VVITH A DESCRIPTI­ON OF THE COVNTREY, THE Commodities, People, Govern­ment and Religion.

VVritten by Captaine SMITH, sometimes Go­vernour of the Countrey.

WHEREVNTO IS ANNEXED THE proceedings of those Colonies, since their first departure from England, with the discourses, Orations, and relations of the Salvages and the accidents that befell them in all their Iournies and discoveries.

TAKEN FAITHFVLLY AS THEY were written out of the writings of

  • RICHARD WIN [...]IN.
  • WILL. [...].

And the relations of divers other diligent observers there present then, and now many of them in England.

By VV. S.


AT OXFORD, Printed by Joseph Barnes. 161 [...].


LEast I should wrong any in dedica­ting this Booke to one: I haue con­cluded it shal be particular to none. I found it only dedicated to a Hand, and to that hand I addresse it. Now for that this businesse is common to the world, this booke may best satis­fie the world, because it was penned in the Land it treateth of. If it bee disliked of men, then I would recommend it to women, for being dearely bought, and farre sought, it should be good for Ladies. When all men reiected Christopher Collumbus: that ever renowned Queene Izabell of Spaine, could pawne her Iewels to supply his wants; whom all the wise men (as they thought them­selues) of that age contemned. I need not say what was his worthinesse, her noblenesse, and their ignorance, that so scornefully did spit at his wants, seeing the whole world is enriched with his golden fortunes. Cannot this successfull example moue the incredulous of this time, to consider, to conceaue, & apprehend Virginia, which might be, or breed vs a second India? hath not England an Izabell, as well as Spaine, nor yet a Collumbus as well as Genua? yes surely it hath, whose desires are no lesse then was worthy Collum bus, their certainties more, their experiences no way wan­ting, only there wants but an Izabell, so it were not from Spaine.

T. A.

Because many doe desire to knowe the maner of their language, I haue inserted these few words.

  • Ka ka torawincs yowo. What call you this.
  • Nemarough. a man.
  • Crenepo. a woman.
  • Marowanchesso a boy.
  • Yehawkans. Houses.
  • Matchcores. Skins, or garments.
  • Mockasins. Shooes.
  • Tussan. Beds.
  • Pokatawer. Fire.
  • Attawp. Abowe.
  • Attonce. Arrowes.
  • Monacookes. Swords.
  • Aumoughhowgh. A Target.
  • Pawcussacks. Gunnes.
  • Tomahacks. Axes.
  • Tockahacks. Pickaxes.
  • Pamesacks. Kniues.
  • Accowprets. Sheares.
  • Pawpecones. Pipes.
  • Mattassin. Copper.
  • Vssawassin. Iron, Brasse, Silver, or any white mettal.
  • Musses. Woods.
  • Attasskuss. Leaues, weeds, or grasse.
  • Chepsin. Land.
  • Shacquohocan. A stone.
  • Wepenter, a cookold.
  • Suckahanna. Water.
  • Noughmass. Fish.
  • [Page] [...] Surgion.
  • We ghsha [...]ghes. Flesh.
  • Sawwehone. Bloud.
  • Netoppew. Friends.
  • Marrapough. Enimies.
  • Maskapow. The wo rst of the enimies.
  • Mawchick chammay. The best of friends.
  • Casacunnakack, peya quagh acquintan v [...]asantasough.
  • In how many daies will there come hether any more English ships?
Their numbers.
  • Necut. 1.
  • Ningh. 2
  • Nuss. 3.
  • Yowgh. 4.
  • Paranske. 5.
  • Comotinch. 6.
  • Toppawoss. 7.
  • Nusswash. 8.
  • Kekatawgh. 9.
  • Kaskeke.
  • They count no more but by tennes as followeth.
  • Case, how many.
  • Ninghsapooeksku. 20.
  • Nussapooeksku. 30.
  • Yowghapooeksku. 40.
  • Parankestassapooeksku. 50.
  • Comatinchtassapooeksku. 60.
  • Nussswashtassapooeksku. 80.
  • Toppawousstassapooeksku. 70
  • Kekataughtassapooeksku. 90.
  • [Page] Necuttoughtysinough. 100.
  • Necuttwevnquaough. 1000.
  • Rawcosowghs. Daies.
  • Keskowghes. Sunnes.
  • Toppquough. Nights.
  • Nepawweshowghs. Moones,
  • Pawpaxsoughes. Yeares.
  • Pummahumps. Starres.
  • Osies. Heavens.
  • Okes. Gods.
  • Quiyoughcosucks. Pettie Gods, and their affinities.
  • Righcomoughes. Deaths.
  • Kekughes. Liues.
  • Mowchick woyawgh tawgh noeragh kaquere mecher.
  • I am verie hungrie? what shall I eate?
  • Tawnor nehiegh Powhatan. where dwels Powwahtan.
  • Mache, nehiegh yowrowgh, orapaks. Now he dwels a great way hence at orapaks.
  • Vttapitchewayne anpechitchs nehawper werowacomoco.
  • You lie, he staide ever at werowocomoco.
  • Kator nehiegh mattagh neer vttapitchewayne. Truely he is there I doe not lie.
  • Spaughtynere keragh werowance mawmarinough kekaten wawgh peyaquaugh. Run you then to the king mawma­rynough and bid him come hither.
  • Vtteke, epeya weyack wighwhip. Get you gone, and come againe quickly.
  • Kekaten pokahontas patiaquagh niugh tanks manotyens neer mowchick rawrenock audowgh. Bid Pokahontas bring hither two little Baskets, & I wil giue her white beads to make her a chaine.


VIRGINIA is a Country in Ameri­ca that lyeth betweene the degrees of 34 and 44 of the north latitude. The latitude. The bounds thereof on the East side are the great Ocean. On the South lyeth Florida: on the North nova Francia. As for the West thereof, the limits are vnknowne. Of all this country wee purpose not to speake, but only of that part which was planted by the English men in the yeare of our Lord, 1606. And this is vnder the degrees 37. 38. and 39. The temperature of this countrie doth agree well with English constitutions being once seasoned to the country. Which appeared by this, that though by many occasions our people fell sicke; yet did they recover by very small meanes & continued in health, though there were other great causes, not only to haue made them sicke, but even to end their daies, &c.

The sommer is hot as in Spaine; the winter colde as in The tēperature. Fraunce or England. The heat of sommer is in Iune, Iulie, and August, but commonly the coole Breefes asswage the vehemencie of the heat. The chiefe of winter is halfe De­cember, Ianuary; February, and halfe March. The colde is extreame sharpe, but here the proverbe is true that no ex­treame long continueth.

In the yeare 1607. was an extraordinary frost in most of Europe, and this frost was founde as extreame in Uirginia. But the next yeare for 8. or 10. daies of ill weather, other 14 daies would be as Sommer.

The windes here are variable, but the like thunder and The windes. lightning to purifie the aire, I haue seldome either seene or [Page 2] heard in Europe. From the Southwest came the greatest gustes with thunder and heat. The Northwest winde is cō ­monly coole and bringeth faire weather with it. From the North is the greatest cold, and from the East and South-East as from the Barmadas, fogs and raines.

Some times there are great droughts other times much raine, yet great necessity of neither, by reason we see not but that all the variety of needfull fruits in Europe may be there in great plenty by the industry of men, as appeareth by those we there planted.

There is but one entraunce by sea into this country and The entrances. that is at the mouth of a very goodly Bay the widenesse whereof is neare 18. or 20. miles. The cape on the South­side is called Ccpe Henry in honour of our most noble Cape Henry. Prince. The shew of the land there is a white hilly sand like vnto the Downes, and along the shores great plentie of Pines and Firres.

The north Cape is called Cape Charles in honour of the Cape Charles. worthy Duke of Yorke. Within is a country that may haue the prerogatiue over the most pleasant places of Europe, Asia, Africa, or America, for large and pleasant navigable rivers, heaven & earth never agreed better to frame a place for mans habitation being of our constitutions, were it ful­ly manured and inhabited by industrious people. here are mountaines, hils, plaines, valleyes, rivers and brookes, all The country. running most pleasantly into a faire Bay cōpassed but for the mouth with fruitfull and delightsome land. In the Bay and rivers are many Isles both great and small, some woo­dy, some plaine, most of them low and not inhabited. This Bay lieth North and South in which the water floweth neare 200 miles & hath a channell for 140 miles, of depth betwixt 7 and 15 fadome, holding in breadth for the most part 10 or 14 miles. Frō the head of the Bay at the north, the land is mountanous, & so in a manner from thence by a Southwest line; So that the more Southward, the farther of from the Bay are those mounetaines. From which fall [Page 3] certaine brookes which after come to fiue principall navi­gable rivers. These run from the Northwest into the South east, and so into the west side of the Bay, where the fall of every River is within 20 or 15 miles one of another.

The mountaines are of diverse natures for at the head of The moūtaines. the Bay the rockes are of a composition like milnstones. Some of marble, &c. And many peeces of christall we foūd as throwne downe by water from the mountaines. For in winter these mountaines are covered with much snow, & when it dissolveth the waters fall with such violence, that it causeth great inundations in the narrow valleyes which yet is scarce perceived being once in the rivers. These wa­ters wash from the rocks such glistering tinctures that the ground in some places seemeth as guilded, where both the rocks and the earth are so splendent to behold, that better iudgements then ours might haue beene perswaded, they con­tained more then probabilities. The vesture of the earth in most places doeth manifestly proue the nature of the soile to be lusty and very rich. The colour of the earth we found The soile. in diverse places, resembleth bole Armoniac, terra sigillata ad lemnia, Fullers earth marle and divers other such appea­rances. But generally for the most part the earth is a black sandy mould, in some places a fat slimy clay, in other pla­ces a very barren gravelli. But the best ground is knowne by the vesture it beareth, as by the greatnesse of trees or a­bundance of weedes, &c.

The country is not mountanous nor yet low but such The vallyes. pleasant plaine hils & fertle valleyes, one prettily crossing an other, and watered so conveniently with their sweete brookes and christall springs, as if art it selfe had devised them. By the rivers are many plaine marishes containing Plaines. some 20 some 100 some 200 Acres, some more, some lesse. Other plaines there are fewe, but only where the Savages inhabit: but all overgrowne with trees and weedes being a plaine wildernes as God first made it.

On the west side of the Bay, wee said were 5. faire and [Page 4] delightfull navigable rivers, of which wee will nowe pro­ceed to report. The first of those rivers and the next to the mouth of the Bay hath his course from the West and by North. The name of this river they call Powhatan accor­to The river Pow­hatan. the name of a principall country that lieth vpon it. The mouth of this river is neere three miles in breadth, yet doe the shoules force the Channell so neere the land that a Sacre will overshoot it at point blanck. This river is navigable 100 miles, the shouldes and soundings are here needlesse to bee ex­pressed. It falleth from Rockes farre west in a country inha­bited by a nation that they call Monacan. But where it commeth into our discoverie it is Powhatan. In the far­thest place that was diligently observed, are falles, rockes, showles, &c. which makes it past navigation any higher. Thence in the running downeward, the river is enriched with many goodly brookes, which are maintained by an infinit number of smal rundles and pleasant springs that disperse themselues for best service, as doe the vaines of a mans body. From the South there fals into this river. First The branches. the pleasant river of Apamatuck. next more to the East are the two rivers of Quiyoughcohanocke. A little farther is a Bay wherein falleth 3 or 4 prettie brookes & creekes that halfe intrench the Inhabitants of Warraskoyac then the ri­ver of Nandsamund, and lastly the brooke of Chisapeack. From the North side is the river of Chickahamania, the backe river of Iames Towne; another by the Cedar Isle, where we lived 10 weekes vpon oisters, then a convenient harbour for fisher boats or smal boats at Kecoughtan, that so conveniently turneth it selfe into Bayes and Creeks that make that place very pleasant to inhabit, their cornefields being girded therein in a manner as Peninsulaes. The most of these rivers are inhabited by severall nations, or rather families. Of the name of the rivers. They haue also in every of those places some Gouernour, as their king, which they call Werowances. In a Peninsula on the North side of this Iames Towne. river are the English planted in a place by thē called Iames [Page 5] Towne, in honour of the Kings most excellent Maiestie, vpon which side are also many places vnder the Werow­ances.

The first and next the rivers mouth are the Kecoughtans, The severall in­habitants. who besides their women and children, haue not past 20. fighting men. The Paspaheghes on whose land is seated the English Colony, some 40. miles from the Bay haue not past 40. The river called Chickahamania neere 200. The Weanocks 100. The Arrowhatocks 30. The place called Powhatan, some 40. On the South side this river the Ap­pamatucks haue 60 fighting men. The Quiyougcohanocks, 25. The Warraskoyacks 40. The Nandsamunds 200. The Chesapeacks are able to make 100. Of this last place the Bay beareth the name. In all these places is a severall com­mander, which they call Werowance, except the Chickha­manians, who are governed by the Priestes and their Assi­stants of their Elders called Caw-cawwassoughes. In somer no place affordeth more plentie of Sturgeon, nor in winter more abundance of fowle, especially in the time of frost. There was once taken 52 Sturgeons at a draught, at ano­ther draught 68. From the later end of May till the end of Iune are taken few, but yong Sturgeons of 2 foot or a yard long. From thence till the midst of September, them of 2 or three yards long and fewe others. And in 4 or 5 houres with one nette were ordinarily taken 7 or 8: often more, seldome lesse. In the small rivers all the yeare there is good plentie of small fish, so that with hookes those that would take paines had sufficient.

Foureteene miles Northward from the river Powhatan, R. Pamavnke. is the river Pamavnke, which is navigable 60 or 70 myles, but with Catches and small Barkes, 30 or 40 myles farther. At the ordinary flowing of the salt water, it divideth it selfe into two gallant branches. On the South side inha­bit the people of Youghtanund, who haue about 60 mē for The inhabitants. warres. On the North branch Mattapament, who haue 30 men. Where this river is divided the Country is called Pa­mavuke, [Page 6] and nourisheth neere 300 able men. About 25 miles lower on the North side of this river is Werawocomo­co, where their great King inhabited when Captain Smith was deliuered him prisoner; yet there are not past 40 able men. But now he hath abandoned that, and liueth at Ora­pakes by Youghtanund in the wildernesse; 10 or 12 myles lower; on the South side of this river is Chiskiack, which hath some 40 or 50 men. These, as also Apamatuck, Irro­hatock, and Powhatan, are their great kings chiefe alliance and inhabitance. The rest (as they report) his Conquests.

Before we come to the third river that falleth from the Payankatank. R mountaines, there is another river (some 30 myles navi­gable) that commeth from the Inland, the river is called Payankatanke, the Inhabitants are about some 40 service­able men.

The third navigable riuer is called Toppahanock. (This Toppahanock. R is navigable some 130 myles) At the top of it inhabit the people called Mannahoackes amongst the mountaines, but they are aboue the place we describe. Vpon this river on the North side are seated a people called Cuttatawomen, The inhabitants with 30 fighting men. Higher on the riuer are the Mo­raughtacunds, with 80 able men. Beyond them Toppaha­nock with 100 men. Far aboue is another Cuttatawomen with 20 men. On the South, far within the river is Nau­taughtacund hauing 150 men. This river also as the two former, is replenished with fish and foule.

The fourth river is called Patawomeke & is 6 or 7 miles in breadth. It is navigable 140 miles, & fed as the rest with Patawomek, R. many sweet rivers and springs, which fall from the borde­ring hils. These hils many of them are planted, and yeelde no lesse plenty and variety of fruit then the river exceedeth with abundance of fish. This river is inhabited on both sides. First on the South side at the very entrance is Wigh­cocomoco & hath some 130 men, beyond them Sekacawone with 30. The Onawmanient with 100. Then Patawomeke The inhabitants with 160 able men. Here doth the river divide it selfe in [Page 7] to 3 or 4 convenient rivers; The greatest of the least is cal­led Quiyough treadeth north west, but the river it selfe tur­neth North east and is stil a navigable streame. On the we­sterne side of this bought is Tauxenent with 40 men. On the north of this river is Secowocomoco with 40 men. Some what further Potapaco with 20. In the East part of the bought of the river, is Pamacacack with 60 mē, After Moy owances with 100. And lastly Nacotchtanke with 80 able men. The river 10 miles aboue this place maketh his pas­sage downe a low pleasant vally overshaddowed in manie places with high rocky mountaines; from whence distill innumerable sweet and pleasant springs,

The fifth river is called Pawtuxunt, and is of a lesse pro­portion Pawtuxunt, R. then the rest; but the channell is 16 or 18 fadome deepe in some places. Here are infinit skuls of divers kinds of fish more then elsewhere. Vpon this river dwell the peo­ple called Acquintanacksuak, Pawtuxunt and Mattapa­nient. 200 men was the greatest strength that could bee there perceived. But they inhabit togither, and not so dis­persed as the rest. These of al other were found the most ci­vill to giue intertainement.

Thirty leagues Northward is a river not inhabited, yet navigable; Bolus, R. for the red earth or clay resembling bole Armoni­ack the English called it Bolus. At the end of the Bay where The head of the Bay. it is 6 or 7 miles in breadth, there fall into it 4 small rivers, 3 of them issuing from diverse bogges invironed with high mountaines. There is one that commeth du north 3 or 4. daies iourny frō the head of the Bay and fals from rocks & mountaines, vpon this riuer inhabit a people called Sas­quesahanock. They are seated 2 daies higher then was pas­sage Sasquesahanock. for the discoverers Barge, which was hardly 2 toons, and had in it but 12 men to perform this discouery, where­in they lay aboue the space of 12 weekes vpon those great waters in those vnknowne Countries, hauing nothing but a little meale or oatmeale and water to feed them; & scarse halfe sufficient of that for halfe that time, but that by the [Page 8] Savages and by the plentie of fish they found in all places, they made themselues provision as opportunitie served; yet had they not a marriner or any that had skill to trim their sayles, vse their oares, or any businesse belonging to the Barge, but 2 or 3. The rest being Gentlemen or as ig­norant in such toyle and labour, yet necessitie in a short time by their Captaines diligence and example, taught thē to become so perfect, that what they did by such small meanes, I leaue to the censure of the Reader to iudge by this discourse and the annexed Map. But to proceed, 60 of those Sasquesahanocks, came to the discouerers with skins, Bowes, Arrowes, Targets, Beads, Swords, and Tobacco pipes for presents. Such great and well proportioned men, are seldome seene, for they seemed like Giants to the Eng­lish, yea and to the neighbours, yet seemed of an honest & simple disposition, with much adoe restrained from ado­ring the discoverers as Gods. Those are the most strange people of all those Countries, both in language and attire; for their language it may well beseeme their proportions, sounding from them, as it were a great voice in a vault, or caue, as an Eccho. Their attire is the skinnes of Beares, and The description of a Sasquesa hanough. Woolues, some haue Cassacks made of Beares heades and skinnes that a mans necke goes through the skinnes neck, and the eares of the beare fastned to his shoulders behind, the nose and teeth hanging downe his breast, and at the end of the nose hung a Beares Pawe, the halfe sleeues comming to the elbowes were the neckes of Beares and the armes through the mouth with pawes hanging at their noses. One had the head of a Woolfe hanging in a chaine for a Iewell, his Tobacco pipe 3 quarters of a yard long, pret­tily carued with a Bird, a Beare, a Deare, or some such de­vise at the great end, sufficient to beat out the braines of a man, with bowes, and arrowes, and clubs, sutable to their greatnesse and conditions. These are scarse knowne to Powhatan. They can make neere 600 able and mighty men and are pallisadoed in their Townes to defend them from [Page 9] the Massawomekes their mortall enimies. 5 of their chiefe Werowances came aboard the discoverers and crossed the Bay in their Barge. The picture of the greatest of them is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose leg was 3 quar­ters of a yard about, and all the rest of his limbes so answe­rable to that proportion, that he seemed the goodliest man that euer we beheld. His haire, the one side was long, the other shore close with a ridge over his crown like a cocks combe. His arrowes were fiue quarters long, headed with flints or splinters of stones, in forme like a heart, an inch broad, and an inch and a halfe or more long. These hee wore in a woolues skinne at his backe for his quiver, his bow in the one hand and his clubbe in the other, as is de­scribed.

On the East side the Bay is the river of Tockwhogh, & Tockwhagh. R. vpon it a people that can make 100 men, seated some 7 miles within the river: where they haue a Fort very wel pal lisadoed and mantelled with the barke of trees. Next to them is Ozinies with 60 men. More to the South of that East side of the Bay, the river of Rapahanock, neere vnto Rapahanock. R. Kuskarawaock. R. Wighcocomoco. R. which is the river of Kuskarawaock. Vpon which is seated a people with 200 men. After that is the river of Tants Wighcocomoco, and on it a people with 100 men. The peo­ple of those rivers are of little stature, of another language from the rest, and very rude. But they on the river of Aco­hanock with 40 men, and they of Accomack 80 men doth Accomack. R. equalize any of the Territories of Powhatan & speake his language, who over all those doth rule as king.

Southward they went to some parts of Chawonock and Chawonock. the Mangoags to search them there left by Sr Walter Ra­leigh; for those parts to the Towne of Chisapeack hath for­merly been discovered by Mr Heriots and Sr Raph Layne. Amongst those people are thus many severall nations of sundry languages, that environ Powhatans Territories. The seueral languages. The Chawonokes, the Mangoags, the Monacans, the Man­nahokes, the Masawomekes, the Powhatans, the Sasquesaha­nocks, [Page 10] the Atquanachukes, the Tockwoghes, and the Kusca­rawaokes. Al those not any one vnderstandeth another but by Interpreters. Their severall habitations are more plain­ly described by this annexed Mappe, which will present to the eie, the way of the mountaines and current of the ri­uers, with their seuerall turnings, bayes, shoules, Isles, In­lets, and creekes, the breadth of the waters, the distances of places and such like. In which Mappe obserue this, that as far as you see the little Crosses on riuers, mountaines, or other places haue beene discovered; the rest was had by information of the Savages, and are set downe, according to their instructions.

Of such things which are naturall in Uirginia and how they vse them.

Uirginia doth afford many excellent vegitables and li­uing Creatures, yet grasse there is little or none, but what groweth in lowe Marishes: for all the Countrey is over­growne Why there is lit­tle grasse. with trees, whose droppings continually turneth their grasse to weedes, by reason of the ranck nesse of the ground which would soone be amended by good husban­dry. The wood that is most common is Oke and Walnut, Weeds with their fruits. many of their Okes are so tall and straight, that they will beare two foote and a halfe square of good timber for 20 yards long; Of this wood there is 2 or 3 seuerall kinds. The Acornes of one kind, whose barke is more white, then the other, is somewhat sweetish, which being boyled halfe a day in severall waters, at last afford a sweete oyle, which they keep in goards to annoint their heads and ioints. The fruit they eate made in bread or otherwise. There is also some Elme, some black walnut tree, and some Ash: of Ash Elme. and Elme they make sope Ashes. If the trees be very great, the ashes will be good, and melt to hard lumps, but if they be small, it will be but powder, and not so good as the o­ther. Of walnuts there is 2 or 3 kindes; there is a kinde of Walnuts. Supposed Cypres wood we called Cypres, because both the wood, the fruit, and leafe did most resemble it, and of those trees there are [Page 11] some neere 3 fadome about at the root very straight, and 50, 60, or 80 foot without a braunch. By the dwelling of the Savages are some great Mulbery trees, and in some parts of the Countrey, they are found growing naturally Mulberies. in prettie groues. There was an assay made to make silke, & and surely the wormes prospered excellent well, till the master workeman fell sicke. During which time they were eaten with rats.

In some parts were found some Chesnuts whose wild fruit Chesnuts. equalize the best in France, Spaine, Germany, or Italy, to their tasts that had tasted them all. Plumbs there are of 3 sorts. The red and white are like our hedge plumbs, but the other which they call Putchamins, grow as high as a Pal­meta: the fruit is like a medler; it is first greene then yellow, and red when it is ripe; if it be not ripe it will drawe a mans mouth awrie, with much torment, but when it is ripe, it is as delicious as an Apricock.

They haue Cherries and those are much like a Damsen, Cherries. but for their tastes and colour we called them Cherries. we see some few Crabs, but very small and bitter. Of vines Vines. great abundance in many parts that climbe the toppes of the highest trees in some places, but these beare but fewe grapes. But by the riuers and Savage habitations where they are not overshadowed from the sunne, they are cove­red with fruit, though never pruined nor manured. Of those hedge grapes wee made neere 20 gallons of wine, which was neare as good as your French Brittish wine, but certainely they would proue good were they well ma­nured. There is another sort of grape neere as great as a Cherry, this they call Messaminnes, they bee fatte, and the iuyce thicke. Neither doth the tast so well please whē they are made in wine. They haue a small fruit growing on little trees, husked like a Chesnut, but the fruit most like a very Chechinquaēs small acorne. This they call Chechinquamins which they e­steeme a great daintie. They haue a berry much like our gooseberry, in greatnesse, colour, and tast; those they call [Page 12] Rawcomenes, and doe eat them raw or boyled. Of these na­turall fruits they liue a great part of the yeare, which they Rawcomens vse in this manner, The walnuts, Chesnuts, Acornes, and How they vse their fruits Chechinquamens are dryed to keepe. When they need them they breake them betweene two stones, yet some part of the walnut shels will cleaue to the fruit. Then doe they dry them againe vpon a mat ouer a hurdle. After they put it in­to a morter of wood, and beat it very small: that done they mix it with water, that the shels may sinke to the bottome. This water will be coloured as milke, which they cal Paw­cohiscora, and keepe it for their vse. The fruit like medlers Walnut milke. they call Putchamins, they cast vppon hurdles on a mat and preserue them as Pruines. Of their Chesnuts and Chechinquamens boyled 4 houres, they make both broath and bread for their chiefe men, or at their greatest feasts. Besides those fruit trees, there is a white populer, and ano­ther tree like vnto it, that yeeldeth a very cleere and an o­doriferous Gumme like Turpentine, which some called Bal­som. Gummes. Cedars. Saxafras trees. There are also Cedars and Saxafras-trees. They also yeeld gummes in a small proportion of themselues. Wee tryed conclusions to extract it out of the wood, but nature afforded more then our arts.

In the warry valleyes groweth a berry which they call Qcoughtanamnis very much like vnto Capers. These they Berries. dry in sommer. When they will eat them they boile them neare halfe a day; for otherwise they differ not much from poyson. Mattoume groweth as our bents do in meddows. The seede is not much vnlike to rie, though much smaller. Matoume. this they vse for a dainty bread buttered with deare suet.

During Somer there are either strawberries which ripen Strawberries in April; or mulberries which ripē in May & Iune. Raspises hurtes; or a fruit that the Inhabitāts call Maracocks, which is a pleasant wholsome fruit much like a lemond. Many hearbes in the spring time there are commonly dispersed throughout the woods, good for brothes and sallets, as Hearbs. Violets, Purslin, Sorrell, &c. Besides many we vsed whose [Page 13] names we know not.

The chiefe roote they haue for foode is called Tocka­whoughe, Rootes. It groweth like a flagge in low muddy freshes. In one day a Savage will gather sufficient for a weeke. These rootes are much of the greatnes & taste of Potatoes. They vse to couer a great many of thē with oke leaues & ferne, and then couer all with earth in the manner of a colepit; o­ver it, on each side, they continue a great fire 24 houres be­fore they dare eat it. Raw it is no better then poison, & be­ing roasted, except it be tender and the heat abated, or sli­ced and dried in the sun, mixed with sorrell and meale or such like, it will prickle and torment the throat extreame­ly, and yet in sommer they vse this ordinarily for bread.

They haue an other roote which they call wighsacan: as Wighsacan a▪ Root. thother feedeth the body, so this cureth their hurts & dis­eases. It is a small root which they bruise and apply to the wound. Pocones, is a small roote that groweth in the moū ­taines, Pocones a small Roote. which being dryed & beate in powder turneth red. And this they vse for swellings, aches, annointing their ioints, painting their heads and garments. They account it very pretious and of much worth. Musquaspenne is a roote of the bignesse of a finger, and as red as bloud. In drying it Musquaspenne. a Root. will wither almost to nothing. This they vse to paint their Mattes, Targets and such like.

There is also Pellitory of Spaine, Safafrage, and diuers o­ther Pellitory. Sasafrage. simples, which the Apothecaries gathered, and com­mended to be good, and medicinable.

In the low Marishes growe plots of Onyons contai­ning Onyons. an acre of ground or more in many places; but they are small not past the bignesse of the Toppe of ones Thumbe.

Of beastes the chiefe are Deare, nothing differing from Their chiefe beasts are Deare ours. In the deserts towards the heads of the riuers, ther are many, but amongst the riuers few. There is a beast they call Aroughcun, much like a badger, but vseth to liue on trees as Aroughcun. Squirrels. Squirrels doe. Their Squirrels some are neare as greate as [Page 14] our small est sort of wilde rabbits, some blackish or blacke and white, but the most are gray.

A small beast they haue, they call Assapanick but we call them flying squirrels, because spreading their legs, and so Assapanick a Squirrel flying stretching the largenesse of their skins that they haue bin seene to fly 30 or 40 yards. An Opassom hath a head like a Swine, & a taile like a Rat, and is of the bignes of a Cat. Vn­der Opassom. her belly shee hath a bagge, wherein shee lodgeth, car­rieth, and sucketh her young. Mussascus, is a beast of the forme and nature of our water Rats, but many of thē smell Mussascus. exceeding strongly of muske. Their Hares no bigger then our Conies, and few of them to be found.

Their Beares are very little in comparison of those of Muscovia and Tartaria. The Beaver is as bigge as Beares. The Beaver. an ordinary water dogge, but his legges exceeding short. His fore feete like a dogs, his hinder feet like a Swans. His taile somewhat like the forme of a Racket bare without haire, which to eate the Savages esteeme a great delicate. They haue many Otters which as the Beavers they take with snares, and esteeme the skinnes great ornaments, and Otters. of all those beasts they vse to feede when they catch them.

There is also a beast they call Vetchunquoyes in the forme of a wilde Cat, their Foxes are like our siluer haired Conies Vetchunquoyes. Foxes. Dogges. of a small proportion, and not smelling like those in Eng­land. Their Dogges of that country are like their Wolues, and cannot barke but howle, and their wolues not much bigger then our English Foxes. Martins, Powlecats, wees­sels Martins. Polcats. Weesels. and Minkes. and Minkes we know they haue, because we haue seen many of their skinnes, though very seldome any of them aliue. But one thing is strange that we could never perceiue their vermine destroy our hennes, Egges nor Chickens nor do any hurt, nor their flyes nor serpents anie waie perniti­ous, where in the South parts of America they are alwaies dangerous and often deadly.

Of birds the Eagle is the greatest devourer. Hawkes Birds. there be of diuerse sorts as our Falconers called them. Spa­rowhawkes, [Page 15] Lanarets, Goshawkes, Falcons & Osperayes, but they all pray most vpon fish. Patrridges there are little big­ger then our Quailes, wilde Turkies are as bigge as our tame. There are woosels or blackbirds with red shoulders, thrushes and diuerse sorts of small birds, some red, some blew, scarce so bigge as a wrenne, but few in Sommer. In winter there are great plenty of Swans, Craynes, gray and white with blacke wings, Herons, Geese, Brants, Ducke, Wigeon, Dotterell, Oxeies, Parrats and Pigeons. Of all those sorts great abundance, and some other strange kinds to vs vnknowne by name. But in sommer not any or a very few to be seene.

Of fish we were best acquainted with Sturgeon, Grampus, Fish. Porpus, Seales, Stingraies, whose tailes are very dangerous. Brettes, mullets, white Salmonds, Trowts, Soles, Plaice, Herrings, Conyfish, Rockfish, Eeles, Lampreyes, Catfish, Shades, Pearch of 3 sorts, Crabs, Shrimps, Creuises, Oy­sters, Cocles and Muscles. But the most strange fish is a smal one so like the picture of S. George his Dragon, as pos­sible can be, except his legs and wings, and the Todefish which will swell till it be like to brust, when it commeth into the aire.

Concerning the entrailes of the earth little can be saide for certainty. There wanted good Refiners. for these that The Rocks. tooke vpon them to haue skill this way, tooke vp the wa­shings from the mounetaines and some moskered shining stones and spangles which the waters brought down, flat­tering themselues in their own vaine conceits to haue bin supposed that they were not, by the meanes of that ore, if it proued as their arts and iudgements expected. Only this is certaine, that many regions lying in the same latitude, afford mines very rich of diuerse natures. The crust also of these rockes would easily perswade a man to beleeue there are other mines then yron and steele, if there were but meanes and men of experience that knew the mine from spare.

Of their Planted fruits in Uirginia and how they vse them.

They diuide the yeare into 5. seasons. Their winter some call Popanow, the spring Cattapeuk, the sommer Cohatta­yough, How they di­vide the yeare. the caring of their Corne Nepinough, the haruest & fall of leafe Taquitock. From September vntill the midst of Nouember are the chiefe Feasts and sacrifice. Then haue they plenty of fruits as well planted as naturall, as corne, greene and ripe, fish, fowle, and wilde beastes exceeding fat.

The greatest labour they take, is in planting their corne, for the country naturally is ouergrowne with wood. To How they pre­pare the ground prepare the ground they bruise the barke of the trees neare the root, then do they scortch the roots with fire that they grow no more. The next yeare with a crooked peece of wood, they beat vp the woodes by the rootes, and in that moulds they plant their corne. Their manner is this. They make a hole in the earth with a sticke, and into it they put 4 graines of wheate, and 2 of beanes. These holes they make 4 foote one from another; Their women and childrē do continually keepe it with weeding, & whē it is growne midle high, they hill it about like a hop-yard.

In Aprill they begin to plant, but their chiefe plantatiō is in May, and so they continue till the midst of Iune. What How they plant they plant in Aprill they reape in August, for May in Sep­tember, for Iune in October; Every stalke of their corne commonly beareth two eares, some 3, seldome any 4, many but one & some none. Every eare ordinarily hath betwixt 200 and 500 graines. The stalke being green hath a sweet iuice in it, somewhat like a suger Cane, which is the cause that when they gather their corne greene, they sucke the stalkes: for as wee gather greene pease so doe they their corne being greene, which excelleth their old. They plant also pease they cal Assetamens, which are the same they cal in Italy', Fagioli. Their Beanes are the same the Turkes cal Garnanses, but these they much esteeme for dainties.

[Page 17] Their corne they rost in the eare greene, and bruising it in a morter of wood with a Polt, lappe it in rowles in the How they vse their corne. leaues of their corne, and so boyle it for a daintie. They also reserue that corne late planted that will not ripe, by toasting it in hot ashes, the heat thereof drying it. In win­ter they esteeme it being boyled with beans for a rare dish, they call Pausarowmena. Their old wheat they first steep a night in hot water, in the morning pounding it in a mor­ter. They vse a small basket for their Temmes, then pound againe the great, and so separating by dashing their hand in the basket, receaue the flower in a platter made of wood scraped to that forme with burning and shels. Tem­pering this flower with water, they make it either in cakes couering them with ashes till they bee baked, and then washing them in faire water they drie presently with their owne heat: or else boyle them in water eating the broth with the bread which they call Ponap. The grouts and pee­ces of the cornes remaining, by fanning in a Platter or in the wind, away, the branne they boile 3 or 4 houres with water, which is an ordinary food they call Ustatahamen. But some more thrifty then cleanly, doe burne the core of the eare to powder which they call Pungnough, mingling that in their meale, but it never tasted well in bread, nor broth. Their fish and flesh they boyle either very tenderly, How they vse their fish and flesh. or broyle it so long on hurdles over the fire, or else after the Spanish fashion, putting it on a spit, they turne first the one side, then the other, til it be as drie as their ierkin beefe in the west Indies, that they may keepe it a month or more without putrifying. The broth of fish or flesh they eate as commonly as the meat.

In May also amongst their corne they plant Pumpeons, Planted fruits. and a fruit like vnto a muske millen, but lesse and worse, which they call Macocks. These increase exceedingly, & ripen in the beginning of Iuly, and continue vntil Septem­ber. They plant also Maracocks a wild fruit like a lemmon, which also increase infinitely. They begin to ripe in Sep­tember [Page 18] and continue till the end of October. When all their fruits be gathered, little els they plant, & this is done by their women and children; neither doth this long suf­fice them, for neere 3 parts of the yeare, they only obserue times and seasons, and liue of what the Country naturally affordeth from hand to mouth, &c.

The commodities in Uirginia or that may be had by industrie.

The mildnesse of the aire, the fertilitie of the soile, and the situation of the rivers are so propitious to the nature & vse of man as no place is more convenient for pleasure, profit, and mans sustenance. Vnder that latitude or climat, here will liue any beasts, as horses, goats, sheep, asses, hens, A proofe cattell will liue well. &c. as appeared by them that were carried thether. The waters, Isles, and shoales, are full of safe harbours for ships of warre or marchandize, for boats of all sortes, for trans­portation or fishing, &c. The Bay and riuers haue much marchandable fish and places fit for Salt coats, building of ships, making of iron, &c.

Muscovia and Polonia doe yearely receaue many thou­sands, for pitch, tarre, sope ashes, Rosen, Flax, Cordage, The cōmodities. Sturgeon, masts, yards, wainscot, Firres, glasse, & such like, also Swethland for iron and copper. France in like manner for Wine, Canvas, and Salt, Spaine asmuch for Iron, Steele, Figges, Reasons, and Sackes. Italy with Silkes, and Velvers consumes our chiefe commodities. Holand maintaines it selfe by fishing and trading at our owne doores. All these temporize with other for necessities, but all as vncertaine as peace or warres. Besides the charge, travell, and danger in transporting them, by seas, lands, stormes, and Pyrats. Then how much hath Virginia the prerogatiue of all those florishing kingdomes for the benefit of our land, whenas within one hundred miles all those are to bee had, either ready provided by nature, or else to bee prepared, were there but industrious men to labour. Only of Copper wee may doubt is wanting, but there is good probabilitie that [Page 19] both copper and better munerals are there to be had for their labor. Other Countries haue it. So thē here is a place a nurse for souldiers, a practise for martiners, a trade for marchants, a reward for the good, and that which is most of all, a businesse (most acceptable to God) to bring such poore infidels to the true knowledge of God and his holy Gospell.

Of the naturall Inhabitants of Virginia.

The land is not populous, for the men be fewe; their far greater number is of women & children. Within 60 miles of Iames Towne there are about some 5000 people, but of able men fit for their warres scarse 1500. To nourish so The numbers. many together they haue yet no means because they make so smal a benefit of their land, be it never so fertill. 6 or 700 700 men were the most were seene together whē they thoght to haue surpri­sed Captaine Smith. A description of the people. haue beene the most hath beene seene together, whē they gathered themselues to haue surprised Captaine Smyth at Pamavuke, hauing but 15 to withstand the worst of their furie. As small as the proportion of ground that hath yet beene discovered, is in comparison of that yet vnknowne. The people differ very much in stature, especially in lan­guage, as before is expressed. Some being very great as the Sesquesahamocks; others very little, as the Wighcocomocoes: but generally tall and straight, of a comely proportion, & of a colour browne when they are of any age, but they are borne white. Their haire is generally black, but few haue any beards. The men weare halfe their heads shaven, the The barbers. other halfe long; for Barbers they vse their women, who with 2 shels will grate away the haire, of any fashion they please. The women are cut in many fashions agreeable to their yeares, but ever some part remaineth long. They are The constitution very strong, of an able body and full of agilitie, able to en­dure to lie in the woods vnder a tree by the fire, in the worst of winter, or in the weedes and grasse, in Am­buscado in the Sommer. They are inconstant in everie The disposition. thing, but what feare constraineth them to keepe. Craftie, [Page 20] timerous, quicke of apprehensiō & very ingenuous. Some are of disposition fearefull, some bold, most cautelous, all Savage. Generally covetous of coppeer, beads, & such like trash. They are soone moved to anger, and so malitious, that they seldome forget an iniury: they seldome steale one from another, least their coniurers should reueale it, and so they be pursued and punished. That they are thus feared is certaine, but that any can reueale their offences by con­iuration I am doubtfull. Their women are carefull not to bee suspected of dishonesty without the leaue of their hus­bands. Each houshold knoweth their owne lands & gar­dens, and most liue of their owne labours. For their appa­rell, The possessions they are some time couered with the skinnes of wilde beasts, which in winter are dressed with the haire, but in sommer without. The better sort vse large mātels of deare Their attire. skins not much differing in fashion frō the Irish mantels. Some imbrodered with white beads, some with copper, o­ther painted after their manner. But the common sort haue scarce to cover their nakednesse but with grasse, the leaues of trees, or such like. We haue seen some vse mantels made of Turky feathers, so prettily wrought and wouen with threeds that nothing could bee discerned but the feathers. That was exceeding warme and very handsome. But the women are alwaies couered about their midles with a skin and very shamefast to be seene bare. They adorne thēselues most with copper beads and paintings. Their women some Their ornamēts haue their legs, hands, brests and face cunningly imbrode­red with diuerse workes, as beasts, serpentes, artificially wrought into their flesh with blacke spots. In each eare commonly they haue 3 great holes, whereat they hange chaines bracelets or copper. Some of their men weare in those holes, a smal greene & yellow coloured snake, neare halfe a yard in length, which crawling & lapping her selfe about his necke often times familiarly would kisse his lips. Others wear a dead Rat tied by the tail. Sōe on their heads weare the wing of a bird, or some large feather with a Rat­tell. [Page 21] Those Rattels are somewhat like the chape of a Rapier but lesse, which they take from the taile of a snake. Many haue the whole skinne of a hawke or some strange sowle, stuffed with the wings abroad. Others a broad peece of copper, and some the hand of their enemy dryed. Their heads and shoulders are painted red with the roote Bocone braied to powder mixed with oyle, this they hold in somer to preserue them from the heate, and in winter from the cold. Many other formes of paintings they vse, but he is the most gallant that is the most monstrous to behould.

Their buildings & habitations are for the most part by Their buildings the riuers or not farre distant from some fresh spring. Their houses are built like our Arbors of small young springs bowed and tyed, and so close covered with mats, or the barkes of trees very handsomely, that notwithstanding ei­ther winde, raine or weather, they are as warme as stooues, but very smoaky, yet at the toppe of the house there is a hole made for the smoake to goe into right over the fire.

Against the fire they lie on little hurdles of Reedes co­vered Their lodgings. with a mat borne from the ground a foote and more by a hurdle of wood. On these round about the house they lie heads and points one by that her against the fire, some covered with mats, some with skins, and some starke naked lie on the ground, from 6 to 20 in a house. Their houses are in the midst of their fields or gardens which are smal plots Their garden. of ground. Some 20, some 40. some 100. some 200. some more, some lesse, some times from 2 to 100 of those houses togither, or but a little separated by groues of trees. Neere their habitations is little small-wood or old trees on the ground by reason of their burning of them for fire. So that a man may gallop a horse amongst these woods any waie, but where the creekes or Rivers shall hinder.

Men women and children haue their severall names ac­cording How they vse their children. to the seuerall humor of their Parents. Their wo­men (they say) are easilie deliuered of childe, yet doe they [Page 22] loue children verie dearly. To make them hardy, in the col­dest mornings they thē wash in the riuers and by painting and ointments so canne their skins, that after a year or two, no weather will hurt them.

The men bestowe their times in fishing, hunting, wars & The industry of their women. such manlike exercises, scorning to be seene in any womā like exercise, which is the cause that the women be verie painefull and the men often idle. The women and children do the rest of the worke. They make mats, baskets, pots, morters, pound their corne, make their bread, prepare their victuals, plant their corne, gather their corne, beare al kind of burdens and such like.

Their fire they kindle presently by chasing a dry poin­ted sticke in a hole of a little square peece of wood, that fi­ring How they strike fire. it selfe, will so fire mosse, leaues, or anie such like drie thing, that will quickly burne. In March and Aprill they liue much vpon their fishing, weares, and feed on fish, Tur­kies Their order of diet. and squirrels. In May and Iune they plant their fieldes and liue most of Acornes, walnuts, and fish. But to mend their diet, some disperse themselues in small companies & liue vpon fish, beasts, crabs, oysters, land Torteyses, straw­berries, mulberries, & such like. In Iune, Iulie, and August they feed vpon the rootes of Tocknough berries, fish and greene wheat. It is strange to see how their bodies alter with their diet, euen as the deare and wilde beastes they seeme fat and leane, strong and weak. Powhatan their great king and some others that are provident, rost their fish and flesh vpon hurdles as before is expressed, and keepe it till scarce times.

For fishing and hunting and warres they vse much their bow and arrowes. They bring their bowes to the forme of How they make their bowes and arrowes. ours by the scraping of a shell. Their arrowes are made some of straight young sprigs which they head with bone, some 2 or 3 inches long. These they vse to shoot at squir­rels on trees. An other sort of arrowes they vse made of reeds. These are peeced with wood, headed with splinters [Page 23] of christall or some sharpe stone, the spurres of a Turkey, or the bill of some bird. For his knife he hath the splinter Their kniues. of a reed to cut his feathers in forme. With this knife also, he will ioint a Deare or any beast, shape his shooes, bus­kins, mantels, &c. To make the noch of his arrow hee hath the tooth of a Beuer, set in a sticke, wherewith he grateth it by degrees, His arrow head he quickly maketh with a little bone, which he ever weareth at his bracer, of any splint of a stone, or glasse in the forme of a hart and these they glew to the end of their arrowes. With the sinewes of Deare, and the tops of Deares hornes boiled to a ielly, they make a glew that will not dissolue in cold water.

For their wars also they vse Targets that are round and Their Targets and Swords. made of the barkes of trees, and a sworde of wood at their backs, but oftentimes they vse for swords the horne of a Deare put through a peece of wood in forme of a Pickaxe. Some a long stone sharpned at both ends vsed in the same manner. This they were wont to vse also for hatchets, but now by trucking they haue plenty of the same forme of y­ron. And those are their chiefe instruments and armes.

Their fishing is much in Boats. These they make of one Their boats. tree by bowing & scratching away the coles with stons & shels till they haue made it in forme of a Trough. Some of them are an elne deepe, and 40 or 50 foot in length, and some will beare 40 men, but the most ordinary are smaller and will beare 10, 20, or 30. according to their bignes. In­steed of oares, they vse paddles and sticks with which they will row faster then our Barges. Betwixt their hands and thighes, their women vse to spin, the barks of trees, deare How they spin. sinews, or a kind of grasse they call Pemmenaw, of these they make a thred very even & readily. This thred serveth for many vses. As about their housing, apparell, as also they make nets for fishing, for the quantity as formally braded as ours. They make also with it lines for angles. Their Their fishooker. hookes are either a bone grated as they nock, their arrows in the forme of a crooked pinne or fishook or, of the splin­ter [Page 24] of a bone tied to the clift of a litle stick, and with the ende of the line, they tie on the bate. They vse also long arrowes tyed in a line wherewith they shoote at fish in the rivers. But they of Accawmack vse staues like vnto Iave­lins headed with bone. With these they dart fish swim­ming in the water. They haue also many artificiall weares in which they get abundance of fish.

In their hunting and fishing they take extreame paines; yet it being their ordinary exercise from their infancy, they esteeme it a pleasure and are very proud to be expert there­in. And by their continuall ranging, and travel, they know all the advantages and places most frequented with Deare, Beasts, Fish, Foule, Rootes, and Berries. At their huntings they leaue their habitations, and reduce themselues into companies, as the Tartars doe, and goe to the most desert How they hunt places with their families, where they spend their time in hunting and fowling vp towards the mountaines, by the heads of their riuers, where there is plentie of game. For betwixt the rivers the grounds are so narrowe, that little commeth there which they devoure not. It is a marvel they can so directly passe these deserts, some 3 or 4 daies iour­ney without habitation. Their hunting houses are like vn­to Arbours couered with mats. These their women beare after them, with Corne, Acornes, Morters, and all bag and baggage they vse. Whē they come to the place of exercise, euery man doth his best to shew his dexteritie, for by their excelling in those quallities, they get their wiues. Forty yards will they shoot leuell, or very neare the mark, and 120 is their best at Random. At their huntings in the de­serts they are commonly 2 or 300 together. Hauing found the Deare, they enuiron them with many fires, and betwixt the fires they place themselues. And some take their stands in the midst. The Deare being thus feared by the fires and their voices, they chace them so long within that circle that many times they kill 6, 8, 10, or 15 at a hunting. They vse also to driue them into some narrowe point of land; [Page 25] when they find that aduantage and so force them into the riuer, where with their boats they haue Ambuscadoes to kill them. When they haue shot a Deare by land, they fol­low him like blood hounds by the blood and straine and oftentimes so take them. Hares, Pattridges, Turkies, or Egges, fat or leane, young or old, they devoure all they cā catch in their power. In one of these huntings they found Captaine Smith in the discoverie of the head of the river of Chickahamania, where they slew his men, and tooke him prisoner in a Bogmire, where he saw those exercises, & ga­thered these observations.

One Savage hunting alone, vseth the skinne of a Deare One Savage hun­ting alone. slit on the one side, and so put on his arme, through the neck, so that his hand comes to the head which is stuffed, and the hornes, head, eies, eares, and every part as artefici­ally counterfeited as they can devise. Thus shrowding his body in the skinne by stalking he approacheth the Deare, creeping on the ground from one tree to another. If the Deare chance to find fault, or stande at gaze, hee turneth the head with his hand to his best advantage to seeme like a Deare, also gazing and licking himselfe. So watching his best aduantage to approach, hauing shot him, hee chaseth him by his blood and straine till he get him.

When they intend any warres, the Werowances vsually Their consulta­tions. haue the advice of their Priests and Coniurers, and their Allies and ancient friends, but chiefely the Priestes deter­mine their rosolution. Every Werowance, or some lustie fel­low, they appoint Captaine over every nation. They sel­dome make warre for lands or goods, but for women and children, and principally for revenge. They haue many eni­mies, Their enimies namely all their westernely Countries beyond the mountaines, and the heads of the rivers. Vpon the head of the Powhatans are the Monacans, whose chiefe habitation is at Russawmeake, vnto whome the Mouhemenchughes, the Massinnacacks, the Monahassanuggs, and other nations pay tributs. Vpon the head of the river of Toppahanock is a [Page 26] people called Mannahoacks. To these are contributers the Tauxsnitanias, the Shackaconias, the Outponcas, the Tego­neaes, the Whonkentyaes, the Stegarakes, the Hassinnungas, and diuerse others, all confederats with the Monacans though many different in language, and be very barbarous living for most part of wild beasts and fruits: Beyond the mountaines from whence is the head of the river Patawo­meke, the Savages report inhabit their most mortall eni­mies, the Massawomekes vpon a great salt water, which by Massawomekes. all likelyhood is either some part of Commada some great lake, or some inlet of some sea that falleth into the South sea. These Massawomekes are a great nation and very popu lous. For the heads of all those riuers, especially the Patta­womekes, the Pautuxuntes. The Sasquesahanocks, the Tock­woughes are continually tormented by them: of whose cru­eltie, they generally complained, and very importunate they were with Captaine Smith and his company to free Their offer of subiection. them from these tormentors. To this purpose they offered food, conduct, assistance, & continuall subiectiō. To which he concluded to effect, But the counsell then present emu­lating his successe, would not thinke it fit to spare him 40 men to be hazarded in those vnknowne regions, hauing passed (as before was spoken of) but with 12, & so was lost that opportunitie. Seaven boats full of these Massawomeks the discouerers encountred at the head of the Bay; whose Targets, Baskets, Swords, Tobaccopipes, Platters, Bowes and Arrowes, and euery thing shewed, they much excee­deed them of our parts, and their dexteritie in their small boats made of the barkes of trees sowed with barke and well luted with gumme, argueth that they are seated vpon some great water.

Against all these enimies the Powhatans are constrai­ned sometimes to fight. Their chiefe attempts are by Stra­tagems, trecheries, or surprisals. Yet the Werowances, wo­men and children they put not to death but keepe them Captiues, They haue a method in warre and for our plea­sures [Page 27] they shewd it vs, and it was in this manner perfor­med at Mattapanient.

Having painted and disguised themselues in the fiercest Their manner of battell. manner they could devise. They divided themselues into two Companies, neare a 100 in a company. The one com­pany Called Monacans, the other Powhatans. Either army had their Captaine. These as enimies tooke their stands a musket shot one from another; ranked themselues 15 a breast and each ranke from another 4 or 5 yards, not in fyle, but in the opening betwixt their fyles, So as the Reare could shoot as conueniently as the Front. Hauing thus pit ched the fields: from either part went a Messenger with these conditions, that whosoever were vanquished, such as escape vpon their submission in 2 daies after should liue, but their wiues and children should be prize for the Con­querers. The messengers were no sooner returned, but they approached in their orders; On each flanke a Sarieant, and in the Reare an officer for levitenant, all duly keeping their orders, yet leaping & singing after their accustomed tune which they vse only in warres. Vpon the first flight of ar­rowes they gaue such horrible shouts and screeches, as though so many infernall helhounds could not haue made them more terrible. When they had spent their arrowes they ioined together prettily, charging and retiring, every ranke seconding other. As they got advantage they cat­ched their enimies by the haire of the head, and downe he came that was taken. His enimie with his wooden sword seemed to beat out his braines, and still they crept to the Reare, to maintaine the skirmish. The Monacans decrea­sing, the Powhatans charged them in the forme of a halfe moone; they vnwilling to be inclosed, fled all in a troope to their Ambuscadoes on whome they led them very cun­ninngly. The Monacans disperse themselues among the fresh men, wherevpon the Powhatans retired, with al speed to their seconds; which the Monacans seeing, took that ad­vantage to retire againe to their owne battell, and so each [Page 28] returned to their owne quarter. All their actions, voices & gestures, both in charging and retiring were so strained to the hight of their quallitie and nature, that the strangenes thereof made it seem very delightfull.

For their musicke they vse a thicke cane, on which they pipe as on a Recorder. For their warres they haue a great Their Musicke deepe platter of wood. They cover the mouth thereof with a skin, at each corner they tie a walnut, which meeting on the backside neere the bottome, with a small rope they twitch thē togither till it be so tought and stiffe, that they may beat vpon it as vpō a drumme. But their chiefe instru­ments are Rattels made of small gourds or Pūpions shels. Of these they haue Base, Tenor, Countertenor, Meane and Trible. These mingled with their voices sometimes 20 or 30 togither, make such a terrible noise as would rather af­fright then delight any man. If any great commāder arriue Their entertain ment. at the habitation of a Werowance, they spread a mat as the Turkes do a carpet for him to sit vpon. Vpō an other right opposite they sit themselues. Then doe all with a tuna­ble voice of showting bid him welcome. After this doe 2. or more of their chiefest men make an oration, testifying their loue. Which they do with such vehemency & so great passions, that they sweate till they drop, and are so out of breath they can scarce speake. So that a man would take them to be exceeding angry or starke mad. Such victuall as they haue, they spend freely, & at night where his lodging is appointed, they set a woman fresh painted red with Po­cones and oile, to be his bedfellow.

Their manner of trading is for copper, beades, and such like, for which they giue such commodities as they haue, Their trade. as skins, fowle, fish, flesh, and their coūtry corne. But their victuall is their chiefest riches.

Every spring they make themselues sicke with drinking the iuice of a root they call wighsacan, and water, whereof Their phisicke. they powre so great a quantity, that it purgeth them in a very violent maner; so that in 3 or 4 daies after they scarce [Page 29] recover their former health. Sometimes they are troubled with dropsies, swellings, aches, and such like diseases; for Their chirurge­ry. cure wherof they build a stoue in the form of a douehouse with mats, so close that a fewe coales therein covered with a pot, will make the pacient sweate extreamely. For swel­lings also they vse swal peeces of touchwood, in the forme of cloues, which pricking on the griefe they burne close to the flesh, and from thence draw the corruption with their mouth. With this root wighsacan they ordinarily heal greene wounds. But to scarrifie a swelling or make incisi­on their best instruments are some splinted stone. Old vl­cers or putrified hurtes are seldome seene cured amongst thē. They haue many professed Phisitions, who with their Their charmes to cure. charmes and Rattels with an infernall rowt of words and actions will seeme to sucke their inwarde griefe from their navels or their grieved places; but of our Chirurgians they were so conceipted, that they beleeued any Plaister would heale any hurt.

Of their Religion.

There is yet in Uirginia no place discouered to bee so Savage in which the Savages haue not a religion, Deare, and Bow, and Arrowes. All things that were able to do thē hurt beyond their prevention, they adore with their kinde of diuine worship; as the fire, water, lightning, thunder, our ordinance, peeces, horses, &c. But their chiefe God they worship is the Diuell. Him they call Oke & serue him more Their God. of feare then loue. They say they haue cōference with him, and fashion themselues as neare to his shape as they can i­magine. In their Temples they haue his image euill favou­redly carued, and then painted and adorned with chaines copper, and beades, and couered with a skin, in such māner as the deformity may well suit with such a God. By him is commonly the sepulcher of their kings. Their bodies are How they bury their kings. first bowelled, then dryed vpon hurdles till they bee verie dry, and so about the most of their iointes and necke they hang bracelets or chaines of copper, pearle, and such like, [Page 30] as they vse to weare, their inwards they stuffe with copper beads and couered with a skin, hatchets and such trash. Then lappe they them very carefully in white skins and so rowle them in mats for their wineding sheetes. And in the Tombe which is an arch made of mats, they lay them or­derly. What remaineth of this kinde of wealth their kings haue, they set at their feet in baskets. These Temples and bodies are kept by their Priests.

For their ordinary burials they digge a deep hole in the Their ordinary burials. earth with sharpe stakes and the corpes being lapped in skins & mats with their iewels, they lay them vpon sticks in the ground, and so couer them with earth. The buriall ended, the women being painted all their faces with black cole and oile, doe sit 24 howers in the houses mourning & lamenting by turnes, with such yelling & howling as may expresse their great passions.

In every Territory of a werowance is a Temple & a Priest 2 or 3 or more. Their principall Temple or place of super­stition Their Temples. is at Uttamussack at Pamavuke, neare vnto which is a house Temple or place of Powhatans.

Vpon the top of certaine redde sandy hils in the woods. There are 3 great houses filled with images of their kings and Divels and Tombes of their Predecessors. Those hou­ses are neare 60 foot in length built arbor wise after their building. This place they count so holy as that but the Priestes and kings dare come into them; nor the Savages dare not go vp the river in boats by it, but that they solēn­ly cast some peece of copper white beads or Pocones into the river, for feare their Oke should be offended and revē ­ged of them.

In this place commonly is resident 7 Priests. The chiefe differed from the rest in his ornaments, but inferior Priests Their ornamēts for their Priests could hardly be knowne from the cōmon people, but that they had not so many holes in their eares to hang their ie­wels at. The ornaments of the chiefe Priest was certain at­tires for his head made thus. They tooke a dosen or 16 or [Page 31] more snake skins and stuffed them with mosse, and of wee­sels and other vermine skins a good many. All these they tie by their tailes, so as all their tailes meete in the toppe of their head, like a great Tassell. Round about this Tassell is as it were a crown of feathers, the skins hang round about his head necke and shoulders and in a manner cover his face. The faces of all their Priests are painted as vgly as they can devise, in their hands they had every one his Rat­tell, some base, some smaller. Their devotion was most in songs which the chiefe Priest beginneth and the rest fol­lowed him, sometimes he maketh invocations with brokē sentences by starts and strange passions, & at every pause, the rest giue a short groane.

It could not bee perceiued that they keepe any day as more holy then other; But only in some great distresse of want, feare of enimies, times of triumph and gathering to­gither Their times of solemnities. their fruits, the whole country of men women and children come togither to solemnities. The manner of their devotion is, sometimes to make a great fire, in the house or fields, and all to sing and dance about it with rat­tles and shouts togither, 4 or 5 houres. Sometime they set a man in the midst, and about him they dance and sing, he all the while clapping his hands as if he would keepe time, & after their songs and dauncings ended they goe to their Feasts.

They haue also diuers coniurations one they made whē Their coniura­tions. Captaine Smith was their prisoner (as they reported) to know if any more of his countrymen would ariue there, & what he there intended. The manner of it was thus. First they made a faire fire in a house; about this fire set 7 Priests setting him by them, and about the fire, they made a circle of meale. That done the chiefe Priest attired as is expressed began to shake his rattle, and the rest followed him in his song. At the end of the song, he laid downe 5 or 3 graines of wheat and so continued counting his songs by the graines, till 3 times they incirculed the fire, then they di­vided [Page 32] the graines by certaine numbers with little stickes, laying downe at the ende of euery song a little sticke. In this manner they sat 8, 10, or 12 houres without cease, with such strange stretching of their armes, & violent pas­sions and gestures as might well seeme strange to him they so coniured who but every houre expected his end: not a­ny meat they did eat till late in the evening they had fini­shed this worke, and then they feasted him and themselues with much mirth, but 3 or 4 daies they continued this ce­remony.

They haue also certaine Altar stones they call Pawco­rances, Their altars. but these stand from their Temples, some by their houses, other in the woodes and wildernesses. Vpon this they offer blood, deare suet, and Tobacco. These they doe when they returne from the warres, from hunting, and vp­on many other occasions. They haue also another supersti­tion that they vse in stormes, when the waters are rough in Sacrifices to the water. the riuers and sea coasts. Their Coniurers runne to the wa­ter sides, or passing in their boats, after many hellish out­cries and invocations, they cast Tobacco, Copper, Pocones or such trash into the water, to pacifie that God whome they thinke to be very angry in those stormes. Before their dinners and suppers the better sort will take the first bit, and cast it in the fire, which is all the grace they are known to vse.

In some part of the Country they haue yearely a sacri­fice of children. Such a one was at Quiyoughcohanock some 10 miles from Iames Towne and thus performed. Fifteene Their solemne sacrifices of children. of the properest young boyes, betweene 10 and 15 yeares of age they painted white. Hauing brought them forth the people spent the forenoone in dancing and singing about them with rattles. In the afternoone they put those childrē to the roote of a tree. By them all the men stood in a guard, every one hauing a Bastinado in his hand, made of reeds bound together. This made a lane betweene them all a­long, through which there were appointed 5 young men [Page 33] to fetch these childrē: so every one of the fiue wēt through the guard to fetch a child each after other by turnes, the guard fearelesly beating them with their Bastinadoes, and they patiently enduring and receauing all, defending the children with their naked bodies from the vnmercifull blowes that pay them soundly though the children escape. All this while the women weepe and crie out very passio­nately, prouiding mats, skinnes, mosse, and drie wood, as things fitting their childrens funerals. After the children were thus passed the guard, the guard tore down the trees, branches, and boughs, with such violence that they rent the body, and made wreathes for their heads, or bedecked their haire with the leaues. What else was done with the childron, was nonseene, but they were all cast on a heape, in a valley as dead, where they made a great feast for al the company. The Werowance being demanded the meaning of this sacrifice, answered that the children were not al dead, but that the Oke or Divell did sucke the blood from their left breast, who chanced to be his by lot, till they were dead, but the rest were kept in the wildernesse by the yong men till nine moneths were expired, during which time they must not conuerse with any, and of these were made their Priests and Coniurers. This sacrifice they held to bee so necessarie, that if they should omit it, their Oke or Divel and all their other Quiyoughcosughes which are their other Gods, would let them haue no Deare, Turkies, Corne, nor fish, and yet besides, hee would make a great slaughter a­mongst them.

They thinke that their Werowances and Priestes which Their resurre­ction. they also esteeme Quiyoughcosughes, when they are dead, doe goe beyound the mountaines towardes the setting of the sun, and euer remaine there in forme of their Oke, with their heads painted with oile and Pocones, finely trim­med with feathers, and shal haue beades, hatchets, copper, and tobacco, doing nothing but dance and sing, with all their Predecessors. But the common people they suppose [Page 34] shall not liue after death.

To diuert them from this blind idolatrie, many vsed their best indeauours, chiefly with the Werowances of Qui­youghcohanock, whose devotion, apprehension, and good disposition, much exceeded any in those Countries, who though we could not as yet preuaile withall to forsake his false Gods, yet this de did beleeue that our God as much exceeded theirs, as our Gunnes did their Bowes & Arrows and many times did send to the President, at Iames towne, men with presents, intreating them to pray to his God for raine, for his Gods would not send him any. And in this la­mentable ignorance doe these poore soules sacrifice them selues to the Diuell, not knowing their Creator.

Of the manner of the Virginians governement.

Although the countrie people be very barbarous, yet haue they amongst them such governement, as that their Magistrats for good commanding, and their people for du subiection, and obeying, excell many places that would be counted very civill. The forme of their Common wealth is a monarchicall gouernement, one as Emperour ruleth o­uer many kings or governours. Their chiefe ruler is called Powhatan, and taketh his name of the principall place of dwelling called Powhatan. But his proper name is Wahun­sonacock. Some countries he hath which haue been his an­cestors, and came vnto him by inheritance, as the countrie called Powhatan, Arrohateck, Appamatuke, Pamavuke, Youghtanud, and Mattapanient. All the rest of his Terri­tories expressed in the Map, they report haue beene his se­uerall conquests. In all his ancient inheritances, hee hath houses built after their manner like arbours, some 30 some 40 yardes long, and at euery house provision for his enter­tainement according to the time. At Werowcomoco, he was seated vpon the Northside of the riuer Pamavuke, some 14 miles from Iames Towne, where for the most part, hee was resident, but he tooke so little pleasure in our neare neigh­bourhood, [Page 35] that were able to visit him against his will in 6 or 7 houres, that he retired himself to a place in the deserts at the top of the riuer Chickahamania betweene Youghta­nund & Powhatan. His habitation there is called Orapacks A description of Powhatan. where he ordinarily now resideth. He is of parsonage a tall well proportioned man, with a sower looke, his head som­what gray, his beard so thinne that it seemeth none at al, his age neare 60; of a very able and hardy body to endure any labour. About his person ordinarily attendeth a guard of 40 or 50 of the tallest men his Country doth afford. E­very His attendance and watch. night vpon the 4 quarters of his house are 4 Sentinels each standing from other a flight shoot, and at euery halfe houre one from the Corps du guard doth hollowe, vnto whome every Sentinell doth answer round from his stand; if any faile, they presently send forth an officer that beateth him extreamely.

A mile from Orapakes in a thicket of wood hee hath a house in which he keepeth his kind of Treasure, as skinnes, His treasuris. copper, pearle, and beades, which he storeth vp against the time of his death and buriall. Here also is his store of red paint for ointment, and bowes and arrowes. This house is 50 or 60 yards in length, frequented only by Priestes. At the 4 corners of this housestand 4 Images as Sentinels, one of a Dragon, another a Beare, the 3 like a Leopard, and the fourth like a giantlike man, all made euillfauordly, accor­ding to their best workmanship.

He hath as many women as he will, whereof when hee His wiues. lieth on his bed, one sitteth at his head, and another at his feet, but when he sitteth, one sitteth on his right hand and another on his left. As he is wearie of his women, hee be­stoweth them on those that best deserue them at his hands. When he dineth or suppeth, one of his women before and after meat, bringeth him water in a woden platter to wash his hands. Another waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them insteed of a Towell, and the feathers when he hath wiped are dryed againe. His kingdome des­cendeth [Page 36] not to his sonnes nor children, but first to his bre­thren, whereof he hath 3. namely Opitchapan, Opechanca­nough, His successors and Catataugh, and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister then to the rest and after thē to the heires male and female of the eldest sister, but never to the heires of the males.

He nor any of his people vnderstand any letters wherby to write or read, only the lawes whereby he ruleth is cu­stome. Yet when he listeth his will is a law and must bee o­beyed: not only as a king but as halfe a God they esteeme Their authority him. His inferiour kings whom they cal werowances are ty­ed to rule by customes, and haue power of life & death as their command in that nature. But this word Werowance which we call and conster for a king, is a common worde whereby they call all commanders for they haue but fewe words in their language, and but few occasions to vse anie officers more then one commander, which commōly they call werowances. They all knowe their severall landes, and The tenor of their lands. habitations, and limits, to fish, sowle, or hunt in, but they hold all of their great Werowances Powhatan, vnto whome they pay tribute of skinnes, beades, copper, pearle, deare, turkies, wild beasts, and corne. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration all these people doe obay this Powhatan. For at his feet they present whatsoever hee commandeth, and at the least frowne of his browe, their greatest spirits will tremble with feare: and no maruell, for he is very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as of­fend him. For example hee caused certaine malefactors to be bound hand and foot, then hauing of many fires gathe­red His maner of punishments. great store of burning coles, they rake these coles roūd in the forme of a cockpit, and in the midst they cast the of­fenders to broyle to death. Somtimes he causeth the heads of them that offend him, to be laid vpon the altar or sacrifi­cing stone, and one with clubbes beates out their braines. When he would punish any notorious enimie or malefac­tor, [Page 37] he causeth him to be tied to a tree, & with muscle shels or reeds, the executioner outteth of his ioints one after an­other, euer casting what they cut of into the fire; then doth he proceed with shels and reeds to case the skinne from his head and face; then doe they rip his belly and so burne him with the tree and all. Thus themselues reported they exe­cuted George Cassen. Their ordinary correction is to beate them with cudgels. Wee haue seene a man kneeling on his knees, and at Powhatans command, two men haue beat him on the bare skin, till he hath fallen senselesse in a sound, & yet neuer cry nor complained.

In the yeare 1608, hee surprised the people of Payanka­tank his neare neighbours and subiects. The occasion was to vs vnknowne, but the manner was thus. First he sent di­verse of his men as to lodge amongst them that night, then the Ambuscadoes inuironed al their houses, & at the houre appointed, they all fell to the spoile, 24 men they slewe, the long haire of the one side of their heades with the skinne cased off with shels or reeds, they brought away. They sur­prised also the women & the children and the Werowance. All these they present to Powhatan. The Werowance, womē and children became his prisoners, & doe him service. The lockes of haire with their skinnes he hanged on a line vnto two trees. And thus he made oftentation of as great a tri­umph at Werowocomoco, shewing them to the Emglish men that then came vnto him at his appointment, they expec­ting provision, he to betray them, supposed to halfe con­quer them by this spectacle of his terrible crueltie.

And this is as much as my memory can call to mind worthie of note; which I haue purposely collected, to satisfie my friends of the true worth and qualitie of Virginia. Yet some bad natures will not sticke to slander the Countrey; that will slovenly spit at all things, especially in company where they cā find none to contradict them. Who though they were scarse euer 10 miles from Iames Town, or at the most but at the falles; yet holding it a great disgrace that [Page 38] amongst so much action, their actions were nothing, ex­claime of all things, though they never adventured to knowe any thing; nor euer did any thing but devoure the fruits of other mens labours. Being for most part of such tender educations and small experience in martiall acci­dents, because they found not English cities, nor such faire houses, nor at their owne wishes any of their accustomed dainties, with feather beds and downe pillowes, Tavernes and alehouses in every breathing place, neither such plen­ty of gold and siluer and dissolute liberty as they expected, had little or no care of any thing, but to pamper their bel­lies, to fly away with our Pinnaces, or procure their means to returne for England. For the Country was to them a mi­serie, a ruine, a death, a hell, and their reports here, & their owne actions there according.

Some other there were that had yearely stipends to pass to and againe for transportation: who to keepe the myste­ry of the businesse in themselues, though they had neither time nor meanes to knowe much of themselues; yet al mēs actions or relations they so formally tuned to the tempo­rizing times simplicitie, as they could make their ignoran­ces seeme much more, then al the true actors could by their experience. And those with their great words deluded the world with such strange promises as abused the businesse much worse then the rest. For the businesse being builded vpon the foundation of their fained experience, the plan­ters, the mony, tinne, and meanes haue still miscaried: yet they ever returning, and the Planters so farre absent, who could contradict their excuses? which stil to maintain their vaineglory and estimation, from time to time they haue v­sed such diligence as made them passe for truthes, though nothing more false. And that the advēturers might be thus abused, let no man wonder; for the wisest liuing is soonest abused by him that hath a faire tongue and a dissembling heart.

There were many in Virginia meerely proiecting, verbal [Page 39] and idle contemplatours, and thoseso deuoted to pure idle nesse, that though they had lived two or three yeares in Virginia, lordly, necessitie it selfe could not compell them to passe the Peninsula, or Pallisadoes of Iames Towne, and those wittie spirits, what would they not affirme in the be­halfe of our transporters to get victuall from their ships, or obtaine their good words in England to get their passes. Thus from the clamors and the ignorance of false infor­mers, are sprung those disasters that sprung in Virginia, and our ingenious verbalists were no lesse plague to vs in Uir­ginia, then the Locusts to the Egyptians. For the labour of 30 of the best only preserued in Christianitie by their indu strie the idle livers of neare 200 of the rest: who liuing neer 10 months of such naturall meanes, as the Country natu­rally of it selfe afforded, notwithstanding all this, and the worst furie of the Savages, the extremitie of sicknesse, mu­tinies, faction, ignorances, and want of victuall; in all that time I lost but 7 or 8 men, yet subiected the Savages to our desired obedience, and receaued contribution from 35 of their kings, to protect and assist thē against any that should assalt them, in which order they continued true & faithful, and as subiects to his Maiestie, so long after as I did gouern there, vntill I left the Country: since, how they haue revol­ted, the Countrie lost, and againe replanted, and the busi­nesses hath succeeded from time to time, I referre you to the relations of them returned from Virginia, that haue bin more diligent in such observations.


[Page] THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENGLISH COLONIE IN Virginia since their first beginning from England in the yeare of our Lord 1606, till this present 1612, with all their accidents that befell them in their Iournies and Discoveries.

Also the Salvages discourses, orations and relations of the Bordering neighbours, and how they be­came subiect to the English.

Vnfolding even the fundamentall causes from whence haue sprang so many mise­ries to the vndertakers, and scandals to the businesse: taken faith­fully as they were written out of the writing of Thomas Studley the first prevant maister, Anas Todkill, Walter Russell Doctor of Phisicke, Nathaniell Powell, William Phettyplace. Richard Wiffin, Tho­mas Abbay, Tho: Hope, Rich: Polts and the laboure of divers other dili­gent observers, that were residents in Virginia.

And pervsed and confirmed by diverse now resident in England that were actors in this busines.

By W. S.


AT OXFORD, Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1612.


LOng hath the world longed, but to be truely satisfied what Virginia is, with the truth of those proceedings, from whence hath flowne so manie reports of worth, & yet few good ef­fects of the charge, which hath cau­sed suspition in many well willers that desire yet but to be truely satis­fied therein. If any can resolue this doubt it is those that haue lived residents in the land: not salers, or passengers, nor such mercinary contemplators, that only bedeck them­selues with others plumes. This discourse is not from such, neither am I the author, for they are many, whose particu­lar discourses are signed by their names. This solid trea­tise, first was compiled by Richard Pots, since passing the hands of many to pervse, chācing into my hands, (for that I know them honest men, and can partly well witnesse their relations true) I could do no lesse in charity to the world thē reveale; nor in cōscience, but approue. By the advise of ma­ny graue and vnderstanding gentlemen, that haue pressed it, to the presse, it was thought fit to publish it, rather in it owne rude phrase then other waies. For that nothing can so purge that famous action from the infamous scandal some ignorantly haue conceited, as the plaine simple and naked truth. For defect whereof the businesse is still suspected, the truth vnknowne, and the best deservers discouraged, and neglected, some by false reports, others by coniecture, and such power hath flattry to ingender of those, hatred and af­fection, that one is sufficent to beguile more, then 500 can [Page] keepe from being deceiued.

But this discourse is no Iudge of mens manners, nor ca­talogue of their former courses; only a reporter of their acti­ons in Virginia, not to disgrace any, accuse any, excuse any, nor flatter any; for which cause there is no wrong done but this, shortnesse in complaining, & so sparing in cōmending as only the reader may perceiue the truth for his paines, & the action purged of foule slander; it can detract from none that intendeth there to adventure their fortunes; and to speake truly of the first planters, that brake the yee & beate the path, howsoeuer many difficulties obscured their inde­vours, he were worse then the worst of Ingrates, that would not spare them memory that haue buried themselues in those forrain regions. From whose first adventures may spring more good blessings then are yet conceived. So I rest thine, that will read, pervse, & vnderstand me. If you finde false orthography or broken English, they are small faultes in souldiers, that not being able to write learnedly, onlie striue to speake truely, and be vnderstood without an In­terpreter.


CAptaine Smith I returne you the fruit of my la­bours, as Mr Croshaw requested me, which I be­stowed in reading the discourses, & hearing the relations of such which haue walked, & observed the land of Virginia with you. The pains I took was great: yet did the nature of the argument, and hopes I con­ceaued of the expedition, giue me exceeding content. I cannot finde there is any thing, but what they all af­firme, or cannot contradict: the land is good: as there is no citties, so no sonnes of Anak: al is open for labor of a good and wise inhabitant: and my prayer shall e­ver be, that so faire a land, may bee inhabited by those that professe and loue the Gospell.

Your friend W. S.

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