MADAME, the late pestilence in Couentrie, which occasioned my translation &c. of this Hi­storie, moved me also, in part, to addresse the same unto your Honour.

For being altogether restrained then, from free practise of my profession abroad, & no lesse impatient of idle­nesse at home, I could not readily thinke of a better course to spend that vacation, than in an Argument having a reference to mine old Grammaticall Muses, and according; in some [...]ort, with my latter studies in Physick. What howres therfore, either the doubt­ful or diseased estate of my neighbours, together with the meditati­ons of mine owne mortalitie would afford, I employed gladly in the said Subiect.

Againe, for as much as the selfe same cause debarred me from accesse unto your house at Combe (a dutie that otherwise the vi­cinitie of our aboad did require) I fully resolued at the finishing of those my Sedentary labours, to presēt the same to your view: therby to sheild my selfe (whom it pleased you before time to grace with kind entertainmēt) from the iust imputation of rude negligence in that behalfe. But now, since the same citie so dangerous the yeare before, is become a retyring place of safety for your Houshold, & hath to mee alreadie yeelded fit opportunitie to excuse my former absence personally by word of mouth, I have presumed nevertheles to dedicate the same unto your Honour, as a token of my thankeful­nesse for your bounteous favour, farre above the proportion of my [Page] deserts, and an earnest penny of that propense minde, which I carie to honour your name, in the best maner I could deuise.

And verily calling to my remembrance how courteously you have vouchsafed heretofore to accept even at second hand my trauailes in this kinde, and with good words testified oftentimes the content­ment you received therin, I had no reason to doubt the like accep­tance of that which out of a loving and devote heart I offer first unto your selfe.

Lastly, when I consider, how together with sincere pietie, rare wisdome, and other eminent vertues, there is seated in your person a singular affection to advance good literature, with an extraordi­narie respect of learned men, I knew no means out of my small fortunes to do you greater honour, than by entituling you as Patro­nesse of that, which may benefit young Scholers, my countrimen, that would be learned: to give knowledge unto the word, that all the profit or pleasure whatsoever, which shall grow unto them, from these endeavours of mine, are derived immediatly from you and for your sake bestowed upon them.

These motives, right Honorable, as well of my first enterprise, as of chusing your Patronage, if it please you to approue, (the onely thing that I humbly crave at your hand for this present) I shall not only thinke my pains well taken and choise as well made: prising your acceptance to the worth of a competent guerdon: but also con­tinue my hearty prayers unto the Almightie for your perfect health, proceeding in a vertuous course of life, with increase of true Honour here upon earth, and after the revolution of many new yeares, for eternall happinesse in the highest Heaven.

Your Honours most readie at command, Philêmon Holland.

To the Readers.

THAT yee may with better contentment reade these Historicall reports of the twelve first CEASARS, which SVETONIVS hath de­livered most truely, compiled as compendiously, and digested right methodically; I have thought it good with some few advertisments praemised, to commend the same unto you.

First therefore, whereas by the iudgement of the best learned, and the Analogie of other Histories, hee seemeth to affect nothing so much as uncorrupt & plaine trueth, (the prin­cipall vertue of an Historiographer) for bearing to meddle with those Nerv [...], Traia [...] ▪ and Hadri­ [...]nus [...] secretarie he wa [...]. Emperours in whose daies he flourished; because he would not thrust himselfe into danger by revea­ling, nor betray the libertie of a writer in concealing the faults; much lesse incurre the note of Flatterie, extolling above measure the good parts of Princes then living; and to that purpose penned their lives, who were lately deceased, as one said very well, eadem libertate qua ipsi vixerunt: if happlie in prosecuting of this point, he hath recorded ought that may be offensive to chast and modest mindes, yee shal do well to glaunce over with your eye such places lightly, as I with my pen touched vnwillingly.

Secondly, for as much as he continueth in generall the Narrations of the said Princes, from before their Nativitie unto their Death & Funerals: and in the severall discourses, of their ages, affaires, vertues, vices, feature & lineaments of bodie, first, after an uniform maner, proposeth throughout certain heads summarily, and then exemplyfieth the same in due order by perticulers (a most lightsome method and way of teaching) keeping him selfe still to the Subiect matter, without any digressions at all: my advise is, that for your more expedite course in reading the whole, yee direct your minde thereunto. Now, for that his IVLIVS CHASAR sorteth not with the rest, but appeareth [...] as whose aun­cestours, birth, childhoode, &c. be not set downe; (which maime I impute rather to the iniurie of time, than unto the purpose or oversight of the Authour) I have in some sort supplyed that defect, with the labours of LEVVIS VIVES, TORRENTIVS and others, which I finde praefixed in the last and best Editions.

Thirdly, considering that brevitie is many times the mother of Obscuritie, may it please those among you, who are not so conuersant in such concise writings, as admit not one word superfluous, to have recourse, for the clearing of some doubts unto the margin, as also to those briefe Annotations, which for their sakes, out of mine owne readings, to­gether with the select observations of BEROALDVS, SABELLICVS, TORRENTIVS and CASAVBONVS I have collected. Which also will ease them of many difficulties that his succinct style and termes, not elswhere obvious, interlaced, may otherwise breed.

Finally, if there happen to occur some Errata, that might escape either my pen in wri­ting, or the ordinarie diligēce of meane Correctors in the printing ye will of your iudi­cious candour, I hope, either passe them over with connivency, if they be literall, or else taxe with some easie censure in case they bee materiall: So long as for your full satis­faction, ye may with small paines before yee begin either to read or iudge, correct what is amisse, according to the Examen and Review annexed to the end of all.



THE IVLIAN linage, as most men are perswaded, is descended from Ascanius Iülus, the sonne of Aeneas by Creusa: which Iülus, after he had left Lavinium, built long Alba: wherein also he reigned. Others, grounding vpon a more assured evidence, have thought it good to de­rive the same rather from Iülus the son of Ascanius. For when after the death of (this) Ascanius▪ the Kingdome of the Latines was devol­vedor retur­ned unto againe upon Sylvius the sonne of Aeneas and Lavinia, the charge of Religion & sacred ceremonies of the Latin and Troian Nation both, remained yet still in the race and progenie of Iülus: out of which are sprung the Iulij. These (Iulij) with certaine other most noble families of Latium, Tullus Hosti­lius King of the Romanes, after he had rased Alba, translated to Rome, and raunged among the [...]. Late it was, [...]re they rose and mounted to high place of Magistracie; but were recko­ned almost in the last ranke of the [...] of auncient Nobilitie: & of them, the Iüli [...]are the [...] [...]. For C. Iulius, (sonne of Lucius) surnamed also Iülus, was Consull together with P [...] [...] Rufus, in the yeare after the foundation of Rome citieor rather 265, accor­ding to the Chronolo­gy annexed unto Titus Livius. 264. AndBy the computati­on of Dio­nyfius, T. Livius, C [...]s­siodorus & others. seaven yeeres after,C. Iulius, or Iūlus. his sonne, with Q. Fabius Vibulanus (Consull) the second time. Againe, some space of time comming betweene, Vopiscus Iulius, sonne of Caius and Nephew of Lucius, bare the Consulshippe with L. Aemiliusal. Ma­mercusMamercinus third time Consull, in the yeereor 28 [...], af­ter the Chro­nologie a­foresaid of Dionyfius. 280. I finde likewise, that in the yeeremore tru­ly 303 302. Caius Iulius, sonne of Caius, and nephew of Lucius, was a decemvir for the enacting and [...] of Lawes, and that in the former Ele­ction of that Magistracie: as also, that Caius Iulius sonne of Caius and Nephew of Caius, be­came Consull with Marcus Geganius Macerinus, in the yeare307, by Livius ac­ [...] 306. and the selfe same man a second time, with Lucius Verginius Trirostus in the yeere319. 320. 4 [...]7 318: and immediately in theSo [...] ­med. yeere next following, a third time, with the same Verginius now twice Consull. And thus much for the Iūli. For to reherse and collect all them of that familie, together with the honorable places of everie one, which were many in number, and of sundry kindes; is not our purpose: and besides, the thing it selfe is apparent and upon record in the publick Registers.

Moreover, I have observed in the Iulian line, a certaine house also of the Mentones: and among them, one Caius Iulius, colleague in the Consulshippe with T. Quint [...]s Pennus Cincin­natus, in the 322. yeere after the foundation of the citie. I finde likewise, Caius Iulius Denter to be master of the Horsemen, when Caius Claudius Cr [...]ssus Sabinus Regillensis was Dictator, for to hold their solemne assembly of Election, in the yeare 405. There were besides of these Iulij, others going vnder the name of Libones: and of the same race one triumphed; to wit, Lucius Iulius, sonne of Lucius and nephew of Lucius; companion in the Consulate which Marcus Attili­us Regulus, in the yeereH [...]ply Pomp [...]n 2 [...] of the tribe Pompun [...] 486. But, as touching Caius Iulius sonne of Lucius, and surnamed Caesar [...], whom Suetonius also ment in the 55. chapter of Iulius Caesar, and Cicero prai­seth in his Brutus, and in the second booke of his Oratour, I doubt, whether this addition (Stra­bo,) should not be taken as a by-name. For, otherwise there is in our [...]ands a peece of siluer coine, with the inscription of Lucius Iulius, sonne of Lucius, and surnamed Strabo. The Epi­gramme of the former is extant among the Antiquities of Rome citie, in this maner.

‘C. Iulius, L. F. Caesar Strabo, AEd. Cur. Q. Trib. Mil. Bis XVIR. AGR. D [...]nd. ADTR. IV D. Pontif.’

To conclude, I have met with writers, who reckoned also among the Iulij, certaine* Annales: which, for mine owne part verily, I could never yet light upon, in searching the Records & Chro­nicles. But in the eight booke of the Familiar Epistles (of Cicero) and namely in the seaventh letter there, of M. Caelius unto Cicero, there is mention made among others, of one L. Iulius, sonne of Lucius, Pomp. Annalis: where the writing (as I suppose) is not very certaine and [Page] [...] acknowledge. For besides that the better corrected Copies call him Villius, (for Iulius) Liuie also hath expresly & plainely written in his fortieth booke, that one Lucius Villius a Tri­bune of the Commons, made a Law which prouided and ordained, in what yeere of mens age they might sue for everie kinde of Magistracie, and be capable thereof. Whereupon, unto that [...] was giuen this surname, to be called Annales Thus farre Liuius. Hereunto may [...] [...] [...] moreouer; that the Kinred Iulia, is reckoned in the Tribe Fabia (and not Pomp­ [...]), as we have noted in the fortieth chapter of Augustus. I am of opinion therefore, that safer [...] [...] [...] account the Annales among the Villii, and not the Iulii. But thus much hereof, by the [...]ay, and as it were passing by; Now proceede we to the rest.

In the linage [...] then, there was a familie also of the Caesars. But what the reason should be of that surname, it is not certainely knowne; no more, than who he was, that first bare the saide [...]. For, before Caesar the Dictator, and his father and grandfather, there were Iulii na­ [...] Cae [...]ares. As for example; He, who (as Livie witnesseth in his 27. booke) was in the second [...]unick warre sent from the Senate to Crispinus the Consul, about the nomination of a Dicta­tour. As for the terme Cae [...]ares, those usually the Romane tongue surnamed so, who were borne, either by r [...]pping their mothers wombes▪ or with a [...] [...] [...]. bush of haire growing on their heads, or elsecum [...] [...]. Some adde moreouer the tale of an Elephant slaine in Africk, which the inhabitants there call Caesar: and vpon that verie cavse, this surname first befell unto Caesar the Dictatours [...]. But Spartia [...]us and Servius, the Authors hereof, are of the meanest credite and au­thoritie. For not his progeny alone, of all the Iulii, had this surname, but many others besides of [...] [...] and [...], both long before and also together with him.

[...] before Iulius [...] the Dictator, there were, Sext. Iulius, sonne of Caius, nephew of Lucius, together vvith Lucius Aurelius Orestes, in the yeere after the foundation of Rome [...] [...]. 596: Also [...]. Iulius sonne of Ca [...]us, nephew of Sext, was colleague vvith L. Marcius Phi­ [...] in the beginning of the Sociall vvarre in the yeare after the cities foundation597. af­ter the a­boue said Chronolo­gie. 662. and in the next yeere after, Lucius Iulius so [...]ne of Lucius, and Nephew of Lucius, bare the Consulate with Pub. [...] Lupu [...]. Neither before these, were anie of the Caesars reno [...]med or aduan­ced to the highest Office663. of [...]. Many▪ Consul­ship. Frater pa­truelis. yeeres after, out of the same familie, Lucius Caesar, son of Sextus and cosi [...] Germane to that C. Iulius Caesar, who beg at the Dictato [...]r, and attained only to the [...], who also died at P [...]sae without any evident sicknesse, euen as he did his shoes [...] in a morning, that L. Caesar I say, came to be Consull.

Well. Caesar the Dictator was borne at Rome (when Caius Marcius and Lucius Valerius Flaccus were Consuls) vpon the fourth day before the Ides of Quintilis, which moneth after his death, was by vertue of the Lavv Antonia called for that cause, Iulie, His bringing up hee had vvith his mother Aurelia, daughter of Caius Cotta, and his aunt by the fathers side Iulia, the vvife of Mar [...]. Whereupon grevv the love that he tooke (a Petritian though he vvere) to the [...] Fa [...]tion; and the hatred he bare to Sulla. The Greeke and Latine tongue, the precepts also [...] [...] of Oratorie, [...]e learned of M. Ant [...]nius Gu [...]pho, a French man borne. Who being of an [...] [...]it and [...] memorie, courteous besides in his behauiour, and of a kinde & [...] nature, taught the Greek and Latine, Grammer, & [...] [...]itbal, first in the house of C [...]ius [...] [...]; [...] in his ovvne; and got much there [...]; such vvas the bountie of his [...] [...] [...] that hee never compounded vvith [...] for any vvages or revvard. [...] [...] [...] [...] vvonderous [...] and apt to learne, [...]a and framed naturally for [...] ­quence.

[...] [...] speech vvas trimly [...]arnished, ( [...] Domesticall [...]cquaintance) by his mother [...] [...] [...] spake the Romane tongue purely and elegantly: like as the Muciae, Laeliae, [...] [...] [...] [...] [...] honorable Dames did, in vvhose families there arose Oratours of great [...].

An Index to the Historie and Marginall Glosse.

  • A in Agrippa. Page, 83
  • Accensus. 8
  • Acilius for his valour compared with Cynegirus. 27
  • Acroames. 249
  • Actiack battaile and victory. 44. 45
  • Actours upon the Stage, and Champions in what manner chasticed. 60
  • Ad antlium. 110
  • Adminius, Cinobelinus sonne. 144
  • Adulterie punished. 54, 104
  • Aegysthus the adulterer. 21
  • Aelianus gently reproved by Augustus. 62
  • Aelius Lamia put to death by Domitian. 265
  • Aenobarbi, 178, 202
  • The reason of that name. ibidem
  • Aesar, what it signifieth. 83
  • Aeserninus hurt in Troy turnament. 58
  • Afranius his treacherie. 29
  • Agraria law. 8
  • Agrippa, Nephew to Augustus, in dis­favour, 67
  • He is slaine. 99
  • Agrippina wife of Germanicus persecuted by Tiberius Caesar: 111
  • Pined to death. ibidem
  • Agrippina daughter of Germanicus wed­ded to Claudius Caesar her own Vnkle. 174
  • Enamoured upon Galba. 213
  • Mother of Nero, by him killed. 196
  • Ajax. 76
  • Alauda, the Legion why so called? 10
  • Alexandrines salute Augustus, 83
  • Amethyst colour and purple in graine for­bidden. 194
  • Amnestia. 89
  • Amphitheatres three. 61
  • Ancilia, 226
  • Anicetus slandreth himselfe with Octavia 197
  • Anna Perenna, 32
  • Anticatones, bookes so called, 23
  • An [...]stius Labeo, his franke-speech to Au­gustus Caesar. 63
  • Antonia daughter of Claudius killed by Nero. 197
  • M. Antonius vanquished by Augustus. 44
  • Killeth himselfe. 45
  • Taxed for obscurity of speech. 77
  • Antonie, sonne of M. Antonius killed. 45
  • Antonius Musa Physician to Augustus Caesar, honoured by the people. 65
  • Anticyra the Isle. 146
  • Apelles an Actor, whipped by Caligula. 138
  • Apollonius Molo: 2
  • Apollo Palatinus his temple. 51
  • Apollo Sandaliarius, 65
  • Apollo Temenites. 121
  • Apollo Intonsus et [...]. 207
  • Apollo Tortor. 70
  • Apollodorus of Pergamus, 77
  • Aponius Saturninus confined by Caligu­la, 141
  • Apparell of Romane Citizens, 57
  • Appius Caecus: 88
  • Appius Claudius Regillanus, 88
  • Apragopolis an Isle, 83
  • Araeus the Philosopher. 78
  • Artocreas, 16
  • Asclepiades Mendesius, 80
  • Ascletario a famous Astrologer, 269
  • Killed by Domitian, 269
  • Asellius Sabinus, his Dialogue, 107
  • Asiaticus, Vitellius his minion, 235
  • He misleadeth Vitellius, ibidem
  • [...]. 24
  • Asinius Pollio complaineth of the Troie­fight. 58
  • Asprenas Nonius in question for poison. 64
  • Asses what peeces of money: 79
  • Astarte 208
  • Astrologers misliked by Tiberius Caesar: 104
  • Astura [...]. 83
  • Atalanta and Meleagers picture: 107
  • Atergate: 208
  • Atia the mother of Augustus: 39
  • Thought to bee conceived by a Serpent: 80
  • Her dreame, ibidem
  • Atrium, what it is, 51
  • Atrium libertatis, ibidem
  • Augurie of Sassus: 51
  • Augusta what they be, 40
  • Augustus Caesar ubraided for his base [Page] Parentage▪ 39
  • His birth: ibidem
  • His pedigree. 38
  • Surnamed Thurinus, ibidem: 40
  • Surnamed C. Caesar. &c, ibidem
  • His towardly young yeeres, 40
  • A student in Apollonia, 40
  • His five civil warres. 40, 41
  • Hee revengeth his Vnkle Iulius Caesars death. 41
  • Hee sideth against M. Antonius the Tri­urnvir 41
  • His victory against Pansa & Hirtius. 41
  • He putteth the Nursines to a fine, 42
  • Hee entreth societie of Triumvirate with Antonie and Lepidus. 42
  • His bloudy cruelty. 42, 43
  • He hardly escaped murdering. 43
  • His dangers at sea. 43, 44
  • By land. 44
  • Hee deposed and confined Lepidus his Colleague. 44
  • He disgraced M. Antonius. 44
  • His moderate cariage toward M. Antoni­us. ibidem
  • He vanquisheth M. Antonius. 44
  • He forceth Alexandria in Aegipt. 44
  • Hee caused Antonie and Cleopatra, to be honourably buried. 45
  • He clenseth the river Nilus: ibidem
  • In danger of many conspiracies: 45
  • His forraine warres: 46
  • Not desirous of large dominion: 46
  • His moderation whereby hee won many nations: 46
  • His triumphs. 47
  • His sorrow for the losse of Quintilius Va­rus: 47
  • His military Discipline: 47
  • His manner of rewarding Souldiours 47
  • His offices of Estate. 48
  • His cruelty in the time of Triumvirate. 49
  • Perpetuall Tribune: 50
  • Perpetuall Censor, 50
  • His purpose to resigne vp his absolute go­vernment: 50
  • His fatherly care for Romes prosperitie. 50
  • His publick works and buildings: 50
  • His lenity and severity both in ministring justice. 53
  • He ordaineth a priuie Counsel: 54
  • He deviseth new Offices: 55
  • His bounty in rewarding Souldiours: 55
  • Endangered at the sight of solemn Games, 59
  • His delight in beholding publick Specta­cles, &c: 60
  • His clemencie and fatherly regard she­wed to foraine Princes and Potentates: 61
  • How he ordered his militarie forces, 61
  • His clemencie to his Opposites, 62
  • His courtesie and civill behaviour, 63
  • Howe much beloved of all sorts and de­grees: 64, 65
  • His wives: 66
  • Howe hee brought up his Daughter and Nieces, 67
  • His unhappinesse in his progenie: 67
  • His demeanour to his friends: 67, 68
  • To his freed men and servants: 68
  • Noted for bodily uncleanenesse against kind: 69
  • For adulteries, ibidem
  • Taxed for Corinthian vessels, 70
  • For Dice-play: ibidem
  • His integrity of life, 70: 71
  • His apparell, 72, 75
  • His order at the table: 72
  • His diet for himselfe, 72
  • His abstinence of wine, 73
  • His sleepes, 73
  • His presence and personage, 73, 74
  • His stature and feature: 74
  • His infirmities of body, 74, 75
  • His bodily exercises, 75
  • His recreations and pastimes, 75
  • His eloquence and liberall studies, 76
  • His voice and vtterance. 76
  • What bookes and compositions he made: 76
  • His Poetry, 76
  • His Ajax: 76
  • He misliketh indifferently of affectate and antique phrases: 76, 77
  • His phrases in ordinary talke, 77
  • What teachers he followed, 77
  • Not ready in the Greeke language, 78
  • A lover of fine-wits, 78
  • His religious scrupulosity, 78
  • His respective observance of foraine cere­monies, 79
  • His greatnes for-told by prophesies, ora­cles, &c, 79
  • By Dreames and Prodigies, 81, 82
  • His miracles that he wrought, 81
  • His prescience of future things: 82
  • His death fore-signified. 82
  • His Deification prefigured, 83
  • The sicknesse whereof he died: 83
  • His mirth & affability a little before death 83
  • His death. 84
  • His age. 85
  • [Page]His Deification. 85
  • His Monument. 85
  • His last will. 85, 99
  • His wealth and treasure. 86
  • His bounty to the Common-wealth. 86
  • His opinion of Tiberius Caesar. 98, 154, 155
  • Augustians, 190
  • Augustum saeculum. 85
  • Aurelia Iulius Caesars mother. 2
  • Aureus, of what value it is. 224
  • BAbilus, a great Astrologer. 198
  • Banishment voluntarie. 18
  • Basilides, 244
  • Bathing seldome, 75
  • Bawderie maintained by Caligula. 142
  • Beccus what it signifieth, 238
  • Bellonae. 71
  • Berenice, 255
  • Bibulus Aedile with Iulius Caesar. 4
  • His prety speech touching his Colleague Caesar. 5
  • Consul with him. 8
  • He stood for a Cypher in both offices. 4, 8
  • Blazing starre what it portendeth. 198
  • Bona Dea, the Goddesse, 3, 29
  • Bonet the badge of Freedome. 90
  • Boter, Father of Claudia. 169
  • Brachae. 32
  • Britaine attempted by Claudius Caesar. 162
  • Britannicus the sonne of Claudius the Em­perour. 168
  • Recommended to the Souldiours and Cō ­mons. 169
  • Poisoned by Nero. 195
  • Buildings stately & sumptuous Augustus Caesar careth not for. 71
  • Burrhus poisoned by Nero. 198
  • Buthysia, 184
  • Caenis the Paramour and Concubine of Vespasian, 241
  • C: in Caesar, 83
  • A. Cacina raileth upon Iulius Caesar. 30
  • C. Iulius Caesar Dictator persecuted by Sulla. 1
  • Obtaineth his pardon. 2
  • His warfare during his youth, 2, 3
  • Suspected for wantonnesse with K. Nico­medes, 2, 54
  • Taketh part with the Marians, 1
  • Retired to Rhodes, 2
  • Taken by Pira [...]es, 2
  • What Funerall Orations he made. 3
  • Weddeth Pompeia and p [...]tteth her away. 3
  • An aemulus of K. Alexander the Great. 3
  • His dreame, 3
  • His conspiracies for alteration of State. 4
  • His games exhibited, and workes during his Aedileship: 4, 5
  • Sueth for the Province of Aegipt, 5
  • Chosen chiefe Priest, 5
  • Favourable to Catiline and his complices, 5: 6
  • He convented Catulus and suffred a foile.
  • He gave over his Senatours Robe, 6
  • Restored againe, 7
  • Detecteth Catilines conspiracie, 7
  • Appeached by Vettius and acquit: 7
  • In danger of his creditours, 7
  • Chosen Consul, 7
  • Sideth with Cn: Pompeius, 8
  • His Acts whiles he was Consul, 8
  • He ruleth Consul alone, 8
  • His absolute rule in his Consulate, 8
  • He weddeth Calpurnia, 9
  • He chooseth the government of Gaule. 9
  • His proud and arrogant words, 9
  • Accused by Antistius, 10
  • His Acts in Gaule, 10, 11
  • He warred vpon the Britaines, 11
  • His adverse fortune in warre, 11
  • Aspireth to the Empire of Rome, 11
  • His largesses, 11, 12
  • His proceeding crossed by Claudius Mar­cellus, 12
  • The pretences and causes of his civill warre: 13
  • His first enterprise of civill warre, and his departure from Rome 14
  • His exploits in the civill warre, 15
  • Hee encountreth the forces of Pompeius, 15
  • He vanquisheth Pompeius, 15
  • He warreth upon K. Ptolomeus, 15
  • He subdueth Pharnaces, Scipio, Iuba, and Pompeies children, 15
  • His fortune in warres, 16
  • His triumphs, 16
  • His liberality to his Souldiours & the peo­ple, 16
  • His Plaies and Spectacles exhibited to the people: 16
  • How hee commended his Candidates for Offices, 17
  • The ordinances that hee made in his Dic­tatourship, 18
  • What stately works and buildings hee in­tended, 19
  • His shape, feature, apparell, and behavi­our. 19
  • [Page]How he covered his bald head. 19
  • His excesse in house-furniture. 20
  • His severitie in domesticall discipline. 20
  • His passive incontinencie. 20, 22
  • His whoredome and adulterie. 21
  • He kept Queene Cleopatra. 21
  • Abstinent of wine and nothing curious in his fare. 22
  • His extortion and sacriledge. 22
  • His eloquence. 22
  • His pronuntiation and gesture. 23
  • His orations and writings, 23, 24
  • His Commentaries. 23
  • His letters missive. 24
  • His manner of writing. 24
  • His paines taking in warlike expeditions. 24
  • Whether he were more warie or advente­rous, doubtfull. 24
  • Irreligious. 25
  • His militare pollicie. 25
  • His resolution in Battailes. 25, 26
  • His martiall Discipline. 26
  • His affability to his Souldiours. 26
  • His affectionate love unto them. 27
  • Beloved of his Souldiours. 27
  • His Souldiours valour and fidelity to him. 27
  • His severity unto mutinous Souldiours. 27 28
  • Taxed for his manner of beholding pub­lick spectacles. 60
  • His faithfull love to his Dependants. 28
  • His respective kindnes to his friends. 28
  • Soone reconciled. 28
  • His clemencie to his enemies, in warre and after victory. 29
  • To Romaine Citizens. ibidem
  • His ambitious pride and arrogancie in deeds. 30
  • The same also in words. 30, 31
  • How hee incurred the envie and hatred of the world: 31
  • He openly affecteth regal Empire. 31
  • Conspiracie against him. 32
  • His death fore-signified. 32
  • His last will and testament. 34
  • Murdred in the Senate-house. 33
  • His murderers died miserably. 36
  • His Funeralls & solemne obsequies, 34, 35
  • Not willing to live, and why? 35
  • Hee wished for a quick and unexpected death. 36
  • His age. 36
  • His canonization after death: ibidem
  • Caesar 10, Caesars supposed son by Cleo­patra. 21
  • He is put to death, 45
  • L. Caesar commended by Augustus: 15, a.
  • L: Caesar his cankred malice against Iulius Caesar Dictator, 30
  • Caesarea, the name of divers Cities, 65
  • Caesonia slaine with her husband Caligu­la, 151
  • Caius and Lucius adopted by Augustus Caesar, 66
  • They both die, 96, 67
  • Caius a fatall name to the Caesars, 151
  • Caius, Nephew of Augustus ill affected to Tiberius Caesar, 94
  • Calends, 77
  • Ad Calendas Graecas. 77
  • Caius Caesar Caligula his birth. 125
  • The place of his nativity, 125
  • Why surnamed Caligula, 126
  • Beloved and respected of the Soldiors, 126
  • His hypocrisie, 126
  • His cruell nature, 126
  • He plotteth for the Empire, 127
  • He courteth Ennia wife to Macro, 127
  • Practiseth the death of Tiberius Caesar, 127
  • With what ioy of people and forainers he entred upon the Empire, 127, 128
  • His popularity, ibidem
  • His shew of Piety and kindnes, 128
  • His semblance of restoring the common liberty, 129
  • What honours were decreed and done unto him, 129
  • His largesse and bounty, 130
  • His publick plaies and Spectacles exhi­bited, 130
  • His bridge betweene Baiae and Puteoli, 130
  • The motive of making it, 131
  • Works by him finished, 131
  • His style, 131
  • He usurpeth divine majestie & honor: 132
  • His sacrifices, 132
  • His unkindnesse to his owne bloud, 132
  • His incests, 133
  • With Drusilla his owne sister, ibidem
  • His sorrow for her death, 133
  • His mariages, 134
  • He weddeth Caesonia, 134, 138
  • His unnaturall cruelty to his best deser­ving friends, 135
  • His bloudy & proud nature, 135, 136, 137
  • His unplacable nature, 136
  • His jests and scoffes, 138
  • His envie and malice, 138
  • To Homer, Virgil, and Livie. 139
  • He was envious of all good parts. 139
  • [Page]His particular spite and enuie to Colosse­ros. 139
  • His vncleanenes and incontinencie. 139
  • His cruell pillage, 140
  • His roiot and wastfull expence. 140
  • Wrongfull proceedings. 141
  • His Dice play. 143
  • His extraordinarie loue to money. 143
  • His martiall acts.
  • His mock-warfare: 144
  • His bounty. 145
  • His triumph. 145
  • His hatred to the Senate. 145
  • His cruell proiects. 146
  • His stature, shape, &c. 146
  • His infirmities of body and mind. 146
  • His vices: 146, 147
  • His habite and apparell. 147
  • His naturall eloquence: 148
  • His profession of arts: 148
  • What faction of Chariotiers and Sword­fencers he favoured: 149
  • His death contriued: 149
  • His death foretold by strange signes: 149 150
  • He is murdred. 151
  • His corps enterred. 151
  • Callipides. 105
  • C. Calvus made libels of Caesar: 28
  • Calvini: 178
  • A Camp maintained about Rome: 105
  • Capita Bubula: 39
  • Capitol at Capua: 150, 106
  • Capricorne, the stamp of a Coine: 82
  • Capreae, the Iland exchanged by Augu­stus Caefar for Aenaria▪ 79
  • A place wherein Tiberius Caesar deligh­ted: 106
  • Capys founder of Capua: 32. His Sepul­cher: ibidem
  • Carmelus: 243
  • Carnulius killeth himselfe:
  • Cassita, what bird. 10
  • Cassius Chaerea, a principall conspiratour against Caligula: 149
  • Cassius Longinus, Proconsul, killed by Caligula: 150
  • Cassius Longinus a Lawier killed by Ne­ro: 198
  • Cassius or Casca, a conspiratour of Iulius Caesars death. 33
  • Cassius Patavinus gently chasticed by Augustus: 62
  • Castra scelerata: 153
  • Catta and Catti: 236
  • Valerius Catullus his Epigrams of Caesar: 28
  • Q. Catulus his Dreame of Augustus Cae­sar: 81
  • Causarij: 240
  • Cautelous and cunning casts punished by Tiberius Caesar, 104
  • Cercopithecus: 193
  • Centumviral causes: 246
  • Charicles the Physician: 120
  • Chariotiers and their factions: 180, Re­strained, 186
  • Christians nicknamed Christians, 167
  • Christians persecuted and put to death under Nero, 186
  • Choregus: 69
  • Cimber Tullius a cōspiratour against Iu­lius Caesar: 33
  • Helvius Cinna killed in steed of Corn: Cinna: 35
  • M. Cicero his dreame of young Octavius afterwards Augustus, 81
  • City, what it signifieth, 162
  • Civil, how to be understood, 101
  • Claudian family both Patritian and Ple­beian, 87
  • The beginning of the Claudian family at Rome, 87
  • Claudius Caudex, 88
  • Claudius Drusus, 88
  • Claudius Pulcher, 88
  • Claudiae noble women and their sundry examples, 88
  • Claudij opposite to the commons, 88
  • Sext. Claudius an old Fornicatour, 106
  • Claudia water, 163
  • Claudia espoused to Augustus Caesar, 66
  • Claudia daughter of Claudius the Empe­rour, 169
  • Claudius the Emperour his birth: 253
  • His youth, 154
  • His study in liberall Sciences, 154
  • Reputed no better than a foole, 154
  • His sluggardie, folly, drunkennesse, and gaming: 155
  • Honoured by all estates, 156
  • Of base reckoning, 156
  • His troubles, 157
  • How he attained to the Empire, 157
  • He executeth certaine conspiratours, 158
  • His piety and kindnes: 158
  • His modest cariage, 158, 159
  • His popularitie, 159
  • In danger of Treasons, 159
  • His Consulates, 159
  • His jurisdiction, 159
  • His variant conditions, 160
  • His wise judgement, 160
  • His contemptible demeanour, 160
  • His censureship, 161, 162
  • His warlike expedition, [...]
  • [Page]His triumph: ibidem
  • His care ouer the City of Rome. ibidem
  • The workes and buildings that hee made. 163
  • His munificence, 163, 164
  • His bald jests. 164, 165
  • His navall fight. 165
  • His religious ceremonies. 165
  • His managing of civil affaires. 165, 166
  • His exploiting of martiall feates. ibidem
  • His ordinances in sundry kinds. 167
  • Ruled by his wives and freed-men. 168
  • His wives, 168
  • His divorcements. 168
  • His children. 168
  • His cruelty and iniustice. 170
  • His person and feature. 170
  • His health. 170
  • His manner of feasting. 170
  • How hee vsed a filching guest at his bord. 171
  • His appetite to meate. 171
  • His wantonnesse: 171
  • His dice-play. ibidem
  • His bloudy nature. 171
  • His timorous diffidence, 172
  • His anger and malice, 173
  • His foolishnesse: 173
  • His oblivion & inconsiderate blindnesse. 174
  • His unadvised words. 174
  • He compiled an history: 174, 175
  • His other bookes: 175
  • He studied Greeke: 175
  • Hee repenteth his mariage with Agrippi-Hna: 175
  • He maketh much of Britannicus his sonne. 176
  • His death: 176
  • Murdred with the privity of Nero. 195
  • Canonized a God▪ 176
  • Clemens rebelleth against Tiberius: 100
  • Cleopatra poisoneth her selfe: 45
  • P. Clodius suspected for incontinencie with Pompeia, Iulius Caesars wife: 3, 29
  • Adopted into the Rank of Commanders: 88
  • A Comet why so called: 251
  • Commotions prevented by Tiberius Cae­sar: 105
  • Commotioners punished by him: 105
  • Comaedie the olde allowed by Augustus: 78
  • Compitalitij plaies: 52
  • Concords temple: 98
  • Congiaries given by Augustus Caesar: 57
  • Consuls whē they entred into their office: 1
  • Conventus what they be: 3
  • Corne distributed by Augustus: 57
  • Cornelia Law: 18, 53
  • Crassus Frugi: 162
  • Columbus a Mirmillon Fencer: 149
  • Covetousnes & Avarice how they differ: 264
  • A Crow prophesieth: 272
  • Crucifying▪ 29
  • Curiae. 67
  • Curiatae leges: 67
  • Curtius lake: 65
  • Cutiliae waters: 251
  • DAies observed by Augustus, 79
  • Date tree, 81
  • Datus a Comaedian Actor, 200
  • Decemvirs, 55
  • Decocted water of Nero, 206
  • Decurions: 85
  • Deliciae Romanis, 75
  • Demetrius a Cynick Philosopher: 247
  • Dictare, 30
  • Diogenes the Grammarian how hee was requited by Tiberius Caesar. 103
  • Dis, why so called, 226
  • Divus, what it is, 271
  • Dodecatheos a supper of Augustus Caesar 69
  • Dominus a title & terme reiected by Au­gustus, 63
  • L: Domitius the Stock-father of the Ae­nobarbi: 178
  • Cn. Domitius: 179
  • Domitius the Grand father of Nero: 180
  • His acts, 180
  • Domitius the Father of Nero, 180
  • His pranks, 181
  • Domitian the Emperours birth, 259
  • His poverty in his youth, 250
  • Noted for unnaturall impurity, 260
  • Saluted Caesar, 260
  • His wilde and vnruly pranks, 260
  • His ambition, 260
  • His study in Poetry, ibidem
  • Most vnkind to his brother, 261
  • Putteth away his wife Domitia, ibidem
  • His couetise and cruelty, 261
  • His publick Shewes, 261
  • His Games, 262
  • His buildings, 262
  • His warlike expeditions, 262
  • His triumph, 262
  • His manner of feasting, & house-keeping: 263
  • He added ij factions of Charioters: 263
  • A precise Iusticer: 263
  • [Page]He reformeth abuses in Iudiciall Courts, 263
  • His severe reformation of all Enormities, 264,
  • His hypocriticall religion, 264
  • His bountifull mind, 264
  • His false semblance of Clemencie and pi­ty, 264
  • His barbarous cruelty, 265
  • In his cruelty, subtill and crafty, 266
  • His rapines and wrongs, 267
  • His insolencie and Arrogancy 267
  • His [...]7 Consulships. 267
  • He foreknew the houre of his owne death 268
  • His death wrought by his neerest favo­rites, and wife. 268
  • Suspitious and fearefull of death. 268
  • His destruction foretold by many prodi­gies, 269
  • His Apopththegmes and notable senten­ces. 271
  • Murdred in his bed chamber, 269
  • His recreations, 271
  • His Stature and countenance, 270
  • His effeminate [...] 271
  • Impatient of all labour. 270, 271.
  • An excellent archer. 271.
  • Murderers of him executed. 272.
  • Domitia, wife of Domitian falleth in fan­cy with Paris the player. 261
  • Doves, 81
  • Druidae and their Religion, 167
  • Drusilla sister of Caligula 133
  • Honored as goddesse, 133
  • Drusus sonne of Tiberius Caesar, 110
  • His vices and death, 110. 116
  • Drusus a name, from whence it commeth, 89
  • Dec. Drusus Nero father to Claudius Cae­sar. 152
  • Begotten in adultery. 152
  • His acts, 152, 153
  • His death and honours after death, 153
  • His yssew. 153
  • Drusinae fossae. 153
  • Drusus sonne of Claudius Caesar choaked with a peare, 168
  • Ducenaries, 166
  • A dwerfe, 59
  • Dwerfes ieiected by Augustus. 75
  • Dyrrhachi [...]m strongly beleaguered by Augustus Caesar, 27
  • Elephants walking vpon Ropes. 213
  • Eleusine Sacred Caeremonies, 144
  • Ellebor. 146
  • Emblema. 119
  • Epaphroditus Neroes secretary put to death by Domitian. 269
  • Epicadus his conspiracie against Augu­stus. 49
  • Equestria, 135
  • Ergastula. 92
  • Esius Proculus called Colosseros, 139
  • [...], 269
  • Euthanasia. 84
  • Excesse in house furniture restrained. 103
  • Excesse in fare of the table restrained 53. 54. 103. 185
  • See more in sumptuaria.
  • Exploratoriae Coronets. 144
  • Extortion of the Pollentians punished by Tiberius Caesar. 105
  • Fall of an Amphitheatre at Fidenae. 106
  • Faustus his treacherous rebellion. 29
  • Felix afreed man of Claudius the Empe­rour. 169
  • Fercula; what they be. 72
  • Fist-fight Augustus Caesar delighted to see. 60
  • Flaminship of Iupiter, 52
  • Flavij. 239
  • T. Flavius Petronianus, 239
  • Flavius Sabinus a faithfull Publicane. 240
  • Flavius Sabinus put to death by Domiti­an. 266
  • Flauius Clemens killed by Domitian. 268
  • Flauian Family, noble and auncient, 240
  • Flora, and Floralia, 213
  • Forgery of writings provided against, 186
  • Freedome of Rome City, sparily granted 56
  • Friendship, how Augustus Caesar intertai­ned. 68
  • Frogs silent. 81
  • [...] the Meere drawen dry, 163
  • Fustuarium. 114
  • Gabinius surnamed Caucius. 166
  • Galba the surname of the Seruilij▪ 211
  • Galba with Spaine revolteth, 202
  • Galba enriched by Livia Augustaes will 213
  • His offices of State. 21 [...]
  • [Page]His martiall Discipline. 213
  • His Proesse. 213. 214
  • Highly esteemed of Claudius the Empe­rour, 213
  • His civill Iuridiction. 214
  • His Honours, 214
  • His Empire fore signified, 212, 214, 215
  • His extreme severity, 214
  • His semblance of Surquedrie, 214
  • Saluted Emperour. 215
  • In danger to be killed. 216
  • Taketh uppon him the name of Caesar. 216
  • Ill spoken of for couetousnesse and cru­eltie. 216
  • His Niggardise, 216. 217
  • His noble Pedigree, 211
  • His death foreshewed, 219
  • Slaine. 220
  • Enterred. 220
  • His stature and personage. 220
  • His uncleane life. 221
  • His 3. paedagognes, 217
  • His variable cariage. 217
  • His corrupt gouernment. 218
  • In curreth the hatred of soldiers especially 218
  • Forsaken first of the Germanician for­ces. 218
  • Galbanum what gumme. 211
  • Galbei what they be. 211
  • Galeria, wife of A. Vitellius the Empe­rour.
  • Galerita, what bird, 10
  • Ad. Gallinas, a place. 210
  • Gallograecia. 137
  • Q. Gallius the Praetour, tyrannously killed by Augustus Caesar. 49
  • Gallius Terrinius mindeth to famish him selfe. 63
  • Corn. Gallus shortneth his owne life. 68
  • His death lamented by Augustus Caesar 68
  • Games and Shewes exhibited by Augu­stus Caesar. 58
  • In Games and Shewes what orders Au­gustus Caesar put downe, 59
  • Gemini Fratres, who they be, 5
  • Genij. 136
  • Gentlemen Romane Surveied by Augu­stus. 55. 56
  • Their solemne riding. 55
  • Their estate and worth. 56
  • Germane Embassaders well respected▪ 167
  • Germanician soldiers refuse Tiberius Cae­sar, for their Emperour. 100.
  • Germanicus Caesar the adopted sonne of Tiberius Caesar. 111
  • Disgraced by him, 111
  • Murdred by Piso, 111
  • His offices and Acts, 122
  • His death, 123
  • His commendable parts, 123
  • How much beloved, 123, 154
  • What ensued upon his death, 124
  • His mariage and yssew, 124. 125
  • Gestures in worshipping the Gods, 231.
  • Guelding of males prohibited by Domi­tian. 263
  • HAlotus a bloud-hound of Nero, 218
  • Odious to the people, 218
  • Harpocras, a freedman of Claudius, 169
  • Hasta pura. 169
  • Q. Haterius, 101
  • Heluidius Priscus over malapert with Vespasian the Emperour, 248
  • Helvidius Priscus, another Cato. 265
  • Helvidius the sonne put to death by Do­mitian the Emperour, 265
  • Hirtius Consul, with his Colleague Plan­cus slaine 41
  • Historiographers countenanced by Caius Caligula, 129
  • Honorarie Games, 53
  • Hoplomachus, 139
  • Horoscope of Augustus his Nativitie, 82
  • Horse of Iulius Caesar, 25
  • Hostages of women, 46
  • Hyeme, 24
  • Hylas a Pantomime whipped, 60
  • Ianiculum what Hill, 230
  • Ianus Quirinus Temple shut by Augu­stus, 47
  • Iewish Religion censured by Tiberius Caesar, 104
  • Iewes by him banished, 16
  • Iewes banished out of Rome, 167
  • Iewes affected Iulius Caesar 35
  • Iewes plagued by Domitian in their pai­ments, 267
  • Iliensians eased of Tribute and endewed with immunities. 167
  • Iliensian Embassadors skoffed at by Ti­berius Caesar. 111
  • Images and Statues how they differ, 225
  • Incendium a Comaedie
  • Incitatus, the name of an horse. 149
  • Inferum mare what sea, 61
  • Ira and Iracundia, how they differ, 173
  • [Page]Is [...]uricus, the surname of Servilius, where­upon, 2
  • Isidorus the Cynicke Philosoper, 200
  • Isthmus attempted by Caligula, 131
  • By Nero, 186
  • Italian Regions, 61
  • Itius a Dwerfe, 59
  • Italie peopled and adorned by Augustus Caesar. 60
  • Iulia daughter of Caesar
  • Dictator, wedded to Pompeius Mag­nus, 9
  • Iulia, daughter of Augustus Caesar wed­ded to Marcellus and Agrippa, 66
  • Iulia daughter of Augustus banished and confined, 67
  • Iulia wife of Tiberius Caesar convict of Adultery, 94
  • Iuliae, daughter and Neice of Augustus, dishonour him. 67
  • Iuliae killed by Claudius, 170
  • Iulius the haven, 43
  • Iunia Drusilla daughter of Caligula by Caesonia, 134
  • Iunius Rusticus put to death by Domiti­an, 265
  • I [...]piter the Thunderers Temple, 51
  • Iupiter Tragaedus, 65
  • Iupiter Olympicus, 65. 132
  • Iupiter the Thunderer. 78
  • Iupiter Custos, 262
  • Iuvenal pastimes, 183
  • Kalendar reformed by Iulius Caesar, 17
  • King of Kings, 124
  • Kisses forbidden, 104
  • Lambranes, a people why so called, 4
  • Laurel checketh lighning, 119
  • Lawes precisely observed by Tiberius Caesar, 103
  • Law-steed what it is. 124
  • Cn. Lentulius forced to die by Tiberius Caesar, 109
  • Lepida, wife to Galba.
  • Letters new in the Alphabet devised by Claudius, 175
  • Libels and Libellers not regarded by Au­gustus, 64
  • Libels against Nero, 200
  • Libertines, 166
  • Chasticed by Claudius the Emperour, 167
  • Libitina the Goddesse, and her Temple. 200
  • Libraries maintained by Domitian. 271
  • Licinius Mutianus governour of Syria, favoureth Vespasian. 244
  • Licinius Mutianus, a Catamite noted by Vespasian, 247
  • Livia Drusilla wife of Tiberius Nero, wedded to Augustus Caesar, 66
  • Her experiment when shee went with child, 95
  • Livia Orestilla kept as a paramour by Ca­ius Caligula. 134
  • Livia Ocellina, wife to Galba the Empe­rours father, 211
  • Livilla for Livia, 127
  • Livius Salinator, 89
  • Livius Drusus, 89
  • Locusta professeth poysoning, 195
  • Lollia Paulina, wedded to Caius Caligula 134
  • Lone-mony dealt out by Augustus Cae­sar, 57
  • Lord. See Dominus,
  • Lucius a fore-name, reiected by the Claudian Family, 88
  • Lucus, 88
  • Lupercal instituted by Augustus, 52
  • Lustrum, 4 [...]
  • Lycians diffranchised, 167
  • Macteae, 141
  • Maecenas reproved for affectation of new phrases and words 76
  • For want of of Secrecie and Taciturnity, 68
  • Mago and Annibal, 265
  • Male opinari. what it is, 62
  • Mallia, 70
  • Mallonia filthily abused by Tiberius Caesar, 108
  • Her death. ibidem
  • Malum. 201
  • Mans ordinary stature and weight. 59
  • Mariage betweene Gentry & cōmons, 54
  • Mariage urged and rewarded, 54
  • Mariage betweene cousin Germans allo­wed by Claudius. 168
  • Mars the Revenger his Temple built by Augustus Caesar, 51
  • The use thereof, ibid
  • Masgabas and his tombe. 84
  • Masintha resk [...]ed out of trouble by Iuli. Caesar, [...]8
  • Massilia standeth out against Iul. Caesar, 15
  • [Page]Masters misusage of their servants, 167
  • Matian appuls, 271
  • Mausoleum of Augustus, 86
  • Maxima and Maximilla 264
  • Maximi Ludi, what Plaies, 183
  • Medioxuna, 136
  • C. Memmius his invectives against Iulius Caesar, 28
  • Freinded by him, ibid
  • Menecrates the harper advanced by Ne­ro.
  • Messallina the Empresse wedded to C. Silius, 168
  • Messallina the Empresse by commande­ment of her husband Ciaudius killed, 174
  • Metius Pomposianus, 248
  • Putto death by Domitian 254
  • Minervaes Targuet, 235
  • Mirmillones what Fencers, 137. 149
  • How armed, 257
  • Mnester a Pantomime, 139
  • Favoured by Caligula, 148
  • Modius, what mesure, 214
  • Monomachi. 137
  • Monopolium. 119
  • More maiorum what it is 105
  • What punishment is ment thereby? 266
  • A Mule foaleth, 212.
  • Mummia Achaira, wife of Galba the Em­perours Father. 211
  • Musicke games of prise instituted by Ne­ro at Olympia, 189.
  • Narcissus favorite & Minion of Clau­dius the Emperour, 169
  • Naumachia, what place, 19 [...]
  • Naumachie, or Navall battailes exhibited by Augustus Caesar, 58
  • Exhibited by Iulius Caesar, 17
  • Nemorensis Rex. 139
  • Nepos, surnamed of Caecilius Metellus 6
  • Nero, what it signifieth, 88
  • Nero the Emperour his birth. 181
  • In daunger to be murdred, 181
  • His acts in his childhood, 181
  • He entreth vpon the Empire. 181
  • His shew of Piety and kindnesse, 182
  • His semblance of Bounty, Clemencie, Courtesie and Humanity 183
  • His showes exhibited, 183
  • He shutteth the Temple of Ianus 185
  • His manner of Iurisdiction, 185
  • His order in conferring dignities, 185
  • His buildings. 185
  • His martiall exploits, 186
  • His extraordinary love to Musicke, 187. 188
  • Is excused, 201
  • Given much to horsemanship and chario­ting. 188, 190
  • Strived for the Criers Coron [...]t. 190
  • He tryumpheth for victorie in games of prise, 190
  • His unruly wildnesse, 191
  • His shrewd prankes, 191
  • His riotousnesse, 191
  • His loose life and filthinesse, 192
  • He wedded Sporus, 192
  • His lavish expense, 193
  • His golden house, 193
  • His outrageous and enormious workes, 194
  • His pilling and oppression of the people 194
  • His sacriledge, 194. 195
  • His bloudy murdres and paricides 195
  • His unnaturall cruelty to his own mother 195. 196
  • He is stung with the worme of Conscience 196
  • Forsaken of the French. 201
  • Deluded by the Oracle at Delphi. 201
  • His carelesnesse of the State 202
  • His bloudy designments 202. 203
  • His warlike voiage, 203
  • His exactions, 203
  • Forewarned of his death, 204
  • His fearefull dreames. 204
  • His desperate case, 205
  • He flyeth from Rome 205
  • His death. 207. 209
  • His funerals. 207
  • His Stature, Feature, Shape &c. ib.
  • His Attire, 207
  • Given naturally to Poetry, 207
  • He delighted in painting, 208
  • He was Popular. 208
  • Irreligious, 208
  • He murdreth his Ant Domitia, 197
  • His wives, ib.
  • He slew Atticus Vestinus, ib.
  • He killeth Poppaea, 197
  • His cruelty to his kinsfolke and Affinity 197
  • He poysoneth his freedmen, 198
  • Intendeth a massacre of the Nobility. 198
  • His cruelty to all in general. 198
  • Malitiously bent to the Senate. 199
  • He setteth Rome on fire, 199
  • Neronia, what Games. 184
  • [Page]Neroneus Neropolis, 208
  • New yeeres gifts restrained, 104
  • Nicopolis, built by Augustus Caesar, 45
  • P. Nigidius a great Astrologer, 80
  • Niobe. 188
  • Niobe and other parts acted by Nero up­on the stage, 188
  • Nollem factum, 28
  • Nomenclators, 45
  • Nonae. 97
  • Nonae ominous dayes, 79
  • C. Nonius Asprenas honoured with a co­lar of gold. 58
  • Called thereupon Torquatus, 58
  • Novatus slightly chasticed by Augustus Caesar, 62
  • Numerius Atticus, 85
  • Nundinae. 75
  • Nundinae, ominous dayes. 79
  • Obnuntiare what it is, 8
  • Ocellatae vestial votaries and sisters, put to death for Incest, 264
  • Octavia wife of Nero. 197
  • Put away ib.
  • Murdred by Nero. 197
  • Octavij whence they are descended, 37
  • Octavius the father of Augustus, 38
  • His Acts, ib. & 39
  • His dreames, 8
  • An office, a Voluptatibus, 107
  • Oppius kindly intreated by Iulius Caesar 28
  • Origines of Cato, 77
  • Orthographie of Augustus Caesar. 77
  • Otho the Emperour his progenitors 222
  • L. Otho father of the Emperour, 222
  • His praise, 223
  • Otho the Emperour his birth, 223
  • The wild prankes of his youth, 223
  • Put in hope of the Empire by Seleucus 224
  • His popularitie. 224
  • Farre in debt. 224
  • Conspireth against Galba ib.
  • Saluted Emperour, 225
  • Accepteth the surname Nero 225
  • Murdereth Galba and Piso, 225
  • Haunted with the ghost of Galba, 225
  • Faithfully beloved of his Praetorian sol­diers, 225
  • His death foretokened. 226
  • He is defaited, 227
  • Minded to kill himselfe, 227
  • He intended to wed Messallina Neroes widdow. 227
  • Detested civill warre, 227
  • Killed himselfe. 228
  • His stature, proportion and habit. 228
  • Beloved of his soldiers, 228
  • Paconius put to death by Tiberius Caesar, 116
  • Paederastie condemned, 44
  • Paedia Law. 180
  • Paetus Thraseas, killed by Nero, 198
  • Paidica Graecis.
  • Palilia. 129
  • Pallas, a freed man of Claudius, 169
  • Pansa Consull with Hirtius his Collegue slaine, 4 [...]
  • Pantomime 139, 61
  • Paris the actour envied by Nero, 208
  • Parricidium, what day? 36
  • Parthian hostages respectively honored by Augustus Caesar.
  • Pater patriae, a title conferred upon Au­gustus Caesar, 65
  • Patres familias. 65
  • Peace maintained by Tiberius Caesar, 104
  • Peculium. 96
  • Peere at Ostia. 163
  • Peristylium. 51
  • Petoritum. 24
  • Pestilence in Rome. 200. 257
  • Petreius his Treacherie, 29
  • Petronia wife of A. Vitellius the Empe­rour. 232
  • Phagita pardoned by Iulius Caesar. 29
  • Pharnaces K. of Pontus subdued by Iul. Caesar Dictatour. 15
  • Phengites a stone, 268
  • Philemon a traytor to Iuli. Caesar, 29
  • Phoebe ha [...]geth herselfe, 67
  • Phonascus, 76
  • Cn. Piso worketh the death of Germani­cus Caesar. 123
  • Piso adopted by Galba, 218. 224
  • Piso slaine by the Spaniards, 4
  • Piso his conspiracie. 198
  • Pitholaus his railing verses against Caesar 30
  • Players upon the stage restrained by Do­mitian. 263
  • Plaudite, 84
  • A. Plautius abused and killed by Nero. 197
  • Pluto, why so called. 226
  • Polybius a favorite of Claudius, 169
  • Poligamie. 22
  • [Page]Pomgranate a place, 259
  • Pomp of funeralls. 34
  • Pompeius Magnus sonne in law of Clau­dius▪ 169
  • Murdred, 170
  • Poppaea Sabina common to Nero and O­tho. 223
  • Posides an Eunuch & freedman of Clau­dius, 169
  • Post-curriers ordained by Augustus Cae­ser, 62
  • Postumus who it is. 34
  • Prodigies portending Galbaes destructi­on. 209
  • Promoters or informers plagued by Ti­tus the Emperour. 257
  • Punished by Domitian. 265
  • Proscription in time of the Triumvirate rigorously executed by Augustus Caesar. 49
  • Psylli. 45
  • Ptolomaeus Auletes. 5
  • Puerpe rium what it signifieth. 125
  • Pulvinar, 60. 155. 267
  • Pylades the player banished, 60
  • Pyrallis a Courtesan, paramour of Cali­gula. 140
  • Pyrrhich daunce. 16
  • Quindecemvirs. 214
  • Quirites. 28
  • Quinquatria. 196
  • Rabririus postumus. 161
  • Regaviolus. 33
  • Religions foraine prohibited by Tiberius Caesar, 104
  • Retiarij, what they were. 137
  • Rhinoceros shewed in Rome, 59
  • Rhodians restored to their freedome, 167
  • Roiall spoiles. 153
  • Romane names not to be used by Aliens, 167
  • Romane yeeres when they began? and how reckoned? 1
  • Roscia law, 56
  • Rufinus Crispinus murdered by Nero, 197
  • Salaria Via. 247
  • Salij preists of Mars, 171
  • Salvidienus Orcitus put to death by Ne­ro. 198
  • Salvius Liberalis a Lawier. 247
  • Salvius Cocceianus put to death by Do­mitian. 265
  • Salustius Lucullus put to death by Do­mitian. 265
  • Scaeva his valour, 27
  • Scribonia divorced from Augustns. 66
  • Scribonius an Astrologer, 95
  • Scribonius Libo conspireth against Tibe rius Caesar. 100
  • Seale or signet of Augustus Caesar, 62
  • Secular plaies, 52. 164. 231
  • Secutores, what fencers. 137
  • Ael. Seianus put to death by Tiberius Caesar. 112. 115
  • His death plotted by him, 117
  • Seleucus the Astrologer, 224
  • Seleucus the Grammarian put to death by Tiberius Caesar, 112
  • Sempronia Law. 10
  • Senatours number restrained. 54
  • Senatours sonnes honoured by Augustus Caesar. 55
  • Senatours estate augmented by Augustus Caesar. 57
  • Seneca taxed by Caligula, 148
  • Seneca schoolemaister to Nero, 198
  • Done to death by him 198
  • Septimontiall sacrifice, 262
  • A Serpent Dragon, 120
  • A Serpent 50 cubits long, 59
  • Sestertium in the Neuter Gendre, [...]93
  • Sextants. 73
  • Sextarius. 73
  • Sextilis the moneth named Augustus, 53
  • Signes observed by Augustus, 79
  • Silanus put to death by Claudius 173
  • Sociale Bellum. 47
  • Soldierie well rewarded by Augustus, 61. 62
  • Spaeresterium. 249
  • Spelunca what place, 106
  • Spicillus the Fencer. 193
  • Spoerus a great scholer. 77
  • Spintriae. 107. 232
  • Expelled by Caligula, 129
  • Sportula. 164
  • Spurina a famour Soothsayer, 33
  • Stage players and Swordfensers expenses cut short, 103
  • Statues of silver refused by Augustus.
  • Stephanio an Actour banished, 60
  • Strange thinges exhibited by Augustus Caesar to be seene, 59
  • Subdival. 51
  • Suburra. 19
  • Suggestum comae. 207
  • [Page]Suing indirectly for Offices reformed. 56
  • Sulla the Dictatour his speech of Iulius Caesar. 2
  • Sumptuaria lex. 1 [...]: 53, 54
  • Superum mare. 61
  • Supra-numerum. 166
  • Syracusae. 71
  • TAlent of silver: 22
  • Tedius Afer driven by Augustus Cae­sar to kill himselfe. 232
  • Temples refused by Augustus Caesar. 62
  • Tenants how they dwelt in Rome. 232
  • Terentilla. 69
  • Tertulla, &c. ibidem
  • Tetrinius, 137
  • [...] 71
  • Thalamegos an Aegyptian Galley or Barge. 21
  • Theatralis law. 56
  • Theodorus Gadareus his saying of Tibe­rius Caesar. 113
  • Thessalian Vawlters. 164
  • Tholi. 70
  • Thraces what Fencers. 137, 149
  • Threces. See Thraces.
  • Thrasyllus the Astrologer, 95, 131
  • Thunder and lightning Augustus feared: 78
  • Tiberius Caesar his descent and pedigree. 89
  • His Fathers constancie. 89
  • Tiberius Father, yeelded his wife Livia Drusilla to Augustus. 90
  • Tiberius Caesar his birth. 90
  • His infancie and childhood: 90
  • Adopted by Gallius: 91
  • His youth: 91
  • He weddeth Agrippina. 91
  • He divorceth her: 91
  • He weddeth Iulia: 91
  • Forsaketh her: 91
  • His civill employments. 92
  • His martaill exploits: 92
  • His Oration and Triumph: 92
  • His Magistracies: 92
  • His purpose to forsake Rome, and retire himselfe: 92
  • His departure from Rome to Rhodes: 93
  • His behaviour at Rhodes: 93
  • His suite to returne: 94
  • His dangers at Rhodes, 94
  • His returne. 95
  • His hopes of the Empire: 95
  • Adopted by Augustus, 96
  • His promotions, ibidem
  • His hard warfare in Illyricum: 96
  • His prosperous successe, 96
  • His Honours, 96
  • His circvmspect providence in warre-af­faires: 97
  • His martiall Discipline: 97
  • His superstitious observations, 97
  • Like to have beene murdred, 97
  • His Triumph: 97
  • His thankfull munificence to Baton, 97
  • He feasteth the people of Rome: 98
  • He entreth vpon the Empire, 99
  • His manner of refusing the Empire, con­trolled: 100
  • He distrusteth Libo: 100
  • His civill cariage at his first entrance: 100 101
  • He hated flatterie: 101
  • He contemned Libels, &c: 101
  • He debaseth himselfe overmuch to his Se­natours: 102
  • His respect of the Senate: 102
  • His courteous humanity, 103
  • His moderation, 103
  • His worthy Apothegme: 103
  • He looseth both his sonnes, 105
  • Retireth himselfe into Campania: 105
  • Escapeth a great danger: 106
  • His neglect of the weale publick: 106
  • His drunkennesse and gluttonie, 106
  • His nick names, 106, 107
  • His Nigardise, 108
  • His covetousnesse, 109
  • His polling and pilling, 109
  • His hard hart to his wife Iulia, 109
  • His hatred to his kinsfolk, 109
  • His unkindnesse to Livia his owne Mo­ther. 110
  • His quarell unto her, 110
  • Hee starved to death Nero and Drusus his Nephewes, 112
  • His cruelty unto Noble Romane Citizens, 102
  • His close and cruell nature: 113, 114
  • His cruelty to Greeke professours, 112
  • His open cruelty, 114, 115
  • He devised new torments, 116
  • Hated of the world. 116
  • In continuall feare, ibidem,
  • Exposed to the reviling taunts of men: 117
  • His stature, feature, &c, 118
  • Irreligious, 119
  • Fearefull of Thunder and Lightning, 119
  • His Studies and Writings, 119
  • He forbare to speake Greeke, 119
  • He was very healthfull, 118
  • [Page]He falleth sicke, 120
  • His death, 120, 121
  • His death foreshewed, 121
  • It contenteth the people, 121
  • His corps burnt, 121
  • His will and testament,
  • Tigellinus a bloud-hound of Nero, odious to the people, 219
  • A Tigre shewed by Augustus, 59
  • Tillage maintained by Augustus, 58
  • prouided for by Domitian. 263
  • Tiridates shewed at Rome, 184
  • Titus the Emperour his commendation, 253
  • His birth and education, 253
  • Poysoned with Britannicus, 254
  • He loued Britannicus entirely, ib
  • His good parts, 254
  • His war-seruice, 254
  • He divorseth Martia Flauia, ib
  • Hee assaulteth and forceth at Hierusalem, 255
  • Saluted Emperour, 255
  • Suspected of his Father, 255
  • He cleereth himselfe, 255
  • Hee ruleth the Empire ioynetly with his Father, 255
  • His violent and cruell demeanor, 255
  • Suspected for riotous life, 255
  • For wantonnesse, ib
  • For extortion, ib
  • His honest conuersation and princely ca­riage euery way, 256
  • His sumpteous spectacles, 256
  • A most gracious Prince, 256
  • What mishaps fell out in his dayes, 257
  • His clemencie, 257
  • Forlayde by his owne brother Domiti [...]n, 258
  • His vntimely death, 258
  • Honoured after death, 258
  • A treasurie erected by Augustus Caesar for Souldiers, 62
  • Tribunes of Com. created out of Gentle­men. 56
  • Triumphirate 55
  • Troie warlike game, 17, 58
  • Tropaei, 156
  • Tun [...]cati, 137
  • Tuscus killed by Nero. 198
  • VAlerius Catullus abused by Caligula, 240
  • Varonilla a vestal votarie put to death for incest, 264
  • Varus his ouerthrow, 47, 96
  • Vatinia Law, 9
  • Venice gulfe, 15
  • Venus Erycines Temple, 167
  • Vestal Virgins of what respect, 89
  • Vindexrebelleth, 201
  • Polla Vespasia mother of Vespafian the Emperour, 240
  • Vespasian the Emperours birth, 240
  • His Education. ib
  • He espouseth Flauia Domitilla 241
  • His Martiall exploits, 241, 242
  • Surnamed in mockerie, Mulio, 241
  • In disgrace with Nero, 242
  • His empireforesignified by sundrie signes, 242. 243.
  • Friended by Vologesus King of the Par­thians. 244.
  • How he acquired princely maiestie, 245
  • He triumphed ouer the Iewes, 245
  • He reformeth militarie discipline, 245
  • His care to repaire buildinges in Rome, 246
  • His workes and buildings, 246
  • Hee reformeth the iudiciall Courts, &c. 246
  • He represseth vnbridled lust & lauish ex­pence, 246, 247
  • Not vaineglorious, 247
  • His patience, 247
  • His mercie and pittie, 248
  • Noted for Avarice, 248, 249
  • A maintainer of learning and learned men 249
  • Surnamed Cybia sactes. 249
  • His stature, &c, 249
  • Given to skurrile skoffs, 250
  • His prety jests, 250, 251
  • His death, 251
  • Vibius Crispus his saying of Domitian, 261
  • Vineyards goe to decay vnder Domitian, 263
  • Vinicius his conspiracie, 258
  • Viscecratio what it is, 16
  • Visitation of forraine Provinces and Cit­ties by Augustus Caesar, 61
  • Vitellia a goddesse reputed, 230
  • A. VITELLIVS the Emperour his rising, 231
  • His descent and Pedigree, 229 230
  • His moderate behauiour in the Prouince, 232
  • His lewde Demeanour in Rome Cittie 232
  • His birth, 231
  • [Page]He killeth his own sonne Petronianus, 232
  • Driven to extremities for neede 232
  • His unseemely affability and popularity, 232, 233
  • Proclaimed Imperator, 233
  • Surnamed Germanicus, ib.
  • Refuseth other titles in his style, 233
  • His exemplarie Iustice done upon traytors 234
  • His insolencie and pride. 234
  • Surnamed Spintria, 231
  • Sumteous at his table, 230
  • He sacrificeth to the Ghost of Nero, 234
  • His gluttonie, 235
  • His Platter, 235
  • His cruelty, 235
  • Vnto Astrologers especially, 236
  • Impious to his mother, 236
  • His largesses, 236
  • Minded to resigne up the Empire, 137
  • He fireth Iupiters Temple upō the Capitol Surnamed Concord, 237
  • Murdred with shamefull indignities, 238
  • His shape and stature. 238
  • He maketh head against Otho. 226
  • P. Vitellius. 230
  • Q. Vitellius removed frō the Senate, 230
  • P. Vitellius cutteth his owne veines, 230
  • L. Vitellius doted vpon a woman, 230
  • Devoted to Caius Caesar, 230
  • To Messallina, 231
  • His death, 231
  • Vltimum supplicium what it is, 5. 6
  • Vologesus affected to Nero, 209
  • Volucer the horse of Verus the Emperor, 149
  • Vonones perfidiously killed by the means of Tiberius Caesar, 109
  • Wayfaring men how they should travell 167
  • Wine not allowed by Augustus, 57
  • Winter moneths which they be, 2
  • Zeno confined by Tiberius Caesar, 112

AN INDEX TO THE Annotations.

  • Accensus, what officer. 3, b
  • Acclamations, 39, b
  • Adoptions of ij. sorts 15, a
  • Adulteria. 25. b
  • Aegle the Romane Mainestandard, 7, a
  • Aeneas kind to his fathe [...] Anchises, 31. b
  • Agrippae who they be: 21. a
  • Ajax. 9, a
  • Alcmaeon killed Eriphyle his owne mo­ther, 31, b
  • Alexandrea in Aegypt, 8, a
  • Alliensis dies, 35, a
  • Amazones what woman, 4, a
  • De Ambitu, Lawes, 13, a
  • Amphora what measure, 23, b
  • Ambubaiae, 30, b
  • Ancilia, 34, b
  • Annales or annarsae Lawes 12, b
  • Why so called? 25, a
  • Annonae 13, b
  • Anticatones, 7, a
  • Anticyra, 27, a
  • Antipater Sidonius his Ague 17, a
  • Apis, what Idol, 18, b
  • [...]. 41, a
  • Apollo Paean, 31, b
  • Apollo Hecatebcletes, 31, b
  • Apoplexie. 35, a
  • Appeale unto the people, 2▪ a
  • Area, 38, b
  • Armie Romane, 11, b
  • Artaxe [...]xes Mnemon, 14, b
  • As, 20, a
  • Aspis the Serpent, 11, b
  • Asprenas Nonius accused for poysoning 14, b
  • [...]. 21, b
  • Atellane Comaedies, 24, b
  • Atricapilla what bird, 23, b
  • Attae, who they be: 21, a
  • Augures and Augurium: 12, b
  • Auguralis caena 13? a
  • Augustales, priests: 33: a
  • Sodales: 19, b
  • Augustus Caesar punisheth Adulterie, 13, a
  • Favoureth the Iewish religion 18, b
  • Aurei Romani, what peeces, 33, b
  • Automatum. 28: b
  • Bals to play with divers sorts 17, b
  • Basilides, 36. b
  • Bathing much: 17. b
  • Biberius, 23. a
  • Bissextile or Leape yeere: 5, b
  • Blackebird commended, 23, b
  • Bombi. 30, a
  • Bonum Factum, 8, a, 25, b
  • * [...], signifieth a great sacrifice: a word compounded of [...], which is [...] and [...] 1. or of [...] c. i▪ Bos an ox. And such were their Hecatombae, whereat a thousand oxen were killed. 29, 12, d
  • Bracata Gallia, [...]3. b
  • Bracae or Brachae. 8, a, 17, b
  • Bridges in Campus Martius: 8, a
  • Brutus supposed to be Iulius Caesars sonne 8, b
  • Busaucheres. 24, a
  • Caenae Adijciales, 19, b
  • Caesar in a duple signification, 38, b
  • Caius Caesar killed, 15. a
  • C. Caesar his sodaine death, 1, a
  • C, Iulius Caesar how deeply endebted 13. a
  • Calcei Lunati, 13, a
  • Caldus 23, a
  • Caliga what it is, 25, b
  • Caligati. what soldiers? 12, a
  • Caligula excessive in table expences. 27, b
  • Caligula counterfaiteth thunder and light­ning, 27, b
  • Callipides 23, a
  • Camp duple why prohibited, 38, a
  • Canace 30, a
  • Cancers, what they be, 15. b
  • Candidates. 4, a, i4, b, 15. a
  • Candida Toga differeth from Alba, 4, a
  • Caninius Rebilus his Consulate, 7, b
  • Canis, what chaunce 16, a
  • Capitolium, 27. b
  • Cardiaca Cardialgia, 28. b
  • Carmelus, 36, a
  • Casca and Cassius, 8, b
  • Castor hardly intreated by Caligula. 26, b
  • Caudex. 21, a
  • Cauneas. 18, b
  • [Page] [...]. 13. a
  • Centumuiralis hasta, 36, a
  • * Ceres priestresses named Antistitae for their holinesse & chastitie, were no lesse honored at Athens, thā the Vestal Nuns in Rome. 29, 12, e
  • Chariotiers factions howe distinguished. 29, a
  • Chius, what chaunce, 16, a
  • Cicero what hee said as touching his bro­thers Demy-personage. 25, b
  • Cinaedus, 15, b
  • Circenses Games, 5, a
  • When exhibited? 22, b
  • Cisalpine Gaule. 3, b
  • Civick guirland. 1, b. 22, b
  • Civility in Emperours, 14, a
  • Civil, in Suetonins, what it signifieth. 25, a
  • Claudius the Emperour, compared to a dumb Player in a Shew, 28, b
  • Clients and Patrons, 1, b
  • Climacterick yeere: 9, b
  • Coleta, what place: 5, b
  • Colonies, 13, b
  • Colonies Latine, 2, a
  • Colosseros, 27, a
  • Colossus. 36, b
  • Comata Gallia, 3, b
  • Comitiales Leges, what Lawes, 25, a
  • Comitialis morbus. See Falling-Sicke­nesse.
  • Comitium what place, 2, a
  • Commilitones, 12, a
  • Comaedies the olde, and who wrote them, 18, a
  • Congiaries, 4, b
  • Consuls reckoned for Soveraine Magi­strates after the free State. 26, b
  • Copae: 30, b
  • Cornelia Law. 13, a
  • Cous, what chaunce, 16, a
  • Criers for the best Game: 30
  • Cubiculum, what it signifieth, 29, b
  • Curia and Curio, 2, b
  • Cutiliae what waters, 36, b
  • Cybele, 15, b
  • Cynicks, 36, a
  • DEceres, what Galley, 27, b
  • Decuriones what they are, 13, b
  • Depilatorae medicinae: 34, b
  • Dialects: 23. b
  • Dialis, 7, b
  • Dialis caena, 13, a
  • Dictare &
  • Dictator, 7, b
  • Divisores what they are, 3, a. 10. a
  • Divortium what it is. 1, a
  • Dog tied at the Porters Lodge, 35, b
  • Domini Insularum. 31, b
  • Dominus. 14, a
  • Domitian more Sanguin [...]rie than Nero. 39, a
  • Dragon creeping. 24, b
  • Dropsies of three kindes. 29, a
  • Drusilla, Claudius the Emperours wife: 28, a
  • Dulciarius. 23, a
  • Ellebor, where the best. 26: a
  • Emblemata. 24. b
  • Epulones. 19: b
  • Equestria, what place in the Theatre at Rome. 28. a
  • [...] ominous wordes. 34. a
  • Erycina Venus. 28, a
  • Eutychus: 19, a
  • Executions, in what place of the Campe they were done? 34. a
  • Exploratores, who they are. 27. b
  • FAbius Maximus commended. 22: a
  • Factions of Plaiers, 30. a
  • Faeminalia and Tibialia, 17, a: b
  • Falling sicknesse. 6,
  • Fasting from all foode, howe long tolera­ble 14. b
  • Festina lente, 12, a
  • Ficedula what bird. 23. b
  • Flamins. 1. a 7. b
  • Flaviani, Priests, 33: a
  • Flavius Clemens a Proselyte and Christi­an, 39, a
  • Foole or Physician, 24, a
  • Fora, 12, b
  • Fricasies reprehended by Cornelius Cel­sus. 36, b
  • Funales, what horses. 21, b
  • GAlli: 32. b
  • Galli Priests of Cybele. 15, b
  • Games sacred which they were. 30: a
  • Genius of the Emperour: 26. b
  • Gentlemen in youth how trained vp: 1, a
  • Gentlemen of Rome, their estate? 4: b
  • Germaniciani who they be: 22, b: 34. b
  • Gestation, what exercise. 36. b
  • [Page]Goales in the Cirque. 5. b
  • Gods and Goddesses Select, 16. a
  • Gowne, the Romane habite, 13. b
  • Graecia Magna, 11. a
  • Graphium. 8, b. 27. a
  • Gymnick Games, and Gymnasium 19. b 29 b
  • Hare commended, 23. b
  • Halles of Iustice. 12. b
  • Hecatebeletes. 31. b
  • Height of men. 16. b. 24, a
  • Hemiplegia, 35, a
  • Hercules enraged, 30. a
  • Hersilia, 33, b
  • Hidroa, 24, a
  • Hieronicae, [...]0, a
  • IIS. what it signifieth, and so forth, 4, a
  • Ianus Quirinus his Temple, 11, b
  • Icarus and his fable, 29. b
  • Ides of the moneth, 13, a
  • Iewes, put for Christians 28, a
  • Ilium, 8, a
  • Imbrices, 30, a
  • imperator how diversly taken, 22. b
  • Impudicitia, 6, b
  • Inferiae, 9, b
  • Inheritances Testamentariae and Legiti­mae, 1, a
  • Insertae, 24, b
  • Insula, 31, b
  • Iovis Epulum, 13. a
  • Ira and Iracundia how they differ. 28, b
  • Isthmus, 6, a
  • Iulia Law, 13, a
  • Iulius the moneth, 7, b
  • Iulius Montanus, 30. b
  • Iupiter his Ensignes, 27. b
  • Ius, what it is. 23, a
  • Iustitium at Rome what it betokeneth, 25. b
  • Iuvenalia, 29, b
  • Iuvenes secundi ordinis, 30, b
  • Kalends of Ianuarie, 2, b
  • [...], what it is, 31, a
  • King of Kings. 25, b
  • Knights Living what it was, 28, b
  • Laberius quitteth Cicero with a scoffe, 5. a, b
  • Lares, Lararium, 25, a
  • Latro, 27, a
  • Latus Clavus and Laticlavij. 13, a, 36, a
  • Law Sempronia. 3. b
  • Cn. Lentulus of great wealth. 23. b
  • M. Lepidus his death, 1, b
  • Levana, what Goddes, 10, [...]
  • Libellers punished, 14, b
  • Libera Legatio 22, b
  • Libertines, who they were. 1. a. 12, a
  • Librarie at Alexandrea. 39. b
  • Linigeri. 38 a
  • Litare. 19. a
  • Livia the Empresse what names shee had, 20. b
  • Lorarij, why so called, 27. a
  • Loxias, an Attribute of Apollo, 32. a
  • Luperci. 7. b
  • Lustrum. 19. a
  • Mactae, 19, a
  • Maecenas noted to be Vxorius, 15. b
  • Taxed for curious trimming of himselfe, and for affectate speech. 18. a
  • Maenius, and Maeniana, 25, b
  • Magistrates Superiour and Inferiour, 2, b
  • Magistrates at Rome who were properly called. 29, b
  • Mancipatio, what it is, 15, a
  • Mariage enforced by Law. 13, a
  • Mars the revenger and his Temple. 11. b
  • Mater Deum what Goddesse. 15. b
  • Matronalia, 36, b
  • Mausoleum. 20, a
  • Maxima vestalis. 9. a 20. a
  • Melanocoryphus what bird. 23. b
  • Mellita bellaria, 23. a. 30, b
  • Mercurius his Ensigne, 27, b
  • Mero. 23, a
  • Metellus perswadeth for Mariage. 18, b
  • Milliarium in Rome, what it was 34. a
  • Mimi what they be 5, a
  • Mirmillones. 27, b
  • Mirtitrichila 30, b
  • Mioneres, a Galley 27, b
  • Monopolie 24, b
  • Morari 31. a
  • Mortalities with pestilence. 31, b
  • Nauphilus 32. a
  • Nemesis, 18, b
  • Neptunes mace, 27, b
  • Nero, what it signifieth, 21. a
  • Nestors cup in Homer 32, b
  • Nicon 19. a
  • Nomi in Aegipt, 32. b
  • Nominalia 29. b
  • Nones of ihe Moneth 13. b
  • Novae Tabulae 5, b
  • Nundina what Goddesse 29, b
  • Nundinae 18, b
  • [Page]Ocellatae, 18. a
  • Octophorum what Licter, 22, b
  • Oedipus. 30, a
  • Ops. 10. a, 15, b
  • Optimates who they be, 2, a: b
  • Optimus Maximus. 7, b, 8. a
  • Orbis in ij, significations. 15, b
  • Orchestra, 5, a, 28, a
  • Orcus, 22: a
  • Orestes killed his mother, 30. a, 31, b
  • Otho his costly feasting of Nero, 30. b
  • His effeminacie 34. b
  • Ovatio. 11. b
  • Ovilia. 22. a
  • Paean. 31: b
  • Pagani, 33. b
  • Pelilia, what feast. 25, b
  • Palmularius. 38, b
  • Papia Poppaea Law. 13, a, 28. a
  • Parricidium a day, 9. b
  • Parricidium what crime. 5. b. 6. a
  • Parricides punishment. 12. b, 13, a
  • punished by Claudius. 28, b
  • Pasiphae. 29, b
  • Pater familias. 38. a
  • Patrones and Clients. 11 a
  • Pegmares, and Pegmatis. 26. b
  • Pemmata, 23, a
  • Pentathlon. 5. b
  • Perduellionis crime 2, a
  • Periodicall diseases 17. a
  • Phaeton and his fabulous historie, 25, b
  • Phalerae, 31, a
  • Phesants why called Phasiani: 26, a
  • [...]. 36. b
  • [...]. 36. a
  • De. Plano. 23. a
  • Pleistobolinda, 31, a
  • Pluto, 32. a
  • Polemones, Kings of Pontus, 30. a
  • Polycrates glutted with prosperity, 18. b
  • Polyphagus and Phagon. 31: a
  • Pontificialis caena. 13, a
  • Pontificum caenae 28, b
  • Populares who they are. 2. a. b
  • Popularia, what place in the Theatre, 28. a
  • Pound Romane 33. b
  • Praetexta what Robe. 2, b
  • Praetextata verba. 36, b
  • Praetorian soldiours: 22, a
  • Principia, what place in the Camp, 34, a
  • Profani. 31, a
  • Province what it signifieth, 3. a
  • Provinciae Caesare. 13, b
  • Praesidiariae. ib.
  • Populi. ib.
  • Praetoriae, Consulares: 14. a
  • Psylli. 11, a
  • Ptolemaees counted dead: 11, b
  • Publicanes, 12: a: 3. b
  • Pulvinar. 7: b
  • Pyrrhick daunces, 5, a
  • Pythagoras. 31: a
  • Quadragesima. 36: a
  • Quindecemuirs. [...]: a: 19: b
  • Quinquatria: 16: a
  • Quintana: 30, b
  • Quintilis what Moneth. 7. b
  • Quirites: 7: a
  • Rectae Caenae. 29: b
  • Regall ensignes what they be: 26: a
  • Regaliolus, what bird, 8, a
  • Regions of Rome City. 5, a, 10. a
  • Repudium what it is. 1. a
  • Retiarij what fensers: 27: b
  • Rex Nemorensis: 27: b
  • Rhegium, why so called: 10: b
  • Riding of Romane Gentlemen. [...]3, b
  • Ring-finger. 4: b
  • Rings of gold and yron: 19: b
  • Rogatio, what it is. 1, b
  • Romane playes, 22, b
  • Rosaria: 30: b
  • Roscia Law: 10: b
  • Rostra: 20: a
  • Rutuli or Rufuli, 1, b
  • Sabbats: 16: b
  • Sagatio: 34: a
  • Saliares Epulae: 28. b
  • Salinator where of he tooke that name: 21: b
  • Sardina, a pestilent place: 23. a
  • Saturnalia. 36. b
  • How and when celebrated, 25. b
  • Scalae Gemoniae, 23: b
  • Scarus a delicate fish 35. b
  • Scatinia Law. 13. a
  • Scelerata porta and Sceleratus vicuse 28 a
  • Sciatica: 17: a
  • Scutarij, what Soldiers. 14. b
  • Seale of Rome, 18. b
  • Sestiones et Suturae. 35, a
  • Secular Games. 12, b
  • Selena: 26, b
  • Senatours badges, 13. a
  • Septemvirs, 19, b
  • Septizonium, 37, a
  • [Page]Sestertius what place, 33, b
  • Sordidati, 21, b
  • Speculatores and Spiculatores, 33. b, 16, b
  • Sphinx. 14, a
  • Spongia, 18, a
  • Sportulae, 29, b
  • Stature of men. See Heighth.
  • Staechades what Ilands, 28, a
  • Strangurie, 17, a
  • Subegit, in a duple sence. 6, b
  • Sudamina. 24, a
  • Sulla proscribeth the Marian Faction, 2. a
  • Sumptuariae Lawes, 6, a, 13, a
  • Suovetaurilia, what sacrifice, 19, a
  • Supplication what it is, 4, a
  • Sustulit in a duple sense 31, b
  • Swimming commended 15, a
  • Syracusae 16, a
  • Tabellariae Naves, 30, a
  • Tili, 31, a
  • Talorum Lusus, 16, a
  • Templum, 19▪ a
  • Tertia deducta est, 6, b
  • Tessera, 33. a
  • Testae. 30, a
  • Tetraones what birds, 26. a
  • [...]. 16, a
  • Theatralis law. 10. b
  • Thensae. 7, a
  • Thraces or Threces what fensers. 27. b
  • Thraseas Paetus, judicially cōvented 30. a
  • Thrasyllus a great Astrologer 21, b, 22, a
  • Thunder in faire wether, 37, b
  • Tiberius Caesar noted by Angustus, 22. a
  • Tiberius, the younger, his pittifull death: 26: a
  • Tibur City, an healthie place: 23: a
  • Tiridates, a great magician: 31: a
  • Tithing of men: 7▪ a
  • Titles, what they be 37: a
  • Toga Graecanica. 38. a
  • Togata Gallia. 3: b
  • Tollendum. 10: b
  • Tribes Vrbane and Rustique: 2: b
  • Tribunes of the commons Inviolable: 2: a
  • Tribunes Militarie: 1: b
  • Triumphalis caena: 13: a
  • Triumphal ornaments: 13: b: 22: a
  • Triumvirate: 10: a
  • Troie Turnament: 5: b
  • Troica: 32: a
  • Tropaee, what it was: 33 a
  • Tunicati: 27: b
  • Turdus See Blackebird:
  • Vallare Coronets: 12: a
  • Varro▪ 6: a
  • Venus what chance: 16: a
  • Venus Genitrix: 7: a
  • Veraculi or vericuli: 35, b
  • Veratrices: ib.
  • Vestal virgins peacemakers: 1. a
  • Vestall Nuns conuicted of Incontinencie in what sort buried quicke, 38: a
  • Veteres, 20, a
  • Viaticum, what it is: 7. a
  • Victorie her Image. 33. a
  • Vindex. 32. b
  • Virile robe, 10. a
  • Visire what it is. 28. b
  • Voconia Law. 20. b
  • Vomiting much. 35. b
  • Vowes. 19. a. The forme thereof: 22, b
  • Vxorij. 35. a
  • VVars, wherof they take name. 11. b
  • Water-snake. 28. b
  • Xystici what spectacles. 13. b
  • Zenodorus an Architect 36: b
  • Zopyrus a Physiognomer, 37. a

Faults escaped in the Historie and Marginall Glosse.

PAge, 3, Line, 33. Fault. for Misteries, read Mysteries. l, 35. leave out, That is, pa. 10 l, 47, for, who wel, read who had deserved well. p, 15, l. 9, in the Ma. for Venus, r, Venice. p, 17, l, 32, in the Ma▪ r. Calendis Ianua [...]js novis. p, 18, l, 19, for trial, r, traine. l. 34, in the m. for with. r. both▪ p, 22, l, 27. of Legions of, r. of 10 Legions; of p. 27. l, 33, gate, r, guard for port, r, fort. l 34, before. Massilia, r, before Mas­silia, p, 30, l. 17, in the Marg, forme, r, Forum, p, 32, l, 3, ioyned r. ioyed, l, 25 Decius r. Decimus Calpurina r, Calp [...]ial 19 Decius r, Decimus l. 24 the r his p 32 the r and the l 26 Beautifull r bountifull l 29 Alvernus r Avernus l 11 bare r bearing, for Aegypt where, r Aegypt. Where l 22 in r into l 40 in the Marg, mungrel r Laber [...]ine p 48 l 29 with a r with as p [...]0 l 41 Palatinus r Palatium; l 19 in the Marg, Prassoria r Praetoria l 17 spaces r [...]pouses p 58 l 32 devour r devoir p 59 l 1 L, IVIVS L. [...]TIVS p 60 l 11 pleasure r his pleasure for contentment, r contentment wherein, p 61 l 1 hands r hands and p 64 l 4 opened, r opined l 17 lesse of r lesse, and of p 65 l [...]3 wishes r osses p 66 l 39 in the Marg. Lotapas r Iotapas p 68 l 44 then to be any r than any l 39 in the marg. Terenthia r To­rentia, p 70 l 4 adulterium: r adulteria. p 71 l Senio n. 1 Se [...]o, l 41 not with r not so much with l 46 in the mar. Be [...]luar. r Belluarum. Whales within pooles, r Whales, whir pooles p 72 l 16 in the marg. or r in l 37 in the marg. Baffors, Buff [...]ns, p 74 l 26 in the marg. Casanv [...]n r Casaubon l 36 in the marg. charlicter r licter l 40 in the marg. ve [...]eres r delicias p 76 l 13 or lesse r more or lesse l 47 in the marg sweat r sweet balmes p 81 l 2 by the r about the l 40 in the marg. or r are l 46 in the marg. infigured r pr [...]figured p 82 l 29 like ensued r like end ensue p 89 l 26 Senatours r Senones l 49 opened r opined l 22 and alio rand all p 96 l 3 in the ma. ofa: yeeres r of two yeeres. p 102 l 22 what, in r what ▪ and in p 103 l 9 both when r both. When p 109 l 6 latest r later p 110 l 42 in the marg. r La­ [...]umiam p 1 [...]5 l 34 Iemoniae r Gemoniae 116 l [...]8 cariager Carnage p 119 l 1 or had r or sence l 28 cheere you frowning r chie [...]e you frownsing p 127 l 29 disguisement r de [...]ignment p 128 l 22 pitchers with r pitchers. And with p 130 l 4 [...] fargnet r targue [...] p 1 [...]2 l 13 in the marg. his owne r his owne selfe p 137 l 33 in the marg. destruction r distinction p 139 l 45 impu [...]ity r impurity p 140 l 29 barnes r baines. p 148 l 35 hantbors r ha [...]tbois p 1 [...]9 l 18 in the marg. Incitato, cuius equi r Incitato, equo, cuius cau [...]a p 152 l 8 in the marg. Nero his mothers sonne. r Nero, his mothers husband. l 35 s [...]ould pick r should not pick p 168 l 5 and children r and freed­men p 174 l 2 [...] father, quoth he, had r father had p 183. l 5 or most r a most p 187 l 23 stippled r [...]ippled l 37 in the mar. wings r rings p 190 l 45 tabels r labels p 193 l 36 granings r gra [...]ges l 38 alwaies r all was l 24 Foi [...]e r foist p 197 l 29 That all r that when all p 200 l 10 in the ma left out Camelodun [...] et Londinium coloniae &c. Tacitus. i. Maldon & London ij Colonies; & togither with them, Verulamium a Burrough free town, (in the ruines wherof S. Albanes now standeth in which places 7000 (by report) were slain of Ci­tizens & Alies. p 201 l 47 in the ma. r Citharaedum a [...]inger to the Ha [...]p p 202 l 6 so plainly r so painfully p 204 l 15 grave r brave p 209 l 17 in the marg. Aspernas r Asprenas l 14 from the r by the l 16 the had r he had p 215 l 14 them likewise r then likewise p 216 l 5 in the mar. omitterens r amitterent. i. to loose l 45 in the mar. or this one r or thus, one p 229 l 3 now start r new start p 230 l 14 games r gaines p 2 [...]3 l 17 divided repast r divided his repast p 236 l 1 As Vsurers r Of Vsurers l 15 in the mar. image r huge p 246 l 12 in the marg. words r records l 35 Gods r goods p 250 l 44 placed r played p 251 l 32 in the mar. to grow r so, grow l 43 in the ma. order r or­dure p 25 [...] l 6 in the marg. E [...]ses r Euseb▪ p 268 l 27 in the marg. Lacinthus r Latine thus p 270 l 24 his owne r her owne p 271 l 19 mirable r notable line 28 for Matium read Mat [...]an.

THE HISTORIE OF Caius Iulius Cesar Dictator,


CAESAR in the sixteenth yeare of his age, lost his (a) Father:CHAP. 1. A. V. C. 670. and in the Sequentibus Coss. For at Rome they rec­koned the yeares accor­ding to their Consuls: whose office ordina­rily continued one yeare, and begin with the yeare▪ upon the first day of Ia­nuarie. yeare following, being elected (b) Flamen Dialis, he cast off COSSVTIA (a Gentlewoman borne but very weal­thie) affianced unto him during his childhood; and espoused CORNELIA the daughter of CINNA foure times Consul: who bare vnto him soone after, his daughter IVLIA: neither could he by any meanes be forced by SVLLA the Dictatour, to (c) put her away: Whereupon, deprived of his sacerdotall dignitie, loosing the dowrie in the right of his wife, and forfeiting all his heritages (d) descended unto him from his linage and name, hee was reputed one of the O [...] Diuorse. contrarie Faction▪ In so much as he was constrain'd to Of Ma [...]s. hide his head; and (albeit the quartaine Ague hung sore upon him) to change almost every night his starting holes wherein hee lurked▪ yea▪ and to redeeme himselfe with a (e) peece of money out of the Inquisitours* To flie into the Sab [...]s Countrie, hands that made search for him: untill such time, as by the mediation of the re­ligious [Page 2] (f) vestall virgines, by the meanes also of MAMER [...]VS AEMILIVS and AVRELIVS COTTA, his neere For Aurelia was his mo­ther. kinsfolke and allied vnto him, hee obtained pardon. Certaine it is, that SVLLA, when he had denied a good while the re­quest of those right worshipfull persons, and his singular good friends intreating in his behalfe, and yet they persisted earnest suiters still for him, being thus im­portuned and at length overcome, brake forth aloud into these words, either in a Diuine prescience, or some pregnant coniecture, Goe to (quoth hee) my Mrs: Take him to you, since yee will needes have it so: but know this withall; that he whose life and safety yee so much desire, will one day be the overthrow of the Nobles, whose side yee have maintained with mee▪ For in this CAESAR there be many MARII.

THE first time that CAESAR served in the Warres, was in Asia, and that2. in the (a) domesticall retinue of M. [...] Thermus. M. THERMVS the Pretour: By whom being sent into Bithynia for to levie a Fleet, he made his aboade with K. NICOMEDES: not without a foule rumour raised, that he prostituted his bodie to be abused by the King. which rumour he augmented himselfe, by comming againe into Bi­thynia within fewe dayes, vnder a colour of calling for certaine money, which should be due to a (b) Libertine and (c) Client of his. The rest of his soulderie he caried with better fame and reputation: and at the winning of MITYLENAE, THERMVS honored him with a (a) Civike guirland.

HE was a Souldiour also vnder SERVILIVS ISAVRICVS in Cilicia, but it3. was not long: For vpon certaine intelligence given of SVLLA his death, and theA. V. C 676. hope withall of the new dissention that was stirred & set on foote by M. (a) LE­PIDVS, he returned in all hast to Rome. And notwithstanding hee was mightily solicited by many large offers and faire promises, yet forbare he to ioyne in so­cietie with LEPIDVS, partly distrusting his Surnamed so of the people in Cilicia na­med [...]auri, whom he sub­dued. nature, and in part doubting the present oportunitie, which he found nothing answerable to his expectation.

HOVVBEIT when that ciuill discord and sedition was (a) appeased, hee judici­ally4. accused for So variable and indiscreet extortion CORNELIVS DOLOBELLA, a man who had beene Consull, and triumphed. But seeing that the Defendant was found vn­guiltie and acquit, hee determined to retire himselfe vnto the Citie of Rhodes, as well to decline the Wh [...]es hee gouerned his Prouince. hatred of the world, as by occasion of that leasure and repose to learne the Art of Oratorie vnder APOLLONIVS For calling into question so honorable a person. MOLON a most re­nowmed Rhetorician in those daies. As he crossed the Seas thitherward Molon [...], not Molonis, as Plu­tar [...] taketh it, that is, the son of Molon. (be­ing now Winter time) his fortune was about the Isle Pharmacusa to be taken by Rovers, and with them he remained in custodie (not without [...] men­ [...]us, that is, In the Winter moneths which were Decemb; Ianuar. Febr: exceeding indig­nation) for the space well neere of xl. dayes, accompanied with one Some reade d [...]gnatione in a divers sense. Physician and two Groomes of his chamber. For, M [...]dico, vel am [...], that is, a friend. his O [...] the rest of his compani­ons & [...]eruants. companions and the rest of his servants belonging to his traine▪ he had sent To the Ci­ties of Asia, a Province adioyning. away immediatly at the very first, to procure him money with all speed for his ransome. After this upon the pay­ment vnto them of L. talents being set a shoare, he delayed no time, but present­ly put his Fleet to Sea againe, embarked, and never gave over pursuing the said Pirates, vntill he had over-taken them: and no sooner were they within his po­wer, but as hee often times had threatned in mirth, hee put them all to death. Now whiles MITHRIDATES wasted the Countries next adjoyning, because he would not be thought to sit still & doo nothing in this dangerous & doubtful state of confederate Nations and Allies to the Romaines, he left Rhodes whether [Page 3] he had directly bent his course, gathered a power of Auxiliarie Souldiers, expel­led the Governour under the King out of the Province, and so kept the Cities and States in their alleageance, which were wavering and at the point to re­volt.

IN his Militarie (a) tribuneship, which was the first dignitie after his returne5. to Rome, that befell vnto him by the voyces and election of the people, hee as­sisted with all his might C. Co [...]ta▪ M. Cras [...]s, & C [...]. Pompe [...]us. who were the chiefe. those Patrones of the Commons, who stoode out for the restitution of their Tribunes authoritie; the force and strength where­of SVLLA had abated. Hee effected moreouer thus much, by vertue of an Act proposed by A Tribune of the Com­mons. PLOTIVS, that L. CINNA his wiues brother, that they, who together with him in the time of the ciuill discord aboue-saide, tooke part with LEPIDVS, and after the Lepidus. Consuls death, fled vnto Sertorius, might returne safely into the Citie, and enjoy their freedome. As touching which matter, himselfe made an Oration before the body of the people.

BEING Treasurer. Questour hee made as the auncient manner was Funerall Orati­ons6. out of the publique Pulpit called Rostra, in the praise of IVLIA his Aunt by the Fathers side, and of his wife CORNELIA, both late deceased. And in the commendation verily of his said Aunt, speaking of the pedigree and descent by both sides, namely of her selfe, and also of her Father, hee maketh report in these termes: Mine Aunt IVLIA (quoth he) by her Mother is lineally descended from Kings, and by her Father vnited with the race of the immortall Gods: For, from Ancus Marcius are derived the Marcij surnamed Reges, id est▪ Kings, which name my Mo­ther was stiled with: and from VENVS the IVLII draw their originall of which house and name is our familie. So then, in this stock there concur and meete together, as well the sanctitie and sacred Maiestie of Kings, who among men are most powerfull, as the religious Caeremonies and seruice of the Gods, in whose power Kings themselues are. In the place of CORNELIA departed, hee wedded POMPEIA, daughter of Q. POMPEIVS, and Neece to L. SVLLA. But her afterward hee divorced, su­specting that she had beene naught with P. CLODIVS, of whom there went so constant a report abroade, how at the celebration of certaine publique Divine ceremonies, he being disguised in womans aparel had accesse secretly unto her, that the Senate by Decree directed a Commission to Iustices Inquisitours, for to sit upon the pollution of those sacred Rites and Of the God­desse Bona▪ which wee ce­lebrated in Cae­sars house, be­ing the Ponti­ [...]ex. Misteries.

DVRING his Questureship, it fell unto him by lot to execute his Office in7. A. V. C 687. the Called [...] ­ca. farther Province of Spaine: where, when as by the commaundement of the A [...]tist [...]s Ve­t [...]s. Lord Pretour, he rode his circuit to keepe the In head shire Townes which were called Cōuentu [...]. Pl [...] Assises, and came to Gades, be­holding advisedly the Image or pourtracture of K. ALEXANDER the Great in the Temple of HERCVLES there: at the sight there of hee fetched a deepe sigh, yea, and as one displeased and yrked with his owne sloathfulnes, in that hee had performed yet no memorable Act at those That is, 33. C. Ph [...]lip. 5. yeeres, wherein ALEXANDER had conquered the whole world, hee presently made earnest suite for his discharge and licence to depart, thereby to take the first oportunitie of all occasions to compasse greater enterprizes at home within the Citie: and being moreover much disquieted and dismayed with a dreame the night before (for he imagined in his sleepe that he had carnall company with his owne Mother) the Divinours and Wizards incited him to the hopes of most glorious atchievements, making this exposition of his dreame, that thereby was portended unto him the Sove­raigntie [Page 4] of the whole world, considering that his Mother whom hee saw under him betokened nought else but the subjection of the earth, which is counted the Mother of all things.

DEPARTING therefore thence before his time was fully expired, hee went8. unto the (a) Latine Colonies, which were now devising and in counsell to sue for the freedome of the Citie of Rome, and no doubt had solicited and excited them to attempt some tumult and trouble in the State, but that the Consuls for the avoiding of this very dunger, kept back the Legions for a while which were enrolled for to be sent into Cilicia.

AND yet for all that, soone after he projected greater designes within the Ci­tie.9. For, not many daies before he entred upon his Aedileship, suspected he wasA. V. C. 688. to have conspired with M. CRASSVS (That had been Consul. a man of Consular degree) with P. SVL­LA likewise and Or L. rather. P. ANTRONIVS, (who after they were Consuls elect stoode condemned for suing indirectly and by corruption for that place) to set upon the body of the Senate in the beginning of their yeare; and that after they had mas­sacred whom it pleased them, M. CRASSVS should usurpe the Dictatourship; himselfe be chosen by him Maister of the Horsemen: and so when they had set­led the State at their pleasure, SVLLA and ANTRONIVS should be restored a­gaine unto their Cons [...]lship. Of this conspiracie, TANVSIVS GEMINVS ma­keth mention in his Storie, M. BIBVLVS in his Edicts and C. CVRIO the Father in his Orations. CICERO likewise seemeth to signifie as much in a certaine E­pistle unto AXIVS wherein hee reporteth that CAESAR established in his Con­sulship that Kingdome and roiall government, which he plotted and thought up­on when hee was Aedile. TANVSIVS writeth farther, that CRASSVS either repenting himselfe, or else upon feare, was not present nor kept the day appoin­ted for the said massacre▪ and therefore CAESAR neither gave that signall which by agreement hee should have given. Now agreed it was as CVRIO saith, that he should let his gowne fall from his shoulders. The same CVRIO yea and M. ARTORIVS NASO doo write, that he conspired also with CN. PISO ano­ble young Gentleman, who being in suspition for a conspiracie within the Ci­tie, had the Province of Spaine extraordinarily and without his owne suite besto­wed upon him: and complotted it was, that both hee in forraine parts abroade* Who was slaine by Spa­nish Horse­men, of whom hee had the conduct. and himselfe also at Rome should at once make an insurrection for to alter the State; and that, by the occasion and meanes of the So called of a riuer, neere into which they dwelt beyond the Po. Lambranes and inhabitants beyond the Po. That is, But the designement both of the one and the other was defeated and frustrate by reason of PISO his death.

WHEN he was Aedile, besides the (a) Comitium, the Market-place, and state­lie10 Halls of Iustice, hee beautified the Capitoll also with faire open GalleriesA. V. C. 689. built for the present occasion to stand onely during the publique shewes and plaies: wherein if the number of Images, Statues, and painted Tables fell out to be greater than was needefull, part of that furniture and provision might be set forth to the view of all men. As for the chasing and baiting of wilde beasts, the Stage plaies & solemne sights, he exhibited thē both jointly with his cōpa­nion in Office, and also severally by himselfe. Whereby it came to passe, that howsoever the charges of these Solemnities were borne in commune by them both, yet he alone went away with all the honour and thanke thereof: Neither did M. BIBVLVS his Colleague dissimule the matter, but utter as much, when [Page 5] he said that the same befell unto him which unto POLLVX: For like as (quoth he) the Temple erected in the Common Market place of Rome unto Geminis fra­ [...]ribus, that is, Costor and Pol­lux, who com­monly be cal­led Gemini fra­tres both the Twin-brethren, beareth the name of CASTOR alone: even so my munificence in expence and CAESARS together in setting out these games and plaies, goeth under the name of CAESAR onely. CAESAR over and above, did exhibite ano­ther shew of Sword-fight even at the sharpe: but hee brought into the place And yet hee exhibited 320. paire, as Plu­tarch writeth. fe­wer couples of champions by a good many than he purposed: For, buying up (as he did) such a sort of Fencers from all parts out of every Schoole, and putting his adversaries of the other faction in great affright thereby, hee gave occasion unto the State to provide by a speciall Act in that behalfe, For a certaine set number of Sworde-plaiers, above which no man might retaine anie at Rome.

11 THUS when he had gained the harts & favour of the people, he gave the attempt by some of the That hee might governe it and place the King [...]gaine in his ro [...]all Seate. Tribunes, and sued to have the Province of Aegypt by an Act of the Commons conferred upon him: taking occasion to make suite for this extraordinarie Governement, For that the Alexandrianes had driven their P [...]lomeus Au [...]etes the Fa­ther of Cleopa­ [...], who many yeares after by Gabi [...] was restored to his Kingdome. A. V. C. 690. King out of his Roialme, whom the Senate had styled with the title of Allie and Friend, An Act of theirs generally misliked. Howbeit hee could not carie it, by reason that the faction of the Nobles crossed him. Whose autho­ritie* As [...]orrentius saith. because hee would by way of quittance infringe and impaire by all meanes possible; the Tropaees and victorious Monuments of C. MARIVS for subdu­ing K. IVGVRTHA, the Cimbrians and the Teutons, which before time had beene demolished This is by the figure Prol [...]sis to be under­stood of Caesar when hee was [...]raetour of the Citie: as who favoured the Faction of M [...] ­rius both then and before, howsoever it may seem that [...] spea­keth this of him being Aedile, or presently after his Aedileship: which by Tor­re [...]tius leave, may well stand with the truth. and cast downe by SVLLA, he erected and set up againe: In place of the [...]retor. Also in sitting upon a Commission for the examination of Cae [...]r. A. V. C. 691. murderers, hee reckoned those in the number of them, who in the time of the Proscription, had received money out of the publique Treasurie for bringing in (a) the heads of Romaine Citizens, notwithstanding they were excepted by vertue of the Lawes That is, Egipt and the resto­ring of the king afore said. COR­NELIAE.

12 MOREOVER, he suborned one (a) and set him on, to endite C. RABIRIVS of high treason, by whose helpe especia [...]ly some yeares before the Senate had repressed and restrained the seditious Tribuneship of L. SATVRNINVS: and being by lot chosen a Which were 35. Iudge Delegate to passe sentence of the prisoner, so wil­ling he was to condemne him, that when RADIRIVS appealed unto the people, nothing did him so much good as the rigour of the But not en­tred y [...]t i [...]to the Office. Iudge.

13 HAVING laied a side all hope of the foresaid [...] sup­pl cium. Province, he stood to be the Highest Priest, not without excessive and most lavish largesse. Wherein, consi­dering how deepely hee engaged himselfe in debt, the same morning that hee was to goe unto the assemblie for the Election, when his Mother * kissed him he told her (by report) afore-hand, that he would never returne home but Pon­tife. And so farre overweighed he (a) two most mightie Competitours, who o­therwise for age and dignitie much outwent him, that in their owne Tribes hee alone caried more voices, than both of them in all * throughout.

BEING * created Pretour, when as the Conspiracie of CATILINE was14 detected, and all the Senate generally awarded no lighter punishment than * death, for as many as were parties and accessarie in that Action; hee onely gave his sentence, That their goods should be confiscate, and themselves put into se­verall [Page 6] free Cities and Burrowghes under the people of Rome, and there to bee kept in ward: and furthermore hee put them in so great a fright that gave shar­per censure (intimating eft-soones and setting before their eyes the exceeding great hatred of the Romaine Communaltie, which in time to come they should incurre) that D [...]CIMVS SILANVS Consul elect was not abashed nor unwil­ling to mollifie his owne As if he ment by [...]mum sup­plicium, impri sonment or some lesse pu­nishment then death. award, with a gentle exposition (because it had been a shame to alter it and eate his owne words) as if it had beene taken and con­strued in an harder sence, than hee meant it. And verily prevailed hee had, and gone cleare away with it (for many there were alreadie drawne to his side, and among the rest, Quintus Ci­cero CICERO M. Cicero. the Consuls brother) but that a speech made by M. CATO emboldened the whole house, and confirmed all the Senatours in their former sentence, who now were at the point to yeeld unto him. And yet for all this, he ceased not to hinder their proceedings, untill such time as a troupe of Romaine Knights, who stood round about the place in Armes for Of Consul and Senate guard and defence, threatned to dispatch him out of the way, in case hee continued still in his obstinate contumacie, holding and shaking their drawne Swords so neere unto him, as that his next fellowes forsooke him as he sate with them, and very few taking him in their armes and putting their Plutarch na­meth Curio for one of them Gownes betweene, hardly and with much a doo saved him from violence. Then was hee scared in deede, in so much as hee not onely condiscended unto them, but also for the rest of that Of M. T Ci­cero the Consul his yeere which now drew to an [...]nd. yeare forbare to come into the Senate house.

THE very first day of his Pretourship, he convented Q CATVLVS before15 the body of the people to receive their order upon (a) a matter to be discussedA. V. C. 692. by them, as touching reedification of the Capitoll, having withall promul­ged a Lawe, by vertue whereof hee transferred the charge of that worke unto That i [...], to Cn. Pompeius. another▪ But not able to match the Nobles and better sort, nor to make his part good with them drawing in one line, as they did, whom hee sawe in great fre­quencie to runne by heapes together, so fully bent to ma [...]e resistance, that pre­sently they left their officious attendance upon the new Consuls, hee gave over this action.

BVT, whereas CECILIVS METELLVS Surnamed Nepos (as Va [...]e­rius witnesseth) for his riotous life and beha viour. a Tribune of the Commons, pro­posed16 most turbulent and seditious Lawes, malgre his Colleagues with all their opposition, he shewed himselfe a stout ab better and maintainer of him: most stifly bearing him out in the cause, so long untill both of them were by an in­junction and decree of the Senatours remooved from the administration of the Common wealth. Howbeit presuming neverthelesse to continue in his magi­stracie, and to execute his jurisdiction, when he understood once that some were ready to prohibite him by force and Armes, hee sent away his Serjeants, cast off his (e) embrodered purple Robe, and retired priv [...]ly to his owne house, mind­ing there to keepe himselfe quiet in regard of the troublesome time. And when two daies after, the multitude flocked unto him willingly and of their owne ac­cord, promising after a very tumultuous manner their helpe and assistance in the recoverie of his former place and dignitie, he repressed them. Which thing hap­pening thus beyond all expectation, The Senate which was hastily met toge­ther about that riot and uprore, gave him hartie thankes; and that by the prin­cipall and noblest personages among them, sent for him into the (f) Curia, and [Page 7] after they had in most honourable termes commended him, they restored him fully to his Office, and reversed their former Decree.

HE fell againe into another newe trouble and daunger, being called into17. question as one of CATILINES conspiracie, both before the Questor NOVIVS NIGER in his house, and that by L. VETTIVS Indice, some reade Indice, that is, as if In­dex were his surname. who appeached him; and also in the Senate▪ by P. CVRIVS: unto whom for that he detected first, the plots & de­signments of the Conspiratours, were rewards appointed by the State. CVRIVS deposed that he knew so much by CATTILINE: and VETTIVS promised to bring forth even his owne hand-writing which he gave unto CATILINE: But this was such an indignitie as CAESAR in no wise thought tollerable; whereup­on, craving the testimonie of CICERO by which he proved, that himselfe mere­ly of his owne accord had given some information unto him of the said Conspi­racie, [...]e prevailed so much that CVRIVS went without those rewards. As for VETTIVS, after his goods were arrested and stresses taken, his houshold-stuffe rifled, himselfe evill entreated, beaten, and in the open assemblie of the multitude even before the ROSTRA wel-neere pulled in peeces, him he clapt up in prison. After the same sort he served NOVIVS the Questour, because hee suffered him, (g) a superiour Magistrate of State, to be accused and defamed in his house.

Ex praetura whereby it ap­peareth he was Praetor Viba [...]. AFTER this Pretourship of his, having the Government of the farther18. Province in Spaine allotted unto him, hee tooke order with his Creditours (thatA. V. C. 69 [...]. were in hand to stay him) by the meanes of certaine (a) sureties who came in and undertooke for him: and before the Governours of the Provinces were dis­posed-of by the State, with Commissions sealed for their jurisdiction and other affaires, with allowance and furniture also set out for them accordingly, he con­trarie to all right and custome put himselfe in his journey: were it for feare of some judiciall proceeding intended against him whiles he was a private person, or because he might more speedily succour the Allies of the Romaines, who cra­ved helpe, it is uncertaine. Well, when he had setled the Province in peace, he made as great hast to be gone▪ and not expecting a Successour hee departed, as well to ride in Triumph as to take upon him the Consulship. But after the Writs and Proclamations were out for the great Assemblie to Election (ofA V. C 695. Consuls) when he might not be pricked nor propounded (Consull) unlesse hee entred the Citie in qualitie of a private Citizen, and Cato, and his followers. many withstoode him la­bouring as he did to be dispensed-with for the Lawes, forced he was for feare of being put by the Consulship to forgoe (b) his triumph.

OF the two Competitours with him for the Consulship, to wit, L. LV­CEIVS19 and M. BIBVLVS, hee made choise of LVCEIVS to be his Compani­on in Office; vpon this compact and condition, That since hee was a man not so gracious, but better monied than himselfe, he should of his owne purse pro­nounce in the name of both, & promise to deale monies among the Centuries. Which devise being known the Optimates. Nobles and great men who were afraide, that being once a soueraigne Consull. Magistrate, & hauing a collegue ready at his beck to agree & consent with him, he would both dare & do any thing; perswaded with BIBVLVS to make promise of as great a Donation as the other did: and the most part of them contributed their monies thereunto. Yea, CATO himselfe verily was not against it, but saide, This Largesse stoode with the good of the weale [Page 8] publique. Heereupon created Consul hee was with BIBVLVS. For the same cause, the saide Nobles and principall persons of the Citie gaue order, that the Consuls for this yeere following, should haue (b) the Prouinces and Commissi­ons of least affaire and importance, to wit, the looking vnto Forrests & Woods, vnto Lanes and Pathes. CAESAR taking this wrong and disgrace most to the heart, made court all that euer he could vnto CN. POMPEIVS, who had taken offence against the Senatours, for that hauing vanquished K MITHRIDATES, his Acts and Decrees were no sooner ratified and confirmed. He reconciled al­so vnto POMPEIVS, M. CRASSVS, an olde enemie ever since that Consulship, which they bare together with exceeding much jarring and disagreement: Hee entred likewise into a Societie with them both, vpon this contract, That nothing should be done or passe in the administration of the Common-weale, that dis­pleased any of them three.

WHEN he was entred into this Honourable place of Consulship; hee (first20 of all that ever were) ordained, That all Acts, as well of Senate as People shouldA. V. C. 695. day by day as they (a) were concluded, bee recorded also and published. Hee brought-in likewise the ancient custome againe, that in what (b) moneth hee had not the Knitches of rods with Axes borne before him, a publique Officer called ACCENSVS should huis [...]er him before, and the Serjeants or Lictours follow after behinde. Hauing promulged the Lawe Agraria, as touching the division of Lands among the Commons, when his fellowe Consull with­stoode and resisted his proceedings, hee drave him out of the Common-place, by violence and force of Armes. The morrow after, when the saide BIBVLVS had made his complaint in the Senate of this outrage, and there would not one be found that durst move the house about so great a garboile and hurlibur­ly as that was, nor give his censure thereof (as often times in lighter Turbis alias culp [...], that is, Trespasses or offences. tumults and stirres there had passed many Decrees) hee drave him to such a desperate feare, that untill hee went quite out of his magistracie, hee kept close with­in house and never prohibited [...], by pronoun­cing out of the Augurs lear­ning, that the day was nefa [...]tus & non comiti­alis, that is no Law-day. any proceedings else, but by way of Per edicta, some read, per list [...]es, that is, by his Ser [...]nts and Officers. E­dict. From that time forward, CAESAR alone managed all the affaires of State, even as hee would himselfe: in so much as diuers Citizens pleasantly conceited, when so euer they signed, subscribed, or dated any writings to stand vpon record, would merily put it downe thus, Such a thing was done, not when CAESAR and BIBVLVS, but when IVLIVS and CAESAR were Consuls: setting downe one and the same man twice, by his name and surname: yea, and soone after, these verses were commonly currant abroad,

Non Bibulo, quidquam nuper, sed Caesare, factum est:
Nam Bibulo fieri Consule, nil memini.
CAESAR of late did many things, but BIBVLVS not one:
For nought by Consul BIBVLVS, can I remember done.

The Stellat champian fields held consecrated & religious by our Auncestors, together with the Campane territorie reserued to yeeld rent and pay tribute for a Subsidie to the Common-weale, hee divided without casting At the discre­tion of [...]x. men d [...]puted Com­missioners for that purpo [...]. lots, among [Page 9] twentie thousand Citizens who could shew three children or more. The Pub­licanes making request for some For that they had takē things at too high a rate. easement hee relieued, by striking of a third part of their rents, and warned them openly, that in the setting and letting of the new commodities and renenues of the Citie, they should not bid and offer too much. All other things likewise he gaue and graunted, according as euery mans mind and desire stood thereto, and no man gaine-said him: but, went any about to thwart him, he was soone frighted away. M. CATO, when hee seemed to in­terrupt and stop his proceedings, hee caused to be haled violently out of the Se­nate house by an Officer, and committed to prison. As L. LVCVLLVS stoutly withstood his doings, he put him into so great a feare of sundry Actions and cri­minations, that hee was glad to come and fall downe before him at his knees. When CICERO pleading vpon a time in Court, had lamented the wofull state of those times: the very same day, at the Three a clock in the after-noone. ninth houre thereof, hee brought P. CLODIVS his enemie to be adopted into the house and name of a Commo­ner; one who long before had laboured in vaine to goe from the Nobles, and be incorporate among the Commons. Last of all, it is credibly reported, that he induced by rewards, against all those in generall of the contrary faction, Indicē, others read Iudic m id est Vettius Iudex. an appeacher, to professe that he was sollicited by some for to murder POMPEIVS;* L. Vettius ac­cording to Di [...] and [...]ptian. who being produced forth by him before the body of the people, nominated (as he had instructions, and as it was agreed betweene them afore) those that set him a worke: but when one or two of them were named to no purpose, nor with­out pregnant suspition of some fraudulent practise; he despairing the good suc­cesse of so rash and inconsiderate a project, poysoned the Id est Vettius Iudex afore­said: For, dead hee was found in prison by night. partie whom he had thus suborned, and made him away for telling any more tales.

ABOVT the same time, hee tooke to wife CALPVRNIA the daughter of L.21. PISO, who was to succeede him in the Consulate; and affianced hiw owne daughter IVLIA vnto CN. POMPEIVS, rejecting and casting off her for­mer spouse Whom hee promised in marriage the daughter of Cn. Pompeius. SERVILIVS CAEPIO, by whose helpe especially a little before, he had impugned BIBVLVS. After this new contracted affinitie, hee began (in Counsell) to aske (a) POMPEIVS opinion first; whereas before, hee was wont to begin with CRASSVS: notwithstanding also the custome was, that the Con­sul should observe that order all the yeere following, in asking the Senatours sentences, which he began with, the first day of Ianuarie.

BEING backed therefore by the favour and assistance of his wives Piso▪ Father22. and Cn. Pompeius. Sonne in Law, out of all that choice of Provinces hee chose especially the Gaules, the wealth and commoditie whereof might fit his hand, and mini­ster matter sufficient of (a) triumphs. And verily at the first by vertue of the Law (b) VATINIA he tooke vpon him the gouernment of (c) GALLIA CISALPINA together with ILLYRICVM. Soone after by the meanes of the Senate, that al­so which was called (d) COMATA: For, the nobilitie feared, least if they had denied him it, the people would have bestowed the same also vpon him. With joy whereof he grew so haughtie and proud, that he could not hold and temper himselfe, but after some fewe daies make his boast in a frequent Senate house, that he had gotten now what he desired in despite of his aduersaries, and full [...]ore against their wills; and therefore from that time forward, would (e) insult vpon all their heads: whereupon, when one by way of reproach denied that and said, That it was no easie matter for a woman so to doo: he answered againe, as [Page 10] it were alluding merily to another sence, That, euen in Assyria there some time raigned Queene SEMIRAMIS: and that the women named (f) Amazones held in times past a great part of Asia in subjection.

WHEN hee had borne his Consulship, C. MEMMIVS and L. DOMITIVS23 Pretours for the time beingvvhether they should be re­pealed or stand in force., put to question his Acts passed the former yeere:A V. C 696. wherevpon hee referred the examination and censure thereof unto the body of the Senate but seeing they would not underta [...]e the thing, after three daies spent to no purpose in vaine brables and altercacions, he departed into his Province. And immediatly hisWhen he was Consul. Questour (a) for to prejudice him, was drawne into trou­ble & indited upon certaine crimes. Within a while himselfe also was brought judicially to his triall, and accused by L. ANTISTIVS a Tribune of the COM­MONS: but by appealing unto the Colledge of the Tribunes, hee prevailed through their favour thus much (in regard of his absence about the affaires of Common-weale) that he should not be liable to the accusation. For his better securitie therefore against future times, he travailed much to obligue and make beholden unto him the Magistrates every yeare: and of those Competitours who sued for any honourable Office, to helpe or suffer none other to come unto the place, but such as covenanted with him, and undertooke to defend & main­taineFor that hee was extraordi­narily absent, longer than the Law Sempronia did permit. him in his absence. For assurance of which their covenant, he stuck not to require of some an oath, yea, and a bill of their owne hands.

BVT when L. DOMITIVS a (a) Candidate for the Consulship threatned o­penly,24. that were he once Consul, he would effect that which he could not whileA. V. C. 698. he was Pretour, yea, and take from him his Armies, hee made meanes to draw CRASSVS and POMPEIVS unto Luca a Citie within his Province: with whom hee dealt effectually, that for to give DOMITIVS the repuise, they should both sue for themselues to be Consuls the second time, and also labour that his go­vernment might be prorogued or continued for five yeares longer; and he effe­cted both. Vpon this confidence hee presumed to assume unto those Legions which hee had received from the State, others beside, maintained partly at the Cities charges, and in part with his owne private purse. And one Legion aboue the rest, enrolled from out of the Countries beyond the Alpes, hee termed by a French word, For named it wasThe bird Ga­lerita or Cassita, so called of a crest, upon the head. This Le­gion it should seeme ware P [...]umes of fea­thers in their crests of Hel­mets, where­upon it tooke that name. Alauda. Which, being trained in militarie discipline, armed also and set out after the Romaine fashion, hee afterwards en­franchized throughout and made free of Rome. Neither from this time forward forbare he any occasion of warre, were it never so unjust or dangerous: picking quarrels as well with confederate Nations, as those that were enemies, savage and barbarous; whom he provoked to take Armes: in so much as the Senate one time decreed▪ to send certaine Embassadours for to survay & visite the state of the Gaules: yea, and someNamely Cato, Plutarch. were of opinion, that he shovld be delivered unto the enemies hands. But by reason that his affaires sped well and had good suc­cesse, hee obtained in regard thereof solemne Supplications both oftner, and to hold more daies than ever any man did (before himselfe.)

DVRING the time of his (provinciall) gouernment, which continued nine25. yeares space, these, in manner, were the Acts which hee performed. All that part of Gaule, which from the Forrest and Mountaine Pyrenaeus, the Alpes, and the hill Gebena, is enclosed within the Rivers Rhene and Rhosne, contai­ning in circuit 3200. miles, not accounting the associate Cities and States [Page 11] well of the people of Rome, hee reduced into the forme of a Province, and im­posed upon them a payment of tribute yeerely. The Germanes inhabiting be­yond the Rhene, he of all the Romaines first assailed by meanes of a bridge which he built over the said River, and those he grievously plagued and gave them ma­nie great overthrowes. He set upon the Britaines also, a people before time un­knowne, whom hee vanquished and compelled both to pay money, and also to deliver hostages. In so many prosperous battailes and fortunate exploits, he ta­sted of adverse fortune thrice onely & no more: once in Britaine, when his Fleete had like to have beene lost and cast away in a violent tempest: a second time in Gaule, where a Legion of his was discomfited and put to flight, neare unto Ger­gov [...]a: and last of all, in the marches of Germanie, when TITVRIVS and AVRVN­CVLEIVS his Lievtenants were forlayed by an ambush and put to the sword.

WITHIN the compasse of which very same time, hee lost by death, first, his26 Aurelia a Dame of sin­gular chastitie Mother, then his daughter (IVLIA) and not long after hisneptem, alij ne­potem, that is, Nephew. Neece by the saidA. V. C. 700. daughter. And in this meane while, the Common-wealth being much troubled and astomed at the murder of CLODIVS,By Milo [...] when the Senate thought good there should be but one Consul created, namely CN. POMPEIVS, hee dealt with the Tribunes of the Commons (who intended that hee should be the Colleague in Office with POMPEIVS) to propose this rather unto the People, That they would grant leave unto him in his absence, whensoever the terme of his govern­ment drew toward an end, to sue for his second Consulship: because he might not be constrained upon that occasion, and whiles the warre was yet unfinished, to depart out of his Province. Which whē he had once obtained at their hands, reaching now at higher matters, and full of hopes, there was no kind of largesse, no manner of dutifull Office either in publique to the whole Citie, or privately unto any person that he omitted and left undone. His FORVM or stately Hall he began to build with the money raised of the spoiles gotten in warres: the very plot of ground whereon it should stand, cost himThat is, a hundred milli­ans of Sester­ces, and 20, as P [...]me writeth, lib 36 Cap. 15. if G [...]areanus readeth truly, Millies aucen­ti [...]s. Millies sestertium and above. He pronounced also a solemne Sword-fight and Feast unto the people, in the ho­nour and memoriall of his Daughter, a thing that never any man did before him. And to cause an expectation of these solemnities in the highest degree, the vi­ands & whatsoever pertained unto the feast, albeit he had agreed with B [...]tchers and Victualers for the same at a certaine price, he provided neverthelesse by his Domestica­tim. houshold-servants. All the notable and well knowne sword players, when and wheresoever they fought so, as upon the mislike and displeasure of the beholders they were in danger to be killed in the place at their commaundement, he tooke order and charged they should be had away by force and reserved for himselfe. As for new-Fencers and young beginners, hee trained them neither in any pub­lique Schoole, nor under professed Mrs: of that Facultie, but at home in private houses, by Gentlemen of Rome, yea, and Senatours also, such as were skilful [...] in their weapon and in feates of Armes praying and beseeching them earnestly (as appeareth in his Epistles unto them) to take the charge of every one severally, and to have a speciall care to instruct each one, and giue them rules in their exer­cises. The legionarie Souldiours pay in money he doubled for ever. And so of­ten as there was plenty of corne, hee gave them their allowance of it without stint and measure and other-while he bestowed upon every one a slave or bond­servant, yea and possessions by the poll.

[Page 12]MOREOVER, to retaine still the bond of acquaintance, affinitie, and good27. will of POMPEIVS, OCTAVIA his sistersSo, hee was great Vnkle unto her▪ like as he was to Octa­vivs A [...]gustus, the Emperour. Neece wedded unto C. MARCEL­LVS, hee affianced and made sure unto him: but withall, he craved his daughter to wife, promised in mariage before unto FAUSTUS SULLA. Hauing thus ob­ligued and brought to his devotion all those about him, yea, & the greater num­ber of Senatours, by crediting out his money unto them, either gratis, or vpon a slight cōsideration: those also of other sorts & degrees, either invited kindly by himselfe, or resorting unto him of their owne accord, hee gratified with a most magnificent and bounteous (a) congiarie. The freed men besides, yea, and the Servants and Pages belonging to every one, according as any of them were in favour with theirOr Patrone. Lord and Maister, tasted of his liberality. Moreover, there was not a man sued in Court judicially and in danger of the Law; there was not any deepely engaged and endebted unto their Creditours; there were no prodi­gall young spend-thrifts, but he was their onely supporter, and most readie at all assaies to helpe them: unlesse they were those that either had committed such grievous crimes, or were so low brought, or had been so excessiue in riot, as that they could not possibly be relieved by him. For such as these, hee would say in plaine termes and openly, there was no other remedie but civill warre.

No lesse carefull and studious was he to al [...]ure unto him the hearts of Kings,28 yea, and whole Provinces throughout the world: unto some, offering in free gift the deliverie of Captives and prisoners by thousands at a time: unto others, sen­ding aide secretly and under-hand without authoritie or commission of Senate and people, whether and as often as they would: and more than this, adorning with goodly building and excellent peeces of work the mightiest Cities of Italie, Gaule, Spaine, yea, and of Asia and Greece. This he did so long, untill all men now were astonied thereat: and when they cast with themselves whereto this might tend, at last M. CLAVDIVS MARCELLVS the Consul, after a preface and pre­ambleA. V. C. 703. made to his Edict, namely, That he would speake as touching the maine point of the Common-weale, proposed unto the Senate, That for as much as the warre was now ended, and peace abroad established, there might be one sent to succeede him, before his time was fully expired; also, That the victorious Armie ought of right to bee dismissed and have their discharge from warfare: Item, that in the High Court and assembly for the Consuls election his name should not bee propounded, considering POMPEIVS afterward had anulled [...]i plebis [...]ito. that Act of the people (by vertue whereof it was graunted that he might be cho­sen Consul in his absence.) Now it had fallen out so, that hee making a Law as touching the right of Magistrates, in that Chapter and branch thereof, wherein he disabled those who were absent for being capable of honours and dignities, forgat to except CAESAR: and soone after, when the said Law was once engros­sed and engraven in brasse, & so laid up in the Treasurie, corrected his error and oversight. Neither was MARCELLVS content to deprive CAESAR of his Pro­vinces, and to put him by the priviledge of a former Act passed in especiall fa­vour of him, but he made a motion moreover, that those inhabitants, whom by the Law Vatinia CAESAR had planted in the Colonie of Novocomum, should leese the freedome which they had, as Citizens of Rome: For that this prerogative of theirs had been graunted by ambitious meanes, and beyond that prescript num­ber which was appointed and warranted by the Decree in that behalfe.

[Page 13]CAESAR highly displeased and troubled at these proceedings, and judging it, (as he was heard by report many times to give out) an harder matter for him a29 principall man of the Citie, to be deposed and thrust downe from the high­est and first place of degree into the second, than from the second into the low­est and last of all) withstood him with all his might and power, partly by the opposition and negatiue voice of the Tribunes, and in part by SERVIUS SUL­PITIUSA. V. C. 904. the other Consull. Also in the yeare following when C. MARCEL­LUS who succeeded his cousen GERMAIN by the fathers side MARCUS, in the cōsulship▪ assaied to bring the same about, he bribed & made sure vnto him, with a mightie summe of mony, AEMILIUS PAULUS, companion with him in office, and C. CURIO a most violent Tribune▪ to sticke unto him, & defend his honor. But seeing all things carried still against him more obstinately than before, & the new Consuls elect take the contrarie side & bent another way, he wrote unto the Senate, and by his letters humbly besought them, not to suffer the benefit granted unto him by the people to be taken from him: or if they did, yet to giue order that other Generals like wise as well as hee, might leave their Armies: presuming confidently, as men thinke, vpon this, himselfe should be able whēsoeuer he pleased to assemble together his souldiers more easily thē POMPEIUSTO levy new. But with his aduersaries he wold haue treated by way of Capitulation in these termes, that after he had discharged and sent away 8. Legions, and giuen over the prouince of Gaule beyond the Alpes, he might be allowed 2. legiōs with the prouince on this side the Alpes: or if not so, yet atleast wise one, together with ILLYRICUM, vntil such time as he were created cōsul.

But perceiuing that the Senate came not betweene nor interposed their au­thoritie to stop the course intended against him, & his aduersaries denied flatly to admit all manner of capitulating & composition concerning the common­wealth, he passed into the hither part of Gaule, & having kept the Assizes there and executed his provinciall jurisdiction stayed at Rauenna, with full resolution to be reuenged by open warre, in case there had passed frō the Senat, any sharp and cruell decree, touching the Tribunes of the Commons opposing thēselues in his behalfe, & quarrell: And verily this was the colour and occasion which he pretended of ciuill warre: yet men thinke there were some other causes & motiues thereto. Cn. POMPEIUS was wont to giue out that for as much as CAESAR was not able of himselfe and with his owne priuate wealth, either to consummate and finish those stately workes & aedifices which he had begun, or to satisfie the expectation of the people which he had raised & wrought of his comming, therefore he intended to trouble the state and set all on a garboyle. Others say, that he feared least he should be compelled to giue an accoumpt of those things which in his first Consulship he had done against the sacred Au­spices, the lawes, and prohibitions of the Tribunes (in the name of the people) considering that M. CATO had threatned and professed eftsoones, & not with­out an oath, that no sooner should he and his armie be parted, but he would ju­dicially call his name in question & bring him to his answere: Also for that it was commonly spoken abroad that if he returned ones in qualitie of a priuate person, he should after the example of MILO plead before the iudges, with a guard of armed men about the Court and Tribunall. And this seemeth to bee more probable by that which ASINIUS POLLIO writeth, who reporteth, that in the battaile of Pharsalia, whē he beheld his aduersaries before his face, slaine [Page 14] and put to flight, he vttered this speech word for word. Loe, this was their own doing: this would they needes haue, And I CAIUS CEASAR after so many worthie exploites atchieved should haue beene a condemned man, had I not craued helpe of mine armie. Some are of opinion, that being so long inured & acquainted with soueraigne command, & weighing his owne puissance & the power of his enemies, in ballāce one against the other, took the occasion & opportunitie to usurpe that absolute dominion, which in the uerie prime of his years he aspired unto; and of this mind, it seemeth CICERO was, who in his 3. book of duties writeth, that CEASAR had alwaies in his mouth, these verses of EURIPIDES


Which CICERO himselfe translated thus.

Nam si violandum est ius, imperij gratia
Violandum est, alijs reb [...]s pietatem colas.
For if thou must do wrong by breach,
Of lawes, of right and equitie,
Tis best thereby a Crowne to reach,
In all things els keepe pietie.

When word therefore was brought unto him, that the Tribunes inhibiti­on31 & negatiue voice was put down, and themselues departed out of the Citie:A▪ V▪ C▪ 705, hauing immediatly sent before certaine Cohorts priuily, because no suspition might arise, he dissimuled the matter, & was present in person to behold a pub­like Game, viewed, and considered the plotforme according to which he was about to build a Schoole of sword fencers, and according to his usuall manner gaue himselfe to feast & banquet often. After this presently vpon the Sun-set­ting, he tooke vp certaine Mules from the next Bakersmil-house; set thē in their geires to his wagon, and as closely as possibly he could with a small retinewe and companie about him put himselfe in his Iournie; and when by reason that the lights were gone out, he had lost his way, after he had wandred a long time, at the length meeting with a guide by that time it was day, he passed on foote through most narrow crosse lanes and by-pathes untill he recovered the right way againe. Now when he had ones ouertaken his Cohorts, at the riuer Rubi­con, which was the utmost bound of his province, he rested & stoode still a little while▪ thē casting in his mind, how great an enterprise he went in hand with, he turned vnto them that were next unto him and said. As yet my maisters wee may well returne backe; but passe we once ouer this little bridge, there will be no dealing but by force of armes and dint of sword.

As he thus staied, and stood doubtfull what to doe, a strang sight he chanced to see in this manner. All of a suddaine their appeared vnto him a certaine man of an extraordi­nary stature & shape withall, sitting hard by, & piping with a reed. Now when beside the shepheards & herdmen many soldiours also from their standing wards ran for to heare him, & among them the Trumpetters likewise, he caught from on of thē a Trum pet, leapt forth to the riuer, & begining with a mightie blast to sound the battaile, kept on his pace to the very bancke, on the otherside. Then CEASAR, Let vs march on quoth he & goe whither the tokēs of the Gods & the iniurious dealings of our enemies call vs. The dice be throwne: I haue set vp my rest. Come what will of it.

And thus hauing conueyed his armie ouer the riuer, he ioyned with the Tribunes of the commons, who vpō their expulsion out of the Citie were come vnto him, & in a ful & frequēt assēblie, with shedding teares & rēting his garmēt down the brest, besought3 [...] the faithfull helpe & assistance of his soldiers. It is supposed also that he promised unto every on of thē a knights liuing: which happened upō a vain & false perswasiō, for whē in his speech & exhortatiō unto thē, he shewed euer & a non the (ring▪) finger of his left hand, & therwith auouched & promised for the satisfaction & contentmēt of al those by whose meanes he should maintaine his honour & dignitie, that he would willingly (b) plucke the ring from off his owne finger: those that stood hinmost in the assem­bly, [Page 15] who might better see than heare him speak, took that for spoken which they imagined by bare sight, and so the speech went for currant, That hee promised them the dignity of wearing the ring (of gold) together with 400000 (sesterces.)

THE order▪ proceeding a final complement of those Acts, which from thence34 forth he atchieved, summarily goeth in this maner. He seized into his hands and held PICENUM, VMBRIA, & HETRURIA. L. DOMITIVS, who in a factious tu­mult was nominated to be his successor, & kept CORFINIVM with a garison, he subdued & forced to yeeld: and when he had dismissed him, hee marched along the coast of the Adriatick That is Ve­nus-gulfe. sea, to Brundis, whether the Consuls & POMPEIVS were fled, intending with all speed to crosse the narrow Seas: whose passage af­ter he had assaied by all manner of lets to hinder & stop (but in vaine) he turned his journey and took the way directly to Rome. And when he had curteously mo­ved the Senatours to give him meeting in the Senate house, there to treat & con­sult [...] T [...] as touching the State of the Common-weale, he set upon the most puissant forces of POMPEIVS, which were in Spaine under the conduct of three Lieute­nants, M. PETREIVS L. AFFRANIVS & M. VARRO: having given out before among his friends and openly professed, that he was going to an Armie without a (a) Captaine; and would returne from thence to a (b) Captaine without an Ar­mie. And albeit the besieging of Massilia, which Citie in his journey forward, had shut the gates against him, & exceeding scarcity of corn & victuals was some im­peachment & stay unto him, yet within a short time he overcame & subdued all.

FROM hence having returned to the City (of Rome) againe, & passed over into35. Macedonie, after he had held POMPEIVS besieged for the space wel-neare of 4.A. V. C. 706. moneths, & that within most mighty trenches & strong rampiers, he discomfi­ted at the last in the Pharsalian battel & put him to flight: and following him hot­ly in chase as he fled to Alexandria, so soone as he understood that he was slaine, and perceived likewise that King PTOLOMAEVS laid wait for his owne person also, he warred upon him▪ which, to say a truth, was a most difficult & dangerous peece of worke, by reason that he managed it, neither in place indifferent, nor time convenient, but in the very Winter season, and within the walls of a most wealthy & politick enemie, being himselfe in distresse & want of all things, and unprovided besides to fight. Having atchieved the victory, he graunted the king­domeA. V. C. 707. of Aegypt unto CLEOPATRA & her younger brother, fearing to reduce it into the forme of a Province, least at any time, beeing governed under some L. President of a more stirring spirit & violent nature than others, it might give oc­casion & yeeld matter of rebellion. From Alexandria he went over into Syria, & so from thence into Pontus, upon the urgent newes as touching PHARNACES; Whom, notwithstanding he was the sonne of that great MITHRIDATES, & ta­king the opportunitie of the troubles & civill warre among the Romanes, made warre, yea, and now bare himselfe presumptuous and overbold for his manifold victories & great successe, yet within 5 dayes after his arrivall thither, & 4. houres after he came into sight of the enemie, he vanquished and subdued in one onely battaile: eft-soones & oftentimes recounting the felicity of POMPEIVS, whose708. A. V. C. 709. hap it was, to win his principall name for warfare, of so [...]owardly a kinde of ene­mies. After this, he defeited SCIPIO and IVBA, repairing the reliques of that side in Africk, and the children of POMPEIVS in Spaine.

IN all the civill warres, hee sustained no losse or overthrow but by his owne36 Lieutenants: of whom, C. CVRIO was slaine in Affrick: C. ANTONIVS yeel­ded [Page 16] himselfe into the hands of his enemies in Illyricum: P. DOLABELLA in the same Illyricum lost his fleete, and CN. DOMITIVS his armie in Pontus. Himselfe fought his battailes alwaies most fortunatly, and never was so much as in any ha­zard, save only twice: once before Dyrrachium, where being discomfited and put to flight, when he saw that POMPEIVS followed not on in chase, he said of him, That hee knew not how to use a victorie. A second time, in Spaine, at the last battaile that ever he fought, what time, being in great despaire, hee was of mind even to have killed himselfe.

HAVING finished all his warres, he rode in 5. triumphs: to wit, when he had37 vanquished SCIPIO, 4. times in one and the same moneth, but certaine daies be­tweene:A. V. C 708. 709. and once againe, after hee had overcome the children of POMPEIVS. The first and most excellent triumph that hee solemnized, was that over Gaule: then followed the Alexandrine; after it the Pontick; next thereunto the Affrican: and last of all the Spanish: every one set out diversly, with variety of Ordinance, provision and furniture. On the day of his Gaules triumph, as he rode along the A Streete in Rome. Velabrum, he had like to have beene shaken out of his Chariot, by reason that the Axel-tree brake. Hee mounted up into the Capitoll by torch-light, having xl. Elephants on his right hand & left, bearing (a) branches and candlesticks. In his Pontick triumph, among the Pageants and shewes of that pomp, he caused to be caried before him the title & superscription of these three words, Veni, vidi, vi­ci, I came, I saw, I conquered: signifying, not the acts atchieved by warre, as other* Sicut caet [...]ri. Conquerours, but noting his expedition in despatching the warre.

THROUGHOUT the Legions of old Souldiers, he gave in the name of pillage,38 unto every footman (over and above the (a) 2000. sestertij, which he had paied at the beginning of the civill tumult) (b)Or rather [...]cena, that is, 20000. 4000. sestertij: and to the horse-men (c)Rather qua­drag [...], that is 40000. 24000. a piece. He assigned lands also unto thē, but not lying all together, because none of the owners should be thrust out (of their livings.) Among the people (of Rome) beside x. modij of corne, & as many pints of oyle, he distributed & dealt 300 Sesterces also by the poll, which hee had in times past promised, with an over­deale of 100. a peece to boote,By which reckoning the proportion to horsemen was double. for time. Hee remitted moreover one yeeres house rent, unto all tenants in Rome, if it amounted to 2000. Sestertij and not a­bove: but to those in Italie, if the said rent exceeded not 500. Furthermore, hee* That is, for bearing so long. made them a generall great feast, & distributed a dole of raw flesh: yea, and after his victorie in Spaine he gave them 2. dinners: For, deeming the former of them to have beene made niggardly and not beseeming his liberality, he bestowed up­on them 5. daies after, another, and in most large and plenteous manner.

39 HE exhibited shewes of sundry sorts (as namely) a sword-fight of Fencers at sharpe: hee set forth Stage Plaies likewise in severall quarters and (a) Regions of the Citie throughout, and those verily acted byVi [...]eerationē: which as some thinke Porfi [...], calleth [...] and is ex­pounded [...] where­upon the Geni­us of such mer­riments, is na­med [...]. A. V. C. 708. x To gratifie all strangers that conflowed to Rome. Plaiers in all languages: Semblably, the solemne games (b) Circenses, hee shewed; and brought foorth Champions also to performe their devoir, and represented a naval-fight. At the saide solemnity of sword-plaiers, there fought to the uttrance in the Mar­ket place of Rome, FVRIVS LEPTINVS, descended from the race of Pretours, and A. CALPENVS, one who had beene sometime a Senatour, and a pleader of causes at the barre. There daunced the (c) Pyrrhick warlike daunce, the chil­dren of the Princes and Potentates of Asia and Bithynia. During the Stage plaies aforesaid (d) D. LABERIVS a Gentleman of Rome acted his owne Poem or Enterlude: For which, being rewarded with 500. thousand Sesterces, and a ring [Page 17] of gold, he passed directly frō the Stage by the (e) Orchestra, to take up his place a­mong the Knights in the 14. foremost seates. At the Games Circenses, against which the Cirque was enlarged on both sides and mo [...]ed round about, there drave the Steedes drawing Chariots foure and two together, yea and mounted the vaunting Horses from one to another, the greatest gallants & bravest young Gentlemen of the Nobilitie. The (f) warlike Trojan Game was performed by a two-fold troupe of greater boyes and lesse. The hunting or baiting of wilde beasts was presented five daies together. And the last day of all, there was a fight betweene two battailes of 500. footmen, 20. Elephants, and 30. horsemen on a side, put to skirmish one against the other. For, to the end that they might have more scope to bicker together▪ the (g) goales were taken up and removed: but in steed of them were pitched twoOr Tents▪ Campes confronting one another. As for the (h) Champions above-said, they having a place for to exercise their feats of Activitie set out and built for the present time, strove for the prize or best Game three daies together in the Region of Mars field. To set out the Nauma­chie or naval battaile, there was a place digged for a great poole, in the lesse (i) Co [...]eta; wherein certaine gallies as well with two ranks of Oares as with three; the ships of Tyros also & of Aegypt encountred, being manned with a great num­ber of fighting men. To behold these sights and shewes, such a number of peo­ple resorted from all parts, as most of the strangers either within the streetes of the Citie or in the high waies without, were faine to abide within booths pitch­ed of purpose: yea, and often-times very many were in the presse crowded and crushed to death; among whom were two Senatours.

TVRNIN [...] after this to set the State of the Common-weale in good order,40 he reformed the Kalender, which long since through the Prelates default, by their liberty of interlacing (moneths and daies) at their pleasure, was so confu­sed, that neither the feastivall holidaies of harvest fell out in Sommer, nor those of the vintage in Autumne. And he framed the whole yeare just unto the course of the Sunne, that it should containe 365. daies; and by abolishing the leape mo­neth, one (a) day every fourth yeare might be inserted betweene.

Now to the end that the computation of the times to come, might from the Calen [...]is Ia­uxarijs [...]. new Kalends of Ianvarie agree the better, betweene November and Decem­ber, he put two other moneths. So as, that yeare wherein all this was ordained, had 15. moneths, reckoning the ordinarie interlaced moneth, which by course and custome fell just upon the said yeare.

HE made up the full (a) number of the Senatours, and chose unto that place41 According to the Law Ca [...]. new (b) Patritij. The number of Pretours, Aediles, Questors, and of other (c) inferiour Magistrates hee augmented. Such as were displaced and put downe by vertue of the Censors Office, or otherwise by sentence of the Iudges con­demned for unlawfull briberie, and suing indirectly for any Office, hee re­stored to their former roomes. In the election of Magistrates he parted with the people thus farre forth; as (excepting the Competitours of the Consulship) for all the number besides of Candidates, the one halfe should be declared those whom the People were disposed to propound, the other halfe, such as him­selfe would nominate. Which nomination passed by certaine bills sent a­bout unto the Tribes, in a briefe kind of Writ after this manner: CAESAR DIC­TATOVR unto this or that Tribe (greeting) I commend unto yov, such an one [Page 18] and such an one, that by vertue of your voices and suffrages they may have and hold the dignitie they sue for. He admitted unto honorable places the childrenContrary to the Law Corne­lia. of those who had been proscript and outlawed. He reduced all Iudgements unto two sorts of Iudges, name­ly of the Knights degree and the Senatours: As for the Tribunes of the Treasurie or cham­ber of the Citie, which had been the third, he utterlyDisabled thē for being Iud­ges. abolished. The generall survay and numbering of the people he held, neither after the accustomed (d) manner, nor in the usuall place, but streete by streete, and that by theAs who best knew the num­ber of their tennants and inhabitants in their houses. Land-lords & owners of messuages and te­nements standing together: and whereas 3020000 Citizens (e) received allowance of corne from the State, he brought and reduced them to the number of one hundred & fiftie thousand. And to the end that no new conventicles & riots at any time might arise about this review, he ordained, That every yeare, in the place of those that were deceased, the Pretour should make a new supply and choise by casting lots, out of such as had not beene reckoned and enrolled in the former survey.

MOREOVER, when as to the number of 80000. (Romaine) Citizens were bestowed42 in sundry Colonies beyond the Sea; hee made a Law for the more frequent inhabiting of the Citie (of Rome) thus exhausted and dispeopled; That no Citizen above 20. yeares of age, and under 40. (unlesse he were a sworne (f) souldiour to the State, and so bound by his oath) should remaine out of Italie above 3. yeares together: Item, That no Senatours sonne, except hee lodged within the house or Pavilion, or belonged to the (g) familiar triall of a chiefe Magistrate, should travaile (forth of Italie.) Item, That no Grasiars should keep and reteine fewer than a third part of free borne young men, among the keepers of their cattell. All professours of physick at Rome, and teachers of the liberall Arts, he enfranchi­zed Citizens: that both they themselves might more willingly dwell in the Citie, & others beside desire there to inhabite. As touching money lent out; when he had quite put down the expectation of (h) cancelling debts, (at thing that was often Either by the Tribunes of the Cōmons, or the debters themselves.moved) hee decreed at length; That all debtours should satisfie their Creditours in this manner: Namely by an estimate made of their possessions, according to the worth and value as they purchased them before the civill warre, deducting out of the principall whatsoever had beene paide or set downe in the Obligations for the use: by which condition, the third part wel-neare of the money credited forth, was lost. All the Societies and Colledges, saving those that were of auncient foundation, he dissolved. The penalties of hainous crimes he augmented: And whereas the rich & wealthier sort fell to wickednes so much the sooner, because they wentIn the free State before the Emperors, Citizens of Rome might depart before sentence pro­nounced, & so avoid with cō ­demnation and losse of goods. into banishment, and saved their whole patrimonies and estates: (i) parricides ther­fore and wilfull murderers (as CICERO writeth) hee deprived of all their goods; other manslaiers besides he fined with the losse of one halfe.

HE ministred Iustice and decided matters in Law, most painfully and with passing great43 severitie. Such as were attaint and convict of (a) extortion, hee removed even from their Senatours place and degree. He brake the mariage of a man that had beene Pretour, ma­rying a wife presently after two daies that she was divorced and went from a former hus­band, albeit there was no suspition at all of adulterie and naughtinesse. Hee ordained cu­stomes and imposts of forraine merchandize. The use of Licters, likewise the wearing of purpleOr scarlet in graine. cloathes and of pearle he tooke away, saving onely in certaine persons and ages, and upon special daies. The Law Sumptuaria, (b) to represse excessive cost in fare, he executed most of any other: And for this purpose, he set certaine Watchmen and Warders in sundry places about the shambles and markets where victuals were sold, to lay hold upon all cates and viands contrarie to the prescript rule of the Law in that behalfe, and to bring the same unto him. Otherwhiles also, he sent secretly his owne Officers & Souldiours, to fetch away such meates our of the very dining Parlors and banquetting roomes, even when they were set upon the bord, if happily they had any way escaped the hands of the foresaid warders.

FOR, as concerning his purpose to adorne and beautifie the Citie of Rome with gallant44 works, as also to maintaine & amplifie the Empire, hee had more matters in his head and greater every day than other. Principally his intent and meaning was, to build so stately a temple in the honour of Mars, as the like was no where to be seene; having filled up and laid levell that huge pit, wherin he had exhibited the shew of a Naval battel: & also to erect [Page 19] an exceeding great Theater, fast adjoyning to the Mount Tarpei [...]s. Itē, to reduce the whole corps of the civill Law to a certaine meane and mediocrity: and out of that huge and diffused number of Lawes, to choose out the best and necessa­rie points, and those to bring into as few volumes as possibly might be. Item, to erect publiquely the greatest Libraries that he could, as wel of Greeke as Latine Authors: committing unto (a) M. VARRO the charge, both to provide the said books, and also to digest & place them in order. Item to lay the Meeres & Fennie Plashes POMPTINAE drie: to draw & let forth the lake Fucinus: to make a cawsie or high-way, from the Adriatick Sea, by the ridge or side of the Apennine hill, as farre as to the river Tibris, & to digge through the (b) Isthmus. Moreover, to bridle the Dakes who had invaded Pontus and Thracia: and soone after, to make warre upon the Parthians by the way of Armenia the lesse▪ but not to give them battell before he had made (c) triall of them. Amid these purposes and designes, death prevented him. Concerning which, before I enter into speech, it shall not be im­pertinent to deliver summarily those points which concerne the snape, feature, and proportion of his body: his habite & apparell: his fashions and behaviour: and withall, what may touch both his civill and also his martiall affaires.

OF stature he is reported to have beene tall; of complexion white & cleare;45 with limbs well trussed and in good plight; somewhat full faced; his eies black, lively, and quick; also very healthfull, saving that in his latter daies he was given to faint and swoune sodainly; yea, and as he dreamed, to start and be affrighted: twice also in the midst of his martiallInter re [...] ge­renda [...] vel agen­das, that is, cum acie [...] ordina­r [...]t, Plutarch. Whiles he was setting his Ar­mie in battaile ray. affaires, he was surprized with the ( [...]) fal­ling sicknes. About the trimming of his body, he wasOr fantasti­call. over-curious: so as he would not onely be notted & shaven very precisely, but also have his haire pluc­ked, in so much as some cast it in his teeth, and twitted him therewith. Moreo­ver, finding by experience, that the deformity of his bald head was oftentimes subject to the scoffes and scornes of back-biters and slaunderers, hee tooke the same exceedingly to the heart: and therefore he both had usually drawne downe his haire that grew but thin, from the crowne toward his forehead: and also of all honours decreed unto him from the Senate and People, he neither received nor used any more willingly, than the priviledge to weare continually the trium­phant Lawrel guirland. Men say also▪ that in his apparel he was notedHis attire different from others, or of a new fashion which the Greekes call [...]. for singu­larity, as who used to goe in his Senatours purple studded robe, trimmed with a jagge or frindge at the sleeve hand: and the same so, as hee never was but girt over it, and that very slack and loose: whereupon, arose (for certaine) that saying of SVLLA, who admonished the Nobles oftentimes, To beware of the boy that went girded so dissolutely.

HE dwelt at first in theA Streete i [...] Rome much frequented. Suburra; but after he was high priest, in the streete46 Sacra, in an edifice of the Cities. Many have written, that he was exceedingly ad­dicted to neatnesse in his house, and sumptuous fare at his Table. The Mannor house which he founded out of the very ground, & with great charges finished in the territorie Nemorensis, because it was not wholly answerable to his minde, he demolished and pulled quite downe: although as yet he was but of meane estate and deepely endebted. Finally, this speech goeth of him, That in his expeditions he caried about with himThe paving tiles of marble &c, whereof such floores are made. pavements of checker worke made of quarels square cut, so as they might be taken asunder, and set againe together.

HE made a voyage (as they say) into Britaine, in hope of pearles: and47 [Page 20] otherwhiles, in comparing their bignesse, would with his owne hand peise them to finde their weight. For to get and buy up pretious stones, engraved and chased peeces, Images, and painted Tables of antique worke, he was ever most eager and sharp set. Slaves likewise, if they were any thing fresh and new come, trimly set out with all, and fine, he procured at an exceeding price, such as him­selfe also was ashamed of: so as he forbad expresly the same should be brought in any of his reckonings and accoumpts.

IT is reported of him, that in all the Provinces which he governed, hee fea­sted48 continually, and furnished two Halls or dining chambers ordinarily; the one, wherein eitherThus Turne­bus expoundeth it: But it may be meant of the meaner [...]ort of his Cohor, prae oria, who were Sag [...] or pall at [...]: to put a difference betweene them & the persons of better qua [...]ty, who were Toga [...]. Gaules in their warlike habite, or Greeks in their cloakes; the other, in which the gown'd Romaines, together with the more noble and honourable personages of the Provinces sat. The domesticall Discipline of his house hee kept so duly, so precisely, and with such severity, in small matters as well as greater; that hee bound with fetters and yrons his Baker for serving up secretly unto his guests other bread than to himselfe: And a freed man of his owne (whom otherwise he did set very great store by) he put to death, for disho­nouring by adulterie a Romaine Gentlemans wife, albeit no man made com­plaint thereof.

HIS good name for continencie and cleane life, nothing verily blemished,49 save onely the aboade and inward familiaritie with NICOMEDES: but a foule staine that was, which followed him with shame for ever; yea, and ministred taunting and reproachfull matter unto every man. I omit the notorious verses of CALVUS LICINIVS.

————Bithynia quicquid,
That is, K. Nicomedes.
paedicator Caesaris, unquam habuit,
Looke what it was that Bithyne Land had ever more or lesse;
And he that CAESAR did abuse, in filthie wantonnesse.

I let passe the invectives and accusatorie actions of DOLABELLA and CVRIO the Father: In which, DOLABELLA for his part, termeth him the Kings Concu­bine in the Queenes place, and the inner roome of his Licter: and CVRIO▪ nameth him NICOMEEDES his Stabul [...] filth and harlot, yea and the Bithynian Brothel house. Io­verpasse likewise those Edicts of BIBVLVS, wherein he published his colleague, and made him knowne, by the name of the Bithynian Queene: saying moreover, That before, he had loved the King, and now cast a fansie to the Kingdom At which ve­rie time, as M. BRVTVS makes report, there was one OCTAVIVS also, a man upon distemperature of his braine given to jest and scoffe over broadly, who in a most frequent assembly, after he had called POMPEIVS, King, saluted him by the name of Queene: C. MEMMIVS likewise layd in his dish, that he stood with the rest of the stale Catamites as Cup-bearer, to serve NICOMEDES with wine at a full feast, where sate at the Table divers Merchants and Occupiers, Citizens of Rome, whose names he putteth downe. But CICERO not conten­ted herewith, that in certaine Epistles he had written, how by the Guard or Pen­sioners of the said King beingDeductum, or E [...]uctum, that is, brought out of his owne bed than b [...] [...]nto the kings. conveied into his bed-chamber, hee lay downe upon a bed of gold, arraied in purple: and so the flower of youth and maiden­head of him, who was descended from (a) Venus, became d [...]filed and desteind in Bithynia. One time also, as CAESAR in the Senate house pleaded to the cause and in the behalfe of NYSA NICOMEDES his daughter, and therewith rehear­sed [Page 21] up the gracious favours that the King had done unto him, Let be (quoth he) these matters I pray you, and away with them, since it is well knowne, both what hee be­stowed upon you, and also what you gave to him. Finally, in the Triumph over Gaule, his Souldiers among other Sonnets (such as they use to chaunt merily when they followe the (triumphant) Chariot) pronounced also these verses so com­monly divulged.

Gallias Caesar subegit, Nicomedes Caesarem,
Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, qui subegit Gallias;
Nicomedes non triumphat, qui (b) subegit Caesarem.
CAESAR did subdue the Gaules, and him hath NICOMEDE.
Behold, now CAESAR doth triumph, who did the Gaules subdue:
But NICOMEDE triumpheth not who CAESAR hath subdu'd.

AN opinion there is constantly received; That he was given to carnall plea­sures,50 and that way spent much: also, that he dishonoured many Dames, and those of noble houses: by name among others, POSTUMIA the wife of SER­VIVS SVLPITIVS; LOLLIA, wife to A. GABINIVS; TERTVLLA, M. CRASSVS his wife, and MVTIA the wife of CN. POMPEIVS. For, certaine it is, that not onely the Curiones, both Father and Sonne, but many others also re­proached POMPEIVS; That for whose cause, he had put away his owne wife after she had borne him three children, and whom hee was wont with a deepe sigh and groane to call That is, A­dulterer: For that Aegysth [...] committed a­dultery with Clytemnestra the wife of A­game [...]. AEGISTHVS; his daughter (I say) afterwards, hee espoused; upon a desire of power and greatnes by that mariage. But above the rest, he cast affection to SER­VILIA the mother of M. BRVTVS; for whom both in hisProximo, alij le [...]t pr [...]o, that is, first, [...] Bibulo. last Consuiship he had bought a pearle that cost him46875. pound sterling, or 150000. Fr [...]ch crowns▪ according to Budaus. sixe millions of Sesterces: and also unto whom during the civill warre, over and above other free gifts, hee sold in open port sale, faire Lands and most goodly Manors at a very low price: what time verily, when most men mervailed that they went so cheape, CICERO most plea­santly and conceitedly, That yee may know (quoth hee) shee hath the better penny­worth in the purchase, (a) Tertia deducta est. For it was thought that SERVILIA was bawd also to her owne daughter TERTIA, and brought her to CAESAR his bed.

NEITHER forbare he so much as mens wives in the Provinces where he was51. governour, as appeareth even by this his Distichon, taken up likewise by his Soul­diours at the Gaule Triumph. (a)

Vrbani, servate uxores; moechum calvum ad ducimus,
Auro in Gallia stuprum emisti, hic sumpsisti mutv [...]m.

HE was enamoured also upon Queenes, and among them he loved EVNO [...],52. the Moore, wife of BOGUDES (King of Mauritania) upon whō, as also upon her husband, he bestowed very many gifts and of infinite value, as NASO hath left in writing: but most especially hee fancied CLEOPATRAOf which the Aegyptians Kings had al­waie [...] ready rigged 800 as Appian writeth. For, with her, hee both sate up many times and feasted all night long even untill the breake of day; and also in the same Barge or Galley called Thalamegos, had passed into Aegypt, almost as farre as to Aethiopia, but that his Armie refused to followe: and in the end having trained her into the Citie of Rome, he sent her back againe, not with­out exceeding great honours, and enriched with many rewards: yea, and suffe­red her to call the sonne she bare, after his owneThat is Pto­lomaeus Caes [...]. name. Whom verily, some Greek writers have recorded, to have been very like unto CAESAR both in shape [Page 22] and also in Incessu, in his gang or man­ner of going. gate: And M. ANTONIVS avouched unto the Senate, that by the same resemblance he knew him to be his sonne: averring withall, That C. MA­TIVS, CAIVS OPPIVS & the rest of CAESARS friends knew as much. Of whō, C. OPPIVS (as if the thing were so pregnant, that it required some Apologie & defence) put forth a book entituled thus: TAAT HE WAS NOT CAESARS SONNE, WHOM CLEOPATRA FATHERED VPON HIM. HELVIUS CIN­NA, a Tribune of the Com confessed unto many persons, That hee had a Law drawne out in writing & in readines, which CAESAR being absent himselfe cō ­maunded him to propose, to this effect, That it might be lawfull for him to marrie Quas et quot, ducere [...]llet, even an Alien. what wives and as For other wise, [...] was unlawfull. And Ant [...]nius was the first Romaine that had two wives at once. many as he would for to get children upon. And that no man need at all to doubt how infamous he was, both for (b) uncleannesse of body against kinde, and also for adulteries, CVRIO the Father in a certaine Oration calleth him a woman for all men, and a man for all women.

THAT he was a most sparie drinker of wine, his very enemies would never de­nie.53. Whereupon arose this Apophthegm of M. CATO, That of all that ever were, CAESAR alone came sober to the overthrow of the State. For, about his foode and diet C. OPPIUS sheweth hee was so indifferent & without curiosity,* Conditum [...] ­leum penult. cor. or conditum product [...] est [...]nguentum, an ointment. that when upon a time his Host set before him upon the bord olde ranke oile in steed of greene, sweet, & fresh, so that other guests refused it, he onely (by his say­ing) fell to it & eate thereof the more liberally; because he would not be thought to blame his Or friend. Host either for negligence or rusticitie.

FROM other mens goods he held not his hands, neither when he had the cō ­mand54 of Armies abroad, nor when he was in place of magistracie at home: For, in Spaine (as some have recorded) he took money of the Tubero. Proconsul, & the Allies there, and that by way of begging, to help him out of debt: and certaine townes of the That is, in Portugale. Lusitanes, he sacked in hostile manner, albeit they denied not to do what­soever he commanded them; and besides, did set open their gates for him against his comming: In Gaule he robbed & spoiled the Chappels & Iēpla (que) deorū, &c. or templa (que) dearum, &c. the tem les, ful of rich gifts and oblations to the Gods. Temples of the Gods, full of rich gifts & oblations. As for Cities, he put them to the sack, more often for bootie sake and pillage, than for any trespasse committed. Whereupon it came to passe, that he got abundance of gold, so as of it which he had to spare and did set to sale, D [...]venderet, some reade di­r deret, hee di­stributed and dealt away. he fold throughout Italy and in the Provinces after (a) 3000 sesterces of silver the pound weight. In his first Consulship, when he had stollen out of the Capitoll three thousand pound waight of gold hee bestowed in the place thereof as much brasse guilt. The priviledges of Societie and alliance with the Romanes, as also Kings Titles he gave for summes of money: as who (for ex­ample) from Auletes. S [...]: of silver [...] ter 80 pound weight the ta lent. PTOLOMEVS that was but one, tooke away wel-neere 6000 Mu [...]um talents, in the name of himselfe & POMPEIVS: But afterwards by most open pilling poling▪ and sacriledges, he maintained the charges both of civill warres, and also of his triumphes and Eloque [...]ria, militarique re, after Lipsus. solemne shewes exhibited to the people.

IN eloquence and warlike feates together, he either equalled or excelled the glory of the very best. After his accusation of DOLOBELLA, he was no doubt 55 ranged in the ranke of the principall Advocates at Law. Certes, CICERO in his Catalogue of Oratours to BRVTVS, sayeth; He cannot see any one, unto whom CAESAR might give place; affirming withall, That hee holdeth an elegant and gay, a stately also, and in some sort a generous and Gentleman like kind of pleading: And unto CORNELIVS NEPOS, thus wrote he of the same CAESAR. What should a man [Page 23] say more? which of all there Oratours that practised nothing else but Oratorie, will you preferre before this CAESAR? who is there in sentences either quicker or com­ming thicker? who for words, yeelded more gallant or more elegant? Hee seemeth whiles he was yet but young, to haue followed that forme of eloquence one­ly, which STRABO CAESAR professed: out of whose Oration also intitu­led, Pro Sardis; he transferred some sentences, worde for word, into his owne; called Diuinatio. It is said, that in his Take it ge [...] [...]rally for the whole Actio [...] Pronunciation, he used an high and shrill voyce; an ardent motion; and earnest gesture, not without a lovely grace. Some Orations he left behind him (in writing.) Among which certaine goe under his name, but vntruely as namely that pro; Q. MET [...]LLO: which AV­GVSTVS deemeth (and not without good cause) to to haue beene written ra­ther by Notaries, who either tooke not his words aright, or wrote not so fast, as he deliuered them, than penned by himselfe. For in certaine copies I find that it had not so much as this Inscription, Pro METELLO: but Which he wrote for, or [...] Metellu [...]. quam scrip­sit METELLO: being (as it is indeede) a speech comming from the person of CAESAR, cleering METELLVS and himselfe, against the criminations and slaunders of common backebiters to them both. The Oration likewise, Orat, [...] Mi [...]. Ad MILIT [...]S, in Spaine, the same AUGUSTUS hardly thinketh to be his: And yet there be 2. of them extant: the one, was pronounced at the former battaile: the other, at the latter: when, by the report of ASINIVS POLLIO, he had not so much as any time to make a speech; the enemies ran upon him & char­ged so suddainly.

He left Commentaries also of his owne Acts, to wit, as touching the Ga [...]le­warre, and the Ciuill warre with POMPEIUS. For, of the ALEXANDRIN [...], AFRICAN, and Spanishwarres, who was the writer it is uncertaine: Whilest some thinke it was OPPIVS; others, HIRTIVS; who also made up and fini­shed the last of the Gaule-war, which was unperfect. As concerning those Commentaries aforesaid of CAESAR, CICERO in the Ad [...]. same booke, wri­teth thus▪ Hee wrote Commentaries exceeding well, I assure you, to be liked: (n [...] ­ked they be, straight and vpright, yea and louely too, being deuested, as it were, of all ornaments & trimme attire of Style▪ but while his mind was▪ that other [...] disposed to write a complet historie, should furnish and serue themselues with matter there ready to their hands, happilie, to some foolish folke he did some pleasure, who are willing to curle and frizle the same with their crisping pins, but surely the wiser sort he skared altogither from writing. Of the same Commentaries, HIRTIVS giueth this report, They are quoth he, in the iudgement of all men so approved, that it seemes he hath prevented writers, and not given them any helpe. And yet, our admiration of this matter is more than all mens beside. For, whereas o­thers doe know onely how well and purely they were penned, wee note also with what facilitie & expedition he wrote them. POLLIO ASINIUS thin­keth* Asi [...] Poll [...]. they were compiled with smal care & diligence: with as little regard also of sound truth: seeing that CAESAR receiued hand ouer head, & beleeued most things lightly: namely such as were by others atchieued; and euen those Actes which himselfe exploited either of purpose or for default of memorie hee put downe wrong: He supposeth also that he meant to haue writtē the same a new & corrected thē. He left moreouer ij. books, de Analogia▪ & as many Against Ci [...] in the dispraise of Ca [...]o Vticen [...] in whose com­mendation Ci [...]ro had writ [...] ten before▪ Anticatones [Page 24] besids a Poeme, entituled Iter; of which books the De Analo [...]ia for most he made in his passage ouer the Alpes, what time as hauing ridde his Circuits and finished the Assises, he returned out of the hither prouince of Gaule to his armie: Those next Anti [...] Catones fol­lowing, about the time of the battaile at Munda. And the last Iter. of all, whiles he trauailed from the Citie of Rome into the farther prouince of Spaine, and performed that iourney within Or rather 27. 24. dayes. Extant, there bee also Epistles of his written unto the Senate: which (as it seemeth) he was the first that turned into pages and leaues, euen to a forme of a A Booke of remembrance. Memoriall: whereas before time, the Consuls and generalles, never sent any letters but writtē overthwart the pa­per. MISSIUES likewise there be of his written to CICERO, and to familiar friends as touching home-affaires. In which, if any matters of secrecie were to be carried, he wrote them by priuie In manner of Cyphr [...]s. markes: that is to say, placing the let­ters in such order, as there could not one word be made of them. Which if a man would descypher and find out, he must of Necessitie exchaunge euerie fourth letter of the Alphabet; to wit. d. for a. and the rest e for b &c. likewise. Fur­ther more there be certaine workes of his abroad in mens hands written when he was a boy & a very youth: as namely, The Praises of HERCULES, the Tra­gaedie of OEDIPUS: as also, Collects of Sayings and APOPHTHEGMES: All which pamphlets, AUGUSTUS forbad to be published, in a certaine Epistle of his; which beeing verie briefe and plaine; he sent to POMPEIUS MA­CER whome hee had appointed for the disposing and ordering of his Li­braries.

In Or bearing armes. handling his weapon most skilfull he was, and in horsemanship as cun­ning:57 But what paines he would take, it is incredible. In the marching of his ar­mie, his manner was to be formost: sometime on horsebacke, more often on foote: bare headed, whether the Sunne shone, or the Clouds poured raine. He made exceeding long Iournies with incredible speede: euen an hundred miles a day riding in some hired Or riding an horse. wagon, if he were lightly appointed otherwise and without cariages. Were riuers in his way to hinder his passage? crosse ouer them he would; either swimming, or els bearing himselfe upon blowed le­ther Or carroch with fowre wheeles, [...], or [...]Graecè. In imitatiō here of the Romains deuised Ascoge­phr [...]s, quisi [...], bridges founded upon such leather bottles blowne with wind or lightly stuffed with straw. bottles: so that, verie often he preuented the letter-cariers, and messen­gers of his comming.

58 In performing his expeditions & martial exploites doubtful it is, whether he were more warie or adventurous? He neither ledde his armie at any time through wayes dangerous for ambushments, before he had throughly vewed and descried the situation of the quarters. nor put ouer his fleete into Bri­taine, vntill he had before hand in Yet himselfe writeth that he sent C. Vossenus before. proper person sounded the hauens, and tryed the manner of sayling, and arriuall to the Iland. How be it, the same man, (as circumspect as he was) upon newes brought unto him, that his Campe was beleagured in Germaine; passed through his enemies Corps de guard in French habite, and so came unto his owne men. From Brindis to Dirrhachium, he sayled ouer Sea in Hieme, or in a tempestuous and stormie season, as Virgil and others, vse the word▪ winter, betweene ij. Fleetes of the enemies riding opposite one to the other: and whiles his own forces which he had commanded to follow streight after him, lingered still behinde; hauing sent messengers oftentimes to call them away but all in vaine, at last himselfe secretly in the night went a­bourd into a verie small botume, with his head hooded: and neither discove­red who he was, nor suffered the pillot to giue way vnto the Tempest▪ that [Page 25] came full affront the vessell, before hee was well nere overwhelmed with the waves.

No religious feare of diuine prodigies could ever fray him from any enter­prise,59 or stay him if it were once in hand. As he sacrificed vpon a time, the beast made an escape & ran away: yet for all that differred not he his journey against SCIPIO and IVBA He fortuned also to take a fall then, even as hee went forth of the ship to land: but turning this foretoken to the better presage, I take pos­session quoth hee, of thee, O Afrike. Moreouer, in verie skorne, and to make but a mockerie of those prophesies, whereby the name of Scipions was fatall to that province, and held luckie and invincible there, he had with him in his Campe the most base and abiect fellow of all the Cornelian family, & who in reproch of his life was surnamed Or Saluti [...]. Read [...] Natur Hist. lib. 7. cap. 12. SALVITO.

He fought Non [...] Some read, non tantum [...]. not onely &c. but also. not often set fields appointed before hand▪ but uppon the pre­sent60 occasion offred; Many times he struck a battaile immediatly after his iour­ny, otherwhiles in most foule & stormie wether, when no man ever thought he would once sturre. Neither held he off, and detracted fight, but in his latter daves: being then of this opinion that the oftener he had gotten victorie, the lesse he was to venture and make tryall of fortune; Also, That a victorie could gaine him nothing so much, as some disasterous calamitie might take from him. No e­nemie put he ever to flight, but he discamped him and draue him out of the field. By this meanes he gave them whom hee had once discomfited, no time to be thinke themselues. In any doubtfull and dangerous service, his manner was to send away the horses, and his owne with the first: to the ende, that when all meanes of flight were gone, they might of necessitie be forced the ra­ther to stand to it and abide to the last.

The horse he used to ride upon was strangly marked, with feete resembling61 verie neere a mans, and the houes cloven like toes, which horse was foaled a­bout home: and when the Soothsayers of their learning had pronounced; that he presaged unto his owner the Empire of the whole world, verie carefull hee was to reare him and nourish him. Now when as the beast would abide no man els to ride him, himselfe was he that backed him first. The full pourtraict and proportion of which horse, he dedicated also afterwards before the Temple of Venus (a) Genitrix.

Many a time himselfe alone renued the battaile when it was discomfited,62 stāding in their way that fled & holding thē one by one backe: yea & by wrea­thing their throats he turned them againe vpō the enemies. Thus dealt he I say with his own soldiers, whè they were many times verily so fearefully maskared, that a Aquilifer. Some read Aquilifer [...], as if Caesar threatned the Standerd [...] bearer. See va­ler. Max lib. 3 cap 2. Standerd bearer threatned as he staied him, to smite him with the Wherewith it was pitched▪ into the ground. foote­poinct of the speare that carried the (b) Aegle: and another left behinde him the Ensigne in CEASARS hand as he deteined it.

63. Of his constant resolution these be no lesse tokens, if not greater (which I shall now reherse). After the battaile af PHARSALIA, when he had sent his for­ces before into Africke, and himselfe crossed the seas through the streight of Hellespont in a small Vectoria na [...]i­cula. a ferrie boate If you read victor, [...]. being conque­rour, distin­guish there. passengers barke, where he met with L, CASSIUS one of the adverse part, with x. strong war-ships armed with brasen beakeheads; he avoided him not, nor, gave way: but affronting him, began to exhort him for to yeld: and so upon his humble supplication receiued him abourd.

[Page 26]At Alexandria being busie about the assault and winning of a bridge where64 by a sodaine sallie of the enemies he was driven, to take a boat, & many besides made hast to get into the same, he lept into the sea, and by swimming almost a quarter of a mile recouered cleare the next ship: bearing up his left hand all the while, for feare the writings which he held therein should take wet, and draw­ing his rich coate (a) armour after him by the teeth, because the enemie should not haue it as a spoyle.

His soldiers hee allowed for good, in regard neither of* manners and be­hauiour,65 nor ofa fortuna, [...], others read a forma, 1 be [...] ­ty, fauour and feature of body welth and outward estate, but onely of bodily strength: & heThis seemeth strang and co [...] trary to the Romane disci­pline. used them all with like severitie: with like indulgence also and sufferance. For he awed and chastised them not in all places nor at all times: but only when the enemie was very neere at hand: and then especially was he most severe, and precise in exacting and executing of discipline: in so much as hee would not give thē warning of the time; either of journey or of battaile, but kept thē rea­die, intentive & prest to be [...]ed forth vpō a suddaine, everie minute of an houre, whether soeuer he wold; this did he also many times without any cause, especi­ally upō rainie daies & festivals. And admonishing his soldiers ever & among, to obserue aud haue an ey unto him, he would suddainely in the day-time or by night, withdraw himselfe out of the way yea & stretch out his iourny more thē ordinarie; even to tyre them out who were late in following after▪

As for his soldiers that were terrified with the rumor of their enemies, his66 manner was to animate and encourage them, not by denying orMinuendo. o­in [...]bendo [...] Suppressing. which might [...]eeme good pollicie. diminishing, but by augmenting the same to the highest degree, even above the truth. And thus upon a time, when the expectation of IVBA his comming was terrible, he called his soldiers togither: and in a publike speech unto them. Be it knowne unto you all, quoth he, That within these very fewe dayes the King will bee here with a power of Fotemen he [...] armed. Legions of 30000. men of armes: an hundred thowsand lightFoote men lightly armed. armours and three hundred Elephants. Forbeare therefore some of you to enquire or imagine further of the matter: but giue credite unto me, that know this for a truth: Or else verely I will embarque you in the Oldest ship, I can get, & cause you to be carried away with any winde, into what Landes and Countries it shall be your fortunes to fall upon.

As touching his soldiers trespasses and delinquencies, he neither obser­ued and tooke knowledge of them all, nor yet punished them fully to the67 Pro modo, [...], pro more. [...]. after the manner of militarie dis­cipline. proportion. But as he made streight inquisition after those who trayterously forsooke their colours, and were mutinous, and proceeded against them with rigour so, at others he would winke. Sometimes also, after a great battaile and victorie obtained, he released them all of militarie duties; permitting them in all licentiousnesse to roist and royot wantonly here and there: beeing wont to giue it out, That his souldiers (perfumed though they were with Odours: and be­smeered with sweete oyles) could fight valiantly. Neither called he them in his publike oration, plaine soldiours, but by a more pleasing name, Fellow­soldiers. Furthermore he maintained them so trim and braue, that he stucke not to set them out in polished armour, damasked with filuer and gold: as well for goodly shewe, as because they should in battaile take better hold and keepe the same more surely for feare of damage and losse. Moreouer he loued them so affectionatley, that when he heard ofAnd [...]he Le­gro [...]s [...] him A. V. C. 700▪ TITVRIVS his ouerthrow, he [Page 27] suffred the haire of his head and beard to growe long, and would not cut the same before he had reuenged their death. By which meanes, he both had his soldiers most devoted unto him and also made them right valorous,

When he was entred into the Ciuill warre, the Centurions of euerie Le­gion68 presented vnto him one horseman a peece, provided out of their owne (a) priuate stocke; and generally all his soldiers offred their seruice freely, with out allowance of corne or wages out of his purse: considering that the wel­thier sort had taken uppon them the finding and maintenance of the poorer. Neither all that long time of solderie, was their any of them that once revol­ted from him; and verie many being taken prisoners (by the enemies) & hauing life granted vnto them upon cōdition, they would serve as soldiers against him, refused it. Hunger and other extremities which necessarily follow warre, not onely whilst they were beseeged, but also when themselues beleagured others; they indured so resolutely, that during their strong siedge and fortification a­gainst Dyrrachium, POMPEY, when he saw what kinde of bread made of a certaine (b) Herbe they liued upon, said, He had to deale with wild beasts. com­manding withall, the same quickly to be had away, and not shewed to any one: For feare, least his owne soldiers hearts should be utterly daunted, seeing once the patience and constancie of their enemies. And how valiantly they bare themselues in fight, this on thing may testifie that hauing taken one foyle in a battaile before Dyrrachium, they volūtarily offered to be (c) executed therfore; in so much as their Generall was more troubled about comforting then puni­shing thē. In all other battailes, they fewer in number by many parts, easily van­quished, infinit forces of their enemies. To conclude, one (d) cohort & no more of the 6. Legion, which had the keeping of aOr fort, at the Siege of Dyrrachium. skonce, made good the place & held out for certaine houres against foure of POMPEIS Legions: and were in manner all of thē throughout shot into their bodies with a multitude of their arrows: of which were found one hūdred & thirtie thousand within their trēch and rampires. And no mervaile, if a man cōsider their seueral facts singly by thē selues, either of CASSIUS SCAEVA a Centurion, or of C. ACILIVS a cōmon soldier: to say nothing of many more. SCAEVA, when his eie was smittē out, his thigh & shoulder shot through, and his buckler perced likewise with the shot ofPlutarcha 30. 120. arrowes yet defended the gate of the porte cōmitted to his charge, & kept it still. ACILIUS in a fight at sea before, MASSILIA, after his right hand was quite cut off, wherwith he had cuaght the Poope of his enemies ship, following herein that memorable example of CYNECIRVS among the Greekes, leapt notwithstanding into the saide shippe, shouing and driuing before him with the bosse and pike of his buckler those that he met in his way:

In ten yeeres space during the Gaule-warre, they neuer so much as once mu­tined:69 In the Ciuill warres some times they did: yet so, as they were soone re­claimed and came againe into order: not so much by the remisse indulgence as the authoritie of their Captaine▪ For, neuer would he yeeld one jot unto them in these their seditious tumults nay, hee alwaies withstood and crossed them: And verily the 9. Legion at Placentia, notwithstanding POMPEIUS yet was in armes with his power in the field) he casherde ful and wholy & sent away with shame: yea & after many humble prayers & supplicatiōs with much a do resto­red he thē to their places again, & not before executiō done vpō the offenders.

[Page 28]As for the soldiers of the tent Legion, when as in Rome they earnestly called70 for their discharge from warfare, & required their rewards euen with mightie threats, & that to the exceeding dāger of the whole Citie at what time also, the war was verie hote in Afrike, he neither would admit thē into his presence, nor yet dismisse thē albeit his friends seemed to scare him frō taking that course: but with one onely word, wherby he named them (a) Quirites, insteed of Milites, he did so gently turne and winde, yea and bring them to his bent, that forthwith they made answere. They would be his souldies still: and so of their owne accord followed him into Africk, notwithstanding he refused their seruice, And yet for all this, he ammerced and fined the most mutinous sort of them with the losse of a third part, both of the pillage and also of the Lands appointed for them.

In affectionate love and faithfull protection of his dependants, he was not71 wanting in his verie youth. When he had upon a time defended MASINTHA a noble young Gentleman against KingWho laid claime unto Masintha as his Tributa [...]ie. HIEMPSAL, so earnestly, that in the debate & altercatiō between them he flew upon IVBA the Kings sonne & caught him by the (a) beard: after that the said MASINTHA was pronounced definitively the KingsStipendiarium quoque pronun tiatum: how e­uer some read pronuntiav [...]t: as if Caesar had auerred openly that he was his waged sol­diour. Tributarie: he forthwith both rescued him out of their hands that would have haled him away: and also kept him close a long time in his owne Lodging; & soone after his Pretorship there expired, when he went into Spaine, tooke the young gentleman away with him in his own litter among others his followers; and fauorites, and those officers that attended upon him with their knitches of rods.

His friends he used at all times with so great curtesie and tender respect, that72 when C. OPPIUS who accōpanied him in his iourney through a wild forest fell suddainely sicke, he gaue him rowme in the onely Inne, that was, while him selfe lay all nightIn a pallet or mattrice upon the ground. upon the groundVnder the Ietty of the house. without doores. Moreouer, being now be­come Emperour & Lord of all some of them he aduanced euen frō the lowest degree unto the highest place of honour. And when he was blamed & reproved therefore, he professed openly. That if he had vsed the helpe of robbers by the high­way side of cutters and swasbucklers in maintaining of his owne dignitie; he would not faile but requite them and be thankefull euen to such.

He never entertained malice & hatred against any man so deepely but wil­ling73 he was to lay downe the same upon occasion offered. Notwithstanding, C. MEMMIVS had made most bitter invectives against him, and hee againe written unto him as bitterly, yet soone after when the said MEMMIVS stoode for the Consulship, hee friended him all that he could with his good word and procured him voyces. When C. CALVUS after certaine Libels and de­famatorie Epigrams against him, dealt by the mediation of friendes for a re­conciliation, he of his owne accord wrote first unto him. As for VALERIVS CATVLLVS (by whose verses concerning MAMVRRA he could not chuse but take knowledge that he was noted and branded with perpetuall infamie when he excused himselfe unto him and was readie to makeby saying Nollem factum & I am sor­rie for it: and I would I had not so done. satisfaction, he bad him to supper that verie day: & as he used before time, so he continued still to make his fathers house his lodging.

Moreouer, in his reuengements hee was by nature most milde. Those ro­uers74 by whome he was taken prisoner, after he had forced to yeeld, because [Page 29] he had sworne before that he would hang them vpon a crosse, he commanded that their throats should be first cut, and then to beWhere [...]ote, that cruiying was a painefull death. ctucified. CORNELIUS PHAGITA, whose for-laying him by night, he lying sicke, & LATITANT hard ly had escaped (although he gaue him a good reward2. Talents, Plutarch.) but had like to have beene brought unto SVLLA, he neuer could find in his heart to hurt. PHILE­MON a seruant and secretarie of his, who had promised his enemies to take his life away by poyson, he punished onely by simple death, without any other torment. Being cited and called much upon to beare witnesse against P. CLO­DIUS, for being naught with his wife POMPEIA, who was accused besides for the same cause to haue polluted the sacredOf Bona Dea. in whose chap­pell it was the ug [...]the did the deede dis­guised in wo­mans apparell▪ Ceremonies, he denied that he euer knew any thing of the matter, or was able to bring in evidēce albeit both his mother AVRELIA, & IULIA his sister, had simply related all upon their cre­dires euen before the same Iurie and Iudges. And being demanded therupon, wherefore then he had put away his wife? Because I deeme, quoth he, that those of my house ought to be cleere as well of suspition as of crime:

The moderatiō & clemencie which he shewed as well in the menaging of the75 ciuil war, as in his victorie, was admirable: Whē POMPEIVS denounced in mi­natory terms, that he would reckē him for an enenemie, whosoeuer he was, that failed to maintaine the Cōmon-wealth: He for his part pronounced openly, That he wold make sure account of them to be his, who stoode indifferent betweene and were Neuters. And so many, as upon the commendation of POMPEIUS before time, he had givē any charg or place of cōmand unto, in his armie under him, he granted thē all free leave and libertie to depart unto him. Vpon Articles and conditions of yeelding moved and propounded to POMPEIUS at Ilerda, whiles between both parts there passed reciprocall dealing & commerce continually▪ when AFRA­NIVS and PETR [...]IVS had taken within their Campe certaine of CEASARS soldiers, & (which they repented soone after) put them to the sword, he would in no wise imitate the same perfidious treachery of theirs practised against him. At the battaile of Pharsalia he cryed out, spare all Citizens; & afterwards gran­ted unto everie one of his owne soldiers (none excepted) this fauour to save each of thē one of the aduerse part, whom he would: neither were any found or knowne slaine but in the uerie medly, except AFRANIVS, FAUSTUS, & L. CEASAR the younger and even these uerely, men thinke, were not with his good will put to death. Of whom notwithstanding: both the former, to wit, AFRANIVS & FAUSTUS, after pardō obtained had rebelled and entred into armes againe & L. CEASR for his part, when in cruell manner by fire & sword he had made hauock of his freed men & bondseruants, spitefully slew the verie wild-beasts also which CEASAR had prouided against the solemnitie of a pub­like shew to be exhibited before the people. To cōclude, in his very latter daies he permitted al those also whom beforetime he had not pardoned to return into Italy, to gouern as magistrates in the Citie, & to cōmand as generals in the field. Yea the very Statues of L. SVLLA & POMPEIVS which the cōmons had o [...]er­thrown & cast up & down, he erected again in their due places. And if after this, there was any plot intended or word spoken against him by his aduersaries to his h [...]rt, he chose rather to represse than to revenge the same. And so, diuerse conspiraces detected and night conuenticles; hee found fault with no farther then thus, by giuing notice in some edict and proclamation. [Page 30] That he had intelligence therof. And as for such as gaue out bitter speeches of him, he thought it sufficient in an open assemblie to give them an Admoni­tion, not to persist therein. Finally, when in a most slaunderovs booke written by A. CAECINA, and certaine verses as rayling and reprochfull as it; devised by PITHOLAUS, his credite and reputation was much cracked and empaired he tooke the matter no more to the heart; thanCiuilianim [...] [...]ulit. one Citizen would haue done at an others hand:76

How beit, the rest of his deedes and words ouerweigh and depresse his good parts downe: so as he might be thought both to haue abused his soueraintie, and worthily to haue beene murthered▪ For, he not only tooke upon him ex­cessiue honours, to wit, continued Consulship, perpetuall Dictature, &1. Censorship indeed though not in name: Presi­dency of Manners; and more than so, the forename of Imperator is [...]. Soueraine and absolute com­mander. Emperour, the Surname Father of his Countrie▪ His statue among the Kings, an eminent seate of Estate raised aboue the rest in the Orchestra, among the Senatours▪ but hee suffered also more stately dignities than beseeming the condition of a mortall wight to bee de­creed and ordained for him namely, a golden Throne in the Curia, and be­fore theIn the forme Tribunal: a sacred (a) Chariot & therein a frame carying anOf himselfe, as a God, Image, at the solemne pomp of his Games Circenses: Temples Altars, his owne Ima­ges placed neere unto the Gods▪ a sacred Bed-lost for such Images to be be­stowed upon: a flamin, (c) certaine [...] Luperci (d): and the denomination of one (e) moneth after his owne name. Besides, no honourable offices there were but he tooke and gaue at his owne pleasure. His third and fourth Consulship in name onely and title he bare: cōtenting himselfe with the absolute power of Dictatourship decreed unto him with his Cōsulares all at one time: & in both yeeres, he substituted two Consuls under him for the three last moneths: so as, in the meane time, he held no Election but of Tribunes and Aediles of the Com­mons. In steed of Pretours he ordained Provosts, who should administer the affaires of the Citie evenEtiam pr [...] ­sente se: some read absense te: cleane contrarie: whiles he was present. And upon the very last day of the yeare to wit next beforeThe last of December; A. V. C. 709. the Kalends of Ianuarie, the place of a Con­sulship being vacant by the suddaine death of a Consull he conferred uppon one (f) that made suite to enioy the same but a few houres. With semblable licentiousnesse despising the custome of his Countrie, he ordained maiestrates to continue in office many yeares together. To. x. men of Pretours degree he graunted the Consulate Ornaments. Such as were but enfranchized Citizens,* Made free [...] of Rome. and diuers mungrell Gaules no better then halfe Barbarians, he admitted Sena­tours. Furthermore, ouer the Mint and receipt of the City-revenewes, he set certaine peculiar seruants of his owne to be rulers. The charge and com­maund of three Legions which he left in ALEXANDRIA, he committed wholly to a sonne of RVFINUS his freed man, a stale youth and Cata­nite of his owne.

Neither did some words of his which he openly deliuered, bewraie lesse pre­sumptuous77 Lordlines, as T. AMPIUS, writeth▪ For example, That the Common­wealth was now no more any (a) reall thing, but a name onely, without forme & shape: That SVLLA was altogether unlettered and no (b) [...]am Gram­mati [...]e [...]. Grammarian▪ in giving over his Dictature. That men ought now to speake with him more consideratly, and to [...]old e­very word that [...]e saith for a Law. Nay he proceeded to this point of Arrogancie, that when upon a time in a certaine Sacrifice, the South-sayer brought him [Page 31] word of unlucky Inwards in the beast; and such as had no heart at all, he made* Should signi­fie better for­tune. answere and said, That those which were to follow afterwards should proue more ioyfull and fortunate if it pleased him: neither was it to be taken for a prodigious and strange token, if a beast wanted an heart.

But the greatest envie and inexpiable hatred he drew upon himselfe by this78 occasion most of all. What time as al the Senatours in generall came unto him with many and those most honourable decrees, he receiued them sittingIn expiabilem or exitiabilem. 1 deadly, & that which brought him to mis­cheife. still before the Temple of Venus Genitrix. Some thinke, that when he was about to rise up, CORNELIVS BALBVS stayed and held him backe: others are of the mind, that he never went about it. But when C▪ TREBATIUS aduertised* Not so much as rising vp vnto them▪ him to arise unto them, he looked backe upon him with a strang kind of looke: Which deede of his was thought so much the more intollerable, for that him­selfe,* Saying with all, what Sir. Remember you are Caes [...] when PONTIVS AQVILA on of the (a) Colledge of Tribunes; stood not up nor did reuerence to him as he rode in Tryumph and passed by the Try­bunes Rues, tooke such snuffe and indignation therat, that he brake out alowd into these words: well done Tribuns Aquila, Recouer thou then the common-welth out of my hands: and for certaine dayes togither, neuer promised ought vnto a­ny man without this Prouiso and Exception, (b) If PONTIUS AQUILA will giue me leave:

To this CONTVMELIOVS and notoriousOr gesture. behauiour of his toward the Se­nate79 thus despised, he adioyned a deede much more arrogant: For when as in his returne from the solemne Sacrifice of the Latine Holie dayes, among other immoderate and new acclamations of the people, one out of the multitude had set upon his Statue; a Coronet of Laurell tied about with a whiteResembling a [...]. band; and EPIDIUS MARULLUS; a Tribune of the Cōmons together with his col­leagues CEASETIVS FLAVUS cōmanded the said band to be plucked of, & the man to be had away to prison, he takjng it to heart, either that this overture to a kingdome sped no better, or, (as he made semblance & pretended himselfe) that he was put by the glorie of refusing it, sharpely rebuked the Tribunes, & depriued them both of their authoritie. Neither for all this, was he willing afterwards to put away the infamous note of affecting and seeking after the title of a King: albeit he both made answere unto a (a) Comnoner saluting him by the name of a King, That he was CAESAR and no King: and also at the Lupercali [...], when ANTONIUS the Consul imposed the Diademe oftentimes vpon his head before the ROSTRA, did put it backe againe, and send it into the Capitoll to (b) Iupiter Optimus Maximus. Moreouer sundrie rumours ran rife abroad, that he would depart (for euer) to ALEXANDRIA or to (d) Ilium, ha­uing at once trāslated and remooued thither the puissance and wealth of the Empire: dispeopeld Italie with mustring of soldiers; and with all be taken the administration of Rome-Citie unto his friends: As also, that in the next Session of the Senate, L COTTA on of the (e) Quindecimvirs would move the house to this effect, That for as much as it was contained in the Fatall bookes of SY­ [...]ILLA, that the Parthians could not possiblie be vanquished but by a King, ther­fore CEASAR should be stiled King.

This gave occasion to the Conspiratours for to hasten the execution of80 their designe, least of necessitie they should be driuen to assent thereto. Their counsels therefore and conferences about this matter, which before time they [Page 32] held dispersed here and there, and proiected oftentimes by two & three in a companie, they now complotted altogither, for that by this time the very peo­ple joyned not in the present state, seeing how things went; but both in secret and openly also distasted such soueraintie, and called earnestly for protectors and maintainers of their liberties. Vpon the admission of Aliens into the order of Senatours, there wasOr [...]ill, a Libell proposed in this form (a) Bonum Factum &c. That no man would shew the Senate-house to any new Senatours. And these verses were commonly chaunted.

Gallos CEASAR in Triumphum ducit,
Or rather, Idem in curiam. for the same Caesar brought them into the Senate.
Iidem in Curia
Bracas. or trousses, or Bra­chas, some take them for man­tels▪
Bracas deposuerunt, latum clauum sumpserunt.
The French in triumph CEASAR leads, In Senate they anon
No sooner laid their
Hist [...]r.
Breeches of, but purpled robes put on.

As Q. Maximus substituted (by CEASAR) to be a Consul for 3. Moneths entred the Theater, and the * Sergant commanded (as the manner was) that the people should obserue and (c) regard him according to his place, they all with one accord cryed out. That he was no Consul: After that CAESETIVS and MA­RULLUS the Tribunes aforesaid, were removed out of their office at the next Solemne assembly, held for Election, verie many voices were found declaring them ij. Consuls Some there were who subscribed under the Statue of L. BRUTUS these words▪ (d) Would God thou were aliue. Likewise under the Sta­tue of CAESAR himselfe.

‘(e) BRUTUS for expelling the Kings, was created Consul the first.’

‘This man for expelling the Consuls is become King,Postremus or Postremo at last the last.’

There conspired against him more than three-score the heads of which conspiracie were C. CASSIVS,M. Brutus. MARCVS and DECIVS BRUTVS; who hauing made doubt at first whether bySome vpon the bridge o­thers under it. diuiding themselues into partes, they should cast him downe the (f) bridge, as he called the Tribes to giue their voices at the Election in Mars fielde, and so take him when hee was downe and kill him right out: or set uppon him in the high streete calledIn which Cae­sar dwelt after he had beene high Priest, Sacra via: or else in the very entrance to the Theater? after that the Se­nate had summons to meete in Counsell within the Court of POMPEIVS upon the15. of March in honor of Anna Perenna. And because the plaies were exibited i [...] Pompe [...] The­atre. Therfore the Senate met also in his C [...] ­ria. Ides of March, they soone agreed of this time and place before all others.

81 But CAESAR surely had faire warning of his death before it came, by many euident prodigies and strang foretokens. Some few moneths before, when certaine new inhabitants, brought by vertue of the LawWhich him selfe promul­ged. IVLIA to dwell in the Colonie Capua, ouerthew most auncient Sepulchers for to builde them houses to their landes; and did the same so much the more diligently and with better will, for that in searching they light vpon manufactures and vessels good store of Antique worke: there was found in that verie monument, wherein by report, CAPYS the founder of Capua lay buried, a brasen Table with a writing vpon it in Greeke words and Greeke letters to this effect: When the bones and reliques of CAPYS happen to be discouered, it shall come to passe, that one descended from IVLVS shall be murdered by the hands of his neere kinsfolke, and his death soone after revenged with the great calamities and miseries of all Italie▪ And least any man should thinke this to be a fabulous tale and forged matter, know he that CORNELIUS BALBVS a verie inward and familiar friend of CAESAR [Page 33] is the author thereof: And the uerie day next preceeding his death, those troupes of horses which in his passage ouer the Riuer R [...]bicon hee had conse­crate and let go loose ranging here and there without a keeper, (as he under­stood for certaine) for bare their meat and would not to die for it, touch any, yea, and shed teares aboundantly. Also, as he offered sacrifice, the Soothsayer SPVRINA warned him to take heede of danger toward him, and which would not be differred after the Ides of March. Now; the verie day before the said Ides, it fortuned that as the birde (a)Or Regavio­lus quasi re [...] arium. Regaliolus, was flying with a little branch of Lawrell, into the Court of POMPEIVS, a sort of other birdes of diverse kindes from out of the grove hard by, pursued after and there pulled it in peeces: But that night next before the day of his murder, both himselfe dreamed as he lay a sleepe, one while, that he was flying aboue the clouds: another while, that Iupiter and he shooke hands: and also his wife CALPVRINA, imagined, that the Finiall of his house fell downe, and that her husband was stabbed in her verie bosome: and sodainely with all the chamber doore of it selfe flew open. Hereupon, as also by reason of sickelinesse, he doubted a good while whether he should keepe at home and put off those matters which he had purposed to debate before the Senate, or no? At the last, being counselled and perswaded by DECIVS BRVTVS, not to disappoint the Senatours who were now in fre­quencie assembled and stayed for his comming long since; he went forth when it was well neere eleuen of the clocke. And whenAb Obvi [...] q [...] ­dam, vel Ovi [...], 1, one Ori [...]. one met him by the way, & offered him a written pamphlet, which layd open the conspiracie, and who they were that sought his life, he shuffled the same among other skroes and writings which he held in his left hand as if he would haue red it anone. After this when he had killed many beasts for sacrifices & could speede of the Gods fauour in none, he entred theOf [...] Curia in contempt of all Religion; and there­with laughed SPVRINA to scorne: charging him to bee a false Prophet,A. V. C. 710, for that the Ides of March were come: and yet noe harme befell vn­to him; albeit hee aunswered, That come indeede they were, but not yet past

82 When theyConspicati, o [...] conspirati [...] the conspiratours stood round about him. saw once that he had taken his place, and was set, they stood round about him as service able attendants readie to do him honor: and then immediatlyWho before had beene his great friend & sided with him CIMBER TVLLVS▪ who had undertaken to begin first, stepped neerer unto him, as though he would have made some request. When CEA­SAR seemed to mislike and put him backe, yea and by his gesture to post him of unto another time he caught hold of his gowne at both shoulders: whereupon as he cried out, This is violence, Alter Cassius or alter [...] Cassi [...]s one of the Cassi, rel alter, Casca. CASSIVS came in 2. full a front & wounded him a litle beneth theIngulum, or the chanell bone. throat. Then CAESAR catching CASSIVS by the arme thrust it through with his stile or writing punches; and with that being about to leapeOut of his chaire. forward he was met with another wound and stayed. Now when he percei­ued himselfe beset on everie side and assailed with drawne daggers he wrapped and couered his head with his gowne: but withall let downe the largeWhich they were wont to cast ouer their shoulders. Se­nec [...]de benefic [...]. Or tucke up slack above the wast. Some rea [...] [...] [...] lap with his left hand to his legges beneath, hiding thereby the inferiour part also of his bodie, that he might fall (d) more decently: and so, with 3. and 20. wounds he was stabbed: during which time he gave but one grone, without any worde uttered, and that was at the first thrust; although some have written, that as M▪ BRVTVS came running upon him he said, [...]; I: (e) And thou my sonne▪ [Page 34] When all others fled sundrie waies, there lay he a good while dead, untill three of his owne pages bestowed him in a licter: and so with one Some expoūd this of the licter as if one corner thereof hung downe, carried as it was by three. arme hanging downe, carried him home Neither in so many wounds, was there, as ANTIS­TIVS his Physitian deemed, any one found mortall, but that which he receiued Whereby it seemeth he had one giuen him in his neck before: which the Author hath omitted. second, in his breast. The conspiratours were minded to haue dragged his Corps, after hee was thus slaine, into the Riuer Tiberis; confisca­ted his goods, and repealed all his acts: but for feare of M. ANTONIUS the Consul and LEPIDVS. Maister of the Horsemen, they held their hands and gaue ouer those courses.

83 At the demand therefore of L. PISO whose daughter he married, his last will and Testament was opened and red in the house of ANTONIUS which will, upon the 13. of Sep­tember. Ides of September next before, he had made in his own house at Lauicium & cōmitted to the keeping of the chiefe (a) vestal Virgin. Q Tuber [...] w [...]iteth, that from his first Consulship unto the beginning of the Civi [...]l war, he was euer wont to write downe for his heire, Cn. POMPEIVS, and to reade the saide will unto his soldiers in their publike assemblie. But in this last Te­stament of his, he ordained three Coheires, the nephewes all So hee was there great Vnk [...]e. of his sisters. To witAfterwards Augustus, sonne of A [...]a Iulius Caesars sisters daughter. C. OCTAUIVS▪ of three fouth parts, L. PINARIUS, and Q. PEDI­US of on fourth part remaining. In the latter end and bottome of this Testa­mentarie Instrument, he adopted also: C. OCTAUIVS into his house & name; and many of those that afterwards murdered him, he nominated for guardiers to his As Post [...]nimus 1. borne after his death. sonne, if it fortuned he had any borne. Yea and DECIMUS BRVTUS to be one of his second heires in remainder. Hee bequeathed in his legacies unto theOf Rome. people his hortyards about Tiberis to ly common; & three46 [...]. 10. d. ob­starling. hundred Sesterces to them by the Poll.

84 The solemnitie of his Buriall being proclaimed, there was a pile of wood for his funerall fire reared in Mars field, neere unto the Tombe of His owne daughter, wife to Pompey who died of child­birth, and by speciall priui­ledge, was enter red in Mars field. IVLIA. Before the Rostra was placed a Or Herfe. chappell all guilt resembling the Temple of Venus Genetrix▪ and within it Or B [...]erre. Appion, a pole. a Bedsteed of Ivorie, richly spred with cloth of gold and purple, and at the head thereof a Which was, That the ma­gistrates and Senatours shold go before without their badges & robe [...] of dignitie: the knights and gentlemen fol­low in murning weed: then the soldi [...]rs, carry­ing the heads or points of their weapons downeward: last of all▪ the common peo­ple marshalled according to their Tribes. Trop [...]e supporting the Robe wherein he was slaine. Now because it was thought, that those should not have day enough who came to his offerings and brought their oblations, commandement was giuen, that without obseruing the or [...] who wrote a Trage die bearing the same title: strict order, euery man might bring which way & by what streete of the Cittie he would, his gift into Mars field above said. During the Games and playes then exhibited there were chaunted certaine verses fitly applyed as well to moove pittie as hatred withall of his death, and namely out of the Tragedie of Pacuvius, entituled, (a) The iudgement of Armour, Men' Men' servasse, ut essent qui me perde­rent? Alas the while, that I these men should saue: By bloudy death, to bring me to my grave; As also another out of that of ACCIUS to the same sence. In­steed of a laudatorie oration, ANTONIVS the Consvl pronounced by the pub­like Crier, that Act of the Senate, wherein they decreede for him all honour, both diuine and humaine: likewise the solemne oth wherewith they all obli­ged themselues to defend the life and person of him and none but him: where­unto he added some few words of his owne. The fore saide Or [...]. Bed, the Magi­strates for the time being, and such as had borne office of State alreadie, had De [...]erant. conveied into the forum before the ROSTRA; which when some intended [Page 35] to burn within the cell of IVPITER CAPITOLINVS, others in the Where he was murdered. Court of POMPEIUS: all of a sodaine there were ij. fellowes with swords girt to their sides: and carrying ij. Iavelins▪ who with light burning Tapers, set it on fire: and with that immediatly the multitude that stood round about gat drie sticks together and heaped them thereupon, with the Tribunall seats and other pues, Or Benches. of inferiour Magistrats, & whatsoeuer beside was readie & (c) next at hand. After them, the Minstrels and stage players disrobed themselues of those vesti­ments which out of the furniture of his Tryumphs they had put on for the present use and occasion, rent the same in peeces and flung all into the fla­ming fire. The olde Legionarie soldiers also did the like by their armour, wherein they brauely went to solemnize his funerall, Yea and most of the Cittie Dames did no lesse by their Iewels and Ornaments which they had about them: Their childrens pendant brooches also and rich coats embrodred and bordred with purple. In this exceeding sorrow and publike mourning, a number there were besides from forraine Nations: who euerie one after their Countrie manner, lamented round one after another, by com­panies in their turnes: but above all other the They affected Caesar (it should seem) in re [...]ard o [...] many bene­fits, and name­ly for bringing l'ompele to confusion who had forced their cheife Citie. Iewes. who also for many nights together frequented the place of his sepulture and where his bodie was burnt.

The common people streight after his funerall obsequies went with burning85 fire-brands and torches to the dwelling houses of BRVTVS and CASSIVS: From whence being hardly repelled, they meeting with HELVIUS CINNA by the way, and mistaking his name, as if he had beene CORNELIVS CINNA (one who the the day before had made a bitter invective as touching CAESAR and whom they sought for) him they slew▪ set his head vpon a speare, and so carried it about with them▪ After this they erected in the Forum a solide Or Piller. Co­lumne almost 20. foote high▪ of Numidian Marble: with this title graven ther­upon; PARENTI PATRIAE. To the father of his Countrie. At which piller for a long time they used still to sacrifice, to make vowes and prayers, to determine and end certaine controversies interposing alwaies their oth by the name of CAESAR.

CAESAR left behind him in the minds of certaine friends about him, a sus­pition,86 that he was neither willing to have lived any longer, nor cared at all for life: because he stood not well to health, but was euermore crasie: & there­upon neglected as well all religious warnings from the Gods, as also what re­ports soeuer his friends presented unto him. There be that thinke, howe tru­sting upon that last Act of the Senate, and there oth aforesaid, he discharged the Guard of Spaniards from about him, who armed with swordes, gaue at­tendance Insectanti [...]m. upon his person. Others contrariwise are of opinion; that seeing as he did how he was forelaied on euerie side, and confessing, it were better once for all to undergoe those imminent daungers, than alwaies to stand in feare thereof, he was wont to say: It concerned not himselfe so much as it did the state, that hee should liue and bee safe: As for him▪ he had gotten long since power and glorie enough: marie the Common-wealth (if ought but well came to him) should not bee at quiet, but incurre the troubles of Ciuill warre▪ the issue whereof would be farre worse then euer it had beene.

This one thing verily, all men well neere are agreed upon, That such a 87 [Page 36] death befell unto him as himselfe in manner wished. For not onely uppon a time when he had read inCyripaedia, 8 XENOPHON, how CYRUS beeing at the point of death gaue some order for his funerall, hee setting light by so lingering and slow a kind of death, had wished to die quickely and of a suddaine; but also the verie daie before he was killed, in a certaine discourse mooved at supper in MARCUS LEPIDUS house uppon this point, What was the best ende of a mans life? preferred that which was sodaine and unloo­ked for.

He died in the In the 8, Sep­timane. 56. yeare of his age and was canonized among the88 Gods, not onely by their voice who decreed such honour unto him, but also by the perswasion of the common people. For at those Games and playes which were the first that AUGVSTVS his heire exhibited for him thus Consecrate. deified, there shone a blazing starre for seuen dayes together, arising about the eleuenth houre of the day; and beleeved it was to be the soule of CAESAR received up into heaven. For this cause also uppon his Image there is a starre set to the uerie Crowne of his head. Thought good it was to damme vp (b) the Court where in hee was murdred: to name the Ides of March (c) Parricidium, and that the Senate should neuer meete in Counsell upon that day.

Of these murderers, there was not one in manner that either survived89 him aboue three yeares, or died of his naturall death. All stood condemned▪ and by one mishap or other perished: some by ship-wracke, o­thers in battaile▪ and Cassi [...]: as Plutarch repor­teth, and [...] according to Dion, and the ij. Cascaes. A notable iudgement of Almightie God upon the unnatural mur­derers of their Soueraine. and some againe, shortened their own daies, with the verie same dagger, where­with they had wounded CAESAR.

THE HISTORIE OF Octauius Caesar Augustus,


THat the principall name & linage of the OCTAVII, dwelt in times past at Velitrae, there be many evidences to shewe: For, both a street in the most frequented place of the said towne long since carried the name OCTAVIVS, and also there was to be seene an Altar there consecratedOr to Octa­vivs: Octaviv Consecrata: by one OCTAVIVS, who being Generall of the field in a warre against the borderers, whē he happened to be sacrificing to Mars▪ upon newes brought that the enemie gave a suddaine charge, caught the Inwards of the beast sacrificed halfe raw as they were, out of the where they were a boyling or rosting. fire; cut and offered them accordingly: & so entred into battaile and returned with vic­torie. There is beside, a publike Act extant upon record, wherein decreed and provided it was, that everie yeare after, the inwards in like manner should bee [Page 38] presented unto Mars, and the rest of the sacrifice remaining, carried backe unto the Octauij.

Eagen inter Rom [...]. o [...] [...]llect▪ These Octauij, being by K. TARQVINIVS PRISCVS naturalized Romaines2 soone after translated and admitted by SERVIVS TVLLVS, into the Senate among the Patritians, & Nobles, in processe of time ranged themselues with the commons, and with much adoe at length, by the meanes of IVLIVS of sa­cred Memrie returned to the Patritian degree again: The first of these that by the peoples election bare any Magistracie, was C. RVFVS: who having beene Questor begat Cn. and C. From thē descended two families of the OCTAVII, and those for their estate of life farre different. For Cn. and all the rest from him one after another, attained to places of highest honour but CAIVS and his posteritie everie one evē unto the father of AVGVSTVS, (such was either their fortune or their will,) staied in the order and degree of gentlemen, and rose no higher. The great Grand father of AAGVSTVS, in the second Against An­ [...]ball and the Carthaginians: Punike war, serued in qualitie of a Militar Colonel of 1000 footmen Tribune, in Sicilie, under AEMILIVS PA [...]VS Lord gene­rall. His father contenting himselfe with bearing office like another Burgesse in his owne Bourrough, being left welthie by his father, grew to a good estate, and lived to be an olde man, in much peace and tranquilitie. But of these matters let others make report. AVGVSTVS himselfe writeth noe more but thus. That the house from whence he came▪ was of Romaine Gentlemen, welthie and ancient withall, wherein the first that ever came to be Senatour was his fa­ther. M. ANTONIVS hi [...]teth him in the teeth with his great Grandfather: say­ing he was but a Libertine borne, and by occupation a A seller of ropes: restionē, not Restionem with a Capitall R as if it were a proper name. roper, & come out of a Village of the Thurines: also that his Grandfather was no better then a verie Arg [...]ntarium an exchanger of monie for gaine. banquer. Neither have I founde any more, as touching the Aunce­stours of AVGVSTVS by the Fathers side:

OCTAVIVS his father, from the verie beginning of his age, was of great3 welth and reputation; so that I cannot but mervaile, that hee also hath beene reported by some a banquer or monie changer: yea and one of the (a) dea­lers of monie and servitours employed in CAMPVS MARTIVS, by those that stand for offices: For having beene from his verie cradle brought vppe in wealth highly and plentifully; he both attained unto honorable dignities with facilitie, and administred the same with credite and reputation. Pre­sently uppon his Pretourshippe, the province of Macedonie fell unto his lot. And in his iourney thither, the fugitives, to wit the reliques of SPARTACVS and CATILINES forces, who then helde the Thurine teri­torie hee defaited; having commission extraordinarily given unto him in the senate so to doe: This province hee governed with noe lesse iustice then fortitude. For having discomfited in a great battaile the Bessi and the Thracians, he dealt so well with the Allies and confederats of that Kingdome: that there be certaine letters of M. TVLLIVS CICERO extant, wherein he ex­horteth and admonisheth his brother QVINTVS, (who at the same time, little to his credite & good name, administred the procōsulship of Asia) for to imitate his neigbour OCTAVIVS, in doing well by the Allies, and winning their love thereby.

As he departed out of Macedonie before that he could professe himselfe to4 be a suiter for the Consulship, he died a suddaine death▪ leaving these children [Page 39] behind him alive, namely two daughters OCTAVIA the elder, which hee had by ANCHARIA: OCTAVIA the younger, and AVGVSTVS likewise, by ATIA. This ATIA was the daughter of M. ATIVS BALBVS, and IVLIA the sister of C. CAESAR. BALBVS by his fathers side was an ARICINE, a man that shewed Senatours Images and armes in his house: by his mother linked to MAGNVS POMPEIVS in the neerest degree of consanguinitie. And having borne the of­fice of Pretorship he among the XX. Commissioners devided by vertue of the Law IVLIA, the lands in the territory of CAPVA among the Commons. But M. ANTONIVS, despising the parentage and petegree of AVGVSTVS by the mother side also, twitteth him and layeth in his dish, that his great Grandsire was an African borne saying on while, that he kept a shop of sweete oyles, Ointments and perfumes; another while, that he was a baker in Aricia. CAS­SIVS verily of PARMA, in a certaine Epistle: taxeth AVOVSTVS as being the* Al this is spo ken allegori­cally of his base parentage. Nephew not of a Baker onely, but also of a banker, in these termes. Thou hast meale for thy mother. And then comes a banker of Nerulone, who out of a most paine­full backe house in Aricia knedeth and mooldeth it with his hands sullied by telling & exchanging monie. 5

AVGVSTVS was borne, when M. TVLLIVS CICERO and ANTONIE wereA. V C. 691. Consuls, the 23. Of Sep­tember. ninth day before the Calends of October, a little before the Sun rising, in the (a) palatine quarter of the Citie, at a place: called Oxe or Bull­heads. CAPITA BV [...]V­LA: where now it hath a sacred Chappel, built and erected a little after he depar ted out of this world: For, as it is found in the records of the Senate, when C. LECTORIVS a yong gentleman of the Patritian order, pleaded to have some easier punishment for the adulterie, & alledged, over and besides his yong yeares & parētage, this also in his plea▪ before the Senatours, that he was the possessor and as it were, the warden & Sextaine of that ground or soyle, which AVGVS­TVS of happy memorie touched (b) first, & requested that it might be given & gran ted unto the said AVGVSTVS as to his domestical and peculiar god: decreed it was that the same part of the house should be consecrated to that holy use. There is yet to be seene the place of his nourcery, within a suburbian house be­longing6 to his Auncesters, neere unto Velitra: a very little Cabin, about the big­nes of a Larder or Pantry: the neighbours are possessed with a certaine conceit, as if he had been there also borne. To enter into this row me unlesse it be of ne­cessitie & with devout chastitie, men make it scrupulous & are affraide: upon an old conceived opinion, as if unto as many as came thether rashly and inconsi­derately, a certaine horror and fearefulnes were presented. And verily, this was soone after confirmed by this occasion: For when the new Land lord & posse­ssor of that farme house, either by chance & at unwares, or els to try some ex­perimēt, went into it, there to take up his lodging, it happened that in the night within verie fewe houres after, being driven out from thence by some sodaine violence, (he knoweth not how,) he was found in manner halfe dead, together with bed and all, before the dore,

Being yet an infant, surnamed he was THURINVS, in memorial of the begin­ning7 of his Auncestours: or else because in the countrie about Thurij, when hee was newly borne, his father OCTAVIVS fought a battaile against the Fugi­tiues. That he was surnamed THVRINVS, my selfe am able to report by a god and sufficient evidence, as having gotten an olde little counterfeit in [Page 40] brasse representing him being a child: which had in yron letters and those al­most worne out, this name engraven. This said counterfeit, being given by me unto the Hadrian the Emperour▪ Prince, is now devoutely kept and worshipped among other his bed chamber Images. Moreover called he is oftentimes in taunting wise by M. ANTONIVS in his Epistles; THVRINVS: and himselfe writeth unto him backe againe as touching that point, nothing but this▪ That he marvaileth why that former name of his should be obiected unto him as a reproach. Afterwardes, he assumed the surname of C. CAESAR▪ and after it of AVGVSTVS: the one by the last will of his great Vncle, by the mother side, the other by the uertue of MVNATIVS PLANCVS his sentence: For when some gave their opinion, that he ought to be stiled ROMVLVS, as if he also had beene A Founder of the Cittie, PLANCVS preuailed, that he should be called rather AVGVSTVS: not onely for that it was a new Surname, but also greater and more honourable, because Religious and holy places, wherein also any thing is consecrated by bird flight, and feeding of them be called AVGVSTA, ab auctu. i. of grow­ing, or else ab avium gestu gustuve: i. Of birds gesture and feeding. Like as ENNIVS also teacheth writing in this manner.

‘Auguste Augurio postquam inclyta condita Roma est.’

‘After that Noble Rome was built by sacred flight of Birds.’

He was 4▪ yeares old when his father died: and in the xij. yeare of his age8 he praised in a publike assemblie, his Grand-mother IVLIA deceased. Foure yeeres after hauing put on his virill robe, he had (a) militarie (b) gifts bestow­ed upon him at the African tryumph of CAESAR, albeit by reason of his yong yeares he had not once serued in the warres: Soone after, when his Vnkle (CAE­SAR) was gone into Spaine against Cn. POMPEIVS children, he followed with in a while, (being as yet not well recovered out of a greevous sicknesse,) euen through waies infested by enemies, with verie few in his traine to accompany him, and hauing suffred shipwracke besides: whereby he mightily won his Vn­cles love, who quickely approved his towardly behauiour and disposition, over and above his diligence in travaile▪ Whē CAESAR, after he had recovered Spaine and brought it to his subiection, intended a voiage against the otherwise called [...], Daci, and from thence against the Parthians, he being sent afore to Apollonia, became a Stu­dent there and followed his booke. And so soone as he had certaine intelligēce that CEASAR was slaine, and himselfe made his heire: standing in doubt and sus­pense a long time, whether he should implore the helpe of the Legions os no? at length he gave over that course verily, as too hastie & untimely, but whē he was returned againe to Rome, he entred upon his inheritance, not withstanding his mother made some doubt thereof & his father in law MARTIVS His mothers husband. PHILIPPVS a man of Consular degree much disswaded him there fro. And from that time having levied & assembled his forces, he governed the cōmon welth first ioint ly with (c M. ANTONIVS and M: LEPIDVS for the space almost of 12: yeres, and at the last for xliiij: yeares by himselfe alone:

Having thus laid open the very sum as it were, of his life, I will goe through9 the parts there of in particular: not by the times but by the seuerall kinds ther­of. to the end the same may be shewed and knowne more distinctly: Five civill warres he made to wit, at Mutine, Philippi, Perusium in Sicilie, and at Actium. Of which the first & last were against M: ANTONIVS: the secōd against BRVTVS [Page 41] and CASSIUS the third against L. ANTONIUS brother to the Triumvir, the 4. against Sex. POMPEIUS, Cn. POMPEIUS his sonne. Of all these warres he tooke the occasion and quarrell from hence, namely, reputing and iudging in his mind nothing more meet and conuenient than the revenge of his unkles death and the maintenance of his acts and proceedinges.

No sooner was he returned from Apollonia, but he purposed to set upon BRV­TUS and CASSIUS at unwares: and (because upon foresight of daunger they10 were fled secretly out of the way) to take the course of law, and in their absenceA, V, C 710▪ to endite them of murder. As for the Plaies and games for CEASARS victory because they durst not exhibit them, whose lot and office it was so to do, him­selfe set them forth. And to the end that he might go through all other matters also more resolutely; he professed himselfe to labour for the Of the com­mons. Tribuneship in the rowme of one who fortuned to die: albeit he was one of the Nobility, though not of the Senate. But seeing that M. ANTONIUS the Consul withstood his at­tempts, where as he hoped he would have beene his principall friend in that suit: and vouchsafed not unto him so much as the assistance of his owne pub­like authority, or helpe procured from others in any thing, without he agreed and covenanted to yeeld unto him some exceeding consideration: he betooke himselfe unto the protection of those Nobles & chiefe Senatours unto whom he perceiued that ANTONIUS was odious: in this regard especially, that [...] Antonius. he endevored all that he could by force of armes to expell DECIMUS BRVTUS besieged at Mutina, out of that province which by CEASAR was granted and by the Senate confirmed unto him. And thereupon by the aduice and perswasion of some he set certaine persons priuily in hand to murder ANTONIUS; which perilous practise of his being detected and fearing still the like danger to him­selfe, he waged the old soldiers with as beautiful a larges as possiblie he could,A. V. C. 711. for the defence as well of his owne person as of the state. And being appointed to lead this armie thus levied, in qualitie of propretour & together with HIR­TIUS and PANSA, who had entred upon the Consulship▪ to aide D. BRVTUS, he made an end of this warre committed unto him within three moneths, in two fought fieldes. In the former of which, ANTONIE writeth that he fled, and without coat armour or horse appeared at length after two dayes and shewed himselfe. But in the battaile next following, well knowne it is, that he performed the part not onely of a Captaine but also of a soldier▪ and in the very heat and midst of the medly, by occasion that the Standerd bea­rer of his owne Legion was grievously hurt, he supported the Aegle with his owne shoulders As mass [...]e & heavie as it was. and so carried it a good while.

During this warre, when HIRTIUS had lost his life in the conflict, and11 PANSA soone after of his wound, it was bruited rifely abroad, that both of them were by his meanes slaine: to the ende that having defaited ANTONIUS, and the Common-wealth beeing bereift of both Consuls, he alone might seize uppon the victorious armies. And verily the death of PANSA was so deepely suspected that GLYCO the Physitian was com­mitted to ward and durance, as if he had put poyson into his wound. AQVIL­LIUS NIGER addeth moreover and saith, that the one of the Consuls, to wit, HIRTIUS, was in the verie confused medly of the battaile killed by AVGUS­TUS himselfe.

[Page 42]But so soone as he understood that ANTONIE after his flight was intertained12 by M. LEPIDVS: that other Captaines also and armies consented to take part withProp [...]rtibus: of Pomperus and the common wealth. if you read pro petri­ [...] i. with the Nobilitie the side▪ he forsooke without all delaies the cause of the Nobles and principall Senatours: and for the better pretence of this change and alterati­on of his minde, craftily and uniustly alleadged the words and deedes of cer­taine of them▪ as if (a) some had given it out of him: That he was a boy, (b) O­thers, that he was to be Et tollendum. adorned, and * honoured: That neither himselfe nor the olde beaten soldiers might be rewarded according to their desarts. And the better to approove his repentance of the former side and faction that he tooke: He fined the Nursines, in a great summe of monie, and more than they were able to pay; For that upon the Monuments or Tombe of those Citizens that were slaine in the battaile at Mutina (which at their common charges was reared) they wrote this Title, That they died for the Libertie and Free-dome of their Cittie.

Being entred into Societie with ANTONIE and LEPIDVS, hee finished13 the Philippian warre also, (although he was but weake and sickely,) and thatA. V. C 712. with two battailes▪ in the former being discamped and driven out of the field, hardly hee escaped by flight and recovered the Regiment or wing of ANTONI­US. Neither used he moderately the successe of his victorie, but when hee had sent the head of BRVTUS to Rome for to bee bestowed under the Statue of CAESAR, he dealt cruelly with the Noblest and most honourable prisoners, and not without reproachfull words: so farre forth verily, that to one of them, making humble suite and prayer for his Sepulture, he answered, (by report) in this wise. That it would be anone, at the dispose of the f [...]ules of the Aire: and when others, to wit, the (a) Father, and sonne together intreated for their lives; he commanded them either to cast lots or trie by combate whether of them should have life granted▪ and so beheld them both as they dyed, whilest the father who offred himselfe to die was slaine, and the sonne voluntarily take his death. Whereuppon the rest, & amongst them M FAVONIUS that worthie follower of CATO, when they were brought forth with their yrons and chaynes to execution, after they had in honorable termes saluted ANTONIUS by the name ofSoveraine commander Emperour, openly reviled and let flie at him most foule and rayling words. Hauing parted betweene them their charges & offices after this victorie, whē ANTONIUS undertook to settle the East in good order, and himselfe to bring the olde Soldiers backe into Italie, & to placethem there, in the lands & teritories belonging to the free Townes and Burowghes, he kept himselfe in favour neither with the said old soldiers, nor the former posses­sors of those lands: whilest the one sort complained, that they were disseized: and the other, that they were not well entreated according to their hope, for so good deserts.

At which verie time, he forced L. ANTONIUS (who confidently presuming14 upon the Consulship which he then bare, & his brothers power withall, wentA. V. C. 713. about to make an insurrection and alteration in the state) to flie unto PERV­SIA, and there for verie hunger compelled him to yeeld▪ but yet not without great jeopardie of his owne person, both before and after the warre: for whē at a certaine solemne sight of stage plaies; he had commanded an ordinarie and cōmon soldier who was set within the (a) 14. ranks, to be raised by an officer, & [Page 43] thereupon a rumor was carried and spred by his malicious ill willers and back­biters, as if presently after torture he had put the same soldier to death. There lacked verie little, but that in the concourse and indignation of the militarre multitude, he had come to a mischiefe and beene murdered. This onely saued his life: that the man for a while missed, sodainely was to be seene againe alive and safe without any harme done unto him. About the walls of Perusia, as hee sacrificed, he had like to haue been intercepted by a strong companie of sword fencers that sallied out of the Towne.

After he had forced PERVSIA; he proceeded to the execution of verie many,15 A. V. C. 714. & euer as any went about either to crave pardon or to excuse themselues, with this on word he stopped their mouthes, Die yee must. Some write, that iij: hun­dred of both degrees (to wit Senatours and Knights) chosen out of them who had yeelded, were killedBrained with an axe: and no [...] beheaded as sacrifices upon theOn which day [...] [...] was murdred. Ides of March, at the Alter built in the honor of IVLIVS (CAESAR) of famous memorie. There have been others who wrote, that of verie purpose he tooke armes and made this warre to the end that his close aduersaries and those who rather for feare, then of good will held in, upon occasion given and opportunitie by L. ANTONIUS there leader, might be detected: that having once vanquished them and confiscated their goods, the rewards promised unto the olde soldiers he might the better performe.

The warre in SICILE he began betimes and with the first, but drewe it out16 along time; as being often intermitted▪ one while, for the repairing and rig­ging of his fleete which by two ship-wrackes in tempest, (and thatWhen com­monly it is c [...]lme in those Seas. in summer time) he had lost: another while▪ by occasion of peace made at the earnest cry of the people, for the provision of their victuales cut off and kept from them: and the famine thereby dayly growing: untill such time as having built neweA. V. C. 717. ships, manurnised and set free xx. thowsand slaues, and those put to the ore for to learne to row gallies, he made the Hauen Iulius at Baiz by letting the sea in­to the Lakes, LVCRINVS and ALUERNVS. In which when he had trained and exercised his sea forces whole winters, he overcame POMPEIUS betweene A port town in [...], Milae andAn har­bour neere Messanah. A. V. C, 718. Naulochus▪ at the verie houre and instant time of which Naual bat­taile, he was suddenly surprized with such a sound sleepe, that his friends were faine to waken him and raise him out of bed for to give the signall. Wherupon occasion and matter was ministred (as I thinke) toMarcus, the Triumvir. ANTONIUS, for to cast this in his teeth, that he could not so much as with his eyes open see [...] directly before him the battaile set in ray, but lay like a sencelesse b [...]ocke on his backe, looking onely into theFor Gods helpe. skie aloft: nor once arose and came in sight of his sol­diours, before that M. AGRIPPA had put his enemies 12 ships to flight. Others blame and charge him both for a speech and deede also of his: as if he should crie out and say, That seeing his owne regiment of ships were cast away by tempests, he would even against the will of NEPTVNE obtaine victorie. And verily the next day of the (a) Circensian Games, he tooke out of the solemne pompe there she­wed, the Image of the said God: Neither in any other warre lightly was hee in more and greater dangers For hauing transported one armie into Sicilie, when he sailed backe againe for to waft ouer the rest of his forces from the conti­nent and firme Of [...]. land, he was at unwares overtaken and surpri [...]ed by DE­MOCHARES and APOLLOPHANES the Lievetenants and Admirals of [Page 44] POMPEIUS, but at the length with uerie much ado, he escaped with one one­ly barke In like manner as he travailed by land unto (b) R [...]egium neere Locrse, kenning a farre ofSext. POMPEIS gallies sayling along the coasts, and weening them to he his owne, he went downe to the shore, and had like to have been caught and taken by them. And even then as he made shift to flie and escape through by-waies aud blind-lanes: a bond-seruant of AEMILIVS PAVLUS a companion of his, taking it to the heart that his Maisters father PAVLUS, was in times past by him proscribed and outlawed, and imbracing, as it were, the good occasion and opportunitie of revenge now offered, gave the attempt to kill him. After the flight ofSext. POMPEIUS, when M. LEPIDUS one of his In the Tri­umvirate. Collegues, whome hee had called forth of Afrike to his aide, bareA. V. C. 718. himselfe proude uppon the confidence of xx. Legions, challenged a soue­rainetie over theM. Antonius and [...] Augustus. rest, and that, with terrour and menaces: hee stript him of all his armie, and uppon his humble submission and supplication, pardoned his life, but confined him for ever to Circeij. Some Cri­tickes begin here a newe Chapter. The Societie of M. ANTONIUS wauering alwaies in doubtfull tea [...]mes and uncertaine, and notwithstanding many and sundrie reconciliations, not well knit and confir­med, he brake of quite in the ende: and the better to proove and make good that he (c) had degenerated from the ciuill behauiour and modestie of a (Ro­maine) Citizen, he caused the last will and testament of the said ANTONIE, which he had left at (d) Rome, and therein nominated even the Children of CLEOPATRA among his heires to be opened and red in a publike assem­blie. Howbeit when hee was judged by the State an enemie, hee sent backe unto him those of his neerest acquaintance and inward friendes and among other C. SOSIUS, (e) and T. Cn. Domitius DOMITIVS, being Consuls at that time still. The Bononians also, for that of olde they were dependantes of the Antonij and in there retinue and protection, hee by a publicke ActA. V. C. 722. acquit and pardoned for not entring into a confederace with all Italie, (f) on his side. Not long after, he vanquished him in a Nauall battaile before (g) Actium, what time by reason that the fight continued untill it was lateA. V. C. 723: in the euening hee was forced to lodge all night conqueror as he was, on ship board.

When he had retired himselfe from Actium into the Iland Samos for his17 winter harbour, being disquieted with the newes of his soldiers mutinie de­manding rewardes and discharge from service; those I meane, whom after the victorie atcheived hee had from out of the whole number sent before to Brindis, he went againe into Italie: but in crossing the Seas thither; twice was he tossed and troubled with Tempests: first betweene the promontories or Capes of Pol [...]ponensus and Actolia: againe, about the Mountaines or Cliffes Ceraunij. In both which places, part of his pinnaces were cast away and drowned: and with all, the verie takling of that shippe wherein he embarked was rent and [...]orne a sunder: yea, and the rudder thereof quite broken. Nei­ther staied he at Brindis above 27, daies, that is to say untill hee had setled hisA. V. C▪ 724 soldiers and contented them in their desires and requests: but fetching a com­passe about Asia, and Siria, sailed into Aegypt where after hee had laied seige unto ALEXANDRIA, whether ANTONIE and CLEOPATRA were together fled▪ He soone became Mais. of that Cittie. And as for ANTONIE, [Page 45] who now (all to late) made meanes for conditions of peace hee enforced to make himselfe away, and Viditque mor­ [...]: In some copies we read thus: [...] mort [...]am Cleo­patram, [...] And he saw [...] dead: For he heard onely of Anto­nies death and saw the sworde wherewith hee wounded him­selfe. saw him dead And to CLEOPATRA whom most gladly he would have saved alive for to beautifie his tryumph hee set the (a) PSYLLI to sucke out the venime & poyson within her bodie: for that suppo­sed it was she died with the sting of the Serpent (b) Aspis: This honour he did unto them both, namely to burie them in one sepulcher: and the Tombe by them begun, he commanded to be finished. Young ANTONIE the elder of those twaine whom he had by FVLVIA, he caused to be violently haled from the Statue of IVLIVS CAESAR of famous memorie, unto which, after many prayers but all in vaine; he was fled as to sanctuarie, and so killed him. Likewise CAESARIO, when CLEOPATRA gave out openly that she had con­ceived by his His great Vnkle indeede but father by adoption: father CAESAR, he fetched backe againe from the place whither he was fled, and put him to death. The rest of the Children of ANTONIE and the Queene togither, he both saued (no lesse than if they had beene linked in neere Alliance unto himselfe,) and also according to the state of euerie one of them, he maintained and cherished respectively.

About the same time, when he beheld the Tombe together with the corps of18 ALEXANDER the great, taken newly foorth of the vaute or secret Chappell where it was bestowed; he set upon it a coronet of gold: and strewing flowers thereupon worshipped it: And being asked the question, whither hee would* Or [...] i. the bodies [...] Tombes of the Ptolemoees, If you read [...], it is ment of [...]. looke upō the PTOLOMES also? he answered that he was desirous indeed to see a King but not the (a) dead. When he had reduced Aegypt in the forme of a province, to the end that he might make it more fruitfull and fit to yeeld corne and victuals for the Cittie of Rome, he skowred and cleansed by helpe of soldi­ers, all those ditches where into Nilus overfloweth, which by long time had been choaked with mud. And that the memorie of his Actiake victorie might be more renowmed among posteritie, he built the Cittie Nicopolis over against Actium, and ordained certaine games and plaies there, everie 5. yeeres: and hauing enlarged the old Which stood upon the saide promontarie actium. Temple of Apollo: and the place werein he had en­camped; he beautified with Navall spoiles and then consecrated it to Neptune and Mars.

After this, sundry tumults and the verie beginnings of commotions and in­surrections,19 many conspiracies also detected before they grew to any head, he suppressed: and those, some at one time and some at an other▪ Namely first one of LEPIDVS the younger: then, another of VARRO MVRAENA, and FANNI­VS CAPIO: soone after that, of M. Or Egnatius. GENATIVS: and so forward of PLAV­TIVS RVFVS and L. PAVLVS, his neeces husband: and besides all these, that of L. AVDASIVS accused of forgerie, and counterfeit seales; a man neither for yeares able nor bodie sound: Likewise of ASIMIVS EPICADVS descended from the Parthynes Nations a (a) Begotten be tweene a bond slaue and a mungrel. Mungrell: and last of all, of TELEPHVS, a base Or Prompter of names, em­ploied in telling of their names who came to salute and bid good morrow, and placing al­so of guests a [...] the Table, and in no better service: Nomenclator, seruant to a woman: For free was not AVOVSTVS from the conspiracie and daunger, no not of the most abiect sort of people. As for AVDASIVS and EPICADVS, they had entended to carrie away IVLIA his daughter and AGRYPPA, his Nephew (out of those Ilands wherin they abode confined) unto the armies: and TELEPHVS purposed upon a deepe conceite that the soveraintie of dominion was by the Destinies and will of God due unto him, even to lay upon him and the Senate violent hands. And more then that, [Page 46] one time there was taken neere vnto his bed-chamber by night, a camp-slave belonging to the ILLYRIAN armie, who had deceiued the porters and got­ten thither with a wood knife at his side, but whether he were out of his wits, or feigned himselfe mad, it was uncertaine: for nothing could bee wrung out of him by examination upon the racke and torture.20

Foraine warres he made in his owne person ij in all and no more: that is toA. V. C. 721. 727. say, the (a) Dalmatian, when he was yet a verie youth: and the Cantabrian, af­ter he had defaited ANTONIE. In the Dalmatian warre, he was wounded also: for in one battaile he gat a blow upon his right knee with a stone: and in an o­ther, not his leg onely, but also both his armes were hurt with the fall from a (b)* Or turret of woode. bridge, The rest of his warres he managed by his Lieftennants: yet so as that in some of them namely the Pannonian and the Germaine; hee would either come betweene times, or else remaine not farre of: making his progresse from the Cittie of Rome, as farre as to Rauenna, or Millaine or to Aquileia.

He subdued partly by his owne conduct in proper person, and in part by21 his Lieftenants hauing cōmission immediatly from him & directed by his au­spicies Cantabria, Aquitaine, Pannonia and Dalmatia together with all Illyri­cum, Rhaetia likewise, the Vindelicis, the Salassians and the Nations inhabiting the Alpes. He repressed also the Incursions of the Dukes, having slaine three of their Generals with a great number of them besides. And the Germaines he remooved and set further of; even beyond the riuer Albis. Howbeit, of these the Suevians and the Sicambrians, because they yeelded themselues, he brought over into Gaule, and placed them in the lands next unto Rhene. Other Nations being mal-content, he reduced unto his obedience. Neither made hee warre upon any people without iust and necessarie causes: and so farre was he from desire of enlarging his Empire, or aduancing his martiall glorie, that he com­pelled certaine princes and potentates of the Barbarians, to take an oath in the Temple of Mars (a) the Revenger for to continue in their allegiance, & in the protection and peace which they sued for: yea and from some of them he as­saied to exact a new kind of Hostages, even V [...]usuall in those daies. women, for that he perceived, that they neglected the pledges of the males. And yet he gave thē libertie, as oftē as they would, to receiue their hostages againe. Neither proceeded he at any time against those, who either usually or trecherously above the rest tooke armes & rebelled, to any punishmēt more greivous then this, euen to sell thē as captives: with this condition, that they shold not serve in any neighbour Country, nor be manumised and made free within the space of Or 20▪ rather 30. yeares. By which fame of vertue and moderation that went of him, he induced and drew the very Indians and Scythians, Nations knowen by report and heere say onely, to make suite of their owne accord by Embassadours, for amitie of him and the people of Rome. The Parthians also, when as he laied claime unto Armenia, yeelded soone unto him: and those militarie Ensignes which they had taken from M. CRASSVS & M. ANTONIVS, they delivered unto him againe at his demaund: and moreover, offred hostages unto him. And finally when there were many Competitours together at one time claiming a title to the Kingdome, they would not allow of any, but one by him elected.

The temple of Ianus Quirinus, which from the foundation of the City be­fore22 his daies had once and twice beene shut, he in a farre shorter space of time [Page 47] (having peace both by sea and land) shut a third time. Twice he rod on horse­backe* Tertio. or ter [...]. thrice. (b) ovant into the City: once presently upon the Philippian warre; and againe, after the Sicilian. He kept three Triumphes riding in his chariot: to wit, the Dalmatian, the Actiak, and the Alexandrian▪ and these continued all for three dayes together.

Of shamefull foiles and grievous overthrowes, he received but two in all:23 and those in no place else but in Germanie; namely when LOLLIVS and Quintilius Varus. VA­RVS were defaited. That of LOLLIVS, was a matter of dishonour more than losse and domage; but the other of VARVS, drew with it in manner utter de­struction as wherein three Legions with their Generall; the Lieutenant; andA. V. C. 738 762 (a) Auxiliaries, all were slaine. Vpon the newes of this Infortunity▪ he proclai­med a set watch both day and night through the City of Rome; for feare of some tumult and uprore: and the commissions of Presidents and Deputies o­ver Provinces, he renewed and enlarged their time of government: to the end, that the Allies of the people of Rome might bee kept in a leageance by gover­nours, such as were both skilfull and also acquainted with them. Hee vowed also the Great (Romaine) Games and Playes to the honour of IVPITER OPT. MAX. If Si Resp. in me­liorem statum vert [...]sset. the Commonwealth turned to better State. This happened, during the time of the Cimbrian and VVhich al­so was called Bellum sociale, wherein▪ the Associate nati­ons in Italy re­belled: of which Rebelli­on the Authors were the Marsi. Marsian warre. For, therewith (by report) hee was so troubled and astonied, that for certaine moneths together hee let the haire of beard and head grow still and wore it long, yea and other whiles would runne his Vpon an opi­nion of the Painims▪ that if they did [...]njurie to their owne bodies they should sooner pacifie the Gods. head against the dores, crying out, QUINTILLVS VARVS, Deli­ver up thy Legions againe. And the very (b) day of this infortunate calamity he kept every yeere mournfull, with sorow and lamentation.

24 In warfare & feates of armes, he both altered and also instituted many points: yea and some he reduced to the auncient manner. (a) Militarie disci­pline he exercised most severely. He permitted not so much as any of his Lieu­tenants, but with much adoe and discontentment, to visite other-whiles their wives; and never but in the (b) winter moneths. A Romaine Knight, for cut­ting off the (c) thombs of two young men his sonnes, to avoid the militarie oath and warre service, he set in open po [...]t sale, himselfe (I say) and all his goods. Whom notwithstanding, because he saw the (d) Publicanes about to buy, and bid very well for him, he appointed and delivered to his owne Freed man; that being confined and sent away unto his living & lands in the Country, he might permit him to live as Free. The tenth Legion, for being stubborne and unwil­ling to obey, he dismissed all and whole with ignominie. Other legions like­wise, requiring malapertly their discharge he cassed without allowance of re­wards due for their service. Whole bands or cohorts, if any of them gave* The Generals Pavilions. ground and reculed, he tithed, that is to say, executed every tenth man of them: and the rest, he allowed barly in steed of wheat to feede upon. Those centurions who forsooke their Stations, he punished with death, even as well as the com­mon soldiors of their bands: and for other kinds of Delinquencie he put them to shame sundry waies, as cōmanding them to stand all the day long before the Praetorium sometimes in their single Or wast­coates, without their Saga: coates and ungirt; other-whiles with ten Or mee­ting poles, in token of Re­gradation or putting downe to a lower place. foote perches in their hands; or else carying turfes of earth.

After the civile warres, he called none of his soldiours either in any publike speech, or by way of edict or proclamation, by the name of (a) Fellow soldiours, 25 [Page 48] but plaine Souldiours. Nay hee would not suffer them otherwise to be termed so much as by his sonnes, or his wives sonnes: thinking it was a more affected manner of Appellation than stoode either with martial Law, or the (a) quiet­nes of those times, or the maiestie of himselfe and his house: (b) Libertines he emploied in soulderie unlesse it were at Rome about skarfires by night, (not withstanding there was feared some tumult and uprore by occasion of great dearth and scarcity) but twice onely: once in garizon for defence of those Co­lonies which bounded fast upon Illyricum; a second time for keeping the banks of the riuer of Rhene▪. And those, being as yet bond, imposed upon men and women of the wealthier sort for to set out, but without delay manumised, he kept with him to serve under one of the formost Sub primore vexillo or sub proprio vexillo l: under his owne banner. banners in the vantguard; neither intermingled with such as were Free borne, nor in the same manner ar­med. As for militarie gifts hee gave unto his souldiours trappers collars and Quicquid auro argento (que) con­staret: or ra­ther, quanquā au r [...]argento (que) cō st [...]rent▪ i. Albe­it they were made of gold and silver. whatsoever stoode upon gold or silver, much sooner than (c) Vallar or Mural coronets which were more honourable. These he bestowed most sparily; and when he did, it was without suit made therefore: and many times upon the cō ­mon (d) and base souldiers. He gave unto M. AGRIPPA after a nauale victory in Cilicia a blew streamer. Those Captaines onely who had triumphed, albeit they were both companions with him in his expeditions, and also partakers of his victories, he thought not meete to be rewarded with any gifts at all: because they also had power to bestow the same upon whom they would. Moreover he deemed nothing lesse beseeming a perfit and accomplished Captaine, than hast-making and rashnesse. And therefore, these mots and sentences were rife in his mouth. [...],

As also, Sat celeriter fieri, quicquid fiat satis bene.

His saying was, That neither battaile nor warre was once to be under taken, un­lesse there might be evidently seene more hope of gaine than feare of domage: for such as sought after the smallest commodities▪ not with a little daunger, he likened unto those, that angle or fish with a golden hooke: for the losse whereof, if it happened to be knapt or broken off▪ no draught of fish whatsoever, was able to make amends. 26

He managed magistracies and honorable places of government before due By the lawes Annuar. oe, or Anuales. time; some of them also of a As the Tri­umvirate: new kinde; and others in As the Tri­bunes authori­tie and Cen­sureship▪ perpetuity. The Consulship hee usurped and entred upon in the twentieth (a) yeere of his age, presenting forcibly and in hostile manner his legions before the City, sending some of purpose to demaund it, euen in the name of the Armie for him. What time verily, when the Senate made some doubt and stay of the matter, COR­NELIUS a Centurion and the chiefe man of that message, casting Or casting it behind him reiecto sagulo. of his soul­diours Iacket and shewing his swords haft, stucke not to say thus openly in the Senate house, This here shall doe the deede, if yee will not. His second Consul­ship hee bare nine yeares after: the third, but one yeare betweene: the rest ensuing hee continued one after an other unto the eleuenth. Afterwardes hauing refused many Consulships when they were offered unto him; his twelfth Consulship a greater while after, even 17 yeares, himselfe made suite for▪ so did hee againe, two yeares after it, for his thirtenth: to the ende that being himselfe in place of the Soueraine and highest Maie­strate, hee might bring honorably into the Common Hall. C. and L. his [Page 49] adopted) The naturall sonnes of his daughter Iulia and [...]. A [...]rippa. sonnes; each of them to Commence and performe their first plea­dings at their The elder in his twelfth, the younger in his thirteenth Cō ­sulate due time in virile gownes. The five middle Consulships be­tweene, to wit from the sixth to the eleventh he helde the whole yeeres tho­rough: the other, for the space of sixe, or nine, foure, or three moneths: but the second, very fewe howers: for uppon the very Calends The first of Ianuarie or New yeeres day. of Ianuarie, when hee had sitten a while upon his curule chaire of estate before the tem­ple of Iupiter Capitolinus; hee resigned up the Office, and substituted ano­ther in his place. Neither entred hee upon all his Consulships at Rome: but the fourth in Asia; the fifth, in the Iland Samos; the eigth and ninth at Tarra­con.

27 The Triumvirate for That was the coloci & pre­tence of it. setling of the Common-wealth, hee administred for the space of tenne yeeres: Wherein verily, hee stoode against his col­leagues proceedings for a good while, That there might be no proscription▪ but when it was once on foote, hee executed it more sharply than they both. For, whereas they were exorable and would bee oftentimes intreated by fa­vour and prayer, to respect the persons of many; hee alone was very carnest, that none might bee spared: among the rest, hee proscribed C. TORANIVS also, his owne Tutour and guardian, yea and the companion in the Office of Aedileship with his father OCTAVIVS. IVNIVS SATVRNINVS writeth moreover, that after the proscription was ended, when M. LEPIDVS had in the Senate-house excused all that was past and given good hope of clemencie for the time to come, because there had beene execution enough done alrea­die: he on the contrarie side professed openly, That hee had determined no o­ther end of the saide proscription, but that hee might have liberty still to pro­ceede in all things as he would. Howbeit, in testimonie of repentance for this rigour and obstinacie of his, hee honoured afterward with the dignitie of Knighthood Or Vinius, for so was his Pa­trone named. T. IVNIVS PHILOPAEMEN, for that hee was reputed to have in times past hid his owne Patron, that was proscribed. In the same Trium­virate, hee incurred many waies the ill will and heart-burning of the people: for he commaunded that PINARIVS a Gentleman of Rome, (what time as he himselfe made a publike speech in an assembly whereunto hee had admitted a multitude of Paganes, that is to say, such as were no souldiours, and espied him there to take notes of something that he delivered before the souldiours, supposing him to be over busie and a spie,) should be stabbed to death even in his sight: yea, and hee terrified TEDIVS AFER, Consull elect, (because hee had maliciously in some spitefull termes depraved something that he had done) with so great menaces, that in a melancholy hee cast himselfe headlong and brake his owne necke. Likewise, as Q. GALLIVS the Pretour held under his robe a paire of duple writing tables, when hee came of course to doe his duty and salute him; he suspecting, that he had a (short) sword hidden underneath, and not daring straight-waies to search him farther, for feare something else than a sworde should bee found about him; within a little while after cau­sed him to be haled out of the Tribunall seate of Iudgement, by the handes of certaine Centurions of Souldiours, and put to torture like a bondslave; yea & seeing he would confesse nothing, commanded him to be killed; having first [Page 50] with his owne hands plucked his eies out of his head. Howbeit AVGVSTVS writeth, that the said GALLIVS by pretending to parle secretly with him, laid waite for his life; whereupon hee committed him to prison, and afterwards dismissed and enlarged him onely to dwell in Rome: and that in the end hee pe­rished either by shipwracke, or else by the hands of theeves who forlayed him. Hee received and held the Tribunate in perpetuity. Therein, once orA. V. C. 731 twice, he chose and assumed unto him a colleague, for severall [...] The space of 5. yeeres. Lustra. Hee tooke upon him likewise the government of manners and Lawes as a perpe­tuall Censour: In full right whereof, although hee had not the honoura­ble title of Censureship, yet hee helde a survey and nombring of the people thrice: the first and third with a companion in office; the middle by himselfe alone.

28 Twice hee was in minde, to have resigned up his absolute government▪ First, immediatly uppon the suppressing of ANTHONIE, mindfull of that which oftentimes The saide Antonie. hee had objected against him, namely, as if it had beene long of [...] Augustus. him, that it was not resigned, and the Common-wealth brought to a free state againe: and secondly, by reason that hee was weary of a long and lingering sicklinesse▪ what time he sent also for all the Magistrates A [...] Senatū ▪ or, esenatu. i. out of the Senate. and the Se­nate, home to his house; and delivered up an Account-booke or Register of the Or of his acts & proceedings in the govern­ment. whole Empire. But considering better with himselfe, that were he once a private person, he could not live without daunger; and withall, that it would greatly hazard the Common wealth, to be put into the hands and dispose of many; he continued in the holding thereof still. And whether the event en­suing, or his will heerein were better, it is hard to say. VVhich will of his, as hee pretented oftentimes when he sate in place, so hee testified also by a cer­taine edict in these wordes: O that I might establish the Common wealth safe and sound in her owne Base or Pied­stall. proper seate, and thereof reape that fruite which I desire: even that I may be reported the Author of an excellent estate, and carie with mee when I die this hope, that the ground worke and the foundations of the Common-wealth which I shall lay, may continue and abide stedfast in their place. And verily what hee wished, As if he had beene a God himselfe; ac­cording to the saving. S [...]ns [...] fingit fortu­ [...]am [...]ibi. himselfe effected and brought to passe, having endevoured and done his best every way, that no man might repent of this newe estate. For the Citie beeing not adourned according to the maiestie of such an Em­pire and Subiect to the casualties of Deluges and fires, hee beautified and set out so, as iustly he made his boast, that where he found it built of bricke, hee left it all of marble. And for the safety therereof, hee performed as much for future posterity as could be fore-seene and provided for by mans wit and rea­son.

29 Publike works he built very many whereof the chiefe and principal was his Forum or stately Hall of Iustice, together with the temple of MARS the Revenger: The temple of APOLLO in Palatinus; The tēple likewise of IUPITER the Thunde­rer, in the Capitol. The reason why he built the said Forū, was the multitude of men & their suites: which because, (a) ij. would not suffice, seemed to have need of a third also. And therfore with great speed erected it was for that publike use, even before the temple of MARS was finished. And expresly provided it was [Page 51] by law, that in it publike causes should be determined apart, and choosing of Iudges (or Iuries) by it selfe. The temple of Mars hee had vowed unto him, in the Philippian warre which hee tooke in hand for the revenge of his fathers death. He ordained therefore by an Act, that heere the Senate should be con­sulted with, as touching warres & triumphs: that from hence those Pretours or Governours who were to goe into their provinces should be honorably atten­ded & brought onward on their way: and that hither they should bring the en­signes and ornaments of triumph, who returned with victorie. The temple of Apollo he reared in that part of the Palatine house, which being smitten with lightning was by that God required, as the Soothsayets out of their learning had pronounced: hereto was adioyned a gallerie, with a librarie of Latine and Greeke bookes. In which temple, he was wont in his old age both to sit often­times in counsaile with the Senate, and also to over-see & review the Decuries of the Iudges. He consecrated the temple vnto IVPITER the Thunderer, upon occasion that he escaped a daunger, what time as in his Cantabrian expedition, as he travailed by night, a flash of lightning glaunced upon his licter, & strucke his seruant stone dead, that went with a light before. Some works also he made under other folkes names, to wit his nephew, his wife and sister; as the Gallerie and stately Pallace of His daugh­ters children by Agrippa. LVCIVS and CAIVS: likewise the Gallerie or Porches of LIVIA and OCTAVIA: the Theatre also of MARCELLUS. Moreover di­vers other principall persons hee oftentimes exhorted to adorne and beautifie the City, every man according to his ability either by erecting new monu­ments, or else by repairing and furnishing the old. By which meanes many an Aedifice was by many a man built: as namely the temple of Hercules and theAtriū libertatis A trium, quasi aithriō. A place where learned men were wont to meete and conferre, as our Merchants doe in the Royall Exchange. built not unlike unto it with arched walks on every side standing upon pillers: & as this cloi­ [...]ure was called Peristylium, so, the open yard within, A tra [...] or Subdi [...]d. Muses by MARCUS PHILIPPUS: the temple of Diana by L. CORNIFICIUS. The * Court of Liberty by ASINIUS POLLIO: A temple of Saturne by MU­NATIUS PLANCUS: a Theatre by CORNELIUS BALEUS; and an (b) Am­phitheatre by Statillus Taurus: but many and those very goodly monuments by M. AGRIPPA.

30 The whole space of the City he devided into (a) wards and streetes. He ordained, that as Magistrates or Aldermen yeerely by lot should keepe and governe the former: so their should be Maisters or Constables elected out of the Commons of every streete, to looke unto the other. Against skarefires he devised night-watches and watchmen. To keepe downe Inundations and Deluges, he enlarged and cleansed the channell of the River Tiberis, which in times past was full of rammell and the ruines of houses, and so by that meanes narrow and choaked. And that the Avenues on every side to the City might be more passable, he tooke in hand himselfe to repaire the high way or Caw­sie Flaminia, so farre as to ARIMINNUM▪ and the rest he committed to sundry men who had triumphed, for to [...]ave; and the charges thereof to be befraied out of the money raised of spoiles and sackage. The sacred Churches and Chappels decayed and ruinate by continuance of time, or consumed by fire he reedified: and those together with the rest hee adorned with most rich ob­lations; as who brought into the Cell, or Tabernacle of Iupiter Capitolinus at one Donation, 16000 pound weight of gold, besides pretious stones valued at 50 millions of Sesterces.

But after that hee entred now at length upon the High priesthood when31 A. V. C. 741. [Page 51] LEPIDVS was once dead, which he never could finde in his heart to take from him whiles he lived: what bookes soever of prophesies & destinies went com­monly abroad in Greeke and Latine, either without authors, or such as were not authenticall and of credite, he caused to be called in from all places, to the number of 2000 & aboue: and when he had burnt them, he reteined those only of Sibyls prophesies. And even of those also he made some special choice: and bestowed them close in two litle Desks or coffers under the base & piedstoole of APOLLO PALATINVS. The yeeres revolution reduced as it was into or­der by IVLIVS of sacred memory, but afterwards through negligence troubled and confused, he brought againe to the former calculation. In the dispose whereof, he called the moneth Sextilis (rather than September wherin he was borne▪) by his owne name, because in it there befell unto him both his first Consulship & also notable victories. Of all the Religious & priests, but especi­ally of the vestall virgins he augmented the number, the dignity and the com­modities also. And whereas in the rowme of any vestall Nun deceased, there must another of necessity be chosen & také, he perceiving many to make suite that they might not put their daughters to the lottery; protested and bound it with an oath, that if any one of his owne Nieces or daughters daughters were of competent age he would present her to the place. Divers auncient ce­remonies also which by little & little were disused and abolished, he restored a­gaine, as namely the (a) Augurie of SALVS, the Flaminship of IVPITER, the sacred Lupercal, the (b) Saecular playes and the Compitalitij. At the Lupercall So­lemnities, he commanded that no beardlesse boyes should runne. Likewise, at the Secular playes, he forbad young folke of both sexes, to frequent any shew exhibited by night; unlesse it were in the company of some auncient person of their kindred. The Tutelare Images of crosse-wayes called Lares Compitales he was the first that ordained to adorne twice in the yeere with flowers of the spring & sommer seasōs. The principal honour next unto the immortall gods, he performed to the memoriall of those worthy Captaines, who had raised the Romaine onpire from a small thing to so high and glorious a state. And therefore both the works & monuments of every of them he repaired & made againe, reserving their titles and inscriptions still; and all their Statues also in triumphant forme and shape he dedicated in both the Porches or galleries of his Hall of Iustice. And in a publick edict he professed thus much, That he de­vised it to this end, That both himselfe whil [...]s he lived, and the Princes or Emperours his successors for the ages to come, might be called upon and urged by their subiects and Citizens to conforme themselnes as it were to their pattron and example. The Statue* Suppo suit: some reade, superpofuit. i­upon such an arched Ianus or Through-far [...]. likewise of POMPEIVS, translated out of the Court wherein C. CAESAR was murdered, he placed over against the princely Pallace of his Theater under an Arch of marble in manner of a Through fare.

Many most daungerous enormities and offensive abuses, which either had32 continued by custome and licentious liberty during the civill warres, or else crept in and began in the time of peace to the utter ruine of the Common­wealth, he reformed. For a number of bold roisters & prosessed Robbers ietted openly with short swords & skaines by their sides, under colour of their owne defence▪ Passengers & waifaring men, as they travailed through the Country, were caught up (by them) as well Free borne as slaves without respect; & kept [Page 54] hard to worke in the Prisons of landed men: many factious crewes also, under the title of a New Colledge had their meetings & joyned in fellowship to the perpe trating of mischiefe whatsoeuer. Where upon, he disposed streng guards, and set watches in convenient places: he repressed those Robbers and Hacksters, he visited and surveyed the foresaid Prisons: and all Colledges or Guilds save onely those of auncient found ati­on and by law erected, he dissolved and put downe. The In manner of B [...]dewels or houses of cor­rection. bills of old debts due to the Chamber of the City, he Or obligati­ons. burnt, as being the chiefe matter and occasion of malitious accusations. The publike places & houses in the City, whereof the tenure & hold was doubtfull, he adiudged unto those who were in present possession. The debts & actions commenced against such as had been troubled and sued a long time in the Law, by whose mournfull habite & distressed estate their adversaries sought for nothing but pleasure and the fulfilling of their wils he anulled & denounced this condition withall, that if any one would needes bring them into new trouble againe, he should be liable to the like daunger of punishment or penalty as the molested party was. And to the end that no lewdOr cause. Act might escape with impunity; nor Exussit or excussi [...]. i. canc [...]led▪ businesse in Court be shuffled over by delaies, he added unto the Law daies, or pleading time: Terme time 30. (a) daies over & above: which daies the Honorari [...] Libetalia, Bacchanalia, Prassoria, or o­thers in the ho­nour of men liuing which might be well spared. Games & playes tooke up (before.) To three Decuries of Iudges he added a fourth out of a lower & meaner degree, which went under the name of For that they were valewed at 200 Seller­tia▪ where as the other were worth 400: Ducenarij, and were to iudge of smaller summes. As for those Iudges hee enrolled & elected them into the Decuries after they were once Or 20 rather for the ordina­tie age was 25: yeares, at which they were eli­gible: 30 yeeres of age: that is to say, five yeeres sooner then they were wont. But seeing that most of them refused & were loth to execute this burdensome office of iudging, he hardly granted that each Decurie should have their yeeres Quarto quo (que) anno: everie 4, yeare. vacation by turnes; and that the law matters which were wont to be pleaded and tried, in the Vppon cer­taine daves of those mo­neths, during which, there were Sports & Reuels and the licentious▪ feast Saturnalia. mo­neths of November & December should be let passe & omitted quite.

33 Himselfe sat daily in Iudgement, yea and other whiles untill it was darke night, lying if he had not his health, in a licter which was of purpose set before the tribunall seate, or else in his owne house: and he ministred iustice not onely with exceeding severity, but also with as great lenity. For when upon a time there was one accused for a manifest parricidy, because he should not be sowed up in a leather (a) male or budget (a punishment that none suffred but such as had cōfessed the Fact) he examined (by report) upon interrogatiues in this ma­ner, Certes thou never murderedst thy father, diddest thou? Againe, when as a matter was handled before him as touching a forged will, & all the witnesses that set their hands & seales thereto, were attaint by the (b) Law Cornelia, he de­livered unto the Commissioners who had the hearing & deciding together, of the cause, not onely the two (ordinatie) tables of condemnation and acquitall, but a third also; whereby they might have their pardon, who were certainly knowne to have beene seduced & brought to be witnesses as is before said, ei­ther by fraudulent practise or error & over-sight. As for the appeales in Court, he yeerely assigned those which were for the City-Suiters unto Pretours of the City; but if they were for Provinciall persons unto certaine men of the Con­suls degree, such as he had ordained, in every province one, for to be in com­mission and to determine provinciall affaires.

34 The lawes made before time he revised & corrected: some also hee or­dained & established a-new: as namely (a) Sumptuaria, as touching expenses [Page 53] at the bord: Of (b) Adulteries & De p [...]dicitia, or impudicitia unnaturall filthinesse cōmitted with the male kind: Of (c) indirect suite for offices. Of the (d) mutuall mariages of Senatours and Gentlemen with Commoners. This act last named, when he had amended and reformed somewhat more precisely and with greater severitie then the rest, he could not carie cleerely and go through with, for the tumult of those that refu­sed so to do, but that part of the penalties at length was quite taken away or els mitigated; an Of living unmarried. immunity also & toleration (of widow-head) graunted for After the de­cease of a for­mer wife or husband. 3 yeeres, & the rewards besides augmented. And notwithstanding all that, when the order of Gentlemen stood out stifly & stoutly calling in open sight, & pub­likely for the repealing of the said Statute; he sent for GERMANICUS his chil­dren, and taking some of them himselfe, & bestowing the others in their fathers armes, shewed & presented them unto their view signifying as well by the ge­sture of his hand, as by countenance, That they should not be loath nor think much, to imitate the example of that young Gentleman. Moreover perceiving that the force and vigor of that Law was dallied with, & avoided by the V [...]ripe age. i. under 12 yeres immaturity of young espoused wives, as also by often By meanes of divorses. changing of mariages: he brought in­to a narrower compasse the time of wedding and having such spaces, and also limited divorcements.

The number of Senatours growing still to a shameful & confused company35 (for there were not of them so few as a 1000, and some most unworthy, as who after CAESARS death were taken into the house for favour or bribes; whō the common people termed Abortiv [...]: Some reade or­civos or orcinos, velut Orcoseu [...]rra natos [...]. obscure & base. abortive, (as it were untimely births or born before their time): he reduced to the auncient 300. stent & honorable reputation: and that in two elections the former, at their own choise, wil, & pleasure, whereby one man chooseth his fellow. The second, according to his owne & AGRIPPAES mind: at which time he is thought to have sitten as president, armed with a shirt of maile or privie coate under his gowne, & a short sword or skeine by his side; having a gard also standing about his chaire of estate, to wit, ten of the stoutest & tallest men that were of Senatours degree & all his friends: CORDUS CRE­MUTIUS writeth that there was not so much as admitted then into the Senate­house any Senatour but singly one alone by himselfe, & not before his clothes were well serched & felt for having any weapon under them. Some of them he brought to this modestie, as to excuse For taking upon them that dignity. themselves: and yet for such as thus made excuse he reserved still the liberty to weare a Senatours (a) habite: the honor also to sit & behold the Games & plaies in the Among o­ther Senators. Orchestra; together with priviledge to keepe their place at the solemne publique feasts. Now, to the end that being thus chosen & allowed (as is above said) they might with more reli­gious reverence & lesse trouble execute the functions belonging to Senatours: he ordained, That before any one sat him downe in his chaire, he should make devout supplication & sacrifice with frankincense & wine, at the And that they should not need to come and salute him, but save that labour. altar of that God, in whose temple they assembled for the time: and that ordinarily the Se­nate should not be holden oftner then twice in a moneth, to wit upon the (c) Calend, & (d) I [...]es of the same: and that in the moneths Haply, by [...]easo of u [...] ­tage that was not [...]o be neg­lected. September & October, none els should be bound to give attendance, save those that were drawne by lot: by whose number, Decrees might passe. Furthermore, he devised to insti­tute for himselfe, & that by casting lots, a privie Counsell for 6 moneths: with whom he might treat before hand of businesses and affaires to be moved unto a frequent Senate-house fully assembled. As touching matter of greater impor­tance [Page 55] put to question, he demanded the opinion of the Senatours, not after the usuall manner & in order, but as it pleased himselfe: to the end that everie man should bend his mind so intentively thereto, as if he were to deliver his owne advise, rather then give assent unto another.

Other things there were besides, wherof he was the author and beginner:36 and among the rest: That the Acta Senat [...] and not Sena­tu [...]onsulta: H [...] meaneth Diur­n [...] acta [...]. the proceedings that passed there every day of sitting. Acts of the Senate should not be p [...]blished nor appeare upon record: Item that no magistrates after that they had left or given up their honora­ble places, should est soones presently, be sent as governours into an [...] provinces. That for proconsuls or presidents, their should be a certaine rate in moni [...] set downe and allowed, For their sumpter-mules, for their tentes and hales: which were wont really before time to be set out and allowed for them, at the publike cost of the Citie. Item, that the charge of the Citties Treasure should be trāslated from the Questours or treasurers of the Ci­tie, unto those that had been pretours, or to the pretours for the time being: lastly that certaine Ten men ei­ther chosen out of the Centum virs by lot; or created of pur­pose. [...] D [...]cem virs should summon and assemble the (a) Centum viral [...] court, and call the Centum virs to the speare, which they onely were wont to do, that had borne the office of Questour shippe.

And to the end that more men might beare their part in administration of37 the common weale, he devised new offices: to wit, The overseeing of the publike workes, the surviying of the waies streetes, and causies, of the water courses or conduits, of the channel of Tybris, and distributing corne among the people. Also the prouost­ship of the Cittie: One An office which 3: me [...] ioinctly bare: Triumvirate, for chusing Senatours; an another for re­viewing & visiting the troupes or cornets of horsemen, so oftē as need required. The Censours, whose creation was forlet and discontinued, after a long time betweene, he created againe. The number of pretours he augmented. He re­quired also and demanded, that so often as the Consulship was conferred upon him he might have for one; ij. colleagues or cōpanions in office: but he cold not obtaine it; whilest all men with one voice cried out, That his maiestie was abridged enough alreadie, in that he bare not that honourable office by himselfe, but with another. Neither was he more sparing in honorably rewarding martial prowes, as who38 gave order, that to 30. Captaines and above, there should be granted by pub­like decree full tryumphs: and to a good many more tryumphall (a) ornaments. Senatours Children, to the end they might be sooner acquainted with the af­faires of State, he permitted to put on even at the first their viril gown: to weare likewise the Senatours robe poudred with broad headed purple studs; and to have their places in the Senate house. Also at their first entrance into warfare, he allowed them to be, not onely O [...] men of Armes. militarre Tribunes in the legions, but also cap­tainesColonels of 1000. foremen▪ over the Transr [...]ctia­nis. horsemen in the wings. And, that none of them might be unex­pert of the Camp­affaires▪ he ordained for the most part over everie wing or Cornet, ij such Senatours (sonnes) to be provosts. The troupes & cōpanies of Romaine Gentlemen, he often reviewed; & after a long space of time betweene, brought into use againe the manner of their* muster o [...] (b) riding solemnly on horse backe, to shew thēselues Neither wold he suffer any on of thē during this solemnity, to be unhorsed & arrested by his adversary, that pretēded any matter in law against him: a thing that was usually don▪ And to as many as were known to be aged or to have any defect or imperfection of body, he gave leave to send their horses before, and to come on foote to aunswere when so ever they were cited. And soone after he did those this favour, to deliver uppe [Page 56] their (publike) horses, who being above 45. yeares of age, were unwilling to keepe them still.

Having obtained also by the A senatu or Senatoribus. [...]: out of the Se­natours degree Senate. x. Coadiutours, hee compelled euerie39 Gentleman (that served with the Citties horse) to render an accoumpt of his life. And of such as were blameable and could not approve their living; some he punished, others he noted with shame & ignominie: the most part of them with admonition, but after sundrie sorts. The easiest & lightest kind of admoniti on, was the tendering unto thē in open place & all mens sight, a paire of wherein were written al their faults. wri­ting tables, to read unto themselues presently, in the place where they stood. Some also he put to rebuke & disgrace for taking up of mony upō smal interest for the use, and putting it forth againe for greater gaine and usurie.

At the Election of Of [...]entle­men or of the Senatours Tribunes (of the Commons) if their wanted (a) Senatours to40 stand for that office, he created thē out of the degree of Romaine Gentlemē: so as,Demarchia. Dion. after they had born that magistracy, they might remaine ranged in whether de­gree parentibus: comprehēding all auncestours. they would thēselues. Now, when as many of the Romain Gentlemē, hauing wasted & decaied their patrimonie, & estate in the civil wars, durst not out of the 14. for most seats behold the publike plaies & games, for feare of the penalty by the (law ROSCIA & IVLIA) caled THEATRALIS▪ he pronoūced opēly & made it knowne, that such gentlemen were not liable thereto if either themselues or their 400. Sestertia or 400000. Sestertij. [...]. 3125. [...]sterling fathers before them, were euer at any time valued to the Nonis cu [...]s (que) Mensis. worth of Ro­maine Gentlemen: He made a review of the people of Rome, street by street: & to preuent that the cōmon people shold not be oftē called away frō their affaires by occasion of the dole and distributiō of corne, he purposed to give out thrice a yeare, tiquets or talies for to serve 4: moneths: But when the people were desi­rous of the old custom, he grāted thē again to receive the same upō the (b) Nones of every moneth: The ancient right and libertie also, in Elections & Parliamentes he brought in again: & having restrained the indirect suing for dignities by ma­nyfold penalties, upō the day of such electiōs he distributed out of his own purse among the (e) Fabians & Scaptians, who were of the same Tribes, wherein him­selfe was incorporate; a thousand Sesterces a pecce, because they should not look for ought at any of their hands who stood for offices▪ Moreover supposing it a matter of great consequence to keepe the people incorrupt & cleare from all base mixture of forain & servile blood; he both granted the freedom of the City of Rome most sparily, & also set a certain gage & limitatiō of manumising & enfranchising slaves▪ When TIBERIVS made request unto him by letters, in the behalfe of a Grecian, his client to be free of Rome: he wrot backe unto him, That he would not grant it unlesse he came personally himselfe and could perswade him, what iust causes he had of his suite: And, what time as LIVIA intreated the like for a certaine French-man, tributarie to the Romains: he flatly denied the freedome of the Citty, but offred in lieu thereof immunitie and remission of Tribute; a­vowing, that he would more easily abide that somewhat went from the publike treasure and chamber of the Cittie, than have the honour of the Romaine Ci­tie to be made vulgar, & common▪ Nor content, that he had by diverse straight edicts & provisoes kept many slaves from all manner of freedome, but more a great deal frōful freedom in the best cōdition; as having precisely & with much curiositie put in caveats both for the nūber & also for the condition & respect otherwise of those that were to be made free: he added thus much moreover. [Page 57] That no slaue, who had ever beene bound and imprisoned, or examined by torture should obtaine the freedome of the Cittie, in any kind of enfranchisement what soeuer. The olde manner of going and wearing apparell also, he endevoured to bring into use againe. And having seene upon a time assembled to heare a publike speech, a number of Citizens cladde all in blacke By blacke [...]e meaneth cloke▪ or gownes o [...] a sel [...]e russet colour, for their gownes should be white and faire not [...]ullied clokes or By the trope Ironia meaning those that were in clokes or soule gownes, sul­lied gownes, taking great indignation thereat crying out with all. Beholde, quoth he.

‘Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam.’

The the Ptolomae [...]s Romaines, Lords of all the world, and longe rob'd Nation.

He gaue the Aediles in charge not to suffer any person from thence forward, to abide or stay, either in the Common place or the Cirque▪ but (d) in a gowne, laying a side all clokes or mantills thereupon.

His liberality unto all degrees of Citizens he shewed often times as occa­sions41 and opportunities were offred: for both by bringing into the Cittie in the ALLEXANDRINE Tryumph the treasures of the (Aegyptian Kings he cau­sed so great plentie of monie, that usurie fell, but the price of Landes and Lordships arose to auerie high reckoning: and also afterwards, so often as out of the goods of condemned persons there was any surplusage of monie remaining above their fines; he granted for a certaine time the free lone and use thereof to as many as were able to put in securitie for the principall, by an obligation in duple the summe. The substance and wealth of Senatours hee augmented, and whereas the valew thereof before amounted to the summes of Duple the worth of Gen­tlemen. 800000. Sesterces▪ he taxed or sessed them at 1200000: and looke who had not so much, he supplied and made it up to the full. Hee gave Largesses: Congiaries often times to the people but lightly they were of diuerse summes, one while 400, another while 300. and some times 200▪ and fiftie Sesterces: and he left not so much as boyes under age, whereas they had not wont to receive such congiaries, unlesse they were above eleuen yeares olde: Hee measured out also to the people by the Poll, Corne in times of scarcitie oftentimes at a verie lowe price, and otherwhiles freely, without payinge there­fore: and as for the Tickets, of monie, he dupled the summe in them con­teined,

And that you may know, hee was a prince more respectiue of thrift and42 holesomenes, than desirous of popularitie, praise, & honour: when the people cōplained of the want & dearth of wine, he checked and snibbed thē with this most severe speech, That his sonne in lawe AGRIPPA had taken order good enough that men should not be athirst, by conueighing so many waters into the Cittie Vnto the same people demanding the congiarie; which indeede was by him promi­sed, he aunswered; That his credite was good, and he able to performe his word: but when they earnestly called for one which hee had never promised, hee hit them in the teeth by an edict or proclamation with their dishonestie, & impudencie: assuring them, that give it he would not although he had in­tended it.

And with no lesse gravitie and resolution, when uppon his proposing & publi­shing of a congiarie, he found that many in the meane time were manumised and inserted into the number of Citizens, he reiected such, and said; they should not receiue any, unto whom he had made no promise: and to all the rest hee [Page 58] gave lesse than he promised: that the summe which he had appointed, might hould out and be sufficient. When upon a time, there was great barrainnesse and scarcitie of corne, being put to an hard exigent and to seeke a difficult re­medie, in so much as he was driven to expell out of the Cittie, all the sort of young slaves pampered aud trimmed up for sale, as also whole scholes & com­panies of Novice-fencers and sword players: all strangers and forainers, ex­cept Physitians and scholemaisters: yea and some of the ordinarie houshold seruants: so soone as the market began to mend, and victuals grew plentifull, he writeth, That it tooke him in the head to abolish those publike doles of Corne for euer: because upon the trust and confidence of them, tillage was cleane laid downe. Howbeit he continued not in that mind long, as being assured, that the same doles might be set up againe one time or other by the ambitious humour (of Princes his successors.) And therefore after this he ordred the matter so indiffe­rently, as that he had no lesse regard of the Citties fermours of tillage, & other undertakers and purueiours of the publike corne, than of the people and commons of the Cittie.

In number, varietie, and magnificence of solemne shewes exhibited unto the43 people he went beyond all men. Hee reporteth of himselfe that he set foorth* [...] [...] [...]. plaies and games in his owne name foure and twentie times: and for other magistrates who either were absent or not sufficient to beare the charges, three and twentie times Diuers times, he exhibited plaies by everie streete, and those uppon many stages, and acted by plaiers skilfull in all languages not in the Common forum onely, nor in the ordinarie Amphitheater, but also in the cir­que. In the enclosure called Septa, he never represented any sportes but the baiting and coursing of wild beasts and the shewes of champions-sight; ha­ving built woodden scaffolds and seates for the nonce in Mars field. In like manner, he made the shew of a Navall battaile about the River Tiberis, having digged of purpose a spacious hollow pit within the ground, even there where­as now is to be seene the grove of the CAESARS. On which dayes he bestowed warders in diverse places of the citie, for feare it might be endāgered by sturdie theeues and robbers, taking their vantage, that so few remained at home in their houses. In the Cirque he brought forth to doe their deuour. Charioters, Run: ners, and killers of savage beasts: otherwhiles out of the noblest young gen­tlemen of all the Cittie. As for the warlike Riding or Turnament called Tr [...]ie, he exhibited it oftenest of all other, making choyse of boyes to performe it, as well bigger as smaller▪ supposing it a matter of antiquitie▪ a decent and hono­rable maner besides, that the towardly disposition and proofe of noble bloud should thus be seene and knowne. In this solemnitie and sport, he rewarded, C. NONIVS ASPRENAS Or lamed. weakened by a fall from his horse, with a wreath or chaine of gold, and permitted both himselfe and also his posteritie to beare the surname of TORQVATVS▪ But afterwards he gave over the repre­sentation of such pastimes, by occasion that ASINIVS POLLIO the Ora­tour, made a grievous and invidious complaint in the Senate house, of the fall that AESERNINVS his nephew tooke, who likewise had thereby broken his legge. To the performance of his stage plaies also and shewes of sworde fight, he employed some times even the Gentlemen and knights of Rome: but it was before he was inhibited by vertue of an Act of the Senate. For after [Page 59] it verily, he exhibited no more, save onely a youth called L, IVIVS, borne of worshipfull parentage, onely for a shew: that being a dwarfe not two foote high, & weighing but 17. l'. yet he had an exceeding great voice. One day of the sword fight that he set forth, he brought in for to behould the solemnitie, euen through the midst of the Shew place, the Parthians hostages who then were newly sent (to Rome) and placed them in the second His lightnes was more to be noted than his short stature: For wheras the full height is 6: foote and the weight some­what above 100: [...]: this [...] of 2▪ foot [...]s vnder that [...] portion the [...]: ranke or row o [...] seates [...] se [...] or behind at his backe high­er, and therfore [...] of: or [...] in a second seat from him of the one side, but in the same ranke fo [...] ho­nor sake: a­bove himselfe: His manner was moreover, before the usuall daies of such spe­ctacles and solemne sights, and at other times, if any strang and new thing were brought over unto him, and worthie to be knowne, to bring it abroad for to beseene upon extraordinary daies, and in any place whatsoever. As for exam­ple, a Rh [...]noceros within the empaled or railed enclosure called Septa▪ a Tigre upon the stage: and a Serpent 50: cubits long, within the Hall Comitium. It for­tuned that during the great Circeian games which he had vowed before, he fell sicke: whereby he lay in his litter and so devoutly attended upon the sacred chariots called Th [...]nsae. Againe, it happened at the beginning of those plaies, which he set out when he dedicated the temple of Marcellus, that his curule chaire became unioincted, and thereby he fel upon his back: Also at the games of his nephewes when the people their assembled were mightily troubled & astonied, for feare that the Theater would fall: seeing that by no means he cold hold them in, nor cause them to take heart againe, he removed out of his owne place, and sat him downe in that part thereof which was most suspected: The most confuse and licentious māner of beholding such spectacles, hee refor­med and brought into order; mooved thereto, by the wrong done to a Se­natour, whom at Puteoli in a frequent assemble sittinge at their right solemne Games, noe man had received to him and vouchsafed a rowne.

Hereupon when a decree of the Senate was passed, That so often as in any place 44 there was ought exhibited publikely to be seene, the first ranke or course of Scates should be kept cleere and wholly for Senatours: he forbad the Embassadou [...] of free nati­ons and confederats to sit at Rome within the Orchestra: because he had found, that even some of their libertines kind were sent in embassage. The soldiers hee severed frō the other people. To maried men that were cōmoners, he assigned several rewes by thēselues. To Noble mens childrē under age his [...] [...] or a rancke of their owne: own quarter: and to their teachers and governers the next thereto. He made an Act also, that not one of the base Commons wearing blacke and sullied gownes should sit so neere as the midst of the Theatre. As for women he would not allow them to behold so much, as the sword Fencers, (who customarily in the time past were to be seene of all indifferently) but from some higher And by con­sequēce farther of [...]. loft above the rest, Spectare con [...] [...]. sit­ting there by themselues. To the Vestall Nunnes he graunted a place a part from the rest within the Theatre, and the same iust over against the Pre­tours Tribunall. Howbeit from the Solemnitie of Champions shew, he bani­shed all the female sex: so farre forth, as that during the which him selfe exhibited being [...] [...]: [...] the High priest: Pontificiall Games, he put of a couple of them who were called for to enter in to combat, untill the morrow (b) morning. And made proclamation, that his will and pleasure was, That no woman should come into the Theatre before the. Eleven of the clok, by which houre all that [...] was past. fift hower of the day▪

Himselfe behelde the Circeian Games, for the most part from the45 [Page 60] And not, [...] [...]. i. The bedlost wher the sacred Images of the Gods were de­voutly bestow­ed, which had beene brought in their Then­ses and carried thether, at these solemn games. upper lofts and lodging of his friendes and freed-men Sometime out of the Pulvinar, sitting there with his wife onely and children. From these shewes and sights he would be absent many houres together, and otherwhiles whole dayes: but first having craved leave of the people, & recommended those unto them, who should sitte as presidentes of those Games in his turne. But so often as he was at them, he did nothing els but intend the same: either to avoide the rumor and speech of men, whereby his father CAESAR (as he said himselfe) was commonly taxed, namely for that in beholding those solemnities he used betweene whiles to give his mind to read▪ letters & petitions, yea and to write backe againe: or els uppon an earnest desire and delight he had, in seeing such pastimes, pleasure and contentment, wherein he never dissi [...]nuled, but often­times frankely professed. And therefore he proposed and gave of his owne at the games of prise and plaies even of other men, Coronets and rewards. both many in number, and also of great worth: Neither was he present at any of these Greeke games (a) and solemnities, but he honored everie one of the Ac­tors and provers of Maisteries therein according to their deserts. But moste* Pugiles aun­swerab [...]e in Greece to the Romaine Gla­ [...]. affectionately of all other he loved to see the Champion As if he had no delight in those games. at fist fight: and the Latines especially; not those onely who by lawfull calling were And [...] had learned the skil and reate of [...]. professed, & by order allowed (and even those he was wont to match with Greeks) but such also as out of the common sort of townes-men; fell together by the eares pell mell in the narrow streets, and though they had no skill at all of fight, yet could lay on load, and offend their concurrents one way or other. In summe all those in generall, who had any hand in those publike games or set them forward a­ny way, he deigned good rewards and had a speciall respect of them. The priui­ledges of Champions he both maintained entier, and also amplified. As for sword fencers he would not suffer thē to enter into the lists, unlesse they might be discharged of that profession, in case they became victours. The power to chastice Actours and plaiers at all times and in everie place (granted unto the Magistrates by auncient law) he tooke from them, save onely during the plaies and uppon the stage. Howbeit he examined streightly neverthelesse at all times either the matches or combats of Champions called (b) Xystici, or the fights of sword fencers. For the licentiousnesse of stage plaiers he so repressed, that whē he had for certaine found out, That STEPHANIO▪ an actor of Romaine playes had a mans wife waiting upon him shor [...]e & rounded in māner of a boy, [...]e confined & sent him away as banished B. beating with rods. but well beaten first with rods through all the Pompeij, [...]. Metell [...] For so many there were in Augu stus dayes, be sides the Am­phitheatre of Statilius Taurus A cunning Actour coun: terfaiting all parts. three The­atres. And HYLAS the Pretours and Aediles. Pantomime at the complaint made of him by the Pre­tour, he skourged openly in the Courtyard before his house: and excluded no man from the sight thereof: yea and he banished PYLADES out of the Cittie of Rome and Italie, because he had pointed with his finger at a Spectatour who his­sed him out of the stage, and so made him to be knowne-

Having in this māner ordred the Cittie and administred the civile affaires ther­in,46 he made Italie populous and much frequented with (a) Colonies to the num ber of 28, brought thither and planted by him; yea he furnished the same with publike workes and revenues in many places. He equalled it also after a sort, and in some part with the verie Cittie of Rome in priviledges and estimation: by devising a new kind of Voices: Suffrages which the decurions or elders of Colonies gave every one in their owne Towneshippe, as touching Maiestrates to bee [Page 61] created in Rome, and sent under their hands, and seales to the City against the day of the solemne Elections. And to the end, there should not want in any place either honest and worshipfull inhabitants, or issue of the multitude; looke who made suite to serve as men of armes on horse-backe upon the publique com­mendation of any towneship [...]; [...]. whatsoever, those hee enrolled and advanced unto the degree of Gentlemen. But to as many of the Commoners as could by good evidence prove unto him as hee visited the Countries and And those were eleven, Regions of Italy, that they had sonnes and daughters he distributed a thousand sesterces a piece, for every child they had.

As for those Provinces, which were more mighty than other, and the go­vernment47 A. V. C. 726 where of by yeerely Magistrates was neither easie nor safe; he under­tooke himselfe to (a) rule: the (b) rest hee committed to Proconsuls by lot: And yet otherwhiles he made exchange of such Provinces: and of both sorts, hee oftentimes visited many in person. Certaine Cities, confederate and in league with Rome, howbeit by over-much libertie running headlong to mis­chiefe and destruction, hee deprived of their liberties. Others againe, either deepely in debt he eased, or subverted by earthquake he reedified, or able to al­ledge their merits and good turnes done to the people of Rome hee endowed with the franchises of Latium; or else with freedome of Rome. There is not, I suppose, a Province, (except Affrick onely and Sardinia) but hee went unto it. Into these Provinces after he had chaced SEXTUS POMPEIUS thither, he pre­pared to saile out of Sicilie and to crosse the Seas: but continuall stormes and extreame tempests checked him: neither had hee good occasion or sufficient cause afterwards to passe over unto them.

48 All those kingdomes which he wan by conquest and force of armes, unlesse some fewe, hee either restored unto those Princes from whom hee had taken them, or else made them over to other. KK. mere Aliens, Princes, his Associ­ates hee conioyned also together among themselves by mutuall bonds of alli­ance, as being a most ready procurer and maintainer of affinity and amity of every one; neither had he other regard of them all in generall than of the very naturall members and parts of his owne Empire. Moreover, he was wont to set Guardians and Governours over the saide Princes, when they were either young and under age, or lunatick and not well in their wits; untill such time as they were growne to ripe yeeres, or began to come againe to themselves. The children of very many of them, he both brought up and also trained and instru­cted together with his owne.

49 Out of his militarie forces, he distributed both Legions and Auxiliaries by Provinces. He placed one fleete at Misenum, and another at Ravenna, for the defences of the Superi, called otherwise the Adriatich Sea: Venice gulfe. upper and Inferi, other­wise. Tu [...]ci, or [...]. i. the Tuskane Sea. nether Seas. A certaine number of Souldiours he selected for a guard, partly of the City, and in part of his owne person, ha­ving discharged the regiment of the People of Spaine. Calagurritanes; which hee had retained about him, untill he vanquished ANTONIUS▪ and likewise of the Germaines which hee had waged among the Squires of his body, unto the disasterous overthrow of VARUS: And yet he suffred not at any time, to remain within the City more then 3 cohorts, and those without their pavilions. The residue, his manner was to send away to wintering places & sommer harbours about the [Page 52] neighbour-townes. Moreover, all the souldiours that were in any place what­soever, hee tied to a certaine prescript forme and proportion of wages and re­wards, setting downe according to the degree and place of every one, both their times of warfare, and also theFees, pensi­ons, land and living. commodities they should receive after the terme of their service expired & their lawfull discharge, least that by occasion of old age, or for want, they should after they were freed from warfare, be so­licited to sedition and rebellion. And to the end, that for ever, and without any difficulty, there might be defrayed sufficient to maintaine and reward them ac­cordingly, he appointed a peculiar Treasuri [...] for soldiors with newDucent [...]fimis et quinquag [...]si­misr [...]um ven [...] ­lium [...]onis etiā damnatorum [...]. with the two hund [...]eth peny, and the fiftieth peny of wares sold: with the goods also of condemned persons. revenewes devised for their mainta [...]nance. And that with more speede and out of hand word might be brought, and notice taken what was doing in every province, hee disposed along the rode high-waies, within small distance one from ano­ther; first, certaine young men as posts; and afterwards swift wagons to give intelligence. This he thought more commodious, and better to the purpose, that they who from a place brought him letters might be asked questions also, if the matters required ought.

50 In charters, patents, writs, bils and letters he used for his seale, at the first, the image of (a) SPHINX: Soone after, that of ALEXANDER the great: and last of all, his owne; engraven by the hand ofA cunning Lapida [...]ie and graver in preti­cu, stones. DIOSCURIDES: wherewith the Princes and Emperours his successours continued to signe their writings. To all his missives his manner was, to put precisely the very minutes of houres, not of day onely but of night also, wherein it might be knowne, they were da­ted

Of his clemencie and civill (a) curtesie, there be many, and those right great51 proofes and experiments. Not to reckon up, how many and who they were of the adverse faction, that he vouchsafed pardon & life; yea, and suffred to hold still a principall place in the City: he was content and thought it sufficient, to punish IUNIUS NOVATUS and CASSIUS PATAVINUS, two commoners; the one with a fine of money and the other with a slight banishment: notwith­standing that IUNIUS NOVATUS in the name of young AGRIPPA had di­vulged a most biting and stinging letter, touching him, and CASSIUS PATA­VINUS at an open table and full feast▪ gave out in broad termes, That he wan­ted neither harty wishes nor good will to stab him. Moreover in a certaine iu­diciall triall, when among other crimes this article was principally obiected a­gainst AEMILIUS AELIANUS of Corduba, That hee was wont to haveMale opinari▪ The san [...]e in this Author, that Male dice­re. a bad conceite and to speake but basely of CAESAR, himselfe turned unto the accu­ser, and as if he had beene sore offended, I would, quoth he, thou wert able to prove this unto me: In faith AELIANUS should well know that I also have a tongue: for I will not stick to say more by him. And farther than this he neither for the present nor afterwards inquired into the matter. Likewise, when TIBERIUS grieved and complained unto him of the same indignity in a letter, and that uncessantly and after a violent manner, thus he wrote back againe: D [...]e not m [...] goo [...]d TIBE­RIUS in this point follow and feed the humor of rour Young im­putin▪ his col­ler & cruelty to the heate of youth & hote bloud: measu­ring Tiberius by himselfe. age neither set it too neere your heart, That there is any man who speaketh euill of me; For it is enough for us, if no man be able to doe us harme

52 Albeit, he wist well enough, that Temples were usually graunted by de­cree even unto Proconsuls, yet in no Province accepted hee of that ho­nour, but ioyntlie in the name and behalfe of himselfe and of Rome. For in [Page 63] Rome verily, he forbare this honour most resolutely: yea, and those silver Sta­tues which in times past had beene set up for him, he melted every one. With the money, for which they were sold. Of which, he caused goldenCortinas, o­therwise called Tripodas, stan­cing upon 3. feete: From which Oracles were delivered. Tables to be made, and those he dedicated to APOL­LO PATAVINUS. When the people offered and instantly forced upon him the Dictatourship, he fell upon his knees, cast his gowne from off his shoulder, bared his brest, and with detestation of the thing, besought them not to urge him farther.

53 The name and title ofDom n [...], or S [...]. Lord (a) he alwaies abhorred as a contumelious & reproachfull terme. When upon a time, as he beheld the plaies, these words were pronounced out of a ComoedieOr Enter [...]ude M [...]mo., O good and gracious Or Sr. Lord: whereupon the whole assembly with great ioy and applause accorded thereto, as if they had beene spoken of him: immediatly both with gesture of hand and snew of countenance, he repressed such undecent flatteries: and the next day reproved them most sharply by an edict: neither would hee ever after suffer himselfe to be called DOMINUS, no not of his owne children and nephewes either in ear­nest or boord. And that which more is, such faire and g [...]avering wordes hee for bad them to use among themselves. Lightly, you should not have him de­part forth of the City or any Towne, nor enter into any place, but in the eve­ning, or by night: For disquieting any person in doing him honour by way of dutifull attendance. In his Consulship hee went commonly in the streetes on foote▪ out of his Consulship oftentimes in a closeAd [...]ta: if adaperta the sence is contra­rie. (b) chaire or licter. In ge­nerall Salutations and duties done unto him he admitted the very Commons, entertaining the suites and desires of all commers with so great humanity as that he rebuked one of them merily, because in reaching unto him a supplica­tion, he did it so timorously, as if hee had raught a small peeceStipem Quin­tilianus reddidi [...] a [...]em lib. 6, cap. de risu. of coine to an Oliphant. On a Senate day, he never saluted his Nobles but in the (c) Curia: and those verily as they sat, every one by name without anyOr Nomin­ [...]ator. prompter: and at his departure out of the house, he used to bid them farewe [...]l one by one as they were set, in the same manner. With many men he performed mutuall offices yeelding one kindnes for another interchangeably. Neither gave he over fre­quenting their solemnities &As Birth­dayes, & Mari­age Minds. feasts untill he was farre stept in yeeres: and by this occasion, that once upon a day ofA [...] making o [...] 2 mariage. Espousals he was in the presse & throng of people sore crouded. GALLUS TERRINIUS a Senator, & none of his fami­liar acquaintance, howbeit fallen blinde and purposing resolutely to pine ( [...]) himselfe to death, he visited in proper person, and by his consolatory and com­fortable words perswaded him to live still.

As he delivered a speech in the Senate one said unto him, I conceived you not: 54 & another, I would gain-say you if any place were left for As if Augustus by his absolute power had takē up [...]l. me to speake▪ Divers times when upon occasion of excessive altercation and brabbling among the Sena­tours in debating matters, he was about to whip out of the Senate a pace in a great chafe, some of them would choke him with these words, Senatours ought to have liberty to speake their mindes concerning the Common-weale. ANTISTIUS LABEO at a certaine Election of Senatonrs, when C [...]m vi [...] virū, no [...] Trium [...]. one man chooseth another, made choise of M. LEPIDUS, who sometime was (AUGUSTUS) mortall ene­mie, and then in Exile. Now when he demaunded of the said ANTISTIUS, If there were not others more worthy to be chosen? hee returned this aunswere, That every man had his owne liking and iudgement by himselfe. Yet for all this▪ d [...]d no [Page 64] mans free speech or froward selfe-will, turne him to displeasure or danger.

Moreover, the diffamatory libels of him cast abroad & dispersed in the Curia, 55 he neither was affrighted at, nor tooke great care to refute; making not so much as search after the Authors. Onely this he opened, That from thence-forth there should be inquisition made, and examination had of those that either in their owne name or under other mens, did put forth libels, rimes▪ or verses to the infamie of any person. Furthermore, to meete with the spitefull taunts and skurrile scoffes of some, wherewith he was provoked, he made an Edict against such. And yet, to the end that the Senate should passe no Act, for the Inhibition of their (a) li­cetious liberty in theirWherein, the manner was to use broad jests, of any person. Casa [...]bonus. last wils & testaments, he interposed his negative voice.

56 Whensoever he was present himselfe at the Generall Ward-motes for Election of Magistrates, he went with his owne (a) Candidates round about to the Tribes, and humbly craved theirOr graces. voices according to the usuall custome. Himselfe also gave a voice in hisIn Trib [...]. or in Tribu­bus. [...]. among other Tribes. owne Tribe as one of the ordinary people. When hee appeared as witnesse in iudiciall courts, hee suffred himselfe right willingly to be examined upon interrogatives, & also to be impleaded against and confuted. His commonThan the o­ther. Hall of Iustice he made lesse of narrowerCalled Fo [...]ū Augusti. com­passe; as not daring to encroch upon the next houses & dispossesse the owners. He never recommended his sonnes unto the people, but with this clause ad­ded thereto, If they shall deserve. When, beeing yet under age, andPr [...]textaris adhuc. in their purpled childs habit, al the people generally that sat in the Theater rose up un­to them, and the standers below clapped their hands, hee tooke it very ill and complained grievously thereof. His minions & inward friends he would have to bee great and mighty men in the City; yet so, as they should have no more liberty than other Citizens, but be subiect to lawes and iudgements as well as the rest When ASPRENAS NONIUS (b), a man of neere alliance & acquain­tance with him was accused by CASSIUS SEVERUS, for practising poison, & pleaded for himselfe at the Barr, hee asked counsell of the Senate, what they thought in duty he was to do? For I stand in doubt, quoth he, least being here pre­sent as an advocate, I should acquit the prisoner Or offender. defendant and so hinder the course of law; againe, if I be absent & faile him, least I might be thought to forsake and pre­iudice my friend: Whereupon, by all their consents, he sat there in theWithin the Ba [...]r, among the Advocates, as a well willer. Pues cer­tain houres, but spake never a word nor affourded so much as a cōmendatorie speech in the defendants behalfe, as the maner of friends was to do in the triall of such cases. He pleaded the causes even of his very clients, and by name, of a certaineOr Targua­tier, S [...]tarie some take this for a proper name of some souldiour of his. shield-bearer, (c) whom in times past he had called forth to serve him in the wars: he spake I say in his defence, when he was sued in an action of the case. Of all those that were thus in trouble, he delivered one & no more from making his appearance in Court: and him verily no otherwise, but by earnest praiers & entreating the Accuser before the Iudges: and him he perswaded at length to let fal his action. And CASTRITIUS it was▪ a man, by whose meanes he came to the knowledge of MURENAES conspiracie.

How much, and for what demerits of his, he was beloved, an easie matter it57 is to make an aestimate. The acts & decrees of the Senate concerning his ho­nors I passe over, as which may be thought wrested frō them either upon mere necessity or bashfull modesty. The Gentlemen of Rome of their owne accord and by an uniforme consent celebrated his birth feast alwaies for 2 daies to ge­ther. All States & Degrees of the City, yeerely upon a solemne vow that they [Page 65] made, threw small pieces of brasse-coine intoInto the rai­led or empaled place named Septa▪ where sometime was that Lake. CURTIUS lake for the preser­vation of his life & health. Semblably, at the Calends of Ianuarie every yeere they offred a newyeeres-gift in the Capitol unto him, although he were absent. Out of which masse & grosse sum he disbursed as much money, as where with he bought the most pretious Images of the Gods, and dedicated them in divers streets: as namely APOLLOIn the S [...]o­makers s [...]reet. SANDALIARIUS, & IUPITERIn the Tra­gaedians street. TRAGAEDUS, andAli [...] (que). In re­stitution [...] &c. others besides. For the reedification of his house inMount Pa­latine. Palatine consumed by fire, the old soldiours, The Decuries (of the Iudges) the Tribes, & many se­verall persons by themselves of all sorts, willingly & according to each ones a­bility brought in their monies together. Howbeit, he did no more but slightly touch the heapes of such money as they lay, & tooke not away out of any one above one single7d. ob. denier. As he returned out of any province, they accompa­nied him honorably, not onely with good words & luckyFaustis omi [...] ­bus. or, nomina­tus. [...]. names. wisnes, but also with songs set in musicall measures. This also was duly obserued, that how often so ever he entred Rome, no punishment that day was inflicted upon any person.

58 TheOr addition A. V, C. 758 surname in his stile of PAYER PATRIAE, they all presented unto him with exceeding great & unexpected accord. The Commons, first, by an Embassage which they sent unto Antium▪ then, because he accepted not ther­of, at Rome as he entred the Theater to be hold the plaies, they tendered it a se­cond time themselves in great frequencie, dight with Lawrell branches & Co­ronets. Soone after, the Senate did the like, not by way of decree nor acclama­tion, but by VALERIUS MESSALLA, who had commission from them all, to relate their minds in this maner. THAT, quoth he, which may be to the good and happinesse of thee & thy house O CAESAR AUGUSTUS (for in this wise we think, that we pray for perpetuall felicity &Felicit it [...]m Re [...]p. et lata h [...]ic: pro, fel. ci­tatem et l [...]ta [...]. prosperity to this Common­wealth.) THE SENATE according with the people of Rome, do iointly salute thee by the name ofFather of the Cour [...]ey. PATER PATRIAE. Vnto whom, AUGUSTUS with teares standing in his eyes, made answere in these words, (For I have set the very same downe, like as I didSicut Messella those of Messala) Now that I have (mine honorable Lords) at­tained to the heighth of all my vowes and wishes, what remaineth else for me to crave of the immortall Gods, but that I may carie with mee this universall consent of yours unto my lives end?

Vnto ANTONIUS MUSA his Physitian, by whose meanes he was recove­red59 out of a dangerous disease, they erected a Statue, by a generall contribution of brasse, iust by the image of AESCULAPIUS. SomePatres [...] good honest Citizens of Rome that were sui iuris. housholders there were who in their last wils and testaments provided, That their heires should leade beasts for sacrifice into the Capitoll and pay their vowes, with this title caried before them containing the reason of so doing, Because [...] Their Fa­thers, the testa­touis. they had left AUGU­STUS living after them. Certaine Cities of Italy began their yeere that very day, on which he first came to them. Most of the Provinces, over & above Temples & AltarsAs if he had beene [...] Demi-God., ordained almost in every good Towne, solemne Games & Playes every fifth yeere in his honor.60

Kings his friends and Confederates both severally every one in his own king­dome built Cities calling them Caesareae, and iointly altogether intended, at their common charges fully to finish the temple of Iupiter Olympicus at Athens which long time before was begun, & to dedicate it unto his Genius. And oftentimes, the said Princes leaving their realmes, going in Romaine gownes, without Di­adems & regall Ornaments, in habit & manner of devoted Clients, performed [Page 66] their dutifull attendance unto him day by day: not at Rome only, but also when he visited and travailed over the provinces.

For as much as I have shewed already what his publique cariage was in pla­ces61 of Commaund and Magistracies: in the managing also and administration of the Common-weale throughout the world both in warre and peace: Now will I relate his more private and domesticall life: as also what behaviour heeA. V: C. 711: 745 shewed and what fortune hee had at home, and among his owne, even from his youth unto his dying day. His mother he buried during the time of his first Consulship, and his sister OCTAVIA in the 54 yeere of his age. And as he had performed unto them both, whiles they lived, the offices of pietie and love in the best manner: so when they were dead, he did them the greatest honours he possibly could.

He had espoused, being a very youth, the daughter of P. SERVILIUS ISAU­RICUS:62 but upon his reconciliation unto ANTONIE after their first discorde at the earnest demaund of both their soldiours, that they might be conioyned and united by some nere affinitie, he tooke to wife (ANTONIUS) daughter in law CLAUDIA, the naturall daughter of Dame FULVIA by P. CLODIUS: a young Damosell, scarce mariageable. And upon some displeasure, falling out with FULVIA his wives mother, he put her away, as yet untouched and a vir­gine▪ Soone after, he wedded SCRIBONIA, the wife before of two husbands, both men of Consular dignity, and by one of them a mother. This wife also he divorced, not able to endure, as hee writeth himselfe, her shrewd and per­verseA: V. C: 715: conditions: and forthwith, tooke perforce from TIBERIUS NERO, LIVIA DRUSILLA his lawfull wife & great with child. Her he loved entirely, her he liked onely, and to the very end.

Vpon SCRIBONIA he begat IVLIA By LIVIA he had no issue, although63 full faine he would. Conceive once she did by him; but she miscaried, and the Infant was borne before time. As for IVLIA, hee gave her in mariage first to MARCELLUS the sonne of his sister OCTAVIA, even when he was but newly crept out of his childes age. Afterwards, when MARCELLUS was departed this life, he bestowed her upon M. AGRIPPA, having by intreatie obtained of his sister, to yeeld up unto him her right and interest in her sonne Her daugh­ters husband: in law. For, at the same time AGRIPPA had to wife one of the It seemeth the younger: MARCELLAE (her daugh­ters) and of her body begotten children. When this AGRIPPA was likewise dead, he cast about and sought for divers matches a long time, even out of the ranks of Romaine Gentlemen, and chose for her, his wives sonne Emperour after him. TIBERIUS: whom he forced to put away a former wife then with child, and by whom hee had beene a father already. M. ANTONIUS writeth, that he had affianced the said IVLIA first, to ANTONIE his sonne: and afterwards to COTISO King of the Getes: what time ANTONIE himselfe required to have a [...] the Median K. of Armen [...]a or els he meaneth [...]: Kings daughter likewise to wife.

64 By AGRIPPA and IULIA he had 3 nephewes, CAIVS, LUCIUS, and64 ARIPPA: nieces likewise twaine, IULIA and AGRIPPINA. IULIA he besto­wed in mariage upon LUCIUS PAULUS, the Censors sonne: and AGRIPPI­NA upon GERMANICUS, his [...], or [...] his wiues nephewe, and both true; sisters (a) Nephew. As for CAIUS and LUCIUS he adopted them for his owne children at home in his house, having bought them of AGRIPPA their Father by the brazen coine Per [...], vel [...] as [...] [...]bram. and (b) the balance. Whom being yet in their tender yeeres, he emploied in the charge of the cō ­mon [Page 67] weale: and no sooner were they Consuls Elect, but hee sent them abroade to the government of Provinces and conduct of armies. His daughter and [...] ­ces above named, hee brought vppe and trained so, as that hee acquainted them with housewiferie, and set them even to carde, spinne and make cloth: for­bidding them streighly either to say or doe ought but openly in the sight and hearing of all men, and that which might be recorded in their day Of accomp [...] bookes. Certes, so farre forth he prohibited and forewarned them the companie of strangers, that he wrote uppon a time unto L. Or [...]. TUCINIVS, a noble young gentleman and a persona­ble, charging him that he passed the bounds of modestie, in that he came once to Baiae for to see and salute his daughter: his nephewes, himselfe for the most part taught to reade, to write (c) & to swimme, besides the rudiments & first introductions to other Sciences. But in nothing travailed hee so much as in this, that they might imi­tate his handwritinge▪ Hee never supped togither with them, but they satte at the nether ende of the Table: neither went hee any Iournie, but hee had them either goinge before in a Wagon, or else abovt him rydinge by his side.65

But as jo [...]ous and confident as hee was in regard both of his issewe, and also of the discipline of his house, fortune failed him in the proofe of all. His daughter and niece either of them named IVLIA [...] with all kinde of leawdnesse and dishone­stie he sent out of the way as banished: ij. of his Nephewes. CAIVS (a) and LVCIVS both, hee lost in the space of 18. moneths, CAIVS died in Lycia, LVCIVS at Massilia. His third nephewe AGRIPPA, togither with his wives sonne TIBERIVS (b) hee adopted his sonnes in the Forum of Rome by an Act of These Actes were called L [...] ­ges Curiatae: made in a [...] hament of all the Curiae, in nomber 30, in­to which, Ro­main [...] divided the Cittie. These lawes Sext. Papyr [...] collected into one Booke, and called it was [...] Papy­rianum. [...], others re [...]d Sto [...]idum, & H [...]rridum. i [...] Sott [...]sh & rude. all the Curiae. But of these twaine within a small time hee cast out of his favour, yea and confined aside unto [...] AGRIPPA, for his base Or that his daughter had beene Phoebe disposition and fell nature. Moreover he tooke much more patiently the death, than the reprochfull misdemeauours of his children. For, at the infortunitie of CAIVS and LVCIVS he was not extreamely dismaied and cast downe: mary, of his daughter & her leawd pranckes, he gave notice in his absence to the Senate, and that in writing, which his (c) [...] red openly before them: and for very shame he absen­ted himselfe a long time and avoyded the company of men: yea, and that which more is, once he was of mind to put her to death. And verely, when as, about the same time a freed woman of his named PHOEBE, one of them that were privie to her naughti­nes, knit her own neck in a halter, & so ended her dayes, he gave it out, that he wisht with all his heart he had beene * Phoebes father. Confined thus when she was, he debarred her wholly the use of wine, and all manner of delicate trimming and decking her bodie: neither would he permitte any man, one or other, bond, or free to have accesse unto her without his privitie and leave asked: nor unlesse he might be certified before, of what age, of what stature and colour hee was, yea and what (a) markes and skars he caried about him. After 5. yeares ende, he remooved her out of the and [...] [...], lib 1. Iland into the Continent where shee abode at more libertie somewhat, and not so streightly looked unto: For, to call her home againe once for all, he could by no meanes bee intreated: as who, many a time when the people of Rome besought him, earnestly and were ve­ry instant with him in her behalfe, openly before a frequent assembly of them cursed such daughters and such wives: saying God blesse yee al from the like. The infant that his niece IVLIA bare after she was condemned, hee forbad expressely to take know­ledge of, & to give it the rearing. As touching his nephew AGRIP [...]A seeing him to proove nothing more tractable, but rather braine sicke every day more than other, he transported him (from Surrentum) into an Iland and enclosed him there, besides with a guard of soldiers. He provided also by an Act of the Senate, that in the same place he should be kept forever. And so often, as there was any mention made either of him or his ij. Daughter [...]: neice. IVLIE, he used to fetch a sigh and grone againe, and with all to breake out into this speech.


W [...]uld God I never had wedded bride
Or else without any childe had died.

[Page 68]Friendship with any persō as he did not easily intertain, so he maintained & kept the same most cōstantly; not honoring only the vertues & deserts of euery man66 according to their worth, but enduring also their vices & deliquences at least wise if they exceeded not: for out of al that nūber of his depēdants ther wil hard­ly be any found, during his frendship to have bin plunged in adversity & therby overthrown: except SALVIDIENVS RVFVS whom he had before advanced to the dignitie of Consul; & CORNELIVS GALLVS promoted by him to the pro vostship of Aegypt, raised both from the verie dunghill. The one of these for pra ctising seditiously an alteration in the state: & the other for his unthankeful andA, V. C, 714. 728, mal [...]tious mind, he forbad his house & all his provinces. But as for GALLVS, whē as both by the menaces of his accusers, & also by the rigorous Acts of the Senate passed against him, he was driuen to shorten his owne life: AVGVSTVS cōmēded verely their kind harts to him for being so wroth & grieuing so much in his behalfe: howbeit for GALLVS sake he wept, & complained of his owne hard fortune, in that he alone might not be angrie, with his friends, within that measure as he would himselfe: all the rest of his fauorites flowrished in power & welth to their lives end, as chiefe persons every one in their ranke: notwith­standing some discontentment & mislikes came between. For otherwhiles, hee found a want in M. AGRIPPA of patience, and in MAECENAS of Taciturnitie & secrecie; when as the M. Agrippa: one upon a light suspicion of his cold love, [...]: or [...], as i [...] Au­gustus, had loo­ked sternely or strangly upon him. & affection, with a ielousie besides, that MARCELLVS should be preferred before him left all & went to MITYLENAE: the Mecaen [...]s. other (b) unto his wife TERRNTIA revealed a secret, as touching the detection of MVRENAES conspiracie. Himselfe al­so required semblably mutual benevolence of his friends, as wel dead as living. For although he was none of these that lie in the winde to mung and catch at Inheritances, as who could never abide to reape any cōmoditie by the last will & testamēt of an unknown person; yet weighed he most strictly & precisely the Finall or last. supreme iudgments & testimonies of his friends concerning him, delivered at their deaths: as on who dissimuled neither his grief in case a man respected him slightly & without honorable tearmes; nor his ioy, if he remembred him thank­fully & with kindnes. As touching either legacies or parts of heritages, as also portions left unto him by any parents whatsoever, his manner was either out of hand to part with the same unto their children, or if they were in their mino­rity, to restore all unto them with the increase, upon the day that they put on their virile gownes, or else whereon they maried.

A patron he was (to his freedmen) and a Maist. (to his bondservants) no lesse67 severe, than gratious & gentle▪ Many of his enfranchised men he highly honou­red and imployed especially: by name, LICINIVS ENCELADVS, with others. His seruant COSMVS, who thought & spake most hardly of him, he proceeded to chastice no farther, than with hanging a paire of fetters at his heeles: As for Diomedes his Steward, who walking together with him, by occasion of a wild Bore running full upon them, for very feare put his Maist, between him­selfe and the Beast, hee imputed unto him rather timiditie, then to bee any fault else: and although it were a matter of noe small perill, yet because there was noe prepensed mallice, hee turned all into a iest. Contrariwise, the selfe same man, forced to death PROCILLVS a freed man of his and whome hee set geatest store by, because hee was de­tested for abusing mens wives. Or [...]. GALLVS his Clerke or s [...]etary: scribe, had receiued 500: deniers [Page 69] For making on priuie unto a letter of his hands: but he caused his legges to be broken for his labour. The paedagogue and other servitours attendant uppon CAIUS his sonne, who taking the vantage of his sickenesse and death bare themselues proudly and insolently in his [...] province and therein commit­ted many outrages, he caused to be throwne headlong into a River, with hea­vie weights about their neckes.68

In the Prime and flower of his youth he incurred sundrie waies the infa­mous note of a vicious and wanton life. Sext. POMPEIUS railed uppon him as an effeminate person. M. ANTONIVS layed to his charge, that he earned his unkles adoption, by suffring the filthy abuse of his bodie: Semblably, LUCIVS brother to the said MARCUS enveied against him, as if he had abandoned and prostituted his youth (deflowred and tasted first by CAESAR) unto A. HI [...]TIVS also in Spaine for 300000: sesterces: and that hee was wont to sindge his legges with red A kind of [...]. hotte Walnutshels, to the end the haire might come up softer: The verie people also in generall one time on a day of their So­lemne Stage playes, both construed to his reproach, and also with exceeding great applause verified of him a verse pronounced vppon the Stage, as touching a priest of (Cybele) mother of the Gods playing upon a Timbrell;

‘Vides (a) ne [...] Cinaedus [...]rbem digito temperat.’

That he was a common adulterer his verie friends did not denie: but they69 excuse him for sooth: saying, That he did it not upon filthy lust, but for good rea son and in pollicy: to the end he might more easily search out the plots & pra­ctises of his adversaries, by the meanes of women & wiues, it skilled not whose. M. ANTONIVS obiected against him besides his over hastie mariage Whome hee could not for­beare, but many when she was, great with childe. with LIVIA, that he fetched a certaine Noble dame, the wife of one who had beene Consul, forth of a dining parlour, even before her husbands face, into his own bed chamber, and brought her thither backe again to make an end of the ban­quet with her haire all ruffled, even while her eares were yet glowing red. also that he put away His owne wife. SCRIBONIA, because she was too plaine & round with him, upon griefe she tooke, that a Concubine was so great & might do so much with him: as also that there were bargaines and matches sought out for him by his friends, upon liking: who stucke not to view & peruse both wiues, & young mai­dens of ripe yeares, all naked, as if TORAVIVS the baud were a selling of them: Moreover he writeth thus much to himself, after a familiar sort, as yet being not fallen out flatly with him, nor a professed enemy: What hath changed and altered you? Is it because I lie with a Queene, she is my wife. And is this the the first time? Did I not so 9. yeares since? Alas good sir. you that wold haue me cōpany with OCTAVIA my wife onely tell me true▪ know you for your part none other women but DRVCI [...] LA [...] go to: so may you fare well & have your health, as when you shall read this letter, you be not redy to deale carnally with Tertia. [...], Rufa [...]as louers v [...]e to name their sweete hearts. TERTVLLA or TERENTILLA, or RVFILLA, or SALVIA TITISCENIA or with all of them. And thinke you it skilleth not, where and whom you lust after and meddle with?

Moreouer, much talke there was abroad, of a certaine supper of his more70 secret, ywis then the rest, & which was commonly called * (a) Dodecatheos: At which, that their sat guests in habit of Gods & goddesses, & himselfe among thē adorned insteed of Apollo: not onely the letters of ANTONIE, who rehearsed most bitterly the names of every one do lay in his reproach, but also these ver­ses without an author so vulgarly knowne and rife in everie mans mouth:

Cum primum istorum conduxit mensa Choragum,
Sexque Deos vidit Mallia, sexque Deas:
Impia dum Phoebi Caesar mendacia ludit;
Dum noua Diuorum caenat adulterium:
Omnia se a terris tunc numina declinarunt.
Fugit et auratos Iupiter ipse thronos:
When first the (b) table of these (guests) hired one the
Choragum, Choregon. or one to prouide the furniture of the feasts.
daunce to leade
And (c) mallia six Goddesses and Gods as many saw;
Whiles Caesar Phoebus (d) conterfaites profanely, and in stead
Of supper, new adultries (e) makes of Gods against all law;
All the heauenly powers then, from the earth their eies quite turned away,
And Iupiter (f) himselfe would not in gilt
Some take this to be the name of one of the 6. goddesses guests▪ or ra­ther some dame that could skill in bringing such to ether.
Shrines longer stay.

The rumor of this supper was increased by the exceeding dearth & famine at that time in Rome: and the very next morrow, there was set up this cry & note within the Cittie. That the Gôds had eaten up all the Corne: and that CAESAR was become [...], al­ [...] beds or, T [...]olos, S [...]utche­ons in [...] ­tecture. Apollo in deede, but yet Apollo the (a) tortor: under which surname that God was worshipped in one place of the Cittie. Furthermore, taxed hee was for his greedie grasping after pretious house furniture and costly Corinthi­an Vessels: as also for giving himselfe much to dice play. For, as in time of the proscription, there was written over his statue; Pater Argentarius, Ego Corin­thiarius. * Not coun­terfaite as at the supper overnight.

My father was a Banking-monie changer,
And I am now a Corinth-Vessell-munger.

Because it was thought he procured some to be put into the bill of those that were proscribed, even for the love of their Corinthian-Vesselles: so afterwardes, during the Sicilian warre, this Epigrame of him went currant abroad.

Postquam bisclasse victus naues perdidit.
Aliquando ut vincat, ludit assidue aleam.
Since time he lost his ships at Sea in fight defaited twice;
That win he may sometime, he playes continually at dice.

Of these criminous imputations or malicious slanders (I wot not whether)71 the infamie of his unnatuall uncleannesse he checked and confuted most easily by his chast life both at the present and afterward. Semblably the invidious opinion of his excessiue, and sumpteous furniture: considering, that when he had by force won ALEXANDRIA, he retained for himselfe out of al the kings houshold stuffe and rich Implements, no more but on cup of the pretious stone Or Murrha. Th [...] [...] Myrrh [...] and soone after, all the brasen vessels which were of most vse, hee melted everie one. Mary for fleshly lust otherwise and wantonnes with women he went not cleere, but was blotted therwith. For afterwards, also as the report goes; he gave himselfe overmuch to the deflowring of young maides whome his wife sought out for him from all places. As for the rumour that ran of his diceplaying he bashed no whit thereat▪ and he played simply without Art and openly for his disport, even when he was well striken in yeares: and besides the moneth (a) December, upon other play dayes also, yea and worke daies too. Neither is there any doubt to bee made thereof. For in a certaine Epistle written with his owne hand: I supped, quoth hee, my Tiberius with the [Page 71] same men: there came moreover to beare us companie these guests, VINI­CIVS, & SALVIVS the father. In For Talorum lusus fuit [...]. supper time we played Or bones. like olde men, both yesterday and to day. For when the Betweene di­shes or courses of services. dice were cast (b) looke who threwe the chaunce, Canis or Senion, for everie die he staked and layed to the flooke a denier: which he tooke up and swooped all cleane, whose lucke it was to throw Venus. Againe in another letter. We liued full merily, my TIBERIUS, during the feast (c) Quin­quatria: for, wee played everie day: wee haunted I say and heat the dicing house. Your Drusus [...]: brother did his deede with many great shouts and outcries: Howbeit, in the ende he lost not much: but after his great losses gathered uppe his crummes pretily well by little and little beyond his hope and exspectation. I for my part, lost 20000. Sesterces in mine owne name: but it was when I had beene over liberall in my gaming, as commonly my manner is. For, if I had called for those loosing-hands which I forgave my fellow gamesters, or kept but that which I gave cleane away. I had wonne as good as 50000. cleere. But I choose rather thus to doe. [...]or my bountie exal [...]eth me unto caelestial glo­ry. Vnto his daughter thus he writeth, I haue sent unto you 250. deniers: just so many as I had given to [...]y guests a peece, if they would have played togi­ther in supper time either at cockeall, or at even and odde. For the rest of his life, certaine it is, that in everie respect he was most continent, and without suspition of any vice.

Hee dwelt at first, hard by the Forum of Rome above the winding staires72 ANULARIAE, in an house which had been CALVUS the Oratours: Afterwards in the mount Palatium: howbeit in a meane habitation, belonging sometime to HORTENSIVS, and neither for spacious receite nor stately setting out, and trim furniture, conspicuous: as wherein the galleries were but short, standing uppon pillers made of (soft) Albane stone: and the Refection Roumes without a­ny marble or beavtifull pavements. For the space of 40. yeares and more, hee kept on bedchamber winter and summer: and albeit hee found by experience the Cittie not verie holesome in the winter for his health, yet continually he wintred there: If hee purposed at any time to do ought secretly, and without interruption: hee had a speciall roome alone by it selfe aloft which hee called (a) Syracusae. Or Techn [...] ­phyon: Hither would hee withdrawe himselfe orderly, or else make a steppe to some Country house neere the Cittie, of one of his Libertines. Was hee sicke at any time? Then hee used to lie in MAECENAS his house. Of all his retyring places of pleasure, hee frequented these especially, that stood along the Maritime tract, and the Isles of Campania; or else the townes nere adioyning to the Cittie of Rome, to wit, Lanuvium, Praeneste and Tibur: where also within the Porches of Hercules Temple, he sat verie often to minister iustice. Large palaces and full of curious workes hee misliked: And verily, those that were sumpteously built he rased downe to the verie ground: his own [...], [...] ­ting the winter sun ne. as little as they were, he adorned and beautified not with trim statues and gay painted Tables, as with open For shad [...] in Summer: walks, pleasant [...]. as whales within pooles, &c. groves, and such things, as for their antiquitie and rarenesse were notable: Of which sort were at Capreae the huge members of monstrous * fishes and wilde beasts: the bones that are saide to bee of the Gyants, and the armour of the demigods and worthies in olde time:

How slenderly provided he was of houshold stuffe and furniture otherwise73 [Page 72] appeareth by his dining pallets and tables yet remaining: the most part where­of be scarce answerable to the elegancie of a meere private person▪ Neither slept he by mens saying otherwise than upon a Not raysed uppe and swelling high with downe. low-bed, and the same but meanely spread and laid with Coverlets. He wore not lightly any apparell but of huswifes cloth, made within house; by his wife, his sister, his daughter and neipces. His gownes were neither streight and skant, nor yet, wide and large. His Senatours robe neither with overbroad studs of purple guarded, nor with narrow. His shoes underlaide somewhat with the highest, that hee might seeme taller than hee was. As for the raiment which hee used a­broade, and his shooes, hee had them at all times layed readie within his Bedchamber, against all suddaine occurrents and unlooked for occasions whatsoeuer.

He feasted daily: and never otherwise than at a set Coena rect [...], or rect [...], abso­lutely, or diffe▪ rence of spor­tula. table: not without great74 respect and choise of degrees and persons. VALERIVS MESSALLA writeth, that hee never intertained any of his libertines at supper except MEANVS, and him Restored to his blood and created a gentle man, for he was Do­natus [...] annuli [...] ut inter inge [...]uos habere­tur Dion. naturalized first, even after the betraying of Sex: POMPEIVS fleete; Him­selfe writeth, that he invited one, in whose ferme hee would make his abode, and who in times past had beene a Speculator, or a squire of his bodie. Spie of his. Hee came to the bourde himselfe when he made a feast, sometimes very late, and otherwhiles left the same as soone: and then his guests would both fall to their suppers before he sat downe,, and also continued sitting still after hee was gone. The suppers hee made consisted ordinarily of three dishes Tribus ferculis, not such as ours be: but framed in manner of Tropees, with devises that some meates might lye flat others hang thereupon. of meate and when hee would fare most highly of 6: at the most; and as he entertained his guests in no exceeding sumpteous manner, so he welcomed them with all the kindnesse and curtesie that might be. For he would prouoke them, if they either sat silent or spake softly to the fellowshippe of discourse and talke: yea and interpose ei­ther As minstrels Musitians, Quiristers &c. Acroames and players or else As fortune tellers, iuglers Baffors &c. Triviall fellowes out of Aretalogos, the Cir­que, but most commonly these discoursing poore Or fire forks, threedbare Phylo­sophers:

75 Festivall and solemne daies he celebrated sometimes with unmeasurable ex­penses, otherwhiles with mirth and sport onely: At the Saturnalia, and at other times when it pleased him, hee used to send abroade as his gifts, one­while apparaile, golde and silver: otherwhile mony of all stampes, even olde peeces currant in the Kings dayes, and strange coynes; sometime no­thing but haire clothes, spunges, cole Or snipper [...], rakes, A kinde of Lott [...]rie. cizars and such like stuffe, un­der obscure and doubtfull titles symbolizing somewhat else; Hee was wont also to offer sale, by marting in the time of a banquet to his guestes, of such thinges, as were in price most unequall, yea and to tender blinde bargaines unto them also of painted Tables, with the wronge side outwarde, and so by uncertaine venturinge uppon their happe, either to frustrate and disappoint, or fully to satisfie the hope of the Chapmen: yet so, as the cheapninge of the thinge should alwayes passe through everie bourde, and the losse or gaine growe to them all as common,

As touching diet (for I may not over passe so much as this) hee was76 a man of verie little meate, and feedinge for the most part grosse. Or cheat, Se­conde breade and small fishes: cheese made of cowes milke and the same [Page 73] pressed Much like Angelots ma­ [...] pressum, or mane pressum i. Greene cheese new made. with the hand, & greene figges especially of that kinde which beare twice a yeere, his appetite served unto. His manner was to eate even iust be­fore supper, when and wheresoever his stomacke called for foode. His very wordes out of his owne Epistles shewe no lesse, which are these: Whiles wee were in a Or Germain, essedo. For they were used in both countries indifferently. British Waggon, wee tasted of bread and Dates. Againe, As I retur­ned [...] in my Licter from the Palace, I eate an ounce weight of bread with a fewe hard coated Grapes. And once more, The very Iewe, my TIBERIUS, ob­serveth not his Fast upon the (a) Sabbath so precisely, as I have this day: who in the baines, not before the first houre of the night was past, Vuis dur [...]cinis, or, with hard kernels. chewed two morsels of bread, even before I began to be anointed. Vpon this Or, did eate. retchlesse neglect of diet, he used divers times to take his supper alone, either before his other guests were set and fell to meate, or else after all was taken away, and they risen: whereas, at a full bourd he would not touch a bit.

77 Hee was by nature also a very small drinker of wine. CORNELIUS NE­POS reporteth of him, that his usuall manner was during the time hee lay encamped before Mutina to drinke at a supper not above thrice. Afterwards, whensoever hee dranke most liberally hee passed not Ex hac in ob­servanti [...], vol, ex [...]ac obser­vanti [...]: upon this due obser­ving of his, to cate when his stomack called for it, & not els. sixe Sextants; or if hee went beyond, he cast it up againe. Hee delighted most in Rhetian wine; and seldome dranke hee in the 6 measures, containing ei­ther 2. [...] a peece, [...]r two cyathes. [...]. 3 ounces. In all, at the most not above a good pint, or a small wine quart, cal­led Sextarius, [...] of 18 ounces. day time. In steede of drinke hee tooke a sop of bread soaked in colde water; or a peece of a Coucumber, or a young lectuce head, or else some new gathered apple, [...], as we say, betwixt meales. sharpe and tart, standing much upon a winish liquour within it.

78 After his noones repast hee used to take his repose, and to sleepe a while, in his cloathes as he was, with his shooes (a) on, stretching (b) out his feete, and holding his hand before his eyes. After supper hee retired himselfe into a lit­tle Closet (c) or Studie. And there continued hee by a candle farre in the night, even untill he had dispatched the rest of that daies businesse, either all or the most part. From thence, he went directly to his bed: Where, hee slept at the most not above seaven houres: and those verily not together but so, as in that space of time hee would awake three or foure times: and if hee could not recover his sleepe thus broken and interrupted (as it happened other­whiles); hee would send for some to reade or Ac [...]dum, or aridum. i. dried, but yet of a wi­nish tast. tell tales; and by their meanes* Or, to bold him with talke. catch a sleepe againe, and drawe the same out often after day-breake. Nei­ther would he ever lie awake without one sitting by his beds side. Much offen­ded hee was with want of sleepe (or waking) early in a morning: and if hee were to bee awakened sooner than ordinarie, either about some worldly af­faires of his friends, or service of the Gods, because hee would not preiudice thereby his owne good or health; hee used to stay in some of his familiar friends upper roomes and loft, next to the place where his occasions lay. And even so, many a time for want of sleepe, both as he was caried through the streetes, and also when his licter was set downe, hee would betweene whiles take a nap and make some stay.

79 Hee was of an excellent presence and personage, and the same through­out [Page 74] all the degrees of his age most lovely and amiable; negligent though hee were in all manner of pikednesse, for combing and trimming of his head so carelesse, as that he would use at once many Barbers, such as came next hand, it skilled not whom: and one while hee clipped, another while hee shaved his beard; and yet at the very same time, he either read, or else wrote somewhat. His visage and countenance, whether he spake or held his peace, was so mild, so pleasant and lightsome, that one of the Nobles and Potentates of Gaule; confessed unto his Country-men, he was thereby onely staied and reclaimed, that he did not approach neere unto him, under colour of conference as hee passed over the Alpes, and so shove him downe from a steepe cragge to breake his necke, as his full intent was. Hee had a paire of cleere and shining eyes: wherein also, (as hee would have made men beleeve) was seated a kinde of Di­vine vigour: and hee ioyed much, if a man looking wistly upon him helde downe his face, as it were against the brightnesse of the Sunne. But in his olde age he saw not very well with the left eye. His teeth grewe thinne in his head, and the same were small and ragged: The haire of his head was somewhat curled and turning downeward; and withall of a light yellowe colour. His eye-browes met together: his eares were of a meane bignesse: his nose both in the Toward his forehead. upper part, bearing out round, and also beneath somewhat with Ded [...]ctiore, or as some ex­pound it, sharp & thin, Lepton. the longest. Of colour and complexion, hee was betweene a browne Inter aquilum candidum (que), somewhat tan­ned and sunne­burnt, as Casan­ [...]on seemeth to interpret it. and faire white. His stature but snort: (and yet IULIUS MARATHUS his freed­man writeth in the Historie of his life, that hee was five foote (a) and nine in­ches high). But as lowe as the same was, the proportionable making and fea­ture of his limmes hid it so, as it might not be perceived, unlesse he were com­pared with some taller person than himselfe standing by.

80 His body, by report, was full of spottes: having upon the brest and bellie naturall markes which hee brought with him into the worlde; dispersed, for the manner, order, and number, like unto the starres of the celestiall Charlemaine his waine. beare; as also certaine hard risings of thicke brawnie skinne, occasioned in divers places by the ytching of his bodie, and the continuall and forcible use of the Much like a curry comb. Strigil in the Baines: Which callosities resembled a Ringworme (a). In his left hucklebone (b), thigh and legge, hee was not very sound▪ in so much, as many times for griefe thereof he halted on that side: but by a remedie that he had of Sand (c) and Reedes, he found ease and went upright againe. Also, the fore-finger of his right hand hee perceived otherwhiles to be so weake, that* Destillationi­bus i [...]cinore vi­tiato. What if we thus point and read? De­ [...], iocinore vitiato: to this sence. That he was much su [...]iect to rhewmes by occasiō that his liver was diseased, to wit, obstructed or stopped. being benummed and shrunke by a crampe upon some colde, he could hardly set it to any writing, with the helpe of an hoope and finger stall of horne. Hee complained also of the griefe in his (d) bladder, but voiding at length little gravell-stones by urine, he was eased of that paine.

81 All his life time hee tasted of certaine grievous and daungerous sicknes­ses, but especiallie after the subduing of CANTABRIA: vvhat time, by rea­son of his liver diseased and corrupted by Destillations, hee was driven to some extremitie: and thereby of necessitie entred into a contrarie (a) and despe­rate course of Physicke: For, seeing that hote fomentations did him no good, [Page 75] forced hee was by the direction and counsell of ANTONIUS MUSA his Phy­sitiā, to be cured by colde. He had the experiēce also of some maladies which came (b) yeerely and kept their course at a certaine time. For about his (c) birth-day, most commonly he was sickish and had a faintnesse upon him: like­wise in the beginning of the (d) Spring, much troubled hee was with the inflation of the midriffe and Vnder the short [...]. hypochondriall parts: and whensoever the winde was southerly, with the murr and the pose. By occasion whereof, his body beeing so shaken and crasie, hee could not well endure either colde or heat.

82 In winter time clad he went against the colde with foure coates, together with a good thicke gowne, and his Wastcoate or Peticoate bodie of wool­len: well lapped also about the (a) thighes and legges. During Sommer he lay with his bed chamber dores open, and oftentimes within a cloisture suppor­ted with pillers, having water (b) walming out of a spring, or running from a [...] in a Conduit; or else some one to make (c) winde hard by him. Hee could not away so much as with the Winter sunne shine: and therefore even at home hee never walked up and downe in the aire withoutOr Bond­grace. a broad brimd Hat upon his head. He travailed in a licter, and never lightly but in the night. The iourneyes that he made were soft and small: so as if hee went from Rome but to Tibu [...] (a) or Preneste, he would make two daies of it. Could hee reach to any place by sea: hee chose rather to saile thither, than goe by land. But as great infirmities as he was subiect unto, hee maintained and defended his body with as much care and regard of himselfe: but principally by seldome In hot waters. ba­thing (e): For, anointed hee was very often and used to sweate before a light fire: and then upon it to be dowssed in water luke warme, or else heated with long standing in the Sunne. And so often as he was to use the Sea waters hote, or those of Which natu­raly were hot standing upon a veine of [...] stone. Albul [...] for the strengthening of his sinewes, hee contented him­selfe with this: namely to sit in a wooden bathing Tub, which himselfe by a Spanish name called DURETA, and therein to shake up and downe his hands and feet one after another, by turnes.

83 The exercises in (Mars) field of riding on horse-backe and bearing armes, he laid aside immediatly after the civile warres, and tooke himselfe, first, to the little (a) tennis-ball, and the hand-ball blowne with (b) winde. Soone after, he used onely to bee Either o [...] horse backe, or in a charrlicter caried and to walke, but so as that in the end of every walke he would take his runne by iumpes, lapped and wrapped within a light garment ca [...]led Two foote & a halfe square. Sestertius (c) or a thinne vaile and sheete of linnen. For his recreation and pastime, his manner was sometime to angle or fish with the hooke, otherwhiles to play with cockall bones, or These the Romaines cal­led Veneres su­as, their play­feres and dear­ [...] in a [...] ho­nest sence no [...] such as the Greeks in [...] uncleane signi­fication▪ named [...]. [...] bagga­ges, Catamites trundling round (e) pel­lets, or else with nuttes even among little boyes; vvhom hee would lay for, and seeke out from all parts, if they were of an amiable countenance and could * prattle pretily with a lovely grace, but principally those of the Moores and Syrians kind. As for Dwarfes, crooked and mishapen Elves and all of that sort, he could not abide such, as being the very mockeries of natures work, and of unlucky [...].

[Page 76]Eloquence, and other liberall professions he exercised from his very child­hood right willingly, and therein tooke exceeding great paines. During the84 warre at Mutina, notwithstanding that huge heape of affaires and occurrents, (by report) he read, he wrote, hee declaimed every day. For afterwards, nei­ther in the Senate-house, nor before the people, ne yet to his souldiours made he ever speech, but it was premeditate and composed before: albeit hee wan­ted not the gift to speake of a sodaine and ex tempore. Now, for feare least his memorie at any time should faile him, least also he might spend too much time in learning by rote, hee began to reade and rehearse all out of his written copie. His very speeches also with folke by themselves, even with LIVIA his wife about any grave and serious matters were never but penned and put downe in writing▪ out of which hee would rehearse the same, that hee might not speake otherwise ex [...]empore or lesse than was meete. His pronunciation and utterance was sweete, carying with it a peculiar and proper sound of his owne: and continually he used the helpe of a Phonascus to moderate his voice: but sometimes when his throate was When he was hoarse, by [...]ea­son of rhewme. weakened, he delivered his orations to the people, by the mouth of a Crier.

Many compositions he made in prose, of sundry arguments. Of which he85 would reade some in a meeting of his familiars, as it were in an Auditorie▪ as namely a Reioinder, called Rescripta, unto BRUTUS, against Vticensis. CATO. Which volumes, when for the most part, hee had rehearsed, being now well stricken in yeeres and growing wearie, hee made over to TIBERIUS for to be reade through. In like manner hee wrote certaine Exhortations unto Philosophie, and somewhat of his owne life: which hee declared in XXX. Libris, or rather xiii. according to [...], and all old Copies. thirtie bookes, even unto the Cantabrian warre, and no farther. As for Poetrie hee dealt in it but superficially. One Treatise there is extant written by him in Hexametre ver­ses, The argument whereof, is Sicilie, and so it is entituled. There is another booke also, as little as it, of Epigrammes: which for the most part hee studied upon and devised whiles hee was in the Baines. For, having in a great and ar­dent heat begun a Called Aiax. Tragaedie, when he saw his stile would not frame thereto and speede no better, he defaced and wiped it quite out. And when some of his friends asked him, How AIAX did? he answered, that his AIAX was Was wiped away or blot­ted out with a spunge: allu­ding to Aiax that fell upon his own sword: whereof So­phocles made a Tragaedie en­tituled Aiax. fallen upon a (a) Spunge.

86 The Eloquence that he followed was of an Elegant & temperate kind: wherein he avoided unapt and unfit Sentences, as also the stinking savours, as himselfe saith, of darke and obscure words: but tooke especiall care how to expresse his minde and meaning most plainely and evidently. For the better effecting whereof, and because hee would not in any place trouble and stay reader or hearer, hee stucke not either to put Prepositions unto Verbes, or to iterate Coniunctions very oft: which being taken away breed some obscurity, although they yeeld a greater grace. As for those that affect (a) new-made words, such also as use old termes past date, hee loathed and reiected alike, as faulty, both the sorts of them in a contrary kinde. Those he shooke up divers times, but especially his friend MAECENAS, whose (b) Murobrecheis Curled lokes or feakes, glib and dropping againe with sweat. cincinnos for these were his termes he evermore curseth and taxeth, yea and by way of (c) imitation merrily scoffeth at. Neither spared he so much as TIBERIUS for hunting otherwhiles after old words out of use, and such be obscure and hardly [Page 77] understood. As for MARCUS ANTONIUS, he rateth him as if he were fran­tick, for writing that which men may rather wonder at, than under stand. And pro­ceeding to mocke his lewd and unconstant humour in choosing a kinde of e­loquence by himselfe, he added thus much moreover. And are you in doubt to imitate CIMB [...]R (d) ANNIUS and VERANIUS FLACCUS, so that you might use the wordes which CRISPUS SALUSTIUS gathered out of [...], who wrote a booke of Antiquities, so called. CATOES Ori­gines? or rather transfer the rolling tongue of Asiatick Oratours, full of vaine words, and void of pithy sentences into our language and manner of speech? And in a cer­taine Epistle, praising the ready wit of AGRIPPINA By his daugh [...] ter Iulia, and M. Agrippa the mother of Ca­l [...]gula. his owne niece, But you have neede, quoth hee, to endevour that neither in writing nor in speaking, you be troublesome and odious.

In his daily and ordinary talke certaine phrases hee had which hee used very87 often and significantly: as the letters of his owne hand writing doe evidently shew: In which, ever and anon, when hee meant some that would never pay their debts. He said, They would pay ad At the Greek Calendas at latter [...] for the Greeks had no Ca lends, no more than the La­ti [...]es [...] ­as, i. rewe moones to be­gin their mo­neths with. And yet the word seemeth to be derived of Kal [...] in Greeke. Calendas Graecas. And when he exhor­ted men to beare patiently the present state what ever it was, Let us content our selves, quoth hee, with this Read [...]. Saturnal. 2. CATO. To expresse the speedy expedition of a thing done hastily. Quicker, would he say, than SPARAGES can be sodden. Hee putteth also continually for St [...]ltus *, Baceolus [...] A foole.: For Vel [...] a [...], vel [...] ­lus, a Blax, vel [...]. Pullus, Pulleiace [...]s: and for Ceritus, Vacerrosus; and in steede of Male se habere, Vapi [...]e se habere: and for Languere, Betizare, which commonly we meane by Lachanizare Or for [...]. i. Pul [...]gium, Puleiace [...]m.. Semblably, for, simus, sumus; and d [...]mos, in the genetive case singular for [...]. And never used hee these two words otherwise, that no man should thinke it was a fault rather than a custome. Thus much also have I observed, especially in his ma­nuscripts, That he never cutteth a word in sunder: nor in the end of any Or [...] ­sare. rewes transferreth the overplus of letters unto those next following, but presently putteth them downe even there underneath, and encloseth them (within a compasse line).

88 Orthographie, that is to say, the forme & precise rule of writing set down by Grammarians, he did not so much observe: but seemeth to follow their o­pinion rather, who thinke, Men should write according as they speake. For, where­as oftentimes he either exchangeth or leaveth cleane out, not letters onely but syllables also, that is a common errour among men. Neither would I note thus much, but that it seemeth strange unto mee, which some have written of him, namely, That he substituted another, in the place of a Consulare Lieute­nant* Or [...]nes. (as one altogether rude and unlearned) because hee had marked in his hand-writing, ixi, for, ipsi. And looke how often himselfe writeth darkly by way of ciphring, hee putteth . b. for . a.. c. for . b. and so forth after the same manner, the letters next following in steede of the former: and for. x. a du­ple [...] a.

Neither verily was he lesse in love with the studie of Greeke literature: For,89 even therein also he highly excelled, as having beene brought up and taught under the professed Rhetorician Apollodorus of Pergamus. VVhom beeing now very aged, himselfe as yet but young had forth of Rome with him to A­pollonia. Afterwards, also when he was well furnished with variety of eruditi­on and learning of (a) SPHAERUS; he entred into familiar acquaintance, with [Page 88] AREUS the Philosopher and his two sonnes, DRONYSIUS and NICANOR: yet so, as for all that he neither could speake readily, nor durst compose anyIn Greeke: thing. For if occasion required ought, he drew it in Latine, and gave it unto a­nother for to be translated into Greeke. And, as he was not altogether unskil­full in Poemes, so he tooke delight even in the (b) olde Comoedie also, which he exhibited oftentimes to be acted in publique solemnities. In reading over and perusing Authors of both Languages, hee sought after nothing so much as holsome precepts and examples, serving to publique or private use: and those, when he had gathered out of them word for word, hee sent either to his inward friends and domesticall Servitours, or to the Commaunders of armies and Governours of Provinces: or else for the most part to the Magistrates of the Citie, according as any of them needed admonition. Moreover, whole bookes he both read from one end to the other unto the Senate, and also pub­lished oftentimes to the people by proclamation: as namely, the Orations of Q. (c) METELLUS touching the propagation and multiplying of children: those likewise of RUTILIUS concerning the modelAs wel to cut of the expenses of sumpteous aed fices as to prevent danger by Skare-fires. and forme of buildings: thereby the rather to perswade them, That hee was not the first that lookt into both these matters, but that their fore-fathers in old time had even then a care and re­gard thereof. The fine wits flourishing in his daies he cherished by all meanes possible. Such as rehearsed before him their Compositions he gave audience unto, courteously and with patience: notonely verses and histories, butWhich were not so usually red and reher­sed in open au­dience. ora­tions also and dialogues. Mary, if anything were written of himselfe, unlesse it were done with serious gravity and by the best, hee tooke offence thereat; and gave the Praetours in charge not to suffer his name to be made vulgar and stale, in the trivial contentions (of Oratours, Poets, &c) when they were mat­ched one with another.

For Religious scrupulosity and Superstition, thus by heere-say hee stoode90 affected. Thunder and Lightning hee was much affraide of: in so much as al­waies and in every place, hee caried about him for a preservative remedie aOr of a sea calfe, wich as Plinie writeth checketh all lightnings: Seales skinne: yea, and whensoever he suspected there would be any extraor­dinarie storme or tempest, he would retire himselfe into a close secret roome under (a) ground, and vaulted above head: Which hee did, because once in times past, he had beene frighted with a flash of lightning, crossing him in his iourney by night; as we have before related.

As for dreames, neither his owne, nor other mens of himselfe, he neglected.91 At the battaile of PHILIPPI. albeit hee meant not to step out of his pavilion by reason of sicknesse, yet went hee forth, warned so to doe by the dreame of hisMedici, Some read, am [...]ci, . a friend: Physitian. And it fell out well for him: considering that after his Campe forced and woon by the enemies, his licter was in that concurse of theirs stab­bed through and all to rent and torne, as if hee had remained there behind ly­ing sicke. Himselfe every spring was wont to see many visions most fearefull, but the same proved vaine illusions and to no purpose: at other times of the yeere he dreamed not so often, but yet to more effect. When as hee ordinarily frequented the temple dedicated to IUPITER, the Thunderet in the Capitoll, he dreamed that IUPITER CAPITOLINUS complained, How his worshippers were taken from him perforce: and That hee answered, Hee had placed Thundering [Page 79] IUPITER hard by him, insteede of a Dore keeper, & Or top. Porter: whereuppon soone after hee a­dorned theOr chime Lanterne of that Temple with aTo raise the porters. Ringe of belles, because such commonly do hange at mensAs beggers do. Gates. By occasion of a vision by night, he begged (a) yearely uppon a certaine day mony of the people, and held out his handOr peeces, worth, ob. q q. hollow to those that brought and offred unto him brasen * Dodkins or mites called Asses.

Certaine foretokens and ominous signes he observed as unfallible presa­ges,92 to wit, if in a morning his shoes were put one wronge, and namely, the left for the right, he held it unluckie: Againe, when hee was to take a­ny long journey by land or sea, if it chanced to mizzle of raine, hee tooke that for a luckie signe betokening a speedie and prosperous returne. But moo­ved he was especially with uncouth and supernaturall sights. There happened a date tree to spring forth betweene the very joincts of the stones before his dore, which he remooved and transplanted in the inward court of his dome­sticallWherin they stood, Gods; taking great care that it might get roote and grow there. Hee joied so much that in the Iland Capreae, the boughes of a very old holmetree hanging and drouping now for age down to the ground, became fresh againe at his comming thither, that he would needes make an exchang with the State of Naples, and in liev of that Iland geve them AENARIA. Certaine dayes also hee precisely observed: as for example: hee would not take a journey any whither, the day after the (a) Nundinae: nor begin any serious matter uppon the Nones of a Moneth: Herein verily avoyding and eschewing nought ese, as he writeth unto TIBERIVS, but the unluckieDusphemian nominis: ominousnesse of the name.

Of foraine ceremonies and religions, as hee entertained with all reverence93 those that were auncient, and whereof hee conceived good reason: so hee despised the rest. For having beene instituted and professed (in the sacred myste­ries of CERES) at Athens, when afterwards he sat judicially upon the Tribu­nall at Rome to here and determine a controversie as touching the priviledge of CERES priests in Attica, and perceiued that certaine points of great se­crecie were proposed there to be debated: hee dismissed the assembly and multitude of people standing all about in the Court, and himselfe alone heard them plead the cause; But contrariwise, not onely when hee roade in visitation all over Aegypt, himselfe forbore to turne a little out of his way for to see (a) Apis, but also cōmended his nephew CAIVS, because in ryding through Iurie, he did not so much as onceOr do his de­votions: make supplication in (b) Hierusalem.

And seeing we have proceeded thusIn the histori­call reports of so great and worthy a prin [...] farre, it would not be impertinent to annex hereto, what befell unto him before hee was borne? What happened94 uppon his verie birth day? And what presently ensued thereupon? Whereby, that future greatnes and perpetuall felicity of his, might be hoped for and ob­served. At velitre, part of the (Towne) wall in olde time had beene blasted by lightening: uppon which occasion, answere was given by ORACLE, that a Citizen of that Towne should one day be ruler of the world. The Velitrines, in confidence hereof, both then immediatly, and afterwardes also, many a time warred with the people of Rome, even wel neere to their own finall ruine and destructiō. At length (though late it was) by good proofes and evidences it appeared that the said strange accident, portended the mightie [Page 80] power of AVOVSTVS. IVLIUS MARATHVS reporteth, that some sixe mo­neths before AVGVSTVS Nativitie, there happened at Rome a prodigie pub­likely knowne, whereby foreshewed and denounced it was, That nature was a­bout to bring forth a King (a) over the people of Rome, at which the Senate beeing affrighted made an Act, That no man child that yeere borne should be reared and brought vp. But they whose wives then, were great bellied (for everie one was readie to drawe the hope unto himselfe,) tooke order, That the saide Act, of the Senate shold not be brought into the Cittie Chamber and there enrolled. I reade in the bookes of ASCLEPIADESor Mendesius bearing the name of the Cittie Mendes in Aegypt. Mendes entituled Theologoumenon, Of diuine dis­courses. Howe ATIA, being come at midnight to celebrate the solemne sacrifice and divine seruice of Apollo, whilest other dames slept, fell fast a sleepe also; and sodainely a (b) ser­pent crept close unto her, and soone after went forth from her: She therewith being awakened purified her selfe, as she would haue done uppon her husbands companie with her; and presently there arose to bee seene uppon her bodie a certaine marke or specke representing the picture of a serpent, which never af­ter could be gotten out: in so much as immediatly thereupon shee forbore the publike baines for ever: Also, how in the x. moneth after, she was delivered of AVGVSTVS: & for this cause he was reputed to be the sonne of Apollo. The same ATIA, before she was brought to bed of him, dreamed that her entrails were heaved up to the stars, and there stretched foorth & spred all over the cō ­passe of earth and heaven. His father OCTAVIVS likewise dreamed, that out of the wombe of ATIA; there arose the shining beames of the Sun. The very day on which he was borne, what time as the conspiracie of CATILINE was de­bated in the Senate house, and OCTAVIVS by occasion of his wives Child­birth came verie late thither, well knowne it is and commonly spoken, that P.The mother of Augustus. NIGIDIVS understandinge the cause of his stay, so soone as he lear­ned the hourefamous Astrologer. also when shee was delivered, gave it out confidently, That there was borne the Soveraine Lorde of the Worlde. Afterwardes, when OCTAVIVS leadinge an Armie through the secret partes of Thracia, inquired in the Sacred grove of Liber pater (according to the rites and ceremonies of that Barbarous Religion,) concerning his sonne, the same aunswere hee received from the Priestes there; For, that when the wine was powred uppon the Altars, there arose from thence so great a shining flame, as surmounted theAnd thereby the Horoscope of his Nativity Lanterne of the Temple. and so ascended uppe to Heaven: and that in times past the like strange token happened to ALEXANDER the great, and to none but him, when hee sa­crificed uppon the same Altars. Moreover, the night next following, heeOr Steeple▪ presently thought he sawe his sonne carrying a stately Maiestie above the ordinarie proportion of a mortall wight; with aOctavius: Thunder bolt and a Scepter (in his hand) with the Triumphant Robes also of Iupiter. Opt: Max. (uppon his backe) and a Radiant Coronet (on his head): over and be­sides* Which pro­perly are attributed unto Iupiter: his Chariot dight with Lawrell and drawne with 12: steedes exceeding white. While hee was yet a very babe, (as C. DRVSVS hath left in wri­ting extant,) being by his nource laide in the evening within a Cradell in swad­ling bands, beneath uppon a lowe floure: the next morning hee could no where bee seene: and after longe seekinge was found at last, lying uppon a* Augustus [Page 81] verie high Turret just against the Sunne-rysinge. So soone as hee began to speake, hee commaunded the Frogges to keepe silence, that by the mannour of his Grandsires by the Cittie side, chaunced to make a foule noyse: and thereuppon ever after, the Frogges in that place are not able to croke. A­bout foure miles from Rome, as yeeIn the way App [...]. goe directly to Capua, it fell out, that sodainely an Aegle snatched a peece of bread out of his hand as hee tooke his dinner within a pleasant grove: and when he had mounted up a very great height, came gently downe of a suddaine againe and restored unto him the same: Q. CATVLVS after the dedication of the Capitol dreamed two nights together: In the former. him thought, that Iupiter Optimus Maximus: Whiles many young boyes, Noble mens sonnes, were playing abovt his Alter, seue­red one of them from the rest and bestowed in his bosome the publike broade (c) Seale of theOr Ci [...] State to carrie in his hand. And the next night followinge he saw in another dreame the same boy in the bosome of Iupiter CAPITOLI­NVS: Whome when hee commaunded to bee pulled from thence, prohibited hee was by the admonition of the God, as if the same boy should be brought up for the defence and tuition of the Common-weale: Nowe the morrowe after, chauncing to meete with (young) AVGVSTVS, (whome earst hee had not knowne before,) hee beheld him wistly not without great admiration, and withall openly gave it out, That hee was for all the world like unto that boy of whom hee dreamed. Some tell the former dreame of CATVLVS otherwise: as if Iupi­ter, (when as a number of those boyes required of him a Tutor) pointed out one of them, unto whome they should referre all their desires: and so lightly touching his lipps, & taking as it were an assay therof with his fingers, brought that kisse backe to his own mouth; M. CICERO having accompanied CAIVS CAESAR into the Capitoll, happened to report unto his familiar friendes the dreame hee had the night before: namely how a boy of an ingenious face and countenance, was let downe from heaven by a golden Chaine, and stoode at the doore of the Capitoll, unto whom Iupiter deliuered a (d) whip: Hereuppon espying at unawares (little) AVGVTVS whom (as yet altogether unknown to most men) his Vnkle CAESAR had sent for to the sacrifice, hee avouched plain­ly, that this boy was very he, whose Image was represented unto him in a visi­on as he lay a sleepe. When hee was putting on his virile gowne, it fortuned that his broadWhich Caesar had giuen him instead of [...] ­carecta. studded Coate with purple; being unstitched in the seames of both shoulders, fell frō about him downe to his feete. There were who made this interpretation; That it betookened nothing else, but that the Senators. degree whereof that Robe was a badge shold one day be subiected unto him. IVLIUS of sacred memorie being about to choose a plot of ground: for to encamp in, about Munda, as he cut downe a wood, chanced to light upon a date tree which he caused to bee spared and reserved as the verie presage of victorie: from the root of it, there sprung immediately certaine shoots which in few dayes grew so fast, that they not onely equallized but over topped also and shadowed their stocke: yea and * doves haunted the same, therein to nestle and breede. notwithstanding that kind of birde cannot of all others away with any hard leaves and rough bran­ches. Vppon this straunge sight especially, CAESAR, by report was mooved to suffer none other to succeede him in the Empire but his sistersDoues or con­secrate to Ve [...] from whence the Iulij are descended. By them therefore & the date tree was infigured perpetuall feli­citie to that name and fa­milia. Nephewe. AVGVSTVS, during the time that he was retired to Apollonia, went up in the [Page 82] companie of AGRIPPA, into the Or schoole. gallerie of Theogenes the Or Astrolo­ger. mathematician. Now, when AGRIPPA, (who inquired first what his owne fortune should be) had great matters and those in manner incredible foretold unto him; AV­GVSTVS Aug [...]stus. himselfe concealed the time of his owne nativitie, and in no wise would utter the same; for feare and bashfulnesse, least he should be found infe­riour to the other. But when, hardly after many exhortations and much a doe, hee had delivered the same, Theogenes leapt foorth and worshipped him. AVGVSTVS then anone conceived so greate a confidence in his for­tunes, that hee divulged his Horoscope and the ascendent of his Natiui­tie: yea and also stamped a peece of silver coyne, with the marke of the Celestiall signe Capricornus, under which figure and Constellation hee was borne.

After CAESARS death, being returned from Apollonia, as he entred Rome 95 Cittie, sodainely when the skie was cleere and wether verie faire, a certaine round coronet in forme of a raine bowe compassed the circle of the Sunne, and therewith soone after, the monument of IVLIA, CAESARS daughter was smitten with lightening. Moreover in his first (a) Consulship, whiles he atten­ded to take his Augurie, there were presented unto him, like as to Romulus, 12 Or Vulturs. geirs: and as hee sacrificed, the Livers of all the beasts then killed appeared in open view enfolded double, and turned inwardly from the nether fillet; And no man of skill conjectured otherwise, but that prosperitie and greatnes hereby was portended.

Furthermore, the very events, also of all his warres hee foresaw. What96 time as all the forces of the Antonie Lep [...]dus, and Octa [...]ius Augu­stus. Tri [...]mvirs were assembled together at Bo [...]onia, an Aegle perching over his tent, all to beat ij. Ravens that assailed and fell uppon her of either side, and in the end strucke them both down to the ground: which sight the whole armie marked verie well, and presaged thereby that one day, there would arise betweene the Colleagues of that Triumvirate such discorde, and the like ensued thereof, as after followed. At Philippi there was a cer­taine And therfore by likelihoode a wizard. Thessalian, who made report of the future victorie: alledging for his au­thor CAESAR of famous memorie, whose Orspectre. Image encountred him as he jour­nied in a desert and by-way. About Perusia whē he offred sacrifice & could not [...] Obtaine the fauour of the Gods. speede, but demaunded (a) more beasts still to be killed: behold, the enemies made a sodaine sallie forth, caught up and carried away the whole provision of the Sacrifice. The Soothsayers then agreed uppon this point, Teat those pe­rilous and adverse calamities which had beene threatned and denounced to him that sacrificed should light all, and returne upon their heads, who got the Inwards; And so it fell out in deed. The day before he fought the battaile at Sea neere Sicilie, as he walked upon the shore, a fish leapt out of the sea and lay at his feeet. At Acti­ [...]m, as hee was going downe to fight the battaile, there met him in the way an Asse with his driver, the mans name was (b) EVTYCHVS, and the beasts Ni­con: After victorie obtained, hee set uppe the Images of them both in brasse, within that Temple, into which hee converted the verie place where he encamped.

His death also (whereof from hence forth I will write) and his deification97 after death was knowne before by many signes most evident, when hee had ta­ken a review of the Cittie; and was about the solemne Called Lustr [...] purging therof within [Page 83] Mars fiela before a frequent assemblie of people: an Aegle there was that soa­red oftentimes round about him, and crossing at length from him unto a house thereby, setled upon the name of AGRIPPA, and iust upon the first A. letter of that name; Which when he perceived, the vowes which the manner was to be made untill the next (a) Lustrum, he commanded his colleague TIBE­RIVS to nuncupate and pronounce. For, notwithstanding the Tables and (b) in­struments containing them were now written and in readinesse, yet denied he to undertake those vowes which he should never pay. About the same time the first C▪ in [...]. letter of his owne name, upon a flash and stroke of lightening went quite out of the Inscription that stood uppon his statue: Aunswere was made by the Soothsaiers, that he was to live but iust one hundred dayes after: which number that letter did betoken; And that it would come to passe that hee should bee Canonized and registred among the Gods, because AESAR, the residue of the name CAESAR, in the Tuskane Language signified God. Being about therefore to send TI [...]IVS away into Illyricum and to companie him as far as Beneventum, when diverse suiters, for one cause or other interrupted him, yea and detained him about hearing and determining matters iudicially, hee cryed out alowd (which also within a while was rec­kenedFor Ast [...]ra was a water towne with a river also of that name running by it as a pr [...]saging osse,) That were he once out of Rome, he would never after be there againe what occasion soever might make him stay. And so being entered upon his journie he went forward as far as to Astura: and so presently frō thence (contrary (c) to his usuall maner,) with the benefite of a forewind & gentle gale * tooke water by night and sayled over.

The cause of his sickenes he caught by a flux of the bellie. And for that98 time having coasted Campanie and made circuit about the Ilands next ad­ioyning, he bestowed also foure dayes within a retiring place of pleasure at Ca­pre [...]: where he gave his minde to all ease and courteous affabilitie. It happe­ned as he passed by the Bay of Puteoli, certaine passengers and souldiers out of a ship (a) of ALEXANDRIA, which then was newly arrived, all clad in white, dight also with garlands, and burning frankincense, had heaped upon him all good & fortunate words, chaunting his singular prayses in these terms. That by him they liued, by him they sayled, by him they enioyed their freedome, and all the ri­ches they had. At which, he tooke great contentment and was cheered at the heart; Insomuch as thereupon he divided to everie one of his traine about him 40, (b) peeces of gold, but he required an oath againe & assurance of ech one, that they should not lay out that monie otherwise than in buying the wares (c) & commodities of ALEXANDRIA. For certaine dayes together that remained, among diverse and sundrie gifts, he distributed among them over and above, gownes and clokes, with this condition, that Romans should use the Greekish ha­bite and speake likewise Greeke; the Greekes also weare Romaine attire and use their language. He beheld also continually the youthes exercising themselues (of whome their remained yet some store at Capreae) according to the of the greeke who sometime inhabited those parts. auncient custome. And even unto them he made a feast in his owne sight, permitting them or rather exacting of them, their olde libertie of sporting, of snatching appels and cates, and of sk [...]mbling for such small gifts and favours as were sent or skattered abroad. In one word, he forbare no manner of mirth and pastime. The Isle (d) hard by Capreae, he called Apragopolis, of the Idlenesse of such as [Page 84] out of his traine retired themselues thither. But one of his beloved minions named (f) MASGA [...]AS, hee had wont merily to call [...], as one would say, The fo [...]der of that Iland. The sepulcher of this MASGA [...]AS (who died a yeare before) when he perceived one time out of his dining chamber to be fre­quented with a sort of people and many lights: he pronounced this verse a loud which he made ex tempore.


[...] see the Tombe of The founder KTISTES all on fire.’

And therewith turning to THRASYLLUS a companion of TIBERIV [...] sitting over against him, and not woting what the matter was, he asked him of what Poets making he thought that verse to be? And when he stucke at the que­stion and made no answere, he came out with an other to it.


‘Thou seest with lights MASGABAS honoured.’

Of this verse also he demaunded whom he thought to be the maker? but when THRASYLLVS returned no other answere but this, That whosoever made them, right excellent they were; he laughed a good and made himselfe exceeding merie. Soone after he crossed over to Naples, albeit even then his guts were greatly enseebled & Or if yee dis­tinguish thus Morbo var [...]ante tamen &c yet by reason that his disease a [...]te­rod, & himselfe was better some time then other, the disease (g) grew variable: yet for all that, the (h) Quin­quēnal Gymnick games instituted in the honor of him, he beheld to the very end, and so together with TIBERIVS went to the place appointed. But in his return from thence, his disease increased more and more, so as at length he yeelded to it, at Nola: where, having sent for TIBERIVS and called him backe from his journey, he held him a great while in secret tal [...]e; neither from that time fra­med he his minde to any greater affaire.

Vppon his dying day, enquiring ever and anone, whether there was as yet99 any sturre and tumult abroad as touching him? hee called for a A looking glasse. mirror, and commanded the haire of his head to bee combed & trimmed▪ his chawes also readie for weakenesse to hang or fall, to be composed and set straight. Then ha­ving admitted his friends to come unto him, and asked of them whether, they thought he had acted well the Enterlude of his life? he adioyned with all this finall Or chaps. conclusion, for a Plaudite,


‘Now clap your hands and all with ioy resounda shout.’

After this he dismissed them all, and whiles hee questioned with some that were new come frō the Cittie, cōcerning the daughter of DRVSVS thē sicke▪ sodainely amidst the kisses of LIVIA, and in these words he gave up the ghost, Live minafull LIVIA of our wedlocke, and so farewell. Thus died he an easie death and such as he had euer wisned to have, For lightly, so often as he heard of any body to have departed this life quickely & without all panges, he prayed unto God, that hee and his might have the like As the man­ner is at the ende of Co [...] ­dies to call for a Piaudite▪ hee persisted ther­fore in the me­taphor, and by this p [...]audite, allego [...]izeta t [...]e end of this life, which hee called before M [...]mumrite. E [...]thanasia, for, that was the verie word he was wont to vse. One signe onely and no more he shewed of a minde* E [...]thanasia. disquieted and distracted, before he yeelded up his vitall breath: in that he sud­dainely started as in a fright and complained, That hee was harried away by 40. tall and lustie younge men. And even that also was rather a pregnant presage of his minde, than a raving fitte and idle conceit of light braine. For so many souldiers they were indeede of the Pr [...]torian bande: who carried [Page 85] him forth (dead) into the streete upon their shoulders.

Hee died in that very bed-chamber wherein his Father OCTAVIUS left his100 life before him, when POMPEIUS and APPULEIUS, having both their fore­nameA. V. C. 769. SEXTUS, were Consuls: The Ni [...]e­teenth of Au­gust. Foureteene daies before the Calends of Sep­tember, at the About three of the clocke after noone. ninth houre of the day: being 76 yeeres olde wanting five and thirtie daies. His corps was conveighed and borne by the Decurions Aldermen, [...] Senat [...]. of the free burrowghes and Colonies from Nola to Bovillae by night, for the hote season of the yeere: whereas till the day time it was bestowed in the Hall of e­very towne, or else in the greatest (a) temple thereof. From Bovillae the de­gree of Romaine Gentlemen tooke charge of it, and brought it into the Citie of Rome, where they placed it within the Porc [...] of his owne house. The Se­nate both in setting out his Funerals, & also in honouring his memorialls, pro­ceeded so farre in striving, who should shew greater affection, That among many other complements, some were of minde, That the pompe and solemne conv [...]y of his obsequies, should passe forth at the Triumphal gate with the image of vic­torie, which is in the Court Iulia going before: and the chiefe Noble-mens chīl­dren of both sexes singing a dolefull and lamentable song, others opined, that upon the very day of this funerall, their (b) rings of gold should be layd away and others of [...]ron put on. Againe, divers gave advise, That his bones should be gathered A thing a­ga [...]st the olde rece [...]ued religi­on. ap by the (c) priests of the most [...]ncient Societies. And one above the rest would have had the name of the moneth Before him called [...]. August to be shifted and transferred unto September; For that, AUGUSTUS was borne in this and died in the other. Another perswaded, That all the time from his very birth unto the dying day,The August age. should be named Or before. S [...]CULUM AUGUSTUM, and so recorded in the Kalen­dars and Chronicles. But, thought best it was, to keepe a meane in the Ho­nours done unto him. Whereupon, twice, and in two severall places praised hee was in a funerall Oration: once before the temple of IULIUS late decea­sed, of sacred memorie, by TIBERIUS; and againe D [...]o namet [...] him [...] Atticus: & saith, he was hired by L [...]via for two millians of Se­sterce [...], to swe­are that of Au­gustus, which Procul [...] had somtime swora of Rem [...]s. at the (d) Rostra under the Veteres, by DRUSUS the sonne of TIBERIUS, and so upon Senatours shoulders was hee borne into Camp [...]s Marti [...]s, and there committed to the fire & burnt. Neither wanted there a Or true Por­traict. grave personage, one that had been Pre­tor, who affirmed & bound it with an oath, That he saw his very Or shir [...]s, [...] some would e [...] pound [...]nicis. image when he was burnt, ascending up to heaven. The chiefe Gentlemen of the Knights order, in their single In [...]. wastcoates, ungirt & bare-footed gathered up (e) his re­liques together, & bestowed them in a stately (f) monument The third of Ap [...]ill.: which peece of work himselfe had built between the street Flaminia & the bank of Tiberis in his sixth Consulship, & even then given the Groves growing about it & the walks adioyning to be common for the use of the people of Rome for ever.

101 His last will & testament made by him when L. PLANCUS and C. S [...]L­IUS were Consuls, the third day before the For default of the other if they dyed. Nones of April, a yeere and foure moneths before hee died, and the same in two bookes written partly with his owne hand, and in part with the hands of POLIRUS and HILARIUS his freed men, the vestall virgins (a) who had the keeping thereof upon trust brought forth; together with three other rolls or volumes sealed alike. All which In­struments were opened and read in the Senate. He ordained for his 6 heires; In the first place, TIBERIUS of the one halfe and a (b) sixt part: and LIVIA of a (c) third: whom also he appointed to beare his owne (a) name. In a second [Page 86] ranke, hee appointed DRUSUS the sonne of TIBERIUS to inherit one third part: and GERMANICUS with his three male children, the other parts remai­ning. InIf the second heires failed, a third degree, he nominated of his owne kinsfolk, Allies & friends, very many. Hee bequeathed as a legacie to the (e) people of Rome Som read qua aringēt [...]es tricies quinquies: and then it is three millions and a halfe more. 400000 Sesterces an hundred times told. To the Souldiours of theOr Praetorium band. guard a thousand Sesterces a peece. Among the Cohorts of the City Souldiours 500, & to those of the Legionarie cohorts 300 a peece. Which summe of money he cōmaun­ded to be paied presently: For hee had so much in store at all times (put up in bagges and coffers) lying by him. Sundry parcels gave hee besides by legacie parole. And of some thereof he deferred theProdux t [...] ­quaedam ad vi­cena Sestertia. So [...]orrentius expoundeth it. payment, if the same were above 20000 Sesterces. For paying of which he set a yeeres day at the farthest: alled­ging for his excuse his meane estate; and protesting, that by this account there would not come to his heires hands, above 150Of Sesterc [...]s. millions: albeit within the compasse of 20 yeeres immediatly going before, hee had received by the wills and testaments of his friendsQuater decies millies, foure thousand mil­lions. 4000 millions. All which masse of treasure, to­gether with two patrimonies by hisOctarius and Iulius Caesar. two fathers and other inheritances, hee had spent wel-neere every whit upon the Common-weale. The two IULIE, to wit, his daughter &His daugh­ters daughter. niece, (ifIf they died. ought hapned unto them), he forbad expresly to be enterred in his owne Mausoleum. Of those three Rolls or Instruments a­bove named, in the first he comprised his owne directions as touching his fune­rall: The second contained a Register or Index, of those Acts which he had at­chieved: and his pleasure was, that the same should be engraven in brazenA [...]is tabulis, other writers say, Pillers. ta­bles, and erected before his Mausoleum. In the third he represented a Breviarie and abstract of the whole Empire: to wit, How many Souldiours were enrolled and in pay, in any place whatsoever? as also, How much money was in the common Treasurie of the City and in his owne coffers? Lastly, what the arrierages were of such revenewes and tributes as were due to the state and unpaid: Whereto he an­nexed also a Shedule, containing the names of Freed men and bond, his receivers, at whose hands the reckoning might be ex­acted.

THE HISTORIE OF Tiberius Nero Caesar,


THe Patritian familie CLAUDIA (for, there was likewise1 another Plebeian of that name, neither in power nor dig­nity inferiour) had the first beginning out ofOr Regil [...]. Regillum a Towne of the Sabines. From thence they came with a great retinue of vassals to Rome newly founded, there to dwell: induced thereto by the counsell of T. TATIUS fel­low in government of the kingdome with ROMULUS; or (which is the more received opinion) through the perswasion of (a) ATTAOr Cla [...] CLAUDIUS, a principall person of that house, about the 6 yeere after the kings were expelled and so, by the Senatours of Rome; raunged they were among the Patritij. Vpon this, soone after, they received by vertue of a graunt from the whole City, for their Clients & vassals, lands to occupy beyond the river Anio: [Page 88] and for themselves aLocum. Some read lucum, not in the strict sig­nification of a sacred Grove, but of a plea­sant tuft of trees where­with monu­ments were beautified: as you may ga­ther by the Mausoleum of Augustus. place of sepulture under the Capitol: and so forth, in processe of time obtained 28 Consulates, five Dictatures, Censures seaven, Triumphs sixe, and two Ovations. This family being distinguished by sundry fore-names and surnames both, in a generall consent reiected the fore-name of LUCIUS, after that two of their linage bearing that name were convict, the one of robberie, the other of murder. Among surnames it assumed the addition of (b) NERO, which in the Sabine tongue signifieth Strong or stout.

2 Many of these Claudij, as they deserved many waies passing well of the Common-wealth: so, in as many sorts they faulted and did amisse. But to re­late the principall examples onely in both kindes; APPIUS surnamed [...] Blind. A. V. C. 474 490 457 CAE­CUS was hee, who disswaded the entring into league and societie with King PYRRHUS, as preiudiciall unto the State: (a) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX was the first man that passed over the narrow Seas with a fleete, and drave the Car­thaginians out of Sicilie: CLAUDIUS NERO surprised and defaited AS­DRUBAL comming out of Spaine with a very great and puissant armie before he could ioyne with his brother ANNIBAL. Contrariwise,Or Appius Claudius. CLAUDIUS AP­PIUSA. V. C. 304 REGILLANUS being. i. One of the t [...]n Decemvirs. Decemvir chosen to frame and pen the Romai [...]e Lawes, went about by violence (for the satisfaction of his fleshly lust) to en­thra [...]l a virgine Free-borne: and thereby gave occasion to the Commons for to fall away and forsake the Nobles a second time. CLAUDIUS DRUSUS ha­ving his owne statue erected with a Diademe in a Towne called (b) Forum Appij, attempted with the helpe of his favorites and dependants to hold all [...]ta­lie in his owne hands. CLAUDIUS. [...]. The Faire. A. V. C. 505 PULCHER, when as in taking of his, (c) Auspicia before Sicilie, the sacred pullets would not feede, caused them, in con­tempt of Religion, to be plunged into the Sea, That they might drinke seeing they would not eate: and thereupon strucke a battaile at Sea: In which, beeing van­quished, and commaunded by the Senate to nominate a Dictator, scorning, as it were, aud making but a iest at the publique danger & calamitie of the State, named a (base) Sergeant of his owne calledOr Ilycia. GLYCIA. There stand likewise upon record, the examples of women, and those as divers and contrary. For, two CLAUDIAE there were of the same house: both sheePlin: Nat. hifi: lib. 7. cap▪ 35. that drew forth the ship with the sacred images of theCybeie, Idaean mother of the Gods sticking fast and grounded within theOr Barr: shelves of TIBERIS, having before made her prai­er openly, That as she was a true and pure virgin, so the ship might follow her, and not otherwise▪ as also another, who after a strange and new manner beingC. F [...]eius. aA. V. C: 580. For, unto this time that sex had not beene endi [...]ed and▪ t­ [...]aint of treasō. See Va [...]er, Max. lib 8, c [...]p. 1 [...] A. V. C. 695 woman, was araigned before the people of high treason, for that when her Coach wherein shee rode could hardly passe forward by reason of a thicke throng and preasse of people, she had openly wished, That her brother PULCHER were alive againe, and might leese a fleete the second time, to the end there might be by that meanesae lesse multitude at Rome. Moreover, very well knowne it is, that all the CLAUDII, excepting onely that P. CLODIUS who for expelling CI­CERO out of Rome, suffred himselfe to be adopted by a * Commoner and one younger (a) also than himselfe, were alwaies Optimates, the onely maintainers or patrons of the dignitie and power of the Patritians: yea, and in opposition of the Commons so violent, stubborne and selfe-willed that not one of them, although he stoode upon his triall for life and death before the people, could [Page 89] finde in his hart so much as to change his (e) weede, or to crave any favour at their hands. Nay, some of them there were, who in a brawle and altercation, stuck not to beat the very (f) Tribune of the Commons. Furthermore, aClaudia. A. V. C. 61 [...] virgin vestale there was of that name, who when a brother of hers triumphed without a warrant from the people, mounted up with him into the chariot, & accompanied him even into the Capitoll: to this end, that none of the Tri­bunes might lawfullyOf so reve­rent regard were these Nunnes, that no magistrate might either attach or crosse them. oppose themselves and forbid the Triumph.

3 From this race and linage TIBERIUS CAESAR deriveth his Genealogie, and that verily in the whole bloud and of both sides: by his Father, from TI­BERIUS NERO: by his mother from APPIUS PULCHER, who were both of them the sonnes of APPIUS CAECUS. Incorporate hee was besides into the familie of the LIVII, by reason that his Grandfather by theOr mothers grandfather mater [...]o are. mothers side was adopted thereinto: Which family (Commoners though they were) flou­rished notwithstanding and was highly reputed; as being honoured and gra­ced with eight Consulships, two Censureships, and three Triumphs: with a Dictatourship also and Maistership of the Horsemen: renowmed likewise and ennobled for brave and notable men, (a) SALINATOR especially and theOr rather Drusus, A. V. C 550 DRUSI: As for SALINATOR, in his Censureship hee noted and taxed all the Tribes everie one and whole bodie of the people, for unconstant levitie, for that having uppon his former consulship condemned him and set a fine uppon his head, yet afterwardes they made him Consula a second time and Censour besides. DRVSVS, upon the killing of one DRAVSVS the Generall of his e­nemies in close combat and single fight, purchased unto himselfe and his po­steritie after him that surname. It is reported also that this DRVSVS beeingA. V. C. 471 propretour, recovered and fetched againe out of his province Ga [...]le, that gold which in times past had beene given unto the Senatours when they besieged the Capitol: & that it was not CAMILLUS (as the voice goeth) that wrested the same perforce out of their hands. HisOr Nephew, abne [...]os. sonne in the 4. degree of descent, cal­ledA. V. C: 433 for his singular imployment against the Gracchi, Patron of the Senate, left behind him a sonne: whom in the like variance and debate▪ as he was busie in devising and putting in practise sundrie plots, the adverse faction treacherously slew.

4 But, the Father of this TIBERIUS CAESAR, being Treasurer unto C.Dictator. A. V. C. 707 A. V. C. 463 CAESAR, and Admirall of a fleete in the Alexandrine warre performed very good service for the atchieving of victory, whereupon hee was both substitu­ted Pontifex in steed o [...] SCIPIO, and also sent with commission to plant Colo­nies in Gaule, among which wereOr Narbo. A. V C. 710 Narbona and Arelate. Howbeit, after that CAESAR was slaine, when as all men for feare of troubles and uprores decreed a finall abolitionThis is that amnestia which Cicero perswa­ded unto. and oblivion of that fact (and all other quarrels thereupon depending) he proceeded farther and opened, That they should consult about the rewards of such Tyrant-killers. After this, having borne his Pretourship (in theA. V. C. 713 end of which yeere there arose some discord betweene the Triumvirs) hee re­taining by him still theTo wit, his sixe lict [...]rs or vergers with their Knitches of rods & axes sticking therin, Alexand. ab Alexandr [...] ensignes and ornaments of that office after the time fully expired, and following L. ANTONIUS the Consull and the Triumvirs brother, as farre as to Perusi [...], when the rest yeelded themselves, continued a­lone fast, and stuck to the faction (that siided against OCTAVIUS) and first e­scaped to Preneste, then to Naples: where when hee had proclaimed (but in [Page 90] vaine) Servis ad pile­ [...] vocatis: be­cause the cap or bonet was the badge-of freedome. freedome for all bondslaves, hee fled into Sicilie. But taking it to the heart, that hee was not immediatly admitted to the presence of SEXTUS POMPEIUS, but debarred the use of his (a) Knitches of rods to bee borne a­fore him, hee crossed the Seas into Achaia, and went to M. ANTONIUS. With whom, by occasion that shortly after, an attonement and peace was made betweene all parties, hee returned to Rome; and at the request of AU­GUSTUS, yeelded unto him his owne wife LIVIA DRUSILLA, who both at that time was great with child, and also had already before brought him a sonne named TIBERIUS, in his owne house. Not long after, he departed this life, and left his children surviving him, namely TIBERIUS NERO and DRU­SUS NERO.

5 Some have thought that this TIBERIUS (CAESAR) was borne at Fundae, grounding uppon a light coniecture, because his mothers Or his gran­dame by the mothers side. Grandame was a Fundane borne; and for that soone after the image (a) of F [...]licitatis, or F [...]cunditatis i. fruitfulnes. Felicitie, by ver­tue of an Acte of the Senate was there publiquely set up. But, as the most Authors and those of better credite doe write, borne hee was at Rome in the Mount Palatium, the The sixteenth of November. A. V. C. 712 sixteenth day before the Calendes of December, when M. AEMILIUS LEPIDUS was Consull the second time together with MUNATIUS PLANCUS, even after the warre at Philippi: For so it standes upon record and in the publique Registers. Yet there want not some who write otherwise: partly that he was Genitum. borne a yeere before in the Consulship of HIRTIUS and PANSA, and partly the yeere next following, wherein SER­VILIUS ISAURICUS and ANTONIUS were Consuls.

6 His infancie and childhood both were exeeding Lux [...]riosam [...]. growing a pace to matu­rity. forward (a) and the same full of toilesome travaile and daunger, by occasion that every where, hee ac­companied his Parents still, in their flights and escapes. And verily, twice hee had like to have Or discove­red. descried them with his wrawling at Naples, what time as a little before the forcible and suddaine entrie of the enemie, they made shift secretly to get into a ship: namely once, when hee was taken hastily from his Nources breast: and a second time out of his Mothers lap and armes, by those who as the necessity of the time required, did their best to ease the poore wo­men of their burden and loade. Hee was caried away with them likewise through Sicilie and Achaia: yea, and beeing recommended to the Lacedae­monians (who were under the protection of the CLAUDII their Patrones) for to take the charge of him in publique, as hee departed from thence by night, hee was in daunger of his life by reason of a light flaming fire, which suddainly from all parts arose out of a wood: and compassed all the com­panie in his traine so; as that some part of LIVIAES apparell and the haire of her head was scorched and sienged therewith. The giftes bestowed up­pon him in Sicilie by POMPEIA the sister of SEXTUS POMPEIUS, to wit, a little Cloake with a button or claspe to it: likewise studds and bos­ses of golde, continue and are yet shewed to bee seene at Baie. After his re­turne [Page 91] into the Cittie of Rome, beeing adopted by M. GALLIVS a Senatour in his last will and testament, hee accepted of the inheritance and entred up­pon it: but within a while forbare the name, because GALLIVS had sided with the adverse faction and taken part against AVGVSTVS. Being 9. yeares olde he praised his father deceased openly from the Rostrae. Afterwardes, as hee grewe to be a springall, he accompanied in the Actiacke tryumph the Chari­ot of AVGVSTVS, ryding uppon the steede drawing without the Or spir [...]n­pole. yoke on the left hand, when as MARCELLVS the sonne of OCTAVIA rode upon the other on the right hand. Hee was president also at the Actiack Games and plaies yea & the Troian Turnament in the Circean solemnities, where he led the troupe of the bigger boyes.

7. After hee had put on his at 17, yeeres of age, virile robe, his whole youth and all the time be­sides of the age next ensuing, even unto the beginning of his Empire, hee passed for the most part in these affaires following. He exhibited one sworde fight performed by fencers to the outrance, in memoriall of his father: like­wise another in the honourable remembraunce of his Grandfather DRV­SVS: and those at sundrie times and in diverse places: the former in the Or great market place. Forum, of Rome: the second in the Amphitheatre: having brought againe into the Lists, even those that were freed before time and discharged from that profession: whom hee now hired and bound to fight, with the summe of one hundred thowsand sesterces. Hee did set foorth stage playes also, but whiles himselfe was absent: all with great magnificence, and also at the charges of his Liria, mother and Augustus: father in Law. Whom Taci­tus calleth [...] after the surname of her father, AGRIPPINA the daugh­ter also of M. AGRIPPA, and neice to POMPONIVS ATTICVS a Gentleman of Rome, him I meane, unto whome CICERO wrote his Epistles, hee tooke to wife. And when hee had begotten of her a sonne named DRVSVS, albeit shee fitted him well enough and was besidesA. V. C. 744. with Childe againe, enforced hee was to put her away; and foorthwith to wed IULIA the daughter of AVGVSTVS: not without much griefe and heart breake: considering that hee both desired still the companie of AGRIP­PINA and also misliked the conditions and demeanour of IULIA, as whom he perceived to have had a minde and fansie unto him whiles shee was the wife of a former husband. Which verily was thought also abroade. But as hee grieved, that after the divorce hee had driven away AGRIPPI­NA, so when hee chaunced but once (as shee mette him) to see her, hee followed her still with his eyes so bent, so swellinge, Readie as it were to run out of his head. and sta­ring, that streight order was given, and a watch set, shee should never after come in his way nor within his sight. With IVLIA he lived at the first in great concord and mutuall love: but afterwardes hee began to Or disagree. es­traunge himselfe, and (that which was the more griefe) hee proceeded to part beddes and to lie from her continually, namely, after that the pledge of love, their sonne beegotten beetweene them, was untimely taken a­way: who beeing borne at Aquileia died a very infant. His owne bro­ther Who died when he was Consuls A. V. C. 735. DRVSVS hee lost in Germanie, whose bodie he conveyed throughout to Rome going before it all the way on foote.

[Page 92]In his first rudiments and beginnings of civile offices, he pleaded at the8 barre in defence of Archelans; of the Trallians and Thessalians: all of them in sundrie causes whiles AVGVSTVS sat in iudgement to heere their tryall: In the behalfe also of the La [...]dicenes, Thyaterenes and Chians, who had suffered great losse by Earthquake, and humbly sought for reliefe, he intreated the Senate. As for FANNIVS CAEPIO. who together with VARRO MVRAE­NA had conspired against AVGVSTVS, hee arraigned of high treason be­fore the iudges, and caused him to hee condemned: And amid these af­faires, he Whilest hee was Questour, and but 19 yeares olde. executed a duple charge and function: to witte, the purveyance of Corne and Victualles, whereof there happened to bee scarcitie: and the skouringe or riddance of the worke-house F [...]stulorum Such as bride wel and houses of correction: prisons▪ the Lordes and Maisters whereof were become odious, as if they had caught uppe and held to worke not onely waifaring persons, but those also who for feare of taking a militarie oath and to be enrolled, were driven to shrowd themselues in such corners and starting holes.

His first service in the warres was in the expedition of Cantabria, what9 time hee had the place of a Colonell of a thousand foot­men. A, V, C. 728, Tribune Militarie. Afterwardes, having theA. V: C: 728, conduct of an armie into the East parts, hee restored the kingdome of AR­MENIA unto TIGRANES, and from the Tribunall seat did put the Dia­deme uppon his head. Hee recovered also those militarie ensignes which the Parthians had taken from M. CRASSVS. After this hee governed as Regent that part of Gaule beyond the Alpes, called Comata: which was full of troubles, partly by the incursions of barbarous nations, and in parte through the intestine discorde of Princes and Nobles of the Countrie. Then, warred hee uppon the Rhetians and Vindelici, and so forwarde vppon the Pannonians and Germaines (whom hee vanquished all). In the Rhaetian and Vindelicke warres, hee subdued the Nations inhabiting the Alpes: in the Pan­nonian, he conquered the Breuci and Dalmatians. In the Germaine warre hee brought over into Gaule 40000▪ that yeelded unto him, and placed them neere unto the Rhene banke, where they had there habitations assigned. For, which Acts, hee entred the Citie of Rome both Ovant (ryding on horsebacke) and also Triumphant mounted uppon a Chariot: being the Primus, some [...]ad prius, i. an­ [...] rationem, before he had ridden o [...] or triumphed: A, V, C, 737, 738, 7 [...]2, 747. first (as some thinke) that was honoured with Triumphant ornaments, a newe kinde of honour and never graunted to any man before: To beare Magistracie hee both beganne betimes, and also ranne through them all in manner joynctly without intermission, namely his Quaesture; Praeture and Con­sulate. After some space betweene hee became Consul a seconde time, yea and also received the Tribunitian Authoritie for fiue yeares toge­ther:

In this confluence of so many prosperous successes, in the strength also of10 his yeares and perfect health, hee had a full purpose, sodainely to retire him­selfe and remoove out of the way as farre as hee could. Whether it were for the wearinesse hee had of his wife, whome neither hee durst plainelyA V C 748. charge or put awaye, nor was able to endure any longer, or to the ende that by avo [...]ding contempt (a) incident to daily and continuall resi­dence, hee might maintaine and increase his authoritie by absenting him­selfe, if at any time the State stoode in neede of him, it is uncertaine. [Page 93] Some are of opinion, that considering AVGVSTVS his children were nowe well growne, he of his owne accorde yeelded up unto them the place and po­ssession as it were, of the second In admin [...]stra tion of the cō ­mon weale: degree, which himselfe had usurped and held a long time; following herein the example of M. AGRIPPA, who having preferred M. MARCEILUS, to bee imployed in publike affaires, de­parted unto MITYLENAE; least by his presence he might seeme to To darken their light hinder them or depraue their proceedings. Which cause even himself, but afterwards, alleadged: Marie, for the present, pretending the satietie that he had of hono­rable places, and rest from his travailes, he made suite for licence to depart: nei­ther gave he any eare to his owne mother humblie beseeching him to stay; nor to his father in law, who complained also that hee should be forsaken there­by and left desolate in the Senate. Moreover; when they were instant still to holde him backe, hee abstained from all kinde of meate foure dayes toge­ther. At length having obtained leave to be gone, he left his wife and sonne behind him at Rome, and forthwith went downe to Ostia: giving not so much as one word againe to any that accompanied him thither, and kissing very few of them at the parting.

As he sayled from Ostia along the coast of Campanie, uppon newes that he11 heard of AVGVSTVS weakenesse, he stayed a while and went not forward: but when a rumor began to be spred of him, (as if he lingred there, waiting some opportunitie of greater hopes,) hee made noe more adoe, but even against winde and wether sayled through & passed over to Rhodes: having taken a de­light to the pleasant and healthfull situation of that Iland, ever since he arrived there in his returne from Armenia. Contenting himselfe here, with a meane and small habitation, with a ferme house likewise by the Cittie side not much larger nor of greater receite, he purposed to lead a verie civill and private life: walking otherwhile in the Or publike place of exer­cises. Gymnase without He was then Tribune of the Commons and Consul the se­cond time. lictor or other officer, performing acts and duties in maner one for another with the Greekes conversing there. It happened uppon a time, when he disposed of the businesses which hee would dispatch one day, that hee gave it out before hand, He was desirous to visite all the oegros, some read [...]gros, as if he minded to walk the field [...]. sicke in the Cittie. These words of his were mistaken by those next about him. Whereupon; all the lazars and diseased persons were by commaunde­ment brought into a publike porch or gallerie and placed there in order accor­ding to the sundrie sorts of their maladies. At which unexpected sight, being much troubled and perplexed, he wist not for a good while what to do? how▪ beit he went round about from one to another, excusing himselfe for this that was done even to the meanest, poorest and basest of them all This onely thing and nothing else beside was noted, wherein he seemed to exercise the power of his Tribunes authoritie. Being daily and continually conversant about the Schooles and Auditories of professours, by occasion that there arose a great braule among the [...]. Sophisters opposite in arguing cases and declaiming one a­gainst other, there chaunced to bee one who perceiving him comming be­tweene and inclining to favorize one part above the other; rayled bitterly at him. With drawing himselfe therefore by little and little, and re [...]yring home to his house, he came forth sodainely againe and appeared with his Lictours: where he cited by the voyce of his cryer to appeare judicially before his Tri­bunall, that foule mouthed rayling fellow, and so commanded him to be had [Page 94] away to prison. After this, he had certaine intelligence given him that IVLIA his wife was convict and condemned for her incontinencie and adulteries; also that in his name (by a warrant directed from AVGVSTVS) she had a bill of divorse sent unto her. And albeit, he was glad of these tidings, yet he thought it his part, as much as lay in him, by many letters to reconcile the father un­to his daughter: yea and how ever she had deserved badly at his hands, yet to suffer her for to have whatsoever he had at any time given unto her in free gift. Now, after he had passed through the time of his Tribunes authoritie, andA. V. C. 752 confessed at last, that by this retyring of his out of the way he sought to avoide nought else but the suspition of Ielousie and emulation with CAIVS and LV­CIVS: hee made suite, That seeing he was now secured in this behalfe, and they strengthened enough and able with ease to manage and maintaine the second place in government, he might be permitted to returne and see his friendes and acquaintance againe, whose presence he missed and longed after. But hee could not obtaine so much: nay, admonished hee was and warned before hand, to lay a side all re­gard of his friends and kinsfolke, whom he was so willing to leave and aban­don before.

Hee abode therefore still at Rhodes, even against his will: and hardly by the12 meanes and intercession of his owne mother wrought thus much, that for to cover his ignominie and shame, he might be absent under this pretence, as if he were AVGVSTVS his Lieutenant. And then verily, lived he not onely private to himselfe, but also exposed to daunger, and in great feare of some hard mea­sure: lying close and hidden in the uplandish and inward parts of the Iland: and avoyding the offices of them that made saile by those coasts, who had frequen­ted him continually: For as much as no man went into any province that way, as Lord Generall orAs Prator, propr [...]tor, pro­consul, &c: Magistrate, but he strucke a side and turned to Rhodes. Be­sides, other causes there were of greater feare and trouble presented unto him. For when as he crossed the seas to Samos for to visit CAIVS,The sonne of his wife Iulia by Agrippa, his wives sonne, president of the East parts, he perceived him to be more estranged than before time through the slaunders and criminous imputations which M. LOLLIVS companion and governour to the saide CAIVS had put into his head. He was drawen also into suspition by certaine CENTVRIONS, whom his favour had advanced, & who at the day limited in their pasport were returned to the camp, That he had deliuered unto many Or of his friends. (of them) MANDATES of an ambiguous & du­ple construction, such as might seeme to sound the mindes of everie one and sollicite them to rebellion. Of which suspition being certified by AVGVS­TVS, hee never rested to call for, and require to have some one of any degree and order what soever, to observe all his deedes and words.

He neglected also his wonted exercises of horse and armour: yea and ha­ving13 laid by theThe gowne. habite of his native Countrie, hee betooke himselfe to a cloke andPantofles or corke shooes after the gree­kish fashion. slippers. In such a state & condition as this, continued hee almost two yeeres throughout, more dispised and hatefull everie day then other: insomuch as the Meniansians overthrew his Images and statues and upon a time, at a cer­taine feast, where familiar friends were met together (by occasion that menti­on was made of him,) there was one stood up who promised CAIVS, That in case he did but command and say the word, he would immediatly sayle to Rhodes and [Page 95] fetch unto him the head of that exiled person: For so was hee commonly called. And chiefly upon this which was now no bare feare, but plain perill, enforced he was by most earnest prayers not onely of his owne but also of his mother, to require and seeke for to returne which he obtained at length with the helpe somewhat of good fortune. AVGVSTVS had fully set downe with himselfe to resolve upon nothing as touching that point, but with the wil & good liking of his elderC [...]s, his nep­phew or daugh ters sonne. sonne: now was he, as it happened at that time much offended and displeased with M. LOLLIVS, but to hisHis mothers husband. father in law (TIBERIVS) well af­fected, and easie to be by him intreated. By the permission therefore and good leave of CAIVS called home he was; but with this condition. That he should not meddle one Iote in the affaires of State:

Thus in the 8. yeare after his departure, returned he full of great hopes and14 A. V. C. 755. nothing doubtfull of future fortunes, which he had conceived as well by strang sights, as also by predictions and prophesies even from his very birth. For LI­VIA whiles she went with child of him, among many and sundrie experiments which she made, and signes that she observed (and all to know whether shee should bring forth a man child or no?) tooke closely an egge from under an hen that was sitting, and kept it warme sometime in her owne, otherwhiles in her womens hands by turnes one after another, so long, untill there was hat­ched a cock-chicken with a notable combe upon the head. And when he was but a very babe, SCRIEONIVS the Astrologer gave out and warranted great matters of him, and namely, That he should one day raigne as Monarch, but yet with­out the royall i [...] The Dia­derne. Ensignes. For as yet, ye must wote, the soveraigne power of the CAESARS was unknowne. Also, as he entred into his first expedition, and led an armie into Syria, through Macedonie. it chaunced that the consecrated Al­tars of the victoriousVnder Iulics Caesar or Augu­stus. Legions in time past at Philippi shone outSabitis ignibus or Subductis [...]gs nibus. 1. When the fire was ta­ken from them sodainely of themselues all on a light fire. And soone after, when in his journey towarde Illyricum he went to the Oracle of Geryon nere unto Padua, and drew forth his lotte, whereby he was advised that for counsell and resolution in such particu­lars as he required after, he should throw goldenOr Cockals. ta [...]os. dies (a) into the fountaine Aponus, it fell out so that the dies thus cast by him shewed theVenus or Cou [...], which is the best chance. greatest num­ber: And even at this verie day these dies are seene under the water. Some fewe dayes likewise before he was sent for home, an Aegle, (never seene afore time at Rhodes) perched upon the very top and ridge of his house: and the verie day before he had intelligence given him of his returne, as he was changing his ap­parell, his shirt was seene on fire. THRASYLLVS (b) also the Astrologer, whom for his great profession of wisedome & cunning he had taken into his house to beare him companie, he made then most triall of; namely, when upon ken­ning awhich broght the messenger of his returne. ship a farre of, he affirmed. That ioyfull newes was comming, whereas at the verie same instant as they walked togither TIBERIVS was fully purposed to have turned him headlong downe into the sea, as being a false prophet, (for that things fell out untowardly and contrarie to his former predictions) & one besides; who chaunced for the most part to bee privie unto him of all his se­crets.

15 Being returned to Rome, and having brought his sonne DEVSVS solemnly into theThere to cō ­mense & shewe the first proofe of pleading at Barre. Forum, he removed immediatly out of Carinae and the houseWhich was in the streete Carina. of POMPEIVS untoOr E [...]quilia an other ste [...]e in Rome. Esquilia, and the Hort-yards of MAEC [...]NAS: where he gave [Page 96] himselfe wholly to quietnesse performing priuate duties onely and not med­ling at all in publike offices. After that CAIUS and LVCIVS were dead with in the compasse ofOfs: yeares rather: by V [...] ­leiut and Dio. and as himselfe hath written in Augustus. 3. yeares, he together with their brother M. AGRIPPA was adopted by AVGVSTUS, but compelled first himselfe to adopt GERMANICVS his brothers sonne. Neither did he ought afterwards as anOn [...] that was sui iuris. housholder, nor retained one jote of that right which he had forgon by his adoption. For, he gave no donations, he manumised no person: nor yet made benefite of anyFalling unto him by the Te­staments of his friende. inheritance or legacies otherwise then in the nature ofA stocke gi­ven & granted unto one by him under whose tuition he is, be hee father or mai­ster. A. V. C. 757. Peculium: and so he did put them downe in his booke of receits. But from that time forward was there nothing pretermitted for the augmentation of his state and Maiestie: and much more after that AGRIPPA once was in disfavour and sent away: wher­by the world tooke knowledge for certaine, that the hope of succession rested onely in him.

16. Nowe was the Tribunitian Authoritie conferred a second time uppon him, and that for the terme of 5. yeeres; the honorable charge and commissi­on likewise, for to pacifie the State of Germanie was assigned unto him: and the Parthian Embassadours, after they had declared their message at Rome un­to AVGVSTVS, were commanded to repaire unto him alsoGermanie into his province: But upon the newes that ILLYRICVM revolted, he remooved fromOut of Ger­manie. A. V. C. 760. thence to the charge of a new warre, which, being of all foraine warres the most dan­gerous since those with the Carthaginians, he menaged with the power of 15: Legions, & equal forces of Auxiliaries, for the space of 3. yeares in great extre­mitie of all things, but especially in exceeding scarcetie of Corne. And not­withstanding that he was oftentimes revoked from this service, yet persisted he unto the end fearing least the enemie so neere a neighbour and so puissant with all, should make head and come upon them, if they first did quit the place and retire. And verily, passing well paied and rewarded was hee for this perseve­rance of his; as having thereby fully subdued and brought under his subiection all ILLIRYCVM. as farre as reacheth and spreadeth betweene Italie, the king­dome of Noricum, Thracia, and Macedonie: betweene the river Danubius also and the gulfe of the Adriaticke sea.A. V. C. 762.

Which glorious exploit of his was yet more amplified and encreased by the17 opportunitie of an occurrent that fell betweene. For, about the verie same time QVINTILIVS VARVS together with 3. Legions was overthrowne and defaited in Germanie: and no man made any doubt, but that the Germaines fol­lowing the traine of this their victorie, would have ioyned with PANNONIA in case ILLYRICVM had not beene subdued before. For these his noble Acts, a triumph with many great honours was decreed for him: Some also delivered their sentence, that he should be surnamed PANNONICVS; others would have had the addition of Invincible: and some againe of PIVS, in his Style; But as touching any such surname, AVGVSTVS interposed his negative voyce, pro­mising and undertaking in his behalfe, that he shold rest contented withi. Augustus. that, which he was to assume after his death: As for the Triumph, himselfe did put it of unto a further day, by occasion that the wholeOf Rome state, sorrowed for the o­verthrow and losse above saide of VARVS: Neverthelesse, he entred the City in his rich Praetexta or imbrodred purple Robe, with a chaplet of lawrell upon his head: and so mounted up to the Tribunall erected for him in the (a) Septa, [Page 97] whiles the Senate stoode to give attendance: and there, together with AU­GUSTUS, in the mids betweene the two Consuls hee tooke his place and sate downe. From whence, after he had saluted the people, hee was honourably conducted round about all the Temples.

18 The next yeere following, being returned into Germanie, when hee percei­vedA. V. C. 763. that the Varian defeature aforesaid hapned through the rashnesse and neg­ligence of the Generall, he did nothing at all without the opinion of his Coun­sell of warre. And whereas hee had used also before, to stand upon his owne bothom, and to rest in his selfe-iudgement alone; then, contrary to his man­ner hee conferred with many as touching the menagement of the warre: yea, and he shewed more care and precisenesse in every point than his wont was afore-time. Being about to passe over the Rhene, all his provision of victuals strictly reduced to a certaine rate and stint, hee would not send over the water before he had considered (standing upon the very banke of the river) the lode of every Waggon, that no cariages might beeDeponerentur, vel deportar [...] ­tur. i. transpor­ted and caried over. discharged or unloaden, but such as were by him allowed and thought necessary. When hee was once on the otherside of Rhene this course and order of life he held: Namely to sit up­pon a bare banke of turfe, and so to eate his meate: to lie abroad all night, and take his rest oftentimes without tent: to deliver all directions for the day follo­wing, as also what suddaine service or businesse was to bee enioyned, by wri­ting; with this caveat and admonition, That whereof any man doubted, hee should repaire unto him at all houres of the night, and seeke for no other expositour but himselfe.

Martiall discipline he required most sharply, bringing againe into ure and19 execution certaine kindes of chastisements and ignominious disgraces which had beene used in auncient times: in so much, as he branded with open shame the Lieutenant of a Legion, for sending a few Souldiours with his owne freed­man ouer the other side of the river a hunting. As for battailes, albeit hee did put as little as might be upon the hazard of Fortune and chaunce: yet entred he upon them with much more resolution, so often as whiles hee watched or studied by a candle, the light suddainly fell downe and went out, when nobo­dy forced it: trusting confidently (as hee said) upon this signe, which both hee and all his Auncestors had tried and found to be infallible during all their war­like conducts and regiments. But howsoever hee sped well and had good suc­cesse in this Province, he escaped very faire that hee had not beene killed by a certaineA Rhuteni qu [...]dam. Rhutene (a), who being among those that were next about his per­son, and detected by his timorous gesture, was apprehended, and with torture forced to confesse his prepensed designment.

20 Being after two yeeres returned out of Germanie to Rome, hee rode in thatA. V. C. 76 [...]. triumph which he had differred, accompanied with his Lieutenants, for whom he had obtained (a) triumphall Ornaments. And ere hee turned into the Capi­toll hee alighted from his Chariot, and bowed himselfe to the knees of hisAugust [...] Caesar. Father, sitting then before him as President. A Captaine and Commaun­der of PANNONIA named BATON, hee rewarded first, with exceeding great Presents, and then remooved him to Ravenna, in thankfull requitall [Page 98] for suffering him upon a time, when with his Armie hee was enclosed within the streights, to passe forward and escape. After this, hee bestowed upon the people (of Rome) a solemne dinner, where they sate at a thousand tables▪ and gave besides to them three thousand Sesterces a peece for a Congiarie. Hee dedicated also the temple of Concord: likewise that of Pollux and Castor in his owne name & his brothers, all out of the spoile woone from the enemies.

And not long after, when by vertue of an Act preferred by the Consuls,21 That hee should administer the Provinces iointly with AUGUSTUS: and likewise A. V. C. 766. hold the generall review and muster of the people, hee had performed the same and finished it with a solemne purging called Lustrum, hee tooke his iourney into Illyricum. And being incontinently called backe out of the very way, he cameA. V. C. 767. and found AUGUSTUS dangerously sicke, how beit yet breathing and alive: with whom he continued in secret talke, one whole day. I wote well, it is com­monly received and beleeved, that when TIBERIUS after private conference was gone forth, these words of AUGUSTUS were over heard by the Cham­berlaines. Miserum populum Romanum qui sub tam lentis maxillis erit. Ounhap­pie people of Rome, that shall be under such a slow (a) paire of chawes. Neither am I ignorant of this also, that some have written and reported of AUGUSTUS, How openly and in plaine termes without dissimuling, hee disliked his churlish behaviour and harshnesse of manners so much, as divers times being in plea­sant discourse and mery talke, he would breake-of when TIBERIUS came in place: Howbeit, overcome by his wives intreaty and earnest praier he refused not to adopt him; or rather was induced so to doe, upon an ambitious humor and conceite of his owne, that leaving such a successour, himselfe might ano­ther day be more missed and wished for againe. Yet cannot I be perswaded o­therwise, but to thinke, that AUGUSTUS a right circumspect, considerate and prudent Prince did nothing, especially in so weighty a businesse, hand over head and without advise: but having duly weighed the vices and vertues of TIBERIUS, esteemed his vertues of more worth: and namely seeing that both he sware solemnly in a generall assembly of the people, That hee adopted him for the (b) good of the Common-weale▪ and also commendeth him in certaine Epistles for a most expert and martiall warriour, yea the onely Defender and Protectour of the people of Rome. Out of which, I have thought good to quote some places heere and there for example. Farewell most sweet TIBERI­US, and God blesse your conduct and proceeding, warring as you doe for mee and the Muses. Againe, O most pleasant, and (as I desire to bee happy) right valiant man, [...] or [...], i. thy friends. and accomplished Captaine, with all perfections, adiew. Also, Astouching the order and manner of your Sommer-campe, for mine owne part verily, my TIBERIUS, I am of this minde, That considering so many difficulties and distresses: in regard also of so great sloath and cowardise of Souldiours, no man in the world could performe the service better than you have done. And even they of your traine, who were with you doe all confesse, that this verse may be applied fitly unto you.

(c) ‘Vnus homo nobis vigilando restituit rem.’

One man alone by watchfull sight
Our tott'ring state hath set upright.

And whether, quoth he, there fall out any occurrent to be considered upon with more care and diligence, or whether I bee displeased and angry at any thing, I have a [Page 99] great misse, I assure you, of my TIBERIUS: and evermore that verse of HOMER commeth into my remembrance:


* I [...]iad. [...].
Whiles this man beares me company (so well he doth fore-see)
We may ev'n out of flaming fire returne, both I and hee.

When I heare say and read▪ that you are weakened and growne leane with uncessant and continuall labour, God confound me, if my body doe not quake and tremble. I pray you therefore spare your selfe: least if it come to our eares, that you are sicke, both I and your mother also die for sorrow, and the people of Rome beside, hazard the Em­pire. It makes no matter, whether Ibe in health or no? Situ non va­lebis: or, si tu modo Valeb [...]. So you cc [...] ­tue well. if you be not well; The Geds I beseech, to preserve you for us and vouchsafe your health both now and ever, unlesse they hate the people of Rome to death.

The death of AUGUSTUS hee divulged not abroad, before that young A­GRIPPA22 was slaine. This AGRIPPA was killed by a militarie Colonel [...] Tribune, set and appointed to guard him, so soone as hee had read the writ Or warrant▪, whereby hee was commaunded to doe the deede. This writ, whether AUGUSTUS left be­hind him when hee died, thereby to take away all matter that might minister tumult after his death: or whether LIVIA in the name of AUGUSTUS endi­ted it, and that with the privity of TIBERIUS, or without his knowledge, it resteth doubtfull. Certaine it is, that when the saide Tribune brought him word, that the thing was dispatched which he had commaunded, he made an­swere, That he gave no such commaundement, and added moreover, That he should answere it before the Senate: Declining no doubt the envie and hard conceit of men for the present: for within a while after he buried the matter in silence.

Having nowe assembled the Senate by vertue and authority (a) of his Tri­buneship,23 and begun to make a Which hee had penned. speech unto them by way of For the death of Augustus. Consolation: all on a suddaine, as unable to maister his griefe, he fell into a fit of sighing and groaning. Yea he wished, That not onely his voice, but his vitall breath also might faile him▪ and therewith gave the booke unto his sonne DRUSUS to read it out. After this, when the last will or testament of AUGUSTUS was brought in, and none of the witnesses admitted to come in place, but those onely who were of Senatours degree, the rest standing without the Curia & there acknow­ledging their hands and seales, hee caused it to be read and pronounced by his freed man. The will began in this manner. For as much as sinister fortune hath bereft me of CAIUS and LUCIUS, my sonnes, I will that TIBERIUS CAESAR be mine heire, in the one moity and a sixth part. By which very beginning, their su­spition* That is to say, in 8 parts of twelve, or 2 third parts was augmented who thought thus, that seeing he forbare not after this sort to make his preface, hee ordained TIBERIUS to be his successour upon necessity, rather than any iudgement and discretion.

Albeit hee made no doubt to enter upon his imperiall government imme­diatly24 and to menage the same, and that by taking unto him a strong guard of Souldiours about his person, that is to say maine force & the very forme of ab­solute rule & dominion: yet notwithstanding, he refused it a long time: & put­ting on a most impudent & shamlesse mind, one while he seemed to rebuke his friends that encouraged him thereto, as those who knew not, what a monstrous and untamed beast an Empire was: and otherwhiles with ambiguous answeres [Page 100] and crafty delaies holding the Senate in suspence when they besought him to take it upon him, yea and humbly debased themselves before his knees▪ in so much as some of them having their patience moved therewith, could endure him no longer: and one among the rest in that tumult cried aloude, Let him either doe it at once, or else give over quite: and another openly to his face up­braided him in these words, Whereas other men be slacke in doing and performing that which they have promised, he was slacke in promising that which hee did and per­formed. In the end, as if forsooth he had beene compelled, and complaining withall, that there was imposed upon his shoulders a miserable and burden­some servitude, he tooke the Empire upon him: and yet no otherwise, than gi­ving hope, that one day he would resigne it up. His very words are these, Vntill I come unto that time, wherein yee may thinke it meete to give some rest unto mine a­ged yeeres.

The cause of this holding of & delay that he made, was the feare of imminent25 dangers on every side, in so much as he would often say, Hee held a Woolfe by the eares. For there was one of AGRIPPAES slaves named CLEMENS, who had levied & gathered together no small power, for to revenge his Maisters death: and L. SCRIBONIUS LIBO, a noble man▪ secretly complotted sedition and rebellion: yea, and a two-fold mutinie of the Souldiours arose, in Illyricum and in Germanie. Both the armies called hard upon him for performance of many matters extraordinarily: but above all, that they might have equall pay with the (a) Pretorian souldiours. And as for the (b) Germanician souldiours, they verily refused him for their Prince and Soveraigne, as not by them ordained: and with all their might and maine urged GIRMANICUS, who then was their Generall to take upon him the government of the State, albeit he withstood & denied them stoutly, Fearing therefore the issue and danger of this occurrent most of all, he required for himselfe to have that part of the Common-weale in charge, which it should please the Senate to lay upon him: seeing that no man was sufficient to weld the whole, unlesse he had another or many assistants ra­ther ioyned with him. Hee feigned himselfe also to be sickly, to the end that GERMANICUS might with the better will and more patience abide in expec­tance either of speedy succession after him, or at least waies of fellowship in the Empire with him. Well, after hee had appeased those mutinies, CLEMENS likewise by a fraudulent wile he over-raught, and brought to his devotion. As for LIBO, because he would not be thought at his entrance newly into the Em­pire for to proceede rigorously, two yeeres after and not before he charged & reproved him before the Senate, contenting himselfe all that meane space to beware of him onely, and to stand upon his guard. For, as the said LIBO was together with him among other Pontifies sacrificing, hee tooke order, that in steed of the (yron) cleaver, there should be closely laid for him a chopping knife of Lead: And when the same LIBO requested upon a time to have secret talke and conference with him, he would not graunt it, without his sonne DRUSUS might be by: and so long as he walked up & downe with LIBO, he seemed to leane upon his hand; and so, held it sure enough all the while untill their com­munication was ended.

26 But being once delivered frō this feare he caried himselfe at the beginning very orderly and after a civill sort, yea and somewhat Paulo min [...]s quā pri [...]atum egit: or, little better than the port, &c. under the port of a pri­vate [Page 101] person. Of very many dignities and those right honourable, which by publique decree were presented unto him, he accepted but few, and those of the meanest kind. His birth-day-mind, falling out in the time of the Plebcian (a) games and plaies exhibited in the Cirque, hee hardly would suffer to be cele­brated and honoured so much as with the addition extraordinarily of one cha­riot drawne with two Steedes. Hee forbad expresly, any temples Flamins or Priests to be ordained for him, yea and the erection of Statues and images in his honour, without his leave and permission▪ the which ranne with this onely clause and condition, That they should not be set up among the images of the Gods, but stand with other ornaments of the house. Hee prohibited also by his negative voice the solemne oath of observing and keeping his Acts inviolably: as also to call the moneth Or Novem­ber rather [...]or in at hee was bo [...]n, of his own name. September, TIBERIUS; or or September of his mothers. October, LIVIUS. The forename also in his stile of (b) IMPERATOR; the surname likewise of PATER PATRIAE; as also a (c) Civick Coronet at the fore gate or porch of his Palace he refused. Nay, the very name of AUGUSTUS, haereditarie though it were, he would not put as an addition to any of his Epistles, but those onely which he sent unto Kings and great Potentates. Neither bare hee more than three Consulships: the first but a few dayes▪ the second three moneths; the third in his absence no longer than unto the F [...]ō the Ca­lerds or first day or Ianuary to the 15 of May. Ides of May.

Hee derested flattery and obsequious complements so much, as that hee would admit no Senatour to his Licter side either by way of dutiful attendance,27 or otherwise about any businesse whatsoever. When a certaine One who had beene C [...]nsuh. Tacitus saith, it was Quintns Haterius. Consulare person was about to make satisfaction unto him, and humbly to entreate and crave pardon by a reverent touching of his knees, he started and fled from him so, as hee fell therewith and Whereby▪ the said Q Haterius had like to have bee [...]e kil­led by the guard. lay along upon his backe. Yea, and that which more is, if in any talke or continued speech there passed words of him smel­ling of flatterie, hee would not sticke to interrupt the speaker, to checke him, and presently to alter and correct such termes. One there was who called him DOMINUS, that is, Or Lord. S. but hee gave him warning not to name him any more by way of con [...]mely. Another chaunced to say, His sacred businesses: and a third againe, That he went into the Senate, auctore se. i. by his warrant or auctho­ritie. Hee caused them both to change those words, and for auctore to say Sua­sore, that is, by his advise and counsell: and in steede of Sacred, to put in, Laborious and painfull.

Moreover, against railing taunts, bad reports and rumours, as also slaunde­rous libels, verses and songs cast out either of himselfe or those about him,28 he stoode so firme and patient, as that ever and anone he would give out, That in a free state, folke ought to have both tongue and thought free. And when upon a time the Senate called earnestly unto him, That such crimes, and the offenders themselves might be brought iudicially into question; Wee have not quoth hee, so much leasure as to entangle our selves in many affaires. If yee open this window once, yee will suffer nothing else to be done: for under pretence heere of yee shall have the quarrels of every man preferred unto Ad vos. vel [...] unto us you. There is besides a passing civill Such as might beseeme one Citizen to speake of ano­ther, and not a Prince of his [...] A­pophthegme of his extant which hee uttered in the Senate. If so be quoth he, that hee speake otherwise of mee than well, I will endeavour to give an account of my a [...]edes and wordes, but in case hee continue so still, I will hate him for it a­gaine.

[Page 102]And these things were so much the more remarqueable in him, for that in29 speaking to them [...] The Sena­tours. either one by one severally, or to all at once in generall, yea and in reverencing them, himselfe exceeded in a manner the measure of all hu­manity. When he dissented one day in opinion from Q. HATERIUS in the Se­nate: Pardonmee, I beseech you, quoth hee, if I as a Senatour shall speake ought over-frankly against you and then directing his speech unto the whole house. Both nowe, quoth hee, and many times else, my Lords, this hath beene my say­ing, That a good and gracious Prince, whom yee have invested in so great and so ab­solute a power, ought to serve the Senate and all the Citizens generally: often times also, yea and for the most part, every of them particularly. Neither repent I that I have so said, for I have ever found you, and doe so still to be my good, my gracious and favourable Lords.

Furthermore, he brought in a certaine shew of the common Libertie, by30 preserving entier for the Senate and Magistrates, both their auncient maiestie and also their authority: neither was there any matter so small or so great, per­taining to publique or private affaires, but proposed it was at the Counsell­table before the Senatours: as namely, about Tributes, Customes and Reve­newes of the State: of Monopolies: of building and repairing any publique works: of enrolling or discharging Souldiours: of setting downe the number as well of Legions as of auxiliarie forces: Finally, who should have their place of commaund and government continued by a new commission? or take the charge of extraordinary warres? as also what, in what forme they thought it good to write againe, & to answere letters sent by Kings? A certaine Captaine over a Or wing cornet of horse-men, being accused for an outrage and for robberie, he compelled to make his answere before the Whereas by course he shold have had his [...]ali before the Lord Ge neral, or prince himselfe. Senate. Hee never entred the Curia but alone. And being one time brought in sicke within his litter, (a) he caused a [...]l his traine and company to void.

31 That some Decrees were enacted against his minde and sentence, hee never once complained, nor found himselfe grieved. Notwithstanding hee opined, that Magistrates appointed to any charge, ought not to bee absent; to the end that by their presence they might the better intend their function and calling: yet one Pretour elect, obtained the favour of a free Liberam lega­ [...]nem (a) embassage. Againe, when he advised in the Or Trebians Otriculunes behalfe a graunt, that they might bestowe the money in paving a cawsie or high-way, which was by legacie given to the building of a new Theater: hee could not prevaile but that the will of the Te­stator should stand and be fulfilled. When it fortuned upon a time that an Act of the Senate should passe by going to a side, and himselfe went over to the o­ther part where the fewer in number were, there was not one that followed him. Other matters also were handled and debated by the Magistrates and the ordinarie course of lawe, and not otherwise: VVherein the Consuls▪ bare so great sway and authority, that certaine Embassadors out of Africk repaired unto them for dispatch, as complaining that they were put-of and delayed by CAESAR unto whom they had beene sent. And no mervaile: For evident it was, that himselfe also would arise up unto the saide Consuls and give them the way.

Hee rebuked Generalls of Armies even such as had beene Consuls for not32 [Page 103] writing unto the Senate of their warre exploites: also for consulting with him and asking his advise as touching the graunt of As collars, Che [...]es, speares, chap­lets &c. militarie giftes, as if it lay not in their owne power to give and dispose all. Hee commended a Pretour for bringing uppe againe the auncient custome, in the entraunce of his go­uernment, to make an honourable mention and rehersall of his Anncestours before a frequent assembly of the people. The funerall obsequies of cer­taine Noble personages, he accompanied with the common multitude to the very (a) fire. The like moderation he shewed in meaner persons and matters both when hee had called foorth unto him the Magistrates of the Rhodians, for delivering unto him publike letters from the State without the due (b) sub­scription, he gave them not so much as one hard worde but onely commanded them to subscribe and sent them away. DIOGENES the professed Grammarian, who was wont to or reade a lecture. dispute and discourse at Rhodes every once a weeke or every 7. day Sabbath, had put him backe and would not admit him into his schoole comming of purpose extra­ordinarily to here him, but by his page posted him of untill the 7. day. Nowe when the same DIOGENES stood waiting before his gate at Rome to doe his dutie and to salute him, he quit him no otherwise than thus, namely by war­ning him to repaire thither againe 7. yeares after: when the presidentes and go­vernours abroad gave him counsell to burden the provinces with heavie tri­butes and taxes he wrote backe unto them. That it was the part of a good shepheard to sheare his sheepe and not to flay them: 33

By little and little he put himselfe forth and shewed his princely maiesty; how ever for a long time, in some variety, yet for the most part, rather mild and grati­ous than otherwise, and more inclined to the good of the common wealth: and at the first, thus far forth onely interposed he his absolute power & inhibition, That nothing should be done Beside the [...]le of law. vniustly. Therfore he both repealed certaine consti­tutions of the Senate, & also very often, when the Magistrates were sitting judi­cially upon the Bench, to decide matters, he would offer himselfe to joyne as it were in counsell and to be assistant with them, or else just over against them in the fore part (of the Tribunall.) And if the rumour went that any defendant were like by favour to escape cleere; all on a sodaine, he would be in place, and either on the (a) ground below, or else from the Tribunall seat of the L. chiefe Iustice, put the other Iudges and Iurie in mind of the lawes, of their conscience and religion, and of the crime whereupon they sat. Also if any thing were a­misse and faultie in the publike ordinances and manners of the Cittie, for­let by occasion of idlenesse or taken up through evill custome, he undertooke to reforme the same.

He abridged and restrained the expenses of Stage playes andOf sword­fencers. games exhi­bited34 unto the people, by cutting short the wages paied to Actours uppon the stage, and reducing the couples of sword fencers to a certaine number. That Corinthian vessels & manufactures grew to an exceeding high rate, & that three barbels were sold for 30000. sesterces, he grievously complained, and gave his opinion, that there should be a gage set, and a mediocritie kept in houshold fur­niture: as also that the price of victuals in open market should be ordred yeerly at the discretion of the Senate, with a charge given unto the Aediles for to inhi­bite victualling houses, tavernes, and thus farre foorth, as they should not suffer any pastry-workes (a) to be set out to sale▪ And to the end, that by his owne ex­ample [Page 104] also, he might put forward the publike frugalitie, himselfe at his so­lemne and festivall suppers caused oftentimes to be served vp to the bord, Vi­ands dressed the day before and those halfe eaten alreadie, saying. That the side of a wild Bore had in it all the same that the whole. He forbad expressely by an E­dict, the usuall and daily kisses commonly given and taken: likewise the inter­course of new yeares gifts sent to and fro: Namely, that it should not continue after the Calends of Ianuarie. He had wont to bestow for his part a new yeares gift foure fold worth that which he received, and to give the same with his owne hand: but being offended that a whole moneth together hee was in his other affaires troubled with such as had not beene with him, nor felt his liberalitie uppon the verie feast, hee never gave any againe after the saide day.

Wives of leawd and dishonest life, if ther wanted accusers to call them publikely into question, his advise and sentence was, that their next kinsfolke35 should,According to the maner and custome of their aunce­stours. more maiorum agree together in common, for to chastice and punish. He dispensed with a gentleman of Rome for his oath (who had sworne before, never to divorce his wife) and gave him leave to put her away being taken in a­dulterie with her That married her daughter. sonne in law. Certaine women infamous for whoredome and filthinesse, began to professe before the Aediles bawderie: to the ende, that having by this base trade and occupation lost the right priviledge and dig­nitie of matrones, they might delude theIu [...]iae &c de Ad [...]terȳs. lawes (a) and avoide the penalties thereof. Semblably, out of the youth of both As well Sena­tours as gen­tlemen. degrees, the leawdest spend­thrifts of all other, because they would not be liable to an Act of the Senate in that behalfe, for performing their parts in acting upon the stage, or their devoir In sword­fight at the sharpe. within the lists, wilfully underwent the ignominious note ofBy commit­ting so [...]e leawd parts infamie. But, as well them, as those light women aforesaid he banished all: that none ever after should by such delusion of the law seeke evasion. He tooke from a He deprived him from his Senatours place. Senatour his robe, after he knew once, that iust before the Calends of (b) Iulie hee remooved out of his dwelling house into certaine With cut the Cittie. Hortyardes and gar­dens, to the end that when the said day was past, he might take his house againe within the Citie at a lower rent. Another he deprived of his Questureship for that having (as it were) by lotterie, chosen and married a wife the one day, he dismissed her on [...]. The mor­row: his levi ie was notable as well in ma­king choise so slightly as in casting her of so quic [...]ly, making but a game of mari­age another.

36 All foraine ceremonies in Religion▪ the Aegyptian also and the Iewish rites he prohibited: compellingRomaine Citizens. those who were given to that Superstition, for to burne all their religious vestiments: the instruments likewise & furniture what soever thereto belonging. The serviceable youth of the Iewes, under colour of a militarie oth he sent into sundrie prouinces which were in a pestilent (a) and unhol-some aire above others: the rest of that Nation or such as were addicted to the like religiō, he banished out of Rome, upon paine of perpetuall bondage if they obeyed not. He expelled also Astrologers▪ but upon their ernest intrea­tie and promise to give over the practise of that Art, he permitted them there to remaine.

37 Aspeciall care he had to keepe the peace, and to preserve the state frō out­rages & robberies, as also from licentious mutinies & seditions. The set guards and garisons of soldiers, hee disposed thicker than the wonted manner was, throughout all Italie. Hee ordained a standing Neere unto the wals therof as [...] wri­teth Li [...]. 4. [...] ▪ 5▪ Na [...]. [...] Campe at Rome, wherein [Page 105] the Praetorian Cohorts wandering up and downe before that time & dispersed in diverse Innes and [...]ostelries, might be received. All Insurrections of the peo­ple he punished most sharply; hee tooke likewise much paines to prevent such commotions. There happened upon some discord and variance to be a murder cōmitted in the Theatre: But the principal heads of the factiō, as also the actours themselnes for whose sake the quarrel and fray began, he exiled: neither could he ever be brought for any prayer and intreatie of the people to revoke and re­store them. When the Commons of Pollentia would not suffer the dead corps of a certaine principall Centurian to be carried with funerall obsequies out of their market place, before they had forcibly extorted out of his heires hands a peece of money to the setting out of a game of Fencers with unrebated swords, he tooke one Cohort from Rome, and another out of K. A petie king about the Alpes. COTIVS Kingdome, dissimuling the cause of this journey, and sodainely discovering their armes and weapons which they closlely carried, and giving alarum with sound of trum­pets, all at once he put them into the Towne with banner displayed at sundrie gates and so cast into perpetuall prison the greater part of the Commons and Senatours, o [...] Aldermen. Decurions. The priviledge and custome of Sanctuaries, where ever they were, he abolished. The Cyzicenes who had committed some notorious out-rage & violence vpon Romaine Citizens, he deprived generally of their freedom, which in the warre against MITHRIDATES they had by their good service gotten. The rebellions of enemies he repressed: not undertaking therefore, any expe­dition afterwards himselfe, but by his lieutenant onely: and not by them ve­rily without lingring delayes, and driven thereto of necessitie. Kings that re­belliously tooke armes, or were suspected to breake out, hee kept downe with threats rather and complaints, than otherwise by force and open hostilitie. Some of them, whome hee had trained out of their owne Realmes unto him with faire words and large promises hee never sent home againe: as by name MARABODUUS the Germaine, THRASYPOLIS a Thracian: and ARCHE­LAVS the Cappadocian, whose kingdome also he reduced into the forme of a province.

For two yeares together after he came unto the Empire, hee never set foote38 once out of Rome gates. And the time ensuing, hee absented not himselfe in no place unlesse it were in townes neere adioyning, or as farre as Antium when he trauailed farthest: and that was verie seldome and for a few dayes: albeit he promised and pronounced openly oftentimes that hee would visite the pro­vinces also and armies abroade: yea and everie yeare almost hee made prepa­ration for a journey, taking up all the waines and wagons that were to be got­ten, and laying provision of Corne and victuals in all the good Burroughes & Colonies by the way, yea and at the last suffered vowes to be made for his going forth and returne home: in so much as commonly by way of a jest and by­worde, hee was called (a) CALLIPPID [...]S, who in a Greeke proverbe is noted to bee alwaies running, and yet never gaineth ground one cubit for­ward.

But being bereft of both his sonnes, of which Adopted. GERMANICVS died in39 Syria, andNaturall. A. V. C. 779. DEVSVS at Rome, he withdrew himselfe into Campania, as to a rety­ring place: and all men well neere, were fully perswaded and spake it as con­stantly, that he would never returne but die soone after. Both which had [Page 106] like indeede to have come to passe. For, in truth he never came againe to Rome: and within some few dayes, neere unto Tarracina, in a certaine part of his man­nour house (built especially for his owne lodging) and called Spelunca, as hee fat there at supper, a number of huge stones from above chaunced to fall down: whereby many of his guestes at the Table and servitours there waitinge were crushed and squized to death; but hee himselfe beyonde all hope es­caped,

Having made his progresse over Campania, when he had dedicated a Capi­tol at Capua, and the Temple of AVGVSTVS at Nola, which hee pretended to40 have beene the motive of his journey, he betooke himselfe to Capreae deligh­ted especially with that Iland because there was but one way of accesse unto it and the same by a small shore and landing place: as being otherwise enclosed round about, partly with craggy rockes & steepe cliffes of an exceeding height; and in part with the deepe sea. But soone after, when the people called him home, and uncessantly besought him to returne, by occasion of an unhappie & heauy accident, wherby at Fi [...]eny XX. Strangers that conflowed thi­ther to see the showes. thousand folke and more, at a solemn fight of sword players perished by fall of an Amphitheater, he passed over into the maine and firme land, permitting all men to come unto him: the rather, for that when he first set forth and went out of Rome, he had given streight commandement by an Edict that no man should trouble him, and all the way voided as many as were comming towards him.

Being retired againe into the said Isle, he cast aside all care verily of Com­mon weale; so farre forth as never after he did so much as repaire and make up41 the broken decuries of horse men: Hee chaunged no militarie Tribunes nor Captaines: no nor any presidents and Governours of Provinces. He held Spaine and Syria both, for certaine yeares, without Consulare Lieutenantes: hee neglected Armenia and suffered it to bee overrunne and possessed by the Parthians: Masia to be wasted and spoyled by the Dakes and Sarmati­ans, as also Gaule by the Germanes, to the great shame and no lesse daunger of the whole Empire.

To proceede, having now gotten the libertie of this secret place, and being42 as one would say remooved from the eyes of people: at lenght hee poured foorth and shewed at once all those vices which with much a do for a longe time he had cloked and dissimuled. Of which I will particularize and make relation from the very beginning. In the Campe when hee was but a newe and untrained souldier, for his excessiue greedinesse of wine bibbing, hee was for (a) TIBERIVS named BIBERIVS, for CLAVDIVS, CALDIVS▪ for NE­RO, MERO: After being Emperour, even at the very time when hee was busie in reforming the publike manners and misdemeanour (of the Cittie) he spent with POMPONIVS FLACCVS and L. PISO one whole night and two dayes in In eating and drinking: gluttonie and drunkennesse, unto the former of these twaine he presently gave the governement of the province Siria: uppon the other hee conferred the Provostship of Rome, professing even in all his letters and writings; That they were most pleasant companions and friends at all assaies. To Or Sos [...]ius Gal [...]s. SEX: CLAVDIVS a Senex fomicatour and prodigal dingthrift, who had in times past been by AV­GVSTVS put to ignominie and shame, yea and by himselfe some fewe dayes before rebuked before the Senate, he sent word, that hee would take a supper [Page 99] with him: uppon this condition, that he altered nothing, nor left ought out of his ordinarie and customed manner: and namely, that wenches all naked should serue at the Table. He preferred one to be a competitour for the Questorship, who was a most base and obscure person, before others that were right noble gentlemen: onely for carousing and drinking up at a banquet, a whole (b) Am­phor of wine when he Or rendered it unto him. dranke unto him. Vnto AS [...]LLIVS SABINVS he gave 200000. Sesterces for a diologue of his making, in which he brought in a com bate or disputation, betweene the Mushrome, the (c) Ficedula the Oister and the (d) Thrush. To conclude, he instituted a new office, forsooth, For the devi­fing of newe pleasures. &c. a voluptatibus, wherein he placed PRISCUS a gentleman of Rome, and one who had beene Censor.

But during the time of his private abode in Capreae, he devised a roome43 with seates and benches in it, even a place of purpose for his secret wanton lusts. To furnish it there were sought out and gathered from all parts, a num­ber of youngs drabbes and stale Catamites, sorted together▪ such also as inven­ted monstrous kinds of libidinous filthinesse, whom he termed Spintriae: who being in three rankes or rewes linked together should abuse and pollute one anothers bodie before his face: that by the verie sight of them he might stirre up his owne cold courage and fainting lust. Hee had bed chambers besides, in many places, which he adorned with tables and petie puppets: representing in the one sort, most lascivious pictures, and in the other as wanton shapes and figures. He stored them likewise with the bookes of Elephantis: that none might be to seeke for a patterne of the semblable forme and fashion, in that beastly businesse performed in everie kind. He devised in the woods also and groves here and there, certaine places for lecherie and venereous Acts: where­in he had within caves and holow rockes youthes of both sexes standing at re­ceit readie prostitute, in habit of Paniskes and Nymphes; In so much as now men in open place, abusing the vulgar name of the Iland, termed him usually, or [...] or [...]. Ca­prineus. 44

He incurred yet the infamie of greater and more shamefull filthinesse, such as may not well be named or heard, and much lesse beleeved: to wit, that hee should traine up and teach fine boyes the tenderest and daintiest that might be had (whom he called his little fishes) to converse and play betweene his thighes as he was swimming, and pretily with tongue and teeth seeme to make unto his secret parts, and there to nibble: Whom likewise, as babes of good grouth and strength▪ howbeit as yet not weaned, he should set unto his privie member as unto the nipple of a breast, to sucke. And verily, both by nature and for his yeares, more prone he was and given to lust in this [...]. kind. Therefore, where­as a certaine painted table of PARRASIVS making, (in which ATALANTA yeldeth her mouth unto MELEAGER in that beastlinesse) was given unto him as a legacie: upon condition, that if he were offended with the argument or matter represented therein, he might in lieu thereof receive a millian of Sester­ces, hee not onely preferred the saide picture before such a summe of monie, but also dedicated it in his owne bed-chamber. It is reported besides, that be­ing at sacrifice upon a time, he casting a fansie to the beautifull and well favou­red face of a youth and servitour as he carried before him the Or incense pa [...]. Censer, coulde not containe, but immediatly and before the complements of sacrifice were [Page 100] well and fully performed, even there and then, take him a side out of the place and so abuse his bodie: and together with him a brother of his, the minstrel▪ yea and soone after, for that they twitted and upbraided one another for this abo­minable act, he brake their legges both.

Moreover, in what sort he was wont to offer abuse unto the very heads of45 women, and those nobly borne and of good reputation, appeared most evi­dently by the wofull end of one dame named MALLONIA. For when shee was by force brought unto his bed, and most resolutely; to die for it, refused to suffer any more, than naturally a woman was to suffer: hee suborned certaine promoters falshly to accuse her: and evermore as she pleaded in her owne de­fence asked her still, whether shee repented not yet of her Obstinacie? which hee followed so long, untill at length shee left the Court, made hast home to her house, and there ranne her selfe through with a Or dagger. sword: after shee had openly and aloud reproched the shag haired and rammish old churle with his filthy & beastly mouth. Wherupon in a by-enterlude called, Atellanicum Exodium, this infamous and shamefull Note, received with exceeding great accorde, was rife and currant abroade in everie mans mouth, That the olde bucke-goat was licking the Or shape, as the kind i [...] of such beasts to do▪ nature of the does (or females.)

Being a very niggard of his purse, and one that would part with nothing, he46 never maintained those of his traine in all his journies and expeditions with a­ny wages or set In monie. salaries, but found their meate and victuals onely: yet must I needes say, that once out of his father in lawes Indulgence and bounty, he be­stowed uppon them a peece of liberalitie: when having raunged them accor­ding to the worthinesse of everie one into three rankes, he dealt among those of the first 600000. sesterces: of the second 400000: of the third 200000: And the same called he the Or ranke. companie, not of his friends but Some reade Graeco [...]um. i. of Greekes by way of contēpt Gratorū. i. of his thank­full favourits.

All the whiles he was Emperour, neither built he any stately workes: (For47 the verie temple of At Rome▪ AVGVSTVS, and the reedification of POMPEIVS Theatre which onely and none else he had undertaken, after so many yeares he left un­finished) nor exhibited so much as one solemne shew unto the people: and at those which were by any other set out, he was very seldome present; and all for feare least some thing should be demanded at his hands: & namely after that he was compelled once to manumise the Comaedian An Actour in a Comaedie, Actius. Having releeved the want and povertie of some Senatours, because he would not helpe more of them, he denied to succour any other than those, who alledged before the Senate good and just causes of their necessities. By which deede of his; he frigh­ted the most part upon a modestie and bashfulnesse in them: & among the rest, one ORTALVS, the nephew of Q. HORTENSIVS the professed Oratour, who being of a very meane estate had begotten foure children, by the meanes He had ma­ried a young wife upon hope of maintenance by vertue of the lawes Papia Po [...]pas, and Inl [...]a. and perswasion of AVGVSTVS.

48 As touching his publike munificence, he never shewed it but twice: once, when he purposed and published a free lone for 3. yeares of an hundred millians of Sesterces: & againe, when unto certaine Land lords of faire houses and tenements, which situate upon mount Caelius, were consumed with fire, he restored the full price and worth of them. One of these Boones he was forced to grant, by reason that the people in great want of monie called earnestly [Page 109] for his helpe: what time as by vertue of an Act of Senate hee had ordained, That Vsurers should lay out two (third) parts of their Or patrimo­ni [...] Stock in lands, tene­ments and appurtenances immoveable▪ the Debtours likewise make present payment of two parts of their debts; and yet the thing That therby their money might come abroad. was not done and dis­patched accordingly: The other, for to mitigate the greevousnesse of those . i▪ d [...]bis paid. heavie times. Howbeit this (latest) beneficence of his he so highly prised, that he commaunded the name of Mount Calius to be changed and called AUGU­STUS. The Legacies given by AUGUSTUS in his last will unto the Souldi­ours being once For then it was that XX thousand were killed at Fide­ney by the fall of a Theater. published, he never after bestowed any Largesse upon them: saving that among those of the Publicaia. Praetorium hee dealt one thousand Deniers a peece; in & to the Legions in Syria certaine gifts for that they alone among all their Ensignes in the field honoured no Or Guard. image at all of SEIANUS. Moreover, he made very seldome any As of their Generall discharges of olde Souldiours: as expecting upon age their death, and by death gaping for some gaine and vantage. Neither suc­cored he the very Provinces with his bountiful hand, except it were Asia, by oc­casion that certaine Cities With allow­ance of lands, fees or yearely P [...]nfions for their service▪ therein were by earthquake overthrowne.

49 Afterwards, and in processe of time he gave his mind wholly even to ra­pine and plaine pillage. It is for certaine knowne, That CN. LENTULUS the* In number 1 [...] Plin. lib. 2, cap. [...]4. Euseb: Ch [...] ­nic: 13▪ Augur, a man of exceeding great wealth, for very feare & anguish of mind was by him driven to a loathing and wearinesie of his owne life▪ and at his death to make no other heire but himselfe: That dame LEPIDA likewise, a right noble Lady was condemned by him, to gratifie Her husband QUIRINUS, one that had beene Consull, but passing (a) rich and And therfore he hoped to b [...] his heire: childlesse withall: who having before time put her away beeing his wedded wife, twenty yeeres after called her iudicially into question, and laid to her charge, that long agoe she had bought and provi­ded poison for to take away his life. Besides, as well knowne it is, that certaine Princes and Potentates of Gaule, Spaine, Syria and Greece, forfaited their estates upon so slight a slaunder and impudent imputation, that against some of them nought else was obiected but this, That they had part of their substance and wealth more than by law they might lying in money: yea and that many Cities and private persons lost their auncient immunities and priviledges, as also their right in mines and mettals, Tolls and customes: and finally that VONONES a King of the Par­thians who beeing driven out of his kingdome by his owne subiects, retired himselfe with an huge masse of Treasure into Antiochia, under the protecti­on, as it were, of the people of Rome, was perfidiously stript out of all and killed.

The hatred that hee bare to his kinsfolke and neere Allies, hee bewraied,50 first in his brother DRUSUS by disclosing a letter of his: wherein hee dealt with him about compelling AUGUSTUS to restore the common Libertie: afterwardes, in others also. As for his wife IULIA, so farre was he from shew­ing any courtesie or kindnesse unto her when she stoode confined (which had beene the least matter of a thousand) that whereas by an Ordinance of her fa­thers, shee was shut up within one Towne, hee gave straight order that shee should not steppe out of dores, and enioy the Societie of people and world­lie commerce: nay, hee proceeded so farre, as to bereave her of that little stocke and housholde-stuffe which her Father allowed her: yea, and de­frauded her of the yeerely Pension and exhibition for her maintenaunce: [Page 110] and all, forsooth, under a colour of common right and law; because AUGU­STUS in his last will and testament had not expresly provided in this behalfe. Being notable well to endure his mother LIVIA, as chalenging to her selfe equall part with him in power and authority, hee avoided both to keepe ordi­nary and daily company, and also to entertaine long speech or secret confe­rence with her; because hee might not be thought ruled and directed by her counsailes; which otherwhiles notwithstanding he was wont both to stand in neede of, and also to use. Semblably, he tooke to the very heart the passing of this Act in the Senate, That in his stile as he had the title, sonne of AUGUSTUS, so this addition should runne withall sonne of LIVIA. And therefore it was, that he would not suffer her to be named Mother of her Country. PARENS PATRIAE, nor to receive any re­markable honour in open place and by publique decree. Oftentimes also he admonished her to forbeare intermedling in greater affaires, and such as were not meet for women; especially after he perceived once, that when the Tem­ple of Vesta was on fire, she also came thither in person among others, & there encouraged the people and souldiours both, to doe their best and help all what they could, as her manner was to doe in her husbands dayes.

By these degrees he proceeded even to secret rancour & malice against her,51 but chiefly upon this occasion, as men report. She had been very earnest with him many a time to enrole one in the (a) Decuries of the Iudges who was made free Denizen & Citizen of Rome▪ but he denied flatly to choose and admit the party, unlesse it were upon this onely condition, That she would suffer a clause to be written & annexed to the Instrument Quorum no­min [...], or such like. or Roll, in these words, This graunt was by my mother wrung and wrested from me. Whereat she highly displeased and offended, brought forth out of her Closet & Cabinet certaine old letters of AU­GUSTUS (written) unto her, as touching his perverse, bitter and intollerable manners; and those she openly read. He againe tooke the matter so greevously, that she had both kept those writings so long by her, and also cast them in his dish so spitefully, that some thinke this was the greatest cause of his departure from the Citie. And verily, for the space of three yeeres compleat, during which time hee was absent and his mother living, hee sawe her but once: and that was no more than one day, and very fewe howers of the same. And af­terwards as little minde hee had to be by her lying sicke: and when shee was dead, suffering her corps by staying so long above ground (whiles men ho­ped still of his comming) to corrupt at length and putrifie: after shee was en­terred, he forbad that she should be canonized and registred in the Catalogue of Saints: pretending as if she her selfe had given that order. Her will hee an­nulled, all her friends and familiars, even those unto whom upon her death­bed she had committed the charge of her Funerals, within a short time he per­secuted and plagued, yea and one of them, to wit, a worshipfull Gentleman of Rome, he condemned to the Or wheele & bucke [...] Ani­liam: S [...]me read, in Ant [...]i­am, or Anticyrā [...] an Iland: or else Lacunam, a dungeon in the common prison. pump.

52 Of his two sonnes, hee loved neither DRUSUS that was by nature, nor GERMANICUS by adoption, as a father should doe; as taking offence at the vices of the Of Drusus. one. For DRUSUS was of an effeminate minde; given to a loose and idle life. Therefore was not TIBERIUS so neerely touched and grieved for him beeing dead; but presentlie after his funerall, returned to [Page 111] his ordinarie and accustomed businesse prohibiting vacation [...], as the m [...]ner was in any mourn­full time. of Iustice to continue any longer. Moreover, when the Iliensian Embassadours came som­what with the latest to comfort him; he, (as if now by this time the memorie of his sorrow had beene cleane worne out,) scoffed at them and made this an­swere, That hee likewise was sorie in their behalfe for the lesse they had of HECTOR, so noble and brave a Citizen. As for GERMANICUS, he depraved and disgraced him so, as that not onely he did extenuate and diminish all his worthy exploits as mere vaine and needlesse, but also blamed his most glorious victories, as daungerous and hurtfull to the Common-wealth. Also, for that without his advise, hee went unto Alexandria, (by occasion of an extreame and suddaine famine) hee complained of him in the Senate: yea, and it is verily beleeved, he was the cause of his death, and used the meanes of CN. PISO, Lieutenant of Syria; who soone after beeing accused of this crime, would (as some thinke) have uttered abroad those directions and warrants that hee had so to doe: but that SEIANUS secretly withstood it. For which, TIBERIUS was oftentimes and in many places much Ni Seianus secret [...] obstar [...]t [...] or, Nisi easec, e­ta chstare [...]t i▪ but that they were in secret delivered, and therefore could not be proved. blamed, and in the night season commonly called upon with this crie and note, Redde Germanicum. i. Giue us GERMANICUS againe. The suspition whereof himselfe afterwardes confirmed and made good, by afflicting in cruell manner the wife also and children of the said GER­MANICUS.

53 Furthermore, his daughter Increpitum: others read in­scriptum i. This inscription was in many places set upon his Statues. in law AGRIPPINA, for complaining over­boldly of him after the death of her husband, he tooke by the hand, and recited unto her a (a) Greeke verse to this effect, If thou hast not soveraine Rule and Do­minion, * Germanicus his adopted sonnes wife, & daugh [...]e to Agrip [...] and Iulia. quoth he, Thinkest thou prety daughter that thou art wronged? and so vouch­safed her no speech at all after. Also, because upon a time, when shee durst not at supper tast of those appels which he had reached unto her, he forbare to invite her any more; pretending, that she charged him with the crime of attempting her with poison: when as in deede, it was of purpose plotted & packed afore­hand, both that himselfe should by the offring of such fruit tempt her, and she againe beware most present and assured death. At the last, having untruly ac­cused her, as if shee minded to flie one while to the Statue of AUGUSTUS, and another while to the Armies, hee confined and sent her away to the Isle Pandataria; and as shee railed at him, hee by the hands of a Centurion with whipping and lashing her over the face strucke out one of her eyes. Againe, when as shee was fully determined to pine herselfe to death: hee caused her mouth perforce to bee opened, and meate to be crammed into her throate: Yea, and after that by continuance in this minde shee consumed quite away and died in the end, hee inveighed against her in most odious and reproachfull termes: having opined first in the Senate, that her birth-day also should bee reckoned among the dismall and unlucky dayes. Furthermore, he expected thankes, as for an high favour done unto her, in that hee strangled her not be­fore with acord, and so flung her to the Scale. (b) Gemoniae, and in regard of such a singular clemencie as this, hee suffred a Decree to passe, That thankes should bee given unto him, and a Present of Golde consecrated unto IUPITER CAPITO­LINUS.

Whereas by GERMANICUS he had three nephewes, NERO, DRUSUS &5 [...] [Page 112] CAIUS; by DRUSUS one, to wit TIBERIUS, when he was left destitute and fatherlesse by the death of his children, the two eldest sonnes of GERMANI­CUS, namely NERO and DRUSUS, he recommended to the LL. of the Senate; and celebrated the day of both their Commencements with giving a Or Largesse. Con­giarie to the people▪ But no sooner understoode he, that upō New-yeeres-day there had beene publique vowes made by the Citie for their life also and pre­servation, but he gave the Senate to understand, That such honours ought not to be conferred upon any persons, but those that were experienced and farre stept in yeeres, Thereby, having discovered the inward character and canker of his hart, from that day forward hee exposed them to the slaunders and imputations of all men: When also, by sundry subtile devises hee had wrought so, that they might bee both provoked to give railing taunts, and also beeing so provoked come to mischiefe and destruction; he accused them in his letters, heaped most bitterly upon them hainous reproaches, caused them to be iudged enemies to the State, and so hunger-starved them to death; NERO, within the Isle Pontia, and DRUSUS at the very foote and bottome of Palatium. Men think that NE­RO was driven to To famish his owne selfe wil­fully. worke his owne death, what time as the Or executio­ [...]er. Hangman, as sent by a warrant from the Senate, presented unto him halters To strangle him, and drag him to the Sca­lae Gemoniae. and hookes. As for DRUSUS, kept he was from all foode and sustenance: in so much as hee gave the attempt to eate the very flockes that stuffed the Or bed. mattresse whereupon hee lay: And the Bones and ashes which was done by him of spight. reliques of them both, were so dispersed and scattred abroade, that hardly they could be ever gathered together.

55 Over and above his olde friends and familiars, hee had demaunded twenty out of the number of the best and principall Citizens, as Counsailours and Assistants unto him in publique affaires. Of all these, hee could hardly shewe twaine or three at the most alive: the rest, some for one cause and some for a­nother he brought to confusion and killed▪ among whom (with the calamity and overthrow of many more) was AELIUS SEIANUS, whom hee had to the highest place of authoritie advaunced, not so much for any good will, as to be his instrument and right hand, by whose ministerie and fraudulent practises he might circumvent the children of GERMANICUS, and so establishe as heire apparent in succession of the Empire the Nephew he had by DRUSUS, as his naturall sonne.

No milder was he one iote unto the Greeke Professours and Artists, living56 and conversing daily with him, and in whom hee tooke most contentment. One of them named ZENO, as hee reasoned and discoursed very * exactly of a question he asked, What harsh Dialect Or curi­ously. that was, wherein he spake? and when hee answered, It was the Dorick▪ he confined him for his labour into Cynaria, sup­posing that he twitted and reproached him for his olde vacation and absence from Rome because the Rhodians spake Dorick. Semblably, whereas his man­ner was out of his owne daily readings, to propound certaine questions as hee sate at supper: having intelligence, That SELEUCUS the Grammarian en­quired diligently of his Ministers and Servitours, what Authors at any time hee had in hand, and so came prepared to assoile the saide questions, first hee forbad him his house and ordinarie Societie, afterwards hee forced him even to death.

[Page 113]His cruell, close and unpliable nature was not hidden no not in his verie57 childhood▪ the which THEODORUS GADARAEUS his teacher in Rhetorick, seemed both at first to fore-see most wisely, and also to expresse and resemble as fitly, when by way of chiding and rebuke hee called him ever and anone Pelon Haimati Pephuramenon;. i. Or mire. clay soaked Clay so tem­pered becom­meth verie strong, tough and stiffe. in bloud. But the same brake out & appeared somewhat more, when he became Emperour, at the very be­ginning: what time as yet he lay for to win the love and favour of men, with a pretence of civill moderation A certaine A scoffing iester. Buffon there was, who as a Fune­rall passed by, had willed the party whose body was caried forth, to report unto AUGUSTUS, That his Legacies were not yet payed and delivered, which hee * E [...]ato mortu [...], or c [...]are mortu [...], i. with a loude voice called upon the dead man, &c. had left for the Commons of Rome. Him, he caused to be haled and brought unto his presence, to receive also the debt which was due: and then commaunded him to be led to execution, and so to relate the truth unto his father (AUGU­STUS). Not long after as he threatned to send unto prison one POMPEIUS a Romaine Knight, for stoutly denying some thing, hee assured him, That of a POMPEIUS he would make him a POMPEIANUS, glauncing by this bitter and biting taunt, both at the mans name & also at the old infortunity of [...] The Pom­pe [...]ani, that took part with Pompeius a­gainst Iulius Caesar that side.

58 About the same time, when the Pretour came to know of him, whether his pleasure was to holde the iudiciall Assizes, as touching the case of [...] High trea­son. Maie­stie, or no? he made answere, That the Lawes must have their course and be put in execution: and in very truth he executed them with extreame rigour. There was one who from the Statue of AUGUSTUS had taken away the head, for to set the same upon the Statue of another. The matter was debated in the Se­nate: and because some doubt arose, Who did the deed? inquisition was made by torture. The party delinquent being condemned; this kind of Calumnia­tion by little and little proceeded so farre, that such points as these also were made capitall crimes: Namely, to have beaten a slave, about the Fled thither for refuge as unto a Sanctu­arie, or other­wise how so ever. image of AUGUSTUS. Item, if a man had shifted his (a) apparell & put on other clothes (about the said Image). Item to have brought into any privie or brothelhouse Either of Ti­berius or Au­gustus. Read Seneca de bene­ficijs lib 3 cap. 26 his image imprinted either in money or ring. Lastly, to have empaired any word or deede of his, in the least credite and reputation that might bee. To conclude, it cost one his life, for suffering in his owne Colonie, honours to be decreed unto him, upon the same day, that they had in times past beene de­creed for AUGUSTUS.

Many parts besides under the colour of gravity and reformation, but rather59 in deede following the course of his owne nature; hee used to play, so cruelly and with such rigour, that some there were, who in verses both upbraided by way of reproach the calamities present, and also gave warning of the future miseries, in this manner.

Asper & immitis. Breviter vis omnia dicam?
Dispeream, site mater amare potest.
Harsh and unkind, (In briefe wilt thou I should say all?) thou art:
God me confound, if mother thine can love thee in her hart.
Non es eques; quare? non sunt tibi millia centum;
Omnia siqu [...]ras: et Rhodos exilium est.
No Knight thou art; and why? for hundred thousands none;
(Search all) thou hast in store: & now at Rhodes exil'd do'st wone.
Aurea mutasti Saturni saecula, CAESAR;
Incolumi nam te, ferrea semper [...]runt.
Of Saturne King thou changed hast that age resembling gold,
For while thou, CAESAR, liv'st, the world of yron shall ever hold.
Fastidit vinum quia iam sitit iste cruorem:
Tam bibit hunc avide, quam bibit ante merum.
Wine doth he loath, because that now of bloud he hath a thirst,
He drinketh that as greedily, as wine he did at first.
(a) Aspice falicem sibi non tibi, ROMULE SULLAM;
Et MARIUM, si vis, aspice; sed reducem,
Nec non ANTONI civilia bella moventis:
Nec semel infectas, aspice caede manus.
Et dic, Roma perit. Regnabit sanguine multo,
Ad regnum quisquis venit ab exilio.
See SULLA, happy for himselfe, O ROMULUS not for thee:
And MARIUS, in case thou wilt, but new returned, see;
Likewise behold of ANTONIE those hands in bloud embrew'd
Not once, I meane of ANTONIE, who civill warres renew'd.
The say, Rome goes to wrack. And he with blud-shed much wil raign
Who to a Kingdomes-state is come, from banishment againe.

Which verses at first, he would have had to be taken and construed as made by them who were impatient of any Lordly rule and absolute dominion at Rome: and as if they had beene framed and devised, not so much with any con­siderate iudgement, as upon Stomach and Choler. And evermore his saying was, Oderint aum probent i Let them hate me, so long as they suffer my pro­ceedings to passe. But afterwards, even himselfe proved them to be very true and most certaine.

Within few dayes after hee came to Capreae, when a Fisher-man, suddainly60 and unlooked for presented unto him (as hee was in a secret place doing some­what by himselfe) a Being [...]kaly and having a couple of barbe [...]. Barble of an extraordinary bignesse, he caused his face to be rubbed all over with the same fish: as put in a fright, no doubt, for that from the backe side of that Iland, he had made meanes thorough the rough thickets and by-wayes, to creepe and get unto him where he was. And when the poore fellow amid this punishment seemed to reioyce yet, and said, It was happy that he had not offred unto him a lopstar also (which he had caught) of an huge great­nesse, hee commaunded that his face should be grated and mangled likewise with the said Lopstar. A Souldiour, one of his owne guard, for filching and stealing a Peacock out of an Or garden. Orchard hee put to death. In a certaine iourney that he made, the Licter wherein he was caried chaunced to be entangled and somewhat stayed with briars and brambles: Whereupon a Centurion of the formost cohorts in the Vaward, that had in charge to try and cleere thee waies, he caused to be laid along upon the ground, and there he all to beat him With c [...]d­gels: which pu­nishment was c [...]lled Fustua­rium. un­till he was well-neere dead.

61 Soone after, hee brake out into all kindes of cruelty; as one who ne­ver wanted matter to woorke upon: persecuting the familiar friendes and acquaintance of his owne Mother first, then, of his Nephewes and daugh­ter in lawe, and at the last of SEIANUS: after whose death hee grewe to [Page 115] be most cruell. Whereby especially it appeared, that himselfe was not wont so much to be provoked and set on by SEIANVS: as Quā [...] quarent [...] occass­ones submi [...] ­strasse. SEIANVS to serve his turne and feede his humour, seeking as he did all occasions: howsoever in a cer­taine commentarie which he composed summarily and briefely of his owne life he durst write thus much, That he executed SEIANVS, because he had found that hee raged furiously against the children of GERMANICVS his sonne. Of whom to say a truth, the one himselfe murdred, after he had first suspected SEI­ANVS, and the other, not before he had killed him. To prosecute in particular all his bloudie deedes would require a long time. It shall suffice therefore to reherse in generall the patternes as it were and examples of his crueltie. There passed not a day over his head, no not so much as any festivall and (a) religious holieday, without execution and punishment of folke. Some suffered even uppon Newyeares day. Accused and condemned there were many together, with their children, and very wives. Straight commaundement and warning was giuen, that the nere kinsfolke of such persons as stood condemned to die, should not mourne and lament for them. Especially rewardes were by decree appointed for their accusers; otherwhiles also for bare witnesses. No informer and promoter was discredited, but his presentmēt taken. And everie crime and trespasse went for Capitall, and so was received: were it but the speaking of a few simple words▪ Objected it was against a Poet, that in a tragaedie hee had reviled and railed uppon (b) The souerai [...] Captaine and Generall of the Greekes at Tr [...]ye. AGAMEMNON; as also it was laide to an A. Cre [...]tius Cordu [...] read Se­neca Consolat­ [...]a Mar [...]um. cap 22 * who s [...]ew [...]ulims Caeser and were [...]ccoump­ted Tyrannecton [...] Histo­rians charge, for saying, (c) that * BRVTVS and CASSIVS, were the last of all the Romains. Presently were the Authors and writers punished, and their writings called in and abolished: notwithstanding certaine yeares before they had beene recited even in the hearing of AVGVSTVS, with his good liking and approbation. Some committed to ward, were deprived not onely of their Solace and comfort in studying, but also of the verie use of talking with o­thers. Of such as were cited peremptorily by writ and processe to aunswere at the barre, some gave themselues (mortall) wounds at home in their houses (as sure to be condemned, onely to avoyd torments and ignominy) others in the open face and middest of the Court dranke poyson: and yet were they with their wounds bound up, and whiles they yet panted betweene alive and dead, haled away to prison. There was not one executed but hee was throwne also into the Iemoniae, and drawne with the drag. In one day were there (d) twentie so throwne and drawne: and among them boyes and women. As for young girles and maidens of unripe yeares, because by auncient custome and traditi­on, unlawfull it was to strangle Virgins. (e) First deflowred they were by the hang-man and afterwards strangled. Were any willing of themselues to die? such were forced violently to live. For he thought simple death so light a puni­shment, that when he hard, how one of the prisoners, Or [...] CARNVLIVS by name, had taken his death voluntarily before, he cryed out in these wordes. CARNVLIVS hath escaped my hands. Also in overseeing and perusing the pri­soners in Gaole, when one of them besought to have his punishment with speed, he made him this answere: Nay marry, thou art not yet reconciled unto me, that I should shew thee such favour. A certaine Who had [...]eere some­time consul, and therefore to be credited. Consular writer hath inserted this in his Annales: That upon a time at a great feast (where himselfe also was pre­sent,) TIBERIVS being on a sodaine asked, and that openly with a lowd voyce [Page 116] by a dwarfe standing at the Table among I [...]ter Copre [...]: other Buffons and Iesters, Wherefore PACONIVS being attaint of treason lived so long? For that instant verily chid the partie for his saucie and malapert tongue: but after a few daies wrote vnto the Senate, to take order with all speede for the execution of PACONIVS.

He increased and strained still more and more this crueltie, by occasion that62 he was galled and fretted at the newes of his sonne DRVSVS his death: For, having beene of opinion, that he died upon some sickenes & intemperate life, so soone as he understood at length, that he was poysoned & so made away by the villanous practise of his wife Daughter of Germanicus & Agry [...]pina, and wife to the said Drusus. LIVILLA and SEIANVS together, he spa­red not to torment and execute any one whomsoever; so bent and addicted whole daies together to the inquisition and tryall of this onely matter, as that when word came unto him how an host of his an inhabitant of Rhodes (whom by familiar letters he had sent for to Rome) was come, he commanded him out of hand to be put to among other examinates. corture, as if he had beene some neere freinde present at the foresaid examination: but afterwards, when his errour was discovered, and seeing how he had mistaken, he caused him also to be killed. because he should not divulge and make knowne the Done vnto him. former injury. The place is yet to bee seene at Capreae of his butcherly cariage: From which he caused condemned persons after long and exquisite torments to be flung headlong before his face into the sea: where were readie to receive them a number of mariners, who with their sprits, poles, and oares should beate and batt their carkasses: to the end that none of them might have any breath or wind remaining in the bo die: He had devised moreover, among other kinds of torment, what time as men by deceitfull meanes had their lode with large drinking of strong wine, sodainely to knit fast and tie their privie members with (Lute) strings, that hee might cause them to swell and be pent in most dolorous paines occasioned at once as well by the streight strings, as the suppression and stoppage of vrine. And had it not beene that both death prevented and The Astro­loger, THRASYLLVS also en­forced him of purpose, (as men say) to put of some designes in hope of lon­ger life, he would haue murdred a good many more (as it is fully beleeved) and not spared those verie nephewes of his that remained yet alive; considering he both had CAIVS in suspition, and also cast of TIBERIVS, as conceived in adulterie. And it soundeth to truth, that he was minded thus to do. For, ever and anon, he called PRIAMVS happie in that he overlived all his sonnes and daughters.

But, how amid these prankes he lived not onely odious and detested, but ex­ceeding63 timorous also & exposed to the contumelious reproches of the world, there be many evidences to shew. That any soothsayers should be sought unto and consulted with a part without witnesses by, he forbad: As for the Oracles neere adjoyning to the Citie of Rome, he attempted to subvert them all- But being terrified with the maiestie of those Fortanes or chaunce [...] answeres which were delivered In manner of a Lottery. at Praeneste, he gave over: namely, when as he could not finde them, (sealed upp though they were and brought downe to Rome) within the chist until the same was carried backe againe unto the Of Fortune at Preneste. Temple. And not daring to send away & dismisse from him one L▪ Ael [...]us La­ [...]ia and L. Ar­r [...]ntius. or two Consulare Or Pre [...]idēts that had beene Consuls. L L. deputies, after hee had offered provinces unto them, he detained them so long, untill after certaine yeares ex­pired, he ordained others to succeede them: whiles the other remained present [Page 117] with him: whereas in the meane time, reserving still the title of the office: he assigned unto them many commissions and matters of charge: and they con­tinually gave order for execution thereof, by the ministerie of their Legates, Liuetenants and Coadjutours.

His Agrippina, his adopted sonne Ger [...]icus wife & widow▪ or Liu [...]lla be­fore named, wife to Drusut his naturall sonne. daughter in law, and Nephewes, after they were once condemned, he64 never remooved from place to place otherwise than chained and in a close co­vered licter sowed up fast: setting his soldiers to prohibite all passengers that met with them, and waifaring persons travailing by, once to looke Because they shold not aske who was within backe thi­ther, or to stay their pace and stand still.

65 When SEIANVS went about seditiously to worke alteration in the state: albeit he saw now that both his birth day was publikely solemnized, and also his Images of gold worshipped everie where, he overthrew him (I must needs say) at length: but with much adoo, by craftie sleights and guile, rather than by his princely authoritie and Imperiall power. For first, to the end that he might dismisse the man in shew of honour, he assumed him to be his Colleague in the fifth Consulship, which in his For he re­mained still at Capreae. long absence he had taken upon him for that verie purpose. Afterwards when he had deceived him with hope of To be mar­ched in mari­age with on of his neipces. Affi­nitie and the Tribunes authoritie, he complained of the man (looking for noe such matter) in a shamefull and pitious Oration: beseeching the LL. of the Senate among other requests. To send on of the Consuls to conduct him an aged and desolate man with some guarde of soldiour: into their sight. And yet neverthelesse, distrusting himselfe and fearing an Or Epistle rather written unto the Senat. uprore, he had given commandement; that his nephew DRVSVS, whom still he kept in prison at Rome: should be set at libertie (if need did so require,) & ordained generall captaine. Yea & whiles his ships were readie rigged and prepared to what Legions soever he ment for to flie, hee stood looking ever and anon from the highest cliffe that was, to­ward the markes and signes, which he had appointed (least messengers might stay too long) for to be reared a great way of: thereby to have intelligence, as any occurrent (good or bad) fell out. Nay, when the conspiracie of SEIA­NVS was now suppressed, he was never the more secure and resolute: but for the space of 9. moneths next ensuing he stirred not out of the Or [...]erme house, in the Isse Capreae. village called Iovis.

Beside all this, diverse and sundrie reprochfull taunts from all parts netled66 and stung his troubled minde. For there was not a person condemned, that reviled him not in all sorts openly to his face, yea and discharged uppon him opptobrious termes by libels laid for the nonce in the verie Where the Senatours sat to behold the plaiet. Orchestra, with which contumelies verily, affected he was after a most divers and contrarie manner: so that, one while he desired for verie shame of the world, that all such abuses might be unknowne and concealed: otherwhiles, hee contemned the same, and of his owne accorde broached and divulged them abroade. Fur­thermore, rated he was & railed at in the letters also of ARTABANVS K. of the Parthians, who charged him with parricidies, murders, cowardise and luxurious roiot: who gave him counsell likewise with all speede possible, to satisfie with a voluntarie death the hatred of his Citizens, conceived against him in the highest degree and most iustly. At the last, being even wearie of him­selfe in the beginning of such an Epistle as this, hee declared and confessed in manner the verie summe of all his miseries. What shall I write? my LL. of the [Page 118] Senate, or how shall I write? Nay, what is it, at a word, that I shall not write at this time? The Gods and Goddesses all plague and confound me utterly at once, feeling as I do my selfe dayly to perish.

Some thinke, that he foreknew all this by the skill he had ofFor he was wooderfully addicted to the study of Astro­logie and such curious Arts: future events:67 that he foresaw also long before how great a calamitie and infamie both, would one day betide him: And therfore it was▪ that he refused most obstinate­ly to take upō him the Empire & the name of PATER PATRIAE, as also stood against the oath, to maintaine his Acts: for feare least within a while after, to his greater disgrace and shame he might be found inferiour, and unworthie of such speciall honours, which verily may be gathered out of the speech hee made as touching both those points, when he saith but thus. That hee would be alwaies like to himselfe, and never chaunge his manners, so long as he continued in his sound wits. Howbeit, for example sake, provided it would be that the Senate binde not themselues to keepe and ratifie the Actions of any one, who by some chaunce might bee altered. And againe, Marie, if at any time, quoth hee, yee shall make doubt of my loyall behaviour and devoted mind unto you (which before it ever happen, I wish my dying day to take me from this minde and opinion of yours, once conceived of me and afterwards chaunged) the bare title of PATER PATRIAE will adde no honour unto me, but upbraide you either with inconsiderate rashnesse, for imposing that Surname uppon mee, or else with inconstancie, for your contrary iudgements of mee.

Corpulent he was, big set and strong, of stature (a) aboue the ordinarie,68 broad betweene the shoulders and large breasted: in all other parts also of the bodie (from the crowne of his head) to the verie sole of his foote, of equall making and congruent proportion. His left hand was more nimble & stron­ger than the right: and his ioynts so firme, that with his finger he was able to bore through a greene and sound Apple: with a fillop also to breake the head of a boy, yea of a good stripling and big youth. Of colour and complexion he was cleere and white: wearing the haire of his head longe behind, in so much as it covered his very necke: which was thought in him to be a fashion appropriate to his linage and familie. He had an ingenuous and well favoured* The Clandij. face: wherein notwithstanding appeared many small (b) tumours or risinges▪ * For such pro­minent eyes are not com­monly quicke of sight. and a paire of verie great gogle eyes in his head, such as (whereat a man would marvaile) could see euen by night and in the darke: but that was onely for a little while and when they opened first after sleepe: for in the ende they wax­ed dim againe. His Manner of going. gate was with his (c) necke stiffe and shooting Or downe­ward into his bosome: for­ward: with a countenance bent and composed lightly to severitie: for the most part he was silent: Seldome or never should you have him talke with those next about him: and if hee did, his speech was exceeding slowe, not without a certaine wanton gesticulation and fimbling with his fingers. All which properties being odious and full of arrogancie, AVGVSTVS both ob­served in him, & also went about to excuse & cloke for him before the Senate and people, assuring them, they were the defects and imperfections of nature, and not the vices of the mind. He lived most healthfull. And verily all the time well neere that he was Emperour not once in maner crasie: albeit from that he was thirtie yeares old he (d) governed his helth after his owne order and direc­tion, without any helpe or counsell at all of Physicians.

[Page 119]As little respect as hee had of the Gods, or had sence of any religion, (as69 one addicted to astrologie and calculation of nativities, yea and fully perswa­ded, that all things were done and ruled by The course of the stars. fatall destinie) yet feared he thun­der exceedingly: and were the aire or wether any whit troubled, hee ever carried a chaplet or wreath of lawrell Or upon his head in maner of a Coronet. about his necke: because that kinde of greene As Plinie re­porteth lib, 2. & 15. branch is neuer, as they say blasted with light­ning.

The liberall Sciences as wel grecke as Latine. of both sorts he loved most affectionatly, in the70 latine Prose. speech he followed CORVINVS MESSALLA; whom being an aged professour he had observed from his verie youth: but with over much affectati­on and curiositie he marred all and darkened his stile: so as he was thought to do somewhat better Of a sodaine. ex tempore, than upon studie and premeditation. He composed also a poem in lyricke (a) verses, the title whereof is, a complaint of One of Au­gust [...]s sonnes▪ yet some ex­pound it of In­ [...]tus Caesar Dictator. D. CAESARS death. Hee made likewise Greeke poemes in imitation of EVPHORION, RHIANVS and PARTHENIVS: In which Poets being much delighted, their writings and Images he dedicated in the publike Libraties a­mong the auncient and principall authors. A number therefore of learned men strove a vie to put forth many pamphlets de hijs. haply of their coing of them, and to present him therewith. But aboue all he studied for the knowledge of Wherein ma ny tales or fables are inser ted fabulous historie, evē unto meere fooleries, & matters ridiculous. For, the verie Grāmarians (which kind of professours as we have said, he affected especially) he would assay and appose commonly with these and such like questions: namely, Who was HE­CVBAES mother? What name ACHILLES had among the The daugh­ters of King Lycomedes in the Isle Scyros where hee faigned him selfe to bee a maiden. Virgins? What it was that the Mer-maides were wont to sing? The verie first day, (after the death of AV­GVSTVS) that he entred into the Curia, as if he minded once for all to performe the dutie of pietie and religion: following the example of MINOS he sacrifi­ced indeede, as the manner was with Frankin-cense and wine. but with­out* Audrogeus. a minstrell, as the saide MINOS sometime did at the death of his sonne.

In the Greeke tongue, howsoever he otherwise was readie enough and71 spake it with facilitie, yet he used it not every where, but most of all forbare it in the Senate house: in so much verily, as when he came to name (a) MONO­POLIVM, he craved leave before hand. for that he was to use a strang and fo­raine worde; yea & in a certaine decree of the Senatours, when this word (b) EMBLEMA was red, he gave his opinion, that the saide word should be chan­ged, and insteede of that strang terme some latine vocable sought out: and if such an one could not be found, then to utter and declare the thing, though it were in more words and by circumlocution. A certaine Greeke souldier also, being required for to depose and deliver his testimonie, he forbad to make an­swere, (c) unlesse it were in Latin.

All the time that he was retired and lived from the Cittie of Rome, twice72 and no more he assaied to returne thither once he came by water embarked in a With three ranks of oares gallie, as farre as to the hort-yards and gardens adioyning to the (a) Nau­machia: but he had set guardes along the banks of Tibre, for to void & put backe such as went forth to meete him. A second time, by the streete or part way Appia, so farre as the (b) 7. miles end from Rome: but when he had onely seene* Ad [...] lapidem. the walles a farre of, without approching neerer unto the Citie hee returned. [Page 120] For what cause he did so whē he came by the River. at first, it was not certainely knowne: afterwardes, affrighted he was with this prodigious picture and straung sight. Among o­ther delights he tooke great pleasure in a Serpent (c) Dragon, which, whē accor­ding* when he iour nied by land. to his usuall manner, he would haue fed with his owne hand and found eaten by pismires, he was warned thereupon to beware the violence of a mul­titude. In his returne therefore speedily into Campania he fell sicke at Astura: but being eased a little of that maladie he went forward as farre as to Circeij: and because he would give no suspicion of sickenesse, he was not onely present himselfe at the games exhibited by the garison souldiers there, but also, when there was a wild bore put foorth into the open shew-place for to be baited, he launced dartes at him from aboue, where he was: And presently therewith, by occasion of a convulsion in his side: and for that hee had taken the cold aire upon an exceeding heat, he fell backe by (d) relapse into a more dangerous dis­ease: How be it, he bare it out a pretie while: notwithstanding that after he was come downe so farre as to Misenum, he pretermitted nothing of his ordinary and daily manner, no not so much as his feasting and other pleasures: partly upon an intemperate humour of his owne, and in part to dissimule and palliate his weakenesse. For, when CHARICLES his Physician, who by vertue of a pasport was licensed to depart and be absent, went foorth from the table and tooke hold of his hand to kisse it, he supposing that he had feltVenas, for Ar­terias by the trope Cat [...]chre sis, for they one ly beat. his pulse, desi­red him to stay & sit downe againe, and so drew out the supper longer. Neither, gave he over his usuall custome, but even then standing in the midst of the ban­quetting roome with a lictoror upō whom he leaned. by him he spake to every one by nameWho waited uppon him. as they tooke their leave.

73 Meane while, when he had reade among the Acts passed in the Senate that certaine prisoners were enlarged and dismissed, but not so much as once heard: concerning whom he had written very briefly and no otherwise than thus, that nominated they were by an appeacher: chafing and frowning hereat, as if he had beene held in contempt, he fully purposed to go againe intoValer [...] dicent [...]s or as they sa luted him, after the Greeke phrase Chairein Kai [...]prattein. Ga [...]dere & bene rem gerere: Ho­ [...]at. All [...]aile and faire cheere you. Capreae, as one who lightly would attempt nothing, but where he was sure enough and with­out all daunger. But being kept backe, as well by tempest as the violence of his disease that grew still uppon him hee died soone after in aWith full in­tent as it should seeme to bee revenged of the Senate. village bearing the nameOr manner house (a) Luculliana, in the 78. yeare of his age three & twentieth of his Empire, and the Of Lucu. lus, who either built it, or there dwelt. seventeenth day before the Calends of Aprill: when Cn. ACERRONIVS PROCVLVS and C. PORTIVS NIGER were Consuls. Some thinke that16. of march. A V C 790: Caligula, Em­perour after him▪ CAIVS had given him a poyson of slow operation: which should by little and little consume him. Others are of opinion, that when hee desired meat in the remission of an ague fit wherein he had swowned (Some leave out this clause. and read thus, as he desired meat &c. a pillow was &c. it was denied him) and there with aOr cushin. pillow throwne uppon his face to smudder him & stop his breath. Some againe, that it was when cōming soone to himselfe, he called for his Ring which was plucked frō his finger whiles he fainted. SENE­CA writeth that perceiving himselfe drawing onIntellecta de­fectione. Some expound this of the slinking away of his familiars and those that were about him, and readie to die, he tooke of his Ring, as if he minded to give it unto some one, and so held it a pretie while▪ then afterwardes did it uppon his finger againe: and so keeping down and gri­ping close his left Vpon which he ware the ring. hand, lay still a long time without once stirring: but so­dainely calling for his gromes and servitours, when none made aunswere, [Page 121] roseup, and not farre from his pallet, his strength failing him, fell downe dead.

Vpon the last Birth-dayes-feast of his that ever he saw, him thought as hee74 lay a sleepe, that Apollo Temenites (an Idol of exceeding bignesse and most arti­ficially wrought) which was newly brought from Saracose to be set up in the li­brarie of his new temple, assured him, That he could not possibly by him be dedica­ted. And some few daies before his death, the watch-tower that gave Vnto Sea m [...] and passengers by night. light at Capreae by an earthquake fell downe in the night: and at Misenum, the ashes re­maining of the embers and coales brought-into heate his refection parlour, being quenched quite and continuing cold a long time, suddainly brake forth into a lightfire, at the shutting in of the evening, and so shone out a great part of the night and gave not over.

The people ioyed so much at his death, that running up and downe at the75 first tidings thereof, some cried out in this note, (Fling) Tiberium in Tiberim. Into Tiberis with Tiberius. TIBERIUS into Ti­beris▪ others in their prayers besought the Mother Earth & the infernall Gods To vouchsafe him now dead no place, but among impious wretches: And a sort there were, who threatned his lifelesse carkasse the Drag and the Gemonia▪ as who, over and above the remembrance of his former cruelty in times past, were pro­voked to anger with a fresh outrage newly committed. For whereas by an Act of Senate it was provided, That the execution of condemned persons should be put off unto the tenth day after (sentence given), it happened so, that the day on which some of them were to suffer, fell out to be the very same, wherein newes came of TIBERIUS death. These poore soules, notwithstanding they piteously called for mans help (because in the absence yet of CAIUS no man was known, who might (in such a case) be repaired unto and spoken with) the Goalers, for that they would do nothing against the Constitution aforesaid strangled them and flung their bodies into the Gemonia. Heereupon, I say, the peoples hatred against him encreased, as if the Tyrants cruelty remained still after his death. His corpes, so soone as it began to bee removed from Misenum, notwithstan­ding the most part cried with one voice, To carie it rather to (a) Atella, & there to (b) halfe-burne it in the (c) Amphitheatre, yet was brought to Rome by the Soldiours and burnt in a publick funerall fire.

A two-fold He meaneth I suppose a counterpaire indented. will he made two yeeres before: the one written with his own76 hand: the other by his freed man: but both of them were of the same tenour: & signed he had them with the seales of most base persons. By vertue of which will and testament, he left coheires and equall in portion CAIUS his nephew by GERMANICUS, and TIBERIUS by DRUSUS. These he substituted & appointed to succeed one another. He gave legacies also to manie more, and among the rest unto the uestall Virgins, and to the Souldiers of all sorts in generall: as also to the commons of Rome by the poll: yea and to the Masters of everie Street by them­selues severally.

THE HISTORIE OF Caius Caesar Caligula,


GERMANICUS father of CAIUS CAESAR, sonne of DRU­SUSChap. 1 A, V. C. 757 765 and Daughter of Antoni [...]s the Tr [...]umvir, by Octaria. Au gustus fister. ANTONIA, no sooner was adopted by his Vn­kle TIBERIUS, but forthwith he bare the office of Que­stureship five yeeres before hee might by the Annari [...]. Lawes (a), and after it, the 7 yeeres after. A. V. C 767 770 771 Consulate. And being sent into Germa­nie to the Armie, when upon newes brought of AUGU­STUS death, the Legions all throughout stoode out most stifly & refused TIBERIUS for their Emperour, offring unto him the absolute government of the State (whether their constant resolution or kinde affection herein were greater it is as hard to say) he stikled & repressed thē, yea & soon af­ter having subdued the enemie, triumphed. After this, being created Consul the second time, and (b) driven forth From the said armie, where with he was acquainted. perforce, (before he entred into that ho­norable place) to compose the troubles and to quiet the State in the East parts: [Page 123] when hee had [...]: A. V. C. 772▪ deposed the King of Armenia, and brought Cappadocia into the forme of a Province, in the 34 yeere of his age, he died of a long disease at An­tiochia, not without suspition of poison. For, besides the blackish and swert spots which were to be seene all over his body, and the frothie slime that ranne forth at his mouth; his heart also (after he was burnt,) they found among the bones all sound and not consumed: the nature whereof is thought to be such, that if it bee infected with poyson, it checkes all fire and cannot possibly bee burnt.

But, as the opinion of the world went, his death contrived by the wicked2 plot of TIBERIUS, was effected by the ministerie and helpe of CN. PISO: who about the same time being President of Syria, and not dissimuling that hee was to offend either father or Tiberius him­selfe, or Germa­nicus his adop­ted sonne. sonne (as if there were no other remedie but needes he must so doe) made no spare, but beyond all measure dealt with GER­MANICUS (sicke as hee was) most rigorously, both in word and deede. For which, so soone as he was returned to Rome, hee had like to have beene pulled in peeces by the people: and by the Senate condemned he was to die.

It is for certaine knowne and confessed, that there were in GERMANICUS3 all good parts and gifts as well of body as mind: and those in such measure, as never to any man befell the like: to wit, for shew full of passing beauty, favour and feature; with strength & valour answerable thereto & for wit excellently well seene in eloquence and learning of Greeke and Latine, both kinds: The very attractive ob­iect, he was of singular The good wil and affection of men, coun­ted ameng the gifts of fortune benevolence, endowed with a wonderfull grace and effectuall desire to win mens favour and deserve their love. The onely defect that he had in his making and personage, were his slender shankes: and yet the same also by little and little became replenished with continuall riding on For they used thē [...] and therefore the bloud and humours wold descend to the legges. horseback after (a) his meate. Many a time wounded hee his enemie in close fight hand to hand He pleaded causes of great importance, even as touching the Triumphale [...], some reade Triumphali [...], as if, he gave not over pleading when he had triumphed, or received trium­phail Orna­ments. Decree of Triumph. And among other monuments of his studies he left behind him in Greeke, Comaedies also. Both at home and abroad (b) civile he was, in so much as he would goe to free and confederate Cities without any Sergeants or officers. Lictors. Where ever he knew any Sepulchers of brave and worthy men to be, there his use was to offer unto their ghosts. Being purposed to enterre in one tombe the olde reliques and bones dispersed of those that were slaine in that great overthrow with VARUS, he first gave the assay with his owne hand to gather and carie them together into one place. Moreover, to his slaunderers and backbiters (if he lighted upon them); of what quality so ever the persons were, or how great cause so ever they gave, so milde, so remisse and harme­lesse hee was: that notwithstanding PISO reversed and canciled his Decrees, plagued and persecuted a long time his Dependants, yet could he not finde in his heart to be angry with him, before he had for certaine knowne, that hee attempted his person with poysons and sorcerous execrations: and even then verily, hee proceeded no farther against him, but, more maiorum to renounce all friendshippe with him, and to give his domesticall friendes in charge to bee revenged, if ought happened to himselfe otherwise than well.

Of these vertues hee reaped most plentifull fruite; so liked and loved of his4 kinsfolke and friendes, (for I let passe all other affinities and acquaintance [Page 124] of his) as that AUGUSTUS after hee had continued a long time in suspence, whether he should ordaine him for his Successor or no? recommended him at length unto TIBERIUS for to be adopted: so highly favoured of the Com­mon people, as that many doe report and write; whensoever hee came unto a place or departed from thence, divers times by reason of the multitude flock­ing to meete him and to beare him companie, he endangered his owne life in the preasse. As he returned out of Germanie, after the suppressing of seditious tumults and mutinies there, all the Praetorian cohorts every one went out to encounter him upon the way: albeit warning was given before hand by pro­clamation, That no more than twayne of them should goe forth. But as for the people of Rome, of all sexes, ages, and degrees, they ran out by heapes to meet him xx miles from Rome.

How beit, farre greater, and more assured testimonies of mens iudgement5 touching him appeared at, and after his death. The very day wherein he left this life, The Or, the ima­ges of the Gods within the temples. temples (a) were pelted with stones: the altars of the Gods cast downe: the Domesticall (b) Lares, by some flung out of dores into the street; yea, and new-borne (c) babes of wedded parents throwne forth to be destroi­ed. And, that which more is, the report goeth, That the very Barbarians, not­withstanding they were at variance and civil warre among themselves, yea and had taken armes against us, yet, as it were in some Touching them all and e­very one pri­vatly. domesticall and common sorrow, agreed all to make truce and a cessation of armes for a time. Some of their Princes also and Potentates, to declare their extraordinarie mourning and regret, did cut off their owne beards and shaved their wives heads: Yea, the very King (d) of Kings himselfe, gave over his exercise of hunting and dissol­ved the Societie of his great Peeres and Princes at his table: which among the Parthians is as much as a (e) At Rome. [...]. a stay of all Courts and Pleas, in token of a publ [...]ck sorrow. Law-steed.

At Rome verily, when as the Citie upon the first rumour of his sicknesse, in6 amazednes and heavie chere expected the messengers that came after; and all of a suddaine in the evening the voice went currant, (although the Authors were unknowne,) that now at length he was recovered: running there was e­very where from all parts with Torches, Tapers, &c. lights and sacrifices into the Capitoll: yea the very dores of the temple were like to have been burst open, that nothing might* Which they had made, pro salute [...], for the health and wel­fare of Germa­nicus. stand in their way & hinder them, so desirous and earnestly bent with ioy to pay their vowes. In so much as TIBERIUS was awakened out of his sleepe with the shoutes and voices of the people reioycing, and from every side with one accord resounding this Note,

Salva Roma, salva Patria, salvus est Germanicus.
Safe is Rome, safe is our Country, safe is GERMANICUS.

Also, when now at the last it was knowne abroad that he was departed this life, the publick sorrow by no comfortable words nor edicts & proclamations could be repressed, but continued still even all the festivall daies of (a) the mo­neth December. His glory and the misse of him thus deceased, was much aug­mented also, by the outrages of the times ensuing: whiles all men were of opi­nion (and not without good reason) That the fiercenesse of TIBERIUS which soone after brake forth, was held in and kept downe by the reverent respect & feare that he had of him.

He wedded AGRIPPINA, daughter to M. AGRIPPA and IULIA: by whom7 [Page 125] he had nine children: of which faire issue twaine being yet Infants were taken away by untimely Death: one died when he was now waxen a iolly boy, pas­sing full of lovely mirth and prety talke; whose counterfait in the habite of CUPID, Augusta. LIVIA dedicated in the Chappell of Venus Capitolina: and the same AUGUSTUS was wont to kisse while it stood in his bed-chamber, so often as he entred into it. The rest survived their father: three of the female sex AGRIP­PINA, DRUSILLA and LIVIA, borne all one after another in the space of three yeeres: likewise as many male children, NERO, DRUSUS and CAIUS CAE­SAR: As for NERO and DRUSUS, the Senate upon imputations laid by TI­BERIUS, iudged them to be enemies untothe State.

CAIUS CAESAR was borne the day next The last of August. A. V. C 765 preceding the Calends of Sep­tember,8 when his Father and C. PONTEIUS CAPITO were Consuls. The place of his Nativitie, by the disagreement of writers, is left uncertaine. CN. LENTULUS GAETULICUS writeth, that hee was borne at Tibur▪ PLINIUS SECUNDUS, within the Country of the Treviri, in a towne called Or Ambiti­ [...]. Ambiati­num, upon the very The meeting of two rivers. Confluents. For evidence and proofe whereof hee far­ther saith, That certaine Altars are there to be seene carying this Inscription, Ob Agrippina puerperi [...]m. For the child-birth and deliverie of AGRIPPINA. But these verses following, divulged soone after that he came to be Emperour, do plainly shew, that borne he was in the very Camp, where the Legions wintered.

In castris natus patrijs nutritus in armis,
Iam designati principis, omen erat.
Borne in the Camp, in Fathers warres with souldiours rear'd was he;
A signe, that then ordain'd he was an Emp'rour for to be.

I my selfe do find among the Records, that Antium was the place of his birth. PLINIE refelleth GETULICUS, as if he made a lie by way of flattery, because to the praise of a young and glorious Prince, hee would fetch some argument & matter even out of a Citie consecrated to HERCULES: and was the bolder, as he saith to abuse the said Lie, for that, indeede, a yeere almost before, GER­MANICUS had a sonne borne at Tibur, named likewise CAIUS CAESAR: of whose amiable childhood and untimely death we have spoken before. And as to PLINIE himselfe, confuted he is by the Calculation of the times. For, they who have recorded the Acts of AUGUSTUS doe all agree, That GERMANI­CUS was sent into Germanie after the time of his Consulship expired, when as CAIUS was already borne. Neither can the Inscription of the Altar one iote make good his opinion: considering that AGRIPPINA was delivered of daughters twice in that Country. And what child-birth so ever it was, with­out respect & difference of sex, called it is Puerperium: For that in old time folk used to name little girles also PUERAE, like as little boyes PUELLI. There is besides, an Epistle of AUGUSTUS written, not many moneths before he died unto AGRIPPINA his Niece as touching this CAIUS, (for there was not now living any other Infant of the like name) in these wordes. I have no longer agoe than yesterday taken order with TALARIVS and ASELLIUS, that with the leave of God they bring the boy CAIUS upon the 15 18 of May. day before the Calends of Iune. I send besides with him of mine owne servants a Physician whom GERMANICUS (as I have written unto him) may if he will retaine & keepe with him still. Farewell my AGRIPPINA and endeavour to come well & in health to thy GERMANI­CUS. It appeareth I suppose sufficiently that CAIUS could not in that place be [Page 126] borne, unto which he was conveied from Rome not before he was well-neere two yeares old▪ And as for those verses, these selfe same evidences likewise dis­credite them: and the rather, because they have no Author. We are to follow therefore the onely authority that remaineth, of the Records & publick Instru­ment: seeing especially that CAIUS evermore preferred Antium before all o­ther retiring places, and loved it no otherwise than his native soile: yea, and by report, was fully minded once (upon a tedious wearinesse that he had of Rome City), to transferre thither even the very seat and habitation of the Empire.

He gat his surname CALIGULA by occasion of a merry word taken up in9 the Camp, because he was brought up there in the habit of an ordinarie (a) and common souldiour among the rest. With whom, how much besides he was able to doe in love and favour by meanes of his education & daily feeding with them, was most of all knowne; when after the death of AUGUSTUS, he onely (no doubt) with He was then but a child, a­bout 3 or 4 yeeres old▪ his very sight & presence quieted them; what time they were in an uprore & at the very point of furious outrage. For they ceased not to mu­tinie, untill they perceived that he was about to be sent out of the way for dan­ger of the sedition, and appointed to the next City adioyning. Then and not before, turning to repentance, they staied and held back his coach, and so by prayer averted the displeasure that was toward them.

He accompanied his Father also in the Expedition into Syria: From whence10 being returned, first hee abode in house with his Mother: and after that shee was banished and sent away, hee remained with his great Grandmother LI­VIA AUGUSTA: whom deceased hee praised in a funerall Oration at the Ro­stra, when hee was as yet but a very youth in his Praetexta: and then removed he to his Grandmother ANTONIA. From her in the twentieth yeere of his age hee was sent for to Capreae by TIBERIUS, and upon one and the selfe same day, he did on his virile (a) gowne and withall cut the first downe of his beard, without any honourable solemnitie, such as his brethren before him had at their Commencements. Heere, notwithstanding hee was tempted by all the deceitfull traines that they could devise, who would have drawne and forced him to quarrels, yet gave hee never any occasion, having rased out and quite forgotten the fall and calamity of his mother, brethren and neere friends, as if nothing had befallen to any of them: passing over all those abuses which him­selfe had endured with incredible dissimulation: so obsequious and double di­ligent besides, to his Grandfather and those about him, that of him it was said and not without good cause, Passienus was the Author of this Apoph­thegm. A better servant and a worse Mr. there never was.

Howbeit, the cruell disposion and villainous nature of his owne, hee could not even then bridle and hold in▪ but both at all castigations and punishments11 of such as were delivered over to execution, most willing he was to be present: and also would haunt Tavernes and Brothel-houses, mens wives also suspected for adulterie, going about from place to place disguised under a (a) peruke of false haire, and in a side (womans) garment: yea, and most studiously gave his minde to learne the artificiall feate of dauncing and singing upon the Stage. And verily TIBERIUS was well content to winke heere at and suffer all, if hap­ly thereby his fierce and savage nature might have been mollified and become tractable. Which the old man (as he was a Prince right prudent and one most quick of sent) had foreseene well enough long before: in so much as divers times he gave out & said openly, That CAIUS lived to the destruction of him and [Page 127] them all: likewise, That he cherished and brought vp a verie Commonly taken for a wa­ter snake. Natrix, which is a kind of Serpent, for the people of Rome, and another (b). Phaethon to the whole world.

Not long after, he took to wife IVNIA For Claudiae: as Lirilla for Liria, after his ordinary ma­ner, to name women [...], by their Dimuni­tives CLAVDILLA, the daughter of M. SILANVS a right noble gentleman. And then, being nominated to succeede12 AUGUR in the roume of his brother DRVSVS, before his inuesture & instal­lation therein, he was aduanced to the sacerdotall dignitie of a Pontifie; a nota­ble testimonie of his pietie, and towardnesse, when as The royall line and impe­rial Court beeing desolate and destitute of all other A Bishop. helpes; SEIANVS also suspected and soone after ouerthrowne, he should thus by small degrees arise to the hope of succession in the Empire. Which hope, the rather to confirme, after his wife aforesaid IUNIA was dead in childbirth, he sollicited unto filthie wantonnesse dame ENNIA the wife of NAEVIUS MACRO, then captaine of the guard and Pretorian cohorts: hauing promised her mariage also, in case he ever attained to the Empire: and for assurance here of he bound it with an oath and a bill of his owne hand. By her meanes being insinuated once into the inward acquain­tance of Issew Male, except himself, and Tiberius a very child the so [...]n of Drusus. MACRO, hee attempted, as some thinke, TIBERIUS with poison: and whiles he was yet living, but labouring for life, commanded his Enniam, N [...]ij Macron [...]s. ring to be plucked from his finger: but perceiving, that he gave some suspicion of hol­ding* Signet. it fast, hee caused a pillow to be forced vpon his mouth, and so with his owne hands stifled and strangled him: yea, and when Who wrought the fall of Seia­nus. his freed-man made an outcrie at this cruell and horrible act, he gaue order immediatly to crucifie him. And verily this soundeth to truth, considering there bee some Authors* Tiberius freed-man. who write, That himselfe afterwards professed, if not the murder done, yet at lestwise his intention, one day to doe it. For, hee made his boast continually, in reporting his owne pietie, That to reuenge the death of his Mother and bre­thren, hee entred with a dagger into TIBERIUS bed-chamber whiles he lay asleepe; * Rapier or spud. and yet upon meere pittie and commiseration bethought himselfe, flung away the weapon and so went backe againe. Neither durst TIBERIUS although hee had an inkling and intelligence of his disguisement, make anie in quisition at all of the matter or proceede to revenge.

Thus having obtained the Empire he procured unto the people of Rome, or13 A. V. C. 790▪ (as I may so say) to all mankind their hearts desire: being a prince of all that e­ver were, most wished for of the greatest part of provinciall Nations & of the souldiors, because most of them had known him an infant: and generally of the whole cōminalty of Rome; in remēbrance of his father GERMANICUS, & up­on compassion they took of that house in manner ruinate & extinct. As he re­moved therfore frō Misenū, albeit he was clad in mourning weed & reuere [...]ly did attend the corps of TIBERIUS, yet went he among the altars, (a) sacrifices and burning torches in a most thick throng & ioifull traine of such as met him on the way: who beside other luckie & fortunate names called him SIDUS. i. their starr: Pullum. i. their chick, Pupum. i. their babe, and Alumnum. i. their nurceling.14

No sooner was he entred into the citie of Rome, but incontinētly with cōsent of the senate & the multitude rushing into the Curia, after they had annulled the wil of TIBERIUS, who in his testamēnt had adioyned coheire unto him another of his NephewsTiberius the son of Drujus: under age, & as yet in his pretexta, permitted he was alone, to have the ful & absolute power of all, & that with such an vniversal ioy, that in three moneths space next ensuing & those not fully expired, there were by report above 160000. Beastes slaine for sacrifice. After this, when as within some fewe dayes [Page 128] he passed over by the water but to the next Ilands of Campania, vowes were made for his safe returne: and no man there was who did let slip the least oc­casion offred, to testifie what pensive care he tooke, as touching his health and safetie. But so soone as he was once fallen sicke, they all kept watch by night about the Pallace▪ neither wanted some, who vowed to fight armed to the ve­ry outrance for his life thus lying sicke, yea and devoted Offred to lay down their owne lives. their (a) verie lives for him if hee recovered, professing no lesse in written bils set uppe in publike places. To this surpassing love of his owne Citizens and Countrie men, was adjoyned the notable favour also of foraine states. For, Artabanns King of the Parthians, professing alwaies his hatred and contempt of TIBERIVS, sought of his owne accord to him for amitie: yea he came in person to a conference with one of his legates (or Lieutenants) that had beene Consul, and passing over Euphrates, adored the The maine standards. Aegles and other militarie ensignes of the Romaines, as also the Images of the CAESARS.

Himselfe also enkindled and set more on fire the affections of men by all15 manner of popularitie. When he had with many a teare praised TIBERIUS in a funerall Oration before the bodie of the people, and performed the com­plement of his obsequies most honorably, forthwith he hastened, to Pandataria and Pontiae, for to translate from thence the ashes of his mother & brother, and that in foule & tempestuous wether, to the end that his pietie & kindnes might the more be seene. And being come to their reliques, very devoutly himselfe with his owne hands bestowed them in severall pitchers with no lesse shewe in pagent wise, having wafted them first to Ostia with a flag (or streamer) pitched in the poupe or sterne of a galley guided by two rankes of Oares and so foorth to Rome up the Tiber, by the ministerie of the most worshipfull gentlemen of Rome: he conveighed them within two Fercules (or frames) devised for the pur­pose into the Mausoleum; even at noone day whē people were assembled there in great frequencie. In memoriall likewise of thē he ordained yeerely dirges & sa­crifices to be performed with religious devotion to their ghosts by the whole Cittie. And more thē that, he instituted for his mother solemn games within the Cirque; and a sacred Chariot withal wherin her Image to the ful proportiō of her bodie should be carried in the pompe. But in remembrance of his father he called the moneth September, GERMANICVS. These ceremoniall duties done, by vertue of one sole Act of the Senate, he heaped upon his grand-mo­ther ANTONIA whatsoever honours LIVIA AVGVSTA had received in her whole time. His Vnkle CLAVDIVS, a knight of Rome untill that time and no better, he assumed unto him for his Colleague in the Consulship. His bro­ther His cosin ger­maine for such are called bre­thren. TIBERIVS be adopted the verie day that he put on his Virile growne, and stiled him Prince of the youth: As touching his sisters, hee caused in all Oaths this clause to be annexed, The forme of oth, that any man tooke. Neither shall I prise my selfe and children more deere, than I do CAIVS and his sisters. Item, he ordained that in mooving and propounding of matters by the Consuls unto the Senatours, they should be­gin in this forme, Quod bonum, &c. i. That which may be to the good and happie estate of CAIVS CAESAR and his sisters &c. In the semblable veine of popula­ritie, he restored all those that had beene condemned, confined and exiled, yea he freely dispensed with them, pardoning whatsoever crimes or impurati­ons remained still behinde As we say, frō the beginning of the world to this day. from before time. All the bookes and registers [Page 129] pertaining to the causes of his mother and brethren, because no informer or witnesse should afterwardes neede to feare, he C [...]urectos. brought together into the Forum: where protesting before hand, and calling the Gods to record with a lowd voice, that he had neither red ought nor medled once therewith, he burnt them. A certaine pamphlet presented unto him concerning his life and safety, he received not, but stood upon this point. That he had done nothing wherefore he should be odious to any person: saying withall, That he had no eares open for informers and Tale-bearers.

16 The Spintriae, inventers of monstrous formes in perpetrating filthie lust, he expelled forth of Rome, being hardly & with much ado intreated not to drown them in the deepe sea▪ The writings of TITVS LABIENVS, CORDVS CRE­MUTIVS and CASSIVS SEVERVS, which had beene called in and abolished by divers Acts of the Senate, he suffered to be sought out againe, to be in mens hands extant, and usually to be red: seeing that it concerned him principally and stood him upon most, to have all actions and deedes delivered unto posteritie▪ The Breviarie of the Empire, that by AVGVSTVS had beene wont to bee proposed openly, but was by TIBERIVS intermitted, he published: Vnto the Magistrates he granted free Iurisdiction, and that there might be no appealing to himselfe. The Gentrie and knighthood of Rome he reviewed with severity and great precisenesse: yet not without some moderation of his hand. Hee o­penly tooke from them their Publike hor­ses of service. horses, in whome was found any foule reproch or ignominie: as for those, who were culpable in smaller matters, hee onely passed over their names in reading the Roll. To the ende, that the Iudges might bee eased of their labour, unto the foure former decuries hee added a fifth. Hee gave the attempt likewise to bring up againe the auncient manner of Elections, and to restore unto the people their free voices. The le­gacies due by the last will and testament of AVGVSTVS (although the same was abolished): as also of LIVIA AVGVSTA, which TIBERIVS had suppre­ssed,* Some read Cent [...]simam he caused faithfully and without fraud to be tendred and fully paide. The exaction called (a) Ducentesima of all bargaines and sales, he remitted through­out Italie. The losses that many a man had sustained by fire he supplied: & if to any princes he restored their kingdomes, hee adioyned withall the fruicte and profits also of their rents, customes aud imposts growing to the Crowne in the middle time between▪ as namely, unto ANTIOCHVS COMAGENVS who had been confiscate and fined in an hundred millians of Sesterces. And that he might the rather be reputed a fauourer of all good examples, hee gave unto a woman, (by condition a libertine)Ostingenta ses­tertia. Some read Ostoginta: i. 80000, and this commeth neerer to the truth. 800000 Sesterces, for that she being under most grievous and dolorous torments, concealed yet & would not to die for it, utter a wicked fact committed by her Patron. For which things, among o­ther honours done unto him there was decreed for him a (b) shield of golde, which upon a certaine day everie yeare, the colledges of the Priestes shoulde bring into the Capitoll, with the Senate accompanying them, and Noble mens children as well boyes as girles, singing the praises of his vertues in musicall verse tuned sweetely in meeter. Moreover, there passed a de­cree, that the day one which hee beganne his Empire, should be called (c) Palilia, imploying thereby, as it were a second foundation of the Cittie.

[Page 130]He bare foure Consulships: the first, from the Calends of Iulie for ij. mo­nethes:17 the second from the Calends of Ianuarie, for 30 dayes: the third untoA. V. C. 790. 791. 793. 794. the Ides of Ianuarie: and the fourth unto the seventhThe seuenth of Ianuarie. day before the said Ides. Of all these, the ij. last he held joyntly together. The third, he alone entred upon atIn France: Lions: not, as some deeme, upon pride or negligence: but because, being absent, he could not have knowledge that his Colleague died just against the very day of the Calends. He gave aCongiarium largesse to the people twice, to wit, 300 sesterces to them a peece, and a most plenteous dinner he made as oft unto the Senate and degree of gentlemen, as also to the wives and children of them both. In the latter dinner of the twaine, he dealt over and above, among the men garments to be worne abroad: unto the women and children, Fascias: Some expound these to be ribbands garters and gorgets. gardes welts, or laces, of purple and violet colour. And to the ende, he might aug­ment the publike ioy of the Cittie with perpetuitie also; hee annexed unto the feast Saturnalia one daye more, and named the same [...]nve­nalis.

He set foorth games of Sword-fencers, partly in the Amphitheater of TAV­RVS,18 and partly within the Septa in Mars feild, into the which he inserted and brought in, certaine troupes of African and Campane Champions to skirmish by companies. even the very best, selected out of both Countries. Neither was he alwaies himselfe president at these solemnities and publike shewes, but otherwhiles enjoined the Magistrates or else his freinds to take the charge of presidencie. As for stage plaies, he exhibited them continually in diverse pla­ces and in sundrie sorts: once also in the night season, burning lights through­out the Cittie. He skattered likewise and flung (among the common people) missils, of many and sundry kinds to skamble for: and dealt man by man, pa­niers with viandes therein. At which feasting, to a certaine gentleman of* Mis [...]ilia small gifts. Rome who over against him plyed his chawesfull merily, and fedde right hartily with a greedie stomacke, he sent his owne part: as also to a Senatour for the same cause, his letters patents, wherein he declared him extraordinarily, Prae­tour. He represented besides, many Cirq-games, which held from morne to euen: interposing one while, the baiting of Or Leopards Panthers; another while the Troie-justing and Turnament. But some especiall sports there were aboue the rest, and then the Cirq-place was laide all over withRed & greene vermillion and * Bo­rax Minerall: Where none but of Senatours degree ruled and drave the Chariots. Some also he put foorth upon a sodaine, namely when as he beheld from out of the house GELOTIANA, the preparation and furniture of the Cirque, some few from the (a) nextManianis. open galleries jettying out, called unto him for the same.

Furthermore, he devised a new kind of sight, and such as never was hearde19 of before: For, ouer the middle An arme of the se [...] Space betweene Baiae and the huge piles or dammes at Puteoli containing three miles and 600 paces well neere, hee made a bridge: having gotten together from all parts ships of burden, and placed them in a duple course at Anchor, with a banke of earth cast thereup­on, direct and straight after the fashion of the high way Appia. Vppon this bridge he passed to and fro for two dayes together: the first day mounted one a courser richly trapped, himselfe most brave and goodly to be seene with a chaplet of Oke-brances: armed with a battaile axe, a light sargnet and a sword, [Page 131] clad also in a cloke of gold: the morrow after he appeared in the habit of a Chariotier, ryding in a chariot drawne with two goodly steedes of an ex­cellent race: carrying before him DARIVS a boy, one of the Parthian hostages with a traine of the Praetorian souldiers marching after in battaile raie: and ac­companied with the Cohort of his minions in Essodis, [...]el­gick or French. British wagons, Most men I wote well, are of opinion that CAIUS inuented such a kind of bridge, in emu­lation of XERXES, who not without the wonder of the world, made a bridge, of planks over Hellesponte an arme of the Sea, somewhat narrower than this: others, that by a bruite blazed abroad of some huge and monstrous peece of worke, hee might terrifie Germanie and Britaine, upon which countries hee meant to make warre. But I remember well that beeing a boy, I heard my Grandfather report and tell the cause of this worke, as it was deliuered by his owne Courteours, who were more inward with him than the rest: namely, That THRASYLLUS the great Astrologer assured TIBERIUS when hee was troubled in minde about his successour, and more enclined to his naturall and lawfull Tiberius, the sonne of Dru­s [...]. Tiberius the Emperors son. nephew indeede by lineall descent, That CAIUS should no more become Emperour than able torun [...]e a course to and fro on horse-backe, through the gulfe of Baiae.

He set forth shewes also euen in forraine parts, to wit in Sicilie at Saracose, 20 the games called Some reade Hast [...]ces, as run­ning at tilt. Actiaci: Likewise at Lions in Fraunce, playes of a mixt na­ture and argument: as also a solemne contention for the prise in Eloquence both Greeke and Latine. In which tryall of maisteries, the report goeth, that those who were foiled and ouercome, conferred rewards upon the winners, yea and were forced to make compositions in their praise. But looke who did worst, they were commanded to wipe out their owne writings, either with a spunge or els with their tongues, unlesse they would chuse rather to be chasti­zed* Rhod [...]s Rhos [...]. with ferulars or els to be ducked ouer head and eares in the next riuer.

21 The buildings left halfe vndone by TIBERIUS, namely, the Temple of AUGUSTUS, and the Theatre of POMPEIUS, he finished. He began more­over a conduict in the Tiburtine territorie: and an Amphitheatre neere unto the Enclosure called Septa: Of the two works, theThe Cōduict one was ended by his suc­cessor CLAUDIUS, the other was forlet and given over quite. The wals at Saracose by the injurie of time decaied and fallen downe were by him reedified: and the temples of the gods there, repaired. Hee had fully purposed also to build a new the palace of Polycrates at Samos: to finish APOLLOES temple cal­led Didymeum at Miletum: as also to found and build a Cittie upon the top of the Alpes: but before all to dig through the Isthmus in Achaia: and thither had he sent alreadie one of purpose, who had beene a principall Captaine of a Cohort in the Vaward to take measure of the worke.

Thus farre forth as of a Prince: now forward, relate we must as of a Mon­ster.22 Hauing assumed into his Stile many surnames, For called he was PIUS. i. kind. CASTRORUM filius. i. the sonne of the camp. Pater exercituum. i. Fa­ther of hosts, and Optimus Maximus CAESAR. i. the most gracious and mightie CAESAR, when he hapned to heare certaine Vsurping the Attributes of Iupiter. Kings (who were come unto the Cittie for to do their duties and to salute him) contend as they sate with him at* Agri [...] and [...] supper, about the Nobilitie of their birth and parentage, hee cryed foorth [Page 132] [...] ‘One Soueraigne Lord, one King let there be.’ and there lacked not much but that presently he had taken the Diademe upon him and conuerted wholly the shew of Vnder Cae­sars. Empire, into the (b) forme of a King­dome. But being told that he was mounted alreadie above the heigth and state both of Principum, for the Romaine Emperours were called Principes Emperours and also of Kings, thereupon from that time forward hee began to challenge unto himselfe a divine Maiestie: and having given order and commission, that the images of the gods, which either for deuout worship done unto them, or for curious workemanship seene upon them, excelled the rest, (among which was that of IUPITER OLIMPICUS) should bee brought out of Greece unto Rome, that when their heads were taken of, he might set his The portraict and propor­tiō of his owne owne in the place: he enlarged theThe Palace in that Mount. that stood in Forum Roma­num. Palatium and set out one part therof as far as to the forum. Transfiguring likewise and turning the Temple of* Castor and Poliux into a To his Pal­lace. porch or entrie, he stood manie times in the middle between the said two gods, brethren, and so exhibited himselfe to be adored of all comers. And some there were who saluted him by the name of IUPITER LATIALIS. Moreover he ordained a Temple peculiarly appropriate to his owne godhead as also priests and most exquisite Sacrifices. Osts. In his saide Temple stood his owne i­mage all of gold, lively portraied and expressing his full proportion: the which was daily clad with the like vesture as himselfe wore. The masterships of the priest-hood by him instituted, the richest men that were, every time of vacan­cie purchased: such as made greatest suite and offered most therefore. The Osts or sacrifices aforesaid were these foules (b) Phaenicopteri, Peacocks, (d) Tetra­ones, (e) Numidicae, (f) Meleagrides and (g) Phesants, and those to be sorted by their kinds; and so every day killed. And uerily, his usuall manner was in the night to call unto the Moone when she was at full and shining bright out for to come and ly with him in his armes: but in the day time, he talked secretly and apart with IUPITER CAPITOLINUS: one while by whispering and rounding one another in the eare, otherwhiles speaking more lowde and not without chiding: For he was heard in threatning wise to utter these words [...], I will remove and translate thee into the lande of the Greeks: untill such time as being intreated (according as he tolde the tale himselfe) and inuited first by him for to cohabite, he made a bridge over the temple of AUGUSTUS of sacred memorie and so ioyned the Palatium * From the Pala tium to the Ca­pitoll. and Capitol together. And soone after, to the end that he might be nearer unto him hee layed the foundation of a newe house in the voide base▪court of the Capitoll.

Hee could in no wise abide to be either reputed or named the nephew of23 AGRIPPA by reason of his base and obscure parentage: yea and angrie hee would be, in case anie man either in Oration or Verse insertedAgrippa. him among the images of the CAESARS. But he gave it out openly, that his Agrippi [...]a sup posed to be the daughter of M. Agrippa and Iulia. owne mother was begotten by incest which AUGUSTUS committed with his owne daugh­ter IULIA. And not content with this infamous imputation of AUGUSTUS, the Actiack and Siculasq: not Singulas (que) Sicilian victories by him atchieved, hee streightly forbad to be celebrated yeerely with solemne holidaies, as beeing vnluckie and hurtfull to the people of Rome. As for LIVIA AUGUSTA his great Grand-mother, he called her ever and anon VLISSES in a womans habite: yea and in a certaine [Page 133] Epistle unto the Senate he was so bold as to lay unto her,i. Base [...]es of birth. Ignobility as descen­ded from a Decurian Aufidius Lin­go, or L [...]rco. of FUNDI who was her Grandsire by the mothers side, whereas it is evident and certaine by publick records that AUFIDIUS Or L [...]rco. LIN­GO bare honourable Offices in Rome When his Grandame By the father side, to wit, the mother of Ger­mani [...]. ANTONIA requested secret conference with him, he denied her, unlesse MACRO Capi­taine of the Guard might come in betweene to heare their talke. And so, by such indignities and discontentments as these, hee was the cause of her death and yet, as some thinke, he gave her poison withall. Neither when shee was dead daigned hee her any honour, but out of his dining chamber beheld her funerall fire as it was burning. His brother TIBERIUS he surprised suddainly at unwares, sending a Tribune (a) of Souldiours, who rushed in upon him and so slew him. Likewise VVhose daughter hee had maried. SILANUS his Father in law hee forced to death, even to cut his owne throate with a Razour, picking quarrels to them both and finding these causes: to wit, that the Silanus. one followed him not when hee tooke sea beeing very rough and much troubled, but staied behind in hope to seize the Cite of Rome into his owne hands, if ought hapned but well unto him by occasion of tempests: Tiberius. the other smelled strongly of a Preservative or Anti­dote, as if hee had taken the same to prevent his poisons. Whereas, in very truth SILANUS avoided thereby the unsufferable paine of being Sea-sick and the grievous trouble of sayling: and TIBERIUS for a continuall cough that grew still upon him used a medicine. For, his Vnkle His Succes­sour in the Empire. CLAUDIUS he reserved for nothing else but to make him his laughing-stock.

24 With all his sisters, hee used ordinarily to be naught: and at any great feast hee placed evermore one or other of them by turnes beneath himselfe, while his wife sat above. Of these sisters (as it is verily thought) he defloured DRU­SILLA being a virgin, when himselfe also was yet under age and a very boy: Yea, and one time above the rest hee was found in bed with her and taken in the manner by his Grandmother ANTONIA; in whose house they were brought up both together. Afterwards also when shee was bestowed in mari­age upon LUCIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS, a man of Consulare degree, hee tooke her from him and kept her openly, as if shee had beene his owne lawfull wife. Also when he lay sicke, he ordained her to be both heire of all his goods and Successour also in the Empire. For the same sister deceased, hee proclai­med a generall cessation To signifie a solemne mour­ning: of Law in all Courts. During which time, a capitall crime it was for any man to have laughed, bathed, or supped together with parents, wife or children. And being impatient of this sorrow, when hee was fled suddainly and by night out of the Citie, and had passed all over Campania, to Saracose hee went; and so from thence returned speedily againe with his beard and haire of head overgrowne. Neither at any time ever after, in ma­king a speech before the people or to his Souldiours concerning any matters were they never so weighty would hee sweare otherwise than by thePer nomen, s [...]e reade Numen i▪ the godhead or di­vine power: For he equalled her with Ven [...]s, and commaunded that she should be worshipped as a Goddesse; and as Dion writeth, named she was Panthea, and women were compelled to sweare by her, as by Iun [...]. name of DRUSILLA. The rest of his sisters, (LIVIA and AGRIPPINA) hee loved neither with so tender affection nor so good respect as whō he oftētimes prostituted & offred to be abused by his own stale catamites. So much the more easily there­fore [Page 134] condemned he them in the case of AEMILIUS LEPIDUS, as adulteresses and privie to his treasons and waite-layings addressed against his person. And he not onely divulged the hand-writings which were sought out by guile and adulteries, but also consecrated unto MARS REVENGER those three daggers prepared By them, to wit Lepidus and his two sisters: or by him, for their death. for his death, with a title over them, containing the cause of his so doing.

25 As for his mariages, a man may hardly discerne, whether hee contracted, dissolved, or held them still with more dishonesty. LIVIA ORESTILLA, what time she was wedded unto C. PISO, himselfe, (being one who came in person to the Solemnization of the mariage), commaunded to be brough home unto him as his owne wife: and having within few daies cast her off, two yeeres af­ter he banished and sent her away; because in the middle time betweene, shee was thought to have Or sought a­gaine for the company &c. repetijsse. had the company againe of her former husband. Some report, that being an invited guest at the Nuptiall supper, he charged PISO sit­ting over against him, in these termes, Sirra, see you sit not too close unto my wife: and so, presently had her away with him from the table: and the next day pub­lished by Proclamation, That hee had met with a mariage after the example of (a) ROMULUS and AUGUSTUS. As touching LOLLIA PAULINA maried al­ready to C. MEMMIUS, a man of Consular degree and ruler of Armies: up­pon mention made of her Grandmother as the most beautifull Lady in her time, he all of a suddaine sent and called her home out of Where she was with her husband afore­said. the Province: and taking her perforce from her husband, wedded her and shortly turned her a­way: forbidding her straightly for ever the use of any mans body whatsoever. CAESONIA, for no speciall beauty and favour of her owne above others, nor yet because she was in the flower of her youth, (considering shee had beene the mother already of three daughters by another man): but onely for that shee was a most lascivious woman and of unsatiable lust he loved with more ardent affection and constancie: in so much as many a time he would shew her to his Souldiours in her haire, clad in a Souldiours Short cloake or horsemans coats chlamyde. Cassocke with a light Target and an helmet riding close unto him: but to his friends, Like as Can­ [...] King of Lydia, did to his friend Gyges. starke naked also. When she brought him a A daughter. childe, hee vouchsafed her then, the name of his wife and not before; professing and making it knowne, that in one and the selfe same day, he was become both her husband and also father of the Infant of her body borne. This babe he named IUNIA DRUSILLA: whom hee ca­ried about with him through the temples of all the Goddesses; and bestowed at length in the lap of Goddesse of good arts and sciences. Virgil, operum [...] ignara mi­ [...]. MINERVA, recommending it to her for to be nourished, brought up and taught. Neither had hee any surer signe and evidence to be­lieve she was his owne and of his naturall seede conceived, than her curst­nesse and shrewdnesse: and that qualitie had shee even then at the first, in such measure; as that with her perilous fingers shee would not sticke to lay at the face and eyes of other small Children playing together with her.

26 Vanitie it were and meere folly, to adioine hereunto, how he served his kins­folke and friends, to wit PTOLEMAEUS K. IUBAES son & his owne cousin Remoued. ger­man [Page 135] (for hee also was the Nephew of M. ANTONIUS by his daughter [...] ­NA (a): but especially MACRO himselfe yea and ENNIA likewise, who were his chiefe helpers & aduanced him to the Empire. All of thē, in right of their neere affinity, and in consideration of their good deserts were highly rewarded, even with bloudy death. No more respective was hee one whit of the Senate, nor dealt in gentler wise with them: Some, after they had borne the highest ho­nours, hee suffred to runne by his Essedum, [...] carroch. Wagon side in their gownes for certaine miles together▪ and as he sat at supper, to stand waiting one while at the head, another while at the foote of the table, girt with a white linnen towell about them. Others, whom hee had secretly murdred, he continued never the lesse calling for, as if they were alive: giving it out most untruly some few daies af­ter, that they had wilfully made themselves away. The Consuls had forgot by chaunce to publish by proclamation his Birth day; For which, hee deprived them of their magistracie: and so for three daies space the Common-wealth was without the soveraine (b) authoritie. His owne Questour, who hapned to be nominated in a conspiracie against him, hee caused to be scourged: and the cloathes out of which hee was stripped to be put under the Souldiours feete, that they might stand more steedily whiles they were whipping him. In semblable pride and violence hee handled other States and degrees of Citi­zens. Beeing disquieted with the stirre and noise that they kept, who by mid­night tooke up their standings in the Or shew, place. Cirque, which cost them nothing; hee drave them all away with cudgels: in which tumult and hurl [...]burly, there were twenty Knights of Rome and above, crowded and crushed to death; as many matrones and wives also; besides an infinite number of the common multi­tude. At the Stage Plaies, being minded to sow discord, and minister occasi­on of quarrell betweene the Commons and Gentlemen of Rome: he gave his (c) Tallies forth sooner than ordinarie: to the end that the Or Tickets. Equestria might be possessed afore-hand even by the basest Commoners that came. At the sword­fight, he other whiles commaunded the Curtaines to be folded up and drawne together, during the most parching heate of the sunne: and forbad that any person should be let Roomes and sea [...]es in the Theater ap­pointed for the Gentlemen. forth: and then, removing and sending quite away the ordinarie furniture of shewes provided to make pastime, he put forth unto the people for to behold, poore wild-beasts and carian-leane, to bee baited: the basest sword-fencers also and worne with age, to combat: yea, and appointed Emitti, some read [...], [...]. to be covered with Hat, veile, be net or Bon­grace against the sunne. housholders such as were of quality and well knowne, but yet noted for some speciall feeblenesse and imperfection of body to goe under the (d) i. Citizens. Pegmes and carie them. And divers times hee Pegm [...]tis, in the da [...]ive case▪ or frames for Pageants. brought a dearth and famine among the people, by shutting up the garners and Store-houses from them.* [...].

27 The crueltie of his nature he shewed by these examples most of all. When Cattell which were to feede wilde beasts prepared for baiting, grew to be sold very deere, he appointed malefactours found guilty to be slaughtered for that purpose. And in taking the review of Goales and prisoners therein, as they were sorted according to their offences: he, without once looking upon the ti­tle & cause of their imprisonment, standing only within a gallerie, cōmaunded al in the mids, a calvū ad calvū (a) [...]. from one bald-pate to another, to be led forth* Medios, [...] [...] ad calrum. to execution. He exacted of him the performance of a vow, who had promised [Page 136] to doe his devoir in publick sword-fight for the recoverie of his health: and him he beheld fighting at sharpe: neither dismissed he him before he was vic­tour, and after many prayers. Another there was, who for the same cause had vowed to die. This man being not very forward to pay his vow, hee caused to be dight with sacred hearbs, and adorned with Ribbands. Infules, like a sacrifice; and so delivered him into the hands of boyes: who calling hard vpon him for the dis­charge o [...] his vow, should course and drive him through the streets of the City, untill he were throwne headlong downe the steepe Of Tarquini­us, as some thinke. Rampier. Many honest Citizens of good calling and estate, after he had first disfigured with markes of branding yrons, he condemned to dig in mines, and to make high-waies, or to encounter with beasts: or kept them creeping with all foure like brute beasts within a cage for the nonce: or else slit them through the mids with a sawe. And those whom hee thus served, were not all of them guilty of any grievous offences: but sufficient it was, if they had a base conceite and spake but meanly of some shew that he exhibited: or because they had never sworne stoutly by his These [...], are of a middle essence, be tweene men & Gods, calle [...] therefore. Me dioxumi▪ [...] sig­nifieth here, the Damon, Tutelar angel or spirit of the Prince: For the maner of the Romaines was in flatte­ring wise, thus to sweare, as al­so by the helth the life, the ho­nour of their Emperours. Genius. Parents he forced to be present at the execution of their owne children. And when one Father excused himselfe by reason of sicknesse, hee sent a Licter for him: another of them immediatly after the heavie spectacle of his sonne put to death, he invited to his own (c) bourd; made him great cheere, and by all manner of courtesie provoked him to iocondnesse and mirth. The Maister of his sword-fights and beast baitings, he caused for certaine daies to­gether to be beaten with (d) chaines in his owne sight: but killed him not quite, before himselfe could no longer abide the stench of his braine by this time pu­trified. A Poet, the Author of Atellan [...] Enterludes, for a verse that he made im­plying a iest, which might be doubly taken, he burnt at a stake in the very mid­dle shew-place of the Amphitheatre. A Gentleman of Rome, whom he had cast before wild beasts, when he cried out, That he was innocent, he commaunded to be brought back▪ and after hee had cut out his tongue, sent him among them againe, (to fight for his life or to be devoured).

Having recalled one from exile which had been long banished, he demaun­ded28 of him, what he was wont to do there? who made answere thus by way of flat­terie, I praied quoth he, to the Gods alwaies that TIBERIUSWho had ba­nished him (as now it is come to posse) might perish, and you become Emperour. Hereupon CALIGULA weening that those whom he had banished praied likewise for his death, sent about into the Where they were wont to live banished. Ilands, to kill them every one. Being desirous to have a Senatour torne & mangled peecemeale, he suborned certaine of purpose, who all on a suddaine as he entred into the Curia, should call him enemie to the State, & so lay violent hands upon him: and when they had with their (a) writing yrons all to pricked and stabbed him, deliver him over to the rest, for to be dismembred and cut in peeces accordingly. Neither was hee satisfied, untill he saw the mans limmes, ioints and inwards drawne along the streetes, and piled all on an heape toge­ther before him.

His deeds most horrible as they were, hee augmented with as cruell words.29 His saying was, That he commended and approved in his owne nature nothing more, than (to use his own terme) adiatrepsian. i. unmoveable rigour. Whē his Grandmother ANTONIA seemed to give him some admonitiō, he (as though it were not enough to disobey her), Go to dame, quoth he, remēber I may do what I wil against all persons whōsoever. Being minded to kill his owne brother, whom [Page 137] for feare of poison he imagined to be fortified afore-hand with Or Counter. poisons. Preservatives; What? quoth he, is there any Antidote against CAESAR? When he had banished his sisters, he threatned them in these termes, saying, That hee had not (a) Ilands onely at commaund but swords also. A certaine Citizen of Pretours degree, desi­red oftentimes frō the retiring place where he was at Anticyra, (b) (into which Isle he went for his health sake) to have his licence By letters or friends that he made. continued. But hee gave order he should be killed outright: adding these words therewith, that Blo [...]d­letting was necessary for him, who in so long time had found no good by Renewed. HELLEBOR.* [...]. By [...] Once every ten daies, his manner was to subscribe and write downe a certaine number out of the Goale to be executed, and said withall, That hee cast up his reckonings, and cleared the booke of accompts. When hee had at one time condemned a sort of French-men and Greekes together, hee made his boast That he had subdued A Nation [...], of French and Greekes. GALLOGRAECIA.

He would not lightly permit any to suffer death, but after many strokes gi­ven30 and those very softly; with this rule and precept evermore, which now be­came rife and well knowne, Ita feri, &c. Strike so; as they may feele that they are dying. Hee executed on a time one whom he had not appointed to die, by error onely and mistaking his name: But it makes no matter, quoth he, for even he also hath deser­ved death. This speech of the Atreus. Of [...] Tyrant out of a Tragaedie, hee often repeated Oderint dum metuant. i. Let them hate me so they feare me. Many a time hee in­veighed bitterly against all the Senatours at once, as the Dependants and adhae­rents of SEIANUS, or the Informers against his mother and brethren; bring­ing forth those evidences which hee had made semblance before were burnt▪ And therewith excused & iustified the cruelty of TIBERIUS as necessary: see­ing he could not otherwise chuse but beleeve so many that made presentments unto him. The degree of Gentlemen he railed at continually, as devoted whol­ly to the Stage and shew-place. Being highly displeased upon a time with the multitude favouring as they did the contrary For he favou­red the greene Liverie. faction to Worthy and meet to be put to sword-fight. his, Woula God, quoth he, that the people of Rome had but one neck. And when TETRINIUS (a) LATRO was by them called for to fight at sharpe, he said, That they also who called for him were So named of a net that they used in fight to catch their ad­versarie with: they handled also a weapon with three ti [...]es or pikes like a Trout-spea [...]e. They were cal­led Threcos. TETRINII every one. It fortuned that five of these * RETIARII, figh­ting in their single coates, and Gr [...]gatim di­micantes. for destruction of those that were called Monoma­chi, & implo [...]ed in single sight. together by companies, had without any com­bat yeelded themselves as overcome to as many other Champions or Fencers called Otherwise, Mormillones, These were ar­med, whereas the Retiarij, were lightly appointed, and Tunicati, [...] ­versing their groūd nimbly, and seeming otherwhiles to flie whereupon the others took their name, Se­cuto [...]es, as follo­wing them. Secutores. Now when commaundement was given (by the people) That they should be killed; one takes me up his Trout-speare againe into his hand and slew all the other five who were thought the Conquerours. This slaughter he both bewailed in an Edict as most cruell, and also cursed them that endured to see the sight.

31 Hee was wont moreover to complaine openly of the condition of his time wherein he lived, as not renowmed by any publick calamities: Whereas the raigne of AUGUSTUS was memorable for the overthrow of VARUS: that of TIBERIUS ennobled by the fall of scaffolds in the Theater at Fidenae. As for himselfe, like hee was to be forgotten, (such was the prosperity in his daies). And evermore he wished the carnage and execution of his armies. Fa­mine, Pestilence, and Skarfires, or some opening chinks of the ground.

32 Even whiles he was at his recreations and disports, whiles he set his mind upon gaming and feasting, the same cruelty practised he both in word & deed. [Page 138] Oftentimes as hee sate at dinner or banquetted, were serious matters examined in his very sight by way of torture: and the Souldiour that had the skill and dex­terity to behead folke, then and there used to cut off the heads of any prisoners indifferently without respect. At Puteoli, when he dedicated the bridge, which as we noted before, was his owne invention: after hee had invited many unto him from the shore and strond, suddainly hee turned them all headlong over the bridge into the water. And seeing some of them taking hold of the For this bridge was made of barks. helmes for to save themselves, he shooved and thrust them off, with poles and oares in­to the sea. At a A g [...]eat din­ner. publick feast in Rome, there chaunced waiting at the bord. a servant to pluck-off a thin Or lease. plate of silver from the For tables in those dayes were laid & co­uered ouer with [...] plates. Plin. lib, 33. table: and for this, immediatly hee delivered him to the hang-man for to be executed; namely to have his hands cut off, and hung about his neck iust before his brest with a written Title caried before him declaring the cause of this his punishment; and so to be led round about all the companies as they sat at meate. One of these Fencers called Or secutores, aforesaid. MIRMILLO­NES, comming out of the Fence-schoole plaied at wooden wasters with him; and there tooke a fall for the nonce, and lay along at his feete: him he stabbed for his labour, with a short yron skeine that hee had: and withall, after the so­lemne manner of Victors, ranne up and downe with his garland of Date tree branches. There was a beast brought to the Altar ready to be killed for Sacri­fice: he comes girt in habite of these At sacrifice. Beast slayers, and with the axe head that he lifted up on high, knocked downe the Minister himselfe, who was addressed to cut the said beasts throat, and so dashed his braines out. At a plenteous feast where there was great cheere, he set up all at once an unmeasurable laugh­ter: And when the Consuls who sate iust by him asked gently and with faire language, Whereat he laughed so? At what else, quoth hee, but this, That with one nod of my head, I can have both your throats cut immediatly.

33 Among divers and sundry iests and merie conceites of his, as he stoode once hard by the image of IUPITER, he demaunded of APELLES an actour of Tra­gaedies, whether of the twaine he thought to be the greater and more stately, IUPITER or himselfe? And whiles he made some stay ere he answered, he all to tare and mangled him with whipping cheere, praising ever and anone his voice crying unto him for mercy, as passing sweet and pleasant, even when he groned also under his lashes. So often as he kissed the neck of wife or Or Para­mo [...]r. concu­bine, he would say withall, As faire and lovely a neck as this is, off it shall goe if I doe but speake the word. Moreover, he gave it forth many a time, That he would him­selfe fetch out of his wife CAESONIA, though it mere with Lute-strings, what (a) was * By cramping and tortering her therewith the reason that he loved her so entirely?

34 Neither raged he with lesse envie and spitefull malice, than pride and cruelty, against persons, in manner, of all times and ages. The Statues of brave and worthy men brought by AUGUSTUS out of the Capitoll Courtyard for the straightnesse of the place, into Mars-field, he overthrew and cast here and there in such sort, as they could not be set up againe with the Titles and Inscriptions whole forbidding that ever after there should be any where Statue or Image erected unto any person living, without his advice asked and graunt passed. He was of minde also to abolish HOMERS verses: For why may not I, quoth he, doe [Page 139] that which PLATO lawfully did? who banished Being a [...]. him out of the Cittie that he fra­med and ordeined. The writings likewise and images of VIRGIL and T. LI­VIUS, he went within a little of remooving out of all libraties. The Virgill. one of these he carped, as a man of no witte and uerie meane learning: the Lirie. other, for his verbositie and negligence in penning his Historie. Moreouer, as touching Lawiers, (as if he meant to take away all use of their skill and know­ledge) he cast out these words many times, That he would surely bring it to passe, They should bee able to give none other answere nor councell than according to reason and aequitie.

He took from the noblest personages that were, the olde armes and Or Ensignes. badges35 of their houses: Frō TORQUATUS the Or Cheme. collar: frō CINCINNATUS the cur­led lock of haire: & from CN. Who after­wards, married the daughter of Claudius the Imperour. POMPEIUS, of an ancient stocke descended, the surname of MAGNUS belonging to that linage. As for King PTOLEMEUS, (of whom I made report before) whē he had both sent for him out of his realme and also honorably intertained him he slewe all of a sodaine, for no other cause in the World but for that as he entred into the Theatre to see the shewes and games there exhibited, hee perceived him to haue turned the eyes of all the people upon him, with the resplendent brightnesse of his purple cassocke. All such as were faire, and caried a thick bush of haire growne long, so often as they came in his way, he disfigured by shaving their heads all behind. There was one ESIUS PROCULUS (whose father had beene a principall captaine of the formost cohort) for his exceeding tall personage and louely fauour withall named (a) COLOSSEROS, Him hee caused sodainly to be pulled downe from the scaffold where he sat, and to be brought into the plaine with­in the lists: where he matched him in fight with a sword-fenser of that sort which be called Threces, and afterwards with another, all [...], with shield and helmet. armed. Now when he had giuen the To the [...] & [...] foile twice, & gotten the upper hand, he commanded him forthwith to be pinniond & bound fast, & being put into foule and overworne clothes to be led round about the streets to be shewed unto womē, & so to have his throat cut in the end. To conclude there was none of so base & abiect condition, nor of so mean estate, whose commodities & good parts he depraved not. Against the great Prelat stiled by the name K. NEMORENSIS, because he had many yeares already enioyed his sacerdotall dignitie he suborned under hand a com­current and aduersarie mightier than himselfe. When as vpon a certaine day of publike games, there was greater applause & more clapping of hands than ordinarie at POPIUS the To wit, sword fight. fenser, manumising his slave for ioy of the fortunate cōbate which hee had made, he flung out of the Theatre in such hast, that trea­ding* Essedari [...] o [...] Champion that vse to fight and play his prises out of a British or Frēch Chario [...] called [...] vpō his own gown skir [...] he came tumbling down the staires with his head forward: chafing and fuming yea and crying cut That the people of Rome, Lord of all nations, yeelded more honour, and that out of a most vaine and frivolous occa­sion unto a sword-fenser, than to consecrated Princes, or to himselfe there in perso­nall presence.

No regard had he of chastitie and cleannesse, eyther in himselfe or in others.36 M. LEPIDUS MNESTER the A player counter feiting all partes, and kindes of ges­ture. Pantomime, yea & certain hostages he kept and loved as the speech went, by way of reciprocall cōmerce in mutuall impunity, Doing & suffering against kind, VALERIUS CATULLUS, ayong gentleman descēded from a familie of Consuls degree, cōplained & openly cried out, that [Page 230] hee was unnaturally by him abused; and that his uerie sides were weried, and tyred out with his filthie companie, Over and above the incests commited with his owne sisters, and his love so notorious of PIRALLIS that common and prostitute strumpet, there was not lightly a dame or wife of anie worship and reputation, that hee forbare. And those for the most part would he inuite together with their husbands to supper: and as they passed by at his feete, per­use and consider curiously; taking leasure thereto after the maner of those that cheapen and buy wares in ouvert market: yea and with his hand chocke them under the chin and make them to looke up, if happily any of them in modesty and for bashfulnesse held downe their faces. And then so often as he listed, out he goes from the refection roome, and when he had called her unto him apart that liked him best, hee would within a little after: (even whiles the tokens were yet fresh testifying their wanton worke) returne: and openly before all the cō ­panie, eyther praise or dispraise her: reckoning up everie good or bad part of bodie and action in that brutish businesse. To some of them, himselfe sent bils of divorsement in the name of their husbands absent and commanded the same to be set upon the file and stand in publike record.

In riotous and wastfull (a) expense, he outwent the wits and inuentions of37 all the prodigal spend thrifts that ever were; as having devised a new found man­ner and use of baines, together with most strange and monstrous kinds of meats and meales: namely, to bath with hote and cold Or Oiles ointments: to drinke off and quaffe most pretious and costly pearles dissolued in vinegar: to set upon the bourd at feastes loaves of bread and other viands to them before his guests, all of golde, saying commonly withall, That a man must either be frugall or els CAESAR. Moreover for certaine dayes together, he flung and scattered among the common people from the Lovuer of the stately Hall IULIA, mony in pee­ces of no meane ualew. He built moreover tall galiaces of ceder (b) timber, with poupes and sternes beset with precious stones, carying sailes of sundrie colours conteining in them barnes large galleries, walking places, and dining chambers of great receit: with vines also and trees bearing apples and other fruit in as much varietie: wherein he would sit feasting in the uery day time a­mong quires of musicians and melodious singers, and so saile along the costs of Campania. In building of stately Pallaces and mannor houses in the countrey he cast aside all rules and orders as one desirous to do nothing so much as that which was thought unpossible to be done. And therfore he laid foundations of piles where the sea was most raging and deep withal, and hewed rocks of most hard flint & rag: plains also he raised even with mountaines & by digging down hill tops levelled them equall with the plaines: all with incredible celeritie: as punishing those who wrought but slowly even with death. In summ, (and not to reckon vp euerie thing in particular) That infinite wealth and masse of Treasure which TIBERIUS CAESAR left hehind him valued at Vicies ac septi­es millies 2700. mil­lians of Sesterces, hee consumed to nothing, before one whole yeare was gone about.

Being exhaust therefore and growen exceeding bare, he turned his mind to38 rapine and polling by sundrie and most nice points; of forged calumniation, of sales, of imposts and taxes. He affirmed plainely, that those held not by lawe and rightfully the freedome of Rome Cittie, whose Auncestours had obtained [Page 231] the grant thereof in these tearmes, to them and their posteritie: unlesse they were sonnes: For, by Posteri. i. Posterity quoth he, ought to be understood none be­yond this degree of descent. And when the Letters-pattens and graunts of IU­LIUS and AUGUSTUS, (late Emperours of sacred memorie) were brought forth as evidences, he Deflebat, or defl [...]bat▪ i. he reiected and despised. bewailed the same as olde, past date and of no validitie. Hee charged those also with false valuation and Perpera [...] edi­ti Census. wrong certificate of their e­states, unto whom there had accrued afterward (upon what cause soever) any encrease of substance. The last willes and testamentes of such as had beene principall Centurions of the formost Cohorts, as many I say, as from the be­ginning of TIBERIUS Empire, had left neither the sayd TIBERIUS, nor himselfe Heire, he canciled for their unthankfulnesse: of all the rest likewise, he held the wils as voide, and of none effect: in case any person would come forth and say, that they purposed and intended, at their death to make CAESAR their Heire. Vpon which feare that hee put men in, beeing now both by un­knowen persons unto him, nominated Heire among their familiar friends, and also by parents among their children, he tearmed them all mockers and cousi­ners, for that after such nuncupative wils they continued stil alive: and to ma­nie of them he sent certaine M [...]cteas or Mattyas, such as Marchpanes dainties empoisoned. Now such causes as these above-saide he heard judicially debated: having before hand set downe a cer­taine rate and summe of money, for the raising whereof he sat iudicially in Court: and when that summe was fully made vp, then and not before hee would arise. And (as he was one who in no wise could abide any little delay) he condemned vpon a time by uertue of one definitive sentence above fortie persons, liable to judgement for divers and sundry crimes: making his boast withall unto his wife CAESONIA newly wakened out of her sleepe What a deale he had done, while she toooke her noones repose. Having published an open port sale of the residue remaining of furniture provided to set out all shews and games, he caused the said parcels to be brought forth and sold: setting the pri­ces thereof himselfe and enhaunsing the same to such a prick, that some men enforced to buye certaine things at an extreame and exceeding rate (whereby they were empoverished and stript of all their goods) cut their owne veines and so bled to death. Well knowen it is that whiles APONIUS SATURNINUS tooke a nap and slept among the seats and stauls where these sales were held; CAIUS put the Or Crier. Bedell in mind not to let slip and overpasse such an honorable person of Pretours degree as he was: considering quoth he, that with his head he had so often nodded and made As it were, to buy th [...]s & that signes unto him, and thus taking that occa­sion, he never rested raising the price whiles he sat and nodded stil, untill there were fastened upon the man, (ignorant God wote, altogether of any such mat­ter) thirteene sword-fensers, at nine millians of Sesterces.

In Gaule likewise, when he had sould the jewels, ornaments, and houshold­stuffe39 of his Livilla and Agrippina. sisters by him condemned; their seruants also and uerie children at excessive high prices: finding sweetnesse in the gaine growing thereupon and thereby drawen on to proceede in that course, looke what furniture be­longed to the old imperiall Court, hee sent for it all from the Cittie of Rome▪ For the cariage whereof, hee tooke vp even the passengers wagons that usual­ly were hired, yea the uery jades which serued In grinding Corne, and carrying brea [...] mils and backe-houses: In so much, as manie times there wanted bread in Rome: and a number of Termers, [Page 232] such as had matters depending in lawe, for that they could not make their ap­pearance in Court at their dayes appointed, by absence lost their suits. For the selling of which furniture, there was no fraude, no guile, no deceitful al­lurement to be devised that he used not: one while checking each one for their auarice, and rating them because they were not ashamed to be richer than he: otherwhiles making semblance of repentance, in that he permitted persons to have the buying of such things as belongd to the Empire. Intelligence was gi­ven vnto him, that a certaine wealthy and substantiall man in that province, had paide 200000. sesterces unto his officers (who had the bidding of guests unto his owne table) that by some suttle shift, himselfe might be foisted in among o­ther guests: neither was he discōtēted that the honor of supping with him was prized so high. The morrow after therfore, as this provinciall man was sitting at a publike portsale, hee sent one of purpose to tender and deliver unto him some frivolous trifle (I wot not what) at the price of 200000 sesterces: and withall to say unto him, That take a supper he should with CAESAR, as a guest inui­ted by his owne selfe.

He levied and gathered new tributes and imposts, such as never were heard40 of before: at the first by the hands of Publicanes; and afterward (by reason of the excessive gaines that came in) by the Centurions and Tribunes of the Pre­torian cohorts. For he omitted no kind of thing, no manner of person, but he imposed some tribute upon them. For all cates that were to be solde through­out the Citie, there was exacted a certaine taxation & set paiment, For actions for suits, for judgemēts whersoever cōmensed or drawn in writing, the fortieth part of the whole summe in suite went to his share in the name of a tribute: not without a penaltie, in case anie one were conuinced, to have eyther growen to composition or given the thing in question. The eighth part of the poore porters and Cariers daies-wages: out of the gets also and takings of common strumpets, as much as they earned by once lying with a man, was payed nomi­ne tributi. Moreover to the chapter of the law, this branch was annexed that there should bee liable to this tribute, not onely the parties themselues that by trade of harlotry gat their living, but even they likewise who kept houses of bawderie: As also that Nec [...] [...]t [...] ob­ [...] [...]ssent. Some interpret this of wedded folke playing false & cōmit­ting adulte [...]ie. wedded persons should paye for their vse of ma­riage.

After these and such like taxes were denounced by proclamation, but not yet41 published abroad in writing, when as through ignorance of the written lawe (a) many trespasses and transgressions were committed: at length, upon instant demaund of the people, he proposed indeede the act, but written in very small letter and within as narrow a place, so that no man might exemplifie the same or copie it out. And to the end that there might bee no kinde of spoile and pil­lage which he attempted not, he setup a stewes and brothelhouse in the verie Palace, with many roomes and chambers therein distinguished asunder, and furnished according to the dignity and worth of that place. In it there stood to prostitute themselues, maried wives, youths and springals free borne. Then sent he all about to the frequented places as well markets as Halles of resort, certaine Nomenclatours, to inuite and call thither by name, young men and olde, for to fulfill and satisfie their lust. All comers at their entrance payde money (as it were) for usurie and interest. Certaine persons also were appoin­ted [Page 143] to take note in open sight, of their names, as ofsuch as were good friends increasing the revenewes of CAESAR. And not disdeining so much as the lucre and vantage arising out of hazard and dice play, hee gained the more by cog­ging, lying, yea and forswearing (of gamesters). And upon a time, having put over to his next fellow gamester his owne course, to cast the dice for him in his turne: out he goes into the court-yeard and foregate of the house: where, having espied two wealthy gentlem [...] of Rome passing by, he commanded them to be apprehended incontinently, and condemned in the confiscation of their goods: which done he returned in againe, leaping for joy & making his vaunt, That he never had a luckier hand at dice.

But when he had once a daughter borne, complaining then of his povertie42 and the heavie charges that lay upon him not onely as Emperour, but also as a father, he gently tooke the uoluntarie contributions and benevolence of men toward the finding of the girle her food, as also for her Dowry another day. He declared also by an edict, that he would receive newyeares gifts: and so he stood the firstOr a Kalendis [...] the first day, &c. day of Ianuarie, in the porch or entrie of his house PALATINE, readie to take what peeces soever of money came, which the multitude of all sorts and degrees, with full hands and Or laps of their clothes bosomes poured out before him. Fi­nally, so farre was he incensed with the desire of handling money, that often­times he would both walke bare-footed up & down, yea & wallow also a good while with his whole body upō huge heapes of coyned gold peeces, spred here and there in a most large and open place.

In militarie matters and warlike affaires he never dealt but once: and that43 was not vpon any intended purpose: but what time as he had made a progresse to Mevania, for to see the sacred grove & river of Clitumnus; being put in mind to supply & make up the number of the Batauians whom he had about him for his guard, it tooke him in the head to make an expedition into Germanie. Nei­ther deferred he this disignement, but having levied from al parts a power con­sisting of legions and auxiliarie forces; and taken musters most rigorously in every quarter, as also raised & gathered together uictuals & provision of al sorts in that quantity, as never any other before him the like, he put himselfe on his journey. Wherein he marched, one while in such hurrie and haste, as that the Pretorian cohorts were forced (against the manner and custome) to bestowe their ensignes vpon the sumpter beasts backs & so to follow after: otherwhiles, after such a slow and delicate manner, as that he would be carried in a litter vp­on eight mens shoulders, and exact of the common people inhabiting the neighbour cities adioyning, that the high waies might be swept & watered for the dust, against his comming.

After that he was arrived once at the campe, to the end that he might shew44 himselfe a sharpe and severe Captaine. Those Lieutenants who had brought aid with the latest, out of divers and dissituate parts, he discharged with ignomi­nie and shame. But in the reuiew of his armie the most part of the Centuri­ons who had alreadie serued out their complete time, yea and some whose terme within uery few dayes would have beene fully expired, he deprived of their places: to wit, the leading of the formost bands, finding fault forsooth with the olde age and feeblenesse of every one. As for the rest, after hee had given them a rebuke for their avarice, he abridged the fees and availes due for [Page 144] their seruice performed; and brought that same downe to the valew of 6000. sesterces. And having atchieved no greater exploit, than taken to his mercie, ADMINIUS the sonne of CINOBELLINUS King of the Batavorum,. i. the Batavo­rians. Britains, who be­ing by his father banished, was fled over sea with a small power and traine a­bout him, he sent magnificent and glorious letters to Rome, as if the whole Isle had beene yeelded into his hands: warning and willing the carriers euer and anon, to ride forward in their wagon directly into the market place and the Curia, and in no wise to deliver the sayd messives but in the Temple of MARS vnto the Consuls, and that in a frequent assembly of the Senate.

Soone after, when there failed matter of warre, he commanded a few Ger­manes of the De Custodia, or that were prisoners and in vvard Corps de guard, to be transported & hidden on the other side of45 Rhene, and that news should be reported unto him after dinner in most tumul­tuous manner, That the enemy was come: which done, he made what haste hee could, and together with some of his friends and part of the Pretorian horse­men he entred the next wood: where after he had cut off the heads of trees and adorned their bodies in manner of Tropaees, hee returned into the Campe by torch-light. As for those uerily who followed him not in this seruice; he re­proved and checked them for their timorousnesse and cowardise: But his com­panions and partners in this douty uictorie, he rewarded with a new kind and as strange a name of Coronets: which being garnished and set out with the ex­presse forme of Sunne, Moons, and Stars he called (a) Exploratorias. Againe, when as certaine hostages were had By his means. away perforce out of the Grammer schoole, and privily sent before, he suddenly left his supper, and with his men of armes pursued them as runawaies, and beeing overtaken and caught againe he brought them backe as prisoners bound in chaines; shewing himselfe even in this enterlude also, beyond all measure insolent and intemperate. Now af­ter he was come backe to supper, those who brought him word that the bat­tailes were rallied and come forward in safetie, hee exhorted to sit downe to meate armed as they were in their Corselets: yea and aduertised them out of that most vulgar Verse of VIRGIL. Durarent, Secundisque rebuise serua­rent.. i.

Still to endure in all assayes
And keepe themselues for better dayes.

Moreover, amid these affaires, he rebuked most sharply in a proclamation, the Senate and people both, in their absence: For that whiles CAESAR fought bat­tailes and was exposed to so many perils, they could so unseasonably celebrate feastes, haunt also the Cirque, The Theatres, and their retyring places of solace and plea­sure.

Last of all, as if he meant now to make a finall dispatch for ever of the warr46 having embattailed his armie upon the Ocean shore, planted his balists and o­ther engins of Artillerie in their seuerall places, (and no man wist the while or could imagine what he went about) all at once he commanded them to ga­ther fish-shels, and therewith to fill their headpeeces and laps, tearming them the spoiles of the Ocean, due to the Capit [...]l, and the Palatium. In token also and memoriall of this brave uictorie, he raised an exceeding high turret, out of which as from a watch-towre, there might shine all night long lights and fires for the better direction of ships at sea in their course. And after hee had pro­nounced [Page 145] publikely a donative to his Souldiours, even an hundred good De­niers a peece; as if thereby hee had surmounted all former precedents of libe­rality,* As if with 3 l. 2 S 6 pence, they had beene made for ever. Now goe your waies, quoth hee, with ioy, Goe your wayes Isay, enriched and wealthy.

47 Turning his minde after this to the care of his Triumph, hee selected and set apart for the pompe (over and above the Captives and runnagate Barba­rians) the tallest men of Stature also that were to be found in Gaule: and eve­rie one that (as hee saide himselfe) was axiothriambentos, that is, worthy to be seene in a Triumph, yea and some of the Nobles and principall persons of that Nation: Whom hee compelled not onely to colour the haire of their heads yellow like burnished gold, and to weare the same long: but also to learne the Germaines language, and to beare barbarous names. He gave commaun­dement also; that the Gallies with three rankes of Oares, wherein hee had em­barqued and entred the Ocean, should bee convaied to Rome, a great part of the way by land. Hee wrote likewise unto his procuratours and Officers, To provide the furniture of his triumph, with as little cost as might be: but yet the same in as ample manner as never before was the like, seeing they had both might and right to seize all mens goods into their hands.

48 Before his departure out of that Province, hee intended the execution of an horrible and abhominable designement; even to put to sword those Legions, which long a goe upon the decease of AUGUSTUS, had made a commoti­on: because, forsooth, they had beset both his father GERMANICUS their Captaine, and himselfe also, then an Infant. And being hardly and with much a-doe reclaimed from such a rash and inconsiderate proiect, yet could hee by no meanes be stayed: but stifly persisted in a full minde and will to [...] To kill e­very tenth man of them: tith them. When hee had summoned them therefore to a publique assembly, unarmed, and without their swords which they had put off and bestowed heere and there, he environed them with his Cavallerie all armed. But seeing once, that many of them suspecting where-about he went, slipped away in sundry places for to resume their weapons if any violence were offred, himselfe abandoned the as­sembly and fled, taking his direct way immediatly to the Citie of Rome; diver­ting all his bitternesse and crueltie upon the Senate: Whom, (to avert from himselfe the odious rumours of so great and shamefull villanies) hee openly threatned; complaining among other matters that he was by them defrauded and put by his iust and due triumph: whereas, himselfe but a little before, had intimated and denounced upon paine of death, that they should not make nor meddle in any matter about his honours.

49 Being encountred therefore and met upon the way by Embassadours from that most honourable Of Senators Order, entreating him to make speed: with a most loud voice, Come I will, quoth he, I will come, I say and this with me heere, beating oft upon the swords Or haft▪ hilt which he ware by his side. He made it knowne also by an Edict, That he returned in deede, but it was to them alone who wished it, namely, The degree of Gentlemen and the cōmon people. For himselfe would be no longer a Citizen or Prince to the Senate. He commaunded moreover, That not one of the Senatours [Page 146] should meete him. And thus, either omitting quite or putting of his triumph, hee entred the Citie riding ovant, upon his very birth-day: and within foure moneths after came to his end, having attempted and done notable outrages and very great villanies, but plotting still and practising much greater. For hee had purposed to remove his imperiall Court to Antium, and afterwards to A­lexandria: but having massacred first the most choise and chiefe persons of both Or Alexan­drea is Antio­chea, in old Ma­nuscripts. degrees. And that no man may seeme to doubt heereof, there were in his secret Cabinet found two bookes bearing divers titles. The one had for the Inscription Gladius. i. the sword: the other, Pugio, that is to say, the dagger. They contained both of them the markes and names of such as were appoin­ted to death. There was found besides, a bigge chest full of divers and sundry poisons, which soone after being by CLAUDIUS drowned in the Seas, infe­cted and poisoned the same, not without the deadly bane of fishes killed there­with, which the tide cast up to the next shores.

50 Of Stature hee was very tall, pale and wan-coloured: of body grosse and without all good making: his necke and shanks exceeding slender: his eyes sunke in his head, and his temples hollow, his forehead broad, and the same furrowed and frowning: the haire of his head growing thinne, and none at all about his crowne: in all parts else hairie he was and shagged. It was therefore taken for an hainous and capitall offence, either to looke upon him as he pas­sed by from an higher place, or once but to name a Goate upon any occasion whatsoever. His face and visage being naturally sterne and grim, hee made of purpose more crabbed and hideous: composing and dressing it at a looking­glasse, all manner of waies to seeme more terrible and to strike greater feare. He was neither healthfull in body nor stoode sound in minde; Being a child, much troubled with the falling sicknesse. In his youth, patient of labour and travaile: yet so, as that ever and anone upon a suddaine fainting that came up­pon him, he was scarce able to goe, to stand, to arise, to recover himselfe and to beare up his head. The infirmitie of his minde, both himselfe perceived, and oftentimes also was minded to goe aside (unto An Isle, where grew the best Ellebor, a pur­gatiue meete [...]or lunaticke & distracted persons. Anticyra), there to purge his braine throughly. It is for certaine thought, that poysoned he was with a Potion given unto him by his wife CAESONIA: Which in deede was a love Or drinke. medicine, but such an one, as crackt his wits and enraged him. He was trou­bled most of all with Insomnia want of sleepe; For, he slept not above three houres in a night: and in those verily hee tooke no quiet repose, but fearefull; and ska­red with strange illusions and fantasticall imaginations: as who among the rest, dreamed upon a time that hee saw the very forme and resemblance of the sea talking with him. And heereupon for a great part of the night, what with tedious wakefulnesse and wearinesse of lying, one while sitting up in his bed, another while roaming and wandering too and fro in his Galleries (which were of an exceeding length) hee was wont to call upon and looke still for the day-light.

51 I should not doe amisse, if unto this mindes sicknesse of his I attributed the vices which in one and the same Or person subiect were of a most different na­ture: to wit, excessive confidence, and contrariwise, overmuch fearefulnesse. [Page 147] For, hee that set so light by the Gods and despised them as hee did, yet at the least (a) thunder and lightning, used to winke close with both eyes, to enwrap also and cover his whole head: but if the same were greater and somewhat ex­traordinarie, to start out of his bed, to creepe and hide himselfe under the bed­steede. During his peregrination verily and travaile through Sicilie, after hee had made but a scorne and mockerie at the miracles and strange fights in ma­nie parts there, he fled suddainly by night from Messana, as affrighted with the smoake and rumbling noise of the top of Aetna. And hee that against the Bar­barians was so full of threats and menaces, when as beyond the river Rhene he rode in a Germaines Chariot betweene the Streights, and the Armie mar­ched in thicke squadrons together: by occasion onely that one saide, There would be no small trouble and hurliburly, in case the enemie from any place ap­peared in sight: forth-with hee mounted on horsebacke and turned hastily to the bridges: but finding them full of Camp-slaves and cariages wherewith they were Or guarded▪ choaked as one impatient of any delay, he was from hand to hand and over mens heads conveied to the other side of the water. Soone after likewise, hearing of the revolt and rebellion of Germanie, hee provided to flie; and for the better meanes of flight, prepared and rigged shippes: re­sting and staying himselfe upon his onely comfort; That hee should yet have Provinces beyond sea remaining for him, in case the Conquerours following the traine of their victorie, either seized the Hill tops of the Alpes (as some­times the Cimbrians), or possessed themselves of the very Citie of Rome, as the Senones in times past did. Heereupon I verily beleeve that the murderers of him afterwards devised this shift, namely to hold up his Souldiours with a loude lie when they were in an uprore, and to beare them in hand that hee laide violent hands on himselfe, affrighted at the fearefull newes of the field lost.

52 As for his apparrell, his shooes and other habite, hee wore them neither after his owne Country-guise, nor in a civile fashion, no nor so much as in manlike manner, nor yet alwaies, I may tell you, sorting with the state and condition of a mortall wight. Beeing clad oftentimes in cloakes of needle­worke and embroidred with divers colours, and the same set out with pretious stones: in a coate also with long sleeves: and wearing bracelets withall, hee would come abroade into the Citie. Sometime you should see him in his silkes, and veiled all over in a loose mantle of fine Lawne or Tiffame. Sendall with a traine: one while going in Greekish Or Pantofle [...] slippers, or else in buskins: otherwhiles in a simple paire of broges or high shooes, such as common Souldiours emploied in e­spiall used. Now and then also was he seene shod with womens Or [...] pumps. But for the most part he shewed himselfe abroade with a golden (a) beard carying in his hand either a (b) thunderbolt or a three-tined (c) mace, or else a warder* With three graines like an ele speare; or rod called (d) Caduceus (the ensignes all and ornaments of the Gods) yea and in the attire and array of VENUS. Now, for his triumphall robes and ensignes hee used verily to weare and beare them continually, even before any warlike expedition: and sometime the cuirace withall of K. ALEXANDER the great, fetcht out of his Sepulcher and monument.

Of all the liberall Sciences, hee gave his minde least to deepe literature and53 [Page 148] found learning: but most, to eloquence: [...] is facundus: or, [...] beeing very faire [...]. &c albeit he was (by nature) faire-spo­ken and of a ready tongue. Certes if it had beene to pleade and declame against one, were he angred once, he had both words and sentences at will. His acti­on, gesture and voice also served him well: in so much as for very heate and earnestnesse of speech, uneth was he able to stand his ground and keepe still in one place, yet might hee bee heard nothlesse of them that stoode a farre off. When he was about to make an Oration, his manner was to threaten in these termes, Namely, That he would draw forth and let drive at his adversarie the keene weapon and dart of his night-studie by candle light; contemning the milder and more piked kinde of writing so farre forth, as that hee said of S [...]NECA, a wri­ter in those daies most accepted, That his compositions which he made were plaine exercises to bee shewed onely: and was no better himselfe, than sand without lime. His wont was also, to answere by writing the Orations of those Oratours who had pleaded well and with applause: to meditate and devise as well accusati­ons and defences of great persons and waighty matters in the Senate; and ac­cording as his stile framed, either to over-charge and depresse, or to ease and relieve every man with his sentence: having called thither by vertue of his E­dicts, the degree also of Gentlemen to heare him speake.

The Arts moreover and maisteries of other kinds hee practised right studi­ously,54 even those of most different nature. A professed [...]. Sword-fencer he was and a good Chariotier: A singer withall and a dauncer. Fight hee would even in earnest with weapons at sharpe: and runne a race with chariots in the open Cirque, which he built in many places. As for chaunting and dauncing, he was so hotly set thereupon, that hee could not forbeare so much as in the publick Theaters and Shew-places, but that hee would both fall a singing Or, [...] with the Tragaedian as he pronounced, and also counterfaite and openly imi­tate the gesture of the Or Actou [...]. player, as it were by way of praise or correction. And verily, for no other cause proclaimed hee (as it is thought) a wake or Vigile all night long, that very day on which hee was murdred, but that by taking the opportunity of the nights licentiousnesse, he might therewith begin to enter upon the Stage. And divers times daunced he by night: But once above the rest, having raised out of their beds three honourable persons that had beene Consuls, and sent for them at the reliefe of the second watch into the Palace; whiles they were much afraid and doubted some extremity he caused them to be placed aloft upon a scaffold, and then suddainly with a great noise of hant­bors and sound of shawlmes or Cimbals, out commeth he leaping forth with a palle and cassocke reaching downe to his ankles; and after hee had daunced out the measures to a song, vanished & went his way againe. Now, this man so apt a schollar as hee was to learne all other feates, had no skill at all in A laudable exercise in Rome, as may appeare before in Augustus. swim­ming.

55 Looke, whom he tooke a love and liking unto, he favoured them all ex­ceedingly and beyond all reason. MNESTER the famous A Gesturer or dauncer that counterfaited all parts. PANTOMIME he affected so much, as that he bashed not to kisse him even in the open Theater; and if any man whiles The said Mnester. he was dauncing or acting a part, made never so little noise and interrupted him, hee commaunded the party to be pulled out of his place, and with his owne hand scourged him. A Gentleman of Rome chaun­ced to keepe some sturre whiles the said MNESTER was upon the Stage: unto [Page 149] him hee sent word peremptorily by a Centurion to depart without delay, and goe downe to Ostia (there to take Sea) and so to carie unto King PTOLOMAE­US as farre as into Mauritania his letters in writing tables, The tenour whereof was this, To this bearer, whom I have sent hither to you, see you doe neither good nor harme. Certaine Fencers called Or Retiarij, as some think. Others take it to be a generall name of all Sword-fencers. THRACES hee made Capitaines over those Germaines that were of his Guard and Squires to his body. As for the A faction or crew of fencers opposite to the Thraces or Reti­arij, whom in respect of the Thraces, he fa­voured not. Mir­millones, hee deprived them of their armour. One of them named COLUM­BUS, fortuned to foile his concurrent, howbeit hee had gotten before some small hurt: He made no more adoe but put poison into the wound, which thereupon he called COLUMBINUM. So much addicted and devoted was he, to the Prafi [...]ae fac­tioni. greene faction of Chariotiers, that day by day hee would take his sup­pers and make his abode, in their Or lodging, [...] Of that green livery. hostelrie. Vpon EUTYCHUS a [...], cuins equi causa, some interpret it o­therwise thus. To Incitatus, for whose horse sake taking In­cicatus to be the name of the Maister, & not of the horse, because in the Poet Martiall, there is menti­on made of In­citatus a fa­mous Chariot ricer & a muli­tier. Yet L. Ve­rus Antoninus erected an I­mage of gold for on horse that he had named Voluce [...] whiles he lived: and a sepulcher when he was dead. And why might not this brair [...] sicke Prince be as absurd? Chariot­driver, he bestowed in hospitall gifts at a certaine banquet, two millions of se­sterces. To one of their Chariot-steedes named Incitatus, for whose sake (be­cause he should not be disquieted), he was wont the day before the games Cir­censes, by his Souldiours to commaund the neighbours there adioyning to keepe silence, besides a Stable all built of marble stone for him, and a manger made of Ivorie: over and above his caparison also and harnois of purple, toge­ther with a brooch or pendant Iewell of pretious stones at his poictrell: he al­lowed an house and familie of servants, yea and houshold-stuffe to furnish the same: all to this end, that guests invited in his name might be more finely and gaily intertained. It is reported moreover that he meant to preferre him unto a Consulship.

56 As he rioted thus and fared outragiously, many there were who wanted no hart & good will to assault his person. But after one or two conspiracies de­tected, when others for default of opportunitie held-of and made stay, two at length complotted and imparted one unto the other their designment, yea and performed it; not without the privitie of the mightiest freed-men about him, and the Capitaines of his Guard. The reason was, for that they also, beeing nominated (although untruly) as accessarie to a certaine conspiracie, percei­ved themselves suspected and odious unto him therefore. For, even immedi­atly, by sequestring them a part into a secret place he brought upon them great hatred, protesting with his sword drawne, That die he would upon his owne hand, if they also thought him worthy of death. Neither ceased hee from that time for­ward to accuse one unto the other, and to set them all together by the eares. Now when these Conspiratours were resolved and agreed to assaile him du­ring the Palatine (a) games, as he departed thence out of the Theater at noone­tide, CASSIUS CHEREA Tribune of the Pretorian Cohort tooke upon him to play the first part in this Action: even hee, whom being now farre stept in yeeres [...], CAIUS was wont to frump and flout in most opprobrious termes as a wanton and effeminate person: and one while, when he came unto him for a watch-word, to give him PRIAPUS or VENUS; another while, if upon any occasion he rendred thanks, to reach out unto him his hand, not onely fashio­ned but wagging also after an obscoene and filthy manner.

Many prodigious signes were seene, presaging his future death and murder.57 The image of IUPITER at Olympia, which his pleasure was to bee disiointed and translated to Rome, did set up all on a suddaine such a mighty laughter that [Page 150] the workmen about it, let their Engines and Vices slip and so ranne all away. And straight-waies came there one in place whose name also was CASSIUS, that avouched, he had warning and commaundement in a dreame to sacrifice a Bull unto IUPITER. The (a) Capitol in Capua upon the Ides of March was smitten with lightning. Likewise at Rome the Porters lodge belonging to the Princes Palace. And there wanted not some who gave their coniecture, that by the one Prodigie was portended danger to the Master of the house from his Guard and the Squires of his person; by the other some notable murder againe, such as in times past had beene committed upon (b) the same day. Also, SULLA the Astrologer, when CAIUS asked his counsell and opinion, as touching the Ho­roscope of his Nativitie, told him plaine, That most certaine and inevitable death approached neere at hand. Semblably the Oracle at Antium, gave him a caveat, to beware of CASSIUS. For which very cause, hee had taken order and given expresse commaundement, That CASSIUS LONGINUS Proconsull then in Asia, should bee killed: not remembring that the fore-saide CHAEREA had to name CASSIUS. The day before he lost his life, he dreamt that he stoode in heaven close unto the throne of IUPITER: and that IUPITER spurned him with the great toe of his right foote, and therewith threw him downe head­long to the earth. There went also for currant prodigies and fore tokens of his fall; even those occurrents that hapned unto him that very day, a little be­fore he was murdred. As himselfe sacrificed, bespreinct he was with the bloud of the foule Phaenicopterus. And MNESTER the skilfull Actour above named, represented that very [...]. Tragaedie which whilome NEPTOLEMUS the Tra­gaedian acted at the solemnitie of those games, wherein PHILIP The sonne of [...]. King of the Macedonians was killed. And when as in the shew or Enterlude entituled (c)* Of some house represen ted upon the Stage. LAUREOLUS, wherein the chiefe plaier making hast to get away out of the Fit actours & expositours such an argu­ment. ruine, vomited bloud, many more of the Actours in a second degree strived a vie to give some triall and experiment of the like cunning; the whole stage by that meanes flowed with bloud. Prepared there was likewise against night a­nother shew, wherein the darke fables reported of Hell and the Infernall Spi­rits there, were to be exhibited and unfolded by Aegyptians and Aethiopians.

58 Vpon the 24. of Ianna­rie. A. V. C. 794. ninth day before the Kalends of Februarie, about one of the clocke afternoone: Doubting with himselfe, whether he should rise to dinner or no? (for that his stomacke was yet rawe and weake upon a surfait of meate taken the day before), at last by the perswasion of his friends hee went forth. Now, when as in the very Or [...]. cloisture through which hee was to passe certaine boyes of noble birth sent for out of Asia (to sing Himnes, and to skirmish mar­tially upon the Stage) were preparing themselves, he stood still and staied there to view and encourage them. And but that the leader and chiefetaine of that crew, said, He was very cold, hee would have returned and presently exhibited that shew. But what befell after this, is reported two manner of waies. Some say, that as he spake unto the said boies, CHAER [...]A came behind his back, and with a drawing blow grievously wounded his neck with the edge of his sword, giving him these words before, Hoc age. i. Mind this: Wherupon, CORNELIUS SABINUS, another of the Conspiratours, encountred him a-front, and ranne him through in the brest. Others write, that SABINUS, after the multitude a­bout him was voided by the Centurions (who were privie to the Conspiracie) [Page 151] called for a watch-word, as the maner is of souldiers, and when CAIUS gave him the word, IUPITER, CHAEREA cryed out alowde, Accipe ratum. i. Here take it sure: and with that, as he looked behind him, with one slash cut his chaw quite thorough: Also as he lay on the ground and drawing up his limmes to­gether cryed still, That he was yet alive, the rest of their complices with thirtie wounds dispatched and made an end of him. For, this mot, Repete. i. Strike a­gaine, was the signal of them all. Some of them also thrust their swords through his privie members. At the very first noise and outcrie, his licter-bearers came running to helpe, with their litter staves: Soone after, the Germans that were the squires of his bodie came in: & as they slew some of the murderers, so they killed certaine Senatours also that were meere innocent.

He lived 29. yeares, and ruled the Empire three yeares 10. moneths and 8.59 dayes. His dead corps was conueyed secretly into the Lamian hortyards, where being scorched onely, or halfe burnt in a tumultuary and hasty funerall fire, covered it was with a few turfs of earth lightly cast over it; but afterwards, by his sisters now returned out of exile, taken up, burnt to ashes and enterred. It is for certain knowen and reputed; that before this Complement was performed, the keepers of those hortyards were troubled with the walking of spirits and ghosts: and in that uery Which hee called a [...] cloyster, [...] ­fore. house wherin he was murdred there passed not a night without some terror or fearefull object, until the uery house it selfe was consu­med with fire. There dyed together with him, both his Wife CAESONIA, stabbed with a sword by a Centurion, and also a daughter of his, whose braines were dashed out against a wall.60

What the condition and state was of those dayes, any man may gather, even by these particulars. For neither, when this massacre was divulged and made knowen abroad, men gave credite by and by thereto; but there went a suspici­on, that CAIUS himselfe had feigned and given out a rumour of this murder, by that meanes to sound mens minds, and find, how they stood affected unto him: [...] yet had those conspiratours destined the Empire to anie one. And the Senators in recovering their antient freedome againe accorded so, as that the consuls assembled them not at the first into the A new Senat [...] house in [...] of Curia Hostilia. Curia, because it bare the name For [...]ow [...] [...]ame of the [...] and [...] race became o­dious, as [...] of the cō ­mon weale. IULIA, but into the Capitol: yea and some of them, when their turnes came to speake, opined, That the memorie of the CAESARS should be utterly aboli­shed and razed out, giving aduise to pull downe their temples. Moreover, this hath beene obserued and noted especially, That the CAESARS, who had to their forename And yet we [...] reade not so much of [...] [...] of [...] [...] sonne, [...] [...] of [...] CAIUS, beginning at him first who was slai [...]e in the troublesome dayes of CINNA, dyed all of them a violent death.

THE HISTORIE OF Tiberius Claudius Drusus Cae­sar,


AS touching DRUSUS father to this CLAUDIUS CAESAR, [...] A, V, C. 714. which DRUSUS was in times past forenamed DECIMUS and afterwards NERO; dame LIVIA wedded unto AU­GUSTUS even whē she was great with child, brought him into the world within three moneths after the said mariage & folke suspected, that begotten he was in adulterie by his (supposed) father in law himself. Certes presētly after hisAugustus: and not by Tiberius Nero his mo­thers sonne. birth, this verse w [...]t rife in every mans mouth, [...]

On persons great this fortune doth attend,
That children they may have at three moneths end.

This DRUSUS in the honorable place of questure and pretureship, being L. Generall of the R [...]aetian, and so foorth of the Germane warre, was the first Romane Captaine that sayled in the North Ocean: and on the farther side of [...] caste those trenches of a straung and infinite worke which yet at [Page 153] this day be called Or [...] [...]. DRUSINAE. Many a time he put the enemy to sword, and when he had driven him as farre as to the inmost deserts, gave not over cha­sing and pursuing, untill there appeared unto him the likenesse of a Representing Germanie. Barbarian woman, more portly than a mortall wight, which in the latine tongue forbad him to follow the traine of victorie anie farther. For which acts atchieved, he enioyed the honour of a Called Ova­tion pety Triumph, and had the Triumphall ornaments graunted unto him. After his pretureship, he entred immediatly upon the Con­sulate: and having enterprised a second expedition thither, fell sicke and dyed in his summer campe, which therupon tooke the name of The wicked and mischie­uous camp. CASTRA (a) SCE­LERATA. His corps by the principall Citizens and Burgesses of the free bur­rowes and colonies, by the decuries also and orders of the Or Chance­lors. Scribes (who met them in the way and received it at their hands) was conueied to Rome and buri­ed in Mars-fielde. Howbeit the armie reared in honour of him an honorarie Which the Greeks call Cenotathium. i. an empty tomb tombe (or stately herse) about the which every yeare afterwards upō a certain set day, the souldiers should runne at tilt, keepe jousting and turnament: the Citties likewise and States of Gaule, sacrifice and make publike supplications to the gods. Moreover the Senate among many other honors, decreed for him a Triumphant arch of marble, with Tropaees thereto in the Or port▪ way. street Appia: as also the surname of GERMANICUS to him and his posterity for ever. Furthermore he is thought to have caried a mind no lesse glorious than civil & popular. For over and above the conquests gained of his enemies, he wa [...] also from thē Which he tooke frō their cheife general [...] Royall spoyles: & oftentimes to the uttermost hazard of his life cour­sed and chaced the General of the Germans all over the field: neither dissembled he, but gave it out, that one day he would restore unto the Common-wealth their an­cient state and libertie againe. Whereupon, I suppose, some presume to write, that AUGUSTUS had him in jelousie and suspicion: called him home out of his Province: and because he lingred and delayed his returne, made him aw [...]y by poyson. Which uerily put downe I have, because I would not seeme to pre­termit such a matter, rather, than for that I thinke it either true or pro­bable: considering that AUGUSTUS both loved him whiles hee was alive so entirely, as that he alwayes ordained him fellow-heire with his sonnes, (like as he openly professed upon a time in the Senate house) and also commended him after his death so highly, that in a solemne oration before the bodie of the people he prayed unto the gods. Tououchsafe his owne CAESARS to be like un­to him: and to grant himselfe one day such an end as they had given him. And not contented with this that he had engraven upon his tombe an Epitaph in verse which he himselfe composed, he wrot also the historie of his life in prose. By ANTONIA the yonger, he became father uerily of many children, but three onely hee left behind him at his death, namely, GERMANICUS, LIVILLA, and CLAUDIUS.

This CLAUDIUS was borne at Lyons, in the yeare when IULIUS2 A. V. C. 744▪ ANTONIUS and FABIUS AFRICANUS were Consuls, upon the Calends of August, that uery day on which the altar was first dedicated there unto AUGUSTUS: and named he was TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS: and a while after, when his elder brother was adopted into the family IULIA, hee assumed into his stile the surname of GERMANICUS. Being left an infant by his father, all the time in manner of his child-hood and Or growing age. youth, piteously [Page 154] handled he was with sundrie diseases, and those tough and such as stucke long by him: in so much as being dulled and enfeebled thereby both in mind and bo­die, he was not thought in the very progresse of riper age, sufficient and capa­ble of any publike office or private charge: yea and many a day after that hee came to full yeares and had sued out his live [...]ie, hee was at the dispose of a­nother, even under a pedagogue and governour; whom in a certaine booke himself complaineth of, terming him a barbarous fellow, and no better some­time than a Olim superiu­mentarium, ra ther a maister of mulitiers. mul [...]tier, set over him of purpose to chastice and punish him most cruelly for everie light cause & occasion whatsoever. By reason of this his sick­nesse, both at the sword-play which he and his brother ioyntly exhibited in memoriall of their Father, he sat as president (not after the accustomed man­ner) lapt in a cloake; and also upon his commensement day, when he was to put on his virile gowne, about midnight without anie honorable attendance and solemne traine, brought he was in a licter into the (a) Capitoll.

3 Howbeit, from his very child-hood, he employed no meane studie in the liberall sciences. And oftentimes gave good proofe even in publike place of his proceedings in them all: yet could he never for all that reach to any degree of dignity, or yeeld better hope of himselfe for the time to come. His mother ANTONIA, was wont to call him Portentum hominis. i. The Monster and fan­tasticall shewe of a man, as if hee had not beene finished but onely begunne by nature: and if shee reprooved anie one for his foolishnesse she would saie, Hee was more sottish then her Sonne CLAUDIUS. His Grandmother Otherwise called Livia & Iu [...]ia the mo­ther of Drusus. AUGU­STA thought alwaies most basely of him, as who used neither to speake unto him but very seldome, nor to admonish him, unlesse it were in some sharpe and short writing, or els by messengers going between. His sister LIUILLA, when she heard that he should be one day Emperour, openly & with a lowd* His Grand mothers bro­ther by the mothers side. voice detested and wished farre from the people of Rome so hard and miserable a fortune.

4* As well good as b [...]d: And no meruaile: For to the end that it might be more certainly knowen what opinion his great Vncle AUGUSTUS had of him both In honour of Mars Revenger. wayes, I have set downe certaine Articles and principall pointes gathered out of his owne Epistles. I have quoth he, my good LIVIA talked and conferred with TI­ [...]ERIUS as you charged me, about this point, namely, What is to be done to your Nephew TIBERIUS, at the solemnity of the Suffic [...]ent. Martiall Game? Now, wee are both agreed that it must be determined and set down once for all what course we should take and follow with him: For, if he be [...] throughout & perfect. [...], and as I may so say Or steps. [...], what doubt need wee to make but that he is to bee trained and brought by the same oportu­nities of time and degrees by which his brother was▪ But if we perceive him To be im paired or disa­bled and mai­med, as wel for the sufficiencie of body as [...] of mind [...]; we must not mi­nister matter to men, Who are wont to make good game & [...] at such things. [...], for to deride both him and us. For we shall ever find trouble and vexation inough, in case of every occasion of time presented unto us, we should deliberate, If it be not resolved upon and set downe aforehand by [...] [...], whether wee thinke him able to menage honorable Offices in the State or no? Howbeit for the pre­sent (concerning such things whereof youle aske mine aduise) I mislike it not, that he have the charge of the Priests dyning chamber, during these Martiall solemnities a­foresayd, [Page 155] so that he wil suffer himselfe to be adm [...]nished and schooled by SILANUS sonne, a man allyed unto him, that he do nothing, which may be [...] or [...] [...] [...] at. noted, or derided. That he should behold the games Circenses from out of the A [...] the Games cir­censes, [...] on the images of the gods are layed. Puluinar, in no wise can [...] allow. For being exposed so, to the sight of men in the very forefront of the Theatre, he wil be eyed and obserued: Neither like we in any [...], that he should goe up the Albane mount, or abide at Rome During the Latine Holy-dayes. For if he be able to accompany and follow his brother to that mountaine, why is he not as wel made Pro­vost of the Cittie the while? Thus, my LIVIA, you have our opinions delivered, as * In the ab­sence of the Consuls atte­ding the sacri­fice upon the Albane Hill. who are fully resolued, that once for al somewhat must be put downe as teuching the whole matter, least we be evermore wavering between hope and feare. You may also if it please you impart unto our (niece) ANTONIA thus much of this our letter. Againe, in another Epistle. As for young Cla [...]dius. TIBERIUS, I for my part whiles you are absent, wil dayly i [...]uite him to supper, that he may not suppe alone with his Sul­pitius * [...] and Athenodirus. And I could wish with al my hart that, he would more sound­ly and lesse [...] make choice of some special one, whose gesture habite & gang, hee might, silly soule as he is, imitate


‘He comes farre short (when he is matched) with men of deepe vnderstanding.’

But looke, when his mind is not wandering out of the way, the generosity of his heart appeareth sufficiently. Likewise in a third letter. Your Nephew TIBEIUS my sweet LIVIA, If I doe not wonder, that when he declamed that he could please and content me, I pray God I be dead. For how he that in his dayly talke speaketh so Darkly and confusedly. [...] should be able when he declameth, to deliver his mind and what he hath to say Cleerely and plainely to be [...] vnderstood. [...] I cannot see. Neither is there anie doubt to be made, but that after all this, AVGV­STUS ordained and left him indued with no honorable office, save only the Sa­cerdotall dignitie of Augurs: nay he nominated him not so much as his Heire, but in a third degree and descent, even among those that were well neere Strangers: and that in a sixth part onely of his substance: and by way of lega­cie bequeathed unto him not above 800000. sesterces.

5TIBRRIUS his unkle conferred upon him when he sued for honorable dig­nities the Ornaments of Consuls. But when he instantly demaunded still, not i­maginary but true magistracies indeede, he wrote backe unto him in his wri­ting tables thus much onely, That he had sent unto him Every one worth 15, [...]. 7, [...] ob, or one [...] ­dred [...] fortie peeces of golde to spend at the feast Saturnalia, and to bestow in puppets and trifling gaudes, at the same time. Then, and not before, casting aside all hope of preferment and reall dig­nities, hee betooke himselfe to rest and quietnesse of life, lying close, one while within hortyardes of pleasure and in a manner house without the Cittie: and lurking other whiles in a withdrawing place out of the way in Campania: And by his daily acquaintance and companie keeping with most base and ab­ject persons besides the olde infamovs note of sluggardie and foolishnesse hee incurred an ill name for drunkennesse and dice-play: notwithstanding, that all the while he thus led his life, he never wanted the publike attendance and reve­rent regard of men seeking unto him.

6 The order of Gentlemen elected him twice for their patrone, in an emba­ssage that was to bee sent & delivered in their owne behalfe: once when the [Page 156] Consuls required to have the cariage of AUGUSTUS his corps upō their own shoulders to Rome: 22. time when they were to cōgratulate with the same Con suls for the suppressing of Seianus, Moreover, they were wont in shewes, and in the Theatre, when he came in place, to arise up and lay off their mantels in re­spective* As wee vse to veile bonet o [...] do of our hats. honour of him. The Senate also ordained, that to the ordinarie num­ber of the Priests or Guild brethren called AUGUSTALES, who were by lot chosen, he should be admitted extraordinarily: and soone after, That his house, which by misfortune of a skare-fire he had lost, should at the Cities charges be re [...] ­dified; as also the priviledge to deliver his minde and opinion in the Senate, a­mong those who had beene Consuls; which decree of theirs was reversed & annulled: whiles The Empe­rour. TIBERIUS alleadged by way of excuse his imbecillity, and promised to repaire the foresaid losse out of his owne private purse and libe­rality. Yet when hee laye upon his death-bed, he both named him among his heires in a third raunge, and in a third part of his estate, and also bequeathed him a legacie of two millions of Sesterces: yea recommended him besides by name unto the armies, to the Senate likewise & people of Rome in the ranke of other his especiall friends and kinsfolke.

7 At length under [...]. CAIUS his brothers sonne, who at his first comming to the Empire sought by all manner of enticing allurements, to gaine the good opinion of a bountifull and gracious prince, he began first to beare office of state, and continued Consul together with him for the space of two moneths: and it fortuned at his first entrance into the Forum with his knitches of rods, that an Eagle soaring thereby, setled upon his right shoulder. He was pricked also and allotted unto a second Consulship, against the 4. th yeare following. Divers times he sat as president of the solemne shewes in CAIUS his turne: what time, the people with great applause All haile or [...]. cryed Feliciter, partly to the Caligula Em­perours Vncle, and in part to GERMANICUS his brother.

8 Yet lived hee neverthelesse subiect to the contumelious reproches of the World: For if at anie time, hee came somewhat with the latest and after the houre appointed to a supper, hardly & with much adoe, was there any roome made for to receive him, and not before hee had gone round about the tables where guests were set, for to finde a place: Likewise, whensoever he tooke a nap, and fel a sleepe after meate (which was an ordinarie thing with him) the A Copreis: See T [...]berius Nero Caesar, cap. 61. vel a [...] such as would play Bo [...]peepe and bide them­selves when they had done some unhappi­nesse. buffons and jesters about him, made good sport, pelling him with olive and da [...]e stones: other whiles also they would by way of merriment awaken him with the clappe of a ferula or lash of some whip. They were wont likewise to glove his hands (as he lay snorting a sleep) with * his shoes, that as he suddenly awaked hee might rub his face and eyes therewith.

9 Neither verily could he avoide divers dangerous troubles: First in his very Consulship: for, beeing behind hand and over slacke in taking order with the workmen for the making and erecting of NERO and DRUSUS Statues, who were For whiles they sat or lea­ned upon pal­lets at their meat they put off their shoes. CAESARS brethren, hee had like to have beene remooved and put out of that honorable office: afterwards, as eyther anie stranger, or one of his own* [...] Calig [...] ­la. house informed ought against him, he was continually and sundry manner of [Page 157] waies molested. But when as the Conspiracie of LEPIDUS & G [...]TULICUS came to light, being sent among other Embassadours to congratulate CAIUS in the name of the City, hee was in ieopardy of his very life: whiles CAIUS chafed and fumed with great indignation, that his Vnkle chiefly of all others was sent unto him, as it were to governe a child: In so much, as some have no [...] stuck to report on writing, that hee was turned also headlong into the river in his cloathes and all as he came apparailed. From which time forward, neve [...] spake hee to any matter proposed in the Senate, but last of all those, that had beene Consuls, as being in reproachfull wise and to his disgrace asked his opi­nion after them all. There was received likewise against him the examination of a forged will, wherein himselfe also had beene a witnesse and put-to his seale. Last of all, hee was forced to disburse eight millions of Sesterces for a fine or Income at his entrance into a new Priesthood: by occ [...]sion whereof, his estate being so much decaied, driuen he was to those streights, that for his disability to keepe credit and satisfie the debt due unto the Chamber of the City by an (a) Edict of the Citie Treasurers according to the law Praediatoria hee His lands and goods were forfeited and so were published in table as void [...] and vacant, hung up to be sold in vacuum.

10 Having passed the greatest part of his time in running thorough these and such like troubles, at length in the fiftieth yeere of age, hee attained to the Em­pire, and that by a strange and wonderfull hap. Being among others excluded by the Conspiratours that layed waite for CAIUS life, what time they voided all the Companie about his person, under a colour as if he desired to be a part himselfe alone in some by-place, this CLAUDIUS had stept a side and retired into a lodging or parlour called Hermeum: And not long after, being affrigh­ted at the rumour of that murder slily crept forth and conveied himselfe up in­to* A garret▪ a Solar next adioyning, and there hid himselfe betweene the hangings that hung before the dore. Whiles hee lurked close there, a common Souldiour chauncing to runne too and fro that way, espied his feete, and by earnest en­quirie and asking who he was? hapned to take knowledge of him: who having drawne him forth of the place (when as for feare hee fell downe humbly at hisA, V, C. 794 feete and tooke hold of his knees) saluted him by the name of Emperour. From thence he brought him immediatly to his other fellow Souldiours, who as yet stoode wavering and wist not what to doe but fare and fume. By them was he bestowed in a Licter▪ and for that his owne servants were fled scattering heere and there they also by turnes one after another supported the said Licter upon their shoulders: and so was he brought into the (Praetorian) Camp, all sad and amazed for feare: pitied also by the multitude that met him on the way; as if some innocent had been haled to execution. Being received within the trench & rampire, lodged he was alnight among the souldiours-watch with lesse hope of his a good deale than confidence. For the Consuls together with the Senate and the cohorts of the citie-souldiers, seized the Forū & the Capitol, with a pur­pose to claime & recover the cōmon libertie: and when himselfe was sent for, by a tribune of the commons into the Curia to sit in consultation & give his ad­uise about those matters that were thought good to be propounded he made answere; That deteined he was perf [...]rce and by constraint. But the next mor­row, when as the Senate grewe more colde and slacke in following and [Page 158] executing their foresaid proiects, (by reason of their tedious trouble and dis­cord who dissented in opinion)▪ whiles the multitude also standing round a­bout, demaunded by this time one Ruler & [...]. him by name, he called the Soul­diours in [...], or [...]. [...]. him­selfe armed. armour to an assembly, and suffred them to take their oath of allea­geance, and sweare to maintaine his imperiall dignity: therewith promised unto them Qu na dena Sestert [...]a. See [...]. 1500 Sesterces a peece: the first of all the CAESARS, that obliged unto him the Souldiours fealty by a fee and reward.

Having once established his Empire, hee thought nothing more deere and11 behovefull than to abolish the remembrance of those two daies, wherein there was some doubtfull question about the change and alteration of the State. Of all deedes and words therefore, which had passed during that time he made an Act there should be a generall pardon and perpetuall oblivion: which also hee made good and performed accordingly. Onely, some few Colonels and Cen­turions, out of that crew which conspired against CAIUS, he put to the sword: as well for example sake, as for that he had certaine intelligence, they required to have him also murdered. Then presently turning and bending his minde to the duties of pietie and kindnesse, hee tooke up no forme of oath, either with more devout religion or oftener, than by the name of AUGUSTUS. He gave order, that for his Grandmother LIVIA, there should by Decree be graunted Divine honours; as also in the stately pompe of the Cirque Solemnities, a Chariot drawne with Elephants, like unto that of AUGUSTUS: Semblably, for the soules of his owne parents departed, publick Dirges and Funerall feasts: and more than so, particularly in the honour of his father Cirque-Plaies and games every yeere upon his birth day: and in memoriall of his mother, a coach to be led and drawne along through the Cirque: and the surname of AUGU­STA, which by his Grandmother was refused. In remembrance of his Germanicus. bro­ther (to celebrate whose memoriall hee omitted no occasion) hee exhibited a Greeke Comaedie at the solemne Games held in Naples: Where by sentence of the Vmpiers and Iudges he received a coronet therefore. Hee suffered not so much as M. ANTONIUS to passe unhonoured, nor without a thankfull mention and remembrance: protesting one time, and that by an Edict, That so much the more earnest he was, to have men celebrate the Birth day of his father DRUSUS, because upon the same day, his Grandfather ANTONIUS also was borne. The Marble Arch, decreed verily in times past by the Senate to be erected for TIBERIUS His Vnkle neere unto the Theater of POMPEIUS, but for let, hee finished. And albeit hee abrogated and repealed all the Acts of CAIUS, yet the day of his death, although it were the beginning of his Empire, he forbad to be regi­stred among feasts in the Kalendar.

But in honouring himselfe he was sparie, and caried a civile modestie. The12 fore name of Emperour he forbare: excessive honours hee refused: the Or solemnity of nuptiall con­tract. E­spousals of his owne daughter, the birth-day also of his Nephew her sonne, he passed over in silence, onely celebrating it with some private ceremonie and religious complements within house. He restored no banished person, but by the authority and warrant of the Senate. That hee might bring with him in­to the Curia, the Capitaine of the Guard and Colonels. Tribunes of the Souldiours: Item, that those Actes might bee ra [...]ified and stand in force, which his Procuratours had set downe in iudging of causes, hee obtained by intreatie. [Page 159] He made suite unto the Consuls for a licence, to hold Faires and Markets, for his owne private Manors and Lands. In Commissions and Examinations of causes held by the Magistrates, he would oftentimes be personally present and sit as one of the Commissioners. To the same Magistrates, when they exhibi­ted any Plaies or Games, himselfe also with the rest of the multitude would a­rise up, and both with By appla [...]se and acclama­tion. hand and * voice doe them honour. When the Tri­bunes of the Commons repaired unto him before the Front of his Tribunall, he excused himselfe unto them, for that by reason of straight roome hee could not give audience unto them otherwise than standing upon their feete. There­fore, within a small time hee purchased so much love and favour, as that when newes came (to Rome) that forlaied and slaine hee was in his iourney to Ostia, the people in a great tumult and uprore, fell to banning and cursing both the Souldiours as Traitours, and the Senate also as Paricides: neither ceased they thus to force against them, untill first one messenger, and then another, yea and soone after many more were produced by the Magistrates to the publick RO­STRA, who assured them that he was alive and approached homeward.

13 Yet continued hee not for all this secured every way from the danger of se­cret practises and wait-laying▪ but assailed hee was as well by private persons, [...] [...]ole factions and conspiracies, yea and fore troubled in the end with civill [...]. For there was a man, one of the Commons, taken about midnight [...]eere unto his bed-chamber with a dagger. Found there were likewise twaine of the Gentlemens degree, in the open streete with a staffe having Some cal thi [...] a Iacobs staffe. a blade in it, and a Hunters wood-knife waiting for him: the one to assault his person when he was gone forth of the Theater: the other as hee sacrificed at the tem­ple of M [...]rs. Now there had conspired to make an insurrection and to alter the State, GALLUS ASINIUS and STATILIUS CORVINUS, the Nephewes of POLLIO and MESSALLA the Oratours, taking unto them for their Com­plices many of his owne freed-men and servants. As for civile warre, kindled it was and begun by FURIUS CAMILLUS SCRIBONIANUS, Lieutenant generall of Dalmatia: but within five daies quenched cleane and suppressed; by reason that the Legions, which had chaunged their oath of alleageance, in re­morce of conscience and touch of religion repented; after that upon significa­tion given of a iourney to their new Generall, neither the Ominous & unlucky signe [...]. Aeagles could bee dight and trimmed, nor the militarie ensignes plucked up and removed.

14 To his first Consulship he bare foure more: of which, the two former ioint­lieA: V: C: 794 795 800 804 and immediatly one after another: the rest ensuing, with some time be­tweene, to wit, each one in the fourth yeere: and as for the third, hee had no precedent for it in any other Prince, as being substituted in the voide place of a Consull deceased. A precise Iusticer he was, ministring Iustice, both when hee was Consull, and also being out of that Office, most painfully; even upon the solemne daies instituted for him and his: yea, and otherwhiles upon the aunci­ent festivall daies and such as were religious. He followed not alwaies the pre­script rule of lawes, moderating either the rigour or the lenity of penalties, by equity & reason, according as he stood affected to a cause: for, both unto those he restored their actions & gave leave to cōmense thē a new, who in the Court [Page 160] before private Of private matters, as [...] and [...]. Iudges had once lost their suites, by claiming more than was due: and also, such as were convict of some greater deceite and cousenage, he condemned to be cast unto wilde beasts: exceeding therein the ordinarie pu­nishment by law appointed.

15 Moreover, in the examination, triall, and deciding of controversies, he was wonderous variable: one while circumspect, wary, and of great insight: other­whiles as rash and inconsiderate▪ now and then also foolish, vaine, and like to one without all reason. When hee reviewed upon a time the Decuries of Iud­ges, and put whom hee thought good from their Iurisdiction: one of them, who had answered to his name, and concealed the immunity and priviledge that he had by the benefit of children, he discharged quite, as a man desirous And therfore, ambitious. to be a Iudge. Another of them being molested and called into question by his adversaries before him, as touching a matter betweene him and them, and pleading withall for himselfe, That it was a case to be tried not extraordinarily (by CAESAR) but by the common course of Law, and in an ordinary Court of deputed Iudges: he compelled immediatly to handle & decide his owne cause before him: as who in his proper businesse should give proofe how indifferent a Iudge he would be heereafter in the matter of another. There was a woman that would not acknowledge her owne sonne. Now, when by evidence unnd arguments alleadged proet contra on both sides; the question rested in ei [...]s, a ballance doubtfull; he awarded, that she should be wedded to the young The plaintife himselfe. man: any▪ so forced her to confesse the truth and to take him for her child. Most ready he was to give iudgement on their side, who made appearance in Court when their adversaries were absent: without any respect and consideration, whether a man slacked and staied by his owne default, or upon some necessitie? One cried out upon a forger of writings, and required, That both his hands might be cut off. Hee made no more a doe, but forthwith called instantly, to have the hangman sent for, with his chopping knife and butchers block, to do the deed. There hapned one to be called iudicially to the barre, For that being a forainer he bare himselfe as a Romaine Citizen: and when the advocates of both sides grew to some little variance about this circumstance, namely, Whether the party De­fendant ought to make his answere and plead his owne cause in a gowne As a Citizen of Rome. or a As a [...] cloake? he then, as if hee would make exceeding shew of pure and uncorrupt equitie, commaunded him to shift and change his habite often in the place, according as he was either accused or defended. Moreover, sitting in iudgement to de­cide a certaine controversie, When he had heard what could be said, hee pro­nounced sentence out of a written table, as it is verily thought; to this effect, That hee iudged on their side, who had alleadged the truth. For which prankes hee became base and contemptible, in so much as every where, and openly he was despised. One, to excuse a Or deponent witnesse, whom CAESAR Claudius. had called for out of a Province, alleadged in his behalfe, and said, Hee could not possibly come in time and be present, dissimuling the cause thereof a great while: at length, after ma­nie long demaunds, what the reason might be? Why, quoth hee, the man is dead at PVTEOLI. Another when hee gave him thankes, for suffering a per­son accused to have the benefite of a triall and to bee defended, added more-over these wordes, And yet this is an usuall and ordinarie thing. [Page 162] Furthermore, I my selfe have heard olde folke say, That these Lawyers and Barristers were wont to abuse his patience so much, that as hee was going downe from the Or iudge­ment seat. Tribunall, they would not onely call upon him to come backe againe, but also take hold of his gowne lappet and skirt, yea and other­while catch him fast by the foote, and so hold him still with them. And that no man need to mervaile [...], there was one of these Greeke Lawyers, who pleading before him hapned in earnest altercation to let fall these words, [...], i. Thou art both old, and a foole besides. And verily it is for certaine knowne, that a Gentleman of Rome, accused before him for his ob­scene filthinesse and unnaturall abuse of women, (although untruly) as having an enditement framed against him by his enemies that were mighty: when he saw common strumpets cited and their depositions heard against him, flung his writing steele and the bookes which he had in his hand, with great ubraiding of him also for his foolishnesse and cruelty, even at his very face, so as he rip­pled and hurt there with his cheeke not a little.

He bare also the Censureship: an office that a long time had beene discon­tinued,16 A, V, C, 800 801. after PAULUS and PLANCUS the Censours: but even this very place he held with an uneven hand and as variable a minde, as the event and successe ensuing. In the review taken of Romaine Gentlemen, hee dismissed without shame and disgrace, a young man charged with many infamous villanies, how­beit one whom his owne father testified upon his knowledge and triall to bee right honest: saying withall, That he had a Censor of his owne. To another youth, who was in a very bad name for spoiling of maidens, and adulteries commit­ted with wives, he did no more but give warning, Either more sparily to spena him selfe in those young and tender yeeres of his, or else more warily at least-wise, to goe to worke▪ adding thus much beside. For why know I, quoth hee, what wench thou keepest? And when upon the intreaty of his familiar friends he had taken of the infamous note which was set upon the name of one, Well, quoth he, let the blot * [...] [...] Some read exta [...], i, yet the blot re­maineth: mea­ning the filthi­nes of the [...]act. yet remaine still to be seene. An honourable man and a principall personage of the Province Greece, howbeit ignorant in the Latine tongue, he not onely ra­sed out of the ranke & roll of Iudges, but also deprived of his freedom in Rome, and made him a meere alien. Neither suffred he any man to render an account of his life, otherwise than with his owne mouth, as well as every one was able, and without a patrone to speake for him. Hee noted many with disgrace, and some of them without their knowledge, as mistrusting no such thing▪ yea, and for a matter that had no precedent, namely, because without his privity and a pasport obtained they went forth of Italy: one also among the rest, for that in the Province he accompanied a King in his traine: alledging for example, That in his Auncestours daies RABIRIUS POSTUMUS for following of K. PTO­LOMAEUS into Alexandria to save & recover the monie which he had lent him, was accused before the Iudges, of Treason to the State. Having assaied to put many more to rebuke with great imputation of the Inquisitours negligence, but with greater shame of his owne: looke whomsoever he charged with sin­gle For these matters would beare, action life, with childlesse estate or poverty, those lightly he found guiltlesse; as who were able to prove themselves husbands, fathers, and wealthy. Certes, one there was, who being accused to have laied violent hands upon himselfe, and wounded his owne body with a sword, stript himselfe naked, and shewed [Page 162] the same whole and sound, without any harme in the world. Many other Acts he did of speciall note whiles he was Censour as namely these; He commaun­ded a silver Chariot sumptuously wrought and set out to sale in the streete Si­gillaria, for to be bought and broken all to peeces openly. Item, in one day he published 20 Edicts or Proclamations▪ and ij among the rest: In the one whereof hee gave the people warning, That when their Vineyards bare Grapes plentifully, they should Or enhuile: pich their vessels very well within: in the other, he did them to understand, That there was nothing so good against the stinging of a Viper, as the iuice of the Vghtree.

One expedition and no more hee undertooke, and that was very small. When the Senate had by Decree allowed him Triumphall ornaments, hee17 supposing that a bare title of honour was inferiour to the maiestie of a Prince and Emperour, willing also to enterprise some exploit, whereby he might win the due glorie of a complet triumph, made choise before all other Provinces of Britaine; attempted by none since IULIUS (CAESAR) of famous memorie, and at that time in a tumultuous uprore, for that certaine revolts and rebels fled from thence, were not rendred. As he sailed from Ostia thitherward, twice had he like to have beene cast away and drowned, by reason of the strong blu­string Southerne winde Circius, neere unto Ligaria, hard by the Ilands (a) Sto [...]chades. Having therefore travailed by land, From Massiles as farre as to the Cape Where Calais standeth, or Bullo [...], as som thinke. Gessoriacum, he crossed the seas frō thence into Britaine: and in very 16. Accor­ding to D [...]. A: V: C: 797 few daies, without battaile or bloushed, part of the Iland yeelded to his devo­tion. So, in the sixth moneth after his first setting forth hee returned to Rome, and triumphed with most sumpteous pompe therefore prepared. To the sight of which Solemnitie, hee suffred not onely the Presidents and Governours of Provinces to have recourse into the Citie, but also certaine banished persons. And among the enemies Spoiles, hee set up a navall Coronet, and fastened it to the Finial of his house Palatine, hard by another civick guirland, in token and memoriall of the Ocean by him sailed over and subdued. After his trium­phant Chariot rode MESSALLINA his wife in a Coach: then followed those gallants also Mounted likewise., who in the same warre had attained to triumphall ornaments: the rest went on foote and in their rich robes garded with purple: onely CRASSUS FRUGI mounted upon a brave Courser trimly trapped, and arrai­ed himselfe in a triumphant mantle of estate, for that now twice hee had at­chieved that honour.

18 Hee was at all times most carefull and provident for the When so ever you read in Su­etonius (City) absolutely, un­derstād the [...]by Rome: Kat' ex­ocheen: as one would say, The City of all Ci­ties: A ordi­narie phrase in other Romain­writers: accor­d [...]ng as Virgil hath fitly ex­pressed in this verse. Eclog. 1. Vrbem quam dicunt, Roma [...], &c. Citie, especially that the market might bee well served with victuals: what time, the Aemilian Aedifices (or Tenements) were on fire and continued still burning, hee remai­ned two nights together in the place called Diribitorium: and when the mul­titude of Souldiours and housholde servants failed, hee called together by meanes of the Magistrates, the Commons of the Citie out of all the streetes and Parishes to come in and helpe, setting before him his chests full of mo­ney: exhorting them to doe their best for the quenching of the fire: and rea­die for to pay presently every one a good reward according to the paines hee tooke. Now, when corne and victuals were growne very scarce, (such was the continuall unseasonable weather that brought barrainnesse) hee was up­pon [Page 163] a time in the middes of the Or Forum. market place deteined by the multitude and so assayled and pelled what with reviling taunts & what with peeces of broken bread, that hardly & with much adoe he was able to escape, and no otherwise than by a posterne gate, unto the Pallace. Whereupon he devised all the means he possibly could to bring into the Citie provision of corne & victuals, even in the winter season. For, he not onely proposed certaine set gaines to all corne­masters, that would venture for graine, undertaking himselfe to beare all the losse that should happen unto anie of them by tempest: but ordained also great fees and availes for those that would builde ships for such traffique and merchandise, according to the condition and quality of each one. Namely for everie Romane Citizen exemption from the lawe PAPIA POPPAEA: For enfranchised latines, the freedome of Romane Citizens▪ and for womē, the priviledge and benefit of those that had 4. children, which constitutions stand in force and be observed at this day.

20 Many works he finished, and those rather for greatnesse, huge; then for use, needfull. But the chiefe and principall were these: The conduit of water begun by CAIUS. Item a Or Got [...]. scluse to let out and draine the lake Fucinus; and the Or Pere. ha­ven at Ostia: although he knew well enough, that The drawing of the lake Fici nus the one (of the twaine) AU­GUSTUS had denied unto the Marsians who cōtinvally entreated him about it: and the Alterum. i. the Pere at Ostia. But because there is no m [...] ­tion made in Iuliu Caesars life of this Pere or haven, some read for Alterū in this place Cae terum and then the word Alte­rum before, is meant of the second worke of these three, denied unto the Marfia [...]s &c. Caeterum [...], but intended oftentimes in the designe­ment of Iuli [...], &c. other intended oftentimes in the desigment of IULIUS CAESAR of sacred memorie, was for the difficultie thereof layde aside. The two colde & plenteous Or heads fountaines of the water Claudia, of which the one beareth the name of CAERULEUS, the other of CURTIUS or ALBUDINUS, as also the Noui [...] some read [...] opere, i, within new stonew [...]ok new river of A [...]io he conueied and brought to Rome all the way, within stone-work: and then derived and deuided the same into many and those right beautifull pooles. He went in hand with the mere Ficinus in hope of gaine as well as of glorie: when some there were, who would have bound themselues in covenant and promise, to draine the sayd marrish at their owne private charges, in case the grounds being once made drie might be graunted unto them in free-hold. Now, for the length of three miles, partly by digging through the hill, and partly by hewing out the rocke before him, hee finished the channell at last with much adoe and after eleven yeares labour: albeit thirty thousand men were at worke continually about it and neuer rested between. The Pere at O­stia beforesayd he made, by drawing an arme of the sea about, on the left and right hand both: and with all, at the mouth and entrance thereof, where now the ground lay deepe, raising an huge dam or pile against it. For the surer foundation of which pile, he drowned before hand that ship, wherein the great Obelisk had beene transported out of Aegypt: and when hee had supported it with buttresses of many stones, hee planted a lo [...]t upon the same an exceeding high watch-towre to the patterne of that PHARUS at Alexandria, to the end that by the fires burning there, in the night season, vessels at sea might direct their course.* Or Cisternes

21 Hee dealt often among the people great doles and Congiaries. Manie shewes and games likewise hee exhibited, and those magnificent: not such onely as were usuall and in accustomed places: but those that [Page 164] were, both newly devised and also brought into ure againe, whereas they had of auntient time beene discontinued: yea and where no man else before him had ever set forth anie. The games for the dedication of POMPEIUS The­atre, which For, the stage therof was cō ­sumed w [...]th fire being halfe burnt hee had reedified. he gave a signall to begin from out of his Or feate of state. Tribunall erected in the Orchestra: seeing that before time, when hee had sacrificed and done his devotions in the houses above and came downe from thence through the mids of the Theatre and assembly, not one would once arise and give applause, but sat still and kept silence. He set out al­so the Which were solemniz [...]d once in t [...]e re voluti [...]n of one hundr [...]d yeeres or one hu [...] ­dred and [...] one as some write, Secular games and playes, as if they had beene exhibited by AUGU­STUS over soone, and not reserued unto their full and due time: and yet him­selfe in his owne histories writeth;, That whereas the sayd solemnities had beene in­termitted, AUGUSTUS long after by a most exact calculation of the yeeres reduced them into order againe. By occasion whereof, The voice of the cryer was then ridi­culous and laughed at, when after the solemne manner he called the people, To behold those games and playes, which no man had once seene alreadie, or should ever A, V, C, 800, see againe: Whereas there suruived yet many who had seene them before: yea and some of the actours, who in times past had beene produced, were then likewise brought forth upon the stage. Oftentimes also he represented the Circensian games in the vaticane, and otherwhiles after every 5. Of Chariot [...]. courses hee brought in the baiting of wild beastes. But in the greatest Cirque of ad which was beautified with barr-gates of marble stone and goales all guilded (whereas before time they had beene made of soft sand-stone and wood,) hee appointed proper and peculiar places for the Senatours, who had wont before time to behold the same sports here and there. Beside the races for the prise of Chari­ots drawen with foure steeds. He represented also the warlike Troie pastime, & the baiting of Leopards: which the troup of the Pretorian horse men slew, ha­ving for their leaders the Tribunes and the Captaine himselfe. Moreouer, hee brought into the shewplace Thessalian men of armes, whose manner is to chase about the cirque, wild buls; until they be tyred: then to mount them, and by the hornes to force them downe to the ground. As for shewes of sword­fensers, hee exhibited them in many places, and after divers and sundrie sorts. One, that was kept every yeare within the Praetorian camp, without anie b [...] ­ting and sumptuons provision of furniture. As for that, which was ordin [...] set out and formally with baiting and other preparations in mars field at [...] Septa: in the same place likewise, another extraordinary one and of short con­tinuance, which he began to call Sportula, because he proclaimed at first when he exhibited it, That he inuited the people there to, as it were to a sodaine supper and short pittance, such as men vse to bid themselues unto. And in no kind of sport or gaming represented unto them, was he more civile, familiar and better dispo­sed to passe the time away: in so much as putting forth his left hand, he togither with the common sort, would both by word of mouth tell, and with his fin­gers also number the peeces of gold as he tendred them unto the winners; and many a time by way of exhortation and entreaty provoke the people to mirth;* Or, my mai­sters Dominos. ever and anon calling them Sirs: yea, and betweene whiles intermingling bald, and far fetcht jests. As for example, when the people called for one (a) The name of a fen [...]er. PA­LUMBUS to play his prises, Hee promised to let them have him, if he were once caughs. This also was but a simple plaine jest although to good purpose and in [Page 165] season delivered: when he had by a speciall indulgence, granted unto a Cham­pion who fought out of a British chariot, (for whome his foure children made earnest suite and entreaty) That he should bee freed from that profession of sword­fight; and that with the great favour and liking of all men, he sent presently an admonition in writing: wherein he aduertised the people, How much they should endeauour to get children, seeing, as they did, in what good st [...]ed they serued, and how they procured grace even unto a very sword-fenser. He represented also in Mars field a warlike shew of the winning and sacking of a towne: Likewise the yeel­ding of the Princes of Britaine; where he sat himselfe as president in his rich Coat-armour. When he was about to let out the water of the Or Lake mere: Ficinus▪ he exhibited in it a navall fight before: And as they who were to fight this bat­taile, cryed out unto him, Ave Imperator, &c. i. All haile O Emperour; They salute thee and wish thy life who are ready to dye: and he againe made answere▪ This Ve [...]be (Avete) signi­fieth here, fare­well or ad [...]eu. But the souldi­ours construed it in the better sense for theyr owne turns, (as they had used it before in sa­luting him) All haile ye also Avete vos. After which word given, as if he had pardoned them this skirmish, there was not one of them would fight: he, sitting a good while in doubt and suspense with himselfe, whether he should destroy them al with fire and sword? at length leapt forth of his throne, and running to and fro about the circuit of the sayd lake (not without foule faltering of his legs under him) partly with threats, and in part by way of exhortation constrained them to skirmish. At this brave shew, the Sicilian and Rhodian fleetes encountred eyther of them consisting of Duod [...]narum. Some read un­devicenats i, 19. and out of Dio, quinquagen [...] [...], i, 50 twelue gallies ruled with three rankes of oares a peece. To give the signall of battaile, there was a Resembling Neptunes Trumpetter. Triton of Syluer arising out of the mids of the lake by a fabricke artificially deuised, to sound the trumpet and set them togither.

22 Certaine pointes about religious Ceremonies, touching the st [...]e like­wise of civill and militarie affaires, as also concerning all degrees of persons both at home and abroad▪ he eyther reformed, or after long disuse forgotten, brought into practise againe, or els instituted and ordained new. In the ele­ction and admission of Priests throughout their severall Colledges, hee nomi­nated not one but he tooke his oath first. He obserued also precisely that so often as there was an Earthquake in the Citie, the Pretour for the time beeing should call a publike assembly, of the people and proclaime certain holydaies: Semblably, that upon the prodigious sight of an unlucky Whether it were an Owle, or the birde named Incendi­aria. See Plin, lib, 10, cap, 13, & 12. foule in the Capitol, there should be held a solemne procession and supplication: wherein himselfe personally in the right of High▪priest; after warning givē unto the people from the Rostra, did read & pronounce a forme of prayers & they say after him. But from this congregation hee sequestred & removed the base multitude of me­chanicall labourers and slaves.

23 The handling of causes and iudiciall pleading in Courts, devided before time into certaine moneths for winter and summer, he conioyned altogether. The iurisdiction as touching feofments upon trust which was wont yeere by yeere, and onely within the Citie to bee committed unto the magistrates, hee ordained to hold by patent for ever: and betooke the charge thereof unto the rulers and governours also of state in every province. That That a Wo­man under 50, yeares of age, should not bee wedded to a man that was threescore. branch annexed to the lawe PAPIA (a) POPPAEA, which emplyeth thus much, That men [Page 166] threescore yeeres of age are disabled for generation, heEdicto abroga­vit. altered by anGrāting. that men threescore yeeres olde▪ might mary women vnder fiftie. edict. He or­deined that untoWards under age. Pupils, the Consuls should extraordinarily appoint Tutors and Guardians. That they also who by the head-Magistrates were forbidden to make abode within any provinces, should bee debarred likewise from the Citie of Rome and Italie. Himselfe confined some after a strange fashion and without any precedent, inhibiting them to depart above three miles from the City. When he was to treat of any great affaire in the Curia, his manner was to sit in the Tribunes pue just in the midst betweene the Consuls chaires. As forLicēces to be absent a time from Rome. pasports which the Consuls were wont to be sued unto for, he would have the Citizens to bee beholden unto himselfe onely therefore, and to crave the same at his hands.

24 The badges and ornaments belonging unto the Consuls he granted unto theWho received 200000 sester­ces for salarie or might de­spend so much by the place Ducenarie Procuratours and Seneschals of Provinces. From as manie as refused the honorable dignitie of Senatours; he tooke away also the worship of the gentlemens degree. The right to weare the, i, The Sena­tours robe studded with purple. Laticlave, (although hee promised at first not to chuse anie one Senatour who could not reckon 4. line­all descents from a Citizen of Rome,) he allowed also to a libertines sonne: but with this condition, If he were adopted before by a Gentleman of Rome. And fearing for all that, least he should be blamed, he proved and shewed, That evē APPIUS CAECUS the cheife auncitour and Auctor of his owne race, being Censor, elected and admitted into the Senate the sonnes of Libertines: ignorant as hee was, that in the dayes of the sayde APPIVS, and in the times long after ensu­ing, those were called Libertines, not onely who themselues were manumised and enfranchised, but such also, as were free borne of their progeny. The Colledge of Questours, insteede of pauing the streets and high wayes he enioyned to ex­hibite a game or shew of sword-fensers▪ and in the lieu of the Provinces, Ostia andCisalpina which therupō was called Pro­uincia Quaesto ria▪ gaule which he tooke from them hee restored the charge of the publike Treasure in the temple of Saturne; which office in the meane spaceFrō Augustu dayes. betweene, the Pretours for the time being, or those verely who had been Pretours before had borne. Vnto SILANUS espoused and betrothed unto his daughter, be­fore he was undergrowen and 14. yeeres of age hee granted triumphall orna­ments: but of elder persons to so many, as there is an Epistle extant written in the common name of the Legions wherein they make petition, That unto the Consuls Lieuetenants there might be granted together with the conduct of the armie, the sayde triumphall honours: to the end that they should picke quarrels and seeke occa­sions of warre, they cared not how nor what way? Moreover to A. PLANTIUS he gave by a decree the pety triumph Ovatio: and as he entred so into the Citie himselfe met him upon the waie: and both when he went into the Capitoll &* Lat [...]st exit. i. [...]evus ei [...], he gave him the right hand, and went on his left fide, [...] Eutropium returned also from thence againe, gave him the better hand. Vnto GABINI­US SECUNDUS, who had vanquished the Cauci a nation in Germanie, he per­mitted and gave leave to assume the surname CAUCIUS in his style.

25 The horsemens seruice and their places he ordered so by degrees, as that af­ter the charge of a cohort, he granted the leading of a wing: and after the cō ­maund thereof, the Tribuneship or regiment of a Legion: he ordained their stipends also: and a kind of imaginary warrefare called Supra-Numerum (which [Page 167] they that were absent might execute) and in name or title onely. By vertue of a decree that passed even from the Nobles them selues, he prohibited all soul­diours professed, to enter into any Senatours houses for to do their dutie and salute them. Those Libertines who bare them selues for Romane gentle­men he caused to forfeit their goods and bodies to the state. Such of them as were unthankeful and of whom their patrons complained, he deprived of free­dome and made them bound againe: Yea and denied unto their aduocates for to heare any plea and to sit in iudgment against their owne freed men. When some Masters there were, that put forth their sick & diseased slaves into the Isle of* Aesculapius, for to avoid the tedious trouble of their cures at home, he made an act and ordained, That all such slaves should be free and not returne againe into Otherwise called T [...]beri­na. the hands of their Masters, in case they ever recovered: and if anie Master chose to kill them outright, rather then thus to put them forth, they should be guilty of murder. He gave warning by an edict, that no waifaring men should travaile through anie towne in Italie, but either on foot or (a) borne in a chaire, or els carried in a licter. In Puteoli and in Oslia he placed severall cohorts, to put by all mischan­ces of skare-fires. He forbad all persons by condition aliens and forrainers, to take upon them Romane names; those I meane onely that distinguished houses and families. As manie of them as usurped the freedome of Rome-Citie he beheaded in the Without the ga [...]e Esquilina. Esquiline fielde. The two provinces Achaia and Ma­cedonia, which TIBERIUS (the Emperour) had appropriated to And his suc­cessours. him selfe, hee yeelded up againe into the hands and dispose of the Senate. The Lycians hee deprived of their freedome, by occasion of the mortall discord and variance among them. To the Rhodians, who repented for their olde trespasses hee restored their libertie which they had lost. Hee forgave all tribvtes to the Ilienses for ever, as to the first founders and stocke-fathers of the Romane Nation: And to that purpose hee red an olde letter in Greeke written unto K. SELEUCUS by the Senate and people of ROME: where­in they, promised to entertaine amitie and league with him upon this conditi­on, that hee would graunt unto the Ilienses, their naturall kinsfolke, immu­nitie from all taxes and tributes. This some thinke is to bee understood of Christians whō we find in the Ecclesiasticall writers to bee misnamed by the Ethnicke Infides [...], Chr [...]sti an [...], like as Christ himselfe Christ [...], in [...]korne. The (b) Iewes who by the instigation of one CHRESTUS were evermore tumultuous, he banished ROME. The Embassadours of the GERMANES hee permitted to sit in the (c) Orche­stra (with the Senatours) beeing mooved so to doe at their simplicitie and confident boldenesse for that beeing brought into the (d) Popularia and perceiving PARTHIANS and ARMENIANS sitting among the Senatours, they of their owne accord had remooved and passed to that quarter: giving out these words withall, that their valour and condition of estate was nothing inferiour to the others, The religion of the Dr [...]idae a­mong the French-men, practising horrible and detestable cruelty and which under AUGUSTUS, Romane Citizens onely were forbidden to professe and use, he quite put downe and abolished. Contrariwise, the sacred rites and holy Caeremonies (of CERES) called Eleusima, hee attempted to transferre out of the Territorie Attica to ROME. The Temple likewise of VENUS (e) Erycine in Sicilie, which in continuance of time was decayed and fallen downe, hee caused to bee repavred and built againe at the common charges of the people of ROME: Hee made Covenants and league with forraine [Page 168] Kings, by the complements of killing a [...]. sowe in the Forum, and using withall the sentence or preface that the Or F [...]ciais. See Livie Lib. 1 Heraulds in old time pronounced: But both these affaires and others besides, the whole Empire also in a manner or a great part thereof he managed not so much after his owne minde, as by the direction and wil of his Wives and children: beeing verely affected and fra­med for the most part so, as stood eyther with their profit or good plea­sure.

26 When he was a very youth, he had espoused two maidens, namely AEMI­LIA LEPIDA neice to AUGUSTUS once remooved, likewise LIVIA ME­DULLINA, surnamed also CAMILLA, a Ladie descended srō the auntient house of Camillus the Dictatour. The former of these twaine, because her parents had offended AUGUSTUS he cast off remaining as yet a Virgin: the latter, hee lost by occasion of sicknesse, upon that very day which was appointed for the mariage. After this, he wedded these wives, to wit, PLAUTIA O [...] Vrg [...]lanil­la. HERCU­LANILLA, whose father had triumphed; and not long after, AELIA PAETI­NA, whose father had beene Consul. Both these he divorsed. PAETINA up­on light offenses and small displeasures: mary, HERCULANILLA he put away for her filthy lust and whorish life; as also for suspicion of a murder. After these he tooke to wife VALERIA MESSALLINA, the daughter of BAREA­TUSA, V, C, 801 [...] MESSALLA his cousin german: whom when hee found once, over and beside the rest of her abominable vices & dishonesties, to have been Whi [...]es she was Empresse & wife to Cla [...]dius. wedded to C. SILIUS, and that with a dourie assured unto her and signed among the The hand­f [...]sters or ma­kers of the mariage. Auspices, he put to death. And in a speech that he made openly before his Pretorian Souldiours, avowed that because his mariages proved so bad, he resolued to remaine unmarried and live a single life: and if he did not continue so for ever, hee would not refuse to be stabbed by their very hands. Neither could he endure, but forthwith treat upon conditions of mariage even with PAETINA, whom long before hee had put away: yea and with LOLLIA PAVLINA wife some time to C. CAESAR. But through the enticing allurements of AGRIPPINA, the* His owne [...]cipce daughter of GERMANICUS his owne brother what by the meanes of kissing courtesies, what by the opportunities of other daliances, being drawen into love and fancie with her, at the next Session of Senate he subborned cer­taine of purpose to opine and give aduise, To compell him for to make her his Wife; as being a matter of right great consequence, and which most of all concerned the State: That other men also might be dispensed with and licenced to contract the like With their brothers or si­sters daughters maria­ges which until that time were reputed incestuous. And so, himselfe staied hardly one day between, before hee dispatched the wedding: but none were found that followed the precedent, except one libertine & another who had been a principal Centurion in the formost Cohort, at whose mariage even himself in person together with AGRIPPINA was present to do him credite and honor.

27 Children he begat of 3. wives. By HERCVLANILLA he had DRUSUS and CLAUDIA: By PAETINA he was father of ANTONIA: and MESSALLINA bare unto him OCTAVIA and a son, whom first he named GERMANICUS and afterwards BRITANNICUS. As for DRUSUS, he lost him at Pompeijs im­pubere [...] amisit. Pompeij, before he was 14. yeares of age by occasion that he was choaked with a peare [Page 169] which in play and pastime beeing tossed aloft into the aire, fell iust into his mouth as he gaped wide for it: unto whom also but few daies before, hee had affianced in mariage the daughter of SEIANUS: which maketh mee more to mervaile that some have written, hee was treacherously killed by SEIANUS, His (supposed) daughter CLAUDIA, who in deede was conceived by his freed man BOTER, although shee was borne before the fifth moneth after the di­uorse,A▪ V▪ C: 773 and began to be nourced and reared, yet hee commaunded to be laid at her mothers dore and starke naked to be cast forth. ANTONIA his daughter, he gave in mariage to CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS: afterwards to FAUSTUS SULLA ij right noble yong Gentlemen: & OCTAVIA he bestowed upon NE­RO Emperour after him. his wives sonne, notwithstanding she had been promised, & betrothed be­fore unto SILANUS. His sonne BRITANNICUS, whom MESSALLINA bareA: V: C▪ 806 unto him the twentieth day after he came to the Empire & in his second Con­sulship, being yet a very babe he recommended continually both to the Soul­diours in open assembly, dandling him in his owne hands, and also to the com­mon people at the solemnities of games and plaies, holding him either in his bosome or iust before him, whiles the multitude with great acclamations, all good words and fortunate osses seconded him. Of his sonnes in Law who mat­chedA: V▪ C: 103 with his daughters, he adopted NERO: POMPEIUS and SILANUS he not onely cast off and reiected but murdred also.

28 Of all his freed men hee esteemed especially POSIDES the Or gelded man: Eunuch, unto whom also in his triumph over Britaine, among martiall men and valiant Soul­diours, he gave a speare H [...]sta pura d [...] navit▪ For his great valour forsooth: without an yron head: and no lesse account made he of Of this Faeli [...] mention is made in the Acts of the A­postles: FAELIX: whom first he ordained Capitaine over the Cohorts & Cornets of Horsemen, yea and ruler of the Province Iurie; the husband (a) of three Queenes. As also of HARPOCRAS, unto whom hee graunted a priviledge to be caried in a Litter through the Citie of Rome, and to set out (b) Games and Plaies in publick: And besides these, hee affected with much respect POLY­ [...]IUS the guide and directour to him in his Studies, who oftentimes would walke cheeke by iole betweene the two Consuls. But above all these, he held in greatest esteeme, NARCISSUS his Secretarie or enditer of Epistles, and PALLAS the Keeper of his bookes of accounts▪ whom by vertue of a Decree also which went from the Senate, he suffred willingly to be not onely rewarded with rich Fees, but also to be adorned with the Honours of Questure and Pre­tureship: likewise to get, to pill and poll by hooke and crooke so much, as that when himselfe complained upon a time how little treasure hee had in his Cof­fers, one made answere unto him not absurdly, That hee might have store enough and plenty, in case his two Narcissus and Palias. freed men would admit him to share with them.

29 To these (freed men) and to his wives as I said before, being wholly addic­ted and enthralled, hee bare himselfe not as an absolute Prince, but as their (a) Minister and Servitour. According as it was behoovefull and commo­dious to any of these, or stoode with their affection and pleasure, hee graun­ted honourable dignities, conferred the conducts of Armies, and awarded impunities and punishments: yea, and for the most part, I assure you when himselfe was altogether ignorant and wist not what hee did. And not to [Page 170] reckon up particularly, every small thing, to wit, his liberalities and gifts revo­ked, his iudgements reversed, his Patents & Writings concerning the graunts of Offices either foisted in or plainly altered and chaunged by them: hee slew his brother (a) APPIUS SILANUS: the ij IULIE, the one daughter of Consocerum: so called for that their chil­dren maried to gether: & such with us, name one another brethren DRU­SUS, and the other of The sonne of Tiberius. GERMANICUS upon bare imputation of a crime, with­out any ground: not allowing them so much as lawfull triall and libertie to plead in their owne defence: likewise CN. POMPEIUS, husband to his elder daughter, and LUCIUS SILANUS espoused to the other, (and all through their suggestions and informations). Of which, POMPEIUS was stabbed even* who is called also Livilla. A, V, C 802. as he lay in bed with a beloved youth and Catamite of his: SILANUS was for­ced to resigne up his Pretureship foure daies before the Kalends of Ianuarie, and to Tacitus wri­teth, that hee killed himselfe upon that day. loose his life in the beginning of the yeere on the very wedding day of CLAUDIUS and AGRIPPINA. To the execution of 35 Senatours, and above an hundred Romaine Gentlemen so easily was hee induced, as that, when the Centurion brought word backe, as touching the death of one who had beene Consull, saying, That the deede was done which he had commaunded, he flatly deni­ed, that he gave any such warrant. Neverthelesse the thing he allowed: whiles his freed men afore-said standing by, avouched, That the Souldiours had done their devoir, in that they ran willingly of their owne heads to revenge their Emperour. For, it would be thought incredible if I should relate, How even for the very mariage of MESSALLINA with the Adulterer SILIUS: his own self sealed the Writings for assurance of the Dowrie, being perswaded and brought there­unto, as though the said wedding was but colourably, of purpose pretended to avert forsooth and translate the danger, that by certaine prodigies were por­tended to hang over his owne head.

30 Right personable hee was, and caried a presence not without authorite and maiestie, whether he stoode or sate; but especially when he was laid and tooke his repose. For, of stature hee was tall, and nathlesse his body not lanke and slender. His countenance lively, his gray haires beautifull, which became him well, with a good fat and round neck under them. Howbeit, both as he went his hams being feeble failed him: and also whiles he was doing ought, were it re missely or in earnest, many thinges disgraced him: to wit, undecent laughter and unseemely anger, by reason, that hee would froth and slaver at the mouth, and had evermore his nose dropping: Besides, his tongue stutted and stamme­red: his head likewise at all times, but especially if he did any thing were it ne­ver so little used to shake and tremble very much.

31 Concerning his bodily health, as before time he used to be grievously sick, so being once Emperour exceeding healthfull he was and stoode cleere of all diseases save onely the paine of the (a) stomack▪ in a fit whereof hee saide, hee thought to have killed himselfe.

32 Hee made feasts, and those very great and ordinarily; yea, and in most open and large places, such as for the most part would receive sixe hundred guests at one sitting. Hee feasted also even upon the Sluce of the Lake Fucinus: what time hee had like to have beene drowned, when as the water let out with a forcible violence reflowed backe againe. At everie supper [Page 171] his manner was to have also his owne children, who together with other no­ble mens children as well boyes as girles, should after the olde manner sit and feede at the tables Or at a Settle at the tables end: feete. One of his guests, who was thought to have close­lie stollen away a cup of gold the day before, he reinvited against the morrow: and then he let before him a stone Or earthen pot. pot to drinke in. It is reported moreover, that he meant to set forth an Edict, wherein he would give folke leave to breake winde downward and let it goe (a) even with a crack at the very bourd; having certaine intelligence, that there was one who for manners and modestie sake, by holding it in, endaungered his owne life.

33 For appetite to meate and drinke his stomacke served him passing well al­waies, and in every place. Sitting upon a time iudicially in AUGUSTUS Hall of Iustice, to heare and determine causes, and senting there the steime of a din­ner, that was a dressing and serving up for the Priests (a) Salij in the temple of Revenger, Si­tuate neere to the Hall: for distinction of another Tem­ple, bearing that name, in the Capitoll mount. Mars next adioyning, he forsooke the Tribunall, went up to the said Priests, and there sate downe with them to meate. Lightly you should never have him goe out of any dining roome. but with his belly strutting out, well whitled al­so and drenched with wine: so, as straightwaies, whiles hee layd him downe along upon his backe and tooke a sleepe gaping, there was a feather put ordi­narily into his mouth wide open for to discharge his stomack. Hee tooke very short sleepes: for commonly before midnight hee awaked: yet so, as other­whiles he would catch a nap in the day time, as he sat to minister iustice: and scarcely could bee awakened by the Advocates at the barre, who of purpose raised their voices and pleaded the lowder. Hee was excessively given to the wanton love of women. As for the preposterous abuse of malekind, he was al­together unacquainted therewith. Hee plaied at dice most earnestly (concer­ning the Art and skill whereof, he published also a little booke) being wont to plie that game even whiles hee was caried up and downe, having his Carroch and Dice-bourd so fitted, as there might be no confusion nor shuffling at all in play.

That cruell he was and given to bloudshed naturally, appeared in great and34 very small matters. As for tortures used in examinations, and the punishments that (a) PARICIDES suffred, hee exhibited and exacted the same to be done without delay, and openly in his owne presence. Being desirous upon a time to be hold an execution performed after the auncient manner at Tibur, when as, (the malefactours standing bound already to a stake), there wanted the but­cherly executioner to doe the feat; he staied there still in the place, and waited untill evening, for one that was sent for out of Rome. At all Sword fights, whe­ther they were set forth by himselfe, or by others, he commaunded as many of the Champions as chaunced onely but to stumble and fall therewith, to have their throats cut: especially the Fencers called The adverse faction to the [...] whom he favo­red Retiarij; and why! because forsooth hee would see their faces as they lay gasping and yeelding up their breath. It fortuned, that a couple of these fighting at sharpe wounded and [...]il­led one another: Thereupon hee commaunded little knives to bee mad [...] of both their blades, for his owne proper use. Hee tooke such pleasure in those that Which com­bats were usu­ally in the morning: fought (b) with wild beasts, as also in the sword fights ordinarily a­bout noone, that he would by breake of day go downe to the Theater for to be­hold [Page 172] the one: and at noone disinisse the people to their dinners, and sit it out himselfe to see the other: yea, and besides those that were appointed to such combats, upon any slight and suddaine occasion set some to fight for their lives, even out of the number of Carpentars, Servitours, & such like emploied about these games: if happily any of those artificiall (c) motions that goe by vices, or a pageant Or Pegme in frame, or some such fabrick proved not well. Hee fetcht in also one of his owne Prompters of names. Nomenclatours even in his gowne as he went With wilde beasts or o­therwise. to fight for his life.

35 But it passed, how timorous and diffident hee was. At his first comming to the Empire; (how ever as we said before, he bragged and stoode upon his ci­vill and familiar behaviour) he durst not for certaine daies goe to any feast, din­ner or supper, without Pensionars standing about him with their speares and Iavelins, and his Souldiours waiting at the table: neither visited hee any sicke person, unlesse the bed-chamber where the party lay, were first searched; the beds, bolsters, pillowes, Coverlets and other cloathes were groped, felt, and throughly shaken before hand. All the time after, hee appointed evermore certaine searchers for them all, that came to salute him, sparing not one; and such searchers as were most cruell. For, long it was first, and that with much a­doe, ere hee graunted that women, young boyes in their embroidred coates, and maidens, should not bee handled and felt in this manner: that any mans Attendants likewise or Clerks might not have their Pensheathes and Penknife­cases (a) taken from them. In a civile commotion, when CAMILLUS, (ma­king no doubt but that without any warre at all hee might be terrified) willed him in a contumelious, menacing, and malapert letter, to resigne up the Em­pire, and to leade a quiet life in private estate, hee called his Nobles and chiefe personages about him, to counsell, and put to question, whether it were best to hearken unto him or no?

36 At the headlesse report and flying newes of some treason that should bee practised against him, he was so affrighted, that hee went about to lay downe his Imperiall dignity. By occasion, that one (as I related before) was taken with a weapon upon him, about his person as hee sacrificed, in all hast he sent out the Bedels and called the Senate together; before whom, with teares and loude out-cries hee bewailed his owne piteous case, as who no where could make account of any safety: and thereupon for a long time forbare to come abroad. His affectionate love also to MESSALLINA, most servant though it were he renounced and cast cleane from her, not so much for any indignity of the dishonourable wrongs she offred unto him, as upon very feare of daunger; as fully perswaded that shee practised to bring the Empire into SILIUS the A­dulterers hands. At which time in a great fright he fled in shamefull manner to the camp, asking and enquiring all the way nothing else, but whether the Em­pire remained still safe to his behoofe?

37 There arose no suspition, there came forth no Author so light and vaine, but gave him a bone to gnaw upon, and put no small toyes in his head: wher­by he was forced to beware and seeke revenge. One of those, that had a matter depending in Court before him, taking him a side, when hee came by way of [Page 173] salutation to doe his duty, avowed unto him, that he dreamed, How hee was killed by one. Then within a while after, the same party, (as if he had now ta­ken knowledge who that one was that should murder him) pointed unto his owne adversarie, even as hee tendered a supplication unto CLAUDIUS; and said, This is he. Whereupon immediatly apprehended he was, and haled to execution. After the semblable manner by report, came APPIUS SILANUS to his death. For, when MESSALLINA and NARCISSUS had conspired to worke his overthrow and finall destruction, they complotted thus, that NAR­CISSUS betimes in a morning before day light rushed like a man amazed and astonied into the bedchamber of his Patrone (CLAUDIUS) relating unto him his dreame, namely that APPIUS had laid violent hands upon him: and MES­SALLINA for her part, composing and framing her selfe as if shee wondered greatly thereat, reported, How shee likewise had seene already the same vision for certaine nights together. And not long after this, word came, (as it was before agreed betweene them) that APPIUS was comming to rush in among them:* Narcissas. who in deed had beene bidden the day before to be present at the same instant. Whereupon, as if the said dreame had now proved true and beene plainly re­presented in effect, order was given for APPIUS, to be endited, arraigned, and to suffer death. Neither doubted CLAUDIUS the morrow after to report the whole storie and the order thereof unto the Senate: and withall to give thanks unto his [...] atque Iracundi [...]. The mannes is of this Au­thor through­out his story [...]o set those points downe first in a word, whereon he meaneth to stand, & then in