A SECOND PART OF SPANISH PRACTISES. OR, A RELATION OF MORE Particular wicked plots, and cruell, in humane, perfidious, and vnnaturall practises of the Spaniards.

WITH, More Excellent reasons of greater consequence, de­liuered to the Kings Maiesty to dissolue the two trea­ties both of the Match and the Pallatinate, and enter into Warre with the Spaniards.

WHEREVNTO IS ADIOYNED A WORTHY ORA­tion Appropriated, vnto the most Mighty and Illu­strious Princes of Christendome, wherein the right and lawfulnesse of the Netherlandish warre against Phillip King of Spayne is approued and demonstrated.

PRO. 20.28.

Mercy and truth preserue the King, and his Throne is vp­holden by mercie.


MORE EX­CELLENT REA­SONS OF GREATER CON­SEQVENCE, DELIVERED TO THE Kings Maiesty, to dissolue the two Treaties, both of the Match, and the Pallatinate, and enter into Warre with the Spaniard.

FIRST it is to be observed, that the State of Spaine, not content with those ordinary prouisions for the ex­ercise of the Romane Religion, by the Infanta, and her family, (which other Princes in like case would haue demaunded, and which his Maiesty with great reason, might at the beginning of the Treaty haue conceived they would haue beene contented with: Haue with great vehemency (upon advantage of having the Princes Person in their possession) pres­sed a generall conniuence for all his Maiesties subiects of the Romane Religion; to the great dishonor of Almighty God, in the sincerity of his seruice in this Realme, and to the great derogation of the Lawes of this Kingdome. And lastly, to the great discouragement, and griefe of all his Maiesties well affected subiects, from whose generall discon­tent they expect (as well appeareth) a consequence of no small mis­chiefe.

[Page]Secondly it is obserued, that during the continuance of this treatie, and by reason of the same Popish faction, haue exceedingly increased in this Realme, both in multitude and boldnesse.

And whereas they haue beene divided heretofore amongst them­selues into the part of the Iesuites depending vpon Spaine, and the se­cular Priests otherwise, They are generally now strongly vnited toge­ther depending no lesse vpon Spaine for temporall respects, then vpon Rome for spirituall.

And considering the house of Austria hath beene alwayes a ca­pitall enemy to our Religion to increase their owne greatnesse, by ex­tirpiting the protestant party in all places where they can prevaile. It cannot but be of most dangerous consequence, to the safety of the King, and the Realme vnlesse remedy be prouided with speede, for the abating of that party here at home, which cannot be during the time that these Treattse are on foote.

Thirdly, it is obserued, that by aduantage of these Treaties, and thereby keeping of his Maiesty in hope of a generall peace, they haue contrarily vnder the pretence of assisting the Emperour, oppressed the Protestants party in most parts of Christendome, being the ancient Alies and confederates of this Crowne, to the endangering not onely of the whole State of the reformed Religion, but also of the Common safety of all the professors of the same.

Fourthly, during the time of these Treaties of loue with his Ma­iesty, they haue with all kind of hostility, set vpon his Maiesties sonne in Law, the husband of his onely and most Royall Daughter, inuade­ing his Townes and Territories in all places, and infine dis-inherited him with all that Royall Off-spring of all his ancient Patrimoniall Honors and Possessions, to the great dishonor of his Maiesty, and extreame griefe of all his well affected Subiects. And now also at the last, when they should come to make good the hope of restitution, they haue layd new grounds for endlesse delayes, and turned pretended difficulties into apparant impossibilities, not forbearing also now to annexe as a Condition to the weake hope of their vncertaine and im­perfect resolutions. That the eldest sonne of the Count Pallatine, should be brought vp in the Emperours Court: so restlesse are their desires to worke the ouerthrow of Religion by all possible de­vices.

[Page]Lastly, it is apparant how manifoldly from time to time, they haue deluded and abused his Maiesty with their Treaties, how small respect they haue shewed to the Prince his Greatnesse and worth, what endignities they haue offered againe and againe, to his highnesse, by importuning him vpon all aduantages to forsake his Religion, contrary to the custome of all Princes, and contrary to the ancient Lawes of Honor, and Hospitality, who ought to haue beene vsed there with­all Princely freedome, and pressed to nothing vnto which he was in­disposed, considering with what confidence (being so great a Prince) he had put himselfe within their power, although it pleased God to guide and fortefie so his Princely heart, that he constantly withstood all their attempts, and stratagems, to his owne immortall honor, and to the vnspeakeable comfort of the good people of his Fathers King­dome; Wherevnto may be added their infinite aduantagiousnesse, and endlesse delayes in their Treaties. And finally what dishonor they haue obtruded vpon our Nation and Religion in inviting still to new Treaties, and turning al to the aduantage of their owne particuler ends, being true to nothing but their owne grounded Maximes, with which neither the Match nor the restitution of the Pallatinate can possibly consist, but vppon such termes as threaten to our State, an incurable mischiefe.

AN ORATION OR SPEECH OF THE RIGHT AND LAWFVLNES of the Netherlandish Warres against Phillip King of Spaine: Vnto the most Mighty and Illustrious Princes of Christendome.

Illustrious Princes of Christendome:

GReat and Mighty are the Kingdoms in your posses­sion, which extend far and wide, throughout all the world: but much more great, and farre more excellent are the vertues and knowledge, by which you hold, preserue and governe the same righ­teously, even to the vttermost extent of felicity.

In the meane time let me now intreat you, ô most peaceful Princes, that you will heare me with a friendly and well-affected minde, the sequell hereof, and fundamen­tally will understand wherefore the Spaniards doe most falsely ac­cuse vs; That this peace was violated and broken by vs: which accu­sation I hold to be very grievous.

Among other Conditions, Lawes, and Contracts of this peace, this was one of the chiefest and weightiest: That Don Iohn should not admit any Spaniard or stranger, nor any of them; by whose counsell and advise it was evidently knowne, that the Provinces were brought into that extreme spoyle, into the Councell: And contra­rily, [Page] hee called, and sent for them to him, kept them in his Court, and in his most secret chambers; That Baptista Taxis, a most nota­ble Spie, and enemy of our common affaires, who a little before had beene Secretary vnto Duke d' Alva, who was not onely adioyned to his priuy Counsell, but also was made and set ouer them. Besides him one Octauius Gonzago an Italian, as also hee tooke vnto him one Escouedo, a crafty Spanish Fox, vnto whom hee adioyned certaine Netherlanders. But what Netherlanders I pray you? Those who partly had beene the stirrers vp and fauourers of so many miseries; who were both hated of their natiue Countrey, and of all good men; viz. Barlemont, Megan, Hierge, Flojon, Hautepenny, Assonuille, and other plagues of their Countrey, who hauing ordained the Law of Lentulus, Cataline and Cassius, established the same with their coun­sels & deeds, viz. That all those that by preseruing the Common-wealth would be preserued, should be declared for enemies.

By this counsell and aduice, the Spaniards presently, euen at the be­ginning of this peace, should haue surprized the Towne of Gent, if the good and profitable counsell, and also the valiant deeds of the States, had not hindred the same; For don Iohn himselfe could not refraine nor keep in his hatred and enmity any longer, which he bore to the Netherlanders, but had quickly forgot that sacred oath, which he had sworne, vpon the Euangelists, before the Bishop of Shertogen­boseh, and the Popes Nuncius, or spirituall Embassadour.

He had promised and sworn; that hee would deale with all the souldiers in the Netherlands, who were 15000, about their Arreara­ges, to the end, that they thereupon might bee discharged, like as in the agreement of the peace had beene concluded. And contrarily thereunto, he promised the Souldiers, in the Kings behalfe, anew, to haue greater meanes, honours, offices and rewards: and held a most mischieuous counsel with Fronsberghen and Focker, Collonels of the German souldiers; part of whose wicked counsell hee effected, and the rest being hindred by the States he could not effect.

But yet to the end, that you may see and know the ground of this Businesse, I will in few words declare vnto you how the matter fell out: For vnder these two conditions or couenants, viz. in main­taining of the Romish Religion; and in yeelding lawfull obedience to the King, did the whole Treatie of the peace consist.

[Page]And when the States which had sworne hereunto with an high Oath, then were they presently admitted, that those affaires concer­ning the Land, which presently in the beginning of the treatie of peace were begunne, but could not be concluded vpon, that they should be dispatched and concluded in the next assembly of the States.

But yet Don Iohn, whose affection burned with a lust and long­ing desire, by some secret and concealed practice to breake the peace, and to begin the warre againe, casting all these conditions and promi­ses at his heeles, made a way for those complaints which Phillip, and all the former Governours had vsed as a cloake to cover all their in­tended w [...]cked imgainations against the Rei-publicke, viz. That the Hollanders and Sealanders neglected and despised the Romish Religi­on; and by that meanes the commandement of the King was neg­lected.

Vpon this Anvile did they hammer night and day? they assayled the States, and were exceeding troublesome vnto them, counselling them that they altogether should beginne the warres, against Holland, Sealand, and the Prince of Orange, who was the most eminent Cham­pion against the vniust government of the Spaniards, who indeede had beene exceeding beneficiall to the whole Common-wealth.

In this counsell Don Iohn had his eye vpon these two obiects, which should be exceeding profitable and serviceable to further his intent; that by their Ciuill warres, the substance and treasure of the land might be exhausted, and they being weakned and bruysed by their owne Warre, that then he, with the more ease and conveniency might suppresse them together.

Whereas he still persisting with these desires and intreaties, being as it were dasht against a Rocke by a Tempest: The States answered him; that it were better and more profitable for the Common-wealth, That concerning all those matters whereof Don Iohn made his com­plaints, to haue them by a friendly composition decided, and vnited, in the assembly of the States; and if they could haue imprinted or per­swaded him to haue beleeued the same, we had never fallen into the miseries of a Ciuill Warre.

For what is more repugnant to the common good, and to all hu­mane Lawes and Iustice; then to try by warre, those controversies, [Page] which may be decyded by Right and Reason. Arch [...]damus (though no Christian King, but of a stately, honourable any provident Nation) sayd; That it was vnlawfull to take Armes against those, who were willing to haue the matter tryed by Law. When and iniury had beene offered to the Romanes themselues; they did not presently begin with wars: but did first send Clarigatum, that is, they caused those things that were stollen or taken away, to be more apparently and manifest­ly demanded againe.

But how profitable, good, and wel-ordred is the cumstome of the Common-wealth of the Venetians, which I lately saw and observed; where they will not suffer that the principall Nobles themselues of that flourishing Common-wealth, should contend, chide, or main­taine enmity among themselues, for, or about other mens small and petty affaires. But they bring the same into their Senate, or Coun­cell, and there they desire, pray, and admonish them, that they will remember, and be mindfull, that they are all of them Saint Markes children (which name they haue given their Rei-publicke) and that they are brethren, and Burgeses of such a free and happy govern­ment, and that it was not beseeming for them, for any particular busi­nesse, to cherish and foster any private dissention or hatred, which might thereafter prooue to be more generall, to the perill and danger of that Rei-publicke.

Which custome aboue all other affaires ought to be vsed in the affaires concerning the Land, and ought to be esteemed of in all wel-ordered Common-wealths. If this were so, we should not see one City so against another (oftentimes in one Province or Rei-publicke) or one Noble-man so against another of the contrary party, to threaten warre, murther, destruction, burning and blaking, nor violence to assault each other.

But now to returne to our former purpose, in respect that there are two sorts of Warres: the one with words by way of Iustice; the other with violence. The first being proper to men, the second to vnreasonable beasts. And that wee must necessarily avoyde vio­lence, vnlesse the course of Iustice be denyed vs. Therefore we must beleeue that the States farre rather would haue decyded those con­troversies, by their good and wholesome counsels, by reason and conference; then to make them greater by Warre and spilling the [Page] blood of the Citizens. Contrarily Don Iohn complaineth of the States very publiquely: Hee reprooues and vpbraids them all for Re­bels, and then deales with the High-dutch Souldiers no longer by secret dealing in the affaires very prejudiciall to the Common-wealth (with whom very cunningly hee had long time dealt with all) but then began he very publickly to deale with them; so that the whole discovery of that businesse, by divers intercepted letters, was fully come to the knowledge of the States. And many things they dayly saw with their eyes, as first when he removed his Court and family, with his Councell-companions to Bergen in Henegow (being a very strong Towne, and very fit for his conjurations and complottings) and commanded that the same should bee provided with a strong Garrison.

Moreover, when as he surprized the Castle of Antwerpe by Trea­cherie, and did surprize those well provided and fortified Townes of Namen and Charlemont, and put a strong guard into them of his owne souldiers, thinking thereafter by treachery to haue taken in the Towne of Brussels, So that already the principall and chiefe Cities and Townes, by the great number of his Forts and Citadels, where beleagred and oppressed; and then he wholly beganne to set vp him­selfe against the Rei-publick; and also many other things were then done by his advise and motion: whereas hee according to his oath, ought to haue advised, that all the souldiers should haue layd downe their Armes, and presently to haue departed out of the Country.

All which things appearing manifestly to the eyes of the States, who adjudged that the same tented to the subversion of the Com­mon-wealth; they thought that they were bound continually to keepe a good counsel-watch; neither did they turne their eyes aside from the Rei-publick, from that time that he sought to haue all the governe­ment alone, vnto whom they in all officiousnesse (not being mooved by any distemperature of minde) sent as Embassadours vnto him, Marolaus and Brusus, charging them that they should present and shew, their full performance, innocency, and integrity, and should free them from all suspition and evill conceit, (the which they most certainly knew, that he mischievously had dissembled,) that the faith that was given at Gent should be renued: They should also pro­mise, that the States should make diligent enquirie, and exe­cute [Page] seuere punishment vppon those Treacherous murtherers and conspirators, who (as he sayd) layd waite for his life, and had conspired against him; (making a shewe and dissembling, as if to prevent the same, hee went to Namen:) They would aug­ment his Guard more then those he had already, to the number of three hundred compleat armed men, who should bee all of them Netherlanders, the which before that time was never offered to any Governour or Ruler. And yet with all these supplicati­ons and intreaties they effected nothing; for there was neither mo­desty nor reason to be found in Don Iohn. Nay, hee could not bri­dle nor keepe in his owne evill arrogancy and audacious passion; but declared the same to Marollaus at the same time of his Em­bassage, boasting himselfe, that hee now did wholly assure himselfe, and that hee doubted not, but that hee had brought vnder the subjection of his will and command, the Citie of Ant­werpe, that hee had no lacke neither of money nor men; that hee now had all things in a readinesse, for the furnishing of a Warre; and that hee with his sword, would purchase vnto himselfe a greater authority, power, command and government; then the States had promised and granted him in the pacification of Gent; and that it was his will, that these Embassadours should re­port all these things vnto the States, for he would not conceale any thing from them that hee knew to appertaine to this his intent and will. This matter is undoubtedly sure and certaine, and sufficiently knowne before this, so that heere it is not needefull to produce witnesses. And although it be a very miserable thing, not to be able to deny, and very shamefull to be confest; yet I thinke verily that the Spaniards themselues (although they be lesse shamelesse then a man would beleeue they are) cannot deny this at any time. Don Iohn had written vnto Tre-longe, and to his other companions and fellow-workers of his secret trickes and conspiracies, That hee had given as a Cymbrian spoyle the wealth of the Citizens of Ant­werpe, for a prey vnto his Souldiers. The souldiers ranged already through the City, as mortall enemies, and forced the Citizens to giue them whatsoever they listed: Many of the principall citizens began to flye out of the City, and as it were banished: by which meanes the traffique and trading of the Marchants by shipping, beganne to cease. [Page] And although there were great and manifest tokens of their malig­nant enmity; yet neuertheles the States did beare al this very mode­ratly and modestly, and indeed would haue born yet much more, if that mortall and pittifull proiect which Don Iohn intended, had not beene discouered and made manifest as the day; euen as if a man at the first sight seemed to perceiue some livelesse and insensible crea­ture, and afterwards by more certain and sure signes and tokens, be­ginneth to think of what quality that was whereof hee doubted: e­uen so the States did also very easily vnderstand, by all those things which they had seene, that this prince did cherish in his mind and counsels, an hatred tending to the ruine of the common-wealth: but of what qualitie that he was, and how farre he would extend himselfe ouer the reipublick, that they most euidently discerned and distin­guished thereafter, both out of his owne, and by letters from others. For there were many letters intercepted in Gasconie, viz. Two of Don Iohns, written by himselfe vnto the King, and other from him written to Anthonie Perez the chiefe of the Kings Covncell; More­over fiue letters from Escouedo to the King, out of which the States might assuredly vnderstand, that there were fed and bred monsters, and strang impostures; that privat conspiracies were there practised; that there was great dissention mingled among the Cities and the Nobilitie of the Netherlands; and by what meanes the same was ef­fected; and how fit and serviceable it was that tyrany and the Inqvi­sition, according to that firme resolution of the Spaniards, should bee brought in & established; and to that end soldiers, armes, and all war­licke preparation very earnestly was required for the King.

Consider and vnderstand, illustrious Princes, the secret and privie conspiracies of this man: Heare the words which this man vseth in his letters written to the King, which (as I said before) were inter­cepted. In regard that this bodie (saith he) is so vnhealthful, that it can­not be cured any otherwise, but by cutting off of the vnsound members, you must now carefully obserue this occasion which is presented. And Es­couedo adds thereunto the rest very amply, as a good interpreter of his meaning, who might very well write that which Don Iohn himselfe would not giue to vnderstand. This Escouedo was the right minion and seruant of Audacitie and Treacherie, whom I thinke by reason of his nature and manners, was named Escouedo, because that hee knew [Page] by his deceit to bring the miserable Netherlanders into his net. He wrot that vnto the King which Don Iohn would haue him to write, viz. That it possibly could not be, that the Netherlanders should be brought vnder the pure and perfect obedience and will of the King, vnlesse that first they were tamed and constrained thereunto with fire and sword. That therfore both men and armes were very needfull, and that the same must be effected by warre. By the which as a good architecture of the Spanish tyranny, he gaue them to vnderstand, that the crueltie and ri­gour which Alua and Requisenius had abused, must not continually be put in practise, but that the Netherlanders must bee ensnared by a greater deceit and hypocrisie. Like as in Nauigation, it is a point of knowledge to see before hand the storme, that although men can­not attaine the hauen, yet (if altering the course) you may attaine thereinto, then it is a foolish deed to keepe that course which before was taken with great perill and danger, rather then that you altering the same, might attaine to the wish for haven. For so was his opi­nion, that the first raging and madnesse of the Spaniards must bee somewhat mollified, and now must go to worke with dissembled faith and promises. That Don Iohn who had an incredible modera­tion, and an indifferent minde betwixt Ambition and Crueltie, might very fortunately effect the same. Hee aduised by his owne and his masters counsell, that England should be first surprised and conque­red by warre, and then it would be easie to svrprize the Netherlandish prouinces.

In those letters which Don Iohn sent vnto Anthony Perez his spe­ciall friend; He gaue him to vnderstand that he was of such a nature and condition, that he could not liue still in idlenesse, nor could a­way with the lawes of peace; and that his mind and conscience could not indure that he should wholly submit himselfe to the priuiledges and lawes of the Netherlanders, but that he farre rather by force of Armes would obtaine and effect for the King, a whole absolute, and vn­limited government over the Netherlands.

And if now you do not sufficiently see and perceiue, that Don Iohn first broak the pacification of Gent, where the same by so many and cleare proofes doth appeare. Then remember (by the Eternall God) remember, I say, what reasons he vsed to the Embassadours of our States at Marche and Famines, when he sayd, that he would keepe [Page] the contracts and conditions of peace so long, vntill that covenant which was begun, should repent him, that is, vntill hee by his sweet entisings, and hypocriticall lenitie, hauing rockt the States asleepe, at the last might destroy them; and with them suppresse the whole Rei­publick. For after the death of Iohn, Philip shewed very manifestly that that same in very deed should haue befallen vs, like as he at Me­chlen by the Lord of Selles certified and gaue them to vnderstand, that he would breake the lawes of the peace, and that hee no longer would be bound to keepe them. But I pray you for what occasion? was it for neglecting the Romish Religion? Assuredly it had neuer beene more vsed nor reuerenced with the like deuotion, care and diligence, nor neuer was the zeale of our people so greatly affected thereunto as then. The Bishops of the Churches were then recei­ued; the Schooles and Colleges were partly instituted, partly renew­ed and augmented. Finally, there was not any thing omitted that serued for the maintaining of the customes and ceremonies of the Romish Church. So that our Netherland might well haue compa­red, matched and strouen with Italy and with Rome the chiefe seate and Metropolitane of that Religion. The which the Popes Nuncius, (or spirituall Embassadour) who in his behalfe was sent vnto vs, shal not deny the same. For hee writing himselfe vnto the Pope concer­ning this, saith, that he did much admire, and was therefore excee­ding ioyfull, that those prescriptions and duties (or seruices) of the Romish Church, were exceeding well maintained by the Nether­landers in great devotion and pietie.

How and after what manner the affections, wils, and devotions of all our States, and of all the Netherlanders were affected to the king, I need not to make repetition; neither is it needfvll to proove, that they delighted or loved any thing so mvch as to fvlfill the kings commands, and to shew obedience therevnto. The Trophaes, Py­ramedes and Pageants which were made and prepared so svmptvous and costly to the honor, and at the entrance of Iohn, can testifie this. How did all the Nobles with svch exceeding ioy, wishing him good luck, receiue him? How did all the people with great mirth and re­ioycings receive him? What bankets and sumptuous feasts at the lands charge, were then with mvch delight made for ioy thereof, that this peace was made and concluded? And what great triumphs [Page] all the Netherlanders made and demonstrated vpon all their Theaters when this peace was made, is yet testified by all the inhabiting stran­gers, who were thereat exceedingly droven to admiration, yea were euen astonished.

It was no otherwise then, but as if the Netherlanders had then found the beginning and principles of a wel-governed Common-wealth in the person of this their Chiefe, or Gouernour. Yea, thou thy selfe Iohn, if thou wilt but enter into thine owne heart and con­science, shalt not be able to deny the same, That the Netherlanders did fully keep and obserue all the contracts and conditions of the peace, which they were bound to keep; and neuer denied obedience vnto the commandement of the king, if they were not more vile then the commandements of Manlius, if they did not to too much oppugne the lawes and priviledges.

But to the end that I may produce one instance which farre ex­ceeds all mens admiration; and which shall perfect this our disputa­tion: you must for a certainty acknowledge, that the states had vn­dertaken with force of Armes to haue forced the Hollanders and Zealanders to haue done those things which you most desired, which was the induction, and as it were the ground-worke of your accusations and complaints, if in case they by right, reason, and con­ference, could not be brought thereunto; which things you altoge­ther scorned and rejected, and to the end that this one pretext, this onely pretence might remaine for matter for your false accusations; And that this might be a just occasion for your conjurations: yet this occasion was not sufficient thereunto, neither could it be suffi­cient enough, in regard the same is manifestly knowne vnto all men, not onely to Netherlanders, but also to all strangers, who either saw the whole businesse as it was carried, or else haue heard the same re­ported: That the Hollanders and Zealanders haue alwayes entertai­ned, received, and accomplished the precepts and commandements of the King, no otherwise then if they had been the Oracles or com­mandements of God: That they neuer were carelesse nor negligent in their offices or duties which by the law of Nature they were ow­ing to their Prince. Yet this I will freely confesse, (which I will at­tribute and consecrate to their immortall and most high commenda­tions) that the Hollanders and Zealanders were the first counsellors, and shewed the way first to the other Provinces, to free and to main­taine [Page] the common liberty. For I will at the last, O you most provident men, you most mighty States of Holland and Zealand, convert and turn my speech and oration from those wicked and horrible dealings of that dishonorable man; to your vertues, valours, and abilities. Should I so sleightly passe by the worthinesse and valiant deeds, and manly courage, whereof every mans mouth is full: and for which euery one so highly commendeth, loveth, and honoreth you for.

You haue evermore with a valiant, constant and persevering cou­rage, resisted and rejected that most intolerable and most cruell serui­tude and thraldome of the Inquisition, or Faith-presse. And if they now say, that the authoritie, respect and commandement of the King consisted therein; and that you in respect thereof, would not giue way, nor be obedient vnto the same; wherein indeed consisteth your glory, and whereof you may justly boast; Yet you confesse, to your great commendation, that you haue given these occasions vnto the accusations of Don Iohn: That you, being free from all faults, yet in this you are and will be faulty. And herein you may boast, That you with an especiall providence and wisedome, haue careful­ly watched and kept your selues, so that at no time, neither by any of these, nor any other Spanish trecheries, periuries, tricks, or traps, you haue been cousoned, debaucht, nor insnared: that you were the first which were inflamed with a singular constancie and courage, to deliuer the Reipublicke from the grievous yoake of tyranny and cru­ell government. That you with the toarch of your libertie, haue been a light to enlighten all the other Provinces. And that you had farre rather, by these long-during warres, be spent, die, and indure all kinds of misery and adversitie: then to forsake your customes, lawes and priviledges. I beseech the Lord God, by whose only con­duct, grace and assistance, you haue atchived such admirable things, that you may prosperously continue & perseuere therin from hence­forth perpetually. Now will I turne me againe vnto that from which I haue digressed, and recommend vnto your judgment and arbittre­ment, Oh Christian Princes, all what I haue spoken of the deeds of Don Iohn. Take notice, iudge, and speake what you thinke thereof. Considering that of all the States parts, there is nothing omitted, which by the law and contract they had promised to doe: and con­trarily for Don Iohns part, of the ten parts of the agreement or com­position, which wholly he ought to haue performed, he hath not [Page] discharged any one point thereof well nor honestly as hee ought. And hereby you may see, with what justice and equity we vndertook this businesse, and how we (having vndertaken the same) haue dealt and proceeded therein.

For when the States perceiued, that all their hope and trust for the cashiering of those great numbers of the Germane souldiers was fru­strate, and that they were laid in the cities, townes, and mouthes of the frontier garrisons, and that they kept Namen & Charlemont, be­ing Cities and Castles that were very well provided; to the end that Don Iohn that way, might receiue and bring into the Ne­therlands that great army which hee had desired of the King in his letters; and moreover they perceiving that the hate and enuy of all the souldiers was turned vpon them, and that they with an ex­ceeding greedy desire longed for the pilaging of the greatest Cities, And that they attended onely but for the least signe and token of their Prince, to have falne rauenously and furiously, as raging beasts, and to haue ceized vpon the liues, goods, and meanes of the Ne­therlanders. That Don Iohn himselfe, and other naughty people daily threatned the ruine and subversion of our natiue Countrey. That they by the demostrations, hand-writings, mouthes and letters of their confederates, were themselues conuinced. That they all had a­greed to set the cities and towns on fire, and to haue slaine all the No­bles and chiefe of the Citizens, to haue destroyed the Netherlands, and to have rooted out the Reipublick. Who is he then that would not be awaked and stirred vp for the defence and preseruation of the common good? Who is he that with good counsell would not prevent the trecheries of Iohn: Who would be so vnprovident, and such a coward, that would not defend and maintaine his owne life, with weapons and warre? Assuredly reason hath taught the learned; necessitie the Barbarians; custome the heathens; and nature it selfe the vnreasonable beasts, to repell violence with violence, euen to their vttermost ability.

You your selues, Oh great and gracious Princes, which possesse kingdomes freely and in prosperitie; may easily know and vnder­stand this; and know also that even so it must be done. But what do I say, that you must know it? All the Spaniards our enemies do know it, and will freely confesse the same. For they demonstrate it in their deeds, that the same hath been just, and is so yet. For considering [Page] that Henricus Castellanus (being a bastard) and the great Grand-fa­ther of King Phillip, did expell Peter his lawfull brother and right heire, out of the kingdome, because he seemed to vse tyrannicall dea­ling: and because he seemed to dominiere contrary to the lawes and customes of his kingdome; And, that King Phillip vpon the same conditions that he inherited Spaine, did inherit the Netherlands, (viz. that he should maintaine and religiously obserue the lawes and customes.) Wherefore then may not we, as the Spaniards did reject Peter, even as wel reject Phillip (who oppresseth his subjects with an vnjust and vnlawfull government) and expel him with our armes for euer out of our Provinces.

But I feare, O Princes, that I haue too much abused your patience, and that my oration seemeth to haue run such a course, that I neede not adde any thing more thereunto. Yet I intreat your leaue, that you be pleased to suffer me, though very briefly to continue in that which Phillip sought to effect after the government of Iohn, by the deceit of an hypocriticall and dissembled peace; to the end that you may clearely see and perceiue, wherfore that we, so long as the world stands, may neuer make any peace with Phillip, but now and for euer without ceasing, are bound to Warre against him. The very name of peace (I confesse) is exceeding sweete, a peace that is good and sound: But betweene peace and that bondage which is cloaked, covered, and falsly folded vp in a concealed peace, is indeede a very great diffe­rence. Peace is a still and quiet liberty: but that bondage, or all man­ner of feare thereof, is the extreame of all euils and mischieues. Such was the peace, (if a man may call that peace) which induced, or ra­ther seduced the Netherlanders even vnto Collen.

When at the States by their Embassadours and letters vnto you and your predecessors, Oh all you Princes of Christendome, had againe intreated; that you by your authorities, respect, and exhortations, should ratifie, establish, confirme, and looke vnto that peace which Phillip after a new cousening manner should make, that the same should not be deceitfull: Like as he certainely and most maliciously by his deceit ouer-threw the fame. For the Spaniards then made no delay, but presently brought in new dissentions into Artois and Henego [...]e, causing them to fall away from the other Provinces, o­ver the which they euen vnto this present haue dominiered. Af­terwards by force of Armes, violently they surprised Mastricht, [Page] and moreouer and aboue they, partly by violence, and partly by great promises, haue sovght to get into their power many other cities and prouinces.

And finally is that Vlisses-like-wit Alexander Farnesius Duke of Parma, brought out of Italie, who like vnto a most craftie and cun­ning bird-catcher, with the song of his lenitie, and promises of great rewards, insnared and captiuated all the Cities and Townes of Bra­bant and Flaunders.

Of this Prince I could say very much, which I am constrained to omit: Yet this one matter I cannot passe by in silence; That, al­though in the time of his gouernment hee effected many things very great and eminent for Philip, yet could hee not escape of being suspected, as if hee would haue vndermined the King in the go­uernment, because that through his gentlenesse, linitie and ami­tie; he had drawne vnto him the affections of all the Netherlan­ders, and that hee also seemed perspicuously to haue looked into, and also to beare a hatred to the wickednesse and fraudulent trea­cheries and deceites of the Spaniards. Therefore Philip gaue him fungos, or Toads-bread to eate, which Agrippina had so commended to the Emperour, to the end that by the power and operation thereof, he might be admitted, counted and receiued into the number of the gods.

But I pray you, what was that at last for a peace, which as a Co­met or bright shining starre, shined vnto vs out of the firmament of the Spanish trecheries vnto which the Duke of Parma counselled vs, at what time the Arch-enemy stood, as it were, ouer our heads, and that the incredible great Spanish Fleet filled and couered the great Ocean or main Sea? A Fleet which was so terrible to behold, that I can hardly iudge, whether the Fleet that Xerxus had, which couered the Sea called Mare Ponticum had a greater number of Shippes, more Souldiers, or greater warlike preparation. With this Fleet Phillip had thought totally to haue suppressed vs: who were at that time ravished, as it were, with that pleasant and delightfull sound of peace. Yet when this Fleet, by the onely power of the Almighty God, was wonderfully destroyed and brought to naught; then presently by the Emperours Embassa­dours hee offered these Prouinces a new Treatie of Peace, to the end, that he thereby might transport all his Army and power of [Page] warre out of the Netherlands into France. The treacheries which many yeeres before he had plotted against that kingdome, beganne then to haue a wonderfull good progression: For his naturall kins­man Henry being made away by paracide, (or his murthering of a kinsman,) and the state of all that kingdome, being vtterly con­fused with Ciuill warre; then the matter, and the present occasion required, that he with Armes and a mighty Hoast should pro­secute his designe, in that flourishing and famous great Kingdome of France, which Kingdome hee by violence hauing taken in and conquered, he might thereafter, without any trouble at all, haue subiugated those Netherlandish Prouinces, and all the other King­domes of Christendom.

What? Is it yet lawfull for me, or may I yet speake any more of Arrereges, or residue of the dangers of this Reipublicke? Yes, it is lawfull for me, and it shall be lawful for me alwayes to stand for the dignity of my natiue Countrey, and to confesse the truth. Like as all good Orators, or eloquent speakers, doe euer keepe some of their most forcible and ponderous Arguments to the last. And like as ex­perienced Generals vse to place their best souldiers in the last rankes; euen so Phillip in these latter yeares presented a peace vnto these Ne­therlands, which should be adorned and confirmed with notable fidelity; the whole foundation and chiefe ground worke thereof, lay and consisted in the vertues, mercy, endeuors, diligence, and in the loue of the Arch-duke Ernestus his sisters sonne; who, after the Duke of Parma, was placed in the gouernment of these Prouinces: He promised these Prouinces a peace; not such a peace as should be limited with any grieuous or heauie conditions and contracts, like as the former was; but such a peace as they themselues would wish or desire. In the meane time Phillip sent his great and huge Armies into France, and his secret murtherers into Holland, to haue murthered the Illustrious Prince Mauritts, Earle of Nassow, a famous and nota­ble imitator of the vertues and valour of his father, and a singular defender of our Liberty; and by such an odious and treacherous villainy, to haue made him away; like as they, but a little before, by a most cruell and trecherous hand, had murthered his most worthy and valiant father, the Prince of Orange.

And finally Phillip concluded many more mischieuous, and more wicked purposes against these Prouinces, then euer before he could [Page] haue bethought himselfe of. I doe not speake any thing vnaduisedly, ô Princes, but that which thousands besides me of good reputati­on, can testifie in faith and verity, and that which Phillips owne let­ters doe make good.

What then? Meaneth the king of Spaine, that our States by any propositions of peace, can bee diuerted from their enterprises and designments? Doth he not yet know and vnderstand, that all our affections are so abdurate and hardned, that we will far rather yeeld and giue place to Armes and Warre, then to any kind of new inuen­ted peace-treacheries, after what manner soeuer the same might be propounded? Or, thinketh he peraduenture, that the affections of our States euery day, lie open to his desire and appetite? What? Is he yet ignorant, that the counsels of all our people, with a generall consent and vniformity of voices, are long agoe vnited and knit fast together in this point; and that they will farre rather honourably in warre and Armes liue and die, for their Lawes, and for their na­tiue Country; then from henceforth shamefully to sinke or quaile, vnder his treacheries and deceits? What, doe I say sinke or quaile? Nay, to come into the extreamest euills of Tyrannie; to bee bound with vntolerable and inhamane bonds of slauerie, and to bee recko­ned and accounted among those slaues that are bought and sould. We haue prepared, made ready and sharpened, a perpetuall and an euerlasting warre and Armes against him: we neither haue, nor may cast our eyes vpon any other peace, then vpon such a peace as is grounded, confirmed, and may bee maintained with force and Armes.

But in regard that a little before I beganne to speak of France, and to proue that our warre partly was joyned with that same; ther­fore I will proceede to adde some other matters hereunto, by the which you may evidently see and perceiue, how many treacheries, traps and deceits that Phillip hath laid for them.

He hath a long time since, as you know, O Princes, laboured and endeuored to assaile France, with all the violence and force of his warre; to the end that he by the occasion of the Civill dissentions in France, might effect so much by his wars and charges: that if he could not swallow and devoure the whole Kingdome; yet that at the least he might get a great part thereof. For he had made his full reckoning and accovnt before hand, by preparing of that cruell [Page] Fleet, that both France and England had been a prey vnto their ene­mies: Wheras those good Princes, notwithstanding had nothing at all endamaged him, neither was he by any juiustice provoked to that warre; vnlesse peradventure it be, that he thought this occasion sufficient; that the Pope, at the will and desire of Phillip had ex­communicated those two flourishing Kingdoms, for their exercising and ministery of the Reformed Religion; who for the extirpation and eradication of that Religion; Phillip as a Cato Maior, with the puissance of the Romish Censores (or correction masters) vseth to haue regard vnto all the Kings and people of the earth, and therefore to correct and punish them, which is indeede a matter known vnto you all; for which no man can sufficiently wonder at the shamefulnesse thereof, and might now neither be passed by nor omitted. And that Phillip in these warres of France dealt most ear­nestly, and with the greatest diligence and alacrity, with the Duke of Feres, and other Spaniards of the League, whom he as compani­ons, had assisted in that warre, to haue estranged the Right and Title of the Crowne of France, not onely from the succession or descent of the Kings blood and kinred, but euen from all Frenchmen, and to haue drawne the same to Spaine.

These things are so certaine, O Princes, that there is no man which doubteth of the truth hereof. But to what end do I bring these into your Remembrances; What is this to maintaine the purpose I haue in hand; For this end it serueth; thereby to proue how excee­ding great the ambition is of this most cruell Tyrant; and to the end you may perceiue and see how greatly, not onely we, but euen all of you together, must keep good watch and looke vnto it. For like as the nature of the Vine, is to extend the branches, as the armes thereof farre and wide, and therewith embraceth and layeth hold vpon euery thing that is neer it, if it be not lopt and pruned; Euen so shall Phillip, if you doe not all at once make resistance, at the last destroy and devoure all Christendom, with most cruell and bloo­dy warre.

Moreover, he by his Btibery, and secret conspiracy had lately effected so much in Scotland, that some of the chiefe of that King­dome, should haue received and taken in twenty thousand Spaniards, if they had not been punished (after the matter was knowne and re­vealed) according as their treason deserued. I need not to thinke [Page] with my selfe, that I can sufficiently expresse with words, what trea­sons, what perills, what daungers, he, so oftentimes hath attempted against the Queene and Kingdome of England. Can ambition and violence proceed yet any further? Yes truely, For the like treache­ries practised hee a little before against the Principallity of Collen, the Dukedomes of Gelders, Gulich, Cleane; the County of Berghe, and that ancient Emperiall Towne of Aken: All which is most mani­festly and apparantly knowne by good Testimony, and by his owne letters. And who knoweth in what lurking hole and corner of hi­pocrisie and dissimulation, he hideth and sheltreth his most mortall hate against the most mighty Princes of Italy; whom (as soone as the wind of the first oportunity shall blow (very suddenly, shall be turned into coales and ashes, by his vnquenchable and fearefull great flames of Warre.

Doe ye not yet see and perceiue enough, ô Princes, what treache­ries and deceits that Philip prepareth, for your most happy King­domes and Prouinces, which are your Patrimonies? Considering there is no man so blind nor senselesse, who seeth not, and vnder­standeth not that the ambition of Phillip neuer resteth, but dayly draweth him from land to land, and raiseth a new warre out of war; So that he by warres, sinne, mischiefe, and meere villanous deceits and treacheries, vnder the pretence of a seeming-peace, seeketh to deject and detrude euery one of you from the seate of your Gouern­ment. For this his desire is vnsatiable and immoderate, and cannot be included nor shut vp, neither in Heauen nor in Earth. If that all Phillips Kingdomes which he useth commonly in that long traine or taile of his most proud Titles and Termes of Honour were put or layd into one of the Seales of Critolaes ballance, and in his other seale his Ambition or greedie desire of Honour; All the Kingdomes would scarcely weigh the quantity of one graine, in comparison of his Ambition.

Alexander the Great looked about for more worlds, when he had conquered the whole world; but Phillip would, if he could, with the Gyants assault the heauens. And therefore, O Princes, and you most peacefull Princes, I intreate you, and I would admonish you, that you judge no more of the occasion and lawfulnesse of our warre; but in your judgements and opinions to hold it for good: and I exhort you most earnestly againe and againe, that you by all [Page] meanes, both in your vnderstandings, and with all your powers, will take heed of the treacheries, robberies, and mischievous practises of Phillips deceit.

In former times, whenas the Athenians, partly with warre, and partly with deceits and treacheries, sought to get unto themselues certaine neere adjacent places, as the Cities of Syracusa, Lacaedemon, Messena and Catina: they by their immoderate Ambition, and de­sire of others Rights, drewe such an hatred upon their owne heads, that Darius the most mighty King of Persia, with the whole coun­try of Grecia, voluntarily undertooke and prosecuted warre against them, unto which euery man ranne and hasted, as to quench a pub­licke flame. But you, O most Illustrious Princes, ought long ago to haue expelled Phillip, (with your conjoyned forces from you, and from your prosperous States) that seeketh continually your liues and Kingdomes, by most unjust warre, and by most wicked enter­prises.

And it concernes, and is fitting, not onely for you, who for a long time since, haue beene provoked, spurred, and stirred up there­unto, by the many injuries and ambition of Phillip, but euen you altogether, who see and perceiue, that he incroacheth with violence upon the limmits of your neighbours; and with an easie and slow pace creepeth and incroacheth towards your Countries. It stand­eth you upon in time to looke unto it; to the end, that your neigh­bouring Countries, being conquered and brought under his slauery and bondage, Tyranny, when you lest thinke upon it, do not incroach upon you.

When as Phillip of Macedon, the Father of Alexander the Great, after the Battell with the Tribaldes, had entertained a long dissem­bling warre with the Athenians, the Thebeans assembled themselues for this occasion; fearing, lest when the Athenians had bene conque­red, the fire of their neighbouring-warre might haue flowne unto them. And a little before, there being a confederacy made betwixt two of the mightiest Cities; who, before had bene at extreme enmity with each other, terrified thereby, and by their Embassadors, all the Country of Grecia: esteeming it so, that a common enemy ought and must be repelled with common force; so that if the first inva­sion of Phillip of Macedon, had had good successe; he would not haue held up, nor rested untill he had conquered and subjugated the [Page] whole country of Grecia. The Romanes in former time, perceauing that the power of the Carthaginians increased and grew great, they had an especial care that the Carthagenians should not grow so great as to ouer-master them: And for that end they sent their souldiers to relieue the Mamertines from the beleagring, and to relieue Spain from seruitude of the Africans.

Although that the Venetians are not very lightly incited to warre, but when the matter of necessity constrayneth them: Yet they neuer tefused to send their warlike power for the succour of others that were under them, when they perceaued that their neighbours con­tended with each other, with an vnreasonable and an immoderate violent ambitione.

These, and the like even to an innumirable examples (or fore­deedes) doe teach you, how carefully you must take heede of that most pestilent evill, of the Spanish ambition; and do shew; or proue, that it is a righteous and just cause, that even all you with one con­sent with us, prosecute a warre against that Tyrant.

For our States do know, that the occasion of their warre against Phillip, is not onely exceeding just and righteous, and ever was: but also, that they at no time, now nor never, may cease their warre, that they may make no peace with Phillip, but alwayes must maine­taine warre against that Tyrant. For we are taught by our friends, how we must take heed of our enemies: For if Phillip do gape and long so earnestly, and with such diligence for your Kingdomes; like as you see he daily doth; how then shall we speed? For assuredly he wil never lay aside Armes before that he hath subjugated all the Ne­therlands under him, because it is a Countrey so fit for his purpose; who, out of them may attempt many enterprises upon your King­domes, and dayly may beginne to raise new warres against you, and draw out of them Souldiers, Armes, and all manner of warlike provi­sion against your adjacent Countries. And therefore he would farre rather cast the greatest part of Christendome for a prey to the Turke; then to cease these warres.

At the last Parliament in Germany, he would not consent to fur­nish the Emperor with any soldiers, nor assistance against the Turke; and the reason was, because he might the better vexe Christendome with warre.

Doe yee yet doubt of this, O yee Princes, which you your selues [Page] haue seene, that Phillip in the beginning of our ciuill commotions, had far rather loose two Kingdoms, Tunis and Goulet, which the Turkes, under their General Sinam Bascha then recouered from him, then that hee would for a while cease his warres with us; or would remoue his Souldiers out of these Prouinces, against the most deadly and mortal enemy of all Christendome.

And you know how many Souldiers, how much Armes, and what charges Phillip hath been at, and wasted, to maintain this war against us. So that if you would but reckon up the same, you shall find that he might haue bought and purchased two Netherlands with that mony: although notwithstanding they be very great, rich, and exceeding copious. So that there is no doubte of this, but Phillip would far rather endure the greatest losse that might betide him then that he would leaue Bellgium with out bellum, or the Low-countries without long encountrings of warre, with out strife, without soul­diers, that they might liue in peace and quietnesse, freely and who­ly according to their Lawes and priuiledges. For by this war, and with the conquest of our Prouinces, he wil lay and establish the stron­gest foundation and surest ground-worke of his Monarchy, Sole-dominion, Tyrannie, and cruel Gouernment. For when he saw and perceaued that these Countries were so singularly fitting for his cruel treacheries and desgnments, and that our Lawes and Liberties con­traryly did wholy oppose the same: therfore sought he first of all with warre, with force and violence, to plucke vp, teare in sunder, and with violence, to oppresse the same, to the end, that his subiects of other Kingdoms, which at this present he hath subiugated, or else might subiugate hereafter; from this our concording, and ge­nerall defence of our Lawes and Liberty, might take no example or instance, with the greater courage and alacrity, to stand for, and main­taine their liberty.

What do you then iudge, ô you most peaceful Princes? or what is your conclusion that our States ought to doe, who chiefly seek for the common good of their natiue Countrey? Verily it cannot be with them, as it is vnder the Gouernment of a cruel Tirant, and as it usually is in ill-gouerned Reipublicks: they are not vsed to be lead, and to submit themselues at any time, with cap and knee, as flatterers doe? to the wills, desires, and lusts of their superiour Lords, nor to be dealt with all as hired slaues? considering that [Page] they neuer would admit nor suffer, that their Lawes, Liberties, nor their Reipublick, should bow or submit vnder the yoake of vniust and vnlawfull Government: But haue as good fathers of their natiue-Countrey; as good fighters for their freedome, and Defendors of their Lawes, (like as it must be in a Reipublick which is moderately and ciuilly gouerned by their Prince) directed their designes, wils, and gouernment of their superiour Lord; according to their Lawes, and the preseruation of their Li­berty.

Do you think that the Spaniards shall spoyle and cruell vexe and torment our Reipublick; and that we with shame will leaue and quit the same? Shall we neglect our deare countrey and liberty? Must we despise the lawes of our predecessors? And shall they peruert & turn topsie-turvie our ciuill orders and policy into tyranny? And shall we with wringing hands look vpon the coarse, and behold the exequies or funerall of our patria and natiue countrey? Shal they rend & teare in peeces the body of our common-wealth, and like most ravenous beasts deuoure the same? And shall we like slaues, with praying and intreating, hardly preserue our own liues, goods, and meanes? Or do ye not far rather laud & extol with the highest commendation of ho­nour, this will and affection of our States, for their manumising and preseruing of their deare and natiue countrey? Incite and exhort you them to proceed as they are best able, and to the vttermost of their powers, for the preservation and manumising of their owne liues and liberty? Come not these things daily into your remembrances, when you think of the Netherlandish warre, or discourse thereof, which I haue now demonstrated, and with sure and infallible and vncontrol­lable reasons proued vnto you, viz. that our States, & all the Nether­landers, being drenched and soaked in misery, and oppressed with the cruelty of the Spaniards; and being expeld out of their natiue coun­trey, of meere necessity were constrained to take Arms against Philip. And that now all the other treacheries, infidelities & iniuries which the Spaniards during the time of these wars haue done vnto the Ne­therlanders, being so great, so inhumane, and so incredible, that they themselues (so to speak) do earnestly exhort, do require & command, that the States with a constant courage, should keepe and maintaine their armes, and neither now, nor neuer, to lay them out of their hands; but to shew vnto the other subiects of Phillip (those of Sicilia, [Page] Calabria, Lombardy, Arragon, Castile, India, & Portugal) yea euen vn­to your selues, O Illustrious Princes, I say to shew, and with valiant deeds to proue, that not onely we, but all of you together, yea and all men vpon the face of the earth, far rather ought to dye, then to be­hold or looke vpon the face of that tyrant.

Do ye yet think, or can you imagine with your selues, that Phillip, with the limits of our countrey, hath limited in his tyranny? Do yee not yet see and perceiue, that the high ascending and mortall flames of the Spanish tyranny, devoureth and swalloweth vp the tresholds, doores, and turrets of your kingdomes? Arise, and at the last awake out of this your sleepe and carelesnesse; come hither with speede, and in all haste flye hereinto, for to quench these vniuersall fire­flames. Wherefore do yee seeke vnto vs against our wils, by your counsels, authorities, and respects, to induce vs to make peace with Phillip; whereas it had been more fitting, that you your selues long a­goe, with warre and force of armes should haue expelled Philip, and with an especiall force and power to haue supprest him?

And to the end I may speake vnto you all one after another, you most mighty Princes of Germany, be sencible, that Philip in your Dutchland doth not hunt after a cruell and vniust government; but (so to speake) doth possesse the same already. For he hauing once conquered these Netherlandish prouinces; when you will not bow and submit to his gouernment: he will haue all the hauens of the sea, and the mouthes of all the Germane riuers at his owne will, and in his owne power: thereby afterwards to impose such grieuous toles and taxations, vpon your nauigation and trading, or else whol­ly will hinder the same, euen as it shall please himselfe. And this is that for which, and in behalfe whereof, one or two of the prouinces doe appeare in your assemblies and consultations: you heare him publickly speak his minde, and you esteeme and preferre his tyranni­call advice and counsell, before your owne prosperity and tranqui­lity. You haue him, the Bishop of Frisinghen and Hildeshem prefer­red before; and you haue seene them made Princes and Prince-Ele­ctors of the Empire; The Bishop of Collen, Liege, and Magdeborgh: and you haue seene that the most ambitious Duke of Bavaria hath laid snares for you all.

And to the end that I may turne my speech vnto you, O you illu­strious & mighty powerful Princes of Poland, hath not Philip brought [Page] a great number of that generation of mankind, (I say Iesuites) into your Countrey, by whose religion and policy they haue brought al­most the whole world into an vp-rore, to the end that he by their meanes, with Sun-shine-like deceits, might propound vnto you what his will and counsell is.

To you also, most peaceful Princes of Italy, I haue already sayd, and say againe, that the sword of the Spanish tyranny hangeth by a very small threed ouer your heads, already naked and drawne out of the scabberd.

And for you, O most illustrious Senators (or Priuy Councellors) of Venice, you your selues haue seen and beheld the tyranny of Phillip in your owne State and gouernment, when he sent money to arme the Turke against you; and diuerted the power and force of the Turk from his owne dominions vpon Cypris; although that hee by thee quity and right of the covenant, had been exceedingly oblie­ged and beholding vnto you.

Therefore O Princes of Christendome, yet euen now, at the long­last, be carefull of your owne estates and affaires, of your owne liues and prosperitie; marke and consider it well, that Phillip is enemy and tyrant to you all, and suffer him to liue no longer in the world: but resist and impeach his ambition to reigne, and that his pestilent and mortall government proceed no further. And like as some certaine members are cut off when they begin to be without life and blood, and are hurtfull to all the other parts of the body; euen so must you also esteeme, that this inhumane cruelty in humane shape, must (so to speak) be separated and cut from the common body of men. Verily the deed of the Persians is much to be commended, and ought to be wel thought upon of you all; who when Cometes and Oropastes two of their Magicians (or wise men) by the like tyrannie and mur­ther of Smerdis, King of Persia, possessed the Kingdom: they were slaine by the valour of seuen of the ablest Princes of Persia, all of them running with a singular affection, diligence, and burning zeale to kill and to destroy those tyrants with their swords, one of the Magitians clasped about the neck of one of the Princes whose name was Gebrias, which made his companions to linger the more, because they would not kill him in steed of the Magician (for this was done in a dark place) who commanded the Magician to thrust his sword through his body. Yet in the end the Magician was slaine, and this [Page] valiant Gebrias (who had rather to haue died, then that the tyrant should haue escaped with life) was saved, and had his life preserved, Such an hate did these men beare to tyrants.

The Grecians informer times attributed divine honour to those men who had slaine a tyrant, And doe you thinke that the Nether­landers shall do euill, or more vniust, that they oppose and resist Phi­lip that jnhumane tyrant.

The Romanes expelled their King Taquinus Superbus, because that he, did but in some sort weaken the state of their common-wealth; and shall we suffer or indure Phillip in our common-wealth, who not onely with fire and sword would destroy and turn-vp-side-downe all the Netherlands, but euen the whole world? No, by no meanes. Our States without doubt, will proceede and prepare the way for you to break off, and to expel this tyrant. They wil perseuere to diuert, driue away, and to foyle him so farre and wide from sup­pressing and killing of our prosperity, that once, not onely they and theirs, but also euen the other provinces of the Netherlands, may be­re-established in their former liberty, and may lead them out of the straights of the Spanish tyranny, and repossesse them in the posse­ssion of their predecessors. That finally, they being re-established, and better ordered, and vnited and bound with the Prouinces of the whole Netherlands; they may stop the incursion and invasion of this cruell tyrant, and altogether with one accord may expell him from their prosperity, and from their common liberty. Amen.


AN ADIOYNDER OF SVNDRY OTHER PARTICV­LAR WICKED PLOTS AND Cruell, Inhumane, Perfidious; yea, Vnnaturall practises of the Spaniards.

To the well-affected indifferent READER.

GEntle Reader, there being so much spoken, as thou maist perceiue, by the fore-going first Part of the Spanish practises, touching the cruell, inhumane, trecherous, perfidious; yea, vnnaturall practises of the Spaniards, in most parts of the World, which may suffici­ently delineate him in his deserued colours, that whosoeuer beholds him may mourne to see this Hazael so to tyran­nize ouer the innocent, and that the Lord should permit, and the earth beare such an vnheard of monster; yet notwithstanding, much more might be added in sundry other particulars, as the Dutch Chronicles mention, and other Writers haue well set out: amongst which, although I my selfe be a stranger by Nation to them; yet since the time of my abode here, hauing attained some vnder­standing in the Language, I haue thought fit to adde some further particulars, which in my reading I haue obserued, and could adde many more; but my purpose being onely to annex a few things, I will not enlarge, lest I adde another Treatise. But before I come to what I intend, I haue thought fit hauing some ouersight in the pub­lishing of this Treatise aforegoing, to note by the way,The Dutch word Ghe­sante signi­fieth indiffe­rently Em­bassadour or Messenger. the ill tran­slating of one word, in the 21 folio, it is touching the Princesse of Parma, the Translator termes her a crafty Queane, wheras the word beares no such sence in the Dutch, but signifies one that hath a sharp wit to deceiue, as is said of the serpent that beguiled Eue. Beside, that that is translated Embassadour, speaking of such as were sent [Page] from the States to the King, I conceiue to be more fittingly rendred Messenger.

First, thou art to vnderstand, gentle Reader, that the King of Spaine was louingly receiued here in the 17 Prouinces, and a so­lemne oath was taken on both parts; the King for his part swore to maintaine all their Lawes and Priuiledges, and they to him all due homage and allgeance: Hee presently demanded of them a summe of money, whereupon the States did assemble, and col­lected for him 40. millions of Florines, of Brabants money, to be paid in nine yeares, and paid it into his Exchequer; and although it was more then they had paid before to his predecessours, yet vpon this he did take great displeasure against them; and, as they write, he for this did hate them to death.

But he pretended this to be the cause of his wroth, because he saw that there were some among them, that did defie the Pope and all his Religion: but that could not be, for the Citie of Aelst was as superstitious in that Religion as Rome it selfe; for they did per­secute the Reformed Religion euen vnto death: and yet for all that both they, and 170 faire Villages that belonged vnto them, were by them plundered and spoyled of all their goods, and many of them wounded and tormented for to confesse where their money was, and many were killed. Thus much by the way.

My scope and chiefe intent, is to shew the first and iust cause of the warres in the Netherlands; whereby the diligent Reader (not parti­ally affected) may clearely vnderstand, that the Netherlanders did not rebelliously take vp Armes against a lawfull Prince, (as some ig­norantly thinke and speake) but iustly and religiously defend them­selues against a perfidious Tyrant who sought their ruine, by all pos­sible meanes he could, and the subuersion of the whole State. A long while they patiently vnder-went his cruell oppressions, and intollerable vexations, as the Histories clearely manifest; till there was no hope, but either they must become slaues in soule and body, worse then that of Israel in Egypt, they and theirs for euer, or else be butchered by mercilesse executioners of a cruell Tyrant.The Inquisi­ [...] was there 4. yeares be­fore. This Tyrant hauing a purpose to innouate all things, to root out the ancient inhabitants, and to frustrate all the Lawes, Customes and Priuiledges which himselfe had sworne to main­taine, knew not how better to effect his euill ends, then by rai­sing a bloudy Inquisition to set ouer them for their gouernment; [Page] which said Inquisition (raised in Spaine) concluded and pronounced certaine Articles, the tenth of February 1568, which were con­firmed by the King, the 26. following. Now because it may ap­peare I doe them no wrong in this charge, I will lay downe the Ar­ticles themselues verbatim.

The most sacred Office of Inquisition so often attempted in the Netherlands by his Maiestie, and hindered vntill this time, shall be instituted and aduanced in this manner, which is most expedient.

1 They must perswade the Emperour, being gone astray, and wic­kedly confederated with heretikes, that hee resigne his Kingdomes vnto his Sonne, with the whole administration of the Neither­lands.

2 That the Emperour with his two sisters, hauing giuen ouer all affaires, leauing the Netherlands, shall retire into Spaine vnto Vs, being assured that they shall neuer returne more to doe any harme.

3 These being dispatcht, we must also draw the king to vs, and keepe him for euer that he part not, and not suffer any Flemmings to haue accesse or conference with him.

4 That the King write vnto, and command the Clergie of the Netherlands that with the Inquisition they should accept of 15 new Bishops, the which should be free from all secular iurisdiction, yea in cases of treason.

5 The subiects of the Netherlands through their malice and way­wardnesse, will reuolt and moue seditions and tumults, pleasing to all but to our companie.

6 The Princes and Noblemen, heads and authours of those fa­ctions, with the subiects, must be taken away, and the others redu­ced vnto reason.

7 They shall hire at our charge theeues and spoilers of Churches and Images, whose offences shall be by all the world imputed to Re­bels, by some subtill meanes, and so we shall vanquish them.

8 That all Comerce, Negotiation, Liberties and Priuiledges, shall be rooted out, and that all be reduced to extreame pouertie, whereby the realme shall be permanent for Vs.

9 No man of all those Countries (except he be of our faction) shall be held worthy to liue; and finally all to be rooted out: and all Goods, Possessions, Arts, and Trades, and all Orders to bee [Page] taken away, vntill there may bee a new Realme, and a new people.

10 In this action the wise and valiant Duke Alva shal be imploy­ed in person; whereas any other, were he of the bloud Royall, or a Prince, shall be of no esteeme: so as being suspect, yea in the smal­lest matters, they must be dispatcht.

11 No Contracts, Rights, Promises, Donations, Oathes, Priui­ledges, and solemne Assertions of the Netherlands, shall be of any force for the Inhabitants, as being guilty of high treason.

12 But aboue al we must haue an especiall care that in these mat­ters of so great weight and moment, wee proceed not violently, but by meanes, by degrees, and that discreetly, to the end the Princes, Nobilitie, and inferiour subiects may mutinie amongst themselues, so that one may persecute, yea execute the other vntill at last the hangman be executed himselfe. For in all Christendome is there not a Nation more foolish and indiscreet, and whose levitie and incon­stancy may sooner be deceiued then these Netherlanders and God punisheth them accordingly.

There were other Articles found in President Vergaes chamber at Antwerpe, and there Printed; and those are more cruell then these.

By these articles and vnlimited power of these lawlesse Inquisi­tors, no man had any assurance of life or goods for a day, but were in danger continually to be called into question, either for the law of their God, or for some work of mercie, which either religion, mo­rall equitie, or the bond of nature called for: or else if they had co­lour for none of these, they would impose such vnreasonable taxa­tions, which if the Cormorants had not their gorges crambed full, they would make prey of all, whether by right or wrong it mattered not. But my purpose being to auoid prolixitie, and to passe by im­pertinencies and needlesse repetitions, I will come to that I inten­ded. In the yeare 1565, a match was concluded for the Prince of Parma, and the nuptials were solemnized at Bruxels, whither all the Nobilitie and Gentry of the Countrey were inuited, and according­lyt, here met of them about foure hundred, who like faithfull Mo­ses being grieued to see the daily oppression of their brethren by the hard task-masters of the Inquisition, who not onely robbed them of [Page] their goods, but also by inhumane crueltie, and vnnaturall butchery, depriued them of their liues, who daily led them as sheepe vnto the slaughter: The consideration hereof they ioyntly layd to heart, and hereupon (being met vpon this occasion) they resolued to present a petition to the Princesse of Parma, which they did the fifth of April next following. The Earle of Breedrod deliuering the petition, humbly requested a fauourable answer. Three dayes after they re­ceiued this answer, viz. they should send two of their Noblemen to the king, by whom she would write in their behalfe. The Lord of Barlaymont being present, after their departure said (like a flattering Courtier) they were a company of Rascals and Beggars.

It was concluded that the Marquesse of Bargen, and the Lord of Mountigny should goe into Spaine, who humbly presented their suit to the King, but could get no answer in 16 Moneths after.

The 26 of August anno 1566, the Princesse of Parma sent for the Gentrie, telling them she had receiued letters from the King, con­taining promise that all should be well, and that the Inquisition should cease. And for the Proclamations they should not be of force, but his Maiestie would take such order as they and the State should well like of. The Princesse also gaue them toleration for their Religion, on condition, they should not deface, nor breake downe the ornaments of the Churches: for, there had beene before this time vilde and lewde persons that frequented the meetings of the Reformed; these went into the Papists Churches, stole their siluer and what was worth carrying away, and brake down their Images: but the Reformed suspected that this was done by the appointment of the Princesse; neither was their suspition without good ground, for it is to be seene in the Kings letters, Art. 7. that she had order to hire this raskall company to doe this villany,Emanuel de Miter saith, that in Flan­ders they tooke 50. of them at one time, and hanged 2 [...], and whipped the rest. which fact was im­puted to the Protestants, to the end that they might not only be odi­ous there, but also seeme guilty, euen in the iudgement of other Na­tions; howbeit the offenders were punished with imprisonment, yea, with death, euen by the Reformed themselues, who iointly con­fessed the action vnlawfull, and were so farre from hauing occasion of offence in this nature, that Papist Burgers themselues offered good securitie that no such thing should be attempted by them. Who then can make any doubt that they were free from giuing any hand in those outrages laid to them, the very opposites in Religion [Page] being Iudges, who as appeares were willing to undertake for them; now as their faithfulnesse brought so good effect for their persons, so did the Lord worke that the truth of Religion found many friends likewise, the Lord wondrously prospering the course of Reformati­on, in so much that in short space they had in Flanders 60 Assemblies, some Churches themselues builded, but were by Duke d' Alva soone cast downe, who erected gallowses of them, and hanged them vpon them.

The Princesse of Parma also began to entertaine souldiers with pretence to apprehend the Church-robbers, but intended indeed to take away the ancient Liberties and Priuiledges of the Netherlan­ders, wherefore sending certaine companies to Valencyn, the inhabi­tants denied them entertainment, who for that were proclaimed Re­bels the 14 of December, soone after they were besieged, sacked, and many of them put to death.

But before they of Valencyn denied entertainment to the souldi­ers,Let pretended it for religion, but his aime was to get their lands and goods. the Nobility had receiued letters out of Spaine, from the Mar­quesse of Bargen, shewing, that the King was exceedingly incensed against the Netherlanders, that he had in the presence of many vow­ed to be fully reuenged of them, though it were with the hazard of all his Countries; that hee would make them an example to all the world, and would inuite the Pope and Emperour to assist him in this quarrell. Vpon the receit of the letters the Nobility assem­bled at Dortmond to consult what were best to be done, but conclu­ded not any thing, some iudging it safest to ioyne, and make head to resist his tyrannicall furie, other seeking rather to escape by flight.

Now was the Inquisition againe brought in contrary to the Lawes and Liberties of the Country, which the King was sworne to maintaine, for execution whereof there were appointed 12. Inquisitors, commaunding them to receiue the Councell of Trent, these were called, The bloudy Councell, and so they were indeede, which Rome well knew, refusing it, anno 1559. when as they fell vpon the Inquisitors house, set it on fire, wounded the chiefe of them, brake open the prison, and set at liberty the captiues, and would haue burned a Cloyster that belonged vnto them, had they not beene by faire meanes disswaded by two Lords in the Citie, viz. Marc▪ Antonio Colunus, Iuli [...] Caesar.

[Page]Likewise Venice, Naples and Millaine, though they be Papists, would not suffer it; the Marchants of Lisbon who are as superstiti­ous in the Romish Religion as any in the world, yet they did offer the King two millions and a halfe, that they might not haue it in their parts.

Yet the cruelty of this Inquisition did here encrease, and many souldiers came into the Countrey, that some of the Countrey for­sooke their houses, and resorted towards Freezland, and some did stay at home, and went to meete Duke Alva, and welcomed him into the Countrey, and shewed him all the kindnesse they could,As the Grais of Egmond, & the Grais of Horn, & ma­ny of the Gentry at Brussels, 1568. but hee very shortly tooke off most of their heads, so that hee did so terrifie the inhabitants, that there fled out of the Countries more then an hundred thousand housholders, besides many that were taken in flying, were taken and hanged, and all these had their goods con­fiscated to the King.

The Prince of Orange, and the Earle of Bredrod, and fine Earles, eight Lords, and fifty Gentlemen, and they had some fine thousand of Souldiers being in Freesland, but were most ouer­throwne by the Duke of Alua his forces; so that they were driuen to Embden land, and there prepared themselues to the sea.

Now the Duke of Alua did commaund all the inhabitants to pay the hundreth peny of all their goods, and of all that was bought and sold▪ the which some of the States did yeeld vnto: And then hee commaunded them to pay the twentith peny: and then hee commaunded the tenth peny of all things that were bought and sold, so often as they should be sold. Some of the States did make their humble petition to the Duke, and to the Princes, shewing them that it would driue all trading out of the land. The Duke of Alua told them that hee would haue it, though it did ruinate all the land; but if hee saw them to doe their best to pay it, hee would deale fauourably with them.All the prisons were filled, in so much as they were forced to pre­pare more, and filled them also. But hee said that it was against the Kings honour if they should not pay it, seeing it was his pleasure to require it. And now did the In­quisition imprison and execute many of the richer sort, as well Papists as of the reformed Church: and if they were rich, there was no escaping for them. And whosoeuer was found to haue any hand in way of suit and petition to haue the tenth [Page] peny to be remitted, they were adiudged to haue committed high treason against God and the King; and all these must forfeit life and goods to the king, and not any of their children to enioy one peny worth of the same: but (poore Orphanes) they must begge their bread. And some that had beene buried certaine months, they cau­sed them to be digged vp, and hanged on the gallowes, and some to be burned, because they had not the sacrament, and confessed be­fore their death; but it was because he would confiscate their goods to the king: yea when these insatiable gold-thirsty and bloud-thirsty wretches wanted colour to couer their iniustice and cruelty, they had their officious imps (false-witnesses) suborned by Jesabel, to get Na­boths vineyard; witnesse Marti [...] Hutton, who was one of the Inquisitors Clarkes, and (being committed to Prison) did ac­knowledge that hee had made many false testimonies against sundry rich persons, some whereof were of the reformed Church. Here might fitly be brought in the hundred Marchants of Granado, who were of the Romane Religion, and were neuer other; what pretence had hee to cause them to bee murthered all in one night, and then presently to command all their goods to be brought to his treasurie of Exchequer, whose estate was worth more then 28 hundred thousand pounds sterling? Now as this tyrant was a deuourer and destroyer of the liues of men, so did hee pre­sume to vsurpe further, not only vpon ciuill ordinances, but vpon the things of God; so that those that were married in the reformed Church, he forced to be married againe: and if they were rich, hee tooke them from their husbands, and gaue them to his souldiers to make prize of them. Those that were baptized in the reformed Church, he compelled to be baptized againe, contrary to Gods word, and to the decree of the ancient counsels, so that intolerable were the burthens this cruell Pharoh layd, so excessiue was his cruelty, that he filled all places with blood, bloud touching bloud, as the Pro­phet speakes. For in small townes hee executed 50, and in great townes 200, and 300 or 400. And in places as men trauelled from one towne to another, they might see many that his souldiers had hung up in trees to death, and some were worth 80 thousand gul­dens, and some lesse: yea, this tyrant did confiscate so much lands and goods, as by his account sent into Spain, did amount yearly to 8 tun of mony sterling, besides the many thousands that he & his souldiers had. [Page] All the money that he did exact out of this land in 6. yeares, did a­mount to more then 50. millions of gold. And if any were knowne to haue any thing that did belong to any that were put to death, and had not brought it to the knowledge of the Inquisition, they did loose both life and goods: yea the 16. of February 1566. hee gaue sentence in his Court at Madrill, that they were all traytors against God and himselfe. At Vtrecht he beheaded a widow that was 84. yeares old, because shee had before lodged a Preacher one night, whose liuing was worth foure thousand guldens yearely. And at Mastricht a father for lodging his son that he had not seene in a long time, that was fled for religion, was put to death. And at that place there was one put to death for giuing a widow a peck of corn for an almes, whose husband this bloudy Court had put to death. And ma­ny women were put to death, because they receiued their husbands in the night that were fled for religion; yea, they haue killed women great with child, and ripped vp their bellies, and taken out the child and killed it: and some they haue fleyed aliue, and couered drummes heads with their skies, and some they haue tyed to a post, and made a small fire round about them, and so rosted them to death.

At Naerden they receiued the Spaniards friendly into the towne,The like cru­elty they did at Ondwater. who promised them both their liues and goods; and as soone as they came in, they commanded them to come to the State-house without their Armes, the which they did, and the Spaniards gaue fire vpon them, and murthered them all: and then they ran about in the towne, and rauished the women, and after killed them and fired the towne. The yong children that lay in the cradle, they quartered them, and tooke them vpon their pikes, and so went vp and downe the towne, reioycing in their cruelty.

Such sauage cruelty is scarcely to be found in any History, what Christian heart can heare it, and not be affected with deepe sorrow, yet behold some monsters herein haue been found, that haue beene so farre from humanity herein, (for hee that hath humanity in him will commiserate others calamities) that they haue applauded it, as if he had in all these outrages done God good seruice. Amongst the rest, I shall content my selfe at present, but to name the holy Fa­ther the Pope, and one of his chiefe sonnes in this businesse. The Pope sends his Legate to commend these so rare exployts, and cals this cruell Duke Alua his beloued sonne, sends him a costly [Page] sword, the hilts whereof were of Gold, and a hat wrought with gold, and be-set with rich and costly stones, thanking him for his good seruice in maintaining the Romish Religion, and subuer­ting of heretikes. Howbeit that his chiefe son I mentioned (excee­ding this man of sin, in the sin of cruelty, as if he would verifie himselfe to be ten-fold more the child of Satan, then his father the Pope) thinkes not so well of it, his name is Vergas, the President of this bloudy Inquisition; for going shortly after into Spaine, he told the King, that he and Duke d' Alua, did marre all in the Ne­therlands, by shewing so much mercy to those people.

Concerning this Duke d' Alua, of whose outrage and cruelty so many haue felt, and perfidious dealing which many haue found by lamentable experience, whereby may easily appeare of what stamp his excessiue mercies are, euen such as the Wiseman speakes of Pro. 12.10, the tender-mercies of the wicked are cruell. In which he prids himselfe,These words he spake at a banquet, as he sate at the Table, reioy­cing he had done the King so good seruice. boasting he had slaughtered eighteen thousand and sixe hundred, in form of iustice, in six yeares times, and ten times so ma­ny he and his Souldiers murthered otherwaies. And many more would he doubtlesse haue murthered, had not the Lord restrayned and limited him, for his desire herein was as hell, that cannot be sa­tisfied: Witnesse the purpose of his proceeding against the Magi­strates of Bruxels, because they did not collect the tenth peny so as he desired. He sware that he would haue it, and before he would let it fall or remit it, the Sunne and Moone should leaue their shining: so he went to Brussels, and commanded the executioner to prepare ladders and ropes to hang vp that night in their doores 70 of the ci­tizens,Anno 573 1 April. 1. I haue instanced but 4 or 5 towns, but there were scarce any town escaped their cruell pillaging, ex­cept they had bribed their Commanders with exceed­ing large [...]. and gaue them his warrant in writing what they should be: But God in his prouidence preuented this his cruell purpose, in that there came newes that the Graue of Mark had taken in the Brill, so the tyrant did not goe forward with his bloudy enterprises.

Thus hauing giuen you a taste of some of those many things I haue obserued concerning the intolerable oppression, and worse then sauage cruelty of the Spaniards, exercised vpon the people, which they endured and laboured vnder the space of sixteene yeares; I wil now leaue these cruell tyrants to the Lord for iudgement, and address my selfe to speak somewhat further concerning this Earle of Mark, who had those Gentlemen with him that fled. Before this hee had laine with his shipping in England, but the King of Spaine sending [Page] his Embassadour to our Queen (who was then in peace with him) to desire her that she would not suffer his subiects to haue their harbour in her land, and that she would not giue them or suffer them to haue any reliefe whereby they should make head against him: and hereupon the Queene sent and commanded them out of her har­bour; and she commanded that they should not be suffered to haue any prouision in her coasts, so that now they had no other meanes but onely God, who did in his mercie prouide for them better then they expected. For they were purposed to haue gone for the Tassel, and to haue taken some towne about that part; but when they came neere that part, they had the wind contrary that they could not come there, so they went for the Malse, and came with their ships before the Brill, and there they went presently and tooke it; yet the Duke of Alua had his forces in the towne, neere so many as they were, whom they presently killed and chased out of the towne, and out of the Iland. The Prince of Orange being in France, and hearing what had happened, he sent them souldiers with as much speede as could be out of France. And within one moneth after Duke Alua sent cer­taine companies to Vlishing to keepe that place strong for himselfe, and many of the Commanders were come into the towne: So the Magistrates commanded the citizens to come presently vpon the Statehouse, so they told them they must lodge the Spaniards in their houses, and they knowing how they had vsed the Citizens in all pla­ces where they came, they told the magistrates they would not haue the Spaniards in their towne. The Magistrates asked them which of them it was that did refuse to receiue them. They said, All of them. So the Magistrates seeing them so earnest against the Spaniards, they ioyntly tooke their Armes, and killed and tooke prisoners all them that were [...]n the town,Hee had ap­pointed those to be execu­ted because they were they were the chiefe that stood a­gainst the payment of the tenth peny. & with their Ordnance they shot at his ships where the Spaniards were, and they made away. And of those that were taken, there were the names of about 80 that they had in wri­ting from Duke Alua that dwelt in the Iland, that they should put to death. So those of the Bril sent their souldiers with speed to help thē. And shortly the Prince of Orange came with forces and defended them; and some other townes, seeing the crueltie of the Spaniards, forsooke the Spaniard, and ioyned with them, and took the Prince of Orange to be their Protector, yet the States notwithstanding did remaine in obedience to the King some seuen yeares after.

[Page]Againe, it is further worthy to be noted, that these Prouinces did three times send to the King their Noblemen, but could obtaine no mercy, and many more times they went to the Princesse of Parma, and made their humble petition for redresse of their oppression, but could not obtaine any fauour, then they made friends to the renow­ned Queene of England, and to the Princes of Germany, and to the Emperour, who did earnestly entreat by their Embassadours for them. The King of Spaine answered their Embassadours with these words; he bad them tell their Masters, That they should meddle with their owne subiects, and not with his, for he knew well enough how to rule his subiects without their counsell. Now when our Queenes Maiestie found his vnreasonablenesse and cruelty, then and not before, she as­sisted them with Armes.Ann. 1575.

His owne sonne Prince Charles did intreat for them, that it would please him to let them haue their Lawes and Priuiledges, and that they might not be so oppressed;Marplam in his Chroni­cle an. 1567. and withall hee told his father that those Countries did belong to him, and that they were giuen him at his Baptisme, for the which his father sent him to prison, and he ne­uer came out againe. If the Lord would not haue forgot what Ama­lek did long after, for smiting the weakest & hindmost of his people, how may we in equity forget the infinite murthers, and spoiles, this cruell Tyrant hath executed where-euer hee hath preuailed? And who can forget in speciall that bloudy attempt against our selues, in the yeare 1588.

If I should trace this Tyrant from place to place, I should runne in infinitum, hauing made the name of Christianity hatefull, by his cruelty, amongst the Heathens that know not God further then the light of nature: for it is confessed by the Spaniards themselues, that some of the chiefe of the Jndians, They were ex­horted by a Popish Priest to minde, that after this life, there was one place for ioy, and an other of torment. who were to be burne to death, being told of heauen and hell, they asked whether the Spaniards went when they died? It was answered to heauen, Oh then said they, we will neuer come there, for we will neuer come where the Spaniards are. But not to run so far, I wil rest content to keep me within the bounds I chiefly intended concerning these Countries. When the Citizens of Leyden were in great extremity, by reason of a long siege, the Spani­ards proffering conditions of peace, if so be they would yeeld vp the Citie and themselues to them, they returned answer; Not while they had a right hand to hold the sword, or a left to eate; but if they should [Page] be driuen to fall into their hands, they would rather burne the Citie and drown themselues, then to submit to them, of whose perfidi­ousnesse they had had so lamentable experience: and when some of the Citizens pressed a yeelding, in respect of the extremitie of fa­mine, a Burgermaster, called Peter Adrianson said; Louing friends, I confesse the famine is great, and that some doe die for want of food: yet rather let vs agree to eate vp one another, as it shall fall by lot, begin with me first, and deuide me amongst you.

At Antwerpe, the Spaniards by the appointment of their Gouer­nour did come into the Citie in battell order, and marched vp and down their streets, and shot into their houses, and made a tumultu­ous noise, as if they had beene so many deuils, for one day and two nights, and tooke the keyes from the Magistrates,They did this as wel to the Spiritualty▪ as to the [...] ­poralty no sort e [...]cepted. and set watch at the Ports; whereby they put the Citizens in so great feare, that many women with childe fell in trauell, and some dyed with feare: and they went by 12 or 20, into the best houses, and commanded them to prepare them the best cheere, as boyled and rost, and other dainty dishes, as they list to call for; and besides beere,They did of­fer them two parts in mo­ney and the third [...]cloth, but they cry­ed all for mo­ney. they would haue at least two sorts of wine. And all the chiefest Citizens houses had at least tenne of these guests. And they all cryed out for money, and said that they would haue 15 moneths pay, before they went out of the Citie, of them; and the Magistrates told them that they would procure them in cloth, and apparell, and money the summe; but they all cryed out for mony, and that mony they would haue before they went away; so at the last, the Magistrates got the mony, which did amount to 400 thousand Guldens. And the charge they were at,I doe make but a short relation of some of the cruelties they did against this Citie yet there stands in the Chro­n [...]cle, one qui­er of paper of their fur­ther cruelty▪ which these companions did cost the Citizens, was 600 pound sterling the day, and thus they were oppressed with them 28 daies, in which time they had made them all rich suites, some of sattin and veluet, and some of cloth of gold: and one of them had a cushi­on of veluet, with these words in letters of gold. I am the Dutch­mans Bride-well Master. And thus they got r [...]d of them for the present. And about two yeares after they came againe, and then they vsed the Citizens much more cruelly, for these deuils did bring straw, and set on fire, and put it into the houses, whereby they set nine rich streets on fire, and burnt them with many rich and costly goods, and rifled the Citizens of all their rich and costly iewels, and siluer-workes, with their money, and three dayes did they tor­ment [Page] the inhabitants for money:That they are now and haue been this 30. yeares more [...] ▪ I easily yeeld it. But why? not that they haue changed their former na­ture, for they still hold the former princi­ples of the Councell of Trent, but being more subtill, and finding their Kingdome is more weake­ned, they dare not so pre­sume as for­merly. In the yeare 1580. the States pro­claimed King Phill [...]p to haue l [...]st his right, by rea­son he viola­ted his oath. A Spaniards kindnesse to his friends. and in this time there was murde­red of the Citizens aboue foure thousand. The money they tooke at that time, is reckoned for more then 40 tun of gold, beside the Ie­wels and the losse they had by fire, was as much as the rest. And thus was the best Citie of Marchants in Europe ruinated.

At Risell there was a Spaniard would force a rich woman to haue the vse of her body, and the woman cried out for helpe, and her hus­band came, and two of his neighbours to helpe his wife, and they thrust the Spaniard away, and hee ranne into the street and cried Spaynea, Spaynea, and there came many Spanish Souldiers about him, and they rushed into the house, and tooke the man and his neigh­bours, and carried them before the Magistrates on the Towne-house where they were assembled, and there before them he complained of them to be rebels, and stirrers vp of vp-ro [...]es, and told the Magi­strates that if they did not presently put them to death, they would burne their Towne, and execute them themselues, whereupon they durst doe no otherwise, but hanged two, and whipped the other.

Diuers things being manifested of the Spaniards cruelty, I wil adde one instance of their trechery, and that of a famous person to his nee­rest familiars; yea, when he pretended sweetest familiarity & friend­ship. Pope Alexander the 6. a Spaniard by birth, inuited diuers No­bles & Cardinals to a banket, with a purpose to poyson them all. The meetest instrument he made choyse of to effect this, was a Spaniard, one Caesar Burgia, his sworn seruant. The Pope shewed himself won­derfull pleasant to auoyd suspition, and drank a carouse to them all; willing that his trusty seruant to fill from such a bottel he knew well: which hee did very effectually to the Pope himselfe as well as to the rest. After the company was departed, the Pope perceiuing by an al­teration in himselfe, what was done, and that he must die now also, said to Burgio, This is a right Spanish trick. It is written of them that they are so expert in these exploits, that if Iudas himselfe were a­liue, he might goe to them to Schoole.

J doe b [...]seech the Lord to shew mercy to my natiue Country, that they may neuer come vnder the gouernment of the Spaniards, and giue them hearts to repent of their transgressions, and that they may sincerely em­brace the Gospell of Iesus Christ, to their endlesse comfort. Amen.

Yours to command in all seruices, for the aduancement of the truth of Iesus Christ. S. O.

O Thou most high God, which guidest and gouernest the heauen, the sea, the earth, warre and peace: Thou which giuest lawes and com­mandements to Kings, Princes, and to all people vpon the earth: Thou that appointest and giuest conquests, triumphs, and trophies, the signes of victory: Thou which doest hinder and diuert ouerthrowes, dangers, and all vniust dealing: Anse, O thou great God, and oppose thy selfe against the enemy of all iustice and peace; against the enemy of thy praise and ho­nour. We beseech thee, that with thy prouidence and wisedome thou wilt order our endeuours, and relieue thy people, that thy most holy name may be adored and honoured with all perfect piety and true religion. Amen.


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