whereas it is witnessed by the foresayd Boniface, That the milke and wooll of Christs sheepe, was re­ceived in his times, and the Lords flocke was neg­lected: received (I say) Oblationibus quotidianis, ac Decimis fid lium; In the dayly oblations and Tythes of the faithfull. And in the dayes of the second Councell at Mascon (a Bishopricke in the Diocesse of Lions) in the yeare 586 (which was 155 yeares before Martells death) Churches [Page 234]had their tenths payd them out of that annuall increase, wherewith God Almightie blessed his people. Nor hath it but beene alreadySee also St. Cyprian epist. 66. sou lib. 1. epist. 9. where memion is made of pay­ing of tythes. He flourished about the yeare 240. shewed, that Tythes were payd in the dayes of Origen, Ambrose, Austine, and Chrisostome. And in the relation of the Centuriatours (who quoted what they sayd, from Aventine) mention is made that Carloman restored Tythes formerly taken away by Martell. And so also sayth Gol­distus in his edition 1613; although in his edi­tion 1610, hee mentions them by the name of Pecunia Ecclesialis: which is no great advantage neither, but may bee well interpreted by the word Decimae, as a generall, by a speciall. But howsoever, what is one Authour against more? and yet this one, in his last thoughts is nothing differing, but speakes just like those other already mentioned.

Well then, without further question, here was the originall of Infeodations, and first beginning of lamentable Sacriledge in the alienation of Tythes from the Ministers, or Churches, to the which they were payd.

And in the summe of the whole answere note, that at the first they that had possessions sold them, and brought the money to the Apostles; this was about Ierusalem. And in other Churches collections were made, both for the necessities of the Saints, and of the Ministers. Then after this, it was thought more convenient rather, that [Page 235]such as were minded to give, should give the Lands themselves, rather (I say) than the price of them, that thereby they might remaine as a perpetuall helpe to the Church. Here began the endowment of the Church with Gleab; and this is commonly attributed (out of Polidore Virgil, Polid. De in­vent. lib. 6. c. 10. and others) to the dayes of Urban the first, who was in theCalvis. in Chron. yeare 224: about which time Origen spake of Tythes, as of things then payd, I have alreadie shewed it. And before Parishes were divided, these were at the disposing of the Bi­shop, and payd unto him for the use of the Cler­gie within the Diocesse. But Parishes being di­vided, which was in the dayes of Dennis the first, aboutSee Folid. Virg lib. 4. c. 6. the yeare 266, they were annexed to the Priests of particular Cures. For the defence of whom (that they might not bee wronged in their dues) there were certaine temporall men appointed, either by godly Kings, or by such as gave Lands to the Church, to bee Patrons of Churches, or Defensores Ecclesiarum; who might be readie to defend the Churches rights. And yet perhaps some particular parishes (which were by reason of such Churches as were of Lay foun­dations) were not knowne till some while after: and yet not so long after as some have thought; For, by the fourth Canon of the Councell of Arausicanum (held in the yeare 441.) it appear­eth, that Parish Oratories, and Churches of Lay­foundations, were even then to beseene.

But what need I loose my selfe in this argu­ment? for let a man take these things which way hee pleaseth, yet still hee may see that tythes (as well as other Church goods) belonged, and were generally paid to the Clergy, either in their own Cures, or to the Bishops for them, before the dayes of Charles Martell, who was the first that brought in the most manifest corruption concer­ning their alienation: for albeit Iulian robbed the Church, yet hee did it as a Persecutor, from whom no lesse could be expected. And although the successors of Martel were more honest, and restored somewhat backe againe, taking in Lease from the Churches (in regard of the imminent warres, and many invasions of the enemy) such parts as were retained; and doing all this with great circumspection, hoping that under the favour of God in this necessity, they might thus, and not otherwise without prejudice doe it: yet the former example of Charles Martel was the more powerfull, and in succeeding times proved but as a dangerous Load-starre to direct divers other countries to imitate his practise, and to prophane their greedy hands with the Priests maintenance, while on the other side the Pope did as fast appropriate Parsonages to Abbies and Nunneries; which in those blind times was thought to bee no wrong; it being commonly conceited, that preaching bred nothing but here­sies, [Page 237]schismes, and contentions: and that there­fore there was no better way to save soules, then by the devotions of Monkes and Friars. Which also was a cause, as superstition more and more increased, to get no small portions fraudulently from the hands of the deceived Laity; it being a constant practise to give and give evermore to those idle Droanes, and fat-bellied Houses, that thereby they might have the more speedy passage out of feigned Purgatory. To which likewise adde, how the Popes againe (although they would have somewhat restrained the covetousnes of the Monkes, when they saw the greatnesse of it) fixed upon another project. For, that they might enrich their Favourites, friends, and kin­dred, they would not seldome convert the tythes to their uses.

And now, to countenance and helpe forward these practises, with a colour of warrantable pro­ceedings, Alexander de Hales began to broach a new Doctrine, concerning the right of tythes, ne­ver knowne nor heard of among the ancient Fa­thers. For this was the Doctrine of the Fathers, both Greek and Latine, that tythes are due to the Ministers of the Gospel, by the word of God, se­cundum literam, literally and precisely, as they were in the old Testament to the Priests of the Law: whereas this Hales (who was about the yeare 1230) taught otherwise; namely, that it [Page 238]was a part of the Morall Law, naturally written in the heart, that something should be paied: but as for the Quota pars, it had its dependance meerly upon the Iudiciall Law; and so the Tenth was onely positively due, and no otherwise: due ac­cording as the Lawes positively should deter­mine. In which Doctrine was inferred, that they who might make the Lawes indetermination of the Quotitie which was to be paid, might alienate, to severall uses, as much out of that portion as they pleased. The Schoole-men went after him in the same steps, & to the utmost of their power strained their wits for the upholding of such a politike opinion. Howbeit, the event proved af­terwards extreamely pernicious: First, in occa­sioning that heresie which held them as Almes: And secondly, in giving occasion also to the civil power, to take from the Church not only the ju­risdiction of tythes, but to alienate them in the end from the Church & Church-men to a meere civill use. Wherein yet one thing is observeable, that (although the times were darke) there was al­wayes some or other (beside the Canonists) who opposed the abbettours of this new doctrine, and taught this point of tything, not after the corrupt tenets of the School-men, but as the Fathers had done before them: of which you may reade more in Dr. Carletous history of tythes, Chap. 5. And for the doctrine of the Fathers, see Doctor Tillesley in his Catalogue of 72. testimonies, [Page 239]cleane contrary to what was taught by Hales, Aquinas, and the rest. And last of all; why, and how, they are within the compasse of the Morall, and not Ceremoniall, or Iudicial Lawes, (no, not for their Quotitie) I have already shewed. And therefore, as known by, & paid in the name, and portion of a Tenth part, before the Law. un­lesse a man could find, somewhere in Gods word, an expresse command to the contrary. For looke but unto the time of the Law it selfe, which was the middle time between the time of Nature and of Grace, and you shall find (I grant) that the worship of God, in regard of the manner there­of, is ceased since the Passion of Christ: but God hath caused the ceasing of so much as is ceased, Ephes. 2.15. Colos. 2.14. And looke what was not abrogated by Christ, that still remaineth, as being the substance which is perpetual.Mr. Rob. re­venue of the Gosp. pag. 10. So also of Gods right or portion, which he had in the time of the Law, some parts are ceased, viz. those fragments of the Sacrifices, which were the shares of the Priests; for even the Sacrifices themselves, being types of Christ to come, are fulfilled and abolish­ed in, and by Christ being come. But tythes (as hath beene proved) were no types of Christ, nei­ther in their substance, nor in their circumstance, but were only the maintenance of Gods publike worship; which being perpetuall, they also are perpetual. In a word, they did belong to the wor­ship of God before there was a Leviticall wor­ship; [Page 240]and when they were paid to the Levites, they did but follow Gods worship, as being prin­cipally due to the service, and not to the men, but for the service sake: and so also still; such must be their end of Assignation. For Levi should have had as little portion in them, as any of the other Tribes, if God had not chosen him from the rest to the Ministery, Num. 18.21. And as for Lay-men (besides this, that they doe no service) the very name of Impropriation pleads against them. I shall stil therefore urge, that what the Patriarkes, and old people of the Iewes practised by the Law of nature, or the rule of right reason, or by inspi­ration of Gods spirit many hundred yeers before the Ceremoniall or Leviticall Law was given, are not to be ranked among Iudaicall Ceremonies, which were fulfilled in our Saviour Christ, and were by him taken away, & nailed to his Crosse.

This is all: for I know nothing else of moment which can bee objected. And therefore here an end of this Discourse; which may be, to the faul­ty, a Correction of their errours, if they will: if not, they have just cause to feare it as a witnesse one day to bee brought forth against them. For what have I done, but declared such truths as the Scriptures, Fathers, Councils, and other Histo­ries of good authority have recorded?

Soli Deo gloria.


[...] [Page] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [Page 1] [...] [Page 2] [...] [Page 3] [...] [Page 4] [...] [Page 5] [...] [Page 6] [...] [Page 7] [...]

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. Searching, reading, printing, or downloading EEBO-TCP texts is reserved for the authorized users of these project partner institutions. Permission must be granted for subsequent distribution, in print or electronically, of this EEBO-TCP Phase II text, in whole or in part.