WHEREIN IS CONTAI­NED TVVO SPECIALL GRIEVANCES: The first, the generall destruction and waste of Woods in this Kingdome, with a remedy for the same: Also how to plant Wood according to the nature of euery Soyle, without losse of any Ground; and how thereby many more and better Cattell may be yeerely bred, with the charge and profit that yeerely may arise thereby.



  • 1. By a generall Planting of Fruit-trees, with the charge and profit.
  • 2. By an extraordinary breeding of Fowle and Pullen in places conuenient, by a Plot herein set downe for the purpose, with the charge and profit.
  • 3. By a generall destroying of all kind of Vermine, with a neere estimation what is yeerely deuoured and destroyed by them, and how the most of them in short time may be destroyed with a small charge.
  • 4. Prouing the abundance of Corne, that is yerely deuoured and destroyed by the infinite number of Pidgeons, kept and maintained in this Kingdome.

LONDON Printed by William Stansby. 1611.

¶ To the KINGS most Excellent MAIESTIE.

NEXT vnto GOD, most dread Soueraigne, the loue and dutie that I owe vnto your Maiestie and Kingdome, hath imbold­ned me to Dedicate the fruits of my old age and trauell vnto your Highnesse, hoping that the subiect thereof will no way offend You. It is intended to the good of your Maiestie and your Royall Progenie, the generall good of the Common-wealth for all posteritie; and in part tendeth to your Princely [Page] speech to the Parliament. What I shall herein set downe I prooue by the best Schoolemaster, which is, my long experience, hauing spent many yeares in the attaining thereunto, especially these foure last yeares, wherein I haue imployed my study and trauel through some parts of most of the Countries of this Kingdome for this purpose, oft ha­uing conference with many of the best Commonwealths-men for my better vnderstanding; desiring by all good means to ataine to a perfect knowledge how to Plant, preserue, and maintaine the blessings of God as well in this our destroying age as they haue beene in former times, wherein was left a prece­dent and plentie of that which is now in effect destroyed. All are giuen to take the profit present, but few or none at all [Page] regard the posteritie or future times. This exercise in all ages hath beene in high account with the wisest and most worthiest, and hath beene blessed by God himselfe, (as hath appeared to the world:) and by the approbation of your Maiestie, may bee so put in execution, as the branches thereof may bee spread ouer all your Dominions, to the dis­burdening of your louing Subiects of all their grieuances present and to come. I spare to proceede any further, since your Maiestie whom God hath filled with the spirit of wisedome in vnder­standing, by your ready apprehension vnderstandeth much more then I can speake heereof. Thus submitting my poore labours, or rather worthlesse mite, to the consideration of your Roy­all Maiesty, hauing nothing else to pre­sent [Page] the same withall, but my humble prayers to the King of Kings, to mul­tiply the giftes of his holy Spirit more and more vpon you, and that you may Reigne ma­ny happie yeeres a­mongst vs.

Your Highnesse most humble Subiect, Arthur Standish.


THou hast here gentle Rea­der, brought home vnto thee the haruest of my long ex­perience, with little labour or cost vnto thy selfe, wher­in thou mayest plainely according to the na­ture of euery Soyle, learne how to plant such profits as naturally our Country hath, and will afoord for the profit of thy selfe and Countrey. First, how to plant Wood, and how to breed Cattell to a greater number, yeerely to thy great gaine, as shall plainely be proued. Jn the second, the profit of plan­ting fruit trees in Hedges or Orchards, as of Apples, Wardens and Peares; being no strange nouelties, although by want of in­dustrie [Page] they are made strange vnto vs, by our buying them from foraine Countries at a deare rate, by our slouth and negligence; whereas by the blessing of God, the very soyle of our Hedges is such, as they would yeeld great plentie, without hindring any other profit, and may bee gained with lesse cost and labour, then any other commoditie in this Kingdome whatsoeuer, as shall here­in be proued. Jn the third, the maner how to breede Fowle and Pullen, by a secure plot from stealing, and from vermine. Last­ly, how by a speedy meanes to destroy all kind of Vermine, especially the feathered kind, with a neere estimation what is yere­ly destroyed by Vermin and Pidgeons, both in Corne and other things. By means there­of, not onely Corne, but especially other victuals is brought and doth continue at too deere a rate, for the poore Artificer and Labouring man; by which dearth, too oft [Page] ariseth discontents, and mutinies among the common sort, as appeared of late by a grieuance taken onely of the dearth of Corne, in Warwickeshire, Northampton­shire and other places, about which time the minds of many were molested: whereupon J tooke the first occasion to imploy my Studie and trauell in this businesse, hoping by Gods helpe to preuent such inconueniencies, as too oft doth spring out of the desperate tree of want. Whereupon good Reader, it insu­eth, that by the obseruing of these small di­rections, thou mayest performe some part of the cause of thy creation, by giuing glorie to thy Creator, honour, pleasure, and profit to thy King, Countrey, and to thy selfe also, by feeling and relieuing thy Christian bro­thers wants, and by a charitable industrie, thou mayest raise meanes to disburthen them of all their grieuances present and to [Page] come, and in the end, by the mercie of our good God, thou mayest bee partaker of his louing promises in the Gospell, Come you blessed of my Father, &c. The which J craue for Iesus Christ his sake.

VPON THE AVTHOR AND HIS Most commendable and necessarie worke.

FOr me thy paines and subiect to commend
(Each praising each by their dumbe silence best)
Were candle light vnto the Sunne to lend,
Send Owles to Athens, paint the Phoenix brest;
Giue Flora Garlands, Loue his Myrtle bow,
Arabia odours, pearle to Thetis brow.
But Loe the Genius of faire Britaine, by
Commands me speake, and giue thee thy desert,
Who art so carefull of posterity,
And present times vnrew'd of greater part:
Swearing by Thames she's more enritcht by Standish,
Then all the gold shee got by Drake and Candish.
Henry Peacham.


WEe do in all humblenesse complaine vn­to your Maiesty of the general destructi­on and waste of wood made within this your Kingdome, more within twenty or thirty last yeares then in any hundred yeares before. Little respect is taken but by your Maiesty, for the posterity and prosperity of your Kingdom: to many destroyers, but few or none at al doth plant or preserue: by reason therof there is no Timber left in this Kingdome at this instant onely to repaire the buil­dings thereof an other age, much lesse to build withall: whereby this greeuance doth daily increase. The reasons are many: first the want of fire is expected, without the which mans life cannot be preserued: secondly, the want of Timber, Bricke, Tile, Lime, Iron, Lead and Glasse for the building of habitations. Timber for the maintaining of husbandry, for nauigation, for vessels, for bruing and the keeping of drinke, and all other necessaries for house-keeping: barke for the tanning of Leather, bridges for tra­uell, pales for Parkes, poles for Hoppes, and salt from the Wiches. The want of wood is, and will be a great decay [Page 2] to tillage, and cannot but bee the greatest cause of the dearth of corne, and hindreth greatly the yearely breeding of many cattell, by reason that much straw is yearely bur­ned, that to the breeding of cattell might bee imployed: the want of wood in many places of this Kingdome con­straineth the foyll of cattell to be burned, which should be imployed to the strengthning of land, and so doth the want of hurdels for the folding of sheepe, and the want of wood causeth too many great losses by fire, that commeth by the burning of straw, and so it may be conceiued, no wood no Kingdome.

The remedies may be thus.

IF that all owners of land according to the nature of the soiles wherein there lands doe lie, were enioyned to plant all their hedges with wood (and not onely with thornes) so thicke as conueniently trees may grow and prosper, allowing foure yardes betweene tree and tree: to be topped and lopped for fire-wood (reseruing some part of their hedges where they may thinke it most coueni­ent for their profite, to bee planted with fruit trees, or to plant all with fire-wood, and plant fruit trees in Orchards, according to their best liking). And that they might bee further enioyned to plant for euery acre in their seuerall occupations, foure trees more, to be preserued for Timber for so many yeares before any of them should bee felled, as the trees may be growne to be good Timber, which will be neere fourescore yeares: and that after that the trees bee growne to be Timber, that none should be felled, or at any time before or after wasted, but so many to be planted and continued: And that all such persons as haue at this in­stant [Page 3] their grounds furnished with wood, in such sort as is required, might bee also enioyned hereafter to plant and preserue so many trees and so much wood, as heareafter they shall fell or waste. And that all tenants might be en­ioyned in like sort to plant their hedges with trees for fire, and to haue the lops to their owne houses for fire, and to plant two trees for euery acre in their occupations for Tymber. This being performed, no wit can comprehend what good may in time grow thereby vnto the Kingdome, although some tast may be taken by the planting of twenty acres as followeth, with other directions for this pur­pose. And for the better conceiuing thereof: admit that a man haue twenty acres onely in his occupation of pasture ground, wherein hee yearely breedeth or feedeth twentie cattell, and that hee should for this purpose in close in the driest corner of that close halfe an acre, and that there were no fence before about the same, but that it were to be inclosed round with a good ditch and hedge, which would containe forty eight Rode, and that the charge at the first should cost three pound sixe shillings eight pence, and that the maintayning thereof, till the wood that is therein to be planted should bee past taking hurt by cattell, which may be ten yeares, should cost two pound thirteene shillings foure pence more, being in all sixe pound, more by the halfe then it can cost. The halfe acre being thus inclosed, digge therein about Christmas seuen score and tenne plots of a yard square, leauing three yardes euery way betweene the plots digged; let it lie with the grasse side downe till about Midsomer, then digge it againe: and againe abut Hollan-tyde, when the Mast of Okes, Beech, or the Chates of Ash falleth from the trees: then take of the same Mast or Chates, according to the nature of the [Page 4] soile, and set them halfe a foote a sunder, and not aboue a hand bredth deepe, and keepe it weeded well the first two yeares; being sure that the spring be not troden on: after which time there may be in September about the middest thereof, the sappe being then in the roote, all the young plants drawne vp to be planted in the hedges of the same close, onely reseruing two in euery plot of the best, being most likely to be trees, and after sixe yeares there may be drawne vp halfe the rest to be planted else where, leauing then onely a hundred and fiftie: in which time the ground may be mowed betweene the plants, so that thereby there is small losse: for after the three first yeares the ground may be eaten with sheepe, and after ten yeares the ground may be laid forth to the close, as it was before with seuen score and ten yong trees, which within fourescore yeares may well be worth so many pounds. The hedges being planted as is set downe cannot yeeld so little fire-wood as may be worth twenty shillings a yeare: the twenty cattell that there is to bee bred or fedde cannot bee lesse bettered then two shillings in a beast yearely by their quiet liuing in the wood thus planted: keeping there the flesh that be­fore they lost: being before constrained by the extreme heate of the Sunne, and Flyes, for want of shadow or wormestall, to runne vp and downe the close loosing the flesh in the heat that they got in the coole, and so spoyling the water with running into it, as seldome they could get their bellies full of water (the want thereof breedeth ma­ny diseases.) And further by the quiet being of the cattell in the wood, there is grasse saued yearely worth twenty shilings, which before was spoyled by the cattels running, treading and foyling of the grasse. And by this meanes it appeareth, that after ten yeares the twenty acres may be [Page 5] improued at the least fortie shillings a yeare by the cat­tell: so that it is but three yeares profite thus to improue the twenty acres. And this for the breeding and feeding of cattell, all breeders and feeders will affirme, and that a better breed of cattell may be raised of those grounds that wanteth good water for their cattell and shadow: and for those grounds that wantes either, can neuer breed good cattell, or make so much profite of their Dairies, as best may appeare betweene Lancashire and Lincolnshire, and al other countries where such meanes of water and wood is wanting. And by the wood the twenty acres is bettered at the least other fortie shillings a yeare: for if it be cast it shall apeare, that a tree growing till it be fourescore years olde, being then worth twenty shillings, it groweth after three pence a yeare. So that so many timber-trees so ma­ny pounds besides the fire-wood. What losse or gaine here is required, I leaue to be censured by the Reader.


It hath beene obiected that it is against a mans profite to preserue his woods, for they grow but at three shillings foure pence an acre per annum, & the ground being conuerted to pasture it is worth tenne shillings an acre per annum. And further it hath been said by some that they haue wood enough for them & their heires, let them plant wood that needeth, either for building or any other vses: and that it cannot bee conceiued how wood can bee planted, in respect of the difference of soiles, or how plants may be gotten to plant the Kingdome withall, or that any such profite may arise, and that there is Sea cooles enow to supply many wants,


THe Obiections are too true, as may appeare to the world as touching wood, but not in the rest, as hath beene proued, and might further appeare if a suruay were taken of the woodes now growing in this Kingdome: for it would bee found that the fourth part is not able to maintaine it selfe threescore yeares without good maintayning and preseruing. And as touching the difference of soile, who knoweth not, may heereby know, that wood hath and will grow in most part of all this King­dome, being planted and preserued, as first appeareth by the peakes of Darby shiere and other stonie countries, where there is yet to bee seene Ashe woode growing about euery towne, though very rockie: as for Oke, Beech, Elme, and Ashe, it doth grow in flinty or grauelly ground, as ap­peareth by the Chilterne Country, (as it is termed in ma­ny shieres) and on the grauelly grounds euery way about London, by Elme: and for soft fennish groundes, it appea­reth about the townes that there is some, and hath beene better store of Elme and Willow, and other such like woods, and would bee if it were planted and preserued. The maner how to plant elme & Willow, is to lop a yong elme or Willow, the lop beeing but of three yeares growth, in the latter end of March or the beginning of Aprill, when the sappe is vp in the boughes, and the buddes ready to put foorth: then cutte off the boughes so lopped, cut them in lengthes of a foote long Coult-foote wise, leauing the knot where the budde is to bee put forth in the middest; then lay these short boughes in trenches where you would haue the wood to grow, three or foure fingers deepe, and couer [Page 7] them well with mould well troden, leauing the knot bare­in moyst ground for the Willow, the Elme will growe in harder ground: If the Spring bee drie then water them, and assuredly they will grow sooner to bee Trees then sets, so will the bough of any Tree, as well of fruit trees as others, and the tallest and straightest of the same being taken a­bout Lammas, and as neere the body of the Tree as may be; with a Knife cut the Barke of the bough cleane a­way of a hand breadth, leauing not any Barke for the sappe to returne withall to the body, the Barke being thus taken away, then immediatly take a good quantitie of Clay, and lay thereon some good earth of the side that is to bee layed next the tree: and lap the said Claye and Earth about the bough, vpon the Barke next to the place where the Barke is taken off, a hand breadth at the least, and mosse it and bind it as a graft, so let it stand till the midst of September, then sawe it off and set it were you would haue it to grow, and as neere as you can with the same side to the Sunne as was before, and assuredly they will grow to be trees for to be lopped for fire, and your fruit trees will some of them beare fruit the first yeere, but the second certainely, if the yeere be seasonable. And so will litle yong roots of Elme being taken when the sappe is in them, and set as quick sets, by which meanes the Fennish countries may haue Elme, Timber fire-wood, and wormestall or shelter for their cat­tell. And as for Sea-coales, there is no assurance how long they may indure: it is apparant that Coale mines doe de­cay too fast in most Countryes, and are too chargeable to many Countryes in respect of carriage, and in most mines are not to be got without the vse of much wood.

What further benefite may be made on sheepe-walkes, Downes or Heathes, by planting of wood where the grounds are barren.

IF for example, that on euery Sheepe-walke whereon there is or may be kept fiue hundred sheepe, there were plowed vp about Christmas twenty acres in the low­est bottom of the walke for this purpose, where water may be kept all the yeare, aswell for the breeding of Fowle, as for the other profites: all which may be maintained vnder one charge by the Shepheard (without fencing, for that on such Downes little cattell commeth.) Being so plowed, let it lie till Midsomer: if then it be perceiued that there will be Mast that yeare, then plough it againe, and then let it lie vntill about Hallowmas: Then take the Mast of Oke, Beech and the Chats of Ashe, brused Crabbs, after the veriuice is pressed out, and hawes: mingle these together to sow about the sides and endes of the ground about a yard broad, and vpon the rest sow no hawes, but some few kernels of Crabs, then begin at a side and sow fiue yards of bredth, & plough vnder this Mast and Chats very shal­low, then leaue sixe yardes in breadth, and sow and plough fiue yardes more, and so from side to side. And bee sure to leaue a yard and halfe at the last side The rest of the head­lands to lie till the rest of the Close bee sowen in March with Otes, that the cattell may not hurte the Mast sowen by treading on it.

The close being thus sowen with Mast and Otes, in the meane time there would be a house builded for the shep­heard to dwell in, where he may best ouersee the ground for his ease. The charge thereof, first, of the house fiue pound, the plowing thrice and the harrowing two shillings [Page 9] eight pence an acre, eight pound the Mast, and getting it readie fortie shillings, for fiue quarters of Otes to sow the ground fiftie shillings: for the getting of Otes in haruest, and carrying of them into the barne fiftie shillings, and so the whole charge is twenty pound, whereof the Otes will yeeld fifteene pound, if they increase but six of one. Then when the spring is of two yeares growth, there may be drawne vp part of the spring, which may be imploied for quicksets, & whē the remainder is six years of growth there may be more drawne vp to be set: at which drawing there may be got as many as will bee well worth fiue pound, lea­uing then none but forty foure of eyther side of euery row, fiue yards betweene euery one, and here and there to leaue some speciall one that is like to bee a fine tree for Tymber, and some hundred or more of the Crab-tree stockes to graft on, and in the hedge rounde about to bee left thicke foure yardes betweene euery tree, and so leaue as there may be left at the least three thousand fiue hundred besides Crab-trees. These three thousand fiue hundred growing twenty yeares, there may bee then two thousand stocked vp, which will bee well worth twelue pence a piece to bee sold, fiue hundred of the very best to remaine for Tim­ber trees, and a thousand to be topped, which at euery ten yeares end may bee lopped for fire wood: the tops of that thousand trees cannot be so little worth as fifty pound: by which meanes at that twenty yeares end there may be gai­ned by the two thousand trees that are stocked, a hundred pound, and fiue hundred trees left, that within fourescore yeares may well bee worth fiue hundred pound: the thou­sand trees remayning to bee lopped will grow after fiue pound per annum at the least, and the ground being before barren (hardly worth twelue pence an acre) will be worth [Page 10] ten shillings an acre per annum: for by the grasse and weeds that will grow the first sixe yeares, and the lodging of the sheepe in the night, when the weather is such as they can­not be folded, and the shaddow of the trees, which are so to bee planted that there may bee eleuen yards betweene e­uery tre, except in the hedges. The ground will be made very good meddow, and will finde the sheepe hay enough with good winter pasture, and warme shelter in sharpe weather. And if water can be kept, there may be bred with twenty pound cost, fowle or pullen well worth twenty nobles per annum, all charges borne,: if the plot for fowle, be neare corne, then may there bee best kept wilde Duckes and Mallards, which doe neuer hurt corne in field.

If thc like planting of wood were on common Sheepe-walks, Common pastures, and Commons where the lands are so good as they might be sowen with Wheate or Rye, with the mast, the whole charge thereof would be made in three yeares with twenty pound gained at the least, by the croppe of Wheate or Rye, and a crop of Otes after be­tweene the grounds where the Mast is sowne, as before is set downe. If the like prouision were made in Parkes where wood decayeth, and hay is scant for Deere, it would bee very beneficiall to the owners, and by the planting our Commons, common pastures, or common Sheepe-walks by the charges of the towne whereunto such grounds doe belong, the charge will be inned, as before is set downe, in three yeares a present reliefe raysed by fowle to the poore of the towne, of six pound thirteene shillings foure pence, and after ten yeares, three pound sixe shillings eight pence at the least by fruite: after twenty yeares by two thousand trees that may be stocked, one hundred pound to remaine for a stocke, and fiue hundred trees, to bee left for [Page 11] Timber, and one thousand trees remayning to be lopped which may yeelde woode worth fiue pound a yeare; by which meanes the townes where such prouision may bee made, may not onely be greatly eased of the charge of their poore, but also haue a stock whereby they may be alwaies discharged of such charges as may happen eyther to Church or King by the increase of the stocke. And further take certaine knowledg that all barren and mossie grounds may be improued much by letting three yeares grasse rot on the ground, and it is the onely way next vnto lime to destroy Mosse.

The second grieuance, is the dearth of Victuals, with remedy for the same.

COncerning Victuals, the want thereof is very great, in regard that all kind of Victuals is risen and growen more deere in price within these last sixe yeeres then in twentie yeeres before: And if the dearth of Victuals shall so happen to increase but a fewe yeeres to come (as by all likelyhoode it is like for to doe) except some speedy remedy be prouided, the poore man by his labours shall not get wherewith to relieue himselfe and family. This dearth may bee much eased, if that euery one that hath a Pigeon house might bee enioy­ned or otherwise required to breed yearely extraordi­narily a certaine number of fowle or pullen, as shall seeme best to their liking. The manner and fashion shall be set downe by a plot for the purpose, how they may be bred, with the charge and profite that may yearely arise to the owners.

The reasons whereof are fiue: first, in regard that a plot [Page 12] to breed fowle or pullen in, wch may be made & furnished with lesse charges then a Pigeon house, yeeldeth more pro­fite, and nothing at all offendeth the people; wheras the Pi­geons are a great cause of this dearth, and more chargeable then profitable to their owners, and the losse that the King­dom receiueth thereby is infinit, as at large shall be proued.

Secondly, that it is to be supposed that euery one that is able to build a Pigeon house, is also able to make a plot for fowle or pullen to breed in, and eyther is or should be the Lord of the Mannor, who hath to his Mannor some conuenient ground to make a plot on for that purpose, and to breed so many pullen or fowle yearly as he keepeth Pigeons.

Thirdly, that as a Pigeon house is builded for house-kee­ping, so the fowle and pullen is more profitable, as also shall be proued.

Fourthly, that as the extreme dearth of victuals causeth many to breake vp hous-keeping, and to put away their seruants, whereby many through want fall to stealing, and therby come to an vntimely end: so an extraordinary bree­ding of fowle and pullen, with other meanes as followeth, may by Gods blessing so ease the extremitie thereof, as men may, as their auncestors haue in former ages, delight in hospitality, and thereby preuent many inconueniences that the extremity of dearth doth and may procure.

Fiftly and lastly, the profite of the Fowle and pullen shal be proued to bee such as no charitable Christian can denie to performe.

Now to proue the difference of the charge and profite betweene a Pigeon house and a plot for fowle and pullen: First, all men of experience know that an ordinary Pigeon house of fiue yardes and a halfe square, and foure yardes [Page 13] high to the euesings; in which house there may bee con­tained tweluescore paire of Pigeons, will cost fiue and twenty pound at the least, and that it will be three yeares before it commeth to the best profite: and when it com­meth to that, the best Pigeon house is seldome worth fiue pound per annum, except it bee within threescore miles of London, where all victuals are dearer then in other places of the Kingdome, or a double house. I will not stand to proue the opinion of the multitude, of the charge of a Pi­geon, that she will eate (if she haue liberty) a quarter of corne in a yeare (although I haue some reason to beleeue it, for that two credible persons did affirme vnto me, that they had lately seene halfe a pinte of corne at one time, ta­ken out of an old Pigeons crop, and offered to make proofe thereof by witnesses of good credite:) but I will admit of that which in common reason is not to be deni­ed, that Pigeons haue corne at will to feede on more then halfe the yeare: and admitting that there bee tweluescore paire in a house of olde Pigeons, as commonly there is, and that euery olde pigeon in that time with her young ones should eate but two bushels, which commeth to sixe score quarters at a house: & it is generally holden that they hinder the increase of that which would grow, and spoyle as much as they eate, from the time that corne groweth ripe in the fielde, before haruest bee done and the seede times. And thus in reason it doth appeare, that in all the seed times of the yeare there is at the least sixteene weekes, in which time she gathereth vp much corne that is least vn­couered by the harrowes, which a shower of raine would couer, and so would growe: and naturally all Pease and Beanes if they fall not deepe in sowing, and bee very well couered, they will swell out of the ground, and lie bare vp­pon [Page 14] the ground: and yet not withstanding Pease and Beanes, and all other corne by nature groweth with the root first into the ground, and then spingeth vpwards: so that after the seede times bee done, and the corne groweth greene, till it gtow so high that the Pigeons cannot goe through it, they gather vp the corne growing, and breake off the blades, and eate the corne: all which will be confi­dently proued by all Husbandmen and Gentlemen, espe­cially by such as sometimes lend their minds to vnderstand the profite of husbandry.

This being allowed (which by no meanes can be dispro­ued) it appeareth that twelue score paire of Pigeons de­uoure, destroy and hinder the increase of twelue score quar­ters of corne in a yeare. Admit it were but halfe so much, and that the corne were rated, being Wheat, Rye, Barley and Pease, but at two shillinges and a penny the bushell, sixescore quarters commeth to a hundred pound per an­num at a house. Admit further, that the sixt part thereof be the owners of the Pigeon house (for so it is to be suppo­sed that the Lord of the Mannor hath a sixth part of the towne, then it followeth that his fiue pounds-worth of Pi­geons costeth him sixteene pound thirteene shillings and eight pence at the least. What other charge his Pigeons are vnto him, I forbeare to relate: the number of the Pige­on houses cannot be fewer then forty thousand, with the Pigeons kept at houses. Now to the charge and profite of fowle or pullen: the plot and all things thereunto belong­ing will not cost aboue twenty pound, to haue it secure, and so as when occasion is, that some of the wilde kinde is taken, the taking of some may not offend the rest that are to remaine. The plot must be especially for the wilde kinde of Duck and Mallard, which are best to be kept both [Page 15] for profite and pleasure, in a piece of ground where water is and may be got and kept al the yeare, of two and twenty yards square, to be moted about with a mote of a rode or pole of bredth, which wil be twenty pole about; to be made sixe foot deepe in the middest, and something shallower towards the sides, which will cost at fiue shillings a rode, fiue pound. The leuelling of the ground, with quickset and workemanship, foure pound, the house being fiue yardes square and sixe foot high, and hauing a little chamber ouer it to keepe Otes in to feed them: the house to be but stud­ded and thinly lathed, two fingers betweene the lathes: which house cannot cost aboue eight pound, and the bridge and doore twenty shillings.

The plot being made, put into it about Christmas three­score tame Duckes and twenty Mallards, which will cost about three and fifty shillings foure pence, or at Candle­mas for want of Duckes, fortie Hennes and ten Cocks, to remaine till wilde Ducke egges be gotten to breede on in the meane time: there are neither the Hennes nor the Duckes, but their egges will be worth the corne, branne, and draines that the yong Ducklings must be fedde with­all, till they can eate Oates. The plot being thus ready and all things else, send one with a horse for egges in March in­to Cambridge-shiere into the fennes, or into any other neerer place, where wilde duckes egges are to be got for money, especially in the fennes, if the people haue liberty to get them (for in the spring time when the wilde duckes laye, the poore sort will goe with a dogge into the fennes, where their dog wil put vp the fowle out off their neasts, and then if they finde many egges therein that be vnsitten, they will take most of them away with a ladle, or by some other meanes; so that they neither handle the egges that [Page 16] they leaue behinde, nor breathe vpon them; and then will marke the place where the nest is, so as they may readily come to it, and once in a weeke wil fetch all the egges that are laide in the meane time, and so make the ducke (whose nature is to lay till her neast be full before she will sitte) so poore as they may take her (which oftentimes the hungry sort do.) The egges being thus got ready, when the keeper of them seeth the hen or duck feather her neast, and begin­neth to sit, then lay in the neast twelue wilde ducke egges. And thus in two yeares the whole number of the wilde or tame may be bred in such sort as they may be taken off at the owners pleasure, and a stocke of foure-score of the ol­dest to be left for breeding with twenty Mallards: which foure score olde duckes will breed and bring vp common­ly euery one of them eight at the least; the whole number to bee three hundred and twenty couple, to be solde, are well worth eight pence the couple, which ariseth to the summe of ten pound, and a marke for their young ones. Then the egges that they will yearely lay to be but worth fifty three shillings and foure pence, at fiue a penny; and the Fish thar may bee bred in the Mote yearely, to bee worth thirteene shillings foure pence: prouided alwayes that there breede no Pikes, for they will destroy the yong Fowle but not the Pullen. The whole Summe is fourteene pound, deduct out of the same fiue pound, to buy tenne quarters of Oates yearely, which ten quarters will allow the Fowles aboue a bushell and halfe a weeke, which is more then is needfull to be spent on them: for except it be in Frost or Snow when the ground is couered, or when they sitte, and the young ones are not able to flye a­broad, a very small quantity will serue to giue them euery morning a few, that euery one may get a dozen cornes. [Page 17] As for their breede, being once well haunted, they will neuer away in the day, if they may be in quiet, but altoge­ther in the night, by which meanes they are safe from Ver­mine, and they will continue there especially in breeding time. For experience teacheth all men to know, that all thing that hath life, loueth best the place wherein it was bred, finding there their best reliefe and rest: as appeareth that all the Winter (till breeding time) there are hardly one couple of Duckes and Mallards to be seene in the Fennes, but abundance in Summer time, where they remaine vn­til about Michaelmas, and then they go away againe. Then further allow forty sixe shillings eight pence to the keepers and towards the keeping of the Hedge, the remainder is cleere (all charges defrayed) sixe pound thirteene shillings and foure pence. Thus is the proofe made betweene the Pigeons and the wilde Fowle.

The plot for tame will not cost so much by the charge of the house for being tame, they may be taken at pleasure.

The Pullen will yeeld a greater profite: for there may be likewise kept at a like plot, fourescore Hennes, and twen­tie Cockes, admit euery Hen to breed yearely but eight Chickens, (though it will bee graunted they will breede twise in euery yeare, and at each time eight at the least) their number is sixteenescore couple, whereof eightscore couple to bee sold being Chickens at sixpence the couple, make foure pound. Fourescore couple of Hennes at twelue pence the couple comes to foure pound, and fourescore couple of Capons at two shillings the couple, comes to eight pound. The Egges cannot bee lesse worth then eight pound at fiue a penny. And the fish that may be bred yearely in the Mote will yeeld thirteene shillinges foure pence: The totall is twenty foure pound, thirteene shil­lings [Page 18] and foure pence, out of which deduct thirteene pound, to buy twentie sixe quarters of Oates, whereby they may be allowed one weeke with another throughout the yeare, foure bushels. Allow further yearely foure pound to the keeper of the Pullen and the maintaining of the plot, although it be supposed, that euery one that will bee at the charge of any of these Plots, keepeth one that tendeth his Pullen that he hath already, so that the charge hereof will bee so much the lesse. The house for Pullen will cost about fortie shillings more then a house for Fowle, in respect that although the house may bee two yardes narrower, yet it must be three yardes longer, with Poles in it for the Pullen to sit vpon. As for nests they shal neede none in the house, but in borders where they will take more delight to breede in then in a house, and bee freer from diseases, by reason of the ayre, therefore it shall not bee greatly needeful to haue a Chamber in that house, for that the Keeper may bring the Oates at any time when hee commeth to them. But the reason why a Chamber is conuenient in the house, wherein the Fowle must bee vsed to feede, is especially for the Keeper to stay priuately in to take some of the Fowle at pleasure, without offending the rest. Thus all charges to the vttermost being set down, the remainder is seuen pound thirteene shillings and foure pence per andum de claro, at the least at a chepe rate. The charge of the Plot is vnder three yeares purchase for the Pullen, and three yeares purchase for Duckes and Mal­lards. As for the manner of breeding of Pullen and tame Fowle, it is needlesse to set downe, onely thus much: For the tame, their charge will be as litle or lesse then the wild, if they be bred in large Pastures, where they may neither doe hurt to Corne nor Meadow ground, which the wilde [Page 19] will neuer doe. The reason is, the wild keepe in the water all the day, and feede altogether in the night, and dare not come neere Corne: and their Corne must bee giuen them euery morning a little, to drawe them to their bree­ding place in the day, whither they will not faile to come, being there bred and fed. It shal not be needfull to bestow much Corne vpon the tame, but onely at their first being put into the Plot, where they must bee kept in for three weekes or a moneth, in which time being fed euery Eue­ning, they will likewise so know their being, that thither they will come in the night, and feede abroad all day, e­specially if they find that they sit quiet in the night; such is the difference of their kinds, the one feedeth by day, and the other by night. Now it remaineth to know how the wild must bee bred, when they haue chosen their Nestes, which shall appeare in the Plot hereafter set downe.

After the Fowle begin to lay, once a weeke their Kee­per may come to their nestes when the Fowles are off, which will be towards night; and for that purpose bring with them an Iron ladle, with a handle halfe a yard long at the least, wherewith they may reach into the nests of the Fowle, and from thence take some of the eldest laid Egges, as neere as they can gesse, leauing not aboue or vnder, two or three; taking great heede that they neither handle them, nor breath vpon them, for their nature is to find that fault, and then they wil forsake their nests. Thus may the Egges for the more profit be taken from them, so long as in dis­cretion shall be thought fit, which commonly will bee a­bout some ten weeks, ere that they be perceiued to feather their nest: and bee sure in the meane time to keepe some Egges, that had beene neither handled nor breached on, and if there want Egges in any of the nests, when it is per­ceiued [Page 20] that they sit, then with the Ladle put in more, and make the number twelue at the least. The maner how to take them is thus.

The house being made, as before is set down, the doore thereof must be thus made: A light frame of Wood as can be made, to be as broad and so long as the Doore stead is, being for the purpose a yard or thereabout, for that com­monly is the breadth of Canuis or haire Cloth. Then take (for the better lasting) so much haire Cloth as the Doore is of height, and make it fast to the frame of wood as a Doore, which must be hanged like a Shop window at the top of the Doore stead, to be drawen vp by a Cord and a Pully, and so to stand. In the meane time the fowle must be vsed to be fed in the house, which by little and litle they will easily be brought vnto, if they be vsually fed there, and some tame ones kept among them for that purpose, which for sundry causes I hold the fitter to breede on; especially they being not able to flie, must of necessitie stay there, which will make the Duckes to resort thither for their mates. And some doe hold that the nature of the wilde Mallard, is to sucke the Egges if hee find them; being thus vsed to haue their Corne in the house, which they may be brought vnto, whereof I could giue many instances, but one may serue for breuity: One at S. Iames, the other at the house from whence I descended, the last owner thereof had by a Tenant of his a dozen wild Ducke Egges brought him, which he caused to bee set vnder a Henne, which brought him vp twelue yong Duckes, and of them were bred many about the Mote of his house, so that there hath beene threescore at a time; which although they were wild bred, yet would they haue followed from the Mote through the Court, and into the Hall for meate, being cal­led

IN the casting of the Mote, the best carth must bee cast into the Plot, to raise it so as the House may stand three or foure yards higher then the sides to the Moteward, that the water may descend; and [...] pleasure, there may be some kind of Quick-wood set about it, whereby it may be kept Fort-like. The borders for pleasure may be set with Preuet, whereon many conceites may be fashioned, seeming as though the Fowle bred vnder them; but for profit with Goose-berie sets, which will put forth and be greene timely in the yeare, to shadow the Nests. The passadges betwene the nests, would be a yard broad at the least, and in the vast places about the house, some fruit trees may be planted for profit. On the out side of the Mote for Fowle, there must be a double Quick-wood set of Whitethorne, kept thicke in the botome that the Fowle may not creepe through, to be kept battled if the owner please. The Quick-wood to be set close to the side of the Bridge, and the Bridge to lie longer forth then the Hedge, by a yard and a halfe, so that vnder either side of the Bridge, there may be a little Doore to open and shut at pleasure, to the end the wild king after they be fourteene dayes old, may be let forth a nights to feede, and to come in a mornings (whereof they will not faile.) The tame kind must not be let forth, till they be past taking hurt by Vermine, and they to be let forth a mornings, and to come in a Euenings. For Pullen there needeth no Fence at all on the out­side: On the Bridge there must be a Doore, and so made as no Vermine may creepe in, either ouer or by it, and a Trap continually would be kept on the Bridge. On either side the Mote, there must be left a yard and a halfe, or rather two yards in the inside for the Fowle to sit on at pleasure, and for fishing the Mote, the Mote may be broder at the owners pleasure. In large Parkes or Pasture grounds, it were most profit to be both Fowle and Pullen, the Plats being as farre asunder as may be.

Place this betweene Fol. 20. and 21.

The Figure of the Plot.

[Page] [Page 21] and but sometime vsed so for pleasure. And when it pleased the owner to see a flight, they were alwayes put out of the Mote, and then would they flie to the riuer, or to some other pits of water where they were to be found, and being fline at, as many as escaped with life, would not faile to come home. The Fowle being thus wonted to the house, the Keeper being determined to take any of them, may goe into the house and call them thither, according to his wonted manner, the Corne being strewed in the house, the Keeper may goe vp a Ladder into the Cham­ber, and there stay with the cord of the Doore in his hand, as priuately as he can, and by degrees let the doore downe, and when hee perceiueth that most of the Fowle are gone forth, then may he let the Doore close downe, and so take them as quietly as may be, and no whit offend the rest. If all Noble men and others of the better sort would put this in execution in Forrests, Chases, Parkes, great Pastures and Commons, it would not only be very beneficiall for them­selues in their house-keeping, but would likewise ease the extreme dearth of victuals, to the easing of this grieuance.

Obiections against breeding of Fowle.

THat such abundance of Fowle by this means may bee bred, that thereby Corne may be made deere. Secondly, that they will destroy the increase of Fish. Thirdly, that they will so foyle the ground where they are bred, that the cattell will not eate the grasse.

The Answer to this Obiection.

FIrst, as touching the dearth of Corne that by them may grow, that shall bee answered hereafter in place for that purpose, and how more Corne may bee sa­ued [Page 22] by the tenth part then they can spend, which is yeare­ly destroyed by Vermine.

Secondly, that they doe not destroy or hinder the breede of Fish, as it doth appeare, especially in the Fennes of the Ile of Ely, where there is greater store of Fish, then there is in any place of England, except it bee in such like Fennie grounds: in which Ile there is more Fowle then there is in all England besides, especially in spawning time at which time they may doe most hurt, but at other times they can doe none: For after there is life in the Fish, no swimming Fowle can hurt them. And for the better satis­faction of all men in this point, let euery man call to re­membrance whether euer he saw or heard of a Fish taken out of a wild Mallards crop.

Thirdly, as touching their foyling of the ground, an in­stance may be taken by all Fennish Commons where they haunt, and by all other Commons where great store of Geese are bred and kept, where is to be seene the foyle of the Geese to be thicke on the ground (and yet the Cattell feeding among it) that in common reason they cannot but gather some of it into their mouthes: though the foyle of Geese is holden the most dangerous foile of all other Fowle, yet did I neuer heare any complaine of any losse taken either by their foyle or feathers, although in the moulting time, the Commons will seeme as it were strowed with feathers. And it is holden by many good Husbands, that Fowles, especially Duckes and Mallards doe much good to ground and Cattel, especially to Deere and Sheepe, namely by gathering vp the Wormes that so sproute vp the earth in the night, which earth in grounds that are eaten bare, is beaten abroad with euery showre of Raine vpon the short grasse, which commonly is the swee­test, [Page 23] whereon the Deere and Sheepe desire most to feede; and thereby gather vp the earth that is so beaten on the Grasse by the raine, which earth is holden by most skilfull men in sheepe, to bee the principall cause of the Rotte: which the better may bee conceiued for as much as ex­perience hath manifested, that seldome either Sheepe or Deere rotte in grounds deepe of Grasse. Also Wormes liue by the fat of the earth, and decay the strength thereof, (as all the great Gardiners doe affirme) which Fowle and Pullen will destroy, especially wild Ducke and Mallard, in respect that they altogether feede by night on the barest grounds, and vpon Wormes most of all.

The second remedie for the dearth of Victuals, by planting of Fruite.

FOr as much as by the experience that is taken out of most of the Countries of this Kingdome, especially out of some parts of Worcestershire, Glocestershire, & Here­fordshire, wher it is generally affirmed that there be sundry men, that raiseth to their purses yearly two hūdred pounds, by Fruit trees growing there in their hedges and fields, ouer and besides what hee spendeth in his house, in Cider and Perrie: And that there are some persons, that haue thir­tie or fortie Hogdsheds in a yeare for Tithe. And further it appeareth, that in most Townes of this Kingdome, there haue beene prouident Husbands that haue planted Or­chards, which in effect are now decayed, which haue not onely beene very beneficiall to themselues, but also to the Commonwealth, and there be yet some few that do plant, some an Acre of ground, which is yearely worth fiue pound at the least in Fruite. In respect whereof and for o­ther good considerations, if it were prouided (in regard the [Page 24] like profit may be yearely raised in the greater part of this Kingdome, to the great profit of the Planters, and benefit to the Commonwealth, which will likewise bee a speciall meanes to disburden vs of the greatest part of this grie­uance, for that thereby the extreme price of Victuals will be greatly eased,) That there may be a certaine number of fruite trees planted in all the Hedges, as of Apples, War­dens and Peares, and most of all Apples, where White­thorne and Crab-trees doe or may hereafter grow being planted, viz. For euery Acre of enclosed ground foure trees, which can no way be hurtfull, or hinder any other profit whatsoeuer that may be raised out of hedges. The fruite that by this meanes may be raised yearely, can not be lesse worth then twelue hundred thousand pounds, if the fruit were sold but for sixe pence a bushell.

And this I may proue two seuerall wayes, First, by ex­perience taken from Crabbes, it is knowen to all Huswiues that a bushell of Crabbes, will make two gallons and a halfe of Veriuice, and so much some of the best Chandlors in London haue affirmed to mee. I haue also inquired of some of the better sort inhabiting in the Countries before recited, as I haue trauelled through those Countries for this purpose for my better experience, how much Cider a bushell of Apples will yeeld, or a bushell of Peares of Per­rie; whose answeres for the most part were, that a bushell of ordinarie Apples, would at the first presse yeeld two gallons, and a bushell of Peares for the most part, two gallons and a halfe; and by putting a gallon of faire water into the Apples so pressed, and letting it stand some twelue houres, sometimes stirring them, and then presse them a­gaine, would yeeld another gallon, but not so good for long lasting as the first.

The second is this, that in a bushell there is about tenne score of the greatest Pippins, let some of them to the num­ber of twentie bee baked in a Pot for the purpose, or take twentie of them and roste, and that man will be holden for a monster, that can eate so many at one meale, which may bee sold for a penny, and the surplusage being fourescore, will recompence the labour that is taken about them. By either of these meanes I hope it will bee allowed, that of themselues they are worth the rate before set downe, and being baked in Paste, a good and profitable vse is made of them in many mens houses, by sauing other victuals; and when it pleaseth God to blesse those few fruit trees that are in this Kingdome, it wil something abate the extreme pri­ces of victuals. This present yeare may be an instance, and all Drouers of Cattell will affirme, that they haue felt the smart of the plentie of fruite, and the inhabitants of the Citie of London will acknowledge, that the fruit that commeth thither, easeth something the prices of victuals.

The greatest hinderance which may be to these good workes of planting fruit, and wood, will be confessed of most men by their experience, who haue in their times seene many men beginne to plant orchards, and set quick-wood, to the end to haue hedges in many places, especi­ally by high wayes for the sauing of corne; and at the first will make some prouision for the preseruing of the same, which afterwards some by coueting the grasse growing in the orchard, putteth some kinde of cattell therein which breaketh and spoileth the grafts: others by want of main­tayning the fences, whereby their expectation, cost and la­bour is lost, and so in quick-wood after a great cost in plan­ting, for a little more cost in maintayning, all is troden downe and lost: in like sort much good spring wood is [Page 26] spoiled by cattell by want of good fencing. Thus either by couetousnesse, niggardlinesse, or negligence, many good actions are ouerthrowne to the losse both of the owner & common-wealth; my counsell herein is to beginne wel, and to perseuer therein vnto the end.

Obiections against planting of fruit.

FIrst, that if they bee planted in hedges they will bee stolen, and the hedges broken for them.

Secondly, that such plenty of fruit would make corne ouer-cheape for the Farmour.

Thirdly, that if the hedges were so thicke planted with trees, in closes or fields, that are not aboue sixe acres, they will be very hurtfull; for that if such closes or fields shall happen to bee sowen with corne or mowen for hay, the trees will so keepe off the Sunne and winde that in wet haruests it will greatly hinder the drying of hay and corne.

Fourthly, that his land is his owne, and he will not be constrained to vse it otherwise then he listeth, and that such as haue a thousand acres or more in occupation, may haue so much fruit as he shall not know what to doe with it.

The answere to these Obiections.

THe first I grant in part, that fruit being planted but in particular may be stolen, and little good may grow thereby, but being generally planted as is required, what cause may any charitable man haue to com­plaine? or what man complaineth in any of the Countries before recited (from whence example for this purpose is taken) of stealing his fruit, where the hedges are as thicke [Page 27] with fruit trees and other trees as is required? For scarcity causeth stealing, but in those Countries the trees in the hedges hang as commonly full of fruit on the high waies side as on the other, and the hedges of fields and closes in those Countries, and in some other Countries are as thick of fruit trees and other trees as are required, and yet not­withstanding such as haue corne or hay in little closes make shift to get it drie. Thus the first & third is answered.

What charity is in the fourth, I referre to the censure of the indifferent Reader. For it is in reason to be concei­ued that hardly halfe of the people of the Kingdome hath not grounds to plant on, but would buy them at the rate set downe, being cheaper then any other victuals, & by the plenty of fruit such store of Cydar may be made and kept without losse, vntill it may happen that a deere yeare of corne may come, which then may be spent in drinke, and barly be conuerted to bread corne, and by this meanes corne may alwaies be sold at reasonable prices in this land. This may bee prooued by the best Merchants who will auerre that Cyder will keepe seuen yeares. And by this meanes such store of Corne and Cyder may alwayes be in the Realme, that much treasure may be brought into the land for Corne, Cyder, and many other commodities that may be spared, whereby the Kingdome may be great­ly enriched, and the customes increased to the good of the King.

The second is idle: for what man of experience know­eth not but that the Farmour that liueth by tillage, by fee­ding of beefs, muttons, hogs, pullen, & many other things that may be fed or bred by corne, may make at all times (if hee thinke corne too cheape in the market) by these meanes a sufficient price of his corne for the buyer and sel­ler. [Page 28] Moreouer, much more ground may be conuerted to the feeding and breeding of cattell and to dayries, all which is (as the world now goeth) very conuenient, the rather for that by experience it hath beene continually seene that whereas corne is deare one yeare in seauen, yet for other fiue or sixe yeares it is at a more reasonable rate then other victuals, which yearely rise in price, and seldome or neuer abate. And further if corne be very cheape it may be trans­ported as it hath beene, with Pery and Cyder into other Countries, so that if the Farmours should loose something in the prices of their corne, yet they shall gaine much more in their house-keeping and other necessaries.

And whereas it may seeme distastfull to some to plant their Fruit trees in the Hedges; admit that there should be an Acre inclosed, wherein may be planted fourescore fruit trees, euery tree may haue a eleuen yards roome to grow on, whereby the ground may take no hurt by Woodes, which after ten yeares will yeeld one yeare with another and one tree with another a bushell of fruit, rated as before at sixe pence the bushell, this profit will amount to fortie shillings the Acre at that rate. Admit further, that the charge of inclosing of this acre round about, being 8. Rode of breadth, and twentie in length, should cost 18. pence a Rode, to haue a good Ditch double or treble, set with quick Thornes and Hedged round about on the outside of the Ditch, which Hedge will last wel three yeares: at the three yeares end towards the later end of March, cut the quicke wood vpward with a knife close by the ground, & weede the grasse cleare vp from about the rootes, the wood of the old Hedge will pay for the labour, and then the first charge is foure pound and foure shilling. Then Hedge it new againe, which may cost thirtie and sixe shillings, that [Page 29] Hedge will last well till the quicke wood bee past taking hurt for that in those three yeares after it is cut, it will grow higher then it would do in ten yeares being not cut, and so thick that nothing can get through it. In the meane time whilest the Fence is in growing, if there bee strewed in a Nurserie the kernels of a hundred Apples, or kernels of Crabbes, or set when or before the quicke wood is set, there will be more sets then that ground requireth, which being well preserued, will bee big enough in three or foure yeares to graft vpon. The charge being sixe pound, is but three yeares purchase.

The third and fourth grieuance, For destroying of Virmine.

THe greatest deuourers of Corne, of these kinde are Rookes, Crowes and Sparrowes, the number where­of is infinite, and so is the quantitie of Corne which they destroy yearely. They also greatly hinder the increase of Corne, which when they cannot find it lying aboue the ground, they scratch it vp with their Clawes or picke it vp with their Bils, Blades and Rootes; and when Corne is eared, then if it happen to be laide, both Rookes and Pid­geons light vpon it, and so spoyle it, that if it were worth fortie shillings an Acre before, in one weeke they will make it not worth tenne shillings the Acre, One kind of these Crowes liue much vpon Chickens and Fowle, and by their Egges, and kill yong Lambes, and doe much hurt besides. There are also many other flying Vermine, that destroy Phesants, Partridges, Fowle, Pullen and young Rabbets, which are Buzards, Kites, Ring-tailes and Pyes, all which or the most part of them may easily be destroyed in three yeares onely, by the pulling downe of their nests, [Page 30] in breeding time not suffering any of them to breed, euery man to vndertake for his owne ground vpon a penaltie, to the vse of the poore of the Parish. Two other great spoy­lers of Fowle, are the shooting in Peeces, and water Dogs; the one galleth more then they kill and get, that are lost, so doth dogges when the Fowle are young, and in moulting time. And much Lead and Poulder might bee saued, by reason that euery man may haue Hawkes meate by his Fowle and Pullen.


THat true it is that is alleadged, that the Vermine before mentioned are as hurtfull to the common wealth as is alleadged, and that many yeares since by Act of Parliament there was a special law made for the generall destroying of all kind of vermine that could bee thought vpon, as Foxes, Badgers, Polecats, wilde Cats, Stotes, and all other whatsoeuer, which was as much as then was thought conuenient.


It appeareth that such an Act was made for the de­stroying of vermine aforesaid, and of other vermine, but so smal an allowance was made that no man made accompt thereof: wherefore by allowing a good propor­tion for this businesse, they may bee soone destroyed, and the charge soone ended; and then all vermine being de­stroyed and Pidgeon houses suppressed (excepting onely such as are allowed by the Common Lawes of this King­dome) it cannot be thought that corne will euer be deare.

Of Wood.

THus it is sufficiently proued, that wood being ge­nerally planted for euery acre of this Kingdome, being at least foure and twenty millions, the tim­ber trees growing til they be fourescore yeres old, cannot be lesse worth then twenty shillings a tree: whereby it ap­peareth that euery tree groweth after the rate of three pence per annum, & foure trees being planted in euery acre commeth to twelue pence an acre per annum: so that the summe ariseth to twelue hundred thousand pounds per an­num, by reason that the tenants are but to plant two trees in an acre. And the trees for firewood that are required, togither with the mast that may grow thereupon, will be as much worth as the timber, and admitting that the fourth part of the Kingdome be already replenished, yet the gaine by wood and timber of the other three parts will arise to eighteene hundred thousand pounds. The timber and firewood that shall be planted in pasture ground as a­foresaid, will be clearely gained by the better breeding and feeding of the number of cattell more that may be bred by the pasture and straw that may be saued, which is now spoi­led and burnt, the worth of beasts two hundred thousand & twelue per annum at the least. All which may be effected with lesse then three yeares purchase in pasture & meadow grounds, & the whole charge of planting in barren ground may be recouered in lesse then sixe yeares, & after ten yeares the soile will be improued from twelue pence an acre per annum, to ten shillings an acre per annum at the least. The firewood of a thousand trees being well husbanded wil be worth twelue pence a tree at euery ten yeares end. The [Page 32] ground is improued ten pound per annum, and that the fiue hundred timber trees remaining will be better worth then fiue hundred pounds.

Of Fruit.

IT is also proued that fruit trees may bee planted in twelue millions of acres at the least in this Kingdome, which being rated at two shillings an acre, sixe pence a tree, the value thereof commeth to twelue hundred thou­sand pounds per annum, out of which being deducted for the fruit already planted in this Kingdome two hundred thousand pounds, yet there remaineth one million of pounds gained yearelie; and that the fruit trees which shall be planted in orchards will not cost aboue three yeares purchase, and in hedge rowes not one yeares purchase.

Of Fowle and Pullen.

AS concerning the breeding of Fowle and Pullen, it is likewise proued that there may be well bred so many as will bee worth foure hundred thousand pounds per annum, in this Kingdome, after the rate of eight pence the couple one with another, and that proui­sion being made for the destroying of vermine, there will be Fowles enough soone bred in this Realme: and that if euery owner of pidgeons should yearlie breede so many Fowles or Pullen, as they keepe old pidgeons, and euery man that hath grounds conuenient would make plots to breede on as is aforesaid, it would greatly ease the dearth of victuals, the charge whereof will not bee aboue three yeares purchase: for the better vnderstanding whereof it is [Page 33] to be noted that it appeareth by the generall map of this Kingdome that it contayneth nine and twenty millions fiue hundred sixty eight thousand acres, out of which num­ber deducting fiue millions, and the odde thousands of acres for high waies, wild lying grounds and wasts not fit for planting, there remaineth foure and twenty millions, which: being rated at a penny an acre amounteth to an hundred thousand pounds.

Suppressing of Pidgeon houses, and destroying of Vermine.

ANd it is likewise proued, that by suppressing halfe the Pidgeon houses of this Realme, and of Pidge­ons kept ouer Gates, Chambers, and other places for that purpose, there may bee yearely saued so much Corne as is worth two Millions of pounds at the least, which they destroy and spoyle: which may bee effected without charge: and that by the destroying of feather'd Fowles, which in like sort destroy and deuoure Corne, and hinder the increase of the same, there may bee saued as much Corne yearely in this Realme, as is worth three mil­lions of pounds. By the destroying of the before recited vermine, there may be saued in fowles and pullen and egs, which they destroy yearely, the worth of fiue thousand pound at the least, besides young Fawnes, Lambes, Rab­bets, and many other things by them destroyed. I can make proofe where there were within this three yeare se­uen dousen couple of Rabbets found on a heape, carried together in lesse time then a moneth by a Stote. Also by a generall destroying of Rats and Mice there may be sa­ued yearely in bread, cheese, corne and other things [Page 34] which they deuoure and destroy, foure hundred thousand pound at the least. All or the most part of which vermine may be destroyed with lesse cost then the losse which is su­stained by them in one halfe yeare, by allowing a good proportion to euery man that destroyeth them as well young and olde, as their egges and neasts: which would incourage seruants and poore men to be industrious, in destroying the said vermine, and so the worke would soone be finished, and the charge ended.

Summe, nine millions, two hundred thousand pound saued and gained by this proiect yearly to the performers, besides the good that may grow therby to the Common­wealth.

That it might be prouided that no Tenants should be indamnified by their Land-lords by letting any of their Farmes, whereupon they haue planted wood or fruite, be­fore they haue receiued sufficient profite of their labour, without sufficient recompence for their charge.


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