A DESCRIPTION of New England: OR THE OBSERVATIONS, AND discoueries, of Captain Iohn Smith (Admirall of that Country) in the North of America, in the year of our Lord 1614: with the successe of sixe Ships, that went the next yeare 1615; and the accidents be fell him among the French men of warre: With the proofe of the present benefit this Countrey affoords: whither this present yeare, 1616, eight voluntary Ships are gone to make further tryall.

At LONDON Printed by Humfrey Lownes, for Robert Clerke; and are to be sould at his house called the Lodge, in Chancery lane, ouer against Lin­colnes Inne. 1616.

TO THE HIGH HOPEFVL CHARLES, Prince of Great Britaine.


SO fauourable was your most renowned and memorable Brother, Prince Henry, to all generous designes; that in my discouery of Virginia, I pre­sumed to call two namelesse Headlands after my Soue­raignes heires, Cape Henry, and Cape Charles. Since then, it beeing my chance to range some o­ther parts of America, whereof I heere present your Highness the description in a Map; my hum­ble sute is, you would please to change their Barba­rous names, for such English, as Posterity may say, Prince Charles was their Godfather. What here in this relation I promise my Countrey, let mee [Page] liue or die the slaue of scorne & infamy, if (hauing meanes) I make it not apparent; please God to blesse me but from such accidents as are beyond my power and reason to preuent. For my labours, I desire but such conditions as were promised me out of the gaines; and that your Highnesse would daigne to grace this Work, by your Princely and fauourable respect vnto it, and know mee to be

Your Highnesse true and faithfull seruant, Iohn Smith.

TO THE RIGHT HO­nourable and worthy Lords, Knights, & Gentlemen, of his Ma­iesties Councell, for all Plantations and discoueries; especially, of New England.

SEeing the deedes of the most iust, and the writings of the most wise, not onely of men, but of God him­selfe, haue beene diuersly traduced by variable iudgements of the Times opinionists; what shall such an ignorant as I expect? Yet reposing my selfe on your fauours, I present this rude discourse, to the worldes construction; though I am perswaded, that few do think there may be had from New England Staple commo­dities, well worth 3 or 400000 pound a yeare, with so small charge, and such facilitie, as this discourse will acquaint you. But, lest your Honours, that know mee not, should thinke I goe by hearesay or affection; I in­treat your pardons to say thus much of my selfe: Neere twice nine yeares, I haue beene taught by lamentable experience, aswell in Europe and Asia, as Affrick, and America, such honest aduentures as the chance of warre doth cast vpon poore Souldiers. So that, if [Page] I bee not able to iudge of what I haue seene, contriued, and done; it is not the fault either of my eyes, or foure quarters. And these nine yeares, I haue bent my en­deauours to finde a sure foundation to begin these ensu­ing protects: which though I neuer so plainely and se­riously propound; yet it resteth in God, and you▪ still to dispose of. Not doubting but your goodnesse will pardon my rudenesse, and ponder errours in the balance of good will▪ No more: but sacring all my best abilities to the good of my Prince, and Countrey, and submitting my selfe to the exquisit iudgements of your renowned vertue, I euer rest

Your Honours, in all honest seruice, I. S.

To the right VVorshipfull Ad­uenturers for the Countrey of New Eng­land, in the Cities of London, Bristow, Exceter, Plimouth, Dartmouth, Bastable, Totneys, &c. and in all other Cities and Ports, in the Kingdome of England.

IF the little Ant, & the sillie Bee seek by their diligence the good of their Commonwealth; much more ought Man. If they pu­nish the drones and sting them steales their labour; then blame not Man. Little hony hath that hiue, where there are more Drones then Bees: and miserable is that Land, where more are idle then well imployed. If the indeauours of those vermin be acceptable, I hope mine may be excuseable; Though I con­fesse it were more proper for mee, To be doing what I say, then writing what I knowe. Had I re­turned rich, I could not haue erred: Now hauing onely such fish as came to my net, I must be taxed. But, I would my taxers were as ready to aduen­ture their purse [...], as I, purse, life, and all I haue: or as diligent to furnish the charge, as I know they are vigilant to crop the fruits of my labours. Then would I not doubt (did God please I might safely arriue in New England, and safely returne) but to [Page] performe somewhat more then I haue promised, & approue my words by deeds, according to pro­portion.

I am not the first hath beene betrayed by Pi­rats: And foure men of warre, prouided as they were, had beene sufficient to haue taken Sampson, Hercules, and Alexander the great, no other way furnisht then I was. I knowe not what assurance any haue do passe the Seas, Not to bee subiect to casualty as well as my selfe: but least this disaster may hinder my proceedings, or ill will (by ru­mour) the behoofefull worke I pretend; I haue writ this little: which I did thinke to haue con­cealed from any publike vse, till I had made my returnes speake as much, as my pen now doth.

But because I speake so much of fishing, if any take mee for such a deuote fisher, as I dreame of nought else, they mistake mee. I know a ring of golde from a graine of barley, aswell as a golde­smith: and nothing is there to bee had which fi­shing doth hinder, but furder vs to obtaine. Now for that I haue made knowne vnto you a fit place for plantation, limited within the bounds of your Patent and Commission; hauing also receiued meanes, power, and authority by your directions, to plant there a Colony, and make further search, and discouery in those parts there yet vnknowne: Considering, withall, first those of his Maiesties Councell, then those Cities aboue named, and diuerse others that haue beene moued to lend [Page] their assistance to so great a worke, doe expect (e­specially the aduenturers) the true relation or euent of my proceedings which I heare are so abused; I am inforced for all these respects, rather to expose my imbecillitie to contempt, by the testimonie of these rude lines, then all should condemne me for so bad a Factor, as could nei­ther giue reason nor account of my actions and designes.

Yours to command, Iohn Smith.

In the deserued Honour of the Au­thor, Captaine Iohn Smith, and his Worke.

DAmn'd Enuie is a sp'rite, that euer haunts
Beasts, mis-nam'd Men; Cowards or Ignorants.
But, onely such shee followes, whose deere WORTH
(Maugre her malice) sets their glorie forth.
If this faire Ouerture, then, take not; It
Is Enuie's spight (dear friend) in men-of-wit;
Or Feare, lest morsels, which our mouthes possesse,
Might fall from thence; or elsetis Sottishnesse.
If either; (I hope neither) thee they raise;
Letters are as Letters in thy praise;
Who, by their vice, improue (when they reprooue)
Thy vertue; so, in hate, procure thee Loue.
Then, On firme Worth: this Monument I frame;
Scorning for any Smith to sorge such fame.
Io: Dauies, Heref:

To his worthy Captaine the Author.

THat which wee call the subiect of all Storie,
Is Truth, which in this Worke of thine giues glorie
To all that tho-hast done. Then, scorne the spight
of Enuie; which doth no mans merits right.
My sword may helpe the rest: my Pen no more
Can doe, but this; I'aue said enough before.
Your sometime souldier, I. Codrinton, now Templer.

To my Worthy friend and Coson, Captaine Iohn Smith.

It ouer-ioyes my heart, when as thy Words
Of these designes, with deeds I doe compare.
Heere is a Booke, such worthy truth affords,
None should the due desert there of impare;
Sith thou, the man, deseruing of these Ages,
Much paine hast ta'en for this our Kingdoms good,
In Climes vnknowne, Mongst Turks and Saluages,
T'inlarge our bounds; though with thy losse of blood.
Hence damn'd Detraction: stand not in our way.
Enuie, it selfe, will not the Truth gainesay.
N. Smith.

To that worthy and generous Gen­tleman, my verie good friend, Captaine Smith.

MAy Fate thy Proiect prosper, that thy name
May be eternised with liuing fame:
Though soule Detraction Honour would peruert,
And Enuie euer waits vpon desert:
In spight of Pelias, when his hate lies colde,
Returne as Iason with a sleece of Golde.
Then after-ages shall record thy praise,
That a New England to this Ile didst raise:
And when thou dy'st (as all that liue must die)
Thy fame liue heere; thou, with Eternitie.
R: Gunnell.

To his friend Cap: Smith, vpon his description of New England.

SIr; your Relations I haue read: which shewe,
Ther's reason I should honour them and you:
And if their meaning I haue vnderstood,
I dare to censure, thus: Your Proiect's good;
And may (if follow'd) doubtlesse quit the paine,
With honour, pleasure and a trebble gaine;
Beside the benefit that shall arise
To make more happie our Posterities.
[Page] For would we daigne to spare, though 'twere no more
Then what o're-filles, and surfets vs in store,
To order Nature's fruitfulnesse a while
In that rude Garden, you New England stile;
With present good, ther's hope in after-daies
Thence to repaire what Time and Pride decaies
In this rich kingdome. And the spatious West
Beeing still more with English blood possest,
The Proud Iberians shall not rule those Seas,
To checke our ships from sayling where they please;
Nor future times make any forraine power
Become so great to force a bound to Our.
Much good my minde fore-tels would follow hence
With little labour, and with lesse expence.
Thriue therefore thy Designe, who ere enuie:
England may ioy in England's Colony,
Virginia seeke her Virgine sisters good,
Be blessed in such happie neighbourhood:
Or, what-soere Fate pleaseth to permit,
Be thou still honor'd for first moouing it.
George Wither, è societate Lincol.

In the deserued honour of my honest and worthie Captaine, Iohn Smith, and his Worke.

CAptaine and friends when I peruse thy booke
(With Iudgements eyes) into thy heart I looke:
And there I finde (what sometimes-Albyon) knew)
A Souldier, to his Countries-honour, true.
Some fight for wealth; and some for emptie praise;
But thou alone thy Countries Fame to raise.
With due discretion, and vndanted heart,
I (oft) so well haue seene thee act thy Part
In deepest plunge of hard extreamitie,
As forc't the troups of proudest foes to flie.
Though men of greater Ranke and lesse desert
Would Pish-away thy Praise, it can not start
From the true Owner: for, all good-mens tongues
Shall keepe the same. To them that Part belongs.
If, then, Wit, Courage, and Successe should get
Thee Fame; the Muse for that is in thy debt:
A part whereof (least able though I bee)
Thus heere I doe disburse, to honor Thee.
Rawly Croshaw.

Michael Phettiplace, William Phettiplace, & Richard Wisfing, Gentlemen, and Souldiers vnder Captaine Smiths Command: In his deserued honor for his Worke, and worth.

VVHy may not we in this Worke haue our Mite,
That had our share in each black day and night,
When thou Virginia foildst, yet kept'st vnstaind;
And held'st the King of Paspeheh enchaind.
Thou all alone this Saluage sterne didst take.
Pamunkes king wee saw thee captiue make
Among seauen hundred of his stoutest men,
To murther thee and vs resolued; when
Fast by the hand thou ledst this Saluage grim,
Thy Pistoll at his breast to gouerne him:
Which did infuse such awe in all the rest
(Sith their drad Soueraigne thou had'st so distrest)
That thou and wee (poore sixteene) safe retir'd
Vnto our helplesse ships. Thou (thus admir'd)
Didst make proud Powhatan, his subiects send
To lames his Towne, thy censure to attend:
And all Virginia's Lords, and pettie Kings,
Aw'd by thy vertue, crouch, and Presents brings
To gaine thy grace; so dreaded thou hast beene:
And yet a heart more milde is seldome seene;
So, making Valour Vertue, really;
Who hast nought in thee counterfet, or slie;
[Page] If in the sleight bee not the truest art,
That makes men famoused for faire desert.
Who saith of thee, this sauors of vaine-glorie,
Mistakes both thee and vs, and this true storie.
If it bee ill in Thee, so well to doe;
Then, is it ill in Vs, to praise thee too.
But, if the first bee well done; it is well,
To say it doth (if so it doth) excell!
Praise is the guerdon of each deere desert,
Making the praised act the praised part
With more alacritie: Honours Spurre is Praise;
Without which, it (regardlesse) soone decaies.
And for this paines of thine wee praise thee rather,
That future Times may know who was the father
Of this rare Worke (New England) which may bring
Praise to thy God, and profit to thy King.

A DESCRIPTION OF New-England, by Captaine Iohn Smith.

IN the moneth of Aprill,My first voy­age to new-England. 1614. with two Ships from London, of a few Marchants, I chanced to ar­riue in New-England, a parte of Ameryca, at the Ile of Monahig­gan, in 43 of Northerly lati­tude: our plot was there to take Whales and make tryalls of a Myne of Gold and Copper. If those fai­led, Fish and Furres was then our refuge, to make our selues sauers howsoeuer: we found this Whale­fishing a costly conclusion: we saw many, and spent much time in chasing them; but could not kill any: They beeing a kinde of Iubartes, and not the Whale that yeeldes Finnes and Oyle as wee expec­ted. For our Golde, it was rather the Masters de­uice to get a voyage that proiected it, then any knowledge hee had at all of any such matter. Fish & Furres was now our guard: & by our late arriual, and long lingring about the Whale, the prime of both those seasons were past ere wee perceiued it; we thinking that their seasons serued at all times: [Page 2] but wee found it otherwise; for, by the midst of Iune, the fishing failed. Yet in Iuly and August some was taken, but not sufficient to defray so great a charge as our stay required. Of dry fish we made about 40000. of Cor fish about 7000. Whilest the sailers fished, my selfe with eight or nine others of them might best bee spared; Ranging the coast in a small boat, wee got for trifles neer 1100 Beuer skinnes, 100 Martins, and neer as many Otters; and the most of them within the distance of twenty leagues. We ranged the Coast both East and West much furder; but Eastwards our commodities were not esteemed, they were so neare the French who af­fords them better: and right against vs in the Main was a Ship of Sir Frances Popphames, that had there such acquaintance, hauing many yeares vsed onely that porte, that the most parte there was had by him. And 40 leagues westwards were two French Ships, that had made there a great voyage by trade, during the time wee tryed those conclusions, not knowing the Coast, nor Saluages habitation. With these Furres, the Traine, and Cor-fish I returned for England in the Bark: where within six monthes after our departure from the Downes, we safe arriued back. The best of this fish was solde for fiue pound the hundreth, the rest by ill vsage betwixt three pound and fifty shillings. The other Ship staied to fit herselfe for Spaine with the dry fish which was sould, by the Sailers reporte that returned, at forty ryalls the quintall, each hundred weighing two quintalls and a halfe.

[Page 3] New England is that part of America in the O­cean Sea opposite to Noua Albyon in the South Sea;The situation of New Eng­land. discouered by the most memorable Sir Fran­cis Drake in his voyage about the worlde. In re­garde whereto this is stiled New England, beeing in the same latitude. New France, off it, is North­ward: Southwardes is Virginia, and all the ad­ioyning Continent, with New Granado, New Spain, New Andolosia and the West Indies. Now because I haue beene so oft asked such strange questions, of the goodnesse and greatnesse of those spatious Tracts of land, how they can bee thus long vn­known, or nor possessed by the Spaniard, and ma­ny such like demands; I intreat your pardons, if I chance to be too plaine, or tedious in relating my knowledge for plaine mens satisfaction.

Florida is the next adioyning to the Indes, Notes of Flo­rida. which vnprosperously was attempted to bee planted by the French. A Country farre bigger then England, Scotland, France and Ireland, yet little knowne to any Christian, but by the wonderful endeuours of Ferdinando de Soto a valiant Spaniard: whose wri­tings in this age is the best guide knowne to search those parts.

Virginia is no Ile (as many doe imagine) but part of the Continent adioyning to Florida; Notes of Vir­ginia. whose bounds may be stretched to the magnitude there­of without offence to any Christian inhabitant. For from the degrees of 30. to 45. his Maiestie hath granted his Letters parents, the Coast exten­ding South-west and North-east aboute 1500 [Page 4] miles; but to follow it aboard, the shore may well be 2000. at the least: of which, 20. miles is the most giues entrance into the Bay of Chisapeak, where is the London plantation: within which is a Country (as you may perceiue by the description in a Booke and Map printed in my name of that little I there discouered) may well suffice 300000 people to inhabit. And Southward adioyneth that part discouered at the charge of Sir Walter Rawley, by Sir Ralph Lane, and that learned Ma­thematician Mr. Thomas Heryot. Northward six or seauen degrees is the Riuer Sadagahock, where was planted the Westerne Colony, by that Honoura­ble Patrone of vertue Sir Iohn Poppham Lord chief Iustice of England. Ther is also a relation prin­ted by Captaine Bartholomew Gosnould, of Eliza­beths Iles: and an other by Captaine Waymoth, of Pemmaquid. From all these diligent obseruers, po­sterity may be bettered by the fruits of their la­bours. But for diuers others that long before and since haue ranged those parts, within a kenning sometimes of the shore, some touching in one place some in another, I must entreat them pardon me for omitting them; or if I offend in saying that their true descriptions are concealed, or neuer well obserued, or died with the Authors: so that the Coast is yet still but euen as a Coast vnknowne and vndiscouered. I haue had six or seauen seuerall plots of those Northren parts, so vnlike each to other, and most sodiffering from any true propor­tion, or resemblance of the Countrey, as they did [Page 5] mee no more good, then so much waste paper, though they cost me more. It may be it was not my chance to see the best; but least others may be deceiued as I was, or through dangerous ignorance hazard themselues as I did, I haue drawen a Map from Point to Point, Ile to Ile, and Harbour to Harbour, with the Soundings, Sands, Rocks, & Land-marks as I passed close aboard the Shore in a little Boat; although there bemany things to bee obserued which the haste of other affaires did cause me omit: for, being sent more to get present com­modities, then knowledge by discoueries for any future good, I had not power to search as I would: yet it will serue to direct any shall goe that waies, to safe Harbours and the Saluages habitations: What marchandize and commodities for their la­bour they may finde, this following discourse shall plainely demonstrate.

Thus you may see, of this 2000. miles more then halfe is yet vnknowne to any purpose: no not so much as the borders of the Sea are yet certainly discouered. As for the goodnes and true substan­ces of the Land, wee are for most part yet altoge­ther ignorant of them, vnlesse it bee those parts a­bout the Bay of Chisapeack and Sagadahock: but onely here and there wee touched or haue seene a little the edges of those large dominions, which doe stretch themselues into the Maine, God doth know how many thousand miles; whereof we can yet no more iudge, then a stranger that saileth be­twixt England and France can describe the Harbors [Page 6] and dangers by landing here or there in some Ri­uer or Bay, tell thereby the goodnesse and substan­ces of Spaine, Italy, Germany, Bohemia, Hungaria & the rest. By this you may perceiue how much they erre, that think euery one wch hath bin at Virginia vnderstandeth or knowes what Virginia is: Or that the Spaniards know one halfe quarter of those Ter­ritories they possesse; no, not so much as the true circumference of Terra Incognita, whose large do­minions may equalize the greatnesse and goodnes of America, for any thing yet known. It is strange with what small power hee hath raigned in the East Indes; and few will vnderstand the truth of his strength in America: where he hauing so much to keepe with such a pampered force, they neede not greatly feare his furie, in the Bermudas, Virginia, New France, or New England; beyond whose bounds America doth stretch many thousand miles: into the frozen partes whereof one Master Hutson an English Mariner did make the greatest discouerie of any Christian I knowe of, where he vnfortunately died. For Affrica, had not the industrious Portugales ranged her vn­knowne parts, who would haue sought for wealth among those fryed Regions of blacke brutish Ne­gers, where not withstanding all the wealth and ad­mirable aduentures & endeauours more then 140 yeares, they knowe not one third of those blacke habitations. But it is not a worke for euery one, to manage such an affaire as makes a discouerie, and plants a Colony: It requires all the best parts of [Page 7] Art, Iudgement, Courage, Honesty, Cōstancy, Di­ligence and Industrie, to doe but neere well. Some are more proper for one thing then another; and therein are to be imployed: and nothing breedes more confusion then misplacing and misimploy­ing men in their vndertakings. Columbus, Cortez, Pitzara, Soto, Magellanes, and the rest serued more then a prentiship to learne how to begin their most memorable attempts in the West Indes: which to the wonder of all ages succesfully they effected, when many hundreds of others farre aboue them in the worlds opinion, beeing instructed but by re­lation, came to shame and confusion in actions of small moment, who doubtlesse in other matters, were both wise, discreet, generous, and couragi­ous. I say not this to detract any thing from their incomparable merits, but to answer those questi­onlesse questions that keep vs back from imitating the worthinesse of their braue spirits that aduan­ced themselues from poore Souldiers to great Cap­taines, their posterity to great Lords, their King to be one of the greatest Potentates on earth, and the fruites of their labours, his greatest glory, power and renowne.

That part wee call New England is betwixt the degrees of 41.The description of New Eng­land. and 45: but that parte this discourse speaketh of, stretcheth but from Pennobscot to Cape Cod, some 75 leagues by a right line distant each from other: within which bounds I haue seene at least 40. seuerall habitations vpon the Sea Coast, and sounded about 25 excellent good Harbours; [Page 8] In many whereof there is ancorage for 500. sayle of ships of any burthen; in some of them for 5000: And more then 200 Iles ouergrowne with good timber, of diuers sorts of wood, which doe make so many harbours as requireth a lon­ger time then I had, to be well discouered.

The principall habitation Northward we were at,The particular C [...]untries or Gouernments. was Pennobscot▪ Southward along the Coast and vp the Riuers we found Mecadacut, Segocket, Pem­maquid, Nusconcus, Kenebeck, Sagadahock, and Au­moughaawgen; And to those Countries belong the people of Segotago, Paghhuntanuck, Pocopassum, Taughtanakagnet, Warbigganus, Nassaque, Mashero­squeck, Wawrigweck, Moshoquen, Wakcogo, Passhara­nack, &c. To these are allied the Countries of Au­cocisco, Accominticus, Passataquack, Aggawom, & Na­emkeck: all these, I could perceiue, differ little in language, fashion, or gouernment: though most be Lords of themselues, yet they hold the Bashabes of Pennobscot, the chiefe and greatestamongst them.

The next I can remēber by name are Mattahunts; two pleasant Iles of groues, gardens and corne fields a league in the Sea from the Mayne. Then Totant, Massachuset, Pocapawmet, Quonahassit, Sa­goquas, Nahapassumkeck, Topeent, Seccasaw, Totheet, Nasnocomacack, Accomack, Chawum; Then Cape Cod by which is Pawmet and the Ile Nawset, of the language, & alliance of them of Chawum: The o­thers are called Massachusets; of another language, humor and condition: For their trade and mar­chandize; to each of their habitations they haue [Page 9] diuerse Townes and people belonging; and by their relations and desriptions, more then 20 seuerall Habitations and Riuers that stretch them­selues farre vp into the Countrey, euen to the bor­ders of diuerse great Lakes, where they kill and take most of their Beuers and Ouers. From Pen­nobscot to Sagadahock this Coast is all Mountainous and Iles of huge Rocks, but ouergrowen with all sorts of excellent good woodes for building hou­ses, boats, barks or shippes; with an incredible a­bundance of most sorts of fish, much fowle, and sundry sorts of good fruites for mans vse.

Betwixt Sagadahock and Sowocatuck there is but two or three sandy Bayes,The mixture of an excellent soyle. but betwixt that and Cape God very many: especialy the Coast of the Massachusets is so indifferently mixed with high clayie or sandy cliffes in one place, & then tracts of large long ledges of diuers sorts, and quarries of stones in other places so strangely diuided with tinctured veines of diuers colours: as, Free stone for building, Slate for tiling, smooth stone to make Fornaces and Forges for glasse or iron, and iron ore sufficient, conueniently to melt in them: but the most part so resembleth the Coast of De­uonshire, I thinke most of the cliffes would make such lime-stone: If they be not of these qualities, they are so like, they may deceiue a better iudge­ment then mine; all which are so neere adioyning to those other aduantages I obserued in these parts, that if the Ore proue as good iron & steele [...] those parts, as I know it is within the bounds of [Page 10] the Countrey, I dare engage my head (hauing but men skilfull to worke the simples there grow­ing) to haue all things belonging to the building the rigging of shippes of any proportion, and and good marchandize for the fraught, within a square of 10 or 14 leagues: and were it for a good rewarde, I would not feare to prooue it in a lesse limitation.

And surely by reason of those sandy cliffes and cliffes of rocks,A proofe of an excellent tem­per. both which we saw so planted with Gardens and Corne fields, and so well inhabited with a goodly, strong and well proportioned peo­ple, besides the greatnesse of the Timber growing on them, the greatnesse of the fish and the mode­rate temper of the ayre (for of twentie fiue, not a­ny was sicke,A proofe of health. but two that were many yeares dis­eased before they went, not withstanding our bad lodging and accidentall diet) who can but ap­prooue this a most excellent place, both for health & fertility? And of all the foure parts of the world that I haue yet seene not inhabited, could I haue but meanes to transport a Colonie, I would rather liue here then any where: and if it did not main­taine if selfe, were wee but once indifferently well fitted, let vs starue.

The maine Staple, from hence to bee extracted for the present to produce the rest,St [...]ple com­modities pre­sent. is fish; which howeuet it may seeme a mean and a base commo­ditie: yet who who will but truely take the pains and consider the sequell, I thinke will allow it well worth the labour. It is strange to see what great [Page 11] aduentures the hopes of setting forth men of war to rob the industrious innocent, would procure; or such massie promises in grosse: though more are choked then well fedde with such hastie hopes. But who doth not know that the poore Hollan­ders,The Hollan­ders fishing. chiefly by fishing, at a great charge and la­bour in all weathers in the open Sea, are made a people so hardy, and industrious? and by the venting this poore commodity to the Easterlings for as meane, which is Wood, Flax, Pitch, Tarre, Rosin, Cordage, and such like (which they ex­change againe, to the French, Spaniards, Portu­gales, and English, &c. for what they want) are made so mighty, strong and rich, as no State but Venice, of twice their magnitude, is so well furnished with so many faire Cities, goodly Townes, strong Fortresses, & that aboundance of shipping and all sorts of marchandize, as well of Golde, Siluer, Pearles, Diamonds, Pretious stones, Silkes, Veluets, and Cloth of golde; as Fish, Pitch, Wood, or such grosse commodities? What Voy­ages and Discoueries, East and West, North and South, yea about the world, make they? What an Army by Sea and Land, haue they long main­tained in despite of one of the greatest Princes of the world? and neuer could the Spaniard with all his Mynes of golde and Siluer, pay his debts, his friends, & army, halfe so truly, as the Hollan­ders stil haue done by this contemptible trade of fish. Diuers (I know) may alledge, many other assi­stances: But this is their Myne; and the Sea the [Page 12] source of those siluered streames of all their ver­tue; which hath made them now the very mira­cle of industrie, the pattern of perfection for these affaires: and the benefit of fishing is that Primum mobile that turnes all their Spheres to this height of plentie, strength, honour and admiration.

Herring, Cod, and Ling, is that triplicitie that makes their wealth & shippings multiplicities, such as it is, and from which (few would thinke it) they yearly draw at least one million & a halfe of pounds starling;Which is fifteen hundred thou and pound. yet it is most certaine (if records be true): and in this faculty they are so naturalized, and of their vents so certainely acquainted, as there is no likelihood they will euer bee paralleld, hauing 2 or 3000 Busses, Flat bottomes, Sword pinks, Todes, and such like, that breedes them Saylers, Mariners, Souldiers and Marchants, neuer to be wrought out of that trade, and fit for any other. I will not deny but others may gaine as well as they, that will vse it, though not so certainely, nor so much in quantity; for want of experience. And this Herring they take vpon the Coast of Scotland and England; their Cod and Ling, vpon the Coast of Izeland and in the North Seas.

Hamborough, & the East Countries, for Sturgion and Cauiare, gets many thousands of pounds from England, and the Straites: Portugale, the Biskaines, and the Spaniards, make 40 or 50 Saile yearely to Cape-blank, to hooke for Porgos, Mullet, and make Puttardo: and New found Land, doth yearely fraught neere 800 sayle of Ships with a sillie leane [Page 13] skinny Poore-Iohn, and Corfish, which at least yearely amounts to 3 or 400000 pound. If from all those parts such paines is taken for this poore gaines of fish, and by them hath neither meate, drinke, nor clothes, wood, iron, nor steele, pitch, tarre, nets, leades, salt, hookes, nor lines, for shipping, fishing, nor prouision, but at the second, third, fourth, or fift hand, drawne from so many seuerall parts of the world ere they come together to be vsed in this voyage: If these I say can gaine, and the Saylers liue going for shares, lesse then the third part of their labours, and yet spend as much time in going and comming, as in staying there, so short is the season of fishing; why should wee more doubt, then Holland, Portugale, Spaniard, French, or other, but to doe much bet­ter then they, where there is victuall to feede vs, wood of all sorts, to build Boats, Ships, or Barks; the fish at our doores, pitch, tarre, masts, yards, and most of other necessaries onely for making? And here are no hard Landlords to racke vs with high rents, or extorted fines to consume vs, no tedi­ous pleas in law to consume vs with their many years disputations for Iustice: no multitudes to occasion such impediments to good orders, as in popular States. So freely hath God & his Maiesty bestowed those blessings on thē that will attempt to obtaine them, as here euery man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land; or the greatest part in a small time. If hee haue nothing but his hands, he may set vp this trade; and by in­dustrie [Page 14] quickly grow rich; spending but halfe that time wel, wch in England we abuse in idlenes, worse or as ill. Here is ground also as good as any lyeth in the height of forty one, forty two, forty three, &c. which is as temperate and as fruitfull as any other paralell in the world.Examples of the altitude comparatiuely. As for example, on this side the line West of it in the South Sea, is Noua Al­bion, discouered as is said, by Sir Francis Drake. East from it, is the most temperate part of Por­tugale, the ancient kingdomes of Galazia, Biskey, Nauarre, Arragon, Catalonia, Castilia the olde, and the most moderatest of Castilia the new, and Valentia, which is the greatest part of Spain: which if the Spanish Histories bee true, in the Romanes time abounded no lesse with golde and siluer Mines, then now the West Indies; The Romanes then vsing the Spaniards to work in those Mines, as now the Spaniard doth the Indians.

In France, the Prouinces of Gasconie, Langadock, Auignon, Prouince, Dolphine, Pyamont, and Turyne, are in the same paralel: which are the best & richest parts of France. In Italy, the prouinces of Genua, Lumbardy, & Verona, with a great part of the most famous Sate of Venice, the Dukedoms of Bononia, Mantua, Ferrara, Rauenna, Bolognia, Florence, Pisa, Sienna, Vrbine, Ancona, and the ancient Citie and Countrey of Rome, with a great part of the great Kingdome of Naples. In Slauonia, Istrya, and Dal­matia, with the Kingdomes of Albania. In Gre­cia, that famous Kingdome of Macedonia, Bulga­ria, Thessalia, Thracia, or Romania, where is seated [Page 15] the most pleasant and plētifull Citie in Europe, Con­stantinople. In Asia also, in the same latitude, are the temperatest parts of Natolia, Armenia, Persia, and China, besides diuers other large Countries and Kingdomes in these most milde and temperate Regions of Asia. Southward, in the same height, is the richest of golde Mynes, Chily and Baldiuia, & the mouth of the great Riuer of Plate, &c: for all the rest of the world in that height is yet vnknown. Besides these reasons, mine owne eyes that haue seene a great part of those Cities and their King­domes, as well as it, can finde no aduantage they haue in nature, but this, They are beautified by the long labour and diligence of industrious people and Art. This is onely as God made it, when he created the worlde. Therefore I conclude, if the heart and intralls of those Regions were sought: if their Land were cultured, planted and manured by men of industrie, iudgement, and experience; what hope is there, or what neede they doubt, hauing those aduantages of the Sea, but it might equalize any of those famous Kingdomes, in all commodities, pleasures, and conditions? seeing e­uen the very edges doe naturally afford vs such plenty, as no ship need returne away empty: and onely vse but the season of the Sea, fish will returne an honest gaine, beside all other aduantages; her treasures hauing yet neuer beene opened, nor her originalls wasted, consumed, nor abused.

And whereas it is said,The particular staple commo­dities that may be had. the Hollanders serue the Easterlings themselues, and other parts that want, [Page 16] with Herring, Ling, and wet Cod; The Easter­lings, a great part of Europe, with Sturgion and Cauiate; Cape-blanke, Spaine, Portugale, and the Leuant, with Mullet, and Puttargo; New found Land, all Europe, with a thin Poore Iohn: yet all is so ouerlaide with fishers, as the fishing decayeth, and many are constrained to returne with a small fraught. Norway, and Polonia, Pitch, Tar, Masts, and Yardes; Sweathland, and Russia Iron, and Ropes; France, and Spaine, Canuas, Wine, Steele, Iron, and Oyle; Italy and Greece, Silks, and Fruites. I dare boldly say, because I haue seen naturally growing, or breeding in those parts the same materialls that all those are made of, they may as well be had here, or the most part of them, within the distance of 70 leagues for some few ages, as from all those parts; vsing but the same meanes to haue them that they doe, & with all those aduantages.

First,The nature of ground ap­prooued. the ground is so fertill, that questionless it is capable of producing any Grain, Fruits, or Seeds you will sow or plant, growing in the Regions afore named: But it may be, not euery kinde to that perfection of delicacy; or some tender plants may miscarie, because the Summer is not so hot, and the winter is more colde in those parts wee haue yet tryed neere the Sea side, then we finde in the same height in Europe or Asia; Yet I made a Garden vpon the top of a Rockie Ile in 43. ½, 4 leagues from the Main, in May, that grew so well, as it serued vs for sallets in Iune and Iuly. All sorts [Page 17] of cattell may here be bred and fed in the Iles, or Peninsulaes, securely for nothing. In the Interim till they encrease if need be (obseruing the seasons) I durst vndertake to haue corne enough from the Saluages for 300 men, for a few trifles; and if they should bee vntoward (as it is most certaine they are) thirty or forty good men will be suffici­ent to bring them all in subiection, and make this prouision; if they vnderstand what they doe: 200 whereof may nine monethes in the yeare be imployed in making marchandable fish, till the rest prouide other necessaries, fit to furnish vs with other commodities.

In March,The seasons for fishing approo­ued. Aprill, May, and halfe Iune, here is Cod in abundance; in May, Iune, Iuly, and Au­gust Mullet and Sturgion; whose roes doe make Cauiare and Puttargo. Herring, if any desire them, I haue taken many out of the bellies of Cods, some in nets; but the Saluages compare their store in the Sea, to the haires of their heads: and surely there are an incredible abundance vpon this Coast. In the end of August, September, Oc­tober, and Nouember, you haue Cod againe, to make Cor fish, or Poore Iohn: and each hundred is as good as two or three hundred in the New­found Land. So that halfe the labour in hooking, splitting, and turning, is saued: and you may haue your fish at what Market you will, before they can haue any in New-found Land; where their fishing is chiefly but in Iune and Iuly: whereas it is heere in March, Aprill, May, September, October, and [Page 18] Nouember, as is said. So that by reason of this plantation, the Marchants may haue fraught both out and home: which yeelds an aduantage worth consideration.

Your Cor-fish you may in like manner tran­sport as you see cause, to serue the Ports in Portu­gale (as Lisbon, Auera, Porta port, and diuers others, or what market you please) before your Ilanders returne: They being tyed to the season in the o­pen Sea; you hauing a double season, and fishing before your doors, may euery night sleep quietly a shore with good cheare and what fires you will, or when you please with your wiues and familie: they onely, their ships in the maine Ocean.

The Mullets heere are in that abundance, you may take them with nets, sometimes by hundreds, where at Cape blank they hooke them; yet those but one foot and a halfe in length; these two, three, or foure, as oft I haue measured: much Salmon some haue found vp the Riuers, as they haue pas­sed: and heer the ayre is so temperate, as all these at any time may well be preserued.

Now,Imployment for poore peo­ple and father­lesse children. young boyes and girles Saluages, or any other, be they neuer such idlers, may turne, carry, and return fish, without either shame, or any great paine: hee is very idle that is past twelue yeares of age and cannot doe so much: and she is very olde, that cannot spin a thred to make engines to catch them.

For their transportation,The facility of the plantation. the ships that go there to fish may transport the first: who for their pas­sage [Page 19] will spare the charge of double manning their ships, which they must doe in the New-found Land, to get their fraught; but one third part of that companie are onely but proper to serue a stage, carry a barrow, and turne Poor Iohn: notwith­standing, they must haue meate, drinke, clothes, & passage, as well as the rest. Now all I desire, is but this; That those that voluntarily will send ship­ping, should make here the best choise they can, or accept such as are presented them, to serue them at that rate: and their ships returning leaue such with me, with the value of that they should re­ceiue comming home, in such prouisions and ne­cessarie tooles, armes, bedding and apparell, salt, hookes, nets, lines, and such like as they spare of the remainings; who till the next returne may keepe their boates and doe them many other pro­fitable offices: prouided I haue men of ability to teach them their functions, and a company fit for Souldiers to be ready vpon an occasion; because of the abuses which haue beene offered the poore Saluages, and the liberty both French, or any that will, hath to deale with them as they please: whose disorders will be hard to reforme; and the longer the worse. Now such order with facilitie might be taken, with euery port Towne or Citie, to obserue but this order, With free power to con­uert the benefits of their fraughts to what aduan­tage they please, and increase their numbers as they see occasion; who euer as they are able to subsist of themselues, may beginne the new Townes in [Page 20] New England in memory of their olde: which freedome being confined but to the necessity of the generall good, the euent (with Gods helpe) might produce an honest, a noble, and a profita­ble emulation.

Salt vpon salt may assuredly be made; [...] com­modities. if not at the first in ponds, yet till they bee prouided this may be vsed: then the Ships may transport Kine, Horse, Goates, course Cloath, and such commo­dities as we want; by whose arriuall may be made that prouision of fish to fraught the Ships that they stay not: and then if the sailers goe for wages, it matters not. It is hard if this returne defray not the charge: but care must be had, they arriue in the Spring, or else prouision be made for them against the Winter.

Of certaine red berries called Alkermes which is worth ten shillings a pound, but of these hath been sould for thirty or forty shillings the pound, may yearely be gathered a good quantitie.

Of the Musk Rat may bee weil raised gaines, well worth their labour, that will endeuor to make tryall of their goodnesse.

Of Beuers, Otters, Martins, Blacke Foxes, and Furres of price, may yearely be had 6 or 7000: and if the trade of the French were preuented, ma­ny more: 25000 this yeare were brought from those Northren parts into France; of which trade we may haue as good part as the French, if we take good courses.

Of Mynes of Golde and Siluer, Copper, and [Page 21] probabilities of Lead, Christall and Allum, I could say much if relations were good assurances. It is true indeed, I made many trials according to those instructions I had, which doe perswade mee I need not despaire, but there are metalls in the Coun­trey: but I am no Alchymist, nor will promise more then I know: which is, Who will vndertake the rectifying of an Iron forge, if those that buy meate, drinke, coals, ore, and all necessaries at a deer rate gaine; where all these things are to be had for the taking vp, in my opinion cannot lose.

Of woods seeing there is such plenty of all sorts, if those that build ships and boates, buy wood at so great a price, as it is in England, Spaine, France, Italy, and Holland, and all other prouisions for the nourishing of mans life; liue well by their trade: when labour is all required to take those ne­cessaries without any other tax; what hazard will be here, but doe much better? And what com­moditie in Europe doth more decay then wood? For the goodnesse of the ground, let vs take it fer­till, or barren, or as it is: seeing it is certaine it beares fruites, to nourish and feed man and beast, as well as England, and the Sea those seuerall sorts of fish I haue related. Thus seeing all good prouisions for mans sustenance, may with this fa­cility be had, by a little extraordinarie labour, till that transported be increased; and all necessaries for shipping, onely for labour: to which may bee added the assistance of the Saluages, which may easily be had, if they be discreetly handled in their [Page 22] kindes; towards fishing, planting, and destroying woods. What gaines might be raised if this were followed (when there is but once men to fill your store houses, dwelling there, you may serue all Eu­rope better and farre cheaper, then can the Izeland fishers, or the Hollanders, Cape blank, or New found Land: who must be at as much more charge, then you) may easily be coniectured by this example.

2000.An example of the gains vpon euery yeare or from one thes returne. pound will fit out a ship of 200. & 1 of a 100 tuns: If the dry fish they both make, fraught that of 200. and goe for Spaine, sell it but at ten shillings a quintall; but commonly it giueth fif­teen, or twentie: especially when it commeth first, which amounts to 3 or 4000 pound: but say but tenne, which is the lowest, allowing the rest for waste, it amounts at that rate, to 2000 pound, which is the whole charge of your two ships, and their equipage: Then the returne of the money, and the fraught of the ship for the vintage, or any other voyage, is cleere gaine, with your shippe of a 100 tuns of Train and oyle, besides the beuers, and other commodities; and that you may haue at home within six monethes, if God please but to send an ordinarie passage. Then sauing halfe this charge by the not staying of your ships, your victual, ouerplus of men & wages; with her fraught thither of things necessarie for the planters, the salt being there made: as also may the nets & lines, within a short time: if nothing were to bee expected but this, it might in time equalize your Hollanders gaines, if not exceed them: they returning but [Page 23] wood, pitch, tarre, and such grosse commodities; you wines, oyles, fruits, silkes, and such Straits commodities, as you please to prouide by your Factors, against such times as your shippes arriue with them. This would so increase our shipping and sailers, and so employ and encourage a great part of our idlers and others that want imploy­ments fitting their qualities at home, where they shame to doe that they would doe abroad; that could they but once taste the sweet fruites of their owne labours, doubtlesse many thousands would be aduised by good discipline, to take more plea­sure in honest industrie, then in their humours of dissolute idlenesse.

But,A description of the Coun­tries in particu­lar, and their situations. to returne a little more to the particulars of this Countrey, which I intermingle thus with my proiects and reasons, not being so sufficiently yet acquainted in those parts, to write fully the estate of the Sea, the Ayre, the Land, the Fruites, the Rocks, the People, the Gouernment, Religion, Territories, and Limitations, Friends, and Foes: but, as I gathered from the niggardly relations in a broken language to my vnderstanding, during the time I ranged those Countries &c. The most Northren part I was at, was the Bay of Pennob­scot, which is East and West, North and South, more then ten leagues: but such were my occasions, I was constrained to be satisfied of them I found in the Bay, that the Riuer ranne farre vp into the Land, and was well inhabited with many people, but they were from their habitations, either fish­ing [Page 24] among the Iles, or hunting the Lakes and Woods, for Deer and Beners. The Bay is full of great Ilands, of one, two, six, eight, or ten miles in length, which diuides it into many faire and excel­lent good harbours. On the East of it, are the Tar­rantines, their mortall enemies, where inhabit the French, as they report that liue with those people, as one nation or family. And Northwest of Pen­nobscot is Mecaddacut, at the foot of a high moun­taine, a kinde of fortresse against the Tarrantines, adioyning to the high mountaines of Pennobscot, against whose feet doth beat the Sea: But ouer all the Land, Iles, or other impediments, you may well see them sixteene or eighteene leagues from their situation. Segocket is the next; then Nusconcus, Pemmaquid, and Sagadahock. Vp this Riuer where was the Westerne plantation are Aumuckcawgen, Kinnebeck, and diuers others, where there is plan­ted some corne fields. Along this Riuer 40 or 50 miles, I saw nothing but great high cliffes of bar­ren Rocks, ouergrowne with wood: but where the Saluages dwelt there the ground is exceeding fat & fertill. Westward of this Riuer, is the Coun­trey of Aucocisco, in the bottome of a large deepe Bay, full of many great Iles, which diuides it into many good harbours. Sowocotuck is the next, in the edge of a large sandy Bay, which hath many Rocks and Iles, but few good harbours, but for Barks, I yet know. But all this Coast to Pennob­scot, and as farre I could see Eastward of it is no­thing but such high craggy Cliffy Rocks & stony [Page 25] Iles that I wondered such great trees could growe vpon so hard foundations. It is a Countrie rather to affright, then delight one. And how to describe a more plaine spectacle of desolation or more barren I knowe not. Yet the Sea there is the strangest fish­pond I euer saw; and those barren Iles so furnished with good woods, springs, fruits, fish, and foule, that it makes mee thinke though the Coast be roc­kie, and thus affrightable; the Vallies, Plaines, and and interior parts, may well (notwithstanding) be verie fertile. But there is no kingdome so fertile hath not some part barren: and New England is great e­nough, to make many Kingdomes and Countries, were it all inhabited. As you passe the Coast still Westward, Accominticus and Passataquack are two conuenient harbors for small barks; and a good Countrie, within their craggie cliffs. Angoam is the next; This place might content a right curious iudgement: but there are many sands at the en­trance of the harbor: and the worst is, it is inbay­ed too farre from the deepe Sea. Heere are many rising hilles, and on their tops and descents many corne fields, and delightfull groues. On the East, is an Ile of two or three leagues in length; the one halfe, plaine morish grasse fit for pasture, with ma­ny faire high groues of mulberrie trees gardens: and there is also Okes, Pines, and other woods to make this place an excellent habitation, beeing a good and safe harbor.

Naimkeck though it be more rockie ground (for Angoam is sandie) not much inferior; neither for the [Page 26] harbor, nor any thing I could perceiue, but the multitude of people. From hence doth stretch in­to the Sea the faire headland Tragabigzanda, fronted with three Iles called the three Turks heads: to the North of this, doth enter a great Bay, where wee founde some habitations and corne fields: they re­port a great Riuer, and at least thirtie habitations, doo possesse this Countrie. But because the French had got their Trade, I had no leasure to discouer it. The Iles of Mattahunts are on the West side of this Bay, where are many Iles, and questionlesse good harbors: and then the Countrie of the Massachu­sets, which is the Paradise of all those parts: for, heere are many Iles all planted with corne; groues, mulberries, saluage gardens, and good harbors: the Coast is for the most part, high clayie sandie cliffs. The Sea Coast as you passe, shewes you all along large corne fields, and great troupes of well proportioned people: but the French hauing re­mained heere neere sixe weekes, left nothing, for vs to take occasion to examine the inhabitants relati­ons, viz. if there be neer three thousand people vp­on these Iles; and that the Riuer doth pearce many daies iourneies the intralles of that Countrey. We found the people in those parts verie kinde; but in their furie no lesse valiant. For, vpon a quarrell wee had with one of them, hee onely with three others crossed the harbor of Quonahassit to certaine rocks whereby wee must passe; and there let flie their ar­rowes for our shot, till we were out of danger.

Then come you to Accomack, an excellent good [Page 27] harbor, good land; and no want of any thing, but industrious people. After much kindnesse, vpon a small occasion, wee fought also with fortie or fif­tie of those: though some were hurt, and some slaine; yet within an houre after they became friendes. Cape Cod is the next presents it selfe: which is onely a headland of high hils of sand, ouer­growne with shrubbie pines, hurts, and such trash; but an excellent harbor for all weathers. This Cape is made by the maine Sea on the one side, and a great Bay on the other in forme of a sickle: on it doth inhabit the people of Pawmet: and in the bot­tome of the Bay, the people of Chawum. Towards the South and Southwest of this Cape, is found a long and dangerous shoale of sands and rocks. But so farte as I incircled it, I found thirtie fadom wa­ter aboard the shore, and a strong current: which makes mee thinke there is a Channell about this shoale; where is the best and greatest fish to be had, Winter and Summer, in all that Countrie. But, the Saluages say there is no Channell, but that the shoales beginne from the maine at Pawmet, to the Ile of Nausit; and so extends beyond their know­ledge into the Sea. The next to this is Capawack, and those abounding Countries of copper, corne, people, and mineralls; which I went to discouer this last yeare: but because I miscarried by the way, I will leaue them, till God please I haue better ac­quaintance with them.

The Massachusets, A good Coun­trie. they report, sometimes haue warres with the Bashabes of Pennobskot; and are not [Page 26] [...] [Page 27] [...] [Page 28] alwaies friends with them of Chawun and their alli­ants: but now they are all friends, and haue each trade with other, so farre as they haue societie, on each others frontiers. For they make no such voia­ges as from Pennobskot to Cape Cod; seldom to Mas­sachewset. In the North (as I haue said) they be­gunne to plant corne, whereof the South part hath such plentie, as they haue what they will from them of the North; and in the Winter much more plenty of fish and foule: but both Winter and Summer hath it in the one part or other all the yeare; being the meane and most indifferent tem­per, betwixt heat and colde, of all the regions be­twixt the Lyne and the Pole: but the furs North­ward are much better, and in much more plentie, then Southward.

The remarkeablest Iles & mountains for Land­markes are these;The land­markes. The highest Ile is Sorico, in the Bay of Pennobskot: but the three Iles and a rock of Ma­tinnack are much furder in the Sea; Metinicus is al­so three plaine Iles & a rock, betwixt it & Monahi­gan: Monahigan is a rounde high Ile; and close by it Monanis, betwixt which is a small harbor where we ride. In Damerils Iles is such another: Sagada­hock is knowne by Satquin, and foure or fiue Iles in the mouth. Smyths Iles are a heape together, none neere them, against Accominticus. The three Turks heads are three Iles seen fa [...] to Sea-ward in regard of the headland.

The cheefe headlands are onely Cape Tragabig­ [...]anda and Cape Cod.

[Page 29] The cheefe mountaines, them of Pennobscot: the twinkling mountaine of Aucocisco; the greate mountaine of Sasanon; and the high mountaine of Massachusit: each of which you shall finde in the Mappe; their places, formes, and altitude. The waters are most pure, proceeding from the intrals of rockie mountaines;Hearbs. the hearbes and fruits are of many sorts and kindes: as alkermes, currans, or a fruit like currans, mulberries, vines, respices, goos­berries, plummes, walnuts, chesnuts, small nuts, &c. pumpions, gourds, strawberries, beans, pease, and mayze; a kinde or two of flax, wherewith they make nets, lines and ropes both small and great, verie strong for their quantities.

Oke,Woods. is the chiefe wood; of which there is great difference in regard of the soyle where it groweth. firre, pyne, walnut, chesnut, birch, ash, elme, cypresse, ceder, mulberrie, plumtree, hazell, saxe­frage, and many other sorts.

Eagles,Birds. Gripes, diuerse sorts of Haukes, Cranes, Geese, Brants, Cormorants, Ducks, Sheldrakes, Teale, Meawes, Guls, Turkies, Diue-doppers, and many other sorts, whose names I knowe not.

Whales,Fishes. Grampus, Porkpisces, Turbut, Sturgi­on, Cod, Hake, Haddock, Cole, Cusk, or small Ling, Shark, Mackerell, Herring, Mullet, Base, Pi­nacks, Cunners, Pearch, Eels, Crabs, Lobsters, Muskles, Wilkes, Oysters, and diuerse others &c.

Moos,Beasts. a beast bigger then a Stagge; deere, red, and Fallow; Beuers, Wolues, Foxes, both blacke and other; Aroughconds, Wild-cats, Beares, Otters, [Page 30] Martins, Fitches, Musquaslus, & diuerse sorts of vermine, whose names I know not. All these and diuerse other good things do heese, for want of vse, still increase, & decrease with little diminution, whereby they growe to that abundance. You shall scarce finde any Baye, shallow shore, or Coue of sand, where you may not take many Clampes, or Lobsters, or both at your pleasure, and in many places lode your boat if you please; Nor Iles where you finde not fruits, birds, crabs, and muskles, or all of them, for taking, at a lowe water. And in the harbors we frequented, a little boye might take of Cunners, and Pinacks, and such delicate fish, at the ships sterne, more then sixe or tenne can eate in a daie; but with a casting-net, thousands when wee pleased: and scarce any place, but Cod, Cuske, Holybut, Mackerell, Scate, or such like, a man may take with a hooke or line what he will. And, in di­uerse sandy Baies, a man may draw with a net great store of Mullets, Bases, and diuerse other sorts of such excellent fish, as many as his Net can drawe on shore: no Riuer where there is not plentie of Sturgion, or Salmon, or both; all which are to be had in abundance obseruing but their seasons. But if a man will goe at Christmasse to gather Cherries in Kent, he may be deceiued; though there be plen­tie in Summer: so, heere these plenties haue each their seasons, as I haue expressed. We for the most part had little but bread and vineger: and though the most part of Iuly when the fishing decaied they wrought all day, laie abroade in the Iles [Page 31] all night, and liued on what they found, yet were not sicke: But I would wish none put himself long to such plunges; except necessitie constraine it: yet worthy is that person to starue that heere cannot liue; if he haue sense, strength and health: for, there is no such penury of these blessings in any place, but that a hundred men may, in one houre or two, make their prouisions for a day: and hee that hath experience to mannage well these affaires, with for­tie or thirtie honest industrious men, might well vndertake (if they dwell in these parts) to subject the Saluages, and feed daily two or three hundred men, with as good corne, fish, and flesh, as the earth hath of those kindes, and yet make that labor but their pleasure: prouided that they haue engins, that be proper for their purposes.

Who can desire more content,A note for men that haue great spirits, and smal meanes that hath small meanes; or but only his merit to aduance his for­tune, then to tread, and plant that ground hee hath purchased by the hazard of his life? If he haue but the taste of virtue, and magnanimitie, what to such a minde can bee more pleasant, then planting and building a foundation for his Posteritie, gotte from the rude earth, by Gods blessing & his owne industrie, without preiudice to any? If hee haue any graine of faith or zeale in Religion, what can hee doe lesse hurtfull to any; or more agreeable to God, then to seeke to conuert those poore Salua­ges to know Christ, and humanitie, whose labors with discretion will triple requite thy charge and paines? What so truely sutes with honour and ho­nestie, [Page 32] as the discouering things vnknowne? ere­cting Townes, peopling Countries, informing the ignorant, reforming things vniust, teaching virtue; & gaine to out Natiuemother-countrie a kingdom to attend her; finde imployment for those that are idle, because they know not what to doe: so farre from wronging any, as to cause Posteritie to re­member thee; and remembring thee, euer honour that remembrance with praise? Consider: What were the beginnings and endings of the Monarkies of the Chaldeans, the Syrians, the Grecians, and Ro­manes, but this one rule; What was it they would not doe, for the good of the commonwealth, or their Mother-citie? For example: Rome, What made her such a Monarchesse, but onely the aduen­tures of her youth, not in riots at home, but in dan­gers abroade? and the iustice and iudgement out of their experience, when they grewe aged. What was their ruine and hurt, but this; The excesse of idlenesse, the fondnesse of Parents, the want of ex­perience in Magistrates, the admiration of their vndeserued honours, the contempt of true merit, their vniust iealosies, their politicke incredulities, their hypocriticall seeming goodnesse, and their deeds of secret lewdnesse? finally, in fine, growing onely formall temporists, all that their predecessors got in many years, they lost in few daies. Those by their pains & vertues became Lords of the world; they by their ease and vices became slaues to their seruants. This is the difference betwixt the vse of Armes in the field, & on the monuments of stones; [Page 33] the golden age and the leaden age, prosperity and miserie, iustice and corruption, substance and sha­dowes, words and deeds, experience and imagi­nation, making Commonwealths and marring Commonwealths, the fruits of vertue and the conclusions of vice.

Then, who would liue at home idly (or thinke in himselfe any worth to liue) onely to eate, drink, and sleepe, and so die? Or by consuming that care­lesly, his friends got worthily? Or by vsing that miserably, that maintained vertue honestly? Or, for being descended nobly, pine with the vaine vaunt of great kindred, in penurie? Or (to main­taine a silly shewe of brauery) toyle out thy heart, soule, and time, basely, by shifts, tricks, cards, & dice? Or by relating newes of others ac­tions, sharke here or there for a dinner, or supper; deceiue thy friends, by faire promises, and dissimu­lation, in borrowing where thou neuer intendest to pay; offend the lawes, surfeit with excesse, bur­den thy Country, abuse thy selfe, despaire in want, and then couzen thy kindred, yea euen thine owne brother, and wish thy parents death (I will not say damnation) to haue their estates? though thou seest what honours, and rewards, the world yet hath for them will seeke them and worthily de­serue them.

I would be sory to offend, or that any should mistake my honest meaning: for I wish good to all, hurt to none. But rich men for the most part are growne to that dotage, through their pride in [Page 34] their wealth, as though there were no accident could end it, or their life. And what hellish care do such take to make it their owne miserie, and their Countries spoile, especially when there is most neede of their imployment? drawing by all man­ner of inuentions, from the Prince and his honest subiects, euen the vitall spirits of their powers and estates: as if their Bagges, or Bragges, were so powerfull a defence, the malicious could not as­sault them; when they are the onely baite, to cause vs not to be onely assaulted; but betrayed and murdered in our owne security, ere we well per­ceiue it.

May not the miserable ruine of Constantinople, An example of secure coue­tousness. their impregnable walles, riches, and pleasures last taken by the Turke (which are but a bit, in compa­rison of their now mightines) remember vs, of the effects of priuate couetousness? at which time the good Emperour held himselfe rich enough, to haue such rich subiects, so formall in all excesse of va­nity, all kinde of delicacie, and prodigalitie. His pouertie when the Turke besieged, the citizens (whose marchandizing thoughts were onely to get wealth, little conceiuing the desperate resoluti­on of a valiant expert enemy) left the Emp. so long to his conclusions, hauing spent all he had to pay his young, raw, discontented Souldiers; that so­dainly he, they, and their citie were all a prey to the deuouring Turke. And what they would not spare for the maintenance of them who aduentured their liues to defend them, did serue onely their [Page 35] enemies to torment them, their friends, and coun­trey, and all Christendome to this present day. Let this lamentable example remember you that are rich (seeing there are such great theeues in the world to robbe you) not grudge to lend some pro­portion, to breed them that haue little, yet willing to learne how to defend you: for, it is too late when the deede is a-doing. The Romanes estate hath beene worse then this: for, the meere coue­tousnesse and extortion of a few of them, so moo­ued the rest, that not hauing any imployment, but contemplation; their great iudgements grew to so great malice, as themselues were sufficient to de­stroy themselues by faction: Let this mooue you to embrace imployment, for those whose educati­ons, spirits, and iudgements, want but your pur­ses; not onely to preuent such accustomed dan­gers, but also to gaine more thereby then you haue. And you fathers that are either so foolishly fond, or so miserably couetous, or so willfully ig­norant, or so negligently carelesse, as that you will rather maintaine your children in idle wantonness, till they growe your masters; or become so base­ly vnkinde, as they wish nothing but your deaths; so that both sorts growe dissolute: and although you would wish them any where to escape the gallowes, and ease your cares; though they spend you here one, two, or three hundred pound a yeer; you would grudge to giue halfe so much in ad­uenture with them, to obtaine an estate, which in a small time but with a little assistance of your [Page 36] prouidence, might bee better then your owne. But if an Angell should tell you, that any place yet vnknowne can afford such fortunes; you would not beleeue him, no more then Columbus was be­leeued there was any such Land as is now the well knowne abounding America; much lesse such large Regions as are yet vnknowne, as well in A­merica, as in Affrica, and Asia, and Terra incog­nita; where were courses for gentlemen (and them that would be so reputed) more suiting their qua­lities, then begging from their Princes generous disposition, the labours of his subiects, and the very marrow of his maintenance.

I haue not beene so ill bred, but I haue tasted of Plenty and Pleasure, The Authors conditions. as well as Want and Mi­serie: nor doth necessity yet, or occasion of dis­content, force me to these endeauors: nor am I ig­norant what small thanke I shall haue for my paines; o [...] that many would haue the Worlde imagine them to be of great iudgement, that can but blemish these my designes, by their witty ob­iections and detractions: yet (I hope) my reasons with my deeds, will so preuaile with some, that I shall not want imployment in these affaires, to make the most blinde see his owne senselesnesse, & incredulity; Hoping that gaine will make them af­fect that, which Religion, Charity, and the Com­mon good cannot. It were but a poore deuice in me, To deceiue my selfe; much more the King, & State, my Friends, and Countrey, with these in­ducements: which, seeing his Maiestie hath giuen [Page 37] permission, I wish all sorts of worthie, honest, in­dustrious spirits, would vnderstand: and if they desire any further satisfaction, I will doe my best to giue it: Not to perswade them to goe onely; but goe with them: Not leaue them there; but liue with them there. I will not say, but by ill pro­uiding and vndue managing, such courses may be taken, may make vs miserable enough: But if I may haue the execution of what I haue proiected; if they want to eate, let them eate or neuer digest Me. If I performe what I say, I desire but that re­ward out of the gaines may sute my paines, qua­lity, and condition. And if I abuse you with my tongue, take my head for satisfaction. If any dis­like at the yeares end, defraying their charge, by my consent they should freely returne. I feare not want of companie sufficient, were it but knowne what I know of those Countries; & by the proofe of that wealth I hope yearely to returne, if God please to blesse me from such accidents, as are be­yond my power in reason to preuent: For, I am not so simple, to thinke, that euer any other mo­tiue then wealth, will euer erect there a Com­monweale; or draw companie from their ease and humours at home, to stay in New England to effect my purposes.The planters pleasures, and profits. And lest any should thinke the toile might be insupportable, though these things may be had by labour, and diligence: I assure my selfe there are who delight extreamly in vaine pleasure, that take much more paines in England, to enioy it, then I should doe heere to gaine wealth suffici­ent: [Page 38] and yet I thinke they should not haue halfe such sweet content: for, our pleasure here is still gaines; in England charges and losse. Heer nature and liberty affords vs that freely, which in England we want, or it costeth vs dearely. What pleasure can be more, then (being tired with any occasion a-shore) in planting Vines, Fruits, or Hearbs, in contriuing their owne Grounds, to the pleasure of their owne mindes, their Fields, Gardens, Or­chards, Buildings, Ships, and other works, &c. to recreate themselues before their owne doores, in their owne boates vpon the Sea, where man wo­man and childe, with a small hooke and line, by angling, may take diuerse sorts of excellent fish, at their pleasures? And is it not pretty sport, to pull vp two pence, six pence, and twelue pence, as fast as you can hale and veare a line? He is a very bad fisher, cannot kill in one day with his hooke and line, one, two, or three hundred Cods: which dres­sed and dryed, if they be sould there for ten shil­lings the hundred, though in England they will giue more then twentie; may not both the ser­uant, the master, and marchant, be well content with this gaine? If a man worke but three dayes in seauen, he may get more then hee can spend, vnlesse he will be excessiue. Now that Carpenter, Mason, Gardiner, Taylor, Smith, Sailer, Forgers, or what other, may they not make this a pretty recreation though they fish but an houre in a day, to take more then they eate in a weeke: or? if they will not eate it, because there is so much better [Page 39] choise; yet sell it, or change it, with the fisher men, or marchants, for any thing they want. And what sport doth yeeld a more pleasing content, and lesse hurt or charge then angling with a hooke, and crossing the sweete ayre from Ile to Ile, ouer the silent streames of a calme Sea? wherein the most curious may finde pleasure, profit, and content. Thus, though all men be not fishers: yet all men, whatsoeuer, may in other matters doe as well. For necessity doth in these cases so rule a Com­mon wealth, and each in their seuerall functions, as their labours in their qualities may be as profi­table, because there is a necessary mutuall vse of all.

For Gentlemen,Imployments for gentlemen. what exercise should more de­light them, then ranging dayly those vnknowne parts, vsing fowling and fishing, for hunting and hauking? and yet you shall see the wilde haukes giue you some pleasure, in seeing them stoope (six or seauen after one another) an houre or two to­gether, at the skuls of fish in the faire harbours, as those a-shore at a foule; and neuer trouble nor torment your selues, with watching, mewing, fee­ding, and attending them: nor kill horse and man with running & crying, See you not a hauk? For hun­ting also: the woods, lakes, and riuers, affoord not onely chase sufficient, for any that delights in that kinde of toyle, or pleasure; but such beasts to hunt, that besides the delicacy of their bodies for food, their skins are so rich, as may well recom­pence thy dayly labour, with a Captains pay.

[Page 40] For labourers,Imployments for labourers. if those that sowe hemp, rape, turnups, parsnips, carrats, cabidge, and such like; giue 20, 30, 20, 50 shillings yearely for an acre of ground, and meat drinke and wages to vse it, and yet grow rich: when better, or at least as good ground, may be had and cost nothing but labour; it seemes strange to me, any such should there grow poore.

My purpose is not to perswade children from their parents; men from their wiues; nor seruants from their masters: onely, such as with free con­sent may be spared: But that each parish, or village, in Citie, or Countrey, that will but apparell their fatherlesse children, of thirteene or fourteen years of age, or young maried people, that haue small wealth to liue on; heere by their labour may liue exceeding well: prouided alwaies that first there bee a sufficient power to command them, houses to receiue them, meanes to defend them, and meet prouisions for them; for, any place may bee ouerlain: and it is most necessarie to haue a fortresse (ere this grow to practice) and sufficient masters (as, Carpenters, Masons, Fishers, Fow­lers, Gardiners, Husbandmen, Sawyers, Smiths, Spinsters, Taylors, Weauers, and such like) to take ten, twelue, or twentie, or as ther is occasion, for Apprentises. The Masters by this may quicklie growe rich; these may learne their trades them­selues, to doe the like; to a generall and an incre­dible benefit, for King, and Countrey, Master, and Seruant.

[Page 41] It would bee an historie of a large volume,Examples of the Spanyard. to re­cite the aduentures of the Spanyards, and Portugals, their affronts, and defeats, their dangers and mise­ries; which with such incomparable honour and constant resolution, so farre beyond beleefe, they haue attempted and indured in their discoueries & plantations, as may well condemne vs, of too much imbecillitie, sloth, and negligence: yet the Authors of those new inuentions, were held as ridiculous, for a long time, as now are others, that doe but seek to imitate their vnparalleled vertues. And though we see daily their mountaines of wealth (sprong from the plants of their generous indeuours) yet is our sensualitie and vnto wardnesse such, and so great, that wee either ignorantly beleeue nothing; or so curiously contest, to preuent wee knowe not what future euents; that wee either so neglect, or oppresse and discourage the present, as wee spoile all in the making, crop all in the bloominig; & buil­ding vpon faire sand, rather then rough rockes, iudge that wee knowe not, gouerne that wee haue not, feare that which is not; and for feare some should doe too well, force such against their willes to be idle or as ill. And who is he hath iudgement, courage, and any industrie or qualitie with vnder­standing, will leaue his Countrie, his hopes at home, his certaine estate, his friends, pleasures, libertie, & the preferment sweete England doth afford to all degrees, were it not to aduance his fortunes by in­ioying his deserts? whose prosperitie once appea­ring, will incourage others: but it must be cherish­ed [Page 42] as a childe, till it be able to goe, and vnderstand it selfe; and not corrected, nor oppressed aboue it strength, ere it knowe wherefore. A child can nei­ther performe the office, nor deedes of a man of strength, nor indure that affliction He is able▪ nor can an Apprentice at the first performe the part of a Maister. And if twentie yeeres bee required to make a child a man, seuen yeares limited an ap­prentice for his trade: if scarce an age be sufficient to make a wise man, or a States man, and common­ly, a man dies ere he hath learned to be discreet: If perfection be so hard to be obtained, as of necessi­rie there must bee practice, as well as theorick: Let no man much condemne this paradox opinion, to say, that halfe seauen yeeres is scarce sufficient, for a good capacitie, to learne in these affaires, how to carrie himselfe: and who euer shall trie in these re­mote places the erecting of a Colony, shall finde at the ende of seauen yeares occasion enough to vse all his discretion: and, in the Interim all the con­tent, rewards, games, and hopes will be necessarily required, to be giuen to the beginning, till it bee able to creepe, to stand, and goe, yet time enough to keepe it from running, for there is no feare it wil grow too fast, or euer to any thing; except libertie profit, honor, and prosperitie there found, more binde the planters of those affaires, in deuotion to effect it; then bondage, violence, tyranny, ingrati­tude, and such double dealing, as bindes free men to become slaues, and honest men turne knaues: which hath euer bin the ruine of the most popular [Page 43] common-weales; and is verie vnlikelie euer well to begin in a new.

Who seeth not what is the greatest good of the Spanyard, The blisse of Spaine. but these new conclusions, in searching those vnknowne parts of this vnknowne world? By which meanes hee diues euen into the verie secret of all his Neighbours, and the most part of the world: and when the Portugale and Spanyard had found the East and West Indies; how many did con­demn themselues, that did not accept of that honest offer of Noble Columbus? who, vpon our neglect, brought them to it, perswading our selues the world had no such places as they had found: and yet euer since wee finde, they still (from time to time) haue found new Lands, new Nations, and trades, and still daily dooe finde both in Asia, Africa, Terra incognita, and America; so that there is neither Soldier nor Mechanick, from the Lord to the begger, but those parts afforde them all im­ploiment; and discharge their Natiue soile, of so many thousands of all sorts, that else, by their sloth, pride, and imperfections, would long ere this haue troubled their neighbours, or haue eaten the pride of Spaine it selfe.

Now he knowes little, that knowes not England may well spare many more people then Spaine, and is as well able to furnish them with all manner of necessaries. And seeing, for all they haue, they cease not still to search for that they haue not, and know not; It is strange we should be so dull, as not main­taine that which wee haue, and pursue that wee [Page 44] knowe. Surely I am sure many would taste it ill, to bee abridged of the titles and honours of their predecessors: when if but truely they would iudge themselues; looke how inferior they are to their noble vertues, so much they are vnworthy of their honours and liuings: which neuer were ordained for showes and shadowes, to maintaine idlenesse & vice; but to make them more able to abound in honor, by heroycall deeds of action, iudgement, pietie, and vertue. What was it, They would not doe both in purse and person, for the good of the Commonwealth? which might moue them pre­sently to set out their spare kindred in these gene­rous designes. Religion, aboue all things, should moue vs (especially the Clergie) if wee were reli­gious, to shewe our faith by our workes; in con­uerting those poore saluages, to the knowledge of God, seeing what paines the Spanyards take to bring them to their adulterated faith. Honor might moue the Gentrie, the valiant, and industrious▪ and the hope and assurance of wealth, all; if wee were that we would seeme, and be accounted. Or be we so far inferior to other nations, or our spirits so far deiected, from our auncient predecessors, or our mindes so vpon spoile, piracie, and such villany, as to serue the Portugall, Spanyard, Dutch, French, or Turke (as to the cost of Europe, too many doo [...]) rather then our God, our King, our Country, & our selues? excusing our idlenesse, and our base com­plaints, by want of impioiment; when heere is such choise of all sorts, and for all degrees, in the plan­ting [Page 45] and discouering these North parts of Ame­merica.

Now to make my words more apparent by my deeds;My second voyage to New England. I was, the last yeare, 1615. to haue staied in the Countrie, to make a more ample triall of those conclusions with sixteene men; whose names were

  • Thomas Dirmir.
  • Edward Stalings.
  • Daniel Cage.
  • Francis Abbot.
  • Iohn Gosling.

  • William Ingram.
  • Robert Miter.
  • Dauid Cooper.
  • Iohn Partridge,
  • and two boies.

  • Thomass Digbie.
  • Daniel Baker.
  • Adam Smith.
  • Thomas Watson
  • Walter Chissick
  • Iohn Hall.

I confesse, I could haue wished them as many thousands, had all other prouisions bin in like pro­portion: nor would I haue had so fewe, could I haue had meanes for more: yet (would God haue pleased wee had safely arriued) I neuer had the like authoritie, freedom, and prouision, to doe so well. The maine assistance next God, I had to this small number, was my acquaintance among the Salua­ges; especially, with Dohannida, one of their grea­test Lords; who had liued long in England. By the meanes of this proud Saluage, I did not doubt but quickly to haue gotte that credit with the rest of his friends, and alliants, to haue had as many of them, as I desired in any designe I intended, and that trade also they had, by such a kind of exchange [Page 46] of their Countrie commodities; which both with ease & securitie in their seasons may be vsed. With him and diuerse others, I had concluded to inhabit, and defend them against the Terentynes; with a bet­ter power then the French did them; whose tyranny did inforce them to imbrace my offer, with no small deuotion. And though many may thinke me more bolde then wise, in regard of their power, dexteritie, treacherie, and inconstancie, hauing so desperately assaulted & betraied many others: I say but this (because with so many, I haue many times done much more in Virginia, then I intended heere, when I wanted that experience Virginia taught me) that to mee it seemes no daunger more then ordinarie. And though I know my selfe the meanest of many thousands, whose apprehensiue inspection can pearce beyond the boundes of my habilities, into the hidden things of Nature, Art, and Reason: yet I intreate such giue me leaue to ex­cuse my selfe of so much imbecillitie, as to lay, that in these eight yeares which I haue been conuersant with these affairs, I haue not learned there is a great difference, betwixt the directions and iudgement of experimentall knowledge, and the superficiall coniecture of variable relation: wherein rumor, hu­mor, or misprision haue such power, that oft times one is enough to beguile twentie, but twentie not sufficient to keep one from being deceiued. There­fore I know no reason but to beleeue my own eies, before any mans imagination, that is but wrested from the conceits of my owne proiects, and indea­uours. [Page 47] But I honor, with all affection, the counsell and instructions of iudiciall directions, or any other honest aduertisement; so farre to obserue, as they tie mee not to the crueltie of vnknowne euents.

These are the inducements that thus drew me to neglect all other imployments, and spend my time and best abilities in these aduentures. Where­in, though I haue had many discouragements by the ingratitude of some, the malicious slanders of others, the falsenesse of friendes, the trechery of cowards, and slownesse of aduenturers; but chief­ly by one Hunt, who was Master of the ship, with whom oft arguing these proiects, for a plantation, howeuer hee seemed well in words to like it, yet he practiced to haue robbed mee of my plots, and obseruations: and so left mee alone in a desolate Ile, to the fury of famine, and all other extreami­ties (lest I should haue acquainted Sir Thomas Smith, my Honourable good friend, & the Coun­cell of Virginia) to the end, he and his associates, might secretly ingrosse it, ere it were knowne to to the State: Yet that God that alway hath kept me from the worst of his dissimulations. Notwith­standing after my departure, hee abused the Salua­ges where hee came, and betrayed twenty seauen of these poore innocent soules, which he sould in Spaine for slaues, to mooue, their hare against our Nation, aswell as to cause my proceedings to be so much the more difficult.

Now, returning in the Bark, in the fift of Au­gust [Page 48] I arriued at Plimouth: where imparting those my purposes to my honourable friende Sir Fer­dinando Gorge, and some others; I was so in­couraged, and assured to haue the managing their authoritie in those parts, during my life, that I in­gaged my selfe to vndertake it for them. Arriuing at London, I found also many promise me such as­sistance, that I entertained Michaell Cooper the Master, who returned with mee, and others of the company. How hee dealt with others, or o­thers with him I know not: But my publike pro­ceeding gaue such incouragement, that it became so well apprehended by some fewe of the Southren Company, as these proiects were liked, & he furni­shed from London with foure ships at Sea, before they at Plimouth had made any prouision at all, but onely a ship cheefely let out by sir Ferdinando Gorge; which vpon Hunts late trecherie among the Saluages, returned as shee went, and did little or nothing, but lost her time. I must confesse I was beholden to the setters forth of the foure ships that went with Cooper; in that they offered mee that imploiment if I would accept it: and I finde, my refusall hath incurred some of their displeasures, whose fauor and loue I exceedingly desire, if I may honestly inioy it. And though they doe censure me as opposite to their proceedings; they shall yet still in all my words and deedes finde, it is their error, not my fault, that occasions their dislike: for ha­uing ingaged my selfe in this businesse to the West Countrie; I had beene verie dishonest to haue [Page 49] broke my promise; nor will I spend more time in discourie, or fishing, till I may goe with a com­panie for plantation: for, I know my grounds. Yet euery one that reades this booke can not put it in practice; though it may helpe any that haue seene those parts. And though they endeauour to worke me euen out of my owne designes, I will not much enuy their fortunes: but, I would bee sory, their intruding ignorance should, by their defailements, bring those certainties to doubtful­nesse: So that the businesse prosper, I haue my de­sire; be it by Londoner, Scot, Welch, or English, that are true subiects to our King and Countrey: the good of my Countrey is that I seeke; and there is more then enough for all, if they could bee con­tent but to proceed.

At last it pleased Sir Ferdinando Gorge, The occasion of my returne. and Ma­ster Doctor Sutliffe Deane of Exceter, to conceiue so well of these proiects, and my former imploy­ments, as induced them to make a new aduenture with me in those parts, whither they haue so often sent to their cōtinuall losse. By whose example, ma­ny inhabitants of the west Coūtry, made promises of much more then was looked for, but their pri­uate emulations quickly qualified that heat in the greater number; so that the burden lay principal­ly on them, and some few Gentlemen my friends, in London. In the end I was furnished with a Ship of 200. and another of 50. But ere I had sayled 120 leagues, shee broke all her masts; pumping each watch 5 or 6000 strokes: onely her spret saile [Page 50] remayned to spoon before the wind, till we had re­accommodated a Iury mast, & the rest, to returne for Plimouth. My reimbark­ment, incoun­ters with py [...]s and imprison­ment by the French. My Vice-admirall beeing lost, not knowing of this, proceeded her voyage: Now with the remainder of those prouisions, I got out again in a small Barke of 60 tuns with 30 men (for this of 200 and prouision for 70) which were the 16 before named, and 14 other saylors for the ship. With those I set saile againe the 24 of Iune: where what befell me (because my actions and writings are so publicke to the world, enuy still seeking to scandalize my indeauours, & seeing no power but death, can stop the chat of ill tongues, nor imagi­nation of mens mindes) lest my owne relations of those hard euents, might by some constructors, be made doubtfull, I haue thought it best to in­sert the examinations of those proceedings, ta­ken by Sir Lewis Stukley a worthie Knight, and Vice admirall of Deuonshire; which were as fol­loweth.

The examination of Daniel Baker, late Steward to Captaine Iohn Smith in the returne of Plimouth; taken before Sir Lewis Stukley Knight, the eight of December 1615.

Who saith,Captaine Fry [...] being chased two dayes by one Fry, an English Pirate, that could not board vs, by rea­son of foule weather, Edmund Chambers, the Ma­ster Iohn Miner, his mate, Thomas Digby the [...], and others importured his saide Captaine to yeeld; houlding it vnpossible hee should defend [Page 51] himselfe: and that the saide Captaine should send them his boate, in that they had none: which at last he concluded vpon these conditions, That Fry the Pyrate should vow not to take any thing from Captaine Smith, that might ouerthrowe his voy­age, nor send more Pirats into his ship then hee liked off; otherwaies, he would make sure of them he had, and defend himselfe against the rest as hee could.

More: he confesseth that the quarter-masters & Chambers receiued golde of those Pirats; but how much, he knoweth not: Nor would his Captain come out of his Caben to entertaine them; al­though a great many of them had beene his say­lers, and for his loue would haue wasted vs to the Iles of Flowers.

At Fyall, The one of 200, the other 20. wee were chased by two French Py­rats, who commanded vs Amaine. Chambers, Min­ter, Digby, and others, importuned againe the Captaine to yeeld; alledging they were Turks, and would make them all slaues: or Frenchmen, and would throw them all ouer board if they shot but a peece; and that they were entertained to fish, and not to fight: vntill the Captaine vowed to fire the powder and split the ship, if they would not stand to their defence; whereby at last wee went cleere of them, for all their shot.

At Flowers, The Admirall 140 tuns, 12 peeces, 12 mur­derers, 90 men, with long pi­stols, pocket pistol, musket, sword and po­niard, the Vice-admirall 100 tuns, the Rere-admiral 60, the other 80: all had 250 Men most armed as is said. wee were chased by foure French men of warre; all with their close fights afore and after. And this examinants Captaine hauing pro­vided for our defence, Chambers, Minter, Dig­by, [Page 52] and some others, againe importuned him to yeeld to the fauour of those, against whom there was nothing but ruine by fighting: But if he would goe aboard them, in that hee could speake French, by curtesie hee might goe cleere; seeing they of­fered him such faire quarter, & vowed they were Protestants, and all of Rochell, and had the Kings commission onely to take Spaniards, Portugales, and Pyrats; which at last hee did: but they kept this examinates Captaine and some other of his company with him. The next day the French men of warre went aboard vs, and tooke what they listed, and diuided the company into their seuerall ships, and manned this examinates ship with the Frenchmen; and chased with her all the shippes they saw: vntill about fiue or six dayes after vp­on better consideration, they surrendered the ship, and victualls, with the most part of our prouision, but not our weapons.

More: he confesseth that his Captain exhorted them to performe their voyage, or goe for New found Land to returne fraughted with fish, where hee would finde meanes to proceed in his planta­tion: but Chambers and Minter grew vpon tearms they would not;The gentlemen and souldiers were euer wil­ling to fight. vntill those that were Souldiers concluded with their Captaines resolution, they would; seeing they had clothes, victualls, salt, nets, & & lines sufficient, & expected their armes: and such other things as they wanted, the French men pro­mised to restore, which the Captaine the next day went to seeke, and sent them about loading of [Page 53] commodities, as powder, match, hookes, instru­ments, his sword and dagger, bedding, aqua vitae, his commission, apparell, and many other things; the particulars he remembreth not: But, as for the cloath, canuas, and the Captaines cloathes, Cham­bers, and his associats diuided it amongst them­selues, and to whom they best liked; his Captaine not hauing any thing, to his knowledge, but his wastecoat and breeches. And in this manner going from ship to ship, to regaine our armes, and the rest; they seeing a sayle, gaue chase vntill night. The next day being very foule weather, this exami­nate came so neete with the ship vnto the French men of warre, that they split the maine sayle on the others spret sayle yard. Chambers willed the Captaine come aboard, or hee would leaue him: whereupon the Captaine commanded Chambers to send his boate for him. Chambers replyed shee was split (which was false) telling him hee might come if he would in the Admiralls boat. The Cap­taines answer was, he could not command her, nor come when hee would: so this examinate fell on sterne; and that night left his said Captaine alone amongst the French men, in this manner, by the command of Chambers, Minter, and others.

Daniel Cage, Edward Stalings, Gentlemen; Wal­ter Chissell, Dauid Cooper, Robert Miller and Iohn Par­tridge, beeing examined, doe acknowledge and confesse, that Daniel Baker his examination a­boue writen is true.

[Page 54] Now the cause why the French detayned me a­gaine,A double trea­chery. was the suspicion this Chambers and Min­ter gaue them, that I would reuenge my selfe, vpon the Bank, or in New found Land, of all the French I could there incounter; & how I would haue fired the ship, had they not ouerperswaded mee: and many other such like tricks to catch but opportu­nie in this maner of leaue me. And thus they retur­ned to Plimouth; and perforce with the French I thus proceeded.

Being a Fleet of eight or nine sayle,A [...]eet of nine French men of war, and [...]ights with the Spani­ards. we watched for the W'est Indies fleet, till ill weather separated vs from the other 8. Still we spent our time about the Iles neere Fyall: where to keepe my perplexed thoughts from too much meditation of my mise­rable estate, I writ this discourse; thinking to haue sent it you of his Maiesties Councell, by some ship or other: for I saw their purpose was to take all they could. At last we were chased by one Captain Barra, and English Pyrat, in a small ship, with some twelue peeces of ordinance, about thirty men, and neer all starued. They sought by curtesie releefe of vs; who gaue them such faire promises, as at last wee betrayed Captaine Wolliston (his Liefte­nant) and foure or fiue of their men aboard vs, and then prouided to take the rest perforce. Now my part was to be prisoner in the gun-roum, & not to speake to any of them vpon my life: yet had Barra knowledge what I was. Then Barra perceiuing wel these French intents, made ready to fight, and Wol­liston as resolutely regarded not their threats, [Page 55] which caused vs demurre vpon the matter longer, som sixteene houres; and then returned their pri­soners, and some victualls also, vpon a small com­position. The next wee tooke was a small English man of Poole from New found Land. The great ca­ben at this present, was my prison; from whence I could see them pillage those poore men of all that they had, and halfe their fish when hee was gone, they sould his poore cloathes at the maine mast, by an outcry, which scarce gaue each man seauen pence a peece. Not long after, wee tooke a Scot fraught from Saint Michaels to Bristow: hee had better fortune then the other. For, hauing but taken a boats loading of suger, marmelade, suckets, and such like, we discried foure sayle, after whom we stood; who forling their maine sayles attended vs to fight. But our French spirits were content onely to perceiue they were English red crosles. Within a very small time after, wee chased foure Spanish shippes came from the Indies: wee fought with them foure or fiue houres, tore their sayles and sides; yet not daring to board them, lost them. A poore C [...]ruell of Brasile, was the next we cha­sed: and alter a small fight, thirteene or fourteen of her men being wounded,A prize worth 16000 crow [...] which was the better halfe, we tooke her, with 370 chests of sugar. The next was a West Ind [...]es man, of 160 tuns, with 1200 hides, 50 chests of cutchanell, 14 coffers of wedges of siluer,A prize worth 200000 crownes. 8000 ryalls of 8, and fix offers of the King of Spaines treasure, besides the pillage and rich coffers of many rich passengers. Two [Page 54] [...] [Page 55] [...] [Page 56] monethes they kept me in this manner to manage their fights against the Spaniards, and be a priso­ner when they tooke any English. Now though the Captaine had oft broke his promise, which was to put me a-shore on the Iles, or the next ship be tooke; yet at last, he was intreated I should goe for France in the Caruell of sugar: himself resolued still to keepe the Seas. Within two dayes after, we were haled by two West Indy men: but when they saw vs waue them for the King of France, they gaue vs their broad sides, shot through our mayne mast and so left vs. Hauing liued thus, neer three moneths among those French men of warre; with much adoe, we arriued at the Gulion, not far from Rochel; where instead of the great promises they alwaies fed me with, of double satisfaction, and full content, they kept me fiue or six daies prisoner in the Caruell, accusing me to bee him that burnt their Colony in New France; to force mee giue them a discharge before the Iudge of the Admi­ralty, and so stand to their curtesie for satisfaction, or lie in prison, or a worse mischiefe. To preuent this choise, in the end of such a storme that beat them all vnder Hatches,My escape from the French men. I watched my opportuni­ty to get a-shore in their boat; where-into, in the darke night, I secretly got: and with a halfe pike that lay by me, put a drift for Rat Ile: but the Cur­rent was so strong and the Sea so great, I went a drift to Sea; till it pleased God the winde so turned with the tide, that although I was all this fearefull night of gusts and raine, in the Sea, the space of 12 [Page 57] houres, when many ships were driuen a shore, and diuerse split (and being with sculling & bayling the water tired, I expected each minute would sinke mee) at last I arriued in an oazie Ile by Charowne; where certaine fowlers found mee neere drowned, and halfe dead, with water, colde, and hunger. By those, I sound meanes to gette to Rochell; where I vnderstood the man of warre which we left at Sea, and the rich prize was split, the Captaine drow­ned and halfe his companie the same night, within seauen leagues of that place, from whence I esca­ped alone, in the little boate, by the mercy of God; far beyond all mens reason, or my expectati­on. Arriuing at Rochell, vpon my complaint to the Iudge of the Admiralitie, I founde many good words, and faire promises; and ere long many of them that escaped drowning, tolde mee the newes they heard of my owne death: these I arresting, their seuerall examinations did so confirme my complaint, it was held proofe sufficient. All which being performed according to the order of iustice, from vnder the iudges hand; I presented it to the English Ambassador then at Burdeaux, Sir Thomas Edmunds. where it was my chance to see the arriuall of the Kings great ma­riage brought from Spaine. Of the wrack of the rich prize some 36000. crownes worth of goods came a shore & was saued with the Caruell, which I did my best to arrest: the Iudge did promise me I shold haue iustice; what will bee the conclusion as yet, I know not.They betraied mee hauing the broad seale of England and neere twentie sayle of Eng­lish more, be­siles them con­cealed in like manner were be­trayed that year But vnder the colour to take Pirats and West-Indie men (because the Spanyards will not [Page 58] suffer the French trade in the West-Indies) any goods from thence, thogh they take them vpon the Coast of Spaine, are law full prize; or from any of his territories out of the limits of Europe.

Leauing thus my businesse in France, I returned to Plimouth, to find them that had thus buried me amongst the French: and not onely buried mee, but with so much infamy,My returne for England, 1615 as such trecherous cow­ards could suggest to excuse their villanies: But my clothes, bookes, instruments, Armes, and what I had, they shared amongst them, and what they liked; saying, the French had all was wanting; and had throwne them into the Sea, taken their ship, and all, had they not runne away & left me as they did. The cheeftaines of this mutinie that I could finde, I laied by the heeles; the rest, like themselues, confessed the truth as you haue heard. Now how I haue or could preuent these accidents, I rest at your censures. But to the matter.

Newfound-land at the first, I haue heard, was held as desperate a fishing, as this I proiect in New England. Placentia, & the Banke, were also as doubt­full to the French: But, for all the disasters happe­ned mee, the businesse is the same it was: and the fiue ships (whereof one was reported more then three hundred tunnes) went forward; & found fish so much, that neither Izeland-man, nor New found­land-man, I could heare of hath beene there, will goe any more to either place, if they may goe thi­ther.The successe of my vice Admi­rall and the foure ships of London, from New England. So, that vpon the returne of my Viceadmi­rall that proceeded on her voyage when I spent my [Page 59] masts, from Plimouth this yeare are gone foure or fiue saile: and from London as many; onely to make voyages of profit: where the Englishmen haue yet bneene, all their returnes together (except Sir Fr. Popphames) would scarce make one a sauer of neere a douzen I could nominate; though there be fish sufficient, as I perswade my selfe, to fraught yearely foure or fiue hundred sayle, or as many as will goe. For, this fishing stretcheth along the Coast from Cape Cod to Newfound-land, which is seauen or eight hundred miles at the least; and hath his course in the deepes, and by the shore, all the yeare long; keeping their hants and feedings as the beasts of the field, & the birds of the aire. But, all men are not such as they should bee, that haue vndertaken those voiages: and a man that hath but heard of an instrument, can hardly vse it so well, as hee that by vse hath contriued to make it. All the Romanes were not Scipioes: nor all the Geneweses, Columbuses: nor all Spanyards, Corteses: had they diued no deeper in the secrets of their discoueries, then wee, or stop­ped at such doubts and poore accidentall chances; they had neuer beene remembred as they are: yet had they no such certainties to begin as wee. But, to conclude, Adam and Eue did first beginne this innocent worke, To plant the earth to remaine to posteritie: but not without labour, trouble & in­dustrie. Noe, and his family, beganne againe the se­cond plantation; and their seede as it still increased, hath still planted new Countries, and one countrie another: and so the world to that estate it is. But [Page 60] not without much hazard, trauell, discontents, and many disasters. Had those worthie Fathers & their memorable off-spring not beene more diligent for vs now in these Ages, then wee are to plant that yet vnplanted, for the after liuers: Had the seede of Abraham, our Sauiour Christ, and his Apostles, exposed themselues to no more daungers to teach the Gospell, and the will of God then wee; Euen wee our selues, had at this present been as Saluage, and as miserable as the most barbarous Saluage yet vnciuilized. The Hebrewes, and Lacedaemonians, the Goths, the Grecians, the Romanes, and the rest, what was it they would not vndertake to inlarge their Territories, enrich their subiects, resist their ene­mies? Those that were the founders of those great Monarchies & their vertues, were no siluered idle golden Pharises, but industrious iron-steeled Publicans: They regarded more prouisions, and necessaries for their people, then iewels, riches, ease, or delight for themselues. Riches were their seruants, not their Maisters. They ruled (as Fa­thers, not as Tyrantes) their people as chil­dren, not as slaues: there was no disaster, could discourage them; and let none thinke they incoun­tered not with all manner of incumbrances. And what haue euer beene the workes of the greatest Princes of the earth, but planting of countries, and ciuilizing barbarous and inhumane Nations, to ciuilitie and humanitie? whose eternall actions, fill our histories. Lastly, the Portugales, and Spany­ards: whose euerliuing actions, before our eyes will [Page 61] testifie with them our idlenesse, and ingratitude to all posterities, and the neglect of our duties in our pietie and religion we owe our God, our King, and Countrie; and of want charity to those poore salua­ges, whose Countrie wee challenge, vse and pos­sesse; except wee bee but made to vse, and marre what our Fore-fathers made, or but onely tell what they did, or esteeme our selues too good to take the like paines. Was it vertue in them, to prouide that doth maintaine vs? and basenesse for vs to doe the like for others? Surely no. Then seeing we are not borne for our selues, but each to helpe other, and our abilities are much alike at the houre of our birth, and the minute of our death: Seeing our good deedes, or our badde, by faith in Christs me­rits, is all we haue to carrie our soules to heauen, or hell: Seeing honour is our liues ambition; and our ambition after death, to haue an honourable memorie of our life: and seeing by noe meanes wee would bee abated of the dignities & glories of our Prede­cessors; let vs imitate their vertues to bee wor­thily their suc­cessors.


To his worthy Captaine, the Author.

OFt thou hast led, when I brought vp the Rere
In bloodie wars, where thousands haue bin slaine.
Then giue mee leaue, in this some part to beare;
And as thy seruant, heere to read my name.
Tis true, long time thou hast my Captaine beene
In the fierce wars of Transiluania:
Long ere that thou America hadst seene,
Or led wast captiued in Virginia;
Thou that to passe the worlds foure parts dost deeme
No more, then t'were to goe to bed, or drinke,
And all thou yet hast done, thou dost esteeme
As nothing. This doth cause mee thinke
That thou I'aue seene so oft approu'd in dangers
(And thrice captiu'd, thy valor still hath freed)
Art yet preserued, to conuert those strangers:
By God thy guide, I trust it is decreed.
For mee: I not commend, but much admire
The England yet vnknowne to passers by-her.
For it will praise it selfe in spight of me;
Thou it, it thou, to all posteritie.
Your true friend, and souldier, Ed. Robinson.

To my honest Captaine, the Author.

MAlignant Times! What can be said or don,
But shall be censur'd and traduc't by some!
This worthy Work, which thou hast bought so dear,
Ne thou nor it, Detractors neede to fear.
Thy words by deedes so long thou hast approu'd,
Of thousands knowe thee not thou art belou'd.
And this great Plot will make thee ten times more
Knowne and beleu'd, than ere thou wert before.
I neuer knew a Warryer yet, but thee,
From wine, Tobacco, debts, dice, oaths, so free.
I call thee Warrier: and I make the bolder;
For, many a Captaine now, was neuer Souldier.
Some such may swell at this: but (to their praise)
When they haue don like thee, my Muse shall raise
Their due deserts to Worthies yet to come,
To liue like thine (admir'd) till day of Doome.
Your true friend, somtimes your soldier, THO. CARLTON.

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