[Page] A Preparatiue to Mariage.

The summe whereof was spoken at a Contract, and inlarged after.

Whereunto is annexed a Treatise of the Lords Supper, and another of Usurie.



Imprinted at London by Thomas Orwin for Thomas Man, dwelling in Pa­ternoster row at the signe of the Talbot. 1591.

[Page] NOBILISSIMO VIRO GVILIELMO CE­cilio, Equiti aurato, Baroni Burgh­leiensi, summo Angliae Thesaurario, & Cantabrigiensis Academiae Cancellario, Henricus Smithus haec tria pignota in grati animi testimonium consecrauit.

To the Reader.

BEcause sicknesse hath re­strained mee from prea­ching, I am content to doe anye good by writing. Happye is that Author which is in stead of other, that after his Booke is read, men neede reade no moe of that matter. I goe on a Theame which many haue trauersed before mee prolixely, or cursorily, or barrenly: If I Reuerendis. Couerdalū excipio. haue performed by studie any more than the rest, let my reader iudge, and giue glory to him which teacheth by whome he will. What I haue endeuored, my selfe doo feele, and others knowe. We are ig­norant of many things for a few that we vnderstand: but I haue bin alwaye a­shamed, that my writings shoulde waigh lighter for want of paines, which [Page] is the bane of Printing, and surfetteth the Reader. Now I send thee like a Bee to gather Honie out of slowers, and weedes. Euery Garden is furnished with others, and so is ours. Reade, pray, and med [...]; thy profit shall be little in any booke, vnlesse thou reade alone, and vn­lesse thou reade all. It is one of the births of my fainting, therefore take it with a right hand, and if thou finde any thing that doth make thee better, I repent not that others importunitie hath obtained it for thee. Farewell. As Iacob blessed his sonnes when he left them, so now I Gen. 49. 1. must leaue my fruite to others, I pray God to blesse it, that it may bring foorth fruit in other, and be the sauour of life to 2. Cor. 2. 16. all that reade it.

Thine in Christ, H. S.

The principall contents of this Treatise.

  • THE cause of contracts be­fore Mariage. Fol. 2.
  • Three honours geuen of God to Mariage. Fol. 3.
  • Three causes of Mariage. Fol. 13.
  • Whether Ministers may marry. Fol. 19.
  • Whether an old man may marry a young woman, & contra. Fol. 14.
  • Whether Protestants may marry Papists. Fol. 47.
  • Whether Children may marry without Parentes consent. Fol. 45.
  • Whether Husbands may strike their Wiues. Fol. 69.
  • Whether the vse of Mariage be sinne. Fol. 23.
  • Whether Mothers should nurse [Page] their Children. Fol. 99.
  • Fiue markes in the choise of a Husband or Wife. Fol. 35.
  • The Husbands dueties. Fol. 62.
  • The Wiues dueties. Fol. 74.
  • Their duties to their Seruants. Fol. 68.
  • Their duties to their Children. Fol. 77.
  • Of Stepmothers. Fol. 105.
  • Of Diuorcement. Fol. 107.

Other obseruations that fall in handling the partes.

  • MAriage, the first ordinance of God, and calling of men. Fol. 4.
  • Christs first myracle at a Ma­riage. Fol. 5.
  • Three Mariages of Christ. Fol. 6.
  • By Mariage, the Womans curse turned to two blessings. Fol. 6.
  • A note of Adams sleepe. Fol. 10.
  • Another application of his rib, where­of was made the woman. Fol. 11.
  • The day of Mariage counted the ioy­fullest day in mans life. Fol. 11.
  • A good Wife like little Zoar which Lot sled to from Sodom. Fol. 12.
  • Without Mariage all things should be vaine. Fol. 14.
  • [Page] Fornicators like the Deuill. Fol. 18.
  • No Bastarde prospered but Iiphtah. Fol. 19.
  • A maried sornicator, like a Gentleman theese. Fol. 19.
  • A Wife is the poore mans treasure, wherein only he matcheth the rich. Fol. 26.
  • Two spies for a Wise, Discretion, and Fancie. Fol. 27.
  • The Wife must not onely be godly, but sit. Fol. 28.
  • A memorable saying of one that light vpon a sit Wife. Fol. 32.
  • The first beginning of the Ring in Marige. Fol. 31.
  • Why Mariage doth come of Nuptiae. Fol. 37.
  • Maides must speake like an Eccho. Fol. 38.
  • A lesson for the married, drawne from the name of Wedding garment. Fol. 52.
  • The Man and Wife, like cock and dam. Fol. 54.
  • [Page] Marriage compounded of two loues. Fol. 55.
  • The best pollicie in Marriage is to be­gin well. Fol. 58.
  • They must learne one anothers nature. Fol. 59.
  • A sweete example, teaching how coples shall neuer fall out. Fol. 61.
  • Man, and Wife, like two partners. Fol. 66.
  • Abraham bid to leaue all but his Wife. Fol. 66.
  • Why Wiues are called Huswiues Fol. 79.
  • When the man is away, the Wife must liue like a Widdow. Fol 81.
  • Why a Wife was called the Contrary to a Husband. Fol. 82.
  • The cause why many despise their Hus­bands. Fol. 86.
  • Many obseruations vppon Seruanntes. Fol. 88.
  • The Maister must correct his men, and the Mistresse her maides. Fol. 97.
  • Children like mediators, betweene a man and his Wife. Fol. 98.
  • [Page] Adulterie like the disease of Marriage, and diuorcement like the remedie. Fol. 107.
  • Why Adulterie should dissolue Mar­riage more than anye thing else. Fol. 110.
  • A sentence for the Married to thinke vppon. Fol. 111.

A Preparatiue to Marriage.

YOu are come hether to bee contracted in the Lord, that is, of two to bee made one: for as GOD hath knit the bones and si­newes together for the strengthe­ning of the bodie, so he hath knit man and woman together for the strengthening of this life, because two are stronger than one: and Eccle. 9. 9. therefore when GOD made the Woman for Man, he sayd, I will make him a helpe: shewing that man Gen. 2. 18. is stronger by his Wife. Euerie Marriage before it bee knit should bee contracted, as it is shewed in Exo. 22. 16. and Deut. 22. 28. which Exo. 22. 16, Deu. 22. 28 stay betweene the Contract & the [Page 2] Marriage, was the time of long­ing for their affections to settle in, because the deferring of that which wee loue doth kindle the desire, which if it came easilie and speedilie to vs, would make vs set lesse by it. Therefore wee reade how Ioseph and Marie were con­tracted Math. 1. 18. before they were married. In the That is betweene the Con­tract and the Mar­riage. Luc. 1. 27. & 42. & 49. &c. Contract Christ was con­ceaued, and in the Mariage Christ was borne, that he might honour both estates, Virginitie with his Conception, and Marriage with his Birth. You are contracted but to bee married, therefore I passe from Contracts to speake of Ma­riage, What Ma­riage is. which is nothing els but a communion of life between man and woman, ioyned together ac­cording to the ordinance of God. First I will shewe the excellencie The parts of this trea­tise. of Marriage: then the institution [Page 3] of it: then the causes of it: then the choise of it: then the dueties of it: and lastly the diuorcement of it.

Well might Paule say, Mariage Heb. 13. 4. is honourable, for God hath honou­red it himselfe. It is honourable Three ex­cellencies of Mariage. for the author, honourable for the time, and honorable for the place. Whereas all other ordinaunces Act 7. 53. were appoynted of GOD by the hands of men, or the hands of An­gells, Heb. 2. 2. Marriage was ordained by Gen. 2. 22. God himselfe, which cannot erre. No man nor Angell brought the Wife to the Husband but GOD himselfe: so Marriage hath more honour of God in this, than all o­ther ordinances of God beside, be­cause he solemnized it himselfe.

Then it is honourable for the Mariage the first or­dinance of God. time, for it was the first ordinance which GOD instituted, euen the [Page 4] first thing which he did after man and woman were created, & that in the state of innocencie before either had sinned, like the finest flower which will not thriue but in a cleane ground. Before man had any other calling he was cal­led to be a Husband: therefore it hath the honour of antiquitie a­boue all other ordinances, because it was ordained first, and is the an­cientest calling of men.

Then it is honourable for the place; for whereas all other ordi­nances 3. were instituted out of Pa­radise, Marriage was instituted in Paradise in the happiest place, to signifie howe happie they are which marrie in the Lord, they doo not only marrie one another, but Christ is maried vnto them, & so Mariage hath the honor of the place aboue all other ordināces to, [Page 5] because it was ordained in Para­dise. As God the Father honored Mariage, so did God the Sonne, which is called the seede of the Gen. 3. 1 [...]. woman: and therefore Mariage was so honored amongst women because of this seede, that when Elizabeth brought foorth a sonne, Luk. 1. 25. she said, that God had taken away her rebuke; counting it the honor of women to beare children, and by consequence, the honour of women to be maried; for the chil­dren which are borne out of Ma­riage are the dishonor of women, and called by the shamefull name of Bastards. Deut. 23. 2.

As Christ honoured Mariage with his birth, so he honoured it Christs first my­racle at a Mariage. Iohn. 2. 8. with his miracles: for the first miracle which Christe did, hee wrought at a Mariage in Chanaan, where he turned their water into [Page 6] wine: so, if Christ be at your Ma­riage, that is, if you marie in christ, your water shall bee turned into wine, that is, your peace, and your rest, and your ioy, and your happi­nes shal begin with your Mariage; but if you marrie not in Christ, then your wine shall be turned in­to water, that is, you shall liue worse hereafter than you did be­fore. As he honoured it with mi­racles, so he honored it with prai­ses: for hee compareth the king­dome Mat. 22. 2. of God to a Wedding, and he compareth holines to a Wed­ding Verse. 11. garment. And in the 5. of Canticles he is wedded himselfe. Cant. 5. 9.

We reade in Scripture of three Three Mariages of Christ. Mariages of Christ. The first was when Christ and our nature met together. The second is, when 1. 2. Christ and our soule ioyne toge­ther. The third is, the vnion of 3. [Page 7] Christ and his Church. These are Christs 3. wiues. As Christ hono­reth Mariage; so doo Christs Dis­ciples: for Iohn calleth the Con­iunction Reuel. 19 7. of Christ and the faith­full, a Mariage. And in Reuel. 21. 9. Reuel. 21. 9. the Church hath the name of a Bride, whereas Heresie is called a Harlot. Further, for the honour of Reue. 17. 1. Mariage, Paule sheweth how by it By Mari­age, the womans cursse tur­ned to two blessings. Gen. 3. 16. the curse of the woman was tur­ned into a blessing; for the wo­mans curse was the paines which she should suffer in her trauaile. Now by Mariage this curse is tur­ned into a blessing; for children are the first blessing in al the Scrip­ture. Gen. 1. 28. And therefore Christ saieth, that so soone as the mother seeth a man child borne into the world, Iohn. 16. 21. she forgetteth all her sorrowes, as though her curse were turned in­to a blessing. And further, Paule [Page 8] saith, that by bearing of children, 1. Timo. 2. 15. if she continue For those paines will try her saith in faith and pati­ence, she shall bee saued, as though one curse were turned into two blessings. For first she shall haue children, and after she shall haue saluation. What a mercifull God Note. haue wee, whose curses are bles­sings? Who would haue thought that God had hid a blessing in his curse? So hee loued our parents when hee punished them, that hee could scarse punish them for loue, and therefore a comfort was fol­ded in his iudgement.

To honour Mariage more, it is said, that God tooke a rib out of Adams side, and thereof built the Gen 2. 22. woman. He is not saide to make man a wife, but to build him a wife, signifying, that man & wife make as it were one house toge­ther, & that the building was not [Page 9] perfect, vntil the womā was made aswell as the man: therefore if the building bee not perfect now, it must be destroyed againe.

Before God made the woman, A note of Adams sleepe. Gen. 2. 21. it is sayd, that he cast the man into a sleepe, and in his sleepe he tooke a rib out of his side, and as he made the man of earth, so he made the woman of bone, while Adam was a sleepe. This doth teach vs two thinges: As the first Adam was a figure of the second Adam, 1. Cor. 15. 22. & 45. so the first Adams sleepe was a fi­gure of the second Adams sleepe, & the first Adams spouse was a fi­gure of the second Adams spouse. That is, as in the sleepe of Adam, Eue was borne; so in the sleepe of Christ the Church was borne: as a bone came out of the first A­dams side, so bloud came out of the second Adams side. As Adams [Page 10] spouse receiued life in his sleepe; so Christs spouse receiued life in his sleepe: that is, the death of Christ is the life of the Church; for the Apostle calleth Death a sleepe, but Christ which dyed is called Life, shewing that in his Ephes. 5 14. Iohn. 14. 6. death we liue. Secondly, this sleep which the mā was cast into, while his wife was created, dooth teach A note of Adams sleepe. vs that our affections, our lusts, & our concupicenses, should sleepe while wee goe about this action. As the man slept while his wife was making, so our flesh should sleepe while our wife is choosing, least as the loue of Venison wan Isaak to blesse one for another, so Gen. 27. 3. the loue of gentrie, or riches, or beautie make vs take one for ano­ther.

To honour Mariage more yet, or rather to teach the maried how [Page 11] to honour one another, it is saide, A note of Adams ribbe. Gen. 2. 22. Ephe. 5. 23. that the wife was made of the husbands rib: not of his head, for Paule calleth the husbande the wiues head: nor of the foote, for The Fa­thers ob­seruation. he must not set her at his foote: the seruant is appoynted to serue, and the wife to helpe. If she must not match with the head, nor stoope at the foote, where shall he set her then? He must set her at his heart, and therefore she which should lie in his bosome, was made in his bosome, and should bee as close to him as his ribb of which she was fashioned. Lastly, in all Nations the day of Mariage was reputed the ioyfullest day in all their life, and is reputed still of all, as though the Sunne of happines began that day to shine vpon vs, when a good wife is brought vnto vs. Therfore one saith, that Mariage doth signi­fie [Page 12] Merriage, because a playfellow is come to make our age merrie.

Salomon considering al these ex­cellencies, as though wee were more indebted to God for this thā other temporall gifts, saith: House and riches are the inheritance of the fathers: but a prudent wife commeth Pro. 14. 14. of the Lord. House and riches are giuen of God, and all things els, & yet hee saith, house and riches are giuen of parents, but a good wife is giuen of God: as though a good wife were such a gift, as we should account from God alone, and ac­cept as if hee should send vs a pre­sent from heauen, with this name Thus A­dam doth. Gen. 2. written vpon it, The gift of God.

Beasts are ordained for foode, and cloathes for warmth, and flo­wers for pleasure, but the wife is ordained for man, like little Zoar, a Citie of refuge to flie to in all his Gen. 29. 20. [Page 13] troubles, & there is no peace com­parable vnto her, but the peace of conscience.

Now it must needes be, that Mariage, which was ordeined of such an excellent Author, and in such a happie place, and of such an auncient time, and after such a no­table order, must likewise haue speciall causes for the ordenance of it. Therefore the holie Ghost doth shewe vs three causes of this Vnion. One is, the propagation Three cau­ses of Ma­riage. Gen. 1. 27. of children, signified in that when Moses saith, He created them male and female, not both male, nor both female, but one male, and the o­ther female, as if he created them fit to propagate other. And there­fore when he had created them so, to shewe that propagation of children is one ende of Mariage, he saide vnto them, Increase and Gen. 1. 28. [Page 14] multiplie, that is, bring forth chil­dren, as other creatures bring forth their kinde. For this cause Marriage is called Matrimonie, which signifieth Mothers, be­cause Why Ma­riage is cal­led Matri­monie. it makes them Mothers, which were Virgins before: and is the seminarie of the worlde, without which, all things should Without Mariage, all things should be vaine. be in vaine, for want of men to vse them, for God reserueth the great Citie to himselfe, and this suburbs he hath set out to vs, which are re­gents by sea and by lande. If chil­dren be such a chiefe end of Mar­riage, then it seemes, that where there can be no hope of children, for age or other causes, there Mar­riage This is signified in Deut. 23. 1. is not so lawfull, because it is maimed of one of his ends, and seemes rather to be sought for wealth, or for lust, than for this blessing of children. It is not good [Page 15] grafting of an olde head vppon young shoulders, for they will ne­uer beare it willingly but grud­gingly.

Twise the Wife is called, the Wife of thy youth, as though when Prou. 5. 18. men are old, the time of Marrying Mala. 2. 18. were past. Therefore God makes such vnequall matches so ridicu­lous euery where, that they please none but the parties themselues, vntill the time of their dotage be expired.

The second cause is to auoide The second cause. fornication: this Paule signifieth, when he saith, For the auoiding of 1. Cor. 7. 2. fornication, let euery man haue his owne wife. He saith not for auoi­ding of adultery, but for auoiding of fornication, shewing, that for­nication is vnlawfull too, which the Papists make lawfull, in main­teining Papists Stewes. their Stewes, as a stage for [Page 16] fornicators to play vppon, and a Sanctuary to defende them, like Absoloms Tent, which was spread vpon the top of the house, that all 2. Sam. 16. 22. Israel might see how he defiled his fathers concubines.

For this cause, Malachi sayth, Mal. 2. 15. that God did create but one Wo­man for the man, he had power to create moe, but to shewe that he woulde haue him sticke to one, therefore he created of one ribbe but one wife for one husbande: and in the Arke, there were no moe women than men. But foure 1. Pet. 3. 20. wiues for four husbands, although it was in the beginning of the world, when many wiues might seeme necessarie to multiply man­kinde. If any might haue a dispen­sation heerein, it seemes the King might be priuiledged before any other, because of succession to the [Page 17] Crowne, if his wife should hap­pen to be barren. And yet the King is forbidden to take many wiues in Deut. 17. 17. as well as Deut. 17. 17. 1. Tim. 3. 2. the Minister in 1. Timo. 3. 2. shew­ing, that the danger of the state, doth not counteruaile the danger of fornication. For this cause we reade of none but wicked Lamech before the Flood, that had moe Gen. 4. 23. wiues than one, whome Iouinian calleth a monster, because he made 2. ribs of one. And another saith, that the name of his second wife doth signifie a shadowe, because she was not a wife, but the shad­dowe of a wife: for this cause the Scripture neuer biddeth man to loue his wiues, but to loue his Wife, and sayeth, They shall be two in one fleshe, not three, nor Math. 9. 5. foure, but onely two. For this cause, Salomon calleth the whorish [Page 18] woman a strange woman, to shew that she should be a stranger to vs, and we should be strange to her. Prou. 2. 16. For this cause, children which are borne in mariage, are called Liberi, which signifieth free borne: and they which are borne out of mar­riage, are called Bastards, that is, base borne, like the Mule which is ingendred of an Asse & a Mare. Gen. 36. 24. Therefore adulterers are likened Fornicators like the Deuill. Mat. 13. 25. to the Deuill, which sowed ano­ther mans ground, other sowe for a Haruest, but they sowe that which they dare not reape. Ther­fore children borne in Wedlocke were counted Gods blessing, be­cause they come by vertue of that Psal. 128. 4. blessing, Increase and multiplie. But Gen. 1. 28. before Adam and Eue were mar­ried, God neuer sayd Increase, she­wing, that he did cursse and not blesse such increase. Therefore [Page 19] we reade not in all the Scripture Bastards. of one Bastard that came to any good, but onely Iphtah, and to Iud. 11. 1. shewe that no inheritance did be­long They might be saued, but they had the marke of a cursse. to them in heauen, they had no inheritance in earth, neyther were counted of the congregati­on, as other were. Deut. 23. 2.

Now, because Marriage was appointed for a remedie against fornication, therefore the lawe of God inflicted a sorer punishment Leuit. 20. 10. Deut. 22. 22. vppon them which did commit vncleannes after Marriage, than vppon him which was not marri­ed, because he sinned, although he Maried for­nicators. had the remedie of sinne, lyke a rich theese which stealeth, and hath no neede.

Now if Marriage be a remedie against the sinne of fornication, The ma­riage of Ministers. then vnlesse Ministers may com­mit the sinne of fornication, it [Page 20] seemes that they may vse the remedie as well as other: for as it is better for one man to marrie 1. Cor. 7. 9. than to burne, so it is better for all men to marrie than to burne; and therefore Paule sayth, Marriage is Hebr. 13 4. honourable amongst all men. And a­gaine, for the auoiding of fornicati­on, 1. Corin. 7. let euery man haue his Wife. And as though he did forsee, that some woulde excepte the Minister in time to come, in the first of Timo. 1. Tim. 3. 2. 3. 2. hee speaketh more precisely of the Ministers wife, than of any other, saying, Let him be the hus­band of one Wise: and least ye should say that by one wife, he meaneth one Benefice like the Papists. He expoundeth himself in the fourth verse, and saith, that he must be one that can rule his house well, and his children. Sure God would not haue these children to be Ba­stards, [Page 21] and therefore it is like that he aloweth the Minister a Wife. Therefore Paule said well, that he 1. Cor. 7. 6. had no commandement for Vir­ginitie, for Virginitie cannot be commaunded, because it is a spe­ciall gift, but not a speciall gift to Ministers, & therfore they are not to be bound more thā other. A pe­culiar gift may not be made a ge­neral rule, because none can vse it, but they which haue it. And ther­fore in 1. Cor. 7. 17. he saith, As God 1. Cor. 7. 17. hath distributed to euery man, so let him walk. That is, if he haue not the gift of continencie, he is bound to marrie: and therefore Paule com­maundeth in the seuenth verse, whether he be Minister or other, If they cannot abstaine, let them mar­rie, as though they tempted God if they married not. The Law was generall, It is not good for man to be Gen. 2. 1 [...] [Page 22] alone, exempting one order of men no more than an other. And again Christ speaking of Chastity saith, All men cannot receiue this thing. Math. 19. 11. Therefore vnlesse we knowe, that this order of men can receiue this thing: Christ forbids to binde them more than other, and there­fore as the Priests were maried that taught the Lawe, so Christ chose Apostles which were ma­ried, to preach the Gospell. There­fore the doctrine of Papists, is the doctrine of Deuils, for Paule cal­leth the forbidding of mariage, the 1. Tim. 4. 3. doctrine of Deuils, a fit title for all their bookes.

Lastly, if Mariage be a remedie against sinne, then Mariage it selfe is no sinne: for if Mariage it selfe were a sinne, we might not marrie for any cause, because we must not do the least euill that the grea­test [...]. 3. 8. [Page 23] good may come of it: and if Mariage be not a sinne, then the Be not thou vaine, and these words will not be of­fensiue. dueties of Mariage are no sinne, that is, the secreate of Mariage is not euill, and therefore Paule saith not only Mariage is honourable, but the bed is honorable, that is, euen Hebr. 13. 4. the action of Mariage is as law­full, as Mariage. Besides Paul saith, Let the Husband giue vnto the Wife 1. Cor. 7. 3. due beneuolence: heere is a com­mandement to yeeld this duety: that which is commanded, is law­full; and not to doe it, is a breach of the commandement. Therefore Mariage was instituted before any sinne was, to shew that there is no sinne in it if it be not abused: but because this is rare, therefore af­ter women were deliuered, God Leuit. 12. 4. 5. &c. appointed them to be purified, shewing, that some staine or other doth creep into this action, which [Page 24] had neede to be repented, and therefore when they prayed, Paule would not haue them come toge­ther, 1. Cor. 7. 5. least their prayers should be hindered.

The third cause is, to auoid the The third cause. inconuenience of solitarinesse, sig­nified in these words, It is not good for man to be alone, as though he Gen. 2. had said, this life would be mise­rable and irkesome, and vnplea­sant to man, if the Lord had not giuen him a wife to company his troubles. If it be not good for man to be alone, then it is good for man to haue a fellow: therefore as God created a paire of all other kindes, so he created a paire of this kinde. We say that one is none, because he cannot be fewer than one, he can not be lesser than one, he can not be weaker than one, and ther­fore the Wise man saith, Woe to [Page 25] him which is alone, that is, he which Eccl. 4. 10. is alone, shall haue woe. Thoughts and cares, and feares, will come to him, because hee hath none to cō ­fort him, as theeues steale in when the house is emptie; like a Turtle, which hath lost his mate, like one legge when the other is cut off, like one wing when the other is clipt, so had the man bin, if the woman had not bin ioyned to him: therefore for mutuall socie­tie, God coupled two together, that the infinite troubles which lye vppon vs in this world, might be eased, with the comfort and helpe one of an other, and that the poore in the world might haue some comfort as well as the rich: for the poore man (saith Salomon) is Pro. 19. 7. Pro. 27. 10. forsaken of his owne brethren, yet God hath prouided one comfor­ter for him, like Ionathans armour­bearer, 1. Sam. 14. 7. [Page 26] that shall neuer forsake A Wife is the poore mans riches him, that is another selfe, which is the only commoditie as I may tearme it, wherein the poore doe match the rich, without which, some persons should haue no hel­per, no comforter, no friend at all.

But as it is not good to be alone, so Salomon sheweth, That it is bet­ter Prou. 21. 9. to be alone, than to dwell with a froward Wise, which is like a quo­tidian ague, to keepe his patience in vre. Such furies do haunt some men, like Saules spirit, as though 1. Sam. 16. 14. the Deuill had put a sword into their handes to kill themselues, therefore choose whome thou mayest enioy, or liue alone still, and thou shalt not repent thy bar­gaine.

That thou mayest take and kepe without repentance, now we will speake of the choice, which some [Page 27] call the way to good wiues dwel­ling, 3. The choice. for these flowers grow not on euery ground: therefore they say, that in wiuing and striuing, a man should take counsell of all the world. As Moses considered what spies he sent into Chanaan, so thou Deut. 1. 23. 24. must regarde whome thou sen­dest to spie out a Wife for thee. Two spies for a Wife. Discretion is a warie spie, but fancie is a rash spie, and liketh whome she will mislike againe.

In Zacharie, Sinne is called a Zach. 5. 7. woman, which sheweth, that women haue many faults, there­fore he which chooseth of them, had neede haue iudgement, and make an Anatomie of their bo­dies and minds by squire and rule, before he say, This shall be mine. For the wisest man sayth, I haue found one man of a thousand, but a wo­man Eccle. 7. 30. among them all haue I not sound, [Page 28] as though there were a dearth of good women ouer the worlde.

For helpe hereof in 1. Cor. 7. 39. wee are taught to marrie in the Lord, then we must choose in the Lord too: therefore we must be­gin our Mariage where Salomon began his wisedome. Giue vnto thy seruant an vnderstanding heart: so 1. King. 3. 9 giue vnto thy seruant an vnder­stāding wife. If Abrahams seruant praied the Lord to prosper his bu­sinesse Gen. 24. 12. when hee went about to choose a wife for another, how shouldst thou pray when thou go­est about a wife for thy selfe, that thou maiest say after, My lot is fal­len in a pleasant ground. To direct thee to a right choice herein, the holie Ghost giues thee two rules, Godlines and Fitnes: Godlines, be­cause Godly and fit. our Spouse must bee like Christs spouse, that is, graced with [Page 29] gifts & imbrodered with vertues, as if wee did marrie Holinesse her selfe. For the mariage of man and woman, is resembled of the Apo­stle to the Mariage of Christ and Ephes. 5. 29. the Church. Now, the Church is called Holie, because she is holie. In the 6. Cantie. she is called Vnde­filed, Cant. 6. 8. because she is vndefiled. In the 45. Psalme she is called faire Psal. 45. 9. within, because her beautie is in­warde: so our Spouse should bee holie, vndefiled, and faire within. As GOD respecteth the heart, so 1. Sam. 16. 7. we must respect the heart, because that must loue, and not the face. Couetousnes hath euer been a su­ter to the richest, and pride to the highest, and lightnesse to the fa [...] ­rest, and for reuenge hereof his ioye hath euer ended with his wiues youth, which tooke her beautie with it. The goods of the [Page 30] world are good, and the goods of the bodie are good, but the goods of the minde are better. As Paule commendeth Faith, and Hope, & Charitie, but saith the greatest of 1. Cor. 13. 13. these is Charitie: so I may com­mend beauty, and riches, and god­lines, but the best of these is godli­nesse, because it hath the thinges which it wants, and makes euerie state alike with her gift of conten­tation.

Secondly, the mate must be fit: A sit Wise. it is not enough to bee vertuous, but to bee sutable; for diuers wo­men haue many vertues, and yet doo not fit with some men; & di­uers men haue many vertues, and yet doo not fit to some women: and therefore we see many times, euen the godly couples to iarre when they are married, because there is some vnfitnes betweene [Page 31] them which makes oddes. What is oddes but the contrary to euen? Therefore make them euen (saith one) and there will bee no oddes. From hence came the first vse of the Ring in Weddings, to repre­sēt The cere­monie is not appro­ued, but the inuention declared. this euennes: for if it be straigh­ter than the finger it will pinch, & if it be wider than the finger it wil fall of; but if it bee fit, it neither pincheth nor slippeth: So they which are like striue not, but they which are vnlike, as fire and wa­ter. Therefore one obserueth, that concord is nothing but likenesse, and that all strife is for vnfitnes: as in things when they fit not toge­ther, and in persons when they suite not one another.

How was GOD pleased when 1. Sam. 2. 35. he had found a King according to his owne heart? So shall that man be pleased which findes a wife ac­cording [Page 32] to his owne heart, whe­ther he be rich or poore, his peace shall affoord him a chearefull life, and teach him to sing, In loue is no lacke. Therefore a godly man in our time thanked the Lord that The saying of a godly man. he had not onely giuen him a god­ly wife, but a fit wife: for he sayd not that she was the wisest, nor the holiest, nor the humblest, nor the modestest wife in the world, but the fittest wife for him in the world, which euery man should thinke when that knot is tyed, or els so often as he seeth a better, he will wish that his choyce were to make againe. As hee did thanke God for sending him a fit wife, so the vnmaried should pray God to send them a fit wife: for if they be not like, they will not like.

This fitnesse is commended by the holy Ghost in two words: one [Page 33] is in the 2. of Gen. and the other is Gen. 2. 18. 2. Cor. 6. 14. in the 2. Cor. 6. 14. That in Gene. is Meete: God saith, I will make man a helpe meet for him. Shewing, that a wife cannot helpe well, vnles she be meete. Further, it sheweth that man is such an excellent creature, that no creature was like vnto him, or meete for him till the wo­man was made. This meetnesse GOD sheweth againe in the 22. verse, where Moses saieth, that of Gen. 2. 22. the ribbe which was taken out of man God built the woman: sig­nifying, that as one parte of the building dooth meete and fit with another; so the wife should meete and fit with the husband, that as they are called couples, so they may be called paires, that is, like as a paire of gloues, or a paire of hose are like; so man and wife should be like, because they are a paire of [Page 34] friends. If thou be learned, chuse one that loueth knowledge: if thou bee Martiall, chuse one that loueth prowesse: if thou must liue by thy labour, chuse one that lo­ueth busbandrie: for vnlesse her minde stande with thy vocation, thou shalt neither inioye thy wife, nor thy calling.

That other word in the 2. Cor. 6. 14. is Yoke, there Mariage is cal­led a Yoke. Paule saith, Be not vne­qually yoked. If Mariage be a yoke, then they which drawe in it must be fit, like two Oxen which draw the yoke together, or els all the burden will lie vpon one. There­fore they are called yoke fellowes too, to shew that they which draw Phil. 4. 3. this yoke must be fellowes. As he which soweth seede, chuseth a fit groūd, because they say, it is good grafting vppon a good stocke: so [Page 35] he which wil haue godly children must chuse a godly wife: for like Mother (sayeth Ezechiel) like Ezek. 16. 44. daughter. Now, as the Trauailer hath markes in his way that hee may proceed aright: so the suiter hath markes in his way that hee may chuse right.

There be certaine signes of this Fiue rules in the choise of a good wife. fitnes, and godlinesse, both in the man and the woman. If thou wilt knowe a godly man, or a godly woman, thou must marke fiue things; the report, the lookes, the speach, the apparell, and the com­panions, which are like the pulses that shewe whether we be well or ill. The report, because as the mar­ket 1. goeth, so they say the market men talke. A good man cōmonly Psal. 112. 6 Pro. 107. Mar. 14. 9. hath a good name, because a good name is one of the blessinges which GOD promiseth to good [Page 36] men, but a good name is not to be praised from the wicked: & ther­fore Christ saieth, Cursed are you when all men speake well of you: that Luc. 6. 26. is, when euill men speake well of you, bicause this is a signe that you are of the world, for the world liketh Ioh. 15. 19. and praiseth her owne. Yet as Christ said, Who can accuse me of sin? So it Ioh. 8. 46. should bee said of vs, not who can accuse me of sinne? but who can accuse me of this sinne, or who cā accuse me of that sinne? That is, who can accuse me of swearing? who cā accuse me of dissembling? who can accuse mee of fornica­tion? No man can say this of his thought, but euery one should say it of the act, like Zachariah & Eli­zabeth, Luk. 1 6. which are called vnblame­able before men, because none could accuse them of open sinnes.

The next signe is the looke, for 2. [Page 37] Salomon saith, Wisedome is in the face Eccl. 8. 7. of a man: so godlines is in the face of a man, and so folly is in the face of a man, and so wickednesse is in the face of a man. And therefore it is sayd in Esaiah 3. 9. The triall of their countenance testifieth against them. As though their looks could speake. One saieth well, a modest man dwelles at the signe of a mo­dest countenance, and an honest woman dwelleth at the signe of an honest face, which is like the gate of the temple that was called Beau­tifull: Act. 3. 2. shewing, that if the entrie be so beautifull, within is great beau­tie.

To shewe how a modest coun­tenance, and womanly shamefast­nesse, doo commend a chast wife, it is obserued that the word Nup­tiae, which signifieth the Marriage of the woman, dooth declare the [Page 38] manner of her Marriage: for it importeth a couering, because the Virgins which should be maried, whē they came to their husbands, for modestie and shamefastnes did couer their faces: as wee reade of Rebeccah, which so soone as she Gen. 24. 65. sawe Isaac, and knewe that hee should bee her husband, she cast a vaile before her face, shewing that modestie should be learned before Marriage, which is the dowrie that God addeth to her portion.

The third signe is her speach, or rather her silence; for the ornamēt [...]. of a woman is silence: and there­fore the law was giuen to the man rather than to the woman, to shew To Adam first, and to Moses after. that he should bee the teacher, and she the hearer. As the Eccho an­swereth Maides must speak like an Ec­cho. but one word for manie which are spoken to her; so a maides answere should be a word, [Page 39] as though she sold her breath. The eye and the speach are the mindes Glasses; for out of the abundance of Math. 12. 34. the heart (saith Christ) the mouth speaketh: as though by the speach we might know what aboundeth in the heart: and therfore he saith, By thy words thou shalt bee iustified, Math. 12. 36. and by thy wordes thou shalt bee con­demned. That is, thou shalt be iusti­fied to bee wise, or thou shalt bee condemned to bee foolish; thou shalt bee iustified to bee sober, or thou shalt bee condemned to bee rash; thou shalt bee iustified to bee humble, or thou shalt be condem­ned to be proud; thou shalt be iu­stified to be louing, or thou shalt be condemned to be enuious. There­fore Salomon saith, A fooles lips are Prou. 18. 7. asnare to his owne soule. Snares are made for other, but this snare cat­cheth a mans selfe, because it be­wraieth [Page 40] his folly, and causeth his trouble, and bringeth him into dis­credite. Contrariwise, The heart of the wise (saith Salomon) guideth his Prou. 17. 23. Eccl. 12. 10. mouth wisely, and the wordes of his mouth haue grace. Now, to shewe that this should bee one marke in the choyce of thy Wife, Salomon describing a right Wife, saith, She openeth her mouth with wisedome, & Pro. 31. 26. the lawe of grace is in her tongue. As Prou. 19. 15. Num. 19. 15. the open vessels were counted vn­cleane; so account that the open mouth hath much vncleannes.

The fourth signe is the apparel: 4. for as the pride of the Glutton is noted, in that he went in purple e­uerie Luk. 16. 19. day; so the humilitie of Iohn is noted in that hee went in haire­cloath Mar. 1. 6. euery day. A modest wo­man is known by her sober attire, as the Prophet Eliah was knowne by his rough garment. Looke not 2. King. 1. 8 [Page 41] for better within, than thou seest without; for euery one seemeth better than hee is, if the face bee vanitie, the heart is pride. Hee which biddeth thee abstaine from 1. Thess. 5. 22. the shewe of euill, would haue thee to abstaine frō those wiues which haue the shewes of euill: for it is hard to come in the fashion, & not to be in the abuse. And therefore Paule saieth, Fashion not your selues Rom. 12. 2. like vnto this world: as though the fashions of mē did declare of what side they are.

The fift signe is the companie: 5. for birds of a feather will flie toge­ther, and fellowes in sinne will bee fellowes in league, as yong Reho­boam 1. King. 12. 8. chose young companions. The tame beastes will not keepe with the wild, nor the cleane with the leprous. If a man cā be known by nothing els, then he maye bee [Page 42] knowne by his companions; for like will to like, as Salomon saieth, Prou. 1. 11. theeues call one another. There­fore when Dauid left iniquitie, he sayd, Away from me al ye that work Psal. 6. 8. iniquitie. Shewing, that a man ne­uer abandoneth euill, vntill hee a­bandon euill companie; for no good is concluded in this parlia­ment. Therefore choose such a companiō of thy life as hath cho­sen companie like thee before: for they which did choose such as lo­ued prophane companiōs before, in a while were drawne to be pro­phane too, that their wiues might loue them. When these rules are obserued, they may ioyne toge­ther and say, as Laban and Bethuel said This commeth of the Lord, ther­fore Gen. 24. 50. wee will not speake against it. How happie are those in whome Faith, and Loue, and Godlinesse [Page 43] are married together, before they marrie themselues? For none of these Martiall, and clowdie, and whining Marriages can saye that Godlinesse was inuited to their Bridall; and therfore the blessings which are promised to godlinesse doo flie from them.

Now in this choice, are two questions. First, whether children may marrie without their parents Parents consent in marriage. consent: and the second, whether they may marrie with Papists or Atheists, &c. Touching the first, God saith, Honor thy father and thy Exod. 20. mother. Now, wherein canst thou honour them more, than in this honourable action, to which they haue preserued thee, and brought thee vp, which concerneth the state of thy whole life? Againe, in the first institution of Mariage, when there was no Father to giue [Page 44] consent, then our heauenly Father gaue his consent: God supplied the place of the Father, & brought Gen. 2. 22. his Daughter vnto her Husband, and euer since, the Father after the same manner, hath offred hys Daughter vnto the Husband.

Beside, there is a Lawe, that if a man deflowre a Virgin, he shall Exod. 22. [...] marrie her: but if the Father of the Virgin do not like of the Ma­riage, then he shall pay vnto her the dowrie of Virgins, that is, so much as her Virginitie is estee­med, so that the Father might a­low the Mariage, or forbid it.

Againe, there is a Law, that if Num. 30. 6. any free man, or free womā make a vow, it must be kept. But if a Virgin make a vow, it should not be kept, vnlesse her Father ap­proue it, because she is not free: therefore if she did vow to marry, [Page 45] yet the Father hath power by this Lawe to breake it. Therefore the Lawe speaketh vnto the Father saying, Thou shale not take a Wife for Deut 7. 3. thy sonne of straungers. Therefore Paule speaketh to the Father, If 1. Cor. 7. 38. thou giue thy daughter to mariage, thou doest well: therefore Iobs chil­dren Iob. 1. 3. & 10. are counted part of Iobs sub­stance, shewing, that as a man hath the disposition of his owne sub­stance, so he hath the disposition of his owne children. Therefore in Math. 22. 30. the Wife is sayd to be bestowed in mariage, which signifieth, that some did giue her beside her selfe: Therefore it is said, that Iacob serued Laban, that Gen. 29. 18. Laban might giue him his daugh­ter to wife. Therefore Saule saith 1. Sam. 18. 17. to Dauid, I will giue thee my el­dest daughter to wife: therefore it is said, that Iudah tooke a wife Gen. 28. 6. [Page 46] to Er his sonne. Therefore Sichem saith to his Father, Get me this Gen. 34. 9. maide to Wife. Therefore in the mariage of Isaak, we see Abra­hams seruant in the place of Isaak, and Rebeccah the maid and her pa­rents, Gen. 24. 51. 52. 53. sitting in parliament toge­ther: therefore Sampson, though he had found a maid to his liking, Iud. 14. 2. yet he would not take her to wife, before he had tould his parents, and craued their assent. It is a sweete wedding, when the Father and the Mother bring a blessing to the feast, and a heauie vnion which is cursed the first day that it is knit. The parents commit their childrē to Tutors, but them­selues are more than Tutors. If children may not make other con­tracts without their good will, shall they contract mariage which haue nothing to maintain it after, [Page 47] vnlesse they returne to begge of them whome they skorned be­fore? Will you take your fathers money, and will you not take his instruction? Marriage hath neede of many counsellers, and doest thou count thy Father too many? which is like the foreman of thy instructers. If you mark what kind of youths they be, which haue such haste, that they dare not stay for their parents aduice, they are such as hunt for nothing but beau­tie, and for punishment hereof, they marrie to beggerie, and lose their Father and Mother for their Wife: therefore honour thy pa­rents in this, as thou wouldest that thy children should honour thee.

The second question is answe­red of Paule, when he saith, Be not Mariage with Pa­pists. &c. vnequally yoked with Infidells. As we should not be yoked with In­fidells, [Page 48] so we should not be yoked with Papists, and so we should not be yoked with Atheists, for that also is to be vnequally yoked, vn­lesse we be Atheists too. As the Iewes might not marrie with the Gen. 24. 3. Exo. 34. 16. Gen. 28. 1. Mal. 2. 11. Ezra. 9. 12 Chananites, so we may not marrie with them which are like Chana­nites, but as the sonnes of Iacob said vnto Emor which would marrie their Sister, Wee may not giue our Gen. 34. 14. The Simi­litude holds in their say­ing, and not in their meaning, for they speake truly, but they meant falsely. Sister to a man vncircumcised, but if you will be Circumcised like vs, then we will marrie with you. So Parents should say to suiters, I may not giue my Daughter to a man vn­sanctified, but if you will be sanc­tified, then I will giue my Daugh­ter vnto you. Though Heresie, and irreligion, be not a cause of diuorse, as Paule teacheth, yet it is a cause of restraint, for we may not marrie all, with whome we [Page 49] may liue being married. If adulte­rie may separate marriage, shal not idolatry hinder marriage, which is worse than it? Christ saith, Let Mat. 19. 6. Mar. 10. 9. no man separate, whome God hath ioyned; so I may say, Let no man ioyne, whome God doeth sepa­rate: For if our Father must be pleased with our Marriage, much more should we please that Father which ordained Marriage. Shall I say, Be my Wife, to whome I may not saye Be my Companion? Or, Come to my bed, to whome I may not say, Come to my table? How should my marriage speede well, when I marrie one to whome I 2. Iohn. 10. may not say God speede, because she is none of Gods friendes? Doth not hee marrie with the Deuill, which marrieth with the temp­ter? For Tempter is his name, and Math. 4. 3. to tempt is his nature. When a [Page 50] man may chuse, he should chuse the best; but this man chuseth the worst. He prayeth, Not to be led Luk. 11. 4. into temptation, and leadeth him­selfe into temptation. Surely he doth not feare sinne, which doth not shunne occasions; and he is worthy to be snared, which ma­keth a trappe for himselfe. When Salomon, the myrrour of wise­dome, the wonder of the world; 1. King. 11. 1. &c. the figure of our Lord, by idola­trous Concubines is turned to an idolater, let no man say, I shall not be seduced, but say, How shall I stande, where such a Cedar fell? The Wife must be meete, as God saide, Gen. 2. 18. But how is shee meete, if thou be a Christian, and she a Papist? We must marrie in the Lord, as Paule saith: but how 1. Cor. 7. 39. do we marrie in the Lord, when wee marrie the Lords enemies? [Page 51] our Spouse must bee like Christs Spouse, but Christs Spouse is nei­ther Harlot nor Heretick, nor A­theist. If she bee poore, the Lord reprooueth not for that: if she bee weake, the Lord reprooueth not for that: if she bee hard fauoured, the Lord reprooueth not for that: but none giueth any dispensation Gen. 3. 4. for godlines but the diuell. There­fore they which take that priui­ledge, are like thē which seeke to Witches, & are guiltie of prefer­ring euill before good. This vne­qual Mariage was the chiefe cause that brought the flood, & the first beginning of Giants, & mōstrous Gen. 6. 2. births, shewing by their mōstrous children, what a monstrous thing it is for beleeuers and vnbeleeuers to match together. In Matth. 22. Math. 22. 11. Christ sheweth, that before parties married, they were wont to put [Page 52] on faire & newe garments, which were called Wedding garments; a warning vnto all which put on Wedding garment. Wedding garments, to put on trueth and holinesse too, which so precisely is resembled by that gar­ment more than other. It is noted in the 14. of Luke, that of all them Note. Luk. 14. 20. which were inuited to the Lords banquet, and came not, onely hee which had married a Wife, did not desire to bee excused, but saide stoutly, I cannot come. Shewing, how this state doth occupie a man most, and drawe him often from the seruice of God: and therefore wee had not neede to take the worse, for the best are comber­some enough. In the 2. of Iob, it is Iob. 2. 9. & 3. 1. obserued of the patient man, that hee did not curse the day of his birth, vntill his wife brake foorth into blasphemie: shewing, that [Page 53] wicked womē are able to change the stedfastest man, more than all temptatiōs beside. Sampson would take a Philistian to wife, but he lost Iud. 14. his honour, his strength, and his life by her, least any should doo the like. But what a notable warning is that in 2. Chro. 21. 6. where the holy Ghost saith, Iehoram walked 2. Chro. 21. 6. in the waies of Ahab, for he had the daughter of Ahab to wife, as though it were a miracle if he had been better than he was, because his wife was a temptation. Mise­rable is that man which is fettered with a woman that liketh not his religion, for she will be nibling at his prayer, and at his studie, and at his meditations, till she haue tyred his deuotions, and turned the edge of his soule, as Michol tried Dauid, 2. Sam. 6. 16. she mocked him for his zeale, and liked her self in her folly. Therfore [Page 54] as Christ saieth, Remember Loths Luk. 17. 32. wife: so when thou marriest, re­member Ichorams wife, and be not wedded to her which hath not the Wedding garment: but let v­nitie goe first, and let vnion come after, and hope not to conuert her, but feare that she wil peruert thee, least thou saye after, like him which should come to the Lords banquet, I haue married a wife and Luk. 14. 20. cannot come.

Yet the chiefest point is behind, The due­ties of Mar­riage. that is your dueties. The dueties of Mariage may be reduced to the dueties of Man and Wife one to­ward another, and their dueties towarde their children, and their dueties toward their seruants. For themselues, saieth one, they must think that they are like two birds, the one is the Cock, and the other The man and wife like cock and dam. is the Dam: the Cocke flieth a­broad [Page 55] to bring in, the Dam sitteth vpon the nest to keepe al at home. So God hath made the man to tra­uaile abroade, and the woman to keepe home: and so their nature, and their wit, and their strength are fitted accordingly; for the mās pleasure is most abroade, and the womans within.

In euery state there is some one vertue which belongeth to that calling more than other; as Iustice to Magistrates, and Knowledge to Preachers, and Fortitude to Soul­diers: so loue is the Marriage ver­tue, which sings Musicke to their whole life. Wedlocke is made of two loues, which I may call the Mariage compoun­ded of two loues. first loue, and the after loue. As e­uerie man is taught to loue GOD before he be bid to loue his neigh­bour; so they must loue God be­fore they can loue one another.

[Page 56] To shew the loue which should bee betweene man and wife, Mar­riage is called Coniugium, which signifieth a knitting or ioining to­gether: shewing, that vnlesse there be a ioyning of harts, and knitting of affectiōs together, it is not Ma­riage indeed, but in shew & name, and they shall dwell in a house like two poysons in a stomack, & one shall euer be sicke of the other.

Therefore, first that they may loue, and keepe loue one with a­nother, it is necessarie that they both loue God, and as their loue increaseth toward him, so it shall increase each to other. But the man must take heed that his loue toward his Wife, be not greater than his loue toward God, as A­dams and Sampsons were, for all Gen. 3. 6. Iud. 16. 17. vnlawfull loue will turne to ha­tred, as the loue of Amnon did to­ward [Page 57] Thamar, and because Christ 2. Sam. 13. 15. Math. 10. 37. hath forbidden it, therefore hee will crosse it. This made Vriah so fearefull, least the pleasure of his wife should drawe his heart from God, that he would not goe to his owne house, so long as he had cause to mourne & pray, although he had a wife which feared God, like himselfe: and that you may see, it is no cheape dalliance for the husband to make the wife, or the wife to make the husbande lesse zealous than they were. In Deut. 13. the wife which did draw her husband from God, is con­demned to dye: Therefore good wiues, when their husbands pur­pose any good, should incourage them like Iacobs wiues, which Gen. 30. 16. bad him doo according to the word of God: and if they see them minded to any euill, they should [Page 58] stay them like the wife of Pilate, which counselled her husbande not to condemne Christ: for see­ing holinesse is called the Wed­ding M [...]h. 27. 19. garment, who shall weare this Wedding garment, if they Math. 22. 11. weare it not which are wedded? When one holie hath found a­nother, then GOD seemeth to make the marriage, and his An­gells come to the feast.

To passe ouer sleights, which Best polli­cie in mar­riage to be­gin well. seldom prosper, vnlesse they haue some warrant. The best pollicie in Marriage, is to begin well, for as bourds well ioyned at first, sit close euer after, but if they square at first, they warp more and more. So they which are well ioyned, are well married, but they which offend their loue before it be set­led, fade euery day like a Mari­gould, which closeth her flower [Page 59] as the Sunne goeth downe, till they hate one another more then they loued at first.

To begin this concord well, it is They must learne one anothers nature. necessarie to learne one anothers nature, and one anothers affecti­ons, and one anothers infirmities, because ye must be helpers, and ye cannot help, vnlesse ye know the disease. Al the iarres almost which do trouble this band, do rise of this, that one dooth not hit the measure of the others heart, to ap­plie themselues to either nature, whereby it commeth to passe, that neyther can refraine, when either is offended; but one sharp­neth another, when they had need to bee calmed: Therefore they must learne of Paule, to fashion 1 Cor. 9. 20 themselues one to the other, if they would win one another, and if any iarre do arise, in no wise di­uide [Page 60] beds for it; for thē the Sunne goeth downe vppon their wrath, and the meanes of reconcilement Ephe. 4. 25. is taken away. Giue passions no time; for if some mans anger stand but a night, it turneth to malice which is incurable. The Apostle saith, that there will be offences in 1. Cor. 11. 19. the Church; so sure there will be many offences in Marriage: but as he saith, these are but trials who haue faith; so these are trials who are good husbands, and who are good wiues. His anger must bee such a moode, as if hee did chide with himselfe, and their strife as it were a sauce made of purpose to sharpen their loue when it waxeth vnpleasant; like Ionathans arrowes which were not shot to hurt, but 1. Sam 20. 20. to giue warning. Knowing once a couple which were both cholle­ricke, & yet neuer fell out, I asked [Page 61] the man how they did order the A sweete example, teachin [...] how copl [...] shall neuer fall out. G [...]. 1 [...]. 6. matter that their infirmitie did not make them discorde. He an­swered me, when her fit is vppon her, I yeeld to her, as Abraham did to Sara, and when my fit is vppon me, she yeelds to me, and so we ne­uer striue together but a sunder. Me thought it was a good exam­ple to commend vnto all married folkes; for euerie one hath his frensie, and loueth them that can beare his infirmitie. Whom will a woman suffer if she will not suf­fer her husband; and whose de­fects will a man beare, if hee will not beare hers which beareth his? Thus much of their dueties in generall, now to their seuerall of­fices.

The man may spell his duety out of his name, for he is called Ephe. 5. 23. the Head: to shew, that as the eye, [Page 62] and the toong, and the eare, are in the head to direct the whole bo­die, so the man should be stored with wisedome, and vnderstan­ding, and knowledge, and discre­tion, to direct his whole familie, for it is not right that the worse should rule the better, but that the better should rule the worse, as the best rules all. The husband saith, that his wife must obay him because he is her better, therefore if he let her be better than him­selfe, he seemes to free her from her obedience, and binde himselfe to obey her.

His first duty is called Harting, that is, hartie affection. As they The hus­bands first dutie. are handfasted, so they must be hartfasted, for the eye, and the toong, and the hand, will be her enemies, if the hart be not her friend. As Christ draweth all the [Page 63] Commandements to Loue, so I may draw all their duties to loue, which is the hearts gift to the Bride. First, hee must choose his loue, and then he must loue hys choice, this is the oyle which ma­keth all things casie. In Salomons Song, which is nothing else but a description of Christ the Bride­groome, and the Church hys Spouse, one calleth the other Loue, to shewe, that though both doe not honour alike, yet both should loue alike, which the man may do without subiection.

The man is to his wife, in the Vnderstand in his mar­riage only. place of Christ to his Church: therefore the Apostle requireth such an affection of him toward his Spouse, as Christ beareth to­ward his Spouse: for he sayeth, Husbands loue your Wiues as Christ Ephe. 5. 25. loued the congregation, that is, with [Page 64] a holie loue, with a hartie loue, and with a constant loue, as the Church wold be loued of Christ. Will not a man loue his glorie? Why Paule calleth the woman the glorie of the man, for her reue­rence 1. Cor. 11. 7. makes him to be reueren­ced, and her praise, makes him to be praised. Therefore he which loueth not his Wife, loueth his shame, because she is his glorie. In Ephes. 5. 28. Paule saith, He which loueth his Wife, loueth himselfe, for Ephe. 5. 28. thereby he inioyeth peace and comfort, and helpe to himselfe in all his affaires: therefore in the same verse Paule counselleth hus­bands to loue their wiues as their bodies. And after, in the 33. verse, as though it were too little to loue them as their bodies, he sayth, Let euerie one loue his Wife as himselfe, that is, body and soule too. For if [Page 65] God commaunded men to loue their neighbours as themselues, Leuit. 19. 18. much more are they bound to loue their wiues as themselues, which are their next neighbours. As Elkanah did not loue his wife 1. Sam. 1. 8. lesse for her barrennes, but sayd, Am not I better vnto thee than tenne sonnes? as though he fauoured her more, for that which she thought her selfe despised. So a good hus­band will not take occasion to loue his wife lesse for her infirmi­ties, but comfort her more for them, as this man did, that she may beare with his infirmities too. When Christ sayth, that a man Mar. 10. 7. should leaue Father and Mother, to cleaue to his Wife, hee signifieth, how Christ left his Father for his Spouse, and that man doth not loue his wife so much as he should vntill he affect her more than euer [Page 66] he did his father or mother. Ther­fore when GOD bad Abraham forsake all his kindred: yet he bad him not forsake his Wife. As Gen. 12. 1. though the other somtime might be forsaken for God, but the wife must bee kept for GOD, like a charge which bindeth for tearme of life.

His next duetie to loue, is a fruit The hus­bands se­cond duty. of his loue, that is, to let all things be cōmon betweene them, which were priuate before. The man & wife are partners like two owers Man and Wise are two part­ners. in a boate, therefore hee must di­uide offices, and affaires, & goods with her, causing her to bee feared and reuerenced, and obeied of her children & seruants like himselfe; for she is as an vnder officer in his Common weale, and therefore she must be assisted & borne out, like his deputie, as the Prince standeth [Page 67] with his Magistrates for his owne quiet, because they are the legges which beare him vp. To shew this communitie betweene husband and wife, he is to maintaine her as he dooth himselfe, because Christ saith, They are no more two but one. Mar. 10. 8. Therefore when hee maintaineth her, hee must thinke it but one charge, because he maintaineth no moe but himself, for they two are one. He may not say as Husbands are wōt to say, that which is thine is mine, and that which is mine is my owne: but that which is mine is thine, and my selfe too. For as it is sayd, He which hath giuen vs his Rom. 8. 32. Sonne, can he denie vs any thing? So she may say, he which hath giuen me himselfe, can he denie me any thing? The bodie is better than the goodes; therefore if the bodie be mine, the goods are mine too.

[Page 68] Lastly, hee must tender her as much as all her friends, because he The hus­bands last duety. hath taken her from her friends, and couenanted to tender her for them all. To shew how he should tender her, Peter saith, Honour the 1. Pet. 3. 7. woman as the weaker vessell. As we doo not handle glasses like pots, because they are weaker vessels, but touch thē nicely and softly for feare of cracks; so a man must in­treate his wife with gentlenes and softnes; not expecting that wise­dome, nor that faith, nor that pa­tience, nor that strength in the weaker vessell, which should be in the stronger; but thinke when he takes a wife he takes a Vineyard, not grapes, but a vineyard to beare him grapes: therfore he must sow it, and dresse it, and water it, and fence it, and thinke it a good vine­yard if at last it bring forth grapes. [Page 69] So hee must not looke to finde a wife without a fault, but thinke that she is committed to him to re­claime her from her faults; for all are defectiues: and if he finde the Prouerbe true, that in space com­meth grace, hee must reioyce as much at his wife when she men­deth, as the Husbandman reioy­ceth when his Vineyard begin­neth to fructifie.

This is farre from ciuill warres Husbands must hold their hands and Wiues their tungs. betweene man and wife; in all his offices is found no office to fight. The very name of a wife is like the Angell which stayed Abra­hams Gen. 22. 12 hand whē the stroke was cō ­ming. If Dauid, because he could not expresse the good and com­fort of Vnitie, was faine to say, Oh Psal. 133. 1. how good and ioyfull a thing it is for brethren to dwell together in vnitie? Then weigh and iudge how harsh [Page 70] and bitter a thing it is for man and wife to liue together in emnitie. For the first yeare after Marriage, God would not haue the husband Deut. 24. 5. goe to warre with his enemies, but no yeare would he haue him warre with his wife, and therfore God gaue him that yeare to stay at home and settle his loue, that hee might not warre, nor iarre after: for the God of peace dwelleth not in the house of warre. As a king­dome Math. 12. 25. cannot stand if it bee diui­ded, so a house cannot stand if it bee diuided: for strife is like fire which leaues nothing but dust, & smoake, and ashes behind it. We reade in the Scripture of Masters that stroke their seruants, but ne­uer of any that stroke his Wife, but rebuked her. Lot was drunke Gen. 19. 33. when hee lay with his daughters in stead of a wife; and is he sober [Page 71] which striketh his wife in stead of his seruants? The lawe sheweth Deut. 23. 2. how a bond man should bee cor­rected, but the wife is like a Iudge which is ioyned in Commission with her Husband to correct o­ther. Wilt thou strike one in his owne house? no more shouldest thou strike thy wife in her house. She is come to thee as to a Sanctu­arie, to defend her from hurt, and canst thou hurt her thy selfe? Therfore Abraham was called Sa­ras Gen. 20. 16. Vayle, because he should shield her; for a Vaile is made to saue. A­braham said to Lot, Are we not bre­thren? Gen. 13. 8. that is, may brethren iarre? but they may say, are we not one? can one chide without another? can one fight without another? He is a bad Ost, which welcom­meth his guest with stripes. Doth a King trample his Crowne? Sa­lomon [Page 72] calleth the wife, the Crowne of the husband, therefore he which Pro. 12. 4. woundeth her, woundeth his ho­nour: She is a free Citizen in thy house, and hath taken the peace of thee the first day of her Marriage, to hold thy hands till she release thee againe. Adam saith of his Spouse, This is flesh of my flesh: But no man sayth Paule, Euer hated his Gen. 2. 23. Ephe. 5. 19. owne flesh. So then, if a man aske whether he may strike his wife? God sayth nay, thou mayest not hate thy wife, for no man hateth his owne flesh, shewing, that he should not come neere blowes, but thinke his wrath too much: for Paule saith, Be not bitter to your Col. 3. 16. Wiues: noting that anger in a hus­band is a vice. Euery man is asha­med to lay hands on a woman, be­cause she cannot match him, ther­fore he is a shamelesse man which [Page 73] laieth hands on his wife. If a man be seene raging with himselfe, he is carried to Bedlam; so these mad men which beate thēselues should be sent to Bedlam til their madnes be gone. Salomon saith, Delight con­tinually Pro. 5. 16. in her loue: that is, begin, proceede and ende in loue. This counsel is broken so often as they discord. In reuenge whereof, he sheweth that their delight is gone, because he calleth Loue their de­light. Therefore as Paule saith of Bishops, A Bishop must be no striker; 1. Tim. 3. 31. Of his wife. Leu 19. 28. Deut. 14. 1. 1. Ki. 18. 28 It is pro­perly ment in mour­ning for the dead, but it doth imply an vnlaw­fulnes to hurt our selues, so a Husband must bee no striker, for hee which striketh his owne flesh, breaketh that lawe which saith, Thou shalt not make a skarre in thy flesh: and is like the Baalites which wounded their owne bo­dies. Thus wee haue sent a letter vnto Husbands to reade before they fight. Now let vs goe home [Page 74] to Loue againe. Wouldest thou learne how to make thy match de­lightfull? Salomon said, Reioyce in her loue continually. As though thou Pro 5. 19. couldst not delight without loue, and with loue thou mightest de­light continually. Therefore Loue is called the thankfull vertue, be­cause it rendereth peace, and ease, and comfort to him that makes of her. So much to Husbands.

Likewise the Woman maye The Wo­mans due­ties. learn her duetie out of her names. They are called goodwiues, as goodwife A. and goodwife B. E­uery Wife is called Goodwife; therfore if they be not goodwiues their names doo belie them, and they are not worth their titles, but answer to a wrong name as Play­ers doo vpon a stage. This name pleaseth them wel: but beside this a Wife is called a Yoke fellowe, to Phil. 4. 3. [Page 75] shewe that she should helpe her Husband to beare his yoke, that is, his griefe must bee her griefe; and whether it bee the yoke of pouer­tie, or the yoke of enuie, or the yoke of sicknesse, or the yoke of imprisonment, she must submit her neck to beare it patiently with him, or els she is not his yoke fel­lowe, but his yoke, as though she were inflicted vpon him for a pe­naltie, like Iobs Wife whome the Iob. 2. 9. diuell left to torment him, when he tooke away all beside. The A­postle Rom. 12. 15. biddeth to reioyce with them that reioyce, and mourne with them that mourne. With whom should the Wife reioyce rather than with her Husband? or with whome should she mourne willinger than with her owne flesh? I will not leaue thee, saith Eli­sha to Eliah: so she should neuer 2. Kin. 2. 6. [Page 76] leaue him till death. Beare one ano­thers Gal. 6. 2. burden (saith Paule) who shall beare others burden if the Wife doo not beare her Husbands bur­den? Wicked Iezabel comforted her Husband in his sicknesse, and 1. Kin. 21. 5 Ieroboams Wife sought for his health, though she was as bad as he. God did not bid Sarah leaue her father, and her Countrey, as he Gen. 12. 1. bad her husband, yet because hee bad Abraham leaue his, she left hers too, shewing that she was cō ­tent not onely to bee his playfel­lowe, but his yoke fellowe too. Beside a yoke fellowe, she is called a Helper, to helpe him in his busi­nesse, to helpe him in his labours, Gen. 2. 18. to helpe him in his troubles, to helpe him in his sicknesse, like a woman Phisition, sometime with her strength, and sometime with her counsell: for sometime as God [Page 77] confoundeth the wise by the foo­lish, and the strong by the weake, 1. Cor. 1. 27 so he teacheth the wife by the foo­lish, and helpeth the strong by the weake. Therefore Peter saieth, Husbands are wonne by the conuersa­tion of their Wiues. As if he should 1. Pet. 3. 1. say, sometime the weaker vessell is the stronger vessell, and Abra­ham Gen. 25. 2. may take counsell of Sara, as Naaman was aduised by his ser­uant. 2. Kin. 5. 3. The Shunamites coūsel made her Husband receiue a Prophet 2. Kin. 9. 10 into his house, and Hesters coun­sell made her Husband spare the Hest. 7. 3. Church: so some haue been bet­ter helpers to their husbands, than their husbands haue bin to them, for it pleaseth God to prouoke the wise with the foolish, as he did the Iewes with the Gentiles. Deut. 32. 21.

Beside a Helper, she is called a Comforter too, & therfore the man Pro. 5. 18. [Page 78] is bid to reioyce in his Wife, which is as much to saye, that Wiues must bee the reioycing of their Husbands, euen like Dauids Harpe to comfort Saule. Therfore it is sayd of Rebeccah, that she pre­pared 1. Sam. 16. 23. Gen. 27. 9. meate for her husband, such as hee loued: so a good Wife is knowne when her wordes and deedes and countenances are such as her Husband loueth, she must not examine whether he bee wise or simple, but that she is his wife, & therfore they which are bound must obey, as Abigail loued her husband though he was a foole: 1. Sam. 25. 3 for the Wife is as much despised for taking rule ouer her Husband, as he for yeelding it vnto her. It becomes not the Mistris to be Ma­ster, no more than it beseemeth the Master to be Mistris, but both to saile with their owne winde.

[Page 79] Lastly, wee call the Wife, Hus­wife, that is, house wife, not a street Gen. 38. 14. Gen. 34. 1. Why wiues are called Huswiues. wife like Thamar, nor a field wife like Dinah, but a house wife, to shew that a good wife keepes her house: & therefore Paule biddeth Tit. 2. 5. Titus to exhort women that they be chast, & keeping at home: pre­sently after Chast, he saith, keeping at home, as though Home were Chastities keeper. And therefore Salomon depainting the Whore, Pro. 7. 12. setteth her at the doore, now sit­ting vpon her stalls, now walking in the streetes, now looking out of the windowes, like curled Ie­zabel, as if she held forth the glasse 2. King 9. 30. of temptation, for vanitie to gaze vppon. But Chastitie careth to please but one, and therefore she keepes her Closet, as though she were still at prayer. The Angell asked Abraham, where is thy [Page 60] wife? Abraham answered, she is Gen. 18. 9. in the Tent. The Angell knewe where she was, but yet hee asked, that we might see how Women in olde time did keepe their tents and houses. It is recorded of the Shunamite, that she did aske her 2. Kin. 9. 30 Husband leaue to goe vnto the Prophet, though she went to a Prophet, and went of a good er­rand, and for his cause as much as her owne, yet she thought it not meete to goe farre abroade with­out her Husbands leaue.

Phidias when he should paint a Woman, painted her sitting vn­der a Snailes shell; signifying that she should goe like a Snaile, which carrieth his house vpon his back. Salomon bad Shimei: Goe not be­yond 1. King. 2. 36. 37. the riuer: so a Wife should teach her feete, go not beyond the doore; she must count the walles [Page 61] of her house like the bankes of the Husbands should not keepe their Wiues so straight, but Wiues should not think their house their prison, but as their Pa­radise where they would be. Riuer which Shimei might not passe, if he would please the King. For when Gen. 3. 2. Adam was away, Eue was made a pray: if her Husband bee from her, vntill hee returne a­gaine, she must thinke her selfe a Widdowe, that is, seperate from man: for Vidua doth signifie a vi­ro diuisa, that is, Widdowe doth signifie diuided from man: there­fore now she must haue no fel­lowship, no companie with men, because she is diuided from man.

As it becommeth her to keepe home, so it becommeth her to keep silence, and alway speake the best of her head. Other seeke their honour in triumph, but she must seeke her honour in reuerence, for A wife may not vtter her Hus­bāds saults. it becommeth not any woman to set light by her husband, nor to publish his infirmities. For they [Page 82] say, it is an euill bird that defileth his owne nest: and if a Wife vse her Husband so, how maye the Husband vse the Wife? Because this is the qualitie of that sex, to o­uerthwart, and vpbraide, and sue the preheminence of their Hus­bands, therefore the Philosophers coulde not tell how to define a Wife, but called her The contrarie to a Husband, as though nothing A Wife the contrary to a Husband. were so crosse and contrarie to a man, as a Wife. This is not Scrip­ture, but no slaunder to many. As Dauid exalteth the loue of women 2. Sam. 1. 26. Pro. 21. 19. aboue all other loues; so Salomon mounteth the enuie of women a­boue all other enuies, stubborne, sullen, taunting, gainsaying, outfa­cing, with such a bitter humour, that one would thinke they were molten out of the salt pillar into which Loths Wife was transfor­med. Gen. 19. 26. [Page 83] We say not, all are alike, but this sect hath manie Disciples. Dooth the ribbe that is in a mans side fret him, or gall him? no Gen. 2. 20. more should she which is made of the ribbe. Though a woman bee wise and painfull, and haue many good parts, yet if she bee a shrewe, her troublesome iarring in the end will make her honest behauiour vnpleasant, as her ouer pinching at last causeth her good huswiferie to be euill spoken off. Therefore although she be a Wife, yet some­time she must obserue the seruants lesson, Not answering againe, & hold Tit. 2. 9. her peace to keep the peace. Ther­fore they which keepe silence, are well sayd to holde their peace, be­cause silence oftentimes doth keep the peace, when wordes would breake it.

To her silence and patience she [Page 64] must adde The acceptable obedience, which makes a Woman rule while she is ruled. This is the Wiues tribute to her Husband; for she is not called his head, but Ephe. 5. 23. hee is called her head. Great cause hath man to make much of his wife, for great and many are her dueties to him. And therefore Paule saith, Wiues submit your selues Ephe. 5. 22. vnto your Husbands as to the Lord. Shewing that she should regarde his will as the Lordes will, but How farre the Wife should o­bey. withall as the Lord commandeth only that which is good & right: so she should obey her Husband in good and right, orels she dooth not obey him as the Lord, but as the tempter. The first subiection of Woman began at sinne; for when GOD cursed her for sedu­cing her Husband, when the Ser­pent had seduced her, he sayd, He [Page 85] shall haue authoritie ouer thee. And Gen. 3. 16. therefore as the man named all o­ther creatures, in signe that they Gen. 2. 20. should bee subiect to him, as a ser­uant which commeth when his Master calleth him by his name; so he did name the woman also in vers. 23. token that she should be subiect to him likewise. And therefore A­suerus made a lawe, that euery man Hest. 1. 20. 22. Num. 30. 7. Iud. 19. 26. shoulde beare rule in his owne house, and not the Woman. Be­cause she sinned first, therefore she is humbled most, and euer since the daughters of Sara are bound to Gen 18. 12. 1. Pet. 3. 6. call their husbands Lords, as Sara called her husband, that is, to take them for their Lords, for heads & gouernours. If ye disdaine to fol­lowe Abrahams Spouse, the Apo­stle biddeth you followe Christs Spouse: for he saith, Let a wife bee Ephe. 5. 24. subiect to her husband, as the Church [Page 86] is to Christ. A greater loue than this Ioh. 15. 13. (saith Christ) no man can haue. So a better example than this no Wo­man can haue.

That the Wife may yeeld this The cause why many despise their husbands. 1. Tim 2. 9. reuerence to her Husband, Paule would haue her attire to bee mo­dest and orderly; for garish appa­rell hath taught manie gossips to disdaine their husbands. This is the folly of some men, to lay all their pride vpon their wiues, they care not how they slouen them­selues, so their wiues iet like Pea­cocks. But Peter doth commend 1. Pet. 3. 5. Sara for her attire, and not Abra­ham, shewing that women should braue it no more than men, and God made Eues coate of the same Gen. 3. 21. cloath that he made Adams. They couered themselues with leaues, Gen. 3. 7. and God derided them, but now they couer themselues with pride, [Page 87] like Sathan which is fallen down Luk. 10. 18. before them like lightning, ruffe vpon ruffe, lace vpon lace, cut vpō cut, foure and twentie orders vntil the woman be not precious as her apparell, that if any man would picture vanitie, he must take a pat­terne of women, or els he cannot drawe her likenes. As Herodias Math. 14. 6. was worse for her fine dauncing, so a woman may haue too many ornaments: frisled lockes, naked breasts, painting, perfume, and e­specially a rowling eye are the forerunners of adulterie, and hee which hath such a wife, hath a fine plague. Once women were mar­ried without dowries, because they were well nurtured, but now if they waighed not more in gold than in goodnes, many should sit like nuns without husbāds. Thus we haue shadowed the mans due­ties [Page 88] to his wife, and the womans to her husband.

After their dueties one to ano­ther, Their due­ties to their seruants. they must learne their due­ties to their familie. One compa­reth the master of the house to the Seraphin, which came and kindled the Prophets zeale: so he should Esai. 6. 6. goe from wife to seruants, and from seruants to children, and kindle them in the zeale of GOD, longing to teach his knowledge as a Nurse to emptie her breasts. Another saith, that a master in his family hath al the offices of christ: Reu. 5. 10. for hee must rule, and teach, and pray; rule like a King, teach like a Prophet, pray like a Priest. To shewe how a godly man should behaue himselfe in his household, when the holy Ghost speaketh of the conuersion of any housekee­per, lightly he saith, that the man Act. 16. 13. & 18. 8. [Page 89] beleeued with al his houshold. As Peter being conuerted, must con­uert his brethren; so the master Luc 22. 32. being conuerted, must conuert his seruants. For therefore God sayd, that he would not hide his coun­sell from Abraham, because hee Gen. 18. 17. would teach his familie: and sure­lie all duetie which is not done of conscience, is but eye seruice, and faileth at most neede, as Ziba be­traied his master when he should 2. Sam. 16. 3. haue defended him. Therefore be­fore One simus was conuerted, Paul Phile. 11. said, he was an vnprofitable seruant: but when hee was conuerted, hee calleth him more than a seruant, be­cause such a seruant is better than many seruants. Therefore though Laban was wicked himselfe, yet Gen. 29. 27. he reioyced that Iacob his seruant was godly, because GOD blessed him better for him. Ioshua saith, I [Page 90] and my houshold will serue the Lord. Shewing that masters should re­ceiue Iosh 24. 15. none into their houses, but whom they can gouerne, as Ioshu [...] did. Therefore it is noted of Cor­nelius, that all his houshold serued Act. 10. 2. God like himselfe. This is repor­ted also of Ioseph and Marie for an example, that they went vp euerie yere with all their familie to wor­ship at Ierusalem, that their childrē Luc. 2. 41. and their seruants might learne to know God as well as they. These examples bee written for house­holders, as other are for Magi­strates, and Ministers, and Soul­diers, that no calling might seeke further than the Scripture for in­struction. Wherefore as you are masters now, and they your ser­uants, so instruct them and traine them, as if you would shewe what masters they should be hereafter.

[Page 91] After the care of their soules, they must care for their bodies; for if the labourer is worthie of his Luc. 107. hire which laboureth but a day, what is the seruant worth which laboureth euerie day? Therefore Paule is so earnest with Philemon to make much of Onesimus his ser­uant, that he desireth Philemon to Phile. 17. receiue him as he would himself. Therefore because cruell & gree­die Masters should not vse them too hardly, God remembred them in his creation, and made euerie Gen. 2. 2. weeke one day of rest, wherein they should be as free as their Ma­sters: so God pitieth the poore la­bourer from heauen, and euerie Saboath lookes downe vpon him from heauen, as if he should say, one day thy labours shall haue an ende, and thou shalt rest for euer as thou restest this day.

[Page 92] By this wee see, as Dauid did li­mit Ioab that hee should not kill g. Sam. 18. 5. Absalom, so God hath bound ma­sters that they should not oppresse their seruants. Shall God respect thine more than thou? Art thou made fresher to thy labour by a little rest, and is not thy seruant made stronger by rest to labour for thee? How many beasts and sheepe did Laban lose onely for hardly intreating of a good ser­uant? Gen. 31. 9. Therfore that is the way to lose, but not to thriue. He which counteth his seruant his slaue, is in an error, for there is difference be­tweene beleeuing seruants, and Infidel seruants: the Infidels were made slaues to the Iewes, because GOD hated them, and would humble them, but their brethren did serue thē like helpers, which should be trained by them.

[Page 93] It is not a base nor a vile thing to be called a seruant, for our Lord Esai. 42. 1. Math. 12. 18. is called a seruant, which teacheth Christians to vse their seruants well for Christs sake, seeing they are seruants too, and haue one ma­ster Christ. As Dauid speaketh of man, saying, Thou hast made him a Psal. 8. 6. little lower than the Angells: so I may say of seruants, that God hath made them a little lower thā chil­dren, not children, but the next to children, as one would say inferi­our children, or sonnes in lawe: and therefore the householder is called Paterfamilias, which signi­fieth a father of his familie, be­cause he shoulde haue a fatherly care ouer his seruants, as if they were his children, and not vse thē onely for their labour like beasts. Beside, the name of a seruant doth not signifie suffering, but dooing: [Page 94] therefore masters must not exer­cise their hands vppon them, but set their hands to worke: and yet as God laieth no more vppon his 1. Cor. 12. 13. seruants than he makes them able to beare; so men should lay no more vppon their seruants than they are able to beare. For a good man (saith Salomon) is mercifull to Pro. 12. 10. his beast, and therefore he will be more mercifull to his brother. That man is not worthie to bee serued which cannot affoord that his seruants should serue God as well as himselfe. Giue vnto God that which is Gods, and then thou maiest take that which is thine. He which careth not for his familie, (saith Paule) is worse than an Infidel: 1. Tim. 5. 8. because Infidels care for their fa­milie. But as Agur praieth, Giue me not too much nor too little, but feede me with foode conuenient. So Pro. 30. 8. [Page 95] their care should not be too much nor too little, but conuenient, or els they are worse than Infidells too, because Couetousnes is called Idolatrie, which is worse than In­fidelitie: for it is lesse rebellion Ephe. 5. 5. not to honour the King, than to set vp another King against him, as the Idolaters doo against the King of heauen,

Next vnto seruants instruction and labours, must bee considered their corrections. As Paule saith, Fathers prouoke not your children to Ephe. 6. 4: wrath: So I may say, Masters pro­uoke not your seruants to wrath, that is, vse such reproofes, & such corrections, that you do not pro­uoke them, but mooue them, that you doo not exasperate them, but win them; for reuiling words and vnreasonable fiercenes, doth more hurt than good. And therefore the [Page 96] law of God did charge the Master that hee should not inflict aboue fourtie stripes vppon his seruant, Deut. 25. 2. least hee should seeme despised in his eyes. For while a childe, or scholler, or seruant dooth thinke that hee is reprooued for loue, or beaten with reason, it makes him think of his fault and be ashamed: but when he seeth that he is rebu­ked with curses and beaten with staues, as though hee were hated like a dogge, his heart is hardened against the man which correcteth him, and the fault for which he is corrected, & after he becommeth desperate, like a horse which tur­neth vppon the striker: and there­fore thinke that GOD euen then chides you, whēsoeuer you chide in such rage. For though there be a fault, yet some things must bee winkt at, & some things forgiuen, [Page 97] and some things punished with a looke; for he which takes the for­feit of euery offence shall neuer rest, but vexe himselfe more than his seruant.

Further, I haue heard Experi­ence The master must cor­rect his mē, and the mi­stris her maides. say, that in these punishments it is most meete and acceptable to the offender, that the man should correct his men, and the woman her maides: for a mans nature skorneth to bee beaten of a wo­man, and a maides nature is cor­rupted with the stripes of a man. Therefore wee reade, that Abra­ham Gen. 16. 6. would not meddle with his maide, but committed her to his wife, and saide, Doo with her as it pleaseth thee. As if he should say, it belongeth not to me but to thee.

Lastly, we put the duetie toward Their due­ties toward their chil­dren. children, because they come last to their hands. In Latin children [Page 98] are called Pignora, that is pledges, as if I should say, a pledge of the husbands loue to the wife, and a pledge of the wiues loue toward the husband: for there is nothing which doth so knit loue between the man and the wife, as the fruite of the wombe. Therefore when Leah began to conceaue, she sayd, Gen. 28. 31. now my husband will loue me, as though the husband did loue for children. If a woman haue many defects (as Leah had) yet this is the mends which she makes her hus­band to bring him childrē, which is the right Wedding Ring that sealeth and maketh vp as it were the Marriage. When their father and mother fall out, they pert vp betweene them like little media­tors, and with many pretie sportes make truce when other dare not speake to thē. Therefore now let [Page 99] vs consider what these little ones may challenge of their parents, which stād thē in sted of Lawiers.

The first duetie is the mothers, Mothers should nurse their children. Gen. 21. 7. that is, to nurse her childe at her owne breasts, as Sara did Isaak: & therefore Esaiah ioyneth the nur­ces name and the mothers name both in one, and calleth them nur­cing mothers: shewing that mo­thers should bee the nurces. So whē God chose a nurce for Moses, Exo. 2. 8. he led the handmaid of Pharaohs daughter to his mother, as though GOD would haue none to nurse him but his mother. After, when the Sonne of God was borne, his father thought none fit to bee his Math. 2. 14 nurse but the Virgin his mother. The fountaines of the earth are made to giue water, & the breasts of women are made to giue suck. Euery beast, and euery foule, is [Page 100] bred of the same that did beare it, onely women loue to be mothers, but not nurces. Therefore if their children prooue vnnaturall, they may say thou followest thy mo­ther, for she was vnnaturall first in locking vp her breasts from thee, and committing thee foorth like a Cuckowe to bee hatched in the Sparowes nest. Hereof it comes that wee say, he suckt euill from the dugge, that is, as the Nurse is affected in her bodie or in her minde, commonly the childe dra­weth the like infirmitie from her, as the egges of a Henne are altered vnder a Hawke: yet they which haue no milke can giue no milke; but whose breasts haue this perpe­tuall drought? Forsooth it is like the Gowte, no beggers may haue it, but Citizens or Gentlewomen. In the 9. of Hosee, drie breasts are [Page 101] named for a curse; what lamen­table hap haue Gentlewomen to light vpon this curse more than o­ther? Sure if their breasts bee drie as they say, they should fast & pray together that this curse might bee remooued from them.

The next duetie is, Catechize Pro. 22. [...]. child in his youth, and he will remem­ber it when he is olde. This is the right blessing which fathers and mothers giue to their children, when they cause GOD to blesse them too. The wrong mother ca­red 1. King. 3. 26. not though the child were di­uided, but the right mother wold not haue it diuided: so wicked pa­rents care not though their chil­dren be destroyed, but godly pa­rents would not haue them de­stroyed but saued, that when they haue dwelt together in earth, they may dwell together in heauen. As [Page 102] the Midwife frameth the bodie when it is yong and tender, so the parēts must frame the mind while it is greene and flexible, for youth is the seede time of vertue. They which are called fathers, are called Luk. 11. 2. by the name of God, to warne thē that they are in stead of GOD to their children, which teacheth all his sonnes. What example haue children but their parents? And sure the prouidence of God doth ease their charge more than they are aware; for a childe will learne better of his father, than of any o­ther. And therfore we reade of no Schoolemasters in the Scripture Except of Kings sons. but the parents: for when Christ saith to the Iewes, If ye be the sonnes of Abraham, ye will doo the workes Iohn. 8. 30. of your father Abraham. He shew­eth that sonnes vse to walke in their fathers steps whether they [Page 103] be good or bad. It is a merueilous delight to father & mother when people say that their children are like them: but if they be like them in goodnes, it is as great a delight to other as to the parents: or els wee say that they are so like, that they are worse for it. Well doth Dauid call children arrowes, for if Psal. 127. 4. they bee well bred they shoote at their parents enemies, & if they be euill bred they shoote at their pa­rents. Therfore many fathers want a staffe to stay them in their age, because they prepared none be­fore; like olde Eli which was cor­rected himselfe for not correcting 1. Sa. 2. 29. his sonnes. Are not children cal­led the fruit of their parēts? Ther­fore Psal. 132. 11. Math. 12. 33. as a good tree is knowne by bringing foorth good fruite, so parents should shewe their good­nes in the good education of their [Page 104] children which are their fruite. For this cause the Iewes were 1. Sam. 1. 20 2. Sam 12. 24. wont to name their children so when they were borne, that euer after if they did but thinke vppon their names, they would put them in minde of that religion which they should professe, for they did signifie somthing that they should learne. An admonition to such as call their children at al aduentures, sometimes by the names of doggs euen as they prooue after. In the 1. King. 2. 2. wee haue Dauid in­structing his sonnes: In Gen. 39. Iaacob correcting his sonnes: and in Iob. 1. Iob praying for his sonnes: These three put together, Instruc­ting, Correcting, and Praying, make good children and happie parents.

Once Christ tooke a child and set him in the middest of his Dis­ciples, [Page 105] and sayd, He which will re­ceiue Luc. 18. 17. the kingdome of heauen, must receiue it as a little child. Shewing that our children should bee so in­nocent, so humble, and voide of euill, that they may bee taken for examples of the children of God. Therefore in Psal. 127. 4. children are called the heritage of the Lord, to shewe that they should bee trai­ned as though they were not mens children but Gods, that they may haue Gods heritage after. Thus if you doo, your seruants shall bee Gods seruants, and your children shall bee Gods children, and your Col. 4. 15. Phil. 1. 2. house shall be Gods house, like a little Church when others are like a den of theeues.

Now I speake to one which is The name of Stepmo­thers ex­pounded, and their duetie. a mother so soone as she is maried: therefore peraduenture you looke that I should shewe the duetie of [Page 106] stepmothers. Their name dooth shewe them their duetie too; for a stepmother dooth signifie a sted­mother, that is, one mother dyeth, & another commeth in her stead; therfore that your loue may settle to those little ones as it ought, you must remember that you are their stedmother, that is, in sted of their mother, & therfore to loue them, and tender them, and cherish them as their mother did. Further, these children are Orphanes, and there­fore you must not onely regarde them as children, but as Orphane children. Now, God requireth a greater care ouer Widdowes and Ier. 22. 2. Deut. 14. 17. & 24. 17. & 26. 12. Orphanes, than ouer any other women or children. Lastly, you must remember that saying, As you measure vnto other, so it shall be Mat 7. 2. measured to you againe. That is, as you intreate these children, so an [Page 107] other may come after and intreate your children; for he which hath taken away the first mother, and sent you, can take away the se­cond mother and send a third, which shall not bee like a stedmo­ther to yours, vnlesse you be like a stedmother to these.

If these dueties bee performed in Marriage, then I need not speak Diuorce­ment the phisicke of Marriage. of Diuorcement, which is the rod of Marriage, and diuideth them which were one flesh, as if the bo­die and soule were parted a sun­der. But because all performe not their Wedlocke vowes, therfore hee which appoynted Marriage, hath appoynted Diuorcement, as Math. 18. 9. it were taking our priuiledge frō vs when we abuse it. As God hath ordained remedies for euery dis­ease, so he hath ordained a reme­die for the disease of Marriage. [Page 108] The disease of Marriage is Adul­terie, and the medicine hereof is Diuorcement. Moses licenced thē to depart for hardnes of heart, but Math. 19. 8 Christ licenseth them to depart for no cause but Adulterie. If they might bee separated for discorde, some would make a commoditie of strife; but now they are not best to bee contentious, for this lawe will hold their noses together, till wearines make them leaue strug­ling, like two spaniels which are coupled in a chaine, at last they learne to goe together, because they may not goe a sunder. As no­thing might part friends, But if thine eye offend thee pull it cut, that Mat. 5. 32. is, if thy friend bee a tempter: so Mat. 19. 9. nothing may dissolue Marriage but Fornication, which is the breach of Marriage: for Marriage is ordained to auoid Fornication, 1Cor. 7. 10. [Page 109] and therefore if the condition bee broken, the obligation is voide. And beside, so long as all her chil­dren are his children, she must needes be his wife, because the fa­ther and mother are man & wife: but when her children are not his children, she seemes no more to be his wife but the others, whose children she beares, and therefore to be diuorsed from him. In all the old Testament we reade of no di­uorce betweene any, which shew­eth that they liued chaster thā we: yet no doubt this lawe was better executed amōgst thē, than amōgst vs. Such a care God hath had in al ages & callings to prouide for thē which liue honestly: for Diuorce­ment is not instituted for the car­nall, but for the chast, least they should bee tied to a plague while they liue. As for the Adulterer [Page 110] and Adulteresse he hath assigned Leu. 20. 10. death to cut them off, least their breath should infect others. Thus he which made Marriage, did not make it vnseparable, for then Ma­riage were a seruitude. But as Christ saith of the Sabaoth, The Sabaoth was made for man, that is, Mar. 2. 27. for the benefite of man, and not for the hinderance of man: so Marriage was made for man, that is, for the honour of man, and not for the dishonour of man: but if Marriage should turne to Forni­cation, Louît. 20. 10. and when it is turned to Fornication, there might be no se­paration, then Marriage were not for the honour of man, but for the trouble and griefe and dishonour of man. Therefore now ye haue heard how Diuorcement is ap­poynted for a remedie of Forni­cation, if any bee ashamed of this [Page 111] phisicke, let them bee more asha­med of the disease.

Because I haue spoken more Conclusi (que) than you can remember, if you aske me, what is most needfull to beare away? In my opinion there is one saying of Paule, which is the profitablest sentence in all the A sentence for the ma­ried to think vpon. Scripture, for Man and Wife to meditate often, and examine whe­ther they finde it in themselues as they doo in other, least their Mar­riage turne to sinne, which should further them in godlinesse. In the 1. Cor. 7. 32. it is sayd, The vnmaried 1. Cor. 7. 32. man careth for the things of the Lord how he may please the Lord, but he that is married careth for the things of the world, how he may please his wife. Likewise, The vnmaried wo­man careth for the things of the Lord how she may bee holy, but she that is [Page 112] married, careth for the things of the world how she may please her Hus­band. As though their pleasing of God were now turned all to plea­sing one another, and their carnall loue had eaten their spiritual loue, as the leane kine deuoured the fat. Therefore it followeth in the next Gen. 41. 4. words, This I speake for your com­moditie: As though there were Vers. 34. great commoditie in remembring this watch word. All men haue not the feeling of Gods worde, or els such a sentence might bee an anchor to all which are married, to stay them when any tempta­tion goeth about this chaunge, which Paule feared euen in them which seared God before. If thou haue read all this booke, and art neuer the better, yet catch this flo­wer before thou goe out of the [Page 113] garden, and peraduenture the sent thereof will bring thee backe to smell the rest. As the corps of Ha­zael made the passengers to stand, 1. Sam. 1. 23. so I haue placed this sentēce in the doore of thy passage, to make thee stande and consider what thou doest before thou marriest. For this is the scope and operation of it, to call the minde to a solemne meditation, and warne him to liue in Marriage as in a temptation, which is like to make him worse than he was, as the Marriage of Iehoram did, if he vse not Iobs pre­seruatiue 2. Chro. 21. 6. Iob. 9. 28. to bee ielous ouer all his life. The alluremēts of beautie, the troubles about riches, the charges of children, the losses by seruants, the vnquietnes of neighbours crie vnto him that hee is entered into the hardest vocation of all other: [Page 114] and therefore they which haue but nine yeares prentiship to make them good Mercers or Drapers, haue nineteene yeares before Ma­riage to learne to bee good Hus­bands and Wiues, as though it were a trade of nothing but My­steries, and had neede of double time ouer all the rest. Therefore so often as you thinke vppon this saying, thinke whether you bee examples of it, and it will waken you, and chide you, and leade you a straight path, like the Angell which led the seruant of Abra­ham. Gen. 24. 48.

Thus I haue chalked the way, to prepare you vnto Marriage, as the Leuites prepared their brethren 2. Chro. 35. 6. to the Passeouer: Remember that this day ye are made one, and there­fore must haue but one will. And [Page 115] now the Lord Iesus in whome ye are contracted, knit your harts to­gether, that ye may loue one ano­ther like Dauid and Ionathan, and 1. Sam. 18. 8 goe before you in this life, like the Starre which went before the Math. 2. 9. Gentiles, that yee may begin, and proceede, and end in his glorie. To whom be all glorie for euer.



[Page] A Treatise of the Lords Supper, in two Sermons.


Imprinted at London by Thomas Orwin for Thomas Man, dwelling in Pa­ternoster row at the signe of the Talbot. 1591.

A Treatise of the Lords Supper; in two Sermons.

The first Sermon.

1. Cor. 11. 23, 24.

The Lord Iesus in the night that he was betraied, tooke bread:

And when he had giuen thankes, he brake it, and said, Take, eate: this is my bodie, which is broken for you: this doo ye in remembrance of me.

THE Word & the Sa­craments are the two breasts wherwith our mother dooth nurse vs. Seeing euerie one receiueth, and fewe vnderstand what they [Page] receiue; I thought it the necessa­riest doctrine to preach of the Sa­crament; which is a witnesse of Gods promises, a remembrance of Christs death, and a seale of our a­doption: therefore Christ hath not instituted this Sacrament for a fashion in his Church to touch, and feele, and see, as we gaze vpon pictures in the windowes, but as the woman which had the bloo­die Mat. 9. 20. issue, touching the hemme of Christs garment, drewe vertue from Christ himselfe because she beleeued: So Christ would that wee touching these signes, should drawe vertue from himselfe, that is, al the graces which these signes represent. Therefore as the Leuits 2. Chro. 35. 6. vnder the Lawe, were bound to prepare their brethren before they came to the Passeouer; so Prea­chers of the Gospell should pre­pare [Page] their brethren before they come to the Supper of the Lord. For which purpose I haue chosen this place to the Corinthians, which is the cleerest and fullest declara­tion of this Sacrament in all the Scripture.

The Lord Iesus in the night &c. The summe of all these words is, The diui­sion. the institution, & vse of the Lords Supper. First Paule sheweth the author of it, The Lord Iesus, then the time when it was instituted, in the night that he was betraied, then the manner how he did institute it, he tooke bread: and when he had giuen thankes, he brake it, and gaue vnto his disciples, &c. then the end why he did institute it, for a re­membrance of his death.

Touching the author, he which The Au­thor. is signified by it, was the author of it. The Lord Iesus hath bid vs to [Page] Supper, I am not worthie (sayeth Iohn) to loose his shoe; so wee are not worthie to waite at his tren­cher, Iohn. 1. 27. and yet he will haue vs sit at his table. To him belongeth the power to ordaine Sacraments in None but Christ may ordeyne Sacramēts. his Church, because he fulfilled the Sacramēts of the Law. When Christ came the Passeouer ceased, because he is our Passeouer, that is, the Lambe by whose blood we Iohn. 1. 29. are saued. When Christ came, Circumcision ceased, because he is our Circumcision, that is, the purifier and clenser of our sinnes. Reuel. 7. 14. Now these two Sacraments are fulfilled, he hath appoynted two other Sacraments for them in sted of the paschal Lambe, which the Iewes did eate, he hath giuen vs an other Lambe to eate, which Iohn calleth the Lambe of God, that is Iohn. 1. 29. himselfe, vppon whome all doo [Page] feede, whosoeuer doo receiue this Sacrament with an assured faith that Christ died to possesse them of life. The breaking of the bread, doth signifie the wounding of his bodie: the powring of the Wine dooth signifie the shedding of his bloud. The eating of the bread, and drinking of the Wine, dooth signifie that his flesh and bloud do nourish in vs life eternall, as the bread and Wine doo nourish the life present.

Instead of Circumcision, which began at Abraham, he hath ordei­ned Gen. 17. 10. Baptisme, which began at Iohn, a more liuely representation Who was therefore called Iohn the Baptist. Math. 3. 1. Reuel. 1 5. Reu. 22. 14. of the true circumcision of the heart, because it representeth vn­to vs the blood of Christ which washeth our soules, as the water in Baptisme washeth our bodies.

Touching the time: In the night The time. [Page] (saith Paule) therefore this Sacra­ment is called The Lords Supper, Vers. 23. because it was instituted at night when they vsed to suppe. But what night? euen that night (sayth Paule) when he was betrayed: that night which he should haue cur­sed, as Iob did the day of his birth, Iob. 3. 3. if he had suffred against his will: that night when he should haue thought to destroy men, as men conspired to destroy him, that night (saith Paule) this Sacrament of grace, and peace, and life began. Euen that night when we betrayed him. Many nights did he spend in watching, and praying for vs, and is there a night now for vs to kill and betray him? That was a dark night, when men went about to put out the Sunne which brought them light. Who can but won­der, to see how Christ, and they [Page] for whome Christ came, were occupied at one time? when they deuised mischiefe against him, and sought all meanes to destroy him, then he consulted how to saue them, and instituted the same night this blessed Sacrament, to conuay al his graces and blessings vnto them, Euen that night when they betrayed him.

The reason why this action was Why this Sacrament was insti­tuted at night. deferred vntill night, is, because that was the time appointed by the Lawe to eate the Passeouer, which was like a predecessor of this Sacrament. The reason why Why it was defer­red till his last night. he deferred vntill his last night, was, because the Passeouer could not be ended, before the fulnesse of time, and the true Paschall Lamb were come to be slaine in stead of the other. Therefore how fitly did Christ end the Passeo­uer, [Page] which was a signe of his suf­fering so presently before his suf­fering? And beside, how sweetly did hee confirme his Disciples faith, when as they should see that the next day performed before their eyes, which ouernight both in the Passeouer, and in the Sacra­ment, was so liuely resembled vn­to them. If any from this do ga­ther, that we ought to eate the Lords Supper at night as Christ Why we receiue not the Lords Supper at night. did, he must vnderstand that we haue not the same cause to doe so which Christ had, because of the Passeouer. And therefore the Church which hath discretion of times and places, hath altered both the time, and the place, vsing the temples in stead of the chamber, and the morning in stead of the euening: for indifferent things are ruled by order and decencie.

[Page] Touching the manner, He tooke Vers. 23. 24 bread, and when he had giuen thankes, he brake it, and gaue it vnto them. He would not eate it, nor breake it, before he had giuen thanks to God. What neede he which was God, giue thanks to God, but to shew vs what we should do, whē we eate our selues? In all things giue thanks (saith Paule) whereby 1. Thess. 5. 18. we declare, that all things come from God: but the wicked be­leeue Note. easier that God doth take, than that he doth giue, and there­fore they neuer pray hartely vnto him for any thing, nor feelingly thanke him for it. For which the Lord complaineth, saying: I haue Mala. 1. 2. loued you, yet yee say, wherein hast thou loued vs? shewing, that wee are worse than the Oxe, which Esai. 1 3. knoweth his feeder. And if wee acknowledge all things frō God, [Page] yet we do like Lot, Is it not a little Gen. 19. 20. one (saith he) when hee craued to goe vnto Zoar, as though it were not much which he asked: so we mince and extenuate the gifts of God, before we receiue them and after; like them which haue a grace for dinner, and none for breakefast, as though they had their dinners from God, and breakefasts of their owne. Our example did not so: Although it was but bread which he receiued, yet he was more thankefull for bread, than many which burie the fowles, and fishes, and beasts, in their belly: for if a count of all were kept, for one that prayeth Giue vs this day our dayly bread, a hundreth take their bread, and Luk. 11. 3. meate, and sleepe too, which ne­uer pray for it.

After he had giuen thankes, hee [Page] brake it, and gaue vnto them, and sayd, Take, eate: for when he had giuen thanks to God, then it was sanctified, and blessed, and lawfull to eate. So, when thou seruest Note. God, then it is lawfull for thee to vse Gods blessings, then thou mayest eate and drinke as Christ did, but not before, for these things were created to serue them which serue God; if thou doest not serue him for them, thou en­crochest vppon Gods blessings, and stealest his creatures, which are no more thine, than thou art his, for the good God created all things for good men, as the diuels possessions are reserued for euill men. Therefore as Christ would not breake the bread, before he had giuen thanks to the founder, so know, that there is some thing to be done, before thou receyue [Page] any benefite of God, and presume not to vse his creatures with more libertie than his Sonne did, which did not eate without giuing thāks nor rise againe without singing of a Psalme. Mat. 26. 30.

It followeth, This is my bodie. Here is the fruite of his thankes before, he praied that the bread & wine might bee blessed, and they were blessed. As Isaacs blessing shewed it self vpon Iaacob whom Gen. 27. he blessed; so Christs blessing ap­peared straight vpon these myste­ries: for it could not bee sayd be­fore, this is my bodie, because it was meere bread; but now it may bee called his bodie, because his bles­sing hath infused that vertue into it, that it doth not onely represent his bodie, but conuey his bodie, and himselfe vnto vs. The effica­cie of this blessing is in this Sacra­ment [Page] euer since, sanctifying it vn­to vs as well as it did to the Apo­stles, euen as Christs prayer staied Luk 22. 32. Peters faith after Christ was dead.

Because vpon these words the Papists ground their Transub­stanciation, that is, that the bread is chaunged into Christs flesh, and the Wine is turned into Christs blood, whereby we eate the same bodie which died vpō the Crosse, and drinke the same blood which issued out of his side, that you may see the blindnesse of this Popish dreame, I would haue you but marke euerie word of this Scrip­ture how they make against Trā ­substanciation, that you may see them slaine like Goliah with their 1. Sam 17. 51. owne sword. Euen as GOD made Caiphas speake against him­selfe; Ioh. 18. 14. so the Scriptures which he­retickes alleage, doo make against [Page] thēselues, like the Baalites which 1. King. 18. 28. wounded their owne flesh. I may liken their allegations to Sathans, when hee tempted Christ in the Wildernesse, he alleaged but one Math. 4. 4. sentence of Scripture for himself, and that Psalme out of which he Psal. 91. 11. borrowed it, makes so plaine a­gainst him, that hee was faine to picke here a worde, and there a worde, and leaue out that which went before, and skip in the mid­dest, and omit that which came after, or els hee had marred his cause. The Scripture is so holie, and pure, and true, that no word, nor sillable thereof can make for the diuell, or for sinners, or for he­reticks: yet as the diuell alleaged Scripture, though it made not for him, but against him; so doo the Libertines, and Epicures, and He­retickes, as though they had lear­ned [Page] at his schoole. Now there is no sentēce of the scripture, which the wiser Papists aledge bouldly for their Transubstantiation, but this, that Christ sayd, This is my Math. 26. 26. body, by which they may proue as well that Christ is a dore, be­cause he sayth, I am the dore: or a Ioh. 107 9. Vine, because he sayth, I am a Vine, for his sayings are like. Fi­guratiue Ioh. 15 1. speeches, must not bee construed literally, but this is He­retikes fashion. If you marke, you shall see thorough out, that all the testimonies which the Papists a­ledge for their heresies, are eyther tropes, or figures, or allegories, or parables, or allusions, or darke speeches; which when they pre­sume to expound allegorically, or literally, without conference of o­ther scriptures, then they wander, and stray from the marke, or else [Page] it is impossible, that the trueth should mainteyne error, that is, that the scripture should speake for heresie, if it were not peruer­ted: therefore we see that Eue ne­uer Gen. 3. 3. erred, vntill she corrupted the text.

Now we will enter the lists with our aduersaries, and see whether these words doo proue that the bread and wine are tur­ned Arguments against Po­pish Tran­substantia­tion. into Christes bodye. Paule sayth, Iesus tooke bread: well then, yet it is bread: when he had taken it, then he blessed it, what did he blesse? the bread which he tooke, 1 well then, yet it is bread: when he had blessed it, then he brake it, what did he breake? the bread which he blessed, well then, yet it is bread: when he had broken it, then he gaue it, what did he giue? the bread which he brake, [Page] well then, yet it is bread: when he had giuen it, then they did eate it, what did they eate? the bread which he gaue them, well then, yet it is bread: when they did eate it, then he sayd, this is my body: what did he call his body? the bread which they did eate, well then, yet it is bread. If it be bread all this while, when he did take it, and blesse it, and breake it, & giue it, and they did eate it, when is it turned into his body? heere they stande like the Sadduces, as mute Math. 22. 34. as fisshes.

Now that ye may see that not we only say it is bread and wine after the consecration, in the 27. verse Christ himselfe doth call it bread and wine after he had giuen it, as he did before. And in Marke hee sayeth, I will drinke no more Mar. 14. 25 of the fruit of the Vine. Here Christ [Page] saith, that it was the fruite of the Vine which he dranke, but his bloud is not the fruite of Vines, but Wine, therefore Wine was his drinke, and not bloud.

Beside, if you would heare Paule 2 expound Christ, he sheweth, that all our Fathers had the same sub­stance 1. Cor. 10. 4. of Christ in their Sacra­ments, that we haue in ours, for he sayth, They all did eate the same Vers. 3. 4. spirituall meate, and all drinke the same spirituall drinke. Straight he sayth, that this meate and this drinke Vers. 4. was Christ. Marke that he sayeth not onely, They did eate the same meate that we eate, but he sayth, that this meate was Christ: and not onely so, but to shew that Christ is not a corporall meate, as the Pa­pists say: he sayth, he is a spirituall meate, as we say; therefore you see that we doo not eate him corpo­rally, [Page] no more than our Fathers, but that as they did eate him spi­ritually, so doo we; for spirituall meate must be eaten spiritually, as corporall meate is eaten corpo­rally.

Againe, for the signes to be tur­ned 3 into the thing signified by them, is vtterly against the nature of a Sacrament, and makes it no Sacrament, because there is no signe: for euery Sacrament dooth consist of a signe, and a thing signi­fied, the signe is euer an earthly thing, and that which it signifieth is a heauenly thing. This shall ap­peare in all examples, as in Para­dise there was a very Tree for the Gen. 2. 9. signe, and Christ the thing signi­fied by it. In Circumcision there Gen. 17. 11. was a cutting off of the skin, and the cutting off of sinne. In the Passeouer there was a Lambe, and Exo. 12. 3. [Page] Christ. In the Sabaoth there was Exo. 23. 11. a day of rest, and eternall rest. In the Sacrifices there was an offe­ring Heb. 9. 13. of some beast, & the offering of Christ. In the Sanctuarie there Exo. 30. was the holie place, and heauen. In the Propitiatorie there was the golden Couering, and Christ our Exo. 25. 24. couer. In the Wildernesse there was a Rocke yeelding water, and Christ yeelding his bloud. In the Exo. 17. 16. Apparition there was a Doue, and Mat. 3. 16. the Holy Ghost. In the Manna there was Bread, and Christ. In Ioh. 6. 49. Baptisme there is verie Water Ioh. 1. 33. which washeth vs, and Christes bloud washing vs; so in the Sup­per of Christ there is verie Bread and Wine for the signe, and the bodie and bloud of Christ for the 1. Cor. 11. 19. thing signified, or els this Sacra­ment is against the nature of all o­ther Sacraments.

Againe, there must bee a pro­portion [Page] betweene the Passeouer & the Lords Supper, because this was figured by the other. Now, the Iewes had in their Passeouer, Bread, and Wine, and a Lambe; Exo. 12. so Christ instituting his Supper, left Bread, and Wine, & a Lamb, Matth. 16. which name is giuen to himselfe, because he came like a Lamb, and Ioh. 1. 29. died like a Lamb.

Againe, if Christs verie bodie 5 were offered in the Sacramēt, then it were not a Sacrament, but a Sa­crifice; which two differ as much as giuing, and taking: for in a Sa­crifice we giue, & in a Sacrament we receiue, & therfore we say our Sacrifice, and Christs Sacrament.

Againe, euery Sacrifice was 6 Exo. 27. offered vppon an Altar. Now, marke the wisedome of the Holy Ghost, least wee should take this for a Sacrifice, he neuer names Al­tar [Page] when he speakes of it, but, the table of the Lord. Therefore it is no doubt but the diuell hath kept the name of Altar, that wee might thinke it a Sacrifice. Againe, if the bread were Christs flesh, and the wine his bloud, as these two are separate one from the other; so Christs flesh should bee separate from his bloud, but his bodie is not diuided, for thē it were a dead bodie. Againe, that which remai­neth doth nourish the bodie, and relish in the mouth as it did be­fore, which could not be, but that it is the same foode which it was before. Againe, I would aske, whose are this whitenesse, and hardnes, and roundnes, and cold­nes? None of them say that it is the whitenesse, and hardnesse, and roundnes, and coldnes of Christs bodie: therefore it must needes [Page] bee the whitenesse, and hardnesse, and roundnes, and coldnes of the bread, or els qualities should stand without substances, which is, as if one should tell you of a house without a foundation. Againe, as Christ dwelleth in vs, so he is ea­ten of vs, but he dwelleth in vs on­lie by saith, Ephe. 3. 17. Therefore he is eaten only by faith. Againe, none can bee saued, without the communion of the bodie: but if all should communicate with it corporally, then neither infants nor any of our fathers, the Patri­arkes or the Prophets should bee saued, because they receiued it not so.

Againe, Christ saith not, this wine, but this cup, and therefore by their conclusion, not onely the wine should be turned into bloud, but the cup too.

[Page] Againe, Paule saith, They which 13 receiue vnworthily, receiue their own damnation. But if it were the flesh of Christ, they should rather re­ceiue saluation than damnation, because Christ saith, He that ea­teth my flesh and drinketh my bloud Iohn. 6. 54. hath life euerlasting.

Againe, if they would heare an Angell from heauen, whē Christs 14 bodie was glorified, an Angel said to the women, He is risen, and is not Math. 28. 6 here, as if he should say, his bodie is but in one place at once, or els he might haue been there, though he was risen.

Againe, why doo they say in receiuing this Sacramēt euer since 15 the Primitiue church, Lift vp your hearts, if they haue all in their mouths? To end this controuersy. Here we may say as the Disciples sayd to Christ, Whether shall we goe Ioh. 6. 68. [Page] from thee? I meane we neede not go to any other expositor of christ than Christ himselfe. Therefore mark what he saith: At first when Christ said, that he was the bread of life, and that all which would Ioh. 6. 60. liue must eate him, they murmu­red vntill he expoūded his words; and how did hee expounde his wordes? Thus, He that commeth Ioh. 6. 35. vnto me hath eaten, and he that belee­ueth in me hath drunke. After when hee instituted this Sacrament, in like wordes, they murmured not, which they would as before, if he had not resolued them before, that to eate his bodie, and to drink his bloud, was nothing but to come to him, and beleeue in him. After he had sayd so, they murmured not, because they did see some reason in it. As it is plainly sayd, This is my bodie; so it is plainlie [Page] saide, these words are spirit, that is, they must be vnderstood spiritual­lie, and not literallie.

I did not alleage the Fathers in my Sermon, but if any man sus­pend his assent, till they bring in their verdit, let him heare them make confession of their beleefe. Augustine saith, the Lord doubted Aug. vpon the 3. Psal. not to say, this is my bodie, when he gaue onely a signe, or Sacrament of his bodie.

Tertullian saith, this is my bodie, Ter. against Marcion the 4. book. that is, a signe of my bodie.

Ambrose saith, the bread and wine remaine still the same thing 4. booke 4. chap. of Ferra. that they were.

Theodoret saith, after the conse­cration, In his first Dialog. the mysticall signes do not cast off their owne nature, but a­bide still in their first substance and forme.

Origen saith, the bread that is Vpon the 15. of Mat. [Page] sanctified with the word of God, as touching the materiall substāce thereof goeth into the bellie, and foorth againe like other meates.

Irenaeus saith, that it hath two Irenae 4. book. chap. 34. against Valentinus. things in it, one earthly, and the o­ther heauenly.

Cyrill saith, Our Sacraments a­uouch not the eating of a man. Ad ob. The­od. Anathe­matis. 11.

Ciprian saith, the Lord calleth bread made of many graines, his 1. book of Epist. bodie, and called wine made of many grapes, his bloud.

Athanasius saith, Christ made In that Go­spell, who­soeuer spea­keth a word &c. mention of his ascention into hea­uen, that he might withdrawe his Disciples from corporal and flesh­lie eating.

Chrysostome saith, God giueth vs Hom. 60. to the people of Antioch. To Caesarus the Monk. things spirituall vnder things vi­sible and naturall. And againe, be­ing sanctified, it is deliuered from the name of bread, and is exalted [Page] to the name of the Lords bodie, although the nature of the bread still remaine.

And because they beleeue that the Pope cannot erre, Pope Gela­sius setteth to his hand, and saith with the rest, Neither the substāce of the bread, nor nature of the Against Eutyches the Here. wine cease to bee, more than they were before.

Tell vs Papist, doo not these Fathers speake as plaine as wee? Canst thou auouch Transubstan­ciation more flatly than they de­nie it? How had this heresie been chased, if the diuell had hatched it in their time?

Thus the Scriptures on the one side, and the Fathers on the other side did so trouble three arch Pa­pists, Biel, Tonstal, and Fisher, that Gabriel Biel saith, how the bodie Vpon the Canon lect. 40. of Christ is in the Sacrament, is [Page] not founde in the canon of the Byble.

Tonstal saith, It had been better 1. booke of the Sacra­ment. pag. 46. to leaue euerie man to his owne coniecture, as they were before the Councell of Laterane, than to bring in such a question.

Fisher saith, No man can proue Against the captiui­tie of Ba­bylon made by M. Lu­ther. by the words of the Gospell, that any Priest in these daies doth con­secrate the very bodie and bloud of Christ.

Heere is fulfilled, Out of thine Luk. 19. 22. owne mouth I will condemne thee. But wee will not carrie the matter so, because a Iudge must haue two eares, therfore now let thē speake. Because they cannot tell how the The Pa­pists alle­gations for the reall presence. bread and wine should bee turned into flesh and bloud, and yet ap­peare bread and wine still, they say it is a myracle: but how doo they prooue it? If they contend it [Page] is a myracle, they must shewe vs a signe, for euery myracle may bee seene, like all the myracles of Mo­ses, and Christ, and the Apostles: and therefore a myracle is called a signe, because it may be seene like Exo. 4. 8. & 21. a signe, and the word signifieth a wonder, as though wee did see something to wonder. And the Iewes crauing a myracle, said, Shew vs a myracle: as though they were Exo. 6. taught to iudge of myracles by sight. All which doth shewe that a myracle may bee seene, but here no myracle is seene.

Againe, a myracle (especially in the time of the Gospell) is an ex­traordinarie thing, but they make this an ordinarie thing: for if the bread & wine turned into flesh & bloud, then myracles are as com­mon as Sacraments, & so because they haue Masse euerie day, they [Page] should work myracles euery day. Lastly, this seemeth straunge, that Augustine, whom they so much honour, gathered all the myracles which are written in the Scrip­ture, and yet amongst all, speakes not of this; therefore then it was counted no myracle: but Paule speakes of lying myracles, and this 2. Thess 2. [...] is one of them.

If they say that Christ can turne Obiect. Bread and Wine into his bodie, and therefore he doth. First they Answ. must prooue that he will: for they can doo many things themselues which they doo not, because they will not: therefore it is an old an­swere, that from Can to Will, no ar­gument followeth. The Leper did not say to Christ, If thou can, thou will; but, If thou wilt, thou canst. Mar. 1. 40.

But the question which they thinke cannot bee answered, like [Page] their inuincible Nauies, is this. If the Bread bee not his bodie, why Obiect. doth he call it his bodie? Resolue this knot and all is cleere. Marke then and wee will loose it as well as we can: He saith, This is my bo­die, as he saith after, which is broken Answ. for you. Why? his bodie was not broken before hee suffered, how did he say then, which is broken, be­fore it was broken? There is no sense of it but this, the Bread was broken, and signified that his bo­die should be broken. Now, as the breaking of the Bread did signifie the breaking of his bodie, so the Bread must needes signifie his bo­die: but as his bodie was not bro­ken indeede when the Bread was broken, so the Bread could not bee his bodie indeed: for then his bo­die should haue been broken whē the Bread was broken: yet let [Page] them obiect what they can.

If (say they) the Bread & Wine Obiect. be not changed into his bodie and bloud, why dooth hee speake so darklie? he might haue spoken pla [...]ner.

I answere, though this seeme Answ▪ darke to Papistes, yet it was not darke to the Apostles, they vnder­stood his meaning well enough, and all the rest for 1215. yeares af­ter Christ, before Transubstancia­tion was spoken of. If the Apo­stles had not vnderstood his mea­ning, they would not stick to aske him as their manner was, vntill they were acquainted with Chri­stes phrase, whēsoeuer they doub­ted vpon any of his speeches, they were wont to come vnto him, & say, Master, what is the meaning? but Luk. 8. 9. they were vsed to such phrases: for it was Christs manner to teach [Page] by similitudes, shewing one thing by another, which is the plainest manner of teaching, and most v­sed in holy Scripture, especiallie in the types and shadowes of this Sa­crament. For example, Christ cal­leth the Lambe the Passeouer, in Math. 26. 17. place wherof this Sacrament suc­ceeded, and therefore presentlie after they had eaten the Passeouer, Christ instituted this Sacrament to be vsed for it. Christ (I say) cal­led the Lambe the Passeouer, and yet the Passeouer was this, an An­gell passed ouer the houses of the Exo. 12. 27. Israelites, and strooke the Egipti­ans, this was not a Lambe, and yet because the Lamb was a signe of this Passeouer, as the bread and wine is of Christs body, therefore Christ called the Lambe the Pas­souer, as he calleth the bread and wine his body.

[Page] Againe, Circumcision is called Gen. 17. 13. the Couenant, and yet Circumci­sion was nothing but the cut­ting away of a skin: but the Co­uenant is, In Abrams seede all na­tions shall be blessed, I will be their God, and they shall be my people, I Gen. 12. 3. will defend and saue them, and they shall serue and worship mee. This is not Circumcision, and yet as though Circumcision were the Couenant it selfe, it is called the Couenant, because it signified the Couenant, so Bread and Wine are called Christs body, because they signifie Christs body.

Againe, Baptisme is called re­generation, Tit. 3. 5. and yet Baptisme is a dipping of our bodies in water, but regeneration is the renewing 1. Cor. 6. 11. of the mind, to the image wherein it was created: this is not Bap­tisme, and yet as though Baptisme [Page] were regeneration it selfe, it is cal­led regeneration, because it signi­fied regeneration: so the bread and wine are called Christes bo­die, because they signifie Christes body.

Againe, the Cup is called the Luc. 22. 20. new Testament, and yet the Cup is but a peece of mettall, filled with Wine: but the new Testa­ment is, Hee which beleeueth in the Iohn. 3. 36. Sonne, shall be saued: this is not a Cup, and yet as though the Cup were the new Testament it selfe, it is called the new Testament, be­cause it signifieth the new Testa­ment: so the bread and wine are called Christes body, because they signifie Christes bodye. They which knewe that the Lambe is not the Passeouer, though Christ called it the Passeouer; that Cir­cumcision is not the Couenant, [Page] though God called it the Coue­nant; that Baptisme is not rege­neration, though it be called rege­neration; that the Cup is not the new Testament, though Christ called it the new Testamēt; could they not aswell vnderstand, that the Bread and Wine were not Christes body, though Christ called them his body? As they vn­derstoode these speeches, so they vnderstood this speech, therefore they which saye, that the bread and wine are Christes body, be­cause Christ sayth, This is my bo­die: Math. 26. 26. may aswell saye, that the Lambe is the Passeouer, because Christ calleth it the Passeouer, that Baptisme is regeneration, be­cause Paule calleth it regenerati­on, that the Cup is the new Te­stament, because Christ calleth it the new Testament.

[Page] If euery Sacrament was called by the thing which it signified, and yet neuer any Sacrament was taken for the thing it selfe, what reason haue they to take this Sa­crament for the thing it self, more than all the rest? It is the consent of all Writers that a Sacrament is a signe, therefore not the thing signified: no more than the bush at the dore, is the Wine in the seller. If I call the Prince a Phoe­nix, the Vniuersitie a Fountaine, the Court a Pecocke, the Citie a Sea, the Countrey an Eremite, why can the Papists vnderstande me, and not vnderstande Christ? What a darke, and strange, and intricat, and incredible speech had this bin for them, to vnderstande grosly, and literally? would they thinke, that they did eate Christs body, when his body stoode be­fore [Page] them, and he had tould them before, that hys body was lyke their body? Nay, this would haue required moe words, and made them come againe, with Mayster, what is the meaning? for they were Luk. 8. 9. not so instructed yet before the resurrection, to beleeue euery thing without questioning, if it were contrarie to sense and rea­son: but as they asked, who had Iohn. 4. 33. giuen him any meate, when he sayd that he had meate, and they could see none: so they woulde haue asked, what meate is this which wee see not? how can e­uery one of vs eate his body, and yet he hath but one body, and that body is whole when we eate it? loe, hee standeth before vs and sayth, that his body is like vnto ours, and yet he takes bread and breakes it, and giues it vnto vs to [Page] eate, and when we eate it, he saith This is my body: and yet his body standeth before vs still. If his bo­dy Luk 24. 39. be like ours (as he saith) how can it be eaten and be there, for ours can not? Thus they would haue questioned, if they had not bin vsed to such phrases: but as they could vnderstand him when he called himselfe a stone, and a rocke, and a dore, and a window, and a Vine, so they could pick out his meaning, when he sayde that bread was his body: for hee had tould them before, that hee was the bread of eternall life. Iohn. 16. 5.

Now the bread of eternall life is not eaten with teeth, for the body cannot eate spiritually, no more than the soule can eate corporally, and therefore hee is such a bread as is eaten with faith, and so him­selfe faith in the Gospell of Iohn. Ioh. 6. 35. [Page] Marke this eating by faith, and all the strife is ended. Flesh and bloud indeede neede not faith to chewe them, for the teeth can chew them well enough. There­fore, if the Bread and Wine were the body of Christ, then we need not faith to eate it, but all which haue teeth might eate Christs bo­dy, yea, the Mice might eate it aswell as men, for they eate the same bread that we doe, aswell af­ter it is consecrated, as before.

If this be not enough to batter the ruines of this vpstart heresie, I will come to interrogatories, and see whether they haue lear­ned it by rote, or by reason. If they ground their Transubstan­tiation vpō these words of Christ Math. 26. 26. This is my body, which he spake to his Disciples, I aske them, whether they receyue that body [Page] which was mortall, or that body which is glorified, because one of Neyther Christs mortall body, nor his immor­tall body, can be in the same. these bodyes they must needes re­ceyue, eyther his mortall body, or his glorified body. If they say, that it is his mortall body, the mortall body wil not profit them: for you see that mortall foode is but for this mortall life, neyther hath Christ a mortall body now to communicate vnto them, be­cause it is chaunged to an im­mortall body, therefore they can not receyue the mortall bodie, because Christ hath not a mortall body to giue them. If they say that they receyue his glorified body, then they must flie from this text, for at that time Christ had no glorified body.

When this Sacrament was in­stituted, and Christ sayd This is my body, his body was not glori­fied, [Page] because the Sacrament was instituted before his death, and his body was glorified after his resurrection. Therefore if they receyue the same body which the Apostles receyued, as they saye they doo, they cannot receyue a glorifyed bodye, because then Christ had not a glorified body to communicate vnto thē. Thus the rocks and sands are of both sides them, they receyue a body ney­ther mortall, nor immortall: if Christ hath any such body, iudge you. Here they stand like a foole, which cannot tell on his tale. Ne­buchadnezar dreamed a dreame Dan. 4. 15. and knew not what it meant.

Beside, I aske them to whome Christ spake when he sayd, This Mar. 14. 24 is my body. Marke sayth, hee spake them, that is, to his Disciples: well then, if these wordes, This is [Page] my body, were not spoken to the signes, but to the persons, not to the bread & wine, but to the recei­uers: as the words which follow, Do this in remembrance of mee: if Christ spake not to the bred, and wine, but to his Disciples. these words were not spokē to the bread and wine, then it is playne that they doo not change the na­ture of the bread and wine. If the nature of them be not altered, then the substance remaineth, and then wee receyue no other substance with them, because two substan­ces cannot be in one place.

What then, is there nothing in More in the Lords Supper thā bread and wine. the Sacrament but bread & wine, like a hungrey nunscion? Nay we say not that the Sacrament is nothing but a bare signe, or that you receyue no more than you see: for Christ sayth, that it is his body, and Paule sayth, that it is the communion of Christs body & bloud. 1. Cor. 10. 16. [Page] Therefore there is more in Sacra­mentall bread, than in common bread: though the nature be not changed, yet the vse is changed; it doth not only nourish the body as it did before, but it bringeth a bread with it which nourisheth the soule: for as sure as we re­ceyue bread, so sure we receyue Christ: not only the benefits of Christ, but Christ, although not in a Popish manner: yet we are so ioyned vnto him, as though we were but one body. As the spouse A simili­tude. doth not marry with the lands and goods, but with the man him­selfe, and being partaker of him, is made partaker of them: so the faithfull do not only marry with Christes benefits, but with Christ himselfe; and being partakers of him, they are made partakers of his benefits: for Christ may not [Page] be deuided from his benefites, no more than the Sunne from his light. It is sayd, the Father gaue vs Rom. 8. 32. his Sonne, and so the Sonne ge­ueth vs himselfe. As the bread is a signe of his body: so the geuing of the bread is a signe of the ge­uing of his bodie: like a Pellican which letteth her yong ones suck her bloud: so that we may say, the Lord enuited vs to Supper, and he himselfe was our meate. But if you aske how this is? I must aunswer, it is a mysterie: but if I could tell it, it were no myste­rie. Yet as it is sayd, when three men walked in the middest of the fornace, one like the Sonne of GOD D [...]. 3. 25. walked amongst them. So, when the faithfull receyue the Bread and Wine, one like the Sonne of God seemeth to come vnto them, which fils them with peace [Page] and ioy, and grace, that they mar­uell what it was which they re­ceyued, besides bread and wine. For example, thou makest a bar­gaine A simili­tude. with thy neighbour for house or land, and receyuest in earnest a peece of goulde, that which thou receyuest is but a peece of goulde, but now it is a signe of thy bargaine, and if thou keepe not touch with him, hap­pely it will claspe thee for all that thou art woorth, so that which thou receyuest is bread, but this bread is a signe of an other matter, which passeth bread.

Againe, thou hast an Obligati­on Another similitude. in thy hand, and I aske thee, what hast thou there, and thou sayest, I haue heere an hundreth pounds: why (say I) there is no­thing but paper, inke, and waxe: oh but by this sayst thou, I will [Page] recouer an hundreth pounds, that is as good. So beloued, this is as good, that vnder these signes, you receyue the virtue of Christes bo­die and bloud by faith, as if you did eate his body, and drinke his bloud indeede, which is horrible to thinke that any should deuoure their God, thinking thereby to worship him, neuer any Heretike nor Idolater conceyued so grosly of their God, before the Papist. We reade of a people which did eate men, but neuer of any people which did eate their God. All the Apostles say, that it was needfull that Christ should take our flesh, but no Apostle sayth, that it is needefull that wee shoulde take Christes flesh; for all the blessings of Christ are apprehended by faith, and nothing is fit to appre­hend him whome we see not but [Page] faith: and therefore one of their owne pillars said, Beleeue, and thou Augustine. hast eaten. Faith doth more in re­ligion than the mouth, or else we might say with the woman, Bles­sed Luk. 11. 27. are the breasts which gaue thee sucke, and so none should be bles­sed but Mary: but Mary was not blessed, because Christ was in her body, but because Christ was in her hart, and least this should seme incredible vnto you, because Ma­ry is called blessed among Wo­men. When Christ hard the wo­man say, Blessed are the brests which gaue thee sucke, he replied vnto her, Blessed are they which heare the word of God, and keepe it, these are my Brethren, and Sisters, and Mo­ther Luk. 8. 21. (saith Christ) as though the rest were no kin to him in hea­uen, though they were kin in earth. Thus if Christ were in thy [Page] body, and thou shouldest say as this woman, Blessed is the body which hath thee in it, nay would Christ say, Blessed is the hart which hath me in it. If Mary were no whit better for hauing Christ in her armes, nor for hauing him in her body, how much better art thou, for hauing him in thy belly where thou canst not see him? must the sunne needes come to vs, or else cannot his heate and light profit vs, nay, it doth vs more good, because it is so farre off: so this sunne is gone from vs, that he might giue more light vnto vs, which made him say, It is good for you that I goe from you; therefore Ioh. 16. 7. away with this carnall eating of spirituall things. Many daughters haue done virtuously, but thou (saith Salomon) surpassest them all. So, Pro. 31. 29. many Heretikes haue spoken ab­surdly, [Page] but this surpasseth them all, that Christ must be applied like phisicke, as though his bloud could not profit vs, vnlesse we did drinke it, and swallowe it as a potion. Is this the Papists vnion with Christ? is this the manner whereby we are made one flesh with Christ, to eate his flesh? Nay, when he tooke our flesh vn­to him, and was made man, then we were vnited to him in the flesh and not now. Christ tooke our flesh, we take not his flesh, but be­leeue that he tooke ours, there­fore if you would knowe whe­ther Christes body be in the Sa­crament, I say vnto you as Christ sayde vnto Thomas, touch, feele, Ioh. 20. 27. and see. In visible things, God hath appoynted our eyes to bee iudges, for as the spirit discerneth spirituall obiects, so sense discer­neth [Page] of sensible obiects. As Christ taught Thomas to iudge of his bo­die, so may wee, and so shoulde they: therefore if you cannot see his bodie, nor feele his bodie, you may gather by Christes saying to Thomas, that he would not haue you beleeue that it is his bodie, for my bodie (saith Christ) may be seene, and felt. And thus Tran­substanciation is found a lyar.

Now if you aske mee, why Christ calleth the signe by the Why christ calleth the bread his bodie. name of the thing it selfe, I aske thee againe, Mayest thou saye when thou seest the picture of the Queene, this is the Queene, and when thou seest the picture of a Lion, this is a Lion: and may not Christ say when he seeth a thing like his bodie, This is my body?

I shewed you before, that euery Sacrament is called by the name [Page] of the thing which it doth signi­fie, and therefore why should we stumble at this, more than the rest? The reason why the signes haue the name of the things, is to strike a deeper reuerence in vs to receiue this Sacrament of Christ reuerently, sincerely, and holyly, as if Christ were there present in body and bloud himselfe. And surely, as he which defaceth the Queenes Seale, is conuicted of contempt & treason to her owne person, so hee which profaneth these seales of Christ, doth not worship Christ, but despise him, and that contempt shall be requi­red of him, as if he had contem­ned Christ himselfe. This is the reason, why Christ calleth the signes of his body, his body, to make vs take this Sacrament re­uerently.

[Page] It followeth, Doo this in remem­brance of me. That is, these signes Vers. 24. shall bee a remembrance of my death: when you breake the bread you shall remember the woun­ding of my bodie; and when you drinke the wine, you shall remem­ber the shedding of my bloud. If we must do this in remembrance of Christs body, which was bro­ken like the bread, it is an argu­ment that his bodie is not there, because remembrance is not of things present, but of things ab­sent, we remember not, but we see that which is before vs. This might put the Papists in remem­brance that Christ is not sacrificed now, when wee doo but remem­ber his sacrifice: this is not Christs sacrifice, but a remembrance of his sacrifice; he was sacrificed be­fore, and now he is applied, least [Page] his sacrifice should bee in vaine. This was done once really, when hee offered himselfe vppon the Crosse, therfore that offering was called a sacrifice, because he was If Christs body were in the Sa­crament, it were not a Sacramēt but a sacri­fice. sacrificed indeede; but this offe­ring is called a Sacrament, because it is but a signe of his sacrifice. If Christ in this Sacrament were of­fered indeed, then it should be cal­led a sacrifice as his once offering was; but because it is but a re­membrance of his sacrifice, there­fore it is called a Sacrament. This is not a sacrifice of Christ, but a sa­crifice of our selues. Least wee should take it to bee a sacrifice of Christ, Christ himselfe calleth it a remembrance of his sacrifice, Doo this in my remembrance. Here is our worke as Christ hath done, so must we doo, so we minister, and so you receiue: wee can giue you [Page] nothing but that which wee haue receiued from him, as Paule saith. Therefore if Christ did not giue his mortall body which stood be­fore them, and could not profite thē, nor his glorified body, which was not glorified then, and when it was glorified ascended vp vnto heauen, & there abideth, how can these iugling Priests make their God againe which made them? They can no more turne wine in­to bloud, and bread into flesh, than they can commaund a Gnat to be­come a Cammell: for it is a grea­ter worke to make GOD, than to make the worlde. Therefore as Christ saith, When they tell you, here Math. 24. 23. is Christ, and there is Christ, beleeue them not: So, when they tell you that Christ is in heauen, and that Christ is in earth, in this place and that place, beleeue them not: for [Page] Elias ascention was a figure of Christs ascention: when Elias was ascended, yet some sought for his 2. King. 2. 17. body vpon earth: so though christ bee ascended, yet many seeke his body vpō earth: but as they could not finde Elias bodie, so these can not finde Christs bodie, although they haue sought 300. yeares. But if his bodie were vppon earth, as they say, should wee handle it and touch it, now it is glorified? After his resurrection he sayd to Mary, Ioh. 20. 17. Touch me not, because his bodie was glorified, that is, not to bee touched with fingers any more, but with faith. Therefore wee reade of none which touched his bodie after it was risen, but onely Thomas to setle his faith. Thus you see we need to suborn no wit­nesses; for euerie worde in this text which they alleage for Tran­substanciation, doth make against [Page] Transubstanciation, whereby if Antichrist doth signifie thē which are against Christ, you see who may be called Antichrist. There is no question in Poperie (except Purgatorie the Popes publican & tasker) about which the Papists are at such ciuill warres among themselues, as about this Tran­substanciation. They cannot tell when the chaunge beginneth, nor what manner of chaunge it is, nor how long the change continueth, some hang one way, and some an other, like the Midianites which Iudg. 7. 22. fought one against another. And no meruaile though their con­sciences stagger about it: for to shewe you the right father of it, it was one of the dreames of Inno­centius the 3. in the yeare of our Lord 1215. so many yeares passed A Monster of his age. before Transubstanciatiō was na­med, and then a Pope set it first on [Page] foote: so it came out of Rome the grandame of all heresies, and for want of Scriptures, hath been de­fended with fire and sword, and swallowed more Martirs, than all the gulfes of the Papall sea beside.

Now when the doctrines of men goe for scripture, you shall Eight ab­surdities which fol­low Tran­substanti­ation. see how many errours rush into the Church: for graunt but this to Innocentius, as the Papists doe, that the bread and wine are chan­ged into Christes bodie. First, it 1 will follow, that Christes bodie is not ascended vp to heauen, be­cause it remaineth vppon earth, and so one of the articles of our faith shall be falsified, which saith, He is ascended into heauen, or if he Act. 1. 9. 11 be ascended, and descended a­gaine, an other article will be fal­sified, which saith, that he sitteth Rom. 8. 34. at the right hand of his father, that is as Peter saith, he abideth in hea­uen. Act. 3. 21. [Page] Secondly it will follow, that 2 Christ hath not a true body, but a fantasticall body, because it may be in many places at one time; for if his body be in the Sacrament, he must needes haue so many bo­dies as there be Sacraments; nay, he must haue so many bodies as there be bits in euery sacrament. Thirdly it will followe, that his body is diuided from his soule, 3 and consequently is a dead body, because the bread is only changed into his body, and not into his soule. Fourthly it wil follow, that 4 the wicked and prophane, and re­probat, may receiue Christ as well as the godly, because they haue a mouth to eate as well as the best. Fiftly it will follow that Christes 5 Hebr. 9. 28. &. 10. 12. sacrifice once for all was not suf­ficient, because we must sacrifice him againe, and breake his body and shead his bloud, as the Iewes [Page] crucified him vppon the Crosse. Sixtly it wil follow that the bread 6 being turned into the body of our redeemer, hath a part in our re­demption as well as Christ. Sea­uenthly it will follow, that Christ 7 did eate his owne body: for all the Fathers say that he did eate the same bread which he gaue to his Disciples. Lastly it will fol­low, 8 that a Massing Priest shall be the creator of his creator, because he makes him which made him, all these absurdities are hatched of Transubstantiation.

Thus when men deuise articles of their owne, while they strike vpon the handuill the sparkes flie in their face; and they are like the man which began to builde and could not finish it. When I see the Papists in so many absurdities for intertaining one error, mee thinkes he seemeth like a Collier [Page] which is grimed with his owne coales. Therfore as in manners we should thinke of Peters saying, Whether is it meete to obey GOD or men? So in doctrines wee should thinke, whether it be meete to be­leeue Act. 5. 29. God or mē? Thus you haue heard the author of this Sacramēt, the Lord Iesus, the time when it was instituted, in the night that he Conclu­sion. was betraied, the manner how it was instituted, after thankes giuing, the ende why it was instituted, for a remembrance of his death, and the discouerie of Transubstanciation, one of the last heresies which Ba­bylon hatched. Now, they which haue been Patrons of it before, should do like the father and mo­ther of an Idolater, that is, lay the Deut. 13. 6. & 9. first hand vpō him to end his life. Thus I end. Think what account ye shall giue of that ye haue heard.

In this Sermon, leafe C. section 11. lin. 3. for he spake them, reade, he spake to them.

A Treatise of the Lords Supper.
The second Sermon.

1. Cor. 11. vers. 25, 26, 27, 28.

25 After the same manner also he tooke the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testa­ment in my bloud: this doo as oft as ye drinke it, in remembrance of me.

26 For as often as ye shall eate this bread, and drinke this cup, ye shew the Lords death till he come.

27 Wherefore, whosoeuer shall eate this bread, and drinke the cup of the Lord vnworthelie, shall be gil­tie of the bodie and bloud of the Lord.

[Page] 28 Let a man therefore examine himselfe, and so let him eate of this bread, and drinke of this cup.

HEre I am to speake of the second seruice (as it were) at the Lords Table, & of that pre­paration which is like the Wed­ding garment that euerie man must bring vnto this banquet. These words are diuersly repea­ted of the Euangelists. Heere it is sayd, This cup is the new testament in my bloud. In Mathew and in Mat. 26. 28 Marke, it is sayd, This cup is my bloud of the new testament. This Mar. 14. 25 is the first mention which Christ makes of a Testament, as though now his promises deserued the name of a Testament, because the seale is set vnto them, which be­fore this Sacrament was not sea­led, [Page] but like a bare wrighting, without a signet. This word Te­stament, doth imply a promise, and therefore teacheth vs, that the Sa­crament doth confirme & streng­then, and nourish our faith, be­cause it sealeth the promise which wee should beleeue.

Heere is to be noted, that Christ doth not only speake of a Testa­ment, but he calleth it a new Testa­ment, which words neuer met to­gether before, as though the Law were for the old man to mortifie him, and the Gospell for the new man to comfort him againe: or, as if the old Testament had so washt her face, and changed her apparell at Christes comming, that one would not thinke it the same, but a new Testament, be­cause euen now she was shado­wed with a thousand Ceremo­nies, [Page] and now they are gone from her, like a mist at the sunne rising. As Christe calleth loue a newe Commandement, because hee re­newed Ioh. 13 34. it like a law worne out of memorie, so he calleth the pro­mise of saluation a new testamēt. Euery testamēt is confirmed with bloud; the ould Testament was confirmed by the bloud of Goats, and Bullocks, and Rammes, but Heb. 9. 18. the new Testament is confirmed by the bloud of Christ, My bloud (saith Christ) is the bloud of the new Mat. 26. 28 Testament: nay this Cup (sayth Christ) is the new Testament. You Luk 22. 20. may see then that they may gather as well out of Christs words, that the Cup is the new Testament, as that the Wine is his bloud. For Christ sayth, This Cup is the new Testament, as well as hee sayth, This Wine is my bloud, or This bread [Page] is my body. Beside, when Christ speakes of a new Testament, he implieth, that the ould Testament Heb. 8. 13. is fulfilled, the Sacrifices, and Ce­remonies of the Law, did signifie Christ before he came, therefore they are fulfilled in his comming, no mo Sacrifices, no mo Ceremo­nies, For types and figures for the truth is come. Sacri­fices and Ceremonies are hono­rably, buried with the Priesthod of Aaron, let them rest, it is not lawfull to violate the Sepulchers of the dead, and take their bodies out of the earth, as the Witch would rayse Samuel out of hys 1. Sam. 28. 14. graue. Therefore they which re­taine Ceremonies, which should be abrogated, reliques of Iudaism, or reliques of Papisme, may be sayd to violate the Sepulchers of the dead, & disturb the deceased, like the Witch, which presumed [Page] to raise Samuel out of his graue.

This testament is called a testa­mēt in bloud, because the testamēt and will of a man is confirmed, when the man is dead; so Christ confirmed his Testament by his death. Moses saith, that life is in the bloud, so the bloud of Christ is the Leuit. 17. 11. life of this Testament. If Christs bloud had not been shed, this Te­stament made vnto vs had been vnprofitable, as the Testament of a Father is to his Sonne, if the Fa­ther should not die but liue. Ther­fore the Apostle saith, without Heb. 9. 22. shedding of bloud there is no re­mission of sinnes. Therefore the Testament or couenant of the re­mission of our sinnes, is called the Testament in bloud; the bloud of Christ is the seale of the Testa­ment which we haue to shew vn­to GOD for the remission of our [Page] sinnes, and the two Sacraments are a seale of that bloud to witnes that it was shed.

Againe, this is a matter regar­ded in Testaments and Willes; to the Testament of him that is dead, no man addeth or detrac­teth, but as the Testator made it, so it standeth without alteration: so Deut. 4. 2. Reuel. 22. 18. should this Testament of Christ, and this Sacrament of Christ no man should alter it now he is dead: for he which addeth or detracteth hath a curse in Gods book. Ther­fore Christ whē he instituted this Sacrament, commanded, doo this, that is, do as I do, least they should swarue one whit from his owne manner: yet how many gaudes haue the Papists added to it, that he which had heard Christ say, Doo this in remembrance of me, and should see how they handle the [Page] matter in their Masse, could see nothing to remember Christ by, but a vaile to hide Christ frō him. Therefore this Commandement was repeated again when he gaue The popish receyuing vnder one kinde con­futed. the wine, Doo this, &c. as he com­manded them to eate the bread in remembrance of him, so he com­mandeth them to drinke the wine in remembrance of him: nay, he speaks more precisely of the wine than of the bread; for he saith of the Wine, Drinke you all of this, which he saith not of the bread. Mat. 26. 27 Surelie Christ did foresee that some proud Hereticks would do otherwise after him, euen as it is come to passe: for the Papist doth breake this commaundement of Christ, as flatly as Saul brake the commaundement of Samuel. Sa­muel commanded him to kill the 1. Sam. 15. 9. fat and the leane: Saul killed the [Page] leane, but not the fat; so Christ commandeth to receiue bread and wine, they teach to receiue bread, but not wine: Christ saith, Drink you all of this, they say drinke not all of this: Christ gaue the bread & wine to all, they giue the bread to all, and the wine to some: their Priests receiue all, but the people must cōtent themselues with half: the Priest eates and drinks, but the people must not drinke for spil­ling on their cloathes. Is this the Church which cannot erre? Doo they thinke to hemme Christ in their Masse, and shut his ordinance out of their Masse? The Soldiours Mat. 27. 35 diuided Christs coate, but these diuide his body, and separate the bread & wine which Christ hath ioyned. Paule speaketh of here­ticks which taught, Touch not, tast Colos. 2. 21. not, handle not: so these say, touch [Page] not, tast not, handle not, whē they should say, Touch, and tast, and handle. Of all Heresies either old or new, there is none so iniurious How the Popish Priests do iniure the people. to the cōmon people, as the pasture of shauelings Poperie, for they may not reade the Scriptures; they may 1 2 3 not come to Councells; they may not examine that which is taught them; they may not bee bu [...]ied 4 without a mortuarie; they may 5 not drinke at the Communion, as though their Priests were their Lords. Therefore we may say as a Heathen did, There is no charitie in the Papists Sacrament, because like Ananias, the Priests keepe backe Act. 5. 2. that which they should distribute, & mangle the Sacrifice as though Ely his sonns had left their hooke 1 Sam. 2. 13 to the Massing Friers. Thus that ye may knowe who succeed the Pharisies, they haue fulfilled that [Page] which the Pharisies did, that is, By their owne Commaundements they haue made the Commaundement of Mar. 7. 13. God of no effect. For whereas the purpose of Christ was to tye our faith wholy to himselfe, that wee shoulde not seeke for any thing without him, knowing that the maintenance of this life hath need both of meate and drinke, to teach vs that all sufficiencie is in himself, by bread and wine he sheweth, that he is in stead both of meate & drink, that is, in stead of all: which signification is taken away where the wine is not giuen as well as the bread. Therefore as it is sayd of a horrible and odious crime, Consider the matter, & giue sentence: Iud. 19. 30. so I wish all to consider this Inno­uation, & giue sentence of it. Can there be any cleerer contradiction to the Word, or bolder checke to [Page] Christ, than when he saith, Drinke you all of this, to say, drinke not all of this? As when God sayd, Ye shall die: the diuell sayd, ye shall not Gen. 2. 17. Gen. 3. 4. die, shall wee goe now to a Coun­sell, or a Father, or a Doctor to in­quire whether this doctrine bee like Christs doctrine? I doo ve­rely thinke that none heere is so simple but that he seeth, that if any thing can bee contrarie to Christs speech, this is contrarie to it. But this is onely their detraction from the Sacrament.

Now you shall heare their ad­ditions to the Sacrament, looke vpon their vestures, and their ge­stures, and their Altars, and their pix, and their incense, and their becks, and their nods, and their turnings, all this is more than Christ did, and therefore the Pro­phet may say againe, Who hath re­quired Esai. 1. 12. [Page] this of you? Did Christ com­maund you to doe more than he did, and not doe as he did? there­fore let them which haue eyes to see, be thanckfull for their light, when they heare how blind they were, whome God gaue ouer to be seduced.

The fruite of this Sacrament is Vers. 24. noted in these words, which is Math. 26. 28. broken for you, which is shead for you, that is (as Mathew intreateth) shed for the remission of sinnes. As al was made for vs, so all which Christ Gen. 1. spake, hee spake for vs, and all which Christ did, he did for vs, 2. Cor. 4. 15 and all which Christ suffered, he suffered for vs, that the sinnes of men might be forgiuen, and yet so few apprehend this benefit, that the way to Heauen is called a narrow way, as though all these Math. 13. & 14. paines did raunsome but a small [Page] number, & certaine order of men. All are not saued by Christes death, but all which are saued, are saued by Christes death: his death is sufficient to saue all, as the sunne is sufficient to lighten all: but if any man wincke, the sunne will not giue him light: so, if any man contemne, and will not receyue, Christ will not thrust him into heauen, but euery man shall haue that which he chooseth (as Dauid saith) Blessing to him that loueth Psal. 109. 16. blessing, and cursing to him which lo­ueth cursing. There wants not a hand to giue, but a hand to take. I would (sayth Christ) but you would Mat. 23. 37 not. Stretch forth thy hand, and heere is Christes hande, which takes Gods hand, and mans hand, and ioynes them together, and then the remission of sinnes is sea­led. This is the will and testament [Page] of Christ.

He had no goods, nor lands, nor money, to giue by his testa­ment. A rich man when he dieth, bestoweth the money which he hath gathered, and forgiueth ma­ny debts which are owing him, but Christ had nothing to giue, nor any thing to forgiue. The Lord of all had least of all, and he might say like his seruant Peter, Act. 3. 6. Gould and siluer haue I none, no not a graue to burie his body in, but the graue which Ioseph made for Mar. 15. 46 himselfe, serued to burie Christ. His Father was a Carpenter, but neuer made any house for him­selfe: Mat. 13. 55 his Mother lay in a stable Luk. 2. 16. for want of a Chamber: his Dis­ciple was faine to borrow twentie Math. 17. 27. pence for him of a fish: therefore when one offered, Maister, I will Luk. 9. 57. follow thee, thinking to gaine by [Page] his seruice, like them which re­taine to noble men; he replied vn­to him, The foxes haue holes, and the fowles haue nests, but the sonne of man hath not a house to hide his head: shewing, that the beasts & fowles were richer than hee; therefore when he had nothing to giue, he gaue himselfe, and when he had no debters to forgiue, he forgaue his enemies: what then, this is a Luk. 23. 34. poore and weake testamēt, which gaue nothing; oh the goodlyest testament that euer was made, for it bringeth to vs the remission of sinnes. Is it such a matter to for­giue sinnes? yea, the greatest be­nefit in all the world, nay, a grea­ter benefit than all the world: for A simili­tude of mans state. thus it stoode, thou haddest com­mitted high treason against the Queenes person, thou art detec­ted, apprehended, accused, con­uicted, [Page] and condemned vpon it, to bee hanged, and drawne, and quartered, and thy quarters to bee set vp for a spectacle, like a car­kasse which thou hast seene hang­ing vpon a gibbet, & the Crowes pecking vpon it. What a horror, and shaking to thy mind to think of that day, when all these tor­ments, and shame, and feare shall surprise thee at once, which wold make thee quake and tremble if thou shouldest see but another so dismēbred before thy face? Thou hast no comfort now but this, when I haue suffered I shall bee free; before to morrowe at this time all my paine will bee past, though my shame continue and my children bee beggers. What grace, what fauour, what mercie, now, to pardon thee all this, and saue thy life, and set thee at liber­tie, [Page] as though thou haddest neuer offended? So I and thou, and eue­rie one here had committed trea­son against the King of Kings, and stoode condemned for it, not to suffer & then to be free, like them which breake the lawes of men, but to suffer and suffer, and euer to suffer all that the diuells would heape vppon vs. Then came the mercie of God for Christ which shed his bloud, like an vmpire be­tweene God and vs, and sayd as Esaiah said to Hezekiah, His words are not so, but the effect of his words. 2 King. 20 5. Luk 7. 15. Thou shalt not die but liue, loose him, let him goe, for he is mine. So wee were stayed like the widdowes sonne when he was carried to his graue. This is the benefite of Christes death, and this Sacrament is the remembrance of it, and therefore whensoeuer we receiue it, this ad­dition commeth with it, which is [Page] shed for the remission of sinnes: our Math. [...]. 2 [...]. fault was so hainous & grieuous, that no raunsome could counter­uaile it, vnlesse God himselfe had suffered for vs. Being in this ex­tremitie, neither man, nor Angell offered his life for vs, but the Prince himselfe, which should haue crucified vs, came to be cru­cified of vs, for vs, that wee might say with stedfast faith, I beleeue the The merci­full Article. remission of sinnes, not the satisfac­tion of sinnes, but the remission of sinnes. Marke this distinction a­gainst Popish merites of workes, or penance, Christ hath satisfied and not we; we are remitted and not Christ: therefore wee say in our Confession, I beleeue the re­mission of sinnes, which I may call the mercifull Article, because it is the quintessence and sweetnesse of all the twelue. Therefore who [Page] but Antichrist durst depraue it? If there bee a satisfaction for our sinnes by our workes, or by our Pilgrimages, or by our Masses, or by our penance, let Christ neuer bee called a forgiuer, but an ex­changer like the Pope, which sel­leth his pardons. Wretched crea­tures which will not receiue the Lord whē he comes to their dore. Christ saith, take for nothing, and they say no, wee will not take but buy. Vile base miserable men dis­daine to take grace of God with­out satisfaction, but they will cope with the Lord, and giue him so many Pilgrimages, fast so many daies, heare so many Masses, and pay so many workes for it, vntill they haue done as much good as they haue done euill. Our sinnes are infinite, & God is infinite, but our workes are finite, in number [Page] and measure, how can they aun­swere then to that which excee­deth number and measure? Ther­fore bee content with Iosephs bre­thren to take your money againe, and say that you haue corne for Gen. 42. 25. nothing, that is, you are saued for nothing, or els when you say, I be­leeue the remission of sinnes, you lye vnto God, because you do not be­leeue the remission of sinnes, but satisfactiō for sins, like the papists.

It followeth, As often as ye shall Vers. 26. eate this bread, and drinke this cup, ye shall shewe the Lords death till he come. Here are three inuincible ar­guments, Three ar­guments against Transub­stantiation in one verse Deut. 17. 6. like the three witnesses vnder which euery worde dooth stand. First wee are sayd to eate bread; thē it is not flesh but bread. Secondly wee are sayd to shewe the Lords death; then it is but a shewe or representation of his [Page] death. Thirdly it is sayd, vntill he come; if he be to come, then he is not come; if he be come, how can we say, vntill he come. The effect of this verse was shewed in these words, Doo this in remembrance of me: for to say, Doo this in remem­brance of me, and to say, so oft as you doo this you shewe my death, is much at one; so that if you call this Sa­crament a shewe of Christs death, as it is called here, then it is not Christ; or if you call it a remem­brance of Christ, as it is called there, yet it is not Christ, but a shew, or remembrance of Christ: but this is such a shew, & remem­brance, that the next verse sayth, Whosoeuer receiueth it vnworthe­lie, [...]. [...]. is giltie of the body and bloud of Christ.

Will yee knowe who recey­ueth vnworthilie: In verse 29. Wha [...] is to receyue vnwo [...]th [...]l [...] [Page] Paule sayth, hee discerneth not the Lords body: that is, which putteth no difference betweene this bread and other, but eateth like a childe the meate which he knoweth not. My sheepe (sayth Ioh. 10. 27. Christ) knowe my voyce: as they discerne Christes words, so they discerne Christes bodie, and ther­fore so often as they come to the Lords Table, they seeme to come into the Lordes presence: there they greete and kisse and imbrace one another with affectiōs, which none can knowe, but they that feele, like Iohn, which leaped in Luk. 1. 41. the womb, so soone as Christ came neere him.

Will ye know beside, what it How re­ceyuers may be guiltie of Christes death. Mar 14. 44. Mar. 15. 15 is to be giltie of the bodie and bloud of Christ, euen as Iudas was giltie for betraying him, and Pi­late for deliuering him, and the Iewes for crucifying him, so they [Page] are giltie which receiue this Sa­crament vnworthely, as Pilate and Caiphas and Iudas were. If they be Mar. 15. 25 guiltie of Christes death, they are guiltie of their owne death too, as if they had committed two murders; and therfore Paule saith Vers. 30. after, that many of the Corinthi­ans died only for the vnworthie receyuing of this Sacrament. As the word is the sauour of death to 2. Cor. 2. 16 thē which receiue it vnworthily, so the Sacrament is the sauour of death to thē which receiue it vn­worthily: it neuer goeth into their mouth, but they are Traytors ipso facto, and may say to Hell, this day I haue taken possession of thee, because I am guiltie of Christes bloud. Therefore it followeth im­mediatly, Let a man examine him­selfe How we should be prepared before we come to the Lords table before he eate of this bread, or drinke of this Wine, as if he should say, if he which receyueth this [Page] Sacrament vnworthely, be giltie of Christs death, like Iudas which hanged himselfe: if these signes be receyued to saluation or dam­nation like the word, the next les­son is, to examine your selues be­fore you receyue, least you re­ceyue like the sunne of perdition, which swalowed the bread and the Diuell together. Therefore, Let a man examine himselfe, and so let him eate: that is, let him exa­min first, and receyue after, for if 1. Sam. 9. 13 we should receyue the bread of the earth reuerently, how should we receyue the bread of heauen? Whē Iehonadab came to Iehu his chariot, he said, Is thy hart vpright 2. King. 10. 15. as my hart is toward thee? So, whē we come to the Lords Table, he would haue our hearts vpright to him, as his heart is to vs, for who feasteth his enemies & mockers? [Page] the golden Ring sitteth highest at our Table, but the wedding gar­ment Iames. 2. 2. sitteth highest at this Table. It is safer eating with vnwashen hands, then with an vnwashen heart. The Iewes were taught to choose the Lambe of the Passeo­uer on the tenth day of the first moneth, in which moneth they came out of Egipt: and on the 14. Exo. 12. 3. & 6. day after, they were taught to eate him, so they had foure dayes re­spit betweene the chosing, and the killing, to prepare and sanctifie thēselues for the Passeouer, which was a signe of the Lords Supper. This admonished them, that the matter now to be performed, was very waightie, and therefore they were deepely to consider it, for now was the action, and somme of all saluation in handling: if they did prepare themselues so be­fore [Page] they did receyue the figure of this Sacrament, how should we be prepared before we receiue the Sacrament it selfe? Therefore as Iosiah commaunded the Leuites 2. Chro. 35. 6. to prepare the people; so Paule ad­uiseth the people to prepare them­selues, that is, to examine whether they haue faith, and loue, and re­pentance, before they come to this feast. By this all may see, first that Paule would haue euery lay All are bound to know the Scriptures. man so skilfull in the Scripture, that he bee able to examine him­selfe by it; for this admonition is not to them which minister the Sacrament, but to all which re­ceiue the Sacrament. And the rule by which wee must examine our selues, is the law which we should obey: therefore if the rule be vn­knowne, the examination must be vndone. Our doctrine must be [Page] examined by the doctrine of the Act. 17. 11. Prophets and Apostles; our pray­ers must bee examined by the sixe Note. petitions of Christs prayer; our beleefe must bee examined by the twelue articles of faith; our life must bee examined by the tenne Commaundements of the Lawe. Exo. 20. 1. &c. Now, he which hath his Touch­stone may trie gold from copper, but he which hath it not, takes one for the other. Therefore, be­fore Paules Examine, you had need to learne Christs Search, Search the 2. Cor. 13. 5 Scriptures, and they will lighten Ioh. 5. 39. you to search your selues. This is the doctrine with which I will ende, and the necessarie poynt for which I choose this text, to teach you (if I could) that Christian arte how to examine your selues.

Let a man examine himselfe before Vers. 28. he eate. Here is first an examinatiō. [Page] Secondly, an examination of our The diui­sion. selues. Thirdly, an examination before we come to the Sacramēt. Touching the first, here Paul saith Examin your selues, but in 2. Cor. 13. he doubleth his charge, Proue your selues, and againe at next word Examine your selues, as if he should saye, this worke must be done when it is done, because it is ne­uer thoroughly done, and there­fore we must double our exami­nation, as Paul doubleth his coun­sell. If a man suspect his enemy, he will try him with a question, if that will not search him, he will put forth another, if that be spied, he will moue another, like one which putteth diuers keyes into a locke vntill it open. So he which examineth, must try & try, proue and proue, search and search, for the angell of darknesse is like an [Page] angell of light, and we haue no way to discouer him, but that of 2. Cor. 11. 14. Iohn, Try the spirites. God exami­neth 1. Iohn 4 1. with tryalls, the Deuill ex­amineth with temptations, the world examineth with persecuti­ons: we which are thus exami­ned, had neede to examine too. If any man skill not what Exa­mining meaneth, the very word Examine, is so pregnant, that it prompteth vs how we should ex­amine, for it signifieth to put our selues vnto the Touchstone, as if we would try Golde from Cop­per. Therefore one sayth, that Ex­amination is the eye of the soule, A descrip­tion of true Examina­tion. whereby she seeth her selfe, and her safetie, and her danger, and her way which she walketh, and her pace which she holdeth, and the end to which she tendeth: she lookes into her glasse, and spieth [Page] euery spot in her face, how all her graces are stayned, then she takes the water of life, and washeth her blots away. After, she lookes a­gaine, and beholdeth all her gifts, her faith, feare, loue, patience, meekenes, and marketh how e­uery one doth florish, or wither. If they fade and decay, that she feeleth a consumption, then she ta­keth preseruatiues, and restora­tiues of prayer, and councell, and repentance, before the sicknesse growe: thus euery day she letteth downe a bucket into her heart, to see what water it bringeth vp, least she should corrupt within, and perish sodeinly.

To heare, and reade, pray, and fast, and communicate, is a worke of many, but to examine these works, is the fashion of few, and therefore Ieremy complayneth, [Page] No man sayth, What haue I done? Iere. 8. 6. as if he should say, no man exami­neth himselfe: and therefore in all the scripture it is sayd but of one, That he feared all his works, as Iob. 9. 28. though he durst not thinke, nor speake, nor do any thing before he had examined what it was, from whence it came, & whether it went: so the more precious trea­sure is deeper hid in the ground. Mat. 13. 44

The second poynt is, to Exa­mine our selues, Paule sayth, Try all 1. Thess. 5. 21. things, much more should we try our selues. The good sower doth sow his owne ground, but the bad sower doth sowe an other mans ground, as the Diuell did, Mat. 13. 25 The Disciples of Christ sayde, Mayster, is it I, not Mayster, is Math. 26. 22. it hee. The disciples of Iohn as­ked, Mayster, what shall wee doo? Luk. 3. 10. not Mayster, what shall they [Page] doo? wee must obay some, and heare others, and admonish o­thers, and loue all, but examin our selues. That which we applie vn­to others, the Apostle applieth vn­to our selues; for whē we speake of an examiner, we intend one which examineth other: when wee speake of an accuser, wee in­tend one which accuseth other: when wee speake of a Iudge, wee meane one which iudgeth others, but the Scripture crieth, Examine thy selfe, accuse thy selfe, iudge thy 1. Cor. 11. 13. selfe, that is, bee not curious to search a more in thy brothers eye, Mat. 7. 3. but pull out the beame which is in thy owne eye. This doth shewe that they which sit in Gods chaire to iudge others, commonly haue greater faults themselues, thā they whome they vse to iudge: and therefore Christ calleth their fault [Page] a beame, and the others a mote. This made Dauid say, Examine thy Psal. 4. 4. heart, thy heart is thy owne heart, therfore thou must examine whe­ther thou pray, whether thou watch, whether thou fast; and not whether he pray, whether he fast, whether he watch, as the Pharisie Luk 18. 11. examined the Publican, least thou haue Peters checke: when he ex­amined what Iohn shoulde doo, Christ sayd, What is that to thee? Ioh. 21. 22. followe thou me. Thou art a priuate man, and hast a priuate examina­tion, therefore let thy question be, What haue I done? and make thy Anatomie of thy selfe.

See beloued, wee may not be­leeue our selues before wee haue examined our selues: for wee are false hearted, and the notablest co­soner that deceiueth most; for one time that he deceiueth others, ten [Page] times deceiueth himselfe. Because the flesh is a wylie seruant, & will 2. King. 5. 25. lye like Gehezi to his owne ma­ster, and face him that it hath not sinned when it commeth from sinne: therefore as Elisha exami­ned 2. King. 5. 2 [...]. his seruant, so the soule must examine her seruant, that is, man must be ielous of himselfe, & take himselfe for a lyar, for a flatterer, for a dissembler, vntill hee bee throughly acquainted with him­selfe: for no man is so often begui­led, as by himselfe, by trusting his double heart, and taking his owne worde without further triall. If Paule had bid vs examine others, wee would haue sifted them like Sathan, Sathan hath desired to sift, Luk. 22. [...]8. thee, saith Christ to Peter, so wee haue a desire to sift others: euen Peter which was sifted of Sathan, longed to sift Iohn, and knowe [Page] what hee should doo, before hee hearkened to his owne charge. Therefore the helpe of examina­tion is a needfull preseruatiue, al­though we were as soūd as Peter. They which are suspected of crime do not examine themselues, but are examined of others, least they should be partiall: but a chri­stian must examine himselfe of his crime, and be his owne iudge, his owne accuser, and his owne condemner: for no man knoweth the spirit of man but the spirit 1. Cor. 2. 11 which is in man, which will con­demne him if he be guiltie, and tel him all that he hath done, & with what minde he did it, and what he deserueth for it. This is the priuate araignement, or close Sessions, whē Conscience sits in her chaire to examine, and accuse, and iudge, and condemne her selfe, because [Page] she will not bee condemned of God.

Thus holy men haue kept their Sessions at home, and made their hearts the forman of the Iurie, and examined themselues as wee examine others, the feare of the Lord stoode at the doore of their soules, to examine euery thought before it went in, and at the doore of their lippes, to examine euery word before it went out, where­by they escaped thousand sinnes which we commit, as though we had no other woorke. So thou shouldest sit in iudgement of thy selfe, and call thy thoughts, and speeches, and actions, to giue in e­uidēce against thee, whether thou bee a Christian, or an Infidell, a sonne or a bastard, a seruant or a rebell, a Protestant or an hypocrit▪ if thou finde not faith, nor feare, [Page] nor loue, nor zeale, when thou ex­aminest thy selfe, let no man make thee beleeue that thou art holie, that thou art sanctified, that thou art a Christian, that thou art a be­leeuer, that thou art a Gospeller, because thou art worse than thou seemest to thy selfe; for euerie man is partiall to himselfe when he is most humbled. Therefore if my heart tell me that I do not loue God, whom shall I beleeue before my selfe? As Salomon saith, No man can search the heart of the king: [...]ro. 25. 3. so Paule saith, No man knoweth the spirit of any man, but the spirit which [...]. Cor. 2. 11. is in man, that is, no man feeleth the heart of man so well as himselfe. And yet himselfe although hee haue liued with it euer since hee was borne, dooth not knowe his owne heart vnlesse hee examine it narrowly, no more than hee [Page] knoweth his owne bones, or his vaines, or his sinewes, or his ar­tires, or his muskles, how many are in his bodie, or where they lye, or what they do. This seemes straunge that a man should not knowe his owne heart, yet it is true that the best of vs all doth not knowe his owne heart, though he haue dwelt with it from his mo­thers wombe. For Christ sayth to his disciples, euen to his disciples, You knowe not of what spirit you are, that is, you thinke better of your Luk 9. 55. selues than you are, and know not what the clocke striketh within. There is a zeale without know­ledge, and there is a knowledge without zeale; there is a faith without obedience, and there is an obedience without faith; there is a loue without feare, and there is a feare without loue, and both [Page] are hypocrites. Therefore as Da­lilah searched where Sampsons Iud. 16. 6. strength lay, so let euery mā search where his weakenes lieth, and al­way be filling the emptie gap.

Now this examination must [...] goe before vs to the Sacrament. Euery meate worketh according as it is digested, and this meate worketh according as it is recey­ued. 1. Cor. 11. 29. Therefore when Christ had taught what we should do in re­ceyuing the Sacrament, now Paul sheweth what we should do be­fore we receyue the Sacrament, Let a man examine himselfe.

There is a hearing, and a pre­paratiue Luk. 8. 18. before hearing. There is a praying, and a preparatiue be­fore praying. There is a recey­uing, Eccle 4 17. and a preparatiue before re­ceyuing, which if it be wanting, the receyuer receyueth vncom­fortably, [Page] the prayer prayeth idlie, the hearer heareth vnfrutefully, like those which eate before hun­ger, and drinke before thirst.

This preparatiue before hearing and praying, and receyuing, doth signifie, that there is a kind of phi­sicke in these three, for prepara­tiues are ministred alwaies before phisicke: and as the preparatiue which goeth before, maketh way to the phisicke, or else it would do no good, but hurt: so vnlesse exa­mination go before the Sacramēt, we seale vp the thretnings which are written against vs, in stead of the promises which are made vn­to vs, for the Sacrament is a seale, and therfore sealeth good or euill, as euery other seale doth.

The preparatiue before we re­ceyue, is to Examin. As Iohn was the forerunner of Christ, so exa­mination [Page] is the forerunner of the Sacrament, like the harbinger, The second examina­tion. which rideth before to prepare the rowme. For, if Iob com­manded his sonnes to sanctifie Iob. 1. 5. themselues before they did come to his sacrifice, how should wee sanctifie our selues before wee come to Christes Sacrament, wherein we are commanded to do as the Lord himself did which instituted it? It is sayde, that the Chamber wherein Christ did in­stitute this Sacrament, was trim­med; Luk. 22. 12. the Chamber wherein the Apostles receiued this Sacrament was trimmed: If Iudas Chamber, his inner chamber had been trim­med so too, hee had receiued this Sacrament with as much comfort as the other disciples did: but be­cause his heart was not trimmed, therefore hee was the first which [Page] was condemned for the vnwor­thie receiuing of this Sacrament. Adam did not thinke that death Gen. 3. 6. had bin in an Apple, so you wold not thinke that death should be in bread: but as a coale hath fire in it beside the coale it selfe, which fire doth either warme or burne; so this meate hath another meate in it beside that which is seene, which doth euer saue or destroy: therefore he which commeth to this spirituall meate, must exa­mine whether he haue a spirituall mouth, as well as a carnall mouth, or els hee shall receiue no more than he seeth, and that which he seeth not shall destroy him. No man (saith Christ) puttesh new wine into old vessels, least the vessels break Mar. 2. 2 [...]. and the wine leake. This Wine is newe Wine, therefore put it into newe vessells, holy vessells, sancti­fied [Page] vessells, or els it will leake foorth and breake the vessell, and thou shalt haue no more tast of it, than while the relish of bread is in thy mouth. When Christ com­meth to our house, shall wee not looke whether our Chamber bee trimmed, as the Chamber was trimmed against his comming to the Passeouer? But how shall wee trim it?

When a man takes an office, he examineth his substance: when he takes a trade, he examineth his skill: when he goeth to fight, he examineth his strength, but these wants are no wants when he go­eth to the Sacrament. Wilt thou knowe now vpon what articles thou must inquire at that time, that is, how thou should examine thy selfe?

As some prayer may be at all 1. Thess. 5. 16. [Page] times, and some reioycing may be at all times, so some examina­tion is at all times. Thus Iob exa­mined Iob. 9. 28. himselfe euery day, nay, e­uery houre, because he skanned all that he did.

But there is a speciall examina­tion before the Sacramēt, because it is the bread which is receyued to saluation, or damnation; be­cause 1. Cor. 11. 29. it is the feast, to which, whosoeuer commeth without his wedding garment, shalbe cast Mar. 22. 11 13. into vtter darknes, because it is a seale which sealeth a curse or a blessing. Therfore here thou shalt haue both the dayly oppositions, and the sacramentall oppositions.

Foure examinations we propose The com­municants Catechisme vnto you, which shall be the com­municants Catechisme. The last is the summe of all, which lea­deth immediatly to the Sacra­ment, [Page] as a guest is handed to the Table.

Thou shalt try strange spirits 1 The first examina­tion vpon the markes of true spi­rits and the false, in our selues or o­ther. 1. King. 22. 11. by theyr manner of speaking, playnly, or doubtfully, boldly, or fearefully, therefore we reade that the oracles of the heathen had a double meaning, and that the false Prophets neuer spake boldly, but where their patrons were ready to flesh them.

By the proportion of faith: for 2 euery heresie is contrary to some article of our beliefe, as euery sinne is against some of the tenne Commandements.

By the euent of their speaches: for they take not effect, as it is said 3 in the 18. of Deuter. and therefore Deut. 18. 22. Mat. 7. 15. 4 Mat. 7. 16. they are called false prophets.

By their fruits: for none of the false Prophets were good men.

By their successe: for if they be 5 [Page] not of God, they will come to naught, as the Arians and Mani­chees and Pelagians are vanished, as if they had neuer been, so time Act. 5. 38. Mat. 15. 13 shal weare out euery doctrine that is not truth.

Thou shalt try thine owne spi­rit 1 by the motions that it hath to good, or euill.

By the first cause, or preparati­on 2 which thou haddest vnto it, for whatsoeuer it be, thy thoughts will be where thou louest: to ve­rifie that saying, Where a mans tre­sure is, there will be his heart, for Math. 6. 21 lightly, the beginning is a picture of the end, and the acte is like the thought which set it a worke.

By the manner of thy consola­tion 3 in it, whether it be of know­ledge, or ignorance, whether it be constant, or mutable, calme, or boysterous, simple, or mixt, for [Page] as a cleare fountaine yeeldeth cleare streames, so a pure heart hath pure ioyes.

Whether it bring to Christ, or 4 take any thing from him to thy selfe, like all the parts of Popery. If it abide all these questions, and drawe thee not from any good, then thou mayst say, it is from God, water the seede O Lorde which thou hast sowne. Then come to the second examination.

If I cā make thee discerne whe­ther an other be a Christian, by that thou shalt know whether thy selfe be a Christian, which that thou mayst come to obserue this direction, and thou shalt see of what side thou art. The second examinati­on vpon the diffe­rences be­tweene the wicked and the godly.

It must needes be, that they which walke to contrary ends, should goe diuers wayes: there­fore there be mo differences be­tweene [Page] the children of God, and the children of the world, then there be betweene men & beasts.

First, they are distinguished 1 in Will: for the wicked striue to bring Gods will to their will, like Balaam, which when he had an Numb. 22. 19. answere, stayed for another: but the faithfull labour to bring their will to Gods will, like Christ, which sayd, not as I will, but as thou Math. 26. 39. wilt.

They are distinguished in Faith. 2 2. Thess. 3. 2 All men haue not faith (sayth Paul) but the iust liue by faith: as if he Rom. 1. 17. should say, the iust beleeue, and the vniust beleeue not. The iust beleeue, and apply that they be­leeue to themselues. The wicked may beleeue like the Diuels, but Iam. 2. 19. their faith is like a gadding hen, which carrieth her eggs to other, and neuer layeth at home, so they [Page] beleeue that other shall be saued, but not themselues.

They are distinguished in Hope, for because the wicked hope not 3 for any mends of God, therefore they neuer defer their reward, but if they doe any good, they are trumpets of it themselus, for feare Math. 6. 2. it should not be blased inough, and therefore Christ sayde, that the Pharises had their reward already because they were boasters of their works; and if they doe no good but euill, yet they would be 2. Tim 3. 2. magnified as much for euill, as o­ther are for good. But the faith­full are likened to handmaides, Psal. 123. 2. which waite their reward, their left hand seeth not when their right hand doth well, and they are Math. 6. 3. afraide to take honour of men, for losing their honor with God, like Iohn baptist, which made his Ioh. 1. 21. [Page] vertues meaner then they were, and debased himselfe, when hee might haue got a name aboue his Lord.

They are distinguished in obe­dience, 4 therefore Christ teacheth vs to iudge men by their fruites Math. 7. 17 as an vnfallible rule: for the euill tree will bring forth euill fruite, and the good tree good fruite, and neither can change his propertie, although the euill fruite is some­times beautifull, and the good fruite sometimes blasted.

They are distinguished in Re­pentance, 5 for the wicked doo but weepe for their sinnes past, but the godly purpose to sin no more: so Pharaoh, Saul, and Iudas sayd, I Exo. 10. 16. 1. Sam. 15. 30. Math. 27. 4. Dan. 3. 18. Psal. 51. 17. haue sinned, but Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego sayd, We will not sin, therefore the heart of the godly is called a contrite heart, but the [Page] hart of the wicked is called a hart that cannot repent. Beside as Christ Rom. 2. 5. Luk. 8. 30. cast out a legion of deuils at once, so the godly would be purged of all their sinnes together, but the wicked neuer consent to leaue al, but as Naaman sayd, Let the Lord spare me in this: so euer he excep­teth 2. King. 2. 18. one sinne, which is his belo­ued sinne, like Herod, which re­formed Math. 14. 3 many thinges, and yet wold not leaue his brothers wife.

They are distinguished in Cha­ritie, 6 for ye shal neuer see the wic­ked loue their enemies: and ther­fore when the Pharises could not loue their enemies, they taught that men might hate their ene­mies: Math. 5. 43 and Christ speaking of pub­licans and sinners, exhorteth his disciples not to loue like them, be­cause Luk. 6. 32. they loued none but their friends.

[Page] They are distinguished in Pray­er, 7 for the wicked can not pray, therefore Dauid saith, they call not Psal. 14. 4. vpon the Lord, as if they had not Zach. 12. 10. Rom 8. 16. Math. 6. 7. the spirit of prayer, and therefore Christ calleth their prayers bab­ling, for they thinke not of God when they speake vnto him.

They are distinguished in Pa­tience; 8 no hipocrite can beare the crosse, but sayth like Caine, It is Gen. 4. 13. Act. 16. 25. heauyer then I can suffer, but Paule and Silas sing in prison, for a faith­full man would haue something to humble him, and reioyceth to beare his maysters marks, because the wounds of a louer are sweete. Gal. 6. 17.

They are distinguished in the vse of aduersitie, for this is a pro­per and peculiar marke of Gods children, to profit by affliction: and therefore we reade not in all the punishments of the wicked, [Page] that one of them sayd like Dauid, It is good for me that I haue bin af­flicted. Psal. 119. 71.

They are distinguished in Hu­militie, 10 for the wicked are not humbled before the crosse, like Pharao that neuer sorowed, but Exo. 8. 8. 15 whē he suffered: but the Apostles learned humilitie of their mayster Mat. 11. 29 before their persecution came.

They are distinguished in their 11 iudgement of the worde, for to the wicked it seemeth the hardest and simplest, and vnpleasantest booke that is, and therefore Paule sayth, [...]. Cor. 1. 18. that it is foolishnes vnto them. But to the godly, it seemeth the wisest, and eloquentest, and sweetest, and easiest book of all other, as though God did sodainly bring the vn­derstanding of it to them, as Iacob [...]on 27. 20. sayd of his veneson: according to that, He that will do his will, shall Ioh. 7. 17. [Page] know his doctrine.

They are distinguished in their 12 iudgement of GOD. The wicked are perswaded now and then of Gods mercie for the present time while they feele it, as the Iewes Exo. 15. 20. praised him alwayes when he did as they would haue him, but they can not perswade themselues, that God wil be merciful to them still, like Iob, which sayde, Though the Iob. 13. 15. Lord kill me, yet will I trust in him: therefore the hope of the righte­ous is called, hope in death. Be­side, Pro. 14. 32. if the wicked loue God, it is but for his benefits, as Saul loued Pro. 23. 18. 1. Sam. 10. 6 him for his Kingdome. And this is alway to be noted, that in the wicked the feare of hell is greater, then their hope of heauen, but in the faithfull, the hope of heauen is greater, than their feare of hell.

[Page] They are distinguished in their 13 delights: for the sport of the vngod­ly is folly, like Belshazzars: and Dan. 5. 4. therefore when they are sicke, or troubled, they neuer runne to the Word for comfort, as though Gods promises pertayned not to them, but to feasts, or tables, or tales, or musicke, as Saule did to 1. Sam. 16. 23 the harpe: but all the delights of the godly are like Dauids daunce about the Arke, they are neuer 2. Sam. 6. 14. merrie, but when they are doing well, nor at peace, but when their prayers haue ouercome God, like Iacob. Gen. 32. 28.

They are distinguished in their opinions of death: for the faith­full 14 long to bee dissolued, and al­though Phil 1. 23. they might liue euer in continuall prosperitie, yet they would not stay so long out of hea­uen: Luk. 2. 29. but the wicked would ne­uer [Page] bee dissolued; because death comes alway vnto thē like a Iay­ler to hale vnto prison, as Ahab sayd to Michaiah, that he neuer 1. King. 22. 8. prophesied good to him. Hereby a man shall knowe whether hee haue faith; for if hee beleeue the promises, hee will bee glad to re­ceiue them.

They are distinguished in their 15 sense of sinne. Wicked men feele the loathsomnes of their vices, but none but the faithfull feele the de­fects of their righteousnes. The naturall man neuer complaineth of his good workes, but vaunteth of them: but a godly man findeth fault with his prayers, and his almes, and his watches, like Isaiah Esai. 64. 6. Psal. 16. 2. that sayd, his righteousnesse was like a menstruous cloth. As Christ Math. 4. 1. & 2. met the tempter in the Wilder­nes, a place of prayer, and fasting, [Page] and meditation; so a godly man meeteth the tempter in his praiers, and in his fasts, and in his medita­tions, that is, he findes some let or spot, or want in all his deuotions. Therefore, vnlesse thy righteous­nes mislike thee, aswell as thy pro­phanes, knowe that yet thou art no further than the wicked.

They are distinguished in their 16 ends: for the children of God pro­pose the glorie of God, and leuell all their thoughts, speeches and actions, as if they were messengers sent to carrie him presents of ho­nour. Thus did Dauid, when he Psal. 103. 1. said, All that is within me praise the Lord: as though himselfe had ra­ther bee without praise, than his master: but the children of the world set vp their owne glorie for their marke; like Nebuchadnezzar Dan. 4. 27. which sayd, for the honour of my [Page] maiestie. Therefore they speake, and looke, and walke, as if they did say to their tongue, and eyes, and feete, and apparell, as Saul sayd to Samuel, Honour me before this 1. Sam. 15. 30. people.

Lastly, they are distinguished in 17 perseuerance: for the zeale of the wicked lasteth not, and therefore God saith, They are soone turned out Exo. 32. 8. of the way: but the zeale of the faithfull was represented by the fire of the temple which neuer Leuit. 6. 12. went out.

Then come to the third Exami­natiō. As the diuell tempteth thee to see what thou wilt do for him; Math. 4. 9. so thou must tempt thy selfe, and get of thy soule what it would do for God, and what it would suffer for him, which hath suffred death for it. Therefore here wee will set downe certaine Intergatories [Page] whereof thou shalt examine it.

First, whether thou hast the heart of Ioshua, to worship God as Iosh. 24. 15. boldly as thou doest, though all the world did renounce him, and euery one did mocke thee as they did Noah while he built the Arke?

Whether thou wouldst not denie Christ as Peter did, if thou Mat. 26. 70 were in Peters straights, and no­thing to succour thee but thy po­licie?

Whether thou wouldst not steale, if thou diddest see a bootie as fit as Achan, which thou migh­test catch vp and no man spye Iosh 7. 21. thee?

Whether thou wouldst refuse a bribe like Elisha, if thou diddest meete with one which were as 2. King. 5. 16. willing and able to giue it as Naa­man?

Whether thou wouldst not [Page] deceiue, if thou were in such an Luk. 16. 6. Although this is a pa­rable, yet it carieth the significa­tion of an historie. office as the false Steward, whose master referred all vnto him, and knewe not when hee kept any thing backe?

Whether thou wouldst not fulfill thy lust as Dauid did, if thou 2. Sam. 11. 4 haddest his oportunitie & allure­ment, and mightest do it without danger of lawe like a King, as Da­uid might?

Whether thou wouldst not tel a lie as Abraham did, if it stood Gen. 12. 13. vppon thy life, which made him twise dissemble that his wife was his sister, least hee should dye for Gen. 20. 2. her beautie?

Finally, if it should be sayd vn­to thee as the diuell sayd to Christ, All these will I giue thee, if thou wilt Math. 4. 9. fall downe and worship me, that is no more, but if thou wilt sinne, whe­ther thou would yeeld or no.

[Page] If thou haue sinned thus and thus before, I will not say therfore the Lord will not heare thee, but Dauid saith, If I regard wickednes in Psal. 66. 18 my heart, the Lord will not heare me, that is, if for any cause a man pur­pose and carry a minde to sinne when he is tempted, the Lord is so farre from helping him, that he will stand like Baal, as though he 1. King. 18. 26 did not heare him; for he hath a Traytors minde as deepe as any, which thinks, for a Dukedome I would betray my Prince, though he neuer play the Traytor in his life.

Now we come to that exami­nation, The fourth examina­tion. which is the epitome or abridgement of all these; for me­morie is short, and all are not of one strength, but some runne, and some goe, and some creepe, and all do well, so long as they striue Heb. 6. 1. [Page] to perfection. The matters wher­of The recei­uers articles principally the mind should be examined before the Sacrament, are these.

First, whether thou haue faith, 1 not only to beleeue that Christ died, but that he died for thee: for Esai. 59. 20 as the scripture calleth him a Re­deemer, so Iob calleth him his Re­deemer. Iob. 19. 25.

The second article is, whether 2 thou be in charitie, not whether thou loue them which loue thee, but whether thou loue thē which hate thee: for Christ comman­deth vs to loue our enemies. Math. 5. 44

The third article is, whether 3 thou repent, not for thy open and grose sinnes, but for thy secret sinnes, and pettie sinnes, because Christ sayth, that we must giue ac­count for euery idle word. Mat. 12. 3 [...]

The fourth article is, whether 4 [Page] thou resolue not to sinne againe for any cause, but to amend thy euill life, not when age commeth, or for a spurt, but to begin now and last till death, for Christ is Alpha, and Omega, both the be­ginning, Reue. 22. 13. and the end, as well in our liuing, as in our being, which hath made no promise to them which begin, but to them which perseuere. Reue. 2. 10.

The last article is, whether thou canst finde in thy hart to dye for 5 Christ, as Christ dyed for thee, for we are bid not only to follow him, but to beare his crosse: and therefore we are called seruants, Luk 12. 38 2. Tim. 2. 3. & 4. to shew how we should obay, and we are called souldyers, to shew, how we should suffer.

These are the receyuers articles, whereof his conscience must be examined, before he receyue this [Page] Sacrament: happie is he which can say, All these haue I kept: for the Doue was not so welcome Gen. 8. 11. to Noah, as this man is to Christ. But if thou finde not these affecti­ons within, but a nest of vices, leaue thine offring at the Altar, Mat. 5. 24. and returne to thine examination againe, for thou art not a fit guest to sup with the Lord, vntill thou haue on this Wedding garment. Mat. 22. 11 How is it then that some regard their other garments more then this? Paule sayth, Examine your selues, and they examine their ap­parell, if they haue new clothes in the countrey, then they are ready to receyue. I haue knowne many kept from the Sacrament a whole yeare together by their maysters, for nothing but for want of a new sute to set them forth with [Page] their fellowes.

Others respect whether it be a faire day, that they may walke af­ter Seruice, making that day vpon which they receyue, like a Schol­lers Thurseday, which he loues better then all the dayes in the weeke, only because it is his play day. Maruell not now if you haue not felt that comfort after the Sa­crament which you looked for, for it is comfortable to none, but to thē which prepare their harts, and examine themselues before, because it is not the mouth, but the heart which receiueth com­fort.

Now it may be that the most which are heere, haue brought a mouth, and not a heart: these goe away from the Sacrament to despight Christ, as Iudas went [Page] from the Sacrament to betraye Ioh [...]. 1 [...]. 3 [...] him.

The other goe away, like one which hath receyued a cheerefull countenance of the Prince, all his thoughts are ioy, and the counte­nance of the Prince is still in his eye. As hee which hath eaten sweet meate hath a sweet breath: so they which haue eaten Christ, all their sayings and dooings are sweete like a perfume to men, and incense to GOD: their peace and conscience, and ioy of heart, and desire to doo good, will tell them whether they haue receiued the bare signes, or the thing signified. Euerie one which receiueth this Sacrament, shal feele himselfe bet­ter alter it, like the Apostles, or els he shall finde himselfe worse after it, like Iudas. Hereby ye shal know [Page] whether yee haue receiued like the Apostles, or like Iudas. Thus we haue ended the doctrin of the Lords Supper. Now, if you can not remember all that I haue said, yet remember the text, that is, Examine your selues before you receiue this Sa­crament here­after.

THE Examination of V …

THE Examination of Vsurie, in two Sermons.

Taken by Characterie, and after examined.


Imprinted at London by Thomas Orwin for Thomas Man, dwelling in Pa­ternoster row at the signe of the Talbot. 1591.

To the Reader.

HEere thou hast the Ser­mons which haue bin of­ten desired, because of the matter fit for this Citie. One sayth, that he would neuer speake to Vsurers, and Bribe­mongers, but when they be vpon their death beds: for he which liueth by sin, resolueth to sin, that he may liue. But when he goeth to hanging, Iudas will Mat. 27. 4. say, I haue sinned. If I speake not to Vsurers vppon their death-bed, yet I speake to Vsurers which shall lye vppon their death-bed. Three things do giue me hope. One is, that all harts are in the hands of God, to call them at what houre Act. 9. 15. he list, and therefore Saul may become an Apostle. The next is, that the third crow doth waken moe then the former, [Page] and therefore after the crowing of o­ther, this crow may happily be heard. The last is, that there is no sinne, but some men haue bin reclaimed from it, and so may Vsurers from their sinne.

Therefore goe my booke like Dauid against Goliah, and sight the Lords 1. Sam. 17. 51. battells against Vsurers. The Lord giue that successe to his doctrine in these leaues, that it may consume Vsurers, as Ioshuah droue out the Chananites before him. If I could take but this one Iosh. 5. 1. weede out of the Londoners Garden, I were answered for my health and my strength spent amongst them. Reade with thy best minde, and thou shal pro­fit more.

Thine H. S.

The Examination of Vsurie; in two Sermons.

The first Sermon.

Psal. 15. vers. 1. & 5.

Lord, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? Who shall rest in thine holie moun­taine?

He that giueth not his money to Vsu­rie.

THese two verses must bee considered toge­ther, because one is the question, and the other is the answere: Dauid de­mands Verse 1. who shall come to heauen? and GOD tels him that Vsurers [Page] shall not come thether: as if hee should say, They shall goe to hell. Therefore as Paule taught Timo­thie to warne thē which are rich, 1. Tim. 6. 17. as though they had more neede to be warned than other: so this sen­tence seemeth to bee penned for a warning to the rich, because it strikes vpon the rich mans vice.

I haue spoken of Briberie and Simonie, and now I must speake of their sister Vsurie. Manie times haue I thought to speake of this Theame, but the argumēts which are alleaged for it, haue made mee doubtfull what to say in it, be­cause it hath gone as it were vn­der a protection. At last you see it falleth into my text, and there­fore now I cannot bauke it any longer. Therefore if any heere haue fauoured this occupation before, let him now submit his [Page] thoughts vnto Gods thoughts; for I will alleage nothing against it, but that which is built vppon the rocke.

Vsurie is the sin which God wil trie now whether you loue better than his worde: that is, whether you will leaue it if he forbid it: for if hee flatly forbid it, and yet you wilfully retaine it, then you loue Vsurie better than Gods worde. Therefore one saith well that our Vsurers are Hereticks, because af­ter Vsurers he­reticks. manie admonitions, yet they maintaine their errour, and persist in it obstinatly as Papists doo in Poperie. For this cause I am glad that I haue any occasion to griple with this sin, where it hath made so many spoyles, & where it hath so many patrons: for it is said that there be moe of this profession in this Citie, than there bee in all the [Page] land beside. There be certaine sins which are like an vnreasonable enemie which will not be recon­ciled to death, and this is one of those euerlasting sins which liue and die with a man. For when he hath resigned his pride and his en­uie and his lust, yet Vsurie remai­neth with him, & he saith as Naa­man said, Let the Lord bee mercifull 2. Kings. 5. 18. vnto me in this: let me haue a dis­pensation for this, as though this were a necessarie sinne, and hee could not liue without it. There be three sinnes which are counted Three sins counted no sinnes. no sinnes, and yet they doo more hurt than all their fellows, & those are Briberie, Nonresidencie, and Vsurie: these three because they are gainful are turned from sinnes to occupatiōs. How many of this Citie for all that they are Vsurers, yet would be counted honest mē, [Page] and would faine haue Vsurie e­steemed as a trade: whereas if it were not so gainfull, it would bee counted as great a sinne as any o­ther, and so it is counted of all but them which liue by it. This is the nature of pleasure and profite to make sinnes seeme no sinnes, if we gaine any thing by them, but the more gainfull a sinne is, the more daungerous it is, and the more gainfull Vsurie is, the more daun­gerous it is. I will speake the more of it, because happely you shall not heare of this matter againe.

First I will define what Vsurie The con­tentes of this treatise. is, then I wil shew you what Vsu­rie doth signifie: then I will shewe the vnlawfulnes of it: then I will shewe the arguments which are alleaged for it: then I will shewe the punishment of it: then I will [Page] shewe you what opinion wee should holde of them which doo not lend vpon Vsurie, but borrow vpon Vsurie. Lastly, I will shewe you what they should doo which haue got their riches by Vsurie.

Touching the first, Vsurie is The defini­tion of V­surie. that gaine which is gotten by len­ding, for the vse of the thing which a man lendeth, couenan­ting before with the borrower to receaue more thā was borrowed: and therefore one calls the Vsurer a legall theefe, because before hee Vsurers steale by law. steale, he tels the partie how much hee will steale, as though hee stole by law. This word more, comes in like a sixt finger, which makes a monster, because it is more than should be. Another defining Vsu­rie, calleth it the Contrarie to Chari­tie: for Paule saith, Loue seeketh not her owne, but Vsurie seeketh an [Page] others which is not her owne▪ therfore Vsurie is farre from loue, but God is Loue, saith Iohn, there­fore [...]. Iohn. [...]. 8. Vsurie is farre from God too.

Now, al the Commandements of God are fulfilled by loue, which Christ noteth when hee draweth all the Commandements to one Commandement, which is, Loue Matth. 22. 37. God aboue all things, and thy neigh­bour as thy selfe: as if hee should say, hee which loueth GOD, will keepe all the Commaundements which respect God, and he which loueth his neighbour will keepe all the Commaundements which respect his neighbour: therefore to maintaine loue, GOD forbid­deth all things which hinder this loue: and among the rest here hee forbiddeth Vsurie, as one of her deadliest enemies: for a man can not loue and be an Vsurer, because [Page] Vsurie is a kinde of crueltie, and a kinde of extortion, and a kinde of persecution, and therfore the want of loue doth make Vsurers: for if there were loue there would bee no Vsurie, no deceit, no extortion, no slaundering, no reuenging, no oppression, but wee should liue in peace and ioye and contentment like the Angels; whereby you see that all our sinnes are against our selues: for if there were no deceit, then we should not bee deceiued: if there were no slander, then wee should not bee slandered: if there were no enuie, then wee should not bee enuied: if there were no extortion, then we should not bee iniuried: if there were no Vsurie, then we should not bee oppressed. Therfore Gods law had been bet­ter for vs than our owne lawe: for if his law did stand, thē we should [Page] not be deceiued, nor slandered, nor enuied, nor iniured, nor oppressed. God hath commanded euery mā to lend freely, & who would not Luke. 6. 35. borrowe freely? Therefore they which brought in vsurie, brought in a lawe against themselues.

The first Vsurers which wee reade of, were the Iewes, which were forbidden to be Vsurers, yet for want of faith and loue, Ezekiel Ezek. 18. 22. Nehe. 25. & Nehemiah doth shewe how the Iewes, euen the Iewes which recei­ued this lawe from God himselfe, did swarue from it as they did from the rest. First, they did lend vppon Vsurie to straungers; after they began to lend vppon Vsurie to their brethren, and now there be no such Vsurers vppon earth as the Iewes which were forbidden to be Vsurers. Wherby you may see how the malice of man hath [Page] turned mercie into crueltie. For whereas lending was commaun­ded Deut. 15. 10. for the benefite of men, Vsu­rie hath turned it to the vndoing of men: for they take when they seeme to giue; they hurt when they seeme to helpe; they damage when they seeme to vauntage: therefore it is well noted that V­surie hath her name of byting, and 2. she may well signifie byting; for many haue not onely been bitten by it, but deuoured by it, that is, consumed all that they haue: ther­fore as the Apostle saith, If you bite Galat. 5. 15 one another, take heede you be not de­uoured one of another: so I may say if you be Vsurers one to another, take heede you bee not deuoured one of another, for Vsurers are bi­ters. As the name of the Diuell doth declare what an enemie he is; Because it signifieth so the name of Vsurie dooth de­clare [Page] what an enemie she is. That an aduer­sarie. you may knowe Vsurie for a by­ter, her name doth signifie byting. Neschec. If there were one byting Vsurie, and another healing Vsurie, then Vsurie should haue two names; one of byting, and another of hea­ling: but all Vsurie signifieth by­ting, to shewe that al Vsurie is vn­lawfull. Now, you haue heard what Vsurie is, and of what it is deriued, you shall heare the vn­lawfulnes of it.

First, it is against the law of cha­ritie, 1. The vnlaw­fulnesse of Vsurie. because charitie biddeth vs to giue euery man his owne, and to require no more than our own; but Vsurie requireth more than her owne, and giues not to other their owne. Charitie reioyceth to communicate her goods to other, and Vsurie reioyceth to gather o­ther mens goods to her selfe.

[Page] Secondly, it is against the lawe 2. of Natiōs; for euerie Nation hath some lawe against Vsurie, and some restraint against Vsurers, as you shall heare when wee speake of the punishment.

Thirdly, as it is against the law of Nations, so it is against the law 3. of Nature, that is, the naturall compassion which should bee a­mong men. You see a riuer when it goeth by an emptie place, it will A Simili­tude. not passe vntill it hath filled that emptie place, & then it goeth for­ward to another emptie place and filleth it, and so to another emptie place and filleth it, alwaies filling the places which are emptie: so should wee, the rich should fill the poore, the ful should fill the hung­rie, they which abound should fill them which want, for the rich are but Gods Amners, and their riches [Page] are committed to them of God to distribute and doo good as GOD dooth himselfe: As the water is charitable after a sorte, so is the ayre, for it goeth to emptie places too, and filleth them as the water doth. Nature cannot abide that a­ny place should bee emptie, and therefore the ayre though it bee a light bodie, and so naturally ascen­deth vpward: yet rather than any place in the earth shuld be emptie, the ayre wil descend as it were frō his throne, and goe into caues, into dens, and into dungeons, to fill them. If the rich were so good to their emptie brethren, as the ayre and water are to other emptie things; as there is no emp­tie place in the worlde, so there should be no emptie person in the world: that is, the rich in Israel would fill the poore in Israel, but [Page] the riche make the poore to fill them, for Vsurers feede vpon the poore, euen as great fishes deuoure the small. Therfore he which sayd Let there not be a begger in Israel, Deut. 15. 4. sayd too, let there not be an Vsu­rer in Israel, for if there be Vsu­rers in Israel, there wil be beggers in Israel, for Vsurers make beg­gers, euen as Lawyers make quar­rellers.

Fourthly, it is against the law of God. First, it is forbiddē in Exo. 22. 4. where it is sayd, If thou lend money vnto my people, that is, to the poore withthee, thou shalt not oppresse them with Vsurie: heere Vsurie is called oppression, therefore if oppressi­on be a sinne, Vsury is a sinne too. Secondly, it is forbiddē in Leu. 25. 36. where it is sayd, Thou shalt not giue thy money to Vsurie, nor lend thy vittailes for increase. Heere you [Page] may see, that men may be Vsurers of vittailes and other thinges, as well as of money. Thirdly, it is forbidden in Deut. 23. where it is sayde, Thou shalt not lende vnto thy brother vpon Vsurie. And least you shoulde saye, that he meaneth but one kinde of Vsurie, he sheweth, that he meaneth all kinds of Vsu­rie: for after he sayth, as vsurie of money, vsurie of vittailes, vsurie of corne, or vsurie of any thing which is giuen to Vsurie: because some are not Vsurers of money, but some are Vsurers of vittailes, some are Vsurers of Cloth, some are Vsu­rers of Corne, some are Vsurers of Wine, some are Vsurers of Oyle, and some of one thing, and some of an other, and none would bee counted Vsurers, but they which lend money vpon Vsurie; therefore God forbiddeth so pre­ciselie [Page] Vsurie of any thing, shew­ing, that all Vsurie is vnlawfull. It is a miserable occupation to liue by sinne, and a great comfort to a man when he looketh vpon his Golde and Siluer, and his heart telleth him, all this is well gotten, and when he lieth vpon his death-bed, and must leaue all to his chil­dren, he can say vnto them, I leaue you mine owne; but the Vsurer can not saye, I leaue you mine own, but I leaue you other mens, therefore the Vsurer can neuer dye in peace, because if he dye be­fore he make restitution, he dyeth in his sinne. When Christ raysed Lazarus from death, after he had Ioh. 11. 37. layne foure dayes in the graue, he wept so ouer his Sepulcher, that the standers about sayd one to an other, See how he loued him, As it may be sayde of Christ, See how [Page] he loueth vs, so it should be sayd of vs, See how they loue their breethren. For Christ sayd to his Disciples, Loue one an other, as I Ioh. 13. 34. haue loued you. But it may be sayde of the Vsurer, See how hee ha­teth hys breethren, and heare how he loueth them: for hee lo­ueth them in wordes, and hateth them in deedes. He sayth that he loueth them, and that he lendeth for compassion, but it is for com­passion of himselfe, that he may gaine by his lending. The Vsurer loueth the borrower, as the Iuye loueth the Oke: The Iuye loueth the Oke to growe vp by it, so the Vsurer loueth the borrower to grow rich by him. The Iuye clas­peth the Oke like a louer, but it claspeth out all the iuice and sap, that the Oke can not thriue after: So the Vsurer lendeth like a friēd, [Page] but hee couenanteth like an ene­mye, for he claspeth the borrower with such bands, that euer after he diminisheth, as fast as the other encreaseth.

Christe expounding the com­maundement Vnderstand that his ser­mon vpon the mount, is an expo­sition of the Comman­dements, or else the text will not seeme to implie this. Luc. 19. 8. which forbiddeth to steale, sayth, lende freely, shew­ing that Vsurie, because she len­deth not freely, is a kinde of theft, and the Vsurers a kind of theeues, for else this exposition were not right. Therfore Zacheus, as though he had stolne other mens goods, when he began to repent, he resto­red them againe foure foulde, e­uen as theeues are inioyned to restore four fould for that which Exod. 22. they haue stolne, so Zacheus re­stored foure foulde, as though he had stolne. It seemeth that Za­cheus was no greate theefe, be­cause hee restored foure foulde [Page] for all that he had gotten wrong­fully, for hee got but the fourth part of his goods wrongfully at the most, or else he could not haue restored foure fould againe. But now, if some should restore foure fould, for all that they haue gotten wrongfully, they shoulde restore more than they haue, because all which Vsurers get, they get wrongfully: for their occupation is a sinne, and therefore one sayth, Because they cannot restore foure fould heere, they shall suffer an hundreth fould heereafter. Ama­ziah is forbidden to strengthen 2. Chro. 2 [...]. himself with the armyes of Israel, onely because Israel had offended God; if Amaziah might not ioyne the armyes of Israel with his ar­myes to strengthen him, darest thou ioyne the goods of the poore with thy goodes to inrich thee? [Page] When God set Adam his work, he sayd, In the sweate of thy browes Gen. 3. 19. shalt thou liue: not in the sweate of his browes, but in the sweate of thy browes: but the Vsurer liueth in the sweate of his browes, and her browes: that is, by the paines and cares, and labours of an other, for he taketh no paines himselfe, but only expecteth the time when his interest will come in, like the belly which doeth no worke, and yet eateth all the meate. When God had finished his creation, he sayd vnto man, and vnto beastes, and vnto foules, and vnto fishes, increase and multiplie, but he neuer Gen. 1. saide vnto money, increase and multiplie, because it is a dead thing which hath no seede, and therefore is not fit to ingender. Therefore he which saith to his money, increase and multiplie, [Page] begetteth a monstrous birth, like Anah, which deuised a creature Gen 36. 24. which God had not created be­fore. Christ saith to his Disciples, If you loue but them which loue you, Mat. 5. 46. what are you better then the Publi­cans, for they loue their brethren: so I may say, if you will lend to none but to them which will pay you Vsurie for it, what are you better thā the Iewes, for the Iewes would lend for Vsurie, and if you be no better than the Iewes, then you shall speede no better than they: for as Christ sayde, Except your Mat. 5. 20. righteousnes do exceede the righteous­nes of the Pharisies, your reward shall not exceede the rewarde of the Phari­sies, so, except your charitie do ex­ceede the charitie of the Iewes, your reward shall not exceede the reward of the Iewes. All this doth shewe, that the Vsurer is like Esau, [Page] of whome God sayde, Esau haue I hated. Now in the 112. Psalme, Malac. 1. 3. you shall see who is like Iacob, of whome God sayth, Iacob haue I loued: for there Dauid sayth, a good man is mercifull, and lendeth, and Verse. 5. straight vppon it he setteth this crowne, he shall neuer be moued, but be had in perpetuall remembraunce: as if he should say, this is the good mans Vsurie, this is his increase, euen a good name, and euerlasting ioy. Againe in the 23. of Exod. it is said, Lend vnto him which wanteth without Vsurie, that the Lorde may blesse thee: as if he should say, let the Lord pay the increase, feare not to be loosers by doing good, for God hath giuen his word to Malac. 3. 10. requite it himselfe. As he sayth to them which were afrayd to pay tythes, and offer sacrifice, Try me if I will not powre downe a blessing [Page] vpon you: so he seemeth to say vn­to Deut. 15. 10. them which are afrayd to lend, try me if I will not powre downe a blessing vppon you. Whome will you trust, if you doe not trust your Creator, your Father, your Redeemer, your Preseruer, and your Sauiour.

Now you haue heard the vn­lawfulnes of Vsurie, you shall heare how many kindes there be of it. As other Crafts are called Mysteries, so I may fitly call it, the mysterie of Vsurie, for they haue deuised moe sorts of Vsurie, than there be tricks at Cardes, I cannot recken halfe, and I am afraide to shewe you all, least I should teach you to be Vsurers, while I dis­swade you from Vsurie, yet I will shew you some, and the same reasons which are aledged against these, shall condemne all the rest.

[Page] Some will not take Vsurie, but they will haue the vse of your pa­sture, 1. The kinds of Vsurers. or your lande, or your or­chard, or your teame, or your kine, vntill you pay the money againe, which in that time will grow to a greater gaine to the V­surer, and a greater losse to the borower, than if he had paid more money than other Vsurers are wont to take.

Some will not take Vsurie, but 2. they will take plate, and vessell, and tapistree, and bedding, and other houshold stuffe, to vse and weare, vntill their money come home, which will lose more in the wearing, than the interest of the money would come to. This Vsurie is forbidden in the 2. of Amos, where God cōplaineth say­ing, They lye downe vpon the clothes which are layd to pledge: shewing, [Page] that wee shoulde not lye downe vppon such clothes, that is, wee should not vse or weare the thing which is layd to pledge.

Some will take no Vsurie, but 3. they will take a pawne which is better than the money which they lende, and then they will coue­nant, that if he bring not the mo­ney againe by such a day, he for­fitteth his pawne: which day the Vsurer knoweth, that the poore man is not able to keepe, and so kepeth the pawne for his money, which is worth twise his money. This Vsurie is forbidden in Le­uit. 25. where it is said, Thou shalt not take Vsurie or vauntage: as if he should say, thou shalt not take the forfeiture; for then thou takest vauntage, when thou takest more than thou lendest.

Some will not take Vsurie, but 4. [Page] they will buy some thing at a smal price, and then couenant with the borrower that he buy the same a­gaine of the same price at such a day, which day the Vsurer know­eth that the borrower is not able to keepe, and so hee getteth for a little that which the other might haue solde for much more. This Vsurie is condēned in the 1. Thess. 4. where it is said, Let no man de­fraude or circumuent his brother in any thing.

Some will not take Vsurie, but they will lend out their money to 5. occupiers, vpon condition to bee partakers in their gaines, but not in their losses: so one takes all the paines and abideth al the venture, & the other which takes no pains, reapeth halfe the profite. This Vsurie is forbidden in 2. Thessa. 3. 10. where it is saide, He which will [Page] not worke let him not eate.

Some will not take Vsurie, but 6. if he bee a Labourer, or a Mason, or a Carpenter, which borrow­eth of him, he will couenant with him for so many daies worke, he shall labour with him so manie daies, or so many weekes for no money, but the lone of money. This Vsury is condemned in Luk. 10. 7. where it is said, The labourer is worthie of his hire.

Some will not take Vsurie, but 7. if you haue not present money to pay for their wares, they will set a high price of them, for the forbea­ring of the time, and so they doo not onely sell their wares, but they sell time too: that is, they doo not onely sell their owne, but they sell Gods owne. Therefore one saith of these, When he selleth the day he selleth the light, and when hee selleth [Page] the night hee selleth rest: therefore when he would haue the light of hea­uen, and the rest of Paradise, it shall be said vnto him that he hath solde both alreadie. For he solde light when he sold the day, and he solde rest when he sold the night: and therefore now he can haue neither light nor rest.

There be other Vsurers which 8. will not lend themselues, but giue leaue to their wiues, and they play like hucksters, that is, euerie mo­neth a penny for a shilling, which is one hundred for another in the yeare.

But that I was informed of thē since this Sermon was preached, I 9. had left out our capitall Vsurers, which will not lend any money, because they dare not require so much gaine as they would haue: but if you would borrow an hun­dred pounde, they will giue you [Page] wares worth three score pounde, and you shal answer them an hun­dred pound for it. These are the Vsurers generall which lurke a­bout the Citie like Rats, and We­sels, and Fulmers, of whom may bee said the same which is said of the diuels, they seeke whom they may deuoure. 1. Pet. 5. 8.

There be other Cosins to Vsu­rers, 10. which are not counted Vsu­rers, such as take money for that which they shoulde giue freelie: such as take as much for a coun­terfeit as for the best: such as take a fee of a Client and doo him no pleasure: such as take money for Masses, and Dirges, and Trentalls, and Pardons, and such like drugs, which do no more good than fire out of the chimney. This is a kind of Vsury and deceit beside, which one day they will cast away as Iu­das [Page] did his thirtie pence.

Now you haue heard the kinds of Vsurie, you shall heare the ar­guments Obiections made by Vsurers. which are deuised for Vsurie.

Sinne is neuer complet vntill it bee excused: this is the vauntage which the diuell getteth by euery sinne, whensoeuer he can fasten a­ny temptation vppon vs, wee giue him a sinne for it, and an excuse to boote, as Adam our father did. First he sinned, and then he excu­sed: Gen. 3. so first we sinne, and then we excuse: first an Vsurer, & then an excuser. Therefore euerie Vsurer will defend Vsurie with his tung, though hee condemne it with his conscience. If the Image makers of Ephesus had not liued by Ima­ges, they would haue spoken for All. 19. 25. Images no more than the rest: for none stood for Images but the I­mage [Page] makers: so if the Vsurers did not liue by Vsurie, they woulde speak for Vsurie no more than the rest: for none stand for Vsurie but Vsurers.

It is an easie matter, if a man be disposed, to speake something for euerie vice; as some defende the Stewes: some defende Nonresi­dencie: some defende swearing by my faith: some defend bowling vppon the Saboath: and some de­fend Vsurie. But, will you pleade for Iud. 6. 31. Baal? (saith Ioash) that is, will you pleade for sinne which will pleade against you? A sin is a sin when it is defended: nay, a sinne is two sins when it is defended: for he which breaketh one of the least Commande­ments (saith Christ) and teacheth Math. 5. 19. others to doo so, is the least in the kingdom of heauen. A Squire of low degree is a Squire of no degree: so [Page] the least in the kingdome of hea­uen is none of the kingdome of heauen. Who then is the least in the kingdome of heauen? not he which breaketh the least of the Commandements, but he which teacheth others to doo so: that is, he which by defending, and excu­sing, and minsing, and extenuating his sinne, incourageth others to sinne too.

To defend Vsurie, they distin­guish vppon it, as they distinguish of lying: as they say, there is a per­nicious lye, and an officious lye, and a merrie lye, and a godly lye: so they say, there is the Merchants Vsurie, and the Strangers Vsu­rie, and the Widdowes Vsurie, and the Orphanes Vsurie, and the pooremans Vsurie, and the biting Vsurie, and the charitable Vsurie, and the necessarie Vsurie. [Page] As God said, ye shall die, & the wo­man Gen. 2. sayd, peraduenture ye shall dye, and the Serpent said, ye shall not dye; so there be three opinions of V­surie: Three opi­nions of Vsurie. some say like God, thou shalt dye, they thinke that Vsurie is vtterly vnlawfull, because God hath vtterly forbid it: some say like the woman, peraduenture thou shalt dye, they doubt whether Vsu­rie be vtterly vnlawfull or no, because it is so much tollerated: some say like the Serpent, thou Gen 3. shalt not dye, they thinke that Vsu­rie is lawfull, because it is gaine­full, as Saule thought that the Ido­laters 1. Sam. 15. 9. beastes should not be killed because they were fat. But as he was commaunded to kill the fat beastes, as well as the leane, so we are commanded to kill fat sinnes as well as leane sinnes; gainefull sinnes as well as prodigall sinnes.

[Page] They which pleade for Vsurie, obiect these arguments. First they 1. Obiections for Vsurie. say, God doeth alow some kinde of Vsurie, for in Deut. 23. it is said of a stranger thou mayest take Vsurie. I perceiue no scripture speaketh for Vsurers. Of a stranger (sayth God) thou mayest take Vsurie: but thou takest Vsurie of thy brother, therefore this condemneth thee, because thou vsest thy brother like a stranger. Here stranger doth signifie the Iewes enemies, whome they were commaunded to de­stroy: therefore marke how much this maketh against Vsurie, which they obiect for Vsurie. God doeth not license the Iewes to take V­surie of any, but their enemies whome they might kill: They might not be Vsurers vnto any, but to them of whom they might be destroyers, whome they might [Page] slay, of them only they might take Vsurie: shewing that Vsurie is a kind of punishment, and such a kind of punishment, as if we are to kill a man, it were a very fit pu­nishment for him, and therefore the Iewes might take Vsurie of none, but them whom they might kill.

Secondly, they say that they lend for compassion, and so make Vsu­rie 2. a worke of charitie. This were charitie not to be partakers in our gaines, but to be partakers in our losses, but Vsurers will be parta­kers in our gaines, but not in our losses; nay, though we lose, yet they will gaine: is this charitie? it is colde charitie to partake in our gaines, and not in our losses.

Thirdly, they say, if he gaine 3. and I gaine too, is not this well, may he not consider my friend­ship [Page] and be thankefull? yes, hee may be thankfull, but no man is bound to be thankfull, but when he hath receiued a good turne, then he is tried whether he wil be thankfull or no: and if he requite thy curtesie, then he is thankefull, but if thou bind him to requite it, then thou art couetous.

Fourthly they say, Vsurie is ne­cessarie for Orphanes and Wid­dowes, 4. and Straungers, which haue no other way to get their li­uing, and therefore some Vsurie must be tolerated. If Vsurie be necessarie for vs, how did the Iewes without it? Did God thinke it good for the state of their com­mon weale to be without Vsu­rers; and is it good for the state of our common weale to haue Vsu­rers? this is wisdome against God.

Fiftly they say: If I may not 5. [Page] gaine by the money which I lend, I will lend no more, but keepe my money to my selfe: nay, that is as bad to keepe thy money from them which neede, as to lend thy money for Vsurie. For Christ saith, from him which borroweth, Mat. 5. 42. turne not away thy face. Therefore thou art bound to lende. As he hath a cursse in Prou. 11. which keepeth his Corne when hee should fell it to them which hun­ger; so he hath a cursse in Eze. 18. which keepeth his money when he should lende it to them which want.

Sixtly they say, because Vsurie 6. comes of biting, the biting Vsurie is onely forbidden, and none but the biting Vsurie: why then all Vsurie is forbidden, for all Vsurie commeth of biting, to shewe that all Vsurie is vnlawfull.

[Page] Lastly, they aleadge the Law of the land for it, and say, the Queens 7. Statute doeth allowe vs to take vppon Vsurie tenne in the hun­dreth. These are like the Iewes which sayd, We haue a lawe, and by our lawe he shall dye: when they Iohn. 19. 7. coulde not saye by Gods lawe he shall die, then they said by our lawe he shall dye: so when they cannot say by Gods lawe we may take Vsurie, they say by mans law we may take Vsurie, this is the poo­rest defence of all the rest: for if Gods lawe forbid thee, can any lawe of man excuse thee? As it would not serue Adam to say, the woman bad me, so it will not serue Gen. 3. the Vsurer to say, the Lawe doth licence me. But he cannot say, the Law doth license me: for though peraduenture our law do tollerate more than should be tollerated, yet [Page] I would haue you know, that our lawe doeth not allow tenne in the hundreth, nor fiue in the hūdreth, nor one in the hundreth, nor any Vsurie at all: but there is a re­straint in our law, that no Vsurer take aboue tenne in the hundreth, it doeth not allow tenne in the hundreth, but punisheth that ty­rant which exacteth aboue tenne in the hundreth. It is much like that tolleration which we reade of diuorces. For the hardnesse of mens hearts, Christ saith, that Mat. 19. 7. Moses did suffer the man and wife to part asunder: So for the hard­nesse of mens hearts, our Moses our Prince is fame to suffer as it were a kinde of Vsurie, because otherwise no men would lende.

These are the best excuses which our Vsurers haue to pleade for themselues, against they come [Page] before the tribunall of GOD; and if their reasons will not stande before men nor their owne con­science, how will they stande be­fore the Lorde?

Now, you long to heare what What the Vsurer is like. the Vsurer is like. To what shall I liken this generation? They are like a Butlers boxe: for as all the counters at last come to the But­ler; so all the money at last com­meth to the Vsurer, ten after ten, and ten after ten, and ten to ten, till at last he receiue not onely ten for an hundreth, but an hundreth for ten. This is the onely difference, that the Butler cā receiue no more than he deliuered: but the Vsurer receiueth more than hee deliue­reth. They are like a Moth; euen as a Moth eateth a hole in cloath, so Vsurie eateth a hole in siluer: If you haue a peece of siluer which [Page] is as much as an hundreth pounds, in one yere Vsurie will eate a hole in it as big as ten pounds: in two yeares she will eate a hole as big as twentie pounds: in three yeares she will eate a hole as big as thirtie pounds. Nay, now they say, he is but a bad husband which cannot eate a hole as big as fiftie pounds in a yeare: that is, which cannot gaine halfe in halfe: how manie holes haue these Moths eaten in poore mens garments? They are like Nonresidents, that is, such bad members that no man speaketh for them but themselues. As no man standeth for Nonresidencie but he which is a Nonresident, or he which would be a Nonresidēt: so no man standeth for Vsurie but hee which is an Vsurer, or hee which would be an Vsurer. They are like Iezabel, which said, Let me [Page] alone, I haue a way. If there bee no 1. King. 21. 7. way to liue (saieth the false Ste­ward) I knowe what to doo, I wil deceiue: so if there bee no way to liue (saieth the Vsurer) I knowe what to doo, I will oppresse: If I Luk. 16. 4. cannot liue by buying, nor by sel­ling, nor by flattering, nor by la­bouring, I will liue by oppressi­on. But as one in his Comment speakes to the false Steward, Thou saiest I knowe what to doo, but doest thou knowe what thou shalt suffer? So I saye to Vsurers, you saye you knowe what to doo, but doo you knowe what you shall suffer? In deed he knoweth not what to do, which knoweth not to doo well: and therefore Christ saide of his persecutors, that they knewe not what they did. Luc. 23. 34.

Now I may conclude with Paul, I haue not spoken but the Lord [...] 1. Cor. 7. 10. [Page] and therefore as the Lord said vn­to Saul, that he persecuted him; so Act. 9. 22. they which resist this doctrine do contemne him, and not me.

The end of the first Sermon.

The Examination of Vsurie.
The second Sermon.

IT remaineth that we speake of the Vsurers punishment: Then, what may be thought of them which doo not take Vsu­rie, but giue Vsurie. Lastly, what they should doo, which haue got their riches by Vsurie.

To begin with the punishment, The pu­nishments of Vsurers. not onely Gods lawe, but euen the Cannon lawe doth so condemne Vsurie, that first it dooth excom­municate 1. him from the Church, [Page] as though he had no communion with Saints.

Secondly, it dooth detaine him 2. from the Sacraments, as though hee had no communion with Christ.

Thirdly, it dooth depriue him of his Sepulcher, and will not suf­fer 3. him to be buried, as though he were not worthie to lye in the earth but to lye in hell.

Lastly, it maketh his will to be no will, as though his goods were 4. not his owne: for nothing is ours but that which wee haue rightlie got: and therefore wee say, It is mine by right, as though it were not ours, vnles it be ours by right. This is the iudgement of mans lawe.

Now you shal heare the iudge­ment of Gods lawe. A Vsurer dooth receiue two Incomes; one [Page] of the borrower, and another of the reuenger; of the borrower he lookes for gaine; but of the reuen­ger hee lookes for punishment: therefore al the Scripture prophe­cieth euill vnto him, as Michaiah did to Achab. Salomon saith, He Prou. 28. [...]. which increaseth his riches by Vsu­rie, gathereth for them which will bee mercifull to the poore. As if he should say, when hee hath loden himselfe like a cart, he shall be vn­loden like a cart againe, and they shall inherit his money for whom hee did neuer gather it. For, hee which is vnmerciful to the poore, meaneth not to gather for them which will bee mercifull to the poore: but Salomon saieth, That they shall be his heires which will bee mercifull as he was vnmerci­full.

Now marke whether this pro­phecie [Page] of Salomon be true, I know not how many in this Citie doo increase by Vsurie; but this pro­phecie seemeth to bee verified of many: For it is noted, that the ri­ches and lands of Aldermen and Merchants, and other in London, do not last so long, nor indure so wel, as the riches and lands of others in the Countrey, and that their chil­dren doo not prooue so well as o­thers, nor come to that place in the Common weale, which for their wealth their parents looked that they should come to. I can giue no reason for it but the reason of Sa­lomon, He which increaseth by Vsu­rie, gathereth for them which will bee mercifull to the poore. That is, their riches shall goe from their heires to Gods heires, according to that, The riches of the sinner is laid vp for Pro. 13. 22. the righteous: that is, the righteous [Page] shall inioy that which the wicked gathereth. All riches are vncer­taine, but the riches which are euill gotten, are most vncertaine: They may bee called mooueable goodes, for they are very mooue­able, like the clowdes which ne­uer rest til they fall as they climed. God saith, that he will smite the Izek. 22. 13. Vsurer with his fist, not with the palme of his hande, but with his fist, which giueth a greater blow. As his hands were shut against the poore, so Gods hands shall be shut against him, that his punishment may be like his sinne. But if you will heare their finall sentence, Dauid saith heere, That they shall not dwell in Gods temple, nor rest in his holie mountaine. Then we will seeke no more punishments, for this punishment is all punishmēts, If they shall not come to heauen, [Page] whose then shall those riches be? nay, whose then shall the owner be when that day commeth? If he shall not rest in heauen, then he shall rest in Hell where no rest is. Then saith one, the Vsurer shall Note. crie vnto his children, Cursed be you my children, because you were the cause of these torments, for least you should be poore, I was an Vsurer, and robbed other, to leaue riches vnto you. To whome, the children shall replie againe, nay, Cursed be you father, for you were the cause of our tor­ments; for if you had not left vs other mens goodes, we had not kept other mens goodes. Thus when they are cursed of God, they shall curse one another, curse the Lord for condemning them, curse their sinnes for accusing them, curse their parents for be­getting [Page] them, and curse them­selues, because they cannot helpe themselues. As they which are blessed doe nothing but blesse, so they which are cursed do nothing but curse. This is the second V­surie which the Vsurer shall re­ceiue of God, after he hath recei­ued Vsurie of men, then the name of Vsurie shall be fulfilled, as it signifieth biting, so when it hath bitten other, it shall bite the Vsu­rer too, and neuer rest biting; then they shall wish that they could re­store againe as Zacheus did, and Luk. 19. shall not restore because their mo­ney is gone. Therefore if Christ be come to your hearts, as he came to Zacheus house, restore now as Zacheus did, and escape this iudg­ment. This is the end of the Vsu­rer and his money, if they stay to­gether till death, yet at last there [Page] shall bee a diuision. The Deuill Note. shall take his soule, the earth shall take his body, the strangers shall take his goods, and the mourners shall reioyce vnder their blackes, and say, Wickednes is come to the graue. Therefore, if thou wouldest not be counted an Vsu­rer then, refraine to be an Vsurer now, for they which are Vsurers now, shall be counted Vsurers then. Thus you haue heard the Vsurers payment.

Now if you will know whe­ther Whether it be vnlaw­full to giue Vsurie. it be vnlawfull to giue Vsu­rie, as it is vnlawfull to take Vsu­rie, I wish that you could resolue your selues, that I mighte not speake of it: for I haue hearde some Preachers say, that there be some truthes which they would be loth to preach, and so there be some truthes which I would be [Page] loth to preache, because many heare by halues, and some for ma­lice or ignorance will take things otherwise than they are spoken, yet because I haue promised, I will speake some thing of it.

Well then, may we neither take Vsurie, nor giue Vsurie? I knowe that Ieremy saith, I haue Iere. 15. 10. not lent vpon Vsurie to others, ney­ther haue others lent vpon Vsurie to 1. Ob. me; as though both were vnlaw­full, not only to take Vsurie, but to giue Vsurie. But thereby Ie­remy doeth signifie, that he was Answer. no medler in the world, whereby they should enuie him like other men, and therefore hee cleareth himselfe chiefely from Vsurie, because Vsurers were most en­uyed. And to shewe that he was not an Vsurer, he saith, that he was not a borrower, which is [Page] more lawfull than to be an Vsu­rer, like a man which saith I doe neither hate him, nor knowe him. Why it was lawfull to knowe him, but to proue that he did not hate him, he sayth, he doth not knowe him: So Ieremy, to proue that he had not lent vppon Vsurie, doth say, that hee neuer borrowed vppon Vsurie, which many will doe that will not lende. The best Expositors giue this sense of it. I knowe beside, that 2. Ob. Christ did cast forth the buyers out of his temple, as well as the sellers, but that was not for buy­ing, Answer. but for buying in the temple, where they should not buy, but pray: or else it was as lawfull to buy any thing, as it is lawfull to vse it.

I know beside, that it is a com­mon 3. Ob. saying, if there were no buy­ers, [Page] there would be no sellers, if there were no bribe giuers, there would be no bribe takers. But in this case it may be rather sayd, if Answer. there were no takers, there would be no giuers, for the giuer doeth not make the receiuer to take, but the receiuer doth make the giuer to giue, because he will not lende vnlesse the other will giue him for the lone: therefore as we say, the receiuer makes a theese: so I may say, the receiuer of Vsurie makes the giuer of Vsurie. Therefore I would be loth to compare them which are constrained to borrow vppon Vsurie, vnto them which did buy in the temple, and were not constrayned more than they which solde in the temple. Much lesse may I compare them which giue Vsurie, vnto them which take Vsurie: for there is as great [Page] oddes betweene them, as there is betweene giuing and taking, or betweene couetousnesse and ne­cessitie, for one is couetousnesse, and the other is necessitie. Hee which lendeth for Vsurie, lendeth for couetousnesse, but he which borroweth vpon Vsurie, borrow­eth for necessitie.

Now, for necessitie God hath allowed many things; as for ne­cessitie it was lawfull for Adams sonnes to marrie with Adams daughters, because there were no other women. For necessitie it was lawfull for Dauid to eate the Shew bread, because he had no o­ther foode. For necessitie it was 1. Sam. 21. 6. lawfull to worke, and heale, and fight vppon the Saboath, which L [...]k. 13 10. was not lawfull, but for necessitie. Therefore for necessitie why may not a man pay more than he bor­rowed, [Page] seeing no Scripture doth forbid vs to pay more than wee borrow, but to require more than wee lend. Some doo thinke that as GOD did vse the ambition of Absalom, and the malice of Pha­raoh, & the trecherie of Iudas vnto good; so men may vse the coue­tousnes of vsurers vnto good: that is, to helpe at a neede, when a man is like to bee vndone, and his chil­dren cast away, and his Lease for­feited, and many inconueniences beside like to insue (which you knowe better than I) vnlesse hee haue present money at some time to preuent a mischiefe. For ex­ample hereof, I may alleage how Iaacob did vse the sinne of Laban: Gen. 31. 53. Laban did euill in swearing by I­dolls, but Iaacob did not euill in receiuing such an oath of him, though it was an vnlawfull oath. [Page] So, though the Vsurer doo euill in taking Vsurie, yet a man doth not euill in giuing Vsurie. Beside, I may alleage the example of Abra­ham and Abimelech: Abraham Gen. 21. 32. made a couenāt with Abimelech; to confirme this couenant, A­braham sware, and Abimelech sware, Abraham sware by the true God, but Abimelech sware by his false Gods, and yet Abraham did receiue this oath and sinned not. So, if her Maiestie and the Turke should make a couenant, the Turk would not sweare as the Queene would sweare; for the Queene would sweare by the Lorde, but the Turke would sweare by Ma­homet: if it be lawfull then to re­ceiue such an oath, though it bee an vnlawfull oath, why may it not bee lawfull for mee, to giue more than I borrowed, though it bee [Page] vnlawfull for the Vsurer to take more than hee lended? Beside, a Prince may not pardon a wilfull murderer, yet I think that no man wil say in hast, that he which hath committed murder may not take a pardon. As this vnlawfull giuing doth not make the taking vnlaw­full; so the other vnlawfull taking doth not make the giuing vnlaw­full. Beside, it is lawfull to suffer iniurie, though it be vnlawfull to offer iniurie: It is lawfull to suffer iniurie, as Christ paide tribute, Mat. 17. [...]9 which was iniurie; but it is not lawfull to offer iniurie, because there are sixe Commandements a­gainst it.

Now, to take Vsurie, is as it were to offer iniurie; but to giue Vsurie, is as it were to suffer iniu­rie: therefore though I may not take more than I borrowed, yet I [Page] may giue more than I borrowed.

Moreouer, I may compate gi­uing of Vsurie to swearing; if a man sweare without cause he sin­neth; but if he sweare as the word teacheth him to sweare, he sinneth not: so, if a man borrow vpon V­surie and borrow without cause, he sinneth, because he feedeth the Vsurer: but els, as a man maye sweare in some case, so in some case a man may borrowe vpon V­surie, that is, in case of necessitie, when a man must needes borrow, and can borrowe of none but of Vsurers.

Lastly, I may alleage that Vsu­rie and Vsurer are neuer read in the scripture, but they signifie him which takes Vsurie, not him which giues Vsurie: and therfore the Scripture seemeth to forbid taking, but not giuing.

[Page] Many reasons moe are alleaged which I cannot refute, and there­fore I will not contradict them: yet I meane not to decide the que­stion, because I will not be mista­ken; but if some should come vn­to me in that necessitie and extre­mitie which I can imagine, and aske; may I borrowe money of these Vsurers to saue my life, or my credite, or my liuing, seeing no man will lend mee freelie? I would answere him as the Pro­phet answered Naaman, neither doo nor doo not, but goe in peace. I will not forbid thee nor I will not condemne thee, but if thy consci­ence condemne thee not, I thinke thy sinne one of the least sinnes; & as Naaman praied, Lord be mer­cifull 2. King. 5. 18. vnto me in this: so I think the Lord will bee mercifull vnto thee in this: but if thy conscience goe [Page] against it: then doo it not, for it is sinne to thee though it bee free for another, because whatsoeuer is not done of faith is sinne. I charge Rom. 14. 23. you in the feare of GOD that you do not mistake that which is said, for I knowe no learned preacher, nor learned writer of other mind. Yet least you should mistake the matter, as I distinguished of len­ders, so I will distinguish of bor­rowers.

If some may borrow vpon V­surie, it dooth not followe that all Diuers kindes of borrowers. may borrowe vppon Vsurie, be­cause all haue not the like cause: therefore doo not say that I teach you to borrowe vpon Vsurie, for I think that the most in this citie which borrowe vppon Vsurie, should not borrowe as they doo, because they rather maintaine V­surie, than supplie their necessitie. [Page] Some I know borrow for meere necessitie; if any may be allowed, those are they: but there is a kind of borrowers in this Citie which feede Vsurers as the bellowes kindle the fire; for they haue no neede to borrow, but because they would bee rich, and richer, and ri­chest of all: therfore they will im­ploy al the money which they can borrowe, thinking to get more by the vse of it, than the Vsurie of it doth come too. This maketh thē sell their wares so deare, because they must not only gaine the price but the interest beside, and more than the interest too, or els they gaine nothing. These borrowers are in another predicament than those which borrowe for neces­sitie: and therefore if they bee not olde enough to answere for them­selues, I am too young to answere [Page] for them. There are other bor­rowers as I haue heard, which for some secrete cause would seeme barer and needier than they are, ei­ther because they would not bee charged deeplie with Subsidies, or els because they would compoūd with their Creditors for a little: therefore they will haue alwaies some thing for Vsurie, that their Creditors may thinke them bare of money, or that other may pitie thē in their charges. These are like those Foxes which haue wealth enough to pay their debts, and yet lie in prison because they would defraud their Creditors. I doubt not but there bee moe sorts than I knowe, I cannot hunt euerie cor­ner because I want experiēce: but this is my conclusion, I would Note. haue no man pay interest vnto V­surers but for necessitie, euen as a [Page] trauailer giueth his pursse to a theefe, because he cannot choose. Thus you haue heard what I can say of them which take Vsurie, and them which giue Vsurie.

Now you would vnderstand the last question. If you haue bin Vsurers alreadie, what you should What Vsurers should doe with their gaines. doe with that money which you haue gained by Vsurie, surely euen as Zacheus did, restore it a­gaine. If you cannot say as Samuel 1. Sam. 12. 3. said, whose goods haue I taken? then you must saye as Zacheus sayde, Luk. 19. 8. whose goodes haue I kept? The best thing is, to doe no man wrong, but the next to that is, to make him amends. This God signifieth when he saith, put away the exe­crable Iosh. 6. 18. thing from you, that is, let no vnlawfull thing staye in youre hands, like the wedge of Achan which he had got by sinne. The [Page] same lawe serueth for all which is got wrongfully, which was insti­tuted against theeues, Restore it a­gaine: Exod. 22. the reason of this lawe is, because the sinne is not remitted, vntill the debt be restored, for as humilitie is the repentaunce of pride, and abstinence is the repen­taunce of surfet, and almes is the repentaunce of couetousnes, and forgiuenes is the repentaunce of malice, so restitution is the re­pentaunce of Vsurie; as he which is not humble doeth not repent his pride, he which doeth not ab­steine doth not repent his glutto­nie, he which doeth not forgiue, doeth not repent his malice, so he which doeth not restore, doeth not repent his Vsurie. For how can he be said to repent for his V­surie, which liueth by Vsurie still. Therefore Daniel saith to Ne­buchadnezzar, Dan. 4. 24. [Page] Breake off thy sinnes by righteousnes, shewing, that no­thing but righteousnes can breake vnrighteousnes. As diseases are healed by the contrarie, so pride is healed by humilitie, gluttonie by abstinence, malice by forgiue­nes, couetousnes by almes, and V­surie by restoring. This Paule cal­leth, The reuenge of a Christian, 2. Cor. 7. 11. when he takes reuenge vpon his sinnes, and punisheth his lustes, so that he maketh them doe contra­rie to that which they would do. Therefore you must restore that which you haue got by Vsu­rie, or else you doe not repent of your Vsurie. As a Camell whē he comes home, casteth off his burthen at the dore, that he may enter into his Stable, so they which are laden with other mens goodes, when they goe to heauen, [Page] must leaue their burthen where they had it, least they be too grose to get in at the narrow gate. But as the Disciples of Christ said, this is a hard speech, so to them which Iohn. 6. 60. haue got most that they haue by vnlawfull meanes, this is a hard speech, to bid them restore it a­gaine: there be two great rubs in the way.

First, the losse which they shall sustaine, if they restore againe all Two ob­iections. which they haue got vniustlie. Then the difficultie to restore it vnto the right parties. If you aske mee, as Amaziah asked the Pro­phet, How shall we doo for those hun­dreth 2. Chro. 25. 9. tallents? How shall I liue when al is gone which I haue got wrongfully? I can say no more than the Prophet said to him, The Lord is able to giue thee more than this. Zacheus did not feare how he Luk. 19. [Page] should liue, but Zacheus did feare to offende: so thou shouldest not feare to restore other mens goods, but thou shouldest feare to keepe other mens goods: and as Zacheus liued when hee had restored, so thou shalt liue when thou hast re­stored. He which saith, Trie me if Mala. 3. 10. I will not powre downe a blessing, trie him whether he will not powre downe a blessing; for he hath pro­mised to blesse the lender aswell Deut. 15. 10. as the sacrificer. He which is the Lorde of all, can giue thee more than thou needest: but if you can not restore to the owner, nor to his heires, thē giue it to the poore, for they are the next heires, & re­pent that thou hast kept it so long: but in no wise thou maiest keepe it to thy selfe, because it is none of thine.

When Hezekiah was like to [Page] die, Esaiah sayd vnto him, Set thy Esai. 38. 6. things in order before thou die. That which hee aduised him, hee adui­seth all; set your things in order before you die. What is this to set things in order, but to restore vnto euerie one his owne? When thou bequeathest thy bodie to the earth, then thy bodie is set in or­der: when thou bequeathest thy soule to God, then thy soule is set in order: when thou bequeathest thy goods to the owners, then thy goods are set in order: therefore if thou die with other mēs goods in thy hand, then thou diest before thou haue set things in order, and then thou diest in thy sinnes, and then no promise in all the Scrip­ture appertaineth vnto thee, be­cause nothing is promised vnto sinners but vnto penitent sinners. Therefore that you may not die in [Page] your sinnes, it is necessary to make restitution before you die, or els you die in your sinne, and are cros­sed out of all the ioyes of heauen. Therefore as Abner saide to Ioah, 2. Sam. 2. 26. Knowest thou not that it will be bit­ternes in the latter end? So remem­ber whether this course will bee sweete or bitter in the end.

Thus you haue heard the defi­nition of Vsurie, and the deriua­tion of it, and the vnlawfulnes of it, and the kindes of it, and the pu­nishment of it, and the arguments which are alleaged for it, & what may bee thought of them which doo not take Vsurie but giue V­surie, and what they should doo which haue got their liuing by V­surie.

Now, seeing you may not bee Vsurers to men, let euerie man hereafter bee an Vsurer to GOD, [Page] which promiseth; If thou leaue father, or mother, or wife, or chil­dren, Math. 19. 29. or house, or land for him, not ten in the hundreth, but an hun­dreth for ten; nay an hundreth for one, and in the world to come life euerlasting: that is, a thousand for one. That we may receiue this V­surie, let vs pray that the wordes which wee haue heard out of this Psalme, may dwell with vs till we dwell in heauen.


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