The woorke of the ex­cellent Philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca concerning Benefyting, that is too say the dooing, receyuing, and requyting of good Turstes.

Translated out of Latin by Arthur Golding.

¶Imprinted at London by Iohn Day, dwelling ouer Aldersgate. 1578.

¶To the right honorable Sir Christo­pher Hatton Knight, Capiteine of the Queenes Ma­iesties Gard, Uicechamberlaine too her high­nesse, and one of her Maiesties moste honourable priuie Counsell, Arthur Golding wissheth health and prosperitie with in­crease in honour.

VNder hope of your honorable fauor & good likyng, I pr [...]ace now intoo the Court ageine after long discontinewaunce, attendyng as an interpreter vpon the worthy Phlosopher Seneca, sometyme a Courtyer, and also a Counseller of the greatest state in the worlde. The matter whiche he is too speake of, is the true maner of benefityng or doyng of good turnes; a thing of all others most profitable for mans life, and whiche maketh men like vntoo God. In the declaration whereof, he sheweth what a Benefite is; why, how, when, too what ende, and on whom it is too bee bestowed; what reward is too bee looked for in the dooing of it, and what frute it yeeldeth again. Likewise at whose hande, with what mynde, and when a bene­fite is too bee receiued: how and when wee should requite it, or remaine still detters for it; and by what meanes a man maie bee either beneficiall or [Page] thankfull, euen without cost or peine. His princi­ples and preceptes are, in substaunce, Diuine; in forme, Philosophicall; in effect, frutefull. His sen­tences are short, quick, and full of matter; his wor­des, sharpe, piththie, and vnaffected; his whole or­der of writyng graue, deepe, and seuere; fitted al­together to the reforming of mennes myndes, and not too the delyghting of their eares. But great is the libertie of truthe emong wise menne, and yet greater is the prerogatiue therof emōg good men. For wise men knowe that the wholsemost meates are not alwaies best in tast, nor the moste souerein medcines alwaies pleasauntest. And good menne being desirous too haue their faultes rather cured than couered, doo finde as well in infirmities of mynde, as of bodie, that the first step to helth is too discerne the diseaze, and the next is too receiue the right Medicine for it: Onely too the vnwise and wicked sorte, truthe is troublesome and odious; because they cannot abyde the bryghtnesse of her countenance, nor the power and maiestie of her presence. I haue therefore thought this woorke not vnmeete too bee put intoo our Moothertung, that the mo myght take benefyte by it; nor yet vn­expedient too comme in Courtyers handes, who shalbe so muche the greater Ornament too them­selues, and too the place whereof they take their name, as their Courtesies and Benefytes bee mo and greater towardes others. And how woorthie it is too bee embrased of Counsellers; I referre mee too the iudgement of suche as shall voutsafe [Page] too read it. Of this I am fully perswaded, that you will thinke it a verie fit present for mee too offer vnto you in respect of the place wherintoo you are called; and a sufficient Argument and Witnesse of my duetyfull good will towards you. And thus recommending this my trauell too your good and honourable protection, I humbly take my leaue. Writ­ten at my House in the Parish of all Hal­lowes in the Wall in London the .xvii. day of Marche. 1577.

Most humbly at your commaundement. Arthur Golding.

The firste booke of Lucius Annaeus Seneca, concerning Benefyting, or the doo­ing of Good turnes, written too his freend EBVTIVS LIBERALIS.

¶The first Chapiter.

MY deere freend Liberalis, among the many and sundrie errours of our vn­discreete and vnaduised lyfe: I may well saie, there is in a maner no­thyng more hurtfull, than that wee knowe not, either how too bestow, or how too take good turnes. For it fo­loweth of consequēce, that the good turnes which are ill bestowed should bée i [...] owed. And therefore if thei bée not requited, it is too late for vs too complayn, forasmucheas thei were lost in the verie bestowing of them. And it is no maruell that among so many and so greate vyces, there is none more ryfe than vnthankful­nesse. I see many causes thereof.

The first is, that wee choose not worthie persones too be­stowe vpon. But if wee mynde too put out money too interest, wée make diligent inquirie of the landes and substaunce of our detter. Wee cast no seede intoo hūgrie and barreine soile. But as for our benefites (without any choycemaking) wee rather throwe them away, than bes [...]owe them. And I can not easely say, whether it bée more shame too deny a man a benefite, or too claime it ageine. For this is suche a kynde of credit, as a man must receiue no more of it, that is frankly offered hym. Wher­of too mislike, truely it is the foulest shame that cā bee, euen in this respect, that too the discharge of this [...]edit, there neede [...]h not welth, but will. For he requiteth a good turne, that oweth it willingly. But whereas those are too blame, that cānot find in their hart so▪ muche as too acknowledge it: there is a faulte in vs also. Wée fynde many vnthākfull▪ but wée make mo. For one whyle wee bee bitter in vpbraiding and chalenging: an o­ther [Page] whyle wee bee [...]ckle, and suche as anon after repent vs of our weldooing: and other whyles through our waywardnesse and fynding fault at euery trifle, wee vtterly disgrace all cour­tesie, not onely after wee haue doon good turnes, but also euen in the verie dooing of them. For whiche of vs is cōtented with lyght intreataunce, or with once intreataunce? What is he, whiche suspecting that somewhat should bee requested of him, hath not knit the browes, turned awaie his face, feyned buzi­nesse, with long and endlesse bytalke purposely cut of occasion of sute, and by sundrie deuises dalied out the necessitie that re­quired speede? Or if he were taken at aduauntage, either he hath made delaies, or flatly saied nay too it. Or if he graunted, it was hardly, it was with a sowre looke, it was with murmu­ryng wordes scarce vttered from the lippes. But no man will gladly bee in ones daunger, for that whiche he getteth by im­portunatenesse, and not by gentlenesse. Can any manne bee be­holden too suche a [...]ne, as either fastened a good turne vppon hym for a glorie, or forced it vppon hym in a furie, or did it too bee rid of trouble, because he was weerie of hym? He mistakes his markes, whiche thinkes that partie bounde vnto hym, whom he hath weeried with long delaye, or tormented with long lingeryng. Looke with what mynde a good turne is doon with the same it is due ageine. And therefore it must not bee doon vnaduisedly: (for a man oweth no thanke for the thing whiche he hath gotten at suche a ones hande, as wiste not what he did) Nor [...]owely: (for sith the estimation of all tourti­sie dependeth chéefly vpon the will of the dooer: he that is [...]low in dooing, may seme too haue bin vnwilling) No, nor yet dis­deinfully: for inasmucheas Nature hath so framed vs, that shrewd turnes sin [...]ke deeper in our stomackes than good tur­nes, so as the good bee soone forgotten, but the other sticke fast in remembraunce: what can he looke for, whiche displeaseth euen in pleasuryng? A manne is thankfull enough towardes suche a one, if he doo but beare with his vnkyndely courtesie. But there is no cause why the multitude of thanklesse perso­nes should make vs the [...]lower too doo men good. For first (as [Page 2] I saied) wee our selues increace th [...] number of them. Ageine, the Gods immortall are not driuen from their néedefull lauish­nesse, though menne bee wicked and without regarde of them. They vse their owne Nature, and beare with the wicked: yea, and they doo good euen too those that abuse their giftes. Lette vs then followe thē for our guydes, so muche as mannes fra [...] ­tie auoordeth. Let vs giue our good turnes, and not put them out too Usurie. Worthie is he to bee deceiued, whiche mynded receiuing ageine, when he gaue.

But he hath had ill successe.

Bothe children and wiues deceiue our expectation: and yet wee bring vp children, and Marrie wyues still. And wee bee so headstrong against experience, that being vanquished wee go ageine too the warres, and after shipwreck, wee go ageine too the seas. How muche more then becommeth it vs to continew in dooing good turnes? whiche if a man bestowe not, because he receiueth not; then bestoweth he too the ende he may receiue, & so iustifieth he the cace of the vnthankfull, vntoo whom it is a shame not too requyte if they maie. How many are vnworthie of the lyght? And yet the daie springeth still. How many be­waile that euer they were borne? And yet Nature yeeldeth newe issue, and suffereth those too bée, whiche had leuer not too bee. It is the propertie of a noble and vertuous minde, not too respect the profit of welldooing, but the welldooing itself: yea, and too doo good euen after it hath met with euill menne. For what noblehartednesse were it too doo good too many, if no manne did deceiue? The trewe noblenesse then, is too be­stowe benefites that shall neuer make returne, whereof the princely hart reapeth his frute out of hand. Surely, so little ought that matter too discourage mée, or too hinder the doing of so goodly a thing: that although I were past hope of finding a thankfull persone, yet should I rather forbeare the receiuing of good turnes, than the dooing of them. For he that dooth thē not, is vnkynde before vnkyndnesse bée offered. Neuerthelesse, to say as I thinke, he that renderet [...] not one good turne for an other, offendeth more than he that dooth it not speedily.

¶The Seconde Chapiter.

If lauishe too all men thou purpose too bee,
A like of thy benefites: holde thee content,
For one well bestowed, a number too see,
On persones vnthankfull quyte lost and misspent.

IN the first verse, a manne maie finde faulte with bothe the partes of it. For neither are benefites to bee las­shed out vpon all men: and as for la­uishenesse, it is vncommendable in any thing, and least commendable in benefites: for i [...] yee take discretion from them, thei cease too bee benefi­tes, and maie rather bee called by what other name yee list. The residue that followeth, is woon­derfull geere, as which with the bestowyng of one good turne well, comforteth the bestowyng of many amisse. But see I pray you, if it bee not bothe trewer, and more agreeable too the no­ble hart of a well doer: That wee encourage him too doo good turnes, euen though he should bestowe none well. For it is a false grounde, too say that many must bee lost. None is lost, forasmuch as he that forgoeth it, made his reckenyng too ha­zard it. There is but one way for thee too doo good turnes: bestowe them. If he render any thing, it is cléere gaine: and if he render not, yet it is no losse. I bestowed it too make a free-gift of it. No man keepes a register of his benefites: neither dooth the couetous Usurer call dayly and howrely vppon his detter. A good man neuer thinketh vpon the good tournes he hath doon, except he bee put in mynde by him that requyreth. For otherwyse they passe intoo y nature of de [...]es. It is a vy [...]e Usurie too keepe a reckening of benefites, as of expenses. Whatsoeuer successe thy former benefites haue had, continue thou still in bestowyng vppon others. Better is it for thee, too let them rest emong the vnthankfull, whom either shame, or occasion, or feare may at one tyme or other make thankfull. [Page 3] Cease not too bestowe: go through with thy woorke: and ac­complishe the dutie of a good man. Helpe this man with thy goodes, that man with thy credit, the thirde with thy fauour, an other with thy counsell, and an other with thy wholesome instructions.

¶The third Chapiter.

YEa euen wilde beastes perceiue who doo them good: neither is there any Beaste so sauage, but that by cheri­shing it, a man shall make it tame, and win it too loue him. Liōs suffer their keepers too handle their mouthes, and hurt them not. Prouender win­neth the wilde Elephantes, euen vn­to slauishe obediēce. So much dooth the continuaunce of diligent cherishyng ouercome, euen those thynges that are without the compasse of vnderstandyng, and consideration of a benefite. A man perchaunce is vnthankfull for one good turne: for an other he will not bee so. He hath for­gotten twoo: The third will bring hym too remembraunce of bothe the other that were slipt away. That man hath lost his good turne, whiche in haste beleeueth he hath loste it. But he that holdeth on, and loadeth benefite vppon benefite; wresteth out kindenesse, euen from the churlishe and forgetfull persone. He can not haue the hart too lift vp his eyes ageinste many. Wheresoeuer he turne himself too shunne his owne consciēce there let him see thee. Besette him with thy benefites: and I will tell thee what the force and propertie of them is, if thou wilt first giue me leaue too ouerronne these thynges that per­taine not too the matter: namely why there bee three Graces, why they bee sisters, and why they go hand in hand: why they looke smyling, why they bee yoong, and why th [...]y bee maidēs, and appareled in looce and sheere raiment. Some would haue it ment thereby, that the one of them bestoweth the good turne the other receiueth it, and the thirde requiteth it. Othersome, [Page] meene that there bee three sortes of benefyting: that is too wit, of be [...]réendyng, of requyting, and both of receiuyng and requyting together. But take whiche of these you list too bée trew. What dooth this maner of knowledge profite vs? Why walkes that knot in roundell hand in hand? It is in this re­spect, that a good turne passing orderly from hand too hand, dooth neuerthelesse returne too the giuer: and the grace of the whole is mard, if it bee anywhere broken of▪ but is most beau­tifull, if it continew toogether and kéepe his course. The cause why they looke smyling, is for that the countenances of such as deserue well, are chéerfull, like as theirs also is woont too bee, both whiche bestowe, and which receiue benefites. Yoong they bee, bycause the remembraunce of good turnes must ne­uer wex old. Uirgins they bee, bicause benefites must be with­out foyle, pure, and holy too all men, wherein there ought too bee no bondage nor constreint. And therfore they weare looce garmentes, howbeit very sheere and thin, bicause weldooin­ges are willing too bee seene. Admit now that some man bee so farre in thraldomme too the Greekes, as too vphold that these thinges are necessarie: yet is there no man that can deeme these thinges folowing too perteyne too the matter: namely, that Aegle should bee the eldest, Euphrosyne the middle­most, and Thaleia the third: whiche are names that Hesiodus gaue them. And whereas Hesiodus gaue them these names vp­pon pleasure: euery man wresteth the interpretation of them according as hee thinkes they will best fit his owne purpose, and indeuereth too apply them vntoo some meening. Homere therfore chaunged the name of one of them, and called hir Pa­sithea. Yea and he brought hir foorth vntoo a mariage: wherby ye may knowe they bee no cloce Nunnes. I can fynd you ano­ther Poët, that bringes them foorth with Girdles about them, and Eares of Corne in their handes. Yea and Mercurie stan­deth with them: not bicause reason commendeth benefites, but bicause it so pleased the Peinter. Chrysippus also (in whom is so excellent sharpnesse of wit, and so percing intoo the bot­tome of the truthe, who speaketh altogither too the purpose, [Page 4] and vseth no mo woordes than serue for the vnderstanding of the matter:) stuffeth all his booke with these toyes: i [...]somuch that he speaketh very little of the maner of the bestowyng, re­ceiuing, & requyting of benefites. Neither powdereth he these thinges with Fables, but fables with these thinges. For bes [...] ­des the said things (which Hecaton wryteth) Chrysippus saieth, that the thrée Graces are the daughters of Iupiter and E [...]ri [...] ­me, and that they bee yoonger than the Howres, but farre more beautifull of face, and therefore are appointed too wait vppon Venus. Moreouer hee thinkes the name of their moother to make greatly too the matter. For he saieth shee was called Eu­rynome, bicause hee had neede too bee a man of greate welth, that should doo many men good. As who would say, that moo­thers were woōt too bee named after their daughters, or that Poetes reported trew names. Nay verely, like as a reporter of newes vseth boldnesse in sted of memorie, and when he can­not reādely hit vppon mens names, giueth them some name of his owne makyng: euen so Poëtes thinke it not materiall too say truthe: but either vppon force of necessitie, or vppon ima­gination of comelinesse, they tearme a man by suche name as sometyme maketh trimly ageinst them. Neither is it any cracke too their credit, though they enlarge the matter with some newe deuice of their owne. For the last mencioned Poët makes the foresaid Ladies to beare names of his appointyng. And that yee may knowe it too bee so, behold Thaleia (abow [...] whom is most adoo) is with Hesiodus one of the Graces, and with Homer one of the Muses.

¶The fourth Chapter.

BUt least I doo that thing myselfe, whiche I finde fault with in others: I will [...]eaue all these toyes, whiche are so farre out of the matter, that they come nothyng neere it nor about it. Onely stand thou in my de­fence, if any man chardge mee for contro [...] ­ling of Chrysippus (in good sooth) a greate [Page] clerk, but yet a Gréek, whose sharpnes of wit being ouer thin, is soone blunted and oftentymes turneth edge: & when it see­meth too doo somewhat; it pricketh, but pearceth not through. For what sharpnesse of wit is this? He should speak of Benefi­tes, and set order in a thing that most of al other knitteth men togither in felowship: he should haue made a lawe too liue by, so as neither vnaduised plyantnesse might bée setby vnder co­lour of gentlenesse: nor liberalitie (whiche ought too bee nei­ther skant nor ouerlauish) bee restreined by the same rule that goeth about too measure it. He should haue taught men too receiue willingly, and too requyte willingly: and that those whiche bynd men by their deedes, prouoke them too a greate encounter, not onely how too matche them, but also how too surmount them in good will, bicause that hee whiche must re­quyte; neuer ouertaketh, if he haue not outgone. The one sort were too bee taught too vpbrayd nothyng: and the other sort too thinke themselues the more in de [...]te. Too this m [...]st hon [...] ­rable striuyng who might ouermatche other in dooing good, Chrysippus exhorteth by telling vs, that inasmuchas the Gra­ces bée Iupiters daughters, wée must beware that wée thinke it not a small offence too their father, if we offer wrong too so trim Ladies. Teach thou mee some of those thinges that may make mee the forewarder too doo men good, and the thankful­ler too suche as deserue well at my hand: whereby the mynds of them that make men beholden, and of them that are behol­den may striue: the bestowers too forget, and the detters too beare in remembraunce. And as for these toyes, leaue them vp too Poëtes, whose purpose is too delight mens eares, and too frame pleasaunt tales. But as for those that meene too amend mennes dispositions, and too mainteine faithfulnesse in world­ly affaires, and too imprint the remembraunce of good turnes in mennes myndes: let them speake earnestly, and deale effe­ctually: vnlesse perchaunce thou imagin, that the oue [...]throwe of gooddooing (the thing of all others moste perillous and hurtfull) may bee letted by lyght and fond fabling, and by olde wiues doting reasons.

¶The fifth Chapter.

BUt like as I must ourronne super­fluous thinges: so muste I needes shewe, that the first lesson which we ought too learne, is what wee owe whē we haue receiued a good turne. For some man thinkes he oweth the Mouny that he hath receiued, another the Cōsulship: another the Preesthod: and another the Presi­dentship. These thinges are badges of benefites, but not the benefites themselues. The benifite it selfe may bee caried in hart, but it cannot be touched with hand. There is greate dif­ference betweene the matter of a benefite, and the benefite it selfe. Therfore, neither Gold, nor Siluer, nor any of the thin­ges that wee receiue of our neighbours, is a benefite: but the good will of the giuer. Neuerthelesse, the vnskilfull regarde onely the thyng that is seene with the eye, and deliuered with the hande, and hild in po [...]session: and as for the thing that is deere and precious in the matter, they set light by it. These thinges whiche wee handle and [...]ooke vppon, and whiche our greedinesse is so fast tyed vntoo are transitorie. B [...]th misfor­tune and force may take them from vs. But a good turne en­du [...]eth still, yea euen when the thyng that was given, is gone. For it is suche a good deede as no force can vndoo. As for ex­ample: I haue reskewed my freend from Pirates: another enemy catches hym and castes hym in prison: now he beree­ueth hym, not of my benefite, but of the vse of my benefite. A­gein I haue saued a mans children from shipwrecke, or pluckt them out of the fyre, and deliuered them home too him: after­ward either siknesse or vnfortuna [...]e mischaunce takes them a­way from him: yet the thyng that I gaue in them, continew­eth euen without them. All the thinges therefore that wrong­fully vsurp the name of a good turne, are but instrumentes wherby the frendly good will, vttereth it self. The same hap­peneth [Page] in other thinges likewise; insomuch that the shewe of the thing is one where, and the thing it self another where. The general of an Army rewardes some Souldier with gar­londes for skaling or for reskewing: What preciowsenesse hath the Garlond or Crowne it felf? what hath the Robe? what hath the Scepter? what hath the Chayre of Estate? what hath the Chariot? None of all these thinges is honour, but the Badge of honour. Euen so the thing that is seene is not a benefite, but the signe and token of a benefite.

¶The .vi. Chapter.

WHat is a benefite thē? It is a frend­ly good deede, giuing gladnesse au [...] taking pleasure in giuing, foreward and redie of it owne occord, too doo the thing that it dooeth. And ther­fore it is not material what is doon, or what is giuen, but with what mind. For the good turne consisteth not in the thing that is doone or gi­uen: but in the verye intent of the dooer or giuer. And that there is greate difference betwixt the sayd thinges, a man may perceyue euen by this, that the bene­fite it self is qnestionlesse good: but the thing that is doone or giuen, is neyther good nor bad. It is the meening that aduaū ­ceth small thinges, and ennobleth bace thinges: that imba­ceth greate thinges, and disgraceth thinges of estimation. For the thinges that are coueted, are of their owne nature nei­ther good nor euill: the matter standes altogether vppon the directing of them by the mynd, which hath the rule of them, and which giueth all thinges their ryght names. Then is it not the good turne it self, that is nombered or delinered: like as also the honoring of God consisteth not in the flaughter of beastes, bee they neuer so fat and glistering with Gold: but in the deuout and ryght meening of the woorshippers. Therfore are good men religious, though they offer but Bran in Ear­then [Page 6] vessells: wheras on the othersyde, euill men escape not the blame of vngodlinesse, though they imbrewe the Altars with neuer so much blud.

¶The .vii. Chapter.

IF good turnes consisted in the thin­ges, and not in the very will of wel-dooing: thā should they bee so much the greater, as the thinges be grea­ter which wee receyue: but that is not so. For oftentymes wée bee most beholden too him that gaue vs smal thinges, howbéeit with greate good will: that with his hart did match the welth of Kinges: that gaue but little, howbeeit gladly: which forgate his owne pouertie, too releeue myne: who had not only a good will, b [...]t also a desyrounesse too help mee: who thought himself too receyue a good turne, when he did o [...]e: who gaue without mynding too receyue, and receiued as though he had not giuen: who both sought, and also preuen­ted occasion too doo mee good. Contrariwise, vnacceptable (as I sayd) are the thinges, eyther that bee wrong out, or that slip from the bestower; seeme they neuer so greate in the déede dooing, or in the outward apparance. And much more wel­come is the thing that is giuen quickly, than the thing that is giuen with full hand. It was a small thing which that man bestowed vppon mee: but he was able too doo no more. Agein it is a greate thing that this man gaue mee: but he cast douts but he made delayes: but he syghed when he gaue it mee: but he gaue it disdeinfully: but he blazed it abrode, and he ment not too please him too whom he gaue it: he gaue it too his owne vaynglorie, and not too mee.

¶The .viii. Chapter.

[Page] AT such tyme as manie men (eche one ac­cording too his abilitie) offered manie thinges vnto Srcrates: Aeschines being a poorescholer of his, said: Syr, I fynd no­thing of sufficient worthinesse too bestowe vppon you, and by that meanes I feele my­self too bee poore. Therfore I giue vntoo you the only thing that I haue, euen myself. This present, such as it is, I pray you take in good woorthe: and consider that wheras others haue giuen mutch vntoo you, they haue left more too themselues. To whom Socrates answered: And why is not the gift that thou haste giuen mee greate, as well as theirs? vnlesse perchaunce thou thinke thy self little woorth. I will doo my indeuer therefore, too restore thee too thyself, better than I receyued thee. In this gift, Aeschines surmoū ­ted the mynd of Alcibiades matched with equall riches, and also the bountifulnesse of all the the welthy yoong men.

¶The .ix. Chapter.

YOu see how the hart may fynd wherwith too bee liberal euen in the vtter distresse of pouertie. He s [...]emeth too mée too haue sayd thus: O fortune, thou ha [...]t woonne nothing by making mee poore. For I will neuer­thelesse fynd out a gift meete for this man: and bycause I cannot giue him of thyne, I will giue him of myne owne. And there is no cause why yee should thinke he made small account of himself: he gaue him­self in exchaūge for. Socrates Like a wittie fellowe, he foūd the meanes how too win Socrates too himself. We must not haue respect how greate thinges bee: what maner of persone he is that giueth them. Some fineheaded felowe graunteth accesse euen vnto such as are vnmeasurable crauers, and féedeth their importunate desyres with faire words, mynding not too help them at all in deede. Bu [...] yit worse is he too bee liked of, who being churlish in speeche, and sowre in countenance, vttereth [Page 7] his cace with disdeine. For men doo both fawne vppon him that is in prosperitie, and also enuye him: yea and they hate him that dooth but as themselues woold doo, if they could. Some men, bycause they haue dishonested other mens wiues, (and that not priuely but openly) are content too lend their owne wyues vnto other men. If there bee anie man that wil­not suffer his wyfe too setfoorth hirself too sale in hir Coche, aud too bee iaunced from place too place as a gazingstock for all men too toote at: he is a Rudesbie, a Cloyne, and a cankred Carle, yea and a hatingstocke among greate Ladies. If there bee any that hath not blased himself by some louer, or lent his Ring too another mannes wyse: him doo the braue Da­mes call a Hodip [...]ke, a sorie Leacher, and a singlesoaid louer. Heeruppon commeth it too passe, that whoredome is counted honest wedlocke: and in the opinion of vnwyuing Bachelers, noman hath wedded a wife, but he that hath inuegled hir from hir Husbond. Furthermore, they onewhyle striue to was [...]e whatsoeuer they can rap and rend: and anon with like coue­touseness they stryue as fast too scrape toogether agein the thinges they haue scatered. They set all at six and at seuen, dis­deyning other mennes pouertie, and dreading their owne; and as for other harme, they feare none. They spare no wrong, but make hauocke of the weaker sort, and keepe them vnder with force and feare. For, that Prouinces are pilled, and Offices [...]hopped and chaunged with louing and boding fr [...]m man too man: it is no wonder, considering that by the Lawe of al real­mes, a man may sell that whiche he hath bought.

¶The .x. Chapter.

BUT the matter itself hath prouoked mee too raūge further than I thought too haue doon. Therfore let vs so end it, as the blame lyght not altogether vppon our present age. This haue our Father complayned of, this com­playn wee of, and this shall our posteritie complayn of: that good behauyour is subuerted, that lewdnesse reigneth, and [Page] that the world decaying into all kynd of wickednesse, groweth euery day woorse than other. Notwithstanding, these thinges keepe at one stay, and shall keepe with small oddes vnder or o­uer, like the waues of the Sea, which the Tyde at his flowing bringeth further in, and at his ebbing draweth back agein too the vttermost pointes of the shore. One whyle men shall sin more in whordome than in other vices; and chastitie shal haue no stay of hirself. Another whyle outrageous feasting shall flo­rishe, and the Kitchin shall most shamefully deuour mennes li­uinges. Another whyle the world shalbee giuen too ouermuch curiousenesse of apparell and regard of beautie, bewraying in the bodie the deformitie of the mynd. In another age inordi­nate libertie shall turne too malapert behauour and flat Ruf­fianrie. Otherwhyles men shalbe set wholly vppon crueltie as well publikly as priuately, and shall go toogither by the eares like madfolk, wherby al Religion and ryght shalbee cō ­founded. The tyme will come that Drunkennesse shalbee had in estimation, and it shalbee counted a vertew too quaffe much wyne. Uyces continew not alwayes at one stay, but are euer­more fleeting and at warre among themseues, and in turmoy­ling doo heaue out one another by turnes. And yit for all that, wee may alwayes sing one song of ourselues: naught wee are naught wee were, and (loth I am too say it) naught wee shal­bee. The world shall neuer bee without Murtherers, Tyran­tes, Theeues, Whoremoongers, Extorcioners, Churchrob­bers, and Traytors. Beneath all these were an vnthankfull persone, sauing that al these proceede from a thanklesse mynd; without which there hath not lyghtly growen anie greate mischeef. On thyne owne part eschew thou the committing of this, as the greatest fault that can bee: but if another man cō ­mit it, beare with it as a lyght offence. For, all the harme that thou canst receyue by it, is but the losse of thy good turne. But the best of it, (which is, that thou hast bestowed it) remayneth whole vnto thee. Nowthen, like as héede is too bee taken that we bestow our benefites specially vppō such as wilbee thank­full for them: so must wee bestowe and doo some good turnes, [Page 8] euen where wee ha [...]e no good opiniō at al; not only although wee mistrust that they wilbee vnthankfull hereafter, but also though wee knowe them too haue bin so before. As for exam­ple. If I can saue a thanklesse mans children from some great daunger, and restore them too him without inconuenience too myself: I shalnot sticke too doo it. As for a woorthie man, I shall defend him with the losse of my blud, and hazard myself too doo hym good. Also if I can saue an vnworthie man from robbing by raysing hew and krye: it shall not greeue mee too auoord him my voyce too doo him good, bycause he is a man.

¶The .xi. Chapiter.

IT followeth that wee declare what benefytes are too bee bestowed, and how. First let vs bestowe suchas bee needfull, secondly suche as bee profi­table, thirdly sucheas are acceptable, and in any wyse durable. But wee must begin at suche as are needfull. For thinges that concerne lyfe or li­uing, doo touche a mannes mynd o­therwyse than the thinges that doo but garnishe, or furnishe him. A man may well make lyght account of the thing that he may easly forbeare, of whiche it may bee sayd, I passe not for the hauing of it, I am cōtent with that whiche I haue of myne owne: yea, and when a man can fynde in his harte, not onely too sende backe the thing that he receyueth, but also too cast it away. Of thinges that bee needfull, somme chalenge the cheef roome, without whiche wee cannot liue: Somme chalendge the second roomee, without whiche wee should not liue: and [...]omme the thirde roome, without whiche wee would not liue.

Of the first sort bee suche as theis: too bee rescewed out of the handes of enemies, from the crueltie of Tyrauntes, from arreignement, and from the [...]undrie and vncertaine perilles that beseege mannes lyfe. From whichesoeuer of theis thin­ges wee rid a man, the greater and terribler it is: the more [Page] thanke shall wee win. For it ronneth alwayes in their mynde, from how greate miseries they were deliuered, and the feare that went before, is an aduauncing of the good turne that en­seweth. Yet notwithstanding, wee must not therefore vse the lesse haste in sauing of a man, than wee can, too the ende that feare may make our good turne of more weight. Next vntoo theis, are the thinges without whiche wee may in deede liue: howbeeit in suehewyse as a man had leuer bee dead: as liber­tie, Chastitie, and a good mynd. After theis wee may place the thinges that are deere vntoo vs by reason of Aliaunce, kinred, customme, and long acquaintance: as children, wyues, howse­hold and suche other thinges, whiche the mynd hathe so neerly alyed too it self, that it esteemes it agreater greef too bee pul­led from them, than too dye. Then followe profitable thinges, whiche haue sundrie and large groundes too woorke vppon. Of this sort is monnye, not superfluous, but orderly prepared for necessarie vses. Of this sort also is Honour, and the procée­dinges of them that seeke too clymbe hygh: for of all profites, the best is to profit a mannes self. As touchyng the thinges that serue but for delyght, there is greate store of them. In theis wee must indeuer, that they may bee acceptable for their opportunitie; that they bee not comon, but such as feawe haue had, or feawe haue within that tyme; or suche as though they bée not precious of their owne Nature, may becomme accepta­ble for the season or place of them. Let vs consider what may doo moste pleasure when it is offered, and what may oftest comme too hand with him that shall haue it, so as it may stand vs in sted as oft as it is with him. In anye wyse let vs beware, that wee send not vnfit presentes: as hunting [...]eawe too a wo­man or an old man, or bookes vntoo a Cloyne, or Nettes too one that is giuen too studie and learnyng. Likewyse wee must looke about vs on the [...]ontrarie part; that when wee mynd too send acceptable thinges, wee send not suche thinges as maye note a mannes disease: as wyne to a drunkard, or Poti [...]arie ware to a [...]kly man. For the thing becommeth a Corzie, & not a Courtezie, wherein the disease of the receiuer is noted by it.

¶The .xii. Chapiter.

IF the choyce of giuing bee in our owne power, wée must cheefly séeke durable thin­ges, that our giftes may not dye ouer ha­stely. For feawe are so thankfull as too thinke vppon a thing that they haue recei­ued, when it is out of their sight. But euen thanklesse persones stumble vppon the re­membraunce of a gift, when they see it before their eyes, so as it suffereth them not too forget it, but presenteth and offereth vntoo them the giuer of it. And truely so muche the more dura­ble thinges must wee seeke too giue, because wee must neuer putt the receyuer in mynd of them. Let the verie thyng it self reuyue the remembraunce of it that was vanishyng away. I had leuer giue siluer wrought, than coy [...]ed: and I had leuer giue Images and pictures, than apparell or a thing that w [...]ll soone bee worne out. Feawe thinke them selues beholden for a thing when it is once gone. But there bee many that neuer mynd thinges giuen, longer than they serue their turne. Therefore if it bee possible, I wllnot haue my gift consuma­ble. Let it abyde with my freend, let it sticke by hym, let it liue and dye with hym. None is so foolishe as too neede warning, that he should not send swoordplayers, or baytingbeastes too him that is gone out of office: or that he should not giue Sommergarmentes to weare in Winter, or Wintergarmentes too weare in the hoate Sommer. Inbestowing benefytes, le [...]t a man followe comon reason. Let him obserue tyme, place, and person. For somme things are acceptable or vnacceptable, ac­cording too their tymes. How much more thanksworthy is it, if wee giue a man the thing he hathe not, than if wee giue him that wherof he hath store? Or a thing that he hath long sought and could not fynd, than a thing that is too bee had euery­where? Let presentes bee, not so muche costly, as rare and ge­zon: and sucheas may bid themselues welcomme euen vntoo a riche man: Like as comon Apples which within feawe dayes [Page] after wilnot bee woorth the eating, are well liked when they comme more tymely than other frutes doo. Also it can not bee that suche thinges should bée vnesteemed, as either none other man hath giuen them the like, or as wee ourselues haue not giuen to others afore.

¶The .xiii. Chapter.

AT suche tyme as Alexander King of Ma­cedonie tooke vppon him aboue the state of a man, because he had counquered the East: the Corynthians sent their Ambassadors to reioyce with him of his good successe, and offered too make him Lord of their Citie. When Alexander lawghed at this kynd of Courtesie: Wee neuer (ꝙ one of the Ambassadors) gaue anye man the protection of our Citie, saue you and Hercules. Then toke he willingly the honor that was offered him: and inter­teyning the Ambassadors with feasting and all other kynd of royall Courtesie, began to think with himself, not what they were that gaue him this honor, but what he himself was too whom they had giuen it. And being a man giuen all too glorie, (wherof he knew neyther the nature nor measure) in folowing the footesteppes of Liber and Hercules, (yea and not staying there where they left of,) he turned his eye from the giuers, too him with whom they had matched him in honor. As who woold say, that bycawse he was matched with Hercules, he had alredye gotten vp too heauen which he had apprehended in his owne vayne imaginacion. For what likenesse was there be­tweene Hercules and this mad yoong spri [...]gald, whom prospe­rouse rashnesse serued in stede of valeantnesse? Hercules win­ning nothing too himself, traueled ouer the whole world, not conquering it, but setting it at libertie. For what could he win, that was an enemye too the euill, a defender of the good, and a pacifyer bothe of sea and Land? But Alexander was from his chyldhod a Robber, a waster of Countries, a destroyer of his freends as well as of his foes, and such a one as made it his [Page 10] cheef felicitie too be a terror too all men: forgetting that not only the féercest, but also euen the cowardlyest beasts are feared for their hurtfull poyson.

¶The fourthtene Chapter,

NOw let vs returne agein too our purpose. The benefyte yt is bestowed vppon euery man without exception, is bestowed vppon noman. Noman thinks himself beholden too an In­keeper or too him that keepes an or­dinarie table, for his interteinement [...] neyther dooth anye take himself for a bidden gwest, too him that maks a co­mon feast, wherof it may bée sayd, what hath he bestowed vppō mée? marie euen as he bestowed vppon this man whom he was scarce acquaynted with, or vppon that man that is his vtter foe yea and perchaunce a verye varlet. What? did he think me a woorthie persone? no, he did it but too feede his owne humor. looke what thow wooldest haue well accepted, that make thou gezō. Who can abyde too bee cloyd with any thing? Let nomā so conster theis woords as though I w [...]nt too restrein libera­litie, and too reyne it backe with a rowgh bit. Let it goe at as large scope as it liste [...]h: but let it go, & not gad. A mā may giue in such wyse, as although a nomber receiue all of one thing, yet eueryman shal think himself too bee made more account of than y rest. Let euerymā haue some familiar token, wherby he may conceyue opinion, that he was better accepted than o­thers. Let him say, I haue receyued the same thing that he did: but myne was vnrequested. I receyued the same that he did: but in shorter tyme, wheras he had deserued it lōg afore There are that haue the same thing: but not giuen with like woords, nor wt like courtesie of the bestower. He obteyned it by intrea­tance: but I was intreated too take it. This man receiued as well as I: but he is able too requyte it eas [...]y, and he is such a one as his age and lacke of children promise greate things. [Page] Although he gaue vs all one thing: yet was his gift greater too méeswards, bycause he gaue where there is no hope too re­ceiue. Like as a courtizane so imparteth hirself vntoo many [...]o­uers, as none goeth away without some signe of hir kynd hart: euen so he that purposeth too haue his good turnes well liked, deuyseth bothe how he may make manie beholden vnto him, [...] yet that eche one of them may haue some peculiar poynt, wherin too prefer himself before the residew. But I will bee no hinderer of gooddooings. The mo and the greater that they bee, the more comēdacion doo they procure. Neuerthelesse, let discretion bee vsed. for noman can like well of the things, that are doone at all aduentures and vnaduysedly. Wherfore if anie man think vs (in giuing theis precepts) too streighten the bownds of welldooing, and not too giue it frée scope ynowgh: vndowtedly he misconstrueth our lessons. For what vertue doo wée more reuerence? To what vertue giue we more encorage­ment? Or too whom belōgeth it so mutch to exhort men ther­too, as vntoo vs which indeuer too stablish the societie of man­kynde?

The .xv. Chapiter.

WHat then? Inasmuch as there is no opera [...]ion of the mynd commenda­ble (no not although it proceede frō a ryght intent) sauing suche as is measured by the rule of vertew: I forbid liberalitie too ronne royet. Thē doth it a mā good too receyue a benefite, (euen with open handes) when reason leadeth it vntoo the woorthie, & not when euery lyght occasion and vnaduysed gée­rishnesse offereth i [...]: the whiche a man may vaunt of as cleere gotten good, and thanke noman for it but himself. Termest thou them good turnes, the author whereof thou art ashamed too bee acknowen of? How much more acceptable are they, and how much more deep [...]ly sink they intoo a mannes brest [Page 11] neuer too depart agein, when it delyghteth hym too thinke, rather of whom, than what he hath receiued: Crispus Pas­sienus was woont too say, he had leuer haue some mennes iud­gement than their benefyte, and some mennes benefyte than their iudgement: and he added examples. I had leuer (sayeth he) too haue the good opinion of the Emperour Augustus: and I had leuer haue the benefyte of Claudius. But I am of o­pinion that nomannes benefyte is too bee desyred, whose dis­cretion is too bee mislyked. What then? was not the gift of Claudius too be receiued? Yis marie was it: Howbeeit as at fortunes hand, who (as men know) may byanby become euill. Why then deuyde we these thinges that are interlaced toogi­ther? It is no good turne which wanteth the beste part of it­self, that is too wit, too bee doone with discretion. Other­wise, a greate masse of Monnye (if it bee not giuen with discretion and with ryght meening) is no more a benefyte, than a Treasure. There bee many thinges that a man may receiue, and yet not bee indet­ted for them.

The ende of the first Booke.

¶The second booke of Lucius An­naeus Seneca, declaring in vvhat wyse a benefyte or good turne ought too bee bestowed.

¶The first Chapiter.

MY verie good freend Liberalis, let vs consider that whiche remayneth of the former part: that is too wit, af­ter what sort good turnes are too bee dooen. Whereof mee thinkes I can shewe a verie redie way. Let vs so doo, as wee would ber dooen vn­too. Before all, let vs doo them wil­lingly, speedely, & without sticking. Scarce woorth gramercie is the good turne, that cleaueth long too the handes of the bestower; whiche a man seemeth loth too forgo, and whiche he seemeth too depart with in suche wyse, as if it were wrested from him perforce. If there happen any delay, lette vs in anywyse be ware that wee seeme not too haue cast doutes of the matter: for he that douteth, is next cou­sin too him that denyeth; and suche a one deserueth no thankes. For seing that in a bene [...]ite, the acceptablest thing is the good will of the bestower: he that by his long lingeryng witnesseth himself too bestowe vnwillingly, bestoweth not at all; But vn­towardly draweth backe from him that would fayne hale him on. Manie there bee that becomme liberall, because they haue not the countenaunce too say a man nay. Moste acceptable are those benefytes that are redie at hand, that comme [...]asely, and wherin there is no stop but the modestie of the receiuer. The best poynt is too outgo a mannes desyre, and the next is too fo­lowe it. But yet is it farbetter too preuent it, before wee bee requested. For inasmuche as an honest man is out of counte­naunce, and ashamed too craue: he that releaceth him that tor­ture, [Page 12] dubbleth his good turnes. He that obteynes a thing by intreatance, commes not freely by it. For (as it séemed too our aunceters, who were men of verie graue consideration,) no­thing is bought more déerly, than that whiche is gotten by in­treataunce. Men would pray verie seeldomme, if they should pray openly: So muche had wee leuer to make our petitions secretly, and within ourselues, yea, euen too the Gods, vntoo whom wee may doo it with moste honestie.

¶The seconde Chapiter.

IT is a sore and a heauie woorde, yea, and suche a woorde as will make a ma [...] too cast doune his head in his bosome, too say, I beseeche you sir. Wee must discharge our freend of that woord, yea, and whomsoeuer w [...]e purpose too make our freend by our good vsage. Make he neuer so muche haste, yet giueth he too late, that giueth vppon intreatance. Therefore wee must gesse what euery man would haue: and when wee vnderstand it, wee must ease them of that moste gr [...]euous necessitie.

Assure thyself that that benefyte dooeth a man good at the hart, and will continewe long in remembraunce, whiche mee­teth a man at the halfe turne. If it bee not our hap to preuent ones request: lette [...]vs cut him of from many woordes, least wee may seeme too bee sewed vntoo: and assoone as wee knowe his mynd▪ lette [...]s graunt it out of hand, and let vs shewe by our hastemaking, that wee would haue dooen it vnrequested. For like as in sickfolke the cōmyng of somme meate in dewe tyme hath brought health, and the giuing of water in season hathe remedyed the disease: Euen so, bee the benefyte neuer so meane and small, yet if it comme ridely without lingering or for [...]lo­wyng of tyme, it greatly aduaunceth it self, and winneth more thanke than a costly present that is s [...]owe in comming, and long breathed vppon.

¶The third Chapiter.

NO dout but he that dooeth so ridily▪ dooeth it willingly, And therefore he dooeth it cheerfully, with a counte­naunce agreeable too his mynde. Somme men haue disgraced their greate good turnes by counterfet­ting a grauitie and sobernesse in hol­ding their peace or speaking leisure­ly, because they graunted them with countenaunce of de [...]yall. How muche better is it too m [...]che good woordes with good déedes, and too beautify the thinges that thou performest, with courteous and gentle speeche? Too the end the partie may blame himself for being too s [...]owe in as­king, thou mayst fynd fault with him in suche familiar maner as this. I am angrie with you, that whereas you wanted any thing, you haue not made mee priuie too it sooner, or that you haue trubbled your self too sewe for it, or that you haue vsed any other meane than yourself. But for myne owne part, I am glad that it pleased you too try my good will. Whatsoeuer you haue neede of heerafter, you shall commaund it at your plea­sure. I will beare with your bashfulnesse for this once.

So shalt thou make hym too set more by thy good wil, than by the thing that he came too desyre, whatsoeuer it bee. Then is the bountifulnesse of the giuer greate, then is his courtesie greate: when the partie that is gone from him shall say too himself, This day haue I made a great purchace. It dooth mée more good that I haue found him such a one, than if the thing had come duble and treble too mee another way. For I shall neuer bee able too requite this good will of his.

¶The fourth Chapter.

BUt there bée many that bring their benefytes in ha­tred by their rough woordes and stately lookes, v­sing such language and pryde, as it woold irk a man too haue obteyned the thing at their handes. Agein, [Page 13] when they haue graunted, there folowe delayes. But truely there is no greater corzie, than too bee driuen too [...]ew for that which a man hath gotten graunt of alreadie. It is a harder matter too get a good turne out of some mennes hands, when it is graunted, than too get graunt of it; and such must bée cal­led vppon. One must bee prayed too put him in remembrance, and another too take it vp. And so one gift is tossed through many mennes handes, by meanes wherof the least part of than­kes redoundeth too the giuer. For whosoeuer is sewed vntoo afterward, muste needes bee a derogacion too the first graun­ter. Therfore if thou wilt haue the performance of thy good turnes accepted thankfully: thou must deale so, as they may come whole and vntasted vntoo them whom thou hast promi­sed, without anie abatement as they terme it. Let noman haue too deale with them by the way. For nomā can make his owne [...]han [...]e of that whiche thou myndest too giue, but that he must diminish thyne.

¶The fifth Chapiter.

NOthing is more greeuouse thā long lingering. Some can better b [...]are a flat nay, than too bée foaded of. But it is the fault of diuers men, too de­lay the performance of their promi­ses through a fond vaingloriouse­nesse, least the nomber of their Su­ters should abate. Of which sort are the Officers in Kinges Courtes, and suchas beare authority about Princes, which haue a plea­sure too behold the long trayne of their owne pryde, and think themselues able too doo little, if they set not out their port too euery man, by making them daunce attendance a long whyle. They doo nothing out of hand, they dispatch nothing at once. They be swift too doo harme, but slow too doo good.

Wherfore assure thyself it is most trew which the Comical Poet sayeth: What? perceiuest thou not that the longer thy delay is, the lesse is thy thanke? Heeruppon come these spee­ches, [Page] which the gentle hart vttereth with gréef. If thou doo the thing, doo it out of hand. Nothing is woorth so much sewt. I had leuer now too haue a flatte nay: for I am so weerie of way [...]ing for the Benefyte, that my hart beginneth too hate it.

Can a man bee thankfull for such dealing? Like as it is a poynt of a most bitter crueltie, too prolong a mannes punish­ment, and a kynd of mercie too kill him out of hand, bycause speedie torment bringeth end too itself, and the tyme that go­eth before execution, is the greatest part of the payne that fo­loweth with it: euen so, the lesse whyle a good turne hath lin­gered, the better welcome is it. For euen in good thinges▪ lin­gering is greeuouse too such as long for them. And wheras manie benefytes may remedie some mannes necessitie: he that eyther suffereth the partie too bee long martyred, whom he may dispatch out of hand, or delayeth his gladnesse: fordooeth his benefyte with his owne handes. All courtesie maketh hast▪ and it is the propertie of a weldooer, too doo thinges willing­ly and quickly. He that hath giuen slowly, and doone a man good with delay of tyme, hath not doone it with his hart. And so hath he lost twoo cheef thinges at once; that is too wit, both his tyme, and the tryall of his freendly good will. For too meene a thing slowly, is as much as not too meene it at all.

¶The .vi. Chapiter.

IN all matters (my freend Liberalis) the maner how any thing is sayd or doon, is not the smal­lest part. Spéedinesse hath much holpen, and delay hath much hindered: like as in Dartes the power of the Stéele is all one, and yet there is excéeding greate oddes, whither they bee throwen by a for­cible Arme, or whither they bee let slip from a lazy hand. One selfsame Swoord may both pricke & perce through: the mat­ter is, with what force the Arme sendz it. Likewise the thing that is giuen is all one: but the maner of the giuing maketh the difference. How swéete and how precious is the gift, when he that gaue it suffered not himself too bee thanked for it, but [Page 14] forgate his giuing of it by that tyme he had giuen it? For too checke a man though thou doo neuer so muche for him, or too mingle tauntes with thy good turnes, is a madnesse. Bene­fytes therfore must not bee made bytinges, neyther must they be sawced with any sowernesse. If there bee any thing wherof thou wouldest warne him, take some other tyme for it.

¶The .vii. Chapter.

SUch a good turne, hardly bestowed by a churlish person, Fabius Veruco­sus was woont too call stony bread▪ which a hungrie bodie must needes take, though it bee too his peyne. Tyberius Caesar being desyred of his Nephew Marcus Aelius sometyme Pretor of Rome, to helpe him out of det, bade him giue him a Bill of his Creditors names. This was no rewarding, but a calling too­gither of his Creditors. When the Bill was exhibited, he wrate too his Nephewe, that he had giuen order for the pay­ment of the Monnie. By which reprochefull admonition he brought to passe, that his Kinsman was neither indetted too others, nor beholded too him. Somewhat there was that Ty­berius ment by it. I beléeue he was loth that anye mo should trubble him with the like sewte. Peraduentur it myght bee [...] spéedie way too represse mens importunate sutes with shame: But he that will bestow benefytes, must vtterly folow a clean contrarie way.

¶The .viii. Chapter.

IN all thinges that thou giuest, too the intent it may bee the more acceptable, thou must beauti­fie it by some meanes or other. This dealing of Tyberius, is not too doo a man a good turne, but too take him in a trippe. And by the way, that I may say what I think in this cace also; It s [...]arsly stādeth with [Page] the honour of a Prince, too reward a man too shame him with­all. Yet for all that, Tyberius could not escape disquietting by that meane that he thought too haue doone. For there were dyuers afterward, which made the same sewte vnto him: all whom he commaunded too shewe the causes of their Det too the Senate, & thervppon gaue certein summes among them. This is not a liberalitie: it is a checke: it is a poore helpe, it is a Princis almes. That is no Benefyte which I cannot re­member without blusshing. I was sent too the Iudge, and I was fayne to pleade my cace before I could get any thing.

¶The .ix. Chapter.

THerfore all Authors of wisdomme teache, that some benefites must bée bestowed openly, and some secretly. Openly, which are a prayse too at­tein: as rewardes of Chiualrie, and honour, and whatsouer else becom­meth more honourable by beeyng knowen. But asfor the thinges that auaunce not a mannes credit or estimation, but reléeue his weaknesse, his wāt, or his shame: they must bee giuen secretly, so as they may bee knowen too none but those that take good by them. [...]et not thy [...]ght hande [...]nowe what [...]hy left hand [...]ooeh. Yea and sometymes euen he that is too bee holpen must bee beguyled, so as he may haue the thing, and yet not knowe of whom he had it.

¶The .x. Chapter.

ARcesilaus (as the report goeth) hauing a poore fréend that cloked his owne pouerty, which was also sik and woold not bée acknowen of it, nor yet that he wanted wherwith too beare out his néed­full charges: considered how he was too bee suc­cored secretly, and put a Bag of Gold vnder his Bolster with­out making him priuy too it, to the intent that the man which was shamefast too his owne hinderance, might rather fynde [Page 15] the thing that he wanted, than receiue it. What then? shall he not know of whom he had it? At the first let him not knowe it, sith the not knowing of it is a peece of the good turne. I will afterward doo many other thinges, and I will giue hym ma­nie thinges, whereby he may vnderstand from whēce the other came. Finally though he knowe not whence he had it, yet shall I knowe who gaue it. That is too small purpose, say you. Too small purpose in deede, if thou mynd too take Loan for it. But if thou mentest too giue it in such wyse as myght most auayle him that receiued it; thou wilt giue it fréely, & thou will desyre no mo witnesses but thy self. Otherwise thy meening is not too doo wel by him, but too seeme too haue doone well by him. But (say you) I will haue him knowe it. Then seeke you too make him your Detter. No, but I woold haue him know it. What if it bee more for his behoofe, not to knowe it? what if it bée more for his honestie? what if it bée more too his lyking? will you not bee of another mynd? I tell you I would haue him knowe it. So shalt thou not keepe the man in darkenesse. I deny not but that as oft as the cace will beare it, a man may reape pleasure of the good wil of y receiuer. But if he stand in néede of helpe, and is ashamed too haue it knowen; if the thing that I bestow vppō hym shall greeue him if it be not concealed from him: I wilnot make my benefite a matter of record. For why should I discouer myself too him to haue giuen it, seeyng it is one of the firste and moste uecessarie Rules, neuer to vp­brayd a man, no nor neuer too Cypher it vnto him? For the Lawe of benefyting betweene men is this: That the one must foorthwith forget that he hathe giuen, and the other muste neuer forget what he hath receiued. For the ofte re­hearsall of good deseruinges, dooth greatly frette and greeue the mynd.

The .xi. Chapiter.

[Page] I Could fynd in my hart too krye ou [...], as the man did that was not able too beare the pride of certein freend of the Emprors, whiche had saued his lyfe at such tyme as the Triumuirs proclamed traytors whō they listed. Put mee intoo Cesars hand agein, (quoth he). How oftē sayest thou too mée, I haue saued thée, I haue deliue­red thee from death. If I make mention of it of myne owne frée will, it is lyfe: but if thow put me in mynd of it, it is death. If thy sauing of mee was too make a vaunt of mee, I owe thee nowght. How long wilt thow leade mee abowt as a gazing-stocke? how long will it bee ere thow suffer mée too forget my misfortune? In y tryūph I should haue bin led about but once. Wee must neuer make woords of that which wee haue doone for anie man. He that tells him of it, demaunds it agein. But he must not bee vrged, he must not bee put in rememberance, otherwyse than by reuyuing the former benefyte by the be­stowing of another: no, wee may not tell it vnto other folks. Let him that hath doone the good turne, hold his peace: and let him that receiued it blaze it abrode. For else it wilbee sayd vn­too him, as one sayd too a man that was bosting euyrewhere of his good turne that he had doone: Wilt thow denye that thow haddest recōpence? and when he answered where or whē? Oftentymes and in manie places (sayed he): namely as often and in as manie places as thow haste babbled of it abrode. What néededest thow too tell it owt? what neededest thow too take another mannes office out of his hand? There is another man that might haue doone it with more honesty, vppon whose good report, this also woold turne too thy prayse, that thow [...]ellest it not abrode thyself. Thow must needs condemne mee for a churle, if thow think that noman should haue knowen it but by thyne owne reporting. Which dealing is so much too bee eschewed, y if a man should make report of our benefits be­fore our faces, wee should answer, Truly he is ryght woorthie [Page 16] of greater benefyts, which I knowe myself more willing than able too performe. And this must be spoken, not as of one that woold set himself too sale, nor with such colorablenesse as some mē put the things from them which they woold faynest drawe too them. Besydes this,Bee not [...]ee­rie of doo [...] good. there must be added all maner of cour­tesie. The husbandman shall lose that he hath sowen, if he leaue his labor at the seede. It requyreth much payne too bring the seede too haruest. Nothing commeth too yeelding of frute, if it bee not throwly tended and husbanded from the first too the last. In like cace is it with benefyts. Can there bee anie grea­ter than those that fathers bestowe vppon their children? Yit were all but lost, if they should giue them ouer in their chyld­hod, and not cherish their charge foorthon with continewall kyndnesse. All other benefits are in the same state. If yow help them not foreward,The ground of all good dooing is loue from an vnfeyned hart. yow lose them. It is too small purpose too haue bestowed them: they must bee still cherished. If thou wilt haue them thankfull whom thow makest beholden vntoo thee: thow must not only bée beneficiall too them, but thow must also loue them. Inespecially (as I sayd) let vs not trubble mennes eares. Rehersal bréedeth irksomnesse; and vpbrayding, hatred. In dooing good turnes, nothing is too bee eschewed so much as pryde. [...]hat needeth anye high looks? what needeth anye greate woords? The thing itself aduaunceth thée. Uayne vaun­ting must bee put away. The things themselues will speake thowgh wee hold our peace. A good turne that is doone with pryde, is not only thanklesse, but also hatefull.

¶The .xii. Chapiter.

C Aesan gaue Pompey of Affrike his lyfe (if at leastwyse he may bée said too giue, which taketh not away): and afterward when he came too giue thankes for his Pardon, he offered him his left foote too kisse. Suche as excuse Caesar, say he did it not for anye pryde, but onely too shewe his Gilt or ra­ther his Golden shooe set with Pearle and Preciouse stones. [Page] And so, what dishonor was it for a nobleman and a Consulles peere, too kisse Gold and Perle?

And could that Caytif, borne for the nonce too chaunge the customes of his free Countrie intoo Persian [...]auerie, could he (I say) pick out no clenlyer part of all his bodie too bee kist? Thought he it a smal matter that an auncient Se [...]ator, should so farre abace his honor, as to cast himself downe at his feete, in the presence of Princes, in such sort as vanquished enemies haue bin woont too couche at the feete of their Conquerors? He had found a place beneathe his knees, too thrust freedome and libertie doune vntoo. Is not this a trampling of the com­mon weale vnder foote? In good faith (will some man say) it can make nothing to the matter, that he did it with his left foote. For it had not bin a pranke of pryde fowle and outra­geouse ynough, too sit vppon the lyfe of a Consulls peere in shooes of Golde and Pearle, except that like a lustie Gallant, he had also thrust his goutie Féete into the Mouth of a Sena­tour.

¶The .xiii. Chapter.

OThe pryde of greate prosperitie! O most mischeuous folie! How happie is it too receiue nothing at thy hād! O how thou turnest euery benefyte intoo bane! O how thou delightest too ouerdoo all thinges! O how all thinges disgrace thee, and the higher that thou aduauncest thy­self, the more art thou abased! Thou shewest thyself not to know these good things wherwith thou art so puffed vp. What soeuer thow giuest, thow marrest it. Therfore I woould fayne wéete of thée what it is that maketh thée so carelesse, what altereth so thy looke & coūtenance, that thow haddest leuer haue a visor than a face. Pleasaunt are the things that are giuen with a courteowse and gentle counte­nance, whiche when my superior gaue mee, he tryumphed not [Page 17] ouer mee, but behaued himself as familiarly as could bee, and made himself fellowlyke with mée, & without any glorious set­ting out of his gift, wayted a conuenient tyme too pleasure mée, rather vppon occasion than vppon cōstreint. There is but one way too perswade suche maner of men that they should not marre their benefites through their owne statelinesse: namely too shewe them that their benefytes are not the greater, by­cause they bee giuen with greater adoo; nor they themselues the better thought of for so dooing: but that the greatnesse of their pryde beyng fonde, causeth thinges otherwise woorthy of loue, too bee hated.

¶The .xiiii. Chapiter.

THere are somme thinges that would turne too the hurte of the receyuer; the which it is a bene­fyte too deny, and not too performe. And there­fore wée must rather consider the profit of the de­maunders, than their▪ desyre. For oftentymes wee couet hurtfull thinges, and wee bee not able to discerne howe noysomme they bee, bycause affection blyndeth reason. But when our passionatenesse is well settled, and the rage of the fyrie fury that chaced away discretiō, is throughly alayed: thē hate wee the mi [...] bestowers of these hurtfull giftes. Wher­fore like as we de [...]ye cold Water too sickfolkes, and weapon too such as bee in sorowe or rage; and whatsoeuer the heate of loue desyreth too vse againste it self, too suche as bee in loue: euen so muste wee continew too denye hurtfull thinges too those that earnestly, humbly, yea and oftentymes also rewfully request them. It becommeth men too haue an eye, bothe too the beginning and too the ending of their benefyts and good turnes, and too giue such thinges as may like a man, not only at the receiuing of them, but also euer after. There bee manie that will say, I knowe it will do him no good: but what should I doo? He intreateth mee, and I cannot withstand his request, let him looke too himself, he shalnot blame mee. That is vn­trew. For he shall blame thee, and that woorthely too, when he [Page] is come too his ryght wittes ageine, and when the fit that in­flamed his mynd is ouerpast, for why should he not hate him, by whom he was furthered too his hurt and perill? It is a cruell kyndnesse too bee intreated too mischeef one. Like as it is a goodly poynt of charitie to saue men that bée euen loth and vn­willing too bee saued: so is it a fawning and courteouse kynd of hatred, too graunt thinges hurtfull too those that desyre them. Let our benefyte bee suche as the vse of it may make it still better belyked, and suche as neuer may turne too harme. I shall not giue a man monie, if I may know he will bestowe it vppon a harlot, least I bee found too bee a maynteyner of his filthie act or purpose. If I can, I shall call him from it: if not, I shalnot further his wickednesse. Whither anger driue a man too doo that he ought not, or whither the heate Ambition withdrawe him from his welfare: yet shal I not suffer him too mischeef himself, neyther shall I giue him cause too say after­ward, He hathe killed mee with his kyndnesse.

¶The .xv. Chapiter.

OFtentymes there is no defferēce betwene the pleasuringes of fréendes, and the prac­tizes of foes. For looke what the enemie could haue wisshed, that dooeth the vnsea­sonable ouerkyndnesse of the fréend, bothe force vntoo, and arme vntoo. And what fouler shame can there bee, than that there should bee no differēce betweene a bane and a benefate? which thing commeth too passe oueroften. Lette vs neuer giue thin­ges that shall redound to our owne shame. For seeing that the hyghest poi [...]t of freendship, is for a man too sette as muche by his freend as by himself: bothe parties must bee prouided for alike. I will giue too him that wanteth, but so as I want not myself, I will succour one that is like too perishe, but so as I perish not myself, except I maie bee the borowe of somme sin­gular persone, or of somme greate thing.

I will bestowe no suche be [...]efyte, as I could not aske with [Page 18] out shame.

I will neither inhaunce small thinges, nor suffer greate thinges too bee taken for small. For like as he that twitteth a man by that he hath giuen him, dooth marre the grace of his gift: euen so he that dooth but shewe, how muche he hath gi­uen too one that abaceth the same, dooth but commende his gift, and not vpbrayd it.

Euerie man must haue an eye to his owne abilitie and po­wer, that wee bestowe neither more nor lesse thā wee bee able.

Wee must consider the persone of him to whom wee giue. For somme thinges are too small too come from greate men: and somme are too greate for him that should receiue them. And therefore wey with thyself, the persone of either of them. When thou myndest too bestowe, examine whither the thing bee more than the giuer can forbeare, or whither it bee too lit­tle for him too bestowe: and ageine, whither he that is too re­ceiue it, may hold skorne of it; or whither it bee more than is meete for him.

¶The .xvi. Chapter.

ALexander being vndiscreete, and myndyng none but ouer greate thinges, gaue one a Citee. When he too whom it was giuen, measuring himself in himself, re [...]uzed it for [...]eare of being enuyed for so greate a re­ward, saiyng it was not agreeable too his estate: I passe not (ꝙ Alexander) what be­commeth thee to receiue, but what it becommeth me too giue. It seemeth too bee a noble saiyng, and yet being a kinges sai­yng, it is moste foolishe. For nothing becommeth any man, in respect of himself alone. The respectes that make it comly, are what, too whom, when, why, where, and suche other, without whiche there is no reason in dooing. Proude Peacocke, if it becomme not him too receiue it, neither becommeth it thee too giue it. There is a proportionable respect of persones and de­grees. And seeing that on either side, the [...] is the meane; [Page] as well is that a fault that ouerreacheth, as that whiche com­meth too short. Well, admit it bee lawfull for thee, and that Fortune hath so highly aduaunced thee, that thon mayst giue whole Citées for rewardes, in the not receiuing where of, there was more noble courage, than in the rechele [...]e gift of them: yet is there somme man too meane too haue a Citée thrust in­too his bosomme.

¶The .xvii. Chapiter.

ONe of Diogenes sect desired Antigonus too giue him a Talent. [...]ueling in [...]oing good [...]nes. Antigonus answered it was more than one of the Doggishe secte ought too craue. Uppon this deniall he de­sired a pennye. Antigonus answered it was lesse than became a king too giue. Suche caueling is too shamefull. He founde a shift too giue neither of bothe. In the pennie he respected his owne royaltie, and in the Talent the others beggerie: whereas not­withstandyng the might haue giuen the pennie as to a begger, and the Talent as a king. But admitte there may bee somme thing to greate for a beggar to receiue: yet is there nothing so small, whiche the courtesie of a Prince may not giue with his hono [...]r. If you demaund myne opinion, I allowe the dea­ling of Antigonus. For it is not too bee borne with, that a man should bothe craue monnie, and contemne it. Thou hast vowed the hatred of monnie: it is thy profession: thou hast taken that parte to playe: and thou must playe it throughly. It is ageinst ryght and reason, that thou shouldest gather monnie vnder the glory of begging. [...]he persones [...]othe of the [...]uer, and of [...]e receiuer [...]ust bee con­ [...]dered. A man therefore must as well consider his owne persone, as the persone of him whom he myndeth too re­leeue. I will vse my frer [...]d Chrysippus similitude of the play at the ball, whiche doubtlesse falleth [...] the ground, if either the sender or the receiuer misse his stroke. It do [...]eth then keepe his [...]ourse, when it is featly tossed and turned from hand too hand on bothe sides. It be [...]oueth the good player too [...]rike it after one sor [...]e, if his play fellow bee a [...] man, & after another [Page 19] if he bee a lowe man. In like cace is it with a good turne. For except it bee fitly applied to bothe persones, as well of the doo­er, as of the receiuer: it shall neither passe from the one, nor comme to the other in suche wise as it ought too dooe. If wee haue too dooe with a practized and skilfull player, wee maye strike the ball the boldlyer: for howsoeuer it commeth, a redye and nimble hande will strike it backe ageine. But if wee deale with a Nouice and a learne [...], wee must not in [...]ounter him so roughly, nor with so full blowe, but wee must meete the Ball ley [...]urely and softly, and as it were leade it intoo his hande a­geine. The like thing is too bée dooen in benefytes. Wée must trayne on somme men, and thinke it enough if they putfoorthe themselues▪ if they aduenture, and if they bee willing. But co­monly wee ourselues dooe make menne vnthankfull, and wee like well of it that it should bee so: as who would saie, our be­nifites were therefore the greater, because the partie is not a­ble too requite them, according to the maner of wranglyng game [...]ers, which finde fault with their playfellowes for the nonce, to the intent too giue ouer the game, whiche cannot bée co [...]tinewed but by consent. Many are of so vntoward a nature that they had leuer lose that whiche they haue bestowed, than too seeme too haue reteiued aught, they bee so proude and so skornefull. But how muche better, and how muche greater cour [...]e [...]ie were it, too deale so as the otherside might play their partes also; and so too beare with them, as they myght bée able too shewe themselues thankfull; and too conster all thinges too the best, and too like of him that yeeldeth thankes, no lesse than if he yeelded recompence; and too behaue ones self so gently, that looke whom he hath moste bound, him he is moste willing to discharge? The Usurer is woont too bee ill spoken of, if he bee too hastie in demaunding: and as ill he spokē of, if he seeke delayes and bee [...]lowe and loth to receiue. As well is a good turne too bee receiued ageine, as not too bee exacted ageine. He is best that giueth ridely, and neuer exacteth agein. He that receiueth the re [...]ne of a benefyte, with like mynd as if he re­ceiue [...] the first gift of it: is glad that it is rendered, and yet for­getteth [Page] in good earnest what he had dooen for the other.

¶The .xviii. Chapter.

SOme men not onely bestowe good tur [...]es skornfully, but also receiue them skorn­fully: which is not too bee committed. For now wee will passe too the other part, and shewe how men ought too behaue themsel­ues in receiuing good turnes. Therfore where a dewtie consisteth of twoo parties: there is required as much of y one as of ye other. When a man hath looked what maner a one a Father ought too bee; he shall vnderstand, there remaynes as muche woorke for him, too see what maner a one the Sonne ought too bee. There [...]e certein dewties requisite in the Husbond; and no lesse is looked for in the wife. As much as these doe require one of another, so much also doo they owe one another; and are to bee measured all by one rule, which (as Hecaton sayeth) is hard. For al honest thin­ges are hard too atteine vntoo, and so are the thinges that ap­proche neere too honestie. For they must not only bee doone, but they must bee doone with reason. Shee must be our guyde too followe all our lyfe. All thinges both small and great must bee doone by her aduyce: according as shee counselleth, so must wee giue. The first thing that shee will teache vs, is that wee must not take at all mennes handes. Of whom then shall wee take? Too answer thee in feawe wordes, of them too whom it may beseeme vs too giue. For certesse wee ought too bee more precyse in seeking too whom wee may make ourselues det­ters, than on whom wee may bestowe. For although there fo­low none other discommoditie; (as there folowe verie many) Yet is it a greate corzie too bee in daunger too such a one as thou wouldest not. Contrariwise it is the greatest pleasure in the world, too haue receyued a good turne at such a mannes hand, as thou couldest fynd in thyne harte too loue, euen after he hath doon thee wrong. But for a man too be driuen too haue him of whom he hath no liking; it is too an honest and shame­fast [Page 20] mynde, the greatest miserie that can bee. I must alwayes put you in remembraunce, that I speake not of perfect wyse men: which lyke whatsoeuer they ought too doo, which haue their willes at cōmaundement, which bynd themselues wher­vntoo they liste, and performe whatsoeuer they haue bounde themselues vnto: but of vnperfect men, which haue a desyre too folowe honestie, but their affections are stubborne in obeying. Therfore he must bee a chozen man, at whose hand I should re­ceyue a benefyte. And truely I ought too bee more heedfull too whom I indette my self for a benefyte, than for monie. For too him that lendes mee monny, I must paye no more than I haue taken: and when I haue payd it, I am free and dischar­ged. But vntoo the other I must pay more: and when I haue requyted him, yet neuerthelesse I am still beholden to hym. For when I haue requyted I must begin new agein, & freend­ship warneth mee too admit no vnworthie persone. So is the Law of benefites a most holy law, wherout of sprinketh frend­ship. Some man will say, It lyes not alwayes in myne owne power too refuse: I must sommetyme take a good turne whi­ther I will or no. A cruell and testie Tyraunt profers mee a gift, & if I refuse it, he wil thinke I hold skorne of hym. Shal I not take it? Put the same cace of a Murderer or a Pyrate, as of a Tyrant that hath a murdering and theeuish hart: what shall I doo? He is not worthie that I should bee beholden too him. When I say thou must make choyce too whom thou wilt bee beholdē; I except force and feare, in whose presence choyce hath no place. If it bee free for thee, if it bee at thine owne dis­cretion too take or refuze: then aduize thyselfe what to doo. But if constreint barre thee of thy libertie, thou must vnder­stand that thou dooste not receiue, but obey. Noman is bound by the receyuing of that which he might not refuse. Wilt thou know whither I bee willing or no? then set mee at liberty too bee vnwilling if I list. But what and if he haue giuen thee lyfe? It makes no matter what it bée that is giuen▪ except it bee gi­uen willingly too one that is willing too haue it. Although thou haue saued mee, yet art thou not therefore my Saui­our. [Page] Poyson hath some tymes healed a man; and yet is it not therefore counted a wholsome thing. Somme thinges doo a man good, and yet they bynd him not.

¶The .xix. Chapter.

A Certein man that came too kill a Tyrant, happened too launce a Byle of his with his Sword: and yet the Tyrant kund him no thank for his curing of that thing by hur­ting him, which the Surgiōs were afrayd too sette hande vntoo. You see there is no greate weight in the deede it self. For he seemeth not to haue doone him a good turne, which did it with purpose to haue doone him harme. For he may thank chaunce for his good turne, & the man for his harme. I sawe once a Ly­on in the round Listes, which knowing one of the condemned men that had bin his Keeper aforetymes, defended him from the assaultes of the other beastes. Was not this Lyons help a benefyte? No verely, bycause the Lyon neyther had will too doo it with al, nor did it of purpose to doo good. Looke in what cace I put the wyld beaste, in the same put thou also the Ty­rantqueller. For both he and the beast gaue lyfe, and yet ney­ther he nor the beast did a good turne, bycause that too hee cō ­pelled to receiue a good turne, is no good turne in deede. It is no benefyting too make a man beholden whither he will or no. For first thou must giue mee free libertie of myself, and thē offer mee thy good turne.

¶The .xx. Chapter.

IT is woont too bee a question concerning Marcus Brutus, whither he ought to haue accepted his life at Iulius Caesars had, séeing he iudged Caesar worthy of death. What reason led him to kill him, I will declare another tyme. For although in all other thinges he were a noble man: yet in this [Page 21] cace mee thinkes he was farre ouershot, and behaued not him­self according to too the disciplyne of the Stoikes, inasmuchas he either feared the name of a King, wheras the best state of a [...]ammon weale is vnder a ryghtfull king; or hoped for free­domme where there was so greate reward both of souereintie and slauerie; or imagined that the Citie might be brought backe agein too her former state, when she had lost hir former condicions, or that indifferencie of Iustice might continew and Lawes stand in force, where he had seen so many thousand men fighting, too whither partie they should becomme slaues. But how quyte had he forgotten the nat [...]re of the world, or of his owne Countrie, whiche beleeued that if one were dispat­ched, there were no mo of the same mynde; seeing that after so many kinges s [...]ayne by sword and lyghteninges, there was yet stil a Tarquyne too be found? Yet for al this, Brutus myght haue taken lyfe at Caesars hand: but he should not haue accep­ted such a one for his father, as had wrōgfully purchased that power too▪ doo him good. For he saues not a man, which killes him not: neyther dooth he benefyte him, but dismisse him.

¶The .xxi. Chapiter.

THis may rather come in question, what a prisoner should doo, when a man of filthie life and slaunderouse tung profereth too paye his Raunsome for him. Sall I suf­fer myself too bee saued by a varlet? And when he hathe saued mee, what thank shall I yeeld him? shall I liue with a ribawd? no. Shall I not liue wt my Raūsomer? no nother. What will you haue mee to doo then? I wil tel you. Euē of any such persone I may take mony too pay for y raūsome of my life. And I take it as a thing lent, but not as a benefyte. I will pay him his mon­nye agein; and if occasion serue that I may saue him in daun­ger, I will saue him also: but as too ioyne freendship with him, which matcheth like too like, that will I not doe; neyther will I account him as my Sauyour; but as an vsurer, too whom I [Page] knowe I must restore that which I haue receyued. [...] must not [...]eiue too [...]hinderāce the giuer. Some man is woorthie too haue a benefite receiued at his hand, but it will hurt him if he giue it: & therfore shal I not take it. As for exam­ple, as he is redy too doe mee good, too his owne hinderāce, yea or also too his owne perill, (as peraduenture he is willing too defend mee at the Barre, but by his standing in my defence he shall procure himself the kinges displeasure): now were I his enemie, if I should not doe that whiche myght bee doone with his moste ease, yt is too wit, if I should no stand too myne owne perill without him, seing he would hazard himself for my sake. Hecaton putteth this fond and tryfling example of Arkesilaus, whom he reporteth too haue refuzed monnye that was offered him by a mannes sonne yit vnder yeeres of discretion, least the chyld might haue ronne in the dspleasure of his nigardly fa­ther. What thing did he woorthie of prayse? That he receiued not stolne goodes? and that he had rather not too receyue than too bee driuen too restitution? Not too receyue other mennes goodes, was a poynt of stayednesse. But if wee want an exam­ple of a noble mynd, let vs looke vppon that woorthie wyght Graecinus Iulius, whom Caius Caesar slew, for none other offence, but bycause he was a better man than it is expedient that anie should bee too a Tyrant. At such tyme as this Graecinus tooke monye of his freendes that made a contribution towardes his charges of certein gaminges: one Fabius Persicus sent him a greate somme of monnie, but he would in no wyse receiue it. And when his freendes hauing respect too the gift and not too the giuer, found fault with him for refusing it: shall I (quoth he) take a benefyte at the hand of him, whō I would not vout­safe too pledge in a cup of drinke? Likewise when one Rebilus, a Consulles peere, but yet of thesame stampe that Fabius was, had sent him a greater summe, and was verie importunate vp­pon him too receiue it: I praye you pardon mee (ꝙ he) for I haue taken none of Persicus.

¶The .xxii. Chapter.

[Page 22] WHither was this a receiuyng of giftes,After wha [...] maner bin [...] fites are t [...] bee receiu [...] or a choozing of Senators? When wée thinke it méete to receiue, lette vs receiue cheer­fully with apparaunce of gladnesse, and let thesame bee manifest too the giuer, that he maie reape present frute thereof. For it is a iust cause of gladnesse, too see a mannes fréend glad; but it is a iuster cause too haue made him glad. Let vs shew that wee accept the thing thankfully, by powryng out our affections; and let vs witnesse it, not onely in his heeryng, but also euerywhere. He that hath taken a good turne thanke­fully, hath payed the first paiment of it.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

SOmme will not receiue a good turne but in secret, shunnyng too haue any manne as witnesse, or priuie of it. You maye bee sure suche men meene no good. Like as the be­stower must bring his benefite so farfoorth too knowledge, as it maye delight him on whom it is bestowed: so he that receiues it must make others priuie to it. Looke what thou art ashamed too owe▪ that receiue thou not. Somme giue thankes by stelth, and in a corner, and in ones eare. This is not shamefast­nesse, but a lothnesse too bee acknowen of it. That man is vn­thankfull, whiche giueth thankes in hudther mudther. Some men would borowe monnie, and yet neither make the Brokers nor the publik▪ Notaries priuie too it, nor yet giue bill of their hande. In like sort deale they, whiche indeuer too keepe from all mennes knowledge, the good turne that is bestowed vpon them. They bee loth too blaze it abrode, beeause they would bee sayd to haue compassed it by their owne connyng rather than by any other mannes helpe. They seldomme make any countena [...]nce too those that they are indetted too for life or preferment: and while they shunne too bee counted hangers vppon other mennes sleeues, they ronne intoo the reproche of [Page] vnthankfulnesse, whiche is woorse.

¶The .xxiiii. Chapiter.

OThersomme speake woorst of them that de­serue beste. A manne may more safely dooe somme men a displeasure, thē a good turne. For they seeke too proue themselues no­thing beholden too men, by hating them. But wee ought too labour for nothing more, than that the remembraunce of good turnes, may alwayes sticke fast in our myndes: which must bée newe burnished from tyme to tyme, because none can requite a good turne, but he that beareth it in mynde, and the verie bea­ring of it in mynde is a requitall. A man must receiue neither squeimishly, nor vnderling like and bacely. For he that is ne­gligent in the first taking, when all good turnes like men best because of their newnesse: what will he doo when the first plea­sure of it is ouerpast?

One takes a good turne skornefully, as though he would say, In good faithe I haue no neede of it, but séeyng thou art so greatly desirous, I am cōtent thou shalt vse my pacience. Ano­ther takes it reckelesly, so as he leaues the bestower in doutte, whither he perceiued it or no. The third scarce openeth his lippes, and pla [...]es the churle more than if he had hild his peace. A man must speake out earnestly according to the greatnesse of the matter: and he must knit it vp with suche woordes as theis: You haue made mée beholden too you more than you are awareof. (For there is noma but he is glad too haue his good turne extend with the furthest.) you knowe not how much you haue doone for mee: but I assure you, it is much more than you take it too bee.

He requyteth out of hād, which chargeth himself thus. I shal neuer bee able too requyte your freendlienesse. But surely I will neuer cease too report euerywhere that I am not able too requite it.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

FVrnius did not in any thing more purchace himself the fauour of the Emperour Au­gustus, and win him easie too grau [...]t him other thynges, than that when he had got­ten his fathers pardon, who had takē part with Antonie ageinst Augustus, he saied: This one wrong doo I receiue at thy hand O Caesar, that thou haste dealt in suche wise with me, as I must liue and dye vnthankfull. What so greace signe of a [...]thank­full mynde can bee, as by no meanes to satisfie a mannes self, no nor yet too conceiue any hope that euer he shalbee able too come neere the requityng of a good turne? By this and suche other kynde of speeches let vs so deale, as our good will maye not lye hidden, but bee disclosed and come too light. Yea, and though woordes cease: yet if wee bee mynded as wee ought too bee, the conscience will bewraye it self in our countenance. He that purposeth too bee thankfull, myndeth requityng as soone as he receiueth. Chrysippus saieth he ought too bee dispo­sed, like one that hath put himself in a redinesse too ronne for a wager, and standeth within the listes, waityng for his tyme to step forward at the sounde of the Trumpet. And surely he had néede of greate swiftnesse, and greate inforcing of himself, that should ouertake him that is gone afore him.

¶The .xxvi. Chapiter.

NOw is it too bée seene what thing maketh men vnthākful most.What thyng maketh men vnthankfull moste. It is either the ouer­weenyng and ouerlikyng of themselues, and of their owne thinges, a fault ingref­fed in mannes Nature: or it is couetous­nesse, or els it is Enuie. Let vs beginne at the first. There is no man but he is a fauo­rable Iudge in his owne cace. Herevppon it commes to passe, that he thinkes he hath deserued al thinges, and taketh himself [Page] too bee bounde to noman, sopposing himself not too bee estee­med according too his woorthinesse. He gaue mee this (saieth he): but how late, and after how muche trauess? How many mo thinges might I haue obteined in the while, if I had fa [...]ed vp­pon suche a man, or suche a man, or if I had sought myne owne profit? I looked not for this. I am made a rascall. Could he be­teeme mee no more than this? It had bin more honestie too haue quite ouerslipt mee.

¶The .xxvii. Chapter.

CNeus Len [...]ulus the Soothsaier, the greatest example of riches that euer was seene,That is twen­tie hundred thousande pounde ster [...]lyng▪ be­fore suche tyme as his Franklinges m [...]de him poore, (for he sawe * Fower thousande Sestertia of his own, I spake properly in [...] saying, for he did no more but sée them) was as dul of wit, as weake of courage. For al­though he was exceeding couetous: yet did he vtter his monnie faster than his woordes; so farre was he too séeke what too say. Whereas this man owed all his aduauncement too the Empe­rour Augustus, vntoo whom he had brought nothing but beg­gerie, distressed vnder the title of Nobilitie: being now becōme cheef of the Citée, bothe in monnie and fauour; he was woont oftentymes too make his moane too the Emperor, that he was drawen awaye from his studie, and that all that euer the Empe­ror had bestowed vppon him, was nothing in comparison of his losse, by giuing vp his studie of Eloquence. And yet emong o­ther thinges, the Emperor Augustus had doon this for hym also, that he had deliuered him from being mocked, and from his vaine labour. Couetousnesse suffereth not any manne too bee thankfull. For whatsoeuer is giuen, is neuer enough too him that gapeth for more. The more wee haue▪ the more wee couet, and much more eagre is the couetousnesse that is béezied in the raking togither of greate riches: like as the force of a flame is a thousande tymes feercer, according as the fire is the greater that it blazeth out of. Also after the same sorte, Ambition suffe­reth [Page 24] not any manne too rest within the measure of that honour, whiche heretoofore he would haue bin ashamed too haue wis­shed. Noman giueth thankes for a Tribuneship, but grudgeth that he is not aduaunced too a Pretorship. Neither thinketh he the Pretorship woorth gramercie, if he comme not too the Cō ­sulship. Neither will the Consulship suffize him, if he haue it not more than once. Ambition stalketh still foreward, and neuer perceiueth when he is well, because he neuer looketh frō whēce he came, but alwaies whither he would. A more vehement and persing maladie than all these is Enuie: whiche vexeth vs with making of comparisons. He bestoweth this vppon mee (sayeth Enuie) but he bestowed more vppon him, and more spéedily vp­pon that man. Thus weyeth he no mannes cace but his owne, and fauoureth himself ageinst all men.

¶The .xxviii. Chapiter.

HOw much playner dealing, and how much more wisdomme were it, too aduaunce a good turne receiued▪ and to consider that noman settes so much by [...]nother, as euery man settes by himselsef.

I ought too haue had more at his hand, but it was not for his ease to [...] forbeare any more. There were many other too bee rewa [...]ded at his han [...] as well as I. This is a beginning; Let vs take it in good woorth, and toll him forewarde by accepting his good will thankfully.

He hath doone but a little at once: he will doo it the ofte­ner. He hath preferred that man before mee, and mee before many others. That man is not able too matche mee in vertue courtly behauior, but yet hath he his peculiar grace. By grud­ging▪ I shal neuer make myself woorthy of greater benefites: but I may make myself vnwoorthy of those y I haue alredie. There was more giuen too those lewde vnthrifter. What is that too mee? how sildome dooth fortune vse discretion? Wée dayly complayne that euill men bee luckie. Oftentymes the [Page] Hayle that ouerpassed the groundes of the woorst folke, hath striken the Corne of the best. Euery man must hold him to his Lot, as well in receyuing of freendshippe as in other thinges. There is no benefyte so perfect, whiche enuy can not nip: nor no benefite so skant, whiche a good accepter may not inlarge. Thee shal neuer want causes of co [...]plaint, if a man looke vp­pon benefites on the woorse syde.

¶The .xxix. Chapter.

SEE howe vnindifferentlye Gods giftes are esteemed,T [...]e vnthankfulnesse of men towar­des God. euen of some that professe wisdomme. They fynd faulte that wee bée not as bigge bo­dyed as Elephantes, as swifte of foote as Hertes, as light as Bir­des, as strong as Bulles: that bea­stes haue substancialler hydes than wée, that the falow Déere hath a fai­rer heare, the Beare a thicker, the Beuer a softer: that Dog­ges excell vs in smelling, Aegles in seeing, Rauens in long li­uing, and diuers beastes in easie and happie swimming. And whereas nature suffereth not certein thinges to ioyne toogi­ther in one, (as, that swiftnesse of bodye should bee matched with equall strength: they call it an iniurie, that man is not compounded of diuerse and disagreable properties: and they blame the Gods of neglecting vs, bycause they haue not giuen vs perfect health, inuincible strength and corage, and know­ledge what is too comme. Yea and they scarce refreyne them­selues from russhing into so shamelesse impudencie, as too hate nature for making vs inferiour too the Goddes, and not felowes with them and full as good as they. How much more meete were it for vs too returne backe too the beholding of their so many and so great benefites, and too yeeld them than­kes, that it hat pleased them too allot vs the second roome in this mo [...]t beautiful house, and too make vs Lords of all earth­ly thinges? Is there any comparison betweene vs and those [Page 25] beastes wherof wee haue the souereintie? Whatsoeuer is de­nyed vs,How great [...] manne is [...] holden to [...] God for his benefites. could not be giuen vnto vs. And therefore whosoeuer thou art that doost so vnderualew mannes Lot, bethinke thee how greate thinges our souerein Parent hath giuen vs: how much stronger creatures wee bring in subiection, how muche swifter creatures wee ouertake, and how there is no mortall thing exempted from our power. Consider how many vertues wee haue receiued, how many artes, and what a mynd, whiche perceth through all thinges euen in the same instaunt that it setteth itself vntoo them, being more swift than the planettes, whose courses it foreseeth many hundred yeeres before they come too passe. Finally marke what plentie of frutes, what a­bundance of riches, what store of all thinges heaped one vpon another bee bestowed vppon vs. Well: Take the vew of all thinges, and bycause thou canst fynd no one whole thing that thou haddest leuer bee: picke out suche seuerall thinges as thou wouldest wish too bée giuen thée out of them al. So when thou hast wellweyed the louing kyndnesse of nature, thou shalt be forced too confesse, that thou wart hir Dealing. And so it is in deede. The Gods immortall haue loued vs and doo loue vs most deerly: and (which is the greatest honour that could bee giuen) they haue placed vs next vnto themselues. Greate thin­ges haue wee receiued, and greater we could not take.

¶The .xxx. Chapiter.

THese thinges) my freend Liberalis) haue I thought requisite too bee spoken, both bycause it behoued mée too say somewhat of greate benefy­tes when wee were talking of small benefites: and also bycause the bold­nes of his horrible vyce floweth frō thence into all other thinges.Vnthenkful­nesse too God breedeth vn­thankfulnesse towardes mē. For vntoo whom will he become thank­full, or what good turne will he esteeme greate or woorth the requy [...]ing, which despyzeth the hyghest benefites? Too whom [Page] will he think himself beholden for his lyfe, which denyeth him­self too haue receiued lyfe of the Goddes, to whom he prayeth dayly for it? Whosoeuerthen teacheth too bee thankfull, dea­leath with the cace both of men and Gods; too whom, notwith­standing that they neyther want aught nor couet aught, wee may render thankefulnesse neuerthelesse. [...] requyte [...] good turne [...] an easye [...]atter. There is no reason why any man should lay the blame of his thanklesse mynd vp­pon his owne weakenesse or pouertie, and saye, what shall I doo? How or when may I requite thankes too my superiours the Lords of all thinges? Too requyte is an easie matter: yea, if thou bee a Nigard, euen without cost: and if thou bee sloth­full, without labour. Truly, if thou listest, thou mayst bee euen with any man, euen in the same instaunt that he maketh thee beholden vnto him. For he that hath receiued a benefyte with a weldisposed mynd, hath requyted it.

¶The .xxxi. Chapiter.

IN my opinion, this Paradox of the Sto­ikes, That he whiche hath receiued a good turne with a weldispozed mynd hathe re­quyted it, is neyther straunge nor incredi­ble. For inasmuche as wee measure all thinges by the mynd; looke how muche a man is fully mynded too doe, so much hath he doone.Wherewith a man may re­quyte with­out cost or labour. And forasmuch as Godlinesse, faithfulnesse, vpright­nesse, and finally all vertue is perfect in itself: although a man could not put foorth his hand, yet maie he bee thankfull euen with his hart. As oft as a man compasseth his purpose, he rea­peth the frute of his owne woork. What thē purposeth he that bestoweth a benefite? Too profit the partie on whom he be­stowes it, and to delight himself. Now if he haue accomplished that which he ment, so as his good turne is come too my hādes, and hathe made bothe of vs glad: he hath obteyned that whiche he sought. For his intēt was not too haue anie thing in recom­pence: for then had it not bin a benefite but a bargeine. He hath sayled well that comes too the hauen which he made his course [Page 26] vntoo. The darte that hitteth the marke it is throwen at, hath performed the part of a stedie hand. He that doeth a good turne, meeneth too haue it accepted thankfully. If it bee well taken, he hath his desyre.

But he hoped for some commoditie by it. Then is it no bene­fite; the propertie whereof is too mynd no returne. As for the thing that I tooke, If I tooke it with like meening as it was giuen, I haue requyted it. Otherwyse the thing that of itself is best, were in woorst cace. Too the end I should bee thankfull, I am sent vntoo fortune. If I cannot requyte for want of her fauour, I will satisfye good will with good will. What then? Shall I not dooe what I can too requyte, and seeke oportu­nitie of tyme, and matter, and indeuer too fill the bosome of him, at whose handes I haue receiued anie thing? Yes. But yet the world went ill with gooddooing, if a man might not bée thankfull euen with emptie handes.

¶The xxxii. Chapiter.

HE that hath receiued a good turne (sayest thou), although he haue taken it with ne­uer so wellmeening a mynde: yet hathe he not doon his deutie too the full. For there is a peece yet still behynd, namely too Re­quyre: like as it Tēnis it is somewhat too take the ball conningly and ridily, and yet he is not called a good player, vnlesse he send it backe agein as fast and featly as he tooke it. This example is vnlike. Whyso? Because the cōmendacion of this game, consisteth in the quicke stirring and nimblenesse of the bodie, and not in the mind. And therfore it is requisite that the whole should bee layd forthe at large, where the eye must be iudge. Yet will I not for all that, denye him too bee a good player, that taketh the ball as he owght too doe, though he strike it not agein, so the fault bee not in himself. But (sayest thou) although there bee no want of connyng in the player, inasmuchas he did part and was able too haue doone the rest that he did not: yet is the game itself [Page] mayned, which consisteth of taking and striking back the ball agein. I will stand no longer about confuting in this cace: let vs graunt that there is some want in the playe and not in the player. So also in this matter whiche wée treate of, there wan­teth somewhat in respect of the the thing that was giuen, wher­vntoo another part is dew; but there wanteth nothing in re­spect of the mynd: he that hath found one like mynded too him­self, hathe accomplished his owne desyre as muche as lyeth in him.

The .xxxiii. Chapter.

HE hath bestowed a good turne vppon mee, and I haue accepted it euen as he would haue wished. Now hath he the thing that he sought, yea & the only thing that he sought: for I am thankfull. Herafter remaineth the vse of mee, and some commoditie too re­dound too him by my thankfullnesse. This is not the remnant of an vnperfect dewtie, but an income too a perfect one. Phidias makes an Image. The frute of his woorkmanship is one, and the frute of his woork is another. The end of his woorkmanship is too haue made the thing that he ment too make. The end of his woorke is too haue doone it too some profit. Phidias hathe finished his woorke, though he haue not sold it. He reapeth three frutes of his woork. The one is of his owne conceyte; and this he receiueth assoone as his woorke is finished: the other is of his fame; and the third is of his profit whiche shall come vntoo him eyther by fauour, or by sale, or by some other meane. Likewyse of a benefyte or good turne, let the firste frute be the frute of a mans owne conceyte. This hath he reaped whiche hath brought his gift thither as he would. The secōd frute is of fame: And the third frute is of suche thinges as may bée performed by one towardes another. Therfore when a good turne is accepted freendly, he that be­stowed it hath alredie rece [...]ued recompence, but not reward. And therfore looke what is without the benefite itself, it must [Page 27] bée repayed by taking the same well.

¶The .xxxiiii. Chapter.

WHat then? hath he requited, which hath doone nothing? Nay he hath doone verie much: hee hath rendered good wt a good will, yea & like for like also, whiche is the propertie of frend­ship. Ageine the payment of a Benefite is one way, and the payment of a det is another way. You muste not looke that I should shewe my payment too the eye: the thing is doone betweene mynd and mynd. Although the thing that I say, dooe feight at the first ageinst thyne opi­nion: yet shall it not seeme hard vntoo thee, if thou wilt apply thyself vntoo mée, and consider how there bée mo thinges than woordes.The want [...] proper name causeth dy­uers thinges too bee ter­med all by one name. There are a greate nomber of thinges without na­mes, which wee vtter not by their proper termes, but by ter­mes applyed from other thinges. For wee saye this woord foote, of our selues, of a Bed, of a Hanging, and of a Uerse. Wee call by the name of Dogge, both a Hound, a Fish, and a Starre. For wee haue not woordes I now too yeeld vnto eue­ry seueall thing his seuerall name: and therefore when wee [...], wee borowe. Stoutnesse is a vertue that rightly despy­seth perilles: or else it is a knowledge how too repulse, eschew, and aduenture vppon perilles. Yet notwithstandyng wee say that a Fencer, and a leawd Seruant whom rashnesse dryueth headlong too the contempt of death, are [...]tout men. Sparing­nesse is a knowledge how too eschew superfluous charges, or a skill how too vse a mannes household prouision measurably: and yet wee call hym a very sparing man, whiche is of a ni­gardly and pinching mynd, wheras notwithstanding there is infinite oddes betweene measurablenesse and pinching. These are of diuers natures, and yet for wante of woordes, wee bee fayne too call both the one and the other a Sparer. And also as well he that despyzeth casuall perilles through reason, as he that rusheth out into perilles without reason, are called [...] men▪ So also, doth the [...] of benefyeing & the thing that [Page] is giuen or doone by that act, (as Monnye, House, and Appa­rell,) are called a benefyte. The name of both of them is all one, but truely the force and power of them is farre differing.

¶The .xxxv. Chapter.

GIue eare therefore. Now thou per­ceiuest that I say nothing whiche thyne opinion should mis [...]ike. That benefyte or good turne whiche is fi­nished in the dooing of it, is requi­ted if wee take it thankfully. But as­for the other which is conteyned in the thing: wee haue not yet requy­ted it, but we intend too requyte it. We haue satisfied good will with good will, and wee owe still thing for thing. Therefore although we report him to haue re­quited, whch taketh a good turne with a welmeening mynd▪ yet doo wee will him too render [...] like thing vntoo that which he hath taken. Some of the thinges▪ that wee speake, doo differ from common custome: and afterward another way they retourne too custome again. Wee denye that a wyse man taketh any wrong: and yet the man that [...]miteth him with his Fist shalbee condemned of [...]ongdooing. Wee denye that a foole hath any goodes of his owne: and yet if a man steale any thing from a foole, wee will condemne him of felonie. We say that all men bee mad, and yet wee cure not all men with Elle­borus. Wee giue voyces in election of officers, and wee com­mit authoritie too the same men whom wee call mad. So also doo wee say that he which hath taken a good turne with a wel­meening mynd, hath requited it: but yet neuerthelesse we leaue him still in dette, too make recompence euen when he hath re­quyted. Our so saying is an exhortation, and not a renoun­cing of the good turne. Wee neede not bee afrayd, that the burthen should bee so intolerable, as too beare vs doune, and to daunt our hartes. Goods bee giuen mee, my good name is defended, my miserie is taken from mee, I inioy life and liber­tie. [Page 28] And how shall I requyte these thinges? when will the day come that I may shewe him my good will again? This is the day wherein he hath shewed his.

Take vp the good turne, imbrace it, and bee glad: not for that thou takest, but for that thou requirest, and yet shalt thou abyde in this Dette still. Thou shalt not aduenture vppon so greate a thing, as that mischance may make thee vnthankful. I wil cast no incomberances in thy way: let not thy hart fayle thee: shrink not for dout of paynes and long thraldome. I de­fer thee not, it may bee doone with thinges that thou hast al­ready. Thou shalt neuer bee thankfull, if thou bee not thanke­full out of hand. What must thou doo then? must thou not put thyself in Armes? Perchaunce thou must. Must thou not sayle ouer the Seas? Perhappes yes, yea euen with blustering wyndes at thy settingfoorth. Wilt thou requyte a good turne? Take it in good woorth, and thou haste requyted it: not so as thou shouldest think thyself quyte discharged, but so as thou mayest owe it with the more hartes ease.

The end of the second Booke.

❧ The third booke of Lucius An­naeus Seneca, concerning Benefites.

¶The first Chapiter.

NOt too bee thākfull for a good turne (my freend Eubutius Liberalis,) is bothe a shame, [...]f vhthank­ [...]ulnesse, and [...]ho be most [...]nthankfull. and so counted emōg all men. Therefore euen the vnthank­full finde fault with them that bee vn­thankfull, when neuerthelesse that cleaueth too them all, which all of them mislike. And wée bee so froward that wee hate some men moste deadly, not onely after they haue doon vs good, but also euen for doo­ing vs good. I deny not but it happeneth in somme menne through the crabbednesse of their Nature: But in mo because continewaunce of tyme maketh them forgetfull. For, the thin­ges that were freshe in mynd with them, while they were new­ly doon, dooe weare out of remembraunce in processe of tyme. Concerning whiche sort of men, I remember I haue had hard hold with you, bycause you termed them not vnthankfull, but forgetfull. As who would say, that that thing should excuse an vnthankfull persone, which made him vnthankfull: or els that because some man happeneth too bee forgetfull, he should ther­fore not bee counted vnthankfull, whereas noman happeneth too bee forgetfull, but the vnthankfull. There are many kyn­des of vnthankfull persones, as Théeues and Murtherers: of whom the fault is all one, but there is greate diuersitie in the circumstances. Unthankfull is he that denieth the receiuyng of a good turne whiche he hath receiued. Unthankfull is he that dissembleth it. Unthankfull is he that requiteth it not. But moste vnthankfull of all, is he that hath forgotten it. For although the rest discharge not themselues; yet are they det­ters still, and there remaineth with thē some print of the good [Page 29] turnes, shet vp within their euill conscience. And the time may come, that somme cause or other maye turne them too thank­fulnesse, if either shame shall put them in minde, or some soodein pang of honest dealyng, such as is wont too start vp for a tyme euen in euill Natures, if occasio [...] serue them too dooe it with their ease. But neuer can he become thankfull, that hath vtter­ly forgotten the whole benefite. And whither thinkest thou him woorse, in whom the thanke of a good turne is loste, or him in whom the verie remembraunce of it is loste also? Faultie are those eyes that cannot awaye with the lyght: but starke blynde are those that see not at all. Not too loue ones Parentes is a point of wickednesse: But not too knowe them is starke mad­nesse. Who is so thanklesse as he, whiche hauyng suche a thing as he ought too bestowe in the foremoste parte of his mynde, where it might alwayes bee redie at hand, hath laied it so farre backe, and cast it so farre of, as he knoweth not of it at all? It should seeme he thought not often of requityng, that could vt­terly forget it.

¶The second Chapter.

TOO bee short,The vyce of forgetfulnes a hinderance too thankful­nes. too the requityng of a good turne there néedeth trauell, and tyme, and abilitie, and fauorable Fortune. But he that beareth it in mynde, is thankfull without coste. He that performeth not this, where­vntoo he néedeth neither painstaking, nor welth, nor good Fortune; hath no couert to shroude himself withall. For neuer ment he too bee thankfull, whiche did cast a good turne so farre of that he bestowed it out of sight and remembraunce. Like as the thinges that are oc­cupied, and daily handled, are neuer in perill of rusting, where­as the thinges that come not in sight, but lye out of the way as superfluous, doo gather soyle by continewance of tyme: Euen so whatsoeuer is occupied & newe burnished by often thinking vppon, is neuer worne out of memorie, whiche lofeth not any thing, saue that whiche it hath not often looked backe vntoo.

¶The third Chapter.

BEsides this, [...]ouetouse­ [...]esse a hin­ [...]erance too [...]hankfulnes. there bee other causes also, whiche droune mennes greatest desertes in vs. The first and theefest is, that beeyng alwaies busied about newe desires, wee ne­uer consider what wee haue, but what wee would haue: settyng our whole mynde, not vppon that whiche is obteined, but vppon that whiche is coueted. For whatsoeuer wee haue in possessiō, is nothing woorth. Now then it followeth, that assoone as the desire of new thinges hath made a man set light by that which he hath receiued alredie, the bestower of them must also growe out of estimation. Wee loue some man and fa [...]ne vppon hym, and protest him too bee the founder of our welfare, so long as the thinges that wee had at his handes dooe like vs. Anon af­ter there steppeth intoo our conceit a greater likyng of other thynges, and our mynde ronnes vppon them, (as the maner of men is) after greate thynges couetyng still greater: streight waie is forgotten whatsoeuer wee termed heretoofore by the name of a benefite.Enuy ano­ther hinde­rance vntoo thankfulnes. And wee looke not vppō those thinges that haue preserued vs before others: but only vppō those thinges wherein other men haue had the Fortune too outgo vs. But it is not possible for any man, bothe too repine and too be thank­full. For, to repine is the propertie of hym that findeth faulte, and is discontented: but too giue thankes, is the propertie of him that is well pleased. Moreouer, although none of vs know but the tyme that is alredie paste: yet dooe feawe or none caste backe their minde too thynges past. By meane hereof it faules out, that Schoolemaisters and their weldooynges go too the grounde togither, because wee leaue our whole childhod be­hynde vs. By meanes hereof it commes to passe, that the thin­ges whiche are bestowed vppon vs in our youth are lost, by­cause our youth neuer comes too hand agein. Noman accoun­teth that whiche hath bin, as a thing past, but as a thing lost. And therfore flyghfull will the rememberance bee of thinges [Page 30] that are too come.

¶The .iiii. Chapiter.

IN this place I must hold with Epicuras, who contineually complayneth of our vn­thankfulnesse for thinges past, bycause that what good turnes so euer wee receiue, wee call none too rememberance, nor account them among pleasures: wheras notwith­standing, there is no pleasure more certein, than that whiche cannot bee taken awaie anie more. Present good thinges are not yet whole and full: some mischaūce maie cut them of. Good thinges too come doe hang in vncerteintie. But that which is past is layd vp in safetie. How then can that man bee thankfull towardes suche as doo him good, who be­stoweth all his life iu gazing vppon thinges present, and in gaping after thinges too come. It is myndfulnesse that ma­keth a man thankfull. He that hangeth moste vppon hope, groundeth least vppon myndfulnesse.

¶The .v. Chapter.

MY Liberalis, like as some thinges once per­ceiued doe sticke fast in memorie; and in some thinges, the once lerning of them is not enough too make a manne cunnyng in them: (for the knowledge of them decaieth, if it bée not cōtinewed by exercise, I meane Geometrie and Astonomie, and suche o­ther thynges as are slipperie by occasion of their subtiltie:) Euen so the greatnesse of some Benefites suffereth them not too bee forgotten; and some beyng lesse (though they bee verie many in number, and bestowed at sundrie tymes) doo slip quite awaye, because (as I said) wee doo not record them from tyme too tyme, nor willyngly bethinke vs how muche wee are in eche mannes dette. Herken what speeches sewters cast forthe. Euery man saies he will beare it in mynde while he liueth: E­uery [Page] man protesteth and voweth himself too bee at commaun­dement, and whatsoeuer other lowely terme he can deuise too indaunger himself withall. But within a while after, thesame persones eschew their former woordes, as too bace and scarce gentlemanlike: and finally they comme too that point whiche (as I suppose) euery of the leudest and vnthankfullest cā come vntoo, that is to say, too forget it. For euen as vnthankfull is he that forgetteth, as he is thankfull that beareth in mynde.

¶The .vi. Chapter.

BUT heere rizeth a question, whither this hatefull vice ought too bee vnpunished, or whither the lawe that is put in vre in schooles, ought also too bee executed in Comonweales; so as a man might haue his Action ageinst an vnthankfull persone, whiche sée­meth indifferent Iustice for all men. Why not? Seeing that Realmes vpbrayd Realmes with the thin­ges they haue doon for them, and picke quarelles too the suc­cessors, for the thinges that were bestowed vppon their prede­cessors? Our aunceters béeing (as a man may perceiue) men of noble corage, demaunded onely monnie of their enemies. As for benefites, they bestowed them frankly, and bare the losse of them as frankly. There was neuer yet action graunted ageinst an vnthankfull persone in any Nation, sauyng in the Realme of Macedonie. And this is a greate reason why none should haue bin graunted; because that whereas wée haue giuen con­sent too the punishment of all other missedéedes, so as bothe for manslaughter, witchcraft, vnnaturall murther, and breache of Religiō, there are in sundrie places sundrie punishmentes, and in all places some: This fault whiche is ryfeste of all, is euery­where misliked, but nowhere punished. Yet doo wee not ac­quite it: But forasmuche as the triall of so vncertein a matter would bee verie hard: wee haue but condemned it too bee ha­ted, leauing it emong those thinges, whiche wee put ouer too the vengeaunce of the Goddes.

¶The .vii. Chapiter.

I Finde many reasons, why this fault ought not too bee made a matter in Lawe. Firste of all, the beste part of the benefite or good turne perisheth, if a manne should haue his Action for it, as he vseth too haue for len­ding of monnie, or for bargaines of hyring and letting out. For the greatest grace of a good turne, is that wée haue doon it, euen though wee should lose it, so as wee haue put the matter wholly too the courtesie of the receiuers. But if I arrest him: If I call him before a Iudge: It beginneth too bee a dette, and not a benefite. Agein whereas it is a moste commendable thing too requite: It cea­seth too bée commendable, if it comme too bée of necessitie. For noman will commend a thankfull persone, more than him that hath restored a thing that was deliuered him too keepe, or dis­charged his dette without being sewed. So shall wee marre twoo thinges at once, that is too witte, a thankfull man, and a beneficiall man; than whiche, there are not any goodlier thin­ges in mannes life. For what greate point of excellencie is there, either in the one if he bestowe not his good turne freely, but lende it: or in the other if he requite, not because he is wil­ling, but because he needes must? It deserueth no praise too bée thankfull, except a man may safely bee vnthankfull. Moreouer this inconuenience would insewe: that all Courtes would bee too little for this Lawe. Who is he that myght not sewe; who is he that might not bee sued? All men extoll their owne doo­inges, all men inlarge the thynges that they haue bestowed v­pon others, bee they neuer so small. Furthermor, whatsoeuer thinges doo fall within the compasse of examination, may bee determined without giuing the Iudge infinite libertie. And therefore the state of a good cace, séemeth better if it bee putte too a Iudge, than if it bée put too an vmper; because the Iudge is bounde too an order, and hath his certeine boundes set him, whiche he may not passe: But the vmpers conscience beeyng [Page] frée, and tyde too no boundes, may bothe adde and take awaye, and directe his sentence, not accordyng as Lawe and Iustice counsell him, but accordyng as humanitie and pitie shall moue him. An Action of vnkyndnesse would not bynde the Iudge. but sette him at libertie too rule thinges as he listed. For it is not certein what a benefite should bee. Agein▪ how greate soe­uer it bee, it were muche too the matter, how fauourably the Iudge would conster it. No Lawe defineth what an vnthank­full persone is. Oftentymes he that hath rendered as muche as he receiued, is vnthankfull: and he that hath not rendered, is thankfull. Also there bee somme matters, whiche euen an vn­skilfull Iudge maye dismisse the Court of: as in caces where the parties must confesse a deede, or no deede. Where the ope­ning of the Euidence dispatcheth all doutes: where verie rea­son is able to determine the ryght. But when mennes myndes must bee coniectured of; when a thing commeth in question, whiche onely wisedome is able too discerne: in suche caces a man cānot take him for a Iudge, that is called to office for his riches, or because he is a gentleman borne.

¶The .viii. Chapiter.

THis thing therfore séemed not very vnmete too haue bin made a matter in Lawe,The greatest benefites ad­mit not re­quitall with lyke for lyke. but that noman could bee found too bee a com­petent iudge in the cace. Whiche thing thou will not thinke straunge, if thou consi­der throwly how hardly hee should bee gra­ueled, whiche should enter intoo the ouer­ruling of suche caces. Some man giueth a greate peece of Monny: but he is a riche man, and suche a one as can not feele the losse of it. Another giueth likewyse, but with daunger of forgoing his whole inheritance. The some is all one, but the benefite is not all one. Yea let vs yet adde further: that the [...]ne payeth Mony for a welwi [...]er of his, but he hath it at home lying by him: and that the other giueth as muche, but he is fayne too take vp it vppō Interest, or too borrow it with much [Page 32] intreatance, and too indaunger himself greatly too him that lent it. Thinkest thou there was no oddes betwixt him that bestowed his good turne with ease, and this other that boro­wed too giue? Some thinges become greate for their season, and not for their summe.

The giuing of a peece of ground, whose frutefulnesse may ease the derth of Corne, is a benefite. And one Loaf of Bread giuen in tyme of Fam [...]n, is a benfite also.

Too giue a man whole Countries with many greate Ri­uers in them able too beare Shippes, is a benefite. And too [...]hewe a Waterspring too suche as are thirstie and scarce able to fetche their breath for drynesse, is a benefite also.

Who shall compare these thinges togither? who shall wey them throughly? Hard is the determinatiō of that cace, which requyreth the force of a thing, and not the thing it self. The thinges may bee all one; and yet the maner of bestowing them shal alter the estimation of them. A man hath doone mée a good turne; but hee did it vnwillingly; hee was sorie when hee had doone it: he looked scornefullyer vppō mée than he was woont ont too doo: hee did it with suche lingering, as he had pleased mee muche more too haue sayd mee flat nay out of hande. How shal a iudge make an estimate of these thinges, when the spéech, and the douting, and the countenaunce if a man maye marre the grace of his good turne.

¶The .ix. Chapter.

AGein, some thinges are termed Benefites, by­cause they bee ouermuch desyred: and othersome being not of that comon sort, but much greater, doo beare a lesse showe. Yee call it a benefite too haue made a man free of the head Citie of our pu­issant commonweale; and too haue aduaunced him too honour, or to haue saued him vppon an Inditement of Life and Death. And what call you it too haue giuen a man good counsell? too haue wrested the Sword out of a mannes hand, that was redy too haue fordoone himself? too haue recomforted a forlorne [Page] persone with effe [...]tuall perswasions? and too haue brought him backe agein too the folowship of lyfe, from his wilfull sée­king of that which he longed for? What think you it too bee, to haue sit by a sicke man; and whereas his health consisted intending him, too haue giuen him his Meales when his Sto­macke would serue him best, and too haue refreshed his feeble pulfes with Wyne, and too haue holpen him too a Phisician when hee was like too dye? Who shall valewe these thinges? who shal commaund these benefites too bee recompenced with the like?

Some man perchaunce hath giuen thée a house: and I haue forewarned thee that thyne owne is falling doune vppon thy head. He hath giuen thee Landes and Goods: and I haue gi­uen thée a Boord too flote vppon in shipwrecke. Another hath fought for thée and was wounded: and I haue saued thy lyfe by holding my peace. Seeing that a good turne is doon one way, and recompenced another: it is a hard matter too make them matches.

¶The .x. Chapiter.

FUrthermore, there is no day set for the requyting of a good turne, as there is for repayment of Monnye that is lent. Therefore he that hath not requyted, may requyte. For I would haue thee too tell mee with­in what tyme a man may bee found too bee vnthankfull. The greatest benefites haue no tryall at all. Of­tentymes they lye hidden betwéene the cōsciences of the twoo parties, vnspoken of. Shall wee bring the worlde too that poynt, that wee may not doo a good turne without witnesse? What punishment then shal wee appoint for the vnthankfull? Shall wee punish all alike, whereas the benefites bee vnlike? or shall wee appoint diuersitie of punishmentes, greater or les­ser, according too the measure of eche mannes benefite? Per­aduenture [Page 33] you wil haue the penaltie too bee but a monny mat­ter. Why? Some benefites concerne lyfe, yea and are greater than lyfe. What penaltie shalbee appointed for those? Lesse than the benefite? That were not indifferent. Aequall and deadly? What can bee more vnkindly, than that the end of be­nefites should be bluddie?

¶The .xi. Chapter.

CErtein prerogatiues (say you) are giuen too Parentes. Looke howe consideration is had of these extra­ordinarily: so must consideration bée had of other mennes benefites like­wise. We haue priuiledged the state of Fatheres and Moothers, bycause it was expedient too haue Children bred and brought vp. They were too bee incoraged too this trauell, bycause they aduenture vppon vncerteine chaunce. It cannot bee sayde too them as may bee sayd too others that bestowe benefytes: If thou bee deceyued, take one that is meete for thee and helpe him. In bringing vp of Children, it is not at the choyce of the Parentes too haue them suche as they list: all that they can doe, is but too wishe well and hope well. Therefore too the intente they myght the more willingly aduenture this chaunce, it was reason that some prerogatiue should bee giuen them. Agein the case stan­deth otherwise with Parentes: for they both doo and will still bestowe benefites vppon their Children, although they haue doone neuer so muche for them alreadie: and it is not too bee feared that they will beelye themselues in giuing. Certesse in all other men, it may stande vppon tryall, not onely whither they haue receyued, but also whither they haue giuen or no. But asfor the desertes of Parentes, they bee alwayes to bee taken for matter confessed. And bycause it is beehooffull for Youth to bee ruled: wee haue set as it were household magi­strates ouer them too keepe them in awe. Besydes this, the be­nefyting [Page] of all Parentes is after one sorte, and therefore it myght bee valewed all after one rate. But the benefytinges that are doone by others, are dyuerse and vnlike, and there is infinite oddes of difference betwixt them: by reason whereof they could not fall within the compasse of any lawe, forasmuch as it were more reason that all should bee let alone, than that all should bee made equall.

¶The .xii. Chapiter.

SOmme thynges are costly too the giuers▪ and some are muche woorth too the recei­uers, and yet stand the giuers in nothyng. Somme thynges are giuen too freendes, and somme too folkes of no acquaintance. It is more (though the thing that is giuen bee all one) if thou giue it too suche a one, as thou beginnest thy first acquaintance with him by thy good turne. This man giueth releef, that man preferment, and ano­ther man comfort. Ye shall finde somme man that thinkes not any thing more pleasaunte, or any thing greater; than too haue one that may bee a staye too him in his miserie. Ageine ye shall finde some man more carefull for his honestie, than for his safe­tie. And there bee other somme that would thinke themselues more beholden too him by whose meanes they might liue at their ease, than too him by whose meanes they might liue in somme counntenaunce of estimation. Therefore these thinges would fall out too bee greater or lesser, according as the Iud­ges mynde were bent too the one, or too the other. Further­more, I am at myne owne choyce for my creditor: but now and then I take a good turne of him that I would not, and some­tyme am bounde ere I wote of it. What wilt thou doo? Wilte thou call him vnthankfull, that had thy good turne cast vppon him, and wist it not; who if he had knowen it, would not haue receiued it? And wilt thou not call him vnthankfull, who after a sorte accepted it, and yet requited it not?

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

A Man hath dooen me a good turne: and afterward he dooeth me a shreude turne. Now whither dooeth that one good turne of his, bynde me too beare all displeasures at his hand: or whither is it all one as if I had re­quited him, because he himself hath cutte of his owne good turne, by dooyng me wrong afterwarde? Ageine how wilt thou discerne, whither that bee more wherein I was pleasured, or that wherin I was harmed? Tyme would faile me, if I should take vpon me too recken vp all inconueniences. Somme man will say, that wee make men slower too doo good, when wee chalenge not the thinges that are giuen, but suffer the denyers too scape vnpunished. But you must bethinke you of this also on the contrary parte: that men wilbee muche lothther to receiue benefites, if they shall stande in perill of answeryng to the cace. Also, by this meanes wee our selues shall becomme the lother too doo men good: for no man will gladly pleasure men ageinste their willes. But who­soeuer is prouoked too pleasure menne of his owne goodnesse, and for the verie goodlynesse of the thing itself: he will bée wil­ling too doo good, euen vntoo such as shal think themselues no more beholden too him, than they list. For the commendation of that benefite or good turne is maimed, whiche carieth a pro­uiso with it.

¶The .xiiii. Chapiter.

SO shall there bee fewer good turnes.

Yea, but they shalbee trewer. And what harme is it too haue the rashnesse of bene­fiting restreined? For euē this sought they whiche made no Lawe for it: namely, that wee should bée the circumspecter what wée bestowed, and the warer in choosing on whom we bestowed. Consider throwghly too whō thou giuest. [Page] So shal there bée no sewing, so shall there bee no chalendging. Thou art deceiued if thou think that anye iudge can help thée. no Lawe is able too set thee cleere agein. Onely haue thou an eye too the faithfulnesse of the receyuer. So shall benefytes keepe their estimacon, and continew honorable. Thou staynest them, if thou make them a matter of Lawe. In dettes it is a most vpright speeche and agreeable too the Lawe of all Real­mes, too say, Pay that thou owest. But it is the fowlest woord than can bee in benefiting, too say, Pay. For what shall he pay? Admit he owe lyfe, Dignitie, safetie, welfare, or health? All thinges that are of the cheefest sort, are vnpayable. Let him (say you) pay somewhat of like valewe. This is it that I spake of: namely that the estimation of so noble a thing should perish, if wee make a merchandyze of benefites. The mynd is not too bee prouoked vntoo couetowsenesse, repyning, and discord: it ronneth intoo these thinges of the owne accord. Let vs with­stand them as muche as wee can, and let vs cut of occasions of complaint.

¶The .xv. Chapter.

I Would wee could perswade men too take no monnye agein that they haue lent vppō credit, saue only of suche as were willing too repay it. Whould God that no [...]retie myght bée taken of the purchacer by the seller, nor bargaines and couenantes bee made vnder hand & seale: but rather, that the performance of them were referred too the faithfulnesse and vpright meenyng of mennes consciences. But men haue preferred profit before honestie, and thei had leuer inforce men too bee faithfull, than too finde them faithfull. One manne by meanes of Brokers taketh vp monnie of diuers men, vpon as­suraunce in writyng, and witnesses are called on bothe partes. Another is not contented with sufficient sureties, vnlesse he hath also a pa [...]ne in his hande. O shamefull bewraying of the deceitfulnesse of man, and of the leaudnesse that is commonly [Page 35] vsed. Our Seales are more sette by than our soules. For what purpose are worshipfull men called to record? Why sette they too their handes? Uerely least the partie should deny the receit of that, whiche he hath receiued. Would not a man take suche too bee vncorrupte persones, and mainteiners of the truthe? And yet euen they also by and by after cannot bee trusted for a­ny monnie, but vpon like dealyng. Had it not bin more hone­stie, too let somme menne go with the breakyng of their credit, than that all men should bee mistrusted of vnfaithfulnesse? Co­uetousnesse wanteth onely but this one point, namely that wée should doo noman good without suretiship. It is the propertie of a Gentlemanlike and Noble harte, too helpe and profite o­thers. He that dooth men good freely, resembleth the Goddes: but he that lookes for recompence, resembleth the Usurers. Why then abace wee our selues too those vilest sorte of rake­helles, by resembling them.

¶The .xvi. Chapter.

BUt if no Action may lye againste a thanklesse persone, there will (sayest thou) bee the mo thanklesse persones. Nay rather there wilbee the feawer: for men will take the better héede too the bestowing of their benefites. Agein it is not good too haue it knowen too the world, what a nomber of vnthankfull persones there bee. For the multitude of offenders taketh away the shame of a deede; and a comon cryme ceaseth too bee counted a reproche. Is there almost any woman now adayes ashamed of dyuorcement, since the tyme that certein of the noble Ladyes and Gentlewomen haue made account of their yeares, not by the nomber of Con­sulles, but by the nomber of their husbandes, and haue gone from their husbandes too bee maryed, and maryed too bee dy­uorced? So long as Dyuorcement was rare, so long was it feared. But after that feawe Mariages were cōtinewed with­out Dyuorce: the often heering of it taught them too vse it. Is any Woman now a dayes ashamed of whoredomme, since [Page] the world is come to that poynt, that fewe take a Husband but too cloke their Whoredome? Chastitie is a token of defor­mitie. Where shall a man fynde so very a Wretche or so very a Puzzle, that one payre of Adulterers may suffyze hir? Nay, [...]hee doteth and is to muche of the old stampe, whiche knowes not that the keeping of one Leman is counted good wedlock. Like as too bee ashamed at these faultes is vanished away at these dayes, since the thing began too get larger scope: so shalt thou make the thanklesse sort both mo and more bolde, if they may once begin too muster themselues.

¶The .xvii. Chapiter.

WHat then? Shall the thankelesse persone scape vnpunished?

What becomes of the malicious? what becomes of the couetouse? what becomes of him that hath no stay of himself? What becomes of the cruell man? Thinkest thou that the thinges whithe are hated, are vn­punished? Or thinkest thou that there can bee a sorer punish­ment, than too bee hated of all men? It is a punishment, that he dares not take a good turne at any mannes hande, that hee dares not bestowe a good turne vppon any man, that he is a gazingstocke too all men, or at leastwyse beléeues himsef too bee so, and that he hath forgone the vnderstanding of the thing that was both singularly good and singularly sweete. Callest thou him vnhappie that wanteth his eyesight, or whose eares bee stopped by some disease: & wilt thou not call him a wretch, that hath lost the feeling of Benefites? Hee is afrayed of the Gods the witnes bearers ageinst al vnthankful persons. The disappointing of him of benefiting or being benefited, fretteth and gnaweth his conscience: and finally it is punishmēt great inough, that (as I sayd afore) he hath forgone the fruition of so sweete a thing. But he whom it delyghteth too haue recey­ued a good turne, inioyeth a measurable and continuall plea­sure, [Page 36] and it dooth him good too behold, not the thing, but the mynd of him at whose hand he had it. A good turne delighteth a thankful persone euer, and an vnthankfull persone but once. Besydes this, let eyther of their lyues bee compared with o­thers. The one is sad and sorowfull, and suche as a denyer and deceyuer is woont too bee, who hath no dew regard of Father and Moother; or of them that brought him vp, or of his Tea­chers. The other is merry, cheerfull, longing for occasion too requyte, and taking great pleasure of the same desyre; not see­king in what wise, too whom, or in what thing, but how he may answere most fully and bounteously: not onely too his Paren­tes and Frendes, but also too Folke of the meanest sorte. For though it bee a Bondman that hath doon him the good turne: he regardeth not of whom, but what he hath receiued.

¶The .xvii. Chapter.

BUT some men (emong whom Hecaton is one) demaunded whither a Bondman can benefite his Maister or no. For there bee that make this distinction: That some thinges are Benefites, somme dewties, and somme seruices: and that a benefite is that whiche is doone by a Fréeman: (A Freeman is suche a one as might haue left the thing vndoone without blame.) That dewtie is of children, of wife, & of those persones whom kinred or aliance stirreth vp, and willeth too help vs: And that seruice is of the Slaue or Bondman, whom his degree hath put in suche state, as he cannot chalege his superior for any thing that he dooeth for him.

Notwithstanding all this, he that denyeth that Bondmen maye sometyme too their Masters a good turne, is ignoraunt of the Lawe of Nature. For it skilles not of what calling the man bee that dooeth the good tnrne, but of what mynde he is. Uertue is forstalled from noman: She is set open for all men: She admitteth all menne: She allureth all men: Gentlemen, [Page] Franklinges, Bondmen, Kinges, and Banishedmen: She fancyeth neither house nor Substaunce, but is contented with the bare man. For what safegard should there bee ageinste casual­ties, or what could the noble harte assure itself of; if Fortune could alter vertu [...] by substaunce? If the Bondman cannot doo his Maister a good turne: neither can the Subiecte doo it for his Prince, nor the Souldier for his Capitein. For what mat­ter makes it, in what state of subiection a man bee, if he bee in any? For if necessitie and feare of extremitie doo barre a Bond man from atteining the name of desert: the same thing will also barre him that is vnder a King, or a Capiteine, because thei haue like authoritie ouer him, though by vnlike title. But men doo good turnes too their Princes, and menne doo good turnes too their Capiteies: Ergo they maye also doo good turnes too their Maisters. A Bondman maye bée iuste, he may bee valeant, he maye bee of a noble corage: Ergo he maye also benefite, or doo a man a good turne, for euen that also is a point of vertewe. Yea, and it is so possible for Bondmen too benefite their Maisters, that oftentymes they haue bounde their Mai­sters too thē by their good turnes. There is doutt but a Bond­man maye benefite any other man: and why then should he not bee able too benefite his maister also?

¶The .xix. Chapiter.

BEcause (sayest thou) he cannot become his Maisters creditor. though he should lende his Maister monnie. Otherwise he should daily make his Maister beholden vntoo him. For he lackyeth after him when he iourneyeth, he tendeth him in his sicknesse, he tooyleth himself out of his skin too doo him ease: And yet all these thinges (whiche should bee called good turnes, if another bodie did them) are but seruices as long as a Bondman dooeth them. For that is a good turne, whiche is doone by a manne that was at his owne free choyce, [Page 37] whither he would doo it or no. But a Bondman hath not liber­tie too say nay. And therefore he dooeth not benefite, but obey: neither can he boaste of his dooing, whiche too refuse he hadde no power.

Now will I cast thee; & in thyne owne turne, I will bring a Bondman so far [...]e foorth, as too many thinges he shalbee frée. But tell me by the waye: If I shewe thee a Bondman fighting for his Maisters safegard, without respecte of himself, and stri­ken through with many woundes, and yet still spēding the rest of his bloud, euen from the verie harte, and by his owne death, making respit that his Maister maye haue leisure too scape: wilte thou saye he did not his Maister a good turne, because he is his Bondman? If I shewe thée one that by no promises of a Tyraunt could bee corrupted, by no threates bee feared, by no tormentes bee forced too bewraye his Maisters secretes, but (as muche as he could) remoued all suspicions that were sur­mised, and spent his life too keepe his faithfulnesse: wilte thou deny him too haue doone his Maister a good turne, because he was his Bōdman? Se [...] rather if it bee not so muche the grea­ter good turne, as the example of vertewe is rarer in Bond­men: and consequently so muche the more woorthe thankes, for that whereas superioritie is commonly hated, and all [...]on­streint greeuous: yet the loue of some one towardes his Mai­ster, hath surmounted the common hatred of bondage. So thē it is not therefore no good turne because it proceeded from a Bondman: but it is so muche the greater good turne, for that not euen bondage could fraye him from dooing of it.

¶The .xx. Chapiter.

IF any bodie thinke that bondage entereth intoo the whole man: he is deceyued. The better part of him is priuiledged; mennes bodies are subiect and tyed too their Mai­sters. But the mynd is at his owne libertie; whiche of itself is so free and vnbound, as it cannot bee hild, no not euen within this pri­son wherin it is inclosed, but vseth his force, and woorketh [Page] greate thinges, and passeth beyond all [...]oundes in companie with the heauenly sorte. It is the bodie therfore, whiche fortune hath giuen too the master. This he buyeth, this he selleth. As­for that inward part, it cannot bee brought in bondage. What­soeuer isseweth from that, is frée. For neither may wée masters in all thinges commaund: neither may our bondmen in all thin­ges obey. They shall obey no commaundement ageinst the co­mon weale: they shall put their handes too no wickednesse.

¶The .xxi. Chapter.

THere bée some thinges which Lawes ney­ther [...]id nor forbid a man too doo. In these hath a bondmā matter too woorke a good turne vppon. As long as no more is doone than is woont too bée exacted of bondmen [...] it is seruice. But when a bondman dooth more than he is bound too doo, it is a Be­nefite. When it passeth intoo the affection of a [...]reend, it ceaseth too bee called a seruice. There bee some thinges whiche the Maister is bounde too bestowe vppon his Bondman: as foode and raiment. Noman will terme this a benefite. But if he haue delt fauorably with him, and haue brought him vp like a gen­tleman, and trained him in the Sci [...]nces that are taught vnto gentlemen; it is a benefite. The same thing is doone on the cō ­trary parte, in the persone of [...]he Bondman. Whatsoeuer it is that exéedeth the rate of a Bondmannes duetie, whiche is not doone of awe, but of good will: it is a benefite, if it bee so great as it maye beare that name, if any other man doo it.

¶The .xxii. Chapiter.

A Bondman (as it liketh Chrysippus) is a con­ [...]ne hyreling. Now like as the hyre­ling befréendeth a manne, whom [...]e dooeth more than [...]ee was hyred too doo: so when the Bondman, of good will towardes his Maister, surmounteth the measure of his degree, and attempteth some higher mat­ter, [Page 38] whiche might beseeme euen one of noble birthe, and ouer­goeth his Maisters hope: It is a freendship founde at home within his house. Seemeth it indifferent vntoo thee, that with whom wee are offended, if they doo lesse than their duetie; wee should not bee beholden too them, if they doo more than duetie and ordinarie? Wilt thou knowe when it is no benefite? It is then none, when it may bée said, he shall neither will nor chooze but doo it. But when he dooeth that whiche he needed not, ex­cept he had listed: it is praiseworthy that he listed. A good turne and a shreude turne are contraries. If he maye take wrong at his Maisters hande, he may also doo his Maister a good turne. But concernyng the wronges doone too Bondmen by their Maisters, there is one sette in office too heare their caces, who hath authoritie too restreyne bothe their crueltie, and their leudnesse, and their nigardship in giuing their Bondmen néed­full thinges too liue by. What then? Dooth a Maister receiue a good turne of his Bondman? Nay, rather one man receiueth a good turne of another. Too bee shorte, he hath doone what was in his power too doo: He hath benefited his Maister. Not too receiue it at thy Bondmannes hande, that is in thy power. But who is so greate, whom Fortune compelleth not too haue neede euen of the basest? I wlil streytwaies reherce many exā ­ples of befreending, bothe vnlike, and some also contrary one too another. Somme haue saued their Maisters life, somme haue bin their Maisters death. Another hath saued his Mai­ster from perishing; and (if that bee but a small matter) he hath saued him by perishing himself. One hath furthered his Mai­sters death, & another hath saued his maister by beguyling him.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

CLaudius Qudrigarius in his xviij. booke of Chronicles, reporteth that when the Citée Grument was beseeged, and stoode in vtter perill to bee loste, twoo Bondmen fledde too the enemie, and tooke wages too serue him. Afterward when the Toune was taken, and the [...] oue [...]ranne all places: [Page] the Bondmen ranne afore by priuie wayes, to the house where they had serued, and draue out their Mistresse before them. And being demaunded what shee was; they said shee was their Mai­stresse, and the cruellest woman that euer liued, and that they caried her out to putte her too death. But assone as thei had her without the walles, they hid her close till the [...]ge of the enemie was alayed. And afterward when the Romane souldiers were satisfied and comme ageine to their owne disposition, (whiche was soone doone): the Bondmen also returned too their owne side ageine, and set their Mistresse at her libertie. Shee imme­diately made them bothe free, and disdeined not too haue taken life at the handes of those, ouer whom shee herself had had po­wer of life and death. Yea, so muche the more for that, had shee cause too thinke herself happie. For had shee bin saued other­wise, it had bin no straunge matter, nor any thing els than a point of comon and ordinarie gentlenesse. But being saued af­ter this maner, shee became a famous bywoorde, and an exam­ple of twoo Citees. In so greate hurlyburly at the taking of the Citée, when eueryman shifted for himself, all creatures for­sooke her saue the runnagates. But they (too shewe with what mynde they had reuolted afore) fledde ageine from the conque­rours too a captiue, pretending the countenaunce of murthe­rers, whiche was the greatest point in that benefite. So muche thought they it better too seeme murtherers of their Mistresse than that shee should haue bin murthered in deede. It is not, be­leeue me, it is not the point of a stauishe cour [...]ge, to compasse a noble facte with the slaunder of wickednesse. As Antonius the Mayer of the Marses, was ledde to the Lieutenante Gene­rall of the Romanes, a Bondman of his [...] out the Sould­yers sworde that ledde him, and firste slewe his Maister. And hauing doone so, it is tyme for me (sayeth he) to prouide for my self. I haue alredie giuen my Maister his freedome: and with that woorde he strake himself through with one blowe. Shewe me any that hath saued his Maister more stoutly?

¶The .xxiiii. Chapiter.

[Page 39] CEsar beseeged Corfinium and Domitius being shet vp within the Toune, commaun­ded his Phisician (who was a Bondman of his) too poyson him. When he sawe him make Curtesie at the matter; why stickest thou (ꝙ he) as though the matter lay who­ly in thy power? I that desyre death am ar­med. Then his Bondman agreed and gaue him a hurtlesse me­dicine too drink, wherwith he cast him intoo a dead sleepe, and going out of hand too his Sonne, sayd: Sir, cammaund mee too bee kept but so long till you perceyue by the sequele, whi­ther I haue poysoned your father or no. Domitius escaped and had his lyfe pardoned by Caesar: but yet his bondman had sa­ [...]ed him first.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

IN the tyme of the Ciuil warres, a Bondman hid his maister that was proclaymed Taitour. And when he had put his Maisters Ringes on his Fingers, and arayed himself in his Appa­rell, he went out too the Executioners, and tel­ling them that hee craued no fauour, bade them execute their Commission, and therwithall hild out his necke for them too cut of. How great manhod was it for him too yeeld himself too death for his Maister, in a tyme when faithfulnes was geson: and too bee loth that his Maister should dye in the common crueltie: yea and too be founde so trustie when trecherie was vniuersall, as too craue death in recompence of his faithful­nes, euen when Treason was most highly rewarded?

¶The .xxvi. Chapter.

I Will not let passe the Examples of myne owne tyme. Under Tiberius Caesar, the outrage of ap­peachi [...]g men was very ryfe, and in maner co­mon: wh [...]che thing gaue a sorer wound too the settled state of this Citie, than al the Ciuill war­res [Page] had doone. Aduauntage was taken of dronkenmens talke, and of thinges spoken simply in mirth, nothing was in safetie. Euery occasion of picking thankes was liked of. And men mused not what should become of them that were accused: for they were all serued with one sawce. One Paule a mā of honor being at a certein feast, had on his finger a ring with a riche stone sticking out, wheron was ingrauē the image of the Em­perour Tyberius. I should play the foole too muche, if I should make nycenesse too tell you how he tooke a Chamberpotte. Which thing ouer Maro a comon knowen promoter of that tyme, tooke good heede of. But a bondman of this drunkenmā for whom the bayt was layed, pulled of his masters ring And when Maro bade the gwestes beare witnesse, that he had put the Emperours image too his priuities, and thervppō would haue framed a bill for them too haue subscrybed: the bondman shewed him the ring vppon his owne finger. If a man may call this man a slaue, he may also call the other an honest gwest.

¶The .xxvii. Chapter.

IN the tyme of the Emperour Au­gustus, before mennes woords were yet treason, though they bred them trubble: one Ruffus a Senatours peere (as he sate at Supper) wished that the Emperour might not come home ageine alyue from a progresse whiche hee then intended: adding furthermore, that all Bulles and Calues wished the same. There were that tooke good heede of those words. Assone as next morning came a bondman of his that had wayted vppon him at Supper ouer night, tolde him what woordes hee had cast foorthe in his drunkennesse as hee was at Supper, and counselled him too hye him too the Em­perour before hand, and too bée his owne accuser. His maister following his aduyce, met the Emperour at his first comming abrode. And when he had sworne vnto him that he was not wel [Page 40] in his wittes ouer night: he prayd God that his wishe myght light vppon himself and his Sonnes, beseeching the Empe­rour that he would pardon him and receyue him intoo his fa­ [...]our agein, When the Emperour had graunted his sewt: no­man (sayd Ruffus) will beléeue you haue taken mee intoo your fauour agein; vnlesse you giue me some thing. Therewithall he asked no tryfling some of Monye, and obteyned it. And I for my part (sayd the Emperour) will indeuer that I may ne­uer bee displeased with thee. Honourably did the Emperour deale with him, both in pardoning him, and also in matching liberalit [...]e with his gentlenesse. Whosoeuer shall heere of this example, must needes prayse the Emperour: but yet hee must prayse the Bondman firste. Doo ye not looke I should tell yee that he was made free for dooing this deede? He was so: but not for nought: for the Emperour payed for his manumission.

¶The .xxviii. Chapter.

AFter so many examples, there is no dout but a Maister maye receyue a freendly turne at his Bondmannes hand. Why should the persone ra­ther imbace the thing, than the thing innoble the persone? All men haue one beginning, and all spring out of one Roote▪ Noman is more Gentleman than o­ther sauing he that hath a better disposed nature, and more apt too good artes. They that setfoorth their Pedegrees & their aunceters on a long rowe interlyned with many braunches of Collateralll descentes on the fore [...]unt of their houses, are ra­ther notorious than noble. There is but one parent of all men, euen the world. Whither it bée by famous or bace descēt, euery man conueyes his [...] Pedegree from him. There is no cause why these that keepe [...] their aunceters should be­guile thee. Whersoeuer the [...] hath made any man re [...]ow­med, byandby they feyne him too bee a God. D [...]spize no man though his Pedegree bee worne out of remembraunce, and smally furthered by vnfrendly fortune. Whither your aunce­ters were freemen, or bondmen, or Alean [...]es: bee of good co­rage [Page] hardily, and whatsoeuer bacenesse lieth in your way, leape ouer it. Greate noblenesse abydeth for you alost. Why should Pryde puffe vs vp into so great fondnesse, that wee should dis­deyne too take a good turne at our Bondmennes handes; and looke so much at their degree, that wee should forget their de­sertes? Callest thou any man Slaue, being thyself the bond­slaue of Lecherie and Gluttonie, and the comon kickhor [...]e, not of one Strumpet but of manye? Callest thou any man [...]aue? Whither a Gods name doo these Colecariers iaunce thée, ca­rying this thy Couch vp & doune? Whither doo these Cloke­men like a sort of braue Soldadoes, whither (I say) doo they conuey thee? Too the doore of some doorekéeper, or else too the Garden of some Rascall that hath not so much as an ordi­narie office. And yet denyest thou thyself too bee beholden too thyne owne Seruant, which thinkest it too bée a greate frend­ship too get a kisse of an other mans Seruaunt? How happe­neth it that thou art so at oddes with thyself? At one instaunt thou both despysest and honourest slaues. Within doores thou art Lordly and full of commaundementes: and without doo­res Loutlyke and as muche skorned as skornfull. For none are sooner out of countenance, than they that take most stoutly vppon them in all naughtinesse. Neither are any folke buzyer too tread others vnder foote, than suche as haue learned too ryde vppon others, by putting vp reproche at other mennes handes themselues.

¶The .xxix. Chapiter.

THese thinges were too bee spoken, to pull downe the pryde of men that hang vppon fortune, and too recouer vntoo bondmē the ryght of benefiting, in likewyse as it is too bee yeelded vntoo children. For it is a que­stion, whether children can by anie meanes bée more beneficiall too their parētes, than their parentes haue been vntoo them? This is a playne cace, that manie sonnes haue become greater, and of more abilitie [Page 41] than their fathers, and in that respect haue bin better than their fathers: which thing being admitted, it may also fall out that they haue doone more for them, considering that bothe their abilitie was greater, and their will better. Uerely (will some man say) whatsoeuer it bee that the sonne dooth for his father, it is lesse than his father hath doone for him, bycause he had not bin in case too haue doo [...] it, if it had not bin for his father. So can no benefiting surmount him that is the ground of the surmounting of itself.

First it is too bee considered, that some thinges take their beginning of other, and yet are greater than their beginnin­ges. Neither is any thing therefore lesse than that frō whence it hath his beginning, for that it could not haue growen too that greatnesse, excepte it had had a beginning. There is al­moste nothing but it farre exceedeth his first originall. See­des are the causes of all thinges, and yet are they the least part of the thinges that growe of them. Looke vppon Rhyne, looke vppon Euphrates: too be short, looke vppon all noble Riuers: and what are they, if you measure them by their heades from whēce they spring? whatsoeuer they bee fearedfor, whatsoeuer they bee renowmed for, they haue purchaced it in their far go­ing. Take away rootes, and there shalbee no woodes; neither shall the greate Mountaynes bee clad with Trees. Looke vp­pon the growing timbertrees. If ye regard the great heighth and hougenesse of their Bodies, or the greate thiknesse and brode spreddingout of their Boughes: how small a thing in comparison of these, is that whiche is conteined in the Roote with his fyne little stringes? Temples stand vpon their foun­dacions, and so doo the Walles of this famous Citie: and yet the thinges that beare vp the whole woorke, lye hidden in the ground. The same cometh too passe in all other thinges. The greatnesse that groweth out, dooth alwayes ouerspred his owne originall. I could not atteyne too any thing, except my Parentes had first begotten mee. Yet is not euery thing that I haue atteined too, lesse therfore than the thing without which I had not atteyned vntoo it. If my Nurce had not cherished [Page] mee when I was a Ba [...]e, I could haue compassed none of the thinges which I now doo both with head and hande: neyther should I haue com [...] [...]his renowme and honour whiche I haue earned with my tra [...]ell both in peace and warre. Wilt thou therefore preferre my Nur [...]s dooinges before my grea­test deedes? And what differ [...]de is there, seeing I could no­more ha [...]e [...]om [...] [...]o any thing without the benefyte of my Nurce, than without the benefyce of my father?

¶The .xxx. Chapiter.

BUt if all that euer I am now able too doo, ought too bee imputed too my firste origi­nall: You must consider that my Father is not my beginner, no nor my Grandfather nother. For alwaies the further yee go, there shalbe still some other beginning of the beginning that went last afore. But no man will saye I am more beholde too myne Aunce [...]ers whom I neuer knewe, and whiche are passed the reache of remem­braunce, than too my Father. But I should bee more beholden too them than too my Father, if I bée beholden too myne aun­ceters that I had a Father to beget mee.

Whatsoeuer I haue doone for my Father, though it bée ne­uerso much, yet (sayest thou) it is nothing in respect of my Fathers desertes, bycause I had not bin if he had not begot­ten mee. After this maner of reasoning, if any man haue hea­led my Father when he was sicke and at deathes doore: there is nothing that I can doo for him, but it is lesse than he deser­ueth, bycause my Father had not begotten mee if hee had not bin recouered. But see if this carie not a more likelyhod of truthe: that the thing which I both could doo and haue doone, shouldbee esteemed as myne owne, and in myne owne power, and at myne owne wil. That I am borne, if thou looke throw­ly what a thing [...]o is, thou shalt fynde it a small matter and an vncertein, and an occasion of good and euill alyke, doutlesse the first steppe vntoo all thinges, but yet not by andby greater than all thinges bycause it is the first of all thinges.

[Page 42] I haue saued my Fathers lyfe and aduaunced him too high estate, and made him a Prince in his Countrie; and I haue not onely innobled hym with deedes doone by mee, but also giuen him a large and easie ground too woork vpon himself, no lesse voyd of perill than full of renowme. I haue heaped vppon him both honour, and welthe, and whatsoeuer may allure mannes mynd vntoo it: and wheras I was aboue all other men, I sub­mitted my self vnder hym. Tell mee now: that a man is able too doo these thinges, cometh it of his Father? I will answer for thee. Yea vndoutedly if too the dooing of these thinges, it was inough too bee onely borne. But if too liuing well, the least part bee too liue: or if thou haue giuen mee no more, th [...] that whiche wyld Bea [...]tes and other liuing thinges (whereof some are very small, and some moste vyle) haue as well as I: then chalenge not that too thyself, whiche I haue not of thee, though I haue it not without thée. Put the cace I haue rende­red lyfe for lyfe. In so dooing I haue surmounted thy gift, in asmuchas I haue giuen it wittingly, and thou hast receyued it wittingly: & in that I haue giuen it thee, not for myne owne pleasures sake, or at leastwyse not through pleasure: and final­ly in that it is so much a greater thing too keepe lyfe still than too receiue lyfe, as it is a lyghter matter too dye before a bo­dy can feare death, than afterward.

¶The .xxxi. Chapter.

I Gaue life too thee when thou mightest vse it out of hande: but thou gauest life vntoo mee, when I could not tell whither euer I should enioye it or no. I gaue thee life whē thou wart afrayd of death thou gauest me life, that I might dye. I ga [...]e thee a full and perfecte life: tho [...] beg a [...]est mee voyde, of reason, and another bodies burthen. Wilt thou knowe how, small a benefi [...]e it is too giue life in suche wise? Thou shoul­de [...]s haue cast mee awaye: or tho [...] diddest mee wrong too beget me. Whereby I ga [...], [...]at the begetting vp the [...]ather and Moother, is the least benefite that [...], vn [...]esse there go with [Page] it all other thinges, whiche ought too folowe this enteraunce of benefiting, whiche is too bee ratified with other naturall dueties. It is not good too liue: but too liue well. But I liue well: yea, and I might haue liued ill. So is there no more thyne, but that I liue. If thou vpbrayed mée with a life, whiche of it self is naked, and witlesse, and vaunte [...] of it as of a greate good thing: remember that thou twytest mee by suche a good thing, as is comon too Flyes and Woormes. Ageine, (that I maye alledge none other matter, tha [...] the appliyng of my self too good learning, too the intent too direct the race of my life in the right waie): If I liue well, thou haste euen in this bene­fite, receiued a greater thing than thou gauest. For thou gauest mee too myself, rude and vnskilfull: but I haue rendered thee thy sonne suche a one, as thou mayest bee glad that euer thou begattest him.

¶The .xxxii. Chapiter.

MY Father hath cherish [...]d mee: if I dooe the same too him. I render with an ouerplus, because it dooeth him good, not onely too haue cherished his sonne, but also too bee cherished by his sonne: and he taketh more pleasure of my good. [...], than of the verie deede. But his [...] of mee, [...] no further than too my bodie. What if a manne had procceded so farre, that for his Eloquence, his Iustice, [...] his Chiu [...]lrie▪ he were becomme▪ famous in forrein [...] also made his Father, highly renowmed, [...] of his [...] to shine foorth by the [...] should [...]e [...] Should any man haue knowen [...] Marc [...] Agrippa more beholden to his Father, who [Page 43] was not so muche as knowen after the decease of Agrippa; or his Father more beholden too him, who nobly atteined a Sea­garlande (the highest honour emong all the rewardes of Chi­ualrie); and builded so many greate woorkes in the Citée, sur­mounting the royaltie of all former woorkes, and vnable too bee matched of any that were made after? Whither did Octa­uius more for his sonne Augustus: or the Emperor Augustus more for his Father Octauius? howbeit that the shadowe of the Father by adoption, did ouercouer the Father by nature. How would it haue reioyced his harte, if he had seene him reigning in quiet peace, after the Ciuell warres were ended? He had bin more happie than he could haue perceiued; and as often as he had looked vppon himself, he would scarcely haue beleeued, that so noble a persone could haue bin borne in his house. What should I now proceede with any mo, whom forgetful­nesse had outworne long ago, had not the glorie of their chil­dren delued them out of darknesse, and kepte them still in the light? Hereafter let vs not aske, whither any sonne hath doon more for his Father, than his Father hath d [...]one for him▪ but whither it bee possible for any Sonne, to doo more for his Fa­ther, or no? Although the examples that I haue reherced alre­die doo not yet satisfie thee, or surmount the benefites of their Parentes: yet is it possible by Nature, [...]oo bee doone, howbee­it that no age hath hither too brought foorth any suche as hath doone it. For albeeit that no one benefite or mo seuerally, bee able too [...]urmount the greatnesse of the Parentes desertes: yet maye many knit togither in one surmount them.

¶The .xxxiii. Chapiter.

SCipio saueth his Father in battell: and bée­ing scarce man growen, setteth Spurres too his horse▪ and giueth charge vppon his enemies. Is it but a small thing, that for desire too res [...]owe his father, he regardeth not so many perilles, so many noble Capi­teines, so many thinges assailyng him, so [Page] many stoppes incountering him? That being a rawe souldier, and the firste tyme that euer he came intoo the feelde, he ouer­runneth the old expert souldyers, and [...]utgoeth his owne yee­res? Ad here vnto that he defendeth his Father arreigned, and deliuereth him from the conspiracie of his e [...]emies that were too strong for him: That he maketh him Cosull twice or thrice and preferreth him too other offices of honor, meete too bee co­uered euen of Consulles, and Consulles pee [...]es: That he relée­ueth his pouerty with gooddes gotten by the Lawe a [...] armes, and (whiche is the honorablest thing of all emong menne of warre) inricheth him with the spoile of enemies. If all this bee too little, putte too further, that he contineweth him in ex­traordinarie offices, and in the gouernement of Prouinces: ad also, that by ouerthrowing of moste mightie [...] without fellowe, being the founder and mainteiner of the Ro­maine Empire, that was too comme from Easte too West, ad­uaunceth the noblenesse of his noble Father. Shewe mee the matche of this Scipio, and there is [...] of begetting, shalbee [...] and vertewe of suche a one, I am not able too saye, whi­ther too th [...] greater welfare, or too the greater honour of his countrie.

¶The .xxxiiii. Chapiter.

MOreouer, if all this bee too little: admitte that somme man haue discharged his Fa­ther from tormentes, and taken them too himself. For you maye inlarge the weldoo­inges of a sonne, as farre as you list, consi­dering that the benefiting of the Father is simple and easie, yea, and also delightfull to the dooer. What neede wee many woordes? The father giueth life he knowes not too whom. And in dooyng of it he hath a Copartner: he hath an eye too the Lawe of fatherhod; too the reward of fathers, too the continewance of his house and fami­lie, and vntoo all thinges rather, than him too whom he did it. [Page 44] What if a man hauing obteined wisedome, doo teache thesame too his father? (For wée wil reason vpon that point also:) whi­ther hath he doone more for his Father, in teaching him too liue a blessed life: or his Father more for him in giuing him life onely? Whatsoeuer thou dooest (will somme menne saye) and whatsoeuer thou art able too bestowe, it is by the benefite of thy father. As well maye my Schoolema [...]ster claime it for his benefite, that I haue profited in the liberall Sciences vnder him: and yet wée excell those that haue taught vs such thinges: at leastwise those that haue taught vs our first principles. And although no manne can atteine any thing without them: yet is not all that a manne hath atteined, inferiour to them. There is greate difference betweene the firste thinges, and the greatest thinges. The firste thinges are not by and by comparable too the greatest thinges, because the greatest can not bee atteined [...]nto [...]ithout the first thinges.

¶The .xxxv. Chapter.

NOw it is tyme for me to bring some­what out of myne owne store, if I maie so terme it.

He that bestoweth suche a benefite as may bee bettered, may bee sur­mounted. The father hath giuen his sonne lyfe: but there are thinges bet­ter than lyfe: Ergo the father maie be surmounted, bycause there is some better thing than the benefite that he hath bestowed.

Yea if one that hath giuen a man lyfe bee once or twyce de­liuered from perill of death for it, he hath receyued a greater benefyte than he gaue: Ergo if the Sonne saue his father of­tentymes from daunger of death, the father receyueth a better turne than he bestowed.

He that receiueth a good turne, receiueth so much the grea­ter good turne, as he hath more neede of it: But he that liueth hath more neede of lyfe than he that is not yet borne, (as who [Page] can finde no wāt at all of it): Ergo the father receiueth a grea­ter benefite in his sonnes sauing of his life, than the sonne re­ceyueth in his fathers begetting of him.

[But thou sayest still, that] the fathers benefites cannot bee o­uermatched by the sonnes benefites. Why so? Bycause he hath receyued lyfe of his father, whiche if he had not receyued, he could haue doon no good turnes at all. This care of the father is comon too all menne that haue preserued anie bodyes life: for they could not haue requyted, if they had not receyued lyfe. By the same reason it is not possible too reward a Phisician a­boue his desert, (for a Phisician is woont too giue life): nor a mariner if he haue saued a man from shipwrecke. But the be­nefytes as well of these men, as of all others that by anie mea­nes haue giuen vs lyfe, may bee surmounted: Ergo the bene­fites of parentes may bee surmounted also.

If a man haue bestowed suche a benefite vppon mee as hath neede too bee furthered by the benefytes of manie men: and I bestowe suche a benefite vppon him, as should neede the help of noman: I haue bestowed a greater than I haue receiued.

The father giueth his chyld suche a life as should haue peri­shed out of hand if there had not folowed manie thinges too mainteine it: But if the sonne saue his Fathers life, he giueth him suche a life as wanteth the helpe of no man, as too the con­tinewance of it: Ergo the Father that hath receiued life at his sonnes hande, hath receiued a greater benefite than he gaue.

¶The .xxxvi. Chapiter.

THese thinges diminishe not the reuerence towardes Parentes, ne make their Chil­dren woorse too them, but rather better. For by Nature Uertewe is desirous of praise, and preaceth too outgo the formest. The childs loue wil be the more chereful if it goe on too requite benefites, with hope of surmounting. If this may comme too passe by the mutuall consent of the Fathers and the Children: for asmuche as there [Page 45] bee many thinges wherein wee maye bee vanquished too our owne behoofe: what luckier incounter, what greater felicitie can there bee to Parentes: than too bee driuen too confesse thē selues, ouermatched by their Children in weldooyng? If wêe bée not of this opinion: wee giue our Children cause of excuse, and make them the [...]lower too render thankfulnesse, whereas wee ought rather to spurre them foreward, and too say? Gotoo good sonnes there is an honorable wager layed betweene the Fathers and the Sonnes, whither they shall haue giuen or re­ceiued greater benefites. They haue not therefore wonne the wager, because they haue begunne firste: Onely plucke vp a good harte as becommes you, and faint not, that ye may ouer­comme them that would bee glad of it. In so goodly an enter­prise, you cannot want Capiteines too incorage you too doo as they haue doone afore you, and too haste you foreward in their owne footesteppes, too the victorie whiche they haue of­ten heretofore gotten of their Parentes.

¶The .xxxvii. Chapiter.

AEnaeas ouermatched his father. For wher­as his father had borne him a Babe when he was a light and safe cariage: he tooke vp his father heauie with age, and caried him through the thickest preace of his ene­mies, and through the ruines of the Citie falling doune about him, at what tyme the deuout old man holding his holie Relikes and housholdgods in in his armes, loded him with another burthen heuyer than himself. Yet bare he him in the fyre, yea and (what is not natu­rall loue able too doo?) he bare him thorough, and shryned him too be woorshipped among the Founders of the Romaine Em­pyre. The yoongmen of Sicilie ouermatched their Father. For when Mount. Aetna bursting foorth with greater force than was accustomed, had cast foorth his fyre intoo the Townes, intoo the Feeldes, and into the greatest parte of the Ilande: they caught vp their Parentes, and men beléeue that the [...]a­mes [Page] claue a sunder, and withdrawing on either syde of them, did set open a Gap for those most worthy yoongmen too ronne out at, that they might safely performe their greate attempt. The like victorie befell too Antigonus: who hauing vanqui­shed his enemies in a sore Battell, did put the reward of the vi­ctorie ouer too his Father, and gaue the kingdome of Ciprus intoo his handes.Titus Man­lius, the Sōne of Lucius Manlius. Looke in Li­uie the vii. booke of the first Decad. Marcus Pom­ponius. The trewe reigning, is, not to reigne when thou mayst. Manlius also ouercame his lordly father. For when his father had put him away for a tyme, bycause of the brutish­nesse & dulnesse of his youth: he came to a Tribune of the people that had sommoned his father too answere too an inditement: & when the Tribune (in hope he had hated his father, and would therefore haue bin a Traytour too him) beléeuing hee should haue doone the yoongman a pleasure, whose banishment (a­mong other thinges) he obiected too Manlius as a heynouse cryme,) demaunded of him the tyme that his Father had set him: The yoongman getting him alone, drewe out a Dagger that hee had hidden in his sléeue, and sayd too hym. If thou sweare not too mée to discharge my father of his Indytement, I will thruste thee through with this Dagger. It is in thy choyce after what sort my Father shall haue no accuser. The Tribune sware, and kept touch with him, certifying the Court of the cause why he let his Action fall. It had not bin for any other man thus too haue ouerruled the Tribune, and too haue gone cleere away with it.

¶The .xxxviii. Chapiter.

THere are examples vpon examples, concerning suche as haue deliuered their Parentes out of Daungers, aduaunced them from the bacest de­gree to the highest state; and lifting them from the common and rascall sort, haue commended them too the world, neuer too bee forgotten. No force of woords, no excellēcie of wit [Page 46] is able too expresse, how greate, how commendable, and how woorthie a matter it is too bee had alwayes in remembrance, for a man too bee able too say: I haue obeyed my Parentes, I haue giuen place too their commaundemētes were they right or wrong, easie or hard, I haue behaued myself obediently and with submission: In this one point onely haue I bin wilfull: that I myght not bee ouermatched in well dooing. Con­tende you also I pray you: and when you bee vanquished, giue a newe onset. Happie are those that shall so vanquish; happie are those that shalbee so vanquished. What thing can bee more noble, than that yoongman whiche myght saye too himself, (for it is not lawfull for him too saye it too any other body) I haue ouermatched my father in wel­dooing? What thing can bee more fortunate than that old man, which might euery where make his vaunt vnto all men, that his sonne hath ouergone him in weldooing? And what greater felicitie can there bee, than too yeld in such a cace?

The end of the third Booke.

❧ The fourth booke of Lucius An­naeus Seneca, concerning Benefites.

¶The first Chapiter.

OF all the thinges that wee haue dis­coursed (my frende Ebutius Libera­lis,) it may seeme that no one thing is so needefull, or (as Salust saieth) too bee treated of with more heede, than that which wée bée now in hand with: namely whither the dooing of good tur [...]es, and the rendering of thankfulnesse, are thinges too bee desyred for themselues. There are too bee found, which set not by honestie but for aduauntage sake, and whiche like not ver­tue without reward: whiche notwithstanding hath no noble­nesse in it, if it haue any thing sette too sale. For what fowler shame can there bee, than for a man too make reckening what it may bee woorth too him too bee honest? when as Uertue is neyther allured with gayne, nor frayed away with losse, and is so farre from brybing any man with profers or promises, that shee willeth men too too spend all vppon hir, and is commonly with them that giue themselues freely vnto hir? He that will go vnto hir, must tread profit vnderfoote. Whithersoeuer shee calleth, whither [...]euer shee sendeth; thither must a man go without regard at his worldly goods, yea and sometyme with­out sparing his owne blud, and he must neuer refuze too doo her commaundment. What shal I gayne (sayest thou) if I doo this thing valeantly, or that thing bountifully? There is no­thing promised [...] happen too thee, [...] thinges is in themselues. [...] thing is too bee desyred for it self, [...] goo [...]oing is an honest thing: it must needes bee in the same [...] seeing it is of the same na­ture. But that the thing which is honest, is too bee desyred for it self: it is often and sufficiently proued alreadie.

¶The second Chapiter.

IN this poynt I muste wage Battell ageinst the delicate and nyce compa­nie of Epicures, whose Philosophie is in their feasting, among whom Uertue is the Handmayd of pleasu­res. Them shee stoopes vntoo, them shee attende vppon, them shee be­holdes aboue hir. There is no plea­sure (sayeth the Epicure) without vertue. But why is pleasure put before vertue?

Thou reasonest concerning the order. Our question con­cerneth the whole thing, and thou argewest vppon a part of it. Uertue is not vertue if shee can folowe. Uertue chalengeth the cheefest preheminence. Shee muste leade, shee muste com­maund, shee must stand in hyghest place: and thou biddest hir fetch hir watchwoord at another.

What skilles it thee, sayst thou? for I also doo deny that there can bee any blissed lyfe without vertue. I myself also dis­allowe and condemne the pleasure whiche I folowe, and too whiche I haue yelded myself in bondage, if vertue bee seuered from it.

The only thing that is in question, is whither vertue bee the cause of the souerein good, or the souerein good it self.

Admit that these bee the onely thing in question. Suppos [...]st thou that the asking of it concerneth but the transposing of the order onely? Certesse it were a verie confusion and a ma­nifest blindnesse, too set the Cart before the Horse. I am not displeased that vertue is marshalled behynd pleasure: but that [...]hee is in any wyse matched with pleasure. Shee is the disdey­ner & enemy of pleasure, and shūneth her as farre as shee can. Shee is better acquaynted with peynfulnesse and greefe, and more meete too be grafted into manly misfortune, than intoo this womanish felicitie.

¶The third Chapter.

[Page] THese thinges were too bée spoken (my Liberalis) bycause the dooyng of good turnes (whiche is the matter wherof wee treate) is a poynt of ver­tue: & it is a foule shame that it should bee doone in any other respect, than to haue it doone. For if wee should doo it in hope of receyuing agein: then should wee doo it too the richest, and not too the woorthyest. But now wee preferre the poore man before the gréedie riche man. That is no benefyte, whiche hath an eye too the welth of the persone. Moreouer, if only profit should allure men too doo good: they should doo least good, that best might: namely riche men, men of authoritie, and Kinges, bycause they haue least neede of o­ther mennes helpe. And a [...]for the Goddes, they should bestowe none of these their manifold giftes whiche they power out vp­pon vs Night and Day without ceassyng. For their owne na­ture suffizeth them in all thinges, and maynteyneh [...] tthem in abundaunce, in safetie, and in impossiblitie too bee annoyed. Therefore shall they doo good too none, if the onely cause of dooing good bee the regarde of themselues & their owne pro­fite. Too looke about one, not where it may bee best bestowed, but where it may bee bestowed too most aduauntage, and from whence it may bee taken away with most ease: is not benefici­alnesse, but vsurie. But forasmuchas suche dealing is farre of from the Goddes: It foloweth that they bee rightly liberall. For if the onely cause of dooing good bee the profit of the doo­er: Sith God can looke for no profite at our hande: there is no cause why God should doo vs any good.

¶The fourth Chapter.

I Knowe what aunswere is made too this. Surely God dooth no good turnes at all, but is carelesse and regardlesse of vs; and being quyte giuen from the world, buzieth himself about other matters, or (whiche seemeth too the Epicure too bee the soue­reine felicitie) about nothing, nor is a [...]ie [Page 48] more inclyned too benefiting, than too dooing wrong. He that so sayeth, thinketh not y God heereth the voyces of them that pray, nor of them yt euerywhere lift vp their hands too heauen in making their vowes bothe priuate and publike. Whiche thing doutlesse had neuer comme too passe, neither would all the world haue agreed too bee so mad, as too make sewt vntoo deaf Goddes and helplesse Idolles, except they had felt their benefytes in verie deede, one whyle freely bestowed, another­whyle giuen vppon prayer, and the same too bee greate, sent in dewe season, and by their tymely comming ridding men frō greate miseries that manaced them. And who is so muche a wretch or so smally regarded? who was euer borne too so hard a destinie and too so sore penance, that he hath not felt this so greate bountifulnesse of God? Looke vppon the miserables [...] of them, euen when they lamēt and bewayle their owne cace: and yee shalnot finde them altoogither voyde of the heauenly bene­fytes. yea Yee shall fynd none that hath not drawen somewhat out of that most bountifull fountaine. Is it a small thing that is giuen indifferently too all men in their birth? Or (too let passe the things that are distributed afterward in vnegall pro­portion) did nature giue a small thing when shee gaue herself?

¶The .v. Chapiter.

DOoeth not God bestowe benefytes? from whence thē hast thou these thin­ges wherof thou art owner? whiche thou giuest? whiche thou Denyest? whiche thou keepest? whiche thou catchest? From whence comme these inumerable thinges that delyght the eyes, the eares, and the minde? From whence is this abundance that fur­nisheth euen our ryotous excesse? For, not only our necessities are prouyded for, but euen our pleasures also are tendered. Whence haue wee so manie trees bearing sundrie sortes of frutes, so manie wholsome herbes, and so manie diuersities of [Page] meates seruing for all seasons through the whole yeare? inso­mucheas the verie foode that commeth of the earth wee wote not how, were able too finde an vnpurueying sluggard. What should I speake of all kynde of liuing thinges, some breeding vppō the drye and hard ground, some within the moyst waters, and some sent doune from aloft, too the end that euery peece of nature should yeeld some tribute vntoo vs? what should I say of Riuers, some with moste pleasaunt wyndlasses inuironing the féeldes, and othersome passing foorth with houge streames able too be are shippes, and intermedling themselues with the sea?uphrates. [...]ygris. Nilus. [...]o. & others. Wherof some, at certeine ordinarie dayes, take woonder­full increace, so as the soodein force of the somers flud, moyste­neth the groundes that are situate vnder the Droughtie and burning clymate. What shall I say of the veynes of medcina­ble waters? what shall I say of the boyling vp of whot Bathes euen vppon the verie shores?

And what of thee ô Mighti Lare, and Benacus which swell▪
With roring Bilowes like the Sea whē windes doo make it fel?

¶The .vi. Chapiter.

IF a man had giuen thee a feawe A­cres of Ground, thou wouldest say thou haddest receyued a benefite at his hand: & denyest thou the vnmea­surable hougenesse of the broade earth too bee a Benefite? If a man should giue thee Monnie and fill thy Chest (for that is a greate mat­ter with thee) thou wouldest call it a benefite: and thinkest thou it no Benefite, that GOD hath hoorded vp so manie Metalles, and shed foorth so many strea­mes vppon the Sandes, in ronning doune whereuppon, they carie with them a houge masse of Gold, Siluer, Brasse, and Y­ron hidded euerywhere: and also that he hath giuen thee cun­ning too fynde it out by setting markes of his couert riches vppon the vpper part of the Earth? If a man should giue thee [Page 49] a house wherein there were a little glistering Marble, and a roofe shyning with gold or vernished with colours; wooldest thou call it a meane benefite? God hath builded thee a greate house, out of perill of burning or falling, wherein thou seest, not little peeces and thinner than the Chizell itself wherewith they were heawen: but entier huge Masses of moste Preciouse stone, whole through out of sundrie and seuerall woorkeman­ship the small peeces whereof thou woonderestat; the roofe of whiche house shyneth after one sorte in the day tyme, and after another in the nighttyme: and doo [...]t thou now denye that thou hast receiued anie benefite at all? Agein, whereas thou settest greate store by these thinges whiche thou hast: thinkest thou (whiche is the point of a thanklesse persone) that thou art be­holden too nobodie for them? from whence haste thou this breath which thou drawest? from whence hast thou this light, whereby thou disposest and orderest the dooinges of thy lyfe? from whēce hast thou thy blud, by whose mean thy lyuely heate is maynteyned? from whence haste thou these thinges whiche with their excellent taste prouoke thyne appetyte, euen more than thy stomacke can beare? from whence hast thou these in­tycementes of pleasure euen till thou bee weerie of it? from whēce hast thou this ease wherin thou welterest and witherest awaye? wilt thou not (if thou bee thankfull) say?

God giues this ease, and he shalbee my God for euermore:
His altars shal my tender Lambes imbrew ful oft therefore.
For he it is that makes my Neate to wander (as yee see)
And giues mee powre on Otē Reede to pype with merry glee.

God is hee, not that hath sent out a feawe Oxen, but whiche hath dispersed whole herdes of all maner of Catell intoo the whole world: which giueth pasture too the flockes that stray here and there in all quarters: which giueth Somerféede and Winterféede one vnder another: which not only hath taught men too playe vppon a reede, and after some maner too sing a rude and homely song vntoo it: but also hath deuysed so many artes, so many varieties of woordes, and so many soundes, too yeeld sundrie tunes, some by force of our owne breth, and some [Page] by outward wynd. For wee can no more say, that the thinges whiche wee haue inuented, are our owne dooinges: than that it is our owne dooing that wee growe, or that the bodie hathe his full proportion and properties according too his determi­nate tymes: as the falling away of teeth in chyldhod the lu [...]ti­nesse of youth growing vntoo yeeres of more discretion, and the strongnesse of mannes estate passing from thence in too the last age, whiche pitcheth the boundes of our flyghtfull lyfe. There are sowen in vs the seedes of all ages, and of all artes: and God as a schoolemaster dooth secrettly trayne foorth our naturall dispositions.

¶The .vii. Chapter.

NAture (sayest thou) giueth mée these thinges. Perceyuest thou not, that when thou saye [...]t so, thou doost but change Gods name? For what else is Nature, than God, and Gods or­dinance planted in the world and in the partes therof? As often as thou listest, thou mayst call him, somme­tymes the author of all thinges, and sometymes Ioue, Iupiter Opt. Max. Tonans. Stator. Stat [...]lio. that is too say, the moste graciouse and most myghtie. Also thou mayst wel terme him y Thunderer, and the Stander: for he is the verie Stāder, and Stayer: not bycause the battell of the Romanes which was fleeing, stayed and stood still after the making of their vow, (as our historiographers haue reported): but bycause all thinges stand and are stayed by his benefite. [...]. Moreouer if thou call him Fate, thou shalt not lye. For whereas Fate is nothing else but a holding on of cau­ses linked one within another: he is the first cause whervppon all the rest depend. Finally thou mayst properly apply too him what names so euer thou wilt, whiche conteine anie force and effect of heauenly thinges. Looke how manie properties or o­peracious he hath: so manie names may he haue.

¶The .viii. Chapter.

OUr men doo also terme him father Liber. and Hercules, and Mercurie. Father Liber, bycause he is the father of all thinges, by whom was first found out the power of seedes, which should bee the maynetenance of all thinges through pleasure. Hercules, bycause his power is inuincible, and shall returne intoo fire when it is wéerie of woorking. And Mercu­rie, bycause Reason, and nomber, and order, and kunning are in his power. Whithersoeuer thou turne thyself, thou shalt fynd hym meeting thee. Nothing is exempted from him. He himself filleth his woorke too the full. Therefore thou vnthankfullest of all wyghtes, thou talkest vaynly when thou sayest thou art not beholden too God, but too nature. For neyther is nature without God, nor God without nature: but both are one thing, without difference of office. If for a thing that thou haddest re­ceiued of Seneca, thou wooldest say thou art detter too Annaeus, or Lucius, thou shouldest not thereby chaūge the persone of thy Creditor, but his name: bycause that whither thou call him by his forename, his proper name, or his Sirname, yet shall he bee but all one man. Euen so, whither thou vse the termes of Nature, Fate, or Fortune, it makes no matter: bycause they al are the names of the selfsame God, vsing his power diuersly. Iustice, Honestie, Wisedome, Manlinesse and Thriftinesse are the goods of the mynd whiche is but one. If thou lyke any of these, thou lykest the mynd.

¶The .ix. Chapiter.

BUt too the intent I raunge not asyde intoo bymat­ters: I say that God bestoweth right manie and ex­ceeding great benefytes vppon vs, without hope of receyuing aught agein, bycause that neither he nee­deth any thing too bee bestowed vppon him, nor wee are able too bestowe any thing vppon him, Ergo Benefiting is a thing [Page] too bee de [...]yred for it owneself, and nothing is too bee respected in it but onely the receyuers commoditie. This is the thing that wee must tend vnto, setting a [...]yde our owne commodities.

But (sayeth he) thou hast told vs we must make ware choyce on whom we bestowe our good turnes: bycause that not euen the husbandman will beta [...] his seede too the sand: Ergo wee must seeke our owne profit in dooing good turnes, lyke as wée doo in tilling and sowing: for too sowe is not a thing too bee desired for itself. Besides this, yee take aduysement in dooing your good turne: which thing ought not too bee, if the dooing of good Turnes were a thing too bee desired for itself: for in what place so euer and in what wyze so euer it were doone, it were still a good turne.

Wee folowe the thing that is honest, for none other cause than for it self. And although none other thing bee too bee sought in in it: Yet notwithstanding wee bethinke our selues what wee may doo, and when, and after what sort, for in these thinges it consisteth. Therefore when Ibethinke mee vppon whom I may bestowe my good turne: I indeuer that it may bee a goodturne in deede. For if it bee bestowed vppon an vn­honest persone; it can hee neyther honest, nor a goodturne.

¶The .x. Chapiter.

TOO restore a thing that a man hath taken too keepe, is a thing too bee desyred for it­self: Yet shall I not alwayes restore it, nor in all places, nor at all tymes. Sometyme my vtter denying of it may bee as good as the open restoring of it. I must haue an eye too the profit of him to whom I should re­store it: and if the deliuerance wil doo him hatme, I shall kéepe it still from him. The same thing must I dooe in benefyting. I must consider too whom I giue, when I giue, in what wyse, and wherefore. For nothing is too bee doone without discre­tion. It is no good turne except it bee doone vppon reason: bycause reason is the companion of all honestie. How oft haue [Page 51] wée herde men (that found fault with them selues for their vn­aduised bestowing), caste foorth these woordes? I had leuer I had lost it, than bestowed it where I did. It is the fowlest kynd of bestowing that can bee, too bestowe vnaduisedly: and it is muche more greef too haue bestowed a good turne amisse, than not too haue receyued any. For it is the fault of other men that wee haue receiued none: but it is our owne fault that wee made no choyce in bestowing. In making my choyce, I will respectt nothing lesse than that whiche thou surmysest: name­ly of whom I shalbée best recompenced. For I will choose such a one as wilbe thankfull, and not suche a one as will make re­compence. Oftentymes, hee that shall neuer requite, shalbee thankfull, and hee that hath requyted shalbee vnthankfull. I make estimation of him by his mynde. Therefore I ouerpasse the riche man, if he bee vnwoorthy: & bestowe vppon the poore man that is good. For in extreme pouertie, hee wilbe thankfull: and when he wanteth al thinges, his hart shal yeld abundance. I hunt not for gayne by my good turne, nor for pleasure, nor for glorie. Contenting myself too please but one, I will bestow too the ende too doo as I ought too doo: And that whiche I ought too doo, is not too bée doone without choyse. What ma­ner of choyse the same shalbee, that doo you demaund.

¶The .xi. Chapter.

I Will chooze a man that is honest, playne, myndful, thankfull, not grip­ple of other mennes goodes, nor co­uetously pinching his owne, and such a one as is well mynded. When I haue found such a man, although for­tune lend him nothing wherwith too requyte: yet is the matter falne out as I wished. If selfprofit and filthie forereckenyng vppon gayne doo make mee liberall: If I shal befreend non, but bycause he should befreend mee agein: then shal I not benefite him that is taking his iourney into forrein [Page] and farre countries: then shall I not pleasure suche a one as must dwell awaie for euer: then shall I not doo for one that is so sicke as hee is past all hope of recouerie: Then shall I not bestowe aught when I am passing out of the world myself: for I shall haue no tyme too receyue frendship agein. But too the intent thou mayst knowe, that the dooing of good turnes is a thing too bée coueted for itsef: wée must reléeue the straungers that arryued but euen now vppon our coast, and shall go away by and by ageine. If a straunger suffer shipwrecke, wee muste giue him a ship redie rigged too conuey him home agein. Hee goes his way scarce knowing the woorker of his welfare: and neuer thinking too come in our sight agein, he setteth vs ouer too the Goddes for his Det, and prayeth them too make re­compence for him. In the meane whyle wée bee delighted with the rememberance of a barrein Benefite. I praie you, when wee bee hard at deathes doore, and when wee make our Will: doo wee not distribute benefites that shall nothing profite our­selues? How muche tyme spend wee, how long debate wee in secret, how muche wee may giue, and too whom? But what skilles it too whom wee giue, séeing wee shal receiue of none? Nay rather, wee bee neuer more ware in bestowing, nor wee neuer streyne our wittes more than at that tyme, when all profit set asyde, there standeth nothing before our eyes but ho­nestie. For so long as feare, or the doltish vyce of voluptuouse­ [...]esse corrupteth or iudgement, wee continewe euill iudges of deuties and desertes. But when death hath forestalled all thin­ges, and sent an vncorrupt iudge to giue sentence: Then séeke wee the worthyest too bestowe our thinges vppon. Neither haue we a more conscionable care too set anie thing at a staye, than that whiche perteyneth no longer vnto vs.

¶The .xii. Chapiter.

AND in good sooth, it is euen then a greate plea­sure for a man too thinke with himselfe, I shall make suche a one welthier: and by increasing his riches. I shall aduaunce the countenance of his e­state. If wee shal doo no good, but when wee may [Page 52] receyne agein: then must wee dye intestate.

You auouch (sayth he) that a benefite is an vndischargeable Dette: but a Dette is not a thing too bee coueted for itselfe: Ergo benefyting or gooddooing is not too bee desyred for it­self. When wee terme it a Dette, wee vse a resemblance and a borowed spéech. For likewyse wee know that Lawe is the rule of right and wrong: and yet that a rule is not a thing too bee couered for it self. Our falling intoo these termes, is for the better opening of the matter. When I say a Det, I meene as it were a Det. And that thou mayst knowe my meening to bee so, I ad, vndischargeable: when as there is no Dette but it ey­ther may or ought too bee dischaged. So little ought a good­turne too bee doone for lukers sake, that oftentymes (as I sayd) wée must doo it with our losse and perill. As for example: I reskwe a man beset with theeues, so as he is suffered too go away safely. I defend an accused persone that is in daunger to bee oppressed by parcialitie, and purchace the displeasure of greate men for my labour: so as they charge mee with mayn­tenance: and the miserie that I dispatched him out of, lighteth perchaunce vpon myself, whereas I might haue gone ageinst him, or safely haue sitten still as a looker on in another mans matter. Yea I vndertake for him when iudgement is past a­geinst him, and suffer not execution to go out vpon his goods, but offer too bee bound for him too his creditors: and too the intent I may saue him from outlawing. I ronne in daunger to be outlawed myself. Noman being redy too purchace the Ma­nur of Tusculum or of Tyburt for his healthes sake, or too re­pose himself in it in the sommer season, will stand debating for what yeeres he shall buye it: when he hath bought it, he muste hold him too it. The like reason is in benefyting. For if yee aske what it should yeld agein, I answere, a good conscience. What dooth Benefyting yeeld? Tell thou mee what Iustice yeeldeth, what innocencie yeeldeth, what noblenesse of corage yeeldeth, what chastitie yeeldeth, what aduysednesse yeeldeth, and whither thou exactest any more of these, than the vertues themselues.

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

FOr what purpose acc [...]mplisheth the world his dewe course? For what purpose dooeth the Sunne lengthen and shorten the daye? All these bee benefites: for they bee doone for our behoofe. Like as it is the duetie of the worlde too carie thinges aboute in or­der: And as it is the duetie of the Sunne too shift his place from whēce he rizeth, too the coast where he setteth: and too doo these thinges for our welfare, without re­warde: euen so is it mannes duetie, emong other thinges, too doo good turnes also. Wherefore then dooeth he them? Least he should not doo them, and so lose occasion of welldooyng. It is a pleas [...]re too you too accustome the lither bodie to lazie I­dlenesse, and too seeke a kynde of ease verie like theirs that are in a slumber: and too lurke vnder a couerte shadowe, feeding the sluggishenesse of your drouzie myndes, with moste nyce cō ­ceites, whiche you terme quietnesse: and too pamper your vn­weeldie carkeses till they wex wan, with meates and drinkes in the lurkingholes of your gardeines. But as for vs wée haue a manlie pleasure: namely too doo good turnes, either too our owne paine while wee ease other menne of their paines; or too our owne perill, while wée plucke other folkes out of perill; or too the increase of our own charges, while wee releeue the ne­cessities and distresses of others. What matter is it too mee, whither I receiue any good turnes or no? For euen when I haue receiued, then muste I bestowe. Benefiting hath respecte too the commoditie of him on whom it is bestowed, and not too our owne. Otherwise wee bestowe it on our selues, and not on him. Therefore many thinges that greatly profite other men, doo lose their grace and thanke, because they bee doone for gaine. The Merchantman dooeth good too his Countrie, the Phisician too sicke persones, the Horsecourser too his Chap­men: and yet all these menne make not those beholden to them that receiue good by them, because that in their profiting of o­thers [Page 53] they seeke their owne gaine.

¶The .xiiii. Chapiter.

IT is no benefite, that is sett too sale. This will I giue, this will I take, is plaine bar­gainyng. I cannot call her a chaste woman which hath giuen her Louer a repulse too set him the sharper. Shee that keepes her self honest for feare of the Lawe, or feare of her housebande, is not honest. For as Ouid saieth,

The wife that liues chastly compelled thereto,
Because that shee dareth none otherwise doo:
Deserues too bee counted as ill in effecte,
As shee whom her doinges doo plainly detect.

Not vndeseruedly is shee accounted in the number of offen­ [...]ers, whiche kept herself honest for feare, and not for honesties sake. In semblable wise, he that dooeth a good turne too the i [...]tente too receiue another, dooeth none at all. Otherwise it might bee inferred, that wee benefite the brute beastes, whiche wee cherishe either for our seruice, or for our foode: and that wee benefite our Drtyardes when wee tende them, that they maye not decaye through brought or binding of the sooyle, for want of digging and lookingtoo. But it is not in respect of right and equitie, that any manne takes in hande too Manure the grounde, or to doo any other thing whose frute is without it self. Neither is it a couetouse and filthie thought, that lea­deth a man too doo good turnes: but it is a manly and a franke harte, desirous too bestowe euen when it hath bestowed alre­d [...]e; and too augment the old with freshe and newe; not regar­ding how gainfull they maye bee too the bestower. For els, too doo good because it is a mannes owne profite, is a bace thing, praiselesse, and commendacionlesse. What excellencie is it for a man too loue himself, too spare himself, and to gather for him self? The true purpose of benefiting, calleth a man awaie from all these thinges: and laiyng hande vpon him draweth him too [Page] losse. It forsaketh selfprofit, and ioyeth exceedingly in the be­rie acte of gooddooing.

¶The .xv. Chapiter.

IS there any doute, but harme is contrarie too dooyng good? Like as too doo harme is a thing too be eschewed and shunned for it self: euen so too doo good, is a thing too bee coueted for it self. In the first, the shame of dishonestie preuaileth ageinst all rewar­des that allure to wickednesse: in the other the beautifulnesse of honestie, being effectuall of it self, allureth men vntoo it. I shall speake no vntruthe, if I saye there is no man but he loueth his owne benefites; nor no man but he is of that mynde, that he would bee the gladder too see him, for whō he hath doone muche; nor no man that would forbeare too doo one good, because he had doone for him once afore. Whiche thing could not comme too passe, except the welldooyng it self delighted vs. How often shall ye here men saye: I cannot finde in my harte too forsake him whose life I haue saued, and whom I haue deliuered out of daunger. He requesteth me to stande on his syde ageinst men of authoritie. I am loth too doo it: but what shall I dod? I haue befreended him once or twice alredie. See you not how in this cace, there is a certein peculiar force whiche compelleth vs too doo men good? Firste because it be­houeth too doo it: & afterward because wee haue doone it alre­die? Uppon whom wee had no cause too bestowe any thing at the first, vppon him wee bestowe somewhat afterward, euen in respecte that wee haue doone for him alredie. Yea, and so-little dooeth our owne profite moue vs too benefiting: that wee per­seuer in tendering and mainteinyng the same, euen without profite, onely for loue of dooing good. And it is as naturall a thing too beare with our vnluckie bestowing, as to beare with our children when they doo amisse.

¶The .xvi. Chapiter.

[Page 54] THE same persones beare vs in hande, that men render thankfulnesse also, not for that it is honest so too doo, but because it is pro­fitable. Whiche thing maye bee disproued with the lesse labor, because that looke with what argumentes wee haue gathered, that the dooyng of good turnes, is a thing too bee desired for it self: by the same waye wee also gather, that the rendering of thākfulnesse is of the same sort. This is once an vnmoueable ground, from whence wee fetche our proofes for the rest: that the thing whiche is honest is too bee folowed, for none other cause, than for that it is honeste. And who is so fonde as too doute, whither it bee an honeste matter too bee thankfull? Who would not detest an vnthankfull persone vn­profitable too himself? When thou hearest of one that is vn­thankfull to his fréende that hath bin very beneficiall too him, how wilt thou conster it? That he hath plaied an vnhonest part in so dooing: Or that he hath delt fondly, in omitting the thing that was for his commoditie and profite? I trowe thou wilte take him too bee the wicked man, whiche ha [...]h néede of punish­ment; and not him whiche hath neede of an ouerseer too looke too the orderyng of thinges too his profite. Whiche thing should not fall out so, vnlesse thankfulnesse were a thing bothe honest, and too bee desired for itself. Other thinges perhappes doo lesse vtter their owne worthinesse, and haue neede of an in­terpreter too tell whither they bee honeste or no. But this is more apparaunte & beautifull than that the brightnesse there­of should caste but a dimme and glimeryng light. What is so commendable, what is so vniuersally receiued in the myndes of all men: as to render thankfulnesse for good desertes?

¶The .xvii. Chapter.

BEsides this: tell me what cause leadeth vs too bée thankfull? Gaine whosoeuer despiseth not gaine is vnthankfull. Ambi [...]ion? And what bragge is it too haue payed that whiche thou owest? Feare? A manne néedes not bee afrayed too bee vnthank­full. [Page] For as though Nature had prouided sufficientely in that behalf: wée haue made no Lawe for it, like as there is no Lawe too bynde children too loue their Parentes, or Parentes too tender their children: For it is more than needeth, too inforce vs too that thing wherevntoo wee are inclined of Nature. And like as noman needes too bee incoraged too self loue, by­cause he hath it by kynd: So is noman too bée exhorted too co­uet honest thinges for their owne sake, bycause they like vs of their owne nature. Yea and vertue is so graciouse a thing: that too allowe of good thinges, is ingraffed euen in euill menne. Who is he that would not séeme beneficiall? who couets not too bée counted good, euen when he dooeth moste wickednesse and wrong? Who is he that settes not somme colour of right, vppon the thinges that he hath doone moste outrageously? Or that would not séeme too haue bin good maister, euen too those whom he hath harmed? Therefore are they contented too re­ceiue thankes of those whom they haue vexed. And because they cannot shewe them selues too bee good and liberall in deede: they sette a good face vppon the matter. Whiche thing they would not doo, vnlesse the thing that is honest, and too bée desired for itself, compelled them too seeke an opinion contra­rie too their disposition, and too cloke the naughtinesse whose frute they couette, though they hate the thing itself, and are a­shamed of it. Neither hath any man reuolted so farre from the Lawe of Nature, and degenerated so farre out of kynde, that he would bee naught for none other cause, but for his myndes sake onely. Aske any of these that liue vppon the spoyle, whi­ther they had not leuer too comme by the thinges whiche they seeke, by good meanes, than by robbing and stealing? He that makes his gaine of setting vppon men by the highwayes side, and of killing menne that passe by, would wishe too finde those thinges, rather than too take them by force. Yea, ye shall finde no man, whose harte would not fame inioye the reward of his naughtinesse, without the dooing of the naughtie deede it self. Moste highly are wee bounde too Nature in this respect, that vertue sheadeth her light so intoo mennes myndes, as e­uen [Page 55] they that followe her not, doo see her.

¶The .xviii. Chapiter.

TOO the end thou mayst knowe that the affection of a thankfull mynd, is a thing too bee desyred for it self: too bee vnthankfull is a thing too bee eschewed for itself: Nothing dooth so much vnknit and plucke asunder the concorde of mankynd, as that vyce. For in what other thing haue wee so muche saferie, as in helping one another wt mutuall freendlynes? Through this onely one intercourse of good turnes, our life is both better furnished, & better fenced ageinst sodein assaultes. Put eueryman too him­self alone, and what are wee? A pray for beastes, a slaughter for Sacrifice, and very eazie to haue our blud shedde. Bycause the rest of liuing creatures, should haue strength inough for their owne defence: as manie of them as are bred too stray abroad, and too liue solitarie by themselues, are armed. Man is hem­med in with weakenesse. Nature hath giuen him twoo thin­ges (namely Reason and Felowship) whiche make him stron­gest of all, whereas else hee should bee vnderling too all. And so, he that by himself alone could bee able too matche none; by meanes of felowship ouermatcheth all. Felowship hath giuen him the souereintie of all thinges. Whereas he is borne but for the Land: felowship hath conueyed him intoo the souerein­tie of an other nature, and made him Lorde of the Sea also. This hath restreyned the rage of Diseases, prouided helpes a­forehand for old age, and giuen comfort ageinst sorowes. This maketh vs strong: so as wée may bée able too hold plea ageinst fortune. Take away this felowship, and yee rend asunder the vnitie of Mankynd, whereby our lyfe is maynteined. But yee take it away, if yee bring too passe that a thanklesse mynde is not too bee eschewed for itself, but bycause it should stande in [Page] feare of some other thing. For how many be there, that might bee vnthankfull without hurt or daunger? Therfore too con­clude, whosoeuer is thankfull for feare of afterclappes, I a­uow him too bee vnthanfull.

¶The .xix. Chapiter.

NOman that is sound of his Wittes, feareth the Goodes. For it is a mad­nesse too feare wholsome thinges: Neither dooth any man loue those whom he feareth.

Bylyke then thou Epi [...]ure disar­mest God. Thou hast bereft him of al his weapons, and of all his power. And least anie man might bee afrayd of him, thou hast cooped him vp in a corner, beyond the reache of feare. For sith thouhast inclosed him within so house a wal, where it is not possible for him too get out, and hast separated him so farre from men, as he can neyther touche them nor see them: it were no reason thou shouldest bee afrayd of him, for he hath nothing to deale with thee, eyther too doo thee good or harme. Sitting in a middle roome betwéene thus Heauen and another, all alone without companie of anie creature, without anie thing, he shunneth the ruines of the worlds falling doune aboue him and about him, neither herkening too our prayers, nor hauing any care at all of vs. And yet thou wilt needes seeme too woorship him as thy Father, onely (as I wéene) of a thankfull mynd. Or if thou wilt not seeme thankfull, bycause thou art not benefited by him, but art casually & at all aduen­tures clumpered togither by these little mores and fyne crom­mes of thyne: why doost thou woorship him? For his excel­lent maiestie (sayest thou) and for his singuler nature. I graūt thou doost so: and then dooest thou it not vppon perswasion of any reward: Ergo there is some thing too bee desyred for it­self, the verie woorthinesse wherof draweth thee vnto it▪ and that is honestie. But what is more honest, than too bee thank­full? [Page 56] The substaunce of this vertue spreadeth out as farre as dooth our lyfe.

¶The .xx. Chapiter.

BUT in this good thing (sayst thou) there is some profite: for in what vertue is there no profite?

Nay verely, that thing is sayd to bee coueted for itself, which though it haue some commodities without itself, is notwithstanding well ly­ked of, euen when those commodi­ties bee set asyde and taken away. It profiteth mee too bee thankfull: yea, and I wilbee thank­full though it were too my harme. What seeketh hee that is thankfull? That his thankfulnesse may win him mo freendes and mo goodturnes. But what if it should procure him dis­pleasure? what if a man shall perceyue himself too bee so farre from gayning any thing at all by it, that he must for go muche, euen of that whiche he had gotten and layd vp in store? Shall he not willingly hazard his owne losse? He is a Churle which beares a sick man companie, bycause he is about too make his will: or hath his mynd ronning vppon the Heritage or Lega­cies that shall bee bequeathed him. For although hee doo all thinges that a good freend and one that is myndfull of his duetie ought too doo: yet notwithstanding, if his mynd waue in hope, if he long for luker, if he castfoorth his angle, if he lin­ger for the death of the partie and houer about his Carkesse, like Caryon Crowes whiche stand spying neere at hande for the fall of Cattell with the Rotte: Hee is but a Churle. The thankfull mynd is led with the goodnesse of his owne purpose.

¶The .xxi. Chapter.

[Page] WIlt thou [...]bee fure that this is so, and that a thankfull persone is not corrupted with gayne? There bee two kyndes of thankful­nesse. He is called thankfull whiche rende­reth somewhat for that whiche he hathe re­ceyued. This man perhappes maye vaunt himself, he hath where of too boast, he hath too alledge for himself. And he is called thankfull also, whiche hath taken a goodturne with good will, and with good will o­weth it. This mā is shet vp within his owne consciēce. What profite can befal him of his owne hidden affection? Yet is this man thankfull, if he bee able too doe romore: for he loueth, he oweth, and he would fayne requyte. What soeuer is wanting else, the lacke is not in him. A woork mā is a woork mā though he want tooles too woork withall: and a cunuing Musician is a Musician, though his voyce cannot bee harde for the noyze of tramplers. If I bee willing too requyte: yet is there some­what behynd: not that may make mee thankfull: but that maye make mee free. For oftentymes he that hath requyted is vn­thankfull, and he that hath not, is thankfull. For like as of all other vertues: so of this also, the whole estimation redoundeth too the mynde. As long as he dooeth his dewtie: whatsoeuer wanteth besydes, is the fault of fortune. In like maner as an e­loquent man is eloquent though he hold his peace: and a strōg man is strong, euen when his handes are shet togither, yea or fast bound: and as a Pylot is a Pylot though he bee vppon the dry Land: bycause ther is no want of perfectnesse in their skill, although there bée some let that their skill cannot showe itself: Euen so also is he thankfull that, onely hathe a desyre too bee thankfull, and hath none other record of his willingnesse but himself. Nay, I will say thus muche more: Sometyme euen he is thankfull, whiche seemeth vnthankfull, and whom miswee­ning opinion hath reported too bée blame worthy. What other thing now hath suche a one too sti [...]ke too, but his owne con­science? whiche gladdeth euen when it is ouerwhelmed; which k [...]yeth co [...]rarie too the multitude and the report of common [Page 57] brute, and reposeth all her trust in herself: and though shee see neuer so houge a multitude holding ageinst her: shee accoūteth not the nomber of their voyces, but iustifyeth herself by our owne secret knowledge. And albéeit shée perceyue her faithful­nesse too beare the punishment of falshhod: Yet shee abateth no­whit of her haultinesse, but aduaūceth hirself aboue hir punish­ment.

¶The .xxii. Chapiter.

I Haue (sayeth he) that I would haue, and that I desyred. It repentes mee not ne shall repent mée, neither shall fortune (doe the woorst shée cā (bring mee too the poynt that I should say: what ment I? what hathe my good will booted mee? It booteth mee euen vppon the Racke; It booteth mee euen in the fire. For though it should bee put too euery mēbe [...] one after another, and consume the bodie aliue by pée [...]emeale: yet too a man that knowes well by himself, whose hart being good is full fraughted with the streame of a cleere conscience, the fire shalbee welcome where­through the b [...]yghtnesse of his good conscience [...] foorth. Now also let this argument aforesayd come in place ageine: namely, what is the cause that moueth vs too bee so frendly at the tyme of our death? why wée should wey eche per­sones desertes? why wee should inforce our memorie too exa­mine all our former lyfe, and by all meanes indeuer too shewe that wee haue not forgotten anie mannes kyndnesse? At that tyme there remayneth nothing for hope too [...]inger vppon: and yet standing at the pi [...]tes brim, our desyre is too depart this world as freendly as maie bee. Uerely yee may see there is a greate reward of the déede, in the verye dooing of it. And great is the power of honestie too allure mennes hartes vnto it. For the beauty therof surpryseth mens mindes, and rauisheth th [...]m with singular pleasure in beholding the bryghtnes of h [...]r light.

[Page] But manie commodities ensew of it, and good mē liue more in safetie, yea and (according too the iudgment of good men) more at ease too, where innocencie and a thankfull minde goe with it. For nature had doone vs too muche wrong, if it had made this so greate a good thing, too haue bene miserable, and vncerteine, and barrein.

But looke thus muche further: whither thou couldest finde in thy hart, too make thy way vntoo this vertew, whiche (oftē ­tymes hath a safe and easie passage vnto it) by stones and roc­kes, or by a passage beset with sauage beastes and Serpentes.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

A Thing is not therfore the lesse too bée desy­red for it owne sake, bycause it hath somme forrein profite cleauing vntoo it too boote. For comonly the goodlyest thinges are all of them accompanyed with manie casuall cōmodities: but yet so, as they drawe [...] commodities after them and they thē selues goe before. Is there anie dout, but that the Sonne and the Moone doe gouerne this dwelling place of mankynd, by kee­ping their tur [...]es in passing about? or that by the heate of the [...] bodyes bee cherished, the earth releeued, superflu­ouse moysture abated, & the irksomnesse of winter that byndeth all thinges alayed? or that by the effectuall & percing warmth of the Moone, the rypening frutes are moystened? Or that the frutefulnesse of man is answerable too the course of her? Or that the Sonne by his farre compassing, maketh the yeere discernable: and the Moone by her turning in shorter space, maketh the moneth? But admit thou tookest these thinges a­way: were not the Sonne of itself a meete sight for the eyes to behold, and worthie too bee had in estimation, though he did no more but passe by vs? were not the Moone worthie to bee re­uerenced, though shee ranne by vs but as an ydle Starre? When the Skye casteth foorth his fyres by Nyght, shyning with such an innumerable multitude of Starres: whom doth [Page 58] it not force too looke earnestly vpō it? And who thinketh then of anie profit by them, when he so woondereth at them? Behold these thinges that glyde aloft in the still Skye, after what sort hyde they their swiftnesse vnder apparance of a standing and vnmouable woorke? How much is doone in this night, which thou obseruest onely for a reckening and difference from the dayes? what a multitude of thinges is wound out in this stil­nesse? what a rowe of Destinies dooth this certeie bound bring foorth? These thinges which thou regardest not other­wyse than as thinges dispersed for beautifying, are euery one of them occupied in woorking. For thou must not thinke, that only the seuen Planets doo moue, and all the reste stande still. Wee comprehend the mouinges of feawe, but there bee Gods innumerable and withdrawen far from our sight, whiche both go and come. And of those that our sight can perceiue, dyuerse walk an elendge course, & passe in couert. Whythen shouldest thou not be delighted to behold so houge a woorke, yea though it ruled thee not preserued thee not, cherished thee not, ingen­dered thee not, ne watered thee not with his spirit?

¶The .xxiiii. Chapter.

NOw like as in these things, although they bee most behooffull, and are both necessary and profitable, yet is it the maiesty of them that occupieth the whole mynd: Euen so all vextue, (and specially the vertue of thankfulnesse,) yeeldeth verie muche pro­fite. but it will not bee loued for the same, for it hath yet a further thing in it, neither is it sufficiently vnderstoode of hym, which accounteth it among gainfull thin­ges.

A man is thankfull bycause it is for his owne profite: Ergo, also he is thankfull but so muche as is for his profite. Uertue interteineth not a miserly louer. A man must not come vntoo hir streytlaced. The Churle thinketh thus: I would fayne re­quyte kyndnesse, but I am afrayd of cost: I am afrayd of daun­ger: [Page] I am afrayd of displeasure: I will rather doo that which is for myne ease. One selfsame cause of dealing cannot make a man both thankfull and vnthankfull. As their woorkinges are dyuers, so are their purposes diuers. The one is vnthank­full though he ought not, bycause it is for his profit. The other is thankful though it bee not for his profite, bycause he ought so too bee.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

OUR purpose is too liue according too Nature, and too folowe the ex­ample of the Gods. But whatsoeuer the Gods doo, no other reason lea­deth them too doo it, saue onely the deede it self: vnlesse peraduenture thou imagin them too receyue the reward of their dooinges, from the smoke of beastes Bowelles, and frō the ranke sent of Frankincence. See how great thinges they dayly bring too passe: how greate thinges they bestow among men: with how greate foyzon of Fruites they replenishe the earth: with how seasonable wyndes and fitte too carie at all howres, they blowe through the Seas: and with how greate Showres soodeinly powred doune, they soften the ground, re­fresshing the dryed Ueynes of the Springes, and renewing them by sheading couert nurrishment intoo them. All these thinges doo they without any profite coming too themselues thereby. Therfore let our Reason also (if it disagree not from his Patterne) keepe the same course, that it come not as an hyreling too honest thinges. Let it bee ashamed too make sale­ware of any weldoowing. Wee haue the Goddes francke and free. If thou folowe thexample of the Goddes, thou must doo good euen to the thanklesse: For the Sonne ryseth vppon the wicked, and the Seas are open too Pyrates.

¶T .xxvi. Chapiter.

[Page 59] IN this place they demaund, whither a good man shall doo a thankelesse persone a good turne, knowing him too bee thanklesse. Giue mee leaue too say somewhat by the way, least I bee ouertaken with this captiouse question. You must vnderstand, that after the constitutions of the Stoikes, there bee twoo maner of thanklesse persones. The one of these thanklesse persones, is the Foole. For a foole is hee that is euill; but he that is euill, is voyd of no vyce: Ergo he is also vnthankfull. Likewyse wee saye that all euill men are heddie, couetouse, lecherous, and malicious. Not bycause all these greate vices are notorious in euery euil person: but bycause they may bee, and are in them though they bee vndis [...]ouered. The other thanklesse persone is hee that is comonly sayd too bee naturally inclyned too the vyce of vn­thankfulnesse. To that thanklesse persone which hath the vyce of thankfulnesse, none otherwise but as he hath al other vyces, a good man must doo good turnes. For if he should withhold from suche: he should doo good too noman. But affor the other thanklesse persone, too whom all is fish that comes too Nette, and whiche makes no conscience at all of the matter: he shall nomore bestowe a good turne vppon him, than vppon a Theef. Who will put an vnthrift in trust with his Monie, or leaue a Pledge in the hande of him that hath forsworne many men their Pledges before? Wee call him fearefull whiche is foo­lish and led by naughtipackes that are beset with all kynd of vyces without exception. Also he is properly called fearefull by nature, which is frighted at euery tryfling noyze. The foole hath all vyces, yet is he not naturally giuen to them all. One is giuen too Nigardship, another too Lechery, and another too malapertnesse.

¶The .xxvii. Chapiter.

[Page] T [...]ey do [...] [...] therefore, which say to the Stoikes: What then? Is A­chilles [...]earfull? What then? Is A­ristides (who is renowmed for Iu­ [...]ice) vnius [...]? Wha [...] then? Is Fabius (who [...] the Comon weale by his pausyng) rashe? What then? I [...] Decius afraied of Death? Is Mu­tius a traytour? Is Camillus a forsa­ker? Wee saye not that all vices are after like sort in all men, as they vtter themselues seuerally in somme men: but wee say that an euill man and a foole are not vtterly v [...]yde of any vice, in so muche that wee acquite not the bold man of feare, nor di [...] ­charge the prodigall man of nigardlynes. Like as men haue all senses, and yet all men haue not eyesight like vntoo Lyncens Euen so all Fooles haue not all vices so feerce and head [...]e, as somme of them haue some vices. All vices are in all men: But yet all vtter not them selues in euery man. One man is nat [...] ­rally ledde vntoo Couetousnesse, another vntoo Lecherie, and the third is giuen too Drunkennesse: Or if he bee not yet giuē ouer too it, at leastwise he is so framed too it, that his disposi­tion draweth him towardes it. Therefore (too the intente I maye turne agein too my purpose,) There is no man but he is vnthankfull, because there is no man but he is euill: for he hath the seedes of all naughtinesse in him. Notwithstanding, pro­perly he is called vnthankfull, whiche is bente too the vice of vnthankfulnesse. Upon suche a one shall I bestowe no benefite. For like as he prouideth ill for his daughter, that marieth her to a man diffamed and often diuorced: and like as he is coun­ted an ill housholder, which maketh such a one Steward of his house, as hath bin condemned of false dealyng: and like as he shall make a verie madde will, whiche leaueth suche a one too bee his sonnes Gardeine, as is a spoyler of Fatherlesse Chil­dren: So shall he bee tho [...]ght too bestowe his benefites verie vnaduisedly, whiche picketh out thanklesse persones, on whom all that is bestowed is loste.

¶The .xxviii. Chapter.

THe Goddes (saieth he) giue many thinges too the thanklesse, whereas they had pre­pared them onely for goodmen. Naye, thei happ [...]n also too the euill, because they can­not bee parted asunder. And it is more rea­son too profite euen the badde for the good­des sake, thā too faile the good for the bad­des sake. For accordyng to thyne owne saiyng, the Daye, the Sunne, the intercourse of Winter and Summer, the middle temperatenesse of Springtyme and Harueste, the Showers and Waterspringes, and the ordinarie blastes of the Windes were deuised by the Goddes for all men in generall, and they [...]ould not barre menne from them in seuerall. The king giues promotions too the worthie, and dole euen too the vnworthie. As well the Theefe as the periured persone, and the Whore­monger, and without exception, whosoeuer is a citezen, takes parte of the como [...]g [...]aine. When there is any thyng too bee bestowed simply as vppon a Citezen and not as vppon a good Citezen; bothe the good and the badde receiue of it indifferen­tly. God also hath graunted somme thinges in comon too all mankynde, from whiche no man is excluded. For it could not bee, that one [...]el [...] same w [...]nde should bee prosperous too good men, an [...] [...]ontrary too euill men. Now then, that the sea should bee open for traffike, and that the dominion of mankind should haue a larger scope: it was for the como [...] benefite of all men. Agein, it was not possible too [...]ynde the Rayne too any Lawe in fallyng, so as it shoul [...] shunne the groundes of e [...]ill and wic­ [...]d menne. [...] thinges are sette indifferente. Citees are [...] as well [...] men as for good. The monumentes of [...] are pu [...]shed by settyng foorth, and shall comme too the handes euen of the vnwoorthie. Lea [...]hecrafte ministereth helpe e [...]en too the wicked. Noman suppresseth the making of wholsomme Salues, for [...] leas [...] the vnwoorth [...]e should bee healed. [...] thou a [...] examination and [...] [Page] in the thy [...]ges that are be [...]towed seuerally as vppon the worthie, and no [...] in the thinges that admit euery rasc all with­out exception. For there is greate difference betweene the not excludyng of a man, and the choosyng of a man [...] The right of the Lawe is yeelded too all men. Euen Murtherers inioye the peace, and those that haue taken awaye other mennes goo­des recouer their owne. Suche as are redie too quarell, and too strike euery manne in tyme of peace, are defended from the enemie with a wall in tyme of warre. Suche as haue offended moste heinously ageinst the Lawe, are defended by protection of the Lawe. Somme thinges are of that Nature, that they could not happen too any in seuerall, if they were not permit­ [...]ed too all in generall. Therefore there is no cause why thou shouldest make any talke of these thinges, wherevnt [...] wee bee called in comon. But as for the thyng that must comme too a­nother man by my discretion, I will not bestowe it vpon suche a one as I knowe too bee a Churle.

¶The .xxix. Chapter.

WIlte thou then (saieth he) neither giue [...] Churle coun [...]ell if he aske thyn [...] aduice, nor suffer him too drawe water, nor shewe him his waye if he bee [...]ut of it? Or wilt [...] thou doo these thinges, but not be [...]owe [...] ­ny thing vpon him?

I will make a distinction in this cace, or a [...] leastwise I will assaye too make one. A benefite is a behoof­full deede, and yet is not euery [...] deede [...] Benefite. For somme thinges are so small as th [...]y atteine not too the name of a benefite. Twoo thinges [...] m [...]kyng of a benefite. First, Greatnesse: for some thynges are farre vn­der the reache of that name. Who euer termed [...] a benefite, too haue gotten a shiuer of bread, or a vile Dodkin by beggyng? O [...] [...]oo haue [...]otten leaue too light a Candell at an other mā ­nes fire? And [...] and then; these thynges [...] in more stead than the greatest thinges. But the profite of them [Page 61] bereeueth them of their grace, euen when the necessitie of the tyme maketh them needefull. Ageine, (whiche is of greatest force) it must fall out that I doo my good turne for his sake too whom I would haue it comme, and that I deeme him wor­thie of it, and that I giue it with a good will, as one that is glad of his welfare. Of whiche pointes there is none at all in these thinges that wee spake of. For wee bestowe them not as vppon worthie persones, but carelessely as small thinges: and wee giue them not for the mannes sake, but for maners sake.

¶The .xxx. Chapiter.

I Deny not but I maye now and then be­stowe somme thinges, euen vppon the vn­woorthie, for other mennes sakes: like as in sewtes of promotion, somme that were verie vnhonest haue for their nobilitie bin preferred before those that were full of ac­tiuitie: and not without reason. For holie is the memoriall of greate vertewes, and it prouoketh the mo too bee good, when the thanke of their well dooynges dieth not with them selues. What thing made Ciceroes sonne Con­sull, but his Father? What thyng receiued Cinna now alate out of the enemies Campe too the Consulship? What thing admitted Sextus Pompeius and the other Pompeies likewise, but the greatnesse of that one manne Cneus Pompeius, who had been of suche reputation, that euen his verie fall was ynough too his posteritie? What made Fabius Persicus (whose mouthe euen the filthie sorte of menne were lothe too kisse) what made him preeste (I saye) in mo Colledges than one, but the Verrucoses and Allobrogikes, and those three hundred whiche aduentured their whole fam [...]lie, in defence of the com­mon weale, ageinst the inuasion of the enemie? So muche are wée beholden vntoo vertewes, that wée ought too honor them, not onely while they bee presente, but also when they bee gone out of out sight. For like as those persones haue delte in suche wise, as they not onely did good vntoo one age, but also lefte [Page] their bene [...]tes behinde them: so also are wee thankfull too thē in mo ages than one. This man hath begotten noble persona­ges: he is woorthie of good turnes whatsoeuer he himself is, because he hath brought foorth suche. Another is borne of no­ble aunce [...]ors: whatsoeuer he himself is, lett him bee shrouded vnder the shadowe of his forefathers. Like as vncleane places bee lightened by the brightnesse of the Sunne: so let vnthrif­tes bee ouershined with the brightnesse of their auncetors.

¶The .xxxi. Chapiter.

MY freend Liberalis, Heere I meene too ex­cuse the Goddes. For oftentymes wee bee woont too say, what prouidence was it to [...] make Arrhideus king? Thinkest thou that this befell him for his own [...] sake? No: it befell him for his father [...] and his brothers sakes. Why did God giue th [...] souereintie of the world too Caligula, a man so ouerdesyrous of mannes blud, that he made it too comme sp [...]uting out before his face, as if he would haue receyued it in his mouth. Welthen, sup­posest thou he had this preferment for his owne sake? No: it was for his father Germanicus sake; it was for his graundfa­ther and great graundfathers sake; and for other of his aunce­tors sakes afore them, who were as noble as they, though they liued a pryuate life no hygher in degr [...]e than other mē. What? when thou thyself madest Mamercus Scaurus consull, wist thou not in what filthinesse he wallowed with his lasses? For, did he himself dissemble the matter? Had he anie will too seeme ho­nest? I will rehearse a saying of his whiche I remember is comonly bruted, and whiche was praysed in his owne presence. Using a Ribaudly terme, he sayd too one Pollio Annius, that he woould doe a thing too him whiche he had leuer haue doone too himselfe. And when he sawe Pollio begin too knit the bro­wes at him; if I haue said amisse (ꝙ he) too myself and to myne owne head bee it spoken. This saying of his, he himself blazed [...]br [...]de. Haste thou admitted a man so [...]penly filthie, too the [Page 62] Mace and the Iudgementseate? Uerely when tho [...] though­te [...] vppon the auncient Scanrus the cheef president of the Se­ [...]ate, it greeued thee that his ofspring should bee imbaced.

¶The .xxxii. Chapiter.

IT is a likelyhod that the Goddes deale the fa­ [...]orablier with some men for their Parentes and Aunceters sakes: and with othersome for the towardnesse that shalbee in their Children and childers children, and in the issue of them a greate whyle too come. For they knowe the successe of thei [...] w [...]orke, and [...] thur­rowe their [...], is alwaies manifest vntoo them: b [...]t it stea­leth vpon vs [...] of the couert. The thinges that wee suppos [...] too be casuall and soodein, are foreséen and familier vnto them. Let these bee Kinges (say they) though their Aunceters were none, bycause they haue accounted Iustice and ab [...]t [...]nencie too bee the highe [...] souereintie, & because they haue applyed them­selues to the com [...]nwelth, & not the comōwelth to themselues. Let these reigne because some good mā was their great graūd­father, whose mynd surmounted his fortune, who in ciuill dis­sention chose rather too bee vanquished than too vanquish, be­cause it was for the pro [...]ite of the comon weale. His goodnesse could not bee requyted of so long a whyle. In respect of that man, let this man haue preheminence ouer others: not because hee is of knowledge and abilitie too vse it, but because the other hath deserued it for him. For peraduenture this man is of bodie misshapen, of countenance lothsome, and will bee a slaunder too the place and persons of his adua [...]ncement. Now will men fynd fault with mee, and say I am blynd and rashe, and ignorant where too bestowe the thinges that are due too the cheefest and excellentest persones. But I knowe that my giuing of this thing too the one, is a paying of it too the other too whom it was due long ago. Whereby (say they) doo yòu knowe that this man that was suche a shunner of glorie when it folowed him, that he aduentured vppon perill with the same [Page] c [...]untena [...]ce that others escape it, and that he neuer made dif­ference betwe [...]n [...], his owne profite and the profit of the comon weale? Where is this man? who is he? how know you him? These reckeninges of suche Receites and Paymentes are striken out of my bookes I know what I owe too euery man. Too so [...]me I make payment after long tyme, too other some I giue aforehand: or else I deale with them according as oc­casion and the abilitie of my substance will beare.

¶The .xxxiii. Chapiter.

THe [...] shall I now, and then bestowe [...] [...]hankfull, but not for his owne [...] (saith he) what if you knowe [...] whither he be thankfull or vntha [...]full? Will you tarie till you maye knowe? Or will you not lette slip y [...]ur tyme of benefi­ting? You maye [...]ary too long. For (as Plato saieth) it is hard too con­ie [...]ture [...] mannes mynde. And not too tary is a point of rashe­nesse. Herevnto I answere: That wee neuer tarye for the ex­acte bo [...]ltyng out of thynges, because the triall of truthe is farre of: but wee proceede by that waye, whiche likelihod of truthe leadeth. This is the path that all dueties trace. So doo wee sowe, so doo wee saile, so goe wee on warfare, so Marrie wee wiues, so bring wee vp children: and yet the falling out of them all is vncerteine. Wee aduenture vppon those thinges wherof we thinke there is good hope. For who cā warrane in­crease too him that soweth, a hauen too him that saileth, victo­rie too him that g [...]eth awarfare, a chaste wife too him tha [...] marrieth, or godlie children too the Father? Wée followe that waye whiche reason draweth, and not that waye whiche truth draweth. Stande ling [...]ing and doo nothing, till thou bée sure of the successe, or meddle thou with nothing till thou bee assu­red of the truthe▪ and then shal [...] tho [...] do [...] nothing at all, thy life is at a staye. So long as likelihodes of truthe, maye moue mée [Page 63] too this or that, I will not shrinke too doo a good turne, to suche a one as is likely too bee thankfull.

The .xxxiiii. Chapiter.

MAny thinges (saiest thou) will steppe in, where through an euill man maye créepe vp for a good, and a good man bee misliked for an euill. For the apparaunces of thinges that wee trust too, are deceitfull.

Who sayes naye too that? But I finde none other thing whereby too direct my meening. By these footesteppes muste I pursewe the truthe. Certeiner meanes I haue none. I will doo the beste I can too weye them throughly, and I will not bee hastie in yeelding too them. For it maye so happen in bat­tell, that my hande beeyng misguyded by somme mistaking, may thrust at myne owne fellowe, and spare myne enemie as if he were my freende. But it shall sildome happen so, and not through myne owne faulte, who am purposed too strike myne ene [...]ie, and too defend my countryman. If I may knowe him too bee thanklesse, I will caste awaye no benefite vppon him. But what if he haue krept in vppon mee and beguyled me? In this cace I am not too blame for my bestowing, bicause I haue done it as too a thankfull persone.

If thou haue promised one a good turne (sayeth he) and af­terward vnderstand him too bée thanklesse, wilt thou performe it or no? If thou performe it wittingly: thou offendest: for thou doest it too whom thou oughtest not. And if thou refuse too doe it, thou offendest that way also, bycause thou performest not thy promis. Thus your conscience staggereth in this behalf, and so fayleth that proude brag of yours, that a wyseman neuer re­penteth him of his dooing, nor neuer repealeth that whiche he hath done, nor altereth his determinacion.

A wyse man altereth not his determinacion, so bee it that all thinges continew as they were at the tyme of his determining. And therfore he is neuer touched with repentance, bycause at that tyme no better thing could haue bin done than was done, [Page] nor better thing haue bene determined than was determined. Neuerthelesse, his aduenturing vppon all thinges is with ex­ception, if no [...]hing b [...]yde that may bee a let. And therfore we [...] say that all thinges fall out well vntoo him, and that nothing happeneth contrarie too his opinion: bycause he for [...]asteth in his mynd, that somewhat may step in by the way [...] hinder his determinacions. It is a fond presumption too assure ones self of Fortune. But a wiseman bethinketh him of bothe her par­tes. He knoweth what swaye errour beareth, how vncerteine worldly thinges bee, and how many thinges maye withstande mennes determinations. Too the doutfull and slipperie lo [...]e of thinges he proceedeth with suspence, and too the vncertein fallinges out of them he proceedeth with certein aduisednes. And so his exception, (without which he determineth not any thing, ne enterpryseth anie thing) defendeth him in this cas [...] also.

¶The .xxxv. Chapiter.

I Haue promised a good turne, so there happen no­thing why I should not performe it. For what if my Countrie forbid mee to performe that whic [...] I haue promised him? What if a Lawe bée made that noman shall doo the thing▪ that I had promi­sed too doo for my freend? Put the [...] I haue promised thee my daughter in mariage, & afterward it falles out that thou art a straunger borne, and I may not alye myself with a For­reiner. The [...]ame thing defendeth mee whiche forbiddeth mee. Then let mee bee counted a promis [...]reaker, then let mee bee blamed of vnconstancie, if all thinges continewing the same they were at any promismaking, I bee not full as good as my woord. Otherwyse, whatsoeuer is altered, settes mée frée too take deliberation new agein, and dischargeth mee of discredit. I promis you too bee your aduocate: and afterward it appee­reth that the same cace tendeth too the preiudice of my Father: I promis to go a iourney with you, and woo [...]d is brought m [...]e that the waye is layd with Th [...]eues: I should haue come too some presente buisinesse of youres, but my [...]ildes [...]nesse [Page 64] [...]r my Wyues labour kéepe mee at home. If yee will bynd the credit of him that promiseth: al thinges must continewe in the same state as they were at the promismaking. But what grea­ter alteration can there bée, than if I haue found thee an euill and vnthankfull man? Looke what I promised thee as too a woorthie, that will I withhold from thee as from an vnwoor­thie; yea and I shall haue good cause too bee angrie with thee for deceyuing mée.

¶The .xxxvi. Chapiter.

NEuerthelesse, I will looke vppon the thing that thou claymest, and see how greate it is. The maner of the thing promised shall counsell mee. If it bee but a small thing, I will let thée haue it, not because thou art woor­thie, but for my promis sake. And yet will I not doo it as too pleasure thée, but as too redeeme my woord, and I will wring myself by the Eare. My rashnesse in promising, I will punish with my losse. Lo, (say I too my self) too the intent it may gréeue thee, and that thou mayst bee better aduysed ere [...]hou speake hereafter, I will giue thee a Barna [...]e as wee [...]erme it. But if it bee too greate a thing, I wil not bee so costly (as Mecoenas sayeth) as too buye myne owne blame with a [...]undred Sesterti [...]sses. That is CC. [...] of our M [...] [...]ye. For I will compare the oddes of both toogether. It is somewhat woorth too bee as good as a mans promis; & agein it is muche woorth not too bee too precyse in pleasuring an vnwoorthie Persone. So greate a matter as this must bee considered accordingly. If it bee a lyght thing, we [...] may wincke at it. But if it may bee eyther greatly too my losse, or greatly to my shame; I had leuer blame myself once for denying it, than con [...]inually for performing it. All the whole w [...]ight of the matter re [...]teth (I say) vppon this point: namely, at how muche I am woorthie too bee amerced for my woords. For if it hee muche, I shalnot onely withhold the thing that I [Page] promised rashly; but also I shall call that barke agein which I haue bestowed amisse. He is out of his wittes, whiche perfor­meth for his errour sake.

¶The .xxxvii. Chapter.

PHilip King of Macidonie had a tall souldier, and a stoute man of his handes, whose seruice hee had founde profitable in many voyages. He had di­uerse tymes rewarded him with parte of the boo­ties for his hardinesse. And because hee was a man that had his soule too sell, he euermore kindled his corage with often payes.

This man suffering shipwreck, was cast a land on the Man­nor of a certein Macedonian. Who hauing woord thereof, came running to him out of hand, and recoueryng life of him, conue­yed him home too his saied Manour, and laied him in his owne bedde, refreshed him ill at ease and halfe deade, tended him thir­tie daies at his owne charges, recouered him, and at his depar­ture gaue him wherewith too beare his charges by the waye. And the other said oftentymes vntoo him, I will requite thy kyndenesse, if euer I maye comme where I maye see my King and Capitein. He told Philip of his Shipwrecke, but he spake not a woorde of his succour, but by and by desired him too giue him a certeine mannes Landes. The manne was euen he that had bin his hoste, euen he that had taken him vp, and reco­uered him. Yee maye see by the waye, how Kinges now and thē (and specially in warre) giue many thinges with their eyes shet. One iuste manne is not of power enough ageinst so many armed lustes. A man cannot doo the dueties of a good man, and of a good Capitein bothe at once. How shall so many thousan­des of vnsatiable men bee satisfied? What should they haue, if euery man maye keepe his owne? So did Philip saye too him­self, when he gaue commaundement, for the putting of him in possession of the gooddes that he had craued. The manne that was violently thrust from his possessions, did not putte vp the wrong with silence like a cloyne, and holde him well appaied [Page 65] that he himself had not bin giuen awaie to [...]: But wrate a letter vntoo Philip, bothe r [...]ugh and full of libertie. At the receite whereof, Philip was in suche a chafe, that without delaye, he comma [...]ded Pausanias too restore the first owner to his goo­des agein: and too imprint vppon that leawde Souldier, that vnkinde guest, and that couetous seabeaten wretch, suche mar­kes as might witnesse him too bee an vnthankfull Gueste. Be­leeue me, he that could finde in his harte, too strip his hoste out of all that euer he had, and too driue him like one that had suf­fered Shipwrecke, too the same shore where he him self had lyen; was worthie too haue had those Letters, not Imprinted, but ingrauen vppon his face. But let vs see what measure had bin too bee kepte in his punishement. In deede, the thing that he had moste wickedly intruded vppon, was too bée taken from him ageine. And who would haue bin sorie for the punishemēt of him, whose facte was so heinous, as no manne could haue pi­tied him, had he bin neuer so pitifull?

¶The .xxxviii. Chapiter.

MUste Philip bee as good t [...]o thee as his promise? Euen though there bee cause too the contrary? Though he should doo wrong? Though he should doo a wicked deede? Though by that one facte of his, he should barre all Shipwreckes from the shore? It is no point of lightnesse for a mā to for­sake a knowen and condemned error. [...] man ought rather too confesse plainly and too saye, I miss [...] ­ [...]ke the ca [...]e, I am deceiued. For it is a point of wilfull pride and folie, too bee so heddie as too say, Looke what I haue once spoken, bee what it bee maie, I will abide by [...]t, and make good my woorde. It is no dishonestie too alter a mannes mynde, [...]hen the matter requireth. Goe too, if Philip had mainteined the S [...]ldier i [...] possessio [...] of those groundes, whiche he had [Page] gotten by his Shipwr [...]cke: had he not barred all out cast [...]s frō succour and [...]eleef? Nay (saieth Philip) yet were it better that thou shouldest beare aboute these Letters printed in thy moste shamelesse forheade, for all menne to gaze vppon, throughout the boundes of my kingdome. Shewe thou how sacred a thing the table of hospitalitie is. Let euery man [...]eade this d [...]erée of myne in thy face, for a wa [...]āt y it shall not bee preiudiciall for any manne too succour afflicted persones in his house. So shal this constitution of myne bée more auailable, than if I had in­gra [...]ed it in Brasse.

¶The .xxxix. Chapiter.

WHat thinke you [...]hen (sayeth he) by our foū ­der Zeno? for wheras he had promised too lende one fiue hūdred pence, and afterward found him too bee scarce a meete man: Yet cōtrarie too the persuasion of his fréedes, he preserued in trusting him for loue of his [...]romis. First the cace is otherwyse in a credit, than in a benefite. If I lend monny amisse, I maye call f [...]rit ag [...]e, and I may arre [...] my detter at his day. And if he driue [...]e [...] too [...]ewe him, I shall recou [...]r part. But asfor a [...] too haue [...]dited him▪ if the [...] but fyue hundred pe [...]ce. O [...]e sicknesse [...] as men are woont too say. It was not woorth the reuok [...]ng of a mannes promis. If I promis a [...] will goe though i [...] bee cold, but not if it [...]. I will [...] wedding, for my pr [...]is sake, though I haue [...] my mea [...]e: but not if I haue a fit of an [...] will come too giue my wo [...]rd f [...]r thee bycause I haue promised▪ but not if thou wouldest make me giue my woord vppo [...] vncerteintie, or bynd mee too the forfe [...]ture [...]f all that I [...] [Page 66] [...] Lawfull. If thinges must bee performed: set the mat­ter in the same state when thou demaundest, that it was in when I promised, and haue with thee. But it can bee no poynt of lighte [...]esse too disappoint one, If there happen anie altera­ [...]io [...] by the waye. For why shouldest thou thinke it straunge, that a man should alter his determinacion, when the state of the pr [...]miser is altered? Make mée all thinges too bée the same that they were: and I am the same man that I was. Wee bynd our selues too appeere at a day, and appeere not: Yet shalnot the forfet bee taken in all caces. A greater extremitie shall ex­cuse the default of appeeraunce.

The .xl. Chapiter.

THE same may serue thee for a full answer too thy sayed question, whither kyndnesse be too be requyted in any wyse, or whither a good t [...]rne [...]ee euerm [...]re too bee perfor­med. I am [...] too yeelde a th [...]nkfull hart: but as for too re [...]yte, sommetyme myne owne vnfortunat [...]esse, and somme­tyme his fortunat [...]esse too whom I am indetted, wilnot suffer mee. For what recompence can I make too a King, or too a Prince, or too a greate riche man? specially seing that somme are of that nature, that they think they haue wrong, if they re­ceyue a good turne at a nother mannes hande: and they are al­wayes loading of men with benefites one vpō another. What help haue I ageinst suche persones, more than too bée willing? For I may not therfore refuze his new benefites, bycause I haue not requyted the old. I will take it with as good a will as it is offered, and I will yeelde myself too my freend as a mou [...]d of large receyte, fit for him too woorke his goodnesse in. He that is lothe too receyue anewe, is sorie that he hath recei­ued alredie.

I requite not. What is that too the matter? If I wante ei­ther occas [...]on or abilitie, that lacke is not in mee. But he per­formed v [...]to meeward. I graunte it, and he had bothe occasion [Page] and abilitie too doe it, Whither is he a good manne, or a bad? With a good manne my cace is good enough: with a badde manne I will not pleade. Truely I thinke not that wee ought too bee so eagre, as too requite in poste haste, whither men will or no, or too preace vppon them when thei refuze. It is no re­quiting of kyndenesse, too render that thing ageinst a mannes will, whiche thou receiueddest with his will. Somme menne when they bee presented with somme small gifte, sende ano­ther by and by ageine out of season, and saye they owe him nought. This sending of an other out of hande agein, and this driuyng of one present out of doores with another, is a kynde of reiecting. Sometyme I shall not requyte a good turne though I can. When is that? when I shall more hinder myself by it than profite him. When hee shall feele himself nothing a­mended by receyuing it, and I shall féele myself greatly impay­red by forgoing it. Wherefore, hee that hasteth too requyte, hath not the harte of a thankfull persone, but of a good Detter. And too conclude in feawe woordes hee that desyreth too discharge himselfe too haste­ly, is loth too owe, and hee that is loth too owe is vnthankfull.

The end of the fourth Booke.

❧ The fifth booke of Lucius An­naeus Seneca, concerning Benefites.

¶The first Chapiter.

I May well séeme too haue accompli­shed my purpose alreadie in my for­mer bookes, forasmucheas I haue shewed after what maner a good turne is too bee doone, and after what maner it is too bee taken. For those are the endes of that duetie. Whatsoeuer I tarie vppon further, is not of necessitie, but for the welly­king of the matter: whiche must bee folowed so farre as it leadeth, but not so farre as it allureth. For there will continu­ally ryse some one thing or other, whiche may intyce the mynd with some swéetenesse, rather vnsuperfluouse than necessarie. N [...]uerthelesse sith you will haue it so: now that wee haue dis­patched the thinges that cōteined the pith: let vs also go fore­ward in searching the things y are as appurtnances too them, but not percell of them; whiche whoso considereth diligently, [...]eyther dooth a thing ful woorth his labour, nor yet loseth his labour. But vntoo thee my Ebutius Liberalis, who art of a sin­g [...]lar good nature and foreward too benefyting, no commen­dacion of it can suffize. Neuer yet sawe I anie man that was s [...] frēdly an esteemer of good turnes, were they neuer so small. Yea and so farre is thy goodnesse procéeded, that whatsoeuer good turne is doone too any man, thou accountest it doone too thyself. And because noman should repent him of his weldoo­iyng, thou art redie too make recompence for the vnthanfull: and thou art so farre from all bragging, and so desyrous out of [...]and too vnburthen those whom thou byndest vntoo thee, that whatsoeuer thou bestowest vppon anie manne, thou wouldest seeme, not too performe it, but too pay it. And therefore the thinges that thou bestowest so, returne too thee more ple [...]te­ously, [Page] For comonly good turnes pursue him that d [...]h not challendge them. And like as glorie foloweth more and more after suche as flee from it: so the frute of gooddooing redoun­deth more thankfully, too such as giue men lea [...]e too be thank­lesse if they list. Uerely there is no let in thee, but that suche as haue receyued good turnes, may freely call for new: and thou wilt not refuze too bestowe moe vppon them: but rather sup­pressing and dissembling the former, thou addest moe and grea­ [...]er. It is the poynt of a singular good nature and of a verie no­ble mynde, too beare with a thanklesse persone, so long till he haue made him thankfull. Neyther dooeth this reckening de­ [...]eyue thee. For Uyces sincke doune vnder vertues, if a man make not too muche haste too hate them ouer soone.

¶The .seconde. Chapter.

THou haste a singular lyking of this saying, as most princely, That it is a shame too bée ouercomed in doing good. Which saying▪ whither it bee trew or no, there is good reason too demaund: for it is a [...]arre other thing than thou weenest. It is no shame at all too bee ouercome in the incounter of honest thinges, so thou haue a desyre too vanquish euen whe [...] thou art ouercommed, and cast not away thy weapons. Al men bring not like strength too a good enterpryse, nor like abilitie, nor like fortune, which alonly ordereth the successe, euen of the best determinations. The will of him that indeuereth aryght is too bee commended, although another man haue outgone him by swiftnesse of pace. It is not in this cace as it is in wa­gers that are made at Gaminges, where the victorie sheweth who is best▪ [...] that in those also, cha [...]ce [...]ooth oftentymes preferre the woorser▪ For Wheras the matter standeth vppon freend [...]inesse, which eyther partie coue [...]eth too haue performed too the full: Although the one bee of better abilitie, and haue sufficient at hande wherwith too woorke his will, so as fortune giueth him leaue too doo what he li [...]eth▪ If the other haue as good will as he, though he yeelde [...] thinges than he re­ceiued, [Page 68] yea or requyteth not all, but is willing [...] requyte, and is full bent theruntoo with his whole hart: He is no more ouercome, than he that dyeth fyghting, whom his enemie maie [...]a [...]yer kill, than make him turne head. That which thou coun­test shamefull, cannot happen too a good man, that is too saye, that he should be ouercomme. For he neuer shrinketh, he neuer giueth ouer, he standes vppon his garde too the last daie of his lyfe, and he will dye on his grounde that he hath taken too de­fend, acknowledging himself too haue receiued great thinges, and shewing himself desyrous too haue rendered the like.

¶The .iii. Chapiter.

THe Lacedemonians forbade anie of theirs too contend in Pancracie or in buffeting with Bagges, where the confession of the partie sheweth who is ouercome. The ronner that cometh first too the races end, hath outgone his Marrow in footema [...] ­ship, but not in mynd. The wrestler that is caste thrée tymes, hath loste the wager▪ but not yeelded the wager. Because the Lacedemo­nians made greate account of it too haue their Countrymen vn [...]anquished: they [...]arred them from al Wagers wherin the [...] [Page] his hart. The cace is all one in good turnes. What though a man haue receiued greater thinges and oftener? Yet is he not ouercome. Peraduenture his benefites are ouermatched with benefites, in respect of the things that are giuen and receyued. But if yee compare the giuer with the receyuer, whose mynds also must bee con [...]idered apart by themselues: neither of them both shall haue woonne the vpperhand. For it is woonte too come too passe, that when somme man is mangled with manie woundes, and his aduersarie is but lightly hurt: they bee say [...] too haue gone away of euen hand, though the one [...]f them may seeme too haue gone by the woorse.

¶The .iiii. Chapiter.

ERGO no man can bee ouercom in benefi­ting. That man knoweth how too bee be­holden, whiche is willing too requite, and supplieth the thing with his harte, whiche he cannot doo with his goodes. So long as he holdeth at that [...]taye, and so long as he concineweth in this mynde, he ratifieth his thankfull hart by signes. What skilles it on whither part mo giftes can bee reckened? Thou art able too giue many thinges, and I am able onely too take. Good fortune is on thy side, and good will is on myne. And yet for all that, I am as able too matche thee, as a feawe naked or light armed menne are able too matche many armed too the proofe. Therefore no man needes too bee ouercome in good turnes: because he may bee as thankf [...]ll as he listeth. For if it bee a shame too bee [...] [Page 69] There bee some that are withdrawen without the com­passe of couetousnesse, and are scarsly touched with any world­ly desires▪ whom Fortune her self is not able to pleasure at all. I muste needes bee ouercomme by Socrates in benefites. I must needes bee ouercomme by Diogenes, who walked naked through the middes of the wealthe of the Macedonians, tram­pling the kinges riches vnder his feete. Might not he then whorthely haue seemed, (bothe too himself and too all others, whose eyes were not too dimme too espie out the truthe) too surmount him that had all thinges vnder him? Truely he was muche mightier and richer than Alexander, who at that tyme was Lorde of all the worlde. For there was more that Dioge­nes would not take, than there was that Alexander was able too giue.

¶T .v. Chapiter.

IT is no shame too be ouercomme by suche. For neyther am I the woorse man of my handes, though yee matche mee with an e­nemie that cannot bee wounded: neyther hathe fyre the lesse nature of burning, though it light vppon sōme stuffe that can­not bee hurt by fyre: neither hath an edge­toole therefore lost his propertie of cutting, bycause it is put too the clyuing of somme stone that is ouerhard and of nature inuincible ageinst the edge of thinges. The same thing doo I answere you for a thankfull persone. It is no shame for him too bee ouercome in benefiting, if he bee bound too suche men, as the greatnesse of their state, or the prerogatiue of their ver­tue, stoppeth vp the waye that benefites should returne by. Co­monly wee bee ouercomme by our Parentes. For as long as wee deeme them greeuous vntoo vs, and as long as wee want discretion too consider their benefites: so long doo wee misse­like them. But assone as age hath gathered somme discretion, and it beginnes too appeere, that they deserued. Loue at our handes for the same thinges for whiche wee misliked them, [Page] [...]amely for their admonishementes, for their streightnesse, and for their diligent bridlyng of our vndiscreete youth: then are wee rauished with the loue of them. Feawe haue liued so long, as to reape the true frute of their children. The rest haue felte their children but in burthenwise. Yet is it no shame too bee outgone by a mannes Parentes in benefiting. And why should it not bee no shame at all, seeyng it is no shame too bee ouer­gone by any man? For some there bee too whom wee bee bothe matches, and no matches. Matches in mynde, whiche is the onely thing that they seeke; and the onely thing that wee pro­mise: and no matches in abilitie, whereby though wee bee hin­dered too requite, yet muste wee n [...]t therefore bee ashamed, as though wee were quite ouercomme. It is no shame not too o­uertake, [...]o a manne pursewe still. Oftentymes wee bee driuen too require newe benefites, before wee haue requited the old. Neither doo wee therefore leaue crauyng, or craue too our shame, because wee runne further in dette, beeyng vnable too requite. For wee would faine bee thankfull if wee might: But there steppeth in some forrein thing by the way, whiche letteth vs. Yet shall wee not bee ouermatched in harte, neither shall it redounde too our shame, too bee ouermatched in suche thinges as are not in our awne power.

¶The .vi. Chapiter.

ALexander King of Macedonie was won [...] too boaste, that neuer manne ouermatched him in benefites. There was no cause, why he being ouer high mynded, should regard the Macedones▪ Gre [...]kes, Cari [...]ns, Persians, and other Nations, whom he him self had distressed, and left without force. But leaste he should thinke that his king [...]om [...] (whiche stretched from the corner of Thrace, too the shore of the v [...]knowen sea) had giuen him that prerogatiue: Socrates might boaste in that behalf as well as he, and so might Diogenes too, who ouermatched hym. For why should he not bee thought too bee ouermatched tha [...] [Page 70] daye, when he swellyng aboue the measure of worldly Pride, sawe one whom he could neither giue any thing too, nor take any thing from: Kyng Archelaus requested Socrates to comme vntoo him: and it was reported that Socrates should answere, he was loth too comme too suche a one, as at whose handes he should receiue freendshippes, seeyng he could not requite the like ageine. For it was in Socrates power not too receiue: and secondly, he him self began firste to shewe freendshippe. For he came at his requeste, and gaue him that thing, whiche he dout­lesse could neuer giue Socrates ageine. For whereas Archelaus should giue Golde and Siluer: he was too receiue the con­tempt of Golde and Siluer. Could not Socrates then haue re­quited the kyndnesse of Archelaus? What thing could he haue receiued so greate as he had giuen, if he had shewed hym the knowledge of life and death, and throughly taught him the en­des of thē bothe? Or if he had made the King acquainted with the [...]ature of thinges, who went astraye in the open light, and was so ignorant, that on a daye when the Sunne was eclipsed he shet in his Court gates, and polled his Sonnes heade, (as menne are woont too doo in mourning and aduersitie): How greate a benefite had it bin, if he had drawen him out of his lurking hole, and willed him too plucke vp a good harte, sai­yng? This is no failyng of the Sunne, but a meeting of the twoo Planettes, wherein the Moone running the lower way, hath put her Circle directly vnder the Sunne, and hidden him by setting her self betweene him and vs. Sometyme hidyng a small parte of him, if she cote him lightly in her passing by: and sometyme coueryng more, if she beare more fully vppon hym: and sometyme hidyng him whole out of sight, if shee gotte full vnderneath him, betwixte him and the yearth. But anon the swiftnesse of these Planettes will cary them a sunder, one one­waye and another another waie: anon the yearth shall recouer her wonted light; and this order shall continew for euer. They haue their dayes certeine and foretold, wherein the Sunne is hindered too shewe foorthe the fulnesse of his rayes, by reason of the comming in of the Moone. Tary awhile, and he will for­sake [Page] as it were this cloudinesse, and straite waies he shalbe rid of all impedimen [...]es, and he will giue foorth his wonted light freely agein. Could not Socrates haue doon asmuch for Arche­laus, as Archelaus should haue doone for him? What if he had taught him how too reigne? As little as you make of it, it had bin so greate a benefi [...]e, as he could haue giuen Socrates none like it. Wherefore then did Socrates saye so? Beyng a pleasant conceited manne, and wont too vtter his mynde in figuratiue speeches, and a Iester with all men (but specially with greate menne) he thought rather too saye him naye cunningly, than stoutly and proudly. He saied he would receiue no benefites at suche a mannes hande, as he could not render him the like. Perchaunce he feared least he might haue bin compelled too take thinges that he would not. Somme will saye if he would not, he might haue refuzed. But then should he haue prouoked the kinges displeasure, who was hautie, and would haue all thinges highly esteemed whiche came from him. It is all one with kinges, whither you will giue them nothing, or take no­thing of them. Either of the gainsaiynges are too them alike. And too a proude Prince, it is a greater corzie too bee dis day­ned, than not too bee feared. Wilte thou knowe what Socrates was so loth of? He whose freenesse a free Citée could not away with, was loth too goe into wilfull bondage.

¶The .vii. Chapter.

AS I suppose, wee haue sufficiētly discussed this point, whither it bee a shame too bee ouercomme in benefiting. Which question whoso demaundeth, knoweth that men are not woont too bestowe benefytes vppon themselues. For it had bin manifest, that it is no shame for a man too bee vanquished of himself. Notwithstanding, among somme Stoikes it is also de­bated, whither a mā can benefite himself, and whither he ought too requyte himself with thankfulnes. The causes why this seemed a question too bée moued, were these. Wée are wont too [Page 71] say, I maie thanke myself, I can complayne of noman but my self, I am angrie with myself, I will punish myself, and I hate myself. And manie suche other thinges doe wee saye▪ wherein [...]che man speaketh of himself as of another. If I can hurt my­self (sayeth he) why can I not also doe myself a good turne? A­geine, why should not the thinges bee called benefites when I bestowe them vppon myself, whiche should bée called so if I be­stowed them vppon anotherman? why should I not bée béehol­ding too myself for giuing too myself, as well as bée beholding too anotherman for receiuing at his hande? why should I bee vnthankfull too myself, whiche is no lesse shame than too bee nigardly too myself, or than too bee hard and cruell too mysef, or to bee carelesse of myself. A Bawde is defamed as well for his owne bodie as for anothers. Uerely a Flatterer and a soo­ther of other mens woordes, and suche a one as is readie too iustifie vntruthes, is blameworthie. And no lesse is he too bee blamed, which standeth in his owne conceyt, and hath an ouer­weening of himself, and (as a man myght terme him) is a self­flatterer. Uices are hatefull, not onely when they preiudice o­thers, but also when they redound vntoo mens owne selues. Whom will yée more commend, than him that ouermaystereth himself, and hath himself at his owne commaundement? It is easyer too ouerrule the barbarous nacions that cannot abyde too haue their heades vnder another mannes girdle, than too bridle a mannes owne affections, & too make obedient thē too himself. Plato (sayeth he) thanketh Socrates for that whiche he lerned at his hand: and why should not Socrates thanke himself for teaching himself? Marcus Cato sayeth: That whiche thou wantest, borowe of thyself. And if I can lende too myself, why should I not giue too myself? Innumerable are the thinges wherein custome deuydeth vs. Wee bee woont too say let mee alone, I will talke with myself, and I will twitch myself by the Eare. If these thinges bee true: then like as a man may bee angrie with himself: so may hee also thanke himself. Like as he may rebuke himself, so may he also prayse himself. Like as he maye hinder himself, so may he also further himself. For an [Page] ill turne and a good turne are contraries. If wee may say, hee [...]ath doone himself harme: wee may also say he hath doone him [...]lf good. By nature (sayest thou) he hath doone it. Nature re­quireth that a manne should first owe before he can requyte. A Detter is not without a Creditor, nomore than a huseband is without a wife, or a father without a childe.

¶The .viii. Chapiter.

TOO the intent there may bee a re­ceyuer, there must first bee a giuer. Too conuey out of the left hand in­too the right, is neyther giuing nor receyuing. Like as noman caryeth himself although hee moue and re­moue his bodie frō place too place: Like as noman is coūted his owne Aduocate, though hee haue pleaded his owne cace: Like as noman settes vp an Image too him­self as his owne founder: and like as a sicke man demaundeth n [...]t reward of himself for recouering himself by his owne cun­ning: So in all other matters, although a man haue doone ne­uer so well, yet can he not requyte his owne kyndnesse, because he hath not towardes whom too requyte it. But admit that it bee a bestowing of a good turne, when a man is both the giuer and receyuer thereof himself. And admit it bee a receyuing of a good turne, when he is both the taker and the giuer. The re­turne (as men terme it) is made at his owne doore, and it pas­seth away foorthwith, as a name of dalyance. For he that gi­ueth is none other than hee that receyueth, but they bee both one. This woord Owe hath no place, but betweene twoo seue­rall parties. How then continueth not he still in one, which dis­chargeth himself by bynding himself? Euen as in a Bowle or a Ball nothing is nethermost, nothing is vppermost, nothing last, nor nothing first, because the order of it is shifted by mo­uing, so as the thinges go before that came behinde, and the thinges come vp that went doune, and all thinges, howsoeuer [Page 72] they go, returne intoo one: euen so must thou thinke it falles out in man. Chaunge thou him intoo neuerso manie thinges, and yet is he the same partie still. He hath beaten himself: hée hath no man too sewe for dooing him wrong. Hee hath tyed or shut vp himself: he can haue no action of false imprisonment. He hath done himself a good turne: hee requyted it euen with the dooing of it. The nature of the thing cannot bee sayd too haue forgone aught, because that whatsoeuer is plucked from it, returneth intoo it agein: neither can anie thing bee loste, whiche hath not whereoutof too passe, but wyndeth backe a­gein intoo whence it came. What lykenesse (sayeth hee) hath this example too the question propounded? I will tell thee. Put the cace thou bee vnthankfull too thyself: yet is not this good turne lost: for the bestower of it hath it still. Put the cace thou wilt not rec [...]iue it: thou hast it with thee before it bee de­liuered thee. Thou canst not forgo aught: for whatsoeuer is taken from thee, is gotten too thee. The Whéele is turned within [...]hyself: In ta [...]ing, thou gi [...]est, & in giuing, thou takest.

¶The .ix. Chapiter.

A Man (sayeth hee) muste doo himsef a good turne, ergo he must also requyte it. The An­tecedent is false, whervpon the consequent hangeth. For noman dooeth good turnes too himself: but he followeth his owne Na­ture, whiche hath framed him to [...] a certein selfloue, by meanes wh [...]rof he hath a singu­lar regarde too eschew thinges hurtfull, and too seeke after thinges that may doe him good. Therfore, neither is he libe­rall that giueth too himself, nor mercifull that forgiueth him­self, nor pitifull that reweth his owne miseries. That whiche were liberalitie, Mercie, and Pitie, if it were doone too ano­ther man: is but nature, being doone too a mannes self.

A good turne is a free thing: but too doe good too ones self, is of naturall necessitie. The moe good turnes a man dooeth, the more [...] is he. But who was euer praysed for hel­ping [Page] himself [...] or for defending himself from robbers? Noman bestoweth a benefite vppon himself, nomore than he bestoweth interteinement vppon himself. Noman giueth too himself, no­more than he lendeth too himself. If a man befreend himself: he doeth it alway and without ceassing. He cannot keepe a iust reckening of his freendships: and how shall he then requyte them, sith that by his requyring, he benefiteth himself ageine? for how should a man discerne, whither he doe himself a good turne or requyte one, seeing the matter is wrought all in one persone? I haue deliuered myself out of some daunger: haue I now bestowed a benefite vppon myself? I deliuer myself ageine from daunger: now whither doe I bestowe or requyte? Moreouer, although I should graunt thee the first part: name­ly that wée bestowe benefites vppon our selues: Yet will I not graunt thee that whiche foloweth. For althouge wee bestowe, yet doe wee not owe. Whyso? Bycause wee receiue ageine out of hande. In benefiting, it behoueth vs, first too receiue, then too owe, and afterward too requyte. But heere is no tyme of owing, inasmuche as wee receiue ageine without taryaunce. There is no giuing, but too another man: there is no requy­ring, but too anotherman. This thing whiche so oftentymes requyreth twoo properties, is not possible too bee done still in one.

¶The .x. Chapiter.

TOO haue doone a thing too a mannes be­hoof, is a benefite. Yea, so the woorde doo, haue respect too an other man. For wilnot men thinke him too hée out of his wittes, that shall say hée hath sold a thing too him­self? For selling is an alienatio of a thing that is a mannes owne, and a conueying o­uer of his right in the same too another man. And like as too sell, so also too giue, is too passe away a thing from thyself, and too make anotherman owner of that whiche was thyne afore. Now if benefiting bee of the same forte: then can [...] bene­fite [Page 73] himsef, because noman can giue aught to himself. For then should twoo contraries cloze in one; so as giuing and taking should bee al one thing. But there is great difference betwixt giuing and taking. And good cause why: considering how those woordes are matched fullbutte one ageinste another. I sayd a little afore, how some woordes haue relation too other­folkes, and are of suche nature, that the whole signification of them departeth from ourselues. I am a brother, howbeeit too anotherman: for noman is brother too himself. I am a peere; but too anotherman: for noman is peere too himselfe. The thing that is compared, is not vnderstoode without his match: and the thing that is cuppled is not without a felowe. So also, the thing that is giuen, is not without a receyuer: neither is a Benefite without another too bee benefited by it. The same thing appeereth by the verie Terme wherein this benefiting is cōteined. But noman benefiteth himself, nomore than hee fauoureth himself or taketh part with himself. Wee may prosecute this matter yet longer and with mo examples. And why not? sith a benefite is to bee counted in the nomber of those thinges whiche require a second partie. Some thin­ges, though they bee honest, verie goodly, and right excellent­ly vertuouse: yet haue they not their effect, but in a copartner. Faithfulnesse is commended and honoured for one of the grea­test things belonging too mankynd. And yet, is any man sayd too haue bin faythfull or to haue kept promis with himsef?

¶The .xi. Chapiter.

NOw comme I too the last part. He that re­quytes a good turne, must forgoe somme­what, like as hee doeth that payeth mon­nye. But he forgoeth nothing, whiche ren­dereth too himself: Nomore than he gay­neth, whiche receiueth of himself, Benefy­ting, and Requyting must passe too and fro: but within one man there is no intercourse. He that requi­seth most pleasure the partie that had pleasured him afore. He [Page] that requyteth too himself, whom pleasureth he? Himself. But what man lookes not for the requitall of a benefite onewhere, and for the benefite itself anotherwhere? He that requit [...]th too himself, pleasureth himself. And wher was there euer so ranke a carle that would not doe that? Yea rather, who hathe not played the Carle, too doe that? If wee maye thanke our selues (sayth he), wee may also requyte kyndnesse to our selues. Wée say, I thank myself that I tooke not suche a woman too wyfe, and that I entered no felowship with suche a man. In so say­ing wee prayse ourselues, and for the better allowing of our fact, wee abuse the woordes of thanksgiuing. That is a bene­fite, whiche is at libertie not too bée receyued, euen when it is in performing: But he that bestowed a benefite vppon himself cannot but receyue his owne profer: Ergo it is no benefite. A benefite is receyued at one tyme, and requyted at another. And in benefiting, the thing that is most allowable, the thing that is most commendable, is that a man forgetteth his owne pro­fit too doo anotherman good, and taketh from himself to giue to anotherman. But so dooth not hee that benefiteth himself. Benefiting is a felowlike thing: it purchaseth fauour: it ma­keth men beholden. But in giuing too a mans self there is no felowship at all, there is nomans fauour purchased, it maketh noman beholding, it incorageth noman too say, This man de­serueth too bee much made of, he hath doone such a man a good turne, and he will doo mee one too. That is a benefite, whiche a man giueth not for his owne sake, but for the parties sake to whom hee giueth it. But hee that dooth himself a good turne, dooth it for his owne sake: Ergo it is no benefite.

The .xii. Chapiter.

SEemeth it now vntoo thee, too bee vntrue whiche I sayd at the beginning? Thou sayest I am quyte gone from dooing that whiche is woorth my labour, or ra­ther that I lose all my labour in good sadnesse. Giue mee leaue a little, and thou shalt haue yet better cause too say so, when I shal haue brought thee too such [...] ▪ as when [Page 74] thou art scaped out of them, thou shalt haue gayned no more by it, but that thou mayst wynd thee out of suche narrow poin­tes, as thou needest not too haue come intoo, except thou had­dest listed. For too what purpose is it too buzie a mannesself, in vntying the knottes whiche he himself made too vntye? But like as some are so twisted toogither for pleasure and pastyme. as an vnskilfull bodie shall hardly vnknitte them: and yet hee that twisted them vndooeth them with ease, because he know­eth the braydes and lettes of them, whiche notwithstanding haue some pleasure in them, (for they trye ye sharpnes of mens wittes, and make them too take héede): Euen so, these thinges which seeme su [...]tle and captiouse, doo rid mennes myndes frō Securitie, Dulnesse, and Sloth: and therfore the feeld wher­in they walke, must now and then hee strewed with suche thin­ges, and some harshnesse and roughnesse muste erewhyles bee cast in their way, so as they may but euen [...]reepe out, and take the better heede where they set their foote. It is sayd, that no­man is vnthankfull: and that is gathered thus. A benefite is that whiche profiteth: but as you Stoikes vpholde, noman can profit an euill man: Ergo an vnthankfull man taketh no bene­fite: and so consequently he is not vnthankfull. Age in, a bene­fite is an honest and allowable thing: but an honest and allowa­ble thing cannot bee fastned vppon an euill man: neyther then can a benefite be fastened vppon an euill man. But, if he cannot receyue it, then ought he not too requyte it: and so is he not vn­thankfull. On the other sade, (as you say) a good man dooth althinges aright: But if he doo all thinges aright, then can hee not bee vnthankfull: Ergo inasmuche as a good man requy­reth, and an euill man taketh not: it followeth that there is neyther good man nor euill man vnthankfull: and so, vnthank­full and thanklesse are but wast termes among men, and vtter­ly without signification.

There is but one good thing among vs, and that is hone­stie. This cannot light vppon an euill man. For he ceasseth too bee euill, assone as vertue entereth into him. But as long as he is euill, noman can fasten a good turn vpon him, because good [Page] thinges and euill thinges are at discorde among themselues, and cannot cloze in one. The same also is the reason why no­man can profite him, because that whatsoeuer commeth too him, he marreth it by abusing it. For like as the stomacke that is infected with sicknesse and accloyed with choler, chaungeth all the meates that it receyueth, and turneth all foode intoo the nurrishment of his disease: Euen so a blynded mynd, whatso­euer you commit vnto it, maketh it a burthen, a mischeef, and an occasion of miserie vntoo itself. But the greater prosperi­tie and welth that euill men haue, the more is their excesse of outrage: and they feele themselues so much the lesse, as they haue lighted intoo greater matter wherein too flote: Ergo nothing can come too euill menne, whiche should doo them good: or rather, nothing can come at them that shall not doo them hurt. For whatsoeuer befalles them, they chaunge it in­to their owne nature: and the things that of themselues should bee verie goodly and profitable if they were bestowed vppon a good man, are vntoo them right noysome. Therefore, neyther can they doo a good turne (for noman can doo that whiche is not in him too doo) neyther haue they any will too doo good.

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

WEll, though these thinges were as you say; Yet may an euill man receiue thinges like vntoo benefites, for the not requyting whereof he shalbee vnthankfull. There bee goodes of the mynde, goodes of the bodie, and goodes of fortune. The goods of the minde are barred from a foole and an euill man. But he is admitted too the goodes of fortune, and he is able too receiue them, and bound too requite them: and if he re­quyte not, he is vnthankfull. And this is not our constitution onely. For the Peripatetikes (who giue verie large and wyde scope too mannes felicitie) saye that the smaller sort of bene­fites doe befall vnto euil men also. Now he that requyteth not those, is vnthankful. But wée like not that those things should [Page 75] bee called benefites, whereby the minde fareth not the better. Howbeeit wee denye not that they bee commodities: and wee denye not but they bee too bee coueted. These bee the thinges that an euill man may both giue too a good man and take of a good man: as monnye rayment, promotions, & lyfe. Which if he requite not, he falleth into ye blame of an vnthankful person.

But how can you call him vnthankfull, for not requiting of that whiche you say is no benefite?

Somme thinges, although they bee not the trew thinges themselues: Yet are comprehended vnder the same terme, by reason of their likenesse vntoo them. So terme wee Scalop shelles though they bee made of siluer or gold. So terme wee him vnlerned, not only whiche is altoogither without lerning, but also which hath not atteyned too somme déepe knowledge. So a man that hath seene one thinclothed and altoo ragged, sayes he hath seene a naked man. After the same maner, these thinges are no benefites, but yet they beare the countenance of benefites.

Then like as these bee as it were benefites, and not bene­fytes in deede: so is he as it were vnthākfull, and not vnthank­full in deede.

That is false, bycause that as well he that receyueth them as he that giueth them, doe bothe account them as benefites.

And therefore as muche is he vnthankfull, whiche decei­ueth vnder pretence of taking a trew benefite: as he is poyso­ner whiche giueth a man Poyzon, in stede of good Iewce.

¶The .xiiii. Chapiter.

CLeanthes dealeth yet more rigorously. Al­though (sayeth he) it bée no benefite, whiche he receiueth: yet is he vnthankfull, bycause he would not haue requited, though it had bin one. So also is a man a Murtherer, before he haue steyned his handes: bycause he is alredie armed, and fully purposed too rob and flea. The verie déede doeth put his naughtines in exe­cution, [Page] and discloze it, but not begin it. The thing that he re­ceiued, was not a good turne, but was so termed. Churchtray­tors are punished though none of them can laie hand vpon the Goddes.

But how (sayeth he) can any body bée vnthankfull towardes an euill man, seeing that a benefite cannot bee fastened vppon an euill man? Uerely in this respect, that he hath receiued of him, somme of the thinges that goe for good among the v [...] ­skilfull: and therfore euill though he bee, yet must he bee thank­full towardes him with somme like thing: and seeing he tooke them for good, he must requite them for good, whatsoeuer they bee. They are sayed too haue borrowed monnye, bothe he that oweth gold, and also he that oweth Lether coyned with the co­mon stampe, suche as was among the Lacedemonians, bycause it serueth the turne of currant monnye. Looke in what kynde of thing thou art bounde, in the same kinde discharge thou thy credit.

¶The .xv. Chapiter.

WHat thing benefites bée, and whither the maiestie of that noble name ought too bee plucked doune too this vyle and bace geere, it skilles not you, it is demaūded for other folkes sakes. Settle you your myndes vppon the outwarde showe of the truthe, and when yee speake of honestie, whatso­euer it be that is bruted by the name of honest, that hold you your selues vntoo.

As by you (sayeth he) noman is thanklesse: so ageine by you all men are thanklesse. For you hold opinion that all euill men are fooles: and he that hath one vyce hath all vyces: and so are all men fooles forasmuche as all are euill: Ergo all men are vn­thankfull. Now what then? doeth not the reproche light vni­uersally vppon all mankynd? Is it not a common complaint, that good turnes are lost, and that there bee verie feaue, whiche [Page 76] requite not euill too suche as haue deserued well? There is no cause why yee should thinke this too bée the grudge of vs only: and that wee alone doo think all thinges are enill and starke­naught that fall not out euen and iust with the Rule of right. Behold, I wot not what a voyce, (not sente out of the house of the Philosophers, but out of the middes of the common mu [...]ti­tude) condemning whole Peoples and Nacions, kryeth out.

The Guest may scarsly trust his hoste, nor yet the hoste his Guest:
Nor fathers wel their soninlawes. Yea seeldome tymes doth rest
Betweene borne brothers such accord as brothers ought to haue.
The man woold bring his wyfe, the wyfe hir husbād too his graue.

This is more than I spake of. Benefites are turned intoo Ba­nes, and the blud is not spared of those for whō blud ought too bée spent. Wée persecute benefites with Sword & poysoning. Too rebell ageinst a mannes owne Countrie, & too oppresse it with hir owne Sword, is now reputed for puissance and woor­thinesse. Hee that hath not mounted aboue the Comon weale, thinkes himself too stand very lowelike an vnderling. The ar­mies receiued of hir, are turned too hir confusion, and it is be­come a Capteinly exhortation too say: Sirs, fight ageinst your Wines, fight ageinst your Children, make assault vppon your owne Churches, your houses, & your Goddes. You that ought not too haue entered into the Citie, [...] not euen: to a tryumph, without the leaue of the Senate: and [...] that o [...]ght too haue hi [...]d your Courtes without the Walles, euen when you bring home your armies with victorie: now marche ye intoo the Ci­tie with Banners displayed, after you haue murthered your owne Countrimen, and bathed your selues in the blud of your owne Kinsmen. Let libertie be clean driuen ou [...] among Soul­ [...] Ensignes, and let that people whiche is the Conque­ [...] and [...] of Nacions, bée nowe at length beséeged within hir owne Walles, and bee put in feare of hir owne Ba­ners after she hath chaced away al outward Warres, and sup­pressed all forrein feare.

¶The .xvi. Chapiter.

[Page] VNkynd was Coriolane, who becom­ming pitifull too late, layd awaye Weapon after repentaunce of his wickednesse, howbeit in the middes of Ciuill slaughter. Unkynde was Cateline, who thought it but a smal matter too conquer his owne Coū ­trie, except he might lay it wast, and bring in the Armies of Sauoy and Delphynois, and cal in the enemyes from beyond the Alpes, too wreake their old and natiue hatred vppon the Citie, so as the Romane Capteines myght pay the yeeremyndes de we of lōg tyme too the Tumbes of the Galles. Unkinde was Caius Ma­rius, who being called from the Gallis [...]op too the Consulship, could not feele his displeasure sufficiently reuenged, nor him­self well settled in his former state, till he had ouermatched all former slaughters wt the slaughter of the Cimbrians, & not only blowen vp a Trumpet, but also bin himself as a Trumpet too the banishment and Ciuill flaughter of his Countrimen. Un­kynd was Lucius Sylla, in healing his Countrie with [...]orer re­medies than the perilles themselues were. Who hauing gone vppon mannes blud from the Towre of Prenest too the Gate Collina, [...] was of rype yeeres: rendered this thancke too the Common weale, that he put others in possession of it also, as though he might haue made his owne preheminence the lesse enuyed, by making the thing lawfull for many men, whiche was lawfull [Page 77] for many men, whiche was lawfull for noman. For whyle hee sought extraordinarie gouernementes: whyle hee distributed Prouinces to take the choyce of them to himself: whyle he de­uided the common weale too the Thréemen, so as two partes of it remayned in his owne House: hee brought the People of Rome too fuche an afterdéele, as they could not continue in safetie, but by the benefite of bondage. Unkind was the verie enemie and vanquisher of Pompei, Caius Iulius Caesar: who, for all his tendering of the Comon weale, and for all his fawning vppon the Comonaltie, led the Warres about from Fraunce and Germanie intoo the Citie, and pitched his Campe in the Circle of Flaminius, neerer than Porsenna had doone. In déede, right did temper the rigour of his victorie, and he performed his ordinarie saying, whiche was that he slew noman but if he were in Armes. What fault had he then? Whereas the resi­due vsed their weapons more bluddily, yet at length they were satisfied, & layd them doune agein. But this man did soone put vp his Sworde, but he neuer layd it away. Unthankfull was Antodie too his owne preferrer, in that hee auowed him too hee lawfully slayne, and admitted his murtherers too Prouin­ces and gouernement. And when hee had torne his Countrie with proscriptions, inuasions, and battelles: after all these mischeeues, he gaue it ouer intoo bondage: and that not vntoo Romane Kinges, but after suche a sorte, as the same Comon weale whiche had fullie restored right libertie, and fréedome, too the Achayas, Rhodians and many other noble Cities, should it self pay tribute too gelded men.

¶The .xvii. Chapiter.

TYme would fayle me if I should recken vp all that haue bin vnthankfull, euen with the vt­ter destruction of their countries. And as end­lesse a matter would it bee, too ronne ouer the excellent and weldispozed men, too whom the Comon we ale itself hath bin vnthancke­full: and [...]oo shewe how shée hath oftentymes off [...]ded no [Page] lesse ageinst others, than others haue offended ageinst her.

It ba [...]ished Camillus, it sent Scipio out of the waie, and it outlawed Cicero euen after he [...]ad suppressed Catiline, beating doune his house spoyling his goodes, and dooing whatsoeuer Catiline himself would haue done too him if he had gotten the victorie. Rutilius was rewarded for his innocencie, too goe hyde his head in Asia. The people of Rome sayed Cato nay of the Pretorship, and vtterly denyed him the consulship. Wée bée comonly vnthankfull all of vs. Let euery man aske his owne conscience. Eche man complaynes of others vnthankfulnesse. But it could not fall out that all should complayne, vnlesse there were cause too complayne of all. Are all men then but only vnthankfull? Yis, they bee also all couetouse, all malici­ouse, and all fearfull, specially those that seeme too bee most hardie. Yea I say further, they bee all ambitiouse, and all vn­godly. But there is no cause why yee should bee angrie with them: rather beare with thē, for they bee all out of their wittes. I wilnot call thée backe too vncerteinties, I prey thée see how vnthankfull youth is. Who is he, (bee he neuer so innocent, meeke, and kyndharted,) that doeth not wish, wayt, and long for his fathers death? Where is there one among a nomber, that would be loth his wyfe should dye, and not rather, maketh reckening vppon her death, bee shee neuer so good a wyfe? I pray you, what man being intangled in the Lawe, and rid out of it by somme other mannes helpe, will beare so greate a be­nefite in minde, anie longer than till the next matter that com­mes may put it out of his head? This wee bee sure of: there is noman dyeth without gurdging: there is noman that at his last hour dares saie,

Now welcom death whiche endes the race
That fortune gaue mee heere too trace.

Who departeth not vnwillingly? who departeth not sighing▪ But it is the point of an vnthankfull persone, not too bee con­tented with the tyme forepast. Alwayes the daies of a mannes life wilbée fewe, if he fall too numbering them. Consider how the sou [...]ein good consisteth not in tyme. How long or short so [Page 78] euer thy tyme bee, take it in good woorth. The prolonging of thy deathes day auayleth thee nothing too blissednesse, because that by cōtinewance the life is not made the blisfuller but the longer. How muche better were it, too bee thankfull for the pleasures that a man hath receiued, and not too stand counting of other mennes yeeres, but too esteeme his owne gently, and too take them for a vauntage? This hath God voutsaued vp­pon mee, this is ynough, he could haue giuen mee more, but euen this also is his benefite. Let vs bee thankfull too the Goddes, thankfull too men, thankfull too suche as haue bes [...]o­wed aught vppon vs, and thankfull too those also whiche haue doone good too anie of ours.

The .xviii. Chapiter.

THou byndest mee out of measure (sayest thou) when thou sayest Ours. Therefore set mee somme [...]ad. By your saying, he that doeth a good turne too the chyld, doeth it also too the father. First I would haue thee too set mee somme bound: and afterwarde too tell mee, if a good turne bee doone too the father▪ [...] the same extend also too the brother too the vncle, too [...] father, too the wyfe, and too the father in­lawe? Tell [...] I may stop, and how farr I shall pur­sew thee pedegree of persones? If I till thy Lande for thee, I shall doe thee a good turne: and if I quenche thy house that is on a [...] in reparacions that it der [...] not, shall [...] If thou saue [...]ut my slaue, I shall thinke my­self [...] too thee: and wilt not thou count it a [...]enefite if I [...]

¶The .xix. Chapiter.

TH [...] [...] vnlike examples. For he that [...], benefiteth [...] my Lande; but mee. And he that shoreth vp my house that it fall not, doeth the pleasure too mee: for the house i [...]self is [Page] senslesse. I am his d [...]tter for it, or other wyse he hath none. Also he that [...] it not too deserue well of my grounde, but of mee. The same doe I saye of my Bondman, for he is a part of my chatteiles, & is saued for mee, and therfore I am detter for him. But my sonne is himself capable of a good turne. Therfore it is he that receiueth it, and I am glad of his we [...]speeding. I am touched with him, [...]ut not bound with him.

Well then I would fay [...]e that thou whiche thinkest not thy­self bound, shouldest answer mee; whither the helth, welfare, and prosperitie of the so [...]e perteyne no [...] [...]oo the father? He shalbee the happyer if hee haue his sonne safe, and the vnhap­pyer if he forgoe him. Now then, if by [...] meanes he bee made the more happier, and deliuered from the daunger of extreme miserie; receiueth he no benefite?

No, sayes he. For somme thinges are bestowed only vppon othermen, though they reache euen vnto vs. And therfore the thing is too bee demaunded at nomannes hande but his that receiued it: like as [...] is dema [...]ded of the partie too whom it was lent, although the same did in somme wyse come too my handes also. There is no benefit [...] whose commoditie extendeth not too them that bée next hand, yea & now and then also too suche as bee furtherof. Our [...] is not, too whom the good turne is passed ouer from him [...] it besto­wed vppon him: but where [...] bestowed [...] must [...]eeke the thankes at the partie himself, and at the verie welles head.

Go too the [...] I pray thee, when thou acknowledgest that I haue giuen thee thy sonne, and tha [...] if he [...]ad [...] hadst [...] life of [...] suche tyme as I saued thy sonne, thou fellest [...], thou paydest thy [...] vntoo the Goddes, as if thou haddest bin saued thyself, and thou diddest cast foorth suche woordes as these: It is all [...] mee: you haue saued twoo, and [...] most of [...] thou so, if thou receiued no good [...]?

Bycause that if my sonne [...], I will [Page 79] pay his creditor; but not as dewtie of myne owne. And if my sonne bee taken in aduowtrie, I wilbee ashamed of it, but yet shalnot I therfore bee the adulterer. I say I am bound too the for my sonne: not bycause I am so in deede, but bycause I am contented too offer myself too bée thy detter of myne owne frée will. But thou alledgest, that by thy sa [...]ing of my sonne, I re­ceiued greate pleasure and commoditie, and escaped the gree­uous [...]orzie of being chyldlesse. The question is not now, whe­ther you haue pleasured mee, but whither you haue benefited mee. For a beast, or a S [...]one, or an her [...]e may pleasure vs; but yet they benefite vs not: for a benefite cannot bee bestowed, but by a thing that is indewed with will. Now then, thy will was not too bestowe vppon the father, but vppon the sonne, and it may bée, that thou knewest not the father. Therfore, when thou sayest, I haue benefited the father by my sauing of his Sonne: saie thus also on the otherside, I haue benefited one that I ne­uer kne [...] nor neuer thought of. Besides this, now and then it falles out, that a man maye hate the father and yet saue the sonne; and wilt thou seeme too haue benefited him, too whom thou wart an enemie at the tyme of the déede dooing? But too the intent too set asyde this alter [...]ation of intertalke, and too answer like a counseler in Lawe: the mynde of the be [...]ower must bee considered. Looke on whom his will was too bestowe his good turne, on him he bestowed it. If he did it for the fa­thers [...]ake, the father receiued a benefite. Otherwyse, the fa­ther is not bound by the benefite bestowed vppon his sonne, al­though he haue fruition ofit. Notwithstanding, if opportunitie serue him, he h [...]mself also will doo [...] for him: not as of [...], but as taking occasion too begin. The be­nefite is not [...] [...]ee claymed at the fathers hande. If he doo anie thing of courtesie for his sonnes sake, he is iust, but not thankfull. For it were an infinite matter, if the benefite that I bestowe vppon the sonne, were [...] his father, and his [...], and his [...], and his [...] v [...]cle, and his [...], and his [...], and his fréendes, and his seruantes, [...] countrie.

[Page] Where then beg [...]neth a benefite too stay? For now com­meth in the inso [...]ble kreeper, whiche is hard too restreyne, by­cause it stealeth vp by inchmeate, and neuer leaues kreeping. Men are woont too put suche a [...]ace as this. Twoo brothers are at variance. If I saue the one of them: whither doe I be [...]e­fite the other, who wilbee s [...]rie that his brother perished not? No dout but that like as it is no benefite if I doo a man good ageinst my will: so is it a benefite too doo an vnwillyng man a good turne ageinst his will.

¶T .xx. Chapiter.

TErmest thou it a good turne (sayth he) wherewith a man is offended and greeued? ma [...]ie good turnes haue a sorowfull and sower looke, as the cut [...]ing and searing of a man too heale him, and the [...]rydling of men by imprisonment. A man [...] not looke whither one bee so [...]ear the receyuing of a good turne; but whither hee haue cause too bee glad. A peece of Coyneis not the woorse because an Alient and one tha [...] kn [...]wes not the co­mon stamp refu [...]h it. Hee both ha [...]eth the good turne, and [...]iceyueth it. Now if it doo him good, and that the inte [...] the bestower was too doo him good: it makes no matter th [...]gh a man receyue the good turne with an euill will. Gotoo, turne this the contrarie waye. A man hateth his Br [...]ther, whom it were for his behoof too haue still [...]yue. Him [...] I slea. It is no be [...]efite, al [...]ecit that hee take it for one, and hee glad of it. Moste trayter ou [...]y dooth he hurt, whiche getteth thankes [...] dooing harme.

I vndersta [...]d you. Because a thing dooth good, therefore it is a benefite: and if it doo harme, it is therefore no benefite.

Behold I will bring you a thing that shal doo neither good nor hame, and yet it shalbe a benefite. I find a mans father, dead in wilderuesse, and I burye his bodie. I haue doone the dead­man [Page 80] no good, (for what had it skilled him after what maner he had bin consumed?) nor yet too his sonne: for what commo­ditie had he thereby?

I will tell thee what the Sonne gotte. By mee he perfor­med a reuerend and necessarie dutie. I haue doone that thing for his father, whiche hee himself both would and should haue doone. Now, if I did it not for comon pitie and manners sake onely, as I might haue buried any other dead mans bodie: but knewe the carkesse, and thought vppon the Sonne at the same tyme, and did it for his sake: then is it a Benefite. But if I cast earth vppon an vnknowen persone: I haue no detter for this courtesie, because it was but a poynt of Publik humanitie.

Some man will say why make you suche a question on whō you bestowe your benefite, as though you ment too clayme it ageine at some tyme or other?

There are that thincke it ought neuer too bee claymed a­geine, and they alledge these causes. He that is vnworthie wil­not render though it bee claymed: and a woorthie persone will render of his owne accorde. Moreouer if thou haue bestowed vppon a good man, take heede thou doo him not wrong in cal­ling vppon him, as though he would not haue requyted of his owne free will. And if thou haue bestowed vppon an euil man, bee sory for thy so dooyng: but disgrace not thy benefite with thyne owne woords, by making it a Det. Furthermore, looke, what the Law of benefiting hath not commaunded to bee clay­med, that hath it forbidden too bee claymed.

These bee but woordes. For as long as nothing pincheth mee, and as long as misfortune compelles mee not: I will ra­ther let my good turne slip, than chalendge it. But if my Chil­dren stand in hazard of their lyfe, if my wyfe bée brought in pe­rill, if the welfare and libertie of my Count [...]e sende mee too suche a place as I am loth too comme at: I will streyne cour­tesie with my shame, and I will shewe myself too haue doone al that euer I could doo, that I might not haue needed the helpe of a Churle. In fine, the necessitie of receyuing a good turne, shall ouercome the shame of clayming it. Agein when I be­stowe [Page] a ben [...]fite vppon a good man, I bestowe it in suche wise as I will neuer call for it ageine, vnlesse necessitie inforce mee. But the Lawe (sayth he) in not giuing leaue too clayme, for­biddeth thee too clayme.

¶The .xxi. Chapter.

MAnie thinges haue neither Lawe, nor Action. But customme of mans lyfe, whiche is of more force than all Lawe, bringeth them in. No Lawe forbiddeth a man too bewraye his frendes secretes, nor byndeth a man too keepe promis with his foe. Yea what Lawe byndeth vs too bee iust of our woord too anie man? None. Yet will I find fault with him that shall bewray my talke had with him in secret, and I wilbee discontented with him that shall gyue mee his faith and not keepe it.

By this meanes (sayth he) of a benefite thou makest a Det.

No, not so. For I doo not exact it, but request it ageine, no nor request it agein, but warne him of it. For vtter necessitie may driue mee so farre, that I shall come vnto him. Asfor him that is so churlish, that a warning will not suffyze him, but I must bee fayne too stryue with him: I will passe him ouer, and not make so muche account of him, as too force him too bee thankfull. For likewyse as there bee some Detters whom a Creditour wilnot cal vpon, because he knoweth they haue wa­sted al away, & it were but farther losse too meddle with them, forasmuchas nothing can make them ashamed: euen so also will I passe ouer some that are openly and wilfully thanklesse, neyther will I clayme a good turne at anie mannes hand, saue where I may receyue it without haling of it from him.

¶The .xxii. Chapiter.

[Page 81] THere bee many that knowe neither how too deny that which they haue receyued, nor howe too requite it: whiche sorte are neither so good as thankfull, nor so bad as vnthankful, but are dull and grossewitted, and slowe Paymaysters, howbeeit not euill. Too such as these I wll make no clayme: but I wil admonish them and trayne them foorth too their dutie whyle they bee other­wyse occupyed, so as they shall by and by answere mee in this wyse. I pray you beare with mee. In good faith I knewe not that you had neede of this; for had I knowen it, I would haue offered it you. I beseech you think not any vnkindnesse in mée, I remember well what you haue doone for mee.

Why should I sticke too make suche as these, both better too mee, and better too themselues? If I can, I shall keepe a­ny man from offending: and specially from offending ageinst my selfe. In not suffering him too become a Churle, I bestow another benefite vppon him. Yet shall I not roughly vpbrayd him with that whiche I haue doone for him: but too the ende I may giue him leaue to render frendship, I shall with gentle­nesse renew the rememberance of it, and request him too doo mee some pleasure: and asfor my clayming, lette him espye that himself. Now and then also I shall vse somewhat quicker woordes, if I hope he may bee amended by them. But if he bee past recouerie, I shall not stirre his patience, least of my faint freend I make him myne vtter foe. For if wée let the vnthank­full slip without prompting them by some remembraunce; wée shall make them but the slower too requite. Agein there bee o­thersome within compasse of re [...]ouery, which may be brought too goodnesse if they bee a little bitten: whom wee shall suffer too come too naught by withdrawing admonishment, where­through the father otherwiles hath amended his Sonne, and the wyfe reclaymed hir straying Husband, and the fréend quic­k [...]ned vp the faithfulnesse of his fainting freend.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

TOO wake some men, you must not strike them, but iog them. After the same maner, the assurednesse of somme men in requiting kyndnesse, dooth not cease, but faint: and these must wee iog. Turne not thy good­turne intoo a shrewd turne. For thou doest mee wrong if thou chalendge not somme­tyme, too the ende I should bee thankfull. What if I knowe not whereof thou haste want? What if I espyed not the occa­sion, bycause I was buzyed in weyghtie affaires, and called too other matters? Shew mee what I maye doo, and what thou wouldest haue. Wherefore despayrest thou before thou haue tryed? Wherefore makest thou suche haste too lose bothe thy benefite and thy freend? How knowest thou whither I wilnot, or whither I wote not: whither I wāt will, or whither I want abilitie? Trye mee.

Then will I admonishe him, not bitterly, nor openly, but with out reproche, so as he maie thinke he calles it too mynde of himself, and is not put in minde of it by mee.

¶The .xxiiii. Chapter.

ONE Publius Militio an old souldyer of Iu­lius Caesars, had a sewt before him ageinst his neyboures, and was like to haue gone by the woorse. Capteine (quoth he) remem­ber you not how you sprēt your ancle once about Sucro in Spayne? Yis sayed Caesar. Then you remember also, that when you went too sit do [...]ne vnder a certeine tree that cast verie little shadow, (for the sonne was exceeding whot and the place very rough in whiche that only one tree grew out from among the [...]ragged cliffes): one of your souldyers did spred his cloke vn­der you. When Caesar had answered, yea marrie, why should I not remember it? for when I was nygh dead for thirst: bycause [Page 82] I was not able too goo too the next spring by reason of my foote, I would haue krept thither vppon all fower, but that a souldyer of myne, a tall stout felowe, brought mée water in his burganet. Capteine (quoth he) and doo you knowe that man, or that burganet if you see them ageine? Caesar sayed he knew not the burganet, but the man he knew very well. And (as I thinke being angrie with him for withdrawing him from the heering of the matter too that old stale pageant) he added, but I am sure thou art not he. Caesar (quoth he) I blame you not though you knowe mee not. For when this was done, I was whole and sounde. But afterward myne eye was striken out in the battell at Munda, and splitters of bones were pikt out of my skull. Neyther coulde you know that Burganet if you saw it. For it was clyued asunder with a Spanish Holberd. Here­uppon Caesar commaunded that this souldyer should bee trub­bled no further, and gaue him the grounde through whiche the waye laie that made this strife and sewt betweene him and his neyboures.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

WHat then? Should he not clayme the good turne at his Capteines hande, whose me­morie the multitude of thinges had con­founded, and whom the greatenesse of his charge in ordering whole armyes, suffered not too think vpon euery seueral souldyer? This is not a clayming of a benefite, but a fetching of it in a good place, where it was layed vp in store and redie for him. And yet if a man will haue it be must reache out his hande too take it. Therefore, forasmuche as the thing that I will doo, shalbee either for myne owne necessities sake, or for his sake of whom I demaunde it; I will challenge it. As one was saying too Tyberius Caesar, Remember you? at the first dash, before he could vtter anie moe tokens of olde acquayn­tance, I remember not (quoth hee) what I haue bin. How long should a man haue forborne the clayming of a benefite at this [Page] mannes hande? He stopped his mouth with forgetfulnesse. He could not away with the acquayntance of anie of his freendes and companions. His present state was the only thing that he would haue them too looke at, too think vppon, and too speake of. Affor an old freend, he tooke him but for a spye. A man must bee more choyce in taking of his tyme when he will clayme a benefite, than when he will request one: and he must vse a dis­creetnesse in his woordes, so as euen the vnthankfull maie not be able too dissemble. If wee liued among wyse men, we should hold our peace and tarie their leysure. And yet is it good too make wyse men priuie too our estate. For wee traue of the Goddes, from whom the knowledge of nothing is hidden, and yet doo not prayers certifie them, but intreate them. Yea tru­ly, that [...]hryses the [...]est of Ap­lo. lib. 1. [...]ad. Preest in Homere appointeth seruices and altars de­uoutly haunted, euen too the verye Goddes, therby too make them plyable, and they inclyne vntoo him. Too bee willing and inclynable too bee admonished, is a principall vertue. The mynde of suche (whiche in feawe menne is the beste ruler of it­self) must bee reyned softly this waie and that waie. The next are suche as amende vppon admonishment: and suche are not too bee lefte destitute of a Guyde. When a mannes eyes are blyndfolded, the sight of them is the same it was, but it standes him in no steede, till the Goddes doo let in the lyght too them, and call them foorth too their accustomed seruis. The instrumentes cease, except the woorkman applye them too their woorke. Likewyse, there is a good will in our myndes: but it is benommed onewhyle with pleasures, anotherwhyle with restinesse, and anotherwhyle with ignorance of our dew­tie. This must wee make profitable, and not through impacien­cie leaue it in the stockes. But lyke as [...]hoo [...]masters doo pa­tiently beare with the seapes of their yoong scholers, that hap­pen through stippernesse of memorie, and bring them too saye their whole lessons without booke, by prompting thē a woorde or twayne: Euen so must men bee reclaymed too requite kynd­nesse, by gentle admonishment.

The end of the fifth Booke.

❧ The sixth booke of Lucius An­naeus Seneca, concerning Benefites.

¶The first Chapiter.

S [...]mme thinges (my fréend Liberalis) are sought onely for exercise of wit, and lye al­wayes without the lyfe, and othersome are both delightfull in the seeking, and profi­table when they bee found: I will make thee partaker of them all. According as thou thinkest good, commaund thou them too bee either gone through with, or too bee brought in, but to set foorth the order of the game, Yea and euen in these thinges also there wilbe some good doon, if thou bid mee dispatch them out of hand. For it is good too knowe euen that thing whiche is superfluouse too lerne. Therefore I will hang vppon thy countenance, and according as that shall counsell mee, somme thinges I will stand long vppon, somme I will dispatch out of hand, and othersome I will abridge.

¶The seconde Chapter.

IT is a question whither a Benefite can bee taken awaye from a man. Somme say it can not, because it is not a substance, but a déede. For like as a present is one thing, & the pre­senting of it is another: and like as he that sayleth is one thing, and the sayling itself is another: And albée­it that a sicke man bee not without sicknes: yet is not the sicke man and his sicknesse alone thing: So likewise the benefite itself is one thing, and the thing that commeth too eche of vs with the Benefite, is another thing. The benefite itself is a bodilesse thing▪ and cannot bee made [Page] voyd: but the matter of it is tossed too and fro, and chaungeth his Mayster. Therefore although thou take it awaye, yet can not nature call backe that which shee hath giuen. Nature may breake of hir benefites, but shee cannot reuoke them. He that is dead, hath bin alyue: and he that hath lost his eyes, hath also seene. It may bee brought too passe that the thinges whiche are come too vs, may cease too bee: but that they may not haue bin, it is impossible. A part of a benefite, yea and the surest part of a benefite, is that whiche hath bin. Diuerse tymes wee bee letted too inioye the vse of a benefite anie long tyme: but the benefite itself cannot bee razed out. Although nature should call all her powers about hir too doo it, yet should she not bee able too vndoo that whiche is once doone. Houses, Monnye, Bondmen, and whatsoeuer else the name of a benefite cleaueth vntoo, may bee taken away. But the Benefite itself is stedfast and vnmouable. No force can bring too passe, that the one shal not haue giuen, and the other receyued.

The .iii. Chapiter.

MEE thinkes it was very well doone of Marcus Antonius (in the Poetrie of Rabi­rius) when he sawe his good fortune pas­sing away, and nothing left him saue the right of death, whereof he was like too bee disapointed also (if he tooke it not betimes) too krye out: What I gaue, I haue. O how muche myght he haue had, if he had listed? These bee the assured riches whiche shall alwayes abyde in one place (let the world turne whiche waie it will) and the greater that they bée, the lesse shall they bee enuyed. Why sparest thou them as though they were thy [...]e owne? Thou art but an Amner. All these thinges whiche make you swell, and hoyse you vp aboue mannes estate, causing you too forget your owne frayltie: which you kéepe i [...] yr [...]n chistes garded with armed men: which you purchace with othermennes blud, and defend with your owne: for which you send foorth Nauies too dye the Seas red [Page 84] with blud: for whiche you shake Cities, and yet you knowe not what store of Artillerie Fortune hath prepared ageinst youre selues: for whiche with so often breache of the Leagues of A­lyance, frendship, and felowship, the whole world is crusshed betwixt you twoo, whyle you stryue for the Gole: al these thin­ges (I say) are none of youres, they are but as thinges com­mitted too your custodie, whereof another man is alreadie the right owner, and whiche shall shortly bee possessed either by your open enemie, or by one that hath an open enemyes hart.

Thou askest how these things may bee made thyne? By gi­uing them away. Prouyde thou then for thyne owne estate, and put thyself in sure and vnauoydable possession of them: so shalt thou make them, not onely more honorable, but also more cer­tein. The thinges whiche thou makest so muche of, whereby thou thinkest thyself riche and puissant, lye vnder a bace name as long as thou keepest them: for they bee but Houses, Ser­uantes, and Monnye. But when thou haste giuen them, they are a benefite.

¶The .iiii. Chapter.

YOu graunt (sayeth hee) that some­tyme wee are not in his Det, of whō wee haue receiued a good turne: Er­go wee are bereft of it agein.

There are many causes why wee cease too bée beholden for a benefite: not because it is taken awaye from vs ageine, but because it is marred by him that receiueth it. Admit a mā haue defended mee at the barre, and afterward he rauisheth my Wife by force. In so dooing he hath not bereft mee of his for­mer benefite, but he hath discharged mee of being indetted, by matching it with as greate a wrong. And if he haue doone mée more harme than he had erst doone mee pleasure: I not onely owe him no thankes but also am set at libertie to reuenge my­self and too krye out vpon him, because that in comparison the [Page] wrong outweyeth the benefite: and so the benefite is not be­reft, but ouercountered.

What? are not somme fathers so hardharted and wicked, that of good right a man maie lothe them and eschew them? Doo suche then bereeue their children of the thinges they had giuen them?

No. But yet the vnnaturalnesse whiche they vse afterward, taketh awaie the commendacion of all their former kyndnesse. The benefite is not taken awaie, but the thank of the benefite: and it commeth too passe, not that I haue it not, but that I am not beholden for it. A man lendes mee Monnye, and he burnes my House. My losse dischargeth my Dette; and though I paye him nought, yet I owe him nought.

Euen so standes the cace heere. Though a man in somme poynt deale freendly and liberally with mee: yet if he after­ward deale proudly reprochfully and cruelly with mee manie waies▪ he hath set mée in suche cace, that I am as frée from him, as if I had neuer receiued aught at his hande. He hath ouer­throwne his owne benefites. If the Landelorde treade out his Fermours corne vppon the grounde, and fell doune his frute-trees: the Fermor standes not bound too him though the In­dentures remayne vncancelled. Not bycause the Landlorde hath receiued that whiche he couenanted for: but bycause that he himself was the let that he could not recei [...]e it. So also dy­uers tymes the creditor is cast in domages too his detter, whē he hath by somme other meanes taken more from him than the det came too. Not only betweene the creditor and the detter sitteth the Iudge too saye: Thou haste lent him monnye. But what for that? Thou haste driuen away his Cattell, thou hast slaine his Seruantes, thou holdest away his ground which he should pay thée for. Ualew these thinges one with another, [...] thou that camest hither a creditor, shalt depart hence a detter. Manie tymes also the benefite remayneth, and yet is not the receiuer beholden for it: as for example, if the bestower repen­ted him of his gift, if he found fault with himself for giuing it, if in departing from it he sighed, or looked big, or thought it [Page 85] lost and not giuen, if he gaue it for his owne sake, or at least­wyse not for myne, if he ceassed not too twytt mee by it, if he boasted of it, if he blazed it abrode, or if he made his gift irk­somme. The benefite therfore remayneth, although it bee not too bee requyted, in lykewyse as somme dettes are owing and yet shalnot bee recouered, bycause the creditor can haue no Lawe ageinst the partie.

¶The .v. Chapiter.

THere is also an Audit too be kept betwéene goodturnes and badturnes. A man dooeth mée a pleasure, and afterward he dooth mée a displeasure. There is bothe thankes dew too his good turne, and reuengement too his shrewd turne. For neither ought he to bee thanked of mee, nor I too bée reuenged of him. Either quitteth other. Whē I say I haue requyted his good turn [...]; I meene not that I haue redeliuered y same thing I receiued, but that I haue yeelded somme other thing for it. For too requyte is too giue one thing for another. And why not, seing that in all paymentes, it is not the selfsame thing, but asmuche that is restored. For wee bee sayd too haue payed our dette, although wee render golde for siluer, and although wee deliuer no monnye at all, but make our payment by setting o­uer, or by exchaunge. Mee thinges I héere thée saie, thou losest thy labour. For what am I the better by knowing whither the thing that is not owed abyde still or no? These are pretie nyce poyntes of Lawyers, which hold opinion how it is not the in­heritaunce itself that can bee inioyed, but the thinges that are conteyned in the inheritaunce. As who should saye, the inheri­taunce were aught else than the thinges that are conteyned in the inheritaunce. Nay rather, dispat [...]h mee of this dout, which may make too the purpose: namely, when the same man that hath doon mée a good turne dooth mée afterward a displeasure, whither ought I bothe too requy [...]e his good turne, and yet ne­uerthelesse [Page] too bee reuenged of him, and so to make euen with him seuerally, as in seuerall respectes: or else to set the one a­geinst the other, and too make no more adooe of it: so as the displeasure shall wype away the good turne, & the good turne wype away the displeasure? For I see that that is the order of this court. What is the law of your schoole, looke you to that. Actions must be pleaded seuerally, and looke whereof wée com­mence, too the same must wee bee answered. If a man that hath committed Monnie to my keeping, doo afterward steale it frō mee, and I sewe him of felonie and he answere mee of Det, the maner of pleading is confounded.

¶The .vi. Chapiter.

MY frend Liberalis, the examples that you haue alledged, are conteined within certein boundes which must needes be folowed. For y one La [...]e is not intermingled with the other. Either of them keepeth his owne course. Uerely as well is there a pe­culiar action for gages, as for theft. But benefiting is not fubiect to any Lawe. It referreth itself too myne owne discretion. It is law­full for mee too compare, how eche man hath profited mee or hindered mee. And when I haue doone, I may giue sentence whither I bee more in his det, or he in myne. In Lawmatters wee haue no power of our selues, wee must folowe as wee bee led. But in benefiting I haue full authoritie in myselfe: and therfore I neither separate nor deuide them, but bring as well the wronges as the benefites, both before one Iudge. Other­wise thou wouldest haue mee both too loue and too hate, and to giue thankes, all at once: which is an impossibilitie in nature. Nay rather, by comparing the benefite and wrong toogither▪ I shal see who is most in others det. For like as if a man should write other ly [...]es aloft vppon my wrytinges he should deface [Page 86] the first letters but not take them away: Euen the displeasure that foloweth vppon a good turne, doth but blemishe the good turne.

¶The .vii. Chapiter.

THy countenance (too the gouer [...]e­ment wherof I haue submitted myself) gathereth wrincles and frow­neth vppon mee, as though I ran at randon. Mee thinkes I heere thée say: whither raungest thou mée out so farre on the Right hande? drawe more hitherward and keepe thee too the shore.

I can keepe no neerer. Therefore if thou thincke I haue sa­tisfied thee in this poynt: let vs passe to the other; namely whi­ther wee bee anie thing beholden too him that hath doone vs good ageinst his will. I could haue spoken this more plainly, but that the proposition must bee somewhat confuzed, too the ende that the distinction immediatly insewing may shewe how I demaund, both whither wee bee beholden too him that hath doone vs good and ment it not, and also whither wee bee be­holding too him that hath doone vs good and wist it not. For if a man bée forced too doo vs good, it is more manifest that he byndeth vs not, than that any woordes should bee spent in the proofe of it. This question, and all other that may bee moued like vnto it, is easely discussed, if wee beare this principle con­tinually in mynd: namely that it is no benefite at all, which is not first by some meane ment towardes vs, and therewithall also both frendly and courteouse. And therefore wee thancke not the Riuers although they beare greate Shippes, and r [...]n in large continuall streames too conuey home store of welth: nor for their rōning full of fish, and with pleasure through bat­ling groundes. Noman thinketh himself more bound too Ni­lus for the good hee receiueth by it, than hee hateth him for his swelling ouer high, or for his falling away too slowly. Ney­ther [Page] doth the wynd bestowe a benefite, though it blowe gentle and prosperous: nor our meate because it nourisheth and is wholsome. For he that shall benefite mee, muste not onely doo mee good, but also haue an intent too doo it. Therefore men bee not indetted too the dumb beastes: and yet what a nomber haue bin deliuered from daunger by the swiftnes of their hor­ses? nor yet too the Trees: and yet how many haue bin succo­red with the shadowe of their boughes in extremitie of heate? What skilles it mee whither hee that dooth mee good knowe not that he doth it, or bee not able too knowe it: sith that both of them wanted will too doo it? And what difference is there whither you would haue mee too owe a good turne too a ship, or a Charyot, or a Speare; or too suche a man as no whit more purposed too benefite mee, than anie of those thinges did: but did mee good by hap only?

¶The .viii. Chapiter.

A Man may receiue a benefite vnwitting, but he cannot bestowe it vnwitting. For like as manie men bee healed by mischaunces and yet the same mischaunces are no medi­cines; as for example, the falling intoo a ri­uer with greate rush, hath vntoo some men bin a cause of health, and somme haue bin rid of a quartane by whipping, so as the sodein feare hath dis­appointed the fit by turning the minde too another thought, and yet are none of these thinges helthfull though they haue wrought helth for the tyme: Euen so somme men doo vs good when they meene it not, or rather by meening the contrarie, and yet wee are not their detters of a good turne. What if for­tune haue turned their hurtfull intentes too my good? Sup­pose you I am anie whit beholding too him whose hand strake at mée and hit myne enemie, and had hurt me if it had not swar­ued? Oftentymes the periurie of a mannes enemie hath dis­credited him vppon trew allegations and witnesses, and made the defendant too bee pitied, as intrapped by conspiracie. The [Page 87] mayne force that oppressed somme man hath bin the cause of his deliuerance, and the iudges would not condemne him for pitie, whom they would haue condemned for his cace. Yet haue none of these benefited mee, though they haue saued mee. For the question is, wherat the dart was throwen, and not what it did hit: and the thing that putteth the difference betweene a benefite and a wrong, is not the falling out, but the intent. Myne aduer sarie offendeth the iudge with his pryde, and fur­thereth my cace by speaking contraries, and by putting him­self rashly vppon one witnesse. I ask not whither he misbeha­ued himself too pleasure mee or no: for his will was bent a­geinst mee.

¶The .ix. Chapiter.

VErely too the end I maie bée thank­full, I must haue a will too doo as he hath doone too mee: like as it beho­ued him too haue an intent too doo mee good, too the end too benefite mee. For what greater wrong can there bee, than too hate a man for treading on his foote in a throng, or for spitting vppon him, or for thrust­i [...]g him whither he would not. And yet forasmuch as there is misusage in the deede: what other thing is it that can excuse him from blame, than that he will not what he did? The same thing that exempteth the one from being thought too haue doone wrong, exempteth the other also from being thought too haue doone a pleasure. It is the intent that maketh fréend or foe. Manie haue bin excused from warfare by sicknesse. Somme haue bin held from meeting with the fall of their owne house, by keeping their daie of appeerance at the sute of their enemies. And some by sh [...]pwr [...]cke haue scaped the handes of Pyrates. Yet owe wee none of these a good turne, bycause chaunce is without the compasse of curtesie: Neyther am I anie thing beholden too myne enemie, whose sute saued mee [Page] whyle he trubled mee and hild mee awaie. It is no good turne except it proceede from a good will, and except the partie that did it wist it. Hath a man profited mee, and knewe not of it? I am nothing in his det for it. Did he mee good when he would haue hurt mee? I will folowe his example.

¶The .x. Chapter.

LET vs turne ageine too the first poynt: That too the end I should bee thankfull, thou wilt haue mee too doo sommewhat: and yet the other, too benefite mee, hath doone nothing at all. Secondly thou wilt haue mee too bee so kyndharted, that I must requyte that thing willingly, whiche I receiued of him ageinst his will. For what should I speake of the third, whose harme turned too my benefite? If thou wilt haue mee too owe thee a good turne, it is not inough for thee too bee onely willing too doo mee good. But too make mee vnbeholden too thee, it is inough that thou mentest it not towardes mee. For the bare will maketh not a benefite. And like as it is no benefite if there want successe of performance, though the will bee neuer so well disposed and bente too doo good: so likewise it is no benefite, except good will go before the successe of the deededooing. For if thou wilt haue mee be­holden too thee: thou muste not onely doo mee good, but also thou must doo it purposely.

¶The .xi. Chapiter.

CLeanthes vseth suche an example as this. I sent out twoo boyes (sayeth he) intoo the Academie too seeke Plato, and too bring him too mee. The one of them searched all the Walkes and Galeries, and ranne sée­king him through all other places where hee thought hee might bee found, and yet came home weerie and disappointed. The other of them sate [Page 88] him doune at the next Puppetplayers, and afterward gadding about the Streetes like a Stray, fell in companie with other wagges, and as hee was playing, spyed Plato passe by, whom he neuer sought. I (sayeth Cleanthes) will commend the Boy whiche (as muche as in him lay) did the thing hee was com­maunded: and I will beate the other Boy that was rechelesse, for all his good lucke. It is the will that woorketh mee frend­ship: the intent whereof must bee considered, if thou wilt haue it too bynd mée too bée thy detter. It is small woorth to meene a man good, vnlesse thou doo it. For put the cace a man ment too giue mee sowewhat, and gaue it not: soothly I haue his hart, but not his good turne, whiche requyreth both the deede and the intent, to make it perfect. For like as I owe nought to him that mynded too lend mee Monnie, and lent it not: so like­wyse, vntoo him that was mynded to doo mee good and couldnot, I shall beare good will, but I shall not bee bound. And I meene too doo for him, because he ment too haue doon for mée. Notwithstanding, if good fortune serue mee too doo aught for him: in so dooing I shall bee the first dooer of a good turne, and not the requyter of a good turne. It shalbee his duetie too render thankes, and the enterance of his thankfulnesse shall haue proceeded from mee.

¶The .xii. Chapiter.

I Perceiue alreadie what thou mee­nest too demaund. Thou needest not too tell mée, thy countenance telleth it mée. If a man haue doone vs good for his owne sake, are we any thing indetted too him sayest thou? For I heere thee complayning oftētymes of this, that men doo many thinges for themselues, and chalendge o­ther men for them.

I shall tell thee my Liberalis: But firste I will diuyde this question, and set the right asunder from the wrong. For it is [Page] muche too the purpose, whither a man doo vs a good turne for his owne sake, or for our sake, or for his owne and ours toogi­ther. Hee that hath regarde all wholly too himself, and dooeth vs good bycause he can none otherwise profit himself: seemeth vnto mée too be all one with him, that prouydeth winterstouer and Sommerféede before hand for his Cattell, or that feedeth wel his Prisoners too fell them the better, or that stalleth and currieth his fayre Oxen too make the redyer vtterance of them, or lyke a Maister of Fence that exercyseth his Usshers with all care, too set them out as braue as he can. There is greate oddes (sayeth Cleanthes) betweene benefiting and bar­ganing.

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

AGeine, I am not so streyt laced, that I would bee nothing beholden too him that hath profited himself by dooing mee good. For I requyre not that he should pleasure mee without regarde of himself: but ra­ther I wish with all my hart, that the bene­fite bestowed vppon mée, may turne too the greater auayle of the bestower; condicionally that he had an eye too bothe of vs in bestowing it, and had an intent too part the stake betweene him and mee, though the greater share fell too himself. If he made mee his partener and ment it too vs bothe: I not only doo him wrong, but also am a ranck churle if I reioyce not that the same thing profited him whiche profited mee. It is the greatest churlishnesse that can bée, too account a thing too bee no benefite, except it bee so mine discommonitie too the bestowes. But asfor him that respected only himself when he profited mee, I will aunswer him otherwyse. Seeing thou didst vse mee but too serue thyne owne turne, why shoul­dest thou say thou didst pleasure mée, rather than that I pleasu­red thee? Put the cace (sayeth he) that I could not otherwyse bee admitted too somme office, than if I raunsomed ten of my countrymen from out of a greate nomber of prisoners. If I [Page 89] redeeme thee for one of the ten, wilt thou think thyself nothing beholden too mee for deliuering thee out of thraldomme and bondes? And yet I doo it for myne owne sake. Heruntoo I an­swer: In this cace thou doost somewhat for thyne owne sake, and sommewhat for myne. Thy raunsoming of mée is for thyne owne sake, and thy choozing of mee is for myne. For the ac­complishment of thy purpose, it was sufficient for thee too haue redéemed any ten. And therfore I am beholding too thee, not for redeeming mee, but for choozing mée. For thou migh­test haue obteyned the same thing, by raunsoming of somme o­ther as well as mee. Thou impartest the profite of the thing to mee, and admittest mee too thy benefite whiche shall turne too the behoof of vs bothe. This thou proferest mée before others, and this thou dooest wholly for my sake. But if thy redeeming of ten prisoners should make thee Praetor of the Citie, and there were no moe but ten prisoners of vs in all none of vs should bee beholding vntoo thee, bycause thou couldest not saie thou haddest done aught for anie of vs, whiche respected not thyne owne peculiar profite. I am not a misconstrewer of good turnes, neither couet I that they should redound too myself only, but also vntoo thee.

The .xiiii. Chapiter.

BUT (sayeth he) what if I had put your names intoo a Lotterie, and that thy name had bin drawen for one of those that should bee raunsomed: shouldest thou bee nothing beholden too mée? Yis marie should I, how­bee it verye little. And what that is, I will tell thee. Thou didest sommewhat for my sake, in that thou diddest put mee in the lot of raunsoming. That my name is drawen, I am beholden too fortune: That it could bee drawen, I am beholding too thee. Thou haste giuen mée an entrance too thy benefite, the more parte wherof I owe too good lucke: but yet I am also beholden too thee, for that I might bee beholden too good fortune. Asfor those that make a [Page] merchandyze of their good turnes, passing not too whom they doo them, but how muche too their owne aduauntage, so as they maie alwayes returne home too themselues: I will quite ouerpasse them. As for example: A man selles mee corne, and I should starue if I bought it not: yet am I not beholden too him for my life: bycause I payd for it. Neither recken I how muche I stoode in neede of the thing wherwithout I could no [...] haue liued: but what an vnkyndnesse it was that I had gone without it, if I had not payd for it: in the bringing in wherof, the chapman thought not how too releeue mee, but how too make his owne gayne. Thus am I not beholden for that whiche I haue bought.

¶The .xv. Chapiter.

BY this reckening (sayeth he) thou wilt say thou owest nothing too thy Phisicion, because thou hast giuen him a little [...]ée, nor too thy Shoole­ma [...]ster, beca [...]se thou hast payd him some wages. But among vs there is greate loue and great reuerence yeelded vntoo suche. Too this wee aunswere thus: that some thinges are more woorth than is payd for them. Of [...] buyest lyfe and health: and of thy [...] behauyour and furniture of mynd which are thinges [...]. Therefore vntoo these [...]ee pay [...], not the pryce of the thing, but the pryce of their paynes, for that [...] turnes, and for that they were called a [...]ay from their owne businesses, too imp [...]oy their tyme vppon vs. They reape the reward, not of their desert, but of their trade. Yet may another thing bee more truely alledged, whiche I will anon declare, when I haue first shewed how this may bee disproued. Some thinges (sayeth hee) are woorth more than they cost: and there­fore albeeit that thou [...]oughtest them, yet thou owest mée some­what what ouer and besides for them.

[Page 90] First, what skilles it how muche they bee woorth, seeing th [...] pryce was agreed vppon betweene the buyer and the se [...] ­ler? Agein, the buyer did not set the pryce vppon the thing, but thou thy selfe didst set it. It is more woorth sayeth hee than it was sold for. But (say I) it could bee sold for no more. The pryce of thinges ryseth and falleth according too the tyme. When thou haste praysed them too the vttermost, they are woorth but asmuchas may be gotten for them. Besydes this, hee that hath bought good cheape, oweth his Chapman n [...] ­thing. Moreouer although these thinges bee more woorth: yet is it no Godhamereie too thee, considering that the estima­tion of these thinges dependeth not vppon the vse and effect of them, but vppon the custome and derth of them. What pryce wilt thou set vppon him, who in passing the Seas (yea euen through the thickest of the Surges,) when he is out of sight of the Land, keepeth his course cer [...]ein, & fore seeing the stormes at hand, when all men thincke least of it, dooth soodeinly bid them strike Saile and let doune the Takling, and too stand in a redines ageinst the sodein comming and brunt of the storme? None: and yet is the Monney whiche is payd too suche a one for his Fare, a full recompence for his trauell. How muche woorth esteeme you a lodging in a Wildernesse, a House in a showre, and a st [...]ue or a fyre when a man is acold? And yet I knowe we how muche these thinges will coste mee when I come too myne Inne. How muche doth he for vs, whiche shoreth vp [...]ur decayed house, and by woonderfull cunning hangeth it vp like an Ile, from the foundation whiche is riuen? Yet is the pryce of suche shoring, both certein and [...]asie too bee payed. A wall defendeth vs from [...]ur enemyes, and saueth vs from the sodeine inuasions of Robbers: yet is it knowen what the Ma­son that buildeth those Bulwarkes for defence of the common weale, may earne by the day for his Wages.

¶The .xvi. Chapiter.

[Page] IT would bee an endlesse matter, if I should raūdge further in alledging the examples, wherbey it may appeere, how greate thin­ges are solde cheape. What then? why owe I somme further thing to my phisician and schoolemasters, so as my paying of their fee dischargeth mee not?

Bycause that from a phisician and schoolemasters they passe intoo a freende, and their bynding of vs, is not by their arte whiche they sell; but by their freendly and familiar good will. A [...]d therefore asfor the phisician that dooth no more but feele my pulse, & reckē mée but as one of those whō he visiteth in his ordinarie walke, prescrybing what is to bee done or eschewed without further affection: I am no whit in his Det, bycause he visited mee not as a freende, but as a customer of his. Ney­ther is there anie reason why I should reuerence my schoole­master, if he made none other account of mee than as of a co­mon scholer, nor thought mee woorthy of any singular and pe­culiar care, nor euer set his mynde specially vppon mee, inso­much that when he powred out the things that he knew amōg vs, I rather tooke them, than was taught them. What is the cause then why I should thinke myself muche beholding too suche as these? Not for that the thing whiche they haue [...]olde, is more woorth than it cost, but bycause they haue done somme speciall thing too myself. The Phisician did more for mée than he needed too haue done. He was carefull for mee, & not for the report of his couning. He was not contented too showe mee the medicine, but als [...] ministred it. In the meane whyle he sate carefully by mee, and resorted too mee at tymes of daunger. No paynestaking was paynfull too him, no payne was l [...]th­somme too him. It greeued him too heere my groninges. A­mong a nomber of patie [...]tes that called vppon him, I was his chéef cure. He bestowed no more leysure vppon others, than the tyming of mee would giue him leaue. I am bound too suche a one, not as too a Phisician, but as too a freende. Ageine, the [...]hoolemaster tooke greate labour and payne in teaching mée. [Page 91] Besides the thinges that he taught in comon too my fellowes as well as mee, he trayned and instructed mee in certein other thinges: sommetyme he quickened vp my good inclination by exhorting mée; and gaue mee corage by commending mée: and otherwhyles he draue away my flothe by calling vppon mee. Furthermore hee drewe foreward my dull and lingering wit, as it were by laying hand vppon it, and he was not nigardlie in bestowiug his knowledge vppon mee too make mee haue néede of him the longer, but coueted too haue powred it out in­too mee all at once, if he had could. Unthankfull were I if I loued him not as on of the deerest and neerest of my kinne.

¶T .xvii. Chapiter.

WEE giue somewhat more than couenan [...], euen too the teachers of the bacest handi­craftes. And if wee find a Pylot, or handi­craftes mā, or a labourer that is hyred by y day more earnest & peinfull at his woork than of ordinarie; wee giue him a sprinc­ling more than his ordinarie wages. Un­thankfull then is he that in the best artes, whiche either pre­serue or adorne mannes lyfe, thinkes himself too owe no more than hee couenantes for. Ad heereuntoo, that the teaching of suche artes linketh mennes myndes toogither: in consider a­tion whereof, as well too [...]he Phisician as too the Schoole­maister, the reward of their paynes is payd, but the reward of their good willes is owing still.

¶The .xviii. Chapiter.

WHen a certein Ferriman had caried Plato ouer a Riuer, and demaunded nothing of him for his fare: Plato beleeuing he had doone it for courte­sie too himward, sayd he would keepe his cour­sie in store for him. Within a whyle after, when Plato sawe him ferrye ouer others with like diligence, and of fre [...] cost: he denyed that he kept any curtesie of his in store for [Page] him. For if a man will haue me [...] too bee a detter for the thing that he dooeth too mee, it behoueth him too doo it, not only too mee, b [...]t also for my sake. Thou [...] any one man, for that whiche thou la [...]hest out among a multitude. What then? is there nothing owing for this? No, nothing, as at anye one ma [...]s hand. For I will pay with all men, that whiche I owe [...] men.

¶The .xix. Chapiter.

DEnyest thou (sayeth hee) that that manne hath befreended mee at all, whiche hath brought mée vp the Ri­uer Po in his Ship for nothing? I deny it. He dooth mee somme good, but hee befreendeth mee not. For he dooeth it for his owne sake, o [...] at leastwyse not for myne. Too bee short, not euen hee himself deemeth himself too bestowe a benefite vppon mee: but he dooeth it ei­ther for the comon weale, or for the next towneship, or for his owne vayneglorie, or else in lew thereof he tooketh for somme further commoditie, than he should haue had by taking euerie mans fare. But what if the Emperour should make al french­men Fréedenizens, or set all Spanyar [...]es free from subie­ction? should none of them seuerally owe aught in this cace? yes, why should they not? Notwithstanding▪ they shall owe, not as for a peculiar benefite, but as for a peece of a publik be­nefite.

He neuer thought on mee at all (sayeth he) at the tyme that he did good too vs all. Hee ment not precysely too make mee free of the Citie, neyther did hee set his mynd vppon mee. And so, why should I bee in Dette too him, who purposed not vp­pon mee when he intended the thing that he did?

First when hee purpose too doo good too all Frenchemen, he purposed too doo good too mee also, for I was a Frenche­man: and although hee marked mée not out by name, yet hee [Page 92] comprehended mee vnder the generall mark. And therefore I shalbee his Detter, not as a peculiar persone, butas one of the whole multitude. And I shall not requyte it as in myne owne behalf, but I shalbe contributarie too it as in the behalf of my Country.

The .xx. Chapiter.

IF a man lend Monny too my coun­trie, I shall not account myselfe his detter, neither shall I acknowledge it as my Det, either too sewe or too bee sewed: and yet▪ shall I giue my portion too the payment of it. Euen so I denye myself too be Detter for the benefite that is bestowed vppon all in comon, because that althongh he bestowed it, yea and vppon mee also: yet did he it not for my sake, neither knewe he whither he did it too mee or no. Neuer­thelesse. I ought too knowe that my part must bee in the pay­ing of it, bycause it came by a long circumstaunce euen vntoo mee also. The thing that should bynd mee, should bee doone pe­culiarly for myne owne sake.

By this reckening ( [...]ayth he) thou art not beholden too the Moone nor too the Sonne. For they moue not peculiarly for thy sake.

No: and yet notwithstanding, forasmuchas their mouing is too preserue all thinges in generall: they moue for mee too. For I am a part of the whole. Moreouer, the state of these thin­ges & of vs is vnlike. For he that dooth mée good, only to pro­fit himself therby, hath not benefited mée, because he made mee but the instrument of his owne profite. But asfor the Sonne and the Moone, although they doo vs good for their owne sa­kes: yet the intent of their dooing good vnto vs, is not too profite themselues thereby. For what can wee bestowe vppon them?

¶The .xxi. Chapiter.

[Page] I Myght bee sure (sayeth he) that the Sonne and▪ the Moone are willing too doo vs good, if it laie in their power too bee vnwilling: But they can­not but mo [...]e. Let them stand still a little and rest from their woork.

Sée how manie [...]. A man is not therefore the lesse willing bycause he cannot bee vnwilling. But it is a greate proof of a stedfast will, that it cannot bee al­tered. A good man cannot doo otherwyse than well, for he should not bee a good man if he did not well. Ergo a good man bestoweth no benefite, bycause he dooth but as he ought too doo, and he ca [...]not doo otherwyse than as he ought too doo. Besides this, there is greate difference whither you saie, he cannot but doo this thing bycause he is compelled too doo it: and whither you sa [...]e, he cannot bee vnwilling too doo it. For if he must needes doo it whither he will or no: then am I not beholden vntoo him for my good turne, but too the partie that compelled him. But [...] the [...] of his willingnesse pro­ceede of this, that he cannot will but well: then compelleth he himself. And so, looke for what thing I should not haue bin beholden too him as compelled by others: for the same shall I bee beholden too him as too the compeller.

Yea, but let them cease too bee vnwilling, sayeth he.

Consider thou heere, who is so farre out of his [...], as too denye that too bee willingnesse, whiche is not in perill of ceas­sing, or of altering itself too the contratie: seeing that on the o­ther side, noman maye of ryght seeme so willing, as he whose will is so vtterly certeine, that it is euer las [...]ing? If he bee wil­ling, whiche maie anon after bee vnwilling: [...] he bee thought too bee willing, who is of that nature that he cannot bee vnwilling?

¶The .xxii. Chapter.

GO too, (sayeth he) let them doo otherwyse, if they can.

This is it that thou méenest: namely, that all these thinges whiche are seuer [...] [...] waie asunder, [Page 93] and settled [...] places for the preseruation of the whole, should forsake their standinges: that the Starres should rush­togither through [...]oodein confusion: that the heauenly things should braste their concord and ronne to decay: that the ex­ceeding violent swiftnesse of the Skyes should stande still in the middes of their race, and disapoint the interchaunges be­highted for so many ages yet to come: and that the thinges whithe nowe go and comme interchaungeably in seasonable course, guyding the world by indifferent sway: should bee bur­ned vp with sodein fyre, and bee quyte let looce from so greate varietle, and be confounded all intoo one. Let fyre consume all thinges, and afterward let droopy night ouerwhelme the fyre, and consequently let the deepe Gulf of confusion swallowe vp so manie Gods: And let all this cost bee bestowed, onely too di­sproue thée. They can yeeld thee these things euen ageinst thy will, and kéepe on their course for thy sake, howbeeit that there is another greater and former cause than these.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

AD further, that outward thinges compell not the Goddes: but their owne euerla­sting will is as a Lawe too themselues. The thinges that they haue decreed, are such as they ment not too alter. Therfore they cannot seeme to doo any thing ageinst their will. For whatsoeuer they cannot cease too doo, that was it their will too continew. Neither dooth it euer repent the Goddes of their firste determination. Doutlesse they can not both bee stable, and starting too the contrarie. Notwithstanding, albeeit that their owne power hold them in their determination: yet is not their cōtineweing in it, of weaknesse: but because it is not for them too step asyde from the best thinges, and because they haue determined so too go. At that firste determination of theirs when they disposed all things, they sawe our affaires also and had regard of man. Therefore they cannot seeme too keepe their [...]ourses, and too [Page] lay out their woorkes for their sakes alone: for euen wee also are a part of the woork. Then are wee indetted to the Sonne, and the Moone, and the other heauenly powers for their bene­fites, because that although they bee better than the thinges whereintoo they shine: yet they helpe vs too the atteinement of greater thinges: And also, that they helpe vs of set purpose: And therefore wee bee the more bound vntoo them. For wee stumble not vppon their benefites without their knowledge: but they wist well wee should receyue these thinges which wee receyue. And although they haue somme greater purpose and somme greater frute of their woorke, than the preseruation of mortall thinges: yet notwithstanding, euen for our wealesake also, there was a prouidence sent before at the first beginning of thinges, and there was suche order stablished in the world, as it may appeere there was no small regard had of vs. Wee owe deutifulnesse too our Parentes: and yet manie of them matched not toogither too beget Children. The Gods cannot séeme too haue doone they wist not what, considering how they haue prouyded foode and all other thinges aforehande for all men, neyther begate they vs vnwares for whom they haue created so many thinges. For nature mynded vs before shee made vs: and wee are not so slyght a woorke, that wee could slip from hir vnwares. See how muche shee hath permitted vs, and how farre mannes dominion fir [...]t [...]heth further than ouer man onely. Sée how farre our bodyes may raundge, and how Nature hath not restrayned them within the boundes of any Landes, but hath giuen them frée scope into euery part of hirself. See how muche mennes myndes dare aduenture, and how they onely eyther knowe or seeke the Goddes, aspyring too heauenly thinges, by the mynd whiche is giuen too mount alost. You may perceyue how man is not an vnaduysed peece of worke clumpered vp in hast. Among the greatest woorkes of nature, there is nothing wherein nature more gloryeth, or at leastwyse wherein shee may more glorie. How great a mad­nesse is it too quarell with the Goddes for their owne giftes? How will he bee thankfull towardes those that cannot bee re­quyted [Page 94] without cost: who denyeth himself too haue receyued aught at their handes, which will euer giue and neuer reciue? And what a frowardnesse is it for a man not too think himself beholden too one, euen because he is good to him that denyes it; and too say that the verie continuance and holding on of his goodnesse, is but a token that hee could not otherwyse doo though he would? Say thou, I will none of it, let him keepe it too himself, who craued it at his hand: and packe thou toogi­ther all the woordes of a thanklesse mynd: yet shall thou not therefore fynd the lesse goodnesse in him, whose bounteousnes commeth vntoo thee, euen whyle thou de [...]yest it, and of whose benefites euen this is one of the greatest, that he will giue vn­to thee, euen though thou grudgest ageinst him.

¶The .xxiiii. Chapter.

SEEst thou not how parentes inforce the tender chyldhode of their children too the inurāce of good & wholsom things? With heedfull care doo they cherish their bodies, though the children wéepe & stryue ageinst it. And least vntymely loocenesse might make them growe awrye: they hynd them streyt too make them growe right, and anon after instruct them in liberall sciences, restreyning them with feare if they bee vnwilling. Moreouer, they frame and apply their headie youth vntoo Thrist, shamefastnesse, and good manners, if they folowe them not of themselues. Also whē they be men growen, and haue somme staye of themselues, if then they reiect their remedies through sheepishnesse or vnrulinesse: they vse force & streyt kéeping vnder. Therfore the greatest benefites that wée receiue of our parentes, are those that wee receiue eyther vn­wittingly or else vnwillingly.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

[Page] VNtoo these vnthankfull folk which refuze good turnes, not bycause they cannot find in their hartes too haue them, but bycause they cannot finde in their hartes too bee beholden for them: they be like on the con­trarie parte, whiche through ouermuche kyndnesse, are woont too wish somme in­conuenience or aduersitie vntoo those, too whom they bee moste beholden, therby too shewe how myndfull affection they beare them for their benefite receiued. Whither they doo this thing aright and of a good will, it is a question: sith their mynd is like too theirs, who burning in [...] loue, doo wish their louer banishment, too the ende they might accompanie her in her distresse and departure: or pouertie, too the ende they might releeue her want: or siknesse, too the end they myght sit by her too tend her: and finally whiche vnder profession of Loue, doo wish whatsoeuer her enemie would haue wisshed vntoo her. Therefore the ende of [...]atred and of Frentike loue is wel­neere all one. The like thing also betydeth too those that wish their fréendes harme, too the intent that they maierid them of it, and make wa [...]e too benefiting by dooing them wrong: wher­as it were muche better, euen vtterly too leaue of, than too seeke occasion of benefiting by meanes of wickednesse. What if a master of a ship should praye the Goddes too sende cruell stormes and tempestes, too the intent too make his conning the better liked for the daunger? What if the generall of a féeld should desire the Goddes, that a greate multitude of enemies myght beseege his Camp, and with soodein violence fill vp the trenches and pulldoune the rampyre, and (to the greate torror of his armie) aduaunce their antesignes in at the verie gates, too the intent that when thinges were vnder foote and at the last cast, he himself mightmake all safe ageine too his owne greater glorie? All these conuey their benefites by a cursed waie, when they call the Goddes ageinst him whom they them­selues would succor, and desyre too haue him first throwen doune, that they themselues might rayse him vp. It is an vn­naturall [Page 95] and vntowarde maner of kyndnesse, too wish misfor­tune too suche a one as a man cannot with honestie forsake.

The .xxvi. Chapiter.

MY wish (sayeth he) hurteth him not bycause I wish the perill and the remedie bothe at once.

That is as muche too say, as thou art not altoogither cleere from offence: but thou offendest lesse than if thou shouldest wishe him harme without help. It were but a leawd part too thrust a man intoo the water too the intent too pull him out ageine: or too throwe him doune, to the intent too sette him at libertie. It is no benefiting too make an ende of dooing wrong: neyther is is a poynt of kyndnesse for a man too withdrawe that thing from one, whiche hee himselfe had layd vppon him. I had leuer that thou shouldest not wound mee, than that thou shouldest heale mee. It is woorth Godha­mer [...]ie if thou giue mée a Playster because I am wounded, but not if thou wound mee too giue mee a Playster. A man neuer liked too haue a Skarre, but in comparison of the wound: and yet as well as he liketh of the closing of it, he had leuer to haue bin without it. If thou shouldest wish so too one that thou wart nothing behold entoo, it were an vnkynd wysh: and much more vnkynd were it for too wish so vntoo him that hath doone thee frendship.

¶The .xxvii. Chapter.

I Wishe therewith (sayeth he) that I may bee a­ble too su [...]cour him. First, (for I will cut thee of in the middes of thy wishe) thou art alreadie vnkynd. I here not yet what thou wouldest doo for him: but I knowe what thou wouldest hau him suffer. Thou wishest him perplexitie, feare, or some grea­ter [...] the ende he may haue neede of thy helpe. [Page] This is once ageinst him. Thou wishest hee should haue neede of thy help. This is for thyself. Thy meening is not too suc­cour him, but too pay him. He that so posteth, would fayne haue him payd, but hee would not bee Paymayster himselfe. And so the only thing that bare a countenance of honestie in thy wish, (namely the thinking long too bee out of Det) is vnhonest and vnfrendly. For thou wishest not that it may lye in thy lot to re­quyte kyndnesse: but that he may bee inforced too craue thy succour. Thou makest thyself his superiour, and (whiche is a wickednesse) thou castest him doune to thy feete, who hath de­serued well at thy hand. Now muche meete [...] were it too owe with an honest good will, than to bee discharged by euill mea­nes. Thou shouldest haue offended less, if thou haddest for­sworne the thing that thou haste re [...]eyued. For he should haue lost no more but his gift. But now thou wilt haue him become thy vnder [...]ing with the losse of his goodes, and bee pulled so low by the alteration of his [...], that his owne benefites must ouermaister him. Shall I [...] it too his face whom thou [...] so too pleasure. Termest thou it a kynd wishe, whiche may as well beseeme a foe as a freend, and whiche no dout but an [...] and an enemye would haue made, the latter pointes excepted? Euen mortall enemyes haue wished [...] too the intent they myght saue them: & to ouer [...]ome some me [...], too the intent too pardon them. And yet were not suche wish [...]s the lesse enemy­lyke, considering how the méekest part of them commeth after crueltie. Finally what maner of wisshes deemest thou them to bee, whiche noman would lesse too take, effect, than hee vnto whom thou wisshest them? Too euill do [...]st thou deale with him, whom thou [...] by thyself: yea and too leawdly [...] thou with the God­des, for thou puttest ouer the crueltie vntoo them, and reser­uest al the kyndnes too thyself. Too the intent that thou mayst doo good, the Gods must doo harme If thou shouldest suborne an accusar, and afterward remoue him thyself: or if thou shoul­dest intangle him in some sew [...]e, and afterward rid him out of [Page 96] it: noman would dout but thou deltest wickedly. And what skilles it whither suche a thing bee gone about by couin or by wisshing, sauing that thou wisshest him ouerstrong aduersa­ries? Thou canst not saye, what wrong doo I too him? Thy wish is either needlesse, or wrongfull: nay rather, it is wrong­full though it wante successe. That thou bringest it not too passe, it is Gods gift: but thy wisshing of it, is playne wrong. Thou hast doone inough. And wee ought to bee no lesse offen­ded with thee, than if thou haddest brought it too full effect.

¶The .xxviii. Chapiter.

IF my prayers (sayeth he) had preuayled, they had preuayled too thy safetie.

First thou wishest mee certeine harme vnder vncertein help. And secondly, though bothe were certeine: yet is that first, which hurteth. Besides this, the condicion of thy wish is knowen but too thyself: asfor mée I am surprysed in the meane whyle by the tempest, and wote not whither I shall finde harborough or succor. What a torment is it (trowe you) too haue wanted, though I happen too ob­teyne releef? or too haue bin in feare, though I fortune too bée saued? or too haue hilde vp my hande at the barre, though I chaunce too bee quitte? No ende of feare can bee so well liked of, but that the sounde and vnappayred quietnesse should bee better liked of. Wish that thou mayest bee able too requyte my benefite, if I should stande in neede of thee: but not that I should stand in neede of thée. If the thing that thou wisshest had bin in thyne owne power, thou haddest doone it thyself.

¶The .xxix. Chapiter.

HOW muche more honestie is it too wish thus? I praye God continew him in suche state, as he maie alwayes deale benefites, and neuer neede too receiue. Let suche abi­litie euermore folowe him, as maie suffyze him too vse bountifull powring out and re­léeuing, so as he maie neuer make nyce too [Page] doo good, nor repent him of that he hath doone. God graunt that his nature whiche is foreward of itself too all kynde of courtesie, pitie, and mercie, maie bee stirred vp and prouoked by the multitude of thankfull persones, of whom God sende him store, but yet so as he maie neuer haue neede of them. I would he should bee vnintreatable too noman, nor haue neede too intreate anie man. I would that fortune might perseue [...] with so equall fauor towardes him, as noman might bee able too bee thankfull too him, other wyse than in hart. How muche more rightfull are these wisshes, whiche dri [...]e thee not of too wayt for occasion, but make thee thankfull out of hande? For what should let thee too requyte freendship too him that is in prospertie? How manie thinges are there wherby wee maie requite, euen towardes suche as haue the world at will, bée wée neuer so far in their det? As for example, faithfull counsell, continewall attendance, gentle talke and pleasant without flatterie, eares (if he bee mynded too [...]ebate thinges) heedfull, and (if he comunt auie thing too them) trustie, and familiar conuersation. Prosperitie neuer aduaunced any man so high, but hee might so muche the more feele the want of a frend, as he found lesse want of all other thinges.

¶The .xxx. Chapiter.

THis [...]ksomme wisshing is too bee banished and driuen far away with hart and mynd. Canst thou not bee thankfull, but thou muste haue the Gods displeased with thy freend? Or vnderstādest thou not how thou si [...]est in this behalf, that thou dea­lest better with him too whom thou art vnkynd? Let thy mynd ronne vppon imprisonment, bo [...]des, [...] b [...]tell and beggerie. These are the occasions that thou wishest for: and they are such, as if a man haue [...]ouenanted with thee, they shall saue him harmelesse of his bond ageinst thee. Why wouldest [Page 97] thou not rather haue him continew in ablenesse and prosperi­tie, too whom thou arte so greatly beholden? for (as I sayd) what letteth thee too requyte kyndnesse, euen towardes those that are in happyest state, sith thou mayst fynd wherewith too doo it aboundantly? What? knowest thou not that men paye their Dettes euen too the welthie? Too the intent I streyne thee not ageinst thy will: bée it so that welthy prosperitie haue excluded all thinges: yet will I shewe thee what thing it is that greate states haue great scarsnesse of, and what it is that they want whiche are owners of all thinges. Uerely euen such a one as speaketh the truthe; who fynding a man in a maze a­mong flatterers, and brought too vtter ignorance of the truth by very custome of herkening too pleasant thinges in stede of right thinges, reclaymeth him from the lyking and allowing [...]f false felowes. Seest thou not how the losse of their libertie driueth them headlong into slauishe thraldome through their fo [...]d beleef, whyle noman counseleth or disswadefh them as he [...] who may flatter most, and all the feru [...]ablenesse and all the labour of all their frendes ten­deth only too this one point, namely by what meanes they may deceyue them moste pleasantly? They knewe not their owne strength, and therefore whyle they beleeued themselues too be as greate as they were borne in hand too bee, they brought vp­pon themselues both needlesse warres, and such warres as did fall out to the perill of all thinges: they brake necessarie and profitable concord: and folowing vnrestreyned wrathe, they shed the blud of manie men, & at the last their owne too. Whyle they renēged vntryed quarrelles for tryed esteeming it no lesse dishonour too bee perswaded than too bee vanquished, and thought the thinges too bee durable, which stagger then most when they bee brought too the hyghest: they ouerthrewe great kindomes vppon themselues and theirs: neyther perceyued they that vppon that stage so glistering with goodes that are both vayne and fightfull, it stoode them in hand too haue loo­ked for muche aduersitie, specially from that tyme foorth that they could heere no truthe.

¶The .xxxi. Chapiter.

AT suche tyme as Xerxes proclaymed warre ageinst Greece, there was noman but he pricked forewarde his corage whiche of it­self was puffed vp and forgetfull how fick [...]e the thinges were that hee trusted too. One sayed that the Greekes would neuer tarie the first tydinges of the warre, but would ronne awaie at the first brute of his arriuall. Another sayd, there was no dout but his houge multitude was able not only too conquer, but also too ouer whelme all Greece, and that it was rather too bee scared, least they should finde the Cities emptie and desolate, so as his enemies should bee fled awaye, and nothing bée left for him but wast wildernesse, wherthrough he should want whervppon too imploy his so greate puissance, Another bare him in hande that the whole world was s [...]are [...] wyde ynough for him, that [...] mater for his shippes nor [...] hostes too incamp in, nor [...] ynough for his horse men too marche in nor scope ynough in the ayre too let fly the arrowes & dar [...]es that should bee sent out of all handes. When manie bragges had bin made in this wy [...]e, too pricke foreward y partie that was alredie besides his wittes through ouerweening: Onely Demaratus the Lacedemonian told him, that the selfsame disordered and houge multitude wherof hee had so greate a lyking, was too bee feared of him that should leade it, bycause it was rather combersomme than strong: for ouergreate thinges cannot bee ru [...]ed, and whatsoeuer cannot bee ruled cannot long dure. The [...] (sayd he) will incounter thée at the verye foote of the Hill, and giue thee a trayall of their force. Thréehundred menne will hold tacke ageinst these so many thousandes of people. They will stand fast vppon their ground, too defend the [...] Streigh [...]es, clozing them vp ageinst thee wi [...]h their owne bodies. All Asia shall not remoue them out of their place. As [...]eawe as they be, [Page 98] they will outstande the rage of the Battell, and the Brunt in maner of whole mankynd rushing in vppon them. When na­ture hath altered hir order too conuey thee ouer, thou shalt bee graueled at the first step: and when thou haste cast thy Cardes how much the streytes of Thermopyle [...] thée in, thou shalt bee able too make an esttimate of thy further losse thereafter. Thou shalt then lerne that thou mayst bee vanquished, when thou shalt perceyue that thou mayst bee encountered. Uerely they will shunne thee at the first, in manie places, as caryed a­way by the hougenesse of some soodein watershot, whose first streame commeth gusshing with great terrour: but anon after they will ryse whole toogither ageinst thee on all sydes, and distresse thee with thyne owne powre. The report is true that the Furniture for this Warre is greater than can bee recey­ued of those Countries whiche thou purposest too assayle. But this thing makes most ageinst thee. For euen therefore shall Grée [...]e vanquish thee, because it cannot receiue thee. Thou [...] not vse thy whole force. Moreouer, (whiche is the onely [...]afegard of thinges) thou [...]anst not bestirre thee too preuent the first brunt of thinges, thou canst not succou [...] things at the pinche, nor releeue and strengthen them when they go too wreck. Thou shalt bee vanquished a great whyle ere thou shalt perceyue it. Thou must not thinck [...] [...] cannot therfore bee withstoode be [...]ause the Capteine himself knowes not the nomber of it. Nothing is so greate but it may perishe: and though other occasions wanted▪ yet would destruction growe vnto it by it owne ouergreatnesse. The thinges that [...] fore spake, came too passe. [...] of all thinges perteyning as well too God [...]s [...] man, and bare doune all thinges that stoode in his waye, was stopped of his course by threehundred men. And so Xerxes being ouerthbro­wen euerywhere throughout all Gréece, vnderstood how farre [...] gaue him leaue too aske what he [...] [...] [Page] that he might enter intoo Sard [...]s the greatest Citie of Asia, in a Charyot, with a high Cap of mayntenance vppon his head, whiche was a thing Lawfull for none but Kynges too doo. He was worthly of thereward before he sued for it. But how wret­ched a Nation was that, where there was noman that would tel the king the truth, sauing he that told it too his owne losse?

¶The .xxxii. Chapiter.

THe Emperour Augustus had banished his Daughter sor steyning of hir honour by the breache of hir chasti [...]e, and had b [...]azed abrode the [...]launder of the imperial house. As how shee had admitted Adulterers too hir by heapes: how shee had gadded ouer all the Citie, with nightreuelinges: how shee had haunted the very Iudgement [...]our [...] it [...]elfe with hir whoredome, yea euen the comon [...]all wherein her Father had made a Lawe ageinst whoredome: and how shee ran dayly too the Marsia, becomming of a priuie Adulteresse, an open strum­pet and séeking all libertie of licentious loocenesse, by dealing with vnknowen Adulterers. These thinges, whiche a Priuce ought sometyme as well too conceale as too punish, (for the shame of some thinges redoundeth also too the punisher) the Emperor being vnable too mayster his owne wrath, had pu­blished abrode. Afterward when by continuance of tyme, [...]e­morse had succéeded in the place of ange [...]: then syghing that be had not suppressed those thinges with silence, whiche he had bin ignorant of so long till it was a shame too speake of them, he kryed out oftentymes, none of these thinges had happened too mee, if either Agrippa or Moec [...]nas had bin alyue. S [...] hard a matter was it for him that had so manie thousand menne, too supplye the lyke of twoo. His Legins were [...]ayne, and [...]yand­by new were leuyed. His [...] seawe dayes after a [...] buildinges, and there [...] that were burnte. But the places of Moecen [...]s and Agrippa [Page 99] were emptie all his lyfe long. What should I thincke? That there wanted the lyke of them to bee taken into their roomes? or that the faulte was in himselfe, who had rather complayne, than seeke? It is not too bee thought that onely Agrippa and Moecenas were woont too tell him the truthe, who if they had bin alyue, should haue bin dissemblers as well as the rest. It is the guyse of kyngly natures, too prayse thinges forepast in derogation of thinges present, and too attribute the vertue of truethtelling vntoo those, at whose handes they bee past perill of heering the truthe any more.

¶The .xxxiii. Chapiter.

BUT too the end I maie bring myself backe ageine too my purpose, thou see [...]t how easie a matter it is too requyte kyndnesse, euen towardes suche as are in prosperitie, and settled in the seege of worldly welth. Tell them, not what they list to heere presently, but what they maie like too heere euer. A trew saying may perhappes somme tyme enter intoo the eares that bee full of flatteringes. Giue thou sounde counsell.

Askest thou what thou mayst doo for him that is in prosperi­tie? Bring too passe that he waie put no trust in his prosperitie, and let him vnderstande that the same hath néede of manie and faithfull handes too holde it fast. Is it but a small thing that thou doost for him, if thou rid him from his fondnesse of belee­uing that his good fortune shall continew alwayes with him; and teache him that the thinges are mouable whiche chaunce hath giuen him, insomuche as they fly awaie faster than they came, and that men retyre not doune ageine by the same gree­ces that they went vp too the top by but [fall so headlong] that oftentymes there is no distance betwéene chéef prosperitie and vttermost aduersitie? Thou knowest not of how greate valew freendship is, if thou vnderstand not y thou giuest him a great thing, too whom thou giuest a freend, a thing gezon too bee founde, not only in howses, but also in whole worldes, whiche [Page] is not anie where more missing, than where it is thought most too abound. What? supposest thou that these billes whiche scarcely the rememberance or handes of their Clerkes com­prehend, are the hilles of their freendes? These that stande in greate thronges knocking at their gates, and are admitted by now somme and then somme, are not fréendes. It is an old cu­stomme of kinges and of suche as counterfet kinges, too sorte out the multitude of their freendes. And it is the propertie of pryde, for a man too make greate account of giuing men leaue too comme within his howse, and too thinke he dooth men ho­nor too let them sit at his gate, or too bee the persones that shall set foote first [...] his [...], where [...] afterward there bee manie m [...] doores too keepe them out when they bee come in.

¶T .xxxiiii. Chapiter.

AMongest vs, the first that made anie sorting of their companie, by admitting somme in­too secret familiaritie, somme in companie of many, and othersome with all men, were Gracchus, and aftewarde Liuius Dursus. These men therfore had freendes of a first sort, and of a second sorte, but neuer any of the trew sort. Callest thou him a free [...]de, that must tarie his turne ere be can salute thee? Canst thou assure thyself of his faithfulnesse, whiche entereth not in, but crowdeth in at thy gate half ageinst thy will? Maye that man preace vntoo thee with full vse of his libertie, whiche may not [...] God saue thée, (a common ryfe woorde and ordinarily vsed euen too the vn­knowen) but in his turne? Therfore too whomsoe [...] of these thou commest, whose gr [...]eting shaketh the whole Citie: assure thyself, that although thou finde the [...]ounes pestered with re­sort of folke, and eyther sides of the s [...]reates thronged with preace of commers and goers: thou commest intoo a place re­plenished with people, but voyde of freendes. A free [...]d is too bée sought in the hart, and not in the hall. From thence must he [Page 100] bee interteyned, there must he bee kept, and in the verie in­trayles must he bee lodged. Teache this, and thou art thank­full. Thou haste an ill opinion of thyself, if thou canst stand in no stede but in aduersitie, or if thou thinke there is no neede of thee in prosperitie. According as thou behauest thy self wysely, bothe in doutfull fortune, and in aduersitie, and in prosperitie, dealing in doutfull state discreetly, in aduersitie stoutly, and in prosperitie stayedly: so mayst thou yeeld thyself profitable too thy freend in all respectes, if thou neyther abandon him in his aduersitie, nor wish aduersitie too him. In so greate varietie, manie thinges will fall in by the way, and minister thee matter too woor [...]e thy faithfulnesse vppon, although thou wish them not. In like maner as he that wisheth a man riches too the end too bee pertaker of them himself, seeketh his owne auayles though he séeme too wish for the other: Euen so he that wisheth his freend anie misfortune, too rid him of it by his owne helpe and faithfulnesse, preferreth himself before his freend, (whiche is the poynt of an vnkynd persone), and standeth so muche vp­pon his owne reputacion, that he would haue his freende in miserie, too the ende that he himself might bee thankfull, and therefore in the verie same respect he is vnthankfull. For his meening is too vnloade himself, and too bee discharged of a [...] burthen. There is greate difference whither a mannes hasting too requy [...]e kyndnesse, bee too yeelde [...]ne good turne for another, or bycause he is loth too bee in det. Hee that myn­deth too requite, will apply himself to the others commoditie, and wish that there maie comme a conuenient tyme for it. But he that méeneth nothing else but too bée discharged, will couet too comme too his purpose by anie meanes, whiche is the pro­pertie of a verye [...]disposed minde.

¶The .xxxv. Chapiter.

SAyest thou that this ouermuche hastemaking is a point of vnkyndnesse? I cānot expresse it more pl [...]yn­ly, than by repeting that which I haue spoken alre­die. For Thy meening is not too requyte the good [Page] turne receiued, but too scape from it. Thou séemest to say thus: when shall I haue rid my handes of it? I must labour by all meanes possible, that I maie not bee bound too him. If thou shouldest wish too paie him of his owne, thou mightest seeme farre wyde from a thankfull man: and yet is this wish of thyne a greater wrong. For thou cursest him, and with thy cruell miswishing, dasshest out the Braynes of him whom thou ough­ [...]ell most to honour. I thin [...]k there is noman that would dout of the crueltie of thy mynd, if thou shouldest wish him pouerty, bondage, famin, or feare, openly. And what oddes is there be­tweene wishing it in woordes, and wishing it in hart? For if thou bee well in thy wittes, thou wilt wish none of these thin­ges. Go now, and count this too bee a point of thankfulnesse, which euen the thanklesse persone would not do, so he were not come too the hating of the partie, but onely too the denyall of his benefite.

¶The .xxxvi. Chapter.

WHo would call Aenaeas godly, if he would haue had his countrie conquered, too the end he might saue his Father from capti­uitie? Who would thincke anie naturall loue in the yoongmen of Sicilie, if they had wished that Mount Ae [...]na might haue bro­ken out with abundance of fyre farre be­yond his accustomed wont, too yeelde them occasion too vtter their duetifull goodwill toward their Parentes, by [...]arying them hastely through the middes of the fyre, too the ende they might leaue good examples too their Children? Rome is no­thing beholden to Scipio, if he wished the continuance of our warres with Affrick, too the intent that hee himselfe might make an ende of them. Rome is nothing beholden too the De­ciusses for sauing their countrie by the death of themselues, if they first wished that our vtter necess [...] [...] might make place for theirmost manly vow. It is the greatest shame that can be, for a Phisicion to make woorke for the Phisicion. Many that had [Page 101] increased the dizeazes of their Patientes or set them back, to the ende too purchase themselues the more glorie in curing them; oftentymes either haue not bin able too driue the disea­ses away at al, or else haue martyred the poore Soules in hea­ling them.

¶The .xxxvii. Chapiter.

IT is sayed (for surely so reporteth Hecaton) that when Callistratus fled his countrie, (the seditiousenesse and vnbrydled libertie whereof had banished manie other with him,) at what tyme one wished that the A­thenians might haue neede too call home their Outlawes, he mislyked such maner of returne. But our Ru­tilius delt yet more corageously. For when one comforted him and told him that Ciuill Warres were at hande, by meanes wherof it would shortly come to passe, that al Outlawes should returne ageine: What harme haue I doone thee (quoth hee) that thou shouldest wishe mee a woorse comming home, than going out? I had leuer that my Countrie should bee ashamed of my banishment, than bewayle my returne. It is no banish­ment, wherof euery man is more ashamed than the partie that is banished. Like as these men performed the duetie of good Citizens, in that they would not bee restored to their natyue soyle with the Domage of the Publik weale, because it was more reason that twoo should bee greeued vniustly, than that all should bee greeued for the hurte of the Common weale: Euen so hee obserueth not the duetie of a thankfull persone, which would haue his benefactor fall into distresse, too the in­tent that he himself might rid him out of miserie. For though that man meene well, yet wisheth he ill. It is not too bee de­fended, and muche lesse too be commended, if a man quenche a fyre that hee himselfe hath kindled. In some Comon weales a wicked wish hath bin hilde for a wicked deede.

¶The .xxxviii. Chapiter.

CErtesse at Athens, Demades condemned one that sould buryallware, vppon proof that hee had wished greate gayne, whiche could not happen to him without the death of muche people. Yet is it woont too bée a question, whither he were iustly condem­ned or no? For peraduenture his wishing was not too sell vnto manie folkes, but too sell at hygh pryce, and to buye the things cheape which he sould by retayle. [...] that bargayning consisteth of buying and selling: why [...] thou his wishe too the one syde, whereas the gayne rys [...]th by both? Furthermore thou mayst as well condemne all other men that vse the same trade of occupiyng: for all of them [...] one same thing, and all of them wishe one selfsame thing in their hartes. Thou shal [...] condemne the greatest part of men. For whose gayne ryseth not by another mannes losse? The Souldier wisheth warre for his owne glory. Derth of Corne settes vp the Husbandman. The trimmest Lawyers desyre store of pleas. A contagieus yeere is for the Phisicians ad­uantage. Corrupt youth inricheth the Millaners and Haber­dashers, and all suche as sell fyne Wares. Let no fyre nor we­ther appayre houses, and the Carpenter may go lye doune and sléepe. One mannes wish was caught hold on, and all mennes wishes are alike. Thinkest thou that Aruntius and Aterius, and the rest that haue professed the art of Executor shippe, wish not the same thinges in their hartes, which the Heraultes and Mooruers doe at Funeralles? For these knowe not whose deathes they wishe: but the other wish the deathes of their née­rest acquaintance, and of those too whom they pretend moste frendship, for their goodes sake. The one sort haue no losse by nomans life: but if men liue long, the other sort are vndoone. And therfore their wishing is, not only too receiue that which they haue earned by their filthi [...] trade: but also too bée [...]har­ged of their paymentes. No dout therfore, but that they which [Page 102] count his life their hinderance by whose death they maie haue gayne, goe one ae beyonde the other in wishing the thing that is condemned. And yet are the wisshes of all suche men as well knowen, as vnpunished. Too bee short, let eche man examine himself, and enter intoo the secret of his owne harte, and see there what he hath wisshed too himself. How many wisshes are there whiche it is a shame for a man too bee acknowen of too himself? And how feawe bee there whiche wee maie iu [...]ifie be­fore witnesse?

¶The .xxxix. Chapiter.

YET must not euery thing that is blame woorthye, bee byandby con­demned: as this wish of the freende that misuseth his good will, and fal­leth intoo the vyce that he shunneth, wherwith wee bee now in hand. For in making ouermuch hast too shewe a thankfull minde, he becommes vn­thankfull. Let my freende fall intoo my daunger (sayeth he): let him haue néede of my fauor: let him not bee able too mayntayne his welfare, honestie, and safetie without mee: Let him bee brought too suche an afterdeele, that whatsoeuer I do [...] in recompence of his former freendeship, it maie bee as a free benefite vntoo him. Let the Gods hem him in on the oneside, and let the treason of his owne howse hem him in on the otherside, and let mee only bee able too rid him out of it. Let a mightie and sore enemie assault him with a rout of his deadly foes, and not vnarmed. Let his creditor and his accuser bee feerce and extreme vppon him.

The .xl. Chapiter.

SEE how indifferently thou dealest. Thou woul­dest wish none of these thinges vntoo him if he had not done thee good. Too letpasse other gree­uowser faultes whiche thou committest in requi­ [...]ing euill for good, certeinly thou offēdest in this, [Page] that thou taryest not the proper tyme of eche thing: the preuen­ting whereof is no lesse offence, than the not taking of it when it commeth. For like as a benefite is not too bee taken at all tymes: so also is it not too bee requyted at all tymes. If thou shouldest render it before I haue neede or desyre of it, thou shouldest bee vnthankfull. And how muche more vnthankfull then a [...] thou, in compelling mee too haue neede of it? Tarye thy tyme. Wherefore wilt thou not haue my gift too rest with thee? Wherfore is it a payne too thee too bee beholden too mee? Wherefore doost thou haste too make an euen reckening with mee, as if it were with somme nipping vsurer? Why sée­kest thou my trubble? Why settest thou the Gods ageinst mée? After what sort wouldest thou demaunde, that doost so requite?

¶The .xli. Chapiter.

FIrst and formest then my fréend Li­beralis, Let vs lerne too owe good turnes quietly, and too wayt for op­portunities too requite, and not too make them by force. Let vs beare in minde, that this desyrousnesse of dis­charging ones self in poste haste, is the point of a Carle. For noman is willing too requyte that whiche he is vnwilling too owe. Looke what he is loth too haue too rest with him, he d [...]emeth it a burthen, and not a benefite. How muche better and more rightfull is it too beare the desertes of our freendes in remēberance, and too offer them kyndnesse, but not too threape it vppon them, nor too think ourselues too muche in their det? Forasmuche then as a benefi [...]e is a comon­bond, and linketh cupples toogither: saie thou thus. I wilnot bee ageinst it that thyne owne should returne vntoo thee: my desyre is that thou mayest haue it ageine cheerefully: if any of vs bothe bee ouertaken with necessitie, so as it falles out by somme destinie, that either thou must bee fayne too receiue thy good turne agein, or I bee faine too take another at thy hand: [Page 103] let him giue still that was woont afore. I am redy: there is no let in Turnus: I will shewe this my willing mynde assoone as tyme serueth: In the meane whyle let the Goddes bee my wit­nesses.

¶The .xlii. Chapiter.

MY Liberalis, I am woont too marke this affection in thee, and as it were too grope it with my hand; that thou fearest and frettest, least thou shoul­dest bee too flowe in anie kynde of courtesie. It beséemeth not a thank­full mynde too haue anie carefull misconceyt ageinst the assured con­fidence of itself. For the conscience of trew loue is quyte rid of all carefulnesse. It is as greate a reproche too receiue that whiche thou oughtest not, as not too giue that whiche thou oughtest. Let the first bestower of a be­nefite haue alwayes this prerogatyue: That he maye as well choose his tyme too receiue, as hee choze too bestowe. But I am afrayed (sayest thou) least men will misreport mée. He dea­leth euill, whiche is thankfull for reportes sake; and not for cōscience sake. Thou hast two iudges of this cace: Him, whom thou mayest deceiue: and thyself, whom th [...] [...] not deceiue.

Then what if no occasion happen? shall I bee in his det e­uer?

Yea, euer: and that openly, and gladly, and thou must take greate pleasure too beholde his gage layd vp with thee. It re­penteth that man of the taking of a benefite, whom it greeueth that he hath not yet requited it. Why shouldest thou think him vnwoorthie too haue thee long his detter, at whose hande thou couldest finde in thy harte too take a good turne?

¶The .xliii. Chapiter.

[Page] THey [...]ée verie farre euerséene, which thinke it the propertie of a noble harte, too laie out, too giue, or too fill the bosomes and how [...]es of ma­nie men; when as oftentymes it is [...], but a greate a­bilitie that dooeth these thinges. They knowe not how muche it is a greater and harder matter at some tyme, too take, than too poure out. For too the intent I maye [...] neither of them, for asmucheas either of them is others [...], as long as it is doo [...]e vertuou [...]y: (I saye) it is no lesse propertie of a noble harte too owe a benefite, than too bestowe one. But yet so muche the more laborsomme is this than the o­ther as the keeping of thinges receiued requyreth more heed­fulnesse, than dooeth the giuing of them. Therefore wee must not stande in feare least wee should not requyte soone ynough, nor make haste too doo it out of season. For euen as muche of­fendeth he that hasteth too requyte kyndnesse out of dew tyme, as he that requyteth not in dew season. It is laye [...] vp with m [...]e for him. Neyther in his behalfe, nor in myne owne, am I a­frayed. He hath prouided well for himself. For he cannot lose this good turne but with the losse of mee, no nor with the losse of mee nother. I haue thanked him, and that is as muche too saye as I haue requyted. He that myndeth the requyting of a benefite too muche, imagineth the other too mynd the recei­uing of it too much. Let a man yéelde himself easie both waies. If he bee willing too take the returne of his benefite, let vs render it and requyte it cheerfully. But if he had leuer haue it too remayne still in our keeping: Why should wee throwe his treasure out of doores? Why refuze wee too bee his storers? Hee is woorthie too haue his owne choyce. Assor opinion and report, let vs so estéeme of them▪ as of thinges that should waite vppon vs, and not leade vs.

The end of the sixth booke.

The seuenth and last Booke of Lucius Annaeus Seneca, concerning Benefites.

¶The first Chapiter.

MY Liberalis, take a good hart too thee, euen in the bottom of hell.

I will not heere withhold thee long, I will not beate about
The bush, nor yet with Windlasses suspende thee long in dout.

This booke is but a packet of looce Rem­nantes. Now that I haue spent my stuffe, I looke about mee, not what I haue too saye, but what I haue not sayd. Notwh­standing, thou must take in good woorth whatsoeuer is of o­uerplus, seeing the ouerplus is for thy sake. If I had ment too set myself too sale, this woork should haue gowen by little and little▪ and that part of it should haue bin reserued too come last, whiche euery man would haue desyred euen though he had bin glutted. Whatsoeuer was most needefull, that haue I conuey­ed intoo the firste beginning. If anie thing haue escaped mee, that doo I now gather vppe. And in good faith, seeing that the thinges which direct mennes manners are spoken of already: If yee should examine mee vppon my conscience, I thin [...]ke it not greatly too the purpose, too pursew the rest, whiche are in­uented, not for amendment of lyfe, but for exercyse of wit. For [...] was excellently sayd of dogg [...]sh Demetrius (a man in myne opinion right excellent, euen though he were [...]ompared to the excellente [...]) that it is more woorth for a man too knowe a few Rules of Wisdomme, so he beare them in rememberance and practize them: than if he lerne neuer so manie, and haue them not redy at hand. For (sayeth he) lyke as that man is a greate Wrestler, not whiche hath lerned all [...]ckes and [...]eyghtes, (whiche hee shall seldome haue occasion too put in [...]re ageinst his [...]) but whiche hath well and diligently practized [Page] himself in some one or twoo, and watcheth earnestly too take the aduauntage of them: (for it skilles not how feawe thinges he knowe, so he knowe inough too get the maystrie:) Euen so in this kynd of studie, there bee manie thinges that delyght, but feawe that profit. Although thou know not the reason why the mayne Sea dooth ebbe and flowe: or why euery seuenth yeere imprinteth a sig [...]e vppon mannes age: or why the wyde­nesse of a Churche keepeth not his full proportion in the vewe of them that behold it a far of, but gathereth his endes or sy­des intoo a narownesse, so as the toppes of the Pillars and Pi­nacles grow intoo one: or what it is that separateth the con­ception of Twinnes and ioyneth their birth; whither one com­panying of the Parentes bee dispersed intoo twayne, or whi­ther the twoo bee begotten at twoo seuerall tymes: or why those that bee borne at one burthen haue sundry destinies, and whereas there is small distance or none betwixt their birthes, yet they haue as greate difference as may bee in their lyues: It is no great harme too thee too let such thinges passe, which are neyther possible nor profitable too bee knowen. Tee truth lyeth wrapped vp toogither aloft. Yet haue wee no cause too blame Nature of vnkyndnesse: for nothing is vneasie too bee found, saue suche as when they bee found, yeeld vs no further frute than the onely fynding of them. But whatsoeuer may make vs both better and more blissed, that hath nature set ey­ther open too vs, or neere at ha [...]d too vs. If the mynd can de­spyse casualties: if it raūdge not into endlesse desyres through couetous hope, but haue lerned too seeke hir riches in hirself. if it haue shaken of the slauishe feare of Gods and menne, and knowe that menne are not too bee feared muche, and GOD nothing at all: if it despyse all those thinges wherewith the lyfe is Racked whyle it is decked with them, and bee come too that point that hee manifestly perceiueth death too bee the cause of no euill, but the end of manie euilles: if a man haue v [...] ­wed his mynd vnto vertue, and count the way playne whither­soeuer she calleth: if he bée a fellowly wyght, and (as one borne too the behoof of all men) esteeme the whole world but as one [Page 105] household: if he lay his cōscience open before the Gods, & liue continually as if all men behild him, standing more in awe of himself than of othermen: Hee hath withdrawen himself from all Stormes, and is harbroughed in the calme and sewer Ha­uen: he hath atteyned too the necessarie and profitable know­ledge. The residue bee but pleasures too passe away idle tyme. For when a man hath once withdrawen his mynd intoo safety, he may then also start out intoo these thinges, whiche garnish mennes wittes but strengthen them not.

¶The second Chapter.

THese are the thinges whiche our fréend Demetrius willeth him that myndeth his owne profite too take holde on with both his handes, and neuer too let them go, but rather too fasten them too him, and too make them part of himself, and too procéede so farre by dayly mynding of them, that wholsomme thinges may meete him of their owne accorde, and euerywhere bee streyght redy at hand with a wishe, and that the distinction of honest▪ and shamefull may come too his mynde without tary­aunce, assuring himselfe that nothing is euill but that whiche is vnhonest, nor any thing good but that whiche is honest. Let this bée his Rule too order his dooinges by: let this bee his Lawe too doo and demaund all thinges by▪ and let him count those too bee the miserablest of all men, (glister they ne­uer so muche in riches) whiche are giuen too the belly and the bedde, whose mynd is sot [...]ed in lazie idlenesse. Let him say too himself, Pleasure is frayle and short: soone weerie of the thin­ges whereon it woorketh: the gredilyer it is haled in, the soo­ner it turneth too greef: it is alwayes of necessitie accompa­nyed either with repentance, or with shame: and there is no­thing in it either noble or beseeming the nature of man which resembleth the Goddes. It is a ba [...]e thing, procéeding from the seruis of the shamefull and vyle members, and in the ende [Page] filthy. The pleasure that is méete for a man, yea and for a man­ly man, is not the examining and pampering of the bodie, nor the stirring vp of the lustes whiche doo least harme when they bee moste at rest: but too bee voyd of vnquietnesse of mynd, as well of that sort whiche the ambitiousenesse of men prouoketh when they quarell among themselues, as of that sort whiche cometh of in [...]olerable loftinesse, when wee deeme of the Gods by report of fame, and esteeme them as sinfull as our selues. This pleasure which is alwayes alike, alwayes voyd of feare, and shall neuer bee weerie of itself, doth the man inioy whom wee frame; who being (as yee would say) most skilfull both of Gods Lawe and mannes Lawe, taketh fru [...]tion of the thinges present, and hangeth not vppon that whiche is too come. For he that yeeldeth too vncerteinties, hath neuer auie firmenesse. Therefore being ridde of greate cares, and suche as racke the mynd in peeces, he hopeth for nothing, hee coueteth nothing, neither putteth he himselfe vppon vncerteinties, but is con­tent with his owne. And thou must not imagin that he is con­tented with a little, for all thinges are his. Howbéeit, not so as they were Alexanders, who, euen when hee was come too the Shore of the Red Sea, wanted more than he left behynd h [...]m from whence he came. Surely they were not his: no not euen the thinges that he possessed and had conquered. When Onesi­critus the Admirall of his Fléete was sent before him, to roue abrode in the Ocean lyke a Pyrate too seeke newe warres in an vnknowen Sea: did it not sufficiently appeere that he was poore, seing he aduaunced his warres without the boundes of nature, and thrust himselfe headlong intoo a Sea of houge depth, of vnmeasurable wydnes, and vnsearched afore, only for blynd couetousenesse? What matter makes it how many real­mes he wa [...] by force: how manie Kingdomes he gaue away, or how manie Countries hee brought vnder tribute? Looke how muche he coueted, so muche he wanted.

¶The third Chapter.

[Page 106] AND this is not the fault of Alexander a­lone, whom luckie rashnesse draue beyond the steppes of Liber and Hercules: but it is the fault of all suche as fortune hath made eagre by ouerfilling them. Looke vppon Cyrus and Cambyses, and vpon al the whole Pedegree of the Persian Kinges through out: and which of them shalt thou fynd satisfied with the large­nesse of his Empire, or that finished not his lyfe in the purpose of procéeding still further and further? And no woonder at al. For whatsoeuer couetousenes catcheth hold on, he swaloweth it doune and deuoureth it quyte: and it makes no matter how muche a man cast intoo a thing that cannot be filled. The wyse man is the only he that is owner of all things, & they put him not too any trubble in the keeping. He hath no Ambassadours too sende beyond the Sea, nor Tentes too bee pitched in the Marches of his enemyes. He hath no neede of Garrisons too bee placed in conuenient Fortresses, he hath no neede of Legi­ons nor Bandes of Horsemen. Like as the Goddes immortall doo gouerne their kingdome, and maynteine their state aloft in quietnesse, without Armour: euen so the wyseman perfor­meth his duetie without trubblesomnesse, though he haue ne­uer so much too doo. And being himself the mightiest and best, hee séeth all men else too bee vnderneath him. As much as thou skornest it, yet is it the propertie of a right high corage, for a man (when he hath vewed [the whole worlde] from East too West by sight of mynd, whiche perceth euen the furthest thin­ges and suche as are for [...]lozed with wildernesses, and hath behild the infinite nomber of liuing Creatures and the greate abundance of other thinges, whiche nature hath moste bounti­fully powred out) too vtter this saying meete for GOD▪ All these thinges are myne. So commeth it too passe, that he co­ueteth nothing, because there cannot bee anie more than all.

¶The .iiii. Chapiter.

[Page] THis is it (saiest thou) that I wisshed for: I haue thee at aduauntage. I will see how thou canst ridde thyself out of these snares whereintoo thou art falne by thyne owne seekyng. Tell mee how a man maye giue any thing to a wise manne, if all thinges be a wise mans? For the same thing that is giuen hym, is his owne alre­die. Therefore a Benefite cannot bee bestowed vppon a wise man, because that whatsoeuer is giuen too a wise man, is but a Pigge of his owne Sowe. But you saye that a giift maye bee giuen too a wise man. Thesame question demaund I also con­cernyng fréendes, you say, all things are comon emong them: Ergo no man can giue his fréend any thing, for his fréende hath as good interest in them, as he hymself.

Nothyng letteth, but that a thyng maye bee bothe a wise­mannes, and also his that possesseth it, too whom the gifte and assignement of it belongeth. I saye that all thinges are a wise­mannes, howbeeit in suchewise, as euery manne neuerthelesse hath his peculiar ownershippe in the thing that is his. By the Ciuill Lawe, all thynges are the kynges. And yet the same thynges whereof the vniuersall possession perteineth too the kyng, are lefte too seuerall owners, and euery thyng hath his peculiar proprietarie. Therefore wee maye giue the Kyng, bothe House, and Villaynes, and Monnie, and yet not bee saied too giue hym of his owne gooddes. For the prerogatiue of all thynges belongeth too Kynges, and the propertie too eche seuerall persone. Wee terme it the territorie of Athens, or Campaine, whiche otherwise the neighbours parte emong themselues by priuate boundes: and yet is all the whole Ter­ritorie belongyng either too the one comon weale, or too the other, and afterwarde eche parcell remaineth too his seuerall owner. Therefore I maye giue my Landes too the Comonweale, although it hee sayed too belong too the same, because [Page 107] they bee the Comon weales in one respecte, and myne in ano­ther. Is there any doute but a bondman, and all that he hath is his Lordes? Yet maye he giue his Lorde a presente. For the Bondman hath not therefore nothyng because hee should haue nothyng if his Landlorde lifted. Neither is it therefore the lesse a gifte, when he hath presented it willyngly, because it might haue bin taken from hym whither he would or no. What should wee stande prouyng of all thynges? For it is al­redie agreed betwixte vs, that all thynges are a wisemannes. Lette vs gather that whiche is in question: namely how there maye remaine matter of liberalitie towardes hym, whom wee haue graunted too bee owner of all thynges. All thynges that Children possesse, are their Fathers: and yet who knoweth not that the Sonne maye giue somewhat too the Father? All thin­ges are the Goddes: yet offer wee giftes too the Goddes, and cast offerynges intoo their boxe. That whiche I haue is not therefore none of myne, because myne is thyne: For it maye so happen that one self same thyng maie bée bothe myne & thyne.

He (saiest thou) that is owner of Comon Harlottes, is a Baude: but a wise man is owner of all thynges, and emong all thynges are also comon Harlottes: Ergo a wise man is a baud By thesame reason they barre a wise manne from buiyng. For (saye they) no man buyeth his owne gooddes: but all thynges are a wise mannes: Ergo a wise man buyeth nothyng. So doo they also barre hym from borowyng, because no manne payeth interest for his owne Monney. Innumerable are the thynges that they quarell about, whereas they vnd [...]stand well inough what our meenyng is.

¶The .v. Chapiter.

TOO bee flat with you, I vphold that all thyn­ges are a wise mannes, in suche wise as euery man hath neuerthelesse his proper ownership in his owne gooddes: Like as in a good Mo­narchie, the Kyng possesseth all thinges by way of souereintie, and eche ma [...] seuerally by way of propertie. A [Page] tyme will come to pro [...]e this matter. In the meane while it is enough too this question, that I maye giue a wise manne that thyng, whiche in diuerse respectes is bothe his and myne. And it is no maruell that somewhat maye bee giuen too hym that is owner of the whole. Put [...] the cace I haue hyred a Ferme of thee. Herein, somewhat is thyne, and somewhat is myne. The thing it self is thyne, and the occupying of it is myne. There­fore thou shalt not meddle with the frutes, without thy Fer­mours leaue, though they growe vppon thyne owne grounde. And if there come a derth of Corne, or a tyme of Famine, yet shall it not boote thee (alas) too beholde his greate store, that groweth vppon thyne owne grounde, that is layed vp in thyne owne Bernes, and that shall goe intoo thyne owne Garners. Thou shalt not enter intoo my Ferme, though thou bee Lorde of it, nor take awaye thy Bondman that is my hyred seruaunt. For I will fetche hym from thee ageine, if I haue payed for hym, and thou shalt accept it as a courtesie, if I giue thee leaue too ride in thyne owne wagon. Thus thou seest, that a manne maye receiue a freendly turne, in receiuing his owne goodes.

¶The .vi. Chapiter.

IN all these thinges whiche I haue reher­sed, bothe the parties are owners of one self thing. How so? Because the one is ow­ner of the verie thing, and the other is ow­ner of the vse or occupying of it. Wée saye these Bookes are Ciceroes: and Dorus the Bookeseller saieth they bee his: and bothe bee true. The one chalengeth them as Authour of them, and the other as his wares; and so are they rightly sayed too bee the Bookes of either of them. For they bee so, howbeeit not after one maner. So maye Titus Liuius take of gifte, or buye his owne bookes of Dorus. I maye giue a wiseman that whiche in seueralitie is myne, though otherwise all thynges bee his. For seeyng that he posse [...]seth all thinges in comon like as Princes doo, and yet neuerthelesse the propertie of thinges [Page 108] is dispersed too euery persone in seuerall: he maye bothe take a good turne, and owe one, and also bothe buye and hyre. The Emperour hath all thyngs, and yet none but his priuate good­des, and peculiar reuenewes doo come too his Exchequer. All thinges in the Empire are his: and yet properly he hath no more of his owne, but his peculiar heritage. What is his, and what is not his without impeachement of his Empire, that is the question. For euen that whiche is giuen awaye from hym by verdit as none of his, is his ageine in another respecte. So likewise, in mynde a wiseman is owner of all thinges: and by lawe & possession, he oweth but his proper and priuate goodes.

¶The .vii. Chapiter.

BY suche maner of reasoning, Bion was woont too gather, sommetyme that all men were churcherobbers, and some tyme that noone were so. When he mynded too put them all too their nek [...]erse, He reasoned thus. Whosoeuer hath stollen aught that perteyned too the Gods, or spent it, or tur­ned the same too his owne vse, is a churchrobber. But all thin­ges perteyne too the Goddes: Therefore whatsoeuerthing a man taketh awaie, he taketh it from the Goddes, Forasmuche as all thinges are theirs: Ergo whosoeuer taketh awaie anie thing, is a Churchrobber. Ageine when he would haue Chur­ches broken vp, and the Capitoll spoyled, he would saie there was no Churchrobberie committed, bycause that whatsoeuer is taken out of one place that perceyued too the Goddes, the same is conueyed intoo another place that perteyneth too the Gods like wyse. Heere it is too bee answered, that all thinges in déede are the Goddes, but not that all thinges are dedicated too the Goddes: and that Churchrobbing is in those thinges that Religion hath dedicated vntoo God. So saie wee that the whole worlde is the temple of the Goddes immortall, al [...]nely beseeming their greatnesse and maiestie: and yet notwithstan­ding [Page] wee saie there is a difference betweene holie and vnholie, and that it is not Lawfull too doo all those thinges in the Nookes that wee terme by the name of Churches or Chap­pelles, whiche are Lawfull too bee done vnder the open skye and in the sight of the Starres. A Churchrobber cannot doo any harme vntoo God, whom his owne God head hath set out of mannes reache, but yet is he punished, bycause he hath done it as it were too God. The opinion of vs and of the offender h [...]mself byndeth him too punishment. Therefore looke in what maner he that taketh awaye anye halowed thing seemeth a Churchrobber, although the thing that he hath stolne (carye it whither he will) remayneth still within the boundes of the wor [...]de: after the same maner also maie theft bee committed a­geinst a wyse man. For there is sommewhat conueyed from him, not as he is owner of thinges in vniuersall, but as he is inty [...]led too them in particular, and as they belong vntoo him in seuerall. That other ownership he will acknowledge: But asfor this, he woulde not haue it though he might, but woulde burste out intoo this saying whiche the Romane Graund cap­teine did cast foorth, when it was decreed, that for his prowesse and his good seruis too the comon welth, he shoulde haue as muche Lande giuen him as he could plowgh about in one day. You haue no neede (quoth he) of anie suche Citizen, as hath neede of more than one Citizens liuing. How muche more ho­nor (thinke you) was it for that man too refuze so greate a re­warde, than too haue deserued it? For manie Capteines haue remoued the Boundes of other menne, but neuer any did set boundes too himselfe.

¶The .viii. Chapter.

THerefore when wee beholde how the wyse­mannes minde ouermaystreth all thinges and passeth through all thinges: wée say all thinges are his. And if the cace requyre that he must bee taxed by the powle too this ordina [...]ie right: there is greate difference whither his ownership bée too bée esteemed [Page 109] by his minde and by his owne greatnesse, or by his substance. Too haue all these thinges whereof thou speakest, it woulde lothe him. I will not tell thee of Socrates, Chrisippus, Zeno, and other Philosophers that were greate in deede, howbeeit so muche the greater, because enuie withstandeth not the prayse of those of old tyme. A little afore, I spake of Demetrius, w [...]om nature seemeth to haue bred in our dayes, of purpose too shew how hee was the man that neither could bee corrupted by vs, nor wee corrected by him: a man (though he himself would not bee acknowen of it) of perfect wisedome and assured constanc [...]e in such thinges as he had purposed: yea and of such eloquence▪ as was most seemely for stout matters, not too gay nor too precyse in termes, but setting foorth his matters with greate corage, according as the earnestnesse of his cace occasioned hym. I dout [...] but the heauenly prouidence gaue him suche lyfe and suche abilitie of vtterance, too the intent there should not want either example, or reproche to our age.

¶The .ix. Chapiter.

IF somme one of the Goddes would giue Demetrius the possession of all thynges in this worlde, vppon con­dition that he should not giue aught awaye: I dare abide by it he would refuze them, and would saye: I will not bynde my self too so vnd [...]schar­geable a burthen, nor caste [...]his vn­combered harte of myne intoo that sincke of thinges. Why presentest thou me with the mischee­ues of all people, whiche I would not receiue, no not euen too giue awaye, because I see many thinges that are not comely for mee too giue? Sette thou foorthe in my sight, the thynges that blere the eyes of whole Nations and Kynges. Lette mee sée the thinges for whiche m [...]n [...]ell their liues, and their soules. Laye before mee the cheef thinges whereof Riotte vaunteth: [Page] choose whither thou wilte vnfolde them in order one after an­other; or (wh [...]che is better) deliuer them in one grosse somme tog [...]ther. I see roofes of houses cunnyngly wrought with cu­rious deuises, and shelles of bace and moste vile and sluggishe beastes, bought at exessiue prices, wherein the self same varie­tie that delighteth, is made of counterfette colours, accordyng too the likenesse of the thinges them selues. I see there tables, and a peece of woode valewed at an Aldermannes substaunce, [...]ounted so muche the preciouser, as the warrinesse of the Tree hath wrythed it intoo mo knurres. I see there Christal glasses the brittlenesse whereof auaunceth their estimation. For e­mong the vnskilfull, euen the verie daungerousnesse of thin­ges whiche should cause them too bee eschewed, makes them too bee the better beliked. I see Cuppes of Mirrhe, as who would saye that Riot were not costly enough of it self, excepte they made them greate Boulles of Iewelles, too quaffe vp that thing one too another, whiche they should bee faine anon after too vomitte out ageine. I see Per [...]es mo than one alone fitted too eche eare (for now womens cares are inured too ca­rie burthens): and they bee linked together by cupples, with a thirde hanging vnder them bothe. Menne ha [...] not bin subiecte enough too womens madnesse, if they had not hanged twoo or three mennes substaunces at either of their eares. I see silken garmentes, if at leastwise a manne maie terme them garmen­tes, in whiche there is nothing whereby either the bodie or womanhod maie bee garnished: whiche when a woman hath putte on, shee maie safely sweare shee is little better than stark naked. And these thinges are fetched at greate prises by traf­ [...]ike, euen from vnknowen Nations, too the ende that our La­dies should not discouer muche more of their bodies too their paramours in their Chambers, than they shewe openly too all menne in the [...]reetes.

¶The .x. Chapiter.

[Page 110] WHat preuailest thou O couetousnesse? How many thinges are there whiche in valewe surmount thy golde? All the thinges that I haue spoken of, are of more estimation, and of greater price. Now will I peruse thy riches, I meene the plates of both the mettalles, at the sight whereof our coue­teousnesse Dazeleth. In good soothe, the yearth (whiche hath layed foorthe whatsoeuer maye bee for our behoofe) hath del­ued these thinges deepe, and sonken them intoo the grounde, yea, and shee lyeth vppon them with all her whole might, as vppon noysome thinges that could not comme abrode, but too the hurte of all Nations. And least there should want either in­strument, or reward of manslaughter: I see Yron fetched forth of thesame Caues, that Golde and Siluer are digged out of. Yet haue these thinges somme substanciall matter in them: there is somewhat in them that maye cause the mynde too bee ledde by the errour of the eyes. But I see there Patentes, In­dentures, and Obligations, whiche are but emptie Images of greedinesse, and a certeine shadowe of egre Couetousnesse, seruyng too beguile the mynde, that delighteth in opinion of vaine thinges. For what are these thynges? What is interest? What are Iournalles or Dayebookes? What is Vsurie, but names of mannes coue [...]ousnesse, whiche Nature, is not ac­quainted with? I could finde fault with Nature, that shee hidde not Golde and Siluer further out of reache, and that she laied not a greater weight vppon them than could haue bin remo­ued. What are the [...]e conueyances in writing? What are these Reckeninges, and the sale of tyme, and these blouddy hundred­thes? Verely they bee wilfull mischeeues, grounded vpon our owne constitutions, wherein there is not any thing that can bee discerned by eye, or hilde with hande: Dreames they bee of vaine couetousnesse. O wretche whosoeuer he is, that deligh­teth too haue a greate Inuentorie of substance, or large De­meanes too bee Tilled by Bondmen, or infinite Herdes and Flockes that maie require whole Countries and Realmes [Page] too feede them, or a Housholde greater than somme Warlike Nations; or priuate buildinges, exceeding the wydenesse of good greate tounes. When he hath throughly vewed these thinges, whereby he hath laied foorth and spred out his riches and made himself proude: if he compare that whiche he hath, too that whiche he cou [...]teth: he is but a poore man. Let me go, and restore me agein too those riches of myne owne. I knowe the kingdo [...]e of wisedome too bee bothe greate and daunger­lesse: I will haue all thinges in suche wise, as all menne maye neuerthe [...]esse haue their owne propertie in them.

¶The .xi. Chapiter.

WHerefore when Caesar profered the same De­metrius twoo hundred Talentes, hee smiled and forsooke them: not deeming it too bee a somme of suche valewe, as the refuzall there­of were woor [...]he the boasling of. O GOD how silie a somme was that, either too honor or corrupt so noble a mynde withall? For I must needes yeelde so singular a man his due commendacion. I haue herd a great thing reported of him: That when he had wondered at the lack of discretion of Caius Caesar for imagining that so small a mat­ter could haue altered him, he sayd thus: if he had ment to trye mee, he should haue tempted mee with his whole Empire.

¶The .xxii. Chapiter.

THen may sommewhat bee giuen too the wyse man, though all thinges bee his. Lykewyse there is no let but that somewhat may bee gi­uen too a fréend, though wee say that all thin­ges bee comon among freendes. For I haue not thinges after suche sort in common with my freend▪ as with a partner, so as my part and his should bee both one: but in suche wyse as Children are comon too the Fa­ther [Page 111] and the Moother: who hauing twoo betwixt them, haue not eche of them one, but twoo a peece. First of al I will bring too passe, that this man (whatsoeuer he is that chalendgeth co­partnership with mee) shall vnderstand, he hath nothing in co­mon with mee. Whyso? Because this kynd of intercomoning is onely among wysemen, betweene whom there is also frend­ship. The rest are no more fréendes, than they bee coparteners. Ageine, thinges may bee comon diuerse wayes. Thinges be­longing too the degrée of Knighthod are comon too all knigh­tes of Rome: and yet if I haue takē a place in sitting, the same is properly myne owne: and if I depart with it too some other knight, although I depart with a thing that is ours in comon, yet seeme I to haue giuen him somewhat. Some thinges are comon too men vppon certein condicions. As, I haue a place among the knightes: not too sell it, not too let it out, not too dwell vppon it: but too sit and see thinges. And therefore if I come intoo the Theatre when the knightes places bee all full furnished and can haue no roome because the place is taken vp afore, by those that haue as good right in it as I: I shall make no lye though I say still that I haue a place among the knigh­tes, because I haue right too a place there, and because I haue priuiledge too sit there. Thincke thou that the cace standeth in lyke wyse among freendes. What [...]oeuer our frend hath, is co­mon vnto vs: and yet is the proprietie of it his that possesseth it: and therefore may I not occupie it ageinst his will.

Thou mockest mee, sayest thou. For if the thing that is my freendes bee myne: is it not lawfull for mee too sell it? No. For thou mayst not sell the rightes of Knighthod, and yet are they comon too thee with the residue of the same order. It is not a proof that a thing should not bée thyne because thou canst not sell it, or because thou mayst not spende it, or because thou mayst not chaunge it for better or for woorse. For that is thyne also, whiche is thyne vppon any condicion: and although I re­ceyue such a thing of thee, yet haste thou it still neuerthelesse.

¶The .xiii. Chapiter.

[Page] LET mee not hold thee too long. A benefite itself cannot bée greater or smaller: but the thinges wherby a benefite or good turne is performed, maie bee greater or lesser: and the thinges wherein good will sheweth it­self, mae bée moe or feawer: & so it may fode itself, according as louers are woont too doo, whose store of kisses and streight imbracinges, doo exer­cyse loue, but not increace it. This question also that inseweth, is discussed in the premisses: and therefore it shalbee touched but lightly. For the argumēts that are applyed vnto the other thinges, maie also bee drawen vntoo this. The question is, whither he that hath done all thinges towardes the requyting of a benefite, haue requyted it or no. Too the intent (sayeth he) that you maie knowe he hath not requyted: he did all that he could too requyte. Whereby it appeereth that the thing is not doo [...]e which he wanted occasion to doo. For that man can not bee sayed too haue payed a peece of monnie, who hath euery­where sought his creditor too paye him, and could not fynde him. Somme thinges are of that sort, that they requyre a per­formance in deede: and in somme thinges it is as muche too haue doone what a man could, as too haue performed the verie deede in effect. If a Phisicion haue doone all that he could too heale, he hath done his part. If an Orator haue vsed as muche cunning as could bee, he is too bee counted eloquent though his clyentes cace bee ouerthrowen. Though a Generall or a Cap [...]eine be ouercomme: yet are they woorthie of commenda­cions, if they haue not wanted diligence, nor prowesse. He hath doone what he might too requyte thy good turne, and he could not for thy greate good hap. Nothing could happen more hard too the tryall of trew freendship. He could not rewarde a man of welth, he could not tende a man in helth, he could no [...] reléeue a man in prosperitie. Yet hath he requyted, though thou haue receiued no benefite at his hande. For he that hath alwayes bent himself thereuntoo, wayting opportunitie for the same, and imploying greate care and diligence there aboutes: hath [Page 112] doone more in effect; than he whose lucke it was too requyte betymes.

¶The .xiiii. Chapiter.

THE* example of the detter is vn­lyke, inasmuche as it is not ynough for him too haue sought his Credi­tor, vnlesse he haue payed him his monnye. For in that cace the cruell creditor standeth ouer his head, who will take the aduantage of his daie. But in this cace thou art matched with a most courteouse creditor, who perceiuing how thou trottest vp and doune carefull and vn­quiet, will saie: awaye with this care out of thy harte: cease too bee so earnest too thyne owne trubble. I haue all of thee. Thou dooest mee wrong, if thou thinke I seeke anie more at thy hande. Thy good will is comme vntoo mee too the full.

But tell mee (saieth he) wouldest thou saie that hee hath re­quited a benefite, whiche hath requited none otherwise than so? By this reckenyng, he that hath requited, and he that hath not requited should bee all one.

Well: then sette this ageinst it. If he had forgotten the be­nefite that he receiued, or if he had not once proffered too bee thankfull: thou wouldest deny hym too haue requited. But this man hath weeried hym self daie and night, and neglected all o­ther dewties, yeeldyng hymself whollie too this one, and wai­tyng narowly that no occasion might escape hym. Now then, shall the cace bee all one as well of him that neuer had any care of requityng, as of hym that neuer lefte seekyng how too doo it? Thou dooest mee wrong if thou chalenge the deede at my hande, when thou seest I wanted no will too dooe it. Too bee short, put the cace thou wart taken prisoner, and that I hauing laied all my goodes too gage too my credito [...]r, too make mo­ney for thy rauns [...]mme, dooe sa [...]le [...] sore Winter by coastes all l [...]ied with Pyrates, and therewith all doo passe through all [Page] perill, that the sea can yeelde besides the annoyances whiche it hath of it owne, and that afterward hauing iourneyed through many desertes, and commyng at length too thesame Searo­uers whiche all other men shunned and I sought, I finde thee raunsomed alreadie by another man: wilte thou deny mee too haue requited kyndenesse? Furthermore, if in that voyage of myne, I lose the Monney by Shipwrecke whiche I had made too dooe thee good with, yea, or if I fall intoo captiuitie myself, while I seeke too rid thee out of captiuitie: wilt thou deny mee too haue requited thy kyndnesse? Truely, the Athenians call Harmodius and Aristogiton Tyrantquellers: And Muti­ussis leauyng of his hande vppon the Altar of the enemie, was asmuche as if he had slaine Porsena: and valeantnesse that wre­stleth ageinst Fortune, dooeth alwaies gette the vpper hande, though shee bryng not the woorke of her purpose to effecte. He that hath pursewed occasions fliyng from hym, and euer hun­ted after newe, whereby he might requite kyndnesse: hath per­formed more than he whom speedie opportunitie hath made thankfull at the first pushe, without painestakyng.

¶T .xv. Chapiter.

THy benefactor) sayeth he) hath yeelded thee twoo thinges: namely his Will and his Déede: and therfore thou owest him twoo thinges likewyse. Woorthely myghtest thou saye this to him that hath yeelded thee an idle will. But thou canst not say it vnto him, that both is willing and also indeuereth, lea­uing nothing vnassayed: for he hath performed both the par­tes, as muchas in him lyeth. Agein, it is not alwayes required that nomber should bee ma [...]ched with nomber. For some one thing is woorth twayne. Therefore so [...]oreward a will and so desyrouse to requyte, standeth in sted of the deede dooing. But if the will without the deededooing bee not auayleable too re­quyte kyndnesse: then is noman thankfull to God, vpon whom nothing is bestowed but the will. Towarde the Gods (sayeth [Page 113] he) wee can performe nothing else but our will. Well then, if I bee able too render nothing else vntoo the same man also whom I owe a good turne vntoo: why should I not bee thank­full in yeelding that thing too a man, than whiche I can be­stowe no greater vppon the Gods?

¶The .xvi. Chapiter.

YET thou demaundest what I think of the matter: and thou wilt haue mée too shape thee a full answere. I say, let the one thin [...] his good turne requyted: and let the other assure himself he hath not requyted. Let the giuer hold the receyuer discharged, and let the receyuer acknowledge himselfe bound still. Let the one say, I haue it: and let the other say I owe it. In all matters of controuersie let vs euer sette the welfare of both parties before vs. The vnthankful must be shet out from all excuses whereuntoo they might haue recourse too colour their wrangling withall. I haue doone all that might bee. Yea and doo so still. What? Thinkest thou our Aunceters were so vnwyse, that they vnderstoode it not too bee vtter wrong, too haue put no difference betweene him that hath wasted awaye the Monnie that he hath borowed, in whoredome or at Dyce: and him that hath lost both his owne goods and other mennes too, by Fyre or by Robbing, or by some other heauyer misfor­tune? And yet too the intent that men should know, that faith­fulnesse was in any wyse to be performed, they admitted none excuse at all. For it were better that a feawe sho [...]ld bee put euen from their iust excuce, than that all should pretend some excuce or other. Thou hast doone what thou couldest too re­quyte. Let him accept it as sufficient, but think thou it too lit­tle. For like as if hee can fynd in his hart too passe ouer thyne [...]arnest and diligent indeuer vnregarded, he is vnworthie too bee requyted with kindnesse: Euen so also art thou a verie Churle, if thou on the othersyde, in respect that he accepteth [Page] thy good will for payment, bee not so muche the more willing­ly beholden too him because thou art released. Thou must not catche hold of it, nor call witnesse vppon it: but thou must seeke occasion neuerthelesse too requy [...]e. Requyte the one because he claymeth it and the other because he releaseth thée. Requyte the one because he is euil, and the other because he is not euill. And therfore there is no cause why thou shouldest thinke thy­self too haue anie interest in this question, namely whither a man that hath receiued a benefite of a wyseman, ought too re­quyte it him if he cease too bee a wyseman, and is becomme an euill man. For thou oughtest too redeliuer the gage that thou haste taken of a wyseman, yea and too discharge thycredit too an euill man: and why shouldest thou not also requyte his good turne? Bycause he is chaunged, shall he chaunge thee? What if thou haddest taken a thing of a man in helth? shouldest thou not restore it too him if he were sick? wee ought alwayes too beare more with our freendes weaknesse, than that comes to. Surely suche a man is sick in minde: let him bee helped, let him bee borne withall. For folie is a disease of the minde. Too the ende that this maie bee the better vnderstoode, I thinke it good too make a distinction.

¶The .xvii. Chapiter.

THere are too kyndes of Benefites or good turnes. The one a perfect and trew bene­fite, which cannot bee giuen but by a wyse­man and too a wyseman: The other a vul­gar and comon benefite, whereof the inter­course is among vs that haue no skill. As­for this latter, there is no dout but I ought too requyte it too him that I owe it, whatsoeuer he is, whither he bée becomme a murtherer, a theef, or an adulterer. Felonies haue their Lawes: and iudgement will better redresse suche caces than vnthankfulnesse. Let noman make thee euill, by­cause he is euill. Uppon an euill man I will cast awaie a good [Page 114] turne: and vntoo a good man I will render it. So will I re­quyte the good man, bycause I owe it: and the euill man, by­cause I would not bee in his det.

¶The .xviii. Chapiter.

OF the other kynd of benefite, there is some dout: as that if I could not take it but bee­yng wise, neither could I render it but too one that continewed wise. For put the cace I render: yet cannot he receiue it, because he is not maister of hymself in this behalf, but hath forgone the knowledge how too vse it. It is all one as if yee should bid mee, strike the ball backe too a maimed hande. It is a follie too giue a manne the thing that he cannot take.

That I maie begin too answere thee from this last pointe: I will not giue him that whiche he cannot take, but I will re­store though he cannot receiue it. For I can bynde no manne but him that taketh: but I maie discharge my self, if I doo but onely deliue. What if he cannot vse it? Let him looke too that. The fault shalbee in hym, and not in me.

¶The .xix. Chapiter.

TOO redeliuer (saieth he) is too deliuer agein too suche a one as shall receiue. For what if you owe a man Wine, and he hidde you powre it into a Racket or a Sine? Will you saie you haue deliuered it ageine? Or will you deliuer that ageine, whiche shalbe spilt betwixt you in deliueryng?

Too redeliuer, repaye, re [...]der, or restore, is too yeeld agein the thing that a man owes, vntoo hym that hath interest in it, when he listeth too haue it. And that is the onely thing too bee performed on my behalfe. Too owe hym the keepyng of the thyng when he hath taken it ageine of mee, that is now a fur­ther [Page] charge. I owe hym the performaunce of it, but not the ke­pyng of it: And I had muche leuer that he should so go it, than that I should not restore it. I must pare my [...] that which I haue had of hym, though he will go [...] w [...]h it by and by intoo the Stewes. Although he would sende mee a harlotte too re­ceiue it, yet should I paie it hym: and albee it that he would put the monney that he receiueth of mee into his looce bosome, yet shall I paie it. For I muste yeelde it agein: but when I haue once yeelded it, I am not bounde too stand still too the keeping and sauyng of it. I am bounde too keepe his benefite while it is in my hande vnrestored. As long as it is with mee, reason would I should saue it. But if it bee called for, it must bee deli­uered though it should bee spilte in the handes of the receiuer. I will render it too a good man, when it shalbee expedient for hym: and too an euill man when he calleth for it.

Thou canst not (saieth he) render hym his benefite after suche forte as thou receinedest it. For thou receiuedest it of a wiseman, and thou renderest it too a foole.

I render now vntoo hym, in suche wise as he is now able too receiue: and it is not made the woorse by mee, but by hym: and therfore I will restore that whiche I haue receiued. Loke too whom I would render suche a maner of benefite as I re­ceiued, if he came too wisedome ageine too him will I (as long as he is euill) render suche a one as he can receiue. But (saieth he) what if he bee become, not onely euill, but also [...] and outrageous, as Appol [...]odorus and Phalaris were? Wille th [...] also render too suche a one the benefite that thou receiuedest of hym?

Nature su [...]ereth not so greate an al [...]ation in a wiseman. For in fallyng from the beste too the woorste, it cannot bee but some printes of goodnesse must remaine in hym, euen when he is become euill. Vertewe is neuer so vtterly wyped out, but that she leaueth somme furer markes in the mynde, than any chaunge can scrape quite and cleane out. When the wild bea­stes that haue bin brought vp emong vs, doo breake awaie in­too the wooddes, they keepe still somme parte of their former [Page 115] tamenesse: and looke how muche they bee wilder than the ta­mest beastes, so muche are they tamer than the wildest beastes, and suche as neuer were vsed too mannes hande. No man that euer stacke vnto wisedome, hath falne intoo extreme wicked­nesse. He is died of a deeper hewe, than maie bee vtterly washed out, or altered quite into another colour. Agein I demaunded of thée, whither this wilde man bée become so too hymself one­ly, or whither his woodnesse bursteth out too the hurt of all the common weale? For thou tellest me of Apollodorus and Phala­ris the tyrant, whose nature if a man haue, and kepe his naugh­tinesse too himself, why should I not render suche a one his be­nefite, too the ende I may quite and cleane ridde my handes of hym for euer? But if he not onely delight and take pleasure in mannes bloud, but also execureth vnsaciable crueltie in mur­theryng folke of all ages, and rage not for anger, but of a cer­taine geeedinesse [...] bée cruell: If he cutte the throtes of chil­dren before their Parentes faces: if he bée not contented with simple Death, but dooth torment folke, and not onely burneth those that must dye, but also broyleth them: if he make an arte of murder, and bée alwaies in gore bloud: the nonrendering of a benefite is too small a punishment for suche a one. Whatsoe­uer it was whereby he and I were linked togither, that hath he quite cutte or by breaking the bondes of the Lawe of Na­ [...]ure. If a manne haue doone [...] for mee, and a [...]erward ma­keth warre againste my C [...]untrie: In so dooyng he hath loste whatsoeuer he had de [...]erued, and it were a wickednesse to ren­ [...]er any [...]yndnesse vntoo hym. Agein, if he assaile not my coun­trey, but yet is noysomme too his owne, and beeyng separated from my countrey, troubleth his owne: That so greate leawd­nesse of his harte hath neuerthelesse cutte hym of: and though it haue not made him an open enemie too mée, yet hath it made hym hatefull too mee: and I must haue a former and a more speciall regard of that dewtie which I owe too all mankynde, than of that whiche I owe too any [...]euerall persone.

¶The .xx. Chapter.

[Page] BUT although this bée so, and that I stand free in all respectes from that tyme foorth that he by violating all Lawe hath brought too passe that nothing may bee vnlawfull ageinst hym: yet I beléeue there is this mea­sure too bee obserued on my behalf, that if my benefite shall neyther aug­ment his power to the destruction of the comon state, nor stablishe that whiche he hath alreadie, and so consequently may bee rendered without preiudice of the co­mon weale▪ I shall render it. I shall saue his child lying in the Cradle. For what doth this benefite hurt any of those whom his crueltie teareth in pecces? But I shall not feede him with Monnye to maynteyne his Gard in wages. If he desyre Mar­ble or fyne cloth of mee: my furnishing of his supersluetie can hurt noman. But affor men & Armour, I shal not help him with them. If he desyre as a great gift, to haue cunning Players of Enterludes, Lemans, and such other thinges as may tame his feercenes: I will willingly offer them. Though I would not send him Galyes and Shippes: yet would I sende him Row­barges and Chambershippes vppon the water. And though he bee vtterly past all hope: yet shall I render vnto him, with the same hande that I bestow benefites vppon others. Howbeeit (too say the truthe) the best remedie for suche dispositionsis the shortening of their lyfe. And the be [...]thing that can bee for him that will neuer bee reclaymed, is too bee dead. But it is a rare thing too lynd one so farre gone; and it hath alwayes [...] counted a woonder, like as the opening of the Earth, and breaking forth of fyre out of the Caues of the Sea. Therfore [...] withdraw ourselues from it, and speake of suche things as wee may mislyke without terrour. Too the ordinarie euill persons whom a man may fynd in euery Market, and of whom euery man is afrayd, I shall render the good turne that I haue receyued. I must not make my gayn of his naughtines. Looke what is not myne, let it returne too the owner, bee he good or [Page 116] bad. How diligently would I sift this thing if I should not render, but bestowe? This place craueth a merrie tale.

¶The .xxi. Chapiter

ACerteine Philosopher of Pythagoras sect, hauing bought a cupple of Ragges of a Taylour vppon trust (a greate matter) came ageine within a feawe dayes after to his shop too pay hym, and found it shet vp. And when hee had knocked a good whyle, one being disposed to [...]est at the Pythagorin [...] sayd; wherefore losest thou thy labour? The Taylour whom thou séekest is dead and buryed, whiche thing is a gréef vn­too vs that forgo our freendes for euer, but peraduenture not vntoo thee that knowest hee shalbee borne ageine. Hereuppon this our Philosopher caryed home his three or sower Pence verie glad, shaking them diuers tymes in his hand as he went. Afterward fynding fault with this his secret pleasure of non­payment, and perceyuing his owne ouerliking of that simple gayne: he returned too the Shop, and sayd too himself: he li­ueth to theeward, and therfore pay that thou owest him. With that woord he thrust the fower Pence intoo the Shop at a cra­nie of the wall where the closing of the panel was shroonk, and there left them, laying punishment vppon himself for his fond desire, least hee myght acqu [...]y [...]t himself with the coueting of other mennes goodes.

¶The .xxii. Chapiter.

IF thou owe a man any thing, seeke too pay it. And if noman demaund it, call thou vp­pon thyself. Bee he good or bee he bad, it makes no matter too thee. For his naugh­tinesse ought not too vauntage thee. Ren­der and blame thyselfe, and forget not in what maner the duetyes bee diuyded bee­tw [...]xt you. Unto him wee haue inioyned forgetfulnesse, and vn­too [Page] too thee wee haue commaunded myndfulnesse. Notwithstan­ding, when wee saye that hee whiche hath doone a good turne should forget it: that man mistaketh vs, which imagineth that wee would haue [...] of the thing (spe­cially being a most honest thing) quyte out of his head. Wee inioyue some thinges aboue measure, too the end they may re­turne too their true & proper measure. When wee say he must not remember it: our meening is, that he must not proclayme it, nor brag of it, nor gréeue the partie with it. For if some folke doo a man a pleasure: they make al the wold priuie to it. Their talke is of it in their sobernesse, and they cannot holde it in in their dronkennesse. They blab it out too straungers, and they tell it in counsell too their freendes. Too alay this ouerfreshe and vpbrayding myndfulnesse: wee willed him that had doone the good turne, too forget it: and by inioyning him more than could bee performed, wee counselled him too keepe silence.

¶The .xxiii. Chapiter.

AS oft as thou haste too deale with suche as are of smal trust, thou mayst exact more than inough, too the ende that inough may bee performed. To this end serue the ouerrea­ching spéeches, y by an vntruthe, men may come too the very truthe. Therfore he that sayd there were some that were whyter thā snowe, and wyghter than the wynd (which is impossible to be) sayd it too the end that the most which could bee, should bee de­léeued. And he that sayd: more vnmouable than these Rockes, and more violent thā this streame: ment to perswade no more, but that some man is as vnmouable as a Rock. An ouerreach neuer requyreth so muche as it pretendeth. But it aduourheth thinges incredible, that it may atteyne too the credible. When wee say, let him that hath bestowed a benefite forget it: our mée­ning is hee should bee as one that had forgotten it. Lee not the remembering of it appeare, nor thy mynd ronne vppon it. And when wee say that a benefyte must not be chalenged agein, wée [Page 117] doo not wholly take away the demaunding of it agein: for of­tentymes euill men haue neede of a chalendger, and good men haue neede of a rememberancer. For why? If a man bee igno­rant of the opportunitie, may I not shewe it him? may I not discouer my neede vntoo him? Why should he beelye himself, or bee sorie that he knew it not? Let a watchewoord bee now and then vsed, howbeeit after a modest sort, not with exacting nor with clayming of dewtie.

¶The .xxiiii. Chapiter.

SOcrates sayed in audience of his freendes: I would fayne buye mee a Cloke if I had monnye. He craued of noman, yet admoni­shed he them all, and euery man demed that he woulde take it of him. And why should they not? For how small a thing was it that Socrates receiued? But it was a greate matter too haue deserued too bee the man of whom Socrares would receiue. He could not haue giuen them any incling more meeldly. I had bought mee a Cloke (quoth he) if I had had monnye. After this, whosoeuer made most haste, gaue too late. For Socrates had wanted alredie. Thus for the bitter chalen [...] ­gers sakes, wee forbid clayming: not that it should neuer bee vsed: but that it should bee vsed verie sildomme.

¶The .xxv. Chapiter.

ARistippus being on a tyme delighted with an oyntment, sayed: euill comme too these effe­minate fellowes that haue disfamed so trim a sauour. The same Euill comme too them, is too bee sayed too these leawd and impor­tunate huddlers vp of benefites, who haue barred so goodly a thing as the admonish­ment of freendes. Yet notwithstanding, I will vse the Lawe of freendship, and will clayme a good turne at his hande, of whom I would haue craued one: and he shall accept it as another be­nefite, [Page] that he might requyte it. I shall neuer saie in waie of complaynt,

I tooke him vp poore sillie soule by shipwreke cast on shore,
And made him partener of my Realme: More foole am I therefore.

This is not an admonishing, but rather a reuyling. This is euen too bring benefites intoo hatred. This is euen the hyghwaie too make it eyther lawfull or delightfull too bee thank­lesse. It is ynough and too muche, too call a man too remem­berance with suche lowly woordes as these. If euer I haue pleasured you, or if euer you haue had lyking of anie thing of myne. And let him saie ageine on the other side:

Yea truly, you haue pleasurde mee: you tooke mee vp right poore
And needy when that I was cast by shipwrecke on your shore.

¶The .xxvi. Chapter.

BUt (sayth he) this kynd of dealing booteth vs not. For he dissembleth, and hath forgot­ten it. What should I doo? Thou demaun­dest a thing most necessarie, and wherein it becommeth this matter too bee finished: namely after what sort thanklesse persones are too bee borne with. Truly euen with a quiet, meeke, and stout minde. Let neuer vnkinde, vnmyndfull, and vnthankfull persone so muche offende thee, but that ne­uerthelesse it maie still delight thee too haue giuen. Let neuer any wrong compell thee to saie, I would I had not doone it. Let euer the vnluckynes of thy benefite like thée. It shall repēt him euer, if thou repent neuer. Thou must not bee gréeued, as though some strange thing had happened [...] thou mightest rather wonder if it had not happened. Some are [...]eared awaie with paines, some with cost, some with perill, some with shamefull shamefastnesse, least by requityng thei might acknowledge themselues to haue receiued; some through ignorance of their duetie, some through flothe, and othersome by beeing ouer bu­zied. See how the vnmeasurable lustes of menne bee alwaies gaping and alwayes crauing. Thou canst not wo [...]nder too sée [Page 118] noman requyte where noman receyueth inough. Whithe of these is of so stedy and sound a mynd, that a man may safely put him in trust with a benefite? One outrageth in Lecherie: ano­ther serueth his Paunche: onother is giuen all too gayne, and yet hee hath the Diuell and all alredie: another is atteynted with enuye: and another is redy to ronne vppon the Swordes point through ambition. Hereunto ad dulnesse of wit and do­ [...]ing old age, and contrariwyse the turmoyling and continew­all vnquietnesse of a restlesse mynd. And heervnto the ouerre­garding of a mannes owneself, and his straunge swelling for whiche he is too bee despysed. What shall I speake of the fro­wardnesse of suche as stryue too bee ouerthwarting, or of the lyghtnesse of suche as are euer fisking too and fro? Put vnto [...] these, headie rashuesse, and fearfulnesse whiche neuer giueth faithfull coūsell, and a thousand other errours that we tumble intoo: as the malapert bragging of them that be most toward­ly, the discord of them that bee most familiar, and (whiche is a comon maladie) the trusting of those that bee most vnsuer, the despyzing of thinges that men haue in possession, and the wis­shing for suche thinges as there is no hope too obteyne.

¶The .xxvii. Chapiter.

SEekest thou faithfulnesse whiche is a thing most quiet, among the affec­tions whiche are thinges most vn­quiet? If thou set the trewe Image of our lyfe before thee, thou wilte thinke thou beholdest the Portray­ture of a greate Citie that is taken, where al regard of shame and right is shaken of, & force reigneth insted of sage aduyce, as though a trumpet were blowen to make ha­nocke of al things. Neyther fire nor swoord is spared; mischéef is broken looce from law: and religion itself, which hath sheel­ded Supplyantes euen amid the weapons of their enemies, [Page] cannot stop them awhit from their ronning to the spoyle. One snatches out of a pryuate place, another out of a publik place, the third out of an vnhalowed place, and the fourth out of a ha­lowed place. This mam breakes vppe, that man leapes ouer, another man mislyking the narrownes of his waie, ouerthro­weth the thinges that stop him, and commeth too his luker by casting doune of thinges. One wasteth without bludshed, ano­ther beares his bootie in bluddie hande, and there is noman but he catches sommewhat from another man. In this gree­dinesse of mankinde, verely thou art tootoo forgetfull of the comon cace, whiche seekest a soberman among snatchers. If thou bee greeued at thanklesse persones, bee greeued also at ryottous persones, bee greeued at nigardes, bee greeued at vnchaste folkes, bee greeued at sikfolke, at mishapen folke, and at palefolke. It is in deede a greeuouse fault, an intolerable fault, a fault that breaketh the felowship of mankinde, and a fault that cutteth asunder the concorde wherwith our weake­nesse is vnderpropped, and throweth it too the grounde. Ne­uerthelesse, it is so comon a thing, that not euen he that com­playneth most of it, can cleere himself of it.

¶The .xxviii. Chapiter.

EXamine thyself whither thou haste rende­red kindnesse too euery man that des [...]rued it at thy hande: or whither there was euer anie good turne lost vppon thee: or whither thou beare in minde [...] the good turnes that euer were doone thee: and thou shalt see that the thinges whiche were giuen in thy childhoode, were forgotten ere thou wast a strippling: and that the thinges whiche were bestowed vppon thee in thy youth, continewed not stil in minde vnto thyne old age. Some thinges wee haue lost, somme wee haue cast from vs, somme haue krept out of our sight by little and little, and from some wee ourselues haue turned our eyes. Too the ende I maie ex­cuse [Page 119] thy weaknesse for thee: first memorie is brittle, and not sufficient for the nomber of thinges. It must needes sende out as muche as it taketh in, and ouerlay the formest thinges with the newest. So commeth it too passe that thy Nurce can beare no sway with thee, bycause the age insewing hath layed her benefite far of from thy hande. So commeth it too passe that thou haste no regarde of thy schoolemaister. So commeth it too passe, that whyle thou art buzie in sewing for the Con­sulship, or standest for the preestod, he that gaue thee his voyce for the Treasurership is forgotten. Peraduēture, if thou serch thyself throughly, the fault that thou lookestfor, wilbee founde in thyne owne bosomme. Thou doost wrong too bee angrie with a generall fault, and thou dooest foolishly in not being angrie with thyne owne fault. Too the ende thou mayst bée ac­quitted thyself, beare with others. Thou mayest perchaunce make him better by forbearing him, but thou shalt doutlesse make him woorse by vpbrayding him. There is no reason that thou shouldest harden his harte: If there bee anie shame left in him, giue him leaue too keepe it. Oft tymes where as shame was but sommewhat crazed, the oueropen reprouing of it de­faceth it altoogither. Noman is ashamed too bee that, whiche he is seene to bee. A man groweth past shame when he is open­ly detected.

¶The .xxix. Chapiter.

I Haue lost my good turne*. Doo we terme the thinges lost whiche wee haue consecrated too a holie vse? A benefite is of the nōber of y thinges that are halowed, yea though it haue ill successe whereas it was well be­stowed. *He is not the manne wee tooke him for. *Let vs continewe suche as wee were, vnlike too him. The losse was euen then, but it appeered not till now. A thāk­lesse persone is not brought to light without our owne shame, [Page] because our fynding of fault with the losse of our bene [...]te, is a token wee looked not well too the bestowing of it. As muche as we can, let vs pleade his cace with ourselues, th [...]s: perad­uenture he wist it not, peraduenture hee will doo it hereafter. The patient and wyse Creditor hath made some Detters too become g [...]od, by bearing with them and by tendering their cace with respit. The same thing must wee doo. Wée must che­rishe the fainting faith.

¶The .xxx. Chapiter.

I Haue loste my good turne *. Thou foole, thou discernest not the tymes of thy losse. Thou hast lost it in déed: but that was at thy first bestowing of it, and now it is come too light. Discretion hath greatly preuayled euen in those thinges that seemed as good as lost. As the diseases of the bodie are too bée handled softly, so are the diseases of the mynd also. Oftentymes the thing that would haue bin vnwound with leysure, is broken of by the roughnesse of him that pulles it out. What neede euill woordes? what needes complaint? what needeth brawling? Why doost thou discharge him? Why doost thou let him go? If he bee vnthankfull, now oweth he thee nothing. What rea­son is it too set him on a chafe, vppon whom thou hast bestowed manie thinges, that of a doutfull freend hee may beecome an vndouted enemie, and seeke, too excuse himselfe by raysing a slaunder vppon thee? There are inow t [...]at will say, I am sure there is some greate matter in it, that he could not beare with him too whom he was so much beholden. Somewhat there is in it. There is noman but hee may stayne the estimation of his better by complayning of him, although he vtterly deface him not. Neyther will a manne bee contented too surmyze lyght thinges, when hee seeketh credit by the great [...]esse of his vn­truthes.

¶T .xxx. Chapiter.

HOw much is the other way better, wherby the hope of frendshippe is reserued to him, yea and the verie frendship itself, if he will returne too his right mynd? wilfull good­nesse ouercommeth euill men. And there is not any man so hard harted, nor so deadly an enemy in his mynd ageinst things that are worthie too bee loued, but he loueth good men euen when he is at his worst, specially fynding himself beholden too them euen in this respect also, that hee susteyneth no displeasure at their handes for not requyting. Therefore bende thyself too thincke thus: My kyndnesse is vnrequyted: what shal I doo? Euen as the Gods the best Patternes of all thinges doo, who begin too benefite man when he knowes it not, and continew it towardes him when hee is vnthankfull for it. One char­geth them with carelessenesse of vs, another with vnindiffe­ [...]entnesse, and the third thrustes them out of this world, and le [...]s them alone, slothfull & dumpish, without light or with­out woorking. And whereas wee bee beholden too the Sonne for our distinction betweene the tyme of Labour and Rest: for [...]scaping the confuzion of endlesse nyght so as wee bee not drowned in darknesse: for gouerning the yere by his course, for nourishing of our bodyes, for making séedes too sprout foorth and for rypening of our frutes: Yet there are that terme him some fyrie stone, or a ball of fyre packed togither by chaunce, & what yee else will rather than a God. And yet for all that, the Gods, lyke good parentes that smyle at the ill language of their young Children, cease not too heape benefites vppon those that dout of y Authors of them: but holding on with their goodnesse in equall rate, doo distribute them too all Nacions, hauing this one propertie peculiar too themselues, namely to doo good. They besprin [...]le the earth with seasonable showers: they moue the Seas with the windes: they disseuer the tymes by the course of the Starres: they me [...]ken both the Winter [Page] and the Somer with the intercours [...] of a [...]lder aire: & quiet­ly and mercifully doo they beare with the e [...]our of our drerye soules. Let vs folow their exāple. Let vs gi [...]e still, though wée haue giuen many thinges in vayne afore. Let vs giue neuer­thelesse vntoo others: yea and let vs giue ageine too the same parties by whom we haue sustey [...]ed losse. The falling doune of a House neuer made man afrayd too build. When our dwel­ling is consumed by Fyre, wee lay foundacion ageine ere the floore bee through cold: and when Cities are destroyed, wee oftentymes reere them agein on the same Plot. So stubborne is the mynd toward good hope. Mennes woorkes would bee at a point bothe by Sea and by Land, if they listed not too ad­ [...]enture agein vppon thinges misdecayed.

¶The .xxxii. Chapiter.

HE is a man vnthankful. He hath not hurt mee, but himselfe. When I be­stowed my Benefite, I vsed it as I thought good. And I wilnot there­fore bee the [...]lower, but the warer in giuing. Looke what I haue lost in this man, I will recouer in another. Yea I will doo the same man good still: and lyke a good husbandman, I will ouercome the barrennesse of the soyle, with composte and tilth. I haue lost my good turne, and hee hath lost all mennes hartes. It is no point of noble corage too giue and loze, but too loze and giue.

FINIS.
All honour, thankes, and prayse bee giuen too God alwayes. AMEN.

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