NATVRALL PHILOSOPHY: OR A DESCRIPTION OF THE WORLD, AND OF the severall Creatures therein contained: Viz. Of Angels, of Mankinde, of the Heavens, the Starres, the Planets, the foure Elements, with their order, nature and government: As also of Mine­rals, Mettals, Plants, and Precious stones; with their colours, formes, and vertues.


The second Edition, corrected and enlarged.

1 King. 4. 33. He spake of Trees, from the Cedar tree that is in Libanon, even to the Issope that springeth out of the wall: He spake also of Beasts, and of Fowles, and of creeping things, and of Fishes.
These little leaves the Worlds huge load sustaine,
And what besides the great World can containe.

Printed at London by Tho. Cotes, for Iohn Bellamie, and are to be sold at the three Golden Lyons in Cornehill. 1631.

TO THE HONORABLE Sir William Parsons Knight Barronet, his Maiesties Survayour Generall, Com­ missioner in the Court of Wards, and one of his Maiesties most Honourable Privie Counsell in Ireland, &c.

Honourable Sir:

I Doe present to your view a small frame of the world, and of the Crea­tures therein contained, drawne with the Pen­silles of iudicious Scribon, and of D. W. A worke in nature not unlike to our Survayes in Ireland, that represent most lively, vaste Countries within a small Map. I offer this to you, ha­ving heretofore given to you an account of [Page] those services that I have lately done in the survey of Ireland, you being Survayor Gene­rall of that kingdome, wherein I have spent the most part of thirty yeares, in the service of my Prince and Country, Tam Marte, quam Mercurio, both by Pike and Pen, with great toyle, much hazard, and many hurts; but lit­tle profit. Notwithstanding, your demerits and worth be such, as Gratitude hath chosen your Patronage: and Devotion wisheth all honour, health, and happinesse to you, to my good Lady, and to yours,

At your Honours Command, I. Wyddowes, alias Woodhouse.

The Contents.

  • WHat philosophie is. Page. 1
  • What God is. Ibid
  • The actions of God towfold. ibid
  • What Angels are. ibid
  • How they appeare. ibid
  • What their office is. 2
CHAP. II. Of motions, qualities, colours, tasting, &c.
  • TWo kinds of movers in the world. ibid
  • How created things move. ibid
  • What motion is. ibid
  • Five things in motion. ibid
  • Six kinds of motion. ibid
  • What qualities are. ibid
  • What the qualitie of heate is. 3
  • Lightnesse and thinnesse commeth of heate. ibid
  • Heavinesse and thicknesse of cold. ibid
  • What proceedeth from moysture. ibid
  • What proceedeth from drynesse. ibid
  • The use of colours. 4
  • What a Simple colour is. ibid
  • White, what it is. ibid
  • Blacke, what it is. ibid
  • Of mixt colours, and whence they proceed. ibid
  • How they are compounded. ibid
  • Tasting, whence it is. ibid
  • [Page]The diverse kindes of it. ibid
  • Smelling whence it proceeds, whē good, whē bad. ib.
  • Qualities arising by meanes, what they be. 5
  • Hid qualities how knowne. ibid
  • They are either native or passionate. ibid
  • Native governed by the Heavens. ibid
  • How and when of most effecacie. ibid
  • Passionate how effected. ibid
  • What concord is. ibid
  • What discord is. ibid
CHAP. III. Of the Celestiall bodies, as the Heavens, the Fir­mament, the Starres, with their places, order, and government.
  • WHat Heaven is. 6
  • What the Firmament is. ibid
  • What the Etheriall part of it is. ibid
  • What a Starre is, with their diverse kinds. ibid
  • Their operation over bodies, and how it is. ibid
  • Their rising and falling, and how it is. ibid
  • Starres fixed or wandring. 7
  • How knowne from Planets. ibid
  • How and where contained in the heavens. ibid
  • Starres Masculine and Feminine. ibid
  • Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, ibid
  • Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagitarius, 8
  • Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces. ibid
  • Of Starres in the Zodiack. ibid
  • What the Northerne Constellations are. ibid
  • What the Southerne Constellations are. ibid
  • What Planets are. 9
  • [Page]Why called wandring. 9
  • When and how they are stayed. ibid
  • When and how they goe backe. ibid
  • The virtue and force of Planets. ibid
  • The proper house of each Planet. ibid
  • Planets, some of one light; some of more. ibid
  • Coniunction of Planets common or speciall. 10
  • They presage things to come, and how. ibid
  • A description of Saturne, his properties, and how he ruleth in the body; and over whom. ibid
  • A description of Iupiter, his properties, how he ru­leth in the body; and over whom. 11
  • A description of Mars, his properties, how hee ru­leth in the body, and in whom. ibid
  • A description of the Sunne, the office and use of it, and how and whom it governes. ibid
  • It maketh Winter and Summer, length and short­nesse of dayes. 12
  • A description of Venus, her properties, how and in whom she governs. ibid
  • A description of Mercury, his nature, how and in whom he ruleth. ibid
  • A description of the Moone. 13
  • How the Moone increaseth and decreaseth. ibid
  • When and how the Moone is in the full. ibid
  • In what time she endeth her revolution. 14
  • What a Comet is. ibid
  • The light of some Planets, especially of the Sun & Moone, faileth sometime, & the reason of it. ibid
  • Of the eclipse of the Sun and Moone, & the reason of them. ibid
CHAP. IIII. Of the foure Elements.
  • WHat Elements are. 15
  • Some Elements cleare, as ayre & water. ib
  • The regions of the Ayre. ibid
  • The necessity of the Ayre. ibid
  • What water is, the natures and uses of it. ibid
  • Why the water in the Sea is salt. ibid
  • The reason of the ebbing and flowing of the Sea. ib.
  • Of Flouds and Fountaines. 16
  • Diverse colours and tasts of water. ibid
  • What the earth is. ibid
  • The compasse of it. ibid
  • Of concreat and mixt bodies. ibid
  • Of mixed livelesse natures, as meteors, what they be, with their severall kinds, and the reason of them. ibid
  • Of mixed fiery meteors, as thunder, what it is, and the reason of it. 17
  • Of lightning, what it is, and the reason of it. ibid
  • Of watery Meteors, as clouds, what they be, and the reason of them. ibid
  • Diverse shapes in the clouds, & the reason of it. ib.
  • A false Sunne, how occasioned. ibid
  • A rainebow, how occasioned. 18
  • A description of the rainebow, & the signes of it. ib
  • Of Meteors of dissolved clouds, with the reason of it. ibid
  • Snow what it is, and how occasioned. ibid
  • Hayle what it is, and how occasioned. ibid
  • Dew what it is, and how occasioned. 19
  • [Page]Manna, what it is. 19
  • Frost, what it is, and how occasioned. ibid
  • Of Meteors caused of both kinds of Smoake, the reason of them. ibid
  • Winde what it is, and the diverse kindes of it, as Storme, Whirlewinde, Earthquake. ibid
CHAP. V. Of mixed living Natures.
  • WHat a vegetative soule is, with the na­ture and office of it. 20
  • What nourishment is. ibid
  • What concoction is, with the necessitie of it. ibid
  • The necessitie of temperate heate cleared by com­parison. ibid
  • The benefit of good, and hurt of bad concoction. 21
  • Whence inflammation ariseth. ibid
  • The companions of concoction are, 1. Attraction, 2. Retention, 3. Expulsion, what they are. ibid
  • What generation is. 22
  • What is the obiect of it. ibid
CHAP. VI. Of Minerals and Mettals.
  • BRimstone, what it is, the nature of it. 22
  • Quicksilver what it is, the nature of it. 23
  • Gold what it is, the nature of it. ibid
  • Where it is found. ibid
  • Silver what it is, the difference betwixt gold and it. 24
  • Brasse what it is. ibid
  • Copperasse what it is, the nature of it. ibid
  • [Page]Iron, the nature of it. 24
  • Lead, the nature of it. 25
  • Tynne, what it is. ibid
  • Stones, whereof they are, and their variety. ibid
  • Pretious stones. ibid
  • Crystall the nature of it. ibid
  • Adamant, the nature of it. 26
  • Saphyr, the nature of it. ibid
  • Smaragde, the nature of it. ibid
  • Sardonyx, the nature of it. ibid
  • Selenites, the nature of it. ibid
  • Carbuncle, the nature of it. ibid
  • Calcedonian, the nature of it. ibid
  • Assarites, the nature of it. 27
  • Rubie, the nature of it. ibid
  • Topaz, the nature of it. ibid
  • Hiacinth, the nature of it. ibid
  • Corrall, the nature of it. ibid
  • Asbestos, the nature of it. ibid
  • Loadestone, the nature of it. ibid
  • Galactites, the nature of it. 28
  • Achates, the nature of it. ibid
  • Turcoys, the nature of it. ibid
  • Corneolus, the nature of it. ibid
  • Chrysoprasus, the nature of it. ibid
  • Hematite, the nature of it. ibid
  • Chelidonius, the nature of it. ibid
  • Alectorius, the nature of it. 29
  • Toadestone, the nature of it. ibid
  • Crabs eye, the nature of it. ibid
  • Pearch stone. ibid
  • Curpe stone, the nature of it. ibid
  • [Page]Porphirite, Allabastar. 29
  • Ophite. ibid
  • Common stones. ibid
  • Salt, what it is, and the nature of it. 30
  • Salt Amoniack, the nature of it. ibid
  • Salt Peter. ibid
  • Salt Gemme. ibid
  • Salt of Indie. ibid
  • Salt of water. ibid
  • Alome. ibid
  • Liquid Alome. ibid
  • Hard Alome. ibid
  • Bitume. 31
  • Liquid Bitume. ibid
  • Naphtha Petreolum▪ ibid
  • Ambar of Arabia. ibid
  • Hard Bitume ibid
  • Pissaphaltus. ibid
  • Succinum. ibid
  • Terra Lemnia. ibid
  • Bole Armenian. 32
  • Terra Samia. ibid
  • Ampelite. ibid
  • Chalke. ibid
  • Blacke Chalke, with the nature of them all. ibid
CHAP. VII. Of natures perfectly living.
  • WHat natures perfectly living are. 32
  • Of Plants. 33
  • Frankincense tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Myrrhe tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • [Page]Mace, the nature of it. 33
  • Nutmeg, the nature of it. ibid
  • Pepper, the nature of it. ibid
  • Wilde Palme tree, the nature of it. 34
  • Balsame tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Balme, the nature of it. ibid
  • Pomegranet; the nature of it. 35
  • Pome Citron, the nature of it. ibid
  • Orange. ibid
  • Cedar; the nature of it. ibid
  • Figtree. ibid
  • Quince tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Lawrell tree, the nature of it. 36
  • Iuniper tres, the nature of it. ibid
  • Chesnut tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Beech tree, the nature of it. 37
  • Oke tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Ilex tree, the nature of it. 38
  • Corke tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Pine Appletree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Pitch tree. ibid
  • Firre tree. ibid
  • Larix tree, the nature of it! 39
  • Elme tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Alder tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Teile tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Boxe tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Birch tree, the nature of it. 40
  • Willow tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Poplar tree, the nature of it. ibid
  • Shrubs. 41
  • Cinnamon, the nature of it. ibid
  • [Page]Cassia Fistula, the nature of it. ibid.
  • Hasell, the nature of it. ibid
  • Elderne, the nature of it. ibid
  • Barberies, the nature of it. 42
  • Small Raysin, the nature of it. ibid
  • Rose tree, the nature of it. 43
  • Bramble, the nature of it. ibid
  • Gooseberries, the nature of it. ibid
  • Colutea, the nature of it. ibid
  • Hearbes. 44
  • Wheate, the nature of it. ibid
  • Barley, the nature of it. ibid
  • Spelte, Rye, Oates, Millet, their nature. ibid
  • Rize, Lintils, Pease; Beanes, their nature. 45
  • Pot hearbes. ibid
  • Coleworts, Spinage, Lettise, their nature. ibid
  • Beets, Purslaine, Mallows, Onions, their nature. ib.
  • Leekes, Parsley, Violets, Daysie, their nature. 47
  • Ielley flower, Marioram, their nature. ibid
  • Rosemary, Spicknard, Lavender, their nature. 48
  • Daffodill, Rose Campion, Saffron, their nature. ibid
  • Ginger, Wormeseede, Gallingall, their nature. ibid
  • Calamus Aromaticus, Acorus, their nature. 49
CHAP. VIII. Of humane Creatures, &c.
  • WHat man is, and the manner of his gene­ration. 49
  • What a feeling soule is. ibid
  • Senses outward, as Touching, Hearing. 50
  • Tasting, Smelling. 51
  • Sences inward, as Conceiving, Preserving. ibid
  • [Page]Sleepe, how caused. 52
  • Waking, how caused. ibid
  • Dreames what they are, and their variety. ibid
  • The nightmare, how occasioned. 53
  • A Trance, what it is. ibid
  • Appetite, what it is. ibid
  • Motion what it is. 54
  • Of the bodies of living creatures. ibid
  • What the matter of the body is. ibid
  • Conception, what it is. ibid
  • Naturall. ibid
  • Extraordinary 55
  • Of the parts of the body: ibid
  • Humours, as Blood, Phlegme, Glew. ibid
  • Spirits. ibid
  • Vitall, Animall, what they are. 57
  • Gristles, Sweate, what they are. ibid
  • Braine, what it is. 58
  • Excrements of the braine, eares, and nose. ibid
  • The breathing parts. 59
  • Heart, Spittle, midriffe, stomack▪ what they are. 60
  • Throat, Vomiting, Liver, what they are. 61
  • Vrine. 62
  • How to discerne a sound body by it. ibid
  • Complexions. ibid
  • Dyet. 63
  • Guts, their severall kinds. ibid
  • How placed in the body. ibid
  • The distinction of living creatures, and their se­verall kinds. 64

Naturall Philosophy.

CHAP. I. What Philosophie is.

PHilosophie is a knowledge of Natu­rallWhat Philo­sophy is. things. Things (her subject) either are He who alone is; from, by, and for whom all things are: or else such they be as are numbred by time, and measured by place, and subject unto motion. God is a Spirit, infinitely good and great.What God is. God is but one divine Essence, consisting of three distinct Persons, the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost. The actions of God are either, the Creating or Go­verningThe actions of God two▪ fold, of the world. The World consisteth either of things invisible, as of Spirits: or Visible, as the heavens, the elements, and the bodyes composed of elements. The heaven of the blessed, vide Gen. 1, 1. is counted the third heaven, the Orbes are the second, the Ayre is counted the first. The third Heaven visible is of all sub­stancesWhat Angels are. most perfect. The invisible Spirits, viz. Angels were created heere. Angell signifieth a messenger, byHow they ap­peare. nature hee is a spirit. Angells appeare sometime in dreames and visions, sometime in bodies apparant [Page 2] and sometimes in true and reall bodies: their number is great; their office is to celebrate Gods glory, to watchWhat their office is. over the world, to preserve us, to declare and do Gods will, to put good motions into our mindes, to resist ill spirits. The Devils were Angels cast from heaven for sin, into the lower parts of the World, and heere they continue seeking to deface the Image of God in man and all creatures.

CHAP. II. Of motions, qualities, colours, tasting, smelling &c.

THings visible contained in the world, are Sub­stances, or Accidents. Accidents are either ge­nerall to all things, as motion, time, and place, for these belong to all: or proper to some things, as Qualities.

There be two kinde of Movers. 1 God. 2 ThingsTwo kinde of movers in the world. How created things move. created by him.

Things created move from God, and are of finite power in moving in a prefixed matter, and in time. They be of two kindes, without, or within the thing moved; the one called violent, the other naturall: Motion is an unperfect act, moving to that it was not,What motion is. Five things in motion. from that it was: Five things are in naturall motion, the mover, the thing moved, the terme from which, the terme to which it is moved, and time.

There bee sixe kindes of motion, generation, cor­ruption,Six kinds of motion. increase, decrease, alteration of quality, and change of place.

Qualities are either manifest, or secret: ManifestWhat quali­ties are. are either principall, or such as proceede from them: [Page 3] the chiefe of the principall, are heate and colde.

Heate gathereth together things of one kinde, andWhat the quality of heate is. separateth things of contrary nature; as Gold from Silver or drosse. Colde joyneth together things, as the frost in winter.

The weaker qualities are moysture and drinesse. Moy­sture is hardly contained in his owne bounds. Drinesse keepeth his owne bounds.

Qualities common from the first are either seconds or wrought from them.

Second qualities from one or more, are deriued.

From Heate commeth Rarity, and Leuity. ForLightnesse & thinnesse commeth of heate. Heate openeth and enlargeth the poores.

Raritas or Thinnes is that which hath hollow parts or spongie as a sponge, clouds &c.

Lightnes proceedeth from heate, drawing easilyHeavinesse & thicknesse of colde. upward. Thicknes and heavines, are of colde. For cold gathereth together, and stoppeth bodyes, by which, bodyes become heavie.

Thicknes hath his parts shut up together as stones.

Heavines, moveth downewards: thus is Mercurie, heavier than gold, and gold than Lead.

Tactile or qualities that may bee touched: com­mingWhat procee­deth from moysture. from moisture, are softnes: and tenuitie from the Ayre: smoothnes and slipperines from the water.

From drynesse proceede hardnes and roughnes, ca­sinesWhat from drinesse. in breaking and drought.

From the first qualities diversly disposed, arise o­thers called sensible qualities.

Their Originall is obscure or more manifested.

Qualities of obscure originall, are such as doe not al­wayes plainely & clearely declare the ground whence [Page 4] they arise. Of this nature are colours: which is theThe use of Colours. splendor of the body, illustrated by light, with which all bodies are dyed according to their moystnes, de­cocted more or lesse apt to receive greater, or smaller light. Colour, is either simple or mixed.

A Simple colour consists of none other, as blackWhat a simple colour it. and white.

White consisteth of much light in a thin body, ofWhite what it is. an ayery moisture well concocted.

Blacke, is in a thicke body contayning but smallBlacke what it is. light, of moysture either adust or raw watrish mixed with the earth: as appeareth in the inner parts of the earth.

Mixt colours are from those two, mingled either inOf mixt cul­lors and whence they proceede. And how compounded. a meane or unequall-portion, of equall mixture is red. Other are made of this meane, and one of the ex­treames. Yeallow is of much white and a little red, viz. two parts of white and one of red. Saffron cullour or Orange-tawny, is of greater rednesse, and of lesser whitenesse.

Purple is of much red, and lesse blacke. Greene is of much black and lesse red. This being a cleare moy­sture is most pleasant to the eye.

Qualities, of a more manifest originall are per­ceivedTasting whence it pro­ceeds: diverse kinds of it. in smels and tastes. Taste is made from the straining of drynesse through moisture, is either hot or cold, in a high or meanest degree. Very hot tastes are biting, bitter, or salt.

Tastes meanely hot or sweet: Cold tasts are either thicker or thinner, thicke as soure and sharpe: or thin as tartnes: where also we place freshnesse.Smelling whence it proceeds

Smell, is a qualitie comming from a dry earthly [Page 5] heate, made thin by mixture of vapors. If it be wellWhen good when bad. mingled, it is good: if not, it is stincking.

These qualities come from the first, there are othersQualities ari­sing by meanes what they be. that come by Meanes from the first, such are, genera­ting flesh by drinesse, and binding in, healing and joy­ningHid qualities how knowne. together, but more moderate. Hid qualities are onely knowen by long experience, comming from the forme and essence of a thing, which in most things maketh it hard to discerne. Hid qualities are eitherThey are ei­ther native or passionate. Native gover­ned by the heavens. How and when of most efficacie. inbred or passionate. Native or inbred, come from formes taking their originall from heaven, and there­fore are governed, most according to the position of the heavens and stars, being of most efficacy in their subject matter rightly prepared, and at certaine times.

As the Load-stone in drawing Iron. The Pionie for falling sicknesse, Polypody in the diseases of the liver, &c.

Passionate qualities, are effected by an agreeing orPassionate how effected disagreeing concord.

Concord is the naturall agreement of things, where­byWhat Con­cord is. a feirce Bull tied to a fig-tree is made gentle.

An Olife taken up and replanted by a virgin, bring­eth forth aboundance of fruite.

Ocymum a Pulse, being at the sowing banned groweth the better: The bleeding of a dead body at the presence of the killer. Discord in naturall things,What discord whereby the horse-fly is killed with the smell of roses: so goats are poysonous unto plants.

CHAP. III. Of the Celestiall bodies, as the Heavens, the Firmament, the Starres, with their places, order and government.

NAturall things are simple or compact: Simple are stable or unconstant; stable are the heaven and starres. Heaven is as it were a vaulted body madeWhat heaven is. of water, thinne like a skinne, and moveable.

The Firmament is the orbe of the moveable hea­ven:What the fir­mament is. containing the world, which consisteth of Ethe­reall and elementall parts.

The Ethereall part compasseth the Elementall: andWhat the E­thereall part of it is. is not variable: it containeth 10. spheres, and is in continuall motion being moved from the East, to the West in 24. houres, and maketh the naturall day. A starWhat a Starre is. The diverse kinds of them. is a firme essence, in heaven, giving light. One star is brighter than another, and they are of divers motion, either simple, as from west to the east; or divers, as their variable motion, north and south: and they haveTheir opera­tion over bo­dies, & how it is. their operation over inferiour bodies, which they worke by themselves, or by aspect with others; which is either conjunct, or opposite: conjunct, is either in the same or severall places: ☌. ☍. □. △. caracters bee of conjunction ☌. Sextile ⚹, Trine △: quadrat □: op­position ☍, aspects. Their Poeticke rising or falling isTheir rising and falling, & how it is. either true or apparant, the true is Acronicke, which is of such starres as rise and set about the sunne setting: Cosmicke ascend with the ☉ and set with the sun rising. Those starres which rise Cosmically fal Ac­ronically. Apparent rising is called Helical which is of stars getting out of the sun beames, & so if the star get into the ☉ beames at setting: or when any star setteth [Page 7] with the sun. Starrs are either fixed or wandring,Stars fixed or wandring. sixed are the starres of the firmament, whose motion is not sensible; For in 72. yeares they move scarce a de­gree:How knowne from Planets. keeping still one like distance. Stars are knowne frō planets, by their twinkling. The stars are far bigger in compasse than the earth, and they are of sixfoold order, first bigger than the earth, 107. fold, second 87. third 72. forth 54. fift 31. sixt 18. times. These stars are more or lesse glistering: the most glistering are dis­posed into 48. Images and are devided into three parts the zodiack & both sides thereof. The zodiack contai­nethHow and where contay­ned in the heavens. 12 signes, ♈. ♉. ♊. ♋. ♌. ♍. ♎. ♐. ♑. ♒. ♊. of the East are ♈. ♌. ♐. fiery signes. North ♋ ♏. ♓. watery. ♊. ♎. ♒. Ayery of the West: ♉. ♍. ♑. earthy Southern signes.Stars Mascu­line & Femi­nine. Fiery and Ayery are Masculine: Waterish signes and earthly feminine.

Aries the Ram is the first signe of the Zodiacke con­sistingAries. of 13. starres, representing the image of a Ram, it hath 2. starres in his horne of the 3. bignes and 3. in his taile, and one in the tippe of his right soote of the 4. bignes.

Taurus the Bull consisteth of 32. starres, 5. of theseTaurus. in his forehead are called Hyades, causing raine, the greatest is called the Bulls eye, being somewhat pale. 7. starres in his shoulder are little and called Vergiliae, and Pleiades, because they shew the time of navigation by their rising in the Spring and setting in the Autum.

Gemini the twins of 18. starres; in each head, is aGemini. bright star, called Castor and Pollux.

Cancer the Crab consisteth of 9. starres somewhatCancer. obscure.

Leo the Lyon is a bright signe of 27. starres, one in hisLeo. [Page 8] heart and one in his tayle, are of the first bignes, neare his tayle are 7. starres called Berenices haire.Virgo.

Vîrgo the maide with wings of 26. starres, one in her left hand is called Spica.

Libra the ballance is expressed with 8. starres.Libra.

Scorpion hath 21. starres, of which but 14. are notable.Scorpion.

Sagitarius the Archer consisteth of 31. starres.Sagitarius.

Capricornus the Goat, hath 18. starres, of which 12.Capricornus are most conspicuous.

Aquarius the water-bearer, of 24. starres, like a manAquarius. pouring water fourth of his pitcher, the starre in the extreame of the water is of the first bignes. totall. 364.Pisces.

Pisces, the fishes consist of 34. starres.

The other starres that are not in the Zodiack areOf Stars not in the Zodi­acke. What the nor­therne Cou­stellations. either northerne or southerne starres.

The Northerne Constellations are Cynosura, the little Beare hath 7 Starres. Helice the greater Beare hath 27 starres, of which 12 are more visible. Draco the Snake 31. Bootes the Heardman 22. be­twixt whose legs is Arctur. Ariadnes Crowne 8. Her­cules 28. Cepheus 11. The Vultur or Lira 10. The Swan 17. Cassiopeia 13. Perseus 19. The Carter 13. he beareth upon his left shoulder the Goat, Aesculapius 24. The Serpent 18. starres. The Arrow 5. The Eagle 6. The Dolphin 10. Pegasus 20. The foale 4. Andromeda 23. starres. The Triangle hath 4 starres. The totall 360.

The Southern constellations are 25. The WhaleWhat the sou­thern Con­stellations are. hath 22 Starres.

Orion hath 38. Eridanus 34. The Hare 12. The great Dog 18. The Whelpe 2. The ship 45. Hydra 5. [Page 9] The Crow 7. The Centaure 37. The Wolfe 19. The Aulter 17. The Crowne 13. The fish 12. Starres. The totall 316.

Plannets are Starres in the neaver part of Heaven,What Plan­nets are. Why called wandring. and are of diverse motions, and are therefore called wandring, which motions happen not according to the course of other Starres, because in the spheeres at­tributed to the severall plannets, they moving them­selves circularly are stayed either in their highest or lowest Absis, or else are made to goe backward. Plan­netsWhen and how they are, stayed. are stayed when at their set bounds they stay their course and turne to some other part, and so seeme to stand still.

Absis or Aux, the highest place of the Plannets, to which being moved, they can ascend no higher, is cal­led Apogaeon, viz. farthest from the earth.

Absis or Aux, the lowest contrary to the other, and neerest unto us, is called Perigaeon.

Plannets are said to goe backe, when removingWhen and how they goe backe. themselves, they goe not forward their course, but re­turne backe the way they came, in some part.

The vertues and force of Plannets, are as diverse asThe vertues and force of Plannets. their motions be: stronger by the proper habitation of the house, or by conjunction: otherwise they be weake.

The proper house of each Plannet is that signe ofThe proper house of each Plannets. the Zodiacke, in which first at the creation they were placed after the opinion of Astronomers.

Thus farre in generall. Now some shine with onePlannets some of one light, some more. particular light, other with more. They that have the same shinning, are moved with equall or unequall course. Plannets of uneven course have a proper mo­tion to themselves. ♄. ♃. ♂.

Their conjunction is common or speciall. Com­monConjunction of Planets, common or special. are of these three together, and it is called the greatest conjunction: this through his slow motion foresheweth wonders, as Astrologers say, though theirThey presage things to come grounds are uncertaine, yet wee will set downe what they say, not all as truths, yet some may bee probable. (Especially the sunne regarding) destruction to king­domesAnd how. &c. If such conjunction, bee in a fiery signe it presageth great drought. In a watry signe it argueth raine, in Aery mighty tempestes. In earthy extreame cold. In Masculine death of men, In feminine death of women. Speciall conjunction is either meane or extreame. Meane of Saturne and Mars betokens warres, contention, strife of Kings and Princes, and to these prosperous successours, if the dominant be good in conjunction.

The extreame conjunction of Plannets, is great or lesse, greater of ♄, ♃. betokening new sects, and other like. If ♃. be all stronger, shall be for the best, if ♄. be stronger, then followeth losse, tribulation and great discord, say the Astrologers.

♄. Saturne is a star of a leaden colour, finishing hisA description of Saturne his properties, how he ruleth in the bodies, and over whom. course in thirty yeares, hee is a Plannet masculine, of cold and dry nature, therefore melancholicke, bad & not fortunate, whose proper house is in ♑. ♎. gover­ning malancholike persons, and diseases of that humor, and those of a tough and congealed phlegme as Lepry and Morphew. But if hee governe in his proper house in due aspect and degree, most profita­ble experiments may bee made against these infirmi­ties, His rule appeareth in conception of men, as in the first moneth, and in the eight moneth much more. [Page 11] Wherefore the child borne in this moneth, through the bad aspect, and coldnes of Saturne, can scarce live long: hee ruleth also the lives of men, especially in their end, when old men bee cold and full of fleame, as say Astrologers.A description of Iupiter. His proper­ties.

♃ Iupiter is a bright Plannet, which runneth his course in 12. yeares, his light is so great, that it causeth a shadow, being neere the earth, of which he is called Phaeton: He is hot and moyst of nature, good, mascu­line,How he ru­leth in the bo­dy and over whom. and his house is in ♐ and ♓ he ruleth over the sanguine, yong men and merry sports, and over dis­cases springing of bloud not adust: and rightly dispo­sed. In his house, remedies are best applied for cure of such infirmities. Vnder his power is the child in the second, but more in the ninth moneth, and the childe that is borne is long of life.A description of Mars.

♂ Mars, is the 3 wandring star, in colour red or fiery shining, his course is 2. yeares, is a masculine exceeding hot, schorching and dry nature, after a sort malignantHis proper­ties. How he go­verns mans body and in whom. and infortunate: His house is ♈ and ♍ hee sheweth his force most upon Cholerike persons, and upon motions of youth, stirring to sedition and warre: if hee be well disposed in his house in fit aspect and de­gree, there may bee remedies used for the Frensie, a­gues and other hot sicknesses. He governeth the 3. moneth of conception, and from 40. to 50. of mans age.

Now of starrs, that finish their course in like spaceA description of the sunne. The office and use of it. How and whom it go­vernes. of time ☉ ♀. ☿. in a yeare space ☉. The Sunne is the brightest of all wandring starres, appointing seasons, nourishing life, being the fountaine of light, of heate and all vitall powers, hee is hot and meanely dry, his [Page 12] house is ♌. he ruleth hot and dry affections, and there­fore in his rule is fit remedy for such.

In mans conception hee ruleth the 4. moneth, and governeth from 22. till 41. yeares of age. ☉ by being nearest or farthest from the earth, maketh Solsticium, which is our Summer and Winter: summer is ☉, beingHe maketh winter and summer. in ♋. at the highest; winter solstice is ☉, being ♑ farthest from us. The motion of ☉, causeth like length of dayLength and shortnesse of dayes. and night. ☉, in ♈ and ♎ the Sun in these pointes of heaven is equally moved in the 6. signes of our hemi­sphere, and also in the six opposit, although the points and times of both Equinoctialls vary and change.

♀ Venus is a very white star, she goeth neare ☉, some­timeA description of Venus. before him, sometimes after him; in the morning going before him, she is called Lucifer, in the evening, following, she is called Vesperugo and Hesperus. ♀ is could and Ayery, and moyst, her house is in ☍ andHer proper­ties: how and in whom she ruleth. ♎. She loveth youth, women, and wives, ruleth cold and moyst diseases, happening most about the geni­talls. Therefore ♀ in her house in due aspect is best remedy of such, she useth her power in the 5. moneth, and disposeth life, from 14, to 20. yeares and two, ac­cording to Astrologers.

☿ Mercury is the least wandring star, somwhat white,A description of Mercury. His nature: how and in whom he ru­leth. his nature is changeable, and full of turnings, hee is hote with the hote, cold with the cold, of the nature of him with whom he is joyned, his house is ♊ and ♍, & is of force in merchandize, of which hee hath his name, and mathematickes are under his rule, he begins and followes studies, & reports rumors & newes. He gui­deth the 6 moneth, and from 4. to 14. yeares; if hee joyne with the higher Plannets, he denounceth wet [Page 13] and flouds, which also hee doth meeting Venus in a wet house, in his proper house, windes &c.

☽ The Moone is the lowest wandring starre, fini­shingA description of the Moone. her course in 27. dayes 7. houres; although this starre have light of he owne, yet doth she borrow her shining from the Sunne. But because her essence or body, is not alike, but thicker in one place, than an­other, therfore she is not in all places enlightened alike from the Sunne. That part which is turned from the Sunne, is all of it shadowed and darkish, but that which looketh upon the ☉. is full of light, and onely so much light as standeth towards us, seemeth to gaine or lose light, as it is farther off, or nearer the sun, where as indeed ever the one halfe is enlightened from the sunne.

The face seemeth to bee enlightened, as joyned with ☉, or departing from him.

The ☽ joyned with the ☉ in the 4. first dayes is cove­red with greater light of the ☉ beames, and is called the new Moone, but departing from ☉ she appeareth still more enlightened, and it is either in part or whole.

In part before and after the 8 day, called the encreaseHow the Moone in­creaseth and decreaseth. and the waine of the Moone. In part lesse or more, the lesse is when she is horned, or halfe moone about the 4. day, being distant from ☉ 2. signes: and after 8. in the 26. day, the halfe ☽ is seene about the 7. day and after 22. day when she is distant 3. signes or degrees from ☉. The greater apparition of the Moone in part is, she being neare her roundnes, which is about the 11 day and after the 19. day distant from ☉ 4 signes.

The full apparition of ☽ is when in a right line she isWhen and how the Moone is in the full. opposed to ☉ at 14 dayes or full Moone. Although she [Page 14] finish her couse in the foresaid time in the circle of the Zodiacke, yet is allowed to every Moone 29: and a halfe day, because she is to passe forward 2 dayes and 4 howres, before shee can overtake the ☉ which ma­keth 29 dayes, 12 houres. And in 9 yeares she endethIn what time she endeth her revolution. all her diversity of conjunctions and aspectes, and a­new begineth her former revolution, &c.

A Commet is a wandering star, of divers motions,What a Commet is. shining in the region of the Plannets, this appeareth seldome, sometime above, and sometimes below the Plannets. It foretelleth greevous accidents.

Others say that a Commet is a fat substance drawne by the heate of the Sun from the earth, and the heate of the highest region of the Ayre; is set on fire appea­ring like a starre, and is sometime moved in the ayre.

It foreshewth war, Pestilence, drought, and barren­nes of the earth.

The light of some Plannets sometime fayle, especial­lyThe light of some Plan­nets especially the sunne and moone faileth sometime, and the reason of them. of ☉ and ☽ The defects happen in the Zodiacke, if these 2. starres bee in the knotts of their circles, or neare to them; which knotts are cuttings, made by the course of the ☉ and ☽, and is called the dragon. The higher is called Dragons head, the lower the Dragons tayle. The Ascendant or higher is where, ☽ departing from the middle Zodiacke, doth come nearest unto us.

The descendant, when the ☽ is removing from us.Of the Eclipse of the Sunne and Moone and the reason of them. The Eclipse of those starrs is in whole or part. In whole all being obscured, as in the midst of them.

In part it happeneth neare one of the knotts.

The Eclipse of ☉, is by comming of ☽ betweene our eyes and the ☉, in the conjunction of both Plannets.

A great Eclipse of ☉, is when the centure of these [Page 15] starres, proceed in a direct line to our eye.

The Eclipse of ☽ is the depriving her of the light of ☉, in the opposition, the earth shadowing her, com­ming in a straight line betweene them; her Eclipse is sooner seene in the East than in the West.

CHAP. IIII. Of the foure Elements.

ELements are simple essences, lesse durable than theWhat Ele­ments are. heavens, and are the wombs of mixed things &c.

Of the Elements 2. are cleare, ayre and water. Ayre,Some cleare as Ayre and wa­ter: three re­gions of the Ayre. which is cold and moyst, and of these there are descri­bed 3. regions, the first is hot and dry, this is termed the fiery which causeth it to be called an Element Ayre the flame being but inflamed ayre: the midle region colder and darker; the third region, in which we live, is hot and cold, by the more or lesse reflection of the Sunne beames.

Ayre, is so needefull to creatures, that none liveThe necessity of the Ayre. without it, the thinner the better, and more healthfull.

Water, is an element lesse thin and cleare, moyst andWhat water is. The natures and uses of it. most cold. Water warmed in channells in the earth causeth hot springs, this is heated by running by some hot mineralls, and helpeth moyst and cold bodies.

Water, is greater or lesse. The greatest is the Sea,Why the wa­ter in the sea is salt. The reason of the ebbing and flowing of the sea. which is salt, because that the starres drawe sorth the thin substance leaving the earth behinde. The Ocean ebbeth and floweth after the ☽ motion; and from the new moone to the full, humours increase and after de­crease, and the tides are knowne by the Moone. Parti­cular Seas take their name of some country, or of some [Page 16] accident, as the red Sea, &c.

Waters are in flouds or fountaines, fountaines areOf Flouds & Fountaines. best which come out of Mountaines, or Rocks, &c.

Water is of divers colours and tastes. Milky,Diverse co­ours & tastes of waters. What the earth is. Greene, Red, Salt, sharpe, bitter, and like wine.

The Earth is a thicke element, cold and dry, and is unmoveable, about which all things move, it is round and all things tend as neare the center as they can.

It is in compasse with the water 21600. miles, andThe compasse of it. is but as a point to the whole world.

Concreat and mixt bodyes or natures, are essencesOf concreat & mixt bodies mixt of parts severally disposed. For from sundry things of divers formes, one forme may bee formed: and things of one mixture according to the divers af­fection of their elements are diversly affected.

As some are Ayery, some Fiery, and some Earthly. But the proportion maketh temperature, which is a proportion of qualities, cleaving together in mixture: it is equall or uneven, and is either simple or com­pound: simple is in act or power: compound, as heate with drinesse, &c.

Mixed natures are either livelesse or living. Live­lessOf mixed livelesse na­tures, as me­teors; & what they be, with their severall kinds, and the reason of them. as Meteors which are a hot smoake lifted up by the attractive force of starres, some 15. German miles into the ayre and no higher: this smoke is a vapour or exhalation. A vapour is a moyst smoke drawne from water, and is easily resolved into water. Exhalation is a dry smoke drawne from the earth, easie to fire: from exhalation arise fiery impressions which burne like fire, as pillers, dartes, candles, goates, shooting starres, fiery Dragons, darke streames, fooles fire, and such like firery Meteors.

Mixed fiery meteors whose exhalation is somewhatOf Mixed fie­ry meteors, as thunder, what it is, and the reason of it. unpure thicker and long, her mixture is thunder which is a fiery exhalation, breaking forth of the cloudes, with a sound. Lightening small and great is a flaming light, of a burning exhalation, shining be­fore thunder. Though we heare not the thunder, it is at the present breaking out of the flash, the eye being quicker than the care. The great lightening is thicker and burneth more, if it be hardened with the heate of the Sunne, and it selfe, it maketh a stone which is cast out at the cracke, this doth much harme.

Lightening is thicke or thin, this boreth throughOf lightning; what it is, and the reason of it. without leaving any signe of it. The thicker scorcheth and burneth, it hath much earthy matter, setting on fier steeples and such like, and in great flashes is but some small deale of this earthy matter, else all things would be fired.

Watery meteors, are vapors more fully compact to­gether,Of watery meteors, as clouds, what they be, with the reason of them. and appeare in the lowest part, or midst of the Ayre, as cloudes and such like. A cloude is a vapour joyned together by the extreame cold of the middle region. Cloudes hang in the Ayre by the Sunnes heat, which draweth them up, and by the moving of the windes are tossed up and downe.

In these Cloudes by ☉ and ☽, are framed diversDiverse shapes in the cloudes, with the rea­son of them: as a false Sunne, how occasi­oned. shapes, having no proper matter, but onely appeare in the cloudes, either about ☉ and ☽, or opposite to them as:

A halfe Sunne which is imprinted in the Cloud by the reflection of his beames, in a cloud being waterish, so that sometime the shape of 2. or 3. Sunnes are seene, so of the Moone. Bright circles of the cloudes, being [Page 18] black, are from the reflecting beames, seeming to com­passe the ☉ or ☽ yet they are far lower. These circles appeare more often about the moone: shee being not able with her beames to consume these vapours.

The shape in the cloudes opposed to the Sunne, isA raine-bow how occasi­oned. the raine-bow of divers colours, in a hollow, thin and in an unequall cloud, fashioned by reflection of the Suns beames, and the raine-bow is greater the nearer it commeth to the Horizon. If many raine-bowes be seene, the latter is made by the shining of the other, and are more obscure than the former.

The colours of the Raine-bow, be light, red, green;A description of the raine­bow and the signes os it. sky colour and yeallow: the raine-bow, is a foreteller of raine, it sheweth that many vapours are dissolued, which will shortly be raine. The hayle is like this, but it is alwayes under the Sunne.

Meteors of dissolved cloudes, are either hardened,Meteors of dissolued cloudes. or moyst, as raine, which is as it were a cloude melted and turned unto water; if the cloude bee neare the earth the drops are great, if hie, the drops are smaller. The rayning of frogges, fish, milke, flesh, and such like, come of such matter being carried up, which doth a­gaineReason of it. fall with the raine, as wormes &c. are begotten of dead carkases in summer time.

Meteors made harde, after the cloud hath beene melted, are snow and Haile.

Snow is a cloude, prepared for raine before it fall,Snow what it is and how occasioned. being congealed by cold, is by the motion of the windes dispersed into fleakes, and falleth onely in winter.

Hayle is rayne, made hard in the fall, the higher theHayle what it is and how occasioned. fall, the rounder and lesser, because in the fall it mel­teth. [Page 19] It hayleth most in Autumne and in the Spring, for then the sharpe ayre, hath most power over the drops, and in winter, the extreame cold maketh it snow be­ing yet in the cloudes.

In the lowest region of the Ayre, are dew and frost.Dew what it is, and how occasioned. Dew is a vapour thickned with some earthly matter, which in falling is presently turned into water.

Dew falleth onely in summer, for then the vapour is dissolved with the Sunne.

A fat kind of dew like melting hony, especially at the shining of Syrius, being gathered from leaves of trees, is Manna, called also wilde honey, or meldewes.

This Manna hardened by the heate of ☉ intoManna what it is. lumpes, is called Tereniabin.

Frost is a dewish vapour, made very hard by cold inFrost what it is, and how. winter before it be dissolved.

Meteors made of both kindes of smoake joyned to­gether,Of Meteors caused by both▪ kinds of smoake, and the reason of them. Winde what it is, and the diverse kinds of it. are windes and such like.

Winde is a subtile smoke, beaten downeward by the cold in the middle of the ayre, and is moved side­ling on the earth: Auncients noted out 12. principall windes, all which in regard of matter are hot and dry, but differ for their situation of their qualities.

The winde being great, carried with force, darkensStorme. Whirlewinde. the Ayre, and is called a storme. If it doe roll about, it is a Whirle-winde, if it be but small, it is called Ayre.

An Earthquake is a fume, contained in the earth:Earthquake. when it findeth no vent, it shaketh it, & is made acoor­ding to the breadth or depth of the earth. In breadth it causeth sometime such trembling, that it shaketh downe whole Citties. That in depth causeth a gaping or swelling. A Gaping is when the Earth openeth, [Page 20] as it were her mouth, and doth swallow downe trees, walles &c. A Swelling is when the earth being lif­ted up like a mountaine, either remaineth so, or else falleth downe againe.

CHAP. V. Of mixed living Natures.

NAtures mixed perfectly are living and corpo­rall essences, indued with a Vegetative soule; A Vegetative soule is a facultie giving life to bo­dyes.What a vege­tative soule is. Therefore so long as any part of this shall exercise her power in any body, so long is that alive, and remai­neth safe. But her chiefe operation, and so life it selfe,The nature & office of it. consisteth either in preserving severall bodies or whole kinds. Nourishment is the preserving of severall bo­dies,What nou­rishment is. and is the making of foode received, like to the body nourished. Vnder that name is every thing which is received to sustaine our bodyes, of which sort is the ayre it selfe.

Some other faculties are required to perfection of nourishment, as concoction, and his companions: Con­coctionWhat cócocti­on is, with the necessity of it. is a working or framing of nourishment, and it is made either of temperate, or increased heate of the parts to be nourished.

By temperate heate is made ripening: which is aThe necessity of temperate heate for nou­rishment clea­red by com­parison. concoction of nourishment with moisture, by how much therefore the moisture shall be better tempered with heate, by so much is the ripening sooner, and more perfect, as in a summer too moyst, the increase of the earth is later made ripe. Concoction arising from greater store of heate, is either elixation or assation. [Page 21] Elixation is a concoction more perfectly working the thicke or watrish moysture, with a strong moyst heate: As flesh is sod in water, whose moyst heate altereth & consumeth the fomy moystnes of meate: if this Elixa­tion remaine unperfect, it is called rawnesse, and the nourishment is not refined, for want of moyst heate: For it was not of power to finish concoction.

Assation is concoction, by meanes of dryer heate fully strengthening the moysture of nourishment. IfThe benefit of good, and the hurt of bad concoction. this strength of bodyes be somewhat weake, it is called thickning; if concoction bee vicious, it is turned unto putrifaction. Moyst and hote things doe most easily corrupt, if the bodyes be not open to the Ayre.

In stopped bodyes, heate having no vent is increa­sed.Whence in­flammation ariseth. Whence commeth inflammation, which putri­faction doth follow, causing greater heate. This of concoction.

The Companions of concoction, are Faculties, fitlyThe compa­nions of con­coction. serving for the perfection of it.

Of these, one goeth before, the other followeth. The former is Attraction and Retention.

Attraction is a facultie, supplying matter of conve­nient1. Attraction, what it is. nourishment, as is seene in things drawing our of the flesh Arrow-heads or thornes deepely fastned. So wheat draweth water out of on earthen pot, it being set upon the heape. Retention which retayneth2. Retention, what it is. nourishment, untill it be concocted, & doth nourish the body. Nourishment, is first put to and afterward united. The companion following concoction is expulsion.

Expulsion, is a driving backe of unprofitable matter:3. Expulsion, what it is. when concoction is once made, it is within or without [Page 22] the body. Within, when the stronger thrust superflui­ties to the weaker, untill they come to the weakest of all. Encrease which is joyned to the nourishment, is continued but to a certaine age, & then the nourishing growing weake it ceaseth. Now followeth conservati­on of the whole stocke.

Generation is a facultie of the body, procreating anyWhat genera­tion is. thing like it selfe. This faculty preserveth all kindes of things in their estate, though continually they doe perish.

The object of generation, is the procreating seedeWhat is the object of it. of every thing.

The changing faculty, altereth the seede into parts of the body to be begotten.

The ministeriall vertues of this facultie of genera­tion, doe change or forme.

The forming faculty fashioneth the thing into di­stinct forme.

CHAP. VI. Of Minerals and Mettals.

THe Vegetative soule being explained: now fol­low the kindes of such natures as have perfect, or unperfect growth. Those of unperfect growth are Mettals, which are decocted in the veines of the earth. Mettals are to be melted easily or hardly. Those that are easie to bee dissolved, are either first, or such as spring from them.

Principall, or first, are of themselves from the origi­nall,Brimstone what it is, and the na­ture of it. as Brimstome, and Quicksilver.

Brimstone is the fat of the earth, with fiery heate de­cocted [Page 23] unto his hardnesse, which is the cause that it so speedily is enflamed, and burneth even in water, yea sooner than the fat of the beasts, which though it bee fatter than brimstone, yet it is farre colder. So that for his fat drinesse, it helpeth scabbes of all kinds, and the leprie.

That Brimstone is counted the best, which is greene and cleare.

Quicksilver is a slimy water, mixt with a pure whiteQuicksilver, what it is. earth, which mettall for the matter whereof it doth consist, is thinne, cold, and heavie.

It is in continuall motion, and his thinnesse causethThe nature of it. that it pierceth mettals.

Mettals derived from the first, are more or lesseGold what it is. pure; purer, are Gold and Silver. Gold is a mettall made of most subtile and pure red brimstone, and of the like quicksilver. Gold hath the most perfect mix­ture; as it is most thin, so it is most solide, whose sub­stance is not corrupted, with either earth, water, or ayre, nor consumed with fire, but is more purged in it.The nature of it.

And for his thin solidnesse, it is most soft, and easie to be melted. So that is most worth, which is most red and glistering and soft, that easily it may be wrought.

Experience teacheth, that the 3 part of one graine of gold can gild a wyre of 134 foote long: upon plates of silver, one ounce of gold will suffice to gild eight pound waight of silver. His nature is to bee marvelled at. It waxeth cold towards day light, so that those that weare rings of it, may perceive it, when it waxeth day.Where it is found.

It is found in the mountaines of Arabia and else where; and the best, in the mountaine Terrat, neare the Citie Corbachiam.

Siluer is a mettall begotten of pure white Mercury,Silver, what it is. The diffe­rence betwixt it and gold. and the like cleare white Brimstone. It differeth from Gold almost onely in colour, it being Gold not per­fectly refined; yet in purenesse, firme solidnesse, and thinnesse, it is next to Gold, and one ounce of it may be drawne 3200. foote long, so that it can scarce be di­scerned from Gold. Yet it is thicker an hundreth fold.

When it is found, it hath the shape of haires, twigs, fishes, serpents, and such like.

Mettals lesse pure, consist of greater store of Brim­stone or Quicksilver; of greater store of Brimstone, come Brasse, and Iron.

Brasse is a mettall, begotten of thicke red Brim­stone,Brasse what it is. and Mercury somewhat impure; that comming from Cyprus, is called Copper: the matter of Brasse is more burnt than that of other mettals, and indureth long, and is fit in any worke. For it is without all moy­sture, whether it be kept in earth or water. Minerals neare Brasse are Copperasse, &c.

Copperasse, is a minerall mixed of humours strainedCopperasse, what it is. by droppes into small holes, and it shineth like glasse.

It is hot and dry in the 4. degree, vehemently bin­ding,The nature of it. being of great force to season and preserve raw flesh. It also begetteth sound flesh in festered sores, and stancheth blood. It is of a greene, yellow, and a skye colour, the best hath in it white spots; his kinde are Romane vitrioll, and red vitrioll, or the fome of Cop­perasse.

Iron is of store of Mercury, and of thicke sulphur,Iron, what it is. impure and adust. It may be softened by quenching inThe nature of it. juyce of beane shuls or mallowes. It being red hot [Page 25] and cooling of himselfe, becommeth plyable.

But if it be often quenched in cold water, it becom­meth thereby, very hard and brittle.

Mettalls of greater store of Mercury, are Lead and Tynne.

Lead is an unpure mettall, begot of much unpureLead, what it is. thicke and drossie Mercury, and likewise of unpure Brimstone; his impurity causeth blacknesse, which by refining is made whiter. It increaseth in waight, if it lie in moyst ground.

Yea it is thought to increase with raine. It is of aThe nature of it. cold and binding nature, and therefore scarce whol­some for mans use.

Tynne is a mettall mixed of Mercury, white with­outTynne, what it is. and red within, and of Brimstone not well mixed, as it were Lead whited with silver.

Thus farre of mettalls pliable.

Mettals lesse plyable are those which are not easily wrought, or melted, and are hard or brittle.

Those that bee altogether hard, are stones. TheseStones, where­of they are, &c the variety of them. are ingendred of a watry moysture, and fat earth mix­ed hard togeather. Of stones, some be rare, some com­mon. Of the rare and strange, some are of more esti­mation than others.

The more esteemed are precious stones; which arePrecious stones. more beautifull and fine, in regard of their pure and subtile matter: Of Gemmes some are of one coullour, some of sundry colours. More or lesse transparent be either white, or of other colours.

White are Crystall or Adamant. Crystall is aCrystall. gem, bright through, begot of a most pure stony moy­sture,The nature of it. and is found in mines of Marble, &c. His quali­tie [Page 26] is binding: therefore his oyle or powder is helpe­full in Laxes, and increaseth milke in womens brests.

The Adamant or Diamant is a gem cleare and mostAdamant. hard, it can scarce be broken (and thence it is named)The nature of it. unlesse steeped in the warme bloud of a Goat that hath drunke Wine or eaten Parsley.

Transparent Gemmes not white, as the Saphir Sardonix, and Smaragde, have the same coullour in all their kindes.Saphir.

The Saphir is a gem cleare through, of a skie coul­lour, growing in the East, and specially in India:The nature of it. Being drunke, it helpeth against the stinging of Ser­pents, poyson, &c. as some affirme.

The Smaragde is of a greene coullour, makingSmaragde. greene the ayre neare about it; the stone of BrytaineThe nature of it. is the best. It preserveth the wearer from the falling sickenesse: eyght graines of his shaving drunke, expel­leth poyson, &c. as some affirme.

The Sardonyx is a cleare gem, representing in coul­loursSardonyx. the nayle of a mans hand: it preserveth chastnes,The nature of it. and healeth vlcers about the nayles.

The Selenites is a transparent gem like glasse, itSelenites. seemeth to increase and decrease with the moone:The nature of it. whose shape in the night it beareth, and is called therefore the Moone-stone, &c. It is of a white, blacke, and yellow coullour. His scrapings heale the falling sicknesse. Bright shining Gems doe follow.

The Carbuncle is a gem shining in the light likeCarbuncle. fire: it is the noblest, and hath most vertues of any pre­ciousThe nature of it. stone.

The Calcedonian is of a purple coullour, shiningCalcedonian. The nature of it. like a starre, it expels sadnes and feare by purging and [Page 27] chearing the spirits. It hindreth all visions.

The Astarites is a Crystalline stone, having in theAstarites. The nature of it. middest like a full moone. Bright stones not shining do follow: or the lesse shining.Rubie.

The Rubie is a red gemme, shining in darke like a sparke of fire: it cleareth the sight, it expelleth sadThe nature of it. and fearefull dreames.

The Topaz is of the colour of gold, castingTopaz. beames in the Sunne: being layd to a wound, it stan­chethThe nature of it. blood: or cast into hot water, keepeth the hand from scalding.Hiachinth.

The Hiacinth is of waterish colour, it is exceeding hard, and cloudie in the darke, but pure and cleare byThe nature of it. day. It is colde, moderating the spirits of the heart and of the other parts, and causing mirth, which being worne obtaineth favour.

Precious stones of lesse shining, be Corrall, Asbe­stos, Magnes, and Galacte.

Corall is a stone growing in the Sea like a slimieCorrall. shrub, which by the ayre presently is made hard. It isThe nature of it▪ taken up full of mosse, but being unbarked, it appea­reth cleare in his proper colour. The spongie Corrall is white and colde. The solid is more stonie, and is red and blacke. Red and full of branches is the best, which worne of one shortly to be sicke, waxeth pale. His tender substance is affected by the bad vapour, which yet is unable in the body to afflict it. It is good for sore eyes, for the stone, and falling sicknesse.

Asbestos is of an Iron colour, being once fiered, itAsbestos. The nature of it. cannot be quenched: it is found in Arabia.

Magnes or Loadstone is of a skie colour, or an I­ronThe Load­stone. The nature of it. colour: It draweth Iron. It hath like vertue [Page 28] with the Adamant. It purgeth the dropsie, belpeth the flux; respecteth the North and South pole.

Galactites is of an Ash colour, it seemeth to sweatGalactites. The nature of it. as it were milke, it increaseth milke, and helpeth run­ning of the eyes, and ulcers.

Now follow stones of divers colours.

Achates is a stone of divers colours, resembling aAchates. The nature of it. Lyons skin: sometime it is blacke with white veynes and yellow: sometime it is as it were sprinkled with bloud, it is very variable in colour. Eagles lay it in their nests to preserve their young from poyson.

Turcois is darke, of a skie colour, and greenish:Turcois. It helpeth weake eyes and spirits.The nature of it.

Corneolus is like water of washed flesh. It helpethCorneolus. against the Pyles in the fundament, and to stop fluxes.The nature of it. In a ring it restraineth anger.

Chrysoprasus is of a greene colour with goldenChrysoprasus. spots. It shineth a little in the darke, it is rare and deare.The nature of it. It comforteth the heart, helpeth dim sight, &c.

Hematite is of an Iron colour with bloudy veynes:Hematite. It is cold and dry, cooleth hot waters, stancheth bloud,The nature of it. and helpeth against▪ the scorching of the Sunne, as Au­thors write.

Also the qualities of other stones depend rather upon authoritie than upon proofe.

Stones be found in Beasts, Birds, and Fishes.

Stones found in Beasts be;

1. Chelidonius is a small stone in the belly of yongChelidonius. Swallowes. It is found in those of the first hatching inThe nature of it. the new moone: if two be found, the one is red, the o­ther blacke. The best is of a sprinkled red. The red in a linnen cloath carried under the left arme, expelleth [Page 29] madnesse, the falling sicknesse, and getteth favour, say some.

2. Alectorius is of a christall or watrish colour.Alectorius. It is found in the Maw of an olde Capon: as big as a beane in one of nine yeere old, small in one of five yeereThe nature of it. olde. This stone quencheth thirst, being held in the mouth. It maketh warlike and couragious.

3. The Rubet or Toadstone, groweth in the headToadstone. of a Toad: It is of a white browne colour, sometimeThe nature of it. it hath a skie coloured eye in the middle: It is to bee▪ taken before the Toad touch any Water. It is a reme­die against all poyson. If it come neare poyson, it changeth colour, and sweateth as it were drops.

In fishes are found stones which are made of the cold hardening their matter.

4. The Crabs eye, of the female, is like an eye,Crabs eye. it dissolveth bloud congealed, and expellethThe nature of it. stones.

5. The Perch stone found in his head, is white and asPerchstone, big as Hemp-seed.

6. The Carpe stone found in his chap, is triangu­ler,Carpestone. white without, yellow within. It helpeth againstThe nature of it. aboundance of choller. Thus farre of precious stones.

These following are of price because of their beau­tie, but not so rare.

Porphirite, is a Marble shining like purple. Alaba­sterPorphirite. Alabaster. is a marble like in colour, to spotted Honny. At this day it is cleare, and smooth, like Plaster.

The Ophite is a most hard marble, of a sad greeneOphite. spotted, and serpent-like colour.

Common stones are of unpure slimie earth, thicke,Common stones. [Page 30] and darke: some be solid, as the Flint, Boulder, the Whet-stone, &c. Some be full of pores as the Pumise, Gravel-stone, and free-stone.

Salt is a fryable mettall, begotten of a waterish andSalt, what it is. earthy moysture, mixt and decocted together: ItThe nature of it. bindeth, scowreth, purgeth, disperseth, represseth, maketh thin and hard. It is gotten in pits or waters. The sorts of digged salts be:

Salt Amoniack is found in plates under the hotteSalt Amonaick The nature of it. sands of Cyreniae. It is hot and dry in the fourth de­gree, and serveth to purge slimie humors. That which Apothecaries sell in blacke clods, is made of Camels stale, and because store of Camels be in Armenia, it is called Armeniack.

Salt Peter is found in dry places under the ground,Salt Peter. and in hollow Rockes: It is sometime called Nitre, of a Region in Egypt. Of this kinde is the salt called Borax.

Salt Gem, is a white kinde of Even-salt, shining likeSalt Gem. Crystall: It is also called Stonic, marbly, salt Sarma­ticke, or Dacian.

Salt of Indie is blackish Salt, or ruddy. It is in clodsSalt of Indie. cut out of mount Oremen.

Salt of Water is taken on the Sea coast, or from someSalt of water. lakes and springs, and it is sod and congealed of the Sunne, or by fire.

Allo me is a salt sweat of the earth, it is either liquidAllome. or hard.

Liquid Allome is called Roch or Rock-Allome,Liquid Al­lome. with it is paper washed, &c.

Hard Allome, or Allome Scissile is thicke, andHard Allome. cleaveth: It is as it were gray.

Bitume is a fat and tough moysture, like pitch, andBitume. is called Earthy pitch.

Liquid, is like an oylely moysture flowing, and is ofLiquid Bi­tume. divers colours, after the varietie of the place, of which Naphtha is a white fat of Bitumen, which en­flamed by water, doth easily draw to it fire, through store of oyle that is in it.Naphtha Pe­treolum.

Naphtha Petreolum is found in rockes. It is for his fatnesse of some called Oyle.

Ambar of Arabia is Bitume of an Ash colour.Ambar of Arabia. Hard Bitume.

Hard Bitume is tough, like foam swimming on the water, but being taken forth, it waxeth hard: of this kinde is Asphaltus, which is blacke Bitume, hard like stone pitch: The best is gotten in the dead Sea of Iu­dea. &c.Pissaphaltus▪

Pissaphaltus Asphaltus, smelling of Pitch, mingled with Bitume: It is called Mummie. Where this wants, they sell us counterfeit of Syria; for poore men that die there, be stuffed with Bitume, but the rich are dres­sed with Mirrh, Alloes, &c.

It also is found in clods rolling from mount Cera­vine into the Sea.Succinum.

Succinum is Bitume, like a stone, exceeding hard, named, Ex succo, the Iuyce of the earth. It is white or yellow, which is called Ambar, or blacke as Iet. His fatnesse is so great that it burneth like a Candle, and smelleth like the Pine tree. It draweth to it chaffe, and such other light stuffe, by a certaine hid nature.

Metallar Earths which are digged forth of mines.Terra Lemnia

Terra Lemnia, an exceeding red Earth of Lemnos Ile, digged in a red hill: It is sometime used for Ar­menian. In old time this had Dianaes seale upon it, [Page 32] printed by her Priests, who were onely wont to wash this earth.

It is of force to expell poyson, it healeth woundsThe nature of it. festred and old, and poysoned.

Bole Armenian, is earth of Armenia, it is of a paleBole Armeni­an. red colour, smooth, and easie to breake as chalke: It isThe nature of it. a dryer, and profiteth against all fluxes.

Terra Samia is white, stiffe, and tough, commingTerra Samia from the Ile Samos.

Ampelite is a pitchie earth, cleaving and blacke, itAmpelite. is named of annoynting Vines, to kill the wormes. This earth is like that we call Stone, or Sea coale.

Chalke is white earth of Creete, and there is foundChalke. of it in many other places.

There is also some found that is blacke, which isBlack Chalke called Pignitis.

CHAP. VII. Of Natures perfectly living.

SO farre of Minerals; Now follow Natures perfect­ly living.What natures perfectly li­ving are.

Natures perfectly-living, are Plantes, or bodies en­dowed with a soule. In all these bodies are sundry vertues, according to the temperature of the princi­pall qualities. For the forme useth their qualities as Instruments: Whence come diverse distinct degrees of those qualities, as some are hot, cold, dry, moyst, in the first, second, third, and fourth degree. The qualities in the first are obscure, and scarce to be perceived: in the second they are apparant and manifest: in the third they be vehement: and in the fourth immoderate, and not to be indured. And againe each of these hath a be­ginning, middle, and end.

Plants grow from a stalke or a trunke. Those from aPlants. stalke have but one stalke or many. Trees are Plants having but one stalke, full of Boughs, and rising on high from the earth. Some grow onely in hot Coun­tries: others grow indifferently in all places: those that prosper best in hot Regions, are Frankincense, Mace, Pepper, Palme, Balsame, Pomegranet, Lem­mon, Ceder,

The Frankincense tree groweth chiefly in Arabia;Frankincense tree. it is tall, and hath leaves like the Mastike tree, his gumThe nature of it. is soft, white, fat, and round, and is apt to perfume, and the stiffer and liker Rosen it is, so much the bet­ter. This perfume was used for sacrifice.

Myrrhe is a tree in India, of hard wood, wrythenMyrrhe. towardes the earth, with a smooth barke, the leavesThe nature of it. sharpe poynted towardes the end: his gum is fat, like Rosen, thicke, and shining red. The distilled liquor of fresh Myrrh was once called Stact, but now it is na­med Storax. It is hot and dry in the second degree. It dryeth & closeth wounds, it expelleth the wormes: it is of force against an old cough and short winde. It is bitter: It is good to heale wounds of the head.

Mace is an Indian tree, grown in the Ile of Banda. ItMace. is almost like the Peach tree, it hath narrow and short leaves, whose fruit is the Nut-meg covered with Mace.

The Nut-meg hath an huske like a Filberd: theNutmeg▪ fruit is covered with a rinde like our Wal-nut, which with ripenesse openeth and sheweth the Mace, which doth cover the Nut-meg, &c.

The new and best Nut-meg is full of juyce or oyle, smelling sweete. It dryeth and heateth in the ende of the second degree, with a kindely binding.Pepper,

Pepper groweth in India, Of it be two sorts of trees, [Page 34] and two sorts of fruits, one long, the other round. The round groweth on branches like vines, which imbraceth trees that stand by it; and his fruit is in clusters, first greene, then being dryed, it turneth blacke and rough: it is gathered in October.

Long Pepper groweth like the long bud on Nut­trees.The nature of it. It is hot and dry.

Palme tree groweth most in Egypt, and Arabia, al­wayesPalme tree. greene, with a long round bodie; his barke is like scales of a Fish, and the more it is pressed, the bet­ter it groweth: therefore was it used as a reward for the Conquerour.

The wild Palme in India, is called Thamarind,Wilde Palme tree. The nature of it. the Date is his fruit, it being ripe is blacke and sweete: Of these bee three kindes. Our Dates come from E­gypt: they are hot temperately.

Balsame is a low tree, his trunke is not much unlikeBalsame tree. the Turpentine tree; it hath leaves like Rew, but wither, never falling. It groweth in the valley of Hie­rico, and Egypt: being cut it sendeth out a milkish li­quor:The nature of it. it is to bee cut in the uper part of the barke with glasse or bone, and not with Iron, least it die. His juyce is gathered with wooll into small hornes: of it is scarce got each yeare six Congies: a Congie is about three Pints.

Native Balme mixed with milke doth easily sepa­rate:Balme. and easily dissolve in water, neither doth it staineThe nature of it. cloth. It is hot and dry in the second degree: it is of thin parts, and hard to come by. In his stead most commonly is used the Oyle of Nut-megges.

  • [Page 35]The Pomegranet
  • The Orange
  • The Cedar tree

doth follow.

1. Pomegranet is a low tree, that hath narrow shiningPomegranet. leaves, red flowers, and his fruit filled with graynes. It came from the Country in which Carthage stoode;The nature of it. The juyce of this Apple helpeth the stomacke: It is very good in a burning Fever.

2. Pomecytron, Lemmon, and Orange trees,Pomecytron. are alwayes greene, the leafe of the Cytron is likeThe nature of it. the Lawrell, endented. The fruit is rough, and al­wayes fruitfull; his juyce cureth inflammations, and other diseases in the skin: the barke comforteth the heart, &c.

The Orange hath a smoother skin, and leafe.Orange.

3. The Cedar is like to Iuniper, his leaves beingCedar. sharper: the tree is exceeding tall, chiefly of that of Cy­prus;The nature of it. It never rotteth, his nature destroying sound things, preserveth corrupt things.

The trees lesse hot are either fruitfull or barren. The fruitfull have fruit that have a rinde thicke, or thin. The thinner rinde is of Apples, or Berries. Ap­ples are round, as the Fig, Olive, Plum, Cherry.

The Fig tree is not high, it hath a smooth barke likeFigtree. the Walnut tree. It yeeldeth a long fruit like a Peare, full of graines. It is so fruitfull that it bringeth forth three or foure times in a yeare: so that one Fig thrust­eth off another. They are of two kindes, great and little.

The Olive: the Apple tree: and Peach be common.

The Quince tree is lower then an Apple tree, hisQuince tree [...] fruit hath downie hayre; it is called Cidonia, of a ci­tie [Page 36] in Crete, where first it grew. The fruit is cold andThe nature of it. binding, and doth much profit hot stomackes.

The Peare, the Plum, the Medler, and the Cherry be common.

Now follow those trees that beare Berries.

The Lawrell is a tree growing in hotter countryes;Lawrell tree. which in colde doth hardly prosper; it hath sharpe and thicke leaves ever greene, with a thin smooth barke: His leaves be hot and dry, his oyle for hot andThe nature of it. softning nature helpeth diseases of the brest; and other springing of colde. The powder in wine causeth u­rine, breaketh the stone of the bladder and reynes.

Iuniper beareth a small fruit, the space of two yeares;Iuniper tree. and before the first bee ripe, it bringeth forth other▪ This tree hath short and sharpe leaves, and a straight backe, and slit almost in every place: the gum sweat­ing out of is, Vernix, called so because it congealethThe nature of it. in the spring. It is hot and dry in the third degree. It healeth and gleweth, and also heateth a colde sto­macke. His berries are hot and dry in the first degree, comforting the spirits, and healing putrifactions. It consumeth rotten and moyst humors. The oyle hel­peth the Gout, if you annoynt the backe-bone there­with: it cureth deafenesse, and eaten helpeth melan­choly, and stayeth the Rheume, and the Flux.

Now follow trees whose fruit hath a shell.

1. The Almond tree.

2. The Walnut tree.

3. The Chesnut tree taketh his name of a towneChesnut tree. in Magnesia, the tree is much like the Wallnut, yet the leafe hath more veines, and his edge like a Saw. His fruit is covered with a sharpe huske, and within it hath [Page 37] a red huske. It is of two kindes: both hot and dry inThe nature of it. the first degree; and for their earthie matter binding. They are hard to disgest, and beget lice: but good if rosted and eaten with Salt, Pepper, and Sugar.

The powder of dry Chesnuts voydeth Vrine.

The Beech is tall with a thicke white barke, or aBeech tree. sad red. It hath leaves like Lawrell, nicked on the edge. His fruit is a theerangle Nut, closed in a littleThe nature of it. pricking huske. His fruite is hot, sweete, and binding. His leaves are coole, which being eaten, doe helpe much the griefe of the gums and lippes. If they bee stamped, they much strengthen dead members, being anoynted with it. Swine and Mise delight much in this fruit.

Trees whose fruit is but halfe covered.

The Oke is a tall tree, having a thicke rough barke,Oke tree. his leaves are deepe gashed, and his boughes are knot­ted: his proper fruit is the Acorne: the gall and his glew are but accidentall. It is moderately hot and dry,The nature of it. it bindeth, and especially the little skin which cove­reth the Acorne. Distilled water of Oke leaves cureth Fluxes, and rottennesse of the Liver: and expelleth all congealed bloud. His leaves stamped and applyed to greene wounds heale them.

Likewise they draw heate from swellings and pim­ples arising by heate.

Galls grow especially in olde Okes, and in the night, in the Summer, the Sunne then leaving Gemi­ni: they bee of two sorts; small and rough, and great and smooth.

Galls have in them sometime Spiders, Flies, and Ants: Some thinke Spiders doe presage pestilence, [Page 38] Flies warre, and Ants dearth. The powder of Galls doth heale wounds without any scarre. Robur is very hard and during: It hath lesse fruit.

The Ilex is very tall with leaves, Lawrell-like, everIlextree. greene, but lesser and sharpe: a thicke wood, and of a blacke red colour; and is very rare.

Another kinde is the Corke tree, having like leafe,Corke tree. fruit, and greennesse, yet is it lesser, and hath a most thicke barke, which though it bee taken off, yet dothThe nature of it. not the tree wither: it is called the female Ilex: his wood is full of pores and holes, and most light, and not to be sunke.

Now follow trees that beare gum, whose Nut hath scales.

The Pine apple is a Tree full of boughes, with hay­riePine Apple tree. leaves like Combe teeth, of whose sharpe top it takes his name. His fruite is Pine-nuts, these are hotThe nature of it. and dry, and binde. They are good against coughs, and consumptions, strengthening, and heating.

The wilde Pine is a great high tree with hairy leaves.

The Pitch tree is tall with a blacke barke, tough andPitch tree. stiffe, and running along his boughes like a crosse, from both sides of the trunke: his leaves are broader, softer, and smoother than Rosemary. From betweene the barke and wood of this tree floweth a gumme like Rozen.

The Firre tree is a kinde of Pitch tree, but some­whatFirre tree. whiter, his leaves on one side are of an Ash co­lour: from this floweth also a Rozen, which sod with honey profitteth against the destillations of the head and throat, against the Quinsey and other maladies; it asswageth the inflammation of woundes, and joyneth [Page 39] them: it sodden with Barley bran and wine, cureth hard kernells.

The Larix is a high tree with a thicke barke cliftedLarix tree. on each side: his boughes grow by degrees about the trunke: his leaves are thicke, long, soft, and hairie; his fruit is almost like the Cypres, and hath a pleasantThe nature of it. smell. The wood of this, for that it is dry and full of Rozen, burneth vehemently, and soone melteth met­tall. His Rozen is in smell, taste, and working better than common Turpentine.

In colour it is like honey, tough but not hard. In the body of the tree groweth Fungus Agaricus, a swamp or mush▪ rome. The best is white, thin, full of pores, light, and easie to breake: it purgeth fleame.

Now follow trees that bring forth no fruit of note, called Barren-trees.

The Elme is tall with rough leaves and sharpe: hisElme tree. wood is yellow, hard, & deformed: the barke, boughes,The nature of it. and leaves have a healing facultie in scabbes. It also closeth woundes.

The Alder hath a long straight trunke, his wood isAlder tree. soft, his leafe like Peare-tree, but greater, thicker, and rounder: it groweth in moyst places, and by rivers. His wood is hot and dry, and indureth long under theThe nature of it. earth, or in water. His thin and fat leaves layd upon tumors with hot water cure them, and helpe all swellings.

The Teile is a large and broad tree, with a thickeTeile tree. stalke: his leaves like Ivie, but softer and sharper. ItThe nature of it. bindeth: his other qualities are like the wilde Olive.

The Boxe hath little round leaves alwayes greene,Boxe tree▪ his stalke is rough, for most part full of knotts, and [Page 38] [...] [Page 39] [...] [Page 40] blacke: the wood is hard and heavie, it sinketh in wa­ter, and never decayeth with age. Of this, boxes are named, because most of them were wont to be made of Boxe. It is dry and binding; the powder of hisThe nature of it. leaves, with Lavender and water, profitteth against madnesse. Lye of Boxe maketh yellow hayres.

The Birch is a tender tree, his barke is blacke atBirch tree. first, but after white; his wood is soft and weake above other. It hath a sweete sap; In the rude age, his barke was used for paper. His sap taken in the Spring helpethThe nature of it. the stone, Iaundies, and rottennesse of the mouth; also being put in milke, preserveth the Cheese made of that milke from Maggots.

Willow groweth apace, it endureth long, forWillow tree. The nature of it. though it bee hollow and rotten, yet it liveth. It is of two sorts, solid or brittle: the solid is blacke or yel­low: the blacke is the greater and better, and is most apt for binding.

The yellow groweth chiefly neare water, it is some­time white. The brittle Willow is most white, and un­apt for binding. Willowes are dry and thicke: his leaves and barke sod in Wine, helpeth gripings of the belly.

The Poplar delighteth in moyst and watrish pla­ces.Poplar tree. It is white or blacke: the white hath a long straight trunke, and a smooth barke: his leafe round, and after sharper, greene beneath, hoarie above, and do continu­ally shake; it is moderately hot and dry. The roote taken in drinke, defendeth from gripings in the belly. Blacke Poplar is like the white, but greater, softer, and hath narrower leaves, and greene below, and of anThe nature of it. Ash colour above. It is hot and dry: the boughes [Page 41] held in the hand (some say) forbid wearinesse of hand and foote: his gumme stamped helpeth loose­nesse.

Now follow shrubs, which spring up with manyShrubs. stalkes; and are noble or lesse noble: The noble, as first, Cinnamon, which is a barke of a shrub of thatCinnamon. name growing in India: of a blacke colour, with thin boughes, which if they be broken, cast forth a sweete sent: His barke is of two sorts, thicke and thinne. The thinne is of the sharpest and best taste. The thicke is more slowly digested; it comforteth the heart: the bestThe nature of it. is red and sharpe with some sweetnesse. It is of subtile parts, hot in the third, and dry in the second degree. It helpeth a colde stomacke, it strengtheneth the sight, heart, and liver, and begetteth pure blood.

Cassia Fistula, is a round, great, and purple Cane,Cassia Fistula. having a very blacke pith; the heaviest and reddest Canes are best. Of the blacke pith is made a good andThe nature of it. gentle purgation, called Cassia extract. This helpeth much against feavers, and many other diseases, if one ounce of it be taken with as much Rose water.

Shrubs lesse noble.

The Hasell is an high shrub with a slender stalke,Hasell. and full of white spots. His leaves are broader, and have more gashes than the Alder. The tree beareth theThe nature of it. Filberd, and the Nut: these Nuts are hot and moyst, and make fat, but hurt the stomacke, and procureth a laske. If stamped in water and sugar, they bee applied, they helpe an old cough. The ashes burnt with Swines or Boares grease, and applyed to the head, causeth the hayre to grow.

The Elderne hath boughes of an Ash colour, andElderne. [Page 42] in it is store of pith, and his leaves are much like to those of the Wal-nut tree, it beareth purple berries, having red iuyce.

Dwarfe Elderne is low & short, with a foure-square stalke; these plants are hot and dry, and have power toThe nature of it. purge and digest: Also it healeth and closeth; the roote or leaves of Elder sod in wine, purge the dropsie, and nothing is more effectuall to that purpose than the roote of Dwarfe Elderne. Water in which the leaves of Elderne are sod, helpes to rid the dry cough. The Pitch or an electuary of the berries, expelleth sweate, and all poyson.

Barberries are not much unlike the wilde Peare, al­thoughBarberries. they bee farre lesse, and in the boughes some two or three prickes grow together. His leafe is likeThe nature of it. Quince leaves, but narrower. Barberries bee hot and dry in the second degree. The iuyce of the berryes profitteth against inflammation of the Liver, as also a­gainst inward impostumes: if it be applyed with night­shade, it quencheth thirst. The barke of his roote or fruit stamped, plucketh out a thing fast in the flesh: his syrrope tempered with sugar comforteth the hart, restoreth appetite, profiteth against burning Feavers, and all inward diseases of much blood.

The small Raisin hath purple boughes, and pam­pinSmall Raysin. leaves, but lesse, and of blackish greene: it hathThe nature of it. round red berries, upon long stalkes; his fruit and leaves are colde and dry in the second degree, having power to close. The iuyce of the fruit taken, helpeth against trembling of the heart, & inflammations of the bodie; but chiefly it helpeth the plague: his iuyce with Endive water profitteth to remove specks of the face.

The Rose groweth up with small twigs, of a blackeRose. greene, full of crooked prickes; his leaves are dentedThe nature of it. on the edge; his fruit, namely, Roses bee of diverse colours. All Roses bee colde and dry, and helpe both inward and outward affections of the body.

The juyce sod in Wine helpeth griefes of the head, eyes, and gums. Honey and Rose water strengthen all parts, and purge melancholy and fleame; sodden with Fennell and Salt, his oyle healeth burnings, and layed on the forehead taketh away heavinesse, and hot sick­nesses. The funge of wilde Rose trees in powder with wine expelleth the stone. Water of Roses helpeth sore eyes, comforteth and cooleth the braine, it being drunke, relieveth the heart and stomacke: it keepeth the spirits, and naturall heate.

The Bramble is full of prickes, and crawleth about:Bramble. the leaves of sweete bryer on the one side are white, on the other blacke; his fruite is the blacke berry, full of juyce, the berry is dry, colde, and close. His fruit,The nature of it. leaves, or sprouts quench inward heate. The top of his leaves sod in Wine stay the bloudie flixe, helpe ul­cers of the mouth, and fasten loose teeth.

Poterion, uva orispa, Gooseberries is full of boughs,Gooseberries. hath ash coloured barke or white, full of sharpe thornes, his leaves are lesse than ground Ivie and croo­ked, his berries from greene turne to reddish: it is coldThe nature of it. in the first, dry in the second degree; his greene leaves cure inflammations, and apostumes, and asswage Ignis sacer.

Colutea in leafe not unlike to Fengreke, hath aColutea. round fruit, as big as a Lentle in a puffed shell. It is hotThe nature of it. in the beginning of the second degree, and dry in the [Page 44] first: it purgeth the panch: scoureth away chiefly me­lancholy,The nature of it. without trouble, from the head, braine, and the Instruments of the senses.

Thus farre of Plants growing from a trunke or stalke, &c.

Now follow Herbes which have but a thin smallHerbes. stalke, consisting most upon leaves: These doe nourish more or lesse, as Corne and Pot-herbes, which nourish more.

Wheate is a kinde of Corne, having an eare uponWheate. the blade, stuffed with many graynes; it is moderatelyThe nature of it. hot and dry, and of much nourishment, and helpefull for many diseases, aswell within as without the body: the best is hard to breake, heavie, and of gold colour, smooth, and groweth in fat ground.

Leaven of Wheate doth draw, ripen, and open ul­cers, and apostumes: Bisket profitteth against rheume.

Barly is cold and dry in the second degree, andBarley. purgeth. His floure and new milke in plaster cureThe nature of it. Biles, and such tumors, by easing their paine, and drawing forth heate. Bread made of it begetteth cold and slimie humours, and nourisheth lesse than wheat, Barley water maketh the skin faire and smooth.

Spelte or Zea is of a middle temperature, betweeneSpelte. Wheate and Barly: it is a kinde of Wheate, and com­monly goeth under that name.

Rye is not so hot as Wheate, and hurteth much, ex­ceptRye. it be well disgested.

Oates are colder than Wheate, and of operation al­mostOates. like Barley.

Now follow of Pulse:

Millet.Millet is a most fertile Pulse with sharpe leaves, broad [Page 45] below, and sharpe towardes the toppe: his cod hathThe nature of it. in it a round long fruit. It is cold in the first, and dry in the third degree: It stoppeth the belly, and nouri­sheth but little.

Rize is smaller than Millet, and farre lesse, it grow­ethRize. in moyst and watry places: it bindeth.

Lentells grow like small pease, and have a vertue toLentels. binde.

Pease are either of the field or garden; bearing aPease. white, ot a purple flower.

Beanes are meanely colde, and moyst, inflaming,Beanes. windie, hard to disgest.Pot herbes.

Now follow Pot-herbes.

Coleworts haue very broad leaves, which enclosingColewortes. Their natures. one another round about become Cabbedges. These be colde and moyst; and in Egypt be very bitter. The Romanes for the space of six hundred yeares used this onely herbe to cure all diseases. His broath expelleth the stone and gravell, his leaves applyed by them­selves, or with the flowers cure inflamations: his juyce healeth festred sores, it cureth the falling of the haire. Broath made of his leaves with an olde Cocke, cureth the Collicke, and other gripings.

Spinagh hath an high stalke, and beareth sharpeSpinagh. seedes, his leaves being sharpe and triangular; it isThe nature of it. colde and moyst in the first degree. His juyce expelleth hurtfull rheume: It mollifieth the belly, and cureth hardnesse of the backe and belly. His Iuyce taketh a­way the paine and heate of the stomacke and liver: it helpeth the byting of Spiders,

Lettise hath his leaves gathered into a curled round­nesse;Lettise. that which groweth in the field hath a shorter [Page 46] stalke and leafe than Garden Lettise, being bitter, and full of milke.

It is moderately moyst and colde, like Spring water,The nature of it. it is wholsome in Summer, to restore appetite to meate. Yet too much of it hurteth the eyes: and boyld with womans milke cureth burnings.

Beetes have two colours, the one white, the otherBeetes. blacke and red, both of them for their salt disgest and cleanse, but the white is more salt, and bindeth, yet being boyled, it looseneth: It cureth obstructions ofThe nature of it. the liver, especially if it be taken with vineger and mu­stard: It also cureth those that be sicke of the splene.

Purslaine hath round, thicke, fat, and white leavesPurslaine: on the backe, a red stalke, yellow flowers like a Starre: They of the Garden have broad leaves, and a thicke stalke: the wilde, lesser, and more leaves. It is colde inThe nature of it. the first, and moyst in the second degree: it is tart; his juyce helpeth a hot stomacke, and hot diseases; it be­ing somewhat binding, helpeth fluxes, and evacuations of bloud, if it be used with Barly flower.

Garden Mallowes grow with a round leafe, and highMallowes. stalke, his flowers be red, or white: wilde Mallowes mollifie, and a little disgest: Garden, are moyst, andThe nature of it. weaker. The decoction of Mallowes drunke, cureth on old cough: his leaves sod and used with common oyle heale burning.

The Onion hath a subtile stalke, round and hollow,Onion. arising from a round roote, wound about with many fouldings: it is hot almost in the fourth degree: it isThe nature of it. of thicke partes: his juyce is a dry substance, and hot. An Onion all night layd in cold water and drunke, killeth wormes, and being beaten with salt, it draweth [Page 47] away warts by the rootes: his juyce put in the eare cu­reth deafenesse.

The Leeke groweth almost like Onions, and is ofLeekes. the same qualitie, it doth dissolve swellings, and con­gealedThe nature of it. bloud, being applyed like a Plaster.

Parsley hath leaves like Cicuta, it is hot and dry inParsley. the third degree, it peirceth and dissolueth, provokingThe nature of it. urine; the seede is more effectuall than the herbe. It dis­solveth the stone, it consumeth ill moysture, and sores of the head.

These hearbes following are used for Garlands, or physicke; some of them smelling sweetly.

The Violet hath leaves lesser and thinner than I­vie,Violet. but more blacke; his stalke commeth from the midst of his roote, beareth a purple flower, and a seed full of graynes. It springeth in woods, and shadowieThe nature of it. places, wilde, but not sweete: it is cold in the first, and moyst in the second: and cooleth hot diseases and in­flammations. Of it there be divers kindes, and colours: as the Pancey or Harts-ease.

The Daisie hath leaves somewhat round above andDaysie. The nature of it. small below, and the roote in the ground wheeling a­bout: it is cold in the second degree.

The Ielly-flower hath sharpe leaves, growing likeIelly-Flower. grasse with flowers of sundry colours: it hath an at­tractiveThe nature of it. force, and the juyce healeth wounds in the head.

Maioram hath almost a woodden stalke, with manyMaioram. The nature of it. rough round leaves, and it smelleth sweetly. It is hot and dry in the fourth degree, it is of thin parts, and of a disgesting facultie. It healeth, disgesteth, and pro­uoketh vrine.

Rosemary is hot and dry in the third degree, andRosemary. smelleth like Frankincense. It mollifieth, disgesteth,The nature of it. and dryeth.

Spicknard is hot in the first, and dry in the second de­gree.Spicknard. The nature of it.

Lavender heateth and dryeth in the second degree.Lavender.

White Daffodill is hot and dry. It is of diverseDaffodill. kindes.

Rose Campion is an hearbe with an Ash colouredRose Campi­on. stalke, as it were cotton, long leaved, and white, bear­ing purple flowers, growing up like the Prim-rose:The nature of it. his seede is hot and dry almost in the second degree: it prevaileth against the stinging of Scorpions.

Herbes used in medicine, are Aromatike, or ordina­ry. Aromaticke doe comfort and strengthen the spi­rits. Thence they take their name.

Saffron is hot in the second, and dry in the first de­gree:Saffron. it a little bindeth, and concocteth; it may with good keeping be preserved five yeares.The nature of it.

It comforteth the heart and stomacke, it maketh pure bloud, and provoketh vrine, it scowreth the brest, it is deadly, if it be taken too much.

Ginger waxeth greene twise or thrise in the yeare,Ginger. it heateth in the third, and is moyst in the first, it is ofThe nature of it. more subtile parts than Pepper.

Zadury or Wormeseede heateth and dryeth in theWormeseede. second degree, it is that we doe call the roote of Chi­na, like Ginger but not so biting.The nature of it.

Gallingall is the roote of a plant growing in Mem­phisGallingall. and Syria, it groweth like the flouredeluce, but with prickes, and is broader and thicker from theThe nature of it. roote. It is hot and dry in the third degree, as is the roote of Cyprus.

Calamus Aromaticus is an hearbe of India, growingCalamus A­romaticus. The nature of it. like reeds or figs. It is hot and dry in the second degree, and a little binding.

Acorus is a plant growing with leaves like Iris, butA corus. The nature of it. smaller, or like segges; the roote is white, sweetly smel­ling. It is hot and dry in the second degree.

There be sexes of hearbes, as of other living things, some of which more helpe, namely, the Male or Fe­male according to their kindes.

CHAP. VIII. Of humane Creatures.

MAn is a creature that hath reason, & as he is mostWhat man it, and the man­ner of his ge­neration. excellent, so hath he a more perfect shape in bo­dy than others. His members are formed, and beginne to appeare distinctly about the six and twentieth day. And they are all perfect in Males at thirty dayes, and in Females at 36. dayes. About this time the Childe beginneth to live, and to feele. The Male is moved in the third Month, but the Female in the fourth Month: then it is nourished and increased till the ninth Month, and after the ninth Month, when it is growne great, it is brought forth. This is the forming, and pro­creating of Man, for whose sake all other creatures were made.

A feeling soule is a power apprehending andWhat a fee­ling soule is. perceiving things placed without the body of li­ving creatures. This facultie is exercised by the sences, and by motion accompanying the sences. The sences are outward or inward. The outward onelySences out­ward. perceiving things present: And every one of these have [Page 50] their proper subject: and the most have a middle in­strument; of all which, if there bee a certaine mutuall consent and just proportion: the sences become of more force: but if any one of them have too excel­lent an object, or his instrument bee corrupt, they are dull and unfit to be used; This is the cause of blind­nesse to those that walke in snow, and of deafenesse un­to Smithes, &c. Furthermore, sences are common to the whole body, or proper to some part thereof. TheTouching. sence in the whole body is touching. This is a sence by meanes of flesh, full of sinewes, apprehending tactill qualities.

His instrument is flesh, full of sinewes, or rather a nerve like a hayre dispersed throughout the whole bo­dy. In man for the abundance of nerves is this sence most quicke; his meanes is flesh and skin, for though the skinne be removed, yet a man feeleth hurt. Sences of certaine parts are more or lesse noble. The nobler are Seeing, and Hearing; whose meanes are the wa­ter,Geeing. and ayre: Sight by the eye perceiveth bright and coloured things: The subject thereof is light, &c. Greene a most temperate colour is most acceptable to the sight. His instrument is the nerve Opticke, which from the braine commeth to the eyes.

Hearing is a sence perceiving soundes; his instru­mentHearing. is a little skin in the lowest winding, or turning of the eare, dry and full of holes: the skin is double, one below, which covereth a little bone like an Anvile: another above, containing a little bone, as it were a small Mallet. The upper striken by the soundes, stri­keth the lower, and stirreth up the spirits in the nerves to perceive the sound.

The more un-noble sences are Tasting, and Smel­ling:Tasting. Tasting apprehendeth tastes. His instrument is a nerve stretched like a Net upon the flesh of the tong, which is full of little pores. His meanes is a temperate salt humour, which if it doe exceed the just quanti­tie, it doth not exactly perceive tastes: but if it be al­together consumed, no tastes are perceived.

Smelling judgeth qualities fit for smell: his instru­mentSmelling. is the entrance into the first ventricle covered with a small skin; the dryer it is the quicker of smell, as in Dogs and Vultures: but man for the moystnosse of his braine, hath but a dull smell.

Now follow the inward sences, which beside thingsSences in­ward. presently offered, doe know formes of many absent things. By these the creature doth not onely perceive, but also understandeth that which hee doth perceive. These have their seate in the braine: They are either conceiving or preserving: Conceiving exerciseth hisConceiving. facultie by discerning, or more fully judging: it is cal­led, Common sence, and the other is Phantasie. Com­mon sence more fully distinguisheth sensible things; his instrument is the former ventricle of the braine, made by drynesse sit to receive. Phantasie is an inward sence more diligently examining the forms of things: This is the thought and judgement of creatures, his place is the middle part of the braine, being through drynesse apt to retaine.

The preserving sence is Memory, which accordingPreserving. to the constitution of the braine is better or worse. It is weaker in a moyst braine than in the dry braine. His instrument is the hinder part of the braine.

Memorie calling backe images preserved in former [Page 52] time, is called Remembrance: but this is not without the use of reason, and therefore is onely attributed to man.

The wittie excell in remembrance, the dull▪ in me­morie.

Sleepe is the resting of the feeling facultie: his causeSleepe how caused. is a cooling of the brayne by a pleasant abounding va­pour, breathing forth of the stomacke, and ascending to the braine. When that vapour is concoct, and tur­nedWaking how caused. into spirits, the heate returneth, and the sences re­covering their former function, cause waking. There be certaine appointed courses for watch and sleepe, lost creatures languish with overmuch motion.

Affections of sleepe are Dreames, Night-mare, andDreames▪ Extasie, &c.

A dreame is an inward act of the minde, the bodieWhat they be. sleeping: and the quieter that sleepe is, the easier bee dreames: but if sleepe bee unquiet, then the minde is troubled.

Varietie of dreames is according to the divers con­stitutionTheir variety. of the body.

The cleare and pleasant dreames are when the spi­rits of the braine, which the soule useth to imagine with, are most pure and thin, as towardes morning when concoction is perfected.

But troublesome dreames are when the spirits bee thicke and unpure. All naturall dreames are by ima­ges, either before proffered to memorie, or conceived by temperature alone, or by some influence from the starres, as some thinke.

From dreames many things may be collected, tou­ching the constitution of the body.

The Night-mare, is a seeming of being choked orThe night­mare. strangled by one leaping upon him: feare following this compression, the voyce is taken away. This af­fectionHow occasi­oned. commeth when the vitall spirits in the braine are darkened by vapours, ascending from melancholy and phlegme, insomuch, that that facultie being op­pressed, some heavie thing seemeth to bee layd upon us.

Therefore this disease is familiar to those, who through age or sexe are much inclined unto these hu­mours.

An Extasie or traunce, is a vehement imaginationA trance▪ of the departure (for a time) of the soule from the bo­die. A deepe sleepe lasting some dayes enseweth, forWhat it is▪ the foule giving over it selfe to cogitation, ceaseth to serve the body. Wherefore men wanting motion and sence seeme to be dead. And with what humours the braine shall be compassed, such phansies doth it con­ceive, although sometime spirits working on such phatasies, imprint other things.

Now followeth Motion, which accompanieth sence, and is caused either by appetite, or change of place; for we desiring things perceived in sence, can­not attaine unto them withour moving our body to that thing.Appetite▪ What it is.

Appetite is a facultie desiring such things as are objects to our sense. It chiefly followeth touching, or thinking. Delight followeth touching. Delight is a desire of an agreeing Object. Griefe is his contrary, which is a turning from the hurtfull object, or from that we count unpleasant. Appetites following cogi­tation, are all the motions of the heart, which be called [Page 54] affections, and are either good or bad. The good cherish and preserve the nature of our sensitive facul­tie, as mirth, love, hope, which come of heate: when the heart dilating it selfe, desireth to enjoy the thing, with which it is delighted.

Motion is a facultie of living creatures, stirring a bo­die,Motion what it is. entised by appetite from one place to another. It is either of the whole body, or of partes: Of the whole body, as by going, &c. Of partes, as breathing, which is made either by enlarging of the parts, which serve for the taking in of the ayre, or by the closing of them for the expelling of corrupt ayre.

Now followeth to intreat, Of the bodies of livingOf the bodies of living creatures. What the matter of the body is. creatures.

The matter of the body in which the foresaid fa­culties be, is the seede of both sexes. Seede is most pure bloud, perfectly concocted in the testicles, and it is gathered from the whole bodie. For the testicles lac­king nourishment, draw bloud from the hollow veyne and change it.

Conception is the action of the wombe, by whichConception, what it is. the power is stirred up to execute his inbred gift. Then that power being stirred up doth diversly di­stract the matter, separating his divers partes: and thus all parts alike get together their shape. Likewise all of them together are adorned with the faculties of the vegetative, or sensitive soule. Amongst the naturall faculties of the partes of the body, if there be putrifac­tion, a fault of the concocting facultie, there is made a certaine generation of matter: This is naturall, or extraordinary.

Naturall is by an inbred heate, not altogether sub­dued,Naturall. [Page 55] but slackly exercising force, through disposition of the mattter. Such is to be seene in inflamations, bot­ches, and impostumes. For in these, nature so farre as it can, laboureth to bring this his subject matter to the best forme. Therefore such suppuration is wont to argue a certaine strength of nature, wherefore often with convenient helpes, it is carefully encreased. In this kinde, especially is praysed white, thicke, smooth, equall, and least smelling matter.

Extraordinary mattering is, when nature altogetherExtraordina­ry. subdued, the humors or parts themselves are made full of corrupt matter through store of rottennesse.

But nature, or the concocting facultie, is overcome either through proper weaknesse, or by corrupt mat­ter: this is observed in all rotten, malignant, and stin­king botches, in which according to the diverse fashi­oning of abounding matter, are found diverse sorts of solid bodyes, as haires, and such other like.

Of partes of the▪ body which appertaine to theOf the parts of the body. making up of the whole body, some are containing, and some contained. The contained for their fluent nature are sustained by helpe of others: Such are hu­mours and spirits. Humors are moyst partes begot of the first mixture of nourishment in the liver. These are in the seede of creatures, and are called the beginning of things endued with bloud. Any of these if they fayle of their proper nature, are not fit to be in the bo­die, but are become unnaturall.

Humours are of the first, & the second sort. The firstHumors. are hot or colde, and moyst, and dry: Bloud is hot andBlood. moyst, and it is a thin, red, humour, and sweete. With this the other partes be chiefly nourished, amongst [Page 56] whom this is the chiefe. The faults of this is in sub­stance, as putrifaction, or mixture of vicious hu­mors: or in qualitie, as too thicke or too thin; or is af­fected with some other badnesse. The humour that is hot and dry, is choller; this is a thinne, yellow, pale, and bitter humour. His use is to helpe the expelling facultie, and chiefly in the Guts. Gall besides nature, through adustion is yellow, like an egges yolke, in the stomacke it is like rustic brasse.

The colde and moyst is phlegme, which is a tough,Phlegme. slimie, and whitish humour, and tastlesse. If this have a fuller concoction, it is turned into bloud. His use is to moysten the joynts. When it declineth from his proper nature, it is salt or tart, according to his mix­ture. The colde and dry humour is blacke choller. This is a thicke, blackish, tart, bitter humour. It ser­veth to strengthen the stomacke, that it may more ea­sily retaine, and receive meate. When it declineth from his proper nature by immoderate burning, it hath divers kindes. Humors of the second sort are begotten of the first, being wrought with concoction they are like dew or glew. Dew is a humor contained in the hollownesse of the members, and joyned to their substance, like dew, with which they are nourished.

Glew is a humour immoderately congealed, and be­ingGlew. firmely fastned to the members, beginneth to bee changed unto their substance, of which change it is called Cambium, and carniformis, like the flesh.

Now follow the spirits, which are a fluent part ofSpirits. the body, most thin, and begotten of the bloud of the heart. The spirits are the chiefe instrument, and as it were the Chariot of the soules faculties, for with most [Page 57] speedie, and swift motion, it carrieth them over all the body.

Spirits having roote in the heart, be either absoluteVitall. What they are. or rude, and to be finished in other parts. Vitall spirits be absolute in the heart, and are of a firie nature, and from the heart by arteries are spred in the bodie, by whose communication all parts doe live.

Spirits to be perfected in other parts bee Animall,Animall. which from the heart be carried into the braine, andWhat they are. there made subtile by nerves, flowing unto all the o­ther parts; and this is the Chariot of functions or fa­culties of all living Creatures.

Parts containing are more solid, which are sustained by themselves; all these either are as a stay or covering. The stay to other parts, is either bone, or gristle. Bone is the hardest and dryest part, and stay to all the bodie. Bones are knit together by ligaments, which are like hard and thicke threeds, being as bandes to the bones of the bodie.

Gristles are somewhat softer than the bones, andGristles. sustaine all other partes. The covering of the otherWhat they are. parts, is the skin, which is tender without bloud, and covereth the whole body. The membrane is a tender skin, covering some parts.

There is yet in these parts a common excrement ofSweat. concoction, which is sweat, and is a moystnesse of theWhat it is, veynes, expelled by secret pores; of this is to be seene a diverse colour, according to the die of the moyst­nesse, or matter thereof: the usuall is watrish, through the white substance of the channels, through which it runneth. But if the pores be large and open, that without delay, and long change it may slide through [Page 58] them: especially, if for some affection of minde or dis­ease, it become thinner, then is it speedily expelled, and tainted with some other colour, &c. Therefore from the colour of sweate, the bodyes constitution may be knowne. Colde sweate is worse to bee liked than hot, but either is bad if they be unequall.

Also the containing parts afore-named are animall, or vitall, and each of these are more, or lesse principall. Animall parts are, in which the animall parts are most exercised, as sence and motion together, or alone. The chiefe member of motion and sence, is the braine contained in the head; whose substance being hurt, it is in danger to lose both sence and motion.

The Braine is softer than the other parts, white,Braine, what it is. and covered with a double skinne closely. The skinne of the brayne is either called Pia, or Dura mater. The scalpe is a thicke bone, covering the whole head, and hath up on it a skin with hayres. The scalpe is distin­guished with certaine seames in certaine parts, which are true or fayned, &c.

The excrements of the braine are either thicke orExcrements of the braine. thin: The thin are teares bursting from the braine by the angles of the eyes. The greater the flesh of those angles be, so much more plentifull be teares, chiefly if the complexion bee colde and moyst, as of women. Teares be caused by heate which openeth, or colde which presseth the flesh, and causeth teares.

The thicker excrements which are expelled from the brayne, eyther are by the eares or nose.

In the eares is a moyst excrement of the brayne, ga­theringOf the eares. and rotting in their hollownesse.

That of the nose is a thicker excrement than that ofOf the nose. [Page 59] the braine: which although it be like flegme, yet it is altogether of another nature. The pithe of the backe bone is neare to the nature of the braines excrement, save that it is harder and something hotter. The backe is bonie, round, and in his length hath twentie foure joynts. The Nerves are lesse principall parts of sence and motion, which if they be out of order, the parts in which these be, become unfit to move. Nerves or sinewes are thin parts, round, &c. white, much like to thicke threeds. Some are softer, some harder. The softer are of more use, of which are six paire, by two and two, from the braine arriving to other parts.

First, to the eyes. Secondly, To moove the eyes. Thirdly, to the tongue and taste. Fourthly, to the pallet and skin of the mouth. Fiftly, to the hearing. The sixt, to the mouth of the stomacke, by which sence and motion descend.

Hard Nerves have a duller facultie, and lesse serving to the senses, of which are thirtie paire, which by couples come from the marrow of the backe bone: by whose conduct the backe easily executeth his fa­culties.

Of the parts to breath.

The principall parts of breathing are in the brest:The breath­ing parts. being either Lightes or Heart; wherefore these being touched, breathing is immediately hurt, and such wounds be deadly. The Longes are a spongious and thin part, soft, and like foame of congealed bloud, de­clining something to the right side. Breath is brought unto the Lightes by a rough Artery, knit to the roote of the tongue. This Arterie is a long channell made of many gristle rings on a row, which endeth in the [Page 60] Lights. If any thing fall into the hollownesse of this, the breath is hindred, and there is danger to be choa­ked.

The Heart is a fleshie part, solid, and well compac­ted,The heart, what it is. almost like a Pyramis: it hath two ventricles, the right and the left. The right by an arteriall veine com­municateth bloud to the Lights. This veine is so called of a proper substance and office. From the left ventri­cle of the Heart ariseth Aorta the roote of all the Ar­teries. These are hollow vessells in the Heart begotte: and are thicke, distributing spirits throughout the whole bodie.

The excrements of the principall parts of breathingSpittle, what it is. be spittle and cough. Spittle is a windie foame cast out of the brest, and his parts: If it be avoyded with noyse, it is called coughing. Superfluitie of this mat­ter is judged by the colour, for red spittle is of bloud, yellow of choler: white of flegme, and blacke of me­lancholy:

The lesse principall parts of breathing, are theMidriffe, what it is. midriffe, and the mediastin. The midriffe is a thinne skin, like perchment, fastened overthwart to the sides, and includeth the parts of the brest, The mediastin is a double skinne in length, dividing the brest into two sides.

The vitall parts are those which serve to the pre­servation of the spirits of living creatures, and are ap­poynted to nourishment, or generation. The princi­pall parts for the perfection of nourishment be the sto­macke and the Liver.

The Stomacke is a part like perchment, sticking toStomacke, what it is. the throat, round, but long, and as it were, twisted [Page 61] with many small threeds, and it is the kitchin of nou­rishment to be concocted.

The throat is a channell, full of nerves, carryingThroat, what it is. meate from the mouth to the stomacke. The Fibres are as it were, very small threeds, by benefit whereof the stomacke enjoyeth her facultie. These if they bee straight and right, draw nourishment unto them: if crooked, they are oblique or transverse: those retaine nourishment received; these expell excrements.

The casting forth of excrements by the upper partsVomiting. of the stomacke, is called vomit, which expelleth that which aboundeth in the stomacke: yet such excrement is many times sent backe from other parts into the sto­macke. The Liver lyeth upon the stomacke on theThe Liver. right side, enclosing it with his laps, and is a fleshy part of nourishment, red, like congealed bloud, placed next unto the Midriffe. In the Liver is made the second concoction, namely, of nourishment in the belly, tur­ned into a red masse: from the Liver ariseth a hollow veine, the roote of all other veynes. These are hollow parts, round, and guide the bloud unto all the body; the substance of these is thinner by sixe folde than the skin of the Arteries, whose substance ought to be thic­ker for the vehement motion of the spirits. That the office of the Liver may be made perfect by meanes of veynes, other particles are allotted thereunto: which receive the abounding humors, choller, &c. The Gall receiveth yellow choller, and the Milt blacke. The bladder of the Gall is a slimie part in the hollow part of the Liver, of the figure of a Peare: the Milt is a long part like a shooe-sole, on the left side over against the Liver, but somewhat lower. Water from the Liver is [Page 62] received by the reines and bladder. The substance of the reines is thicke, and solid flesh; they sticke on both sides about the loynes, and have emulgent veynes ari­sing from the hollow veine. From the trench of the veynes hang downeward white, narrow veynes, guid­ing water from the reines unto the bladder. The blad­der is a slimie part, round, and containing urine in it. Vrine is a whey separated from bloud in the reines,Vrine. and more fully purged in the bladder. This in the bo­die of a temperate man, and sound, is of a meane sub­stance, and in quantitie answereth the drinke recei­ved: in the chollerike it is yellow, or red. His se­diment is white, smooth, and equall without bubbles, &c.

A sound body is knowne by voyding vrine, whichHow to dis­cerne a sound body by it. in the morning is white, and after something red. For the one signifieth that it doth, and the other that it hath concocted. Vrine is of a meane substance be­twixt thin and thicke. Thin vrine argueth the weake­nesse of the body, and coldnesse predominant, and rawnesse of the parts of concoction. And this either remaineth the same or becommeth troubled. That sheweth concoction is not yet begunne, and therefore raw, or This, that it is but new begunne. Thicke vrine like that of beasts, noteth excesse of matter or concoc­tion. Vrine doth varie according to age or complexi­on, or according to dyet and affections of the minde. For the vrine of Infants for the most part is white and milkie, the vrine of boyes is thicker, and not so white, the vrine of young men is like golde, and of olde men white and thin.

Touching complexions, the chollerick have OrangeComplexions▪ [Page 63] colour: Phlegmatike pale, and thicke: the Sanguine, red and meane. The melancholike, wan and thin.

Dyet changeth vrine, as Saffron or Cassia caussth O­rangeDyet. colour. Vrine of those that fast long is yellow, of those that eate too much, it is white.

The lesse principall parts of concoction, are theGuts. gutts and mesenterion. The gutts are long, round, hollow, and are knit to the lower part of the stomacke. These are thicke or thin. The thinner are the three uppermost, as Duodenum, Iejunum, and Ileos.

Duodenum is the uppermost gut, twelue fingers long.Their severall kinds. The Iejunum beginneth where the Duodenum begin­neth to turne unto rundells. Ileos is a thin gut, having inwrapped windings. The thicker guts of a thicker skin, are Coecum, Colon, and Rectum.

The blinde gut is thicke, large, and short, having but one mouth. The Colon hath many turnings. The right goeth straight to the Tuell: The excrement of the belly, if it be but softly▪ compact, and made at the appointed time, and somewhat yellow, and not much smelling, argueth good concoction. If it be red, it ar­gueth, that much colour floweth in the stomacke: if it be white, it sheweth cruditie and want of choller.

Blew sheweth mortification, and cold of the inward parts. Too thicke or thin egestion, argueth bad con­coction: if fattish, or slimie, it noteth a consumption. Above all, in these things it must bee observed, what meate hath lately beene received.

The guts are wrapped about with the Mesenterion,How placed in the body. which is a skin in the end full of kernells, and woven with many thin veines, which meeting together, make a multiplying of Vena porta in the hollow of the Liver.

Thus of the common parts of all creatures: their kindes follow.

All Creatures are reasonable, or unreasonable. TheyThe distincti­on of living creatures, and their severall kinds. which want reason, are Beasts, who live on Land or in Water. Those which live on the earth, moove on the earth, or in the ayre. Beasts moving on the earth, are fourefooted, or creeping. Fourefooted Beasts, bring forth young shaped as themselves, or eggs. Those that bring forth living Creatures, some have solide feete, and some cloven feete. They have solide feete who want hornes, as Horses, Mules, and Asses, &c. The cloven footed Beastes, for the most part have hornes, as the Oxe, Goate, Hart, &c.

Land Beasts bringing forth eggs, are the Crocodiles, and some which have a shell.

Frogges, Liserts, and some Serpents have foure feete.

Creatures creeping on the earth, are all kinde of Wormes, Ants; Earwigs: to whom may bee added, Spiders, Lice, Gnatts, and such other.

Fowles are hotter and dryer than Creatures living onely on the land, and all of them bring forth egges▪ and have but two feete. They have either whole feete or clawes. Geese, Duckes, Swannes, have whole feete to rowe in the water.

Other Birds for the most part have clawes, as Doves, Swallowes, Hennes, Sparrowes, &c.

The insect of Fowles, are Waspes, Bees, Hornetts, Gnatts, Flies. These Creatures are they which live upon the earth: those that live in the water, are Fishes, or of that kinde, as the Sea-Horse, the Sea-Dog, &c.

Fishes many of them are like to Creatures living on [Page 65] the earth in their parts: but they have not so much bloud: therefore they are colder and moyster.

Fishes are soft, or hard: the soft have scales, or one­ly a skin.

Of the scalie be the Carpe, the Pearch. Of the sli­mie be Eeles.

The harder fishes have plates, as the Crabbe, the Lobster, &c. Or shells, as Oysters, Mussells, &c.


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