NATVRALL PHILOSOPHY: OR A DESCRIPTION OF THE WORLD, NAME­ly, Of Angels, of Man, of the Hea­uens, of the Ayre, of the Earth, of the Water and of the Crea­tures in the whole World.

2. KING. 4.34.

He spake of Trees, from the Cedar tree that is in Leba­non, euen to the Rosemary that springeth out of the wall: He spake also of Beasts, and of Fowle, and of creeping things, and of Fishes.

These little leaues the Worlds huge load sustaine,
And what besides the great World can containe.

LONDON Printed by I. D. for Iohn Bellamie, and are to be sould at the South Entrance of the Royal Exchange. 1621

TO THE HONORABLE Sir WILLIAM PARSONS Knight, Barronet, his Maties Survayor Generall, Commissioner in the Court of Wards, and one of his Maties most Honorable Priuie Counsell of Ireland, &c.


I doe present to your view a small frame of the world, and of the Creatures therein con­tained, drawne with the Pensilles of iudici­ous Scribon, and of D. W. A worke in nature not vnlike to our Survayes in Ireland, that re­present most liuely, vast Countries within a small Map. I offer this to you, hauing hereto­fore [Page] giuen you an account of those seruices that I haue lately done in the survay of Ireland, you being Survayor Generall of that King­dome, wherein I haue spent the most part of thirtie yeares, in the seruice of my Prince and Countrie, Tam Marte quam Mercurio, both with Pike and Pen, with great toyle, much hazard, and many hurts, but little profite. Notwithstanding your demerits and worth be such, as Gratitude hath chosen your Pa­tronage: and Deuotion wisheth all honor, health, and happinesse to you, to my good Lady, and to yours.

At your HONORS Command, I: WYDOVVES alias WOODHOVSE.

PHILOSOPHIE is a know­ledge of Naturall thinges. Things (her subiect) either are he who alone is; from, by, and for whom all things are: or els such they be as are numbred by time, and measured by place, and subiect vnto motion. God is a Spirit infi­nitely good and great. God is but one diuine Essence, consisting of three distinct Persons, the Father, the Son, and the holy Ghost. The actions of God are either, the Creating or Gouerning of the world. The World consisteth either of things inuisible, as of Spirits or Visible, as the heauens, the elements, and the bodies composed of elemēts. The heauen of the blessed, vide Gen. 1.1. is counted the third heauen, the Orbes are the second, the Ayre is counted the first. The third Heauen visible is of al substances most perfect. The in­uisible Spirits, viz. Angels were created heere. Angell signifieth a messenger, by nature he is a spirit. Angels appeare sometime in dreames & visions, sometime in bodies apparant, and sometime in true and reall bo­dies, their number is great; their office is to celebrate Gods glory, to watch ouer the world, to preserue vs, [Page 2] to declare and do Gods will, to put good motions in­to our minds, to resist ill spirits. The Deuils were An­gels cast from heauen for sin, into the lower parts of the World, and heere they continue seeking to deface the Image of God in man and all creatures.

THings visible contained in the world, are Sub­stances, or Accidents. Accidents are either ge­nerall to all things, as motion, time, and place, for these belong to all: or proper to some things, as Qualities.

There be two kind of Mouers, 1. God. 2. Thinges created by him.

Things created moue from God, and are of finite power in mouing in a prefixed matter, and in time▪ they be of two kindes, without, or within the thing moued; the one called violent, the other naturall: Motion is an vnperfect act, mouing to that it was not, from that it was: Fiue things are in naturall motion, the mouer, the thing moued, the terme from which, the terme to which it is moued, and time.

There be sixe kindes of motion, generation, cor­ruption, increase, decrease, alteration of quality, and change of place.

Qualities are either manifest, or secret: Manifest are either principall, or such as proceede from them: the chiefe of the principall, are heate and colde.

Heate gathereth together things of one kinde, and seperateth things of contrary nature; as Gold from Siluer or drosse. Colde ioyneth together things, as the frost in winter.

[Page 3]The weaker qualities are moysture and drinesse. Moy­sture is hardly contained in his owne bounds. Drines keepeth his owne bounds, as for example, Earth &c.

Qualities comming from the first are either seconds or wrought from them.

Second qualities from one or more, are deriued.

From Heate commeth Rarity, and Leuity. For Heate openeth and enlargeth the poores.

Raritas or Thinnes is that which hath hollow parts or spongie, as a sponge, cloudes &c.

Lightnes proceedeth from heate, drawing easily vpward. Thicknes and heauines, are of colde. For cold gathereth together, and stoppeth bodyes, by which, bodyes become heauie.

Thicknes hath his partes shut vp together as stones

Heauines, moueth downewards: thus is Mercurie, heauier then gold, and gold then Lead.

Tactile or qualities that may bee touched: com­ming from moisture, are softnes: and tenuitie from the Ayre: smoothnes and sliperines from the water.

From drynesse proceede hardnes and roughnes, ea­sines in breaking and drought.

From the first qualities diuersly disposed, arise o­thers called sensible qualities.

Their Originall is obscure or more manifested.

Qualities of obscure original, are such as doe not al­wayes plainely & clearely declare the ground whence they arise. Of this nature are collors: which is the splendor of the body, illustrated by light, with which all bodies are dyed according to their moystnes, de­cocted more or lesse apt to receiue greater, or smaller light. Cullour, is either simple or mixed.

[Page 4]A Simple cullour consists of none other, as black and white.

White consisteth of much light in a thin body, of an Ayery moisture well concocted.

Blacke, is in a thicke body contayning but small light, of moysture either a dust or raw watrish mixed with the earth: as appeareth in the iner parts of the earth.

Mixt cullours are from these two, mingled either in a meane or vnequall portion, of equall mixture is red. Other are made of this meane, and one of the ex­treames. Yeallow is of much white and a little red, viz. two parts of white and one of red, Saffron cullour or Orang-tawny, is of greater rednesse, and of lesser whitenesse.

Purple is of much red, and lesse blacke. Greene is of much black and lesse red. This being a cleare moy­sture is most pleasant to the eye.

Qualities, of a more manifest originall are per­ceiued in smels and tastes. Tast is made from the straining of drinesse, through moisture is either hott or cold, in a high or meanest degree. Very hot tastes are biting, bitter or salt.

Tastes meanely hot are sweet: Cold tasts are either thicker or thinner, thicke as soure and sharpe: or thin as tartnes: where also we place freshnesse.

Smell, is a qualitie comming from a dry earthly heate, made thin by mixture of vapors. If it be well mingled, it is good: if not, it is stincking.

These qualities come from the first, there are others that come by Meanes from the first, such are, genera­ting flesh by drinesse, and binding in, healing and ioy­ning [Page 5] together, but more moderate. Hid qualities are onely knowen by long experience, comming from the forme and essence of a thing, which in most things maketh is hard to discerne. Hid qualities are either in bred or passionate. Natiue or in bred, come from formes taking their originall from heauen, and there­fore are gouerned, most according to the position of the heauens and stars, being of most efficacy in their subiect matter rightly prepared, and at certaine times.

As the Load-stone in drawing Iron. The Pionie for falling sicknesse, Polypody in the diseases of the liuer, &c.

Passionate qualities, are effected by an agreeing or disagreeing concord.

Concord is the naturall agreement of things, where­by a feirce Bull tied to a fig tree is made gentle.

An Olife taken vp and replanted by a virgin, bring­eth forth aboundance of fruite.

Ocymum a Pulse, being at the sowing banned groweth the better: The bleeding of a dead body at the presence of the killer. Discord in naturall things, whereby the horse-fly is killed with the smell of roses, so goats are poysonous vnto plants.

Naturall things are simple or compact: Simple are stable or vnconstant, stable are the heauen and starres. Heauen is as it were a vaulted body made of water, think like a skin and moueable.

The firmament is the orbe of the moueable heauen: contayning the world, which consisteth of Ethereall and elementall parts.

The Ethereall part compasseth the Elemental: and is not variable: it containeth, 10▪ spheres, and is in [Page 6] continuall motion being moued from the East to the West in 24. houres and maketh the naturall day. A star is a firme essence, in heauen, giuing light. One star is brighter then another, and they are of diuers motion, either simple, as from west to the east, or diuers, as their variable motion, north and south: and they haue their opperation ouer inferiour bodies, which they worke by themselues, or by aspect with others; which is either coniunct, or opposite: coniunct, is either in the same or seuerall places: ☌. ☍. □ △. carecters be of coniunction ☌. Sextile ⚹ Trine △ quadrat □: op­position ☍ aspects. Their Poetick rising or falling is either true or apparent, the true is Acronicke, which is of such starres as rise and set about the sunne setting: Cosmick ascend with the ☉ and set with the sun rising. Those starres which rise Cosmically fal Ac­ronically. Apparent rising is called Helical which is of stars getting out of the sun beames, & so if the star get into the ☉ beames at setting: or when any star setteth with the sun. Starres are either fixed or wandring, fixed are the starres of the firmament, whose motion is not, sensible; For in 72. yeares they moue scarce a de­gree: keeping still one like distance. Stars are knowne frō planets, by their twinkling. The stars are far bigger in compasse then the earth, and they are of sixfoold order, first bigger then the earth 107. fold, second 87. third 72. forth 54. fift 31. sixt 18. times. These stars are more or lesse glistering: the most glistering are dis­posed into 48. Images and are deuided into three parts the zodiack & both sides thereof. The zodiack contai­neth 12 signes, ♈. ♉. ♊. ♋. ♌. ♍. ♎. ♏. ♐. ♑. ♒. ♓. of the East are ♈. ♌. ♐. fiery signes North ♋. ♏. ♓. watery, ♊. ♎. ♒. [Page 7] Ayery of the West: ♉. ♍. ♑. earthly Southern signes. Fiery and Ayery are Masculine: Waterish signes and earthly feminine.

Aries the Ram is the first signe of the Zodiac con­sisting of 13. starres, representing the image of a Ram, it hath 2 starres in his horne of the 3. bignes and 3. in his taile, and one in the tippe of his right foote of the 4. bignes.

Taurus the Bull consisteth of 32. starres, 5. of these in his forehead are called Hyades, causing raine, the greatest is called the Bulls eye, being somewhat pale. 7. starres in his shoulder are little and called Virgiliae, and Plecides, because they shew the time of nauigation by their rising in the spring and setting in the Autum.

Gemini the twins of 18. starres: in each head, is a bright star, called Castor and Pollux.

Cancer the Crab consisteth of 9. starres somewhat obscure.

Leo the Lion is a bright signe of 27. starres, one in his heart and one in his tayle, are of the first bignes, neare his tayle are 7. starres called Berenices haire.

Virgo the maide with wings of 26. starres, one in her left hand is called Spica.

Libra the Ballance is expressed with 8. starres.

Scorpion hath 21. starres of which but 14. are notable.

Sagitarius the Archer consisteth of 31 starres.

Capricornus the Goat, hath 18. starres of which 12. are most conspicuous.

Aquarius the water-bearer of 24. starres, like a man pouring water fourth of his pitcher, the starre in the extreame of the water is of the first bignes. totall. 364.

[Page 8] Pisces, the fishes consist of 34. starres.

The other starres that are not in the Zodiak are either northerne or southerne starres.

The Northerne Constellations are Cynosura, the little Beare hath 7. Starres. Helice the greater beare hath 27 starres, of which 12 are more visible. Draco the Snake 31. Bootes the Heardman 22. be­twixt whose legs is Arctur. Ariadnes Crowne 8. Her­cules 28. Cepheus 11. The Vultur or Lira 10. The Swan 17. Cassiopeia 13. Perseus 19. The Carter 13. he beareth vpon his left shoulder the Goat, Asculapius 24. The Serpent 18. starres. The Arrow 5. The Eagle 6. The Dolphin 10. Pegasus 20. The foale 4. Andromeda 23. starres. The Triangle hath 4 starres. The totall 360.

The Southern constellations are 15. The Whale hath 22 starres.

Orion hath 38. Eridanus 34. The Hare 12. The great Dog 18. The Whelpe. 2. The ship 45. Hydra 5. The Crow 7. The Centaure 37. The Wolfe 19. The Aulter 17. The Crowne 13. The fish 12. starres The totall 316.

Plannets are starres in the nearer part of Heauen, and are of diuers motions, and are therefore called wandring, which motions happen not according to the course of other starres, because in the spheeres attributed to the seueral plannets, they mouing them­selues circularly are stayed either in their hiest or loest Absis, or else are made to goe backward. Plannets are stayed when at their set boundes they stay thei course and turne to some other part, and so seeme to stand still.

[Page 9]Absis or Aux, the highest place of the plannets, to which being moued, they can ascend no higher, is cal­led Apogaeon, viz. farthest from the earth.

Absis or Aux the lowest contrary to the other, and neerest vnto vs, is called Perigaeon.

Plannets are sayd to goe backe, when remouing themselues they goe not forward their course, but re­turne backe the way they came, in some part.

The vertues and force of Plannets, are as diuers as their motions be: stronger by the proper habitation of the house, or by coniunction: otherwise they be weake.

The proper house of each Plannet is that signe of the Zodiack, in which first at the creation they were placed after the opinion of Astronomers.

Thus far in generall. Now some shine with one perticular light, other with more. They that haue the same shinning, are moued with equall or vnequall course. Plannets of vneuen course haue a proper mo­tion to themselues. ♄. ♃. ♂.

Their coniunction is common or speciall. Com­mon are of these three together, and it is called the greatest coniunction, this through his slow motion foresheweth wonders, as Astrologers say, though their grounds are vncertaine, yet we will set downe what they say, not all as truths, yet some may be probable. (Especially the sunne regarding) destruction to king­domes &c. If such coniunction be in a fiery signe it presageth great drought. In a watry signe it argueth raine, in Aery mightie tempestes. In earthly extreame cold, In Masculine death of men, In feminine death of women. Speciall coniunction is either meane or [Page 10] extreame. Meane of Saturne and Mars betokens warres, contention, strife of kings and Princes, and to these prosperous successours, if the dominant be good in coniunction.

The extreame coniunction of Plannets, is great or lesse, greater of ♄. Juit;. betokning new sects, and other like. If ♃. be all stronger, shall be for the best, if ♄. be stronger, then followeth losse, tribulation and greate discorde, say the Astrologers.

♄. Saturne is a star of a leaden cullour, finishing his course in thirty yeares, he is a Plannet masculine of cold and dry nature, therefore melancholicke, bad & not fortunate, whose proper house is in ♑. ♒. gouer­ning malancholike persons, and diseases of that humor, and those of a tough and congealed phleme as Lepry and Morphew. But if he gouerne in his proper house in due aspect and degree, most profita­ble experiments may be made against these infirmi­ties. His rule appeareth in conception of men, as in the first moneth, and in the eight moneth much more. wherefore the child borne in this moneth through the bad aspect, and coldnes of Saturne can scarce liue long, he ruleth also the liues of men especially in their ende, when old men be cold and full of fleame, as say Astrologers.

♃. Iupiter is a bright Plannet, which runneth his course in 12. yeares, his light is so great, that it causeth a shadow, being neare the earth, of which he is called Phaeton: He is hot and moyst of nature, good, mascu­line, and his house is in ♐. and ♓. he ruleth ouer the sanguine, yong men and merry sportes, and ouer dis­eases springing of bloud not adduft: and rightly dispo­sed [Page 11] In his house, remedies are best applied for cure of such infirmities. Vnder his power is the child in the second, but more in the ninth moneth, and the childe that is then borne is of long life.

♂ Mars, is the 3 wandring star, in cullour red or fiery shining his course is 2. yeares, is a masculine exceeding hot, schorching and dry nature, after a sort malignant and infortunate: His house is ♈ and ♍ he sheweth his force most vpon Cholerike persons, and vpon motions of youth, stirring to sedition and warre: if he be well disposed in his house in fit aspect and de­gree there may be remidies vsed for the Frensie, a­gues, and other hot sicknesses. He gouerneth the 3. moneth of conception, and from 40▪ to 50. of mans age.

Now of starres, that finish their course in like space of time ☉. ♀. ☿. in a yeare space ☉. The Sonne is the brightest of all wandring starres, appointing seasons, norishing life, being the fountaine of light, of heate and all vitall powers, he is hot and meanely dry, his house is ♌. he ruleth hot and dry affections, and there­fore in his rule is fit remedy for such.

In mans conception he ruleth the 4. moneth and gouerneth from 22. till 41. yeares of age ☉ by being nearest or farthest from the earth, maketh Solsticium, which is our Summer, and Winter summer is ☉. being in ♋. at the highest, winter solstic is ☉. being ♍ farthest from vs the motion of ☉. causeth like length of day and night ☉. in ♈ and ♒ the Sun in these pointes of heauen is equally moued in the 6. signes of our hemi­sphere, and also in the six opposit, although the points and times of both Equinoctialls vary and change.

[Page 12]♀ Venus is a very white star, she goeth neare ☉, some­time before him, sometimes after him, in the morning going before him, she is called Lucifer, in the euening, following, she is called Vesperugo and Hesperus. ♀ is could and Ayery, and moyst, her house is in ☍ and ♒. She loueth youth, women, and wiues, ruleth cold and moyst diseases, happning most about the geni­talls. Therefore ♀ in her house in due aspect is best remedy for such, she vseth her power in the 5. moneth, and disposeth life, from 14. to 20. yeares and two, ac­cording to Astrologers.

☿ Mercury is the least wandring star somwhat white, his nature is changeable, and full of turnings, he is hote with the hote, cold with the cold, of the nature of him with whom he is ioyned, his house is ♊ and ♍ & is of force in marchandize, of which he hath his name and mathematickes are vnder his rule, he begins and followes studies, & reports rumors and newes. He guid­eth the 6 moneth, and from 4. to 14. yeares, if hee ioyne with the higher Plannets, he denounceth wett and flouds, which also he doth meeting Venus in a wet house, in his proper house, windes &c.

☽. The Moone is the lowest wandring starre fini­shing her course in 27▪ dayes 7. houres, although this starre haue light of her owne, yet doth she borrow her shining from the Sunne. But because her essence or body, is not alike but thicker in one place, then an­other, therfore she is not in all places enlightened alike from the Sunne. That part which is turned from the Sunne, is all of it shadowed and darkish, but that which looketh vpon the ☉. is full of light and onely so much light as standeth towards vs, seemeth to [Page 13] gaine or lose light, as it is farther off, or nearer the sun, where as indeed euer the one halfe is enlightened from the sunne.

The face seemeth to be enlightened, as ioyned with ☉ or departing from him.

The ☽ ioyned with the ☉ in the 4. first dayes is coue­red with greater light of the ☉ beames and is called the new Moone, but departing from ☉ she appeareth still more enlightened, and it is either in part or whole.

In part before and after, the 8 day, called the encrease and the wayn of the Moone. In part lesse or more, the lesse is when she is horned, or halfe moone about the 4. day, being distant from ☉ 2. signes, and after 8. in the 26. day, the halfe ☽ is seene about the 7. day and after 22. day when she is distant 3. signes or degrees from ☉. The greater apparition of the Moone in part is, she being neare her roundnes, which is about the 11 day and after the 19. day distant from ☉ 4 signes.

The full apparition of ☽ is when in a right line she is opposed to ☉ at 14 dayes or full Moone. Although she finish her couse in the foresaid time in the circle of the Zodiack, yet is allowed to euery Moone 29: and a halfe day, because she is to passe forward 2 dayes & 4 howers, before shee can ouertake the ☉ which ma­keth 29 dayes, 12 houres, And in 9 yeare she endeth all her diuersity of coniunctions and aspectes, and a new begineth her former reuolution, &c.

A Commet is a wandering star of diuers motions shining in the region of the Plannets, this appeareth seldome, sometime aboue, and some times below the the Plannets. It foretelleth greeuous accidentes.

Others say that a Commet is a fat substance drawne [Page 14] by the heate of the sun from the earth, and the heate of the highest region of the Ayre▪ is set on fire appea­ring like a starre▪ and is sometime moued in the ayre.

It foreshewth war, Pestilence, drought, and barrennes of the earth.

The light of some Plannets sometime fayle especial­ly of ☉ and ☽ The defects happen in the Zodiack, if these 2. starres be in the knotts of their circles, or neare to them, which knotts are cuttings, made by the course of the ☉ and ☽, and is called the dragon. The higher is called Dragons head, the lower the Dragons tayle. The Ascendant or higher▪ is where, ☽ departing from the middle Zodiack, doth come nearest vnto vs.

The descendant, when the ☽ is remouing from vs. The Eclipse of those starres is in whole or part. In whole all being obscured, as in the midst of them.

In part it happenth neare one of the knotts.

The Eclipse of ☉, is by comming of ☽ betweene our eyes and the ☉, in the coniunction of both Plannets.

A great Eclipse of ☉, is when the centure of these starres, proceed in a direct line to our eye.

The Eclipse of ☽ is the depriuing her of the light of ☉, in the opposition, the earth shadowing her, com­ming in a straight line betweene them, her Eclipse is sooner seene in the East, then in the West.

Elements are simple essences, lesse durable then the heauens, and are the wombs of mixed things &c.

Of the Elements 2. are cleare, ayre and water. Ayre, which is cold and moyst, and of these there are de­scribed 3. regions, the first is hot & dry, this is termed the fiery which causeth it to be called an Element Ayre the flame being but inflamed ayre, the midle region [Page 15] colder and darker, the third region, in which we liue, is hott or cold, by the more or lesse reflection of the sunne beames.

Ayre, is so needefull to creatures, that none can liue without it, the thinner the better, and more healthfull.

Water, is an element lesse thin and cleare, moyst and most cold. Water warmed in channells in the earth causeth hot springs, this is heated by running by some hott mineralls, and helpeth moyst & cold bodies.

Water, is greater or lesse. The greatest is the Sea, which is salt, because of the starres drawe forth the thin substance leauing the earth behinde. The Ocean ebbeth and floweth after the ☽ motion, and from the new moone to the full, humors increase & after de­crease, and the tides are knowne by the Moone. Parti­cular Seas take their name of some country, or of some accident, as the red Sea, &c.

Water are in flouds or fountaines, fountaines are best which come of Mountaines, or Rocks, &c.

Waters is of diuers cullours and tastes. Milky, Greene, Red, Salt, sharpe, bitter, and like wine.

The earth is a thick element, cold and dry, and is vnmoueable, about which all things moue, it is round and althings tend as neare the centure as they can.

It is in compasse with the water, 21600. miles, and is but as a point to the whole world.

Concreat and mixte bodyes or natures, are essences mixed of parts seuerally disposed. For from sundry things of diuers formes, one forme may be formed: and things of one mixture according to the diuers affection of their elements are diuersly affected.

As some are Ayery, some Fiery, and some Earthly, [Page 16] But the proportion maketh temperature, which is a proportion of qualities, cleauing togeather in mix­ture, it is equall or vneuen, & is either simple or com­pound: simple is in act or power: compound as heate with drinesse, &c.

Mixed natures are either liuelesse or liuing. Liue­lesse as meteors which are a hot smoake lifted vp by the attractiue force of starres, some 15. German miles into the ayre and no higher: this smoake is a vapour or exhalation▪ A vapour is a moist smoake drawn from water and is easily resolued into water. Exhalation is a dry smoake drawne from the earth, easie to fire, from exhalatiō arise fiery impressions which burne like fire, as pillers, dartes, candles, goates, shooting starres, fiery Dragons, darke streames, fooles fire, and such like fiery meteors.

Mixed fiery meteors whose exhalation is somewhat vnpure thicker and long, her mixture is thunder which is a fiery exhalation, breaking forth of the cloudes, with a sound. Lightening small and great is a flaming light of a burning exhalation shining be­fore thunder. Though we heare not the thunder, it is at the present breaking out of the flash, the eye being quicker then the eare. The great lightening is thicker and burneth more, if it be hardened with heate of the suune, and it selfe, it maketh a stone which is cast out at the cracke, this doth much harme.

Lightening is thick or thin, this boreth through without leauing any signe of it. The thicker scorcheth and burneth, it hath much earthy matter, setting on fier steeples and such like, and in great flashes is but some small deale of this earthy matter, else all things [Page 17] would be fired.

Watery meteors, are vapors more fully compact to­gether, and appeare in the lowest part, or midst of the Ayre, as cloudes and such like. A cloude is a vapour ioyned together by the extreame cold of the midle region. Cloudes hang in the Ayre by the sunnes heat, which draweth them vp, and by the mouing of the windes are tossed vp and downe.

In these Cloudes by ☉ and ☽, are framed diuers shapes, hauing no proper matter, but onely appeare in the cloudes, either about ☉ and ☽ or opposite to them as:

A false Sunne which is imprinted in the cloud by the reflection of his beames, in a cloud being watrish, so that sometime the shape of 2. or 3▪ sunnes are seene, so of the moone. Bright circles in the cloudes, being black, are from the reflecting beames, seeming to com­passe the ☉ or ☽: yet they are far lower. These circles appeare more often about the moone: shee being not able with her beames to consume these vapours.

The shape in the cloudes opposed to the Sunne, is the raine-bow of diuers cullours, in a hollow, thin and in an vnequall cloud, fashioned by reflection of the sunnes beames▪ and the raine-bow is greater the nearer it commeth to the Horizon. If many raine-bowes be seene, the latter is made by the shining of the other, and are more obscure then the former.

The cullours of the Raine-bow, be light, read, green, sky cullour and yeallow: the raine-bow is a foreteller of raine, it sheweth that many vapours are dissolued, which will shortly be raine. The hayle is like this, but it is alwayes vnder the sunne.

[Page 18]Meteors of dissolued cloudes, are either hardened, or moist as raine, which is as it were a cloude melted and turned vnto water, if the cloude be neare the earth the drops are great, if hie, the drops are smaller. The rayning of frogges, fish, milke, flesh, and such like, come of such matter being carried vp, which doth a­gaine fall with the raine as wormes &c. are begotten of dead carkases in summer time.

Meteors made harde, after the cloud hath beene melted are snow and Haile.

Snow is a cloude, prepared for raine before it fall, being congealed by cold, is by the motion of the windes dispersed into fleakes, and falleth onely in winter.

Hayle is rayne, made hard in the fall, the higher the fall, the rounder and lesser, because in the fall it mel­teth. It hayleth most in Autume and in the spring, For then the sharpe ayre, hath most power ouer the drops, and in winter, the extreame cold maketh it snow be­ing yet in the cloudes.

In the lowest region of the Ayre, are dew and frost. Dew is a vapour thickned with some earthly matter, which in falling is presently turned vnto water.

Dew falleth onely in summer, for then the vapour is dissolued with the Sunne.

A fat kind of dew like melting hony, especially at the shining of Syrius being gathered from leaues of trees, is Manna, called also wilde honey, or meldewes.

This Manna hardened by the heate of ☉ into lumpes, is called Tereniabin.

Frost is a dewish vapour, made very hard by cold in winter before it be dissolued.

[Page 19]Meteors made of both kindes of smoake, ioyned to­geather are windes and such like.

Winde is a subtil smoake, beaten downeward by the cold in the middle of the ayre, and is moued side­ling on the earth: Auncients noted out 12. principall windes, all which in regard of matter are hote and dry, but differ for their situation of their quarter.

The winde being great, carried with force, darkens the Ayre, and is called a storme. If it doe roll about, it is a Whirle winde, if it be but small, it is called Ayre.

An Earthquake is a fume, contained in the earth: when it findeth no vent, it shaketh it, & is made according to the breadth or depth of the earth. In breadth it causeth sometime such trembling, that it shaketh downe whole citties, that in depth causeth a gaping or swelling. A Gaping is when the Earth openeth, as it were her mouth, and doth swallow downe trees walles &c. A Swelling is when the earth being lif­ted vp like a mountaine, either remaineth so or else falleth downe againe.

NAtures mixed perfectly are liuing and corpo­ral essences, indeued with a Vegetatiue soule; A Vegetatiue soule is a facultie giuing life to bo­dyes. Therfore so long as any part of this shall exercise her power in any body, so long is that aliue, and remai­neth safe. But her cheife operation, & so life it selfe, consisteth either in preseruing seueral bodies or whole kindes. Nourishment is the preseruing of seuerall bo­dies, and is the making of foode receiued, like to the body norished. Vnder that name is euery thing which is receiued to sustaine our bodyes, of which sort is the [Page 21] ayre it selfe.

Some other faculties are required to perfection of nourishment, as concoction, & his companions: Con­coction is a working or framing of nourishment, and it is made either of temperate, or increased heate of the parts to be nourished.

By temperate heate is made ripening: which is a concoction of nourishment with moisture, by how much therefore the moisture shalbe better tempered with heate, by so much is the ripening sooner, and more perfect, as in a summer too moist, the increase of the earth is later made ripe. Concoction arising from greater store of heate, is either elixation or assation. Elixation is a concoction more perfectly working the thicke or watrish moysture, with a strong moyst heate: As flesh is sod in water, whose moist heate altereth and consumeth the fomy moystnes of meate: if this elixa­tion remaine vnperfect, it is called rawnes, and the norishment is not refined, for want of moist heate: For it was not of power to finish concoction.

Assation is concoction, by meanes of dryer heate fully strengthening the moisture of nourishment. If this strength of bodyes be somewhat weake, it is called thickning, if concoction be vicious, it is turned vnto putrifaction. Moyst and hote things doe most easily corrupt, if the bodyes be not open to the Ayre.

In stopped bodyes, heate hauing no vente is increa­sed. Whence commeth inflamation, which putri­faction doth follow, causing greater heate. This of concoction.

The Companions of concoction, are faculties, fitly seruing for the perfection of it.

[Page 21]Of these, one goeth before, the other followeth. The former is Attraction and Retention.

Attraction, is a facultie supplying matter of conue­nient nourishment, as is seene in things drawing out of the flesh Arrow-heads or thornes deepely fastned. So wheat draweth water out of an earthen pot, it beeing set vppon the heape. Retention which retayneth norishment, vntill it be concocted, and doth norish the body. Nourishment, is first put to and afterwarde vnited. The companion following concoction is expulsion.

Expulsion, is a driuing backe of vnprofitable matter: when concoction is once made, it is within or without the body. Within, when the stronger thrust superflui­ties to the weaker, vntill they come to the weakest of all. Encrease which is ioyned to the nourishment, is continued but to a certaine age, & then the nourishing growing weake it ceaseth. Now followeth conserua­tion of the whole stocke.

Generation is a facultie of the body, procreating any thing like to it selfe. This faculty preserueth all kindes of thinges in their estate, though continually they perish.

The obiect of generation, is the procreating seede of euery thing.

The changing faculty, altereth the seede into parts of the body to be begotten.

The Ministeriall vertues of this facultie, of genera­tion, doe change or forme.

The forming facultie fashioneth the thing into distincte forme.

[Page 22]THe Vegetatiue soule being explained: now followe the kindes of such natures as haue per­sit, or vnperfect growth. Those of vnperfect growth are Mettalles which are decocted in the vaynes of the earth. Mettalls are to be melted easily or hard­ly. Those that are easie to be dissolued, are either first, or such as spring from them.

Principall, or first, are of themselues from the origi­nal, as brimstone and Quicksiluer.

Brimstone is the fatt of the earth with fiery heat de­cocted vnto his hardenesse, which is the cause that it so speedily is enflamed, and burneth euen in water, yea sooner then the fat of the Beasts, which though it be fatter then Brimstone yet is it far colder. So that for his fat drines, it helpeth scabbes of all kinds, & the leprie.

That Brimstone is counted the best, which is greene and cleare.

Quicksiluer is a slimy water, mixt with a pure white earth, which mettall for the matter whereof it doth consist, is thin, cold and heauie.

It is in continuall motion, and his thinnesse causeth that it peirceth mettalls.

Mettalls deriued from the first, are more or lesse pure, purer, are Gold and Siluer. Gold is a met­tall made of most subtill and pure red Brimstone, and of the like quicksiluer. Gold hath the most perfect mixture, as it is most thin, so it is most solide, whose substance is not corrupted, with either earth, water or ayre, nor consumed with fire, but is more purged in it.

And for his thin solidnes, it is most soft and easie to be melted. So that is most worth, which is most red and [Page 23] glistering and soft, that easily it may be wrought.

Experience teacheth that the 3 part of one graine of gold can gild a wyre of 134. foote long, vpon plaites of siluer one ounce of gold will suffice to gilde eight pound weight of siluer. His nature is to be meruelled at. It waxeth cold towards day light, so that those that weare rings of it, may perceiue it, when it waxeth day.

It is found in the mountaines of Arabia and else where, and the best, in the mountaine Terrat, neare the Citty Corbachiam.

Siluer is a mettall begotten of pure white Mercury, and the like cleare white Brimston. It differeth from gold almost onely in cullour, it being gold not per­fectly refined, yet in purenesse, firme solidenesse, and thinnesse, it is next to gold, and one ounce of it may be drawne 3200. foote long, so that it can scarce be di­scerned from gold. Yet it is thicker an hundreth fould.

When it is found, it hath the shape of haires, twigs, fishes, serpents and such like.

Mettalls lesse pure, consist of greater store of Brim­ston or quick-siluer, of greater store of Brimston, come Brasse and Iron.

Brasse is a mettall, begotten of thicke red Brimston, and Mercury somewhat impure, that comming from Cyprus, is called Copper, the matter of Brasse is more burnt then that of other mettalls, and indureth long and is fit in any worke. For it is without all moisture, whether it be kept in earth or water. Mineralls neare brasse are copperas, &c.

Copperas, is a minerall mixed of humors strained by droppes into small holes, and it shineth like glasse. [Page 24] It is hot and dry in the 4 degree, vehemently binding, being of great force to season and preserue raw flesh. It also begetteth found flesh in festered sores, and stan­cheth blood. It is of a greene, yealow, and a skye cullour, the best hath in it white spots, his kind are Romaine victriall, and red vitriall, or the some of Copperas.

Iron is of store of mercury, and of thick sulphur im­pure and aduft. It may bee softened by quenching in ioyse of beane shulls or mallowes. It being red hot and cooling of himselfe, becommeth plyable.

But if it be often quenched in cold water, it becom­meth thereby, very hard and brittle.

Mettalls of greater stoore of Mercury, are Leade and Tynne.

Leade is an vnpure mettall begot of much vnpure, thicke and drossie Mercury, and likewise of vnpure Brimstone, his impurity causeth blacknes, which by refining is made whiter. It increaseth in waight, if it lie in moyst ground.

Yea it is thought to increase with rayne. It is of a cold and binding nature, and therefore scarce whol­some for mans vse.

Tynne is a mettall mixed of Mercury, white with­out and red within, and of Brimstone not well mixed, as it were Leade whited with siluer.

Thus far of mettalls pliable.

Mettalls lesse plyable are those which are not easily wrought, or melted, and are hard or Brittle.

Those that be altogeather hard, are stones. These are ingendred of a watry moysture, and fat earth mix­ed hard togeather. Of stones, some be rare, some com­mon, [Page 25] Of the rare and strange: some are of more esti­mation then others.

The more esteemed are precious stones, which are more beautifull and fine, in regard of their pure and subtill matter: Of Gemmes some are of one cullour, some of sundry cullours. More or lesse transparent be either white, or of other cullours.

White are Chrystall or Adamant. Chrystall is a gem, bright through, begot of a most pure stony moy­sture, and is found in mines of Marble, &c. His quali­tie is binding: therefore his oyle or powder is helpe­full in Laxes, and increaseth milke in womens brests.

The Adamant or Diamant is a gem cleare and most hard, it can scarce be broken (and thence it is named) vnlesse steeped in the warme bloud of a Goat that hath drunke Wine or eaten Parsly.

Transparent Gemmes not white, as the Saphir, Sardonix, and Smaragde haue the same coullour in all their kindes.

The Saphir is a gem cleare through, of a skie coul­lour, growing in the East, and specially in India: Being drunke, it helpeth against the stinging of Ser­pents, poyson, and pestilence.

The Smaragde is of a greene coullour, making greene the ayre neare about it; the stone of Brytaine is the best. It preserueth the wearer from the falling sicknesse: eyght graines of his shauing drunke expel­leth poyson, &c, as some affirme.

The Sardonyx is a cleare gem, representing in coul­lour the nayle of a mans hand: it preserueth chastnes, and healeth vlcers about the nayles.

The Selenites is a transparent gem like glasse, it [Page 26] seemeth to increase and decrease with the moone: Whose shape in the night it beareth, and is called therefore the Moone-stone, &c. It is of a white, blacke, and yellow coullour. His scrapings heale the falling sicknesse. Bright shining Gems doe follow.

The Carbuncle is a gem shining in the light like fire, it is the noblest and hath most vertues of any pre­cious stone.

The Calcedonian is of a purple coullour, shining like a starre, it expels sadnes and feare by purging and chearing the spirits. It hindreth ill visions.

The Astarites is a Christaline stone, hauing in the midst like a full moone. Bright stones not shining doe follow: or the lesse shining.

The Rubie is a red gem, shining in darke like a sparke of fire: it cleareth the sight, it expelleth sad and fearefull dreames.

The Topaz is of the cullor of gold, casting beames in the Sunne: being layd to a wound it stancheth bloud: or cast into hot water keepeth the hand from scalding.

The Hiacinth is of watrish coullour, it is exceeding hard, and cloudie in the darke, but pure and cleare by day. It is colde, moderating the spirits of the heart, and of the other parts, and causing mirth, which being worne obtaineth fauour.

Precious stones of lesse shining, be Corrall, Asbe­stos, Magnes, and Galacte.

Corrall is a stone growing in the Sea like a slimie shrub, which by the ayre presently is made hard. It is taken vp full of mosse, but being vnbarked, it appea­reth cleare in his proper coullour. The spongie Cor­rall [Page 27] is white and colde. The solid is more stonie, and is red and blacke. Red and full of branches is the best, which worne of one shortly to be sicke, waxeth pale. His tender substance is affected by the bad vapour, which yet is vnable in the bodie to afflict it. It is good for sore eyes, for the stone, and falling sicknesse.

Asbestos is of an Iron coullour, being once fired it cannot be quenched; It is found in Arabia.

Magnes or Loadstone is of a skie coullour, or an I­ron coullour: It draweth Iron. It hath like vertue with the Adamant. It purgeth the dropsie, helpeth the flux; respecteth the North and South poole.

Galactites is of an Ash coullour, it seemeth to sweat as it were milke, it increaseth milke, and helpeth run­ning of the eyes, and vlcers.

Now follow stones of diuers coullours.

Achates is a stone of diuers coullours, resembling a Lyons skin: sometime it is blacke with white veynes and yellow: sometime it is as it were sprinkled with bloud, it is very variable in coullour. Eagles lay it in their nests to preserue their young from poyson.

Turcois is darke, of a skie coullour, and greenish: It helpeth weake eyes and spirits.

Corneolus is like water of washed flesh. It helpeth against the Pyles in the fundament, and to stop fluxes. In a ring it restraineth anger.

Chrysoprasus is of a greene coullour with golden spots. It shineth a little in the darke, it is rare and deare. It comforteth the heart, helpeth dim sight, &c. Hematite is of an Iron coullour with bloudie vaynes: It is cold and dry, cooleth hot waters, stancheth bloud, and helpeth against the scorching of the Sunne, as Au­thors write.

[Page 28]Also the qualities of other stones depend rather vpon authoritie then vpon proofe.

Stones be found in Beasts, Birds, and Fishes.

Stones found in Beasts bee;

1. Chelidonius is a small stone in the belly of yong Swallowes. It is found in those of the first hatching in the new moone: if two be found, the one is red, the o­ther blacke. The best is of a sprinkled red. The red in a linnen cloth carried vnder the left arme, expelleth madnesse, the falling sicknesse, and getteth fauour, say some.

2. Alectorius is of a christall or watrish coullour. It is found in the Maw of an olde Capon. as big as a beane in one of nine yeere old, small in one of fiue yeer olde. This stone quencheth thirst, being held in the mouth. It maketh warlike and couragious.

3. The Rubet or Toadstone, groweth in the head of a Toad: It is of a white browne coullour, sometime it hath a skie coulloured eye in the middle: It is to be taken before the Toad touch any Water. It is a reme­die against all poyson. If it come neare poyson it changeth coullour, and sweateth as it were drops.

In fishes are found stones which are made of the cold hardening their matter.

4. The Crabs eye, of the female, is like an eye, it dissolveth bloud congealed, and expelleth stones.

4. The Perch stone found in his head is white and as big as Hemp-seed.

6. The Carpe stone found in his chap, is triangu­ler, white without, yellow within. It helpeth against aboundance of choller. Thus far of precious stones.

These following are of price, because of their beau­tie, but not so rare.

[Page 29]Porphirite, is a Marble shining like purple. Alaba­ster is a marble like in coullour, to spotted Honny. At this day it is cleare, and smooth, like Plaster.

The Ophite is a most hard marble, of a sad greene spotted, and Serpent-like coullour.

Common stones are of vnpure slimie earth, thicke, and darke: some be solid, as the Flint, Boulder, the Whet-stone, &c. Some be full of poores as the Pumise, Gravil-stones, and Free-stone.

SAlt is a fryable mettall, begotten of a watrish and earthie moysture, mixt and decocted together: It bindeth, scowreth, purgeth, disperseth, repres­seth, maketh thin and hard. It is gotten in pits or wa­ters. The sorts of digged salts be;

Salt Amoniack is found in plates vnder the hotte sands of Cyreniae. It is hot and dry in the fourth de­gree, and serueth to purge slimie humors. That which Apothecaries sell in blacke clods, is made of Camels stale, and because store of Camels be in Armenia, it is called Armeniack.

Salt Peter is found in dry places vnder the ground, and in hollow Rockes: It is sometime called Nitre, of a Region in Egypt. Of this kinde is the salt called Borax.

Salt Gem, is a white kinde of Euen-salt, shining like Christall: It is also called Stonie, marbly, salt Sarma­ticke, or Dacian.

Salt of Indie is a blackish Salt, or ruddy. It is in clods cut out of mount Oremen.

Salt of Water is taken on the Sea coast or from some lakes and springs, and it is sod and congealed of the [Page 30] Sunne, or by fire.

Allome is a salt sweat of the earth, it is either liquid or hard.

Liquid Allome is called Roch or Rock-Allome, with it is paper washed, &c.

Hard Allome, or Allome Sciffile is thicke, and cleaueth: It is as it were gray.

Bitume is a fat and tough moysture, like pitch, and is called Earthy pitch.

Liquid, is like an oylely moysture flowing, and is of diuers coullours, after the varietie of the place, of which Naphtha is a white fat of Bitumen, which en­flamed by water, doth easily draw to it fire, through store of oyle that is in it.

Naphtha Petreolum is found in rockes. It is for his fatnesse of some called Oyle.

Ambar of Arabia is Bitume of an Ash coullour.

Hard Bitume is tough, like foame swimming on the water, but being taken forth, it waxeth hard: of this kinde is Asphaltus, which is blacke Bitume, hard like stone pitch: The best is gotten in the dead Sea of Iu­dea, &c.

Pissaphaltus is Asphaltus, smelling of Pitch, mingled with Bitume: It is called Mummie. Where this wants, they sell vs counterfeit of Syria, for poore men that die there, be stuffed with Bitume, but the rich are dres­sed with Mirrh, Alloes, &c.

It also is found in clods roling from mount Cera­uine into the Sea.

Succinum is Bitume, like a stone, exceeding hard, named, Ex succo, the Iuyce of the earth. It is white or yellow, which is called Ambar, or blacke as Iet. His [Page 31] fatnesse is so great that it burneth like a Candle, and smelleth like the Pine tree. It draweth to it chaffe, and such other light stuffe, by a certaine hid nature.

Metallar Earths which are digged forth of mines, be,

Terra Lemnia, an exceeding red Earth of Lemnos Ile, digged in a red hill: It is sometime vsed for Ar­menian· In old time this had Dianaes seale vpon it, printed by her Priests, who were onely wont to wash this earth.

It is of force to expell poyson, it healeth wounds festred and olde, and poysoned.

Bole Armenian is earth of Armenia, it is of a pale red coullour, smooth, and easie to breake as chalke: It is a dryer, and profitteth against all fluxes.

Terra Samia is white, stiffe, and tough, comming from the Ile Samos.

Ampelite is a pitchie Earth, cleauing and blacke, it is named of anoynting vines to kill the Wormes. This earth is like that we call Stone or Sea coale.

Chalke is white earth of Creet, and there is found of it in many other places.

There is also some sound that is blacke, which is called Pignitis.

So farre of Mineralls; Now follow Natures per­fectly liuing.

Natures perfectly liuing, are Planets, or bodies en­dowed with a soule. In all these bodies are sundry vertues, according to the temperature of the princi­pall qualities. For the forme vseth their qualities as Instruments: Whence come diuers distinct degrees of those qualities, as some are hot, cold, dry, moyst in the first, second, third, and fourth degree. These qualities [Page 32] in the first are obscure, and scarce to be perceiued: in the second they are apparant and manifest: in the third they be vehement; and in the fourth immode­rate, and not to be indured. And againe each of these hath a beginning, middle, and end.

Plants grow from a stalke or a trunke. Those from a stalke haue but one stalke or many. Trees are Plants hauing but one stalke, full of Boughes, and rising on high from the earth. Some grow onely in hot Coun­tries: others grow indifferently in all places: those that prosper best in hot Regions, are Frankincense, Mace, Pepper, Palme, Balsame, Pomegranet, Lem­mon, Ceder.

The Frankincense tree groweth chiefly in Arabia, it is tall, and hath leaues like the Mastike tree, his gum is soft, white, fat, and round, and is apt to perfume, and the stiffer and liker Rosen it is, so much the bet­ter. This perfume was vsed for sacrifice.

Myrrhe is a tree in India, of hard wood, wrythen towardes the earth, with a smooth barke, the leaues sharpe poynted towardes the end: his gum is fat, like Rosen, thicke, and shining red. The distilled liquor of fresh Myrrh was once called Stact, but now it is na­med Storax. It is hot and dry in the second degree. It dryeth & closeth wounds, it expelleth the wormes: it is of force against an old cough, and short winde. It is bitter: It is good to heale wounds of the head.

Mace is an Indian tree, growing in the Ile of Banda. It is almost like the Peach tree, it hath narrow and short leaues, whose fruit is the Nut-meg couered with Mase.

The Nut-meg hath an huske like a Filberd: the [Page 33] fruit is couered with a rinde like our Wal-nut, which with ripenesse openeth and sheweth the Mase, which doth couer the Nut-meg, &c.

The new and best Nut-meg is full of iuyce or oyle, smelling sweete. It dryeth and heateth in the ende of the second degree, with a kindly binding.

Pepper groweth in India. Of it be two sorts of trees, and two sorts of fruits, one long, the other round. The round groweth on branches like vines, which imbraceth trees that stand by it; and his fruit is in clusters, first greene, then being dryed, it turneth blacke and rough: it is gathered in October.

Long Pepper groweth like the long bud on Nut-trees. It is hot and dry.

Palme tree groweth most in Egypt, and Arabia, al­wayes greene, with a long round bodie, his barke is like scales of a Fish, & the more it is pressed, the better it groweth: therefore was it vsed as a reward for the Conquerour.

The wild Palme in India, is called Thamarind, the Date is his fruit, it being ripe is blacke and sweete: Of these be three kindes. Our Dates come from E­gypt: they are hot temperately.

Balsame is a low tree, his trunke is not much vnlike the Turpentine tree; it hath leaues like Rew, but whiter, neuer falling. It groweth in the valley of Hie­rico, and Egypt: being cut it sendeth out a milkish li­quor: it is to be cut in the vpper part of the barke with glasse or bone, and not with Iron, least it die. His iuyce is gathered with wooll into small hornes: of it is scarce got each yeare six Congies: a Congie is about three Pints.

[Page 34]Natiue Balme mixed with milke doth easily sepa­rate: and easily dissolue in water, neither doth it staine cloth. It is hot and dry in the second degree: it is of thin parts, and hard to come by. In his stead most commonly is vsed the Oyle of Nut-megges.

  • The Pomegranet doe follow.
  • The Orange doe follow.
  • The Ceder tree. doe follow.

1. Pomegranet, is a low tree that hath narrow shining leaues, red flowers, and his fruit filled with graynes. It came from the Country in which Carthage stoode; the iuyce of this Apple helpeth the stomacke: It is very good in a burning Feuer.

2. Pomecytron, Lemmon, and Orange trees are alwayes greene, the leafe of the Cytron is like the Lawreil, endented. The fruit is rough, and al­wayes fruitfull; his iuyce cureth inflamations, and other diseases in the skin: the barke comforteth the heart, &c.

The Orange hath a smoother skin, and leafe.

3. The Ceder is like to Iuniper, his leaues being sharper: the tree is exceeding tall, chiefly of that of Cy­prus; It neuer rotteth, his nature destroying sound things, preserueth corrupt things.

The trees lesse hot are either fruitfull or barren. The fruitfull haue fruit that hath a rinde thicke, or thin. The thinner rinde is of Apples, or Berries. Ap­ples are round, as the Fig, Oliue, Plum, Cherry.

The Fig tree is not high, it hath a smooth barke like the Walnut tree. It yeeldeth a long fruit like a Peare, full of graines. It is so fruitfull that it bringeth forth three or foure times in a yeare: so that one Fig thrust­eth [Page] off another. They are of two kindes, great and little.

The Oliue: the Apple tree: and Peach be common.

The Quince tree is lower then an Apple tree, his fruit hath downie hayre; it is called Cidonia, of a ci­tie in Crete, where first it grew. The fruit is colde and binding, and doth much profit hot stomackes.

The Peare, the Plum, the Medler, and the Cherry be common.

Now follow those trees that beare Berries.

The Lawrell is a tree growing in hotter countryes, which in colde doth hardly prosper; it hath sharpe and thicke leaues euer greene, with a thin smooth barke: his leaues be hot and dry, his oyle for hot and softning nature helpeth diseases of the brest; and other springing of colde. The powder in wine causeth v­rine, breaketh the stone of the bladder and reynes.

Iuniper beareth a small fruit, the space of two yeares, and before the first be ripe, it bringeth forth other. This tree hath short and sharpe leaues, and a straight backe, and slit almost in euery place: the gum sweat­ing out of it, is Vernix, called so because it congealeth in the spring. It is hot and dry in the third degree. It healeth and gleweth, and also heateth a colde sto­macke. His berries are hot and dry in the first degree, comforting the spirits, and healing putrifactions. It consumeth rotten and moyst humors. The oyle hel­peth the Gout, if you anoynt the backe-bone there­with: it cureth deafenesse, and eaten helpeth melan­choly, and stayeth the Rhume, and the Flux.

Now follow trees whose fruit hath a shell.

1. The Almond tree.

[Page 36]2. The Wal-nut tree.

3. The Chesnut tree taketh his name of a towne in Magnesia, the tree is much like the Wall-nut, yet the leafe hath more veines, and is edged like a Saw. His fruit is couered with a sharpe huske, and within it hath a red huske. It is of two kindes: both hot and dry in the first degree; and for their earthie matter binding. They are hard to disgest, and beget lice: but good if rosted and eaten with Salt, Pepper, and Sugar.

The powder of dry Chesnuts voydeth Vrine.

The Beech is tall with a thicke white barke, or a sad red. It hath leaues like Lawrell, nicked on the edge. His fruit is a thre'angle Nut, closed in a little pricking huske. His fruit is hot, sweete, and binding. His leaues are coole, which being eaten, doe helpe much the griefe of the gums and lippes. If they bee stamped, they much strengthen dead members, being anoynted with it. Swine and Mise delight much in this fruit.

Trees whose fruit is but halfe couered:

The Oke is a tall tree, hauing a thicke rough barke, his leaues are deepe gashed, and his boughes are knot­ted: his proper fruit is the Acorne: the gall and his glew are but accidentall. It is moderately hot and dry, it bindeth, and especially the little skin which coue­reth the Acorne. Distilled water of Oke leaues cureth Fluxes, and rottennesse of the Liuer: and expelleth all congealed bloud. His leaues stamped and applyed to greene wounds heale them.

Likewise they draw heate from swellings, and pim­ples arising by heate.

Galls grow especially in olde Okes, and in the [Page 37] night, in the Summer, the Sunne then leauing Gemi­ni: they be of two sorts: small and rough, and great and smooth.

Galls haue in them sometime Spiders, Flies, and Ants: Some thinke Spiders doe presage pestilence, Flies warre, and Ants dearth. The powder of Galls doth heale wounds without any scarre. Robur is ve­ry hard and during: It hath lesse fruit.

The Ilex is very tall with leaues, Lawrell-like, euer greene, but lesser and sharpe: a thicke wood and of a blacke red coullour; and is very rare.

Another kinde is the Corke tree, hauing like leafe, fruit, and greennesse, yet is it lesser, and hath a most thicke barke, which though it be taken of, yet doth not the tree wither: it is called the female Ilex: his wood is full of poores and holes, and most light, and not to be sunke.

Now follow trees that beare gum, whose Nut hath scales.

The Pineapple is a tree full of boughes, with hay­rie leaues like Combe teeth, of whose sharpe top it takes his name. His fruit is Pine-nuts, these are hot and dry, and binde. They are good against coughs, and consumptions, strengthening, and heating.

The wilde Pine is a great high tree with hairy leaues.

The Pitch tree is tall with a blacke barke, tough and stiffe, and running along his boughes like a crosse, from both sides of the trunke: his leaues are broader, softer, and smoother then Rosemary. From betweene the barke and wood of this tree floweth a gumme like Rozen.

The Firre tree is a kinde of Pitch tree, but some­what [Page 38] whiter, his leaues on one side are of an Ash coul­lour: from this floweth also a Rozen, which sod with honie profitteth against the destillations of the head and throat, against the Quinsey and other maladies, it asswageth the inflamation of woundes, and ioyneth them: it soden with Barley bran and wine, cureth hard kernells.

The Larix is a high tree with a thicke barke clifted on each side: his boughes grow by degrees about the trunke: his leaues are thicke, long, soft, and hairie, his fruit is almost like the Cypres, and hath a pleasant smell. The wood of this, for that it is dry and full of Rozen, burneth vehemently, and soone melteth met­tall. His Rozen is in smell, taste, and working better then common Turpentine.

In coullour it is like honey, tough but not hard. In the bodie of the tree groweth Fungus Agaricus, a swamp or mush-rome. The best is white, thin, full of pores, light, and easie to breake: it purgeth fleame.

Now follow trees that bring forth no fruit of note, called Barren trees.

The Elme is tall with rough leaues and sharpe: his wood is yellow, hard, & deformed: the barke, boughes, and leaues have a healing facultie in scabbes. It also closeth woundes.

The Alder hath a long straight trunke, his wood is soft, his leaues like Peare-tree, but greater, thicker, and rounder: it groweth in moyst places, and by ryuers. His wood is hot and dry, and indureth long vnder the earth, or in water. His thin and fat leaues layd vpon tumors with hot water cure them, and helpe all swellings.

[Page 39]The Teile is a large and broad tree, with a thicke stalke: his leaues like Ivie, but softer and sharper. It bindeth: his other qualities are like the wilde Oliue.

The Boxe hath little round leaues alwayes greene, his stalke is rough, for most part full of knotts, and blacke: the wood is hard and heauie, it sinketh in wa­ter, and neuer decayeth with age. Of this, boxes are named, because most of them were wont to be made of Boxe. It is dry and binding: the powder of his leaues, with Lauender and water, profiteth against madnesse. Lye of Boxe maketh yellow heires.

The Birch is a tender tree: his barke is blacke at first, but after white, his wood is soft and weake aboue other. It hath a sweete sap: In the rude age his barke was vsed for Paper. His sap taken in the spring hel­deth the stone, I aundies, and rottennesse of the mouth: also being put in milke preserueth the Cheese made of that milke from Maggotts.

Willow groweth apace: it endureth long, for though it be hollow and rotten, yet it liueth. It is of two sortes, solid or brittle: the solid is blacke or yel­low: the blacke is the greater and better, and is most apt for binding.

The yellow groweth chiefly neare water, it is som­time white. The brittle Willow is most white and vn­apt for binding. Willowes are dry and thicke: his leaues and barke sod in Wine helpeth grypings of the belly.

The Poplar delighteth in moyst and watrish places. It is white or blacke: the white hath a long straight trunke, and a smooth barke: his leafe round and after sharper, greene beneath, hoarie aboue, and doe conti­nually [Page 40] shake it, is moderately hot and dry. The roote taken in drinke desendeth from gripings in the belly. Blacke Poplar is like the white: but greater, softer, and hath narrower leaues, and greene below, and of an Ash coullour aboue. It is hot and dry: the boughes held in the hand (some say) forbid wearinesse of hand and foote: his gumme stamped helpeth loosenesse.

Now follow shrubbs: which spring vp with many stalkes: and are noble or lesse noble: The noble, as first, Cynamon, which is a barke of a shrub of that name growing in India: of a blacke coullour with thin boughes, which if they be broken, cast forth a sweet sent: His barke is of two sorts, thicke and thin. The thin is of the sharpest and best taste. The thicke is more slowly disgested, it comforteth the heart: the best is red and sharpe with some sweetnesse. It is of subtill partes, hot in the third, and dry in the second degree. It helpeth a colde stomacke, it strengtheneth the sight, heart, and liuer, and begetteth pure bloud.

Cassia Fistula is a round, great, and purple Cane, hauing a very blacke pith, the heauiest and reddest Canes are best. Of the blacke pith is made a good, and gentle purgation, called Cassia extract. This helpeth much against fevers, and many other disea­ses, if one ounce of it be taken with as much Rose water. Shrubs lesse Noble.

The Hasell is an high shrub with a slender stalke, and full of white spots. His leaues are broader, and haue more gashes then the Alder. The tree beareth the Filberd, and the Nut: these Nuts are hot and moyst, & make fat: but hurt the stomach, and procure a laske. If stamped in water and sugar, they be applyed, they [Page 41] helpe an old cough. The Ashes burnt with Swines, or Boares grease, and applyed to the head, causeth the hayre to grow.

The Elderne hath boughs of an Ash coullour, and in it is store of pith, and his leaues are much like to those of the Wal-nut tree, it beareth purple berries, hauing red iuyse.

Dwarfe Elderne is low and short, with a foure-square stalke; these plants are hot and dry, and haue power to purge and digest: Also it healeth and closeth; the roote or leaues of Elder sod in wine purge the dropsie, and nothing is more effectual to that purpose then the roote of Dwarfe Elderne. Water in which the leaues of Elderne are sod, helpe to rid the dry cough. The Pitch or an electuary of the berries, expelleth sweat, and all poyson.

Barberryes are not much vnlike the wilde Peare, al­though they be farre lesse, and in the boughes some two or three prickes grow together. His leafe is like Quince leaues, but narrower. Barberries be hot and dry in the second degree. The iuyse of the berryes profitteth against the inflamation of the liuer, as also against inward impostumes·if it be applied with night shade, it quencheth thirst. The barke of his roote or fruit stamped, plucketh out a thing fast in the flesh: his syrrope tempered with sugar comforteth the hart, restoreth appetite, profiteth against burning Feuers, & all inward diseases of much bloud.

The small Raisin hath purple boughes, and pam­pin leaues, but lesse, and of blackish greene. It hath round red berries, vpon long stalkes, his fruit and leaues are colde and dry in the second degree, hauing [Page 42] power to close. The iuyse of the fruit taken helpeth against trembling of the heart, and inflamations of the bodie: but chiefly it helpeth the plague: his iuyse with Endiue water profiteth to remoue specks of the face.

The Rose groweth vp with small twigs, of a black greene, full of crooked prickes: his leaues are dented on the edge: his fruit, namely, Roses be of diuerse coullours. All Roses be colde and dry, and helpe both inward and outward affections of the bodie.

The iuyse sod in Wine helpeth griefes of the head, eyes, and gums. Honey and Rose water strengthen all parts, and purge melancholy and fleame; sodden with Fennell and Salt, his oyle healeth burnings, and layed on the forehead taketh away heauinesse, and hot sick­nesses. The funge of wilde Rose trees in powder with wine expelleth the stone. Water of Roses helpeth sore eyes, comforteth and cooleth the braine, it being drunke, relieueth the heart and stomach: it keepeth the spirits, and naturall heate.

The Bramble is full of prickes, and crawleth about: the leaues of sweete bryer on the one side are white, on the other blacke, his fruit is the blacke berry, full of iuyse, the berry is dry, colde, and close. His fruit, leaues, or sprouts quench inward heate. The top of his leaues sod in Wine stay the bloudie flixe, helpe vl­cers of the mouth, and fasten loose teeth.

Poterion, vua crispa, Gooseberries is full of boughs, hath ash coulloured barke or white, full of sharpe thornes, his leaues are lesse then ground Ivie and croo­ked, his berries from greene turne to redish: it is cold in the first, dry in the second degree; his greene leaues cure inflamations, and apostumes, and asswage Ignis sacer.

[Page 43]Colutea in leafe not vnlike to Fengreke, hath a round fruit, as big as a Lentle in a puffed shell. It is hot in the beginning of the second degree, and dry in the first: it purgeth the panch: scoureth away chiefly me­lancholy, without trouble, from the head, braine, and the Instruments of the senses.

Thus farre of·Plants growing from a trunke or stalke, &c.

Now follow Herbes which haue but a thin small stalke, consisting most vpon leaues: These doe nourish more or lesse, as Corne and Pot-herbes, which nourish more.

Wheate is a kinde of Corne, hauing an eare vpon the blade, stuffed with many graynes, it is moderately hot and dry, and of much nourishment, and helpefull for many diseases, aswell within as without the body: the best is hard to breake, heauie, and of gold cullour, smooth, and growing in fat ground.

Leauen of Wheate doth draw, ripen, and open vl­cers, and apostumes: Bisket profitteth against rhume.

Barley is cold and dry in the second degree, and purgeth. His floure and new milke in plaster cure Biles, and such tumors, by easing their paine, and drawing forth heate. Bread made of it begetteth cold and slimie humours, and nourisheth lesse then wheat. Barley water maketh the skin faire and smooth.

Spelte or Zea is of a middle temperature, betweene Wheate and Barley: it is a kinde of Wheate, and com­monly goeth vnder that name.

Rye is not so hot as Wheate, and hurteth much, ex­cept it be well disgested.

Oates are colder then Wheate, and of operation al­most [Page 44] like Barley.

Now follow of Pulse:

Millet is a most fertill Pulse with sharpe leaues, broad below, and sharpe towardes the toppe: his cod hath in it around long fruit. It is colde in the first, and dry in the third degree, it stoppeth the belly, and nouri­sheth but little.

Rize is smaller then Millet, and farre lesse, it grow­eth in moyst and watry places: it bindeth.

Lentells grow like small pease, and haue a vertue to binde.

Pease are either of the field or garden; bearing a white, or a purple flower.

Beanes are meanely colde, and moyst, inflaming, windie, hard to disgest.

Now follow Pot-herbes.

Coleworts haue very broad leaues, which enclosing one another round about become Cabbedges. These be colde and moyst; and in Egypt be very bitter. The Romanes for the space of six hundred yeares vsed this onely herbe to cure all diseases. His broath expelleth the stone and grauell, his leaues applyed by them­selues, or with the flowers cure inflamations: his iuyse healeth festred sores: it cureth the falling of the haire. Broath made of his leaues with an olde Cocke, cureth the Collicke, and other gripings.

Spinagh hath an high stalke, and beareth sharpe seedes, his leaues being sharpe and triangular; it is colde and moyst in the first degree. His iuyse expelleth hurtfull rhume: It mollifieth the belly, and cureth hardnesse of the backe and belly. His Iuyse taketh a­way the paine and heate of the stomacke and liuer: [Page 45] it helpeth the byting of Spiders.

Lettise hath his leaues gathered into a curled round­nesse, that which groweth in the field hath a shorter stalke and leafe, then Garden Lettise, being bitter, and full of milke.

It is moderately moyst and colde, like Spring water, it is wholesome in Summer, to restore appetite to meate. Yet too much of it hurteth the eyes: and boyld with womans milke cureth burnings.

Beetes haue two coullours, the one white, the other blacke and red, both of them for their salt disgest and cleanse, but the white is more salt, and bindeth, yet being boyled, it looseneth: It cureth obstructions of the liuer, especially if it be taken with vinegar and mu­stard: It also cureth those that be sicke of the splene.

Purslaine hath round, thicke, fat, and white leaues on the backe, a red stalke, yellow flowers like a Starre: They of the Garden haue broad leaues, and a thicke stalke: the wilde, lesser, and more leaues. It is colde in the first, and moyst in the second degree: it is tart; his iuyse helpeth a hot stomacke, and hot diseases, it be­ing somewhat binding, helpeth fluxes, and euacuati­ons of bloud, if it be vsed with Barley flower.

Garden Mallowes grow with a round leafe, and high stalke, his flowers be red, or white: wilde Mallowes mollifie, and a little digest: Garden, are moyst, and weaker. The decoction of Mallowes drunke, cureth an old cough: his leaues sod and vsed with common oyle heale burning.

The Onion hath a subtell stalke, round and hollow, arising from a round roote, wound about with many fouldings: it is hot almost in the fourth degree: it is [Page 46] of thicke partes: his iuyse is a dry substance, and hot. An Onion all night layd in colde water and drunke, killeth wormes, and being beaten with salt, it draweth away warts by the rootes: his iuyse put in the eare cu­reth deafenesse.

The Leeke groweth almost like Onions, and is of the same qualitie, it doth dissolue swellings, and con­gealed bloud, being applyed like a Plaster.

Parsley hath leaues like Cycuta, it is hot and dry in the third degree, it peirceth and dissolueth, prouoking vrine; the seed is more effectuall then the herbe. It dis­solueth the stone, it consumeth ill moysture, and sores of the head.

These herbes following are vsed for Garlands, or physicke; some of them smelling sweetly.

The Violet hath leaues lesser and thinner then I­vie, but more blacke, his stalke commeth from the midst of his roote, beareth a purple flower, and a seed full of graynes. It springeth in woods, and shadowie places, wilde, but not sweete: it is colde in the first, and moyst in the second: and cooleth hot diseases and in­flamations. Of it there be diuers kindes, and cullors: as the Pancey or Harts-ease.

The Daisie hath leaues somewhat round aboue and small below, and the roote in the ground wheeling a­bout: it is colde in the second degree.

The Ielly-flowre hath sharpe leaues, growing like grasse with flowers of sundry coullours: it hath an at­tractiue force, and the iuyse healeth wounds in the head.

Maioram hath almost a woodden stalke, with many rough round leaues, and it smelleth sweetly. It is hot [Page 47] and dry in the fourth degree, it is of thin parts, and of a disgesting facultie. It healeth, disgesteth, and pro­uoketh vrine.

Rosemary is hot and dry in the third degree, and smelleth like Frankincense. It mollifieth, disgesteth, and dryeth.

Spicknard is hot in the first, and dry in the second degree.

Lauender heateth and dryeth in the second degree.

White Daffodill is hot and dry. It is of diuerse kindes.

Rose Campion is an herbe with an Ash coulloured stalke, as it were cotton, long leaued, and white, bear­ing purple flowers, growing vp like the Prim-rose: his seede is hot and dry almost in the second degree: it preuaileth against the stinging of Scorpions.

Herbes vsed in medicine, are Aromatike, or ordina­ry. Aromatike doe comfort and strengthen the spi­rits. Thence they take their name.

Saffron is hot in the second, and dry in the first de­gree, it a little bindeth, and concocteth; it may with good keeping be preserued fiue yeares.

It comforteth the heart and stomacke, it maketh pure bloud, and prouoketh vrine, it scowreth the brest, it is deadly, if it be taken too much.

Ginger waxeth greene twise or thrise in the yeare, it heateth in the third, and is moyst in the first, it is of more subtell parts then Pepper.

Zadury or Wormeseede heateth and dryeth in the second degree, it is that we doe call the roote of Chi­na, like Ginger but not so biting.

Gallingall is the roote of a plant growing in Mem­phis [Page 48] and Syria, it groweth like the flouredeluce, but with prickes, and is broader and thicker from the roote. It is hot and dry in the third degree, as is the roote of Cyprus.

Callamus Aromaticus is an herbe of India, growing like reeds or figs. It is hot and dry in the second de­gree, and a little binding.

Acorus is a plant growing with leaues like Iris, but smaller, or like segges, the roote is white, sweetly smel­ling. It is hot and dry in the second degree.

There be sexes of Herbes, as of other liuing things, some of which more helpe, namely, the Male or Fe­male according to their kindes.

A Feeling soule is a power apprehending and per­ceiuing things placed without the bodie of liu­ing creatures. This facultie is exercised by the sences, and by motion accompanying the sences. The sences are outward or inward. The outward onely perceiue things present: And euery one of these haue their proper subiect: and the most haue a middle in­strument: of all which, if there be a certaine mutuall consent and iust proportion: the sences become of morce force: but if any one of them haue too excel­lent an obiect, or his instrument be corrupt, they are dull and vnfit to be vsed; This is the cause of blindnes to those that walke in snow, and of deafenesse vnto Smithes, &c. Furthermore, sences are common to the whole bodie, or proper to some part thereof. The sence in the whole bodie is touching. This is a sence by meanes of flesh, full of sinewes, apprehending tac­till qualities.

[Page 49]His instrument is flesh, full of sinewes, or rather a nerue like a hayre dispersed throughout the whole bodie. In man for the aboundance of nerues is this sence most quicke; his meanes is flesh and skin, for though the skin be remoued, yet a man feeleth hurt. Sences of certaine partes are more or lesse noble. The nobler are Seeing, and Hearing: whose meanes are the water, and ayre: Sight by the eye perceiueth bright and colloured things: The subiect thereof is light, &c. Greene a most temperate coullour is most accep­table to the sight. His instrument is the Nerue Op­tick, which from the braine cometh to both the eyes.

Hearing is a sence perceiuing soundes: his instru­ment is a little skin in the lowest winding, or turning of the eare, dry and full of holes: the skin is double, one below, which couereth a little bone like an An­vile: Another aboue, containing a little bone, as it were a small Mallet. The vpper striken by the soundes, striketh the lower, and stirreth vp the spirits in the nerues to perceiue the sound.

The more vn-noble sences are Tasting, and Smel­ling: Tasting apprehendeth tastes. His instrument is a nerue stretched like a Net vpon the flesh of the tong, which is full of little pores. His meanes is a temperate salt humour: which if it doe exceede the iust quanti­tie, it doth not exactly perceiue tastes: but if it be al­together consumed, no tastes are perceiued.

Smelling iudgeth qualities fit for smell: his instru­ment is the entrance into the first ventricle couered with a small skin, the dryer it is the quicker of smell, as in Dogs and Vultures: but man for the moystnesse of his Braine, hath but a dull smell.

[Page 50]Now follow the inward sences, which beside things presently offered, doe know formes of many absent things. By these the creature doth not onely perceiue, but also vnderstandeth that which he doth perceiue. These haue their seate in the braine: They are either conceiuing or preseruing: Conceiuing exerciseth his facultie by descerning, or more fully iudging: it is cal­led, Common sence, and the other is Phantasie. Com­mon sence more fully distinguisheth sensible things, his instrument is the former ventricle of the braine, made by drynesse fit to receiue. Phantasie is an inward sence more diligently examining the forms of things: This is the thought and iudgement of creatures, his place is the middle part of the braine, being through drynesse apt to retaine.

The preseruing sence is Memorie, which according to the constitution of the braine is better or worse. It is weaker in a moyst braine then in the dry braine. His instrument is the hinder part of the braine.

Memorie calling backe images preserued in former time, is called Remembrance: but this is not without the vse of reason, and therefore is onely attributed to man.

The wittie excell in remembrance, the dull in me­morie.

Sleepe is the resting of the feeling facultie: his cause is a cooling of the braine by a pleasant abounding va­pour, breathing forth of the stomacke, and ascending to the braine. When that vapour is concoct, and tur­ned into spirits, the heate returneth, and the sences re­couering their former function, cause waking. There be certaine appointed courses for watch and sleepe, [Page 51] least creatures languish with ouermuch motion.

Affections of sleepe are Dreames, Nightmare, and Extasie, &c.

A dreame is an inward act of the minde, the bodie sleeping: and the quieter that sleepe is the easier bee dreames: but if sleepe be vnquiet then the minde is troubled.

Varietie of dreames is according to the diuers con­stitution of the bodie.

The cleare and pleasant dreames are when the spi­rits of the braine, which the soule vseth to imagine with, are most pure and thin, as towardes morning when concoction is perfected.

But troublesome dreames are when the spirits bee thicke and vnpure. All naturall dreames are by ima­ges, either before proferred to memorie or conceiued by temperature alone, or by some influence from the starres, as some thinke.

From dreames many things may be collected, tou­ching the constitution of the bodie.

The Night-mare, is a seeming of being choaked or strangled by one leaping vppon him: feare following this compression, the voyce is taken away. This af­fection commeth when the vitall spirits in the braine are darkened by vapours, ascending from melancholy and phlegme, insomuch, that that facultie being op­pressed, some heauie thing seemeth to be layd vpon vs.

Therefore this disease is familiar to those, who through age or sexe are much inclined vnto these hu­mours.

An Extasie or traunce, is a vehement imagination [Page 52] of the departure (for a time) of the soule from the bo­die. A deepe sleepe lasting some dayes enseweth, for the soule giuing ouer it selfe to cogitation, ceaseth to serue the bodie. Wherefore men wanting motion and sence seeme to be dead. And with what humours the braine shall be compassed such phancies doth it con­ceiue, although sometime spirits working on such phatasies, imprint other things.

Now followeth Motion, which accompanieth sence, and is caused either by appetite, or change of place, for we desiring things perceiued in sence, can­not attaine vnto them without mouing our bodie to that thing.

Appetite is a facultie desiring such things as are obiects to our sence. It chiefly followeth touching, or thinking. Delight followeth touching. Delight is a desire of an agreeing Obiect. Griefe is his contrarie, which is a turning from the hurtfull obiect, or from that we count vnpleasant. Appetites following cogi­tation, are all the motions of the hart, which be called affections, and are either good, or bad. The good cherish and preserue the nature of our sensitiue facul­tie, as mirth, loue, hope, which come of heate: when the heart dilating it selfe, desireth to enioy the thing, with which it is delighted.

Motion is a facultie of liuing creatures, stirring a bo­die, entised by appetite from one place to another. It is eyther of the whole body, or of partes: Of the whole body, as by going, &c. Of partes, as breathing, which is made either by enlarging of the parts, which serue for the taking in of the ayre, or by the closing of them for the expelling of corrupt ayre.

[Page 53]Now followeth to intreat, Of the bodies of liuing creatures.

The matter of the bodie in which the foresayd fa­culties be: is the seede of both sexes. Seede is most pure bloud▪ perfectly concocted in the testicles, and it is gathered from the whole bodie. For the testicles lac­king nourishment, draw bloud from the hollow vayne and change it.

Conception is the action of the wombe, by which the power is stirred vp to execute his inbred gift: Then that power being stirred vp doth diuersly di­stract the matter, separating his diuers partes: and thus all parts alike get together their shape. Likewise all of them together are adorned with the faculties of the vegetatiue, or sensitiue soule. Amongst the naturall faculties of the partes of the body, if there be putrifac­tion, a fault of the concocting facultie, there is made a certaine generation of matter: This is naturall, or extraordinary.

Naturall is by an inbred heate, not altogether sub­dued, but slackly exercising force, through disposition of the matter. Such is to be seene in inflamations, bot­ches, and impostumes. For in these, nature so farre as it can, laboureth to bring this his subiect matter to the best forme. Therefore such suppuration is wont to argue a certaine strength of nature, wherefore often with conuenient helpes, it is carefully encreased. In this kinde, especially is praysed white, thicke, smooth, equall, and least smelling matter.

Extraordinary mattering is, when nature altogether subdued, the humors or parts themselues are made full of corrupt matter through store of rottennesse.

[Page 54]But nature, or the concocting facultie, is ouercome either through proper weaknesse, or by corrupt mat­ter: this is obserued in all rotten, malignant, and stin­king botches, in which according to the diuerse fashi­oning of abounding matter, are found diuerse sorts of solid bodies, as haires, and such other like.

Of partes of the bodie which appertaine to the making vp of the whole bodie, some are containing, and some contained. The contained for their fluent nature are sustained by helpe of others. Such are hu­mours and spirits. Humors are moyst partes begot of the first mixture of nourishment in the liuer. These are in the seede of creatures, and are called the beginning of things endued with bloud. Any of these if they fayle of their proper nature, are not fit to be in the bo­die, but are become vnnaturall.

Humours are of the first, and second sort. The first are hot or colde, and moyst, and dry: Bloud is hot and moyst, and it is a thin, red, humour, and sweete. With this the other partes be chiefly nourished, amongst whom this is the chiefe. The faults of this is in sub­stance, as putrifaction, or mixture of vicious hu­mors: or in qualitie, as too thicke or too thin; or is af­fected with some other badnesse. The humour that is hot and dry, is choller, this is a thinne, yellow, pale, and bitter humour. His vse is to helpe the expelling facultie, and chiefly in the Guts. Gall besides nature, through adustion is yellow, like an egge yolke, in the stomacke it is like rustie brasse.

The colde and moyst is phlegme, which is a tough slimie, and whitish humour, and tastles. If this haue a fuller concoction, it is turned into bloud. His vse is [Page 55] to moysten the ioynts. When it declineth from his proper nature, it is salt or tart, according to his mix­ture. The colde and dry humour is blacke choller. This is a thicke, blackish, tart, bitter humour. It ser­ueth to strengthen the stomacke, that it may more ea­sily retaine, and receiue meate. When it declineth from his proper nature by immoderate burning, it hath diuers kindes. Humours of the second sort are begotten of the first, being wrought with concoction they are like dew or glew. Dew is a humor contained in the hollownes of the members, and ioyned to their substance, like dew, with which they are nourished.

Glew is a humour immoderately congealed, and be­ing firmely fastned to the members, beginneth to bee changed vnto their substance, of which change it is called Cambium, and carni fornis, like the flesh.

Now follow the spirits, which are a fluent part of the bodie, most thin, and begotten of the bloud of the heart. The spirits are the chiefe instrument, and as it were the Chariot of the soules faculties, for with most speedie, and swift motion, it carrieth them ouer all the bodie.

Spirits hauing roote in the heart, be either absolute or rude, and to be finished in other partes. Vitall spirits be absolute in the heart, and are of a firie nature, and from the heart by arteries are spred in the bodie, by whose communication all partes doe liue.

Spirits to be perfected in other parts bee Animall, which from the heart be carryed into the braine, and there made subtell by nerues, flowing vnto all the o­ther parts; and this is the Chariot of functions or fa­culties of all liuing Creatures.

[Page 56]Parts containing are more solid, which are sustained by themselues; all these either are as a stay or couering. The stay to other parts, is eyther bone, or gristle. Bone is the hardest and dryest part and stay to all the bodie. Bones are knit together by ligaments, which are like hard and thicke threeds, being as bandes to the bones of the bodie.

Gristles are somewhat softer then the bones, and sustaine all other partes. The couering of the other parts, is the skin, which is tender without bloud, and couereth the whole bodie. The membrane is tender skin, couering some parts.

There is yet in these parts a common excrement of concoction, which is sweat, and is a moystnesse of the veynes, expelled by secret pores, of this is to be seene a diuerse coullour, according to the die of the moyst­nesse, or matter thereof: the vsuall is watrish, through the white substance of the channels, through which it runneth. But if the pores be large, and open, that without delay, and long change it may slide through them: especially, if for some all action of minde or dis­ease, it become thinner, then is it speedily expelled, and tainted with some other coullour, &c. Therefore from the coullour of sweate, the bodies constitution may be knowne. Colde sweate is worse to be liked then hot, but either is bad if they be vnequall.

Also the containing parts afore-named are animall, or vitall and each of these are more, or lesse principall. Animall parts are, in which the animall parts are most exercised, as sence and motion together, or alone. The chiefe member of motion and sence, is the braine contained in the head; whose substance being hurt, it [Page 57] is danger to loose both sence and motion.

The Braine is softer then the other partes, white, and couered with a double skinne closely. The skin of the braine is eyther called Pia, or Dura mater. The scalpe is a thicke bone, couering the whole head, and hath vpon it a skin with hayres. The scalpe is distin­guished with certaine seames in certaine partes, which are true or fayned, &c.

The excrements of the braine are eyther thicke or thin: The thin are teares bursting from the braine by the angles of the eyes. The greater the flesh of those angles be, so much more plentifull be teares, chiefly if the complexion be colde and moyst, as of women. Teares be caused by heate which openeth, or colde which presseth the flesh, and causeth teares.

The thicker excrements which are expelled from the brayne, eyther are by the eares or nose.

In the eares is a moyst excrement of the brayne, ga­thering and rotting in their hollownesse.

That of the nose is a thicker excrement then that of the briane: which although it be like flegme, yet it is altogether of another nature. The pithe of the backe bone is neare to the nature of the braynes excrement, saue that it is harder and something hotter. The backe is bonie, round, and in his length hath twentie foure ioynts. The Nerves are lesse principall partes of sence and motion, which if they be out of order, the partes in which these be, become vnfit to moue. Nerves or sinewes are thin partes, round, &c. white much like to thicke threeds. Some are softer, some harder. The softer are of more vse, of which are six paire, by two and two, from the brayne arriuing to other parts.

[Page 58]First, to the eyes. Secondly, To mooue the eyes. Thirdly, to the tongue and taste. Fourthly, to the pallet, and skin of the mouth. Fiftly, to the hearing. The sixt, to the mouth of the stomack, by which sense and motion descend.

Hard Nerves haue a duller facultie, and lesse seruing to the senses, of which are thirtie paire, which by couples come from the marrow of the backe bone: by whose conduct the backe easily executeth his fa­culties.

Of the partes to breath.

The principall parts of breathing are in the brest: being eyther Lightes or Heart, wherefore these being touched, breathing is immediately hurt, and such wounds be deadly. The Longes are a spongious and thin part, soft, and like foame of congealed bloud, de­clining something to the right side. Breath is brought vnto the Lightes by a rough Arterie, knit to the roote of the tongue. This Arterie is a long channell made of many gristle rings on a row, which endeth in the Lightes. If any thing fall into the hollownesse of this, the breath is hindred, and there is danger to be choa­ked.

The Heart is a fleshie part, solid, and well compac­ted, almost like a Piramis: it hath two ventricles, the right and the left. The right by an arteriall veine com­municateth bloud to the lights. This veine is so called of a proper substance and office. From the left ventri­cle of the Heart ariseth Aorta the roote of all the Ar­teries. These are hollow vessells in the Heart begotte: and are thicke, distributing spirits throughout the whole bodie.

[Page 59]The excrements of the principall parts of breathing be spittle and cough. Spittle is a windie foame cast out of the brest, and his parts: If it bee avoyded with noyse, it is called coughing. Superfluitie of this mat­ter is iudged by the coullor, for red spittle is of bloud, yellow of choller: white of flegme, and blacke of me­lancholy.

The lesse principall partes of breathing, are the midrife, and the mediastin. The midrife is a thinne skin, like perchment, fastned ouerth wart to the sides, and includeth the partes of the brest. The mediastin is a double skinne in length, deuiding the brest into two sides.

The vitall partes are those which serue to the pre­seruation of the spirits of liuing creatures, and are ap­poynted to nourishment, or generation. The princi­pall parts for the perfection of nourishment be the sto­macke and the lyuer.

The Stomacke is a part like perchment, sticking to the throat, round, but long, and as it were, twisted with many small threeds, and it is the kitchen of nou­rishment to be concocted.

The throat is a channell, full of nerues, carrying meate from the mouth to the stomacke. The Fibres are as it were, very small threeds, by benefit whereof the stomacke enioyeth her facultie. These if they bee straight and right, draw nourishment vnto them: if crooked they are oblique or transuerse: those retaine nourishment receiued: these expell excrements.

The casting forth of excrements by the vpper parts of the stomacke, is called vomit, which expelleth that which aboundeth in the stomack: yet such excrement [Page 60] is many times sent backe from other parts into the sto­macke. The liuer lyeth vpon the stomacke on the right side, enclosing it with his laps, and is a fleshy part of nourishment, red, like congealed bloud, placed next vnder the Midrife. In the Liuer is made the second concoction, namely, of nourishment in the belly, tur­ned into a red masse: from the Liuer ariseth a hollow veyne, the roote of all other veynes. These are hollow partes, round, and guide the bloud vnto all the body, the substance of these is thinner by six folde then the skin of the Arteries, whose substance ought to be thic­ker for the vehement motion of the spirits. That the office of the liuer may be made perfect by meanes of veynes, other particles are allotted thereunto: which receiue the abounding humors, choller, &c. The Gall receiueth yellow choller, and the Milt blacke. The bladder of the Gall is a slimie part in the hollow part of the Liuer, of the figure of a Peare: the Milt is a long part like a shooe-sole, on the left side ouer against the liuer, but somewhat lower. Water from the liuer is receiued by the reines and bladder. The substance of the reines is thicke, and solid flesh; they sticke on both sides about the loynes, and haue emulgent veynes ari­sing from the hollow veine, from the trench of the veynes hang downeward white, narrow veynes guid­ing water from the reines vnto the bladder: The blad­der is a slimie part, round, and containing vrine in it. Vrine is a whey separated from bloud in the reines, and more fully purged in the bladder. This in the bo­die of a temperate man, and sound, is of a meane sub­stance, and in quantitie answereth the drinke recei­ued: in the chollericke it is yellow, or red. His se­diment [Page 61] is white, smooth, and equall without bubles, &c.

A sound bodie is knowne by voyding vrine, which in the morning is white, and after something red. For the one signifieth that it doth, and the other that it hath concocted. Vrine is of a meane substance be­twixt thin and thicke. Thin vrine argueth the weake­nesse of the bodie, and coldnesse predominant, and rawnesse of the partes of concoction. And this either remaineth the same or becommeth troubled. That sheweth concoction is not yet begunne, and therefore raw, or This, that it is but new begunne. Thicke vrine like that of beasts, noteth excesse of matter or concoc­tion. Vrine doth varie according to age or complexi­on, or according to dyet and affections of the minde. For the vrine of Infants for the most part is white and milkie, the vrine of boyes is thicker, and not so white, the vrine of yong men is like golde, and of olde men white and thin.

Touching complexions, the chollerick haue orange coullour: Phlegmatike pale, and thicke: the Sanguine, red and meane. The melanchollicke, wan and thin.

Dyet changeth vrine, as Saffron or Cassia causeth O­range coullour. Vrine of those that fast long is yel­low, of those that eate too much, it is white.

The lesse principall partes of concoction, are the gutts and mesenterion. The gutts are long, round, hollow, and are knit to the lower part of the stomacke. These are thicke or thin. The thinner are the three vppermost, as Duodenum, Ieiunum, and Ileos.

Duodenum is the vppermost gut, twelue fingers long. The Ieiunum beginneth where the Duodenum begin­neth [Page 62] to turne vnto rundells, Ileos is a thin gut hauing in wrapped windings. The thicker guts of a thicker skin, are Caecum, Colon, and Rectum.

The blinde gut is thicke, large, and short, hauing but one mouth. The Colon hath many turnings. The right goeth straight to the Tuell: The excrement of the belly, if it be but softly compact, and made at the appointed time, and somewhat yellow, and not much smelling, argueth good concoction. If it be red, it ar­gueth, that much choller floweth in the stomacke: if it be white, it sheweth cruditie and want of choller.

Blew sheweth mortification, and cold of the inward parts. Too thicke or thin egestion, argueth bad con­coction: if fattish, or slimie, it noteth a consumption. Aboue all, in these things it must be obserued, what meate hath lately beene receiued.

The guts are wrapped about with the Mesenterion, which is a skin in the end full of kernells, and wouen with many thin veines, which meeting together, make a multiplying of Vena porta in the hollow of the Liver.

Thus of the common partes of all creatures: their kindes follow.

All Creatures are reasonable, or vnreasonable. They which want reason, are Beasts, who liue on Land or in Water. Those which liue on the earth, mooue on the earth, or in the ayre. Beasts mouing on the earth, are fourefooted, or creeping. Fourefooted Beasts, bring forth yong shaped as themselues, or eggs. Those that bring forth liuing Creatures, some haue solide feete, and some clouen feete. They haue solide feete who want hornes, as Horses, Mules, and Asses, &c. The clouen footed Beasts, for the most part haue hornes, [Page 63] as the Oxe, Goate, Hart, &c.

Land Beastes bringing forth eggs, are the Croco­diles, and some which haue a shell.

Frogges, Liserts, and some Serpents haue foure feete.

Creatures creeping on the earth, are all kinde of Wormes, Ants, Earwigs: to whom may bee added, Spiders, Lice, Gnatts, and such other.

Fowles are hotter and dryer then Creatures, liuing onely on the land, and all of them bring forth egges, and haue but two feete. They haue either whole feete or clawes. Geese, Duckes, Swannes, haue whole feete to rowe in the water.

Other Birds for the most part haue clawes, as Doues, Swallowes, Hennes, Sparrowes, &c.

The insect of Fowles, are Waspes, Bees, Hornetts, Gnatts, Flies. These Creatures are they which liue vpon the earth: those that liue in the water, are Fishes, or of that kinde, as the Sea-Horse, the Sea-Dog, &c.

Fishes many of them are like to Creatures liuing on the earth in their parts: but they haue not so much bloud: therefore they are colder and moyster.

Fishes are soft, or hard: the soft haue scales, or one­ly a skin.

Of the scalie be the Carpe, the Pearch. Of the sli­mie be Eelles.

The harder fishes haue plates, as the Crabbe, the Lobster, &c. Or shells, as Oysters, Mussells, &c.

[Page 64]MAn is a Creature that hath reason, and as he is most excellent, so hath he a more perfect shape in bodie then others. His members are for­med, and beginne to appeare distinctly about the sixt and twentieth day. And they are all perfect in Males at thirtie dayes, and in Females at six and thirtie dayes. About this time the Childe beginneth to liue, and to feele. The Male is moued in the third month, but the female in the fourth month: then it is nourished and increased till the ninth month, and af­ter the ninth month, when it is growne great, it is brought forth. This is the forming, and procreating of Man, for whose sake all other Creatures were made.


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