A PLAINE EXPOSITION VPON THE FIRST part of the second Chapter of Saint Paul his second Epistle to the THESSALONIANS.

Wherein it is plainly proved, that The Pope is The Antichrist.

Being Lectures, in Saint Pauls, by IOHN SQVIRE Priest, and Vicar of Saint LEONARDS Shordich: Sometime Fellow of IESVS Colledge in CAMBRIDGE.

August. Epist. 89. Hilario. Melius exponant ist a meliores: Nam ego paratior smu di­scere, quam docere.
Psalm. 115. 10. Attamen ipse credidi, propter quod locutus sum.

LONDON, Printed for Philip Waterhouse, and are to be sold at his Shop at the signe of St. Pauls Head in Canon street neare London Stone. 1630.

TO THE RIGHT Honourable EDVVARD Viscount CONVVAY, Lord President of his Majesties Hono­rable privie Counsell: My most honored Lord.


THese Lectures I laboured prin­cipally to satisfie mine own con­science, in this great point. But understanding, that some consci­onable persons, have received some small satisfaction, by hea­ring them: I print them. And [Page] presume to present thē to your Honor to read them, or some of them, at your Lordships leasure. That I may publish to the world how I am assured of your Ho­nors sincere affection to the Church of England, as it stand­eth now in opposition to the Church of Rome. VVhich that it may be daily confirmed, and increased in your Honour, and in the rest of our Honorable English Nobilitie, shall be the daily and sincere prayer of

Your most unworthy, yet most humble Chaplaine IOHN SQVIRE.

To the READER.

CHristian Reader, Let me com­mend these briefes to thy Christian Charitie. For this Booke; If my small judge­ment, and the eyes of many of my judi­cious friends, have not failed me: it may have some [...] but no [...]: some slips, no grosse Errours. For the Quotations, though some may seeme per­haps to have bin alleaged judicio errante, yet animo reluctante, not one: I may mis­understand some; but I mis report not one Author, by a voluntary falsification. For the Author, he is a thorough confor­mable member, & Minister of the Church of England. And for the Scope, it is for the information and salvation of thy soule, and his owne soule. Take the Treatise, and give prayers, for

Thy fellow-member in Christ Iesus IOHN SQVIRE.

To the Papists, or popishly affected.

I Beseech you by our Christ, per­forme this Christian duty; where­to my Practice doth invite you, by a Precedent. Read my Trea­tise; As I doe, and will the learnedst Authors on your side. If your impartiall judgement censure it, as Erron [...]ous: reject it, refute it. But if my arguments be strong: love not the name of the Church, more than you doe the Truth of the Church. Magna est veritas! Christ grant that his Truth may prevaile on either partie.

Yours in the Truth, IOHN SQVIRE.

The Contents of this Treatise.

  • OBstinacy an error dangerous to salvation. 6
  • Ministers should win their people by lenity. 8
  • Of the Resurrection. 10
  • Blessings bind us to be constant in Religion. 14
  • Of Vnion. 7, 15
  • The comming of Christ may not be defined. 18
  • The authoritie of the Fathers. 21
  • The errours of the understanding, terrours to the Conscience. 22
  • Six meanes to avoid errour. 26
  • Three Fountaines of Errour 28
  • Of Enthysiasme. 29
  • Of the use and abuse of eloquence. 31
  • Of false quotations and corrupting Authors. 32
  • The meanes of seducing to Popery. 34
  • [Page]The point of Antichrist may be handled. 38
  • The name of Antichrist. 43
  • The Fathers not the best Expositers in this point. 46
  • The Apostasie. 47
  • Whether the Church was ever extinguished. 55
  • When was the Apostasie. 57
  • Communion in both kinds. 60
  • The Primacie. 60
  • Image worship. 61
  • Deposing Kings. 62
  • The Pope above a Councill. 62
  • Priests mariage. 63
  • Apostates to Poperie. 63
  • Latine Service. 65
  • Antichrist not one man. 68
  • The man of Sinne. 76
  • The Pope the cause of Ignorance. 83
  • The Pope the cause of Whoredome. 85
  • The Pope the cause of Treason. 90
  • The Powder Treason. 94
  • [Page]Antichrist the sonne of Perdition. 97
  • Antichrist and Iudas parallell'd. 99
  • Antichrist, Iudas and the Pope parallell'd. 101
  • The Pope may erre. 105
  • Popish Persecutions passe those of the Emperours. 106
  • Of the Inquisition. 121
  • Rome Destroyed. 135
  • Whether all Papists be damned. 136
  • Popish threatnings to draw men to Popery. 137
  • Antichrist not an open Adversarie. 140
  • The Pope doth oppose Christ. 145
  • Fundamentally. 147
  • Vniversally. 149
  • Six plaine propositions where Christ is plainly op­posed by the Pope. 153
  • The Pope the worst Adversary that ever the Church had. 154
  • [...] Temple. 159
  • Antichrists seat. 159
  • Not th [...] [...]teriall Temple. 159
  • [Page]Rome the seat of Antichrist. 167
  • Whether Rome be a true Church. 168
  • A Parallel betwixt Rome and Babylon. 185
  • Antichrist shall not exalt himselfe above the true God. 197
  • The Pope doth. 200
  • And above all that is worshipped. 202
  • The Popes Ambition. 204
  • The Pope doth exalt himselfe above Kings. 207
  • Above the Emperour. 216
  • Papists are Traitors. 226
  • Antichrist shall not sit corporally in the Temple. 288
  • The Pope usurpeth the same power with Christ. 232
  • The same titles. 233
  • That he is above Councills. 238
  • That he can make a Creed. 240
  • The Pope is not the head of the Church. 234
  • The King is the Head of the Church of England. 235
  • The Pope countermands all the Commandements. 244
  • [Page]Antichrist shall not call himselfe the true God. 257
  • The Pope doth shew himselfe to be God. 259
  • The Pope doth shew himselfe to be God plainly. 268
  • What hindred the Revelation of Antichrist. 289
  • The Ro: Empire not to be abolished. 294
  • It is removed. ibid.
  • Of Travellers and travelling to Rome. 301
  • The time of the Revelation of Antichrist. 305
  • Where our Church was before Luther. 326
  • Affected ignorance of Antichrist. 328
  • The Mystery of Iniquitie. 335
  • Popish mysteries to advance the papacie. 343
  • Popish mysteries to advance poperie. 360
  • Baits to catch pap [...]sts. 369
  • Hookes to hold pap [...]sts. 373
  • [Page]The Pope [...] or the lawlesse person. 381
  • In regard of Scriptures. 391
  • Of the Creed. 395
  • Of humane Lawes. 396
  • Of Oaths. 397
  • Of nationall Lawes. 402
  • The Exemption of the Clergie. 404
  • Of Childrens obedience. 408
  • Of Mariages. 409
  • Of his owne Constitutions. 411
  • The destruction of Antichrist. 414
  • The beginning of the Reformation. 416
  • Poperie may returne into England. 417
  • Poperie may not be put downe by force of Armes. 418
  • The finall destruction of the Pope uncertaine. 428
  • Popery shall not be extinguished till the last day. 432
  • The destruction of Rome. 434
  • Of lying miracles. 440
  • [Page]Of Popish miracles. 343
  • The miracle Rev. 13. 13. explained. 465
  • Whether Papists doe any miracles. 467
  • Whether miracles should perswade unto Poperie. 470
  • Of the Antiquity of the Church of Rome. 478
  • Vniversalitie. 478
  • Vnitie. 478
  • Infallibilitie. 478
  • Of disputations with Papists. 487
  • The care of the Popish Church for Controversie Writers. 488
  • Of Popish perswasions. 491
  • Devotions. 494
  • Prayers. 494
  • Discipline. 495
  • Of Satan. 497
  • Papists refuse all Communion with Protestants, 498
  • Why so many learned be Papists. 501
  • No Reconciliation with Rome. 506
  • [Page]The Doctrine of Devills. 521
  • The Church of Rome teacheth the doctrine of De­vills. 522
  • Popish forbidding mariage, 531
  • Popish forbidding meats. 537
  • All who are deceived by Antichrist are damned. 542
  • Whether all Papists be damned. 545
  • Of Apostates to Poperie. 558
  • Antichrist not a Iew. 560
  • The Church of Rome doth use the Scripture for owne turne. 567
  • The ambition of the Church of Rome. 570
  • Consolation against Antichrist. 574
  • Five notes of such as love the truth. 575
  • The Papists surpasse the Pagan Idolatry. 579
  • Angells made Idolls. 584
  • [Page]Saints. 585
  • The V. Marie. 587
  • Images. 589
  • The Crosse. 592
  • The Sacrament. 594
  • Every Creature made an Idol. 597
  • Precedents of obstinatenesse. 601
  • The Papists obstinate and deluded. 607
  • No Reconciliat [...]on. 441
  • The Pap [...]sts are deluders. 607
  • Want of p [...]ov [...]sion for Converts, an hindrance to Reformation. 617
  • Pronenesse of People to be deluded by Popery. 447
  • God doth send delusion. 623
  • A Caveat to the Church of England against ob­stinatenesse. 625
  • Popery supported by lying. 631
  • The Primacie. 636
  • The Crosse. 638
  • Popish lies against the persons of Protestants. 640
  • Against Calvin. 642
  • Beza. ibid.
  • Luther. ibid.
  • Bishop King. 643
  • [Page]Queene Elizabeth. 644
  • Popish lies against the Profession of Protestants. 646
  • Concerning the Sacraments. 647
  • Our Government. ibid.
  • Our Preachers. ibid.
  • The Scripture 650
  • Our obedience to our King. 651
  • Our obedience to our God. 653
  • Popish lyes concerning their persecution. 654
  • The Pope may Erre. 677
  • Hath [...]rred. 687
  • In his Translations. ibid.
  • Canon Lawes. 688
  • Papacredens & docens, that distinction examined. 680
  • Of implicite faith. 698
  • Popish points that are damnable. 702
  • Inhibition of the Scriptures. 706
  • Latine Prayers. 707
  • Merits. 711
  • The Communion in one kind. 712
  • Worshipping of Images. 715
  • [Page]Six opinions of Antichrist. 721
  • The Devill shall be Antichrist. 722
  • Nero. 724
  • The Turke. 726
  • The Turke and Pope. 732
  • Antichrist shall be a Iew. 737
  • The Papists Trienniall Antichrist. 740
  • The Summe of the whole Treatise. 746
  • The Paraphrase of the whole Text. 754
  • The Parallel to the Pope. 757
  • The Conclusion. 764
  • A Dehortation from Poperie. 766

A Plaine Exposition upon the first part of the second Chapter of St. PAVL his second EPISTLE to the THESSALONIANS.


2 THESS. 2. 1. Now we beseech you, Brethren, by the com­ming of our Lord Iesus Christ, and by our assem­bling unto him.’

That obstinacy in error is dangerous to salvation. And that it is dangerous to breake the peace of the Church. Ministers should win their people by Le­uity. Of the Resurrection. Blessings bind us to bee constant in Religion. Of Vnion.

WHen first I cast mine eye on this Chapter, it reflected my mind on the first Chapter of the first Epistle: and I undertooke that Epistle, because of this Chapter: that so I might discusse the Point of Antichrist, here so plentifully propo­sed. A point, none more difficult, none more [Page 2] necessary to be knowne. This also did call into my memory my Text at my first Sermon, entring upon that Epistle to the Thessalonians; which was the nineteenth and twentieth verses of the sixt Chapter to the Ephesians: That ye should pray for me, that vtterance might be giuen unto me, that I might open my mouth boldly, to make knowne this Mystery: that therein I might speak boldly, as I ought to speake.

I hope that your Christian prayers have beene like the Leviticall fire, that they have beene ever fervent in my behalfe. But now I beseech you to blow them up with an extraordinary affection, to beg an extraordinary blessing upon my poore La­bours. I expect Argus, and Midas, and Momus, and Magus, to be my Hearers. I looke that broad eyes, long eares, wide mouths, and false hearts, shall observe every syllable in these Sermons. I am re­solved to haue my reputation torne for my paines. But let Malice speake truth, and spare neither my life nor my learning.

For the End of my Labours, in this point: I know the Sunne cannot give light nor sight to the Blind or Blind-folded: I know Truth it selfe can­not satisfie Prejudice and Obstinacy. But to the seeker of the Truth, I promise thus much in the presence of God, before whom I stand, I will endeavour to discusse this point, with all Humi­lity, Industry, and Impartiality.

Which that I may doe, againe and againe I beseech you, for that for which St. Paul besoughtEphes. 6. 19, 20. the Ephesians, in those verses of that Chapter [Page 3] before cited: Brethren, I beseech you to pray for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth holdly, to make knowne This Myste­rie, and that therein I may speake boldly, as I ought to speake. I beseech you to pray for me. For it, I will be your Debtor; and yet will I pay you in your owne Coine. Pray you for me, and I will pray for you: Pray you for me in Speaking, and I will pray for you in Hearing. Let us promise and performe this, as a Preface to this great worke. Let us heartily pray for one another: and thou Lord! let the words of our mouthes, and the prayers of our hearts be alwayes ac­ceptable in thy sight, both now and ever, O Lord our strength, and our Redeemer.

This second Epistle consisteth of three Chap­ters: wherein the argument of the first is gratu­latory, for what they had beene: of the second Expository, of what they must bee: and the con­tents of the third are Hortatorie, what they should bee. The Expository argument of this Chapter is twofold, [...] & [...]: Praedicit, & praedicat: Information of Antichrist is delivered to the thir­teenth verse: and Consolation against Antichrist, from thence to the end of the Chapter. The in­formation or first generall part of this Chapter doth branch it selfe into two particulars: concer­ning this Discourse, on this cause, consider the Occasion thereof related in the two first verses, and part of the third: and the question it selfe debated, from the third verse unto the thir­teenth.

The occasion why St. Paul did dispute of Antichrist [Page 4] was an Errour among the Thessalonians concer­ning the Comming of Christ. This being premised in the three first verses: the Apostle sheweth them the thing by which he doth disswade them in the first: and the thing from which hee doth disswade them in the second and third. The de­bating of the question it selfe may be drawne into these five particulars. First, we have Antichrist described, in the third and fourth verses: second­ly, revealed in the fift, sixt, seventh, and part of the eighth verse: Thirdly, destroyed, in the remnant of the eight: Fourthly, confirmed in the ninth, and part of the tenth verse: and finally, we have Antichrist embraced in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth verses.

The summe of this Text is the thing by which St. Paul did disswade the Thessalonians from their Errour; to wit, by the Advent of Christ, and also by the Event thereof. In the first words: Now we beseech you, Brethren, by the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ, here is the Advent; the Event whereof followeth in the last words; and by our gathering together unto him. In the first consider the matter of his disswasion, by the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ: and the manner thereof, We beseech you brethren. In the last point two o­ther particulars are considerable: the Thing, a Gathering together: and the persons, Our gathering unto him.

The Advent is the first generall point, where­of 1 the first particular is the matter of St. Pauls dis­swasion, in these words, by the comming of our [Page 5] Lord Iesus Christ. The comming of our Lord Iesus Christ, is the maine point, so effectually disputed by the Apostle, in the two last Chapters of his first Epistle to the Thessalonians. From which Treatise in generall, as from that phrase in par­ticular, 1 Thess. 4. 17. [Then wee which are alive, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds:] Satan raised this error, That Christ should come in that age, with a slye subtilty, thereby to avert, and evert the expectation of Christs comming: that after one age, secure people might pronounce that prophane phrase mentioned by St. Peter, 2 Pet. 3. 4. Where is the promise of his comming? St. Paul therefore (on Timothies information thereof) did disswade them from this errour, By the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ. Which adiuring phrase doth imply both the confidence and the reverence which Christians ought to have concerning the Comming of Christ. Adjura­tion is a prevailing argument, urged by the high Priest to unlock the silence of our Saviour him­selfe, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, Matth. 26. 63. Con­ceive this to be the sense of this phrase. I have taught you the true doctrine of Christs comming: but I am informed that some erroneous Doctors doe teach you a new doctrine, that his comming shall be in this age. O but I adjure you, per adven­tum Domini, by the confidence you have of his comming, and by the reverence you will have at his comming, Even by the comming of our Lord Ie­sus Christ, I beseech you brethren revoke this wicked errour.

Let this adjuring of them advise and instruct Doctr. us Christians, that to be obstinate in an errour is dangerous for their salvation. Had these Thessalo­nians persisted in their opinion, this Text imply­eth that they would have lost the comfort of Christs comming. If any shall preach another Gospel, that is, publish his errour, hee is pronounced [...] a Cursed creature, by St. Paul. And Christ Gal [...]. 8. himselfe confirmes it: If a man shall breake the Mat. 5. 19. least Commandement, and teach men so, he shall bee called least in the Kingdome of heaven. Errare pos­sim, haereticus esse nolo: I feare Nature may make me fall, but I hope Grace will teach mee to re­pent and recant when I understand my errour. Errare hominis, perseverare Daemonis: I am the Sonne of Adam, I may erre, but to persevere, to be obstinate, I trust God will blesse mee from the snare of the Devill. The uglinesse of the sinne of obstinatenesse appeareth unto mee from two rea­sons: from the Nature and Author of Error. The Devill is the Author thereof, Matth. 13. 25. there­fore Obstinatenesse therein can bee no lesse than Diabolicall. And obstinate errour doth naturally produce either Heresie, (and Heretickes are [...], condemned, if not damned of themselves) or it teemeth Schisme at the least: and Schismatickes are wished to be cut off, Gal. 5. [...]2. Haereticos sci­mus pejores esse quam Ethnicos: an obstinate Here­ticke is as bad as a Pagan infidell: this was the cen­sureConc. Carth. Cypr. p. 447. of Vincentius à Thibari. Againe, Gravis cul­pa discordiae, nec passione purgatur: the grievous sinne of breaking the peace of the Church cannot be [Page 7] washed away, though afterwards thou wouldestCypr. de uni­tate. poure out thy heart blood for that offence, saith St. Cyprian. A mutinous souldier is trussed up by Martiall Law, when the open enemy hath faireJust. Hist. Lib. quarter. Alexander the Great exercised greater furie against the Thebans, his owne Countrimen, but Rebels, than hee did against the Persians, though barbarous people, and professed adversa­ries. Saul did rend Samuels garment, but it signi­fied, that God would rend his kingdome from him. So Schismaticks may make a rent in the Church; but I feare it doth forebode, that God will rend his kingdome from them. Certainly, to bee obsti­nate in our errors cannot but bee dangerous to our Salvation.

Apprehend here the danger of our times: Er­rors Vse. infinite and impudent. The Anabaptists en­crease: but Papists swarme. The peaceable Pro­testant is placed betwixt them both, like a Ship betwixt the Sand and Shore: touch upon either, and suffer shipwracke. Or like Susanna betwixt the two Elders: they both intice thee, and ei­ther will defile thee. The Papist will make thee to prophane one Sacrament, the Anabaptist will make thee to renounce the other. Both inveagle thee from the Church, thy Mother; where is then thy God, thy Father? Learne this one lesson, Luke 18. 18. Take heed how you heare. Looke to thy Eares, they are both Syrens, to inchant thee, to incant thee. But Per adventum Domini, by the com­ming of our Lord Iesus▪ Christ: I beseech you brethren, to beware of both of them.

Thus farre for the first point, the matter of St. 2 Pauls dehortation: next follows the maner there­of, the second part, in the first words, Now wee beseech you, brethren. We beseech you, [...], from [...] signifying love. He addeth moreover, We be­seech you brethren. [...] a Brother, being deri­ved of [...], uterus, a wombe: brethren being pro­perly uterini, the fruit of one wombe. This phrase also implying his affection, that hee rendred the Thessalonians as he did his mothers wombe, or his owne bowels, even as Brethren. The sense is evident: We beseech you brethren: that is, even in all Bro­therly love, wee beseech you to beware of seducers.

Which may teach us Teachers an excellent les­son. Doctr. Ministers must endeavour to winne their people by lenity: They must preach as Brethren, to Bre­thren; in love, and from love, according to the phrase and example of the Preacher in my text. The Man of God must sometime play the Child, and pipe to his people, saith the great Preacher, Luke 7. 32. Therefore inferiour Ministers may not thinke it base to stoope so low, even as to beseech their hearers, by the meeknesse and gentle­nesse of Christ, 2 Cor. 10. 1. Thus St. Augustine Aug. Epis [...]. [...] [...]7. perswaded Vitalis, Cupio, hortor, rogo; I desire thee, I exhort thee, I entreat thee. Thus he prevai­ledAug. Re­tract. lib. 2. pag. 59. with Vincentius, Invenem non-detestandum, sed docendum, quanta potui cum lenitate tractavi: I did not, saith he, reject him as a boy with sowre se­verity, but I did admit and instruct him as a Christian, with all courtesie and lenity. And accor­ding to his owne practise, hee proposed a Rule [Page 9] unto other Preachers, Quanto melior, tanto Aug. epist. 28. mitior: The more religious, the more courteous. Those Twinnes will alwayes goe together, and grow together. With this proviso: if the na­ture of the people will beare it. If they be not tractable, then indeed Christiana charitas & se­veritas must bee yoake-fellowes, saith the same St. Augustine: then Lenity and Severity mustAug. epist. 19. be used interchangeably, as occasion shall be offered. For some Asses will not move with a spur, when a good metall will speed on with the least motion of the body. The Virgin Clau­dia Lactant. de Orig. [...]r lib. 2 sect. 7 (saith Lactantius) did lead on a laden Ship with her Girdle, which all the men in Rome could not hale on with Gables. Sometimes, I suppose, some Ministers may meet with both these natures: it behoveth them therefore to be armed with both these qualities, Severity and Lenity, that they may be able to cope with either disposition. But with the latter, Leni­ty especially. For God doth not alwaies ap­peare in the strong winde of rough reprehensions, 1 King. 19. 11. & 12. nor in the Earthquake of bitter invections, nor in the Fire of over-fervent declamations: but our great God may come in a still small voice. If the People be Thessalonians, the Preacher must be St. Paul. Then must we beseech them as bre­thren, to beware of seducers, and all other Transgressions.

Miserable therefore are our times, and Vse. our sinnes more miserable; when braving he­resie beginneth to trample on Lenity, Severity [Page 10] and Authority also. The Ministers words, yea and the Magistrates swords also have lost their edge: they doe not touch the erroneous. The Owles dare looke on the Sunne: and those who were wont to creepe together by night, now flock together by noone day. That we must Non apud Aug. Epist. 109. vos verbis, sed apud Deum lachrymis agere: as St. Augustine once complained, we must turne our preaching into prayers, and teares. But for you, let me use the phrase of my Text. Not­withstanding all our preaching, you shall have strong seducers. But Oramus vos fratres: We be­seech you brethren, by the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ, to beware of them.

I have dispatched the advent or comming of 3 Christ: now I proceed to the Event thereof; wherein we are to ponder the thing, and the persons. The first is termed in my Text, [...], a gathering together. The simple, [...], signifyeth the place or act of gathering together. [...], is when other persons are added to that place or action. [...], I may well trans­late a Congregation, and [...], an Aggrega­tion, that is, an addition to the Congregation. St. Pauls meaning may then be thus expressed, As you know that Christ will come with a com­pany of Saints: and as you hope and desire that your selves shall be added to that company: Even so, We beseech you brethren, [...], by our gathering together, that you bee not moved from the truth by any seducers.

Which offereth this doctrine to our con­sideration, Doctr. [Page 11] All true Christians which dye, shall meet together in heaven. Now there is the con­gregation, the aggregation shall bee when our happy soules shall be ioyned to those blessed Saints already departed. The Angels shall ga­ther the Elect together from the foure windes, saith our Saviour, Matth. 24. 31. And loving Martha comforted her selfe concerning the death of her beloved brother, because shee knew that he should rise againe in the resurrection at the last day, Ioh. 11. 24. This truth we cannot but conceive, if we consider the end of the re­surrection, which is, that God may bee glorified in his Saints, 2 Thess. 1. 10. That our poore carkeises shall be raised out of the dust: how glorious will this be to our Raiser? who then can doubt of our gathering together, of our blessed Resurrection? The Husbandman deter­mining to fill his Granary, doth scatter the seed in divers furrowes and fields: the seed dyeth, but afterward returneth into one roome. So our bodies may be buried in divers Cities and countries, and scattered on the land, or in the bottome of the Sea: but heaven is the Grana­rie, there shall we at the last day have a bles­sed gathering together. Not unlike Iacob, Ioseph, and the Patriarches: as they by many unplea­sing meanes, yet met al together joyfully in one place. So we: Death, Diseases, and the Grave, are indeed distastfull to flesh and blood: yet are they Gods instruments, for this same [...], to gather us all together, at that blessed day [Page 12] of our ioyfull Resurrection.

A great comfort in a great affliction. Our Vse. friends dye: there is [...], a congregation; but we shall dye after them, and goe to them; here is [...] our aggregation. Indeed our sin­gular consolation. Praemittuntur, non amittun­tur, saith St. Cyprian: our Friends by death goe before us, not from us. I shall goe to him, he shall not returne to me, said holy David of his childe, and it may be said by every Christian of his deare acquaintance. Xerxes viewing his numerous army, wept; because he concei­ved that all those were to die within a few yeares. So the tender Father, when his loving eyes are cast upon his bosome and his bowels, upon his beloved wife and children; Quis temperet à lachrymis? will it not wring teares from his eyes, if not sighes from his heart, to thinke that they, even they must dye. Indeed we may doe as much in humanity: but Divinity will tell us, that like Iob. 42. 12. & 14. The Lord will blesse our latter [...]d more than our beginning; that even death shall give back our children and friends, in greater affection, in greater perfection. And shall not we gather comfort from such a comfortable gathering together?

The last point containeth two persons con­curring 4 in this act of gathering together: Our gathering together unto him. Vnto him, this sheweth the action: Our, the affection, concer­ning this gathering together. The first, (the action of our gathering together) Christ our [Page 13] Head will performe it, when hee doth [...], Ephes. 1. 10. that is, [...], gather together all under one head. This he hath done already by his first comming, gathe­ring together both Iewes and Gentiles under one Head, and making them one Church militant. But this he will doe in a fuller manner, by his second comming, gathering together all, both li­ving and dead, under one Head, and making them one Church triumphant. That (the gather­ing together of the Iewes and Gentiles into one Church militant) was [...], a Congregation. This (the gathering together of the living and dead into one Church triumphant) is [...], an aggregation or a Congregation of Congregati­ons. The second (the affection to this gathering together) in the word our, appeareth to bee an allusion in that Proverbe, Matt. 24. 28. Where­soever the carkeise is, there will the Eagles be ga­thered together. For Nature doth not make the Eagle so to sent out, and to hunt out the car­keise, as Grace doth make the Faithfull to hun­ger and thirst after that comming. The sense then thus I set down, in more, and more plain termes: As Christ will joine you to him effectu­ally, and as you long after that conjunction affectio­nately: even so, by the gathering together, [...]: by our gathering together unto him, wee beseech you brethren, not to bee moved from the truth by any false seducers.

From these premises let us conclude this Doctr. doctrine: Gods blessings doe binde Gods children [Page 14] to be constant in the truth. Thus wee see in this Text, that Christs comming is urged, as an ar­gument to confirm the Thessalonians in Christs doctrine. Rom. 9. 31. and 32. the grievous fault and punishment of Israel was this; God gave them righteousnesse by faith, but they fell to their workes; and therefore lost all. Luke 12. 32. God giveth his servants a kingdome; therefore they should not feare to serve him. And in­deed this is the maine end wherefore God gi­veth us his blessings, to incourage us in his truth. The man who hath his head held up by a skilfull swimmer, meriteth drowning, if in a fond feare he forsake him, to lay hold on some floating staffe. So, let him sinke in errour, that will bee affrighted even with an Ocean of temptations, if Gods blessings support him. Alexander the great,Iust. hist. l. 11. saith Iustine, made choice of the stipendiary, his Pensioners, for his prime souldiers, in his Persian expedition. So, such as are Gods Pensioners, that is, inriched with his continuall favours, ought to be his Triarij, that is, his most coura­geous souldiers, and most constant professors in the Church militant. And finally, as in 2 Sam. 12. 7, 8. Nathan said unto David, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel: I have anointed thee King over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul, and I gave thee thy masters house, and thy masters wives into thy bosome, and gave thee the house of Israel, and of Iudah: and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things. As, I say, David was here [Page 15] argued from Gods benefits, because he fell into carnall adultery: so shall wee bee condemned also from Gods benefits, if we fall into Spiritu­all adultery. We shall finde the Lord a jealous God, if his mercies move us not to keepe his Com­mandements.

Hence therefore it may appeare that the Vse. assurance of Gods blessings, that is, the certainty of salvation, is not the naturall mother of Pre­sumption. No, that Bastard is filius populi: pre­sumption proceedeth from mans corruption accidentally, and not necessarily from that sweet Consolation.

But if Blessings doe binde, then are we bound to God in infinite bonds. Remember that bles­sed uniting of the two Roses, the white and the red, Yorke and Lancaster. Remember the uni­ting of the two Lyons in gold and gules, England and Scotland. By the first dissention, the two Houses might have ruinated this Kingdome: by the second, the two Kingdomes might have rui­nated this Iland: had they not beene united. Yet can wee not bee haled to Vnion in the Church, but still we nourish a fatall dissention.

Remember moreover Gods blessings of protection! in 88 God delivered us from water: and in 1605 from fire. And yet some of us love that Religion which hatched those hatefull ma­chinations. Consider his present blessings: such a plenty for three yeares, and such a peace for three score yeares, as this Land enioyed not in three hundred before. And yet remaine we unmind­full, [Page 16] unthankfull. Now that we may be sensible of this sin, God withdraweth some of them. This City doth see, and the Country doth feele the abundance of unseasonable raine: so that some cannot end their harvest, and o­thers cannot beginne their seed-time. May not this be a prologue to a Famine? Againe, is it a small thing, that we are almost universally smitten with the small poxe? May not this be a Rabshekah? the Fore-runner of Senacherib? May not God tell vs by the small poxe that he hath a greater plague to smite us with? To what end is all this? Even to urge the same argument upon us, which St. Paul here doth upon the Thessalonians? that we be constant in our Religion? Therefore by all those blessings ye have, or hope for; by those judgements yee doe deserve, and may stand in feare of; by the liberty of our Conscience, and plentifull prea­ching of the Gospell; by the famine of bread, and famine of the word: but above all, By the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ, I beseech you brethren: Brethren I beseech you bee constant in the Truth of God. And the God of truth make vs carefull, cheerfull, and joyfull to performe it.


2 THESS. 2. 2, & 3. That you be not soone shaken in minde, or bee troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by Letter as from us, as that the day of Christ were at hand. Let no man deceive you by any meanes.’

The comming of Christ may not be defined. The errours of the understanding, cause terrours to the conscience. Meanes to avoid errour. Three fountaines of errour. Of Enthusiasine. Of the use and abuse of Eloquence. Of false quotati­ons, and corrupting Authors. Ten meanes of seducing to Popery.

THis Text and the former verse containe the short preface premised to the great point of Antichrist. In that you heard by what St. Paul did disswade the Thessalonians, by the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ. In this you shall heare from what he disswaded them, from an error [Page 18] concerning the comming of Christ. In the text there are two generalls: the Heresie, and the Fallacy. The heresie to which, and the fallacy through which they were in danger to be sedu­ced. In each generall there are two particulars. In the heresie, their errour, and their terrour. The errour in the last words of the first verse, as that the day of the Lord were at hand: and their terrour, in the first words of this verse, that yee be not soone shaken in minde or troubled. In the Fallacy observe it related in particular: in the remnant of the second verse, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by Letter as from us: and finally observe the fallacy repeated in generall, in the third verse, Let no man deceive you by any meanes.

The first of the five particulars is their Er­rour, 1 They thought the day of Christ to be at hand. But say some; those erre who call this an er­rour. For St. Iames saith, Iam. 5. 8. The day of the Lord draweth nigh [...]: and St. Peter, 1 Pet. 4. 7. The end of all things is at hand. If therefore the Thessalonians did think that the day of the Lord was at hand: yet was this no errour. These pla­ces may bee reconciled two wayes. First, di­stinguish of the phrase: St. Iames and St. Peter say, [...], it is comming, like a cloud in the wost, before our eyes. But the phrase of St. Paul is [...], it is comne, like a cloud in the Zenith, over our heads, imminent, at the point to drop downe. Againe, distinguish of the Time: according to St. Peter, Christs comming was at [Page 19] hand, (as our late Divines terme it) quoad ul­timum Buchan. loc. 38. tempus, in regard of the last time of the world: according to St. Paul, Christs comming was not at hand, Quoad ultimum temporis, in re­gard of the last age of the world. Finally, St. Augustines phrase will also helpe to cleare thisAugust. epist. 8 [...]. point. There are, saith he, dies novissimi, as al­so novissimorum novissimi, that is, the last daies, and the latest of those last daies. St. Peter spea­keth according to the first phrase: and St. Paul according to the last, That they were afraid that the comming of Christ would have beene in that very age wherein they lived. This was the error: from which St. Paul in this text did disswade the Thessalonians.

From hence then it doth appeare to be un­lawfull Doctr. for men to define the time of Christs com­ming. St. Paul doth here condemne it as an errour in the Thessalonians: an evident conclu­sion, that it is an errour in us also. It were su­perfluous to discourse of this point in this place, because it is so copiously disputed by St. Paul himselfe, in the last Chapter of this first Epistle. Onely this one thing let me com­mend to your observation. This Errour, wee see, was hatched in St. Pauls time, kild by St. Pauls hand: yet afterwards it was revived a­gaine, and received by many rare men. Many rare godly men did attempt curiously to define the time of Christs comming. Est appropinquan­tis judicij terribilis expectatio, said Vincentius Vinc. Lyrin. pag. 15. Pr [...]f. Lyrinensis: that is, in his age they had a fearfull [Page 20] expectation of the apppoaching day of judgement. St. Augustine avoucheth that he did live in sex­ta Aug. R [...]tr. lib. 1. cap. 26. aetate mundi, that is, in the last age which the world could endure. Sex millia annorum jam pene complentur, saith St. Cyprian, that is, theCypr. de Exb. Mart. sixt and last age of the world, was almost fini­shed in his age. The holy Scriptures of the old Testament containe in them the Histories of five thousand yeares, saith Iosephus. S. Ambrose Josephus lib. 1. cap. 1. was of the same opinion, saith our Doctor Whitakers. Lactantius is yet more perempto­ry,Lactantius lib. 7. cap. 25. Omnis expectatio non est amplius quam ducen­torum annorum; The world, saith he, cannot en­dure above two hundred yeares: and yet those two hundred, and a thousand yeares besides are passed, since hee passed that peremptory sen­tence. I conceive that S. Hierome also might be of the same opinion, because of his Surgite mortui, he thought that he alwayes heard the sound of the last Trump. A double mistaking misled all these Fathers into this one errour. First, they erred in Theology, because the world was created in sixe dayes, therefore they conclu­ded that the world should endure but six thou­sand yeares: having no other ground for their conclusion, but onely that phrase of S. Peter, One day is with the Lord as a thousand yeares. [...] Pet. 3. 8. Secondly, they erred in Chronology, following therein the errour of the Septuagints; who in the fifth and twelfth chapter of Genesis added an hundred yeares to the life of every Patriarch. For example: Gen. 5. 3. where the Originall [Page 21] readeth that Adam lived an hundred and thirty yeares, the Septuagints translate it, Adam lived two hundred and thirty yeares, and begate a sonne in his owne likenesse. These were the causes of their grosse errour, that Christ must come in their age.

Let us make a double Vse of this Doctrine: Vse. the one to benefit our learning, and the other to better our lives. First, learne that the ver­dict of the Fathers is [...], but not [...]: ve­ry venerable, but not absolutely infallible. I acknowledge, Scientia nullum habet inimicum praeter ignorantem: that none contemne the Fa­thers, but either the ignorant that cannot, or the idle that will not reade them. Howbeit, since even the Fathers were but men: I say their consent is an excellent confirmation, not an evident demonstration. This one example, that so many did concurre in this one errour, is too true an evidence for my assertion.

Secondly, in our lives let us quit our selve [...] 2 from this over-busie curiosity concerning times and seasons, and the comming of Christ. Let us be good servants▪ let us doe our service, and not pry into our Masters secrets. Let us bee Gods children: let us assure our selves that we shall have our inheritance; but let us leave the time unto our Fathers disposition. In a word, Let us not bee troubled nor moved concerning the comming of our Lord Iesus Christ.

Having considered their errour, that they thought the Day of the Lord to be at hand: this [Page 22] leadeth us unto the consideration of their terrour, that they were shaken in minde, and trou­bled. Which terrour is expressed by a double metaphor. First from a Sea-storme; for [...] signifieth both the Sea, and a Storme also. From whence is derived the word in my text [...], to be shaken, to wit, as a ship is shatte­red in a sea tempest. Another word is also added in the text, They were shaken in minde, yea from their minde, [...] so runneth the originall. Their minde or understanding seemed to bee torne from them, through the feare of the day of judgement: as a storme forceth a ship riding in the road, to slip or cut Gable. The second metaphor is taken from souldiers frighted by a sudden Alarme: for so that word in my Text [...] seemeth to signifie. The sense is cleare: Heretickes doe terrifie you with their false doc­trine, That Christ will come with flaming fire, even in your age. But they give you a false A­larme, to affright you from your anchor-hold, and settled Religion. Therefore we beseech you bre­thren, [...], that you would not be shaken in minde, nor troubled concerning this errour.

These phrases may teach us this doctrine. The errour of the understanding, is a great terrour Doctr. to the conscience. The text termeth it [...], and [...]: as a storme to a ship, and an Alarme to men asleepe: than which, nothing can bee more terrible. The like metaphor is urged by S. Paul, Gal. 4. 14. Be not children caried about [Page 23] with every winde of doctrine. Imagine how fear­full children would be in a Boat, hulling on the Sea, without Rudder or Anchor: and conceive the terrours of that soule, which floateth on groundlesse errours, to surpasse imagination. The Apostles phrase, Eph. 4. 16. importeth that the erroneous are like a bone out of joynt, it will cost many an hearty groane, before they be reduced to their right place. They will bee [...], Tit. 3. 11. their owne consciences will be both the accusers and the accused: and in conclusion they will become aliens from Gods Commonwealth, Eph. 2. 12. Now suppose a tra­veller in the night and out of the way; how will he be troubled? a Rebell out of the Kings favour; how perplexed? The Athenians muti­ned Iust. hist. for a time against Alexander; but they were glad (notwithstanding their brags) to be reconciled upon any condition. Alas, beloved, the Erroneous are those Travellers, so troubled: those Rebels so perplexed: and those mutinous Athenians, their feare must be great, till they be reconciled to their God upon any condition. 1 King. 2. 30. Ioab having run a wrong course of erroneous election, against his Lords liking: although he could pretend, that he did adhere to the right heire, was incouraged by the High Priest, and might bee excused by his other for­mer services, and was protected by the Altar: notwithstanding, because he erred against the Kings will, the terrours of death did compasse him on every side. So let the erroneous gild [Page 24] over their positions, with never so many glorious pretences: that they adhere to the right heire, to the old Religion: that they are incou­raged by the High Priest, by the Pope himselfe: that their life otherwise is very innocent, and that they have the Altar, the onely Catholike Church to protect them. Notwithstanding all this, if they wander without the warrant of the Lord; without the apparant Scriptures, the sword of Benaiah hangeth over their heads: The conscience of the erroneous cannot but suffer the terrours of the Lord with a troubled minde.

Loe here the lot of all those who are sedu­cers, Vse. or seduced. Feare and trembling are their companions. From the Papist to the Anabaptist, all seducers are like the Aspen, they cannot but quake continually: and like the old Romanes mentioned by S. Augustine: Deum colunt ti­morem Aug. epist. 44. Maximo. & horrorem: Terrour and horrour are housed in their consciences. As the text spea­keth, their consciences are shaken and troubled perpetually.

But say the Erroneous, the Papists especially: we have none of these terrours: we have resi­sted your Religion, [...]: we are care­lesse and fearlesse to shed your blood, or our owne blood, in the confidence of our Catholike cause. We are not shaken, nor troubled in conscience, for teaching our Doctrine.

I say (notwithstanding their bragges) some of them doe feare: though they will not shew where their shooe wringeth them: Some of [Page 25] them shall feare. Morte personam non ferent: Death shall unmaske them, and discover their consciences, pale and wan, with feare and trem­bling. If some of them live and dye confident in their errours, then I apply that other phrase of my text unto them, [...], they are besides their mindes: [...] is [...], saith Clemens, andClem. Alex. Pro­trept. p. 2. Ign. ep. 5. [...], saith Ignatius, their blindnesse is mad­nesse, and franticknesse. Mad men will wound themselves, and feele not: and the franticke will run into the fire, and feare not. So, those men are [...], they ranne out of their wits, when they ran out of the Church: and this makes them like Bedlems, to be so couragious, indeed so outragious in their herefies.

But how may wee avoid these errours and terrours, and be setled in the Truth? I can teach men no better than Erasmus taught chil­dren: Quod lego Scripturis, & Symbolo, summa siducia credo: si quid receptum est ab usu Eccle­siae, quod non plane cum Scripturis pugnat, servo. That is, that man who doth constantly beleeve, whatsoever is taught him by the Scriptures; and conscionably obey whatsoever is commanded by the Church, provided the Church command nothing plainly contrary to the Scriptures: Such a man, I say, will bee setled in the Truth, and seldome or never shaken in minde, or troubled concerning any Errours.

Yea, but some speake of all the Scriptures what S. Peter spake of some of the Scripture, 2 Pet. 3. 16. they are [...], hard to bee understood. I an­swer, [Page 26] Vse these meanes faithfully, and thou shalt finde the necessary principles of the Scrip­ture to be a food for the Lamb to wade through, and to be food for very Babes to feed on. Eschew three things; and insue three things. Let these sixe points be the practise of thy piety, Eschew Pride, Prejudice, and Profit, in searching out the Truth. Mater omnium Haereticorum superbia: St. Augustine saith, tis Pride which proguesAug. contra Manich. 2. 8. men to factions and partakings. Simon Magus would be [...], Acts 8. 9. a great man: this was the Magicke that bewitched him to his heresie and sorcerie. Prejudice is a second and maine prevention of knowing and imbracing the Truth. In hac side eram natus, in hac educatus, & in ea moriar, said an Eutichian; because hee was borne therein, therefore hee would live and dye in that opinion. There are many mad Ephesians, who will cry out against Paul, when they know not the cause wherefore they cry out against him, Acts 19. 32. And finally, profit and commodity is Truths common adversary: there are wretched men who subvert whole houses for silthy lucres sake, Tit. 1. 11. and their gaine teacheth them, to teach falshood [...], to please their Patrons, and maintaine errours, be­cause errours maintaine them. On the other side, insue three other things; Fidelity, Chari­ty, and Humility. Fidelity towards the Scrip­tures: Charity towards the Church: and Hu­mility towards thy selfe. Fasten thy Faith on the Scriptures; say with the Pythagorians, [...] [Page 27] [...], he hath said it, and therefore we will beleeve it. And say with St. Paul, Though an Angell from heaven should preach another Gospell (and teach thee any thing contrary to the word of God) let him be an Anathema, accursed, by God and man, Gal. 1. 8. Next, to thy fidelity to thy Father, thy God speaking in his Scriptures, ex­ercise thy charity to thy Mother, to the Church speaking in her Institutions. Alexander (saith Iustine) did lament, that hee had wronged his Nurse in his drinke. The Church of England is our Nurse, and surely they are not sober who wrong it, and I hope that at length they will have grace to lament it. If any accuse our Church which hath nursed thee, let thy love teach thee to take heed of such accusers, and abstaine from the very appearance of evill, 1 Thess. 5. 22. Let both Fidelity to the Scriptures, and chari­ty to the Church, be a garland to thy Christian head; but let Humility be the Flower of that garland. O be not high-minded: Thinke not thy owne chickens the whitest; or thy owne opini­ons the truest. The right way to bee baptized, that is, to be washed from errour, is to imitate the humble Ethiopian, Act. 8. 31. to crave a guide to understand the Scriptures. Thus putting away pride, prejudice, and profit: if a man read the Scriptures carefully, heare the Church cha­ritably, and esteeme of himselfe modestly; I dare say it confidently, that such a man shall understand the truth sufficiently. And for a mo­tive to put these meanes in practise; let the [Page 28] phrase of my Text, [...], remember us, that to be in an errour, is to be out of our wits. Let us therefore labour to settle our mindes, and to be resolved in our Religion. Wee must not forget it: Such as are out of the truth, are out of their wits. The Lord therefore settle our mindes, and preserve us from all spirituall mad­nesse.

Having dispatched the Heresie; it follow­eth 3 that I discourse of the Fallacy. Which in the first place we finde here related to be three­fold: by spirit, by word, and by letter. The first fallacy or tricke whereby seducers did deceiv [...] the Thessalonians was, [...], the spirit, that is the pretence of some Vision, Revelation, Inspiration, or Spirituall information. Thus 1 Iohn 4. 1. Beleeve not every spirit, that is, yeeld no [...] credence to every Doctor, who doth gild ove [...] his doctrine with the pretence of the spirit, o [...] spirituall infusions. So the Scholia interpr [...] this phrase, [...]: false prophets (say they) use to plead for their false doctrine: This say they is the dictate of the Spirit, an extraordinary gift we are indued with. The second meanes to deceiv [...] these Thessalonians, was [...], by word: whether spoken or written: S. Paul calleth it, [...], inticing words, Coloss. 2. 4. and [...], the shew of wisedome, Coloss. 2. 23. so speake the Scholia also, [...] Certaine persons, say they, by their eloquenc [...] and inticing words perswaded the poore Thes­salonians, [Page 29] That the day of the Lord would come in their age. And finally, the last fallacy is set downe in the next words, nor by Letter as from us. Two wayes did the seducers endeavour to deceive the Thessalonians in this kinde, by quo­tation and falsification. Some did quote that place of St. Paul, in the 17. verse of the fourth chapter of the former Epistle, Then we which are alive shall be caught up: this they alledged that the Thessalonians in their owne persons should see the comming of Christ in that age. Others, [...]; others forged Epistles and spred them abroad, under the name of S. Paul, say the same Scholia.

Here then we discover three fountaines of errours, and false doctrine: Inspiration, Dispu­tation, and Quotation. By Inspiration, and the Spirit, they deceive the Ignorant: By Dispu­tation and Word they deceive the Learned: By Quotation, or Letter, or mis-alledging the Scriptures, they deceive both the Learned and the Ignorant: S. Paul doth arme them against all these, with this Caveat: Bee not shaken in minde, nor troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by Letter as from us.

The first sort support their errours by In­spirations. These are the Enthusiasts, both old, and new. In old time Montanus and the Montanists, in our time Monetarius and the A­nabaptists seduce ignorant people by preten­ded Inspirations. This foule errour doth evi­dently appeare from the act and effect thereof. [Page 30] First, God doth governe naturall things, ac­cording to the nature of them: therefore hee doth usually and ordinarily instruct men (since they have bodies) by corporall meanes, and not by immediate spirituall infusions. Againe, these visions may be suggested by the Evill spirit: Let them therefore confirme them by Mi­racles, and then peradventure we may beleeve them: or rather by the Scripture, and then we must beleeve them without peradventure. Next, they nickname the [...], the holy Pen­men of the holy Scriptures. Impure Quintinus, Bell. de verbo Deilib. 1. c. 1. with a prophane tongue doth call S. Paul, vas fractum; S. Peter, abnegatorem; S. Matthew, foeneratorem; and S. Iohn, juvenem stolidulum. Bullinger saith, that Thomas Schykerus killed his brother kneeling at his prayers, a pretended effect of his godly Inspiration. And Sleidan hath historied it, that 1525. the Anabaptists did murder 50000. Germanes in one day, gui­ded also by Inspiratiō. One place may satisfie al men, concerning this fantasticall frensie. Luk. 16. 31. If they heare not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they bee perswaded, though one rose from the dead: it is the Scripture, not Inspira­tion, on which our Faith must rely. So S. Cy­prian although he had a vision, yet hee proved the point he perswaded, out of the sacred Scrip­tures, Ne videretur verbum Dei adulterare, lest he should seeme to derogate from the Scrip­tures, whilest he did arrogate to Inspirations. But I will pursue this monster no further: For [Page 31] I assure my selfe, if this Viper did but creepe upon the body of our Church, the hand of Au­thority would shake it into the fire. Our Land would bee impatient of such an impious assertion.

A second sort deceive the simple by their discourses and disputations: by uttering [...] as St. Peter speaketh: they make2 Pet. 2. 18. their swelling words to be the windy bladders on which children swimme in a streame of errours, as if they were the most current assertions of Orthodoxall Divinity. And indeed Eloquence is very potent for either party. Tertullus was no meane opponent of S. Paul himselfe. And Faustus the Monke was surnamed Laqueus Dia­boli, Aug. confess. lib. 5. cap. 3. saith S. Augustine, the ginne of the Devill, Quo multi implicabantur per illecebram suavilo­quentiae, because hee insnared many ignorant persons by his eloquent discourses. On the like ground Alexander did exile all the Oratours out of Athens, causas insurrectionis, as the on­ly Trumpets of Rebellion. Yet must we consider what we ought to think and to doe concerning Eloquence: discreetly distinguishing betwixt the use and the abuse thereof. We cannot but know that Eloquence is an excellent instrument and assistant to the Truth also. Eloquent Apol­los was as effectuall a propugner of the Gospell as ever Eloquent Tertullus was an oppugner of the same. And the eloquent tongue of S. Am­brose through the Eare did touch the heart of Aug. Consess. 5. 14. Augustine, with the knowledge and love of the [Page 32] Truth: Veniebant in animum cum verbis quae diligebam, etiam res quas negligebam, saith that holy Father in his heavenly Confessions. WhoAug. de Magi­sho cap. 3. also doth instruct us in our duty, in that point: Acute falleris, sed autem ut falli desinas, acutius attendas: If they take such great paines to se­duce us by their Rhetoricke and Logicke, let us take as great paines to des [...]ry their seductions, though proposed unto us in the probable and plausible arguments of Logicke and Rhetorick.

The third and last instrument of Impostors, is false quotations, urged by false teachers. Thus among the Latines, Manichaei legunt Scripturas Apochryphas, nescio à quibus su [...]oribus fabula­rum, sub nomine Apostolorum scriptas: The Ma­nichees, said S. Augustine, frame writings of their owne composing, which they urged as Scriptures penned by the holy Apostles. And the Grecians also had their [...], saith Igna­tius, the patchers of Pamphlets, which they put out as Authenticall. But above all, the Papists are most expert in this Art of Iuggling, quoting [...], Apochryphall Legends, as if they were the writings of the very Apostles: to wit, the Gospell of S. Thomas, the Lyturgy of S. Iames, and the Constitutions of the Apostles. For the Fathers, they urge some false ones, such as are Abdias, Ephrem, Martial, Idiota, Turpinus, &c. other falsly, as the story of the translation of the head of Iohn Baptist, in Cyprian: some Ser­mons de tempore, in S. Augustine: and other Bookes, Filios populi, spurious, very Bastards, [Page 33] yet doe they lay them at the doores of the most holy Fathers. Nay, if their owne Authors doe speake against their owne cause, they have authorized a Iudex, an Index, to purge them from such aberrations: Ferus, Stella, &c. can witnesse this policie. Iustine reporteth that atIust. hist. lib. 12. the returne of Alexander from his Persian ex­pedition, Magnificentiora castra fieri jussit, hee commanded his Souldiers to erect more mag­nificent Tents than ever they were owners of, ut hostis terreretur, to astonish the enemies. So, to astonish the poore Protestants, the politicke Pa­pists tel us of strange treatises, under the titles of the Fathers, which indeed were Tents of their owne building. Finally, Robert le Bruce ad­mitted of Women and Boyes, to supply the roome of trained Souldiers: though they ther­by got the day, yet I hope that we who fight the battels of the Lord of Hosts, shall never be defeated by such a subtile policy: Though they stuffe their Controversies with forged Au­thors, in stead of authenticall and orthodoxall Fathers. Ye see the threefold Cord of deceivers; Inspiration, Disputation, and Quotation. Take onely one Scripture, Gladium ancipitem, onely one two-edged sword, to cut all these pretences in pieces. Search the Scriptures, there shall you finde life, and know Christ: saith Christ himselfe, Iohn 5. 39.

These are the Fallacies related in particular: there remaineth the Fallacy repeated in gene­rall, in the last words of my Text, being the [Page 34] first words of the third verse, Let no man de­ceive you by any meanes. Suppose that S. Paul spake in this manner: I have told you of three wayes by which you may be seduced: But there are infinite seductions besides. Therefore Take heed: Let no man deceive you, [...], By any meanes.

Ye desire to heare some of them by name: Indeed they are infinite. Howsoever, Faci­lius est seductores definire, quam finire, to makeAug contra A­c [...]micos lib. 1. cap. 4. use of S. Augustines phrase. Would God the common-wealth could tame them, as easily as I can name them. I will tell you their tricks in old time, doe you apply them to our time. I will declare onely a Decade of their devices: your meditations may subdivide them into many Centuries of like subtleties.

Heretickes have deceived ten wayes.

By publike disputation, and by private dissi­mulation: By imploying their Learned men, to deale with our Noble men, and by procuring their Noble men to deale with our learned men: By imploying men to seduce women, and women to seduce men: By complaining that they are persecuted, and by threatning persecution: By slandring the learning, and by slandring the lives of the Orthodoxall.

1 Publike Disputation is a publike engine deceive. Saepe ad me venisti, magis studio contra­dicendi, Cypr. ad Demetr quam voto discendi, said S. Cyprian of Demetrianus. To challenge a publike disputa­tion with a private determination to hold the con­clusion, [Page 35] notwithstanding any arguments to the contrary, is no meane disadvantage.

2 Private dissimulation is no lesse advantage to their publike cause. It was an ill deed of a good man; Consentius inter Priscillianistas, oblo­quebatur Aug. contra men­dacium lib 2. Catholicis, & se simulavit Priscillianistā ut eos è latebris erueret: Consentius feigned him­selfe to be a Priscillianist, that he might dive into the mystery of their Religion. A Prote­stant in fiction, but a Papist in faction: no petty pillar of Popery.

3 In old time cunning Seducers would so contrive their proiects, that their learned men might insinuate themselves into the acquain­tance of Noblemen. Constantia commended aPappus hist. pag. 283. learned Arian Priest to the service of her bro­ther Constantine; who instilled into that good Emperour affection to, if not infection of that wicked Errour.

4 They inverted their policy, causing theirTheodoret. lib. 4. c. 19. Noble men to assay the learned. Modestus Gene­rall for Valens, iournied to Caesarea; his er­rand thither was onely to deale with S. Basil, Vt tenui ex disquisitione dogmatis, nollet Impera­toris amicitiam perdere: that he should not lose the favour of that great Emperour, for the small trifles of disputable Controversies.

5 The imploying of men to seduce women, is an old tricke as ancient as the Heretickes of S. Pauls age: to creepe into houses, and to lead captive silly women laden with sinne, 2 Tim. 3. 6. propagated by them to the Arians also: whose [Page 36] plot it was, whereby Iustina was so wroughtAug. Confess. lib. 9. cap. 7. by them, that for them she became a persecu­tor of S. Ambrose.

6 Others on the contrary, imployed Wo­men for the seducing of men: Priscilla & Ma­ximilla, auro & spiritus mendacio, Montani dog­matibus Coster. in Vine. Lyrin. pag 114. plurimos corruperint: what with their lying and their buying they purchased many to partake with wretched Montanus.

7 By complaining that they were persecuted, they attract many to pitie their persons, and some to favour their opinions. Such was the complaint of the Donatists in Saint Augustines Aug. Bonif [...]io epist. 50 time.

8 Yet those very same men, as it is avou­ched by the same Father, could make use of that they complained of; menacing persecution Aug. Bonifa [...]io Epist. 50. when they met with men of a timorous dispo­sition. A quaint device: to sayle with two contrary windes to the same point.

9 Slander is a great helpe to the seducer: first of the learning of the Orthodoxall. Thus S. Paul himselfe shall bee pronounced [...], but a Babler, by the Philosophers, Act. 17. 18. and S. Cyprianus Coprianus, hissed outLactantius lib. 5 cap. 1. as a dunghill-declaimer, by the Rhetoricians.

10 And finally, to slander the lives of their Adversaries, was common, and commodi­ous. The Heretickes hate both thee and mee, (said Saint Hierome to Saint Augustine) Vt Hier. apud Aug. Ep. 25. quos gladijs nequeunt, votis interficiant: That since they cannot take away our naturall lives [Page 37] with their swords, yet that they may take away our civill lives with their words.

Thus the Roring Lyon sendeth out an Herd of his Whelpes, seeking whom he may devoure. Thus thousands of Pharisees compasse Sea and Land to make one Prosylite. S. Pauls Text is too true in our times; There are many men who would seduce us many wayes. But the God of Heaven preserve all of us from all of them.

The Application I omit: it is easie, you can­not but apprehend it.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. Except there be a falling away first.’

The point of Antichrist may be disputed. Of the name of Antichrist. The Fathers are not the best Expositors in this point. The Apostasie. Whether generall? When it was.

OF Antichrist. This is the que­stion propounded by St. Paul, and (with Gods gracious assistance) to be expounded by my labours. I have heard some such history of that Vision. A studious Father meditating on the mystery of the Trinity, there appeared unto him a Child with a shell, lading the Sea into a little hole: he demanding what the Child did: I intend, said the Child, to empty this Ocean into this pit. It is impossible, said the Father: As possible, said the Child, as for thee to comprehend this profound mystery in thy shallow capacity. De me narratur fabula: it is mine owne case. Many in our age of our lear­ned [Page 39] Fathers have passed by this question, as fa­domlesse: why then should I (will some say, (a child in knowledge) prepare my shell to emp­tie this Ocean? and lose my labour in deciding this controversie? I answer: when you are to returne home in the darke, I thinke you had as leefe have a little child to guide you with a Candle, as a man to go before you with a Torch unlighted. And this I know, that out of the mouthes of babes and sucklings God hath Matt. 21. 16. perfected praise. I adde moreover: I have not done this worke of the Lord negligently. I have perused, if not read, most of the Authors of either side: but I have furnished my discourse principally from the labours of foure of our owne learned Bishops. This also I adde, firstIewel of Sa [...]i [...] ­bury, Andrewes of Elie, Abbot of Sa [...]isbury, Dow­nam [...] of Derie. for the honour of our Nation: this little land surpassing all the Christian world besides, for incomparable learning in that calling: se­condly, for some scrupulous persons satisfac­tion. I wonder how any can call this Calling, Antichristian: since foure Bishops have written against Antichrist: none more sufficiently, none so sufficiently.

Notwithstanding there are many and lear­ned men, who would have this point of Anti­christ left undecided, undisputed, yea untou­ched also. Some few ingenuous and truly learned men, I onely except. From whom I beg their charity towards mee, as I desire to exercise mine towards them: that they would not censure me to be too censorious; because I [Page 40] impute to them onely, and in this point onely, ignorantiam purae negationis, not pravae disposi­tionis. But the partiall, though learned, are led thereunto by three motives: by Policy, Idle­nesse, and Prejudice. First, the Politicke PapistsRhemists in Act. 1. 7. inhibite this Question to bee inquired after. Those Politicians know full well, that such dis­putants doe lay hold on the very Pillars of Ba­bel: Iudg. 16. 26. and therefore the Philistims would glad­ly thrust out the eyes of any that should but looke after such a question: and (as the wife of Anthony did to Tully after his death) stab through the tongue of him, that should dare to talke of Antichrist. Next some idlesbies and slow Tit. 1. 12. bellies, who never made any painfull assay on this point, cry out, that there is a Lyon in the Prov. 22. 13. way, that this is a dangerous question, extra­ordinarily perillous for the ordinary people to dive into. This is the true ignavia fallax: they cover their owne negligence, by dispara­ging and discouraging the diligence of other men: by crying out of difficulties, which they themselves never attempted. Who is more blinde than he who will not see? A third sort, and those learned, have read this question, but with an evill eye, and partiall heart, following the affection, yea the faction they are resol­ved to adhere unto. Like the false Spyes: be­cause of the children of Anak, because of some Num. 13. 26. difficulties, they bring an evill report upon the whole controversie. But for those learned persons, who in other points are ours, let me [Page 41] crave leave to give them this Item: Hereby they are become the Popes Triarij, and doe the Papists speciall service. For they thinke that they cry downe our cause more by their bare names, than by all the arguments of the best Authors of their owne side. For the peo­ple, on our part: without peradventure there are Papists who would entertaine these our learned men, as Timotheus the Musitian was wont to bee entertained, they would give them double hire for unteaching our Protestants what they have beene taught concerning An­tichrist. And for other people, on their part: these our learned men infuse into them the Honey of Rododendron [...]: they make themPlin. lib. 21. c. 83 more furious Papists than ever they were be­fore: because, say they, Our owne great men doe reject us in this great cause, with a scornfull con­tradiction.

To arme our selves against this combina­tion of our Foes, and of our Friends also: let me intreat every impartiall person to take these five things into their indifferent consi­deration. It may concerne us to set a strong hand to this cause, because hereby the Axe is Matt. 3. 10. laid to the root of the tree, the rooting up of Po­pery. To use the words of that worthy Di­vine, Dr, Beard of Antichrist Ep. Ded. one of the same Colledge whereof my selfe was once an unworthy member. In all other controversies, the contention betwixt us is, as that was betwixt the Romanes and Pyrrhus, Vter imperaret: but in this, as be­twixt [Page 42] them and the Carthaginians, Vter esset? for if this foundation be razed, the whole Building of Popery must fall to the ground. But if it stand firme, we fall from a maine ar­gument, to avouch our Separation. Againe, if S. Iohn doth proclaime, that all Gods children should come out of Babel, shall it be thought inconvenient for the same persons, to inquire whether they be in Babel or no? And if S. Paul be so earnest to imploy halfe this Chapter in this point, can wee censure the inquirie into this point, an unnecessary imployment? Nay our adversaries themselves: learned Bellar­mine Bell. de Pont. Rom. Praf. calleth the Point of the Pope, whereof this is a branch, Summam rei Christianae, a matter of extraordinary moment. And laborious Malvenda professeth that hee did spend hisMa [...]. de Ant. calce. whole studies for twelve whole yeares, in this point onely. Where the enemy doth fortifie, he doth suspect his weaknesse. Therefore a just suspition may warrant us to search into this controversie. In a word: the knowledge of this point of Antichrist, in some men, in some sort, is necessary to salvation. For those who adhere to Antichrist revealed, are in the estate of damnation, out of the Booke of life. Rev. 17. 8. in the way of death. 2 Thess. 2. 10. [...] Antichrist doth prevaile in those that perish, saith S. Chrysostome. And S. Ierome saithChrysost. in 2 Thess. 2. Hieron ad Al [...]as. qu. 11. the same: In iis qui ad perditionem sunt praepa­rati, that Antichrist doth deceive those who are ordained to destruction. As therefore wee [Page 43] tender our soules and salvation, even so let us, with all humble diligence, attend to this dif­ficult, but profitable question. In the handling and hearing whereof, God, even our owne God grant us a blessing.

Antichrist! This word, of all the Scripture is found onely in the Epistles of S. Iohn, and there principally in the 18. vers. of the second Chapter of his first Epistle: where hee doth distinguish betwixt [...], and [...], be­twixt the meane Antichrist, and the maine An­tichrist. Every enemy of Christ is an Antichrist: but that Antichrist is the grand Enemy, at the end of the world. [...].Damasc. lib. 4. cap. 28. Antichrist properly so called, is that Arch-adversary, who shall come at the end of the world, saith Damascene.

Antichrist is a Greek word: whereof there are three derivations. The first of which is manifestly false, the second manifestly true, and the third probable. Some say it is pronoun­cedMagdeburg. Cent. 1. cap. 4. pag. 416. Antichristus, as it were Antechristus, that is, before Christ: because Antichrist should come immediately before the second comming of Christ. A manifest error: to derive a Greek word from a Latine root, is more then chil­dishly ridiculous. Others say, Antichristum, Hilar. de Synodis adversus Aria­nos p. 311. as it were Contra Christum: Nominis Antichri­sti proprietas est Christo contrarium esse, saith Hi­larie, the propriety of the name of Antichrist doth imply a contrariety to the person of Christ. Hence Danaeus doth suppose that S. [Page 44] Paul in his word [...], the Adversary, doth allude to this terme of S. Iohn, [...] the Antichrist: and here there is an abso­lute agreement betwixt the Protestants and the Papists. Others in the third place say pro­bably, that Antichristus doth signifie Aemu­lum Christi: Antichrist, a Counterchrist: one who under the shew of Christ doth oppose Christ. Thus in apposition [...] signifieth in stead, as Matt. 2. 22. Archelaus did reigne, [...], in the roome of Herod: and in composition, [...], one case for another. So we may say more than probably: Antichrist is an Adversary, pre­tending to be in the stead of Christ, but indeed figh­ting against Christ, [...], hee shallDamascen. 2. 28 faigne himselfe religious, saith Damascene: and Bernard, Tentabit & supplantabit sub specie boni, that he should insinuate himselfe under the shew of Religion. Thus I say wee may say probably, and more than probably: and this pro­bability will plainly point at the Pope. But I rather follow the second, because I would close with the consent of the Papists. They, we, all, consent in this: Antichrist doth signifie one that is contrary to Christ, even the greatest ad­versary that ever was, is, or shall bee, to Christ, and Christianity. Now who is that great Adver­sary, that great Antichrist: this is our great que­stion which now we have in hand to bee de­cided.

In the first place, let mee lay this groundAug. de Civit. 20. 19. on the words of S. Augustine, Nullum dubium [Page 45] est, eum de Antichristo ista dixisse: S. Paul doth speake of that Antichrist, in this Chapter, yea and plainly too: Iohannes scripsit Antichristi Sharpus Specul [...] Papae cap. 1. mysterium, Paulus commentarium, saith our a­cute Doctor: S. Iohn in his Revelation doth write of Antichrist obscurely, as it were in a mystery: but S. Paul in this Epistle speaketh of him plainly, as it were by way of a commenta­rie. To which I annex the caveat of that ac­complished Divine, in his Accomplishment of Moulin Ac­compl of Pro­phes pag. 77. Prophecies. Though a man may move some dif­ficulties here and there; yet it is enough to stagger the most opinionative, when he shall see all the peeces of this so long a Prophesie to concurre upon one onely man.

This point of Antichrist is delivered from the third verse, to the thirteenth of this chap­ter. Wherein I will passe through these five particulars: Antichrist described, in the third and fourth verses: Revealed, in the fifth, sixth, seventh, and part of the eighth: Destroyed, in the remnant of the eighth verse: Confirmed, in the ninth, and part of the tenth: and received in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth verses.

In the Text, wee have the first point of these five, Antichrist described: wherein wee are to consider foure parts of his description: his Time, Titles, Place, and Properties. First, the Time of Antichrist, his comming is either after, or with an Apostasie; for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first. Se­condly, his Titles are three; Antichrist is ter­med [Page 46] the Man of Sinne, the Sonne of Perdition, and the Adversary, or he who opposeth himselfe. Thirdly, his place is the Temple of God. Fourth­ly, his properties are three, each exceeding one another, and all exceeding all other: He doth exalt himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped: He doth sit in the Temple of God, as God: and he doth shew himselfe that he is God.

I must premise one thing more: All reve­rence premised to the judgement of the Fa­thers: The judgement of the Fathers must not de­termine this controversie. Prophetiae non intelli­guntur, Rex Iacobus prae [...] pag. 84. donec compleantur, said that Patron of Learning: those cannot understand the Pro­phesies, who doe not live to the end of the Prophesies: this prophesie of Antichrist was not fulfilled, therefore it was not expounded in the time of the Fathers. To those old Fathers, these prophesies were aenigmata, meer Riddles, said that old Father Irenaeus. And Daniel inIrenaeus lib 4. cap. 43. his Prophesie doth desine the obscurity of all Prophesies: Such words are closed up, and sealed, Dan. 12. 9. till the time of the end. Ego, quid dixit, fateor me Aug. de Civil. lib. 20. cap. 19. ignorare: St. Augustine concerning this very Chapter, doth confesse that hee could not conceive the contents thereof: and he calleth the opinions of his times, suspiciones, but con­jectures.

As before the comming of Christ, the Fa­thers of Israel did but guesse at those things which the Church did afterward see so plainly. So concerning Antichrist, the Church may see [Page 47] those things now plainly, whereat the holy Fa­thers did but guesse in the Primitive time. Bel­larmine also did reject twelve of the Fathers in this very point of Antichrist, De Rom. Pont. lib. 3. cap. 12. Therefore without any wrong (to be imputed to us by our adversaries) to those reverend Fathers, we may refuse them in this cause: we have the Fathers, the Scrip­tures, and Bellarmine himselfe to avouch it.

The Time is the first point: and [...] is metator Antichristi, (as Lucianus termed Deci­us) that is, the falling away, is the forerunner of Antichrist. When a Fort doth see some Troupes sit downe before their walls, they conclude that the Generall of their enemies is at hand to besiege them. So S. Paul giveth the Church this signe; When the falling away is come, Then, that man of sinne is at the doores.

[...], an Apostasie, is the falling of a man from his Lord, to whom he oweth his fealty. A Renegado: or to turne Turke. It is taken three wayes by the Expositors. First, Politically, to fall from the Romane Empire by Rebellion. Se­condly, Ecclesiastically, to fall from the Church in Religion. And thirdly, Figuratively, the subject for the adjunct, the Apostate for the A­postasie: By the falling away, understanding the head, instrument, or person causing that fal­ling away.

The second signification of these three, is most sutable to the Text; because it is used in the Scriptures: as Luke 8. 13. [...], they [Page 48] fall from the word. 1 Tim. 4. x. [...] ▪ some shall fall away, or depart from the faith: and Luke 18. 8. [...], when the Sonne of man commeth, shall he finde faith on the earth? mea­ning that all will fall from faith at that season. Next, the Fathers use it in the same significa­tion. This Apostasie, saith S. Cyril, it shall bee [...], from the orthodoxall Faith. And S. Augustine calleth the Aposlate, Refugam à Do­mino, Aug. de Civ. 2 [...]. 19. a runnagate frō the Lord. And that many of the Fathers did take this word in this sense in this place, Bellarmine himselfe confesseth, [...]ll. de Rom. [...]o [...]i [...] ▪ 3. 2. that S. Augustine doth witnesse it. Again, Apo­stasie in the Scriptures, and in the Ecclesiasti­call Writers, is never used politically, for the falling away from a temporall Prince. More­over, Discedit imperium, non disceditur ab im­perio, Ap [...]l [...]g [...] ▪ in Bell. cap. 9. said our English Gamaliel: there must be a nullity of the Empire, not an apostasie from the Empire, to make way for Antichrist. [...] in the sixt verse, and [...] in the seventh both the thing and the person which letteth, both the Empire and the Emperour must be ab­solutely removed. And finally, Antichrist is termed [...] Rev. 16. 13. a False prophet. which must imply an Ecclesiasticall apostasie, or falling away in Religion.

Neither can the third sense conveniently be applyed to the Text, to take the word A­postafie siguratively, for the Apostate himselfe. This misprision arose from a false transla­tion, Refuga being read for Apostasia, Aug. de [Page 49] Civitate Dei 20. 19. which is acknowledged also by Suarez, who also saith, Graeca vox A­postasia Suarez Apolog. lib. [...]. c. 10. Sect. 5. significat discessionem à side in suâ syncer â proprietate: that is, Apostasie doth properly signifie a falling away from the Church in Religion.

Thus properly S. Paul doth speake of the E [...]clesiasticall falling away. Yet I will follow all three: both because the other two are true also, though not proper. For the first: the Ro­mane Empire it selfe must fall, which must im­ply a falling from it by rebellion, before Anti­christ doth come. And for the third: if the great falling from the faith shall be absolutely before the comming of Antichrist; then Anti­christ when he commeth (as Bellarmine spea­kethBell. Apolog. cap. 9. well) Non inveniret quos seduceret, shall have few or none to seduce by his strong delu­sions. Therefore it is true also, Antichrist shall be the maine causer of this falling from the faith. Againe, I retaine all the members of this di­stribution, because, as neare as I can, I will tread in the very footsteps of the Papists themselves, and inferre my conclusions from their premises. It is their distinction: The Rhe­mists Rhemists [...] 2 Thess. 2. sect. 5. & 6. on this Text acknowledge the two first branches: though in the fift Section they de­ny that there can bee any revolt from the Church: yet in the sixt Section they seeme to revolt from that resolution: saying, It is very likely that this great revolt shall be, not onely from the Romane Empire, but also from the Romane [Page 50] Church, and withall from most points of the Chri­stian faith. Suarez also doth acknowledge spi­ritualem Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. c. 10 nu 18 stragem, a spirituall defection and de­struction. Dr. Steuartius professor of Ingolstade, Steuartius in 2 Thess. 2. on this place, doth thus describe this falling away. Insignis defectio à Romano Imperio, & me­morabilis Apostasia à side Christianâ: Vnde non immerito Patres vocaverunt Antichristum, ipsam Apostasiam, quod multis author sit, ut à Deo disce­dant. That is, There shall bee such an admi­rable falling away both from the Romane Empire and from the Christian Faith, that thence the Fathers have justly called Antichrist the Apo­stasie it selfe.

Finally, this intire distinction is borrowed from Bellarmine himselfe. Suarez also hath theBell. de Rom. Pontif. 3. 12. Suarez lib. 5. cap. 10. [...]u. 13, 14, & 16. very same in his Apology. I take it therefore for granted, that the word in my text is taken three wayes, Politically, Ecclesiastically, and Figuratively. And I will make it appeare that every way it doth most properly occurre with the Church of Rome.

For the first. The Church of Rome from the Empire of Rome hath falne away, and so falne a­way, as no part of the Empire beside. It is true: The Romane Empire lost Asia, and other pla­ces: but this was by the open invasion of the Turke, and of other forraine Princes. But that he should be thrust out of Rome, his Imperiall seat, whence his Empire is named Romane, by the rebellion of his Subjects; I suppose there never was falling from the Empire like this: [Page 51] and this was atchieved by the Pope. Some­what after six hundred yeares of our Saviors Incarnation, Bonifacius the third, obtained of Phocas the title of Vniversall Bishop: here that Pope was hatching his Apostasie, this was but the infancy of his Insurrection. After that, the Longobards invaded and conquered part of Italy: yet so, that the remnant thereof re­mained intire under the Emperours Dominion. But the Emperour himselfe residing wholly in the East; Italy (as it is in most Kingdomes, go­verned by Viceroyes) was oppressed by his Exarchs. Thereupon the Italians became wonderfully averse from the Emperours, in­clinable to the Bishops of Rome. And the Bi­shops of Rome incouraged by this popular fa­vour, did attempt to excommunicate the Em­perours. Now their Rebellion was growne to some head and maturity. About eight hun­dred yeares after Christ, Pope Leo the third did create Charles, the most potent Prince of Europe, Emperour of the West: yet with this politike and profitable proviso, That the whole Romane Territory should be rendred to the possession of the Romane Bishop. Finally, in the eleventh Century, Hildebrand, common­ly called Gregory 7. annexed the Temporall un­to the Popes Spirituall Monarchy. We need not therefore be dainty to propose our conclusion, in their owne words, Pontifices deficisse ab Impe­ratoribus. Bell. de Imag. lib. 2. cap. 15. It is notorious that the Romane Bi­shops have falne away from the Romane Empe­rours. [Page 52] Thus have the Popes performed the first Apostasie.

The second, their Ecclesiasticall falling away from the Faith, is yet more plaine. This dis­putation were ended, if S. Paul himselfe might be permitted to be the Moderator. Here, St. Paul doth say, there shall be a falling away: it is demanded, what manner of falling away? St. Paul himselfe doth answer, in the latter times Espens. in 1 Tim. 4. 1. Anselm. in 1 Tim 41. some shall fall from the faith, 1 Tim. 4. 1. But from what points of faith? is the second en­quiry. S. Paul himselfe againe doth name those very points, 1 Tim. 4. 3. They shall forbid to marrie, and command to abstaine from meats. Their Perertus doth assent to one of these; An­tichristus, Perer. in Dan. cap 14. &c. ut sertur, ut plurimos decipiat, simula­bit castitat [...]m: it is the common opinion, that Antichrist may deceive the common people, he shall therefore pretend Chastity. And our Ignatius applyeth both, and driveth the naileIgn [...]t. ad Philadelph. home to the head: He shall call mariage pollu­tions, or meats abominable: [...] such an one is possessed by the Apostaticall Serpent. Now for one Thiefe to appeach another, it doth not cleare the Ac­cuser to be guiltlesse: The Papists cannot ex­cuse themselves, by accusing Marcion and Montanus, guilty of the same Apostasie. But it is as cleare as the Sunne; The Pope doth forbid meats and mariage: Therefore, The Pope is falne from the faith. The Pope is falne from the faith: Therefore, The falling away is in him. The fal­ling [Page 53] away is: Therefore, Antichrist is come.

Finally, for the figurative falling away: the Pope is ipse Apostata, & Refuga: the Head and Author of this falling from faith. I omit infinit particulars, and insist in three onely. Adora­tion of Images, against the second Comman­dement: Invocation in an unknowne tongue, con­trary to the fourteenth Chapter of the first Epistle of S. Paul to the Corinthians: and Me­diation through, and Salvation by the Virgin Mary. I wonder there can be men so blinde, that doe not see, or rather that will not see, how grossely they have fallen from the Primi­tive faith. But yet more grossely have they fallen away in one point, by the conclusion of two of their Councils. Licet Christus insti­tuerit, Concil. Constant. Sess. 13. Concil. Trident. Sess. 21. c. 1. &c. Although Christ did institute the Sa­crament to be administred in both kindes: yet it seemed good to their Church, to injoyne the administration thereof in one kinde; and to pronounce an Anathema against any Christi­an, who shall affirme it necessary to be recei­ved in both kindes; as Christ himselfe did in­stitute,Concil. Trident. Sess. 21. Can. 1. and administer it. Now that Church that doth professe they have falne from Christ in one point, and doth practise palpable Apo­stasie in many, we may call that Church Apo­stata, the Head of this falling away.

To close up this point with that Iewell onIuel. in 2 Thess 2. 13. this place: Their Church is increased in out­ward glory; decreased in the inward truth: they have the Chest, lost the Treasure: They [Page 54] were Bethel, the House of God; they are Beth­aven, the house of vanity.

O Roma a Roma quantum mutata vetustaes?
Nunc caput es sceleris, quae caput Orbis eras.

How much is Rome altered from it selfe? It was the prime Church for verity; it is the prime Church for heresie. It is Apostata, the very head of this falling away.

Now concerning the Time, when this fal­ling away was, I will absolve that point, when I come to speak of the second part, Antichrist revealed. Here [...]: I will onely glaunce at that question. About sixe hundred yeares after Christ, it was performed by Mahomet, openly: and at the same time wrought by Rome cun­ningly, and secretly. It was begunne by all Here­tickes, preparatively, from the very Apostles times, The mystery of iniquity doth work already, saith the Apostle, verse 7. But it was brought to the height and perfection thereof, about fif­teene hundred yeares after Christ, when the world was in quiet, under Pope Leo the tenth. Then, onely a remnant of the Waldenses and Albingenses, lived in the Alpes: as also the Pi­cards, Hist. Trent. lib. 1. pag. 3. and followers of Iohn Hus, called the Calistini, or Subutraqui in Bohemia. Being all, but a few, and ignorant, simple men, unfit for opposition.

To conclude. Since first, the Pope is falne from the Emperour, politically; possessing Rome the Metropolis of the Romane Empire. Second­ly, [Page 55] since Popery is falne from the first Faith, forbidding meats and mariage was S. Paul him­selfe did foretell. Thirdly, since we see that the Papacy doth injoyne worship, contrary to the Primitive Faith. And that they themselves confesse, That they have falne from Christs in­stitution in one point. I say therefore of this A­postasie, as Gregory said of Iohn the Constantino­politane; Greg. lib. 4. Epist. 38. Fidenter dico: I am confident in this first conclusion. Rex superbiae prope est: Antichrist is come: for, the falling away hath been long since.

Hereunto will I annex the assoiling of one Quaere: Whether this Apostasie hath beene totall and universall? I answer, No▪ In S. Am­brose Ambr. Hexam. lib. 4. c. 2. his phrase, Ecclesia obu [...]brari potest, of­fluere non potest: Religion was Eclipsed, not ex­tinguished: the Church was hidden, not taken away. Which truth will appeare from the con­sideration of the contents of the Scripture, and frō the consideration of the Books of the Scrip­ture. First then, how could the truth be convei­ed unto us without new Apostles? Next, how could the Scriptures be derived unto us, since the Church is the Pillar of the Truth, and the preserver of those Oracles? And M. Cartwright Cartwright in 2 Thess. 2. saith well on this place: If we should say that the Church could full away, or cease to bee, oneIsay 59. 21. word of the Prophet, which calleth [...] an ever­lasting people, were enough to confute us. O­ther arguments may be added: From a Pro­phesie: My words shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of [Page 56] the mouth of thy seeds seed for ever. From a Pre­cept: Goe and teach, even to the end of the world. Matth. 28 20. From a Promise: The Gates of Hell shall never Matth. 16. 18. prevaile against the Church. And from an in­stance in Particulars: The Administration of the Sacrament, which must be done, to shew the 1 Cor. 11. 26. Lords death, till he come. And the worke of the Ministery, which must be continued, Till we all Ephes. 4. 12, 13. come in the unity of the Faith. Finally, Homo sum, & humani à me nil alienum puto: Humane Testimony is prest to doe service to this Di­vine Verity. That the Truth hath at all times in some place and in some sort subsisted, it is the Record and Concord of all H [...]story. If any desire a more full satisfaction in this cause, I referre him to the solid Treatise of our learned Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. Wherefore seeingThe Grand im­posture, cap. 5. we are compassed about with such a cloud of witnesses; we say, the Visible Church made a revolt, but the Church of the Elect God miracu­lously preserved, even under the cruell perse­cution of Antichrist.

Here then wee cleare our Church fromBell. de notis Eccl cap. 9. Suarez Apol. lib. 5. c. 10. nu. 17 Rich. Smith Pro­testan [...]ia Eccl. c. 4. nu. 13. Aug. in Psal. 101. Conc. 2. that popish calumny, who charge us to a­vouch an Vniversall Apostasie of the whole Church, from all the Christian faith.

Here also we condemne the pride of the Do­natists: who held that the Church was extin­guished throughout the whole world, that Angle of Africa, wherein they lived, onely excepted. Yet farre more insolent is the assertion of our owne English Anabaptists, who hold that The [Page 57] Church hath beene utterly extinguished out of the Helwis Myst. of Juiq. p. 7. whole world. This is the doctrine of their A­postle Helwis, in his Treatise termed the Myste­ry of Iniquity. But condemning both, those old Anabaptists, and these new Donatists.

Hence I say, to the moderate Papists, ye see the fearfull falling away of all Africa and Asia. To the indifferent Protestants, ye see the fall of the famous Church of Rome. I say to us all: we see that this very Church of the noble Thessalo­nians is falne and gone. Therefore the Apo­stasie is past. Open then your eyes to behold An­tichrist, who cannot be farre off. And who it is, with Gods assistance I shall shew you in my succeeding Sermons.

In the meane time, I suppose, it will be no great transgression, if I make one small digres­sion; and sweepe downe one Copweb, on which the Church of Rome doth rest her hand with strong confidence. If our Church (say they) beLess. de Ant. Dem. 4 p. 16. thus fallen, shew the time of this falling away, what Popes reigning, and what Divines oppo­sing, this miraculous Apostasie was performed. This brave weapon is brandished by eloquent Campian, their elegant Champion: but this sword Campian. Rot. 7. shineth better than it cutteth. Quando igitur hanc sidem tantopere celebratam Roma perdidit? Quando esse desi [...]t, quod ante fuit? Quo tempore? Quo Pontifice? Qua viâ? Qua vi? Quibus in­crementis urbem & orbem religio pervasit aliena. If we be Apostates, shew then (saith he) When did the famous Church of Rome fall from that [Page 58] Religion, for which they were so famous? In what time? Vnder what Pope? By what men? By what meanes? By what Decrees or Degrees did this Apostasie surprise their Region, and Reli­gion? I answer: The present Italian tongue is the old Latine tongue corrupted. Because none can shew, what Emperour reigning, and what Grammarians opposing, this corruption was in­duced: will any inferre hereupon, Therefore the Italian is not corrupted? Concerning the Italian Tongue, and the Italian Church, any in­different, ingenuous, and impartiall person will frame the same illation. Yet to proceed▪ I say this very Quaere is a politike point of the Popish Mystery, of their Antichristian Iniquity. As Herod the Edomite first burned all the Regi­sters of the Israelitish Genealogies, and then de­manded who could shew any Record, whereby it might appeare that he was not an Israelite. So the Romanists require of us Chronologicall testimonies of the Time of their Apostasie, when as they themselves have suppressed those Chronicles, and conceale those Antiquities. A­gaine, wee answer in the words of Christ, Matth. 13. 25. Vnde Zizania? Whence are the Tares? The enemy sowed them, when the men were asleepe: In the words of S. Paul, 1 Tim. 4. 2. They speake these lyes in Hypocrisie: and in the words of S. Peter, 2 Pet. 2. 1. They brought in these damnable heresies privily: as Tertullian Tertul. adv. Valent cap. 1. speaketh, Nil magis curant, quam u [...] occultent quod praedicant: their maine care was, to con­ceale [Page 59] their errors, when they did preach them and broach them. And as Lyrinensis speaketh,Vinc. Lyrin. cap. 15. Latenter superinducunt errores, they infused their errours secretly. Yea to shape them an an­swer in the language of their owne Authors: Saepissime constat de re, & non constat de modo, Bell. de P. R. lib. 2. c. 5. saith Bellarmine, The Matter may be apparent, when the manner may be questionable. Of one point Minime constat, saith Gregorius de Valen­tia, Gr. Val de legit. usu Euch. c. 10. we cannot tell the originall thereof. Of ano­ther pedetentim, it entred by Little and little, Ross. Assert Lu­theran. Confut. said Bishop Fisher. And of a third, their mag­nificent and so much magnified Councill of Concil. Trid. Sess. 22. ca. 9 Trent, concludeth with our very phrase, which we use concerning all their errours: Multa irrepsisse videantur, many things seeme to have crept into the Church without observation or opposition. Since therefore the Romane er­rours did enter into the Church of Rome se­cretly, and unseene, it is an unequall demand, to require us to name the very time of their entrance.

Notwithstanding, if any desire more fully to be satisfied, even in the Historicall part of those points of Apostasie they stand charged with: I referre them to the lustre of Ireland, The Archbishop of Armach. in his answer to the Irish Champian. From whom, in the most controversies of maine consequence, they may receive most full sa­tisfaction.

Six particulars I will insist in, which I sup­pose to be the sinewes of their Apostasie, and [Page 60] the supporters of Antichristianisme. The first concerning the Communion: the Communion was instituted of Christ in both kindes, Matth. 26. 27. It was administred by the Apostles in both kindes, 1 Cor. 11. 28. It was received in the Primitive Church in both kindes: as it isConcil. Const. S [...]ss. 12. Concil. Trid, Sess. 21. c. 1. confessed by their owne Councill of Constance, and that of Trent also. The with-holding of the wine from the Laity, became a custome in the Latine Church not long before the Councill of Constance, their Gregory of Valence is our wit­nesse.Greg. de Val. de legitimo usu Eucharist. c. 10. Trent Hist. lib. 1 pag. 3. And it was imposed as a Law, by the said Councill, under Pope Eugenius, and the Empe­rour Sigismund, anno 1484. Against which the opposition was so famous, that the opposers were called the Subutraque. Thus have they falne from the first institution of this holy Sacrament. And this is the first point of their Apostasie. That the Pope is Vniversall Bishop, the univer­sall Scripture doth afford not one tittle, to avouch this title. Nay 600 yeares after Christ this great attribute was condemned by a great Pope, to be Nomen Antichristianum; an Attri­bute Greg lib. 4. Epist. 31. & 39. of Antichrist: and those who consent to that title doe Fidem perdere, Fall from the faith, said the same Gregory. Yet instantly af­ter him did Pope Cyriacus assay it: and anno 606 did Pope Bonifacius atchieve it. Wee therefore can assigne the Time and Persons, when the Pope, even in the judgement of the Pope, did fall into this second point of Antichri­stian Apostasie.

Against adoration of Images, wee producePreesius de Trad part. 3. de Imag. C [...]ss [...]nd. consult. tit [...]le Imag. two, and those domesticall witnesses. These are the words of Peresius, and Cassander confesseth the very same: Neque Scripturam, neque Tra­ditionem Ecclesiae, neque Communem Sensum San­ctorum, neque Concilij Generalis determinationem aliquam, neque Rationem, qua efficaciter hoc sua­deri potest, adducunt: That is, No man (say these men, our adversaries) can produce ei­ther Scripture, or Tradition, or consent of Fa­thers, or definition of any generall Councill, or any found Reason, whereby they can plainly prove the lawfulnesse of the worshipping of Ima­ges. Greg. lib 9. ep. 9. A Pope also doth condemne this Popish errour more than six hundred yeares after Christ: Imagines Sanctorum, in Ecclesias non ad adorandum, sed ad instituendum collocantur, saith Gregory: he permitted them for instruction, but their adoration hee utterly condemned. Yet was Image-adoration established anno 789 by the second Councill of Nice, under Eirene the Emperesse, by the assistance of Adrian the Pope: But with the heaviest opposition that ever the earth saw, or the heavens permitted. Besides the gainsaying of those great Bishops, Serenus of Marcellis, Claudius of Turin, Hinci­narus of Rhemes, and Agobardus of Lions: Be­sides those Libri Carolini, and the two Coun­cills, the Constantian in the East, and that of Frankford in the West: Besides those infinite injuries and insolencies which were offered, and suffered under the reignes of Leo Isa [...]rus, [Page 62] Constantinus Copronymus, Leo Armenius, Michael Bardus, and Yheophilus, whom Bellarmine cal­lethBell de Imag. lib 2. [...]. 6. Homil of I [...]el. part. 2. pag. 36. Iconomachi, the enemies of Images: The Sunne was darkned seventeene dayes, and the Emperour murthered, when the Images were established by Eirene. Therefore here also have we the Time when, and the Person by whom was performed the thirdpoint of their Popish Idolatrous Apostasie.

That all men in generall (and therefore the Pope in particular) should be subject unto Prin­ces, it was the doctrine of S. Peter, 1 Pet. 2. 13. and of S. Paul, Acts 25. 10. the doctrine of their Master, Matth. 22. 21. and it was the doctrine of their Disciples, Reges esse à Deose­cundos, That Princes were under no man, but God alone, this was an ordinary Aphorisme of Tertullian, Chrysostome, Augustine, Gregory, and of all the old Fathers. But in the yeare 1076 Pope Gregory the seventh, surnamed Hilde­brand, Baron. an. 1076. nu. 26. de facto did depose Henry the Emperour, and that it might seeme afterwards to bee done de jure too, he confirmed the same by a Councill held at Rome in the same yeare 1076.Bin tom. 3. [...]o [...]. pag. 1 [...]8 [...]. Thus we insist in the Time and Name, in the punctuall particulars of this fourth falling from the faith, of this Arrogant Antichristian Apostasie.

It was the common Catholike conclusion of all Christians, for full fourteene hundred yeares, that the Pope was not the supreme Iudge of the earth, but that he was subject to a Coun­cill. [Page 63] Their owne Councill of Constance dothConcil. Const. Sess. 4. Concil. Basil. Sess. 2. & 33. conclude it: and their other Councill of Basil doth call it, Fidei Catholica veritas: a point of Faith. But in the yeare 1516 Pope Leo the tenth did reverse that Decree: and did decree in his Laterane Synode, that the Pope was su­preme Concil Lateran. Sess. 11. Bell. lib. 2. de Concil cap. 17. Sect. De [...]que. Iudge, and superiour to a Councill. This is the grand Apostasie: whereby the Pope did declare himselfe to be the Grand Antichrist.

The sixt point of the Popish Apostasie is the first part of that falling from the Faith, fore­told by S. Paul, 1 Tim. 4. 1, 3. and branded for the Doctrine of Devils, is the forbidding of ma­riage. A motion of forbidding Priests to marry, was in the Councill of Nice, anno 325, but stay­edSocrates lib. 1. cap. 8. by the perswasion of Paphnutius. Siricius did set it on foot againe, and restrained some Priests from marying, in the yeare 380: in the yeare 1076, Gregory the seventh (no singular chaste Pope) inforced single life, by Canons and persecutions. And anno 1119 Calixtus 2, didMatthew of Westminster. Trent. hist. lib. 7. p. [...]80. prosecute it as a Decree: but Pope Pius 4, an. 1563, would not permit it so much as to bee propounded by way of Disputation. To these six I will adde a seventh, prayers in a knowne language, that all the people may say Amen: was at the first practised by the PrimitiveCranmer in a Pamphlet to Q. Mary, prin­ted 1556 pag. 13. & 1 [...]. Church, and preached by S. Paul 1 Cor. 14. So is S. Paul understood in the Civill Law, more than a thousand yeares past: where Iu­stinian in a Synode writeth, Iubemus clarâ vo­ce,—ut à fideli populo exaadiantur—celebrent, [Page 64] &c. hee commandeth that publike prayers should be celebrated, that the people might un­derstand them. It a enim & divus Paulus docet in Ep [...]st: ad Corinthios. This, saith he, is the doc­trine of S. Paul, 1 Cor. 14. and thus was St. Paul understood of all Interpreters, Greeke and Latine, old and New, Schoole Authors and others, till thirty yeares before Queene Maries reigne: at which time one Eckius did devise a new exposition, understanding S. Paul of preaching onely. But when a good number of the best learned on both sides were gathered together at Windsor, for the reformation of the Church Service: It was agreed by both, without controversie (not one saying the contrary) That the Service of the Church ought to be in the mother tongue: and that S. Paul in the 1 Cor. 14. was so to be understood. This memorable discourse was written by the Martyr Cranmer, from a prison in Oxenford, to Queene Mary in a Pamphlet printed 1556. Here then again the Romish Church hath falne from the prim [...]tive Church: and this is the se­venth point of the Popish Apostasie.

This is plaine enough of their falling from faith: whereby I have shewed the Times and Names producing most palpable apostasie. These seven particulars are sufficient to shew that point they so impetuously presse us to, in what time, and under whose reigne this Apostasie was acted. Although I suppose that I may unde­niably conclude, That an old man hath an hoary [Page 65] head, when I see it gray: although I be not able to shew the very day when every haire did turne colour.

One word for our practice, and so I end. To fall from the truth, the text tells us, it is the time of Antichrist, the signe of Antichrist, and the worke of Antichrist: indeed, the very Es­sence and Quintessence of Antichrist. Apostasie hath beene a thing ever and most abhorred in the Church of God. Peter did fall from Christ, but Christ knoweth it cost him deare; He wept Cypria. epist. 52. for it bitterly, Matth. 26. 75. Trophimus a Mini­ster, fell from the truth, afterwards he repen­ted and returned, and was received into the Church: but Cyprian would never suffer him to execute the function of the Ministry any more. Fortunatianus a Bishop, fell from the Cyprian epist. 64, 68. Church, but Cyprian and Cornelius, and many others denyed him his Bishopricke; although he repented and recanted his wicked Apostasie. Marcellinus, a Bishop of Rome, for feare of thePappus pag. 108. tyrant Maximian, revolted: but he returned with remorse, sought out the persecuted Christians in a Crypta, a Conventicle at Suessa, in Campania, and did voluntary penance, in sack­cloth and in ashes, and in abundant teares, in the open Congregation. Our noble Archbishop Fox Acts and Monuments Anno 1556. pag. 2067. Cranmer, thrust that hand first into the fire, which had subscribed unto Popery. And the most disgracefull name that ever was fastned on a gracelesse wretch, was the sirname of Iu­lian, Iulian the Apostate, or Revolter from the [Page 66] Christian Religion. Nay the very Apostates themselves cannot indure Apostasie: but if the tortures of the Inquisition doe extort re­cantation from any fraile consessour, some­times they dyed notwithstanding: most times bore Tapers in their hands, and wore Halters on their neckes, and Sambenitos (that is, coats painted with Devils) on their backes: and all times suffered shame, for such a crime, and so shamefull a transgression.

For our selves: know we that Antichrist hath his instruments of Apostasie at this day amongst us also. Laborious Papists, who willMath. 23. 13. compasse sea and land to make one Prosylite. Sub­tile Iesuites, who creepe into houses, and lead cap­tive silly women. And many an Elimas, many an audacious Seducer that will pervert Pau­lus Sergius, and seeke to turne away (even Noblemen) from the truth. But know, Facilis est descensus averm: It is easie to fall from the truth: but (Hic labor, hoc op [...]s) infinite labour and dolour to returne to the truth. A garden is most weedy if once undigged: and a Christi­an most savage, if once revolted. Remember Luke 9. 26. Whosoever denyeth Christ on earth before men, Christ will d [...]ny him before God and his holy Angels in heaven. Remember Hebr. 10. 25, 26, 27. If we forsake the assemblies, and sinne wilfully after wee have received the know­ledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sa­crifice for sinne, but a certaine fearfull looking for of judgement, and fiery indignation which shall [Page 67] devoure the Adversary. Remember that A­postasie and revolting from Religion is the pledge of Hell, and Badge of Antichrist. Christ there­fore confirme us, and make us constant in his Truth, without Hypocrisie, Apostasie, or Back­sliding.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. And that Man of sinne be revealed.’

Antichrist not one person. The Man of sinne. The Pope, the cause of Ignorance, of Whore­dome, and of Treason. The Powder Treason.

ANd tha [...] [...] of sinne bee revealed. I have [...] the first of these five points, which I propounded in the description of Antichrist. I have shewed you the Antichri­stian Apostasie. The second succeedeth: His Titles: which are three: The first of them followeth in these words of my Text, And Suarez Apolo [...]. lib. 5. c. 17. [...]. 1. that Man of sinne be revealed. Suarez in the fift booke of his Apology, and seventeenth Chap­ter, in the beginning thereof; disliketh our Kings discourse, because hee omitted this clause. Therefore to satisfie those that fol­low Suarez, I will discusse this point largely. And indeed there is ample matter in this [Page 69] short sentence. In it I commend foure points to your consideration: the Subject, Article, Adjunct, and Accident. First, Antichrist is here termed a man; secondly, the man; thirdly, the man of sinne; and finally, the man of sinne to be revealed.

First, Antichrist is here called a man, (as I conjecture) to imply the manner of his inva­ding the Church, which is by subtlety and Po­licy. That whereas other persecutors have bin compared to Beasts, because they assaulted the Church with a brutish violence: Antichrist is termed a man, to shew that hee fighteth not onely with the horne of a Beast, Hostility: but also with the tongue of a Man, Subtlety. Both Os gladij, and gladius or is: both the sword, and the word also, shall be his instruments to cut downe true Professors.

Howsoever, this quencheth that errour which was a little kindled by Hyppolitus, thatHyppolitus [...]e Consum. mundi [...] Antichrist should be Daemon in corpore phanta­stico, a Devill in a phantasticall body. This opi­nion is a phantasticall assertion: for Antichrist shall be [...], a man, saith S. Paul in my text:Oecumen, in [...] Thess. 2. [...], an absolute man, saith Oecumeni­us on my text.

The second point: [...], ille homo, The man of sinne. This article of the word, the Pa­pists urge as an Article of their faith: that the Pope cannot be Antichrist. Hence is Suarez hisSuarez Apol. lib. 5. c. 2. nu. 3. admiration, and Lessius his demonstration. The former doth wonder (Quis sedem Regni, homi­nem [Page 70] peccati appellare solet?) that any should call a Kingdome by the name of a man. And the latter deriveth his third demonstration, ab uni­tate Less. de Ant. Dem. 3. Antichristi, Antichrist is one man, therefore the Pope is not Antichr [...]st. Our Rhemists say thisRhemist [...] in 2 Thess. 2. Bell. de P. R. lib. 3. c. 2. article; or the, signifieth one singular man. Et. sane mirum est, (saith Bellarmine) nullum adver­sariorum, qu [...]tamen jactant linguarum peritiam, hoc non ammadvertisse: I wonder, saith hee, that none of the Protestants, who professe themselves great Linguists, could observe this property of the Greeke language, where this article [...] or the, doth signifie one singular per­son. Surely the Rhemists might be right Eng­lish, and Bellarmine a true Italian, but neither of them good Graecians: their argument I may shape into this Syllogisme.

The article doth signifie one singular person,

The Pope is not one singular person: ergo,

The article doth not signifie the Pope.

Ergo, The Pope is not the Antichrist.

The answer is easie. First, I aske any Di­vine, wherefore may not [...] the Man, in this place signifie a multitude, the Church malignant: as well as [...] the woman, in ano­ther, Rev. 12. 6. doth signifie a multitude, the Church militant? Next, every Schoole-boy can tell that the article▪ doth not alwayes sig­nifie one particular person. Againe, it seemeth [Page 71] there is no such signification thereof in this place: for the old translation (so authenticall with them) absolutely omitteth it. And in Scripture the article [...] is used foure wayes, [...], and [...]; by way of Elegance, Demonstration, Difference, and Emi­nence. First, [...], by way of Elegance, as Luke 4. 4. [...], Man shall not live by bread alone. Matt. 4. 4. the same sentence is rendred without the article, [...]. Secondly, [...], by way of Demonstration, pointing at some par­ticular person, as Iohn 1. 29. [...], &c. Be­hold the Lambe of God. Thirdly, [...], by way of Difference, to distinguish the whole kinde, as Marke 2. 27. The Sabbath was made, [...], for man. Fourthly, it is used [...], by way of Eminence and emphasie, to signifie a thing that is noble and notable in that kind, as 2 Tim. 3. 17. [...], The man of God, meaning not any man but the Minister: yet, not one particular person, but the whole cal­ling. So here, [...], signifieth, not all impious men, but emphatically, the Prin­cipall, Antichrist: yet Him, not one particular person, but a whole vocation.

Notwithstanding, yeeld them this conclu­sion: neverthelesse, from hence they can con­clude nothing against ours, or for their owne cause: Though Antichrist be one man, yet may the Pope be Antichrist. For supposing a personall, yea a Trienniall Antichrist; and the persecutors [Page 72] and Heretikes to have beene Harbingers to pre­pare his way. Notwithstanding the See of Rome may be the Seat of Antichrist: and the succes­sion of Popes may be the Series of those persons, out of whom one Monster may arise, who shal succeed and exceed all his predecessours, in breathing out threatnings, and slaughter against the Disciples of the Lord, in making havocke of the Church, and in being drunke with the blood of the Saints, and with the blood of the Mar­tyrs of Iesus. This seemeth to be the conjec­ture of learned Zanchius: and to the sameZan [...]h. misc [...]l. lib. 3. p. 25 de fine sac. 85. di­scept. cum Mar­bachio 474. Mr. Mounta­gues Appeale, part 2 cap. 5. pag. [...]19. conjecture, seemeth our no lesse learned Countriman to incline, in these words: It may bee probable—that one, notorious, singu­lar, mischievous Antichrist may arise, towards the finall consummation of the world: who in fraudu­lent colluding, malicious craftinesse, in impious, execrable, and transcendent wickednesse, through hereticall impostures, and lying miracles shall goe beyond all other, that ever lived in the world—Surely if the Generall of the Iesuites, should once come to be Pope, I would vehemently suspect him to bee the party designed. For out of what nest, that accursed bird should rather come abroad, than out of that Seraphicall Society, I cannot guesse.

But indeed, that Antichrist should be one par­ticular person, it is improbable, and plainly im­possible, which I will make appeare by six ar­guments. In the sixt & seventh verses, [...], and [...], that which with-holdeth, & he which letteth, that is, the Empire, and the Emperor (by [Page 73] their owne doctrine) doth signifie not one man, but a successiō, if the article doth not restraine [...], the person hindering, no more can it restraine [...], the person hindered, vnto the singular number. In this verse, [...], Antichrist is termed, a man to bee Reuealed: but in the seuenth [...] he was working, euen then, though in a Mysterie: and the same man is said to be destroyed, at the comming of Christ, in the eight verse. Antichrist there­fore was in Saint Pauls time, to be revealed in the after times, and to be destroyed in the last times. All which cannot concurre in one par­ticular man. This also may be confirmed from the drift of the Apostles discourse in this place. Which was to foretell, the most nota­ble Apostasie, and most importing the waste of the Church: which could not bee in the age onely, of one man. Farre fitter therefore it had been, to haue foretold the Heresie of Arius, which indured many yeares, and extended to many places: Miratur orbis se factum Arianum, Hieron: Dial. ad Lucif. Saint Hierom saith the whole world was infected with Arianisme. To this Sunne-shine of Saint Paul, St. Iohn may adde one Candle, Reu. 18. 7. Sedeo Regina, 1 sit a Queene, and shall see no sor­row: which are the words of one, not newly sprung up, by an usurped authority, but of one established in a long, and rooted tyrannie. But to lay the axe to the root of the tree: Matth. 16. 18. wee read [...] that Christ will build his Church upon a rocke. Now according [Page 74] to their Popish exposition, if the Papists must expound the article to signisie the singular number, and by [...] The rocke, to vnder­stand Peter alone, and not the whole succession of Popes: then sarewell to the Romish Supre­macy, and infallibilitie. And I thinke the Ro­manists had as liefe yeeld the Pope to bee Anti­christ: as not to be the supreme head of the Church, and not to be the infallible iudge of Controuersies. Finally, Bellarmine himselfe delivereth theseBell. de P. R. lib. 3 c. 1 [...] five things: Antichrist must 1 vsurpe the kingdome of the Iewes: 2 vanquish Egypt, Libia, and Ethiopia: 3 conquer seuen other king­domes: 4 subdue the whole world: & 5 raise an universall persecution. Now how Antichrist shall ever be able to poste over, these expedi­tions on the wings of a whirle-wind, in the reigne of one man, especially in the space of three yeares, and a halse, as the Papists fancie, I appeale to the conscience of any indifferent person, Protestant, or Papist: and they will conclude with me, Antichrist cannot be one sin­gular man.

Neither can any justly oppose, that ar­gument from the opposition: Christ is one man, therefore Antichrist shall be one man. For Christ, the Head of the Church, liveth for ever himselfe: and therefore is one person. But Antichrist, the Head of Babel, is mortall and (continuing to the end of the world) must therfore be perpetuated by successiō: we haue instances in this kind. The High Priest, was [Page 75] the Type of Christ. The High Priest, that Type of Christ, was not one Person, but the succession. The Pope is (called) the Vicar of Christ, not one Person, but the succession. Quoad officium Pa­patus, omnes Papae, qui fuerunt, aut erunt, non sunt nisi Vnus Papa: All the Popes, which over were or shall be, in regard of the Function of the Papacy, are but one Pope, saith that Papist Au­gustine de Ancona. Even so, Antichrist is the Adversary of Christ: not one Person, but the succession. And all those Adversaries, that ever were, are, or shall bee, quoad officium, in re­gard of their function (to oppose Christ) they are all, but one Antichrist. Examine now the ar­gument by these parallels. Christ is one person: therefore his Vicar, the Pope is one person. Christ is one person, therefore his Adversary, Anti­christ is one person. Yee easily discerne the Fallacie.

Howbeit, wee say, that Antichrist may bee called one man, for two causes. First from the phrase, it being propheticall: and in Prophecies, by one beast, a whole Kingdome is designed, Dan. 7. 23. Secondly, from the properties of the persons composing that Antichrist: they may be all called, in the singular number, unus homo, one man: quia Omnes habent unum reg­num, unum propositum, & unum spiritum, saith Rollocke on this place. They all haue one King­dome, Rollock. in 2 Thess. 2. in the same forme of gouernment: one pur­pose in persecuting the faithfull, and one spirit, they being all [...] as Oecu­menius [Page 76] speaketh: all madded, by the same Devill, to underproppe Antichrist. Thus Anti­christ may be called, one man: but indeed heeM [...]gd [...]burge Cent. 1. lib. 1. cap. 4. is, many: a maine succession. I conclude; Anti­christ us est regnum falsorum doctorum, Christi doctrinam obscurantium, & mundanum regnum arripientium: Antichrist is a State, fighting a­gainst the Church in a long succession. Now who they are, which plead most for succession: I leave this to your conjecture, as a preface to plainer demonstrations.

Thirdly, the Adjunct is, [...], These are the two former points: concerning the two remaining: Men, Fathers and Brethren, heare my Apologie, which I make unto you. Of those two points, I shall speake Nil, & Nimi­um: of the one, I shall seeme to speake too much, and of the other too little. The last shall I now passe, I reserve Antichrist revealed to his proper place. The first will enforce me, to spinne out the thread of my Sermon somewhat too long. But of the first, with what breuity I may. The Adjunct is, The man of Sinne, the ve­ry word will cause some to expect invections, bitternesse, clamours, and evill speakings: but let me prevent them, by my protestation. I protest therefore in the presence of God before whom I stand, I will speake nothing falsly, nothing partially, but onely what this Text putteth into my mouth, and their owne writings into my eyes. And in them also will I silence infinite personall instances.

Againe, I protest by the same blessed Ma­jesty, that my hearts desire is, to confirme the Protestant, to reforme the Papist: but to exaspe­rate neither. Therefore my tongue shall not be a vultures beake, to prey upon the putride parts of the Papacy, and to rip up their personall vices. But it shall discusse the Reall parts of Popery: their positions published in print. If there­fore those, which themselves avouch as the sound parts of their religion, if they shall appeare to be rotten and putrifide. Then I hope the sheepe of Christ, will not (like Wolves) swallow downe whole, whatsoever is put into their mouths, by such Carvers. But to keepe my discourse within the compasse of truth: I remember that saying of Christ, Math. 12. 36. Every idle word, that men shall speake, they shall giue an account thereof at the day of judge­ment. I remember also, what a Father said, of that saying: Si pro omni verbo otioso, quanto magis pro omni verbo injurioso, & malitioso: if I must give an account unto God, for eve­ry idle word, what must I doe for every lying word? If I must give an account for every lye in my house, what an account must I make for every lye in my Pulpit? Here then are two reines, for that one member. Yet I must insert one Proviso: Our Adversaries also are abun­dant in their accusations. Wee say that the Pope is The man of sinne: And they say we are The men of sinne. They have their Babels, and their Libels, infinite popish pamphlets, which [Page 78] publish us to be the sinke of sinne, the shame of Christendome, and the scumme of the whole world. But those imputations, they put upon us falsly, and impertinently. Falsly, St. Hierome taxed Sabinian for destouring a Nunne, Sabinian retorted vpon St Hierome, the like suspition of lewdnesse. Herein they differed: Hierom did accuse Sabinian per veram convictionem, and Sabinian Hierom, per falsam confictionem: This is our case: wee charge the Papists that they defile the Church, by foule sinnes: they charge us with the same. Herein wee differ: our ac­cusation is per veram convictionem, by true con­viction, and just relation: theirs is per falsam confictionem, by false consiction and forged ca­lumniation. Againe, as these calumnies are false, so are they impertinent also: for they ac­cuse us of personall sinnes, which alwayes have, are, and ever will be, in the purest Churches, upon the face of the earth. But we charge thē with doctrinall, and dogmaticall crimes: with crying sinnes supported by the Doctors, and doctrine of their church. Having premised these items, I will speake to you, as St▪ Paul spake to Timothy, 2 Tim. 2. 7. I will speake the words of truth, and sobernesse: Consider what I say, and the Lord give you understanding in all things.

[...], The man of sinne. Geni­tivi S [...]ar▪ Apol. lib. 5. cap. 17. nu. 2. pro adjectivis, in scriptura positi, exaggeratio­nem significant saith Suarez, Genitives put for Adjectives doe augment, and increase the sig­nificatiō: as here, The man of sin, that is, a most sinfull man.

Now Antichrist is termed, a most sinfull man, two wayes, both affectivè and effectivè: [...] and [...] of all men, hee prin­cipally, is both the Practiser, and the Causer of Sinne. Magd [...]burgens. C [...]nt. 6 cap. 4.

He is the Prime practiser of sinne, and here­hence, Antichrist was called by the ancients, Secundus Adolescens, the Adventurous youth, quia iuvenili temeritate fervidus est in malo: because with a youthfull frensie hee doth plunge himselfe into all madde courses. Againe, he is the grand cause of sinne: there­foreAquin. Sum▪ 3. quaest. 8. Art. 8. Greg. Moral. lib. 24. c. 3. is Antichrist called caput impiorum, the Head of wicked men: & every wicked man, mem­brum Antichristi, the member of Antichrist: as if all wicked men, and wickednesse, receiued their beginning and continuance from that fountaine. Both these are included in one sentence by Oecumenius on this place, [...],Oecumen. in 2 Thess. 2. that is, Antichrist is called, The man of sinne, because he doth sinne incom­parably himselfe: and because hee doth con­straine others also to commit iniquity. By the first he is like Ahab, who sold himselfe to worke wickednesse in the sight of the Lord. By the se­cond, he is like I [...]roboā, who made Israel to sin. By both, hee fulfilleth that in the first to the Romans, and the last: He doth not onely do things worthy of Death, but hath pleasure in them, which doe them.

But who is this Man? this Paterne and Pa­tron [Page 80] of all impiety? the Rhemists call it Blaspe­my: we verity. We say, The Pope is The Man of Sinne: both by Acting it in Himselfe, and by effecting it in others. Anno 1562. the Archbi­shopTrent. Hist. lib▪ 7. pag. 588. of Granada, and all the Spanish Bishops de­sired reformation, in the Trent Councill: say­ing that the Fountaine of all abuses, was the Court of Rome, which is not onely corrupt it selfe, but the cause of Deformation in all the Churches. This truth is also confirmed by that false proselyte, Radix omnium malorum, Spal [...]s de Rep. lib. 4 c. 11. nu. 11. est Romana Curia: the Court of Rome is the cause of all evill.

For the first: the personall sinnes of the Popes, I passe that. Onely because Suarez saithSuarez. Apol. lib 5▪ cap. 17. nu. 5. Christoph de Antichristo a­gainst Doctor Dounam. Tris [...]gion lib. 3. cap. 39. that there were aliqui improbi, not many: and Christopherson in his catalogue doth not men­tion any evill persons, amongst all the Popes. I must therefore give a tast of other mens ob­servations. The learned author of the Tris­agion, saith that there sate in the See of Rome, fourteene Popes which were Adulterous; nine Simoniaks; twelve Tyrants; three and twenty Sorcerers, and ten Traitors. To which I mustTo [...]. Tor [...]i. pag▪ 219. adde, what our Bishop hath delivered out of their Platina: Monstra, Portenta: more then twenty Monsters of Mankind, which sate: and more than thirty Schismes, were hatched in the Chaire of Rome. And for the space of one hundred & fourescore yeeres, & for the suc­cession of Fifty Popes, hee could reckon Vix unum, Pontificis nomine dignum, hardly one [Page 81] worthy to be called a Pope; and that you may notH [...]m. 2. lib. Whits. 2. part. sol. 219, &c. judge this to be a private judgmēt, or mine to be a rash judgement, reade the judgement of the Church of England, fully to this point, in the Homily for Whitsontide. But I will remove my finger frō this sore: which I had not touch­ed, had not their bragging Tongue, cōstrained my Hand, a little to discouer it. Next to come to the life of the cause: That the Pope is the cause of sinne, it will be confessed, if we consider, onely this one thing. There is a booke, called Taxa Cancellariae Apostolicae, where in print, the Absolutions, from sinne, and dispensations for sinne, are set at a certaine Rate. Can any imagine a fitter introduction? and a more imboldning incouragement, for any sinfull man to commit any sinfull action? This is much which I say: but much more is said, by one of their owne, and best authors, Claudius Espencaeus. Liber palam, ac publicè, hic Cl. Esp [...]. in Tit. cap. 1. Digres. 1. impressus hodie ut olim venalis, Taxa Camerae, seu Cancellariae Apostolicae inscriptus, in quo plus scelerum discas licet, quam in omnibus omnium vitiorum summistis, ac summarijs: et plurimis quidem licentia, omnibus autem Absolutio emp­turientibus proposita. That is, There is a booke publikely to be sold, the Taxa Camerae, where­by a man may learne more wickednesse, than ever was comprised in all the summists and summaries of Vices, which ever were set forth; and wherein some may buy leave, and all par­don for any sinne. The same author proceedeth [Page 82] in the same place and point, that that booke doth dispence with Adulterers, Murtherers, and Sorcerers. Adulteros, In cantatrices, & Ho­micides: yea they absolve Parricidas, Incestos, & contra naturam cum Brutis, those that kill their Fathers, defile their Mothers, or that are so farre past grace, that they commit, that foule crime against nature. By name: for Per­jurie, Cap. 4. a villaine which hath falsly and willing­ly forsworne himselfe, shall be absolved: and the price of his Absolution is printed sixe gros­ses, Cap. 3. or nine shillings; and the same price is pitched, for that child of the devill, who out of a diabolicall lust, shall defile a woman, in the holy house of God, in the very Church it selfe. Thus also under Alexander the sixt, the Cardi­nall Waldenses lib. 2. cap. 3. pag. 48. of St. Xist: sent into Dauphine, two bulls, one by which he gave absolution for Simonie, Theft, Murther, Vsury, Adultery, Detension of Benefices, Destruction of goods Ecclesiasticall, Perjurie, yea Apostasie and Heresie.

All which may bee established, by theBella [...]. de Pont. Rom. lib. 4 ca. 5. sect. Quod. judgement of learned Bellarmine, for saith he: Si Papa praecipiat vitia, & prohiberet virtutes, tenetur Ecclesia credere, vitia esse bona, & virtu­tes malas, nisi velit contra conscientiam peccare. That is, If the Pope should command vices, and interdict vertues, every person who would not offend against his conscience, must beleeue, that the vices are good, and the vertues are bad. And that none may surmise me to wrong Bel­larmine, or to wring his words beyond his [Page 83] meaning: behold a like egge of the same bird. Bellar. de Pont. Rom. lib. 4. ca. 2. sect. Dein de. Catholici omnes convenient, pontificem—aliquid—statuentem, sive errare possit, sive non, esse ab omnibus fidelibus obedienter audiendum: that is, all Catholikes doe accord in this, that the Pope, whether he may erre or no, is yet to be heard with all obedience. And Bellarmine doth but Blanch Bell. Recogn. de Sum. Pontif. pag. 507. the Aethiop, when as he would seeme to retract this paradoxe: saying that hee did speake de dubijs actibus: and in the last citation, he hath in re dubia. For the Powder Traitors, propoun­dingAbbati Antilog. cap. 9. it, as rem dubiam, to murther a King, and ruine a Kingdome, at one blow; from these principles, if the Pope had returned the affir­mative, they must have obeyed him: yea have beleeved, that that vicious act, had beene a ver­tue: Tolet. Instr. lib. 4 cap. 3. sect. 7. nay (as another Cardinall speaketh in a­nother case) they might have thought that bloody barbarous villany meritorious.

Let any patron of the Pope, under heaven, name any man, or succession of men, on the earth, who have given the like incitements, incouragements, and commandements unto sinne. And I will recant, and confesse, that I have done his Holinesse, and the holy series of his predecessours much wrong, saying, that The pope, is the man of sinne.

But principally, the Pope is the cause of three sinnes, hee is the cause of Ignorance, of Whoredome, and Treason. Now if I can prove that the Pope is the cause of these 3 sins, I have cause enough, to conclude: The pope is the man of sinne.

For the first: If the Councill of Tolet, hath de­finedConcil. Tol. 4. cap. 24. right, that Ignorantia est mater omnium errorum, Ignorance is the mother of all Errours. It will exercise the wit, and learning of his best friends, to quite him from being the cause of much sinne, who is the cause of that which is the cause of all errour. That the pope is the cause of Ignorance it is plaine, because he com­mandeth his to heare in Latine, and to pray in Latine, plebis est admira [...] divina secreta▪ non Bonaventura in Luc. 1. 21. pers [...]rutar [...]; the common people must admire not inquire after divine secrets saith Bonaven­ture. Math. Peresius speaketh farre moreMatth Peres. de Trad. pag. 44. boldly and broadly: his doome is, that it was the Devills invention, to permit the Lay peo­ple to read the Bible. But acute Richard of Ments, hooketh all in handsomely, by a prettyTrent. Hist lib. 2. pag. 158. distinction: that the doctrines of faith, were now so cleered, that wee ought no more to learne them out of the Scripture: and therefore the scripture was read heretofore in the Church for the instruction of the people, whereas now it is read in the Church, onely to pray, and ought to serve every one, to that end onely, and not to studie.

Finally, hee doth forbid the Lay people to read the scriptures, unlesse they obtaine speci­all License from the Bishop or Inquisitor to do it, as appeareth by the fourth rule of Prohibi­ted bookes, which is at the end of the Tridentine Councill. And the granting of those Licenses is now againe taken away by Clement the 8. as [Page 85] may be seene by his Index of prohibited bookes, printed at Paris, by Laurentius Sonius. AndDecretal. de Hae­riticis ca. Quin­cunq. in 6. for a lay Papist to dispute of the scripture, is to incurre Excommunication.

The Popes injunction, to pray in Latine hath made many of the lay people, such ignorant people, that they become like Melitides, the naturall foole, who could not define, whether his Father or Mother did bring him forth! So they cannot tel, whether God their Lord, or the Virgin their Lady, should be the object of their Prayers. Yea a great Divine in the Vniversity Rex Iacobus med. in Orat. Dom. pag. 132. of Saint Andrewes in Scotland, taught it pub­likely, that the Lords Prayer might be said to the V. Mary, which monster could never have beene teemed into this world, if the Latine language had not beene the Midwife. A tricke of an Apostate: the Pope wanteth no precedent, Iulian interdicted the meanes of knowledge to the poore Christians. I involve therefore two conclusions, in one short sentence. The Pope is an Apostate, and The man of sinne.

The second point is Whoredome. I say, The man of sinne, is the cause of that sinne: and the Pope is the maintainer of Fornication, and main­tained by Fornication. Cornelius Agrippa shallCorn. Agripp. de vanitate cap. 64. be one witnesse, that the Whores of Rome eve­ry weeke payd a Iulius, that is, sixe pence each, to the Pope; who shal be seconded by one of our owne Countrymen: The stewes are inWats: Quodlib. 2. Artic. 4. Rome, cum approbatione, as lawfully, as any Citi­zen of Rome, saith Watson. But indeed I have [Page 86] a cloud of witnesses, for this truth. To keepe a Concubine is permitted [...]g [...]b [...]s, by the lawes Duarenus de Beneficijs lib. 8. cap. 6. Lopez de ratione reg. lib. 2. p [...]. 58 of Rome, [...]aith Duarenus that learned Lawyer. Stewes are to be tolerated, saith Lopez, ad deti­nendum libidinis ardorem, to limit the fury of lust. Strump [...]ts inhabit Rome, sci [...] & pati­ente Nav [...] ▪ manua­li cap. 17. Papa, the Pope knowing, and suffering such inhabitants. Meretri [...]s non sunt dignae la [...]ueis le­gum, Whores are not worth, to be corrected by the Lawes, said [...]valdus. Iacobus de Graffijs pro­poundeth the question; Quare Ecclesia per­mittit Lupanaria, why doth the Church permit stewes? and assoileth it: tolerat minus malum praesens, ut evitet majus futurum, that is, their Church doth permit the lesse evill to avert a greater. Nay the same author goeth yet far­ther, beyond our credence, if a papist did not report it. Lex cogit, the Law doth compell, pub­licas meretric [...]s ad fornicandum, cum quocunque, juxta tamen mercedem. If he bring mony, the law doth compell their Whores, to commit Whore­dome, with any man.

Finally it is the report of a learned Convert Sheldens Mot. Law. 3. pa. 151. that there are Permissive and Tolerative lawes, for these stewes, and strumpets in some papisti­call Countreys: in the City of Rome, there is publike toleration, and Papall permission, and pro­tection of Queanes. The Pope hath Toll from them, the Cardinalls and Courtiers cannot bee without them. Pius the 5. once banished them, but hee drave away so many Citizens and Courtiers with them, that hee was conten­ted [Page 87] to permit their returne. Very consonant to the name Courtizane, (the fairest title of a Whore) which arose from the Court of Rome, because such were entertained day and night. These women sufficiently prove, that the Pope is the Man of sinne.

But to furnish this point, with proofes to the full: I adde, the Church of Rome, hath made a Law to constraine some to uncleannesse. And therfore it may meritoriously be termed [...], the cause of sinne. If a Prince command, that a whole City, must wade through a deepe foord, though some be of suffi­cient stature to wade through, if the rest pe­rish, shall wee not impute it to the Prince his command, that they bee drowned? If a state in­act a statute, that all in a Countie shall beare two hundred weight, 20. miles, in one day. Althogh a few strong men discharge it, if many women and children sinke and dye under the burden; may we not conclude, that that Law did kill them? Even so; censure a Decree of the Church of Rome, That all the Clergy must vow a single life: Though some may have that Blessed gift of Continence: yet many, too many cannot but be uncleane, unchast, at least inconti­nent. I inferre then: Their law doth constraine them. All have not that gift, Math. 19. 11. Ma­riage is the remedy to them that have it not, 1 Cor. 7. 2. Therefore, those that have neither the gift, nor the remedie, must fall into that foule sinne of uncleannesse: and their Law doth [Page 88] constraine them. This law of such a sinfull shame­full consequence, Siricius attempted about the yeare 380: but it was effected by Grego­r [...]e 7. 1074. which is now so strongly sup­ported,Trent. Hist. lib. 6 pag. 527. that though Augustine Pavugarner, petitioning to the Councill of Trent, did a­vouch the Clergie of Bavaria infamous for lust, few of them not being Concubinaries: yet could he not beg permission for them to mar­rie, indeed to be honest. A strange inversion: It is better to marry, then to burne, saith St. Paul, 1 Cor. 7. 9. it is better to burne then to marrie, saith theCoster. Enchir. cap 17. prop. 9. T [...]stat in 1 Sam. 17. qu [...]st. 45. Thom. 2. 2 aequ. 88. Art. 11. Popes holinesse. But it is a stranger position: Tostatus and Thomas put the Quaere, if the Queene of the Sarazens, with her whole king­dome would be baptized, and become Christi­ans: conditionally that some Monke may bee given her for an Husband. What should bee done in this case? They answer negatively: That a Monke might not marry, no not such a Queene, licet multae animae sunt manifestò peri­turae although many soules, should undoubted­ly perish, by that refusall. Now, what may we conceive to bee the cause of this so severe an inhibition? I conjecture it to be twofold: the commodity, and the glory of the Church of Rome. Nondum erat ecclesia dotata, saith Gerson, the Treasurie of their Church would bee at a low ebbe, if this channell were diverted.Hist. Trent. lib. 7. pag. 680. And Pius 4. anno 1563 blamed the legates, for permitting the question to be disputed, be­cause the affections of maried priests would [Page 89] fall from the Church, to their Country. I re­member a fearfull saying of Arnobius: Fre­quentius Arnob. lib. 8. pag. 771. in Aedituorum (sacerdotum, aut Mona­chorum) cellulis, quam in ipsis Lupanaribus, fla­grans libido defungitur? I will not translate his sentence, nor relate my owne sentence: but I will conclude, The Pope is homo peccati, the man of sinne: for he hath law to command it.

To close up all with one or two memo­rable additions: Gravius peccat, si uxorem du­cit, quam si domi Concubinam [...]v [...]at. Costerus Coster. Ench. cap. 15. Prop. 9 saith, it is a more grievous crime for a Priest to marry, than for him to keepe an Whore in his house. And it is a ruled case of conscienceTolet: Instit. sa­cerd. lib. 4. c. 21. amongst those Catholikes: That a woman though she hath oftentimes lyen with other men, yet she may say and sweare to her husband, that she is no adulteresse: with this reservation, I never did commit adultery, Tibi ut revelem, with an intent to tell him. But to put all whores andTaxa Camera cap. 13. whoremongers out of all feare, they have pit­ched a publike price upon this Sinne. Their Taxa telleth us, that a Priest might keepe a Concubine paying ten shillings and six pence: and a Lay man may doe the same, at the same rate. If a man defloure a virgin, it shall cost himCap. 14. Cap. 15. nine shillings: and seven shillings six pence must be payed by him, that defileth his kinswoman. Sarishariensis in Ep [...]st. ad Coloss. 4. 5. pag. 356. Caus. z. Quest. 7. in Gloss. I will shut up all with that quotation of our learned Bishop, out of their Canonists: Pro sim­plici fornicatione, hodie nemo deponitur: Now none is deposed for simple fornication. Now [Page 90] would I see him who will not see the Sunne: can any deny this conclusion? The Pope is the cause of whoredome. The consequence where­of will hardly be waved.

The Pope is
The Man of sinne.

The third and last sin, wherewith I charge the Church of Rome, that it is the cause thereof: is Treason▪ Treason! Did ever Englishman think that any impudent hād shold throw back this durt into our owne faces? yet is there a popish pamphlet to prove the popish Church to be Hierusalem, or the mother of peace: and our Church to bee Babel, or the Teacher and practiser of sedition. Iust like Athalia, who was the Arch-traitresse her selfe, 2 King. 11. 1. yet shee was the first and fiercest to cry treason, treason, against others, 2 King. 11. 14. But whether it be our Church, or the Church of Rome which is the shop where all treason is ham­mered: let this discourse testifie.

The whole Series of the Popes, for many centuries might well be called by the sirname of Vrbanus the third, Turbani: that is, the troublers of all Christendome. But I will not in­large my discourse too farre: pondere, non nu­mero: I will produce a few testimonies, but to the purpose: and I wil end only with one autho­rity, and with one example: which shall satis­fie [Page 91] any indifferent person, who doth impar­tially desire satisfaction.

Aquine is an old Artist in this, and goethAqum. 2. [...] q [...]st. 12. Art▪ 2. plainly to worke, Principe propter Apostasiam excommunicato, ipso facto subditi ejus solvuntur à juramento fidelitatis: that is, if any Prince be excommunicated for Apostasie, or falling from Religion, ipso facto, by that very act, his sub­jects are absolved from their oath of allegeance. Bellarmine driveth the same naile a little fur­ther:Bellār. de Pont. R. lib. 5. cap. 7. sect. E [...]go [...]ia. Si Princeps aliquis ex ove, aut ariete fit lupus, id est, ex Christiano haereticus, potest Pastor Ecclesiae cum arcere per excommunicationem, & simul jubere populo, ne eum sequatur, ac proinde privare eum dominio in subditos. That is, If any Prince of a Sheepe shall become a Wolfe, that is, of a Christian, an Hereticke, the Pastor of the Church (the Pope) may expell him by excom­munication, and withall he may command the people to follow their Prince no more, and fi­nallie he may deprive him from ruling over hisBellar. de Pont. Rom lib. 5. ca. 7. sect. Quod si subjects. And hee addeth a reason, why this hath not beene frequently done, Quia deerant vires, the Pope wanted power to put it in exe­cution. And this certainly was the cause of composing that laborious, but lying libell Monarchomachia, whereby the wilie author would perswade credulous persons: Hieru­salem, Hierusalem: that the Papists are the most peaceable people in our whole land: but desunt vires, they want power. There is the cause of their quietnesse: and for ever may it continue unto them.

Thus have I the most, and most learned of the Church of Rome avouching my accusation: For Thomas is the leader to all the Thomists: and few of the Iesuits will sticke to follow their Cardinall Bellarmine. Nay not onely the Thomists, and Iesuits, but if they will subscribe to the Pope, all the Papists must grant the cause, though the title peradventure (Treason) is declined by them.

About the yeare 1253, Pope Innocent theMath. Paris. pag. 844. fourth, said of King Henry the third: Nonne est Rex Angliae noster vasallus? is not the King of England our subject? & ut plus dicam manci­pium? nay more, is he not our slave? PopeMonarchomach. part. 2. tit. 3. pag. 372. Pius 5. indeavoured the deed, (but God be blessed deerant vires (and ever may they) ar­med our Northerne Papists to Rebellion against our famous Queene Elizabeth, as it is confessed by impudence it selfe, the Babylonish authorApologia Regis Iacobi pag. 77. of their Babel. Pope Sixtus the 5. uttered in the Conclave a panegyricall Oration, in the praise of that traiterous Monke, who murthered Henry 3. King of France. And finally Pope Vrbane 8. Maij 30. 1626. dated a Bull toBulla Vrban. 8. 1626. England, to exhort all English Romish Catho­likes to refuse the oath of Allegiance; that is, in effect to bee Traitors. Wherefore then should we be dainty, to give the title which is so meritoriously atchieved? Homo peccati, The Pope is the man of sinne.

But all these instances fall short of that in­star omnium, of that one authority, with which [Page 93] I promised to conclude, and have reserved it to bee the complement of the whole cause. Suarez, ex cujus ore locutos, omnes conspirasse af­firmare audeam, all the hearts, of all the Papists, speake out of his mouth, saith Alphonsus a Ca­stello Branco in his censure of his Apologie. Now let us heare his and their united lan­guage.Suarez Apolog. lib. 6. cap 4. First therefore in his 6 booke, and 4. chapter of his Apology, he proveth this propo­sition, Papa potest Reges deponere, ac occidere: that is, The Pope hath power to depose, and to kill Kings. But with five cautions; 1. Se inconsul­to, Suarez Apolog. lib 6. cap. 4. num. 17. nemo contra regem suum insurgat. None may dare to rebell against his King, Se incōsul­to, unlesse the Pope be acquainted with it. 2. Ab Suarez Apolog. lib. 6. cap. 4. num. 18. illis tantum potuit expelli, & interfici, quibus ipse id commiserit. None may expell, nor kill their King, but onely those, to whom the Pope him­selfe, doth commit this designe. 3. What p [...]r­ticularSuarez Ibib. person may principally performe this feat? Successor: his next Heire to the Crowne, si sit Catholicus, if he be of the Romish Religion, 4. Illo negligenti [...], what if the successour, dothSuarez Apolog. Ibid. make some scruple to executo the Popes pious injunction, and to touch the Lords anointed? Then, communitas regni, all the Commons may take up [...]rmes: Dummodo sit Catholica, pro­videdSuarez Apolog. lib. 6. cap. 4. num. 19. they be Papists. Finally, if all [...]aile, Al­ter Rex, a Forraigne Prince may invade his kingdome: alwayes provided, si Pontifex po­testatem ei tribua [...] invadendi [...]eg [...]m▪ that the Pope permitteth [...]is [...]sio [...] ▪ So [...] there [Page 94] must be no deposing, nor killing of Kings, but with the knowledge, approbation, instruction, of the Pope himselfe. Therefore the Pope himselfe is the root of all Treason. And in this point al­so, he is Ille homopeccati, The man of sinne.

Disciples have not beene wanting to this Doctrine. Even tlle author of the Monarcho­machia himselfe, I doubt not, but is an excel­lent proficient in this Schoole, though hee pre­tendeth that he never learned this lesson. In hisMonarch. part. 1. tit. 6, pag. 272. first part and sixt title, these words fall from him, Who in his Realme is to judge him? who in his Realme? Indeed the Pope is not in the Kings Realme. If he would speake out, in plain English, wee should find, that hee that hath Hierusalem, Hierusalem so much in his mouth: that he hath Babel Babel as much in his heart: and that with Suarez hee holdeth the Pope to bee Iudge unto the King. But to winde up all in one example, never to bee pa­ralleld, the Powder Treason, occasioned by theTort. Torti pag. 86. popish Religion: Attempted by popish Catholikes: incouraged by popish Doctors, as Faux himselfe freely confessed. Nay to speake in the phrase of Suarez: They did not, they durst not attempt it, se inconsulto, without the knowledge of the Pope: nisi catholici, unlesse they had beene Ro­mish Catholikes: et quibus ipse commiserit, they had never undertaken it, ha [...] not the Pope him­selfe given them commission: [...], The Pope is, The man of sinne.

But let us heare Babel, plead for Rome. [Page 95] Monarchomachia maketh this excuse. ThatMonarch [...]m. part. 1. tit. 1. pag. 14. Horrible project of the Gunpowder Treason was attempted by a few private Hot-spurres which in justice, is rather to bee buried with the of­fendors, then to be objected, and imputed to innocent men, who generally with great sorrow, abhorre the Memory thereof. I will answer inMonarchom [...]. part. 1. tit. 1. pag. 52. his owne words: touching that objection, that the papists (and this Author himselfe) doe; they doe say, that the Gunpowder Treason was an horrible project: and they doe say, that they abhorre the memory thereof with great sorrow: and this man doth preach obedience, and hath printed a pamphlet, which he termeth Hieru­salem, to that purpose. But this is onely a fal­lacy to avoid the scandall: for now they see that those Traitors did not stand, nor maintaine their quarrell, now they leave them in the Bry­ars, & cry out against their project, & pretend that they abhorre, that very Memorie of them. Nay would God they did so much in truth. For this and all their cunning pamphlets can­not coape the lips of all their Catholikes, but some of them, at some time, will shew their teeth. As M. More censured in the Starre-Chamber anno 1623. Article 15. said, That it was pitty that he who undertooke the blowing up of the Parliament, that he was not hanged present­ly: not because he did attempt it: but because hee did not effect it.

Now that our King and Kingdome, our Peeres and People, our Church and Common­wealth, [Page 96] that our Nation and very Name of Eng­land should have beene buried in one graue: torne in peeces with one blast of Gunpowder. And yet by no meanes, se inconsulto, without the approbation of the Pope. This may iustly cause us to say, Ecce homo peccati, The Pope is the man of sinne.

In the year 1554 Queen Mary ordained thatTrent. Hist. lib. 5. 385. that prayer instituted by King Henry the eight, To deliver the kingdome, from the Sedition, Con­spiracy and Tyranny of the Pope, should bee ra­zed out of the Communion Booke. I thinke we may take up some such forme of prayer again, and pray: From Ignorance, Whoredome, and Treason, From the killing of our King, and confusion of our Common-wealth, From the Man of sinne, and that Pope of Rome, Good Lord deliuer us.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. The Sonne of perdition.’

Antichrist the sonne of perdition. Antichrist, Iudas, and the Pope paralleld. Popish persecu­tions surpasse those of the Emperours. Of the Inquisition.

I Have discussed the first point in this Description: the time, a fal­ling away. Which being taken three wayes, every way it is punctally fitted to the Pope: ei­ther politically, for a falling from the Empire, by rebellion: or Ecclesiastically, for a falling from the Church, in Religion: or Figurative­ly, the falling away being put for the faller a­way, the cause thereof: all which are proper to the Popish Apostasie. I am entred into the second point, the three titles of Antichrist. In the first I have observed foure particulars: the Subject, Antichrist is termed a man, to shew that hee prevaileth in the Church by humane [Page 98] meanes, Perswasion: not improper to the Pope. Secondly, the Article, [...] The Man: not one man, but many, a succession: pe­culiar to them which lay such claime to suc­cession, the Popedome. Thirdly, the Adjunct, the man of sinne, that is, a most sinfull wretch; both by affection and infection: the patterne and patron of sinne: so is the Papacy. The Court of Rome is both corrupt it selfe, and the cause of corruption in all Churches, so complained Granada. The personall sinnes of the Popes I in­sisted but little on: but I shewed how these three crying sinnes, Ignorance, Whoredome and Treason, were caused and commanded by the Romane Lawes.

I am to proceed to the fourth particular, the Accident: that man of sinne which must bee revealed. But this point I must reserve to the eighth verse. Here wee have [...] there [...] there it shall be finished. Onely this I will premise: the Holy Ghost here telleth us twice, that he shall be revealed. As it is in Genesis 41. 32. the phrase is doubled unto us twice, because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to passe. Since there­fore God doth tell the Church twice, that the Man of sinne shall be revealed: let not us shut our eyes against this Revelation. Let not us, like the Sepia, cast out an inkie obscurity on that which God hath made evident unto us. Ieremy 40. 14. Iohanan said to Gedaliah, Doest thou not certainly know, that Ishmael will s [...]ay [Page 99] thee? but Gedaliah beleeved not: and therefore he was slaine indeed. So here, S. Paul telleth us, that certainly Antichrist shall be revealed. If we will not beleeve it, nor search into it, it is Gods just judgement to deliver us up into the hands of the Man of sinne, and that Anti­christ should mightily deceive us. Goe we on therefore in all humble diligence, and dili­gent attention, to looke on him whom God hath made known to us. If any stumble against the old stone, and still distrust my ability to discharge this difficult duty; Let them but impartially consider, how aptly, even I, shall invest the Papacy, with all the properties of An­tichrist: and then let them impartially con­ceive, how that Man of sinne, would have been displayed, if a profound Divine had undertaken this exposition, to paint him out in hi [...] right co­lours. Howsoever, according to that porti­on of faith, which God hath vouchsafed unto us, let us proceed in the speaking and hearing of this great point. In the speaking and hea­ring whereof, God, even our owne God grant us a blessing.

The second Title of Antichrist, is that he is here termed, [...] the sonne of perdi­tion. A title wherewith Christ had long agoe invested Iudas, Iohn 17. 12. And well might these twaine be adorned with one title: No­bile par: a paire of rare creatures. And the pa­rallel betwixt Iudas and Antichrist doth hold in six particulars: In regard of their Vocation, [Page 100] Dissimulation, Covetousnesse, Bloodinesse, Obsti­nate minde, and wretched end. First, Iudas was an Apostle, Luke 6. 16. Secondly, Iudas be­trayed Christ, when he did seeme to honour Christ: Iudas, betrayest thou the Sonne of man with a kisse? Luke 22. 48. Thirdly, Iudas did beare the bag, Iohn 12. 6. Fourthly, Iudas did sell and shed innocent blood, Matth. 27. 4. Fis [...] ­ly, Iudas did persist in his wickednesse, though Christ did threaten enough to have terrified any wretch, Woe be to that man by whom the son of man shall be betrayed, it had beene good for that man that he had never beene borne: thus solemn­ly did Christ curse him to his very face, Matth. 26. 24. Notwithstanding this cursed caitife did not relent, but obstinately proceeded in his cursed resolution. And sinally, the end of Iudas was shamefull and fearfull: he was han­ged, and his owne hangman. Matth. 27. 5.

So Antichrist: First, he is an Apostle, at the least. For, Sedet in Templo Dei, He doth sit (.i. rule) in the Church of God, as if he were the Son of God, as it shall be fully unfolded, when I come to open the first point in the fourth verse. Secondly, his profession is holy and Apo­stolicall, he hath cornua Agni, the hornes of the Lambe: but his projects and practice is Diabo­licall, Vocem Draconis, he hath the voice of the Dragon, saith S. Iohn, Revel. 13. 11. Thirdly, His soule doth lust after gold and silver, &c. Rev. 18. 12. & 14. Fourthly, Antichrist is drunke with the blood of the Saints, and with the blood of [Page 101] the Martyrs of Iesus, Rev. 17. 6. Fiftly, the two witnesses shall prophesie against Antichrist: but Antichrist shall persist even unto death: the Beast shall kill them, Rev. 11. 3. & 7. Final­ly, Antichrist shall be cast into the sea, Revel. 18. 21. into Hell, Revel. 20. 10. Hee shall be de­stroyed, saith our Apostle, vers. 8. Thus punctu­ally doe Iudas and Antichrist agree in all the six particulars, without forged or forced Ap­plication. One Name is the knot where the pro­perties of both these wicked wretches doe meet. Either is meritoriously named, [...] the son of perdition.

Neither are these properties altogether im­proper to the Popedome also. First, the Pope is an Apostle also, S. Peters Successor. His See, Po­wer, Benediction, &c. are all termed Apostoli­call. Secondly, hee calleth himselfe Servum Servorum, but maketh himselfe Dominum Do­minantium: he pretendeth an heavenly humi­lity, but intendeth an Earthly Monarchy. Thirdly, Avarice is the very pillar of the Papa­cie: for anno 1522 honest Adrian 6, having resolved to reforme his Court, found that cove­tous Trent. hist. lib. 1. pag. 22. corruptions, as Indulgences, Dispensations, and collations of Benefices, were the revenues and sinewes of the Pontisicality. And there­fore he bemoaned his misery to William En­court, & Theodoricus Hezius, his trusty friends, that reformation was impossible. Fourthly, for their blood-seeking, and blood-shedding, we need no other instance, than the Inquisition, a la­mentable [Page 102] testimony of their incomparable cru­elty. Fiftly, I dare say that the Pope and the Cardinalls doe Volentes, videntes (que), [...], that they doe know that they have usurped up­on Christianity: and that they are farre from Christs and Christian humility. Finally, it is reported of Innocent the 4. that at his death,Pless. myst. Iniq. Oppos. 52. Vox audita est, Veni miser ad judicium; Wretch come to judgement. The end of one Pope, may be the Embleme of many. At nolo ominari: I de­sire not the destruction of the Destroyer: but rather wish that the Pope himselfe may re­pent and be saved. Onely this I must say, Iudas and Antichrist, are Nobile par fratrum, two brethren of wonderfull likenesse: and the Pope is alter idem, as deare and neare a friend unto them, as the Devill can wish, or Manimagine. They are All, Filij perditionis, the sonnes of perdition.

Filius perditionis, the sonne of perdition: a childes name doth import a childes part: and the name of a sonne, an inheritance. Antichrist therefore is Filius perditionis, the Heire of Hell: primogenitus Diaboli, the Devills darling, of inevitable destruction. As therefore I pro­nounce Antichrist to be haeredem, the heire of Hell: so do I inferre such as adhere unto him, to bee cohaeredes, partners in the same inheri­tance. He is sponsus Babylonis, the Bridegroome to Babel: they are amici sponsi, speciall friends to them both. Those therefore who do taxe me of temerity, because I doe seeke to know [Page 103] this Antichrist: I may justly suspect them of supine security, because they will not seeke to know him, the knowledge of whom concerneth them so nearly. But since our Father doth reveale him, every childe of salvation may safe­ly desire to know the sonne of perdition.

Filius perditionis, The sonne of perdition: it is an Hebraisme, as much as perditissimus, that is, one prepared to destruction: Both passively and actively: hence hee is called [...], Revel that is, both destroyed and destroying, as Danae­us Danaeus de An­tich. c. 8. observeth: which observation we have be­fore him in Occumenius, [...]: because hee destroyeth many o­thers, and at length he himselfe shall bee de­stroyed. First passively, Filius perditionis, signi­fieth one destinated to destruction: as Mat. 23. 15 Filius Gehennae, is one who shall have his por­tion in Hell-fire. Next, Filius perditionis, used actively, doth signifie one ordained to be a De­stroyer of others: as Matth. 11. 19. Filius sapi­entiae, the child of wisedome, doth signifie one who communicateth wisedome unto others.

Both these wayes Antichrist is a Destroyer, both spiritually and corporally. Spiritually, An­tichrist doth destroy the Kings and people on the earth, and thence they are said to bee in­ebriati vino, Revel. 17. 2. that is, drunke with the wine of the fornication of the Whore of Ba­bylon. Corporally also, Antichrist will destroy mankind: and therefore Revel. 17. 6. the whore of Babylon is said to be ebria sanguine, drunke [Page 104] with the blood of the Saints. In like manner he shall be destroyed himselfe: first, spiritually: As in this Chapter, vers. 8. S. Paul saith, The Lord shall consume that wicked one with the spirit of his mouth. Corporally also he shall be destroyed, as S. Iohn doth testifie, Revel. 18. 8. Thus shall Antichrist be a Destroyer, actively: killing the bodies of Gods servants, and the soules of his owne. And he shall be destroyed, passively: him­selfe and his seruants; with fire on earth, and fire in hell. And in this regard, Antichrist is called, Filius perditionis, the sonne of perdition.

But, Quis est ille filius perditionis? Is this childe yet borne? All the parcells of this Ap­plication must move to their proper center. I say the Father of Rome is the Sonne of perditi­on. Passively, it is conjectured that the Pope and Papacie shall be destroyed. But actively it is knowne that he is a destroyer, both spiritu­ally and corporally: both to the soules and bo­dies of miserable seduced men. The Crocodile attempting a Traveller two wayes, doth ruine him both wayes. If the poore man doe fol­low him, he leadeth him into Nilus: if hee flyeth, he devoureth him. So Popish Agents, if they prevaile, they drowne their Prosylites in Heresie: if they be opposed, they devoure them by their Tyranny. Hercules his picture had a string in his tongue, and a club in his hand, either to draw, or to smite the multitude. So the Pope hath tongues for our soules, clubs for our bodies, destruction for both. Aut inficiet, [Page 105] aut interficiet: infection to those that yeeld, and interfection to those that resist. Meritori­ously therefore, may the Father of Merits bee termed, the sonne of perdition.

That the Pope is a spirituall destroyer of the soules of men, it thus appeareth. They will grant the Antecedent, Math. 23. 15. That their Seminaries compasse Sea, and Land to make one Prosylite. But suppose they poison their Pro­sylites with Errour, doe they not then destroy their soules, and make them the children of the Devill? This they say is [...] an impossible supposition: for the Pope cannot Erre, nor papists spread Errours: Si desint bona Hildebrand ep. ad epis. Herm. acquisita, sufficiant, quae a loci praedecessore prae­stantur: if they have no good thing in them­selves, yet their Predecessours Vertue is suffici­ent for them. And yet their Antipopes, and contrary actions & assertions of the Popes them­selves, may cause a suspicion, that the Pope may erre, in the very Chaire.

But let us suppose it! Suppose the Pope should carry ten thousand soules to hell: yet none may be so sawcy as to say, Domine cur ita facis? Sir why doe you so? saith that malleus Antichristi. Dr. Downam B. of Dery li. 1. ca. 4 sect. 8 è Glossa iuris Canonici.

Those who are his owne, either by Education, or Conversion, for the most part pereunt, they are lost, in an irrecoverable obstinacy. Like a Bird in a Snare, they cannot: like a bird de­lighting in a Cage, they will not flye away. But they sing in their Prison, and rejoyce in their Captivity. Take the profession of one: Cupers [Page 106] calleth himselfe Mancipium Ecclesiae Romanae. I have heard of Filius ecclesiae, the sonne of the Church: but mancipium, slavery is the badge of Popery.

Adde the practise of a Societie: Caeca obe­dientia Lessius de Anti [...]. D [...]m. 9. Iesuitarum, the blind obedience of the Iesuits, whereby they binde themselves to Doe, whatsoever they shall be commanded by popish authoritie: not baulking Lying, Swearing and Forswearing, as is apparent by that jug­gling, and damnable art of Equivocation. And to make all fast, they knit themselves, by the Tr [...]dentine oath, to adhere immoveably [...]o the Roman papacy. Since therefore the soules of the papists are so knit, glued, and incorporated to the Papacy, I thinke I may safely say, The Pope hath destroyed them spiritually. Therefore is the Pope, Filius perditionis, the sonne of Perdition.

Moreover, Corporally also, the Pope is a De­stroyer: Ire [...]us lib. 5. c. 25. he destroyeth the bodies of his opposites. What Irenaeus spake of Antichrist of old time, wee may avouch to be true of the Pope in our time. It is his true title: Abominatio de­solationis, the Abomination of desolation: Abo­minatio quia est homo summè abominabilis: he is termed Abomination, because he is a person of abominable enormities: & cognominatur deso­lationis, he is surnamed Desolation, quia Sanctis & Christianis incredibilem desolationem efficiet, because his persecution shall bring an incredi­ble desolation on the Church of Christ. This I [Page 107] say I will make good concerning the Pope. Consider what he would doe, Pius 5. cogitabat Elizabetham è medio tollere, the Pope Pius didTortura To [...]i pag. 100. consult, how hee might contrive the death of the Queene of England, saith our Bishop, out of their Gabutius. Consider what hee did doe, Sixtus Quintus, commended the Monke whoApolog. Reg. Ia­cobi pag 77. Coll [...]n [...] in Eu­daem. part 3. pag. 216. murthered King Henry the third. Adde that Augustine the Monke (not Augustine the Saint) did slay twelve hundred holy Monkes of Bangor, onely because they had not the Crosse, Litanie, &c. and did dissent from him about Ceremo­nies of Easter, Baptisme, and such like.

But Bellarmine blotteth out all these, byBell. de P. Rom. 3, 7. one pregnant objection. Pro uno Heraetico, that the Primitive persecutors, did kill a thou­sand Christians where the Pope doth put to death one Lutheran. Bellarmine proveth his proposition by an instance: that seventeene thousand were martyred, in one moneth, under the Emperour Dioclesian: and Lessius dothBell de Pont. Rom. 3, 7. Less. de Antich. Demonst 9. Down. de An­tich. lib. 6. cap. 5. conclude: therefore the Pope cannot bee Anti­christ. Wee answer Bellarmine, that under Charles 9. more than thirty thousand poore Protestants in lesse then a moneth, were mur­thered in the massacre of Paris 1572, surpas­sing all pagan barbarousnesse, and punicke persidi­ousnesse: or rather let Bellarmine answer him­selfe:Bell. de not is Eccl. cap. vlt. that an Hundred thousand of the Albin­genses were slaine in one day, under Pope Inno­cent the third.

Here I gave a period to this point. But [Page 108] because I behold Lessius, and indeed all the Lessius part 1. Demonst. 9. papists to urge this as a Demonstration: That the Pope is not the Antichrist, because he is not The Persecutor, I will wade a little farther in­to this controversie. Thus they argue,

The greatest persecution shall be under Anti­christ,

But under the Pope is not, the greatest persecu­tion.

Therefore: The Pope is not Antichrist.

I answer to the point: that the greatest per­secution is under Antichrist: but the greatest tribulation was under Vespasian Luke 21. the first concerneth our Religion towards our God: the last was because of their Rebellion a­gainst their King. I answer also, to the person: that Lessius doth plead properly for his Pa­tron Lessius de An­tich. Dem. 9. the Pope, that hee is no persecutor, when almost in the same page he doth professe, that the papists doe put the protestants to death, like so many theeves and Traitors. I thinke the Hea­then did no more against the Christians, in the ten persecutions of the Primitive Church.

That popish persecutions have equalled, and surpassed those of the Pagan Emperours, in the primitive time, or any persecutours that the world ever knew besides: I will make it plaine, in these three particulars. In regard of the Time, Number, and Manner of them, the popish persecutions have beene incomparable.

First for the time, it was an heavy time, and a long with the Christians, when they groaned under the persecuting Emperours, three hundred yeares together, yet in that time, they had ma­ny lucida intervalla, many breathing spaces, un­der Princes not altogether so bloody. But the Popes have persecuted the protestants for eight hundred yeares together, 400 by the Inquisition, and that without any intermission, but that in some part of the world, or other, they have made havocke of some part of the Church or other. Eight hundred yeeres! a long time of per­secution, and I thinke not to be paralleled.

The number is infinite: not to mentionHist. Albing. lib. 1. c. 5. Merindoll, and Cabriers ruinated: nor Beziers, Dela Var, Carcasonne, and Tholouse: against whom the Pope sent no fewer than three hun­dred Croisados (as they were wont to goe a­gainst the Sarasins) who put all the Albingen­ses inhabiting those wofull Cities to the sword. Neither to speake of Calabria, out of which the Waldenses were utterly extirpated by the popish persecution. Besides all these, I shall number so many martyred and murthered by the persecuting Popes: that it will exercise the paines of any papist to equall them, and the heart of any protestant to read them.

Pope Martine 5, sent Cardinall Iulian withAenea [...] Silvius Hist. [...]o [...]m. cap. 48. an army of 80000 to extirpate all the Hussites (or protestants) in Bohemia, where they burned many villages. At the same time his assistant Alb [...]r [...]us; did burne above five hundred villages [Page 110] in Moravia, putting the inhabitants to the sword. Here must be a nemoscit, none can tell how many were murthered in this expedi­tion: but a number did die, that is out of controversie.

The Duke D'Alva did professe publikely,Cr [...]ke [...]thorpe in Spalatens. ca. 32 that he killed by torment eighteene thousand of the Reformed, in six yeeres space, for the very cause of Religion. And yet religious Vargas complained of him, Nimia misericordia Belgos deter [...]ores sieri▪ that hee had made the Nether­lands worse, by shewing them too much mercy. Certainly the mercies of the wicked are cruell: And the Lord blesse England from such out­landish mercies. An hundred thousand of theBellarm. de [...]otis ecclesiae c [...]p. vlt. Albingenses perished at the word, and by the sword of Pope Innocent 3. Vergerius confessed, in the space of thirty yeeres above an hundred and fifty thousand perished by infinite tortures under the hands of the holy Inquisition. AndBa [...]dwin. de Antich. ca. 6. from the beginning of the Iesuits to 1580. (being the space of 30 yeares) almost nine hundred thousand protestants were put to death in France, England, Spaine, Italy, Germany, andDownam de Antich. part 1. cap. 5. [...]. 5. other parts of Christendome Nay in France alone, an hundred thousand of the protestants were shamefully murthered in a short season. Sorry I am, for Christendomes sake, that truth it selfe doth extort from me this shame­full confession. The Christians have beene more barbarous persecutors of the Pagans: than ever the pagans were of the Christians, and under the pretext of Religion.

Consider this wofull precedent, the inde­lible blot of Christianity. Schioppius saythSchioppius Ec­clesiast. ca. 38. thus: Christus Ecclesiae suae manu, that is, Christ by the hand of the Church, Indianos & Ameri­canos Gladio & virga ferrea pavit: a strange phrase, that the Church of Christ (which to thē must be only the Roman Church) did feed the In­dians with the sword: and how did the Church of Rome feed the Indians with the sword? Bar­tholmew Barth. decas. de Ind Occid prope initium. de Casa doth witnesse it with his tongue, who saw it with his eye. Within the space (saith he) of forty yeeres they killed fifteene millions of those poore Indians. The Pope an excellent Pastor: and the sword, an excellent pasture.

Wee guesse at the nature of the beast, by these particulars. What appetite they have towards our Reformed Christendome. If his teeth could fasten on it (on all the Flocke of Christ) that Wolfe would swallow it whole. As Caligula being offended at the Romans, wished them all to have but one necke; that at one blow he might dispatch them all. So Pope Martin 2, being angry with the Germanes, wished that all Germany had beene but one poole, that they all might have beene drowned at once, I may therefore pronounce this credible Hyperboly: It is probable, that the popes have caused the death of more protestants within these 800 yeares, than there are now at this day alive members of the Church of Rome upon the face of the earth, I conclude then. The Pope is the [Page 112] persecutour: and the sonne of perdition.

The number of Martyrs argue the popes to be cruell persecutors. But the consideration of the manner of their martyrdome, will adde an [...] or augmentation to their crueltie, and persecution. What Suarez speaketh of An­tichrist, Suarez Apol. lib. 5, c. 5. nu. 5. I will considently avouch of the pope. Tribulatio ista maximè consist [...]t, in coactione per tormenta, in inductione per promissiones tempora­les, & in seductione per portenta, & falsa prodigia: that is, Antichrist (or the Pope) will mightily fight against the Church by coaction and tor­menting professors, by induction or faire pro­mises, or by seduction and amazing them with false miracles. The pope I make no question, shall prevaile on Christendome, by these three projects, but principally by the first, In­ductions and Seductions: promises and miracles 1 Sam. are like Saul, they slay their thousand; but co­action and torture like David hath killed his ten thousand. If Draco doe write his lawes in blood, the weaker people cannot but obey him. By the two last, the pope hath gained some few pa­pists in England and Germanie: by the first he hath gleaned up all the protestants, in Spaine and Italy, to their utter extirpation.

The author of the Monarchomachia, althoughMonarchomach. part. 2. tit. 3. pag. 385. he doth mince the enormities of the Romish Church, more than any: yet hee cannot but discover how the papists stand affected to­wards the protestants, if they ever come within the compasse of their power. His words are [Page 113] these; Charles 5. at Wormes anno 1521, and at Ma [...]hling 1526, set downe this penalty against Heretikes: of those that disputed of Controver­sies of Religion, or that kept bookes prohibited: For the first offence forty shillings: for the second, foure pounds: and for the third, eight pounds, and perpetuall banishment. And in the yeare 1529, if at a time limited, they did not repent their errours, nor disclaime them, hee adjudged Viris ignem, & mulieribus fossam, that the men should bee burned, and the women drowned. If this very Statute by a retaliation, were executed by the Protestants in England against the Papists, I doubt not but the Pa­pists would clamour against our English perse­cution. Yet you must know, that this authour spake out of Hierusalem; all of Peace. Then was there a mariage on foot, which filled the tongues of our English-Romish-Catholikes, that they wooed us with their smoothest coun­tenance. But let Babel speake: forraigne or former Papists, who have no interest in those domesticall and moderne benefits, and you shall heare what out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.

The Waldenses (or Protestants) in France, be­causeHist. Wald. lib. 1. cap. 3. they were alwaies exposed to sufferings, therefore from the Latine word pati, which signifieth to suffer, they were called Paturines, or Paterenians. And in Flanders, they were called Turlupins, that is, dwellers with Wolves, because by reason of their persecutions, they [Page 114] were oftentimes constrained to dwell in woods and deserts.

In the yeare 1228 under Innocent 3, Domi­nique, Histor. Waldens. lib. 2. cap. 2. and the other domineering monkes of the Inquisition, made such havocke of the Church, that even the popish Bishops them­selves (to wit the Bishops of Aix, Arles, and Narbonne) out of humane compassion, were constrained to write to the Inquisitours, that the apprehended Waldenses were of so great a number, that it was not onely, not possible to defray the charge of their nourishment, but to provide lime, and stone to build prisons for them. Whereby the way, you may take notice of the latter part of Bellarmines objection: thatBell. de P. R. lib. 3 cap 7. Hist. Wald. lib 2. cap. 3. all the prisons were filled with the persecuted Christians under Dioclesian. Forced by these fearefull persecutions, the poore Waldenses (or Protestants) fled into Dauphiné, neere the Mountaines and Woods, and in them Caves, whi­ther they retired themselves from the furie of the persecution: as if Saint Paul had writ, not onely an History of his times, but a Prophe­cie of their times, that the afflicted faithfull should wander up and downe in wildernesses, moun­taines, dens and caves of the earth, Heb. 11. 38. But to shew that these persecutions under Anti­christ doe outstrip those under the Pagan Princes and Heathen Emperours, they envied them even this felicity. Anno 1400 in the val­ley of Pragela, on Christmasse day (a time they thought those mountaines unaccessable) they [Page 115] in their mountaine called Albergam, that is, a place of retraite, and in their Caves, were sur­prised by the enemie. The Waldenses, with their wives, and their children in their hands, and infants in their cradles, were most over­taken and slayne: the rest so benummed with cold, that 80 of the poore babes were found dead in their Cradles.

Anno 1484 Albert the Archdeacon of Cremona Hist. Wald. lib. 2. cap. 8. persecuting the foresaid Waldenses: Smoakes were made at the mouthes of their Caves, whereby three thousand were smothered and foure hundred small infants were found either strangled in their cradles, or dead in the armes of their dead mothers, and those poore Chri­stians wholly extirpated out of that part of Dauphiné. And that they might teare themHist. Wald. lib. 2. cap. 3. up by the rootes, if any did mediate for them (were it the father for the child, or the childe for the father) they were instantly imprisoned and indited for Heretickes. These are woefullLessius de An­tich. Dem. 9. pag. 46. examples of wretched persecutors: yet say the papists, the Pope did never make open persecuti­on against the protestants: and therefore by no meanes may wee terme him the sonne of perdition.

It would be too tedious to adde those in­finiteHist. Albing. lib. 1. cap. 7. examples of the Albingenses (other protestants) in Provence. I will give you onely a tast of them by two instances, which like Iobs servants, may tell you what is become of their fellowes. Simon Earle of Momsord taking [Page 116] the Castle of Beron, caused the eyes of an hun­dred Albingenses to be pulled out, and cut off their noses, leaving onely one, with one eye, to be a guide to the rest, and to conduct them to Cabaret. Men [...]rbe another Castle being yeel­dedHist. Albing. lib. 1. cap. 7. on composition, yet the Popes Legate cau­sed 140 persons to be cast into one huge fire. These are but a few clusters of Eshcol, these sto­ries are full of such fruit. Consider withall that to accompli [...]h their bloody projects, a­gainst the Waldenses, Albingenses, and all prote­stants, they have used all lying, perjury, breach of [...]essius part 1. Dem. 9. promises, and oathes also, which the Turkes and Heathen would be ashamed of: yet their peo­ple practise it, and their popish Divines dare avouch it.

As the Duke of Alva, having the Fuick, a sconce by Harlem, yeelded by composition, to save their lives: yet hee kept them in the Fort till they famished, saying, that he promi­sed them their lives, but not to give them meat. Our poore forefathers might well be weary of suffering these barbarous persecutions: for I am almost weary of relating them. Yet the hand of truth will lead me a little farther in the red sea in this bloody relation. And the first is toDow de Antich. part. 1. lib. 6. cap. 5. nu. 5. Crakenth. in Spalat. ca 2. nu. 5. the ankles of blood: for at the massacre of Paris, it is recorded that the streets did flow with blood of the credulous Hugo [...]ites or (pro­testants) who were inticed thither by the pro­mises (if not by the oath) of a great King. Not­withstanding all which, they were shamfully [Page 117] murthered. O Christe stupio patientiam tuam! O Christ, that Christians should bee perfidious! When we durst trust the very Turks on such conditions. The Duke D'Alva caused women Met. Hist. Be'g. lib 3. with child to have their bellies rip'd open, their infants to be slayne, their men to be flead, and their skins to head their drummes, some to be burned with gentle fire which did hardly burne, and others to bee torne in peeces with glowing tonges, and the very Carkasses of dead protestants to be digged up againe, and hanged Ioac. Vrsin. in. pt. de Inquisi­tione. upon Gallowses. And in Westphalia the infants were torne out from great bellyed women, cut in peeces, and so bound to the mouthes of their mothers. The men were forced by famine to feed on the flesh of their owne children. Infants of two yeares (twice more barbarous then bloody Herod) were closed in their mothers bodyes, and so strangled in their mothers blood. And the men (which is as shamelesse as barba­rous) were hanged by their priuy members. Now considering these cruelties against the protestants, and that in the meane time, the Iewes, Turkes and Infidels are permitted to live in Rome it selfe. Wee must conclude that the Romanists exceed those very Iewes, Turkes and Infidells, in persecuting poore Christians. They have felt that the Pope is corporally a de­stroyer, and therefore the sonne of perdition.

From these personall instances, I will pro­ceedHist. Wald. lib. 2. cap. 7. to publike examples, and I will shut up this point with the universall fate of two fa­mous [Page 118] Provinces. The Waldenses (or protestants) of Calabria, planted themselves there 1370, Anno 1560 Pope Pius 4 sent Cardinall Alexan­drine, with some Monkes, Inquisitors, who cau­sed the inhabitants of Saint Xest to fly to the woods: and sending souldiers after them, the most of them were slaine, and the remnant fa­mished. The inhabitants of La Garde cited by proclamation, appeared (being overcome by their faire promises) before the Inquisitors at Folcade, where 70 of them were put to the racke: amongst whom Stephen Charlne was so tortured, that his bowells fell out, to extort from him this calumnious Confession, that their people assembled by night to commit whoredome, when the candles were put out. Marcon was strip­ped naked, beaten with iron rods, drag'd through the streets and burned with firebrands. One of his sonnes was killed with knives: and another was cast from a Towre, because he would not kisse a Crucifix. Bernard Conti was covered with pitch, and so burned. Foure of the principall were strangled: fourescore had their throats cut (as if the Psalmist had prophecyed of them) like calves. And their quarters were gibbeted up, in the high way, for the space of 30 miles together. One Sampson was hurl'd from a Towre: the next day the Viceroy comming to the foot of the towre, found the poore wretch halfe dead, and praying to God: to whom hee gave a kicke on the head, saying, Is this dogge yet alive? cast him to the Hogges.

At Saint Xist, 60 women were so racked,Hist. Wald. lib. 2. cap. 7. that wormes ingendred in their wounds, which fed upon them being alive, and if any did in­tercede for any, hee was also put to the Racke by the Inquisitours. The Inquisitours sent their men to the Gallies, their fugitives they cōdem­ned to perpetuall banishment, and sold and kil'd woman and child. Steven Negrine one of their Ministers was starved in prison at Cossence. The other, Lewis Paschal was burned in Rome in the presence of Pope Pius 4 himselfe, and his Cardi­nals. And thus were the Waldenses wholly extir­pated out of Calabria: and yet the Pope never persecuted the Protestants.

To give a second example, which is secondHist. Wald. lib. 2. cap. 9. to none. The Waldenses in Provence, were plan­ted there about 1228. the records of whose persecutiōs are lost. Lewis 12 King of France be­ing mis-informed that they committed all manner of Wickednesse and villanies, sent out commission against them: but being better informed of their Innocence, that persecution was prevented.

Francis the first renewed it: which was principally executed upon two of their prin­cipall Townes, Merindoll and Cabreers. Vntill the yeare 1540, whomsoever they did appre­hend, they did either burne or gibbet, or dis­missed them with markes in their foreheads. But about this time, there passed such a sen­tence against Merindoll, as never Parliament did parallel (like that of Assuerus, Esther 3. 13) [Page 120] by which their men and women were condem­ned to the fire, their Children outlawed, the Towne it selfe to be demolished, the wood within 200 foot round to be cut downe, and the place to be made utterly unhabitable. This barba­rous sentence was passed, against these Inno­cents without the hearing of any of them who were condemned.

At Cabri [...]rs: in the Countrey round about,Hist. Wald lib. 2. cap. 8. the men were slaine, the women ravished, the breasts of the mothers cut off, and the infants famished: and a proclamation published, that none should relieve them. The towne it selfe was yeelded by composition, that the inhabitants might goe to Geneva. But being entred, O pede commanded, the men to be brought into the field, and his souldiers to try which of them were strongest to cut off Heads, Armes and legs. The women hee shut up in a barne with straw and burned them: and those women and ch [...]ldrē which were found in the Church, hee gave to the bawdes of Avignon. Well then may the poore protestants take up a complaint against the persecuting papists in the phrase of the Psal­mist, Psal. 83. 3, & 4. They have taken crafty counsell against thy people, and have consulted a­gainst thy secret ones. They have sayd Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation: and let the name of Israel bee no more in remembrance. Aptly may I here remember that Epigram, made on one of the Popes, Lucius 3. 1184, fit­ting the whole popedome, registred by that no­ble, [Page 121] and nobly learned Plessey.

Lucius est & piscis, rex atque tyrannus aquarū:
Pless. My [...]. Iniq. an 1184. Pr [...] ­gress. 49.
A quo discordat Lucius is [...]e parum.
Devorat ille Homines, hic Piscibus insidiatur:
Esurit hic semper, hic aliquando satur.
Lucius the Pope, and Lucius the Pike,
Search through the world, finde not the like:
The Pike of Fish devoureth the small;
The Pope of Men doth swallow all.

I may conclude in prose, The Pope is Filius perditionis, The sonne of perdition.

According to the Vision of holy Daniel, cap. 7. I may call these premised cruelties: one a Lyon, another a Beare, and a third a Leopard: but there is yet one kinde of Popish persecuti­on remaining, which I may compare to the fourth Beast in that vision, vers. 7. It is fearfull and terrible, and very strong: and it hath great iron teeth: and it devoureth, and breaketh in pie­ces, and stampeth all under his feet: and is unlike all that were before. This Monster, is that mon­strous cruelty of the Inquisition: which indeed is an uncomparable, unsufferable, and an unutte­rable persecution.

The Inquisitours and supporters whereof, to the utmost of the power and policy of man, have endeavored to make it sacrum Eleusinum, a secret mystery, that none might know it. For their tortures are executed in a vault, which men may discover, when they have the Eyes of Lynceus, to looke through stone walls: And [Page 122] those perplexed prisoners may pray to Christ, in that primitive phrase, [...], By thy unknowne torments, deliver us from our unknowne torments. Moreover, if they be re­leased, they binde them with an oath, not to re­veale any one point, how the Inquisition did proceed against them: to which they annex menaces: and they inhibit them from writing any letters: interdicting them also from con­versing or conferring with such or such, to whom they may be suspected that they will reveale any thing. But if ever they be found to discover any thing, they are condemned as relapsed, and they dye without redemption. Notwithstanding this cunning cariage, and contriving of their concealed cruelties: yet he that maketh inquisition for blood, hath given the world light of their bloody inquisition. A taste whereof I will tender unto you, as I have contracted and abstracted it out of Gonsalvius.

I will tell you out of him, with my best brevity, sixe particulars, concerning these miserable protestants, which come within the compasse of their Holy House. First, How they catch them: secondly, Where they keepe them: thirdly, How they use them: fourthly, their Examination: fiftly, their Torture: and sixtly their Execution.

Three incomparable instruments do they [...] use to catch and keepe any person whom they [...]onsalvius de Inquisition. c. 1. suspect to favour the Protestants: their Fami­liar, Fly, and Priest. To some sometimes they [Page 123] will give leave to play on the line, that they may strike them the more surely. They will winke at a suspected Lutheran for divers mo­neths, and yeares also. But in that time they will imploy one of those Familiars or promo­ters to insinuate himselfe into this suspected and suspectlesse persons acquaintance, who shall every day visit him, observing to what house and company hee doth resort: till hee doth discover and disclose him: and so the poore man is betrayed to the Inquisitours. Though he be thus caught, yet peradventureG [...]sal▪ de Inqu. cap▪ 9. hee will confesse but a little: and therefore a new engine must be imployed. To him, and to his fellow prisoners they send a Fly: a vil­laine that for money indureth that prison▪ fet­ters, chaines, filth, and stench, for many months, faining himselfe to bee imprisoned also for Religion: and at their conferences▪ (which the politike Inquisitours then onely permit unto them) He is the forwardest to instruct, or to be instructed in the reformed religion. And when this sonne of Sathan hath sufficiently sifted these innocents, he rendreth them to the Inquisitours, as fewell for their fire. If mira­culouslyCap. 9. any doe escape these Flyes, the third is set on worke. They are called or comman­ded to confession: the Priest heareth them that day; but breaketh off abruptly, willing the prisoner to repaire to him the next day: when he would satisfie him more fully, with this mischievous intent, to informe the Inquisitors [Page 124] of all that he shall confesse, pretending that it is (not sub sigillo) out of the time of shrift: And thus are these sheepe prepared for the slaughter.

The poore Birds being caught, these Fow­lers, 2 as they had Ginnes, so now they haveGonsalvius de Inquisit. cap. 2. & 10. Cages for them. They are put into Prison, each severall person into a severall place: which is so bigge that they may lye downe, and a foot be­sides, where their stoole of easement standeth. If it be below, it may be resembled to a grave: if aloft, to a furnace: where they have no more light than commeth out of a little long rift, no bigger than a mans finger. There are they kept alone, eight, or fifteene dayes, or whole moneths, or yeares, as it pleaseth the Lords Inquisitours. Yet so, that if any bee brought in, he seldome commeth out againe, till he bee halfe rotten, till hee have the foule disease, or fall franticke, or be in a consumption.

Being imprisoned, the Inquisitours use to 3 visit them: and in faire fatherly termes, De­mand Gonsalvius de Inquisit. cap. 9. what they want? what language the Kee­per doth give them? and how hee doth use them, concerning their Diet and Apparell? If any complaine, though they see them halfe naked, and halfe starven, yet the mercifull Fa­thers answer them in milde termes: Well, say they, the weather is warme, and you may full well lye without a couch, or cloathes. And for Winter: Tis true indeed (say they) there hath beene lately a sharpe frost, but it begin­neth to thaw. Howsoever, take care (say they) [Page 125] for the Garments of your Soule, to confesse the truth we question you for. As for apparell, it mattereth not.

Their Diet (the Officers fees deducted) isGo [...]sal [...]ius de Jnquisit. cap. 10. like their lodging, very lamentable. And if any charitable person shall send the smallest almes to those poore prisoners: if ever it be knowne, v [...]rily he shall have a reward; but it shall bee in the Holy House. Moreover, they are loc­ked up in their little lodgings, so that the Fa­ther and the Sonne may be many yeares in the same Prison, and yet the one shall not know of the others imprisonment. Hence Petro à Herrera, keeper of the Inquision prison, in the Castle of Triara, at Sivil, because he did per­mit the mother and her two daughters to meet but for one quarter of an houre: hee himselfe was put in prison, till the prison put him out of his wits, and that he fell starke mad; because of the usage of the Inquisition. Nay, this Holy House denyeth that unto Christians, what the very Pagan prison permitted to their prisoners, Act. 16. 25. they interdict them from singing Psalmes. Which they put in practice for ma­ny politike ends: three wee may conjecture at. First, because they will bereave these mi­serable soules of all solace for themselves. Se­condly, because their cheerfulnesse shall not incourage other weake prisoners. Thirdly, lest by their voice, the friend or father might know his sonne or acquaintance to bee in prison, which they labour utterly▪ [...]o conceale.

The day before the Execution, they areCap. 12. all severally examined, with threatnings and menaces, concerning their lands and goods, that they conceale not one jote. And if any doe escape death, yet carry they the Inquisi­tours Cap. 4. markes unto the grave, which usually are four: confiscation of their goods, long imprison­ment, the wearing of the Sambenit, or Devills coat, and a perpetuall ignominy to their whole kindred.

But before their fearfull execution, they4▪ are assayed by frequent examination. First, they reade unto them a long inditement, char­ging them with infinite crimes, which they never did nor thought; which putteth the pri­soner into such a maze, that he knoweth not what to answer. Next, they take his confes­sion by mouth, and suddenly they command him to give another in writing, without deli­beration: to the end they may intrap him with some contradiction in two confessions. If hee confesseth any thing that is hereticall, from thence they draw other consequences, & charge him with them: although the person himselfe did never speake them, will never grant them, nay doth not greatly understand them. And finally, if they confesse any point of the Pro­testants profession, which they call heresie, they [...]f [...] them then: where they read it, of whom they heard it, who were their instructers, and whom they instructed: and whether they did speake of those things in any mans house, and [Page 127] who stood by when they talked: Bee it friend, or father, or childe, or servant, they are sure to smart for it, because they did not informe the Inquisitors thereof immediately. After a long and loathsome imprisonment, when they suppose that those poore soules are brought so low, that they will confesse all, and more also, though it cost them their lives: then are they brought to a more solemne exa­mination, where they name to the party two or three of their most famous men towards the Law: and wish the prisoner to chuse any of them to be his Advocate; and yet this learned Lawyer notwithstanding shall not dare to in­forme this perplexed Client, in any one point of the Law, for feare of displeasing the Lords Inquisitours.

Nay the Inquisitours themselves take orderGonsalvius de Inquisit. cap. 3. for that, that the Advocate and his Client may never speak one word together without wit­nesse. And when they come to the confutation Cap. 5. of their witnesses, he may neither conferre with his Client, nor draw his answer, nor informe him concerning the depositions: but the mise­rable man is left to himselfe, and none to help him but God onely. At the publication of theCap. 4. witnesses, the names of the witnesses are sup­pressed: both because the prisoners labouring to finde out all, may give occasion to the In­quisitors to call others into question. As also because the prisoners enemies, Lyars, Drun­kards, and Villaines, might passe for witnesses [Page 128] to destroy this innocent Christian. Nay the very Alcayde or Keeper of the prison, shall goe current for two witnesses, whensoever he please to accuse any prisoner. And when the Depo­sitions are read, all those things which make for the poore prisoner, are rejected as [...], things supersluous: but if any tittle doe make against him, that is sure to bee observed, and to be insisted upon. And this is the Holy exa­mination of the holy Inquisition.

The next point (the Torture) followeth fit­ly: 5 for their examination is a torture, and theirCap. 7. torture is an examination. When the Inquisitors intend to extort a full and further confession by torments, the prisoner is brought into audi­ence on the suddaine, where all, or the most of the Inquisitors, sit in their majesty. Who tell him, that they have deeply considered his case, and they finde that he hath not made a full confession: and therefore they have resol­ved that he must to the Racke, advising him to confesse before he come to the torture: But confesse, or confesse not, he must to the Racke: Gonsalvius de Inquisit. cap. 7. which is in a deepe darke dungeon, with ma­ny a doore, to keepe their shrickes from hearing. The Tormentor is clad from top to toe in black like a stage devill. The Inquisitors being moun­ted on their scaffold, and the prisoner stript, the token is given to the Tormentor, and then beginnes the businesse. Sometime with a pully, and great weight of iron, hanged at the heeles of the party to bee tormented, which [Page 129] rendeth every joynt of his body one from ano­ther. Sometime with the Burri or Aselli: which is an hollow trough, with a crosse barre, that his backe may not touch the bottome: his heeles being placed higher than his head, into his legs, thighes, and armes, they twist little cords, with great truncheons, till they cut to the bone, & be cleane out of sight. Some­times they lay a piece of Lawnd upon the par­ties mouth and nostrills also: whereby they stop his breath. Then they poure downe water: so that both their Nose and Mouth being stop­ped at once, the tortured wretch lyeth like a dying man struggling for breath. Or at other times, they place a panne of hot coales at the soles of his feet, and that the fire may have the more force, they baste them with Larde and Ba­con. In these tortures (which indeed are [...], intolerable) if any desire to be let down from the pully, with promise to confesse in­stantly; after his confession, they hoyse him up againe, and treble his tortures, to extort more than all, from this more than miserable man. And if in any of those agonies, pangs enforce the tortured to call to Christ for patience and assistance, they fall to mocke him, saying, Ie­su Chr [...]st, Iesu Christ! what adoe is here with Iesu Christ? Confesse the truth, and let Iesus Christ alone.

At length these sorrowfull creatures come 6 to the joyfull end of their wof [...]ll tragedy: andGonsalvius cap. 12. [...] 13. the condemned prisoners are brought in great [Page 130] solemnity, on the Inquisitors solemne festi­vall. Then are they led forth, being clad in Sambenites (a linnen garment all painted with Devills) and a long hat like a turret, where is pictured a Man burning in fire, and many De­vills plying him with saggots. On their tongues they fasten a cleft piece of wood, which they call Mordazo, that they may not speake to the people. When their sentences are pronoun­ced, they charge them with a world of silthy, shamefull, abominable, and blasphemous crimes and opinions, never confessed nor acted by those innocents: but to advance the Iustice of the Inquisitors, and to make those standred Mar­tyrs, to stinke in the nostrills of the people, by their forged calumniation. Afterwards they are led to the fire, and burned. Onely some of them which continue constant in their confession to the end, they breake their neckes with a trice: and then they tell the people, that such did repentantly recant their heresies, at the very last houre, and were reconciled to the Church of Rome. And therefore the mercy of the Lords Inquisitours would not let them feele the force of the fire. Oh more than Tur­kish cruelty, to kill both the body and the name, at one time!

Thus have I plucked off the hood of holinesse from the face of the Holy House. And thus much concerning the Inquisition. Onely I will conclude with the words of the Psalmist: The Ps. 79. 3, 10, 12. blood of the Saints have they shed like water on [Page 131] every side. Wherefore doe they say, Where is now their God? O let the sorrowfull sighing of the pri­soners come before thee: according to the greatness of thy power, preserve thou them that are appoin­ted to dye.

That we may know this monster of mankind, this [...], Caniball, and Man-eater: let us briefly review him once againe. The Papists have murthered the Protestants thirty thousand in a month▪ yea, an hundred thousand in a day. Eight hundred yeares long killing infinite milli­ons. Burning hundreds of villages, and putting all to the sword. They have forced our Fore­fathers to live in Caves, Woods, and Desarts: smothering the sucklings even in those poore ha­bitations: and imprisoned so many, that they had not bread to feed them, nor Lime to build prisons to hold them. They put out the eyes of an hundred, leaving onely one with one eye to guide them: and cast an hundred and forty into one fire. They ript up the bellies of women, and made Drummes of the skinnes of men. They tore the living in pieces with burning pincers, and digged up, and hanged up the carkeises of them that were dead and buried. They bound the Infants to the mouths of the mothers, and sowed sucklings into their mo­thers bellies: and hanged the men by their privi­ties. They tortured them, till their bowells fell out, to force them falsly to accuse themselves, for adul­teries, &c. at their meetings. They cut their throats like calves, and hanged up their quarters for thirty miles together. Men, women, and [Page 132] children, they banished, sold, killed, burned, han­ged, starved, marked in the forehead, sent them to the Gallies, and gave them to Bawdes: and so racked the women, that wormes ingendred in their wounds, feeding on them yet alive. They razed and made unhabitable whole Townes; as Tholouse, Cabriers, &c. and extirpated populous Countr [...]es, as Calabria, and Dauphié. All these cruelties were committed contrary to their com­positions, promises, proclamations, oathes, and E­dicts. And the racke or death was his reward, who did but intercede for these tortured In­nocents.

But this surpasseth all: that they have a licensed shambles out of Lent, the Inquisition, without intermission, for the space of foureAnno 1206. Hist. Wa [...]d. lib. 2. cap. 2. hundred yeares and more, where the poore Protestants have beene led like sheepe unto the slaughter. None can tell who, or how, nor how many be the torments, and the tormented.

That they proceed not in open Iustice, as a­gainst obstinate Heretikes, but imploy under­hand their Promoters, Summoners, and Infor­mers: their Familiars, Flyes, and Priests, under the pretence of Friendship, Afflictions, and Holinesse, to insnare the weake, the ignorant, nay the guiltlesse, who are not so much as inclined to the Reformed Religion. And yet be they in­nocent, or let them repent; they cannot returne without confiscation of goods, imprisonment, shame, and insamie.

That they imprison them, in dungeons like [Page 133] graves: where through the filth thereof, they cons [...]me, rot, runne mad, or contract the foule d [...]sease. That they let them lye alone, halfe naked, and halfe starven, and will not give them leave to sing a Psalme, in this infinite solitary misery. That in their private exami­nation they indite them of things they know to be false: and to wrest their confessions against their meanings, and insnare their Parents, Chil­dren, Servants, Friends, &c. and that in their publike examinations, they put their prisoners to make choice of a Lawyer, to be their Advocate: and yet that Advocate shall not dare to speake one word for them, to them, with them. That the witnesses are unknowne to them, knowne to the world to be Villaines, and Knights of the Post: and that their Depositions being read, shall be omitted, where they make for, and de­bated where they make against the poore prisoner.

That though they do confesse, yet to extort confession beyond the truth, they torture them. The Lords Inquisitors themselves beholding the naked creatures, gibbited on a Pully, till all their joynts be torne asunder: or put in the Burri, till the tormentors with truncheons, have wrestred small cords to the verie bones: or rost with fire, or baste them with Lard and Ba­con: or with water poured through Law [...]d, to make them, healthfull men, to feele the very agonies of Death, struggling for breath. If the torments be remitted, whilest the tortured doe [Page 134] confesse, they torment them againe and more: instantly after their confession. And if in these extremities, these miserable men call on Iesus Christ, they mocke and deride them for their Invocation.

That finally, they lead out these poore creatures in triumph, having them clad like de­vils, in the pronouncing of their sentences slandred with devillish lyes, their tongues stock'd, their bod [...]es burned, and the most constant of those Martyrs to have their neckes suddenly broken, and the people immediately to be as­sured, that they recanted, and died in the Ro­man Religion, which they feared more than the tortures of Hell, or than the eldest daughter thereof, the torments of the Inquisition.

That these things are thus caried, we may challenge the East and West, the former and latter ages to equall them. Wee cannot call them Heathen, Pagan, Turkish, Iewish, or Bar­barous; but onely Popish cruelties. The Inqui­sition in particular, and all other persecutions in generall, subsist by his Authority.

The Pope is the nethermost milstone, to grinde Gods Saints to powder: although his Agents be the visible instruments thereof. The Pope hath desined the death of the Protestants: thus [...]rban: Non arb [...]tramur eos homicidas, quos Caus. [...]3. qu. 5. Cap. Excommu­nicatorum. zelo Catholicae matris ecclesiae ardentes, excommu­nicatorum aliquos trucidasse contigerit: that is, in sooth, and plaine English, It is lawfull for any Papist to kill any Protestant, and yet he is no [Page 135] murtherer. They have a warrant for it, è Ca­thedra. O then, good Christian: Wilt thou Ps. 94. 19, 20, & 21. have any thing to do with that stoole of wickedness, which imagineth mischiefe as a Law? They ga­ther them together against the soule of the righte­ous: and condemne the innocent blood. But the Lord is our refuge: and our God is the strength of our confidence.

Thus have I fully and plainly made it to appeare, that the Pope is the Destroyer, active­ly: and passively he shall be destroyed, without all peradventure. For the corporall destruction of Babylon; that is to come, I have not the spi­rit of prophesie. Therefore I doe not, I dare not define any thing thereof in particular. Neither the manner, R R R F F F: i. Regnum Romae Ruet: Ferro, Fame, & Flamma: that is, Rome shall be destroyed by Fire, Famine, and the Sword: according to that old prediction out of Valerius Probus. Nor the time, with Na­peire, who doth precisely determine the utter Napeire in Re­vel. 14. destruction of Rome to fall out, anno 1639. Lea­ving the circumstance to God: the substance is most true: Babylon shall be ruinated: and Rome shall be corporally destroyed.

Finally, the Pope shall be destroyed spiritu­ally also. Consider the connexion of the phra­ses in my Text: The Man of sinne, and sonne of perd [...]tion. Never did Chime follow the stroke of a Clocke so certainly, nor suddenly, as perdi­tion [...]oth sinne: He who is the Man of sinne, shall be the sonne of perdition. Those that doe [Page 136] destroy the soules of other men, shall undoub­tedly be rewarded with their owne Soules de­struction.

But they inferre, that I inferre, that the Pope and all grand Papists are perditi, are despe­rat [...]ly in the state of damnation. I answer with Saint Paul, Rom. 9. 18. Deus [...]s [...]r [...]tur, cujus vult misereri: God hath m [...]rcy on whom he will have mercy. With Cyprian: Eodem temporis Cyprian. de C [...]a Domini. articulo: God can infuse repentance, and give grace, at the very last gaspe. With Moulins, ItMoulins Acc [...]. of P [...]o [...]h pag. 82. is not our parts to give judgement upon any bo­die, nor positively to define What men are dam­ned: but we pray to God to shew mercy, to those Popes and Papists, who doe breathe out their threatnings against us, and would bathe their hands in our blood. And we say with Whi­tak [...]rs, Ex quo Papismus caepit esse Antichristia­nismus, Whitaker in Sand [...]r. p 74 [...]. ne Papas quidem universos damnatos esse dixer [...]m, nec Papam hunc, si ad sanam mentem r [...]di [...]rit, excluser [...]m: Wee are so farre from saying that all Popes are damned, that we will nor exclude even this Pope [...]rom his salvation: if he repent and revoke his wicked errour. I do not subscribe to the sentence of Pope Sergius Oecum▪ lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 25. the fourth, as to an infallible truth: Papam non posse dam [...]ari: sed quod quicquid sa [...]r [...]t salva­r [...]tur: that is, Howsoever he l [...]v [...]. yet it is im­possible for the Pope to [...]ee [...]. Rather I in­cline to the opinion of another Pope. It wasO [...]phri [...] in Marcello 2. the say [...]g of Pope Marcell [...]s the [...]econd, Non vid [...]o q [...]modo qu [...] [...] I con­ceive [Page 137] not (said hee) how that men which attaine the high Majestie of the Papacy, can ever be saved. And this I say, setting Gods secret Determination apart: The Pope, and Papacy, and popish agents and instruments, if they proceed in these Heresies, Cruelties, Treacheries and Ty­rannies, which they now professe and practise, d [...]spereunt, bis pereunt: they fall under a double destruction, of body and of soule: They are this Filius Perditionis: They will be damned.

Some Papists will thinke it strange, that I terme the Pope, the sonne of perdition. And I thinke it more strange, that the Pope and pa­pists use this very property of Antichrist, Per­dition, as a meanes to propagate their Religi­on. Antichr [...]st is here called a destroyer, and they urge destruction as an argument to draw fearefull people to Popery. Doth not Bellar­mine and others preach peremptorily that the Pope can depose Kings, and d [...]spose of King­domes? what is this, but to terr [...]fie pop [...]sh Prin­ces, from forsaking Popery, for feare of d [...]stroying their Inheritance? Doth not Suarez and others conclude wretchedly, that the Pope may au­thorize a forraine Prince to invade his neighbor, or the subjects to kill their Soveraigne? what is this, but to terrifie the reformed Princes from opposing Popery, for feare of murther, and de­stroying their persons? Did not our Powder plot­ters confesse that they intend [...]d to make our Parliament House, their slaughter hous [...], because said they, there the Lawes were inacted against [Page 138] them? What is this? but to terrisie this State, other States, and all States, from making Sta­tutes against the Romish Religion: for feare of being destroyed, by some such suddaine sulphu­rious Popish Romish villanie. Know wee not their common threatnings, what they whis­per amongst the common people, What they will doe when their day doth come? (but Christ grant that their day may never come.) When their day shall come, doe they not whisper a­mongst the common people, that they will no more hew downe the branches, but teare up the very rootes of Reformation, rooting out every professour thereof. What is this? but to ter­rifie us from preaching, and you from hearing for feare of destroying our poore persons, and innocent children? Is not then destroying the Pillar of poperie? Are not papists destroyers? May not therefore their father be called [...]ilius perditionis, the sonne of perdition?

To answer their argument: Doe they feare you, that you may savour them? Doe they tell you of death and destruction? tell them that Antichrist is a destroyer, and that cruelty was ne­ver the Character of Christianity. Doe wee thinke they will doe what they threaten, and destroy us, if wee come into their power? Oh let us not feare them, that may destroy the bo­dy, but cannot hurt the soule: rather let us feare him, who can destroy both body and soule in Hell, Matth. 10. 28. A thousand times better is it for us, to be like Saint Steven, to pray for them▪ [Page 139] that kill us, than for them to be like the Iewes, to vow to kill us, who pray for them: and doe them no Hurt, but onely hinder their Errours, and indeavour their salvation.

Well then, let them goe on! the man of sin will bee the sonne of perdition: and those who are sworne servants to Rome, may sweare our im­prisonment, our exile, our tortures, our death, our destruction. But the Lord destroy, the de­stroyer! and grant that popery, may never get the dominion over us, Amen. Amen.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. The Adversarie.’

Antichrist not an open Adversary. The Pope doth oppose Christ. The Pope the worst Adver­sarie, the Church ever had.

THe Adversary! This is the third Title of Antichrist: Some call it his Propertie; both properly enough: for the Title, doth imply the propertie. Yet more properly it may be termed his title, because it doth al­lude to his proper Name. The Adversary with St. Paul, and Antichrist with St. Iohn are syno­nima's, of the same signification. To consider this title, is a matter of some consequence: for Sanders, Bellarmine, and all the papists, urge this as an insoluble Demonstration. The Pope is Vicarius Christi, not Adversarius Christo: The Pope is the Vicar, not the Adversary of Christ. Therefore, The Pope i [...] not Antichrist. Let us [Page 141] examine this point and judge the truth, accor­ding to the plainnesse of the Evidence.

The Adversarie: [...] This Title Beza in 2 Thes. 2. of Antichrist, doth allude to that name of the Devill, Satan: that the Sonne may resemble his Father, and to shew that Antichrist will be a devillish Adversary. Now an Adversary is so, two wayes: either openly or secretly. As Porus Iust. Hist. lib. 12. a [...]ailed Alexander with his sword: but Anti­pater his servant, yea as some suspect his wife did slay him with poison. Possible therefore it is, for the servant of Christ (yea servus ser­vorum, for him that pretendeth himselfe to be Christs principall servant) to be a traitour: and for them who have the name of the spouse, to be the Adversary of Christ. Againe, Herod sought Christ with the sword, but Iudas did be­tray him with a kisse: the title therefore of an Apostle, cannot wave the terme of Adversarie: of a secret adversary. And indeed he is an adver­sary who doth oppose, in what manner soever he doth manage his opposition. For to be a secret or an open enemy, is not of the Essence of Enmitie. Yea sub amici fallere nomen, tut a frequensque via est. Some who pretend most friendship, intend most mischiefe. Such an one is Antichrist: a secret mischievous Adversary.

Concerning this point, I propose these three particulars. I will shew you the man­ner, measure, and the man opposing Christ. First that Antichrist shall not oppose Christ, [...] Openly: but that hee shall bee a secret [Page 142] Adversary unto Christ, it appeareth foure wayes. From this Chapter, from the Scrip­ture, from the scope of his actions; and finally, from the confession of their owne Writers.

From this Chapter also, it is evident that Antichrist is a secret adversary, foure wayes. First from the last verse, Antichrist is termed the Apostasie or the Apostate. Now Apostates are Heretikes, and Heretikes pretend open obser­vance, and obedience unto Christ: Howsoever by their doctrine they oppose him secretly. Ther­fore since Antichrist is an Apostate, and an He­retike, hee is a secret adversary. Secondly, in this fourth verse (which I will avouch in my next Sermon) Antichrist shall sit in the Temple, that is, hee shall place his Throne in the Church. Antichrist therefore shall be a secret adversary in the Church: not an open adversary of the Church. Thirdly, in the 7 verse, the feates of Antichrist are termed [...], sleights which doe [...], sayth the Etymologists, blinde the Eyes, that they can­not see, and stop the mouth that they dare not say any thing concerning those secret mysteries. Now a Mystery doth import a Secresie. As it is in the sacrum Eleusinum, and the Orgi [...]. Al­cibiades Iust. Hist. lib. 5. was convented, quia Mysterium Cereris enuntiasset, because he had revealed the secret Ceremony, of Ceres. Therefore Antichrist is a mysticall, a secret adversary. Finally in the 8 verse, Antichrist is sayd to be revealed. It is ridiculous to bring a Torch to behold him who [Page 143] doth shew himselfe in the streets, and in the sun­shine. And as ridiculous it is to imagine a re­velation of a manifest, professed and open adver­sary. But Antichrist must be revealed: therfore Antichrist can be no open, but a secret adversary.

Secondly, I will second the former series of arguments, with sixe others drawne from the Scriptures. First in the second Epistle of Saint Iohn verse 7, the Heretikes are termed [...], Deceivers. Whence I inferre: such as were the Forerunners, such is the Grand Mr: but the Heretikes, and Forerunners of Antichrist, were [...], no open adversartes: Therefore Anti­christ himselfe, is [...], no open adversary. A­gaine, Rev. 13. 11. Antichrist is said to have two hornes like the lambe: that is he shall have the outward appearance of the servant of Christ: hee cannot then bee an open adversary against Christ: Againe, Antichrist doth conquer the world poculo aureo, with a golden cup, Rev. 17. 4.Ioh. Aventrot. epi. ad [...]g. Hist. Principibus imperat poculo, non Sceptro saith A­ventrotus to the King of Spaine: It is his Cup and cunning perswasions, and not his sword, and open-Invasions, which inableth him to usurpe upon Princes. Therefore he can be no open adversary. Finally, Antichrist is called Pseudopropheta a false prophet, Rev. 16. 13. and the Antichristian persons, composing that man of sinne, are called [...], by Saint Peter, that is, false teachers, 2 Pet. 2. 1. Saint Paul also calleth the same [...], 1 Tim. 4. 2. false speakers, or such as speake lyes in Hypocrisie. [Page 144] From all these I must inferre my former con­clusion. Therefore Antichrist is a secret lying Hypocrite: not an open professed opposite.

Thirdly, the maine scope of Antichrist is to seduce, and that by [...] strong delu­sion: as Saint Paul here speaketh in the 11. verse. Now that project cannot be perfor­med, by a plaine profession of enmity: against Christ. No deceivers, deluders, nor seducers, will professe themselves to be so; for then all Chri­stians would fly from them. Therefore that great deceiver, the great Antichrist, is a secret Adversary.

Finally, many of the most learned papists doe acknowledge that Antichrist shall be a fa­mous Hypocrite. Hence Sanders, out of Ephrem Sanders de An­tichristo de­monst. 10. the Syrian, sayth: Erit falsus, & falsiloquus: Antichrist, shall bee a false-tongued, and a false-hearted seducer. Se praebens studiosum, & speciosum, making a goodly shew of all godlyAcost [...] de temp. Novis. l. 2. c. 20. piety and sanctity. Acosta also saith, erit vel pri­mus corum, qui in hypocrisi loquuntur mendac [...], habentes speciem quandam pietatis: that is, Anti­christ shall pretend piety and be the principall of all Hypocrites. I conclude then, an Arch-Rebell doth proclaime the Name of his King, the better to draw followers to oppose the King. So Antichrist shall call himselfe a Chri­stian, with the better shew, to oppose Christ and Christianity. Therefore he is no open adversa­rie. To make the conclusion yet more plaine, thus I reason. Antichrist is an adversary unto [Page 145] Christ, Praecipuo modo, after the principall man­ner:Lessius de An­tich. Dem. 5. But to be an open adversary, is not to bee an aduersary after the principall manner (for the insinuating, lying, deceiving, unsuspected enemy, is most perilous, and pernicious, as Iu­das was to Christ, and Ioab to Amasa.) There­fore Antichrist is no open adversary.

The opposition of Antichrist, against Christ 2 shall bee universall, and fundamentall. First [...], the adversary, expresseth a greater contrariety, than if hee had called him, onely [...] which signifieth an Adversary also. For the first signifieth a thwart adversary, and opposite unto Christ [...], simply, and in every respect, and not [...], in some one point, or other onely. All Heretickes (especially such as deny the person or offices of Christ) are called Antichr [...]sts, 1 Ioh 2. 18. But this adversary hath fra [...]ed a [...] ▪ hath gathered together, the rags and dregs of all Heresies. Secondly, the word [...], or an Adversary doth signifie one, who doth oppose the very foundation of the Gospell. Those therefore, which doe shut the doore, against the grace offered in the Gospell, are called [...] ▪ the adversaries, 1 Cor. 16. 9. That Antichrist shall oppose Christ univer­sally, and fundamentally, this is the measure: that he shall worke it secretly, this is the man­ner of his Opposition. And thus Antichrist is termed the adversary, or opposer of Christ.

Many could wish, that this adversary were 3 like the Beast Dan. 7. 7. without a Name. Or [Page 146] that his Name should bee like that writing, Dan. 5. 8. that none could read it. But Oedipo non opus est, wee need no Daniel to expound it, every childe can spell it. It is plaine. The Pope is the adversary.

But the Papists say, we doe him open wrong, because he is no open adversary, but a professed servant of Christ. I answer, even Mahomet, doth speake excellently of Christ; not onely as [...]nicer, To [...] ▪ 1. of a Prophet, but also as of the Saviour of his people. The Devill also professed Christ to bee the Sonne of God, Mark 1. 24. Therefore a pro­fessour may be a secret, though no professed ad­versary unto Christ. We may say of the Pope, what Mountague said of one Pope, Boniface 8, he can cary himselfe both like a Foxe, and like a Lyon; a Foxe, by publike sophistry; and a Lion, by private Tyranny. I say the man of Rome, is that woman of Babylon, which maketh the world d [...]m [...]e, with a world of impiety, Rev. 17. 4. as one acutely descanteth on his name Papa.

That is, The Pope doth poyson all Prin­ces, with abominable Heresies.

  • P Poculum
  • A Aureum
  • P Plenum
  • A Abominationum

Or to confirme the Pope, according to his E­lection, Sacr [...]. Caerem. lib. 1. sect. 1. by his owne Cardinalls. Electus indu [...] ­tur Papali habitu, toga scilicet lanca, albi coloris, caligis rube [...]s, sandalijs rubeis, cingulo rubeo, bir­reto [Page 147] etiam rubeo: that is, when the Pope is elected hee is arrayed in his Papall apparell: to wit, a White Gowne, but red shooes, red stockins, &c. emblematically: notwithstanding their white outside, they have a red bloody inside. And their openprofession, is no argument, but that the Pope may be a secret adversary.

To say this, and shew it too. First the Pope doth oppose Christ, fundamentally: hee is an ad­versary, to the foundation of Chr [...]stianity, and very groundworke of the Gospel, which is this: [...]: Eternall life is the gift of God through Christ, Rom. 6. 23. But the Pope saith, Good workes can be no other, than the valew, desert, price, worth and merit of Hea­ven. Rhemists in 1 Cor. 3. 8. Good workes are meritorious, and the very cause of salvation: so farre forth, that God should be injust, if he did not render heaven for the same, say the same Rhemists. Bellarmine Rhemists in Heb. 6. 10. doth amplifie all the particulars, paraphrasing on the 2 Tim. 4. 8. namely that the papistsBell. de justif. lib. 5. cap. 16. expect Coronam justitiae, a Crowne of Iustice: meritis operum, for the merits of their workes: pro qualitate, ac disquisitione factorum, accordingBellarm. Apolog. pag 163. to the exact quality of their actions: à judice justo, non à patre misericorde, from a just judge, Concil. Trident. sub Paulo 3. Sess. [...]. cap. 24. not from a mercifull Father. And if any shall say that opera, are onely signa & fructus, and not causa justificationis, anathema sit: the coun­cill of Trent damneth that man to Hell, who shall say good workes are not the cause of justi­fication. But whilest the thundereth out against [Page 148] us that Anathema injuriously: he magnifying merits incurreth the Anathema of Saint Paul, Gal. 1. 8. meritoriously. Whosoever doth op­pose the workes of Man, unto the grace of God, No [...] sit Anathema, sed est Anathema. He is that cursed adversary, which doth raze the very [...]oundat [...]on of the blessed Gospell, which is not my particular opinion onely, but the judge­ment of the Church of England. These are theHom. Par. 1 [...]e Sermon of sal­vation. words thereof: Wholly to ascribe our justification, unto Chr [...]st onely: this is the rocke and foundation of Christian Religion. This whosoever denyeth, is not to be accepted for a Christ [...]an man. It is the greatest presumption, and arrogance, which Anti­christ can set [...]p against God, to affirme that a man might by his owne workes, take away and purge his owne sinne, and so [...]ustifie himselfe.

Thus doth the Pope oppos [...] Chr [...]st fundamen­tally: that he doth also oppose him universally, Dounam De­re [...]. part. 1. lib. 3 cap. 6. it is made manifest, by that excellently lear­ned, & religious Bishop of D [...]ry, from whom I professe that I draw the most part of this ex­cellent Antiparallell; the Catholike opposition, which that Rom [...]sh Catholike maketh unto Christ, may be reduced unto three particulars. It is quoad mores, officia, & beneficia, in regard of his conversation, offices and benefits.

First, for his conversat [...]on: three things were eminent in the manners of Christ: Innocence, Humilitie and Charitie. And the Pope doth practise the direct contrary. Christ was inno­cent as a Lambe: behold the Lambe of God saith [Page 149] Saint Iohn, Ioh. 1. 39. and againe, Ioh. 8. 46. which of you convinceth me of sinne? the Popes personall infirmities, yea enormities I passe by, onely I will use the phrase of the fellow in Carion: if you aske of mee the lives of theCarion Chron. lib. 3. Popes, I say since Gregory the first, there have beene so many vertuous Popes, that all their images may be graven in one Ring.

Humility (a vertue second to none) was the second vertue in our Sauiour. Christ came riding on an Asse, Ioh. 12. 15. the Pope is caried on the shoulders of Noblemen. Christ did wash his Disci­ples feet, Ioh. 13. 14. but even Princes kisse the feet of the Popes Holinesse. Christ would not ar­rogateBulla Alex. 6. so farre to himselfe, as to divide a small Inheritance, betwixt two brethren, Luke 12. 14. But the Pope is so arrogant that hee hath taken upon him to divide the new world be­twixt two great Kings. Finally, Christ is Cha­rity it selfe, and sharply rebuked his disciples for desiring fire from heaven to avenge them on the inhospitable Samaritans, Luke 9. 56. But the Pope like the sonne of Hecuba, is a Fire­brand, setting all Christendome in a combustion. And thus farre for the first opposition.

Secondly, the offices of Christ are three: Propheticall, whereby hee doth instruct his Church: Sacerdotall, whereby he doth sacrifice for his Church: and regall, whereby hee doth Rule the Church. Now the Pope by fortifying his usurped primacy, doth trench upon all these prerogatives.

First, Christ doth, as he is a Prophet, instruct his Church by his holy Word: and his holinesse doth oppose his owne word, and maketh it Equall to Christs word. To omit those monstrous sayings of Eckius, Hosius, &c. who nicknameLessius de An­tich. part. 1. Dem. 15. the Scripture to be a Leaden Rule, a nose of waxe, of no better authority, (if not authorised by the Church of Rome) than Esops Fables. To omit also the like phrase of Costerus, Vagina quae Coster. En [...]h. cap. 1. qu [...]mlibet gladium admittit, a scabbard fit for e­very sword. Omitting these scurrilous similies, or rather plaine blaspemies. In sober sadnesse, these are their solemne conclusions. Verba pon­tificis Suarez. Apol. lib. 7. c. 22. nu. 8. è Cathedrae, in veritatis certitudine, aequalia sunt Scriptura: that is, the words of the Pope pronounced out of his Chaire, are equally true, with the word of God, written in the Scripture: so saith Suarez. And it is the Catholike con­clusion of their Oecumenicall Councell of Trent, Concil. Trid. sub Paul [...] 3. Sess 4. Traditiones pari pietatis affectu veneramur? that they receive the traditions of the Church with equall reverence, and religious affection, as they doe the Scripture of God. Now for a Man, to equall his word, with Christs word; This is no meane opposition to Christ, but a maine deroga­tion to his propheticall office. The prime excel­lency whereof, consisteth in the incomparable infallibility of his Word or instruction.

Againe according as he was a Priest, Christ did offer himselfe once for all, Heb. 7. 27. but the Pope doth oppose this, and impose his Masse, as a Propitiatory and dayly sacrifice. Neither is it a light matter, that Christ in all the Scripture is [Page 151] termed onely Pontifex, that is, the High-Priest. But the Pope will bee called summus Pontifex, the highest priest: as if the Lord of Babylon indea­voured to build up his supremacy, like the Tower of Babel unto the very Heavens, that there hee might [...], oppose even Christ himselfe, con­cerning his Royall Priesthood.

Next, the Regall office of Christ, the Pope doth oppose, or rather wholly take away. He doth make him, Regem sine villa, a meere titular King, over his Church. Pope Innocent 3. in hisPl [...]ss. [...]yst. Iniq. Progres. 50. second sermon on the feast of Saint Peter, vouchsafeth to call the Church sponsam suam, his spouse. And some of our owne Countrey­men, are not unexpert, in translating the popes language. Thus writeth George Dowly in hisGeorge Dow­ly catech. cap. 3. English Catechisme: hereby wee may see how justly wee call the Church our Mother, and the Pope our Father. The Pope our Father! IndeedCyprian de vni­tate Ecclesiae sect. 5. I have heard, habere non potest Deum patrem, qui non habet Ecclesiam matrem: the Church our mother, and God our Father, I easily beleeve it: but the Church our mother, and the Pope our Father! I thinke this will never comeBellarm. de Pon. Rom. lib. 1. cap. 9, & 10. into my Creed: no not though Trens it selfe should injoyne it. Moreover, nothing is more familiar amongst the Papists, than to crack of the Monarchy of the Church. But we know that every Monarch, aut praeponitur, aut opponitur, eve­ry Monarch is either preposed and set before: or opposed & set against all other Governors what­soever. So must the Pope be to Christ: since he is [Page 152] a Monarch; neither can they blāch this oppositiō, or Rebellion rather, with that threed-bare limi­tation, Quà Vicarius Christi, that is, the Pope is Monarch of the Church, but onely as he is sur­rogate unto Christ. For here is contradictio in adjecto, [...], the termes▪ supplant one ano­ther, in the same proposition. As if we should say, such a man is King of Ireland, but Quà prae­fectus, onely as he is Lord Deputy for our King Charles; Or that such a servant is Master of the family, but onely Quà [...], as hee is ste­ward under his master. As these are without sense in policie, so that is without reason in piety. The Pope doth either oppose himselfe in words, or our Saviour in deeds: each way he is the oppo­ser. To conclude, the Popes word is equall to Christs word: the Popes title, is superior to Christs title: and the Popes Government (a Monarchy) no way inferiour to the Empire of Christ. Ther­fore in regard of his three offices, a Prophet, Priest, and a King, the Pope is exactly opposed unto Christ, [...]: there is the adversary.

The mame worke of Christ, quà Iesus, as he is our Sauiour, supplying us with all blessings, is that he doth take away our sins, Matth. 1. 21. part of which power, the Pope and papists doe ascribe unto Saints, to the Virgin Mary, and to themselves. Nay the Pope doth shoulder for that whole power, and doth usurpe as much to himselfe, as Christ can doe, in that kinde. Conce­dons [...]il. Pauli 5. 1620. & [...]largissons, trés pleine remission, & indul­gence de tous leur pechez, giving them full for­givenesse [Page 153] of all their sinnes. This is all Christ can doe: yet Pope Paul the fift did say that hee would doe as much. Nay the Pope hath done more than ever Christ did. Gregory by his prayer Revel. Brigittae lib. 4 cap. 13. did recall a soule (the Emperour Trajane) from Hell. Christ never did the like. And anno 1592 Pope Clement 8, gave indulgentiam plenariam, & remissionem omnium peccatorum, tam culpae, quam paenae: A full forgivenesse of All their sinnes, both in regard of the guilt, and of the punishment thereof. The last whereof they deny that Christ hath done, in the doctrine of satisfaction. Therefore in regard of this prin­cipall blessing (the forgivenesse of sinnes) which we receive from Christ, Christ is opposed by the Pope: and the Pope is [...], the Ad­versary.

Moreover, I will avouch this opposition, to the meanest capacity, in sixe plaine parti­culars.

1. Christ saith, Scrutemini, Search the Scrip­tures, Iohn 5. 39.

The Pope saith, Ne scrutmini, Search not the Scriptures.

2. Christ saith, Pray in a tongue you under­stand, 1 Cor. 14.

The Pope saith, Pray in the Latine tongue.

3. Christ saith, Pray unto God alone, Psalm. 50. 15.

The Pope saith, Saints also must be prayed unto.

4. Christ saith, Thou shalt not make to thy selfe any graven image, &c. Exod. 20.

The Pope saith, Thou shalt make to thy selfe graven images, &c.

5. Christ saith, Let every soule be subject to the higher power, Rom. 13. 1.

The Pope saith, The Clergy must be exempted, and the Subjects may be absolved.

6. Christ saith, Drinke ye all of this, Mat. 26. 27.

But the Pope saith, Onely the Clergie, and that by two Councils of Constance and Trent.

To take all in one Apophthegme, Romano Pontifici tenemur obedire, non secus ac Chr [...]sto, Bozius de Iure di [...]. saith Bozius: we are obliged to obey the Pope even as Christ: a pretty superlative compari­son. Yet is there another sentence, one de­gree beyond this. The Pope permitteth oneCanon hac Rat. Causa 31. qu. 1. Canon to be in his Decretalls, which saith that Saint Paul did speake against all truth and reason. Never did, never durst any oppose Christ so directly, so audaciously. I may therefore de­termine it boldly, the Pope is [...], the Adversary.

But all this is broken against one stone, they say, the Pope cannot be [...], the adversa­rie: because hee is not the worst Adversary, which ever the Church had. I answer: The Pope is the worst Adversary, and worse than either Arius, or the Turke, or all the Heathen persecutors. Review my last Sermon, and I shall not seeme to speake partially. To that long discourse I will adde these sixe briefe considerations.

First, take notice of the number of his he­resies. Derensis de An­tichr. part. 2. c. 6. Arius and other Hereticks had some few (though) grosse errours. But in Popery we have a catalogue of sixe hundred, by the Bishop of Dery: as his word is [...] a Vale where all the land floods meet, to make as it were one in­undation of Errors. Secondly, consider the time of their tyrannies. The Heathen Tyrants ra­ged from the time of S. Iohns receiving the Revelation (about 96, to 311, when Constan­tine beganne his reigne) but a small time, com­paratively, about two hundred and fifteene yeares. But the Pope, or Antichrist (according to the judgement of our English Bernard, andBern. in Apoc. pag 1 [...]0. other English and outlandish Divines) shall reigne two hundred and fifteene moneths of years, being prophetically expressed by dayes, every day being put for a yeare, is a thousand, two hun­dred, and threescore yeares. Howsoever, the Popes persecuting power hath prevailed these eight hundred yeares past: a long time of Perse­cution. To this let us joine the blood shed by the Popes voluntarily, in France, Germanie, Spaine, Italy, and the Inquisition. Peradventure (as I have made it good in my last Sermon) it will appeare not to be much inferiour to the ef­fusion in the ten persecutions. And for one par­ticular cruelty, we have the testimony of a Pa­pist,B. Mortons Grand [...]post. cap. 15. sect. 24. Thes. 2. Natalis Comes by name: Nullum simile sae­vitiae exemplum, in tota antiquitate reperiri: that all the old Histories are not able to give one example like the barbarous Massacre of Paris.

Neither may we omit the blood which the Popes shed occasionally. His Apostasie and strange opposing of Christian Princes, opened that gappe, whereby the Turke entred into Chri­stendome.

And all these Cruelties are mingled with many and strange subleties, which did bewitch their credulity, as if they had beene confir­med by miracles from heaven, Revel. 13. 13.

Finally, their cruelty it selfe is incompa­rable: so that it is more tolerable for a Protestant to live under a Turkish, than under, I will not say, a Popish, but I doe say, a Iesuited Popish go­vernment. Let the witnesse of a Pope war­rant this verdict. Pope Innocent the third sent an army of Croisado's against the Protestants ofHist. Albing. lib. 1. cap. [...]. Tholouse, commanding the Commanders there­of to study to abolish the hereticall pravity, and these sectaries, and that more severely than the Sarasins, impugning them with a strong hand, and stretched out arme, as being worse than they. I con­clude for the Popedome: Their errours are so innumerable, their tyrannies so unsupportable: their cruelties so long, and their delusions so strong: that the like never concurred in any one Estate. I say therefore of this State: Papa est ille Adversarius: The Pope is a secret, but the greatest enemy of Iesus Christ.

1 Reg. 18. 21. If Baal be God, follow him: if the Lord be God, follow him. If there bee any Papist, or popish in this assembly, I beseech you in the bowels of Iesus Christ, to ponder these [Page 157] particulars, advisedly, and impartially. If I have shewed plainly, truly, and sufficiently, That the Pope is the Adversary of Christ: then as you are Chr [...]stians, halt not betwixt two opinions. Be enemy to him, or them, that is an enemy to thy Iesus: and yet no mortall enemy: we must not hate them, as they hate us, unto death. Wee desire not their blood, nor their lives: No: if they will be worthy men (loyall Subjects) wee desire not, that an haire should fall from them to 1 King. 1. [...]2. the earth. But if Rome hath insected them with Antichristian enmity, then may wee law­fully desire that their hands may bee hindred from throwing firebrands in our houses: and their tongues bridled from casting poison into our understand [...]ngs. To that end let us pray, that God would yet more illuminate our reli­gious Soveraigne, Never to be a friend to him, who is an Adversary to his Saviour. Let us pray for the Parl [...]ament, that they may not trample on the remembrance of that, which is under their feet, the Powder plot: and that they may make Lawes for such an Ofspring, not Draco's lawes, in blood: nor yet S [...]yth an lawes, Copwebs for every insolent Recusant to breake through. But right Engl [...]sh Lawes (Recti praeceptio, & pravi depuls [...]o: the commanding of that which is good, and the represing of that which is bad,) to win their love, or to prevent their hate and hurt. Let us pray for our seduced Countrimen, that they may come out of Babylon, l [...]st they perish with them. And let us pray for our selves, that [Page 158] for no company, commodity, affinitie, or con­sanguinity, we should be seduced by them. In a word: there are many Protestants, and (too) many Papists in these Rea [...]mes; The Lord open their eyes, that they may turne to us: the Lord open our eyes and hearts also, that we may never turne to them: lest we perish under that sonne of perdition, and great enemy of Christ, Christen­dome, and Christianity; the Pope; ille Adver­sarius, the Adversary.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. Who sitteth in the Temple of God.’

Of the Temple. Of Antichrists seat. It is not the Temple of the Iewes. It is Rome. Whether Rome be a true Church. A parallell betwixt Rome and Babylon.

THe third part in the Description of Antichrist, is the description of his Place: he shall sit in the temple of God, saith my Text. Although to have his seat in the same citie, be no suffici­ent argument to conclude, Therefore it is the same person: Yet the very place is conditio ne­cessaria, Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. c. 15. nu. 3. it is a condition worthy to be taken into our consideration, saith Suarez. In the Text he is said to have his seat, [...], in the Temple: from which wee distinguish [...] (which signifieth also the Temple) by this property. [...] a Temple, is derived of [...] in­habito, because God doth as it were make his [Page 160] Residence there: and [...] sacrum, Holy, is ano­therZ [...]ch. in 4. P [...]aec [...]pt. name of the Temple, because sacra, the holy rites of Gods worship were there perfor­med. The first name is in regard of the per­son worshipped, God: and the second in regard of the persons worshipping, Gods servants. The meaning is, Antichrist will usurpe the Temple in the hig [...]est respect. Againe, [...] is not the [...]niu [...] Paral. 3. whole building and fabricke of the Temple, but the principall part thereof, whereto the peo­ple doe principally resort to discharge their devotion. As the Iewes had the Sanctum, and the Sanctum Sanctorum in their Temple: and in every Church amongst us also, there is the body, and chancell thereof, a common distincti­on. This is the second way wee distinguish [...], from [...]. The sense is evident: Anti­christ Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. ca. 16. nu 4 will place his throne in the principall part of the Temple of God: as Adrian did once erect his statue in the Sanctum Sanctorum, in the most holy place of the holy Temple of H [...]erusalem. He shall sit [...], in the Temple of God, saith my Text.

Antichrist shall sit in the Temple of God. Concerning the seat of Antichr [...]st, I will pro­pose two points to be handled, the Explica­tion, and the Application thereof. First I will declare what, and secondly where this Tem­ple is.

The Temple is taken three wayes: Materi­ally, Suarez Apolog. lib. 5 cap 15. num. 6. & 7. Metaphorically, and Formally. Materi­ally, it is taken for the place, for the Temple [Page 161] of the Iewes: Metaphorically, for the persons, or congregation of Antichristians: and Formally, for the persons or congregation of true Christi­ans. The first, to take the Temple materially in my text, is the setting of the Romish Mint on worke, to coine a new fiction, like the old fable of the Earthly Paradise: both in Eutopia, neither extant in rerum natura. Such is the assertion of those who say the Temple of the Iewes is the seat of Antichrist. The second is the opinion of S. Augustine, who held that An­tichrist Aug. de Civit. Dei. and the Antichristians should sit [...] not [...], not in, but for, and instead of the Temple of God. Now who they be, which of all the world doe most cry Templum Do­mini, the Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Bell. de Pont. Rom. lib. 3. c. 13. Suarez Apolog. lib. 3. ca. 16. Malvenda de Antich. lib. 7. c. 7 Lessius de An­tichristo part. 1. Dem. 12. Monarchomach. his Touchstone. Christo▪ ho [...]so [...] in Down lib. 1. Spalatensis Con­cil. Red. pag. [...]. 9. Lord: & would have none to be true Catholike Christians, but onely the Romish Christians, I leave this to the conjecture of any ordinary capacity. In the third place, the Temple is ta­ken formally, for the Church of Christ: and up­on this doe I insist.

But the maine difference consisteth in this distinction: whether by this Temple of God, we are here to understand the Temple of the Iewes, or the Church of the Christians. We affirme the latter, and prove it three wayes. First from the Text▪ secondly from the Scrip­ture, and thirdly from their confession.

First, the phrases of my Text doe not sit this interpretation: by the Temple of God to understand the materiall Temple of the Iewes. [Page 162] The first phrase, sedere to sit, is not here taken materially, for the gesture of the body. Hilarius doth expresse it well: Antichrist shall sit in the Temple, Potestate regiminis, by his power and governing; not actu praesentiae corporalis, not by the actuall presence of his body. And mee thinketh our adversaries should not boggle at their owne phrase. They themselves know that for the Pope to sit, and the King to reigne, are both synonima's: both signifie to rule, and governe. Againe, that other phrase, tan­quam Deus, as it were God, cannot be expoun­ded materially: because God is immateriall, and incorporeall: and it is the errour of the An­thropomorphites to ascribe a bodily position unto God. God cannot be said to sit materially: nor any creature neither, if he doth sit tanquam De­us, as it were God. Let therefore the phrases proceed in a just proportion, and wee con­clude: the temple is not here to be taken mate­rially for the temple of the Iewes: but formally for the church; for the cōpany & congregation of chri­stians. The Church of Christ shall be the seat of Antichrist. Secondly, the current of the Scrip­ture phrase runneth strongly for this interpre­tation: that the temple of God doth (now) signi­fie the Church of Christ, & not the Temple of the Iewes. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God? 1 Cor. 3. 16. what agreement is there betwixt the temple of God? 2 Cor. 6. 16. In whom all the buil­ding being sitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord. Eph. 2. 21. And finally, [Page 163] 1 Tim. 3. 15. [...], the House of God; which is a synonima unto [...], the Temple of God, is there termed [...], the Church of God, and no where the Temple of the Iewes: I meane after the razing of the Iewish temple. For it is theB. Andrewes Apol. in Bell. c 9. observation of the learned, that after the tem­ple of Salomon was ruinated, the Holie Ghost in the Scripture did never ascribethe title of the temple of God to any thing, but to the church on­ly. Yet the best is the last interpretation from their owne confession. Indeed Bellarmine de R. Pontif. 3. 13. Christophorsonne his Succenturia­tus lib. 1. Lessius Demonst. 12. and divers o­thers, dispute it eagerly, that Antichrists seat shall be in the Temple of the Iewes, and not in the Church of Christ. But as many, and as good Schollers: yea more, and better of their side, are of our side, in this point: that the Seat of Antichrist shall be in the Church of God, and not in the Temple of Hierusalem.

The Rhemists on this verse are irresolute.Rhemists in 2 Thess. 2. 4. In the eleventh verse they would gladly maintaine that the Seat of Antichrist shall be at Hierusalem. But in the twelfth verse, they dare not deny, but that hee shall rather sit in our Christian Church, than in their Iewish Temple-Suarez also is no more resolute, in the fistSuarez Apol. lib. 5 cap. 16. booke and sixteenth chapter of his Apology. In the first number, he would decline this point of the place of Antichrist: Facilius quid non sit, quam quid sit, cognoscitur: it is no easie matter to demonstrate, that the seat of Antichrist shall be [Page 164] at Hierusalem. But in the third number, hee doth define it: yet so coldly, as if his consci­ence had checkt him for a voluntary gainsay­ing of the manifest truth: Verisimilius est, it is most probable, that S. Paul meaneth the Temple of the Iewes. A probability, no demonstration. where is Lessius then with his 12 demonstratiō? But Sanders plainly: Verius arbitratur, qui di­cit, Sander. de Antich. Dem. 18 Templum Dei apud Paulum, non de Templo Hierosolymitano, sed potius de Ecclesia accipien­dum esse: that his opinion is the truer, who doth thinke, that the Temple of God in this place doth not signifie the Temple of Hierusa­lem, but rather the Church. And as Sanders doth approve this of S. Ierome by his citation: so doth Germanus Hervetus, the like of S. Chryso­stome, Chrysost. in 2 Thess. 2. by his translation, [...]: Sedebit Germani Herve­ti versio. Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. cap. 15. num. 5. Pe [...]er. in Dan. lib. 14. in Templo Dei, non quod Hierosolymis: Anti­christ shall sit in the Temple of God, not at Hieru­salem: so Hervetus. Pererius as plainly: Sede­bit in Templo Dei, id est, in Templis Christiano­rum, haec enim sola vere dici possunt Templa Dei: Antichrist, saith he, shall sit in the Temple of God, that is, in the Temples (or Churches) of Christi­ans: for these alone may truly be termed the Temples of God. Baronius more plainly: yeaBaron anno 72. sect. 28. as peremptorily as any Protestant that ever set pen to paper in this point. This yeare, saith he, the Iewes were subdued to the Romanes: Nunquam posthaec servire desierunt, aut desinent, usque ad sinem mundi: after which they shall live in perpetuall servitude, even to the end [Page 165] of the world. Neque spes est aliqua, restituendae iterum Hierosolymae, vel Templi denuo excitandi: Neither is there any hope that that City shall be ever restored, or that Temple ever built againe: According (quoth he) to that Pro­phesie of Daniel 9. 27. He shall make it desolate, even unto the consummation. Also hee confir­meth it by a second argument drawne from Experience: When as (saith he) the Apostate in hatred of the Christians (and the Iewes in contempt of Christ, hoping [...],S [...]z [...]menus lib. 5 cap. ult. to make Christ a lyar, and a false Prophet) indeavored to re-edifie the Temple, the workmen were terrisied with hideous apparitions, and dreadfull fires, issuing out of the earth, which forced them to desist from that building. To his judgement may be ad­ded this reason: the Temple was a type of theDounam de Ant. part. 1. lib. 1 cap. 2 sect. 1. Church of Christ, and therefore when the Church of Christ was once planted, (like other Types and Figures) the Temple of the Iewes was utterly to be abolished. And this seemed to be no singular opinion of any private person, but the universall Tenent of the most, and best Divines of that age. Hence S. Chrysostome composed an Oration ( [...])Chrysost. Orat. 2. contra Iudaeos, tom. 6. onely to prove this point, That the Temple of the Iewes should never be repaired. Yea Suarez himselfe more plentifully; and as substanti­ally:Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. cap. 5. nu. 5. as if Truth did extort confession from the mouth of that Adversary who doth labour to contradict it, and suppresse it. He speaketh [Page 166] so to the purpose, that I now purpose to shut up my interpretation of this place, only in his owne words: Quod Paulus, per Templum Dei, Ecclesiam intellexerit, probabile est: sic interpre­tatur Hieronimus, Hugo, Chrysostomus, Occume­nius, Theophylactus: & Theodoreti verba haec sum: Templum Dei appellavit Ecclesias, in qui­bus Antichristus primam sedem arripiet. I will English it: for no Englishman can speake more plainly to our conclusion. That S. Paul (saith Suarez) by the Temple of God doth mean the Church, it is probable: for this is the ex­position of Hierome, Hugo, Chrysostome, Occu­menius, Theophylact: and Theodoret hath these words: Saint Paul doth call the Temple the Church, in which Antichrist will usurpe the chiefe See.

I conclude: from the Phrases of my Text, from the Testimonies of the Scripture, and from their owne Confession: The Papists themselves alledging the authority of the most and best of the Fathers, and establish­ing this assertion with reason: That the Temple shall not be built againe. Therefore, The Man of sinne shall sit in the temple of God: and the ve­rie Church of Christ, shall be the seat and place of Antichrist.

Thus have ye the Explication, What this Temple is: I proceed to the Application, Where it is.

The last sentence I quoted, I will make my first entrance into the second point. This is [Page 167] the saying of Theodoret (cited by Suarez) tem­plum Dei, appellat Ecclesias, in quibus Antichri­stus arripiet primam sedem: that is, Paul doth call the temple of God, the Church, in which Antichrist shall usurpe the prime See. Hence I argue,

The prime See of the Church, is the seat of Antichrist:

But Rome is the prime See of the Church:

Therefore, Rome is the seat of Antichrist.

Therefore the Pope (the other properties of this Text and Chapter being his by a just ap­plication) is Antichrist sitting in Rome, the principall Church of Christ.

But here the Papists oppose a plausible ob­jection:Bell. de Pont. Rom. lib. 3. ca. 13 that by this we confesse the Church of Rome to be the Church of Christ. I answer, we doe so: with these limitations:

First, the Church of Rome may be termedVhitak. Contr. 4. Quaest. 5. the Church of Christ, because heretofore it hath beene a true Church. As they themselves call the Host Bread, because it was bread before the consecration. And Isay 1. 21. wicked Hie­rusalem is called the faithfull City, because it had beene so.

Secondly, the Church of Rome doth usurp the name of the Church of Christ.

Thirdly, it is the Church of Christ, in the opinion of the Papists.

And finally, it doth still retaine the relicks of the Church, in that respect therefore wee may call it the Church of Christ.

Or to answer in the very words of Suarez himselfe: Congregatio in quae Antichristus ado­rabitur, Suarez. Apol. lib. 5. cap. 15. nu. 8. vocabitur Ecclesia & templum: quia an­tequam perverteretur, erat ecclesia & templi [...] Dei: That is, the Congregation of Antichrist is called the Church and Temple of God, be­cause it was the Church and Temple of God before their Apostasie.

Or yet more acurately, with acute Tile­nus: Tilen. syntag. part. 2. disp. 36. thes. 25. &c. We say that the Church of Christ may be considered two wayes, Vel ratione externae [...], vel internae [...]: that is, in regard of the outward profession of the truth, or of the inward possession of the truth. The Pope, or Antichrist, may sit in the Church of Christ, in the first sense: but according to the second, only the servant of Christ can sit in the Church of Christ.

I will divert a little, to discusse one great point: Whether the Romane Church be a true Church. In which discourse I will insist on these foure particulars.

First, I will declare What the Church is.

Secondly, the reasons to affirme the pro­position.

Thirdly, the restrictions & limitatiōs therof.

And finally, I will remove away some stones whereat the Protestants do stumble, and pluck away some plumes wherewith the Papists doe magnifie themselves: Both from this one ground; because wee yeeld them to be Tem­plum Dei, a true Christian Church.

Such indeede, is the charity of the PopishSpalatens. Cons. Red. pag. 12. Bell. de Notis Eccl. lib. 4. ca. 8. Dico secundo. Church, that they peremptorily pronounce (Ecclesias Haereticas, ne Ecclesias quidem omni­no esse) all hereticall Churches to bee indeed no Churches: yea precisely to name the very par­ticular. As namely, that the great Church of the Graecians, is also no Church. Whereby they also define all those infinite soules, to bee also damned. For extra Ecclesiam nulla est salus: There is no saluation out of the Church. But no­bisnon licet esse tam impios, we dare not be so vn­charitable. We say of those and this, that the very Church of Rome is a true Church; Which will appeare onely from the definition of the Church, If I should proceed no farther.

The Church is a company, which professe Christ, and are baptized. This is the definition of theHooker Politie lib. 3. num. 1. Bish. Abbot de Ant. cap. 3. nu. 4. Deane Whites reply to Fisher, pag. 49. Dr. Beard de Antich. cap. 4. num. 6. Dr Craken­thorp in Spal. c. 16. & 21. Answer to Fi­shers relat. of the 3. cons. Church, according to the common current consent, of our most, and most learned Di­vines. So, the essentiall difference of the Church of Christ from all other companies, congregations, or societies consisteth in these two points, Profession and Baptisme.

For the first: Revel. 2. 13. the spirit testi­fied, that the congregation of Pergamus, was not fallen from being a Christian Church: be­cause thou keepest my Name. Therefore keeping or professing the Name of Christ, is one essenti­all part of a Christian Church. Next, upon the acknowledging of the name of Christ, the Eu­nuch was baptised by Philip, Act. 8. 38. There­fore Baptisme is another: and profession with [Page 170] baptisme, are the two things which absolutely constitute a Church. Consider moreover 2 Tim. 2. 20. and Math. 13. 47.

To amplifie and honour this point, withHookers Politic lib 3. sect. [...]. the very words of that incomparable learned man, in that unanswerable learned booke. For want of this (profession and baptisme) it is, that Iewes, Infidels, and pagans, are excluded out of the bounds of the Church. Others we may not deny to be of the visible Church, so long as these things, be not wanting to them. For apparent it is, that all men of necessity, must either be Christians, or no Christians. If by externall profession they be Chri­stians, then are they of the visible Church of Christ. And Christians by externall profession they are all, whose marke of recognisance hath in it these things which wee have mentioned. Yea although they be impious Idolaters, wicked Heretikes, persons excommunicable, yea cast out for notorious impro­bitie. Such withall we deny not, to be theimpes and limmes of Satan, even as long as they continue such. From these premises, I frame these ar­guments: the first from the definition of the Church.

A Company which professe Christ and are bap­tised, are a Church.

But the Romanes are a Company, which professe Christ, and are baptised;

Therefore, The Romanes are a Church.

Adde also, out of the amplification: Al­though the papists be impious Idolaters, wicked Heretikes, or excommunicable persons. Al­though [Page 171] for their persons, they be the limmes of Satan, their profession bee the deceiveablenesse of Satan, their City bee the Throne of Satan, and their Head bee the sonne of Satan; yet whilest they professe Christ, and imbrace the Christian Baptisme: they are notwithstanding the Church of Christ.

But if any interpose, that Rome indeed is a Church, but not a true Church: such must know that Ens & verum, Beeing and true, are conver­tible. So if they grant the Romane to be a church, they must confesse withall, that it is a true Church. Videlicet, in regard of the Essence, not of the goodnesse thereof. And a thiefe, is a true man, in regard of the truth of his Essence, as he is a creature indued with Reason: yet is he not a true man, in regard of the truth of his goodnesse, his equity and honesty. So the popish Church, is a true Church, in regard of the truth of the Es­sence of a Church, (as a Church is a company which professe Christ, and are baptised) yet is it not a true Church, in respect of the truth of the goodnesse of a Church. That is, it is not a true holy Church, neither in doctrine, nor in manners.

In a word, the Church of Rome, is a true Church, in respect of the Essence: but a false Church, in respect of the doctrine thereof.

To prove that the Church of Rome, is a true Church, in our sense, and its Essence, I will make it good by two sorts of arguments: Artificiall and inartificiall. But these inartificiall argu­ments shall be interlaced with many artificiall [Page 172] ones also. The Testimonies are lined with their severall Reasons.

Reverend Calvin: Hoc rationibus satis vali­dis Calvin. Epist. 104. me probasse puto: Ecclesiam licet semiruptam, imo si libet diruptam ac deformem, aliquam tamen manere in Papatu. I suppose (saith hee) that in the Papacy, some Church remaineth: a Church crazed, or if you will broken quite in pieces, fore­lorne, mishapen, yet some Church. And his Reason, is my Text: because, Antichrist must sit in the Temple of God. Learned Zanchie: IZanchius praesat. de natura Dei. acknowledge the Church of Rome (Nec potuit Satan, &c. Maugre the Devills malice) for a true Church of Christ. His reason: because the Church of Rome holdeth the doctrine of truth concerning Christ, that he is the Redeemer, and shall be the Iudge of the world, baptizing in the Name of the Father, of the Sonne, and of the holy Buchanus loc. 44. quaest. 5. Ghost. Buchane: Caetus Pontificiorum sunt Ec­clesiae, sicut homo lepra, corrupt us, & mente captus, non desinit esse homo. The Frenzie maketh not a man cease to be a man: no more doth Heresie make Rome to cease to be a Church. Moreover,Hooker in Ab [...]k. 2. 4. [...]. 27. as the Frenzie, though it selfe take away the use of Reason, it doth notwithstanding prove them reasonable creatures which have it, because none can be frantike but men. So Antichristiani­tie being the bane and plaine overthrow of Christianity, may neverthelesse argue the Church wherein Antichrist doth sit, to be Christian. ThatRex Iacobus oratione ad or­dines Nou. 9. 1605. patterne and Patron of learning, King Iames, confesseth Rome to bee a Church, and conclu­deth [Page 173] from hence: because some in Rome may be saved. Charitable Hooker: although (saithHooker in Hab. 1. [...]. nu. 16, 17, & 25. he) the Church of Rome hath played the Harlot worse than ever did Israel: yet are they not, as now the Synagogue of the Iewes, which plainly deny Christ Iesus, quite and cleane excluded out of the Covenant. But as Samaria compared with Hierusalem, is termed Aholah, a Church or Ta­bernacle of her owne: contrariwise, Hierusalē Ahol [...]bah, the resting place of the Lord. So what­soever we terme the Church of Rome, when we compare her with reformed Churches: still wee put a difference, as then betweene Babylon and Samaria: so now betweene Rome and Heathe­nish assemblies. He doth render his Reason al­so:Bishop An­drewes Tort. prope sinem. B. Morton Apol. lib 4. ca. 2. sect. 5 B. Abbot de An­ti [...]b. lib. 3 nu. 4. Deane Whites Reply, pag. 49 Dr. Whites Defence, cap. 37. Dr. Whitak: Contr. 4. quaest. 5. cap. 3. Dr. Sharpe, sp [...]culo, c. 5. Dr Beard. cap. 4. num. 6. Answer to Fi­shers Relation of the 3. conser. because Rome doth overthrow the founda­tion of Christianity, not directly, but by conse­quent onely. In respect whereof we condemne it as Erroneous: although for holding the foun­dation, we doe, and must hold them Christians.

To the judgement of these sound Divines, subscribe many other, at this day famous in our generation? And I find this their opinion opposed by very few Reverend Authors: and for preserving of their reverence, I will sup­presse their Names, proceeding to the rem­nant of my arguments.

The first, and foundation of all my argu­ments, is the argument drawne from the foun­dation. The Church of Rome doth hold the true foundation of Christianity: it is therefore a true Christian Church. As a man, is in the shippe al­though [Page 174] tempests have torne away the Tack­lings, Pyrats have shot the maine Mast over­boord, and they themselves have blowne up the Decke: and nothing be remaining, but the Carine, the bulke, and very Carkasse of the ship: and that also upon the point of sinking. Now the foundation of Christianity is twofold: fun­damentum quo, & fundamentum quod, the foun­dation whereby a Christian doth know his sal­vation, and the foundation whereby hee doth obtaine it. Fundamentum quo, the fundamentall Writings, which doe declare the salvation of of Christians, are the Scriptures: in them wee have eternall life, and they testifie of Christ, Ioh. 5. 39. Fundamentum quod, the fundamentall meanes, and cause, which hath purchased, and doth give it, is Christ. Christ is the Saviour of the world, Ioh. 4. 42. and other foundation can no man lay, 1 Cor. 3. 11. Both which foundati­ons are held by the Church of Rome. The holy Scriptures they have, and acknowledge yea even in the Originall. And Christ they confesse to be the onely Saviour of the world: ioyning nothing with Christ in the worke of Redemption, but onely in the Application thereof. Which although it be too much, yet it is not enough, to raze the Foundation. Till then, that the Pa­pists doe reject the Scriptures: or rather till they reject Christ: wee must not exclude them from the Christian Church, because they yet do hold the Foundation of Christianity.

I will recompence the length of this first [Page 175] argument, with the brevity of foure follow­ing. Foure wayes in two words, will I plainly prove that The Church of Rome is a true Church. From the Professors, Pastors, Patterne and Proper­tie of a true Church.

Their children wee doe baptise: and their men baptised, wee doe not rebaptise. I suppose we should make a question of the one, and no question of the other, if they were absolutely out of the Church. Let the Protestants grant that the Papists have true baptisme: and the Papists will ea [...]ily and truly inferre, that then They are a true Church.

The Papists have True Pastours. This is ac­knowledgedWhitak. Contr. 4. qu▪ 5. c. 3. Mason de Or­din. minist. ca. 12 by our Doctors, approved by our Practise, wee doe admit Proselyte Priests, and did (in the beginning of Queene Elizabeths reigne) desire Consecration of our Bishops, from theirs: and Luther himselfe was a Popish Priest. All these remaine so without Iteration. But there are no true Pastours out of the true Church. Therefore, we granting them the one: we must yeeld them also the other.

Suppose thirdly, that a Pagan should pur­sue a Papist unto death, eo nomine, only because he is a Christian. Can wee deny such a man the glory of Martyrdome? yet this honour to be a Martyr, wee all know to bee proper to the Church. If therefore the Papists have true Mar­tyrs, they are also a true Church.

And for Examples, wee may be sufficiently furnished out of the Scriptures. Israel, when [Page 176] the people did worship the calfe, Exod. 32. 1. when they did burne incense to the brazen ser­pent, 2 King. 18. 4. when they bowed to Baal, 1 King. 19. 18. when they burned incense to other Gods, 2 Kings 22. 17. yea when the Prophets did condemne them as the seed of a whore, Esa. 57. 3. as wicked wretched miscreants, who had forsaken God, Ier. 13, 11. and were of him forsaken, Isaiah 60. 15. Even then retaining the Law of God, and the holy seale of his covenant, they continued to be his visible Church. AsHookers Politic, lib. 3. sect. 1. profound Hooker speaketh acutely, God had his Church amongst them, not onely because he had there thousands which did never bow their knees to Baal: but whose knees were bowed to Baal, even they also were the visible Church of God, 1 King. 18. 21. The Corinthians denyed the Resurrection, 1 Cor. 15. 19. The Galathians admitted Circumcision, Gal. 5. 2. Thyatira suf­fered Iezabel, Rev. 2. 20. Laodicea was luke­warme, Rev. 3. 16. Philadelphia had but a little strength, Rev. 3. 8. and Sardi was quite dead, Rev. 3. 1. yet were all these Churches. Nay it is the Temple of God, though the Throne of An­tichrist be pearched therein, 2 Thes. 2. 4. Wee cannot say more of Rome, than what is here said of these: that it is an Adulterous, Idolatrous fe [...]ble, Lukewarme, dead, generation of tempori­zing Antichristian miscreants. Nor can we say lesse of Rome, than the holy Scripture doth here speake of these. Notwithstanding all this, because they retaine the Law of God, and the [Page 177] seale of the covenant: because they retaine the Scripture, and the Sacraments. Therefore

The Church of Rome is a true Church of God.

The Restrictions and Objections are of neere affinity: unà ergo fidelià, I will handle them joyntly. But [...], this assertion doth place mee as a souldier be­twixt two armies ready to give the onset. Our friends force me out of their ranks, fearing me to be a Neuter, or rather a favourer of the E­nemie. The Enemie advanceth himselfe to turne my weapons, upon our side. Some Pro­testants say I yeeld the enemy too much, and that which is too false also. Is it possible say they, that the selfe same man, should belong both to the Synagogue of Satan, and to the Church of Iesus Christ? That Rome should bee both Babel, and the church? Sub Ajacis clypeo: I will sheildHooker Polit. lib. 3. sect. 1. my selfe under the arme of that old souldier of Iesus Christ, (who like an old souldier, was ne­ver sufficiently rewarded for his service to our true English, and truely Militant Church.) It is not possible that they should belong unto that church, which is the mysticall body of Christ: be­cause that body consisteth of none but true Israelits, true sonnes of Abraham, true Saints and servants of God. Howbeit, of the visible body, and Church of Iesus Christ, these may be, and oftentimes are, in regard of the maine parts of their outward Profes­sion, who in regard of their inward disposition of mind, yea of externall conversation, yea of some parts of their very profession, are most worthily [Page 178] hatefull in the sight of God himselfe, and in the eyes of the sounder part of the visible Church most execrable. To his words let mee adde one. They thinke that my assertion doth put wea­pons into the hands of our Adversaries: but I know that their contradiction doth plucke the strongest weapon out of the hands of our owne side. For it must follow inevitably: If Rome be no church, then is the Pope no Antichrist. Because the text doth teach us, that Anti­christ must sit in the Temple of God.

The Papists advance on the other side, as if they apprehended some great advantage by this assertion, as if by yeelding them to be a true Church, we must submit our selves to bee schismatickes. Bellarmine speaketh plainly, ifBell. de Po [...]. Rom. lib. 3. ca. 13. the Protestants cōfesse that our church is a true church, then must they yeeld their church to be schismaticall: because they have separated from us. But I). Smith more rhetorically: At Rich. Smit [...]us de autho [...]e Pro­testantic [...] Reli­gionis lib. 1. cap. 2. sect. 8. [...] incredibile [...] hominum impietatem: ut qui se Christianos profitentur, audeant repudiare eam ecclesiam, quam fatentur esse adhuc in soedere Dei. And againe, Atque [...] prodigiosam caecitatē! ut non videant, quod dum fatentur Romanam Ec­clesiam, esse ecclesiam Dei, & sponsam Christi, fa­tentur suam esse synagogam Antichristi, & scortū satanae. That is, O incredible wickednesse, that those who professe themselves to bee Christi­ans, will forsake them whom they confesse to bee the Church of Christ! O incomparable blindnesse, that they see not, that by granting [Page 179] the Roman church to be the church of God, and the spouse of Christ, they yeeld themselves, the reformed church, to be the synagogue of Anti­christ, and strumpet of satan.

And the whole Army of the Papists swarme after their Leaders in this pursuite, presuming that we must either fly or yeeld, if we give them this ground: that the church of Rome is a true Church: and thence are they ready to cry Victoria.

At ne sit Encomium ante victoriam: let not Bell. de d [...] Ec­cles. milit. cap. 4. sect. Resp. vari [...]. him boast who putteth on his armour, as hee may who doth put it off. To Bellarmine, I shape an answer in his owne syllables: wee affirme the Romane to be a true church, not simpliciter, but secundum quid: not absolutely, but in some respect: in which respect, wee doe separate from it, and not simply. Simple therefore is their reason, thence to inferre: therefore, our separation is schismaticall. To D. Smith, and all the rest, we say, we doe grant them, all those glorious titles: but as so many testimonies, to witnesse their gracelesse wickednesse so to abuse them. We grant the Romane to be a true Church, to be the Church of Christ, to be the spouse of Christ, and to be of the body of Christ. We grant it to hold the foundation of faith, and to have the scrip­tures, sacraments, &c. And what of all this? Reatus impij, est nomen pium, saith one out of Salvianus: godly Names doe not justifie god­lesse Hooker in Hab. 1. 4. nu. 7. men. We are but upbraided when we are honoured with names and Titles, when our [Page 180] lives and manners are not sutable. Iudas was an Apostle, and a Traitour too: but the more wretched Traitour, because an Apostle. And so the Pope is (saith he) The Vicar of Christ, and an Enemie: but the more dangerous and devillish Enemie, because the Vicar of Christ.

In particular: Wee grant, that Rome is a true Church, but in regard of the verity of the Essence, not of the Doctrine thereof: this is corrupt and full of pollutions. Wee grant it to be the Church of God: so much also, wee grant to the Iacobites, Muscovites, Arians, and Nestorians. Yet I suppose that none dare hazard themselves to live in these congrega­tions, who have any care of their safety, soules health, or eternall salvation. We grant Rome to be the spouse of Christ: but quoad ex­ternam Professionem, not quoad internam fidem: in respect of their outward profession, not of their inward affections, no nor of their actions nei­ther. We grant that they are of the Body of Christ: his body visible, no [...] mysticall. And so may a Legion of Devils also incarnated bee, if they will professe the name of Christ, and be admitted by the baptisme of Christ. We grant they hold the Foundation, but is there nothing dangerous, nor damnable, but onely to over­throw the Foundation of Christianity? Have they no [...] besides, dangerous and damnable Er­rours, Heresies, and Idolatries? Moreover theyAnswer to Fi­she [...] Relation of t [...] 3. [...]. [...]8. have Errours, which doe weaken the Founda­tion, saith the learned Author of that labou­red [Page 181] appendix. They have Errours fundamen­tall, reductivè, by a reducement: if they which imbrace them, doe pertinaciously adhere un­to them, and have sufficient meanes to be bet­terDeane White Ibid. pag. 71. informed. Saith the Champion of our Church.

And sinally, their errors (as that of Iusti­fication)Hooker in Hab. 1. 4. doe overthrow the very foundation, by consequent, saith impartiall Hooker. Lastly, they have the Scriptures, and Sacraments, law­full Ministers, and a lawfull Ministry, &c. ac­tually in themselves, and effectually unto o­thers: but not so to themselves. Notum est Cives malae civitatis, administrare quosdam actus bonae civitatis: it is manifest that the Burgers of Babylon, doe administer some functions of Hierusalem: and with effect too. They can hew out an Arke for others, though themselves be drowned in the Deluge.

And for all this, is it not lawfull to separate from Rome? Wee accompted our common Citizens frantick, because they reviled, and railed at such as fled from the infection. Cer­tainly the Papists are possessed with a more spirituall phrensie and infection.

At [...] incredibilem impietatem! Atque ô prodi­giosum caecitatem! O incredible wickednesse and incomparable blindnesse, that those who see the Scriptures, should be so seduced by strong delu­sion to beleeve a Lye! That those who say they are the Church of God, and spouse of Christ, should be indeed the Synagogue of Antichrist, [Page 182] and the strumpet of Satan.

I conclude, and let any Papist brag, or any others upbraid, what they can collect out of this conclusion, The Church of Rome is a true Church. And the Pope of Rome is that false An­tichrist, who doth erect his seat therein: by most foule usurpation. He shall sit in the Temple, saith my Text.

I have done this Digression, this [...] which it may bee some will condemne, as [...] as an overlong, and imperti­nent Parenthesis. But I conceive it very need­full, if it were onely for this: to imply an Item to our owne Zelotes, that (transported with a strong affection, and weake judge­ment) they doe not thrust the Papists further from Christ: when as (Christ knoweth) they are too farre off, from him already.

I returne to the remnant of my Text; yee have heard the explication, what this Temple is, even the very Church of Christ. Now shall yee heare the Application: Where this Temple is; We use plaine words, in a plaine cause: the Church of Rome is the seat of Antichrist. Now the Church of Rome hath two parts: commonly called Curia Romana, & Ecclesia Romana, the part ruled, and the part ruling. The part ruled, are those particular Churches which professe the Romish Rel [...]gion, as Spaine, France, Polon [...], &c. The part ruling, is the City, or Court of Rome. I say therefore that Antichrist doth sit in all the Romish Church: [Page 183] but (to speake in the phrase of Suarez) collo­cavit Thronum suum, & regalem Curiam im­perij Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. cap. 15. nu. 1. & 2. sui in urbe, he hath seated his Throne, and setled his royall Court in that City.

This will I prove by three arguments, drawne from the scituation, and domination of Rome: and thirdly from the Assimulation, be­twixt Rome and Babylon. The Velites shall give the onset: I will propound their owne argu­ment, as a preamble to our (more solide) proofes, Dan. 11. 45. He shall plant the Taber­nacle of his royall Palace betweene the Seas. Now although we know that this Prophecie speak­eth literally of Antiochus, and of Antichrist onely Anagogically, of whom Antiochus was a Type: Yet because the Papists doe expound it literally of Antichrist, against them wee re­tort it, as a true propertie, and strong pro­bability, that Rome is the seate of Antichrist, because it is seated betweene two seas, the Tyr­rhene, and the Adriatike, according to this Prophecy of Dan. 11. 45.

I proceed to our owne proofes. First from the situation, Babylon is seated on seven hills, Rev. 17. 9. and so is Rome situated also, no City under the cope, to be compared to it in that kinde. So is it termed by Tertullian, andTertul. Apol. cap. 35. Dionys. Halicar. lib. 4. Plin. lib. 3. ca. 5. Sibylla lib. 2. so was it founded by Servius Tullius, the last King of the Romanes. Hence also the Latines gave it the sirname of Septicollis, that is, the seven hilled City: and the Graecians called it in the same signification, [...] The com­mon [Page 184] epithite of the Poets, and almost the burden of their Poems.

Dum (que) suis victrix, septem de montibus orbem,
Ovid. de Trist. lib. 1. Eclog. 4. Propert. Eclog. 10. Virgil. G [...]o [...] ▪ 2.
Prospiciet domitum, Martia Roma, legar.
Septem urbs alta jugis, toti quae praesidet orbi.
Scilicet & rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma.
Septem quae una sibi muro circumdedit arces.

Varro mentioneth a Feast, called septimon­tium, Varro de Ling. Latin. lib. 5. as it were, dedicated, to celebrate a City seated on seven hills, and their Names are famously knowne throughout the world, Calius, Exquilinus, Palatinus, Viminalis, Quirinalis, Aventinus, Capitolinus. AllDounam: Der. Epis. de Antich. part 1. lib. 1. c. 2. these at this day, are within the Walles of the City, though decayed in the number of hou­ses, yet still beautified with many Churches, Monasteries, and other goodly buildings. Moreover on the first, the hill Coelius, at this day standeth the Laterane Palace and Church. Which divers Popes have consumed to beConstitut. Rom. Pont. pag. 11. 454. 618. the Head church of all the churches in the world: as Gregory 11. Pius 4. and Pius 5. If any ex­cept that these Hills are to bee taken metapho­rically; I answer, here can be no metaphor: be­cause it is an interpretation of an Angell, ex­poūding the seven heads to signifie seven moun­taines. Now interpretat [...]s must be plaine, not metaphoricall. Plaine therefore it is, that Rome is seated on seven hills: the very situation of the very seat of Antichrist.

Secondly, that City, which in S. Iohns time did reigne over the kingdomes of the earth, is Ba­bylon, the seat of Antichrist, Revel. 17. 18. But Rome is that City which in S. Iohns time did reigne over the Kingdomes of the earth: Toti quae praesidet orbi: Therefore Rome is Babylon, the seat of Antichrist. And aptly may it be termed Babylon; because it is the manner of King­domes to title themselves from the first no­table persons which did erect their State: as the Romane Emperours were called Caesars, from the first, Iulius Caesar. And Rome was so named from Romulus. So let the Romanes re­flect a little further backward: because they have atchieved the Babylonian Monarchy: from the first, this last Monarch, Rome, may bee ter­med Babylon.

Lastly, Rome and Babylon concurre in many resemblances, without any constrained com­parison. Babylon in the Scriptures is taken 3 wayes. First Literally, for Babylon in Chaldea, the Metropolis of the Assyrian Empire, 2 Reg. 24. 10. Secondly Literally, for Babylon in Ae­gypt, since called Babylis, or Caire: of which some understand 1 Pet. 5. 13. Thirdly Mysti­cally, for the City of Antichrist, Revel. 17. 5. of which the first was a type: and this is our as­sertion: that Rome is mysticall Babylon.

Rome resembleth the old Babylon in foure particulars.

First, the old Babylon was a worke begunne by seventy Families, which schismed from [Page 186] Shem: but God was in Shems Tents. So, Baby­lon mysticall, the Romane Church, hath made a schisme from the pure Church of the primitive times. And we hope that God doth dwell in our Tents, who retaine the Apostolicall truth.

Secondly, Nimrod (by interpretation an Apostate, or a Rebell) was the Head of old Baby­lon: so, the Pope, the Apostate, it the Head of Rome.

Thirdly, as Rome was given by the Empe­rours Otho Frigensis Chro. 7. 3. P [...]kins Probl. pag. 581. of Christendome to the Pope, our chiefe Christian Bishop: so the Persian Kings granted Babylon unto their High Priest. And the Per­sian translating the seat of his Kingdome from Babylon to Ecbatan, held nothing at Babylon, but the bare name of an Empire: So our Em­perour removing from Rome to Aquisgrave, hath nothing remaining but the title, onely that he is called the Romane Emperour.

Fourthly, Babylon was a City where the Church of the Iewes were captive. And a great part of the Christian Church is, and a grea­ter was captive in Rome also. To these foure I may adde a fift parallell out of Bellarmine. One thousand, one hundred, threescore, and foure Bell. de Pont. Rom. lib. 3. c. 5. yeares, after the building of Babylon it was sac­ked: so in the same number, 1164 yeares af­ter the building thereof, was Rome taken by the Gothes.

This Parallell, like Pharaohs dreame (to shew the certainty thereof) shall be doubled. To those five, I will adde five other, issuing out [Page 187] of the bowels of my text: Which will accord Rome & Babylon in an evident & naturall con­gruity. Arrogance, Violence, Improbity, Idolatry, Hi [...]gons. Myst. Bebyl Serm. 1. Inquis. 2. & Cruelty: non ovum ovo similius: are so sutable to both Rome and Babylon, that they seeme to be a brace of Menechmies. It must be a sharp eye which can be able to distinguish them.

First, in this verse, Antichrist is termed [...], hee that doth exalt himselfe, be­hold his pride and arrogance.

Secondly, the object is named [...], above all that is called God, or worshipped: that is, Kings or Emperours: a vio­lent intrusion upon Authority and Majesty.

Thirdly, for his Improbity, and wicked con­ditions: he is called the Man of sinne.

Fourthly, [...], the deceiveable­nesse of unrighteousnesse, in the 10 verse, is ex­pounded to be Idolatry.

Fiftly, to signifie his destroying Cruelty, the Lord of Rome is termed [...], the son of perdition. And so doth Saint Paul imply the intire parallel betwixt Rome and Babylon.

1. Babylon indeed was proud: but Rome hath imitated their pride, and farre exceeded their copie. Is not this great Babell, which I have built for the house of my Kingdome, by the might of my power, and for the honour of my Majesty? Dan. 4. 30. This was the arrogant ostentation of Nebuchad [...]ezzar. But can all the Babylonish Chronicles yeeld precedents for our Romish in­solencies? King Henry 2 of England, did kisse the [Page 188] knee of the Popes Legate. King Charles 8 of France did kisse the feet of the Pope. Henry 6 the Emperour did suffer his Diadem to bee put on by the feet of the Pope. Henry 4 Emperor, did wait bare-footed, in winter, at the gates of the Pope. And Fredericke Barbarossa, that brave Emperour, had his noble necke trampled on by the proud foot of an insulting Pope. Wee may give the Pope the title of Tarquin, Superbus: or call him Lucifer rather. None but Hell can match Rome for pride. Proud Babell must yeeld the precedence to her younger sister.

2. Violence, or an unjust intrusion upon o­ther Princes dominions, is the second part of the parallell. Babylon indeed was an intollera­ble intruder upon Tirus, Ez. 29. 18. upon Is­rael, Ier. 25. 9. and finally upon the Vniverse, till hee became Monarch of the Vniversall World. The Oecumenicall Bishop hath beene no dullard to practise the like violent usurpations. A [...]or. Ius [...]it. Moral. [...]art. 2. lib. 4. cap. 20. Rome did Gregory 2 wrest from the Emperor Leo, wherof he was a subject, by excommunica­ting his Soveraigne, and assoiling the subjects, he became the Soveraigne. Acquainted with intrusion, hee exercised extrusion also. The Pope exposed Naples to the Duke of Anjou, and Navarre to the King of Spaine. Boniface 8 gave France from Philip the Faire, to Albertus king of the Romanes. And Gregory 7 beat Henry 4 out of the Empire, by the hands of Henry 5, his owne sonne. Yea Christendome is too nar­row a Nest for this towring Bird of prey: Ame­rica [Page 189] also must be usurped, and violently de­tainedFrancis Lopez Hist. Ind. c. 19 from his donation. But I need not tra­vell so farre: we have domesticall witnesses enow. Besides his pretences to Scotland and Ireland; from King Iohn he detained the Crown of England in the hands of his Legate five dayes. Henry 3 thence hee termed his Vassall. Henry 8, by a Papall processe from Paris wasMatth. Paris. pag 844. deprived of his Kingdome. And because one attempt against the Father succeeded not: he twice deposed his Daughter. First Pius 5, an­no Regni 13. next Sixtus 5, somewhat before 1588: but God be blessed, both wanted their successe against our blessed Queene Elizabeth of immortall memory. Yet the effect of those violent assayes have made our Westerne Princes so miserable, that they must either weare the yoake of Rome to their dishonour, or cast it off to their danger.

3. For Improbity of life, or leud corrupti­ons of their conversations. The old Babyloni­ans were like the old covetous persons mentio­ned by Aristotle, [...], she would not bee cured, Ier. 51. 9. Yet hath Rome justified Babylon (as Hierusalem did Samaria, Ezech. 16.) in all her abominations. The abominable lives of Popes I passe, (although I know the Church of Rome may make use of that phrase of the Childe, 2 King. 4. 19. My head, my head) only I would perswade impartiall persons to peruse Platina and other popish Authors, concerning those very Popes, whom Bellarmine himselfe doth [Page 190] name as parum probi, but somewhat faulty: toBell. Praes. de Sum. Pontif. wit, Stephanus 6, Leo 5, Christophorus 1, Iohan­nes 12, and Alexander 6. But for the whole body of their Church [...]nd City, it is wholly pollu­ted: that it meriteth the name, not of Babylon onely, but of Aegypt, and Sodome also, Revel. 11. 8. Let their owne Writers testifie this truth. In Rome (saith Espencaeus) there is suchEspenc. in Titum cap. 1. licence for sinning, and such impudence in sin­ning: Talis, & tanta, ut nemo credat, nisi qui vi­derit, neget nemo, nisi qui non viderit: None would beleeve it, but such as have seene it, none deny it, but such as have not seene it. Platina doth second him: There is (saith he) such co­vetousnesse, lust, ambition, pride, ignorance, hypo­crisie, and universall corruption of manners, in both the Laity and Clergy: Vt vix apud Deum locum misericordiae nobis reliquerunt: that wee can hardly hope for any mercy from the hands of the Almighty. And to shew that there is such a thing in the world as may be called the Whore of Babylon, at one time in Rome thereStauislaus de lege Coel. b. were five and forty thousand strumpets, which did pay tribute to his Holinesse. Yea, they de­clare their sinne as Sodome did, they hide it not. Isay 3. 9. Bellarmine doth avouch it, that the Magistrate doth not offend, Si meritricibus certum locum urbis incolendum attribuit: if he give leave to whores to dwell in the City: quamvis certò sciat eo loco eas non bene usuras: although hee know they will abuse those dwellings. He may per­mit (saith he) minus malum, ut majora impedi­antur: [Page 191] a small evill, that a greater may be pre­vented. A practice and patronage besitting the majesty of great Babell.

4. Wee can, and doe challenge Rome to imitate and equall Babylon in manifold Idola­try. For the worshipping of pure, yea im­pure creatures: both true Saints, and other sinfull persons, farre from sanctification: for the worshipping of Images: for worshipping of a piece of wood, the Crosse: for the wor­shipping of a piece of bread, the Host: yea, for worshipping of Non ens, fabulous fictions, which were never extant since the Creation. But I will onely instance in a precedent of most grosse Idolatry, which the Ignorant may discerne, and most learned be never able (with­out Sophistry) to desend.

Those who worship Images of silver and gold, the worke of mens hands, which have eyes and see not, &c. worship the idolls of the Heathen, Psal. 135. 15.
But Rome doth worship Images of silver and gold, the worke of mens hands, which have eyes and see not, and eares and heare not, &c.
Therefore, Rome doth worship the Idolls of the Heathen. And therein is like Babylon.

5. Incomparable cruelty is the fist part of this comparison. Of literall Babylon, History doth tell us that it was most cruell: and of my­sticall Babylon, Prophesie doth tell us, that it was, is, and ever shall be, as cruell: What a bloody race there was of Babylonish Princes, that [Page 192] of Thomyris will teach us concerning one of them: when she had duck'd the head of Cyrus Iust. Hist. lib. 2. in a vessell of mans blood, Satia, inquit, te san­guine quem sitisti, cujusque semper insatiabilis fu [...]st [...]: Cyrus was insatiable in his appetite to blood. Wee may suppose the same of that whole bloody generation of the old Babylon. Neither is the New Babylon free from that dropsie: She is drunke with the blood of Saints: Revel. 17. 6. and if we looke on Calabria, Lan­guedoc, Provence, Bohemia, Hungary, and Spaine; where the Protestants have beene persecuted, and whence they have beene extirpated, our eyes (without the interposition of any Red Glasse, or other artificiall medium) would ap­prehend those Countries to bee (like the Ae­gyptian Rivers, Exod. 7. 21.) all blood. If we re­view the Resolutions of the Spanish and English, and the Executions of the French: the Arma­da, Powder plot, and miserable Massacres. But of all, if the Inquisition (which is now like the sonne of Croesus, tongue-tyed,) would utter,A [...] G [...]llius lib. 5. cap 9. how many Lambes have had their throats cut in that secret shambles: We should see so much, that it would compell us to speake as much to Rome, as Zipporah did to Moses, Exod. 4. 25. Surely a bloody citie art thou unto us: and therein also like old Babylon.

But what need we contend for arguments, when our adversaries grant the conclusion. That Rome is Babylon, and so consequently the seat of Antichrist; it is plainly confessed by [Page 193] many of the most learned Papists. This is theSuarez Apol. lib. 5. 6. 7. nu. 8. assertion of Victorinus, Andreas, Ribera, Vie­gas, also Bellarmine de Sum. Pontif. lib. 3. ca. 13. Sanders de Vis. Monarchia lib. 8. cap. 8. and ma­ny others. Roma à Iohanne saepius v [...]catur Ba­bylon, saith Lessius. Si aeutem (saith Suarez) IfLessius de Ant-Dem. 12. Suarez Apol. lib. 5. c. 7. nu. 8. Malvenda de Antich. lib. 4. c. 4 by Babylon we understand any particular Ci­tie, it can be no other than Rome. Nay, saith Malvenda, since S. Iohn Revel. 17. 18. doth call Babylon the Great Citie which reigneth over the Kings of the earth: this (saith he) is as plaine as if one should veluti digit [...] Romanam Vrbem demonstrare, with his very finger point at the citie of Rome. Thus farre then we concurre: that Rome in the Revelation is meant by Babylon: and that Rome or Babylon is the seat of An­tichrist.

But they qualifie this grant with a distinc­tion.Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. 6. 7. nu. 8. It may be (say they) Rome is Babylon, and shall be the seat of Antichrist: but this must be understood de Roma ethnica, non religiosa: of Rome under the Pagans, and not of Rome under the Pope. A childish evasion, not wor­thie a consutation. It must bee Rome Chri­stian, as it appeareth from a double departure. The first of Babylon from the Church, Revel. 17. 1. Babylon is called an Whore, which doth presuppose Apostasie: and an Apostasie is pe­culiar unto Christians, no way pertaining unto Pagans. The second departure, is of the Church from Babylon: Rev. 18. 4. Exite, Come out of her my people. Now wee know that many of [Page 194] Gods people did remaine in old Rome, who would have made some scruple to reside in Babylon. Againe, S. Paul saith, that the Tem­ple of God is the seat of Antichrist: But Rome Heathen is not the Temple of God: Therefore, Rome Heathen is not (Babylon or) the seat of An­tichrist.

Let us try this distinction a little further: and we shall discover it to be meere drosse. Thus we object: Rome is Babylon, or the seat of Antichrist. They grant it: but distinguish betwixt Rome Heathen, and Christian. As if they should say, Indeed Rome is the seat of An­tichrist: but Rome, as it was, or shall be under the Pagans, and not as it is under the Pope. So we dispute of the Place, and they distinguish of the Time: whereby they yeeld the Cause, that in regard of the Place Rome is the Seat of Antichrist. But for the Time: that is another property, which I will handle in another place. For this, it is sufficient that Rome is the place of Antichrist.

Since therefore Rome doth stand on seven hills: since it did reigne over the Kings of the earth: since it is aptly resembled to old Baby­lon: and since it doth usurpe the Temple of God, claiming it selfe to be the Principall, yea the whole Church of Christ▪ I conclude, Rome is Babylon, the City, the Court, and Seat of An­tichrist.

And is Rome Babylon? Now me thinkes I heare that voice from heaven, Revel. [...]8. 4. Come [Page 195] out of her my people, that yee be not partakers of her sinnes, and that ye receive not of her plagues. Babylon will bring sinne to your soules, plagues to your bodies, perdition unto both. Let us therefore come out of Babylon: let us therefore ke [...]pe out of Babylon. Saint Iohn did runne out of the bath from Cerynthus, for feare hee should have beene buried in it. And Lot was haled out of Sodome, for feare he should have beene bur­ned with it. But Babel is worse than Cerynthus his bath, worse than Sodome: we shall be bur­ned, we shall be buried in destruction, if once we be bewitched with that Babylonish sorcery, Popery. Yea the seat of Babell, is like the Fur­nace of Babell, it will destroy those who come but neare it. And Popery is like a Whirle-poole, it will swallow those who come but within the brinke thereof.

Let us therefore Come out of Babylon, and keepe us farre from the deceits of Poperie. I say not, Trade not with them, Eate not with them, Companie not with them: I say not this; yet Modicum non nocet: Si non su­matur. A little Acquaintance with Popish People will doe little harme: if wee entertaine no acquaintance with any Papists at all. This I say, Beware of Babylon, and her papisti­call instruments. Keepe your Children from them, keepe your Servants from them, keepe your Persons from them: But a­bove all, keepe your Hearts and Affections from them.

Now the God of Hierusalem keepe you from the Man of Babylon [...] that he may never prevaile upon your Persons, upon your Friends, upon your Children, upon your Servants, nor upon a­ny thing which ap­pertaineth un­to you.



2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. Who exalteth himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped.’

Antichrist shall not exalt himselfe above the true God. The Pope doth: and above all that is worshipped. The Popes Ambition. The Pope exalteth himselfe above Kings. Above the Emperours. Papists are Traitors.

THis branch of this verse contai­neth the first property of Antichrist: concerning the exposition wher­of, there is a great breach be­twixt us and the Papists. [...], id est, Bellarm. Apo­log. cap. 9. extollit se Antichristus supra omnem Deum, qui dicitur Deus, sive per essentiam, sive per partici­pationem, sive falsum, sive verum, saith Bellar­mine: That is, Antichrist shall exalt himselfe above all that is called God, either by Essence, or by Participation: be he a true, or a false god. Sive Suarez Apol. lib. 5. 6. 17. nu. 7. vere, sive falso, sive metaphorice: be he a true, [Page 198] false, or metaphoricall god, such as Princes are said to be, saith Suarez. [...] supra omne quod colitur, sive superstitiose, sive religiose: either religiously, or superstitiously, saith the same Suarez. [...], Verbum extollendi Suarez Apol. lib. 5. c. 17. nu. 11 significat excessum, arrogantiam, & usurpatio­nem: by exalting is meant an excessive arrogant usurpation, over God, and all things belonging to God. According unto which our English Rhemists seeme to state the question and con­troversieRhemists in 2 Thess. 2. 4. Sect. 11. betwixt us. Who exalteth himselfe a­bove all that is called God, or that is worshipped. That is, Antichrist shall abolish all religion of the Iewes, Gentiles, and Christians: and shall suffer none (no not God) but himselfe to bee worship­ped alone.

A most grossely absurd exposition: as it may be made manifest foure wayes. First it contradicteth reason: in reason, if a seducer should plainly professe and proclaime him­selfe to be greater than God, would any be so stupide and senselesse to be seduced by him? If a mortall wretch should exalt himselfe above the great and true God: men would rather de­ride him for his folly, imprison him for his phrensie, and stone him for his blasphemy▪ than to follow such a foolish, frantick, and blasphemous Impostor. Secondly, it doth contradict his name, who is named Antichristus, that is, The Adversary of Christ; and not Antitheus, that is, the Adversary of God, which should be his proper name, if directly or expressely to exalt [Page 199] himselfe above the true God, were his true pro­pertie. Thirdly, this is contrary to their owne popish positions. Antichrist (say the Papists) shall be a Iew: how then shall he abolish the Iewish religion? Againe, they affirme that he shall be a Magician, and that hee shall worship the Devill. Therefore Antichrist shall not exalt himself (supra omnem Deum) above every God, not above the god of this world. And finally, this interpretation is contrary to this very Text. The superlative of all his excessive properties is this, [...], and [...], that he shall rule as God, and shew that he is God: this is the height of his audacious, incomparable arrogance: but that incredible, impossible, unlimited in­solence, that a man shall exalt himselfe above God, we must leave this as a phrensie and fic­tion, to wave the imputation of other fran­ticke and fabulous paradoxes, which they are unwilling to acknowledge, much lesse to reclaime.

Having rejected their exposition, we pro­ceed to our owne. Above all that is called God: in the originall some read [...], above every thing which is called God: and o­thers, [...], above every person which is called God. The first reading is [...], the errour of the Printer, contrary to the most Greeke copies, as it is acknow­ledged by M. Beza himselfe. With the war­rantBeza in [...] Th [...]s. 2. 4. therefore of the most copies, we follow the latter reading, and the interpretation of [Page 200] our late Soveraigne, now with God. [...],Rex Iacobus Praemonit. the persons whom the Scriptures doe call Gods, are Princes and Magistrates, Psal. 82. 6. Dixi Dij estis, I have called you Gods. Which exposition is affirmed by a learned French Bishop, Pater omnium Deus d [...]citur, & est: at Iren [...]s lib 3. cap. 6. non super hunc extolletur Antichrist us, sed super eos qui dicuntur quidem, sed non sunt dij: The Fa­ther of all things (saith he) is called God, and is God: but Antichrist shall not exalt himselfe above him; but above them who indeed are called gods, but are not in deed. Which Exposition is also confirmed by as learned an English Bishop: Ecqua nervosior consequentia, quam ut dicantur Andrewes Apol. cap. 9. Dij ab Apostolo, quos Deus ipse dixit d [...]os in Psal­mo? Can there be a more strong consequence than to collect that those are called Gods by Saint Paul in this Text, whom God himselfe doth call gods in the Psalmes? And if the A­postle had not alluded unto some whom the Scripture doth call gods, hee might with like facility have written, that Antichrist should ex­alt himselfe (supra omne quod est, vel saltem supra omne quod vel est, vel dicitur Deus) above all that is, or at least above all that either is, or that is cal­led God. Here then S. Paul saith not, that An­tichrist shall exalt himselfe above all that is God, (to wit, by nature) but above all which is called God, (to wit, in title:) which is proper unto Kings. The meaning of the first member of this distribution, is this: Antichrist shall exalt himselfe above all that is called God, that is, [Page 201] above all Kings and Princes.

The second member is [...], all that is worshipped: which indeed doth signifie, quod colitur, the object of any kinde of worship or thing worshipped: as Altars, Idols, &c. as it is rightly rendred by Bellarmine out of the Acts Bell. de Pont. Rom. 314. 17. 23. and Wisdome 15. 17. This acception of the word, though it be true, yet it is impro­per to this place: because the letter doth run [...], supra omnem qui dicitur [...], above every person, not above every thing which is called [...] therefore in the text, I take to bee a synonima, signifying the same thing with [...] in the 25, of the Acts, 21, and 25. where it is expounded Au­gustus. The sense being that Antichrist shall exalt himselfe above the Emperor. For he speak­eth of such an exaltation, whereby Antichrist should be revealed: as he was to be hindered for a time by the Romane Emperour. The sense of all is this: Antichrist exalteth himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped: that is, Antichrist doth exalt himselfe above all Kings and above all Emperours.

Such an one is the Pope: if there ever was, is, or shall bee such an one under Heaven.

But in so plaine a cause, to deale freely with them: This sense I say is true: yet their owne interpretation may exactly be fitted to the Pope.

First, take the name of God metaphorically, [Page 202] for Bishops and Kings. The Pope is avouched by all Papists, to be Episcopus Oecumenicus, the universall bishop of the World: and by some to be solus Episcopus, the Onely bishop. AndSuarez Apolog. li. 5. ca. 17. nu. 12 his authority over Kings and Emperours, Suarez calleth jus suum, his right and proper indow­ment. For false Gods those of the Heathen had power limited: the Pope unlimited. With them Neptune ruled the Sea, Ceres the Earth, Iupiter Heaven, and Pluto Hell. But the Pope hath three Crownes, to shew his power in three places: in Heaven, Earth and Hell. And for the true God: no Power can dispence with any Law, but the same, or a greater authority. Now the Pope doth dispence with the Scripture of God▪ therefore he exalteth himselfe above God. Againe, whilest the Pope doth make that to be lawfull, which God hath made unlawfull: as the exemption of Clerkes from their Soveraigne, Rom. 13. 4. and those things to bee unlawfull, which God hath made to be lawfull, as the exception of Clerkes from mariage, Heb. 13. 4. But principally whilest he doth make the whole State of Reli­gion to depend upon the Oracle of his resolution: hereby he doth exalt himself, above God himselfe. Thus the Pope doth exalt himselfe above all that is called God, metaphorically, falsely, or truely: that is, above Kings, Bishops, Idols, or the Au­thour of the Scripture. And thus farre from their owne Popish premises, wee may con­clude: that the Pope is The Antichrist.

The [...], or things worshipped in [Page 203] the Romane Church, are these five: the Saints, Angels, Altar, Crosse, and Host: Above all which, all men know, that the Pope doth ex­alt himselfe. He sheweth himselfe superiour toBell. de Sanct [...] Beat. cap 8. the Saints, quoad [...], in regard of their Canonization: he doth Canonize, or make men departed to be Saints, and to bee worshipped. Where the argument of Athanasius is strongAthanasius Ora. contra Gentes [...] [...]. col. 9. and evident: [...], Efficiens, effecto melius esse oportet, the maker must bee more excellent than the worke of his hands.

The Angels are commanded by the Pope, Corn. Agr [...]p. de vanit sci [...]t. cap. 61. (Clemens 6) to take such soules as dyed by the way, going to the Iubilie, out of Purgatory, and to cary them immediately into Heaven. This he commanded: and this commandement, is an argument, that the Pope doth exalt himselfe above Angels: yea that he doth shew himselfe to be God. For by this very argument doth Saint Paul prove, Christ to be God: because heSacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. fol. 16. is above the Angels, Heb. 1. 4, & 5. Thirdly, the Popes Throne, is placed above Gods Altar: Argue from the thing to the persons: and wee shall sinde them not much inferiour, to any thing which is worshipped.

Fourthly, the Crosse is laid at the Popes feet: evidence enough, that he doth exalt himselfe above it. And finally, in his solemne Processi­ons, the Host (that is to them Christ, God) is ca­ried on an Horse, but the Pope on mens shoulders. But to bring all within the infinite orbe of [Page 204] his unlimited Arrogance: Tibi genua [...]urventur, Aug. Triumph. Epist. Ded. ad Ioh. 22. caelestium, terrestrium, & inferorum: To the Pope every knee shall bow, of things in Heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth, saith their Augustine de Ancona. And I thinke Saint Paul could say not much more of our Saviour Christ, Phil. 2. 10. The Pope therefore doth honour himselfe, aboue the Saints, Angels, Altars, Crosse, and the Host. In their owne sense: Hee exalteth himselfe above all that is worshipped.

I doe not then decline their owne interpre­tation: that Antichrist doth exalt himselfe a­bove the very God in some sense. But I deferre that Property, unto his proper place, the third point: where I must shew, that Antichrist doth shew himselfe, that he is God. In the meane time: ex ungue Leonem, you may guesse by this, who it is, which doth exalt himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped. Even by their owne interpretation.

But to insist more particularly, upon the proper meaning of the words, Three points I propose to passe through: the Act, who exal­teth himselfe: exercised on a Double object, a­bove all that is called God, or that is worshipped: that is, above all Kings and Emperours.

The Act, [...], who exalteth hmselfe; is an incomparable ambition: which is incompara­bly, in the Pope, and Papacy. For the Pope was first a Bishop, over many Priests, in one Citie. Secondly, a Metropolitane over many Bishops, [Page 205] in one Province. Thirdly, the Pope was a Pa­triarke over many Metropolitans, in one Diocess: (for amongst the Romanes, there were seven Provinces in one Diocesse.) Fourthly, he usur­ped the title of Oecumenicus, to be the univer­sall Bishop of the whole world. Fiftly, he is stiledLaynez Iesui [...] Trent. Hist. lib. 7. 610. Trent Hist. li. 7. pag. 655. solus Pastor, the onely shepheard, or Bishop. And finally, that Pius Pope, the fourth of that name, in the yeare 1563, signified to the Councell of Trent, by his Legates, that hee was the Master of all Christendome. Pretty steps of ambitious incroaching: and yet here is not the height of his ambition. The Tower of Babel must touch the Heavens: the Pope doth exalt himselfe yet farther.

To which purpose Marta, doth expound,Tortura Torti pag. 177. that saying of the Psalmist very laudably, Psal. 8. 6, & 7. Thou hast put under his feet, oves & boves: that is, under the feet of the Pope, Chri­stianos, & Saracenos: all Christians and Saracens, saith that Glosse of Orleance. For, For every Extrav. de Ma­jor & Obedient. tit. [...]. humane Creature, to be subject to the Pope, omnino sit de necessitate salutis, it is necessary to their salvation, saith the popish extravagant. In the yeare 1585. in the yeeld-Hall of St. Domingo in India, our English observed the Spanish Cambden [...]nno 1585. Armes: under which was planted a Globe or Map of the whole world, and on it the picture of an Horse Prauncing and spreading his fore­feet beyond the verge of the Globe, or compasse of the world, with this inscription, Non sufficit Orbis, i. the world is too little for me.

An exact embleme of the Popes insatiable ambition, non sufficit orbis, all the world is too Antonin sum­nia 1. Dist. 22. cap. 5. little for him; whereof his owne Antoninus gi­veth an ample testimony, expounding the fol­lowing verses of the forenamed Psalme, Thou Psal 8. 7, & 8. hast put under the Popes feet, the beasts of the field, that is, all men: the Fowles of the Ayre, that is, the Angels: and the Fishes of the Sea, that is, a [...]imas in Purgatorio, the Soules in Purgatorie. So Heaven, Earth, and Hell: Men, Angels, and the Spirits, must all be subject to his Holi­nesse, if holy Antonine may bee beleeved. But durst ever man imagine, that any man durst usurpe upon Christs owne Peculiar, Matth. 28.Sacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 7. c. 6. 18. Omnis potestas, all Power is given mee in Heaven, and in Earth? Yet this was the saying of Sixtus Quartus, in the solemnitie of his sa­cred Ceremonies.

Adde, that their whole indeavor is onely to support this Papall Omnipotence: and that the other points of controversie concerning reli­gion, are but onely Pretences. To that purpose,Trent. Hist. li. 1. pag. 94. consider that anno 1541. at the Diet of Ratis­bon, Paul 3, sent his Legate Iasper Cardinall Contarine, with all manner of power, to agree with the Protestants, provided that they did not deny the Principles, that is, the Primacy of the Apostolike See, &c. Pius 4, did offer theCambd. Annal. anno 1 560. p. 59 same to England, by Parpalias Abbot of St. Saviours. And Pope Paul 4, did tender untoTort. Torti pag. 142. Queene Elizabeth leave and liberty to use all the points of Religion, as wee then did, and [Page 179] now doe enjoy them, Modo in Primatum ipsius, consentire vellet [...] onely, if shee would give place to his Primacy. Consonant to which, isTrent. Hist. lib. 2. pag. 164. that Caveat which Paul 3, gave to his Legates at the Councill of Trent, that they should by no meanes permit the Popes authority to be di­sputed of. Thus the maine drift of the Pope is, to advance the Papacy. I may therefore advance him to one Title more; He is [...] one that advanceth himselfe, more than all the world beside.

The Act, we finde apparent; that the Pope doth exalt himselfe. The object followeth to be inquired after: over whom doth hee exalt himselfe? Over all, but first, over Kings: in the phrase of my Text, above all that is called God. Concerning which consider we, their Positions, and their Practice.

Their Positions, I thinke none can deliver more truly, than their most learned Cardinall Bellarmine. Who doth plainly professe, both what authority the Pope doth take from Prin­ces: and also what authority hee doth exer­cise upon Princes. Which is exaltation enough above Kings, and all that is worshipped. We sayBell. de Pont. Rom. lib 2. c. 26. (saith Bellarmine) that the Pope cannot be judg­ed; by any Prince or Prelate on the earth [...] neque ab omnibus simul in concilio congregatis, no not by all the Princes, & Prelates in the world, though in a Councill. Asserimus, it is our position (saithBell. lib. 5. cap. 6. initio. he againe) that although the Pope hath no meere temporall power, yet in ordine ad bonum spi­rituale, [Page 208] for a spirituall purpose, hee hath Power disponendi de temporalibus omnium Christianorū, to dispose of the temporalls of all Christian per­sons. And that wee may not mistake him: let Bellarmine expresse his owne meaning: Potest mutare regna, & uni auferre, ac alteri con­ferre: the Pope (saith he) hath power to dispose Bell. de Pont. Ro. lib 5. cap. 6. versi [...]a sinem. of Kingdomes, to give them to some, and to take them away from others. Or let a Pope confirme the position of their Cardinall. Nos Dominus inter Principes, imo supra Principes sedere voluit, & judicare de Principibus, (saith Pope Innocent Innocent 3, lib. 2. ep [...]st. 188 3,) that is, It is Gods will that the Popes should sit among Princes, yea above Princes, and to bee Trent. Hist. lib. 4. 314. Trent. Hist. lib. 5. 395. Iudges of Princes. Anno 1551, Iulius 3, told the Embassadour of Henry 2, if the King tooke Parma from him, that he would take France from the King. Paul 4, at his Table publikely said, Hee would not have any Prince for his Com­panion, but all subject under his feet; So hee sayd striking his foot against the ground. Which is as nobly seconded by Becanus, in his TreatiseNovus Homo pag. 133. termed Anglicana Controversia: the Pope (saith he) is universall Shepheard of the Church; ac­cordingIoh. 21. 16. to the Scripture, Pasce [...]ves, feed my sheepe. Per Canes intelligantur Reges, and the Kings are the Dogges of that Shepheard. Ther­fore so long as those Dogges (or Kings) are watchfull, Pastori ad ma [...]me esse debent, they must waite upon the (Pope or) Shepheard. But if they become idle, the Shepheard. But if they become idle, the Shepheard may turne thē away, ab officio submovendi sunt. Againe, which [Page 209] is lesse materiall, but more authenticall) aTaxa Ca [...]era Apostolicae part. 2. cap. 9. Queene may not adopt a child, nor a King exact contributions from his Cleargy, without a Li­cence from the great Clearke of Rome: and their Synode of Trent 1563, returned this answer toTrent. Hist. lib. 8. the French Embassadours, saying, that Kings are given by God; that his was Hereticall, and condemned by a Pope, Bonifacius 8, in this Ex­travagant, unam sanctam: If he did not distin­guish that they were from God, but by the me­diation of his Vicar.

Finally, Carerius concludeth all these pre­mises,Carer. de Potest. Rom. Pont. lib. 1. cap. 3. with an egregious Comment upon Iere­my, 1. 10. Behold I have set thee over Nations, &c. This (saith he) doth the Prophet speake, in the person of Christ, unto the Bishop of Rome, that if Kings be wicked he may punish, and correct them. Of whom I may truly say, Plus quam regnare videtur, cui it a liceat censuram agere reg­nantium. Monarchomach. part. 1. Tit. 2. pag. 89. Certainly, the Pope is more than a Prince, who taketh upon him so to censure Princes. The text doth frame him a fit title: it is the Pope, who doth exalt himselfe, above all that is called God.

All which premises, are come to a comple­ment,The Quarrels of Paul 5, lib. 4. pag. 206. and complete conclusion in our age. Anno 1606. in the contentions betwixt Pope Paul 5, and the State of Venice, the current do­ctrine, and consent of the Romane writers con­curred in this; That the Temporall power of Prin­ces, is subordinate to the power Ecclesiasticall, and subject to it. Consequently, that the Pope hath [Page 210] authority, to deprive Princes of their estates, for their faults, and errours: which they commit in their government: Yea though they have not com­mitted any fault, when the Pope shall judge it fit for the good of the Church. This is related and avouched by a Venetian, who was no Protestāt; but lived and dyed in the outward commu­nion with the Church of Rome.

Their Practice doth make good these Posi­tions. Hist. Albing. lib. 1. cap. 3. About 1209, the Legate under Pope Innocent 3, commanded Remond, the Earle of Toulouze, to performe a penance (for the Murther of Frier Peter de Chateancuf, whom hee neither killed, nor caused to bee killed) in forme following. He commanded the same Earle to strippe himselfe, starke naked, (onely having linnen breeches) without the Church of St. Giles. Then he put a stole about his necke; by which he led him nine times about the grave of the said Fryer. Afterward he scourged him, in the presence of many Earles, Barons, and Prelates. And finally, having forced him to ab [...]ure the Rel [...]g [...]on of the Albingenses, he con­strained the miserable man, to goe Captaine over the Souldiers of the Crosse, against those poore persecured Protestants in Beziers.

The vsage of a more noble man than this,Dr. Beard de Antich. pag 76. was yet more ignoble, Francis Dandalus Duke of Venice, was chained like a Dogge, and did eate meat with the Dogges under the Popes Table.

Anno 1563 Pius 4, cited Ioane Queene of Hist. Trent. lib. 8 [Page 211] Navarre, to appeare within sixe moneths, to shew reason why he should not be deprived of all her dignities and dominions: and the ma­riage betweene Anthonie of Vandosme, and her made void, and their issue illegitimate. Iohn Tortura Torti pag. 271. King of Navarre was deposed by Iulius 2, Henry 3, King of France, was slaine by a Popish Assas­sinate: and Pope Sixtus 5, pronounced a pa­negyrike in the praise of that bloody Monke who was the murtherer.

Pope Zachary deposed Childericus, com­mandingBell. de Pont. Ro. lib. 3. cap. 16. that Pipin should be crowned King of France, in his stead. Besides these particu­lar precedents of personall Kings: in generall for successive Princes; The Bishops of Rome have driven out of Rome and Italy three Kings. First the Graecian Emperours, secondly the French, and thirdly the Germanes. Not altogether unsutable to that Prophecy of Antichrist, ei­ther in the Type, or in the Antitype. Behold before the little horne, were three of the former hornes plucked up by the rootes, Dan. 7. 8.

To finish these precedents, with our owne Malmes. in Gest. Reg. lib. 2. Nation: which cannot but touch the heart of every true Englishman. 1031 Canutus went to Rome himselfe with an humble supplication to the Pope for some relaxation of the insuppor­table impositions, he had burdned this Realm withall. Vnder Henry 1, Anselme ArchbishopMatth. Paris. Hen. 1. of Canterbury, exhibited the like petition to his Holinesse, in the behalfe of our oppressed Countrymen. Richard 1, was sent of the Popes [Page 212] errand into the holy land, and received much reliefe from his Holmesse, when he was capti­vated, Tortura Torti pag. 269. returning from that expedition. Henry 2, was wh [...]pped by the Popes injunction. InAntiqu. Brit. pag. 154. the reigne of King Iohn, the Monkes at the command of Innocent 3, elected Steven Lanction Archbishop of Canterbury: contrarie to their faith and sidelity, which they both owed, and (more) had sworne to their Soveraign. Vpon some opposition which the King made against this Popish Tyranny, the whole realme Matth. Paris. pag. 117. was interdicted from the Sacrament. In which time, the dead were buryed more Canum, saith Matthew Paris, like dogges, in Ditches and Highwayes, without any Christian solemnitie. So that in conclusion, the poore King being over-tired with the over-tyrannising of theAntiquit. Brit. pag 158. proud Pope, he was compelled to stoope to the basest submission, that ever the Sunne saw in our Hand, before or since. Hee delivered up his Crowne to Pandulphus, the Popes Legate, and received it from him againe: as a Romish Legacy, or largis of liberality. HereuponMatth. Paris. pag. 508. Gregory 9. exacted the fift part of the goods of the Cleargy, suspended the Bishops till they had collated their best benefices and prime Pre­bends on Strangers and Boyes. Innocentius the 4, commanded the Cleargy to finde for his use five, and some fifteene men a peece: and if any Clearke did dye Intestate, all his goods should fall to the Pope. So that the whole Land groa­ned under the burden of Egyptian bondage, [Page 213] saith our Historian; and it became a commonMatth. Paris. pag 358. subscription of all the Nobles in their letters to the Prelates: Talt Episcopo, & tali Capitu­lo, universitas corum qui volunt mori, quam à Romanis confundi, salutem: that is, These bee delivered to such a Bishop, or to such a Chap­ter, from us, who with one consent conclude, that wee had better dye, than bee ruined by Rome or the Romish Taskemasters. On these grounds, Antichrist stood on Tiptoe. Innocentius Matth. Paris. pag. 844. 4, insulting in that insolent phrase over our dejected King Henry the third, saying: Nonne Rex Angliae, noster est vasallus? & ut plus dicam Manciptum? qui eum possum nutu nostro incar­cerare, & ignominiae mancipare? Is not (quoth he) the King of England my Vassall? nay more, is he not my slave? Have not I power with my becke to disgrace him, or to imprison him? Cer­tainly, if our King was a slave to the Pope, then was our Kingdome inthralled in an untolera­ble, unutterable popish slavery. In the yeareWalsing. Rich. 2. pag. 344. Antiqui. Brita. in [...] pag 273 p. 278. 1391, Richard 2, was much perplexed, that so many Benesiced English were constrained to reside at Rome. Anno 1399, the Cleargy pe­titioned to King Henry 4, to assist them against the Tyrannicall usurpations of the Pope. 1419, and 1420, Pope Martine 5, in the time of King Henry 5, in the space of two yeeres, u­surped, and collated Thirteene Bishoprickes, within the province of Canterbury alone; maugre many the Edicts of the King, and Statutes of the Kingdome, and frequent threat­nings [Page 214] of both Peeres, and People against his in­trusions. About the yeare 1497, Pope Alex­ander Antiquit. Brit. pag. 300. 6, exacted a contribution from every Curate through England in generall. And in particular, he put such a project upon Thomas Franc. Hereford de Presul. Angl. Merchir, as can seldome be paralleld out of any Histories. This Pope translated this man, being Bishop of Carlile in England, unto the Bishoprick of Samoes in Graecia, being meer­ly Titular, a trimme tricke to beggar a poore Clearke. Yet those things did the Cleargy suffer, even in the latter times of Henry the seventh: when the Popes pompe, was drawing to a pe­riode. Paul 3, in the reigne of Henry 8, wouldTrent. Hist. lib 3. pag. 275. have given the Kingdome of England unto Charles 5. But that prudent Prince perceived that these were sowre Grapes; and therefore he did inhibite his appetite from gaping after them. And the same Pope commanded the subjects of the same King to throw him out of his Kingdome by force of armes. The purport of which impious Bull, ranne in this transcen­dentMr. Higgo [...] Myst. Babylon 1. 97. phrase; We being placed in the seat of Iu­stice, according to the prediction of the Prophet Ier. 1. 10. saying; Behold, I have set thee over Nations, and over the Kingdomes, to plucke up, and root out, and to destroy, and to throw downe. Neither could his owne Proselyte wave hisTrent. Hist. lib. 5. pag. 392. imperious usurpation: but Pope Paul 4, inhi­bited Phillip and Mary from using the Title of Ireland, affirming instantly, that to give the Name of a King, belonged unto him onely.

But of all, the [...]ull of Pope Pius the fift, dothCambd. Annal. Anno 1570. concerne us most, because it did dishonour her, whom wee are bound to honour most. Thus did he advance himselfe above our bles­sed Queene Elizabeth. Ex plenitudine potestatis, quam regnans in excelsis Pontifici tradidit, quem unum supra omnes gentes constituit: qui evellat, destruat, dissipet, disperdat, &c. Elizabetham pri­vamus jure regni—& subditos omnes, ab om­ni juramento fidelitatis absolvimus. That is, By that fulnesse of power, which he that reigneth a­bove, hath given to the Pope, whom alone, hee hath set over all Nations and Kingdomes, to root out, and pull downe, to destroy, and throw downe, &c. We depose Elizabeth from all right in her King­dome.—And we absolve all her subjects from all manner of oathes of Allegiance, which they have sworne unto her. This is the testimony of Ma­ster Cambden, our learned Countryman, and Chronologer.

Without offence therefore, I thinke thatMonarchoma­chia tit. 5. p. 248 I may conclude, and censure these popish exal­tations, in the very words of a most censorious Papist. I will change but one word: I will onely use Rome for Geneva. But these Minions of Rome, bring Religion to plead for the defence of their union: and that they endeavored onely to pu­nish Ochosias for consulting with the Idol of Ac­charon, and to root out superstition. Here indeed is the voice of Iacob, but the roughnesse of Esau: words of piety, but the actions of Babel. Can you shew as good a warrant, as Elias had? did God call [Page 216] you, did God authorise you, to deprive your Prin­ces? Per me Reges regnant, was Gods proposition: and Saint Peter, 1 Epist. cap. 2, vers. 13. Bee sub­ject to every humane creature for God, whether to a King, as excelling, or to Rulers. His counsell, and yours vary much, for he willeth them to feare God, and honor the King: but you d [...]rect your audi­tors to degrade, and depose Kings. S. Paul, Rom. 13. 1. Let every soule be subject to the higher powers, for t [...]ere is no power but of God: & he who resisteth that power, resisteth Gods ordinance, and purcha­seth damnation: and v. 5. not of necessity, but for conscience sake. But this matter needeth no disputat [...]on: Grace and piety can best decide it. Thus returne I his owne words: and I hope, farre more justly, than ever he did apply thē. Thus also, have wee heard (and felt too) satis superque, enough and enough of the Popish positions, and of the Popes practice, in depo­sing of Kings, and disposing of Kingdomes.

Thus hath the Pope usurped upon many K [...]ngs. Now the King of Heaven blesse our King from the like Pop [...]sh usurpations.

Neither are the Emperours exempted from his Papall Power: but the Pope doth exalt him­selfe above them also. Concerning whom let us againe consider, the Popish Positions and Pra­ctice. Pope Paul 4, anno 1556, said, that hee had called a Councell at Rome, and named it theTrent Hist. li 5. pag. 400. Laterane: that he had given commission, to [Page 217] signifie it to the Emperour and French King, in courtesie, but not to have their counsell, or consent: because his will was, they should obey. Pius the fourth 1563, wrote to the EmperorTrent Hist. lib. 7. 684. Ferdinand, that he had called a Councill, with participation of him, not to expect his consent, but as a meere executour of his will. Innocent 3, in the Decretall which beginneth Solitae, put­teth as great a difference (which is also confir­med by Carerius) betwixt the Pope and theCarerius de Po­test. Pontif. lib. 2. cap. 12. Emperour: as there is betweene the Sunne and the Moone: which according to the rules of Astronomy is 6539 times lesse than theMoul [...]ns Accom. pag. 116. Sunne. But by this arrogant title, which the Pope doth arrogate, that he is the Sunne, hee giveth a little light to discerne Antichrist. An­tichrist shall be called Titan, saith Irenaeus, that is, the Sunne. But the Pope calleth himselfe the Sunne, that is, Titan: Therefore from his own assumption, to conclude him to bee Anti­christ, may passe at the least for a probable conjecture.

Besides these, wee may collect a cloud of witnesses, which doth poure downe confir­mations to this conclusion. Imperatoria maje­stas, O [...]i [...] hovius in Chymer fel. 97. tanto est inferior Papae, quanto creatura Deo: look how much the creature doth differ from the Creator, our God: so much doth the Empe­rour differ from the Pope, their God. A pretty difference. Imperator ad motum summi Ponti­ficis, Capistranus f [...]l. 70. & ejus nutu, tanquam ejus Minister, move­bit inferiora corpora: that is, The Emperour [Page 218] moveth others, at the motion of the Pope (as the Orbes doe under the first Spheare,) a meere servant to his Holinesse. The Empe­rour Aug. de Ancona quaest 35. 1. Antonin. part. 3. tit. 22 cap. 5. sect. 13. Bell. de Trans. Imp. lib. 3. & De Pontif. Rom. lib. 5. c. 8. Carerius de Po­test. Pap. lib. 2. cap. 14. is the Servant of the Pope. The Pope doth make the Electors of the Emperour: therefore the Election of the Emperour dependeth on the Pope. All which Carerius doth confirme by a comely distinction: Potestas triplex est: scil: Immediata, derivitiva, & in Ministerium data. A threefold power there is, quoth he, the first immediate, which is found in the Pope a­lone, who hath universall jurisdiction over all things, as well spirituall as corporall: the second derivative, in the Bishops and Prelates: and the third ministeriall, in the Emperour, and other secular Princes, who have their power, but me­diante Papa, as Feudaries to the Pope. To him therefore doe they sweare an oath of Allegiance. And Antonine saith therefore, that the PopeAntonin. part. 3. tit. 22. c. 5. sect. 16 doth give Administrationem Imperatori, Power to the Emperour.

This Exaltation is satis pro imperio, imperi­ous enough, for a Pope thus to be exalted above the Emperour: which they say is de jure: but I am sure it is so de facto. For their practice doth not give the lye to their positions, but ma­keth good every point thereof: as is appa­rent by these particulars.

Henry 4 Emperour, was digged out of his Tortura T [...]rti pag. 261. grave by Gregory the seventh, Pope of Rome. Fredericke the first did kisse the feet of Alexan­der the third. Henry the sixt was crowned by [Page 219] the feet of Pope Coelestine. Philip was made away by the plots of Innocent the third. And Gre­gory the seventh caused Henry the Emperour, with his wife and children to attend three dayes together, bare-headed, and bare-footed. And that none may cavill at the Chronicles, let us intreat Bellarmine himselfe to bee ourBell. de Pont. Rom. lib 3. ca. 16 Historian. Gregory (saith he) the second, ex­communicated Leo the Greeke Emperour, in­hibited the Italians from paying him tribute, and by little and little got from him the go­vernment of Italy, then called the Exarchate of Ravenna. Gregory the seventh deposed Henry the fourth. There is extant (quoth he) an E­pistle of Freder [...] the second, wherein hee averreth that the [...]ingdomes of Italy, Germany, and Sicily, were constrained to serve the Pope of Rome. Moreover it is manifest, Otho the fourth, by Innocent the third, and Fredericke the second, by Innocent the fourth, Depositos fuisse, & reapse imperia amisisse: to have been de­posed, and absolutely deprived of their Empire.

To make all sure: the Emperour doth takeGratian. Di­stinct. 63. Can. 30 & 3 [...]. Pla. in. in Greg. 7 Sacrar. Cerem. l [...]b. 1. Sect. 5. cap 2. Cornel. Agrip. in Hist. Caroli 5. Matth. Paris. pag. 227. an oath of Fealty to the Pope. The formes wher­of though they be different, yet they concurre in this: that the Emperors must sweare to be sub­ [...]ect to the Pope. Thus was it taken by Lewis (the sonne of Charles the great) to Paschal the first: by Otho the first, to Iohn the twelfth: by Henry the fourth, to Gregory the seventh: by Frede­ricke the third, to Nicholas the fifth: by Charles the fifth, to Clement the seventh: and finally, [Page 220] by our King Iohn to Pope Innocent.

Adde hereunto, that the Emperour dothSacre [...] Cerem. lib. 1. fol. 26, 35, 54, 56, 113, 120, 163, &c. perforce serv le offices to the Pope. Hee must beare up his Traine when the Pope doth walke: Hold his Stirrup, when he doth ride: hee must support his Chaire with his shoulder, when hee is caried: poure water on his hands, when hee doth wash: and when he doth eate, the Empe­rour must bring in the first dish, and present the first cup to his Holinesse: his Highnesse wee may terme it, for he doth Exalt himselfe above the Emperors in an high measure. And as the Pope doth testifie his exaltation historically to our [...]ares: so doth he represent it also emblemati­cally to our eyes. The Pope hath a Triple Diadem, Dr. Sheldon Mot 4. pag. 51. which some say doth signifie that the Romane Emperor doth receive three Crowns from him: one of Iron, at Aquisgrave: another of Silver, at Millane: and the third of Gold, at Rome. I may censure this action of the Pope, in the phrase of a servant of the Pope: Too many crowns Monarchomach. part. 1. Tit. 5. so purchased, to expect any in Heaven. Innocent the second caused his owne, and the Emperors Picture to be set up in the Laterane Palace, him­selfe sitting in his Pontificall Throne, and the Em­perour kneeling before him, and holding up his hands: with this inscription:

Rex venit ante fores, jurans prius Vrbis honores

Post, homo sit Papae, sumit quo dante Coronam. That is, When the King of the Romanes is elected, he attendeth on the Pope: who first admini­string him an Oath to become his man, or ser­vant, [Page 221] doth afterwards give him the Imperiall Sacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 4. fol. 48. Trent Hist. lib. 8. Crowne. But his prime insolence is without peradventure that oath of Allegiance. Hence I conceive it came to passe, anno 1563 that Fer­dinand the King of the Romanes demanded the words of the Oath, which when he had per­used, he refused, saying: that Thereby he should confesse himselfe to be the Vassall of the Pope.

This is the universall insolence of the Pope:
to bring under both Kings and Emperours.
That is, to exalt himselfe above all:
that is called God, or that is worshipped.

I will deliver plainly what answer the Pa­pists shape, to extenuate this shamelesse usur­pation of the Pope over Kings & Emperors: three waies, three sorts of Papists assay to build up this Palace of Babel. Some by negation, some by dissimulation, and the third sort by qualification.

For the first: All Papists doe concurre that the Pope hath supreme power over the soveraigne Majestie of Kings and Emperours. But concer­ning the nature of that power, they are divided into three severall opinions. The first is of Carerius, and other popish parasites, who af­firmeAlex. C [...]rerius de Potest. Rom. that the Pope hath power absolute over the whole world, both in things Ecclesiasticall and Ci­vill. Pont. lib. 2. c 9. Bellarm. de [...]rt. Rom. lib. 5. cap. 6. The second is of Bellarmine and his fol­lowers: who maintaine that though the Pope hath not meere Temporall power over Kings di­rectly, yet he hath supreme authority to dispose of [Page 222] the Temporalities of all Kingdomes, by an indi­rect prerogative, tending (in ordine ad spiritualia) to the advancement of the spirituall good. The last is of Barclaius, and the moderate Papists:Barclaius lib. cap 3. that the Pope hath Spirituall power to excommu­nicate Kings, but no temporall authority to meddle with their Persons, Subjects, or Dominions. To all these assertions, let me propose these ine­vitable consequents. So many as defend the first opinion, declare themselves to bee (ipso facto) actuall Traitours against the Crowne of those Princes under whom they live. The supporters of the second, are habituall Trai­tors, being alwayes disposed to execute the sen­tence of deposition, if the Pope please to com­mand it. They have no Obex, but dum desunt vires: no hindrance, but the want of Ability and Opportunity. And the third, howsoever indeed it is not perpitious to the Soule of the Estate, to take away the life of the King: yet is it dangerous to the estate of the Soule, to invest a man with a power, which is not compatible to any pure creature; with a faculty of Occumeni­call Excommunication. I know not how to terme it, otherwise than a paradox dangerous, and in some sort damnable also. But in truth, this opinion thus blanched, is not absolutely popish; nor they absolute Papists who do main­taine it. I suppose that there are many mode­rate Papists, even in our owne Land, who are of this last opinion: that the Pope hath no tem­porall power over Kings. But what is the opini­on [Page 223] of the Romish Church? did not the Iesuites persecute Blackwell and his partakers, because they would not be Iesuited in this point? and was not learned Withrington disgraced, if not excommunicated by the Pope, for confuting that damnable opinion of Suarez, That the Pope can command Kings to be killed, &c? And finally, are not they themselues esteemed Schisinatickes for this opinion? as appeareth by Barclaius, confuted by Bellarmine, for a­vouching this assertion.

Others dissemble this usurpation: by the title of Servus servorum. Such an apology is that which Lessius doth frame. The Popes (saithLessius de Ant. Dem. 7. he) doe call non se solum servos Dei, themselves not onely the servants of God: sed etiam servos servorum Dei: but moreover, the servants of those that are the servants of God. I wonder (saith he) what secular Prince did ever use such an humble title, in his Letters and Addresses? I answer: Non minuit f [...]stum, sed auget hypocri­sin. This humble title doth not suppresse their pride, but rather expresse their hypocrisie. For it followeth in the very next lines: No Catho­like is so grosse, as to thinke that the Pope is to bee adored, pro Deo propriè dicto, as God himselfe: although by some he be termed Deus in terris, their God on earth, Quia in terris est supremus: because he is the highest of all the earth. We see then, the same Iesuite avoucheth the Pope to be the Soveraigne of the whole World; notwithstan­ding the pretext of his humble Title, that he is [Page 224] called the Servant of the servants of God. They make it yet more cleare by their owne distin­ction. The Pope (saith Baldus cited by ourM Higgons myst. Babylon Serm. 1. The Pope (saith Baldus cited by our learned Convert, and truely converted Country­man) He is Dominus Dominorum quoad potesta­tem, the Lord of Lords in regard of his Power: though Servus servorum, quoad humilitatem; he is called the Servant of Servants, in regard of his meeknesse. Finally, their owne Archbishop of Granada, assistant in the Synode of Trent, didTrent Hist. lib. 6. confesse, that it was an absolute Dominion, to make use of the quality of a servant, and of a Lord also.

To conclude: others mince the matter, bySuarez Apol. lib. 5. c. 17. nu. 12 termes of Qualification. Est [...]us suum à Deo da tum, propter bonum Ecclesiae, saith Suarez: this superiority and authority is in the Pope for the advancement of the Church. Bellarmine Bell. Apolog. cap. 9. saith, Quà Vicarius Dei: that the Pope requi­reth no such honour for himselfe, but onely as he is the Vicar of Christ. Wee cannot but re­member the case of Fredericke Barbarossa: when his necke was under the foot of Pope A­lexander the third; the Emperour said to him, Non tibi, sed Petro: that is, I doe this submis­sion, not to thee, but to Peter. But the Pope an­swered the Emperour, Et mihi, & Petro: that is, Now thou shalt be subject to Peter, and to me also. So will the Pope say to any Prince, when he hath got his necke under his foot; yea but his head under his girdle. Et propter bonum Ec­clesiae, & propter honorem Pontificis: that is, he [Page 225] shall be a Vassall, not onely to the Vicar of Christ, which is the Pope of Rome: but also to the Pope of Rome, though he were No Vicar of Christ.

But to make all manifest, in their holy bookSacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 1. of Ceremonies, dedicated by a Romish Archbi­shop to a Pope of Rome, to Leo the tenth: The phrase of the Cardinalls Election runneth thus: Ego investio te Papatu, ut praesis Vrbi & Orbi: that is, I chuse thee to be Pope: who must governe this City, and the whole World. And that wee should not suppose this superiority to be clai­medSacrar. Cer. lib. 1. sect. 2. in things Ecclesiasticall onely: it follow­eth in the foresaid booke, that when the Pope doth mount his horse, the Emperor must hold his stirrup, and a King his bridle.

And if any should except, that this is but aSacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 7. c. 6. ceremony, and therefore no substantial argument: I instance againe: Pope Sixtus Quartus did so­lemnly pronounce this sentence of absolute and successive soveraignty: Figurat hic Gladius Pontificialis, potestatem summam Temporalem, à Christo Pontifici collatam: juxta Psalmum 72. 8. Dominabitur à Mari, &c. that is, This Pontifi­call Sword doth signifie the supreme Temporall po­wer which Christ hath conferred on the Pope: ac­cording to that saying, Psalm. 72. 8. His Domini­on shall be from one sea to the other: and from the flood unto the worlds end. What tongue can so exalt it selfe against the Truth, as to say, The Pope doth not exalt himselfe above Kings and Emperours: that is, Above all that is cal­led [Page 226] God, or that is worshipped?

It is a popi [...]h brag, that they have made many Proselytes: and that many more Prote­stants are wavering. Would God these few words might touch the eares and hearts of every honest Papist. This is plaine: The Pope doth exalt himselfe above all Kings and Empe­rours. Now it is avouched by a learned Con­vert, Dr Sheldon Motive 4. (who doth know them better by their living, than wee can by their writings) that some Papists make it an article of their Faith, that the Pope hath power to depose Kings. I may adde, the most Papists: for I am sure this is the drift of Bellarmine, Suarez, and of the most, and most learned of their Writers.

On this ground I build this Dilemma: which no evasion (I thinke) can escape: There­fore, Every Papist is either an Hereticke, or a Trai­tour. If he beleeve that the Pope hath power to depose Princes: then is he a true Papist, but a Traitour to his King. If he beleeve it not: then is hee a true Subject, but an Hereticke to his Church.

Now what a wretched Religion is this, which doth so inthrall a poore soule: that either thy Church shall hate thee as an Hereticke, or thy King feare thee as a Traitour? And canst thou yet follow, nay favour that profession, whose very Religion is Rebellion? Now whatsoever thou art, I intirely beseech thee, by thy obedi­ence to thy King, by thy honour to thy God, and by thy compassion on thine owne soule: consider [Page 227] those things which I object, seriously, and im­partially. Conclude as God shall encline thee. Bee it so, as they boast; that wee are weake, and they wise: yet there is a God in heaven, who can make his power strong in our weaknesse. 2 Cor 12. 9. 1 Cor. 1. 19. There is a God in heaven, who can confound the wisedome of the wise. Now! That God, even that God exalt his Truth above that adversarie, who doth exalt himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. So that he as God, sitteth in the Temple of God.’

Antichrist shall not sit corporally in the Temple. The Pope usurpeth the same power with Christ. The same titles. That hee is above Councills. Can make a Creed. The Pope is not; the King is Head of the Church. The Pope countermands all the Commandements.

IN this fourth verse, Antichrist is expressed by three properties: First, that He exalteth himselfe above all that is called God, or that is worshipped. Secondly, So that he as God, sitteth in the Temple of God. This se­cond doth succeed, and exceed the former. There, Antichrist did exalt himselfe above Kings and Emperours: here, above all Christi­ans. There, over the Common wealth: here, over the Church. There, in things Temporall: here, [Page 229] in things Spirituall. There, he doth usurp upon the Estates and persons of Kings and Princes: here, he doth dominiere over the Consciences of Princes, and Subjects; of Lay and Clergy; of Rich and Poore; of All. The Text doth say, He doth sit as God, in the Temple of God.

The Papists expound this sentence in this manner: He as God sitteth in the Temple of God: that is, Antichrist in an horrible insolence, shall sit in the Temple; and command the same adora­tion to be given to himselfe, which is given to God. To take it literally, is to erre grossely, and wittingly: every word doth gainsay it.

First, in the Temple: Baronius, and the best of the Romists avouch, that the Temple cannot possibly be built againe: Antichrist therefore cannot possibly sit in the Temple.

Secondly, he shall sit: the Papists under­stand this phrase; as if a Protestant should de­mand, how long hath Gregory the fifteenth sate in the Church of Rome? If he should meane a locall sitting, in a materiall Church; they would hisse at such an absurd question. The sitting then of Antichrist, in their own formall phrase, cannot be locall or corporall.

Thirdly, He sitteth as God: now God hath no bodily position, unlesse their pennes shall se­cond their pictures, and incline to the Anthro­pomorphites. God hath no body: therefore, to sit as God, can be no bodily sitting. To say there­fore, that Antichrist shall sit bodily in a Temple, to be worshipped religiously: is a sense implying [Page 230] nothing but Absurdity, Impossibility, and Blas­phemie.

The Protestants exposition remaineth to be propounded: which I suppose to bee un­controulable.

First, in the Temple: I will expound this phrase by that of Occumenius upon this place: [...]: that is, by the name of the Temple in this text, we must not understand the Temple of Hierusalem, but the Churches of God.

Secondly, he sitteth: that is, he ruleth, or reigneth: in which sense God himselfe is said to sit in his throne, Psal. 9. 4. and their Aquine on this place rendreth our interpretation: Sedeat, id est, principetur & dominetur: Hee sit­teth, that is, (saith he) he governeth and domi­mereth. Nay, as if he would digito demonstra­ner, ac dicier hic est: as if the Pope would point at his owne person, to bee prophesied of in this place, hee doth appropriate this phrase, to his owne stile: whereas Kings are said to reigne, and not to sit; the Popes are said to sit, and not to reigne: as if they would verifie this prophesie to the letter.

Thirdly, He shall sit as God; to wit, as God incarnated: that is, as Christ. Tanquam Deus, scilicet, incarnatus, i. tanquam Christus. His name implyeth as much: the man of sinne be­ing called Antichristus, non Antitheus: that is, Antichrist, and not an Anti-God. The true sense is this: The man of sinne doth sit in the Temple of [Page 231] God, as God: that is, Antichrist doth rule the Church of Christ: usurping the very power of Christ.

I frame this Syllogisme, as the foundation of my following discourse.

Whosoever doth rule the Church of Christ, pre­tending the same power with Christ; hath this property of Antichrist: or rather is the very Antichrist.

But the Pope doth rule the Church of Christ, pretending the same power with Christ.

Ergo, the Pope hath this property of Antichrist.

Or rather,

Therefore, The Pope is the very Antichrist.

The proposition hath beene proved by the premises. The proofe of the minor now re­maineth to bee proposed. Which also may seeme to bee superfluous, if that Sermon of Steven Archbishop of Patras, which hee madeConcil. Lateran. sub Leone 10. in Concione Ste­phani Ar [...]b. Patracensis Sess. 10. at the Councill of Laterane bee authenticall. Where he preached publikely of the Pope, and to the Pope: that the Pope had potestatem supra omnes potestates, tam coeli, quam terrae: that is, Power, above all power, either in Heaven, or in Earth. And therefore the same, if not superiour to that of Christ. Or that Treatise of Augu­stus Ambomitanus, in the 45 question whereof he delivereth, Idem esse Dominium Dei, ac Papae. Gods Dominion and the Popes is all one. As the Iurisdiction of the Delegant and Dele­gat is one. Especially where the delegation is plenary and totall, as he presumeth it is in the [Page 232] Pope. But to proceed in our proofes, though we have their open confession: All the power of Christ over the Church, is expressed in his Titles: by which hee doth approach to him, yea incroach on him very palpably. Let that passe but for a formall preface unto his more pompous stile, which their Sacred Ceremonies Sacrar. Cerem. lib 1. [...]ect. 1. cap 3. fol. 10. doe solemnly invest him with. That the Pope is the Vicar of Iesus Christ, the Successour of Saint Peter, the Pastour of the Lords Flocke, the Key­keeper of the Court of Heaven, and the Prince of all Christendome. But Bellarmine (lest any ofBell. de Con. Auth. lib. 2. c. 17. them should be defective, either to our plain proofe, or to his plainer pride) teacheth di­rectly, That all the Titles which the Scriptures give to Christ, are by them given unto the Pope. His words are these: Quae in Scripturis tribu­untur Christo (unde constat eum esse supra Eccle­siam) cadem omnia tribuuntur Pontifici.

Furthermore, the Titles including the po­wer, will make it appeare yet more particular­ly: The Pope doth usurpe the one, and there­fore he doth usurpe the other. Christ prin­cipally hath three Titles. He is called Princeps Pastorum, 1 Pet. 5. 4. Our Chiefe Shepheard: Pontifex, Our High Priest, Heb. 3. 1. and finally, Caput Ecclesiae, The Head of the Church, Ephes. 5. 23. And all these, it is generally knowne that the Pope doth ordinarily assume. Yea more than these! Is Christ termed Princeps Pastorum, the Chiefe Shepheard? the Pope hath beene stiled Solus Pastor. Is Christ called [Page 233] Pontifex, the High Priest? Vah! Parum est, the Pope is called Pontifex maximus, the Highest High Priest. Is Christ called Caput Ecclesiae, the Head of the Church? the Pope hath the same Name: yea and more also. Hee is Caput fidei, the Head of our Faith (a strange title)Tortura pa. 329. saith Bellarmine. Nay he is not onely Caput, but Vertex capitis, the very Top and Tip of the Head, saith Schioppius that impostume of scur­rilitie. Thus then the Pope doth arrogate the same Titles (with some addition also) which are ascribed unto our Saviour. Saint Paul doth prove the Excellency of our Saviour to be farre above the Nature of Angels, because he hath received a more excellent Name.

The Pope likewise doth inferre that he hath the same Excellency and Power, because he hath the same Name with our Saviour. Nay where­fore doth he not directly call himselfe Christ? as well as High Priest, Chiefe Shepheard, and Head of the Church, which are equivalent thereunto? When Edward of England inten­ded Warre against Philip of France: hee assu­med his Prime Title, and proclaimed himselfe King of France. So the Pope assuming the Principall Titles of Christ, maketh even a Pro­clamatiō against Christ: that He is [...], The adversary, who as God, sitteth in the Temple of God: that is, ruleth in the Church of Christ, pretending the same power with Christ.

But indeed, the whole power of Christ in ru­ling the Church, is comprised in this one Title, [Page 234] The Head of the Church; the Pope therefore ar­rogating that one, doth usurpe all. To cleare the way by a briefe digression; Two things they reply to this point. First, they urge argu­mentum ad hominem, and prove the Pope to beSuarez Apolog lib. 5. c. 17. nu. 5. their Head, from our Tongues. The English pro­testants (say they) call the King the Head of the Church: therefore the Romish Catholikes mayMonarchoma­chia part 2. tit. 3 pag. 323. likewise call the Pope the Head of the Church. We reply, who gave our King this Title? Even the Romish Bishops themselves, in the eight and twentieth yeare of Henry the eight, Statute 1, which was afterward explained by the words Supreme Governor, 1. Elizabethae. But the for­merLib. M, S, Sacr. Syn▪ Guil. War [...]h 11. Feb. 1530. pag. 115. title, Head of the Church, did a Synode of Romish Bishops give to our King Henry the 8, amongst whom also, was that grand Romanist, Iohn Fisher Bishop of Rochester. Yea & the same Fisher did perswade the sayd Bishops to con­sent unto that Title: as Sanders doth witnesse,Sanders de schism. pag 77. We also, remembring the sense, may retaine the title without any scruple. So Saul is ter­med the Head of the Tribes of Israel, 1 Sam. 15. 17. and the Husband the Head of the Wife, Bin. tom. 3. 363. Ephes. 5. 23. Anno 813, in the Councill of Mentz, their Preface did intitle Charles the great Religionis Rector, the Ruler of their Reli­gion: no lesse than if they had called him The Head of their Church. Againe, 847 the sameBin. Tom. 3. pag. 631. Title was given to another Emperour, by ano­ther Councill at Mentz: Lewis also was called Rector Religionis.

An hundred yeares before both these, theBin. Tom. 2. pag. 1183. Councill of Emerita, anno 705, acknowledged that King Reccesuinthus did regere secularia, & Ecclesiastica, that is, governe them in things both Civill and Ecclesiasticall; the formall phrase of our Soveraigne. I may thereforeBell. Apolog. cap. 1. invert this argument ad hom [...]nem, and say: the Papists cannot gainsay this Title of our King, because they themselves did give it him; which he doth yet retaine: but with two maine dif­ferences, from the Papall usurpation: both in regard of the intent and extent thereof. First, he hath it, and doth use it, onely quoad exter­num regimen, to settle the Truth, Prohibite Error, reward or punish Church Ministers. Not to de­fine matters of Faith, much lesse to administer Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. cap. 17. & lib. 6. prooemio. Champnaeus in Mason. 573, 594 Masonus de min. Angli [...]ano lib. 4. cap. 2. the holy Sacraments, as the Papists scandalously and shamelesly charged our Princes withall. We answer, with our most learned Country­man (now with God) The power of our Prince, is spirituall: Objectivè, because it is imployed about a spirituall matter, or things Ecclesiasti­call, scil. the establishing of Religion in their do­minions. But it is spirituall, not formaliter, formally: because it is not exercised in things spirituall, modo spirituall: that is, in a spirituall manner, as Preaching, Administring the Sacra­ments, Excommunicating, &c. Nay wee can wipe away this imputation, with Bellarmines Bell. de Pont. Rom. lib. 1. c. 8. owne syllables. Respondemus, reges nostros esse Custodes non Interpretes legum divinarum: that our Princes are Maintainers, not Explainers of [Page 236] Gods true Religion. Whereof our late in­comparable learned Leige Lord, printed a publike protestation; That hee never did, nor Iacob. Rex A [...] [...]g pro juram. Fidei. ever would take upon him, to make any new article of faith: neither would he presume to make him­selfe the Iudge of any Article. But that hee would bee a Patterne of obedience, and submit himselfe to all the Articles of the faith, with as much humility and modesty, as the meanest of his subjects. A profession plaine enough to stop the mouth even of Malice it selfe: but that some mens Throates are open Sepulchers. And secondly our King is stiled Caput Ecclesiae Britannicae, The Head of the sole Church, which is within his Dominios. But the Pope doth term himselfe Caput Ecclesiae Occumenicae, the Head of the whole Church of Christ. No lesse a diffe­rence, than is betwixt One little Iland, and the whole world or universe.

Next, Gladius Delphicus: Their common distinction, is, that the Pope is the Head of the Church, Ministeriall, not Principall. To display the weaknesse of this Rome-coyned distinction: let us consider but thus much. That ever any Monarch made One Vice-roy (i. Ministerial head) over all his Provinces: I beleeve it will exer­cise the best Antiquary to alledge but one precedent. Therefore, an Head Ministeriall and Occumenicall are [...] termes incom­patible. Especially to arrogate the Prime title of his Lord (as the Head is of Christ) such an ar­rogance, would be suspected, if not censured [Page 237] for some Traiterous usurpation.

But to wave word-contentions, and to cleare all cavills. If the Pope doth usurpe the thing signified, by the Title: then can they not, but confesse, that he is The Head Imperiall, not Ministeriall. Now the Head (saith Plato) is the Emperour of the members. And all the power of any Head, Ministeriall, Spirituall, or Politicall, commeth within the compasse of these distri­butions. It is either in direction or correction: directing either by Command or Countermand: the command is either given, injunction: or obeyed, which is subiection. But the Pope doth exercise, exact, and atchieve equall injunction, and subjection▪ equall commanding and counter­manding power: equall power directing or cor­recting with Christ himselfe. The Pope there­fore as the Head, as Christ, ruleth in the Church of Christ: That is, as God he sitteth in the Temple of God, and him I take to be The Antichrist.

First, for Direction: the Pope is the grand 1 Directour, indeed the very Steere-man of the Church, commanding all Christians to saile bySacrar. Cer. lib. 1. sect. 8. cap. 6. fol. 94. his Compasse. Which may seeme no mervaile because he doth stile his Cardinalls, Senatores Vrbis, the Counsell of the Citie, & Conjudices or­bis, (with him) the Iudges of the world. And alluding to the Etymology (Cardinales fromBell. de Pont. Rom. 4. [...]. 56. Ioh. de Turrier lib. 2. [...]. 109. &. 110. Cardines) he termeth them persons, super quos militantis ecclesiae ostium, volvendum & revol­vendum, upon whom the whole Church must be moved. Now, Christ is the onely un-erring Tea­cher: [Page 238] and that the Pope cannot Erre, is a com­mon popish assertion. Pontisicis verba, cum è Cathedra docendo desinit: the words of the Pope when he doth desine any thing, and teach it out of the Chaire: that desinition is of equall certain­tie, with the doctrine of Christ himselfe sayth Suarez. Yea his Translations in Latine are pre­ferred Suarez Apolog. lib. 1. c. 22. 1. essi. de Antich. Demonst. 15. Innocent 4. i [...] cap. Sup [...]o de Big. nu▪ 2. Aug. de [...] quaest. 67. art. 2. Nicholaus Dist. 19. Si Romanor [...] Antonin. Sum. part. 3 ca 22. Cupers 124. nu. 9. Ioh de Turrier. lib. 2. cap. 101. Cupers pag. 42. nu. 15. Is [...]d [...]r. Moscon pag. 27. Ioh. Cephal. lib. 1 Cons 97. nu. 10. Aventin. l [...]b. 7. pag. 547. before Christs owne Originall, before the very Scripture in Greeke and Hebrew: a­vouched by Lessius. It is his prerogative, non solum interpretari, sed etiam condere, not onely to interpret, but also to make Scriptures. And that the Scriptures are to bee received by ver­tue of the Papall Decrees. Incredible popish blasphemies, did not the Pope and Popish Doctors publish and print them.

Hence they conclude, that he hath Plenitu­dinem potestatis, & scientiae, the fulnesse of knowledge. That hee hath judicium coeleste, in­fallibile, & indefectibile: an Indefective, infal­lible, and heavenly judgement. And if the whole world define against the Pope: yet the Popes desi­nitions are rather to be imbraced, than that of the whole world. Thus they conclude. I con­ceive another conclusion, to be more proba­ble: viz. that which was published at the Sy­node of Reignsburg by Everard Archbishop of Salsburg; That the Pope by saying Errare non possum, I cannot Erre: doth say as much, as if he had sayd plainly, Deus sum, in Templo Dei: I sit as God, in the Temple of God.

These Erring Paradoxes, of the Popes uner­ring [Page 239] Prerogative, to some other inferiour usur­pations, in the Church Directions, are as the sonnes of Anak, compared to the Grasse-hoppers: Notwithstanding, these may not be omitted, Nec vox hominem sonat: some part of Christs owne power is trenched into by these also. Bishops are directours to the Church, but Frier Hist. Trent. lib. pag. 599. Simon a Florentine sayd: that every spirituall power dependeth on that of the Pope. And that every Bishop might say, I have received of hic fulnesse. And he is Episcopus Episcoporum, the Bishop of all B [...]shops, say their sacred Ceremo­nies: Sacr. Cerem. lib. 1. fol. 129. or the Great Wheele, in the great worke of directing the Church: without whose mo­tion all the directive authority, of all the Bishops in the world besides, is plainly immoveable.

Finally, the Councils have beene esteemed to have the chiefest authority of directing the Church, next to Christ: But now, therein the Pope is to the Church, as the Church is to the moone, Rev. 12. 1. He keepeth it under his feet. Besides what I have already delivered of this point to this purpose: Heare the beginning of their great Trent Councill. The Bishop ofTrent. Hist. lib. 2. pag. 133. Bitonto, anno 1545, invited (in his Sermon) the whole world to submit it selfe to that Coun­cill: which if it did not, then might it bee justly said, That the Popes light is come into the world, and men loved darknesse, better than light. Blasphemously mis-applying that to the Pope, which the holy Ghost doth apply to Christ, Iohn 3. 19. And at the end of the same [Page 240] Synode, in the last Session, it being propoun­ded whether the Confirmation of that Councill did depend on his Holinesse? All those holy Fathers did say Amen: Three onely excepted.

Or if any mention the Creeds as a shorter directour, or neerer to Christ than the Coun­cills; Know we moreover, that the Pope hath composed a new Creed, proposed it to the whole Church as necessary to salvation, and imposed it on the Bishops especially, by the obligation of an oath. This was the Act of Pope Pius the fourth: and is the History of Onuphrius in theOnuphr. in Vit. Pij 4. lise of the same Pope.

Hence therefore, from two propositions of one of our owne learned Countrymen (im­plyingMr. Mountague his Appeale, part. 2. cap. 15. the assumptions of them fully cleared) I will frame one conclusion: which would God al our Countrymē would take into their serious considerations. To dissent from the Rule, or to propose any thing as Credendum, a­gainst the Rule, is Antichristian. (Give me leave to insert this parenthesis: and he who doth so [...] is an Antichrist [...], or The Antichrist.) But the Pope, &c. Ergo.) Againe,Mr. Mountagu Appeale part 2. cap. 3. the prerogative of Not erring doth advance a man into his Makers seat. Therefore the Pope is advanced into his Makers seat. Therfore, The Pope is an Antichrist: yea even [...]. In the phrase of my Text, Hee as God sitteth in the Temple of God.

Secondly, The Pope doth direct all: yet is 2 not direction, all the Rule, which the Pope usur­peth [Page 241] over the Church. Directtion may be gen­ile, it perswadeth: but direction, by way of com­mand, it is coercive, it constreyneth. And this way also, doth the Pope rule the Church. HenceTurrecrem. lib. 2. cup. 107. the Papists stile his See, magistra, & mater fidei, the mother and Mistresse of their Faith. Againe the Evangelists command beleefe on the paine of damnation. To imply the Papall command to be such the Pope is termed by one, Humble Gabriel, Evangelista 5, the fift Evangelist. Baron. to. 6. appendice. Capistr. fol 1. ex Distinct. 19. Cap. Sic omnis. Bell. de Verbo Dei, lib. 3. ca. 10. Trent. Hist. lib. 7. Pope Clement 8, did not reject it: Nay Baro­nius doth approve it. Yea the ordinances of the Pope, are to bee imbraced, tanquam ipsius Dei: as the ordinances of God himselfe. And Bellarmine the industrious qualifier of all Po­pish paradoxes, doth say: Verbum Pontificis docentis è Cathedra, est aliquo modo verbum Dei: that is, The word of the Pope out of the Chaire, is in some sort the word of God. But Laynez more plainly and peremptorily saith, that that say­ing of Saint Matthew 18. 17. He who will not heare the Church, is to be esteemed as an Heathen, is to bee understood there, of the Pope. And that the suffrages of these Authors, may not be shifted of as private opinions; heare a full Councill: that of Trent (a Councill which was the mouth of the Pope, as the Pope was the head of that Councill,) Omnibus Christi fidelibus in­terdicit, ne posthaec de sanctissima Eucharistia, ali­ter Concil Trid. Sess. 3. sub Iul. 3. pag. 108. B. credere, dicere, aut praedicare audeant, quam est in praesent hoc decreto definitum. Such a command as Christ himselfe cannot give a greater. The [Page 242] matter, the Eucharist: one point whereof the same Council cōfesseth to be contrary to divine institution. The manner, to beleeve: to command beleefe is proper to God. The measure, that they should not Dare to beleeve, an imperious com­mand. And the men, Omnibus, all: Princes, and People. Now to command, all the Church, not to dare, to beleeve what God instituted, I take it to be imperious without parallell. And thus doth the Pope as Christ, Rule in the Church of Christ.

Thirdly to direct, and by way of command, 3 is to direct and command: but man onely. But to direct by way of countermand, is to set his face against heaven, and to controll God him­selfe. Now to make up this measure of sinne, and to make plaine who is the man of sinne: this doth the Pope also. Herein observe what they say he can doe, and what hee hath done. That of the Canonists is common. Thewhites way, sect. 30. p 1. 125. Pope hath fulnesse of power to dispence against the Apostles, against the old, and new Testament. Trent. Hist. lib. 7. D. Cornelius in a disputation at Trent, brought the authority of the said Canonists, that the Pope may dispence against the Canons, against the Apostles, and against all the Law of God; except the Articles of Faith; and Laynez concludethTrent. Hist. lib. 8. as roundly, It cannot be denied, that Christ had Power to dispence in every law: therefore it must be confessed, that the Pope his Vicar, hath the Bell. de Rom. Pontif. lib. 3. cap. 14. same authority. Bellarmine I acknowledge, doth mince this point: The Pope (saith he) non [Page 243] potest dispensare contra, sed juxta Apostolum; the Pope cannot dispence against, but with the A­postles: that is, Apostolorum praecepta, potest mo­derari, ac mutare, prout Ecclesiae expediret: the Pope (saith he) may qualifie and change the pre­cepts of the Apostles, when it shall be expedient for the Church. This is but a more courteous controlling, and a more cunning countermanding. To moderate, and to alter the Apostles precepts is enough: yet a Pope said more, Data mihi est om­nis Sacr. Cerem: lib. 1. potestas, Pope Sixtus Quartus said it, in the very words of Christ, Matth. 28. 18. that hee had the very Power of Christ. But deeds are the best expositers of words. A substantiall Sacra. Cerem. lib. 1. 6. 2. sect. 1. fol. 4. example in which kind, I may urge out of their booke of Ceremonies. Christ sayd unto Peter Pasce oves, feed my sheepe: by vertue whereof, S. Peter did nominate Clemens to bee his succes­sour. But the Senate of Rome, consisting of foure and twenty Priests and Deacons (who after­wards by Silverster 1, were intituled, the Holy Cardinals of the Romane Church) foreseeing that such a denomination of successours, in suc­ceeding ages, would become very incommo­dious for the Church: they rejected Clemens, and elected Linus to succeed Peter, and Cletus, to succeed Linus. And after Cletus, then Cle­mens was admitted, but not from his first in­stitution. Thus wee see that not onely the Pope, but the Cardinalls, haue countermanded not onely Christ, but Saint Peter also. In two words, to annex two other examples: Drinke [Page 244] yee all of this, this is Christs command, Matth. Concil. Trid. Sess. 21. cap. 1. 26. 27. For which wee have the Popes plaine countermand, ye shall not drinke all of this: not the Laity, no nor some of the Cleargy, nei­ther, the non Conficientes, which is according to their phrase, in the Glosse, which is secondGloss. in D [...]st 4. cap. Statuim. to none, Statuimus, id est Abrogamus. Wee or­daine, that is, we abrogate: many of the Popes Ordinances, being (Countermands) plaine A­brogations of Christs Ordinances. Againe, Let every soule be subject to the higher power: this is Christs plaine Command, if Saint Paul saith true, Rom. 13. 1. To which wee have as plaine a [...]ountermand from the Pope, if Bellarmine saithBell, de Exemp. Cler. cap. 1. true: not every soule, not the soule of a Bishop, not the soule of a Priest, not the soule of any Clearke. To proceed to more particulars.

I will propose precedents of the Papall countermanding power in instances from all the Commandements. The first saith, Thou shalt have but one God: the Pope gaine-sayeth it. Every City, every Countrey, almost every per­son, hath a severall God; Saints they call them, but Gods they make them: by praying to thē, vowing to them, making Pilgrimages to them, consecrating Churches to them, and in their distresse putting assiance in them: things pro­per to God. Thus have they many gods against the first Commandement. The second com­mandeth: Thou shalt not worship Images: the Pope countermandeth. Thou shalt worship Images: and thence in their ordinary Catechismes they [Page 245] leave out the second Commandement, lest every ordinary capacity, should conceive this grosse contradiction. The third commandeth, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vaine: but dispensations with Oathes, is the Popes fami­liar action. Otherwise Bellarmine never had beene, and no Iesuit ever shall bee Cardinall. The fourth commandeth us to keepe holy the Relation of the Religion in the West. sect. 14. Sabbath: but their greatest markets are on that great day. The fift injoyneth Honour to thy Fa­ther, to thy civill father, thy King. But the Pope doth exempt the Cleargy from performing this Honor, yea saith Emanuel Sa, Clerici rebellio Casaub. ad Front. Duc. pag. 54. in Regem, non est crimen laesae Majestatis, quia non est Principis subditus: that is, the rebellion of a Cleargy man against his King is no Treason, be­cause hee is no subject to his King. The sixt is, Thou shalt not kill, yet doe the Papists teach that a Tyrant may be killed by a private person: Suarez Apolog. lib. 6. ca. 4. nu. 7. and this King-killing Craft, is not onely autho­rized, but also practized by the Pope, as many even Princes feare, and some feele also: and such a murtherous fact was praised by the Pope, by Sixtus Quintus, concerning Henry the third. The seventh saith, Thou shalt not com­mit Adultery. Besides their publike Toleration of publike Stewes, the degrees of mariage forbidden by God, Levit. 18. are dispenced withall by the Pope: yea in their Taxa Cancellaria cap. of Par­dons Moulins Accom. pag. 108. pag. 36. Incest with ones Mother is fined at five groats. In the eight, Thou shalt not steale: I make no question, but their Canon, Fides non [Page 246] est servanda cum Haereticis, that faith ought not to be kept with Heretikes, will stretch even to con­tracts also: and the Pope would permit his Pa­pists to robb [...]us Protestants, as God did the Israe­lites to robbe the Egyptians, Exod. 12. 36. In the ninth, Thou shalt not beare false witnesse: to beare false witnesse, Popery hath made an Art. To beare false witnesse before a Magistrate, on an Oath, and against their knowledge; This is af­firmed, maintained, and defended by that wretched Art of Popish wicked Equivocation. And finally, Non concupisces, Thou shalt not co­vet, saith the Lord in the last Comandement: but the Pope and papists say, concupiscentia non est peccatum, Concup [...]scence say they is no sinne. Here indeed is no d [...]spensation, but a plaine ab­negation of this precept. I conclude with the judgement of that judicious Author of the Re­lation Relation of the Religion in the West sect 13. of the Religion in the West parts of the world (whom I honor as the Phaenix of all our English Travellers) There is almost no Law of God or Nature, which one way or other, they finde not meanes to d [...]spence with, or at least wise permit the breach of it, by connivence, and without distur­bance. In this point principally, peremptorily. The Pope as Christ doth rule in the Church of Christ: that is, in the phrase of my text, The Adversary as God, sitteth in the Temple of God.

These are mighty matters: howbeit in 4 these, the Pope doth direct onely by Theory or proposition. Besides this, the Papall tyranny doth proceed to commands of Practice and Impositi­on. [Page 247] The Pope doth moreover direct, by way of Injunction. To which purpose they premise their imperious positions. Note what is said of the Pope, and by the Pope. The Cardinall Sacr. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 10. cap. 5. who is to invest any Bishop with the pall, useth this phrase, I deliver this to thee, for the honour of God Almighty, of the blessed Apostles Saint Peter, and Saint Paul, & Domini nostri Papae, and for the honour of our Lord the Pope. AgaineSacr. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 10. cap. 1. in his injunctions the Pope himselfe speaketh in this forme: I commit unto thee the admini­stration of such or such a thing, by the authority of God, and Saint Peter, and Paul, & nostra, and by mine owne authority. Here were a complement of coequall commanding power, betwixt Christ, and his Vicar: if the Pope would have used but one Rhetoricall flower (one [...] and [...]) which did once grow in his owne Cardinalls Garden: and have sayd Ego & Deus meus, I and my God: as hee once said Ego & Rex meus, I and my King. Howso­ever, they going thus, hand in hand, and being apparelled in the same commanding power, wee can hardly distinguish betwixt the Man and his Master: hardly discerne, the Vicar of Christ, from the person of Christ, if wee credit their owne positions, we may conclude, that the Pope as Christ doth rule in the Church of Christ. Neither doe they much descend from this transcendent power, in their ordinary posi­tions. The Papists doe ordinarily preach, thatMason de min. Angl. lib. 4. ca. 3. the Church is like a City, wherein there is but [Page 248] one Fountaine: that Fountaine doth import to great rivers, the rivers to the lesser brookes, and the brookes to the channels, and conduit pipes, which disperse the water to the severall fami­lies through the citie: but still with an Item, that all the water runneth from that one Foun­taine. The Pope (say they) is the Fountaine: the Patriarks, Metropolitans, and Archbishops those great Rivers: the Bishops the lesser brookes: and the little Channels and conduit pipes, are the Priests, Monkes and other inferiour Ministers: yet so, that (salva semper Ecclesiae catholicae au­thoritate) all Papists acknowledge, that all their power is derived unto them from the Pope, that singular Fountaine: this also they explaine by distinctions.

Christ (say they) said unto Peter, Matth. 16.Mason de Min. Angl. lib. 4. ca. 3. 19. To thee will I give the keyes of Heaven: Marke (say they) Christ did not promise un­to Saint Peter, clavem a key, but claves, two keyes, scientiae & potestatis, one of knowledge, the other of power. By the key of knowledge, he doth open the doore of the Scripture: absolving all mysteries, and resolving all controversies. By the other key of power, he doth open the doore of the Church: either by ordination, admitting Pa­stors into it: or by Iurisdiction, commanding, in­joyning, or correcting the inferiors in it, or ex­pelling the disobedient from it, having power o­ver them all, in all cases both in foro externo, (in their Courts) by Excommunication, Ab­solution, Dispensation, and Injunction: as also [Page 249] in foro interno, (in their consciences) to remit or retaine sinnes. Now what servant dare refuse to runne on the errand of such a master? And surely so it is. The Pope himselfe sitteth at Rome: where at his feet are resident the Ge­neralls of all Orders through the world. The Generalls under them have severall Provinci­alls in all Kingdomes. The Provincialls under them severall Priours in all Covents. And the Priours have every person in their severall companies, at their becks and instant behests. Thus the Pope as the great wheele, doth infuse or inforce a speedy motion into every nimble instrument.

Sic volo, sic jubeo, stat pro ratione voluntas.

The Popes Secretaries are called, and there is writ­ten according to all which the Pope doth command, unto the Lieutenants, and Governors, and Rulers, over every Province, of every people, in the name of the Pope is it written: and the Letters are sent by the Postes into all the Provinces: and so forth as followeth, Ester 3. 12, 13.

If ever there was a Sic dicit Dominus, from God: if ever an [...] from man: this Papall injunction is the shadow of the one, and the substance of the other. No State in the world doth dispatch their Addresses through the world with like awfull severity, and carefull ce­lerity. And this also doth shew, that the Pope as Christ doth rule in the Church of Christ. In the [Page 250] phrase of my text; Antichrist as God, sitteth in the Temple of God.

This is sat is pro imperio: The Pope doth 5 command. But may he not goe without? Hee doth give injunction; But doth he receive sub­mission? Incomparably. The Obedience of the Romane Regulars was admirable: if it were warrantable and conscionable. Well may he be termed their Head: for never were members so pliable to the Head, as the Papists are to the Pope. I admire their obedience, as much as I do detest the drift thereof. The Pope may truly use so much of the Centurions phrase, Luke 7. 8 I have men under me, and say to one goe, and hee doth goe: to another come, and he doth come: and to my Servant doe this, and he doth it. Take a taste of all their professours, from the profes­sion of one learned Papist. They are the last words of Malvenda's long discourse concer­ningMalvenda lib. 11 cap. 9. Antichrist. Nos totos, ingenium, cogita­tiones, studia, lucubrationes, scriptionem hanc in­tegram, & omnia nostra, ad sacrosancti Apostolici Principis, Christi Vicarij, Successoris Petri, Roma­ni Pontisicis pedes sanctissimos submittimus, vene­rabundi procumbimus. My translation cannot expresse the emphasis of his devout submission. Yet thus I translate it: With all reverence I pro­strate my learning and thoughts, my day studies, and night watchings, all my writings, all that I am, and all that I have, before the most holy feet of the thrice holy Pope, the Successour of Peter, the Vicar of Christ, and the Apostolicall Prince. Nei­ther [Page 251] doth their practice give the lye to his promise. If a precept come from the Pope, by the Provincialls, to any particular person, they presently performe it. As Luthers phrase is; they are no Quaeristae, they doe not examine, but execute the Popes injunction. To delay, they esteeme disobedience: to inquire, curiosity: to dispute, insolence: and to deny, rebellion: as the sinne of witchcraft: Though it bee to take a journey into China or Peru. Nay, a strange obe­dience! If the Pope command to excommunicate a Queene; he shall not want a Papist to publish it, though he be hang'd for it. If the Pope com­mand to murther a King, he shal have a Iacobine to stab him, though he be tortured for it. And if the Pope doth breathe out threatnings against a Church; that he would blow up a Nation with a blast of Gun-powder: Instantly Iesuites will a­bet it, and Iesuited will act it: though their quarters be poled up for a spectacle and perpe­tuall monument of their gracelesse obedience, and matchlesse trechery. And thus also doth the Pope as Christ (yea more than Christ ever did) Rule in the Church of Christ. That is, An­tichrist as God, sitteth in the Temple of God.

But if these injunctions bee not obeyed; 6 but refused scrupulously, or rejected resolutely; what then? Then, such incurre correction in­sufferable, with an awfull apprehension un­utterable: as it were under the hand even of Christ himselfe. I take it to bee a principle in Popery, to esteeme it so. Hence, at the Coun­cill Trent Hist. lib. 8. [Page 252] of Trent, Laynez the Iesuites Generall deli­vered it for a generall conclusion, that the Pope and Christ have the same Tribunall, and the same Authority: and the same assertion is a­vouched by Capistranus. The first degree ofCapistran. so 124 correcting their disobedient, is by way of Ex­communication. Concerning which, this is the opinion of Withrington, a moderate Papist, inWithring [...]. of the Oath of Allegi­ance, preface. his Admonition to the Reader, concerning the Oath of Allegtance. The Church (saith he) hath power to impose a Temporall punishment by way of command, if it bee necessary for his soules health, not by way of coertion. So that if hee will not obey the command of the Church, impo­sing such a temporall punishment on him: she can onely for our disobedience punish fi­nally with spirituall punishments, as by inflicting censures: not by depriving our lands, or lives. This is the judgement of Withrington, our learned and (excepting his errours) our honest Adversary. He calleth himselfe a Romish Ca­tholike: I am sure, his opinion in this point, is Catholike, but not Romish. And I am perswa­ded, if Rome did sway the Land where hee doth live, he should feele the Romish fire for this Catholike opinion. Howsoever, the first punishment for disobedience is Excommuni­cation. But we esteeme this to be but brutum fulmen, the Protestants reject the Popes Ex­communications like Sampsons cords, like a threed of tow which toucheth the fire. What do they to such? From such (if they be in their power) he [Page 253] taketh away their liberty: they cannot buy and sell in safety: as I feare some of our owne Mer­chants have found it. Next, hee raketh from them their lands, forcing them to flie their native country, as the poore French have felt in our dayes. Then, their lives: as our wo­full English could witnesse, in Queene Maries reigne. And finally, he will take from them, (that which is dearer unto them then their lives) their Names. Thus did the Papists to Calvine, whom they published to have died desperate, when as many years he survived that presump­tious calumny. Yea hee will saevire in cineres, punish their carkeises, and command their bones to be raked out of their graves, as he did to Paulus Fagius. Neither shall Kings disobey the Pope uncorrected. For he hath authoritie to take away their Scepters, and lives also, sayth Suarez in the sixt booke of his Apology. But for that fatall Inquisition! It is a correction like the fourth Beast, in the seventh of Daniel, and the seventh verse: It is dreadfull and terrible, devouring all, but it hath no Name. Although Gonsalvius hath, in some sort discovered it, yet I am perswaded that none living (but the tormentours and the tormented) can fully tell, what the intralls are of that Bull of Phalaris: it is the very embleme of Hell: none returne from thence to tell the torments thereof. And certainly, whosoever is caught within the compasse of that engine of cruelty, (if he bee fortified with courage from Heaven, in a rare [Page 254] measure) hee may alter the Prayers of the old Leturgie: they prayed [...], that is, Save us, by those unknowne torments; these may pray, [...], that is, Lord save us from those unknowne torments. And thus doth this Tyrant both usurpe & out strip the correcting power of a King. The Pope, as Christ, doth rule in the Church of Christ: in the phrase of my Text, Antichrist as God, sitteth in the Temple of God.

I adde briefly: Me thinkes the Empire of Christ in his Church, is most briefly and em­phatically expressed by Christ himselfe, Iohn 14. 6. Ego sum Via, Veritas, & Vita: that is, (saith Calvine) I am the beginning, the meanes, and the end of saving knowledge. Or (as Saint Augustine) Christ is Via sine errore, the Way with­out errour: Veritas sine falsitate, the Truth with­out falshood: & Vita sine morte, the Life with­out death. Others interpret these words other­wise: that Christ sheweth the meanes, descry­eth the things, and giveth the end, concerning eternall felicity. All these doth the Pope usurp.

First, that he is Via, the Way, that hee cannot erre, a property of Christ, never communicated but to some persons, and at some times onely.

Secondly, that he is Veritas, the Truth. His Councill of Trent commanded all, credere, to beleeve that, and only that, to be Truth which he taught.

And lastly, he arrogateth himselfe to bee Vita, to be the Life. No salvation, except a [Page 255] man bee a member of the Church, say Christi­ans: not unlesse he be a member of the Pope, say the Papists. And therefore Bellarmine in his third Booke de Ecclesia, and the second Chapter, maketh the Pope to be an essentiall part in the definition of the Church. So, No Pope, no Church: and no salvation but in the Church, and under the Pope. Hence some be­ginne to thinke that the name of a Papist is more honourable than the name of a Catholike: because the last doth imply a communion but with the Body: but the first with the Head. And how farre this Tyranny hath prevailed on the consciences of the blinded Papists: you may perceive by this proverbe, which they say is familiar in Italy: I beleeve God and the Pope. And thus doth hee dominiere in the highest nature. The Pope as Christ, doth rule in the Church of Christ: that is, Antichrist as God, sit­teth in the Temple of God.

Thus hath the Pope exalted himselfe. Give me leave to exalt him one step higher: and in the words of a Papist: Qui desiderat Primatum interris, inveniet confusionem in coelis: that is, He that will reigne as Christ on earth, shall never reigne with Christ in heaven. This is the period of the Popes primacy: and this is the censure of Stella upon Luke 9. 48.

Can, notwithstanding all these premises, any protest with Cupers, that he is mancipium Romanae Ecclesiae? that he is a professed Slave of the Church of Rome? inthralling himselfe [Page 256] by a servile inflexible obedience, in any case, and against any person? where a spirituall So­veraignty, Tyranny, doth command man, and countermand God: imposing injunctions uncon­troulable, exacting subjection unutterable, or inflicting correction unsufferable: ruling in the Church of Christ, as Christ: urging his owne Lawes with more severity than Christs Lawes? I hope: I know. No servant of Christ will bee, can be, such a slave to Antichrist.

This truth have I delivered plainly, painful­ly, impartially: even in the sight of a great God, and of an innocent conscience. I have done my duty: I have delivered it. For your duty: to beleeve it. I must leave that to him, who is the Author and finisher of your faith.

Now the God of all truth, give you all his holy Spirit: that you may fulfill all his holy will.


2 THESS. 2. 3, & 4. Shewing himselfe that he is God.’

Antichrist shall not call himselfe the true God. The Pope doth shew himselfe to be God. The Pope doth shew himselfe to be God plainly.

THis fourth verse containeth three properties of Antichrist: First, He exalteth himselfe a­bove all that is called God, or that is worshipped. Secondly, He as God sitteth in the Temple of God. Thirdly, He sheweth himselfe that he is God. I may call them the three degrees of Anti­christs pride: amongst the which, this third is the superlative. By the first he doth tyrannize over the estates of men: by the second, over the consciences of men: and by the third, hee doth usurpe to be the God of men. Before, he ruled, and appeared as God, in one particular: here, he insinuateth himselfe to be God, in many [Page 258] particulars. Or to follow Bellarmines phrase:Bell. de Pont. Rom. lib. 3. c. 14 There he tooke upon him authoritatem Dei; the authority of God: here, nomen Dei; the name of God. The Text saith, He sheweth himselfe that he is God.

In the matter (that Antichrist shall vaunt himselfe to be God) Papists and Protestants all consent▪ they dissent in the manner. We say he shall attempt this secretly and cunningly, by his insolent God-like actions. They say he shall doe it ( [...],) plainly and openly: Professing himselfe to be the true and onely God. Se jactabit Lessius de Anti­christo demon. 7. verum Deum: He shall vaunt himselfe to be the true God, saith Lessius. And Bellarmine as acute­ly, more falsely: Antichristus se, non solùm De­um Bell. de pont. Rom. lib 3. c. 14 sed etiam solum se Deum esse dicet: that is, He shall not onely say, he is God: but moreover he shall say that he is the onely God.

Contrary to the properties, practice, and person of Antichr [...]st: and therein contradicting him­selfe also. Bellarmine himselfe doth teach, that Antichrist shall pretend himselfe to bee the Messias: but there must be some diffe­rence betwixt the Messias, that is, God which is sent; and God which doth send him. Therefore this may passe for one of their incredible fic­tions: That Antichrist shall call himselfe the true and onely God. Moreover, it is contrary to the property of Antichrist, who is confessed by the Papists to bee an Hypocrite: but to say plainly, that he is the onely God, is not hypocri­sie, but blasphemy.

Secondly, his practice shall be to seduce: the Iewes, say they: the Christians, say wee: in­deed all, say all. But who would be seduced by such an open Atheist? And therefore Less [...]us our Lass. de Antich. part. 2. dem. 2. adversary acknowledgeth that Antichrist the Adversary, in fighting against the Militant Church, shall use rationabili aliquo pretextu, & specie quadam rationis, ac pietatis, ut homines decipiat: that is, hee shall use some pretext of piety, and shew of reason to deceive. But to pro­claime himselfe to be the onely God, is both im­pious and unreasonable: and therefore his prac­tice shall be to no purpose: None will bee decei­ved by him.

Finally for his person, Antichrist is a man. Now Nero and Nebuchadnezzar, though they would be adored as gods, yet did they not deny other gods. Nor can we imagine that a man shall depose the God of Heaven, although hee would Exalt himselfe to be a God on earth.

Thus they. But we say, or rather the Text saith so to us, and by us: that Antichrist shall not say, but shew that he is God. For [...] signifieth the arrogance of workes, and not of words. And if any such blasphemous word shall fall from him, or from his flatterers: they will have a pretext for that blasphemy. Alex­ander Iustin. hist. lib. 11 would bee called a God: but how? Not of himselfe; but under the pretence of be­ing the Sonne of Iupiter Ammon. So Antichrist if he shall call himselfe God, he will sweeten this blasphemy with some hypocrisie. As that he is [Page 260] not so simply: but as he is the Sonne of God, asBell. Apolog. p. [...]60. Less de Antich. part. 1. dem. 7. he is the Servant of God, as he is the Vicar of God, or as he is the Vicegerent of God, &c. In a word, in plaine words, Antichrist will never say, that he is God.

Thus I frame my argument:

Whosoever doth shew himselfe that he is God, hath this property of Antichrist: or rather is the very Antichrist.

But the Pope doth shew himselfe that he is God:

Therefore, the Pope hath this property of An­tichrist: or rather, is the very Antichrist.

The Major is apparent from the opening of the phrase: indeed it is the [...], the very syllables of my Text. The Minor I must make good by this insuing Sermon. Which I will make to appeare by foure particulars. The Pope doth shew himself that he is God: either hy­pocritically, by way of insinuation: or openly, by plaine profession. He doth insinuate it by what he doeth, or by what he doth permit: he doth professe it both by assuming the very name of God, and the very worship of God. Now, when I have made it plaine, that the Pope doth shew himselfe that he is God, both cunningly and plain­ly: both by his actions and permissions: both by arrogating the Name of God, and the worship due to God: I thinke this will bee no injuri­ous conclusion. Therefore, The Pope is the Antichrist.

By that which he hath done, the Pope hath shewed enough that he is god. I will borrow of [Page 261] Baronius my preface to this point. Baronius Baronius an. 364 to shew the pride of Donatus, citeth this saying out of Optatus: Cum super Imperatorem non sit, nisi solus Deus, qui fecit Imperatorem: dum Do­natus super Imperatorem se extollit, jam quasi ho­minum me [...]as excesserat, ut se ut Deum, non ut hominem aestimaret. Mutato nomine: changing the Africane name, into a Latine, thus I Eng­lish it: Since none is above the Emperour, but God: because the Pope doth extoll himselfe above the Emperour, (as I have plentifully provedSermon 8. before) therefore, as if he had exceeded the bounds of man, he seemeth to esteeme himselfe as God, not as man: To proceed: It was the suspition of Fredericke the second, that the Pope did affe­ctare Aventin 7. Divinitatem, that the Pope did seeke to be esteemed a god. That suspition is now made evident by the Popes owne actions: things pro­per unto God.

First, the Pope doth dispence against the Concil. Trid. Sess. 24. Ca [...]. 8. Scriptures: permitting and admitting Mari­ages pronounced by Gods Law unlawfull and in­cestuous, Levit. 18. But he who doth controll the word of God, by that act, doth shew that hee is God. Againe, hee doth command Christi­ans credere, to beleeve: but to command Faith, Con [...]. Trid. Sess. 3. sub Iul. 3. Item prooemio ad Sess. [...]. sub Pi [...] 4. is the worke of God, not of Man. Thirdly, if Tertullians judgement, and argument be good against the Senate of Rome, wee may use it a­gainst the Pope of Rome: Qui facit Does, Di­vos (que), Deo major est: that is, Hee that maketh gods or Saints, is greater than the gods, or the [Page 262] Saints. But the Pope doth make Saints, saith Bellarmine. Yea, the Pope hath such heavenlyBell. de Sanct. Beat. cap. 8. Troilus Malvi­tius de Sanct. Canoniz dub. 3. power (saith Malvitius) Vt quem velit defun­ctum, canonizare possit: etiam invit is Episcopis, & Cardinalibus omnibus: that he can canonize whom he l [...]st, although all the Bishops and Car­dinalls through the world should withstand him. The Pope thus doth make Saints, Divos: therefore he is greater than divus, than a Saint: Deus, even God. He doth shew that he is God, by that action. Fourthly, the Pope hath Ius creandi Apostolos, (as Baronius is quoted, and confuted by Casaubonus) the Pope hath power to create Casaub. Exerc. 14. Sect. 14. Apostles: which I conceive to be Christs [...], our Saviours soveraignty. And therefore whosoever doth usurpe it, doth shew himselfe to be more than a man by that action. Fiftly, the Pope doth terme his Decrees his Oracles: but Oracula, according to Tully his derivati­on, are so termed, Quasi inest his Deorum ora­tio, because they are the Dictates of God. And thus againe doth he shew that he is God: for his speech doth bewray him. And finally, the Pope doth arrogate to himselfe that prerogative of not erring at all: whereby he doth advance M. Mountagues Appeale part. 2. pag. 3. himselfe into his Makers seat. Not altogether within the Spheare of humane activity. Non vox hominem sonat, O Dea certè: It is the voice of God, and not of man, Acts 12. 22. He sheweth that he is God by this action also.

But these are Papall actions, by way of pro­position, what they can doe: I will adde others, [Page 263] by way of imposition, what they command, that others should doe: viz. prostrations and adora­tions, which St. Peter would not permit, Acts 10. 25. nor the Angell, Revel. 9. 10. Hethere­fore who doth permit them, the world must conceive him, at least conceit him to be grea­ter than Peter, greater than an Angell: and therefore by S. Pauls owne argument, Heb. 1. 4, 5. God himselfe: a petty god, at the least. Now the Pope doth not only permit prostrati­on, but doth injoyn that which is more & grea­ter: that all, Princes, and people shall kisse his foot. In the yeare 828, Pope Valentine madePless. Myst. Progress. 28. all the Senate of Rome come kisse his foot. He was the first who imposed that impious inso­lence, saith Honourable Plessie, the Honour of Learning. About the yeare 1227, Gregory 9Pless. progres. 51. persecuted the Emperour Fredericke with im­placable hatred, because he did onely kisse his knee, when he should have kissed his foot. And not long since there was a Pamphlet put inWhitaker in Bel. Contr. 4. quaest. 5. Aug. de Ancon. quaest. 9. art. 4. Antonin. part. 3. tit. 22. cap. 5. sect. 4. Bellarm. Apol. pag. 160. print by Ioseph Steven, De adoratione pedum Pontificis, concerning the adoration of the Popes feet, dedicated to Pope Gregory 13. His per­sonall adoration is acknowledged and avouch­ed, though somewhat excused by Bellarmine. But let mee put this Quaere into their eares, which our most learned Bishop hath put into my mouth. Eccuinam mortalium adhibetur jam Andrewes ad Apol. cap. 12. adorandi vox, praeterquam Pontifici soli? Is this word of adoration now applyed to any mortall man, but to the Pope alone? Therefore this [Page 264] word alone, doth exalt him above all men. And thus from his owne actions, doe I conclude my first argument: The Pope doth shew himselfe that hee is God: therefore, The Pope is An­tichrist.

Yet for a man to vaunt his owne greatnesse, this were great insolence, indeed impudence al­so. It seemeth therefore expedient that some Brokers should breach such a businesse.

Alexander when he attempted to purchaseIust hist. lib. 1 [...]. and publish his Deity, he did not proclaime it himselfe, that he was a God; but suborned the Priests of Ammon to preach it to the world, that in sooth Alexander was the son of Iupiter. Psapho was that witty fellow, who tamed hisMalvenda lib. 7. cap. 11. Pies, and having taught them their lesson, he turned them abroad, and then in every cor­ner they cryed nothing but Psapho est Deus, that is, Psapho is a God. So the Pope doth sub­orne his Priests, and hath taught his Parasites to chatter this lesson through the world, Papa est Deus, that is, the Pope is a God, say they: or the Pope is Antichrist, say we.

Marcellus Archbishop of Corcira in his bookSacrar. Cerem. lib. 2. Sect. 1. cap. 4. of holy Ceremonies, gave the Pope a substantiall title, when he termed him Sanctissimus Domi­nus noster, Our most holy Lord: a Christian could not have given a much greater epithete to Christ himselfe. A Trent Bishop supposedMol [...]. Consil. de Trid. Concil. nu. 22. this to be somewhat superlative; and there­fore he advised the Fathers of the Synod, be­cause that in the Scripture God is called [Page 265] sanctus, holy, therefore it might suffice to call the Pope also, sanctus, holy, and not terme him sanctissimus, most holy, lest they should invest him with an attribute beyond God himselfe. But this Bishop was summoned from Trent to Rome, where he was better informed what be­came him to talke concerning the Popes Holi­nesse. Others therefore, that they might not incurre the like displeasure, would be sure to give him attributes enough. The Florentine Antonin. Hist. to. 3. Embassadors told Pope Pius the second, that their City sanctitatem illius Hyperdulia adorat, did adore his Holinesse with Hyperdulie, which is a kind of worship they ascribe onely to the Virgin Mary. This is somewhat contiguous to a Deity. Proportionably therefore, his pa­rasites preach, the Pope non esse purum homi­nem, Gloss in Prooem. Clem. in verbo Papa. Moscon. de Po­test. Milit Ec­clesiae lib. 1. part. 1. c. 4, not to be a meere man. In reverence wher­of it is defined to bee a prophane sacriledge, if any should date to put on Papae indumenta, the Popes Apparell.

To ascend a little higher, let us heare a lit­tle touch of Scripture proper to our God, Christ: which they apply to their God, the Pope. The Sicilian Embassadors, asking pardon of Pope Martine 4, delivered their Embas­sage, in no other termes, but three times say­ing that of Saint Iohn 1, 29. Agnus Dei, qui tol­lis peccatum mundi miserere nobis: O thou Lambe of God, which takest away the sinnes of the world, have mercy upon us. It is a decree of a Councill held at Rome under Gregory 7, Anno 1057. [Page 266] That there is but one name in the world, to wit, of the Pope, and that this name, ought onely to bee named in the Churches. Is not this to appro­priate to him, our Saviours Prerogative men­tioned, Act. 4. 12. That of Saint Iohn 3. 31. concerning Christ, Qui de coelo ve [...]it, super om­nes Capistranus de Pa [...]ae E [...]les [...] a [...]o [...]a [...]e [...]ol. 13O. Francis White pag. 126. est, He that commeth from above, is above all: may be understood of the Pope saith Ca­pistranus. A Sicilian Bishop supplicated to Ni­cholas the third, in the words of Bartimaeus, Marke 10. 47. Miserere mei sili David, O sonne of David have mercy upon me. Paulus the fourthPaulus 4 Bulla [...]d Du [...]em Florent. doth usurpe that royall title of Christ in the Rev. 19. 16. stiling himselfe Regem Regum, the King of Kings. Iansenius doth expound thatIansen. Har [...]. cap. 66. Matth. 18. 16. Vpon this rocke will I build my Church, of the person of Peter, and of the Pope his successour. Augustine de Ancona attributethAug. de Anco. epist. Dedicat. ad Iohn 22. that of Saint Paul to the Philippians 2. 10. To him shall bow the knees of every thing in heaven, and earth, and under the earth; unto Pope Iohn 22. Bellarmine doth apply that Prophecy ofBell. de Pont. Rom▪ Praefat. Isaiah, 28. 16. I lay in Sion a stone for a founda­tion, to the Pope. And elsewhere he doth applyBell. de Chr. lib. 1. cap. 4. the same words to Christ, proving thereby that Christ is true God. By the same argument therefore, doth hee imply that his Pope, is his God. Of which blasphemy, he seemeth not toBell. de Concil. Auth. li. 2. c. 17. be very nice, avouching That all the Names in the Scriptures, which are attributed unto Christ, may be ascribed to the Pope also. As also Sixtus Sixtus Senensis in praef. Biblioth. Sanctae. Senensis doth involve the application of many [Page 267] texts (peculiar unto Christ,) to the Pope, speak­ing to Pius the fift, as unto God, saith: That he hath adopted him for his sonne, and regenerated him by his spirit. But of all other that golden B [...] ▪ tom. 11. anno 1073. num. 16. Legend of Baronius may not be passed by: that Pope Hildebrand being a Carpenters sonne, and playing where his father wrought, did by chance frame letters which expressed the eight verse of the 72 Psalme, His dominion shall be from the one Sea, to the other. And to helpeSacr [...] l [...]b. 1. sect. 7. cap. 6. fol. 35. them out, the Pope himselfe Sixtus the fourth doth arrogate that of Christ, in Matth. 28. 18. Data est mihi omnis potestas in coelo, & in terrâ: all power is given to me in heaven, and in earth.

Moreover, this Seraphicall Divinity of the Papall Deity, is not consined to the Latine one­ly: but they have English Doctors who preach these Italian instructions. What good doe wee say, we receive from God principally, yea onely? a threefold: The Church in which we live, the faith by which we live, and the Commandements according to which we live. All these we as­scribe unto God: all these they ascribe unto the Pope. First the Church is the visible congre­gation George Dowly in his Instructi­on, cap. 3. of all true Christians and Catholikes, which are scattered over the world, whose head next un­der God, is the Pope. Secondly, Faith is a gift of Greg. de Valent. in Thom. t. 3. p. 24. God in our soules, with the which, we doe firmely and Catholikely beleeve, all that God hath revea­led unto us, according as it is taught us, by our holy Mother the Church. By the Church we under­stand,Suarez Apolog. lib. 4. cap. 6. whom they understand, è Cathedra: in­deed [Page 268] the Pope. Thirdly, the worke of a Chri­stian,Trent. Hist. lib. 4. pag. 321. George Dow [...]ey his Instruct. cap. 12. is to know well the Commandements of God, and those of our mother the Church. Ob­serve, the Commandements of God, and the com­mandements of the Church, that is, of the Pope, are members of the same division: therefore equally enjoyned. To which purpose, as hee hath made the whole seventh Chapter to teach the ten Commandements of God: so hee spendeth the eight Chapter in teaching the five Commandements of the Church, to wit, to heare Masse on sundayes and holydayes, to con­fesse once a yeare, to communicate at Easter, to Fast when the Church commandeth, and to pay Tithes. To which he addeth the sixt, not to ce­lebrate mariages prohibited by the Church. So then: without the Pope, no Church, no Faith, and the Commandements of the Pope ranked with the Commandements of God. The Church, Faith, and Cōmandements, all these we ascribe unto our God; all these they ascribe unto their Pope. The Pope permitteth this doctrine: therefore from his owne permission, I hope I may bee permitted to pronounce my conclu­sion; The Pope doth shew himselfe to bee God. Therefore, The Pope is the Antichrist.

Notwithstanding these plaine evidences,Bell. de Pontif. Rom. lib. 3▪ c. 14. Lessi. de▪ [...]nti [...] Dem. 7. evictions: this truth is not acknowledged; be­cause say they, Antichrist will say plainly, that he is God. This sense is not suteable to the text: which saith He shall shew, not say that he is God. Howsoever, I will follow them into [Page 269] this ( [...]) starting hole also, and beat them with their owne weapons, I say therefore, The Pope doth plainly professe himselfe Dr Beard de Antichristo. to be god. Of late, Pope Paulus Quintus, and the Cardinall his cousin, caused every peece of their plate to be marked with this inscription Burghesianae eternitati dicatū, that is, this is con­secrated to the Eternity of the Burghesian family. What more godlike Title could they ingraveThom. Stapleton in Prin [...]ip. Fid. praefat. on a Challice? Our English Stapleton uttereth this blasphemy somewhat more plainly, styling Pope Gregory 13, Optimum, Maximum, & su­premum Numen in terris, that is, their most great, most gracious, and most soveraigne god on earth. Less [...]s de An­tichristo. Dem. 7. Lessius doth acknowledge that the Pope is cal­led by the Papists Deus interris, Their god on earth: but, saith he, metaphorice, it is by a figure: poore fig-leaves, to cover their apparent blas­phemies. Others are downe-right, and minceGratian Dist. [...]6 cap. 7. Satis Evidenter. not the matter. Pope Nicholas boasteth, Pon­tificem à Constantino Deum appellatum: that the Emperour did call the Pope a God: and from thence inferreth Deum non posse ab hominibus judicar:, that no men may judge the Pope, be­cause he is a God. Whence also Augustine Aug. Steuchus de Donatione Constant. [...] 1547. pag 141. Steuchus, doth tell us, praeclaro illo edicto eum adoravit ut Deum; that by that egregious edict, Constantine did adore the Pope as God: Et divi­nos honores ei, quoad ejus potuit, contulit▪ and that to utmost of his ability, hee tendered to him divine honours. Againe, one Pope in theConcil▪ Later▪ s [...]ss. 4 s [...]b [...] ▪ 2. Laterane Councill, is saluted by the Name of God.

In the yeare 1514, in the last Laterane Concil. Later. Sess. 9. Moulins Ac­com. pag 89. Councill, one of the Popes Secretaries called Leo 10, his divine Ma [...]esty. Vpon the gates of Tolentum in Italy, is this inscription, To Paul the third, the most high and mighty God on earth. A booke also was printed with this inscripti­on;Tort. Torti pag. 361. PaV Lo V [...] VICc Deo, that is, To Paul the fift, a Demi god: where I may not silence, the remarkeable observation, of our most learned Bishop: that the letters in this title, doe exactly even the Number of the name of Antichrist, re­corded in the 13, of Revel. and the last verse, 666. Vpon one of the gates of Rome was [...]unius in R [...]v. 17. 13. written to Pope Sixtus Quartus, Et merito in terris, crederis esse Deus, that is, we doe certain­ly beleeve, that Thou art our God, on earth. Bell. de Pontif. R [...] lib. 2. c. 16. Decim. tertius. Yea Bellarmine himselfe, (who doth use to blanch the blasphemies, and broad assertions of the Romish synagogue) saith of the Pope, Thou art the great Priest—in power Peter, and in vnction Christ. Here the very Name of Christ, is given by Bernard to Eugenius, accepted by the Pope, & allowed by Bellar. But the most grosseExtrav Ioh 22. c. Cum int [...]r. blasphemy of all, is that popish glosse of their Canon Law, Credere Dominum Deum nostrum, Papam, conditorem hujus Decretalis, non po­tursse statuere, prout statuit, Haereticum censeatur: that is, it is hereticall for a man to beleeve, that our Lord God the Pope, had not power toEud [...]: contra Abba [...]um lib. 1. sect. 9. decree, as he did decree. I know how Iohannes Eudaemon, doth indeavour to blurre this evi­dence, saying that this word Deum God, was [Page 271] erratum Typographum, that it crept into the glosse, through the fault of the Printer, where­by he discovereth himselfe to bee a true Cre­tian. For it is cleared (by the Coryphaeus of all cōbatants against Antichrist) by the Bishop ofDr. Downam de Antichristo lib. 4 cap. 10. sect 4. Derie, whose answer is this; Pope Gregory the thirteenth, imployed & enioyned certaine of the Cardinalls to revise and correct the Glosse of the Canonists. When as, many editions thereof had this word Deum, God, and yet some had it not: they set forth a new Copy, and by the authority of Pope Gregory, they resto­red that word Deum, which before had beene wanting in some few of their editions. Nei­ther in the Censures of the Glosse, set out by the command of Pope Pius the fift: nor yet in the Index Expurgatorius, is the least men­tion made, of any mutation, or alteration of the word Deum, for which wee challenge thē. Let no Papist therefore be offended, if I con­clude from the Approbation of so many Popes; The Pope doth shew, nay say that he is God. I in­ferre, therefore, The Pope is The Antichrist. Fur­thermore, I will finish this section, with o­ther apt instances observed by my learned friend (Master Boswell Pastor of Saint Law­rence London) while he resided in Spaine. To which I will onely premise one odde disticke out of Zanchie concerning the Pope.

Angelicum nomen solvit pius ipse Michael
Nam tanquam Deus est, qui ante Michael erat.

Let others riddle these Aenigmaticall Hyperbo­licall verses; that here they stile him, Tanquam Deus, & Michael, is enough for my asser­tion, too much for his Holinesse. That transcen­dent inscription on their triumphall Arch, when Pope Alexander the sixt entred Rome, is worth my friends observation, and all mens admiration.

Caesare magna fuit, nunc Roma est maxima; Sextus
Bernardiro Corio Hist. de [...] part. 3. pag. 452.
Regnat Alexander, Ille vir, Iste Deus.
Our Rome was great: Great Caesar made it such,
By Alexander now, its greater much:
Why great by him? great reason give I can,
The Pope was God: Th' Emperour but a Man.

That day was borne a twinne in prose to this meeter. This was another inscription to the same Pope, Alexandro invictissimo, Alexandro pientissimo, Alexandro magnificentissimo, Alex­andro in omnibus maximo, Honor & gloria: that is, to Alexander the most invincible, to Alex­ander the most holy, to Alexander the most magnificent, to Alexander in all things the grea­test of all, be Honor and Glory. What greater inscription could be consecrated to the grea­test God? [...]: such singular inscriptions, they suffer not to bee single: a third speaketh the same language.

Viventibus aeternitatem laetam danti, aeternam gloriam.

[Page 273]

To him who giveth immortality, hee given im­mortall glory.

Againe:Vide Sarium.

Libertas pia, Iustitia, & Pax aurea, Opes quae Sunt tib. Roma, novus fert Deus iste tibi.

Thy Freedome, Iustice, Wealth & Peace, O Rome,
From thy new God, the Pope alone they come.

Finally, to this Pope, I will give a Vale, in that Salve, whereto the Papists were so so­lemnly invited.

Accumulant fora, laetitiam testantia flammas,
Scit venisse suum, Patria grata Deum.
In every street, huge Bonfires great,
The Pope approaching to them:
For Rome knoweth well, this day to dwell
Their God is come amongst them.

A fourth:

Prisca novis cedant, rerum nunc aureus ordo est,
Invictoque Iovi est, Gloria, primus Honor.
The former times fall short of ours,
In golden age we live:
Vnto our God, Iehovah great
We Praise and Honor give.

And that this may not seeme to bee a personall, but a successive usurpation upon God, we shall see the same godlike attributes ascribed [Page 274] unto Pope Gregory the thirteenth. And first that he is [...], and therefore [...]. both God and Man, and therefore The man of sinne. This is the Iesuites Elogie, indeed Elegie.

Laurea Christiadum, qu [...]m totus praedicat orbis,
Laetitia publica Iesuitarum Ma­triti, Mart 1 [...]. 1579.
Demi Deumque virū, S [...]virumque Deum.
Cum t [...]a [...]a, est▪ [...]s, nullis [...] or is
Cumque regas terram, syd [...]r [...]umque Polum.
O Crown of Christians, whō the world doth preach
[...]o be both God and Man: Pope-Christ; because
Thy boundlesse power above the earth doth reach,
For Heaven it selfe obeyes thy Papall Lawes.

The like to the same.

Sancte Pater, Cus [...]os Ovium, qui Tibridis arces
Vnus, & imperijs fraenas calestibus orbem:
Qui verbo obstructi port as recludis Olimpi,
Et sontes damnas tenebris, & carcere caeco.
Cum tua se extguo non claud [...] fine potest [...]s
Pro (que) Deo, sis pene Deus, pro Numine Numen, &c.
Holy Father, great Shepheard of the sheepe,
Thou who alone, the Romane Lordly State
And the whole world besides doest guide and keepe,
And with thy heavenly reines doest moderate:
O thou who with thy word, Heaven gates dost ope,
And by thy word damn'd soules sendst down to hell,
Since such thy power is: most blessed Pope
Thou art almost a God, in thee doth dwell
A Godlike De [...]ie.

To peece up that blasphemy, they put to this parcell of prophannesse:

Has tu divitias, Pater O mortalibus aegri [...]
Cum lubet indulges, vitaeque piacula donans
Communes esse tuis.
These rich indulgences, O Father thou dost give
For every grievous sin, wherein poore men do live.

Which is conferred by him, whom they stile

Christiadum Princeps, fidei custodia nostrae,
Cujus adimperium rerum se machina curvat,
Et quo ver a fides veluti se cardine vertit.
The Prince of Christian men,
The prop of Christian Faith:
Commander of our life
And ground of true beliefe.

And if we thinke, that the Pope doth not by all this arrogate to h [...]mselfe, and derogate from Christ sufficiently, even as sufficiently, as may become The Antichrist; Let Pannonius absolvePannonius in Apocalyps. cap. 12. se [...] 5. punet. 4. this conclu [...]ion, in his [...]alse latine▪ Who avou­cheth the Pope to be Sum [...]us Princeps universae terrae, the supr [...]me Prince of the whole world, qui potest & terrae Princip [...]s sub [...]ugare, etiam Haereti­cos profligare, put downe Kings, and roote up Heretikes, to which purpose he hath gladium mater [...]le, habet sp [...]rituale, both the swords mate­riall and spirituall. And, All power both in heaven [Page 276] and earth, according to Matth. ult. Againe, the Pope is Dei charismatum Dispensator, the di­spencer of Gods grace: the Pope Virgam directio­nis, Pannonius in Apocal. cap. 16. sect. 2. Punct. 1. the Scepter of righteousnesse mentioned Psal. 45. [...]. In a word, the Pope is Parens salutis, the Father of their salvation saith Pannonius, and therefore, The sonne of Perdition.

Finally, as the Pope doth usurpe the Name, so doth he also the worship which is peculiar un­to God. First by their common gesture of knee­ling to the Pope, they make the Pope a god, and their Idoll: and their very kneeling is a token thereof. For (as profound Zanchy doth fullyZan b [...]in praec. [...]. cap. 17. informe us) although we English did kneele to our Queene of ever blessed memory, and doe and may kneele to our King her successour, without any superstition; because it is meerly Politicall, and after the manner of our nation: Yet for the Papists to kneele to the Pope, who they beleeve cannot erre; and in whom they are perswaded that there is a fulnesse of power to forgive sins, to give Heaven, and to doome to Hell, ascribing those properties of God to him, so farre they make him a God: and to such men even their kneeling is an Idolatrous Ado­ration.

Againe, the Pope doth too grosly shew him­selfe Moulins [...]. sect. 118. that he is God (especially to the ignorant) by those absurd images and pictures of the Tri­nity, frequent in the Romish Churches, and found printed in the Title pages of their Bi­bles, set forth by Sixtus Quintus, and Clemens 8 [Page 277] where they picture an old man, sitting in a Chaire, apparelled like the Pope, with a tripled Crowne, also with a Pigeon hanging at his beard and a Crucifixe in his armes. Whereby it is not impossible, that the ignorant people should either imbrace, or invert the errour of the Anthropomorphites, supposing either God to be the Pope, or the Pope to be God. Since by the Popes permission, they are both expressed by one Picture.

Moreover, certainly it is more than a playSacrar. Cerem. lib. 2. sect. 1. cap. 33. which they act in one of their Papall Pageants, in the Popes owne presence. In their solemne service upon Palme-sunday at Rome, three of the Queristers of the Popes Chappell apparell themselves one in white, bearing the per­son of the Evangelist, the second in red re­presenting a Iew, and the third in blacke, being in shew our blessed Saviour. Toward the end of the Antheame, he who acteth the part of the Evangelist, praecedit, sequitur Iudaeus, deinde Christus. They all in order, the Evangelist first, the Iew next, and Christ last, goe and kisse the Popes soot. That Christ (though personated) shold kisse the Popes foot! Surely, if any indiffe­rent person did see this shew, he would thinke that the Pope did shew himselfe that he was God.

It will not be impertinent, if to this play Sacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect 12. cap. 5. Item lib. 2 sect. 1. cap. 35. of their men, I annex what their Children act also: when the Pope in his Pontificalibus doth enter into any city, they provide a multitude of Children (in imitation of Matth. 21.) and if [Page 278] they can, Hebrew Children, to meet his Holinesse with their Acclamations, and Palmes in their hands. If they would adde what is also done in the text, and cry Hosanna, hee would doe more, than shew himselfe that he is God.

To shew yet more plainly, that the Pope doth plainly shew himselfe to be God▪ Suppose we ourBezain 2 Thes. 2. 4. selves to be present at the great solemnity of the popish Iubile, and that there wee saw a Man, whom they themselves terme (terrestrem Deum) an earthly god, hemmed in with a throng of his creatures; pompously caryed with a triple Di­ademe, in a golden Throne, on Noble mens shoul­ders: Then (in their owne phrase) breaking open the gates of Paradice, with a golden Hammer, and the Embassadors of most mightie Princes and Po­tentates, yea the Kings themselves, and the Em­peror if he be there, kneeling full low, and adoring him aloft, reapse alterum Deum, as if he were in­deed another very God: And withall, the thronging multitude round about him, expecting and praying for remission of sinnes, and eternall life, as a lar­gesse from his blessed Holines: What should we suppose our selves to see, if we did see such a sight? Certainly an ordinary man, who yet never wore the spectacles of Pope-patronizing prejudice, would thinke that he saw an insolent Man, in an incomparably glorious pompe, shewing himselfe that he is God.

But that they themselves may seeme to take all blanching qualifications, from those Protestants who will not have the Pope to bee [Page 279] Antichrist, the Papists make good the very Letter of my text. After the Popes election, they Sacr. Cer. lib. 1. fol. 17. cause him to sit upon the alter, to whow all the Car­dinalls, with all reverence, in their order, exhibite their obeysance, kissing first his foot, next his hand, and then his Cheeke. And a little after this, ( [...]:) that which is well done, is twice done) hee descendeth unto Saint Peters Church, where againe the Cardinalls seat him upon the Altar with his Miter, and the chiefe Cardinall pronounceth on his knees, Te Deum, We praise thee O God, we acknowledge thee to be the Lord. Those supporters of that fiction, of the Trienniall singular Antichrist: what can they feine that hee shall doe, more than this man hath done already? Thus gloriously, and gros­ly shewing himselfe that he is God.

This may suffice, but I will adde a surplus­age, that I may adde a sufficient, yea a super­fluous satisfaction, to any who will bee satis­fied, I say, this Prophecy, that Antichrist doth sit in the Temple of God, as God, shewing himselfe that he is God, is literally fulfilled in the Pope. If the God of Heaven, should be on earth, vi­sible and incarnated, in the shape of a man; what solemne worship should we imagine, to tender unto him? The Place! should it not bee in a Church? The Church! should it not bee the chiefe of the world? The Part! should it not be the highest and holyest part thereof? Our gesture: should it not bee an humble kneeling before him? Our affection to him: could it [Page 280] be more, than humbly to desire to kisse the feet of that most Holy Body? Nay to content our selves, as unworthy of that Honour? And our Speech! Can it be more, than to make an acclamation of praising and acknowledging God the Lord in his holy presence.

All these are literally performed to the person of the Pope. (I deny not, but learning may give, and charity may receive some quali­fications of those actions, otherwise it were the boldest blasphemy, & blasphemousest Idolatry, that ever man broached, or God spared from a thunder clappe: yet all these are literally performed to the Pope) Sacrarium Ceremoni­arum lib. 1. fol. 17. a booke which no un­derstanding papist, can, will, or dare denie. The Pope immediately after his Election, is caryed into Saint Peters Church (which I suppose, they esteeme the Prime Church of the world) They set him (as before in his Chappell) upon the Altar. That ever a man should be set upon the Altar of God, it is incre­dible, did not they themselves relate it: There a solemne Adoration is performed, with bended knees, the Cardinalls kisse his feet: the People being not admitted unto it.

Finally, the chiefest Prelate upon his knees, saith that Psalme, Te Deum; Wee praise thee O God, we acknowledge thee to be the Lord. And thus hath the Pope showne himselfe to be God: and thus have I showne the Pope, to bee the man of sinne, The Antichrist.

Thus have I delivered you Antichrists de­scription: Would God it were an inscription: would God I could inscribe it, write it in all your hearts, as it were in Tables of Brasse, with a Penne of Steele, that your memories might be handmaids to your judgements: that you might judiciously and continually examine the truth of these particulars.

For my conscience telleth me, that I have taught these points without malice, I need not repent it: and without idle ignorance, I need not recant it. And before I ever retract any point, especially the whole parallell, I must first be convicted by better arguments than yet I could ever find in Bellarmine, Suarez, Lessius, Steuartius, Eudaemon, Malvenda, Sanders, Mo­narchomachia, or the whole Colledge of Rhemes. Although I thinke they have not ma­ny who can say more than these have done in this controversie: I have made it plaine, and (with Gods assistance in my succeeding Ser­mons) I will make it plaine, yet more fully, that the Pope is the head, and the Papists the members of that wretched body, Antichrist.

Concerning the Papists, I say of them, as S. Paul did of the Iewes: My desire is that all Israel may be saved, that all Christendome may be reformed. Especially, for our owne Countrimen, it is the prayer of my soule, that God would open their eyes, that they may see where they are, in Babylon [...]: and whom they serve, even the ve­ry Antichrist. But if they be blinded, by plea­sure, [Page 282] by profit, by affected ignorance, or which is worst, by partiall affection: we must leave them to God. Howbeit, if they will not turne to us, let vs pray, that wee may be preserved from them. Let us pray continually, That God will preserve from them, our persons, our children, our families, our friends, our Church, our Common wealth, our King, and all his Kingdomes.

Now, from the Pope and Antichrist: and from all popish and antichristian invasions, rebellions, and perswasions:
The Lord preserve us all:
Even all the dayes of our lives.

Amen, Amen.


2 THESS. 2. 5, 6, 7, 8. Remember you not, that when I was yet with you I told you these things?’

What hindred the revelation of Antichrist. The Romane Empire not to be abolished. It is remo­ved. Of Travellers, and travelling to Rome.

THis point of Antichrist being deli­vered from the third verse, unto the thirteenth: therein I propo­sed five particulars to bee passed through. Antichrist described, re­vealed, destroyed, confirmed, and received. The description I have dispatched, with the foure branches thereof. I have shewed his Time, Titles, Place, and Properties. I proceed to the Revelation of Antichrist, set downe in these foure following verses▪ Which administer two things considerable: a digression in the fift verse, and a progression in the remnant of this Text. The digression is a putting them in [Page 284] minde of so [...]e private doctrine, wherein hee had secretly instructed them: Remember yee not, that when I was yet with you I told you these things. In the progression there are three points, How, When, and What.

First, How Antichrists revelation was hindred: And now you know what with-holdeth, in the sixt verse; and he who letteth, in the seventh.

Secondly, When Antichrist shall be revealed: He shall be revealed in his time, when that which with-holdeth, and he who letteth, shall be taken out of the way, in the sixt and seventh verses.

Thirdly, What is the thing which then hin­dred, after to be revealed? A strange worke of Antichrist, called by as strange a name, [...], The mystery of iniquity, in the se­venth verse; and the name of the Worker is very sutable, in the eight verse, [...]That wicked one. My discourse shall be answerable to this division: I will also deliver the same two points, a digression, and a progression. First, That the point of Antichrist is necessary to bee knowne in our time. Next, How the person of Antichrist was hindred to be knowne in S. Pauls time.

Having accomplished the halfe of this trea­tise: I seeme to be like a Barke in the middest of our English sea, betwixt Dover and Calais: When I looke backward, I see a large Sea which I have sailed through: and yet I see as much (which also must be cut through) lying before me. Now that God, who did guide his [Page 285] Israell through the red sea, notwithstanding the persecution and prosequution of the Aegyp­tians: he bring my labour and your understan­ding to the end of this Prophesie, maugre the Chariots and Horsemen of those Babylonians, who pursue us with the spirit of contra­diction.

The first point is, that the Point of Anti­christ is necessary to be knowne in our time. Herod Iuells Apolog. pag. 134. caused all the Records of the Genealogies to be bur­ned; lest the Israelites should thereby know that he was an Edomite. So the Pope, and such as are popish in faction or affection, would inhi­bite the people such Scriptures as speake of Anti­christ; fearing (the truth) that those Records would discover the Pope to be Antichrist, and the Papists Antichristian. But they must first spunge out this verse, before this inhibition wil be esteemed justificable. Sermons are worth the hearing, which have a repetition; and Books the reading, which have a second ed [...]tion. Con­cerning this point, in this verse, S. Paul doth more. First, he doth preach it in private: Se­condly, he doth write it for the publike: and thirdly, he doth urge the remembrance thereof. Ter si pultanti, he doth mention it three times, as a motive to make us Search into it at all times. Et aes illi triplex circapectus, his heart is girded with a threefold gable of untamed obsti­natenesse, who will be negligent where S. Paul doth urge us to be diligent: [...], Remember ye not (saith my Text) that when I was yet with [Page 286] you, I told you these things?

But to frame my conclusions from their owne conce [...]sions. Sanders rendreth five cau­sesSanders de An­tichrist [...]dem. 2. of Antichrist: the Efficient, a just God, that thereby he might ma [...]e knowne the malice of Satan, the power of Christ, and the patience of the Church. The next, or subordinate efficient, the subtle malitious devill, who maketh Anti­christ his instrument to seduce miserable men. The Materiall is Antichrist himselfe, a meere man. The Forme is the powerfull working imp [...]e­tie of Satan. And the End of Antichrists com­ming, is that they may bee punished who will not rece [...]ve the truth.

All which causes are contained in this chap­ter. The Efficient in the eleventh verse, God shall send them strong delusion. The Subo [...]dinate in the ninth, Hee commeth after the work [...]ng of Satan. The Matter in the third verse, hee is termed The man of sinne. The Forme in the seventh, Antichr [...]stian [...]sme is called the Mystery of iniquity. And the End is set downe in the end of the Prophesie, in the twelfth verse, [...], Antichrist shall come, that they all might be damned, which beleeve not the truth. As ther­fore we love God, or hate the Devill: as we hope for salvat [...]on, or feare our damnation: so are we bound to search this necessary point, this point of Antichrist.

Finally, let a Dutch Papist concurre in this conclu [...]on with this English Papist: Multa Lessius de Anti­ch [...]isto praesat. apud Damelem, Paulum, & in Apocalypsi Iohan­nis [Page 287] de Antichristo habeantur, & valde sit necessa­ria, eorum notitia, Ecclesiae—ut sideles possint tempestive moneri, ne ab illo circumveniantur: That is, there are many things written by Daniel, Paul, and in the Revelation concerning Antichrist, the knowledge whereof is very ne­cessary for the Church—whereby the faith­full may in time be admonished, lest they should be intrapped by that sonne of perdition. Wee therefore are lesse beholden to that learned Protestant whosoever, which shall inhibite any faithfull man, members of the Church, from labouring to know Antichrist, than wee are to the popish Iesuite Lessius, who acknowled­geth that knowledge to bee very necessarie for them.

But it may bee objected; This point is diffi­cult; and therefore it may not be searched into. And it may be answered, This point is difficult; and therefore excellent: and therefore it must be searched into.

Moreover, the Holy Ghost did deliver this excellent matter, in a difficult manner, for three reasons: for those who follow Christ; for those who follow Antichrist; and for those who fol­low neither, Christ nor Antichrist.

First, for those who did follow neither: lest the Heathen and Romanes should have beene exasperated, if they had beene informed that a Viper should have proceeded out of the Church, to devoure the Dragon of their Empire. Occumenius in 2 Thess. 2. 5. [...] [Page 288] [...], saith Occumenius. That is, S. Paul uttered this prophesie thus obscurely, that he might not provoke the Romans unto unnecessary enmity. And it is the opinion of many of the learned, that many of those heavy persecutions were commenced and continued by the Romanes against the Chri­stians, because from this prophesie they had apprehended an inkling that the Church of Rome should teeme him, that should subvert the Empire of Rome.

The same obscurity is used, because of those which follow or favour Antichrist, that (by an [...], a just recompence of reward) God might harden them judicially, who had hardned themselves habitually. This mystery of Antichrist is spoken to them in Parables, that seeing they may see, and not perceive: and hearing they may heare and not understand, Mark 4. 11, 12.

And finally, this prophesie is penned in these darke and difficult termes, for their sakes who doe truly follow Christ: that true Christians might be hereby excited unto in­dustry and invocation: to reade constantly, that they may know; and to pray continually, that they may eschew that Man of sinne, and Sonne of perdition.

Let my heart therefore exhort you, in the words of our Saviour, Iohn 5. 39. Search the Scriptures: for certainly these doe testifie of Christ; yea and of Antichrist also. Doe that noble act of those noble Bereans, Acts 17. 11. [Page 289] Search the Scriptures daily, whether these things be so. I desire not to obtrude any thing upon facility, or credulity: but ponder every point. I distrust not my ability to satisfie the hearer, or to justifie the speaker, in any reasonable manner, or measure. In the phrase of the A­postle, 1 Thess. 5. 21. I dare appeale to the judg­ment of any indifferent auditours: Prove all things: Hold fast that which is best. Heare me: Reade others: Examine all. I say confidently, Prove all things: and God grant you may hold fast that which is best.

The digression being dispatched in the first verse: I proceed to the progression in the next: to wit, How the person of Antichrist was hindred to be knowne in S. Pauls time. A point worthy to be commended to our consideration, for on this ground doth Bellarmine build his se­condBell. de P. R. lib. 3. c. 3. Demonstration. The Pope (saith he) cannot be the Antichrist, Quia impedimendum nondum sublatum est; because that which hindred, is not yet removed out of the way. And withall, Bellar­mine Steuartius in 2 Thess. 2. 5. following the Greeke and Latine Fa­thers, saith, that the Apostle doth here speake De Romani imperij eversione, of the eversion of the Romane Empire. Whereof he made men­tion to the Thessalonians, plainly, when he was present with them: but being absent from them, he durst not write it, for feare that this pro­phesie might be published to the notice of the Romanes, whose hatred he knew thereby hee should incurre.

Moreover, those Fathers, and Bellarmine, conceived the sense of this sentence to be this, Ye know what withholdeth, that he might be re­vealed: that is, The flourishing estate of the Ro­mane Empire did hinder the comming of Anti­christ. Answerable to which exposition is the tradition of Tertullian, Optatus, and Lactantius; Pererius in Dan. li. 14. p. 677 that it was a prime prayer in the Primitive Church, Pro conservatione Romani Imperij, that God would preserve the Romane Empire: the Christians (saith Pererius) perswading them­selves, That Antichrist could not come, so long as that did flourish. The probable cause where­of is assigned by Chrysostome, by way of prece­dents: that as the Babylonian Monarchy was subverted by the Persians, the Persian by the Macedonians, and the Macedonian by the Ro­manes: so in the conclusion, the Romanes them­selves should have their Scepter wrestled out of their Herculean fists, by the Herculean labour of Antichrist. And the event saith Amen, to all this. It seemeth that the Romane Empire, by their tyranny and persecution did hinder the rising of Antichrist. For so long as the Church was under persecution, the Man of sinne could not rise to his greatnesse: which he did immediately upon the fall of the Romane Empire. And (as I touched before) it is thought that the very suspition that the Christians should be the over­throw of the Romane Empire, was the cause of many bloudy persecutions.

The [...], or reciprocall consent, is this: [Page 291] that the Romane Empire did hinder the comming of Antichrist, and that Antichrist would come im­mediately on the fall thereof. The [...], but we dissent concerning the manner thereof. To borrow Bellarmines phrase, we say it is incli­natio, they desolatio: we say a diminution, they that an absolute dissolution of the Romane Empire shall be (as Cyprian spake of Decius) Metator Cyprian. Epist. 22 Antichristi, the Harbinger of Antichrist.

Before I proceed to this point, I will in two words propose foure theses, and as many parentheses: the first bee allowed by the Pa­pists, and the last inferred thence by the Pro­testants.

First, out of the sixt and seventh verses, [...], and [...], What with-holdeth, and who letteth: these articles imply rem, perso­nam, both the Empire and the Emperour: yet no singular person, but a long succession of the one and the other. Therefore [...], and [...], The Antichrist, and the Man of sinne signifie (in like manner) a succession, and not one singular person.

Next, in the seventh verse, [...] he who now letteth, that is, the Empire and Series or succes­sion of those Emperours, which was in S. Pauls time. Therefore no Empire nor Emperour of our time is meant in this prophesie.

Thirdly, out of the same verse, [...], who onely letteth, as if he had said that the Empire was that onely impediment, and so soone as it should be removed, Antichrist would instantly [Page 292] be revealed. The revelation therefore of the Popish Antichrist, and Iewish Christ, will bee both ad Graecas Calendas, in no time future: for their Revelation is long since passed already.

And finally, [...], de medio tolli, to be taken out of the way, doth not signifie to be abo­l [...]shed out of the world, but to be removed out of the way. In this sense runneth this phrase in other places of the Scripture. Thus actively, Act. 17. 33. S. Paul departed, de medio illorum, the meaning is not that he departed out of the world, or dyed; but that he departed out of the way, or left their company. Againe, passively, Matt. 13. 49. the Angell shall sever the wicked, de med [...]o justorum, we cannot imagine that the wicked shall be abolished▪ but only that they shall be separated. Therefore it is a paradox not to be named, to affirme that the very name of the Emperour must be extinguished, before Anti­christ can be revealed.

Therefore our position and exposition is warranted by the ( [...]) very letter of the Text: Imperium esse è medio tollendum, non pror­sus delendum, as our worthy D. Whitaker dothWhitaker in [...]ell. Contr. 4. qu. est. 5. deliver it: that is, the Romane Empire must be removed out of the way, not abol [...]shed out of the world, before the revealing of Antichrist. To adde light to the Sunne; wee may annexe two reasons.

First, the Emperour, or he who letteth, must be removed no farther, than onely that Anti­christ may have roome to seat his Throne in the [Page 293] City situated on seven hills, which S. Iohn hath foretold to be the Metropolis of Antichrist, Re­vel. 17. 9. and is by Bellarmine acknowledgedBell. de Rom. P [...]nt. lib. 2. c. 2. to be meant of Rome. Now for this it is e­nough, that the Empire be removed into some further part; not utterly to be abolished, or cast out of the world. Which the Pope seemeth toM. Higg [...]nsin Apoc. 182. Ser. 2. pag. 40. approve by one of his owne actions. Of late time (because he pretendeth some particular interest in that kingdome) he installeth the Kings of Naples, with this caution: That they shall never take the Empire upon them; Fearing the potency of so neere a neighbour, to be a pre­judice to his triple Crowne. It is therefore the power and neighbourhood, not the name and title of the Empire which is the lett to Antichrist.

Secondly, S. Iohn saith in the third verse of Revelation the thirteenth, that one head of the Beast (which is interpreted to be the Romane Empire) was wounded to death: but so, that that deadly wound was healed. The Empire therefore is not to be abolished.

Finally, that which did let was not inane nomen, the bare name, but the power of the Em­pire. Now when the power was abolished, that which letted ( [...]) was removed. Therefore the Empire was not utterly to be extinguished. This experience it selfe doth abundantly te­stifie: for the seat of the Romane Empire is re­moved from the City of Rome: and that Imperi­all imperious power is long since expelled out of Italy. All which I will shut up with one sin­gular [Page 294] Syllogisme, shaped out of their owne assertions. The old Empire of Rome was to bee divided into ten kingdomes or more: this is most certaine, saith Suarez. But no Romane Catho­like Suarez lib. 5. cap. 9 sect. 15. Christo [...]ors [...]n part. 2 pag. 49. did ever dreame that this present Romane Empire shall ever be divided into ten kingdomes: this is the assumption of Michael Christophor­son. Therefore the Present, is not the old Romane Empire. That is abolished, though not utterly: yet so farre as it can let the kingdome of Anti­christ. The name thereof and title is only survi­ving. Therefore ( [...]) that which letteth is taken out of the way. What hinderance then can be in the way of this conclusion? Anti­christ is revealed: and sitteth in that City which once was the seat of the Romane Empire.

Thus I conceive it to be manifest, that the Romane Empire was not to be extinguished, but onely to be removed. Howbeit, I will follow them on their owne grounds; and shew them that there is a dissolution and desolation of that Romane Empire Saint Paul speaketh of in this place, the bare name onely excepted. I begin with Bellarmines words: Desecit imperium in Bell. de R. P lib 3 cap. 5. Occidente: Orientis autem imperium per Turcam destructum videtur: that is, The Romane Empire did faile in the West: and in the East we see it destroyed by the Turkes. Indeed (as hee saith) the westerne Empire was raised again by Charles the great: therefore that Empire was once re­moved: therefore at that time Antichrist was re­moved. Againe, when the Empire was over­throwne [Page 295] by the Gothes, there was no Emperour in the west, for the space of 325 yeares: where was [...], he that letted that long season? If we bee not out of our wits, wee must acknow­ledge that he was removed out of the way. An­tichrist then had opportunity to come, there was none to let him. And finally this present Emperour is Germane Germanus, in truth the Germane Empire, not the Romane: whereof he is onely the image: Having neither the seat, not the Tribute, nor the Territories, nor hard­ly one Towne of the old Romane Empire: in de­risionKnowles Hist. of the Turkes. whereof the Turke termeth this Empe­rour the King of Vienna. And I suppose that that title is not the [...], that which did or could let and with-hold the Man of sinne to be re­vealed. Therefore the Romane Empire (quà [...],) so farre forth as it did, or ever could hinder the comming of Antichrist, is utterly a­bolished, and absolutely extinguished: and no­thing now but the meere Name, and bare Title thereof remaining. To confirme our conclusion by a cloud of their owne witnesses: with all reverence I acknowledg the author of this ca­talogue to be the same famous man from whō I have borrowed many of my materialls for these Sermons, D. Downame of Dery. The falling Dounam. Episc. Derensis de An­tichrist. part. 2. Dem. 8. Anselmus in 2 Thess. 2. Thomas in 2 Thess. 2. away of the Nations from the Romane Empire is already accomplished, saith Anselmus. Thomas secondeth him, Iam diu [...]gentes à Romano Imperio recesserunt, that is, those nations have long since revolted from the Romane Empire. Imperium quod [Page 296] s [...]orebat tempore Pauli—caruit Imperatore plu­rimis Lyranus in 2 Thess. 2. annis, (saith Lyranus) The Empire in which S. Paul did live, and of which S. Paul did speake, did want an Emperour many yeares. E­verhardus said, The majestie of the Romane Em­pire, Aventinus Annal. 7. by which the world was once governed, Sub­lata est è terris, is taken out of the earth. The present Emperour, vana appellat [...]o, is a vaine name, & sola umbra, the onely very shadow thereof. Stapulensis propoundeth it by wayStapulensis l. b 9. in 2 Thess. of interrogation, which is the strongest asser­tion: Vbi nunc quaeso Romana Monarchia? I Viegas in Apoc. Com. 2. sect. 17. nu. 2. pray you where is now the Romane Empire? Do­minicus à Soto said, Temporale Romanae urbis imperium jam cessavit; that the Temporall Em­pire of the Romane City is gone long agoe. Iustini­anus, Vix tenuem quandam umbram Imperij reti­neat, Benedict. lust. in 2 Thess 2. This Empire is scarcely a poore shadow of that old Empire of Rome. Salmeron, Totidem syllabis, concludeth our cause in our verie words: Imperium Romanum jam diu eversum est, The Romane Empire (saith he) is destroyed long since. All addition is superfluous to so plaine an assertion.

Though this be plaine enough, yet perad­venture some will require an Historicall rela­tion of the particulars of this point: and thus I render it. Concerning the removing of the Emperour, who letted the Papacy, the paire of Popes, who finished this feat, were Constantine and Gregory the second.

It is the observation of that noble Knight [Page 297] (who is the Champion of our Calling, and there­bySr H [...]n [...]y Spel­man a [...] non temerandis Ec­cles [...]is page 83. the Honor of his owne) that there were two speciall Persecutors of the Church, Dioclesian & Iu­lian: but the last was most pestilent: Dioclesian, occidebat Presbyteros, did kill the Ministers; but Iulian, occidebat Presbyterium, did kill the Mi­nistery. For he spoiled their Revennues, where­by Ignorance issued, and Religion decreased. Semblably, the hinderer of Antichrist, had two notable Adversaries, Pope Constantine and Gregory the second: but the last was most no­torious. Constantine occidebat Imperatorem, did kill the Emperour: but Gregory, occidebat Impe­rium, did (as it were kill) extinguish the Em­pire, that it never revived againe in the West. So that removing both [...], and [...], è medio, both the hinderer, and the thing hinde­ring out of the way; Antichrist did march in the Popes High way, to the Temple without any impeachment.

About seven hundred yeeres after Christ, Mornaeus Myst. Iniq. Progr. 27. Philippicus the Emperour, cōmanded all Images to be taken out of the Churches. On this pretence Pope Constantine, pronounced him an Heretike, and commanded, that neither his Picture should be placed in their Churches, nor his Name men­tioned in their Prayers. Which administredPlatin. in vit. Constant. occasion, and audaciousnesse, to one Arthemi­us to rebell. This rebell did beate his Master, také him, put out his eyes, and put him from the Empire. But though [...] the Emperor was removed, yet [...], the Empire remai­ned: [Page 298] and so there remained one rubbe, that re­moved, the way were wholly cleared. Therefore about the yeare 717 the Emperour Leo 3, sur­namedMornae. Myst. Pro [...]es. 27. [...] ar. 10. 3. [...] [...]3. [...] pag. 373. Isauricus, publishing an Edict against Images, Pope Gregory 2, excited the Venetians, the people of Ravenna, and of Rome it selfe to Rebellion, arming those Rebells with an Absolu­tion from the oath of Allegiance, and an inhi­bition, to pay any more Tribute to the Empe­rour. The Bridle being taken from their necks, these beasts fell with a brutish fury on their Emperours Lieutenants. They invaded Paul Ex­arch of Ravenna, plucked out the eyes of Peter Duke of Rome, murthered Exhileratus the Duke of Campania, and filled all Italy with blood, and robberies. And to bolt the doore, when theyBa [...]on. te. 9. Anno 726. Artic. 34. had shut their Master out: they tooke a solemne oath of Fealty to the Pope. And thus anno 729, by the Holy meanes, of the Popes Holinesse, was the Emperour taken è medio, wholly Removed from the Westerne Empire.

The Hinderer, being thus removed out of the way: the prudent Popes, put this politike pro­ject in practice to keepe him out. Least the Emperour should returne to renew the old, or to be a new hinderance in his way. To this pur­pose, about the yeare 750, Zachary, Steven, Mornae. Myst. Im [...]u. Progr. 27. and Gregory, strake in with Pipin, Charles, and Charlemaine: that (Mulus Mulum) the Pope should annoint him, and them Kings of France: and that he and they should gratifie the Pope, with the Donatives of Rome and Ravenna. In [Page 299] pursuit of which purchase they prosecuted [...] ­stuphus, & Desiderius Kings of the Longobardi (then possessing those provinces of Italy) with [...] hostility: But in the performance thereof, the Emperour of Constantinople inter­posed his intreaty by Embassadours, that there might be Restitution made of those provinces, to him, the right Owner and Heire of them. To whom Ripin returned a ready, and reso­lute reply; That for his soules sake, he had pro­mised them as a Patrimony to Saint Peter: and for Saint Peters sake, he must and would per­forme it: which he did indeed. And so, about 757, was the Emperour, and his Exarchs, ut­terly excluded out of Italy. He who letteth being thus removed, what now letted, that That wic­ked one was not, even Then revealed.

To summe up all these in a shorter Synop­sis: we must consider the time of the Empires removall, to be distributed into three degrees: the Inchoation, Augmentation, and Consumma­tion thereof.

The Inchoation, and beginning of the Empe­rours removing out of the Popes way, was anno 332, when Constantine, went from Rome to Constantinople, leaving that City emptie, and so a fit seat for the Pope. Then that saying was ve­risied, Hodie venenum effusum est in Ecclesiam, that is, That day poyson was poured into the Church, because Antichrist had then opportu­nity to be admitted into Rome. And although afterward, after the death of Constantine, and [Page 300] of Constantines sonne, the Empire was divided, into the Easterne and Westerne: yet the western Emperour did never after this reside at Rome, but at Millan, or Ravenna: a faire ground for the erecting of Antichrists Metropolis: The Augmentation and increase whereof followed anno 475, the Westerne Empire being extirpated by the Gotthes: the succession of those Empe­rours was in that year absolutely extinguished in Augustulus: Neither was there any other Emperour in the West, for 325 yeares after that calamitie. Nevertheless Antichrist did not ap­peare in his lively colours, because the Graeci­an Emperours, after they had wrested Rome, and Ravenna out of the hand of the Gotthes, by the Armes of Narses, and Bellisarius, did exer­cise their authority (by the Exarchs of Ravenna their Deputies) over the Popes themselves. But the Consummation, full and small removing of this Empire was accomplished about the 727 yeare of the Lord. When Leo Isaurus, (because of the cōtention cōcerning Images) was excōmunicated by the two Gregories, the se­cond, and the third: those Emperours, lost all their interest in Italy, and were wholly expel­led: Now, sublato impedimento emergit actio: therefore, the Empire is gone, and Antichrist is come sitting in the very seat of the Ancient Ro­mane Emperours.

Intus existens, prohibet alienum: If water, be in a vessell, Ayre can have no entrance, nor re­sidence. Poure out the water, and the Ayre en­tereth [Page 301] immediately, and remaineth constant­ly: So was Rome to the Emperours and the Pope. That we may say Rome, the great Citie, was the seat of the great Emperour: but is the Throne of the great Antichrist.

Here I cannot say, whether I should more dehort men from going to Rome, or rather bewaile them who have travelled thither already, I may truely say of those Travellers what Lypsi­us doth of all Travellers: vagari & discurrere Lypsius ep. 22. Cent. 1. quivis potest: indagare, & disquirere pauci. Ma­ny purpose to travell, few travell to any purpose. If there be one of ten, who reapeth benefit by travelling to Rome, he is Decumanus Peregrina­tor, he shall be chronicled for the mirrour of travellers. That Romane Hieroglyphick, S. P. Q. R. our Countryman Beda hath prophetically ex­pounded of our Countreymen, travelling to Rome, S. Stulius, P. Populus. Q. Quaerit, R. Ro­mam, that is, Foolish Gallants are fond to see Rome. For by going to Rome, doe they bring backe any glory to God, good to their Countrey, or grace to their persons? Yea I feare that some of them may say with Saint Augustine, Ibam & Perebam: Curiosity led them, and Christia­nity left them: that they have learned the Italian Tongue, but lost an English heart, that they change the Catholike for the Romane Reli­gion. Miserable Travellers are they! and God grant we may no more have any such Tra­vellers.

I condemne not all, who have travelled to [Page 302] Rome. All such travellers are like Hierams Na­uie 2 Chro. 9. 21. Some indeed bring home gold and silver, increase their knowledge, con­firme their Religion, and inrich their Country with observations of both. But most bring home as it followeth in that text, Apes and Peacocks: nothing but apish mimicall gestures, and Peacocke-like fantasticall apparell.

I may range our Travellers unto Rome into three rankes: some travell seriously, some simply, and some subtlely. Some travell to Rome seriously, as Ioshua and Caleb did to Cana­an, Num. 14. 9. to tell us of the weaknesse of our Enemies: and to shew us, that their Pra­ctice in Italy is worse (if worse can be) than their Positions in Popery. But such travellers are like Iosua & Caleb, hardly two of twelve, yea scarce­ly two of a Tribe, of a whole Countrey. Others travell of simplicity, onely because they may say, that they have beene travellers: they spend their Fathers meanes, and their owne time, and there is an end of their travell. These travell, as Saul & his servant would have travelled to the Land of Zuph. 1 Sam. 9. 5. They bring the Fathers asses [...]ome to his house againe, and there is the end of their Iourney. But some tra­vell of subtlety to Rome: as Ismael did to Am­mon, Ier. 40. 14. to returne to murther their Countreymen. Papists under the pretence of tra­velling, goe to the forge of Treason: and re­turne armed to apprehend any opportunity, to ruine our Church and Common-wealth. I will [Page 303] say therfore of Rome, what God said of Sinai, Exod. 19. 12. Take heed, goe not up to that City, touch not the borders therof. Forwhosoever doth touch that City, is in danger of Death! hee may hazard either his body or his soule.

I must adde to my intreaty; Let me intreat you moreover, not onely to beware that you do not goe to Rome, but also beware that Rome doe not come to you. Novimus longas Regibus esse manus, our proverbe saith that Kings have long hands: the Pope therefore (who stileth him­selfe Rex regum the greatest King) he must have the longest hands. And indeed, so he hath. The Pope hath two (too) long hands, which will reach men beyond the Wals of Rome, or bounds of Italy either. He hath one hand to reach you on one side, at the Spa, when ye goe for Physick: and another hand to catch you on the other side, in Spaine, when you goe for Trafficke. Yea the Pope is another Artaxerxes, Longimanus, he hath a mighty long hand, which can reach as farre as England: to catch you in your friends houses, by cunning disputations: or in your own houses, by a more private perswasion. Longi­manus! yea Centimanus, the Pope hath an Hun­dred hands, to compasse Sea and Land, to make one Proselyte, one childe of the Devill. Neither are his hands wooden hands, dull and heavie, with­out joynts, and sinewes: but every Agent is an hand of flesh, yea of spirit, full of nimble activi­tie; those Popish, to boast themselves, and slan­der others: to seduce you, traduce us, and belye [Page 304] all: to bring Pamphlets to you, or to bring you to the Masse. Wheresoever the Pope hath an hand, these actions are at his fingers end.

But how may a man withstand these migh­tie, these many hands? To withstand all these hands: take but one thing: one Heart. Let eve­ry English man bee like the men of Zebulun, 1 Chron. 12. 23. to have not [...] a double Heart, one heart for Rome, and another Heart for England: one heart for the Papists, another for the Protestants. But to have one true heart, in sound obedience to God, and in unfained in­nocence to Man. Such an heart is murus ahene us a coat of maile, against all the hands of Rome, yea and their tongues also. Now he that hath given us all our hearts, give such an heart, such a true heart to every one of us; Amen. Amen.


2 THESS. 2. 5, 6, 7, 8. He shall be revealed.’

The Time of the Revelation of Antichrist. Where our Church was before Luther. Affected Ignorance of Antichrist.

I Have discoursed on the Di­gression in the fift verse: and on the first point in the Pro­gression, what hindered that the man of sinne could not be revealed. I proceed unto the second point in the 8 verse, when he shall be re­vealed. The third, [...], the mystery of ini­quitie, in the seventh, I must reserve to ano­ther exercise: it is a point of much moment, and more materiall, then any that hath yet, or shall be hereafter handled in this controver­sie. Neverthelesse, this also, [...],Suarez Apolog. lib. 5. cap. 5. Bell. de P. Rom. 3. 3. He shall be revealed, is very necessary. Suarez maketh it an argument, Bellarmine a demonstra­tion, [Page 306] and Lessius argueth in the same manner,Lessius de An­tichr. Dem. 8. that The Pope is not Antichrist, because Anti­christ is not yet revealed. Againe, to know Anti­christ, is the end of all Controversies! to know Antichrist revealed is the end of this contro­versie. Matth. 3. 10. Psal 90. 17. Here I lay the Axe to the roote of the Tree. In the performance whereof, Prosper the workes of our hands, O Lord prosper thou our han­die worke.

In the eight verse we have it, He shall be re­vealed. That we doe not shut our eyes, we may take notice, that the Ancients did alwayes open their eyes to observe this thing, The Re­velation of Antichrist. Even within 200 yeeres after Christ, the Christians had even then an expectation of the revealing of Antichrist saith Nicephorus, in the time of Al: Severus. AboutNicephorus lib. 4. cap 39. Baron. 10. 2. pag. 533. 250, Gallus being Emperour, the same expec­tation was revived saith Baronius. After 300 sprang Arrius, by the common voice of the Christians in those dayes, called Christoma­chus, & Principium Antichristi, the Adversary of Christ, and of spring of Antichrist, this being as it were a watch-word to expect the grand Antichrist. After three hundred & fifty yeares under Valens and Valentinianus, the militantBaronius tom. 4. 296. Church was rouzed by the same Alarum, as if Antichrist had beene approaching. About 400Hieron. epist. ad Geront. de Mo­rogamia. Epist. Episc. Gall [...] & Germ. ad Anast. 2. Saint Hierome did put it beyond peradven­ture, that Antichrist was at hand. About 500 diverse French and Germane Bishops did imply unto Pope Anastasius the second, that Anti­christs [Page 307] throne was expected to bee erected inGoldastum in Constitut. Imperialium Rationali part. 1. fol. 48. Greg. lib. 4. epist. 38. Hilar. adversus Arianos pag. 311 Baronius Anno 900 sect. 1, 2, 3. Italy. About 600 Gregory wrote Rex superbiae prope est, that Antichrist followed at his heeles. And Hilary mentioned imminentis Antichristi praevios, the Harbingers of Antichrist, who come immediately before him. But in the yeare 900, even Baronius professeth visurum se abominationem desolationis in Templo, tum a Daniele tum a Domino ipso praedictum, that, in that age (of those wicked Popes) hee saw the Abomination of Desolation in the Temple, men­tioned by Daniel, and by Christ himselfe. Af­terEpist. Episcopo. Germaniae & Belg. ad Ni­cholaum 2. apud Goldastum in Constitutionum Imperalium part. 1. fol. 50. Author vitae Henrici 4. Aventinus lib. 5. a thousand yeeres after our Saviour, the Bishops of Germanie wrote to Pope Nicholas the second, that Rome was Babylon, and the Ro­mish Bishop, the person who made himselfe, as if he were God, subject to no errour. Fiftie yeeres after this, Henry 4 Emperour complained of the tyranny of the Pope Gregory 7, calling him Antichrist. The same Henry 4, (according to some Henry 3,) published the same thing, to all the Princes of Christendome, concerning Pope Pascall the second, that he laboured to sit more Antichristi in templo Dei, as Antichrist in the Temple of God. Towards 1150, the Bishop Magdeburg. Cent. 12. cap. 9. of Florence did preach publikely, that Anti­christ was come: against whom Pope Paschal 2, called the Councill of Florence. Yea in thatBernard [...]p. 125 Serm. 33. in Cant. Serm. 6, & 7. in Psalm. 91. Baronius Anno 1130. Artis. 6. age, no phrase was more familiar to Bernard, than Bestiam Apocalyp. 13, Sti Petri Cathedram occupare, that that Beast Revel. 13. did sit in the Chaire of Peter. Where Baronius his answer is [Page 308] not solide, that Bernard spake this against schismaticall Antipopes, for hereby Bernard ac­knowledgeth, that Antichrist may sit at Rome, which is enough for this present: although Bernardus non vidit omnia. About 1200 yeeres after our Saviour, Everard Archbishop of Saltz­burgh made an oration in the presence of O­tho Duke of Bavaria at the synode of Ratis­bone, wherein he avouched Pope Gregory 9, to be Antichrist. In the same age, the EmperourPetr. de Vi [...]cis lib. 1. [...]p. 31. Fredericke 2, in an Epistle directed to all the Prelates of Christendome, called the same Pope, the Father of distord, the Dragon, the 2 Balaam, and Antichrist. So did their Ioachim Roger Hovend. Annal part. post. Bell. de P. R. lib. 3. cap. [...]. Avent. lib. 6 of Calabria, saith our Hovenden. So did our Wickliffe, saith their Bellarmine. Gerochus Bi­shop of Richemburg put forth a pamphlet to that purpose, and called it De Antichristo. Hellen queene mother to Richard the secondPetrus [...]es [...]s. epist. 14 [...]. of England, spared not Pope Caelestine 3, but stiled him, The sonne of Perdition, and his City Babylon.

Anno 1300 arose Marsilius Patavinus, Fran­ciscus Pless. myst Oppos. 53. Petrarcha, the Prophecies of Hildegarde, Petrus Cassiodorus, and principally Iohannes Bit­terensis a Franciscane Fryer, who composed Po­stills on the Apocalypse, calling the Pope the mysticall Antichrist: who being dead hee was digged out of his Grave for his labour. Anno 1350 our William of Ockame accused Clemens 6, to be Antichrist: and Nicholas Orem said as much of, and to Pope Vrbane 5. TowardsAvent. lib. 7. [Page 309] 1400, many Bulls were set forth by the Popes, and Antipopes, whereby each denounced otherBiblia P [...]uperū, Anno 1363. Pless. Progr. 58. to bee Antichrist. If it bee an infallible truth which the Pope pronounceth è Cathedra: it may goe for a probability, that an Antipope (at the least) may be the Antichrist; for so their owne Bulls have defined it.

Finally, in the 1500, arose Hieronimus Sa­vanarola, Mantuanus, and many other, who spa [...]e more boldly and broadly, that the Pope was Antichrist: till Luther and the Lutherans did fully accomplish the revelation of the Church Antichristian, and happily begin theRelation of the Religion in the West. reformation of the Church Christian. Nay some say, that at this day, some of the Popish Church (vid. divers in France) doe hold The Pope to be Antichrist.

Thus these Ancients had a glimmering twi­light of Antichrist: the elder were before him, the later under him. To the first hee was as an object too distant from the eye: to the other, as an object too neere the eye. Therefore neither could see him clearly, as wee may and doe at this day. Of them, I may speake that sentence of our Saviour, Matth. 13. 17. Verily I say unto you, many Prophets, and righteous men have desired to see these things which you see, and have not seene them.

But to shew that he is, and how he is revea­led in our time: [...], Saint Paul saith, Hee shall then be revealed, to wit, when the Emperour is ruined, then shall Antichrist bee revealed. [Page 310] This is Saint Hieromes prediction, Quitcnebat, Hieron. [...]ist. ad Geront de Monogami [...]. de medio sit, & non intelligimus Antichristum appropinquare? Hee who did with-hold, is taken out of the way: and conceive wee not that Anti­chris [...] is at hand? And this is Machiavells [...]. Hist. Flo. cat. l [...] [...]. collection: The falling of the Emperour was the rising of the Pope. Moreover, betwixt the desolation of the Empire, and the revelation of Antichrist, Saint Paul ponit nullum medium, asNi [...]. Or [...]mus Biblia P [...], [...]. Orem well observeth, no distance of time. But the Emperour who heretofore had the power of Election, Investiture, Calling of Councills, andLe [...]e 27 [...]e E­pisc. & [...]. [...]. [...] [...]. theodos. of imposing Lawes on the Popes: hath now nothing left him, but nomen sinere, the bare Name of the Emperour. As the Emperour him­selfe acknowledged, Fredericke by name [...],Radevicus lib 2. cap. 31. it followeth then that Antichrist is come already. Now I must reveale to you, how God hath revealed him to us.

Revelabitur, id est, regnabit saith Carthusian: Dimysius [...] in 2. [...]hes 2. [...] in B [...]ll [...]. 4. Quaest. 5. he shall bee revealed to the Church, that is, hee shall reigne in the Church. Concerning which we must consider 3, points; Quando Antichri­stus erat Natu [...], Revelatus, Adornatus: the Prepa­ration, Revelatiō, & Exaltatiō of his kingdome.

All Errours generally, Prepared the way and [...]shered in Antichrist. In the 7 verse Saint Paul saith that [...] the Antichristian mysterie was even then a working. And Saint Iohn, that there were many Antichrists in his time, 1 Iohn 2. 18. who did prepare for the Comming of the maine Antichrist, in our time. Yet principally, that [Page 311] errour of ascribing so much, too much to St. Peter, confounding Petra & Petrus, expoūding, Mat. 16. 18. of the person of Peter, which occasioned such arrogance to the pretended successours of Peter. And this point decātatur in versibus Am­brosij, August. Retract. cap. 21. it was published in the Poems of S. Am­brose saith St. Augustine: but St. Augustine did retract it as Erroneous. At the least hee prefer­reth our exposition as Bellarmine himselfe con­fessethBell. de Pont. Ro. lib. 1. cap. 10. ad August. &c. in that same place, where he laboureth to retract this retraction of Saint Augustine. Thus the Errour of the Church of Christ, and the Pride of the Church of Rome were [...] was the preparation to the birth of Antichrist, in the first foure hundred yeares: yea immedi­ately after the birth of Christ. The Elephant is said to goe with yong, ten intire yeares: but this Monster, was halfe ten centuries, 600. yeres, before she teemed: before Antichrist was borne into the world.

His Revelation could not but succeed his Preparation. Et ecce duo gladij hic, Luc. 22. 38. The Revelation of Antichrist hath two degrees or Times, in regard of the twofold Monarchie he aspired unto: Spirituall, and Temporall. In regard of his spirituall Monarchy, the Pope was revealed to be Antichrist, about 606 yeeres af­terGregor. lib. 4. epist. 38. Christ. Gregory a Pope, called Iohn of Con­stantinople, the Fore-runner of Antichrist, onely because he did claime the Title of Vniversall Bishop. Fidenter dico (said hee in the fourth booke of his Epistles) I conclude confidently and [Page 312] definitively: the desinitive sentēce of a Pope could not be erroncous. Erroncous therfore it cānot be if we say, that he who atchived that Title of v­niversall Bishop, was more than a Forerunner, even Antichrist himselfe. And I may annex the words of the same Pope, in the same place, Sa­cerdotum exercitus ei praeparatur, an Army of Priests serve Antichrist as their Generall. Here­upon sidenter di [...]o, I peremptorily pronounce it, that Antichrist began to be revealed, about the yeare 606, when Phocas conferred upon Pope Boniface 3, the title of Vniversall Bishop, that thereby hee might regaine the love of the people, which he had lost by the murthering of his Master Mauritius, (so that Policy, not Pietie or Equity gave it him.) But the Pope pretended sor this, a certaine Constitution of the Emperor Iustmian, wherin he commanded that the Bishop of Rome should have the Prece­d [...]nce, and Prime Place in their Clergy-Convoca­tions; Which Preheminence of the Pope, was afterwards ratifyed by the Pope in a solemne Synode celebrated at Rome, under the said Bo­niface 3, in the yeare 607. After that also, about 646, the Pope was saluted with as il­lustrious a title, from a Councill out of Africa: Rolloch. in 2 Thes. 2. Domino Apostolico, culmini sublimato, Sancto Pa­trum Patri, [...]heodoro Papae summo omnium Prae­sulum Principi: That is, To the Apostolicall Lord, the [...] best top and tip of the Church, the ho­ly Father of the Fathers, the Prince of all Pre­lates, Theodore the Pope. Adde to this that ob­servation [Page 313] of the religious and reverend Bishop Dounam. E [...]i [...]c. Derensis de An­tichrist. l [...]. 2. cap. 8. sect. 5. of Dery. The name Pope (which before was communicated to all Bishops) at this time be­gan to be appropriated to the Bishop of Rome. I may conclude: in this time was the begin­ning of the Papacy. In this time Antichrist be­ganne to be revealed.

In regard of his temporall Monarchy, there are 2 famous numbers in the Revelation of S. Iohn: and both in the Revelation of the Pope to bee Antichrist. The first is in the last verse of Rev. 13. where the number of the Beast is said to be 666. And the second is in the second verse of Rev. 20. The Devill is bound a thousand years. For the first, whether it be the number of a name, or of a time, or of both, I dispute not: but it is admirable, when in all senses it shall concurre in one man. I say therefore, the Pope was revealed to usurpe an Antichristian tem­porall Monarchy about the 666, when under Constantine the third, Pope Vitaliane (who in former times had beene Ambassador for the Emperour) shaking off the yoake of a supe­riour authority, usurped the government of Rome. Then also began the Masse to be cele­bratedRolloch. in. 2 Th [...]ss. 2. 8. in the Latine tongue.

The second time is the very time wherein Antichrist was let loose: this time was the se­cond birth of Antichrist. Wonder not that I name two births of one Antichrist: for every Monster hath something extraordinary. Anti­christ therefore being such a Monster as never [Page 314] was, he may have something which the world never had: two births. The first anno 666, and the second in the thousandth yeare, the Epocha, perfect birth, or complete revelation of Anti­christ. Or like Zarah, Gen. 38. 28. He made a shew to be borne, but drew himselfe backe againe for a season. Some say, a Snake will teeme her yong, and being affrighted, will take them into her body againe, till they be strong to shift for themselves. So Satan having teemed Antichrist about the yeare 666, finding some oppositi­on, the Dragon might recall him into his womb againe, till he was strong enough for his inva­sion and usurpation.

From the sixt century, unto the eleventh, Antichrist was come to the birth, but the Papacy wanted strength to bring him forth: the Tempo­rall Monarchy was long in hatching. Certain­ly, the Woman, Revel. 18. 4. was with child, and did long for something: when Pope Constantine about seven hundred years after Christ, durstPlatina in Con­stantino. Onuph. apud Plat. in Const. Sacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 5. cap. 7. pronounce the Emperour Philippicus an Here­tike, and disgrace his pictures. And some­thing was toward comming into the world, when towards eight hundred yeares after Christ, Charles the great was the first who re­ceived the Imperiall Diadem from the hands of the Pope: the Pope taking vpon him to translate the Empire from the Greekes to the Latines. Gregorie the sift did well, (if he did what Pla­tina Platina in Greg. 5. Bar. an. 996. Artic. 71. and Baronius relate of him) when anno 996 he consined the Imperiall dignity onely to the [Page 315] election of the Germane Nation. And after a thousand yeares; Inno Lucina fer opem obsecro; the Lady of Babel was like a woman with childe, Isay 26. 17. that draweth neere to the time of her delivery: whē Silvester the 3 did make a Law, That no Prince Glabro. lib. 1. in fine. should presume to seeke the Scepter of the Empire, nor take upon him the title of the Emperour: but onely he whom the Pope should elect, and to whom he should bequeath the Imperiall Cognisance: which was a golden Apple, inclosed in a square, beset with curious Iewells, and a golden Crosse on the top thereof. Accordingly, in the vacancy of the Empire, by the death of Conrade, he pre­sented it unto Peter King of Hungary, with a Crowne, and this inscription:

Petra dedit Romam Petro, tibi Papa Coronam. That is, Christ gave Rome to S. Peter, and the Pope giveth the Empire to King Peter.

But in the thousandth yeare, according to Revel. 20. 2. Peperit, peperit; Babell brought forth her first begotten. Hildebrand was the first that did actually depose any Emperour, as it is avou­ched by Otho Frisingensis: and Otho avouch­edOtho Frising. lib 9 cap. 25. Epis [...]. R [...]ffensis de Potest. Papae, cap. [...]0. by the laborious Treatise of our most lear­ned Bishop. I say about the yeare 1090, which was a thousand yeares after S. Iohn wrote the Re­velation, the Pope was fully revealed to be Anti­christ. About that thousandth yeare, the De­vill was unloosed, and Antichrist unmasked. Then did Hell bring forth her first begotten, and best-beloved Hildebrand, indeed Hell-brand, cal­led Gregory the seventh. This Pope did tyran­nize [Page 316] over the Emperour Henry the fourth, yea and did transferre the Empire unto Ralph the Duke of Su [...]v [...]a:

Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema Rodulpho. That is, Christ d [...]d give the Empire to Peter, and Peter doth give it to Ralph. And although the Empire prooved to the Duke, [...], yea, [...], the heaviest gift that ever unhappy Prince intertained: yet this Pope (as is acknow­ledged by Sigonius, Aventine, Machiavil, and Guicciardine, Italian Historians:) did so fortifie his predecessors intrusions, that from thenceforth the Emperour lost all his Sove­raignty in Italy. And from thence the Popes have usurped that transcendent authority, tyranny, to depose the Emperour, and dispose of the Empire. Therefore fidenter dico, I considently conclude, about the yeare 1090, some thou­sand after Saint Iohn, and some five hundred yeares before us, The Pope was plainly revealed to be Antichrist.

Concerning the exaltation of Antichrists Kingdome, this was performed by the seve­rall actions of severall Popes: for the inlarging, or rather the executing of their Papall authority and Antichristian tyranny. To tell all the par­ticulars were tedious: I will propound a few instances.

The Papacy did not meanly advance it selfeOtho Frisingens. lib. 7. cap. 10. anno 1123, when the Emperour Henry the fift resigned all his right of investiture unto Calix­tus the second. About 1132 Innocentius the [Page 317] second, did bravely second his assay, when heKranzius in metro l [...]b. [...] c. 35 commanded the Emperour Lotharius to bee painted at his fee [...], as it were praying the Pope to indow him with the Empire. But Pictures are but shadowes: Our Adrian the fourth came substantially to cope with the Emperour, when about 1153 he suffered Fredericke to hold his Pless Myst. Pr [...]gress 45. stirrup: and constrained William King of Si­cilie, on his knees to crave his pardon, and confesse that he was his Vassall. Alexander the third (as another Alexander the great) greatly promo­ted the Papall Monarchy, when he set his foot on P [...]trus Iustiu. lib. 2. Rerum Venetarum. Matth. Paris. in Henr [...] 2. the neck of the Emperor Frederick, 1177. Which may extenuate the insolence offered by the same Pope to our King Henry the second: al­though I conceive him to bee the first which was, and the last King that ever shall be whip­ped by the command of a Priest. It was a prettyBaron. anno 1191. sect. 1. 10. Embleme of some incomparable Soveraignty, which the Pope affected, or atchieved over the Emperour, anno 1191, when as Caelestine the third, unto Henry the sist, did put on his crowne, and instantly kicke it off with his foot. It isInnocentius 3. Serm. 3. de Con­secrat. Ponti [...]. somewhat incredible which Pope Innocent the third relateth of himselfe, that he called him­selfe Sponsum Ecclesiae, the Spouse of the Church, about 1210. But it is intolerable, that Grego­rie C [...]bi pericul. de electione & electi potestate, in Sixto. the tenth durst put it into a Decretall, 1272, that the Pope is Sponsus Ecclesiae, the Spouse of the Church, blaspheming in Print against our Saviours prerogative. Out-stripped not­withstandingC. Fundamenta de electione & electi potestate. is this blasphemy by that of Pope [Page 318] Nicholaus the 3, 1280: who hath registred also in a Decretall, that God did assume Peter, In consortium individuae unitatis, I dare but relate, not translate such blasphemy.

Anno 1300, Boniface the ninth was noKranzius in Saxonia lib. 8. cap. 36. idlesby in promoting the Papacy, when he laid claime to the double power, both Ecclesiasticall and Temporall. In insinuation whereof, at his solemne Iubilie, one day hee appeared unto the people in his Pontisicalibus, or Popelike ap­parell: but the next attired like the Emperour. And finally, more solemnly and arrogantly,Extra. Tit de majoritate & minor. & obedi­entia. C. unam Sanct. Ecclesia [...]. subesse Romano Pontifici, omni humanae creaturae declaramus, dicimus, desinimus, & pronuncia­mus omnino esse de necessitate salutis: he pro­nounceth it, as his definitive sentence, that No creature can be saved, who is not subject to the Clementin▪ unica de jurament. Pope. Anno 1325, Iohn 22 or 23, did not de­sire that the light which he added to the Popish blasphemous usurpations should bee put under a bushell, when hee made his additions to the Decretalls, and in his Extravagants or Consti­tutions, wherein he claimeth authority superior to the Emperour, and little inferiour unto God. All these particular Popes have proclaimed themselves to be Antichrist, and all the Papists in their generall popish Councill of Constance cryConcil. Const. Sess. 13. Amen: Etiamsi Christus instituerit, & admini­straverit sub utraque specie Sacramentum: Al­though Christ did institute and administer the sup­per of the Lord in Bread and Wine: Nonobstante: Notwithstanding:—Pro lege habenda sit: The [Page 319] Church of Rome doth command it as a Law, that no Lay man shall receive it, but in one kind onely. Thus about the fourteene hundredth yeare of the Lord, did the Man of sinne, who sate in the Temple, exalt himselfe to the top of the Temple. Afterwards Pius the second, and o­ther active Popes, did adde (as it were) cer­taine scaffolds to raise their Monarchy a little higher. Especially that Pius plotted how toEpist. Pij 2. ad Princ. Turcarum anno 1532. bring the Turkes also under the Popes authori­tie. To which purpose he presented their Em­perour Mahomet with a large laboured lear­ned letter: but the barbarous Prince was not capable of such a transcendent mystery of Christianity. His predecessor Eugenius the fourth attempted a little lesse, and atchieved a little more, when anno 1438 at the Florentine Pless. Myst. progress. 62. Concil. Florent. Sess. ult. Synode, he enforced Ioseph Patriarch of Constan­tinople to kisse his feet: and enticed Palaeolagus the Emperour, with some few Greeke Bishops, to acknowledge the Pope to be the Head of the universall Church. The deniall whereof Pope Pius made the maine cause of the irreconcili­able Epist. Pij 2. ad Princ. Turcar. Hist. Papatus cap. 7. schisme betweene the Graecian and the Ro­mane Churches. The memoriall whereof I con­jecture to bee the cause of that triumphant po­sture▪ which the Popes to this day usurpe in their Chappell; setting their feet on the brasse picture of the Constantinopolitane Patriarch. But in the 1500 yeare, and time of Leo the tenth, the Papacy was mounted up to the pinacle of the Temple. Then was the [...], the uttermost [Page 320] of their growth, and highest pitch of all the Papall exaltation: as may appeare by these particulars.

Then it was disputed in his Schooles, An Papa possit abrogare quod scriptis Apostolicis tra­ditum Erasmus in 1 Tim. 1. sit: Whether the Pope could abrogate what was decreed by the Apostles. An posset statuere quod pugnet cum doctrina Evangelica? Whether the Pope can command what is contrary to the Gos­pell: An possit novum articulum sidei condere? Whether he can make a new article of faith: whe­ther hee had equall power with, or a greater than Peter: Whether he can command the Angells to dissolve Purgatorie: and whether he were a pure man, or participated of two Natures like Christ. Then was it preached before him, Psal. 72. 11.Concil. Lateran. Sess 9. Omnes Reges terrae adorabunt cum, & inservient ei: all Kings shall fall downe before him, all Na­tions shall doe him service. And that hee was Leo detribu Iudae: the Lyon of the tribe of Iuda. Concil. [...]ater. Sess. [...]. Saciar Cer. lib. 1 sect. 1. c. [...]. Lib. 1 sect. 1. c. 4 Lib. 1 sect. 2. c. 3. Lib. 1. sect. 3. c. 3. Lib. 1. sect 5 c. 1. [...] Lib 1. sect. 6. c. 3. Lib. 1. sect. 7. c. 6 Then was that Synopsis of Blasphemies dedica­ted to him, the Booke of Ceremonies: wherein he is termed, the Prince of all Christians; the go­vernour Vrbis & Orbis, of the whole world; that de facto the Emperour must hold his stirrup, and Kings carry him on their shoulders: that Empe­rours and Kings must wait at his Table: that the Emperor must sweare fealty unto him: that Empe­rours and Kings must kisse his feet: that hee can give a full indulgence for all mens sinnes: that Dominabitur à mari usque ad mare, & à slumine usque ad terminos orbis; that is, His dominion [Page 321] shall be from one sea to another, and from the floud unto the worlds end: which was spoken of Christ Psal. 72. 8. and that Omnis potestas mihi data est, All power is given to me on earth, and in hea­ven: which was spoken by Christ, Mat. 28. 18. and so it proceedeth in like senselesse endlesse Blasphemies. Then was it concluded for him, by a Councill, that of Lateran, Papam esse Ec­clesia, Whitaker contr. Bell. Contr. 4. Quaest. 5. & generali Concilio majorem, That the Pope is greater than a Generall Councill, or than the whole Church. And that we may collect out of the abundance of what hearts these mouths did speake: Then it was said of him, that it shouldPless. Myst. Progress. 65. Pless. Myst. Opposit. 68. be said by him, that the Gospell of Christ was a Fable: & nullum esse Deum secredidisse: and that he did beleeve that there was no God.

Let now any incredulous English Prote­stant, who doth deride it as an incredible pa­radoxe to affirme that the Pope is Antichrist: let any such imagine how their imaginary An­tichrist can say, and doe, more Antichristianly, than this man. And then will I revoke this assertion, which I yet apprehend to be an in­controulable truth. The Pope is Antichrist: but personally, Leo decimus was Decumanus An­tichristus. In the yeare 1500 hee attained to the pitch of Antichristianity above all other.

Since that time, the Papacy hath beene somewhat eclipsed in the lustre thereof: yet so as Antichrist appeareth through his actions to this day as the Sunne doth through a thinneTrent Hist. lib. 2. pag. 260. cloud at noone day. An hundred yeares since [Page 322] the prerogative of Antichrist was nobly esta­blished, when their last and great Councill of Trent was transacted with these two cautions: Proponentibus Legatis, & salva semper authori­tate Ecclesiae Apostolicae, that nothing might be propounded but by the Popes Legates, and no­thing concluded against the Popes authority: Whereby that great Councill was made but an engine to fortifie their Papall greatnesse. Much about that time, the Pope (imitating the mag­nificence of his Father, who would have given the whole world, Matth. 4. 9.) the Pope, I say, did give one quarter of the world, and divided the two Indias betwixt the two Kings of Spain and Portugal. Yet halfe an hundred yeares since, more peremptorily, Pope Pius the fifth, è Cathedra, pronounced his power: in a solemne Bull, that he was Princeps super omnes gentes, & super omnia regna: Prince over all Nations, Cambd. Annal. Anno 70. and over all Kingdomes: that he had Plenitudi­nem potestatis, fulnesse of power; Vt evellat, destruat, dissipet, & disperdat: To plucke up, and Ier. 1. 10. to root up, to destroy, and cast downe: Which he thē indevored to have exercised upō the per­son of an (indeed) a Woman, but such a Queen, as did blow in pieces that swelling bubble. And his Bulla did breake like a squib, without frigh­ting so much as children. Since him, and be­fore him, since Leo the tenth, the Papacy hathPaulus Quintus hi [...] Quarrells with Venice pag. 1. & 3. beene in a reciprocall increasing and waining: One Pope impairing, another Pope repairing the magnificence thereof: as the judicious Ita­lians [Page 323] themselves have observed it, in the per­sons of Clemens the eight, and Paul the fifth. Thus may we see the two hornes of him, that is like the Lambe: and the two swords of him that speaketh like the Dragon: the two Monarchies of the Man of sinne. And surely such want their two eyes, who doe not see the Sunne at Noone: who doe not see Antichrist to be fully revea­led: and that The Pope is that Antichrist.

Thus have I discovered the time of Anti­christs discovery. If you desire moreover te­stimonies of his Revelation: some particulars I have premised in this Sermon. But a Cata­logue, a Cloud of Witnesses, almost an hundred Dr. Featlies Ap­pendix to the Conference 1624 names are registred by our ingenious and in­genuous Champion. Yet for the full declara­tion of this point: know that the Pope hath beene revealed to be the great Antichrist, ac­cording to the publike testimony of foure great Nations. The French, English, Bohemians, and the Germanes, have long since revealed to the world, what the word revealed unto them the revelation of Antichrist. That Rome is the place, and the Pope the person.

The French claime the precedence. TheirPless. Myster. Opposit. 46. Kings are called Christian, [...], because they first received the plantation of Christia­nity. Wee adde, because they first received the reformation of Christianity. Anno 1126, (some 500 yeares before Luther) Peter Bruis Priest beganne: and anno 1147, his Scholler Henry a Monke seconded him: and both of [Page 324] them were succeeded by the Waldenses and Albingenses, anno 1164. And their doctrine was spred throughout the Diocesses of Orle­ance, imbrum, and Gap: through the whole Provinces of Languedoc, Anvergne, and Guienne, the professours whereof were called Tolosant: condemning Transubstantiation, the Masse, Praying to, or for the Dead, worshipping of Saints, or Images, Inhibition of Mariage, &c. stiling Popish Prelates the Princes of Sodome, and Rome Pless. myst. Oppos. 46. Babell, the Mother of fornication. These Lights that prudent Church have politikely endea­voured to put under a bushell, extinguishing their writings. So that we have nothing but what is collected out of their adversaries books who confuted them: who testifie what we do, that the French so long agoe did renounce the Pope, and Popery.

To the French, our English are next in situ­ation, Matth. Paris. Compend. hist. Angl. an. 1250. and in reformation also. Anno 1250, our learned Bishop of Lincolne assayed first to light this Candle, by inveighing against the Pope and Popish usurpations, for which invections he was excommunicated, and dyed under that excommunication. Vnder halfe a hundred years after him, some sparkes fell from the hand ofPaess. Myst. Opposit. 57. our William Ockam, by the coll [...]sion betwixt Pope Iohn the 22, and the Emperour Lewis the 4, of whom hee was so undaunted an as­sistant, that he durst call Clemens the sixt Anti­christ. The tinder almost tooke fire, when our King Edward the third inhibited our English Pel. Virgil. l. 19. [Page 325] Bishops from running to Rome for their Crea­tion. But 1360, the fire was kindled, and the Tho. Waldensis Ep. ad Mart. 5. Tho Walsingham in Rich. 2. Candle put in a Candlestick, when Iohn Wickliffe of Oxenford maintained that the Pope was an Arch-hereticke, and Antichrist, and he was maintained by the Vice-chancellor and Proctors of that Vniversity; by the Maior and chiefe Citizens of our chiefe City of London: by some of our Prelates and prime Clergy: and by the Duke of Lancaster, and some of the principall Courtiers and Peeres of the Realme. AlthoughPless. Myst. Opposit. 59. being dead, he was by the command of Pope Martin the fift digged out of his grave at Lut­terworth in Leicester-shire, 1428. Yet could not the Pope, nor any popish power put out this Candle. The Candlesticke indeed was removed, his person was exiled, and so his doctrine transla­ted into Bohemiah; where it gave increase to the profession of the Waldenses, and a beginning to the Hussites.

From these two, the French Waldenses, and our English Wickliffists, sprang the third, the Hussites of Bohemia. Whose praecursor I con­ceive to have beene Militz, a Preacher ofPless. Myst. Opposit. 59. Prague, about 1350, who professed that hee was constrained by the Spirit to goe to Rome, there publikely to preach in the presence of the very Inquisitours, that The Pope was the ve­rie Antichrist.

But after 1400, Iohn and Hierome, Husse, Aeneas Silvius Hist. Bohem. and the Hussites, did more openly and un­doubtedly professe the Pope to be Antichrist. [Page 326] Such a number of opposers, and in such a na­ture of opposition as the Pope never felt be­fore, till the Sword in the hand of Zisca, and the word in the mouth of Iohn Husse, and Hie­rome of Prague, durst tell the Pope to his face, that he was the Antichrist. To extinguish which staine, the Councill of Constance was called: where they sawed the log, but could not cut the Sun­beames: they killed the Preachers, but their Preaching still survived. The Faggots (with which they did cruelly and perfidiously over­whelmePoggius in Epist. ad [...] Aretinum. Iohn and Hierome) did indeed dampe, but not put out the fire of the Gospell. For out of the ashes of the Goose (so some say signifieth Husse in the Bohemian language) arose a Swan, (such is the signification of Luther in the Ger­mane) or a Phoenix rather, who gave a comple­ment to the reformation of Religion, and to the Revelation of Antichrist.

The Papists then may reserve their Crambe or their owne Tooth. Ordinary judgements [...]annot digest their ordinary Quaere: Where was the Reformed Religion before Luther? These premises may tell them, that there was a Vi­sible Reformation and separation from the Romish Church, full foure hundred yeares before Luther was borne. The Hussites being an hundred years before him: our Wicklissists halfe an hundred yeares before them: the Waldenses more than an hundred yeares before them: and the Tholosani al­most an hundred yeares before the Waldenses. Thus Lumen de lumine, the light of reformation was [Page 327] derived (by Centuries) from the Tholosani to the Waldenses, from the Waldenses to the Wicklif­fists, from the Wickliffists to the Hussites, and from the Hussites to the Lutherans. Then Lu­ther did set it up as a Beacon on the top of an Hill, to give an Allarme to all the Militant Church, that the Adversary was discovered, and Antichrist now plainly revealed.

To these foure famous Nations I may add a fift: the Italians are not blinde, though they winke at the Pope. That the popish projects have no other end, but to acquire unto the Pope the Spirituall and Temporall Monarchy of the whole world, is the judgement of that prudent Venetian Polity: what policy soeverPaulus Quintus his Quarrells lib. 1. pag. 1. doth interrupt them from a plaine imbracing of the Protestants Reformation, and acknow­ledging the Popes revelation. But whereof, they have a confused, wee have a cleere know­ledge: wee cleerly know that Antichrist is re­vealed.

You know, saith Saint Paul (1 Thess. 2. 11.) how we exhorted, and comforted, and charged eve­rie one of you, as a Father doth his children. A father doth heartily exhort his sonnes against drunkennesse, his daughters against unchastnesse, and all his children against all kinde of wicked­nesse. And yet his tender heart would tremble to imagine that there should be but one drun­kard amongst his sonnes; one strumpet amongst his daughters; or but one reprobate amongst all his children. Such a Father am I: and give me [Page 328] leave to call you, and to esteeme you such children. Heartily have I exhorted you against Antichrist: and surely my heart would tremble if I should thinke that there were but one Antichristian Sectary in this whole Congre­gation.

Howbeit, although I would not wish one of you a Papist; yet I would that all the Papists heard me, what I have, doe, and shall deliver concerning this point of Antichrist. And if there be any of the Romish Religion here pre­sent, let me intreat them to heare me in love and patientnesse, even as I will speake to them in truth and sobernesse. If there be any such in this place, I direct my speech in two words unto two sorts of them.

There are two sorts of Papists, the Ignorant, and the Learned: the first cannot, the second will not understand this controversie: both ad­here to the Pope, and spit at the name of Anti­christ, if applied to his Holinesse.

The first are like Navigius, whom whenAug. de vita Beat. cap. 16. Saint Augustine came to instruct concerning the saving of his Soule, hee could not bee per­swaded that there was such a thing as a soule in [...] in his Body: So the ignorant Pa­pists, instruct them concerning the shunning of Antichrist, and they will not be perswa­ded that there is such a thing as Antichrist in [...] in the whole World, much lesse in Christendome, in Italie, in the very Chaire of Saint Peter.

The second sort are like the Donatists, thatAugust. epist. 48. Ʋincentio. when as S. August▪ preached of them, wrote to thē, & disputed with them: yet saith he, nolue­runt veritati consentire, vel victi, that is, thogh they were convicted by the truth, yet would they not consent unto the truth. So (am I per­swaded that) many a learned Papist, though they are staggered to see so many points of this Prophecie, fall so naturally to the person of the Pope: yet they will hold the Conclusion, and hisse at him, who shall call him Antichrist.

But thus much I will be bold to say of both of them: If the ignorant goe on obstinate in his blindnesse: and that at that great day, he bee found a member of Antichrist: if then hee shall plead, my learned Priest did teach mee thus: such a plea shall prevaile as much for him, as the like did for Adam, Gen. 3. 12. the womā gave me, and I did eate. Notwithstanding he shall be cursed, because he was seduced. And the learned, if they goe on in their wilfulnesse, if they shall then pretend, that the Honor which they bare to the Church, made them to hoodwinke their followers, from searching into such an hate­full question; God will speake to them (I doubt not) according to that phrase of Saint Matth. 10. 37. He that loveth the Church more than me is not worthy of me. This I must adde moreover: the ignorant, who doe not know An­tichrist, shall (like the servant, Luke 12. 48.) have stripes notwithstanding. But the learned Papist that will not know this point, shall bee [Page 330] like Lamech, Gen. 4. 24. If the ignorant be scour­ged seven fold, the learned shall bee scourged se­ventie times seven fold. Indeed of either of them, their Conclusion will be their Confusion, if God be not infinitely mercifull unto them. Therefore I beseech them, bee not blinded. If God hath revealed Antichrist, let no man shut your eyes against Gods owne Revelation. Search, fift the question, impartially, laboriously, in which search, I doe not intreat you to be­leeve me, but to examine me; Vpon your exa­mination, beleeve not me, but the truth. If the truth tel you, that these parallels, are proper to the Pope, without any forced application; know that Antichrist hath beene revealed long since: and suspect, nay be assured, that your Pope may be the Antichrist.

One word for our selves. Antichrist is re­vealed, and therefore should be shunned, forsa­ken, and abhorred. The snare is discovered, bee not intangled: the Pit is layd open, plunge not your selves into voluntarie perdition. I will use that phrase to you, which Saint Paul did to the Athenians, Act. 17. 30. Your times of Ig­norance God winked at: but now he commandeth you to beware. The blinded Papists which did live in the Times of Ignorance some 300, or 400 yeeres since, or doe live in the Places of Ignorance, Spaine, Italy, &c. Their invincible ignorance may give us some hope, that there is an extenuation of their fault, and may bee a mitigation of their punishment: But for men [Page 331] in our age or nation! for the Papists, who may: for you, who doe see so many bookes, and heare so many sermons, which are so many Proclama­tions, that Antichrist is revealed. Now, for Papists to cleave to him, or Protestants to fall to him: our fault is unexcusable, our punish­ment will be unsufferable, and our estate is, and will be most miserable.

An honest man may dwell in a stye of Strum­pets, not knowing it, to be so: and a civill man amongst the seditious. But so soone as the bro­thell is notorious, and the rebells proclaimed: none can reside with them without unclean­nesse, and apparent rebellion. So for us: (what excuse soever may bee pretended to blanch ignorance) Now, to goe out of the way, when the Lanthorne is before us: to serve Antichirst, or to favour Antichrist, after he is revealed: to bee Papists, or to turne Papists Now—I doe not, I dare not judge another man. But for mine owne selfe, if it were mine owne Apostasie, this must bee mine owne judgement; It were better that a milstone were tyed about my necke, and that I were cast into the bottome of the sea, Luk. 17. 2. But beloved I hope better things of you. E­ven such as accompany sanctification, and foregoe, yea foretell salvation.

Thus as God hath shewed me, have I shewed you, that Antichrist is revealed. Concerning which point, concerning all points: God him­selfe reveale the truth unto you all, by the illu­mination of his holy spirit.

It is time to End: here is the End of this point: here is the End of this Sermon: here is the End of this Terme: and here may be the End of our Lives. Wee are mortall, and wee are not sure to returne to another Sermon. Howsoever, I End this Sermon, as if it were the End of my Life. I will speake a few words, plainely and heartily. Some labour yee see I have bestowed on a great question: wherein the event, hath answered my expectation.

[...]. I am thought to have erred in both the Extreames. Some say, my sermons have beene excessive, that they have beene too hot: some say they have been defici­ent, too cold against the Papists. That they say I am in both extreames: mee thinketh they conclude, that I am in neither, but that I am in the middest, without Partiality. To answer them, and to satisfie you. I say to the one, my Sermons have not beene Extreame: for I doe not hate the Papists. I say to the other, they have not beene deficient: for I doe not love the Papists. I doe no [...] hate the Papists, because I know they are Men. I doe not love the Pa­pists, because I know they are Erroneous. And indeed, I desire to separate the men from their Error: not by a mathematicall abstraction, in my discourse onely: but I would make such a Reall separation, that (if it lay in my po­wer) I would bring their Persons to Heaven, but send their Errours to the Pit of Hell: [Page 333] to the Devill who hatched them.

I say to both: Againe I renew my old protestation. I doe so speake to you: as I meane to speake to God: as I must accompt my Sermons at that dreadfull day of Iudge­ment.

And in truth, that I should bee partiall any way, I can imagine no motive to lead mee thereunto. Surely it can be neither ambition, nor covetousnesse: no covetousnes, to discharge such a labour: no ambition, to follow such a labourer. And if I understand mine owne Heart: surely by these labours, I am covetous of nothing, but to inrich you with knowledge: and ambitious of nothing, but to promote you to be the heires of the kingdome of Heaven. Now I hope you will pardon such a Covetous­nesse, I hope you will not bee angry with such an Ambition. To purchase both which, for your behoofe, you see my labour: the Talent which God hath given to mee, I imploy for you. Part of this Talent, you have had alrea­die: the remnant, I will now cary home with me. There I will not bury it, nor hide it in a Napkin: but I will indevour to increase it: that I may returne it with abundance, for your future benefit.

In the meane time, wee are to depart, all of us, for many dayes, some of us for many Miles also. One thing therefore (at parting) I will leave you, till it please God we meet againe: either in this place, or in a better. I will bequeath [Page 334] that to you, at the End of my Exercise, which Saint Paul did bequeath to these Thessalonians, at the End of this Epistle;

The Grace of our Lord Iesus Christ, be with you all, Amen.


2 THESS. 2. 7. The Mysterie of Iniquity, doth alreadie worke.’

The Mystery of Iniquitie. Popish Mysteries to ad­vance the Papacy. Popish mysteries to advance Popery. Baites, to catch Papists. Hookes, to hold Papists.

THat I might breathe a little, be­fore I entred this great point, I craved leave, and have taken it. But thereby inopem me copia fecit. Fluent matter furnished my me­ditations, in such abundant manner, that I feared this Exercise would resemble your Ci­sternes, runne at wast. One houre cannot suffice for so many particulars. But I remember a story in Tacitus Atcius Capito, fearing the o­verflowing of Tiber, diverting the streame into other branches, prevented the Inundation of the maine River. So here the mysteries of Anti­christ [Page 336] being so many: I will reserve some of these points unto the 11 verse, where Anti­christs working, is called, efficacia deceptionis, strong delusion: to the 10, where it is termed seductio iniquitatis, deceiveablenesse of unrighte­ousnesse: to the 9, where his comming is said to bee potentia, & prodigijs, in all power, and signes, and lying wonders: and unto the 8 verse where Antichrist is stiled iniquus, that is, the Fountaine of iniquity. All these doe containe Mysteries: but now I will deliver and disco­ver mysteria iniquitatis, Onely such things, as are plainly and primely mysticall above all other.

A Mysterie! Weake blowes are mor­tall, fastned on a feeble adversary. And in a plaine case, to speake but superficially, is to disclose it sufficiently. Here it may stagger e­ven a sound Papist, to see how sitly, the Pope may be invested with this word mystery. Hee is apparelled with it: whatsoever he weareth isPovel de An­tichristo lib. 1. cap. 25. sect. 7. mysticall; His white linnen (Surplesse, Rochet or) Vestiment, they say, is to signifie the whitenesse of the Popes Innocence and Chastity: there is one mystery. His two-horned M [...]ter signifieth his knowledge in the two Testaments: there is a­nother mystery. In his triple Crowne is invol­ved a treble mystery: First it signifieth the three Graces: Faith, Hope, and Charity. Se­condly, his Three Kingdomes, of Heaven, Earth, and Hell. Thirdly, yet more mystically, more majestically, it shadoweth the mystery of the Trinity. Baculus his Crosier importeth the rod [Page 337] of Moses and Aaron, with which hee doth cor­rect the Erring people, another mystery. Annu­lus, his ring, is pignus desponsationis cum Eccle­sia, a pledge of his contract with the Church: a strange mysterie. Chirothecae, his Gloves are signes that his hands are cleere from corrup­tion and bribery: would this were true and no mysterie. Yea the very name of the mystery, the brand of Antichrist, which is written in the fore­head Danaus de An­tichristo C. 11 Dounamus de Antichristo lib. 1 cap. 7, Sect. 10. of the whore of Babylon, Rev. 17. 5. hath beene written above the forehead of the Pope in his Miter. And the mystery of the Name, Rev. 17. 4. Poculum aureum, plenum abominationum: that is, a Golden cup full of abominations: im­plying how the mystery of iniquity shall intox­icate miserable seduced people. The mysterie of this Name is involved in the Popes Name, Papa:

  • P Poculum, a Cup,
  • A Aureum, of gold
  • P Plenum, full
  • A Abominationum, of Abominations.

So that both according to the Letter, and sense also, that word falleth to the Pope, as an indiuiduall property. But I desist from these Velitations, & come to grapple with the cause, and to settle my selfe to more solide, and seri­ous observations. And first by way of Explica­tion for the phrase: then, by way of Application to the Person.

I must pause a little: a little interruption [Page 338] doth injoyne it. Some of our adversaries speake of this phrase, in that phrase which Christ spake to the man, Matth. 22. 12. Friend how camest thou hither, this clause (the mysterie of iniquity) they say, it concerneth not the cause, and it is no appurtenance unto Anti­christ. This text is to be understood of Here­tickes, and cannot be understood of Antichrist himselfe, saith one, who goeth under the nameChristophorson. in Doun. part. 1. cap. 14. Rhemists in 2 Thess. 2. sect. 14. Stuartius in 2 Thess. 2. 7. of Christophorson. I answer in the words of as learned Papists, this mystery of iniquity, is re­ferred to Heretikes (but to such Heretikes as) wch work to the same Antichrist. Antichrist even in Saint Pauls time did worke by this mysterie: non quidem in persona sua, not in his owne per­son, but in suis Pseudoprophetis, but in his Heretikes, who laboured his projects, saith the Vice-Chancellour of Ingolstade. That this mystery of iniquity is the Covert working of Heretikes, to­wards the manifestation of Antichrist, we agree with them: and if it were no more, this were not impertinent to our purpose.

But I will proceed farther, and will prove that this mystery of iniquity is the worke of the very Person of Antichrist, by these five argu­ments. 1 The scope of this Prophecy is to dispute of Antichrist: concerning whom, that Saint Paul might premise some speech of his Pre­cursors in the first verses, and preface to this Chapter, it may seeme somewhat probable. But in corpore, in the serious part of the di­scourse, that hee should insert such a Circum­stāce, [Page 339] itseemes somwhat is improbable. 2 Com­pare the equipolent phrases: the strong delusion in the 11 verse, the deceiveablenesse of unrigh­teousnesse in the 10, and the lyes and wonders in the 9, were the Personell workes of Antichrist, after he was revealed. VVhat hindereth then, that this mystery of iniquity, may not also bee his personall worke, before he was revealed. 3 One word in this text, a mysterie, is opposed to that in the eight verse, he shall be revealed. Now the same thing which was to be revealed, was in a mystery in Saint Pauls time: but it was the per­son, not the precursors of Antichrist which was to be revealed: therefore it was the person, and not the precursors of Antichrist (or Heretikes) which was in this mystery in Saint Pauls time. 4 A second word in this text, doth offer a fourth argument to this assertion, the mystery (saith Saint Paul) doth worke already, which implyeth that it would proceed to worke af­terwards: but that which should worke after­wards is not to be understood onely of the He­retikes, but of Antichrist himselfe: therefore this mystery is not to bee understood onely of the Heretickes, but of Antichrist himselfe. 5 A fift terme in this text, is the adjunct to this mystery, Iniquity: it is called [...], the mystery of iniquity. There is neere affinity betwixt [...], in the eight verse, and [...] in this: But [...], that wicked one is Antichrist: therefore [...], this wickednesse (or mystery) is the worke of Antichrist. Accordingly the Sy­riak [Page 340] translation doth read it plainly, mysterium iniqui illius, that is, the mystery of that wicked one, or of Antichrist himselfe.

Having untyed the knot of this rush, and removed this straw, out of the way. I pro­ceed as I purposed to take this phrase literally, that the Mystery of iniquity did, (and doth) worke: and how that personally it is, and was the worke of Antichrist. Onely covered in Saint Pauls time; but discovered in our time; in both a mystery.

A Mystery is by use, both a Latine, and anCasaubonus in Annales [...]aror. Exercit 16. Sect. 43. English word: but derived from a Greeke or Hebrew roote, [...] Sotar is occultare, to hide: [...] Mistar is res occulta, a secret or hidden Mystery. In Greeke [...] is arcanam doctrinā tradere, to teach some secret doctrine: [...] is doctrina illa imbui, to bee taught that secret doctrine. Whence commeth our word in the text, [...] so called, some say, [...], from shutting up the mouth, because it may not bee disclosed: or rather [...], from shutting up the senses, as it is in the great greeke Etymologist, stopping both the mouth and the eare: that they them­selves might not speake of it, nor strangers seeke after it. Thus concerning the mysteries of Ce­res, Hercules might not bee permitted to know them: and Alcibiades was convented because he did show them. This word (though abused by the Pagans, in their idolatrous ceremonies of Ceres, Isis, Anubis, Lupercalia, and their Bac­chanalia, [Page 341] yet it) is used in the Scriptures: as Luk. 8. 10. the Christian Religion, is termed a mystery, quam Deus ab aeterno absconditam apud se habuisset, cum postea suo tempore, cam mortali­bus patefecit: because God had it from all e­ternity concealed with himselfe, which after­wards in fulnesse of time, he revealed to man­kinde.

The mystery of iniquitie: that is, a secret sinne, Josephus lib. 1. in a high degree: and therefore matchlesse An­tipater was called [...], an un­knowne villaine: so here the mystery of iniquity is a sacred, secret, unknowne, unseene impietie under the cloake of Religion. It is iniquitas, sed mystica, id est, pietatis nomine palliata (so the or­dinary Glosse expoundeth this place) an ini­quity indeed, but mysticall, that is, cloaked with the name of Pietie. Let a learned French man, expresse the phrase: Mysterium iniquitatis, id Casaubonus ad Annales Baron. Exercit. 16. sect. 49. est, occulta quaedam iniquitas, alta, profunda, & omnibus numeris absoluta: the mystery of iniqui­tie, that is, (saith Casaubone) a secret iniquitie, Bradshaw in 2 Thess. 2. 7. deepe, profound, and absolute; Or yet more ex­actly by our owne Countryman: a mysterie of iniquity, that is, an Art of sinning, by secret and cunning conveyances. The demand then ofLessius de Anti­christo Dem. 4. Lessius in his fourth Demonstration, is not unan­swerable, Quando facta sit haec horrenda muta­tio? When was this fearfull change, that the Church of Rome became the seat of Antichrist? I answer, the change was made in a mystery, or in the darke, when none could discerne it.

It doth already worke: that is, Satan doth even Moulins in 2 Thess. 2. 7. now draw out the threads, and spinne the beginning of Antichrists doctrine, which shall be woven toge­ther, by abominable art, and full of wicked craft: saith another learned French man. Or other­wise, he meaneth that the foundations of Anti­christian Religion, were even then secretly lay­ing,Bradshaw in 2 Thess. 2. 7. saith the same English Author, on the same place: as an House is long a squaring, and preparing in private, but at length it is joyned, and reared in publike. The sense of the text (the mystery of iniquity doth already worke) is this: There is a Diabolicall stratagem, under the show of Religion, secretly and cunningly to undermine, and overthrow Christs true Religion, which hath beene working even from the Apostles time, to our time. That Poperie is this mystery: this is the point (which by Gods assistance) I undertake to make plaine at this season.

That your understandings, and memories, may follow my discourse the more easily, I will chalke out the way, by which I meane to lead your attention. First I will shew you their quaerere, and then how they did parta tu­eri: the meanes of their gaining, and of their retaining the Papall greatnesse. Which two stratagems, are two great mysteries. In their retaining it, (which for our time involveth the inlarging of the Papacy also) they use one my­stery to inveagle men, and another to intangle men: they have their baits to catch them, and their hookes to hold them. Both which, they [Page 343] practise by a secret undermining, and by a subtle countermining of their opposites. Each of those exploits, is like the woman, Revel. 17. 5. the word Mystery is written in the very fore­head thereof.

For the first: how Saint Peter, poore Peter: rich indeed in spiritualls, but poore in temporalls; so poore, that he was imprisoned by a Romane Magistrate, Act. 12. 3. Crucified by a Romane Emperour: and certainly the basest Romane sub­ject would have spit in his face, and trod on his necke, if hee should have dared to have lift up his finger against the Romane Empire. Eusebius lib. [...] 25. Moreover, that the Bishops of Rome his successors did succeed and exceed him in povertie: (they had more ordinary frailties, but farre fewer ex­traordinarie abilities than Peter) the whole suc­cession was so poore, that they were persecuted, aboue 300 yeeres: and so persecuted above 200 yeares, that they met in cryptis, in caves, corners, & conventicles: and had not so much as one Church for their religion. Calixtus a­bout the yeere 222. did build the first Church, Platina in Ca­lixto. Discours des temps de­puis les Apotres, anno 222. for publike Christianity. Now (according to the parable propounded to the triumphant Tyrant) how the Naile which was in the bot­tome of the Wheele, should sensim, & sine sensu, by a motion insensible and incomprehensible, climbe to the top, and bring the loftie Naile to the Counterpoint: How the Romane Church, which was vnder foot, should rise up, and bring down, the loftie, Lordly, Lording, Romane Empire: [Page 344] to be her underling, and the whole Church of Christ together with it. This is a wonder: and this is the secret, and the Mysterie, which Saint Paul saith did worke, even in his time.

For the framing of this plot, which they have so admirably effected at this day, it is generally said, that the Heresies which were sowne in the Apostles times were the seed thereof. And indeed so they are in generall: but I suppose that the more particular prose­cuting of their plot, was by the publishing of those two doctrines of Devills (mentioned,Read the 19 Sermon. 1 Tim. 4. 3.) forbidding of meates, and mariage, which we see at this day to be the two pillars of Popery: in truth the Iachin and Boaz, the very strength and establishing of the Romane Monar­chie. 1 Reg. 7. 21. Notwithstanding I conceive the maine engine for this stratagem to bee another point, the point of the Primacie, which was an ham­mering in the Apostles times. Not onely that of Diotrephes, who loved preheminence in the Church, as Saint Iohn taxeth him, in his third Epistle; Nor that of the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 1. 12. where some were for Paul, and some for Peter, there called Cephas. But principally the Primacy attempted by the Church of Rome Rom. 11. 10. Be not high minded, and in the 22 verse, otherwise thou shalt be cut off. For this instruction against Pride, though it bee gene­rall to the Gentiles, yet is it more speciall to the Romanes. And Saint Paul in the same place seemeth to me, to Prophecie in two fa­shions: [Page 345] first by way of instruction, telling what they should then eschew: secondly, by way of prediction, foretelling what afterwards would be their ruine. Now let us briefly ponder, how this project of Primacy hath beene pro­sequuted to this present age.

Wee see that the seeds of ambition were sowne in S. Pauls time. But the power and persecution of the Romane Empire cut downe the blades thereof, that their aspiring was fruit­lesse, for many centuries. But at length the harvest of their pride became ripe; and they have reaped their Primacy, or rather supremacy, by these degrees and devices.

The first which I finde to appeare in pro­motingHist. Popatus cap. 4. Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 22, 23, 24. the Romane Primacy, was Victor Bishop of Rome, about the yeare 194: who ordained that Easter should be celebrated by all on the Lords day: but therein he was instantly oppo­sed by Polycrates Bishop of Ephesus, and by Narcissus Bishop of Hierusalem, and others. Victor notwithstanding confirmed his decree by a Councill held at Rome, anno 196: yet so,Bardus & Pa­vin. in Chronico anno 196. Histor. Papatus cap. 4. as that it was received onely within the Ro­mane Diocesse.

About 240 yeares after Christ, Fabius Bi­shop of Rome called a Councill at Rome, and con­demned Novatiane: herein hee did somewhat goe beyond the bounds of his Bishopricke ( [...], 1 Pet. 4. 15.) Novatus, and Novati­ane, being both Africans: but the piety of the Bishops, and the persecution of the Emperours of [Page 346] that age, cut off all jealousie, suspition, or scruple, that any Primacy was affected. And the godly Christians were glad that Schisme might be composed by any men or meanes.

Two hundred and fifty yeares after Christ Steven Bishop of Rome, incroched a little more,Pless. Myster. progress. 2. and more plainly upon Spaine, where Basilides Bishop of Asturia, and Martial of Melida, be­ing deposed, because they had sacrificed to Idolls for feare of persecution: Steven writ to the Churches of Spaine peremptorily for their re­stitution.

Three hundred and fourteene yeares after our Saviour, Silvester obtained from the Em­perour Constantine, to build Churches, and ma­ny other priviledges. Whence his Successors plead also the donation of Constantine, that hee gave unto the Pope, Rome, and a great part of Italy, under the name of S. Peters patrimony: Although Iohannes Diaconus in the Charter ofD. Collins in Eudam part. 3. cap. 46. Otho the third, is discovered to have beene the father of that memorable fiction.

Anno 336, Athanasius being condemned by aBaronius anno 34 [...]. sect. 5, 6. Councill of the Arrians at Antiochia, sought for succour from Iulius, then Bishop of Rome, who intertaining a good cause (under the pretence to advance the authority of the Church of Rome above the Easterne Churches) commended the same to the patronage of the Emperour Con­stance. But the Easterne Bishops wrote unto Iu­lius not to support Athanasius. Iulius replyed that all might have recourse to Rome for suc­cour, [Page 347] as to the Superiour. This they utterly disclaimed, by divers Epistles to that pur­pose. Notwithstanding, Gratiane the Monke out of those selfe-same Epistles, composed those Hist. Papatus cap. 4. Canons, whereby hee laboureth to prove the Popes Superiority.

Foure hundred yeares after Christ, godly men, to prevent tedious Law-suits, chose Bi­shops their Arbitrators, to compose such Con­troversies as arose amongst them. Which ar­bitrary courses, the Emperours, Arcadius andHist. Papatus cap. 4. Honorius did not onely approve: but moreover they authorised the arbitraments of those Bishops, definitively to conclude all controversies: first in causes of Religion, afterwards in Civill Causes also, ex consensu, with the consent of both par­ties.Hist. Papatus cap. 4. In processe of time Iustinian assigned the Bishops to judge causes, as Commissioners to the Emperour. So long did the Emperours give leave, till the Bishops did take leave to judge: and by those priviledges to wrest the authority of Iurisdiction from the prerogative of the Im­periall Majesty.

Anno 413, Apiarius a disordered Priest ofD. Sharp Dog­maticus Antich. pag. 273. Africa, being deprived by Vrbane his Bishop, appealed unto Sozimus Bishop of Rome: who sent three Legates to require the right of ap­pellation from those African Bishops, that hee might decide the controversie. To which pur­pose his Legates alledged a Canon of Nice: which those Bishops avouched to be forged, because they had a Copie of that Councill. For [Page 348] a full satisfaction, they sent to Cyrill Bishop of Alexandria, and to Atticús Bishop of Con­stantinople, to conferre with their copies of that Councill, but (it was onely a copy of the Romish Bishops countenance) such a Canon could not be found extant in neither. Where­upon the Councill of Carthage consisting of 207 Bishops, and S. Augustine one of them, did condemne Apiarius, and rejected the authority of the Bishop of Rome. Neverthelesse Romish pa­rasites have coined a strange fiction, that cer­taine Canons of that Nicene Councill were bur­ned by the Arrians.

Anno 450, Leo did persist in the promotingLeo [...]. in Anni ver. die Assamp [...]. Serm. 2. of that Primacy: to which purpose hee did strongly insist on that, Tu es Petrus, Thou art Peter, Matth. 16. 18. Petrus (saith he) Petra di­citur dum fundamentum pronunciatur, Peter is called the Rocke, to shew that he is the foun­dation. Whence he frameth a conclusion for his owne purpose, and person, stiling himselfe Papam Ecclesiae Catholicae, The Bishop of the Leo epist. 12. ad Theodos. whole Church; & omnium Episcoporum Prima­tem; the chiefe of all the Bishops.

Anno 533, the Emperour honoured Iohn Baronius. the second with a solemne Embassage, and by it with an obsequious protestation, that he travelled, Omnes Sacerdotes universi Orien­tis tractus, & subjicere, & unire Sāctitati vestrae: To cause the union, and compasse the submission of all the Clergy, of the whole Easterne Country, to the Bishop of Romes Holinesse.

But about 606, Pope Boniface the third,Dounam. Derens. de Antichristo lib. 2. c. 8 sect. 5. (so now I must stile the Bishops of Rome by that name: for this Boniface the third was the first to whom the name Pope was appropriated) I say this Boniface, in that yeare, upon the murther of Mauritius, apprehended an occasion to in­sinuatePless. Myst. Progress. 21. Aimoinus lib. 4. cap. 61. himselfe in the favour of bloudy Pho­cas, who gratified him with the title of Vni­versall Bishop.

About 740, Pope Zacharies judgment being demāded, whether best deserved the kingdom of France, either he who had the Name only, or hee who day and night spent himselfe in the ser­vice of the Commonwealth; the Popes defini­tive sentence being pronounced for the latter, as the better worthy of the Scepter: Hence did France take occasion to depose their King, translating the Crowne from Chilpericus unto Pipine. And hence Rome did take occasion to claime power to dispose of that kingdome: as this very example is alledged to that purpose bySuarez. Apol. lib. 3. cap. 23. nu. 15. Suarez, in his Apology.

Towards the eight hundreth yeare, Steven the third, and Adrian the first, joyned with Carolus magnus, to expell the Graecian Empe­rour out of his Latine Dominions: which beingPless Myst. Progress. 27. effected, (and so one good turne requiring another,) Charles being made Emperour of the West by the Pope; the Pope received from Charles the Confirmation, if not the donation of the City and Seigniory of Rome.

Thus far these Popes proceeded, & to some [Page 350] purpose: Notwithstanding, still the Pope wasHistor. Papatus cap. 4. subject to the Emperour, till he beganne to in­croach, by a meere accident.

Anno 817, Paschal being constrained by the people to be Pope, sent Legates to the Em­perour to excuse that election. The Emperour Ludovicus Pius, being according to his name, a sweet natured courteous Gentleman; did easily admit of satisfaction: yet with a check to the Clergy, and to the people for their auda­cious act: adding a caveat, that they should no more dare to incroach upon his Royaltie. Howbeit, the clawbacke Library-keeper inser­ted this clause, Ludovicus Pius did remit the power of electing the Pope, unto Paschal the first. Since which time, the Popes have proceeded by more generall jugglings. As namely, by proposing preferments, promotions, and brave incouragements, attractive Loadstones, to invite the prime learned of the whole world unto Rome. Keeping publike Registers of all the Benefactors unto Peters Patrimonie, praying for the soules of such charitable per­sons being deceased. One while trumpetting out the charity of the Popes: another time sowing discord betwixt Princes, that they might fish in troubled waters. These made some pretty additions to their greatnesse: till about 1080, Gregory the seventh so advan­ced himselfe against the Emperour, that his suc­cessours have advanced themselves above the Emperour. The Emperours at this day acknow­ledging [Page 351] themselves confirmed by the Pope, and tendering a kinde of fealty to the Pope: as theSacrar. Cerem. l. b. 1. sect. 5. c. 7. forme of their Oath is authentically extant, written by Marcellus Archbishop of Corcira, to Leo the tenth. And thus Giges-like, hath the Pope invisibly advanced himselfe into the Throne of his Master.

Having heard the History, or Matter, That the Church of Rome is made a Monarchy: heare we next the Mystery, Manner, or the Meanes whereby this miracle was effected. Which was so politikely prosequuted by such secret plots, and super-subtle projects, that their cun­ning cariage and cleanly conveyance of their purpose, doth merit the title of my Text, to be termed the Mystery of Iniquity. The meanes which these politicians used, as they were in­visible, so were they innumerable also. I will reduce them to eight heads onely.

It is a memorable fact, mentioned by ourFox Mart. t [...]m 1 1505. pag. 860. Martyrologist, concerning Pope Iulius the Marshall, who cast the Keyes into Tyber, and laid his hand on the Sword. The succession of Popes for many yeares have made use of both to erect their Monarchy. The Keyes 3 waies they have made their Picke-lockes to enter at the Posterne of the Church: and as many waies they have used the Sword, to cut down all op­position, which shall interrupt [...] Entrance, and usurpation. To which I will adde two more, and then their projects are eight in num­ber. Excommunication, Indulgence, or dissimu­lation, [Page 352] and Appellation, are the acts of the keyes: in regard of all which, it seemeth Saint Peters keyes have hanged at the Popes girdle. The Sword also they have permitted: establishing and raising the Papacy by warres, into which they suffered Christendome to fall. Some­times the Sword they submitted: and secretly sowed discord in Christendome, out of which they have sucked no small advantage. And many times the Sword they have immitted, and sheathed in the sides of their Soveraignes, and other Princes, whom they assaulted by the hand of Treason, and open Rebellion. To which adde, their corrupting of Bookes, and abusing of Favours received from Princes and Prelates, as precedents of their right: and we have the in­tire number of all the old Popish Mysteries, I meane to instance in at this season.

First, Excommunications of Princes especi­ally, have beene very advantageous for the advancing of the Papacy. The first that I finde who made use of it in this kinde, was Pope Platina & Onu­ph [...]ius in vita Constantini. Constantine, who did excommunicate the Greeke Emperour Philippicus, under the pretence of the heresie they termed Iconomachy (or oppo­sing Image worship:) which produced so fatall an effect, that Arthemius incouraged there­by, rebelled: and deposed the Emperour, anno 716. And then this audacity became after­wards hereditary: many Popes excommunica­ting many Emperours, and many other Princes. Sigonius lib. 3. de Reg. Ital. By this meanes Gregory the second raised Ra­venna [Page 353] and Venice in rebellion against Leo, and expelled the Greeke Emperor out of the Italian territories. By this, Gregory the seventh cau­sed those tragicall commotions against that noble Germane Emperour, Henry the third:Bar t. 9. an. 726. Artic. 34. Pless. Myster. Opposit. 40. which ended not, but with his life. I need not travell farre for examples: our owne Princes (Iohn, Henry, &c.) are the wofull patternes of this wicked subtlety. Nor was the feare of those Princes in those dayes causelesse, for probably the Popes excommunications caused three notable consequents. First, the Clergy would either withdraw themselves out of the Country, or with-hold the execution of their Calling. Hence the people, yea and Peeres also, would murmure, yea and mu­tinie also; that they were deprived of the exercise of their Devotions. And finally, their neighbouring Princes, from this pretence, had a faire cloke for their ambition, and colour for their invasion. Princes therefore in those dayes were compelled to keepe correspondence with the Popes, for dread of their excommu­nications.

Secondly, the hiding away of the keyes, did sometime helpe them to keepe the stollen goods of the Primacy. Thus Phocas having murthered Pless. Myst. Progress. 22. his Master Mauritius, being disallowed (and deserving to be excommunicated) by Cyriacus Patriarch of Constantinople: the holy conni­vence of honest Boniface the third salved all: and well was he rewarded for it. For it, he [Page 354] atchieved his glorious title of Vniversall Bi­shop. Bastlius also having murthered Michael his Master, who had assumed him into the so­cietie of the Empire, Photius the Patriark of Constantinople rejected the traiterous parricide from the Lords Table: but hee was instantlyAnastasius in Adriano 2. Baronius anno 869. Articulo 81, & 82. countenanced by Pope Adriane the second. And verily he also had his reward: for his sake Basilius called the eighth Vniversall Councill, into which every man was inhibited en­trance by his Imperiall authority, unlesse hee did first subscribe to the point of the Popes Primacie.

3. The third is neere of kinne to this se­cond particular: Vice, or the vicious discord of the Clergie, hath beene the cause of Appel­lation, a prerogative so highly esteemed by them. So the improbity of Apiarius, and the Heresie of Caelestius, a condemned Pelagian, disordered Antonie Bishop of Fussala, who was deprived by his comprovincialls in Afri­ca, and damned Eutiches himselfe: all these ranne to the Church of Rome for refuge, and found it a Sanctuary. Zozimus, Boniface, Cae­lestine, Dr. Sharp Papae speculum pag. 273. Pless Myst. Oppos. 10. & 11. and Leo, did not reject them: but (the last onely excepted) they did accept, incou­rage, and defend those Appellants.

These are three wayes therefore, the Pope hath used the Keyes, whereby he hath entred into the Temple of God: and there now Hee sitteth as God, shewing himselfe that hee is God.

4. Tam Marte, quam Mercurio: the Popes have not beene so cunning with the Keyes, but they have beene as couragious with the Sword. Full politikely did this prudent generation permit Princes to bleed under the Sword of their over-potent Adversaries, that so they might be constrained to cast themselves into the armes of the Bishop of Rome for succour. The Greeke Emperours were in a manner confined to the East, either by the inva­sion of the Sarasins, or by domesticall insur­rections: which did cause them not onely to use connivence to, but to seeke and sue for correspondence with the Popes in the West.

Hence Iustinian the first did professe suchNovel. lib. 8. cap. de Sum. Trini­tate. Baron. tom. 7. Anno 533. Ar­tic. 31. &c. Pless. Myster. Progress. 26. Pless. Myster. Progress. 27. solemne honour to the See Apostolike, and to the holinesse of Pope Iohn the second. And Iustinian the second, communicated his owne majesti­call honour to the entertainment of Pope Con­stantine, that by his assistance and countenance hee might recover his Throne, and revenge himselfe on his Rebells.

In the West, he permitted Aistulphus King of Lumbardy to expell the Greeke Emperour out of Italie: and afterwards excited Pipine to drive AISTVLPHVS out of Lumbar­die, not omitting his owne commoditie, that part of his conquest should bee rendered to Saint Peter for his Patrimonie. Sigonius de reg­no Ital. lib. 5. Platina in Sergio.

Pipine thus gratifying the Pope Steven 2, was rewarded in his off-spring by Pope Sergius [Page 356] the second: who nourished the Papacy, by nou­rishing discord betwixt Charles, Lewis, and Lotharius, brethren: till that the French were expelled out of Italy, and the Empire transla­ted to the Germanes. And how the Germane Emperours have beene wearied with warres in the Holy Land, and worried with warres in Chri­stendome, it is superfluous to relate. The ef­fect is this: by them they are reduced to the meere shadow, and bare name of the Romane Empire: but the Romane Pope thereby hath substantially advanced his Primacy.

5. If they cannot prevaile permittendo, by permitting the sword to devoure such as (being in peace) might oppose them: then submitten­do, did their subtlety assay secretly to send a sword among such Princes: their agents blow­ing up the coales of contention, which at length might flame out into an open combustion.

A cloud of witnesses might dissolve it selfe into a testimony of this truth: but (I have an instar omnium) at the mouth of onely one witness, it shall uncontroulably be established.

These are the very words of a great Pope, to the great Turke: of Pius the second to Ma­homet.

As our Predecessours, STEVEN, ADRI­AN,Epist. Pij 2 ad Princip. Turc. pag. 9. and LEO, did call in PIPIN and CHARLES to their ayde against the King of the Longo­bards, HAISTVLPHVS, and DESIDERIVS: and being delivered from their tyrannie, they transferred the Empire from the Grecians, [Page 357] unto these their Champions. So may we in the ne­cessity of the Church, make use of your assistance: & vicem reddere, and returne a retribution. Even the translation of the Christian Empire to the Turke: if his Turkish sword would make good the Popish quarrells. An excellent motive to make the Turke turne Christian: but more excellent to make Christians take heed of the Popes subtletie.

6. Rather than their sword shall faile themPless. Myst. Opposit. 28. Pless. Myst. Opposit. 40. they will sharpen it at the shop of Rebellion. Gre­gory the fourth conspired with the Sons against the Father, the Emperour Lewis. Gregory the seventh instigated the Germanes to an insur­rection against Henry the third, the Emperour, and invested Ralph the Duke of Burgundy, with the interest to his Empire. Paschal the secondPless. Myst. progress. 42. Pless. myst. progress. 51. excited Henry the sonne, to rebell against Hen­rie the Father. Gregory the ninth did infuse the same poison into the heart of Prince Hen­rie, that hee unnaturally rebelled against his noble Father, Fredericke the second. All which wolvish attempts had this one Foxe-like scope, that the Italian Cities by these meanes becom­ming free States, and obtaining a new forme of government, (divide & imperia) would be lesse able to oppose the Popish affected Monarchy, than if they had remained under the Empe­rour intire, in an united subjection.

Seventhly, to make these mysteries yet more mysticall, they have (Sepia-like) over­spred these acts with an inky darknesse, forging [Page 358] and purging the ancient Authors, that they make those old Writers to speake those things now they are dead, which they abhor­red when they were alive. Their additions to Cyprian, and Augustine, Goulartius, and Eras­mus, have declared: their subtractions from o­ther old authors, their own Indices expurgatorij have sufficiently acknowledged. And how they have extinguished all the writings of the Waldenses, is more than notorious. But their Triarij, their principall corrupters, are three lear­ned men, famous in their generations, in three sorts of learning. Gratiane who compiled all the old Canons in one body of the Decrees. Peter Lumbard his brother (indeed brethren in the Mystery of Iniquity) who brought the Fathers sayings into his foure bookes of Sen­tences. And Baronius, who spent thirty yeares Casaub. Epist. Dedic. Exercit. ad Baron. imployment to comprise all the Ancient Histo­rians in his Tomes. All their indeavours mee­ting in this Center, to advance the Papacy. Gra­tiane making the Law, Lumbard Divinity, and Baronius History to speake what was sit for the corruption of that doctrine, and ambition of those Doctors. But what is the effect? Not­withstanding their cunning conveyance, the carefull eye of an impartiall Reader may dis­cerne the foot-steps of Antichrist, and Antichri­stian errours: even in their writings. And their labour preventeth mine: it proveth my conclusion: The mystery of iniquity is a working, even in their writings.

8. Finally, the favours of Princes and Pre­lates, hath the Pope framed to bee a rare fur­therance for his Prelacy and Principality: re­gistring their voluntary actions of love and courtesie, as precedents of their necessary obser­vance and duty. Thus Honoratus Bishop of Marseille, and Possessor a Bishop of Africa, sentGennad. de Script. Eccles. cap. 100. their Bookes (peradventure to intreat their judgements) to the Bishop of Rome, the one to Gelasius, and the other to Hormisda: HenceBaron. 1. 6. 490. Artic. 43, 45, 46 Bar. [...]. 7. an. 520. Artic. 12, 13, 14. Duorenus de Benefic. lib. 1. c. 2. Bell. de Imag. lib. 2 c. 13. init. Suarez Apol. li. 4. c. 31. nu. 13 [...]ess. de Antichr. part. 2 pag. 267. Bellarm. de P. R. lib. 1. cap. 8. L. Volumus C. de Epist. & Cler. Hist. Papatus cap. 4. P [...]ess. Myster. progress. 64. [...] Baronius constraineth a conclusion: therefore the approbation or suppressing of Bookes belong to the Pope. The Ancients held the judgment of the Church of Rome in high esteeme: and to it even their Councills had recourse, as to the most solide advisers, concerning their Canons and Constitutions. But the Pope hath forced this their arbitrary reverence into a rule of necessary obedience: that now there is no Councill above the Pope, and can bee no Councill without the Pope. Charles the great granted that the Cler­gie should be judged by their Bishops in all cau­ses: on which pretence the Pope hath arroga­ted power to determine all causes, concerning all persons, even against the Emperours them­selves, who gave them these priviledges at the first. To give you a taste of many, in this one example: The King of France Charles the 8, having forcibly entred Rome, yet comming into the Vaticane, on his knees he kissed the foot of Pope Alexander the sixt: and on another day, he held the Bason and Ewre whilest his Holi­nesse [Page 360] did wash. All which that humble Pope caused to be painted in a Gallery of S. Angelo, as a pattern of Princes dutie, which this heroick Conquerour did out of his redundant courtesie. And thus have I discovered their Quaerere, the History, and the Mystery of their attaining their Papall greatnesse.

Thus much concerning their Mysticall Art in attaining: now they are no lesse artificiall in retaining their greatnesse: and in inlarging it in our times. For which purpose they use both baits and hookes: and both by way of undermi­ning and countermining the poore Protestants.

First, they undermine us. Machiavil saith,Mach. Hist. Florent. lib. 2. the old Florentines had a Bell, called Martinel­la, which was rung continually for a whole month together, before their Army took the field, that the Enemy might prepare for defence. We must dreame of no such faire warre from our Adversaries: the Papists will follow Ma­chiavils policie, not his History. Therefore like the Beleaguerers of strong Forts, they use secret Engines to blow up, when suspect nothing, but are secure as upon sound ground. They undermine us admirably: they have Engines and baits answerable to every Sexe and Con­dition.

Women, especially devout women, they worke wonderfully on, and by, for the sprea­ding of Poperie. They doe not onely creepe into houses, and captive sillie Women, as Saint Paul foresaw and foretold long agoe, [Page 361] 2 Tim. 3. 6. But moreover, they stirre up ho­nourable women to persecute professours, and to expell them out of their coast, as the Iewes did at Antioch, Acts 15. 50. Nay they surpasse the Iewes, in their Antichristian Mystery: They say there is now, not onely a femall sexe, but a femall sect also amongst the Papists, Women A­postles, Frieresses, Iesuitesses, called by some spectatrices, by Withrington Ambulatoriae Mo­niales, imployed to reconcile people to the Church of Rome. Surely they want but the Chaire and the Pulpit: and then these Shee-praedicants would doe Pope Ioan singular service. In the meane time, I wish our women, to take heed of these women. They doe undermine them, and are engines of this mystery of iniquity. If this seeme incredible, or extraordinary, they haue more ordinary imployments for femall Pioners. The women intice their servants, in­struct their Children, yea and attempt their husbands also. I have heard a Fowler discourse, that he doth first catch one Bird, and then hee maketh that a Brace-bird: which hee setting by his net, hideth himselfe. This bird draweth others, that they may fall into the net also. The subtle Iesuite, is the Fowler: he hideth himselfe (and will not deale openly with an understan­ding man) but inticeth him by his Brace-bird: the Philistine doth plow with his owne Heifer: and the Iesuite doth imploy a mans owne wife to insnare him unto Popery. Now there­fore I warne Women and men too, to take heed [Page 362] of those women: for in their service there is a secret of Rome, a mystery of Iniquity.

Concerning the conditions of men, they have cunning to Vndermine all sorts. The Com­mon people are caught by common Baites, bragges and braveries. If therefore they be in popish Kingdomes, they will present to their eyes the pompous ornaments of their glorious Churches: Marbles worne with kissing them, and Pave­ments made hollow, with the knees of devout Beadsmen. Virtus laudetur in hoste: I honour even the Papists, for their outward devotion, and from my soule I abhor the prophanesse of too many Protestants, who have no knees to bow in the congregation. But if the common people be in the Reformed Countreys, then they pro­test to their eares the strange Proselytes, which crouch to the Pope for Reconciliation. Thus Eugenius 4, published that the Graecians sued to be reconciled. Paulus 3, that the Armeni­ans did the like. Iulius 3, did receive withHist. Trent. lib. 5. publike solemnity one Simon Sultakam, elect Patriarke of India, as sent from those Chur­ches, to be confirmed by the Successor of Saint Peter, and Vicar of Christ. And Pius 4, causedHist. Trent. lib. 6. it to be published in the Councill of Trent, that Abdisu Patriarke of Muzzah in Assyria, was come to Rome, to render obedience to the Pope: which shamelesse lye, was then contra­dicted by the Embassadours of Portugall, who protested that there was no such Patr [...]arke in that Countrey. In Italy more lately it was re­ported, [Page 363] that the Patriarke of Alexandria, withMalvenda de Antich. lib. 3. cap. 8. Eudaemon. in Abbot. lib. 3. sect. 6. the great Church of Africa, had by their Em­bassadors, submitted themselves to the Pope. Eudaemon the Cretian doth protest on his faith that the Patriark of Egypt, and the people of Aethiopia did submit themselves to Clemens 8, and that their submission was seconded by the Russians: and that the Maronitae Inhabitants of the mountaine Lybanus kept communion with the Church of Rome to this day. The next are Schollers, and they have their baites for them also: goodly Colledges and rare Pri­viledges. No man, Magistrate, nor Monarch to controule them: but by a transcendent prerogative to bee exempted from all secular authority. They promise (and sometime per­forme it) Preferments, answerable to their in­dowments. If they be covetous, they angle for thē with hopes of Abbies, Priories, Bishopricks, & Archbishopricks, the rents of some of them e­qualing the revennues of some Kingdomes. If they be vain-glorious, they hit that veine also. Then their baites are glorious Titles: Fathers, Benedicti, Angeli, Archangeli, Cherubini, Seraphi­ni, & Iesuites. That very name of all awefull honor, to whom all knees should bow, is commu­nicated unto them. These are the baites for Schollers, but I hope our (great Rabbi our) Ma­ster Iesus Christ, will give Schollers grace and eyes to discerne them.

Merchants also, must not thinke to bee free from his ginnes, who maketh merchandise [Page 364] of mens soules. I doubt not but they have freer Trafficke into Countreyes which are Popish, if they seeme so. But in the Popedome, and in Rome it selfe, there are small impositions, and seldome inquisitions, to touch their States or feare their mindes: two notable Baites for worldly men, whose scope is worldly gaine. And in truth, the Pope himselfe doth imply this mysterie: for one of the late Popes for­badeRelation of the Religion in the West. sect. 36. all Merchants, under the paine of Excom­munication, to trade in any Hereticall Countrey. The Fishes of Iordan are said to sport them­selves swimming in the sweet streames there­of, the streame carying them on, till that sud­denly they fall in mare mortuum, and are there choaked with Sulphure: So Merchants being caried with the pleasant current of their profit, and evident commodity, may fall suddenly, and before they be aware swallowed up by Po­pery. But verbum sapienti: I hope they will learne to love God, better then Mammon. For Gentlemen, they have gentle allurements; If they be yong and strong, O let them travell: France is full of Activity, Spaine of Gallantry, Italy of Novelty: all of Popery. If they bee weake and sicke, let them travell too: the Spa is a sove­raigne medicine: but metuendum magis à me­dico, quam à morbo: it is a dreadfull Disease which maketh a man travell so farre for a Ie­suit to be his Physitian. This is a mysterie, but so plaine, that hee deserveth to bee deceived, who cannot or will not discerne it.

Moreover for Noblemen, they have Noble Attractives, worth the biting at: they can pre­ferre them, even to the highest pitch of earth­ly pompe, that is, to be Cardinalls. In place equall to Kings, yea they have the Precedence of kings. Sacrar. Cerem. lib. 1. sect. 5. ca. 3. For that the greatest Cardinall must take place before the greatest King it is a ruled case a­mongst them: And by this policy, the Pope hath glued to his faction, the greatest families in Christendome, as in France alone, the houses of Lorraine, Guise; yea and of Burbon al­so: a pretty mystery.

Finally, the pretended successours of the true Fisherman spread out their nets for the greatest: the Popes have their Baites, even for Princes also. But! ne Sutor ultra crepidam, those great Persons are in my Prayers, no subjects for my Sermons. From my soule will I pray for them perpetually, for all Kings (for our kings especially) that God may perpetually preserve the mystery of their estates, from the Popish plots of the mystery of iniquity.

To conclude: it is a tradition of the Iewes, Aug. Retr. 2, 20. concerning Manna: unicuique secundum propri­am voluntatem in ore sapiebat, the savour there­of answered the appetite of every severall pa­late: So the maine mystery in Popery, is that they frame the points of their Religion, to ra­vish all mens affections, and to fit every humour. As if Epicurus had beene the pretended succes­sour of Saint Peter, or Saint Peters pretended successour had been Epicurus: aut [...], [Page 366] aut [...] This was the practise of E­picurus: Lactantius lib. 3. cap. 17. Vt adse multitudinem contrahat, oppo­sitis singulis quibus (que) moribus loquitur. Desidio­sum vel at literas discere, avarum populari largi­tione liberat—qui claritati studet, huic praecipi [...]ur reges colere: fugienti turbam, solitudo laudatur: qui nimium parcus est, discit aqua & polenta vi­tam posse tolerare: qui uxoremodit, huic enume­rantur bona Caelibatus, &c. Translate it into English, and an ordinary English person would take it to be the Popes ordinary prac­tise: That he may draw the multitude unto him, he hath positions for every humour, of every per­son. If he be a Dullard, he giveth him an Indul­gence for ignorance, as the mother of devotion. If Covetous, he exempts him from popular taxations: the exemption of the Clergy. If hee hunt after preferment, Kings Courts shall imploy him: if hee cannot indure the troubles of the world, a solitary life (of the Hermites) is extolled: if he be frugall, fasting (and such austeritie) is assigned him: and if he dislike his wife, the singular benefits of a single life are preached unto him, and a Monastery prepared for him. To honor my conclusion, I will conclude with the words of him, whoRelation of the Religion in the West. sect. 13. is the Honor of Travellers. Whatsoever either wealth can sway with the Lovers, or voluntarie poverty with the despisers of the world: what Honor with the ambitious, or obedience with the humble: what great imployments, with the stir­ring spirits, or perpetuall quiet with the restive bodies: what content pleasant natures can take in pastimes and jollities, what contrariwise [Page 367] the austere minds in discipline and rigour: what love either chastity can raise in the pure, or voluptuousnesse in the dissolute: what allure­ments are in knowledge, to draw the Contem­plative, or in action of State, to possesse the pra­cticke disposition, &c. In a word, whatsoever any humor can fancy, they have some object to feed it. And this I call the maine engine to un­dermine Christian Religion: it is [...] the very Mystery of Iniquitie.

This is their Mystery in undermining: their pojects are no lesse in Counterming. Five things I observe wherby the protestāts have prevailed against the Papists. Preaching to men, schooling of children, catechizing the ignorant, writing of Martyrs, and calling for Councills. In all which they doe now proprijs pennis percellere, as Iulian spake: they would beat us at our own weapons: if plaine Truth did not shield us.

1 In our primitive Reformation, the indu­strie of our Preachers, and dexterity of our prea­ching, did ravish the multitude, who had been so long buried in Egyptian darknesse. The po­litike Papists perceiving the effect, used the same meanes: and now have provided plenty of excellent Preachers, which they send forth especially on solemne times, & to publike places. In Lent, and in Cities, their pulpits be furnish­ed with men, using such diligence in their la­bours, eloquence in their speech, making such shew of Reverence towards God, of zeale to­wards their Hearers, and of loue to the Truth: [Page 368] that they seeme to want nothing, but a good cause. But that such brave abilities, should pa­tronize such grosse idolatry, Popery! this is the secret which in my text is termed, The mystery of iniquity.

In the meane time, let our Coate contend with their cunning in countermining us. Let us Preachers strive to equall their labours, in our painfull and laborious preaching.

A second point whereby the Protestants prevailed, was their schooling of Children: e­specially in the principles of religion; where­by they did sow the seed betime. Bend those twigges whiles they were yong, and (quo semel imbuta recens servabit odorem, testa diu) season them with that love of the truth in their youth, which old age could never extinguish. The Papists have undertaken us in this also: espe­cially the Iesuites. Wheresoever they come, instantly they open free Schooles, which they discharge so industriously, that presently they procure a confluence of all children. Whom under the pretence of teaching the Arts, they artificially instruct them in the principles of Popery: infusing withall such a prejudice a­gainst our part, as maketh them incapable of converting by Protestants, and implacable of conversing with Protestants: Yea it is said that some Protestants have sent their children to the Iesuites Schooles, because of their dexteritie in teaching. Where it is to bee feared, that they will traine them up like Ianizaries, to returne [Page 369] to the confusion of their owne Parents and Coun­trey. This is a Master-peece in their popish po­licie: a great Mystery.

Here would I exhort our Schoole-masters (like our English with the French in the reign of Henry 5,) to meet their Countermin