AN EXACT DISCOVRSE Of the Subtilties, Fashi­shions, Pollicies, Religion, and Cere­monies of the East Indians, as well Chyneses as Iauans, there aby­ding and dweling.

Together with the manner of trading with those people, aswell by vs English, as by the Hollanders▪ as also what hath happened to the English Nation at Bantan in the East Indies, since the 2. of February 1602. vntill the 6. of October 1605.

Whereunto is added a briefe Description of Iaua Maior.

Written by Edmund Scott, resident there, and in other places neere adioyng, the space of three yeeres and a halfe.

AT LONDON, Printed by W.W. for Walter Burre. 1606.

To the right Worshipfull Sir William Romney Knight, Alderman of London, and Gouernour of the worshipfull Companie of Marchants trading to the East Indies, and to the rest of the Committies.

RIght Worshipfull, because heereto­fore it hath been a vsuall custome, that those which first haue been re­sident in other forraine Countries, as Turkey, Persia, and Musco­uie, haue registred such matters as haue hapned worthy of note in their times, beeing in those partes of the maine Continent Land; wherefore I hauing been lately Resident for your Worship in the Iland of Iaua ma­ior, toward the East parts of the world: Albeit I am no Scholler to performe it with an eloquent discourse; yet fea­ring, and withall beeing put in minde by some friendes, that if I neglected it, I should be condemned of slouth: haue thought good to present vnto your Worshippe, these few Lines: the which may certifie you of the great blessings of God, both in preseruing the greatest quantitie of your goods, and our liues; which are come home out of that rude and dangerous Region, into our owne natiue Countrey. Likewise your Worshippe shall vnderstand by this plaine [Page] Discourse the situation of the place, and the manners and fashions of the people; with some other strange accidents, which for breuitie sake I did not certifie you of by my Letters sent from thence: but in this small Volume you shall see, from time to time, how euery thing hath been ordered, and performed in your businesse, and other affayres. All which, I hope, will be to your good liking, considering the place, and extremitie wee were in. So de­siring GOD to blesse and prosper all your proceedings, I rest,

Your Worships, Edmund Scott.

A Description of the EAST INDIES.

AFter our Shippes were laden, and all things set in as good order as it could bee: vpon the xxi. day of Februarie 1602. our Generall taking his leaue of the shore, de­parted, leauing behind him to be resident in Bantan nine persons; ouer whom he appoynted Mai­ster William Starkey to be chiefe Commaunder. Likewise he left thirteene more, which he appoynted to goe in our Pinnis for Banda: of which he appoynted for chiefe Commaunder ouer the rest, Thomas Tudd Merchaunt: and for Maister of the Pinnis, one Tho. Keych. The Generall at his departure left order, that this Pinnis should be sent away with all speed: wherefore ha­uing taken in, to the quantitie of 56. Chests and Fardles of goods vpon the 6. of March at night, shee set Sayle: but by reason of contrary winds, after she had spent neere two moneths beating vp and downe in the Seas, she was forced to returne againe to Bantan. Also; at our Generalles depar­ture, he left vs two houses full of goods▪ and likewise some goodes lying in the Dutch House: But we weere too few in number to keepe one well amongst such a sort of beg­garly slaues, had not God of his great mercie preserued vs; neither could our Generall spare any more at his depar­ture. It is not vnknowne to all that were there, the quarrell betwixt the Iauanes and vs before the Shippes departed, [Page] who sought all meanes they could, to be reuenged: in so much, that presently after the departure of our Pinnis, they began to practise the firing of our principall House with firie Darts and Arrowes in the night: And not content with that, in the day time if we had brought out any quan­titie of Goods to ayre, we should be sure to haue the towne fiered to windward not farre from vs. And if those fierie Arrowes had not by Gods prouidence been espied by some of our owne house (as they were) it was thought of vs all, that that House and goods had been all consumed; as might plainly appeare at the toppe, when we came to re­paire it. But as the mallice of the rascall sort of people be­gan now to appeare, and continued for the space of two yeares against vs, so Gods mercie began to shew it selfe vn­to vs, and continued to the last day: as this Discourse will plainely shew hereafter. His name be blessed for it.

So soone as we had dispatched away our Pinnis, we be­gan to lay the foundation of our House (which was 72. foot long & 36. foot brood) but by reason there was at that time a new Protector chosen, we were put to some trouble and cost, before we could be permitted to goe thorrow with it. Also we ayred all our pryse Goods: And Maister Starkey caused the Lethers of most of the Packes to be stripped off: by whose counsel it was I know not, but those Goods did not keepe their cullours nothing so well as the rest, as we found afterwards. The 21. of March, by reason of a Chyna Captaine that shot a peece, the Towne was set a fire: in which fire, were many houses full of goods all consumed. Amongst other, the Dutch-house was burnt to the ground, wherein we had lying 65. Fardles of goodes, besides some Pepper. Also we had some Pepper lying in a Chyn [...]ses house, which for the most part was burned and spoyled: so that wee lost 190. sacks cleere, besides the damage the rest receiued. Our losse by this Fire was great: but we may prayse God it was no more, considering how neere the fire came to both our Houses, & how vnfitt they [Page] were at that time, for such a danger; especially one, where the Fire came within three yards of it, in so much that the Iames of the Windowes were so hot, that one could hardly suffer his hand to touch them, and yet the old & dry thatch tooke not fire; to the great admiration of all people that were there of many Nations. There was gathered about this House, all the Villanes in the Countrey, so that all that night, wee that kept that House durst take no rest for feare they would throw some fire brands vpon it. In the euening some of vs standing in the doore, there came Iauans (whom we knew to be notorious Theeues) and asked vs how ma­ny wee were that lay in that House? Wee demaunded a­gaine what they had to doe to aske; and if they would know, they should come at midnight & see. At which an­swere, they departed verie much discontented: But such is their boldnes there, that in the day time, they would come and looke before our faces how our Doores were hanged, and what fastening they had within: and many times wee were informed by some that wished vs well, that if we did not keepe good watch, that there was a crew that ment to enter sodainlie vpon vs, and to cut our throats: in so much that we being but foure at that house, what with our watch­ing, and what with the disease that raigneth much in that Countrey (which is loosenes of the bodie) we were growne to very great weaknes, and two of vs neuer recouered it.

The 19. of Aprill 1603. there came into the Road 9. Sayle of Hollanders, ouer whom was Generall Wyborne van Warwycke; who shortly after, sent two of them for Chyna, two for the Molluckos, two laded at Bantan, one went to Ior­tan: Also he dispatched a Pinnis to Acchyn to will certaine Ships that went from thence by Cap. Spylbecks directions to Zelon to win a small Fort from the Portingales, to come to Bantan: in the meane time he with one Ship, stayed vntill their ariuall. We are very much beholding to this Generall for Wine, Bread, and many other necessaries and curtisies receiued of him: He would often tell vs how Sir Richard [Page] Luson relieued him when he was likely to perish in the Sea: for the which (he would say) he was bound to be kind to English men where soeuer he met them: and to speake the thruth, there was nothing in his Shippes for the comfort of sicke men, but wee might commaund it, as if it had been our owne. Also, he in his owne person did verie much re­uerence the Queenes Maiestie of England, when he talked of her.

The 25. day of Aprill died Thomas Morgan our second Factor heere, who had been sicklie a long time. Also M. Starkey began to grow very weake.

The 28. day came in our Pinnis, which was sent for Banda, hauing lost one of hir Factors, William Close; and the rest but weake and sicklie. About this time, there came certaine of the Kings Officers and forbad vs to goe for­ward with our House: the reason whereof (as I do iudge) was because the new Protector had not as yet receiued a Bribe: and the Sabyndar and hee beeing at that time not friends, he could do vs litle pleasure, wherefore wee com­plained to Cay Tomongono Gobay the Admirall, who in deed is the Father of all Strangers in that place: Hee presently made a great Feast, and inuited all the principall of the Court: At which Feast, he began to discourse of our cause, telling them what a shame it was that the King and they would not keepe their words to the English Generall and Marchants; and that rather then he would breake his word, hee would goe dwell in a small Cottage him selfe, and wee should haue his House: But after much adoe, hee made them graunt that wee should go forward with our House▪ the which in short time after was finished.

Our principall Marchant fearing Pepper would be deare, by reason of the Hollanders shipping that was there present, and the rest that were to come, bought vp as much Pepper as he could: and because our House was not as yet readie, hee disbursed his money before the Pepper was waighed; and by reason the Fleminges are not curious in [Page] receiuing their Pepper, when wee came to waigh ours, wee were forced to receiue it as they did, or el [...]e we should haue neither money nor Pepper: so that wee had in that parcell much foule and bad Pepper.

About the fine of Aprill, came in Capt. Spylbeck, who was at the taking of the Shippe of S Thomy with our Gene­rall, and had an eight part with vs, whereby he somewhat hindered our market. Shortly after him, came in Generall Hymskerk with the rich Shippe of Machane.

The 10. of May wee lost one more of our Companie Iames Haward. Likewise M. Starkey caused the Pinnis to be new sheathed, thinking she should proceed of her Voy­age againe. Also hee went and lay at an Iland to see if hee could recouer his health there, but he grew euery day wea­ker and weaker: wherefore it was thought best of vs all, to make sale of the Pinnis to Captaine Spylbeck, who was desirous of her, and to retaine her men at Bantan: for M. Starkey beeing not likely to liue, it had been no wisedome to leaue the whole state of our busines vpon the life of one Factor, and so small a crew of men as was there besides: Likewise finding his time to grow neere to an end, hee thought good vpon the last of May, to giue ouer his au­thoritie, and to spend the rest of his time with Generall War­wicke, who also lay vpon this Iland for his recreation: and albeit hee wanted nothing that either his Doctor or Sur­geons could minister, but nothing will preuaile when God please to call, so that vpon the last of Iune hee ended his dayes: whose Buriall Generall Warwicke caused to be honored with a voley of Slot and Pikes, the which with the Collours were [...]rayled vpon the ground, according to the order of Souldiers buriall.

The 4. of Iu [...]e the great Market on the East side of the Riuer, was by villanie of certaine Iauans (who thought to get some spoyle of the Chyneses goodes) set on fire: In which Fier, some Chyneses that were indebted to vs, lost all that they were worth; so that we escaped not without some [Page] losse by it.

The 17. of Iuly deceased Thomas Dobson, one of the Factors l [...]t for Banda.

The 27 day the Towne was burnt againe on the East side of the Riuer.

The 5. of August at 10. a clocke at night, there came to our House Capt. Spylbeck, Capt. Iohn Powlson, and some other Dutch Captaines, who told vs they had that day bin with the Protector about some busines, who asked them if they would take our parts, if he should do any violence to vs? To the which they answered (as they sayd) that we and they were neere neighbours, wherefore they might not see vs wronged. They sayd more, that he straightly charged the [...] [...]at whatsoeuer hee should doe vnto vs, that they should not be offended, nor ayde vs any way. This sodaine newes caused vs much to maruell, for not past 4. or 5. dayes before, he sent many of his Slaues to build the vpper worke of our House: for indeed because it was somewhat higher then any other Houses in the towne, many of the chiefest did enuie at it, so that we could get no workmen that durst do it: and wee had more trouble about this, then wee had when the foundation was first laide. I was minded the very next day following, to haue gone to the Protector, and to giue him a Present, & also to giue him thanks for his men; but hearing this newes, I thought it best first to goe to Cay Tomongon Gobay the Admirall, whom I knew to be our friend, to certifie him what we had heard by the Hollanders, desiring him as he had alwayes professed to be our Father, that he would tell vs whether the Protector would do vs any violence or no. He told mee, the Protector would do vs no harme without his knowledge: and further he bid vs feare nothing, for so long as he liued, wee should receiue no vio­lence at any mans hands: Alwayes prouided, that we kept good watch in the night, for feare of Fier and Theeues. From thence I went presently to the Protector, and gaue him a small Present, and also thanks for his men. The Pre­sent [Page] he receiued, but I perceiued by his countenance hee was angry. He told mee that that day he had much busines with the King, but the next morning he would sende for mee, for that he had to speake with mee. Well thought I, thou canst do no more then God will giue thee leaue. The same day the Admirall sent his Sonne to him, to know what his meaning was to vse such threatning speaches of vs? but he denied them. In the morning following he sent for me. When I came, he asked mee what they were that had told mee hee ment to harme vs? I told him, The Hollanders. He asked mee againe whether they were Slaues or Captaines? I told him they were Captaines. He bad me I should shew his Scryuana those Captaines. He sayd more, that if any Iauan or Chynese had done it, he would haue sent for him, and haue cut his throat before vs. Then he began to find fault with vs because wee did not come to him when wee had any sute, but went alwayes to the Sabyndar, or the Admirall? I answered againe, that he was but new come into his place, and that wee had as yet no acquaintaunce with him, but hereafter I would come to him. Then hee promised mee hee would do vs all the friendship he could: But it was but dissimulation to borrow money of vs, as hereafter shall be declared.

Now whether the Protector lyed to vs, in denying it; or that the Hollanders did discemble with vs, wee can not cer­tainely tell; but hee sayd plainely, the Hollanders lyed: and to speake thrueth, I thinke they can desemble, and the Protector is a villaine.

Also, the Hollanders about this time, spred a rumour through their owne Fleet, that the King would force vs to lend him 5000. Ryals of 8. otherwyes hee would cause our House to be plucked downe againe: the which was false, for neither the King nor the Protector had not at that time, sent to vs for any, nor did not in foure months after.

The 17 day of August Captaine Spy [...]beck hauing ven­ted all his Commodities, and laden his Shippe and his [Page] Pinnis with Pepper departed thence, hauing in his com­panie two Shippes more of Generall Warwicks Fleete, which were also laden there with Pepper; with whom wee ship­ped home foure men, to ease the companie of some charge: of which foure, the Maister of our Pinnis (wee sould) was one, who died before he went out of the Road. Maister Starkey before he died, caused mee to shippe them home: but after they were gone, I wished they had been there againe, for we were brought so low with loosenes of body, by reason of bad dyat, and drinking of that bad water, that wee thought wee should all haue died.

The 19. of August wee brought out certaine Packes of Goods to ayre, wherefore a Iauan (beeing Slaue to one of the principall of the Countrey (threw some Fier worke vpon a thatched house a litle to windwardes off vs: wee espying it, pursued him, and tooke him, and carried him to Cay Tomongon the Admirall, who put him in Irons: within an hower after, there came more of his fellowes, who would haue taken him away perforce, wherefore the Admirals men and they fell by the eares, and many were hurt on both sides. So soone as the Admirals men had beaten them away, hee sent him to the King; but be­cause his Maister was one of the Kinges friendes, hee was not put to death, although by the Law of the Countrey hee should haue died: neither did wee greatlie seeke it, because his Maister was our verie good Frind.

Likewise, if any Iauan offend, hee must be punished with death: for if they afflict any lesser punishment on them, they are so wicked and bloodie a people, that they will be cowardly reuenged, not onely of Strangers, but of their owne Maisters: so that if any Slaue doe offende his Mai­ster, hee doth quite forgiue him; if not, hee dies for it: but they are very obedient, and will seldome offend their Maisters, because they are for the most part as wicked as them selues.

The 22. day of August at night, there were certaine Ia­uans [Page] gotten into a great yeard hard by our House, (who when wee were singing of a Psalme, which wee did vse to doe when wee did set our Watch) these Rogues threw Stones at our Windowes as if they would haue beaten downe our House: and some of the Stones came in at the Windowes, and missed vs very narrowly: Wherefore I set a Musket and a Pike in our Gate; and my selfe, with some other of my companie, went as closely as wee could towardes the Yeard: but wee were to passe thorow a Chynes House before wee could get in. I desired the Chynes to open his doore, but by no meanes I could get him; wherefore wee ranne against the doore, and brake it downe and entered through his House, swearing by the great GOD of Heauen (which Oath some of those people doe vse) that whosoeuer wee found in the Yeard should die: but they hearing vs breake downe the Doore, ranne out at an other backe gate all but two, which were dwellers in this Chynes House, who hid them selues in an out house: but by reason of the grieuous crying out of their Women and Children, and also our furie beeing somewhat aswa­ged, wee did doe no execution vpon them, although wee set our Rapiers to their breastes, and made them kneele downe and hold vp their hands for pardon, for their speach was gone for feare. Then wee rainged all the Towne on that side the Riuer, to see if wee could finde any of the rest: for wee had authoritie at that time, to haue slaine any Iauans that dwelt on the other side the Riuer, if wee tooke them on our side in the night.

Not long after, but wee were serued the like tricke by Chyneses, the which if we could haue knowen them, should haue payd deere for it: but wee terrified those that dwelt about vs so, that neuer after wee had that abuse offered againe.

About this time, there grew a quarrell betweene the Hollanders and the Chyneses, and some weare slaine and hurt on both sides.

[Page]At the very same time that we tooke the Iauan throwing of Fire, they had a man slaine, for whom they were great suters to the Court for iustice, affyrming that hee, or one of his fellowes had done it, and would needs haue had him put to death: although they could not prooue it.

One day they being very importunate, the Protector de­maunded of them if when they came to any Countrey to trade, whether they brought Lawes with them, or whether they were gouerned by the Lawes of the Countrey they were in? To the which they answered, That when they were abord their Shippes, they were gouerned by their owne Lawes; but when they were a shore, they were vn­der the Lawes of the Countrey they were in.

Well (sayd the Protector) then I will tell you the Lawes of our Countrey, which is this: If one kill a Slaue, he must pay 20. Ryales of 8. If a Freeman 50. Ryals, If a Gen­tleman 100. Ryals. The Hollanders requested to haue that vnder his owne hand: the which they had, and it was all the mendes they had for killing of their man. If they would haue taken 50. Ryals of 8. they might haue had it.

About the fine of September came a Iunke full of men from the Iland of Lampon, which standeth in the straights of Sunda, and are enemies to the Iauans, and all others that are dwellers in Bantan: These are so like the Iauans, that the one is not knowne from the other. Also there were many Iauans consorted with them.

These men hauing their Iunke riding in a creeke hard by the Towne, and being in al poynts like vnto the Iauans, would boldly come into the Towne, and not onely in the eueninges and nights come into houses and cut off the peoples heades, but at noone dayes; in so much that for the space of a month wee could take litle rest for the gree­uous crying out of the people.

One day while we were sitting at dinner, they came and tooke a woman beeing our next neighbour, and mus [...]ed [Page] her so with a Sacke, that she could not cry, and so carried her into a tuft of Bushes on our backside, and there cutt her throate, and meant to haue cut off her head, if they had had time: Her Husbande missing her, and looking out might see them carrie her; who so soone as hee cryed out, we rose from dinner and pursued them: but it was too late to saue her life. Also they were verie swift of foote, so that wee could come neere none of them: and for any thing that wee knew, they might be amongst vs; for after the Iauans were come, wee could not know them. It was thought of some, that they lay hid in the bushes till the comming of the Iauans, and then stole out, and put them selues among them.

There were some Iauan women that would cut off their Husbands heads in the night, & sell them to these people. They did linger much about our House: and surely if wee had not kept good watch, they would haue attempted the cutting of our throates: if not for our heades, yet for our goodes. But after a while, many of them were kno­wen, and being taken, executed: the which were men of a very goodly stature.

The reason why they doe make these hard aduentures, is, their King giues them a woman for euery Strangers head they bring him: wherefore many times they would digge vp such as were new buried at Bantan, and cut off their heades, and so coussen their King.

Also at this time, we were giuen to vnderstand by some credible men that wished vs well, of whom the Admirall was one: who euery time he saw any of our House, would bid vs haue a speciall care of our good watch, because there was certaine of the principall of the land in birth, though not in wealth, nor office, (who had many Slaues, but litle to maintaine them) had laide a plotte to haue slaine vs in the night, and to haue made spoyle of our goodes, (which they tooke to be tenne times more then it was) and after to haue giuen it out the Lampons had done it: [Page] Whereupon we were forced to haue lightes burning all night round about our House: otherwise in darke nightes they beeing so blacke as they are, might haue entred sud­dainely vpon vs before wee should discrie them: for all the vpper worke of our Houses (by reason of the heate) are open, and they are built with Canes, and likewise the fence round about the Houses; which is but a weake building, and may quickly be borne downe.

These Heathen Diuels came foorth two or three times, thinking to haue executed their bloodie pretence, but God would not suffer them: for so soone as they came within sight of our lights, and might heare our Drumme sound at the end of euery Watch, their hearts fayled them, so that they durst not giue the attempt, for they supposed we were readie, not onely with our small Shot, but with our Murtherers to giue them entertainment: and to speak truth, they should haue found it so in deed.

After they had waighted long, and could neuer finde opportunitie, they fell out amongst them selues, and so were dispersed.

The 14. of October Generall Hymskerke with his vize Admirall, set Sayle from Bantan, hauing taken in a­bout 5000. Sacks of Pepper: of which quantitie I sould him 1000. Sacks of the Pepper Maister Starkey bought: and beeing in all fiue Shippes in companie, that is to say, his two Men of Warre, the Shippe of Mackow which hee had taken, and two Shippes of Generall Warwickes Fleete: the Mauricius which laded Pepper at Bantan, & one small Shippe that was laden with Cloues, Mace, and Nutmegs at Gr [...]essoy.

The 17. of October at night about eight of the clocke, there was some of these damned crew of Iauans, had bro­ken downe our Fence on the backside, and came vnto the fore part of the House, where stood a Chest of one of our mens without doores, for our Warehouse was at that time so pestered, that wee could not spare it roome within: [Page] this Chest had some pyllage in it, which he had in the prise, and also bought of other Saylers being his fellowes; and in the day time did vse to open it and shew his commodities, whereby hee made the Iauans teeth to water: wee not loo­king for such guestes so early, they had carried it into the backside, and almost been gone withall before wee dis­cryed them: but so soone as wee perceiued them, wee followed so fast, that we made them leaue their prize be­hinde them; which we brought backe, and set it in the House aboue the staires: also wee plucked in the Bridge they had made to come ouer a Ditch which was on our backside.

Some two howers after, one of our men hauing oc­casion to goe downe, went to the place where the breach was, and saw they had laide the Bridge againe: I hearing this, caused two Shotte to stande readie to giue them their entertainement.

Not long after, but one bould impudent Roague came in, and going vpright, came vp along an Entrie where there stoode a Candle in a Windowe right before his face, and also a Shotte standing by the Candle: but I thinke the light so dazled his eyes, that hee saw him not: in fine hee shotte and wounded him; but not so sore but that hee scrambled away: the other Shotte meant well at him againe, but his Peece beeing moyst, would not off. Hee fell downe in our backside, but yet hee crawled ouer the Bridge, and so got away into a thicket of Bushes which was on the other side the Ditch.

The Iauans perceiuing they could get nothing at our handes but Lead, the which they had had many times be­fore, and founde it to bee a Mettall too heauie for them, they began now to fall to worke with the Chyneses, whose houses at this time were full of our Goods which they had bought: insomuch that euery night for a long time, wee [Page] had greeuons crying out, and wee looking euery hower when wee should be assaulted, durst take no rest in the night.

Many Chyneses about vs were slaine: and surely if wee hadde not defended them with our Shotte, many more would haue been slaine: for the singing of a Bullet is as tirrible to a Iauan, as the cry of the Hounds is in the eares of the Hare: for they will not abide if once they heare it.

But these continuall Alarames and greeuous out­cryes of Men, Women, and Children, grew so rise in our eares, that our men in their sleepe would still dreame that they were pursuing the Iauans: and sud­dainely would leape out of their beddes and ketch their weapons. Their next fellowes hearing the dolefull noyse there made, would bustle vp, and in their sleepe wounde one another before those that had the watch could come to part them: and if they should haue set the weapons further from them, then they would not haue been rea­die, if wee should haue had occasion; the which wee looked for euery minute: and beeing but few of vs, I tooke my turne to watch as long as any: in which I haue stood many times more in feare of my owne men, then of any other: and when I haue heard them bustle, haue catched vp a Target for feare they would haue serued mee, as they did their fellowes.

But all this feare was nothing to vs, in comparison of that which I will now speake of: The which was Fire; Oh this worde Fire! had it been spoken neere mee either in English, Mallayes, Iauans, or Chyna, al­though I had been sounde a sleepe, yet I should haue leaped out of my Bedde: the which I haue done some times when our men in their Watch haue but whispe­red one to another of Fire, in somuch that I was forced [Page] to warne them not to talke of Fire in the night, ex­cept they had great occasion: and not onelie my selfe, but my fellowes, Thomas Tudde and Gabriell Towerson, who after our Watches had been out, and wee heauie a sleepe, our men many times haue sounded a Drum at our Chamber doores, and wee neuer heard them; yet presently after, they haue but whispered to them selues of Fire, and wee all haue runne out of our Cham­bers.

This may seeme strange, but it is most true, such was the feare wee liued in, and not without cause; for many times when I haue watched while twelue a clock at night, I haue been raysed vp after, three times before morning by Alarames of Fire.

And I protest before GOD, I would not sleepe so many nights in feare againe for the best Shippes lading of Pepper that euer came from thence.

I speake not this to that ende I tendered my owne priuate life so much, but for feare of the great losse and damage the aduenturers and my Countrey, should haue susteyned if wee should haue miscarryed: Neither let any that may bee sent thither hereafter, bee any whit discou­raged by it: for then wee were Strangers, and now wee haue many friendes there, and the Countrey is gro­wen to much better ciuilitie: and as the young King growes in age, will more and more; because the gouerne­ment will be better.

In three moneths space the Towne on the East side the Riuer was burnt fiue times: but GOD be praysed, the Winde alwayes serued vs: and although the Iauans many times fiered it on outside, yet it pleased GOD still to pre­serue vs so, that by reason it blew but little wind, it was quenched before it came to hurt vs.

The 27. of October came in a P [...]nis from Pattania, [Page] who brought newes that the P [...]rting [...]les had besiedged I [...]e, but the Shippes that were lately at Z [...]il [...]n, were come o [...] Iore, and had beaten them away.

About this time also, there was much falling out be­tweene the Hollanders and the Countrey people, by meanes of the rude behauiour of some of their Marriners, and ma­nie of them were stabbed in the eueninges: and at that time, the common people knew not vs from the Hollan­ders, for both they and wee were all called by the name of English-men, by reason of their vsurping our name at their first comming thither to trade: and as wee passed along the Strees wee might heare the people in the Mar­ket rayling and exclayming on the English-men, although they meant the Hollanders: wherefore fearing some of our men might be slaine in stead of them, wee beganne to thinke how wee might make our selues knowne from the Hollanders: and now the 17. day of Nouember drawing neere, the which wee held to be our Coronation day, (for at that time, not the yeere following, wee knew no other but that Queene Elizabeth was lyuing) wee all suted our selues in new Apparrell of Silke, and made vs all Scarffes of white and redd Taffata, beeing our Countries Cullours. Also, wee made a Flagge with the redde Crosse thorow the middle: and because wee that were the Marchants would be knowne from our men, wee edged our Scarffes with a deepe Fringe of Golde, and that was our diffe­rence.

Our day beeing come, wee set vp our Banner of Sainct Gorge vpon the top of our House, and with our Drumme and Shott wee marched vp and downe within our owne grounde, beeing but foureteene in number, wherefore wee could march but single one after another; ply­ing ou [...] Shotte, and casting our selues in Rings and [...].

[Page]The Sabyndar, and diuers of the chiefest of the Land, hearing our Peeces, came to see vs, and to enquire the cause of our triumph. Wee told them, that that day sixe and fourtie yeare our Queene was Crowned, wherefore all English-men, in what Countrey soeuer they were, did tri­umph on that day.

Hee greatly commended vs for hauing our Prince in reuerence in so farre a Countrey.

Many others did aske vs, Why the English-men at the other House did not so? Wee told them they were no English-men but Hollanders, and that they had no King, but their Land was ruled by Gouernours

Some would reply againe and say, They named them selues to be English-men at the first, and therefor they tooke them to be English-men: but wee would tell them againe, they were of an other Countrey neere England, and spake an other Language; and that if they did talke with them now, they should heare they were of an other Nation,

The multitude of people did admire to see so fewe of vs deliuer so much Shott: for the Iauans and Chyneses are no good Shott.

In the after noone I caused our men to walke abrode the Towne and the Market, whereby the people might take notice of them.

Their redd and white Scarffes and Hatbandes, made such a shew, that the Inhabitants of those partes had neuer seene the like: so that euer after that day, wee were knowne from the Hollanders; and manie times the Children in the Streetes would runne after vs crying, Oran Enggrees bayck, oran Hollan [...]a iahad: which is, The English-men are good, the Hollanders are naught.

I stood in doubt many times, whether I should put this in practise or no, for feare of being counted fantasticall, when it should be knowne in England: but by the perswa­sions [Page] of Thomas Tudd and Gabriell Towerson, and chieflie the present danger wee stood in, forced mee to it.

I was like to ouerpasse one matter concerning the Hol­landers worth the speaking of: and that was this.

A litle before Generall Warwickes departure hence, which was vpon the seconde day of this moneth of No­uember, the Hollanders feasted one an other, and also vs, aboord their Shippes; and beeing merrie, they spa­red neither Powder nor Shott: it happened one night they sent two Shott towardes the Court, one fell in a Prawe hard by, and split it: the other light within the Court, and put the King, the Protector, and all the rest, in great feare: the next day the Protector sent for mee, because wee had dyned there the day before, hee thought wee had had interrest in those Shippes.

When I came, hee asked mee what wee meant to let slie our Shott into the Court? I tolde him, that wee were but inuited thither to dinner, and that wee had nothing to doe neither with the Shippes nor with the Shott; neither were wee there at night when those Shott were dischar­ged. Hee gaue mee one of the Shott, beeing of a whole Culuering, and desired mee that I would shew it to the Dutch Captaines, and tell them from him, They should drinke their Drinke and spare not: but they should keepe their Shott. The which I did: but the Hollanders sayd, It was good sometimes to let them see what they could doe, if need were: For they were discontented, beause they had had some men slaine in the eueninges, and could haue no redresse. Also, they had been suters a long time to buylde such a House as wee had, but could not as yet haue grant.

Generall Warwicke went for Pattania, and from thence to Chyna.

The 6. of December came in two Ships, which some sixe moneths before hee had sent thither: who comming vnder the Iland of Mackow, found a Carryck there riding [Page] at an Anker, beeing full laden with raw Silkes, Muske, and diuers other costly Wares ready to depart: and at that time, her men were almost all a shore, so that they tooke her without any resistaunce, or very little: They laded there two Shippes, and the rest they set a fier; so that there was (by their owne report) twise so much burnt, as they brought away.

Comming backe, they met with a great Iunke of Siam, with whom they fought, and kild them 64. men: they had some slaine and hurt also: but when they had taken her, and knew her to be of Siam, they let her go againe, because they had, or shortly meant to send Factors thither. There the Captaine of the Iunke was slaine, who (they say) when they haled him, would not tell them of whence he was: and when they bad him strike, answered, Hee would not for neuer a Saile that swamme in the Sea.

The Hollanders not knowing Muske, solde great store to certaine of Iapan which they met at Sea, for little or nothing.

After they had spent some fourtie dayes in Bantan, and their Marriners vainely consumed their Pillage, (the which was great) vpon the 17. of Ianuarie they set Saile from thence, beeing foure Shippes in companie; their two, one that laded at Bantan, and one that some two monthes before came from Chyna, and had spent foure yeares out of their Countrey; of which time, they had been 14 months at Cuchinchyn: where they at their first comming were betrayed, and their Captaines taken prisoners, whom they made kneele on their knees 24 howers, hauing their necks bare and one standing with a sharpe Sword readie to haue stroken off their heades, when the word should be giuen: they bore them downe to be men of Warre, and Spyes, and no Marchants.

These Dutchmen were Papistes, wherefore in the ende, the Portingall Fryers saued their liues: and afterwardes [Page] they were kindly vsed: but their Ransome cost them deare first. They were two Shippes, but the one was so Worme-eaten, that they were forced to take out that lading she had into the other, and to docke her vp at Pattanys.

After comming to Bantan, the Admirall, and Vize Admirall, the two Maisters, and principall Marchant, there docked vp their bones.

About this time, the Protector sent to mee diuers times, to lend him 2000▪ peeces of 8, and if not 2000; 1000: but I put him off, telling him, wee were left there with Goodes, but no Money: also, that the people of the Coun­trey ought vs much, the which wee could not get in: Likewise, that as yet wee had bought but little Pepper; wherefor we must buye all we could, to get lading against we expected our Shippes.

The Hollanders that came in so [...]itch from Mackow, had so brybed him, that now hee beganne to harken to them concerning the buylding of a fairer House.

Also, they agreed with an other Chynes (a Rich man) to buyld an other for them: the which hee did, from the foundation to the toppe, all of Timber and Bricke.

But this Chynes, and they, had exceeding much trouble and cost before they coulde inioy it.

Also, about this time, I caused a Porch to be buylt before our new Pepper House doore: likewise the Win­dowes to be all Bricked vp, and the Seeling aloft to be searched and mended, with the Foundation also: the which was layde vppon Tymbars, by reason the ground there is soft and marish: and when much raine falles, it washes away the earth, whereby many times the endes of those Timbars will be bare.

Of late the Sabyndar had receiued an exceeding great losse by fire, whose house all men thought to be fier free: but they were deceiued; which caused vs much to stand in doubt of our owne.

[Page]The 6. of Februarie we lost one of our company Robert Wallys, and many more of our men were sicke and lame, which came by the heat of the pepper in milling and shu­ting it, so that euer after we were forced to hyre Chyneses to doe that worke, and our owne men to ouersee them onely.

The 16. of Februarie came in a great ship of Zeland from Pattania, but fiue or sixe daies before her comming she sent in a small ship or pynnis willing their factors to buy vp all the pepper they could, which made vs thinke that Generall Warwicke with all his shippes was comming to lade there▪ wherefore we bought vp all that we found to be good and merchantable: for the Chyneses spoyled much with water and durt, because the Hollands refused none: and it is of a certaine that the Chyneses bought one of another, & sold it to the Hol­landers againe at the same price they bought it, and yet they would gaine 10. Ryalls of eight in 100 sacks, by put­ting in water and durt: for were it neuer so bad, they knew their chapmen, and blowe which way the winde would, they had shipping to come thither, eyther from the East, or from the West▪ insomuch that one woulde haue thought they went to carry away the pepper growing on the trees, mountaines, and all. The people there hearing our coun­tries are colde, haue asked vs if wee beat pepper in our mor­tars, that wee playster our walles with, to make our houses warme.

This shippe had taken much good purchase, but they swore those English-men they had with them, and also char­ged them vpon losse of their wages, they should tell vs no­thing, the which we took very vnkindly. The Captains name was Iacob Peterson, and now hee was Vice Admirall to Van Warwicke, for after his Vice Admirall was slaine at Ze­lon by the treachery of the king of Candie, hee succeeded him in place: hee had taken a Portugall in the straytes of Mallacka, laden with wine, and hee dealt verie bountifully with vs, requiting the courtesies wee did [Page] them. When their factors had their house all consumed with fire, we gaue them both meat, drinke, cloathes, and howse-roome, and also lent them money. There was at this time three howses off Hollanders and Zelanders, and all lay for seuerall accounts, and bought vp pepper, euerie one so much as they could get.

The fifth of March the Protector sent to me in the kings name to borrow a thousand Ryalls of eight, wherefore I was forced to lend them fiue hundred, or else they would haue fallen out with mee: About this time there came in a Iunke from Iore, with certaine Hollanders in it, who stole away with their goods, because Iore had a long time beene besieged by the Portugals of Mallacka, so that they of the Towne could hardly looke out: they said the Portu­gals offered the King of Iore peace, vpon condition hee would deliuer those Hollanders that were there into their handes, or kill them himselfe: to the which the king aunswered that hee would first loose his kingdome.

In the beginning of this moneth of March, and to make an ende of this olde and wonderfull yeare 1603, wee had two greate fires on the other side the water, which did much spoyle, but GOD bee thanked the winde alwaies fauoured vs.1604. And now to beginne the newe yeare 1604. My pen affoordes to speake of little else but murther, theft, warres, fire, and treason, and first to beginne with a Tragedie, wee had a Mullato of Pegne in our house, which our shippes brought from Athyne: and in the great ship that came lately from Pattanya, there was one of his countreymen, who one Sonday being the eight of Aprill had gotten a bottle of wine, and brought it a shore to make merrie with our Mullato.

In the after noone they walking abroad, met with the Prouost of their ship, who bid their Mullato to get him aboord, but hee aunswered be would not. Wherupon the Prouost strooke him: our Mullato seeing his coun­tryman misused, and beeing somewhat tickled in the [Page] heade with wine, which hee did seldome vse to drinke, thought hee would reuenge his countreymans quarrell: Wherefore hee presently came home, the euening being come, hee tooke a Rapyer and a Target, and also had his Cryse at his back, and so went forth: and because at that time there was much quarrelling and brabling be­tweene the Iauans, and the Hollanders: I charged our men that if they were sent out in the euening about a­ny businesse they should take their weapons with them, for feare some Iauans that knewe them not, might doe them a mischiefe in the darke; wee thinking the Cooke had sent him into the market for hearbes, or some thing which hee wanted, mistrusted no­thing.

Also there went out with him a slaue of the Sabin­dars, which was borne and brought vp amongest the Spayniards at the Manelies, they meeting with the Pro­uost, and the other Mullato together, our Mullato be­ganne to quarrell with the Prouost, and presently out with his Cryse and stabbed him: then fearing his coun­treyman would bewray him, stabde him also, and would haue slaine him that went out with him, had hee not run thorow a great ditch, and so got from him, then meeting with a poore Iauan, and being nuzled in bloud, stabde him likewise.

The Fleming not able to go to the house, fell downe in a lane hard by the house: presently the Merchaunts had notice by some, that one of their men lay hard by wounded: so soone as they came to him, hee tolde them an English man had slaine him: Wherefore the Hol­landers came to our house, and desired to speake with me, who tolde mee, that one of our men had slayne one of theirs. I asked them if they knew which it was, they said no, but they thought it was our Mullato: pre­sently wee had him in examination, who denyed it stoutly, we looked on the poynt of his Rapyer which he had [Page] out: Also vpon his Cryse, and could discerne nothing, for hee had washed his Cryse before the Hollanders came: then I sent Master Towerson with them, and also our Mul­lato to heare what the man could say, if he were not speech­lesse: when they came, they asked him who had hurt him, hee said an English man. Maister Towerson asked him whe­ther it was a white man, or a blacke, because hee named still an English man, wee were in some doubt: the Fle­ming being also in drinke said, a white man, then presently hee said againe, is was darke, hee knew not well, and so gaue vp his life.

As they came backe, our Mullato tolde them there was an other man dead, and brought them to the side of the ditch where hee was tumbled in; they asked him how hee knew: hee said hee sawe him by the light of their candell, which they all said was vnpossible, except hee had knowne of him before: then comming a little further, they stum­bled on the Iauan, the which when they sawe, made them all amased, fearing then they should finde more. Then one of the Dutch Merchaunts looked verie neere vppon the handell of his Cryse where hee might perceiue a little shadowe of blood, but it coulde hardly bee descerned: wherefore after they came home, I caused the sheath of his Cryse to be cleft, where we might see fresh blood within. The Hollanders desired to haue him to their house, but I tolde them no, hee should bee as safe with vs, wee put him fast in Irons, but still hee denyed it: I asked him howe his Cryse came bloodie, hee said hee knew not: I tolde him it was too apparant. Then hee confessed hee had slaine the Iauan, and said that the Fleming and his countriman were by the eares, when hee came, and had slaine one ano­ther: wee tolde him the Fleming then would not haue laid it to him onely, wee said no more to him that night. Wher­fore hee laide him downe and slept soundly, not ta­king any thought in the world, as it should seeme: but I am sure I coulde take no rest that night for thinking [Page] what trouble I was like to haue, what betweene the Hol­landers for their men, & the protector for the Iauan. The next morning I sent for the Sabyndares slaue, who when he came, at the first denyed all that he knew, saying he saw no­thing of the matter: but being vrged to speake the trueth, he kneeled downe desiring vs to be good to him, and hee would tell the trueth: who presently told the manner how our Mullato came to [...]he Flemming, and first kild him, and then his countryman and after how he persued him. Then we demaunded of our Mullato whether he had slaine them all or no? who confessed he had don all three mur­thers, the which we were very sory to heare: for if hee had slaine no more but the Iauan, he should not haue dy­ed for that. All this while he continued in a carelesse and reprobate sence, setting his fact and death very light, the Hollanders would haue executed him presently, but I would not suffer them, vntill I had spoken with the Protector: for I knew not then how I should agree with him for the Iauan, only this I knew, that money he must and would haue: but if I had found him too vnreasona­ble, I meant to haue deliuered the prisoner into his hands, and to haue let the Hollanders and them agree about the matter: the Hollanders thinking euery houre tenne till they had his bloud, came againe at noone to our house; wee presently went all to the court, where the Dutch Merchants sat downe at the left hand of the King, and the protector, and the vice Admirall at the right hand: but I sate downe aboue him betweene the protector and him, at which I thinke the Hollanders grudged, but that is all one: for an Englishman scornes to giue place to Hollanders in any forraine Country, if they be of equall calling.

when wee had declared to the King and the protec­tor, wherefore our comming was, the which they were not ignorant of; the protector demaunded fifty Ryalls of [Page] eight for the Iauan, wee answered againe, that by the lawes of their country they could demaund nothing neere so much; and more I said, there was no reason wee should pay any money, and the party to loose his life: also the Protector said that hee had nothing to doe with the Hol­landers that were slaine, nor with our lawes, wherefore for them wee might agree among our selues, but for the Iauan, the King must, and would haue money: and stood a long time vpon fyfty Ryalls: I said that rather then I would giue so much, I would deliuer the partie to him: so hee should haue man for man, and he might saue his life if he would, but I meant it not, when I saw his first demaund was but fyftie Ryalls: for he knowing our house so well, might afterwards haue been drawn to do vs a myschief. The principall Merchants of the Hollanders hearing me talke of sauing his life, began to rage and to sweare hee should dy, if there weare no more men in the world: to which perē ­tory speach, I answered, that it lay not in them to put him to death, if I list to saue him; and were it not that the deede was so odious before God, and Men, and that I fea­red the bloud of those Christians that were murthered, would cry to God, from the earth for vengeance against me: I would saue his life, if it were but to crosse their humors, onely for their perētorie speaches. The Protector hearing vs at these hot words, feared wee would haue gone by the eares: wherefore presently he sent away the King, and also tould vs he had much businesse desiring vs to make an end, he said that twentie Ryalls was the lawes of the country, which wee must and should pay, and so he rose and de­parted; I dare say, hee was afraid wee would haue cut his throat: for hee tooke vs all to be bloody fellows. The Hol­landers would haue paid the twentie Ryalls, and would haue had the executing of him: I told them no, rather thē hee should fall into their hands, I would pay the money out of my owne purse. As wee came from the court, they [Page] were talking of his death, saying hee should haue the bones of his legs and armes broken, and so he should lye and dye, or else haue his feete and hands cut off, and so lye and starue to death: but I said he should dye the ordy­nary death of the country, & no other. The Hollanders & we parted at their house which stoode in our way home, when wee were come home, I told him hee must dye the next morning, and willed him to call vppon God to for­giue him his sinnes, especially this last bloodie deede: for though hee was a Pegu [...] borne, yet he was a Christian, & brought vp among the Portingalls: I set others to instruct him too, but he continued still in an obstinate minde: at this time there stood by an Arabian borne, who hearing vs giuing him that good counsell, and saw hee would take none, so soone as wee left him hee went to worke with him, he belonged to the Dutch ships, and spake the spanish tongue maruellous well, he first laid open vnto him his greeuous offence, and afterwards the mercy of God, who had sent his sonne into the world to redeeme vs, and to wash avvay our sinnes vvere they neuer so bloudy, if if wee would repent: within one halfe houre hee brought him to bee the penitent's creature that euer I heard in my life.

In the euening I sent one to the executioner of the towne, willing him to come the next morning: but here I must not omytte to tell you, how the very same day seuen nyght before, this executioner came to me for money, for killing a Certaine Chynes who had coyned false Ryalls; and because this concerned much the Hollan­ders, they followed the matter hard: for it was well known, that all the ryalls wee brought were good: for they were almost all of the new stampe that was coyned in the towre of purpose: hee tould me the Hollanders had giuen him twoe Ryalls and a halfe, for killing the false Coyner, & asked me what I would giue him; I answered him I would giue him nothing: for I had nothing to doe with the coyner, [Page] and, when he kild a man for me, I would giue him fiue Ryalls: the next morning this off [...]cious hangman or executioner not forgetting my [...]ate promise demaunded fiue Ry­all [...] for his fees: and because he should not think but that an Englishman would be as good as his word, although it were made but to a hangman, I gaue him fiue Ryalls, and withall gaue him a great charge not to torment him, as hee did the Coynar, but to dispatch him at the first stabb, wher­fore I lent him my owne Cryse which was very seruiceable for such a purpose; hee answered that when he kild the coy­nar, he did not execute his owne father.

For their manner is; that when a Iauan of any accou [...] is put to death, although there be a common executioner, yet their nearest of kinne doth execute his office, and it is held the greatest fauour they can do them.

On tuesday beeing the tenth of Aprill the Hollan­ders came with a guard of shot in the morning, then wee leading him into the fields the people of the towne both Iauans and Chyneses hearing that there was an English­man to be executed, came flocking amaine: but when they came many weare blanke, and wee might heare them tell one another it was a black man: wee told them he was iust of their own colour & condition and that an Englishman or vvhite man would not doe such a bloody deede: the exe­cutioner, as I had giuen him charge, did his best to rid him quickly out of his paine, for belike he dreamed I should haue more worke for him shortly, the which within two months after I had to my great trouble, griefe and sorrow: when hee lay gasping on the ground, I openly told the Hollanders that, that vvas the fruite of drunkennesse, & byd them euer after bevvare of it.

So soone as vvee had seene him buryed, vve returned all home to our house, vvhere vve dyned, and after dynner the Hollanders and vvee parted exceeding great friends: and the same euening the vice Admirall hauing one ship more in company, set sayle for Holland: the fourteenth day [Page] Thomas Tudd, the companies chiefe factor, left there for Banda who had beene a long time sick, departed this life: so that of seauen factors left there for that place and Ban­da, wee were now but two liuing: and wee had lost in all, since the departure of our ships eight men beside the Mullato that was executed, and wee were now ten liuing and one boy.

The twentieth day dyed Iaspar Gensbury who was Admirall of the two ships that was betrayed at Cuchinchy­na. The two & twentieth of Aprill came in a great Iunke from Chyna, which was thought to be cast away because shee tarryed so late, for they vse to come in February and March, but by reason of hir comming Cashys kept all the yeare a very cheape rate, which was a great hinde­rance to vs in the sales of our prise goods, for when Cash­ys were cheape and Ryalls deare, wee could not vent a peece of stuffe at halfe the value wee did at our first cō ­ming. Againe the Chyneses this yeare sent all their Ryalls they could get for Chyna, wherefore wee were forced to giue them credit, or else wee must loose the principall time of yeare for our sales. Pepper the Hollanders had left none, but what was in our hands, and the Sabindars, who would not sell for any reasonable pryse: also our goods now began to grow ould, and the colors of many sorts began to fade; for the warehouses in that place, are so hot and misty, that although men take neuer so much paynes in ayring, and turning the wares, yet they will spoyle a­ny sort of cloth which shall ly long in them.

It is not long since I made an ende of a most pittifull Tragedy: now I must begin a story of theft and fyre, the which must also end as the other did: onely the first for the most parte were Christians: and these were Heathen dogs: a long time wee liued in feare of fire, but now wee felt the brunt and smart of it, and if God most miracu­lously had not preserued vs, wee had all perished both liues and goods, the which came to passe by the villany of [Page] a Chynes borne, but now turned Iauan: who was our next neighbour, and kept a victualling house; and brew­ed Arack, which is a kind of hott drink that is vsed in most of those partes of the world, in steed of wine. This ofspring of the diuell, and heire of hell, had two out houses, which ioyned to our pales one the south side of our house, where his guests did vse to sit, and in the one hee vsed to brew, but now hee beganne an other trade, and became an Ingyner, hauing gott eight fyrebrands of hell more to him, onely of purpose to set our house a fyre.

These nyne deepe workers dygged a well in one of these houses, from the bottome of which well, they brought a myne quite vnder the foundation of our house, but when they came vp to the planks of our warehouse, they were at a stand: before they could make this myne, they were forced to dyg a very deepe well in their yard to draw away the water which did abound in this myne, and because wee should mystrust nothing, they planted Tobacko and many other hearbes hard by that well, and would euery day be watering of them. Also wee might heare them boyling of water euery day, but because they were brewers, and had many tubs to wash, and to fill, wee mistrusted nothing of that insued: when they came to these plankes aforenamed, they durst not cut them, for we were alwaies some of vs walking ouer them, both night and day, after they had waited two monthes & could neuer find opportunity to cut the boards, they began to cast their Cerberous heads together, how they should get in, but the diuel deceiued them, & set them wrong to work, for if they had continued still vntill they had come but crosse the warehouse opposite against thē, they had found three thou­sand Ryalls of eight, buried in Iars for feare of fire: & also that roome was not borded at all, so they might haue come into the warehouse, & had what they sought for: well one of theis wicked consortship, being a goldsmith & brought vp alwaies to work in fire, told his fellows he would work out [Page] the plankes with fire, so that we should neuer heare nor see him: little did he think, that we should euer come to worke with fierie hot Irons vpon him: this seemed to be a rare de­uice, whereupon it was put in practise; & vpon the eight & twētieth of May about ten a clock at night, they put too a candle & burnt a round hole thorough the bords: so soone as the fire came thorough, the mats of our packs took fire, which presently spread & began to burne. All this time we knew not of it, nor could perceiue any thing by reason of the closenesse of the wa [...]ehouse: for all the windows were plaistred vp for feare of fire ouer head, which we looked for euery mynut, but for it to come that way we neuer once dreamed: after the first watch was out; wherein I was one my selfe, the second watch felt a strong funke of fyre: for it was by that time much increased, but they knew not where it should be; wherefore they went downe and opened the pepper house dore, where came out an extraordinary heat yet they could perceiue no fire: they searched in euery cor­ner about the cooke-roome but could discerne nothing: then one of them remembred a hole which a ratt had made behind a trunk, that went thorough the seeling down into the cloth ware-house: this hole we had twise or thrise stop­ped and sought meanes to kill the ratt, because so soone as we had stopped it, she would open it againe in the night: In so much that we were forced to keepe mortar ready tempered in a pan to stop it at an instant, if fire should take vs ouer head: he looked behind his trunk, where hee might plainly perceiue the smoak to steme vp out of the hole, then presently he came into my chamber and tould mee our cloath warehouse was a fire: I hearing this word fire, although I was fast a sleepe yet it was no need to bid me rise: neither was I long a slipping on my clothes, but presently ranne downe and opened the doores wher­at came out such a strong funke & smoake that had almost strangled vs: this smoake, by reason it had no vent, was so thick, that we could not perceiue vvhere abouts the [Page] [...]yre was, and all that time wee had twoe great Iars of powder standing in the warehouse, which caused vs greatly to feare blowing vp, yet setting all feare aside we wēt to it, and plucked all things off, that lay on them, which [...]eeled in our hands very hott: the pouder vvee got out, and caryed into our backside, then vvee searched bold­ly for the fyre and found it, wee lighted candels, but the thicknesse of the smoke put them out; then vvee ty­ [...]d twelue great wax candles together and lighted them all, which continued a light: wee plucked out packes so [...]ast as wee could, but by reason of the heat and smoake, which choaked vs, beeing so few as wee were could doe little good vppon it: wherefore wee let in the Chy­neses, then came in as well those that had done it, as o­thers, hoping to get some spoyle, those that were minded to helpe vs, which were but few, durst not for feare of our powder: for they knew well wee had some there, vntill they had beene in the backside and showed where it stoode: then they would haue had me broken vppe the seeling ouer head, and there to haue powred downe water, the which I would by no meanes, but still desired them to helpe pluck out packs: for if we should haue giuen the fyre vent, it would haue flamed vp to the theatch before wee should haue gotten halfe water enough: and when wee had beene a fyer ouer our head and vnder foote, and all the houses round a­bout vs, it had not beene possible to haue saued the worth of one groate: then they would haue had mee haue broken downe the house where the fyre was, but this was but to haue many wayes in to haue stolne our goods; neither could I get aboue twoe or three to helpe our men to pluck out packs: as for Maister Towerson and my selfe, wee had worke enough to stand by with our swordes, to keepe them from throwing them ouer the pales, after they were out.

Also they were not without their consorts on the [Page] other side to receiue them. When I sawe that these damned Chyneses would doe vs little good, but rather harme, I was almost in dispayre, and hauing at that time a thousand pounds in Golde, (which I had receiued of Ge­nerall Hemskerke for pepper) in my Chest aboue stayres I ranne vp, thinking to fetch it, and to throw it into a ponde on our backe side. But when I c [...]me to my cham­ber doore my minde altered, and I thought I would goe see once againe what might be done: and comming tho­row our house, I chaunced to cast my eye into our dy­ning roome, which was right ouer the place where the fire was, where there was Chyneses that had remooued the table, and were breaking vp the brickes of the see­ling: Amongst which was one vnkinde neighbour which was the principall Actor: I bid them leaue and get them downe, the which they would not, vntill I began to let flie amongst them. When I had driuen them downe, I went downe after them, and desired some Merchaunts that stood by, with whome wee had dealings, that they would vrge the rest of the Chyneses to helpe vs plucke out packes, promising they should bee well paid for their paines. It pleased God to put so much good in their minds, which I thinke neuer had any before not since: So that they fell to worke of all handes, and presently the roome was clea­red, out of which came fiftie and odde packes, wher­of sixteene were a light fire: and also they emptied the next roome; for wee knewe not all this while how the fire came, not yet how farre it went: but the Chyneses did know the most parte of them. For when the first roome was emptie, and the fire on the walles quenched, fewe of them would set their handes to one packe in the next roome, saying that the fire was quenched, and the dan­ger all past: when the fire was all out, I stood musing alone by my selfe how this fire could come, being verie much grieued in minde.

Then came to comfort mee two or three Chyneses, who [Page] [...]olde mee, I did not giue sacrifice to God, wherefore this mischaunce was happened vnto mee. I tolde them I did giue sacrifice to God euerie day, but not after their man­ner, nor neuer would: but had wee knowne then that the Chyneses had done it, wee should haue sacryfised so ma­ny of them, that their bloode should haue helped to haue quenched the fire: so soone as wee were at leysure, I gaue to euerie one of them a ticke of my hand, who were about fortie in number, and willed them to come in the morning, and I would pay them: for they would not set a hand to helpe, vntill I had promised to pay them. All this while our house and yarde lay like a small Towne that had beene newly sacked by the enemie, and goods laye some hafe burnt, and some troden in the myre and durt, and what with fire, and water much was spoyled: so soone as it was day, the Chyneses came for their money, the which they are euer exceeding greedie of. I profered them a peece of eight a man, which they much scorned, I asked them if it were not enough for halfe an houres worke: they aun­swered againe, that if they had not helped vs, we had had our house burnt, and so had lost all. I tolde them againe, that it was not long since, that if I had not helped them, they had had their throats cut: when they coulde get no more, they tooke that, some of them wishing our house had beene consumed, although they spake it not before vs: for if they had, wee should haue banged them, such is their wicked minde. Now wee beganne to call to minde, who had beene in the warehouse the day before, then wee remembred that there were certaine Mullaynes there to looke vpon goods: Also one of our men had beene there with a Candell, for we could neuer shew any goods, but we were forced to light a Candell: But Maister Towerson was there all the while, who said hee neuer came neere that roome where the fire was, neyther was the doore euer o­pened, but eyther hee or I was there, who did euermore looke to the Candell our selues: wee thought then that some [Page] of those Mullays beeing hyred by some Portugals, had se­cretly as hee passed by that roome, tossed in a Ball of fire, which he might bring closely for the purpose. There was at this time a certaine Chynes, a bricklayer, which wrought at the Dutch house: who in the morning tolde a Fleming that had beene long in the countrey, that certaine Chyne­ses had doone it, but hee saide they were fled: hee said more, if wee looked well in the roome, wee should finde the manner how it was done. The Dutchman tolde an En­glish surgeon what hee had heard, and willed him to come and tell vs, and hee himselfe because he was perfect in the language, would goe and inquire after them: The English surgeon came to mee, and desired mee hee might see the roome, where the fire was: I presently called for a Can­dell, and showed him the roome: hee going to one cor­ner found a little round hole, which was burned thorow one planke of the flower, whereat I put downe a long sticke which I had in my hand, but could feele no ground. Then I called for an Axe, and as softly as wee coulde, wee wrinched vp the planke, where vnder was a way, that the greatest chest or packe in our house might haue gone downe: Which when I sawe, as secretly as I could, I cal­led three of our men, and went to the house, from whence the mine came, hauing our weapons. I set one in the doore, and charged him hee should let none come out, whatsoeuer hee were, and my selfe with the other two went in, where in one roome wee found three men, there were two more in an other roome, who hearing vs, fled out at a backe doore, which wee knew not off before wee saw them: those three after two or three blowes giuen, wee brought away, one was a dweller in the house, but the other two wee could prooue nothing against them. I laid them fast in Irons, and presently I sent Maister Towerson to the Protector to certifie him how the case stood, and to desire him they might bee sought out, and haue Iustice done vpon them, which hee promised should bee doone.

[Page]But I thinke, neuer a good Protector in the world, would haue beene so slacke in performance, for such a matter as [...]. The Dutch merchaunts seeing wee had taken some, and doubting the Chyneses would [...]ile against vs, came ve­ [...] k [...]ndely with their weapons, and sware they would liue and die in our quartell: when wee had laide out those goods that had receiued some water, to Ayre, then we examined this partie that dwelt in the house, who tolde vs the names of sixe that were fled, but hee woulde not confesse that hee knew any thing of it. Also hee said the other two knewe nothing of the matter, neyther could he tell as hee said, whether the rest were sled: Shortly after, the same day came to mee the Kings principall Scrinana, called Cay Callybon, who in the night time had beene at our house with a great crue of men, to see that no Ia­uans in our trouble should offer vs any violence. This man tolde mee that one of our prisoners was his kinsman, and knew nothing of the matter, wherefore hee desired to haue him released, promising that if wee could prooue any thing against him heereafter, hee should be forth com­ming.

Whereupon I deliuered him: many then came to mee, and tolde me that the other was a straunger, and dwelt at Iortan, and that hee was guiltlesse also, but hee that dwelt in the house, euerie one said hee was accessarie to it. Ne­uerthelesse, because that partie had vsed much to the house, and had dealings with those that were dwellers theere, I would not take their words, but still detayned him. I haue not knowne a man better beloued in a Towne in my life, then this man was there: Insomuch that there were some came to mee lamenting, and making sute for him euery day, but I would alwaies tell both him and them, that if hee were not guiltie, hee should feare nothing▪ for I woulde not shed his blood wrongfully for all the goods in the world: and if hee were guiltie, all the world should not deliuer him out of my handes: in the meane time [Page] I said hee should lye well, and eate no worse then I did, whereat euerie man was contented: hee was a Chynes borne, but now turned Iauan, and withall a verie lustie proper man as one should see: the next day the Protector came to our house to see the mine, which when hee saw, hee said it was a most villanous peece of worke, hee said more, hee had heard of Townes and Castles that had beene ouerthrowne by vndermining, but hee neuer sawe a mine before: Wee still cried to him for Iustice against those that had doone it, hee bid vs doe Iustice on those wee had when wee would, and so soone as the rest could be found, wee should haue them, so that if wee had had no more care then hee; wee might haue executed one that was not in fault.

Although hee himselfe could and did tell mee, that hee was guiltlesse, but I tolde him againe that I great­ly suspected him, because wee had knowne him a long time, verie conuersant with him that was the principall dweller in the house, and that hee had layen many nightes in the house, which was the greatest suspicion of all. Then hee bid mee kill him if I would, but I tolde him, not for the world, except I could euidently prooue that hee was one that did it, or knewe of it, before it was doone.

Now wee were in a iealousie, that the Protector and some other of the principall of the land had an interest in this act. Wherefore I thought good to bring this man that dwelt in the house to some torture to see what I could make him confesse. After three or foure daies that wee had trimmed vp our house, which was all soyled with smoake and du [...]t, by throwing of water: and also trim­med and ayred our goods, that had receiued some dam­mage: Wee went to worke with this fellow, who when hee sawe the Irons ly▪ burning in the fire, beganne pitti­fully to bewayle his owne miserie, saying: O Fathers and Mothers, when you bring your children into the world, [Page] you doe not know what miserie shall come vnto them. Then being demaunded whether hee was one or no, hee began a friuolous tale, saying that he heard men that went by the gate say, that two other put to the fire, and that they two were gu [...]l [...]lesse.The confes­sion of Saw­ [...]an turne [...]ote. Then fearing him with hotte Iron, but not touching him, hee confessed the whole manner of all, and that hee did help: he said chose 2 out houses were built for that purpose at the first, although they put them to other vse, because we should not mistrust them, and more that the mine was made two months before, in which time many nights before they had been in the mine, striuing to get into our house, but could not. Then we de­maunded of him, who put to the fire, and why they did it.

To the which hee aunswered, that because they durst not cut the boards, for feare wee should heare them, they thought to worke them out by the fire, and that one Hin­ting and Boyhie did it. I asked him what his office was, hee said that himselfe and one Vniete that was the principall dweller in the house bayled out the water: wee asked him how they put to the fire, hee said with a candell, and that the candell went out three times, and they still lighted it againe: then I asked him whether the other of Iortan did helpe, or if hee knew of it, to the which he said no: and the Iron being laid downe, he denied againe that hee knew of the pretence, but that hee had heard of all this since by others, for which deniall I caused him to be well burned vnder the nayles of his fingers.

Then hee confessed againe hee knewe of all the pre­tence: then fearing him againe with an hotte Iron, I asked him if this fellow of Iortan did not know of it, hee said no: then wee burned him, the which hee indured, though with great impatience: I demaunded who was the first that called them togither, and set them a worke: he said Vniete. I bid him name ouer all those that were accessarie, which hee did. I tolde him that some greate [Page] men of the countrey, or the ritch Chynes had set them a worke, and that I would make him confesse the trueth who they were: then burning him, hee roared out and said, hee would accuse no man that was not guiltie, how much soeuer we did torment him: I bid him name againe all that knewe of it, the which hee did as before. Now while this was in hand, Maister Towerson, and one of the Dutch Merchaunts went downe into our yard, where this fellow of Iortan was in Irons, and hauing newely beene eating, his manacles were off from his handes: the Dutch Merchaunt comming by him, and hauing a Iapan sworde in his hand: hee wroung it from him, but Maister Towerson beeing by, they tooke it from him a­gaine, before hee could drawe it: Hee being asked what hee meant to doe, hee aunswered hee woulde haue slaine himselfe for feare of being tortured, but I doubt he would haue killed one of them first: Wee much blamed him, and tolde him wee meant not to torture him, and willed him not to goe about such a thing any more.

In the afternoone the Protector sent to mee, wil­ling mee to deliuer him: but I knowing him to bee a Gouernor or Protectour which had but little wit, sent him worde againe, that if hee were guiltlesse, he should receiue no harme, and vntill I knewe the certaintie, I would not deliuer him. This fellowe that wee had al­readie tortured, beeing verie vnwilling to dye, sayde that what hee confessed was, because wee should not tor­ment him, and denyed againe that he was guiltie, I see­ing his drift, spake him fayre, and promised him his life if hee would tell mee the truth, who was the prin­cipall that set them a worke, and indeed if I had perswa­swaded him, I meant as I said. Then he tolde the whole storie againe, the which was iust as it was before, also he confessed hee was one: wherefore the next morning I sent him to execution.

[Page]As hee went out of our gates, the Iauans who do much reioyce when they see a Chynes goe to execution, as also the Chyneses doe when they see a Iauan goe to his death, reuiled him: but hee would aunswere againe, saying the English men were rich, and the Chynes poore, ther­fore why should they not steale from the English if they could?

The next day the Admirall tooke an other of them, and sent him to mee, who knew there was but one man with him: and therefore resolued with himselfe, not to confesse any thing to vs: hee was found hid in a priuie, and this was hee that put the fire to our house, this was a Goldsmith, and confessed to the Admirall, hee had [...]lipped many Ryalls, and also coyned some counterfet: some things hee confessed to him concerning our mat­ter, but not much, the which the other had confessed before: but hee would tell vs nothing▪ Wherefore be­cause of his sullennesse, and that it was hee that fired [...]s, I thought I would burne him now a little, for wee were now in the heate of our anger. First I caused him to be burned vnder the nayles of his thumbes, fingers, and toes with sharpe hotte Iron, and the nayles to be torne off, and because hee neuer blemished at that, we thought that his handes and legges had beene nummed with tying. Wherefore wee burned him in the armes, shoulders, and necke, but all was one with him: then wee burned him quite thorow the hindes, and with [...]a [...]phes of Iron to [...]e out the flesh and sinewes. After that I caused them to knocke the edges of his shinne bones with hotte searing Irons. Then I caused colde sence of Irone to bee serued into the bones of his armes, and sodenly to bee snatched out: Af­ter that, all the bones of his fingers and toes [...]o bee broken with pincers. Yet for all this, hee neuer shed teare, no nor once turned his head aside, nor [Page] styrred hand or foot: but vvhen he demaunded any que­stion, hee vvould put his tongue betvveene his teeth, and strike his chynne vpon his knees to byte it off: vvhen all the extremity vvee could vse was but in v [...]ine, I caused him to be put fast in Irons againe, where the Em­mets which do greatly abound there, got into his woūds, and tormented him worse then wee had done, as wee might well see by his iesture: the Kings officers desired me, hee might be shott to death, I tould them that was too good a death for such a villaine, and said more that in our countries if a Gentleman, or a soldiour had cō ­mitted a fault worthy of death, then hee was shot to death, and yet hee was befriended too, but they doe hould it to be the cruellest & basest death that is: wher­fore they being verie importunate, in the euening we led him into the fields and made him fast to a stake; the first shott caried away a peece of his arme bone, and all the next shot struck him thorough the breast vp neare to the shoulder: then [...]e holding downe his head looked vpon the wound; the third shotte that was made, one of our men had cut a bullet in three partes, which strooke vpon his breast in a tryangle: whereat hee fell downe as low as the stake would giue him leaue: But betweene our men and the Hollanders, they shot him almost all to peeces before they left him: now in this time the Admirall and the Sabindar sent vs a guard of men euerie night, for feare the Chyneses would rise against vs, but wee feared it not: yet wee kept foure of the men to bee witnesses, that whatsoeuer wee did (if they should rise) was but in our owne defence: af­ter I had kept this fellow of Iortan nyne or ten dayes, and could prooue nothing against him, I gaue him a peece of stuffe to make him a suite, and set him free. So soone as hee was out of our gates, euery one that met him tooke him by the hand, and greatly reioysing would say, that now they saw the Englishmen would do [Page] no more but iustice.

The third of Iuly following, the old woman that was chiefe Gouernes there, helped vs to an other of them, but not without a bribe: for they will do nothing there without brybes, although wee told them euery day, the lawes of God and the strict lawes of our countries, for such a matter as this; and they will giue you the hearing of all, and say it is good: but neuerthelesse they will do as they list themselues, which shall be not to follow any thing that is good: and truly my opinion is, that their learned men know very little, but what humane nature teacheth them, yet their high priest Cay Cally tould the King and the Protector that hee found in his books, that such as should doe such a deede as they had done, should dye by the lawe. But now to my purpose; this outcast of all goodnes, had stolne our Generalls Cryse, when he was heare, and had receiued punishment for it, also in these dayes hee had stolne from vs many times, & many times before I had had the beating of him, and could haue foūd in my heart to haue killed him, but now was the time come, that I was to pay him for all: his name was Boy­ [...]ye, and as I heard, hee was one of those that helped Hyn­ting to put to the fyre: wherefore for these manifold Iniuries, all the people thought I would haue tormen­ted him greeuously, but hee beeing as hee seemed pe­nitent, and confessed all that the other did, and twoe malefactors more, which they would neuer confesse: and because they should see, that Englishmen knew as well how to bee mercifull as to tortor, if occasion serued, I let him dye by a Cryse onely, without a­ny tortour: hee greatly intreated mee that I would not tortour him; I promised him I would not, on con­dition hee would tell mee the trueth, who set them a worke, and who they were, all that were the dooers of it, and also who knew of it before it was done: the which if one may beleeue a villaine, hee did, and they [Page] were these that followe, Vnie [...]e the chiefe, Sawwan his partner that dwelt in the house with him, Hynting, Onyg­payo, Hewscamcow, v [...]ee, which was shortly after slayne with a Crise for lying with a woman: him selfe, Boyhie, Ic­cow, & Laccow, which were fled to Iackatea, the which Ic­cow & Lackow I had neuer heard off before: I made all I could to get them, but I could not, except I would the means haue beene at exceeding great charges.

There were others that belonged to some Iauans, which were great men: and getting into their houses, wee could not gett them, some of which Iauans did offer them to sell to vs, and wee did beat the price, as one would doe about an Oxe or a Calfe, but they helde them so deare, that I durst not deale with them: I proffered them as much for euerie one, as they might buy them an other slaue in their roomes, and some benefit: but they were so fit Instruments for their pur­pose, beeing practised in all villany, that they would not parte with them without a great sūme: for the Ia­uans and Chyneses from the highest to the lowest, are all villaines, and haue not one sparke of grace in them, and if it were not for the Sabyndar, the Admirall, and one or twoe more, which are Clyn men borne, there were noe liuing for a Christian amongst them: without a Forte or very strong house, all of bricke or stone. The principall of the Chyneses might haue help­ed vs to them all, the same morning when the deed was done, if there had beene any honesty in them, and surely the pretence of stealing was knowne to them all, before it was acted: but that they would set our house on fire, I thinke they were igno­rant. Amongst all other of the Diuells Instruments heere vpon earth, there was one of the Kings bloud called Pangean Mandelycko, who kept one of these nyne villaines in his house: one day hee comming to our house to buye cloth, wee desired him hee woulde [Page] deliuer this fellowe into our hands, promising him that wee would cause our Generall to giue him thanks whē hee came, and that hee should bee no loeser by it; but by no meanes hee would not: wee tould him how good it would bee for their countrey to roote out such villaines as they were: hee answered againe that wee should tell those so that had the gouernment of the coū ­trye in their hands, or cared for the good of the coun­try, for hee did not: some three or foure dayes after hee came againe to our house, and would haue had me gi­uen him credyt, for six or seauen hundred Ryalls of eight in cloth, but because hee was a man not to be trusted, I excused the matter, saying that I looked euerie day for our ships, and that I could deliuer no goods, but I must haue pepper presently, whereby I might haue loading rea­dy: after hee had beene very earnest, and saw he could not preuaile: hee went out very angry, and beeing at our gate hee looked backe vpon our house, and said it was pit­ty but it should bee burnt againe: also he would haue had a Chynes that wee had some dealings with, to haue helped him to some Chyneses that dwelt neare vs, to vn­dertake the fyring of our house againe: hee beeing a man generally hated of all for cruelty that hee had done, the Chyneses tould vs what hee said: wherefore I would pre­sently haue gone to the court to haue complayned of him, but many wished me not to doe so, for they said he was a desperat villaine, and cared neither for King nor Protec­tor: but if wee brought him to his answere before the King, would doe vs a mischiefe whatsoeuer came of it.

The King and the Gouernour had sent oftentimes to him to deliuer vs that fellowe hee had, but hee cared not for them: shortly after wee had many shrewd attempts to haue fyred our house, for the towne was fyred in three places at one instant, in the night, a little to windeward of our house, and twice an other night, but Chiefly by the [Page] mercy of God, who preserued vs, and by the diligence of the Chyneses who are growne very poore vpon it, it was al­waies quenched, neither had wee any bodie to com­plaine to that could helpe vs, but onely God, and next vn­to him our trust was in our swordes and shot, which kept the proudest of them in such awe in the night, that they durst not come within our reach. Hee kept a crue of villaines like vnto himselfe, who no doubt if they could haue fyered the vpper worke of our house, would haue beene there, to haue seene what spoyle they could haue done in the tumult, but God bee thanked wee were not without friends, which would haue sent vs three times so many more for our guard, then hee was able to make, and did when time came, that the vpper worke of our houses were burnt: and shortly I must tell a longer tale then this, of this vngodly Pangean, what trouble hee put both the King and vs to, and how in the end hee was ba­nished.

Amongst all these sorrowfull and troublesome dis­courses, it happened that certaine Chyneses which dwelt hard vnder our pales, did steale away an other Chyneses wife: and beeing hardly persued by her husband, they had no meanes to shift her away, but to put her ouer the pales into our ground.

At that time wee hauing newly shot much pepper in to our warehouse, which was so extreame hot, that wee were forced to keepe the doore open night and day, ha­uing alwaies a regarde to it in the night; this being a fit place for her to hide her in, got behinde the dore, so far as shee could stand for heat; and her husband would haue sought all Iauan, & Chyna, before he would or durst come thither to seeke.

In the night, after our watch was set, one of our men went into our backside, the which place wee did all very much frequent night and day; but as hee was comming back, and beeing a little starr-light he saw the woman [Page] stand in the pepper house doore, who came forth to take breath: for shee had beene better to haue beene in a stoue so long: hee presently swore a greate oath; a Woman, or the Diuell in the likenesse of a Woman: for it was very straunge to see such cattell within the English pale at that time of night▪ I walking in our gal­lery and hearing this, remembred that I had read of many man that had beene ouerthrowne by the deceit of women, beganne to grow in great feare and suspition that some Chynes or this enuious Pangean, whom I late­ly intreated of, had sent her with some secret fyrework, to worke the destruction of vs all; wherefore I ranne downe and caused her to bee searched and examined presently: shee tould vs that her husband would haue beat her, wherefore shee was forced to clyme ouer our pales and to hide her selfe: then I caused our pepper house to bee searched, first by darke, and afterwardes with some lights, for feare still of fyre works: when no thing could be found, I threatned downe the Admiralls men that watched there, that they had brought in their whores, the which they all forswore: then I threatned our owne men, who sware likewise to the contrary: but I not satisfied yet, and purposing to know the truth, locked her vp in a porch all night, & tooke the key with me: also I g [...]ue the watch both Iauans and Englishmen, a charge to walke before the doore, the which they did; and to looke well out round about the house, for feare of some villany.

I was neuer so vexed in my life with a woman, although I thinke many a good man hath: I conside­ring of it in the night, thought it might very well be as the woman said: and knowing againe that it was an ordnary thing for the Chyneses to beat their wiues, especially shee beeing a Cuchinchina woman, which had no friends in towa [...]: for the Iauans will hardly [Page] suffer them to beat their woemen: wherefore now I thought it would prooue but some such iest: the next morning her husband came, who falling downe one his marow bones, desired me to bee good to him: for hauing so lately tortoured some Chyneses, hee thought I would tortour him.

But in my conceit hee needed no more plague or pu­nishment then such a wife: wherefore I presently dismis­sed them both.

Yet this man was not so ill matched, but hee had a neighbour was worse: who beeing sate at break­fast, with foure more of his friends, were all poysoned by one of his woemen: but so soone as they percei­ued them selues to bee so spedde, they drunke euery one of them a good quantitye of beazer stone, some thirtye graines a peece, the which recouered them all: but their necks and faces brake out in that manner, that it would haue pittied a bodie to haue seene them.

The woeman I say executed, and so did diuerse o­ther of our house, who will witnesse this to bee of a truth: and that all the Chyneses within few dayes recoue­red their health againe.

The people of those partes are giuen much to poysoning: which is the cause they hold their beazar stones in so high Estimation, that there is not any of account, but they will alwaies haue some readye in their house, and the Noble-men doe horde them vpp for great Iewells.

And surely I doe hold that to bee the thing, next vnder GOD, that hath preserued the moste of our liues that haue beene long resident there. Now a word or twoe concerning the Dutch shipping, & short­ly after into fyre & troubles againe▪ the fifteenth of Iuly came in the Moone from Amboyna being ladē with cloues[Page] In whome came three young youthes which were the sonnes of three the cheefest gouernours of that Land: their comming was to require ayd of the English, or Dutch, which should come first to Bantam against certaine Por­tingales which had a smalle forte there, and did sore anoy them: also there came in a small Flybote which had taken a pynnis or shuppe, which the Portingales not long before had taken from Captaine Barkell and Captaine Bugall, at Mackow: they tooke her vnder an Iland a little to the eastwardes of Iaua: shee was bound for Mallacka and had in her a chest of letters, which should haue gone for Goa, wherein the Portingales of Mackow had writ for powder, shot, and all kinde of munition for warrs. The vpper worke of our house beeing built of canes, and bee­ing withall both high and long, euery puffe of winde was ready to turne it ouer: and wee were forced euerie foote to bee at much trouble and charges about mend­ing & setting it to right: wherefore in this month of Iuly, we senta prawe to an Iland hard by, to fetch tym­ber for the maine posts round about, and new built it a­gaine; but wee hardly inioyed it twoe months, before fyre consumed it.

Also the Protector a little before had giuen vs all the houses and ground which ioyned to our pales, and be­belonged to those Chyneses which vndermined our house: But although it were giuen, yet I thinke there was neuer Englishmen paid so deare for so little ground in any country in the world, the houses were rot­ten, but the ground did vs great pleasure.

Also there was a Pangean or gentleman which had a house and ground, the pales of which grounde came so neare our Pepper house doore, that it was very troublesome to vs, when wee should carry in or out, pepper: wherefore I bought that house with the ground, so that now wee had a very spatious yarde, this house I filled full of pepper, but because it [Page] was not boarded within, the waight of the pepper, beeing shot, bare out the side of the wall. Where­fore wee were forced to take out all our pepper againe, being two thousand and fortie sackes, and to boarde it within to our exceeding great trouble, and some cost. Also I hired an other house right ouer against vs, which held six hundred and odd sackes of pepper, and some o­ther houseroome was lent vs by our friends: for the pep­per that wee had, and were now to receiue, tooke vp a great deale of their kinde of houseroome, by reason their building is but low.

The nine and twentieth of August, the Noone set sayle from thence to Holland leauing there those young men which came in hither from Amboyna, who would many times come to our house, and I alwaies gaue them kinde entertainement: and it is most certaine that if wee should haue any store of shipping of force to come, there wee should haue any thing at their handes, before the Hollanders.

The third of September it happened two of our men to fall together by the eares: I finding them in this disorder banged them, and also committed them to the Irons the next day: they being prisoners had somewhat harder fare then their fellowes: wherefore they sayde they would knowe whether I had any such autho­ritie or no: and more, that rather then they would bee so vsed, they would bee reuenged on mee: and also set the house on fire. I hearing these rebellious speeches, laid as many Irons on them as they could beare; and whereas before they sate drye in the house, I sent them into our backeside, where no candels nor fire should come neere them, there to abide both hunger and colde: and because they had offended before, and also had receiued punishment for it, and yet would not beware: I thought nowe to haue sent them home in the next ship that went, [Page] as prisoners to the companie: But by their great submission, and the Hollanders and other Merchaunts in the Towne intreating for them, but chiefely the want I had of men, I was contented to release them vpon sureties of their good behauiour after.

The ninth of September the Protector sent a pro­clamation that no Chyneses should wey any pepper to the straungers, meaning the English and the Hollan­ders; the which proclamation was procured by the Hol­landers, and wee knew it verie well: for the same daye they dined with vs, and at dinner they tolde vs, the Pro­tector owed them tenne thousand sackes of pepper: but I tolde them that was not so, for they would neuer trust him of so much: The same euening one of the princi­pall of the Dutch Merchaunts comming by our gate, wee asked him if hee heard the newes: hee knowing well howe to dissemble said no: then wee tolde him of the Proclamation: hee making verie straunge of it, saide that when any of our shippes shoulde come, wee should talke with the Protectour and others for all these iniuries: but I tolde him wee woulde not giue him, nothing neere so long a day; and that I would talke with him before the next day at night, and tell him more, then hee would willingly heare.

The next morning I went to the olde woman, who commaunds the Protectour, and all the rest, and indeed is called Queene of the land by the Sabyndar, and diuers others: although she bee not of the Kings blood, but onely for her wisedome is held in such estimation amongst them of all sortes, that shee ruleth as if shee were sole­lye Queene of that Countrey. After we had made our griefes knowne to her, shee presentlye sent for the Protectour, willing vs to talke with him before her: when hee came, I demaunded of him for what [Page] cause hee had forbidden vs our trade? hee aunswered, hee must buy tenne thousand sackes of pepper for the King.

I told him againe, that the Hollanders themselues had confessed to mee, that the pepper hee woulde buy was for them, and that hee owed them tenne thou­sand sackes: the which hee denied, saying hee owed them tenne thousande Ryalls, but not tenne thousand sackes of pepper: I tolde him it was contrarie to promise made to our Generall, that wee shoulde bee forbidden to buy, and sell freely: hee saide still hee must, and woulde buye pepper for the King, and when hee was serued, then wee should buy a­gaine.

I replyed againe, that our Generall had a letter to our Queene, written in the Kinges name by consent of the Queene which sate there present, of the Protectour, that then was, the Sabindar, the Admirall, and diuers others of the chiefest of the land: I asked him if hee woulde nowe cause the Kinges worde, the Queenes and all theirs to bee broken? then hee knew not well what to saye. I tolde him more, that Kinges must keepe their wordes, or else they were no Kinges: And more wee tolde him, that such like occasions was the first falling out between: our Queene, and the King of Spayne, the which coste many thousandes of mens liues: And that it was well knowne to all Nations, that wee did not onely burne and spoile at home, but also came into those partes of the worlde, and tooke away his subiectes goods, the which himselfe coulde wit­nesse.

He said the king owed the land, and therfore there was no reason but he should be serued before strangers▪ we yeelded that was but reason, but we knew well, that it was not for [Page] the King, but for the Hollanders; and that if the King woulde buye pepper, the Sabyndar and the Ad­mirall knewe of it, but now they knewe no such mat­ter.

Then hee confessed it was for the Hollanders, hee said hee owed them a great deale of money, but not so much as they reported: The which they lent him long time, wherefore to pleasure them, hee would buy pep­per for them. I said hee might, and yet not forbid vs to buy, nor yet to receiue our debtes: to the which hee aunswered that all the while wee wayed pepper, hee should get little, and therefore wee should forbeare a while: Then I tolde him againe that the Chyneses were greatly indebted vnto vs, and nowe by meanes of his proclamation, they would not pay vs. Wherefore I woulde laye all our debtes vpon the King and him, and when it should please GOD to send ou [...] shippes thither▪ wee would not loose one Ryall. After that hee beganne to bethinke himselfe, saying it was neuer his meaning to forbid vs to receiue our debts, and that those which pro­claymed it, did more then hee willed them: then I desired him to send his proclamation againe and commaunde the Chyneses to make haste, and paye vs our d [...]bts: The which in the after noone hee did. Wee intreated him that hee would not helpe the Hollanders: for wee tolde him, that hee could not helpe them, but hee must hin­der vs, and that if hee got by helping them one way, hee would loose by hindering vs another: hee aunswered a­gaine, hee would helpe vs to, if wee would: wee desired him hee would helpe neyther of vs, but let vs shift for our selues.

Telling him also that hee should get more by vs, when our shippes came, by sitting still, then by helping the Fle­mings. Hee desired vs to bee contented, and wee shoulde haue no wrong, and so departed, so soone as hee was [Page] g [...]ue, I asked the olde Queene, which all this while sate by, whether the King would buy pepper or no: shee saide no, the king was no Merchaunt; but shee thought the Hollanders had giuen the Protectour a bribe to helpe them; but said shee you shall haue no wrong: for in deede shee was alwaies our verie great friende, and the Protectour durst not displease her: wee gaue her great thankes, and after a while departed: the same day bee­ing the tenth of September died Edward Buntingall our Cooke.

In the afternoone, the proclamation came that the Chyneses should wey vs our debts, [...] [...]none: many of them not willing to pay their debtes till pepper came to a higher price, would not heare this last proclamation; but when wee came to aske our debtes would saye that they durst wey vs none, which was a great hinderance vnto vs in getting in our debtes, and wee were forced to cause the Protectour to send his officers to some particu­lar men, before they woulde paye vs: but it must bee vnderstoode, this could not bee doone without a bribe: for wee were forced both to braule with him, and to bribe him too: for a man must doe both to those kinde of people or e [...]se hee shall haue nothing as hee woulde, and they must be kept betwixt feare and loue. I must not forget to tell howe the Protectour woulde needes haue mee promi [...]e him not to buy any pepper in foure­tenne dai [...], the which I did: Prouided alwai [...]s that the Hollanders should not buy neyther, nor none for them; but so soone as I came home, I hearde [...] they had weyed a verie small parcell of tenne sackes: where­fore the verie lame [...] [...]ight I bought one hundreth sackes.

The Hollanders now were at a non-plus againe, for in time past, when they had seene any parcel of pepper as they passed by, lying in any warehouse, they would [Page] goe in and cheapen it, but wheresoeuer they came, the people would tell them they owed it to the English men.

Whereat the Hollanders woulde goe out in a greate chafe: but when they sawe they could get none, then they deliuered the Protectour money, and wrought with him as I haue before rehearsed: and if wee had had, but tenne thousand Ryalls of eight more then wee had the Hollanders shoulde haue got little pepper that yeare in Bantan. It is most certaine they are very much hated there; and what they doe or procure, is for feare of their shipping, wherein they abound in all these parts.

The twelfth day of September, the Protectour sent Ryalls vp and downe amongest those that were dealers in pepper, in the kings name, some to serue him one hundreth sackes, some fiftie sackes, some twentie, some tenne, some fiue, as it were a begging: and indeede he tooke it vp at the kinges price, which was 1/2 a Ryall in a sacke lesse then we paid: the Chyneses with much grutching serued him.

A while after, hee set a taxe vpon them to serue him so much more; then the Chyneses rayled vpon the Pro­tectour, and the Hollanders both: and many of them woulde not receiue their money, but the officers would throw it downe in their howses, and take their names.

If many in Christendome had seene howe Rialls were carried vp and downe vpon mens shoulders, and how they were thrust vpon men, they would thinke they had had them on some Iland hatd by for fetching. On a time when I was talking with the Sabyndar, I as­ked him whether the pepper the Protectour bought were for the King or no; although I knewe verie well to the contrarye before: yet I did it because I [Page] would heare what hee woulde say: hee aunswered no.

But the Hollanders had complayned to him, that they coulde get noe pepper, and because (saide hee) the Protectour is behoulding to them for money, which they had a long time lent him: Therefore he did it onelye to pleasure them: I tolde him hee did vs great wronge by it: Hee sayde it was verie true, and that the olde Protectour woulde not haue done so.

The thirteenth daye of September, the king and all the principall of the lande went a progresse to an Iland some sixe or seauen Leagues to the East-wardes of Bantan, where they hunted Bullockes, and Vno­zuras; and euerie Noble mans Prawe was trimmed in verie warlike manner, hauing their colours and shieldes hanging rounde about them: some had on their shieldes a halfe Moone, some a Starre, some a Tygars heade, some a furious beaste which is in that countrey called a Matchan, some one thing, some an other: And because the order is that euerie one of abi­litie, both straungers and others, at such a time pre­sents the king as hee passeth by with some pre­sent: Therefore as the kinges Prawe came downe the riuer, I laide him aboarde, and gaue him a pre­sent.

The noble men that sate with the king, tolde me I should haue beene readie with halfe a dousen shotte to haue brought the King onwardes of his way: I aunswered them againe that I liued in such feare of fyre, that nei­ther I, nor my men durst goe out of doores: but they were so importunate that I might not say them nay, but presently sende for some shotte; for, said they, sixe of your shotte is better then all ours: then presently [Page] I sent for halfe a dousen, who were attyred in their best Robes, and with their scarfes and hatbandes of our Countries colours, made a verie splendant showe.

I brought the king to an Iland about a league on his way, where all the whole traine went a shore▪ they woulde needs see our men march and show them their order in dischar­ging their shot. I told them it was not worth the seeing, except I had more men: they aunswered they coulde see by a fewe what more could doe: the king sent vs Ryce, Fruites, and C [...]ckayes. About foure a clocke in the afternoone, the king departed on his iorney, and I ta­king my leaue of him and his trayne, (who thanked mee) went directly home.

The fifteenth of September, by meanes of an olde [...]ro [...]t which was making of Candels, the Towne was set a fyre: the which consumed all the vpper worke of our three ho [...]ses to our exceeding great daunger, cost and trouble: the Sabyndar, who was lately returned from the king, came to vs in the tumult. Also the Admi­rall who had charge of the Court in the King and Gouer­nours absence, sent vs a greate trayne of his principall men; Likewise one of the kinges vnkels came to vs with a greate number: and also the ritch Chynes with a verie greate crewe: All these came to see that no bodie should offer vs any violence: for they knewe well wee had enemies of great force, not thot they hated vs, but for our goods.

Nowe wee were laid open to all our enemies, for our fence▪ for the most part was burnt to the grounde, a [...]d wee had not a place to dra [...]e our victuals in: yet as good fortune was▪ we had one little shed in the middle of our yard, which was our court of garde, that scaped, where wee camped a nights: the dutch house escaped though but narrowly▪ wherefore wee borrowed some [Page] of their men: for it is to bee noted, that though wee were mortall enemies in our trade, yet in all other mat­ters wee were friends, and would haue liued and dyed one for the other.

Also the Admirall and Sabyndar sent vs men eue­ry night, so that wee (with our drumme, shot & pykes) lyued soldier-like, vntill our fence was made vp, and afterwardes too: for this was but to showe vs the way, and our fence was no sooner vp, but wee looked e­uery houre when it should be burnt downe, or borne downe by those that would haue had the cutting of our throats: now wee paid a peece of eight for that which was not worth twelue pēce before, yet for feare the rayne and weather would spoyle our goods, wee were forced to set sheeds ouer euery house, vntill wee could get tymbers to build them againe. All which makes our charges of building very great, and yet wee are but very badly housed there.

This burning of the towne was a great hinderance to vs in getting in of pepper: for the Chyneses were all so busie a building, that they could not go vp to the moū ­taines to fetch it.

About the end of this monthe September began great dissention amongst the principall of the Land, which grew by meanes of that troublesome member called Pangean Mandelicko, who, as I haue written before, did seeke all the meanes he could to set our house on fyre, but now seeing hee could get nothing at our hands, fell to rob­bing of Iunks which came into the [...]oad with ryce and other prouision of victuall. Amongst other there was one which came from Iore: in this Iunke was great store of Ryce, Men, and Woemen: he fayned a matter & gaue it out, that there was twoe men in the Iunke that had taken a Iunke of his, that was theeuing vpon that coast, the which afterwards was prooued to bee nothing so, [Page] Neuerthelesse this spoyler of a common wealth; with a great crue of villaines, his slaues [...]eazed on the Iunke, in the night, and carryed away all theryce withall the men and woemen, as his prysoners: the which was the next way to keepe away all other Iunks, which vsed to bring victualls to the towne, whereby to starue them all: for that land is not able to feede one quarter of the people that are in it.

The King and his Protecter sent to him commaunding him to deliuer the people and goods, the which hee had taken; but hee would not: but presently fortified him­selfe.

Also the rest of the Pangeanes that were both of the Kings blood and his, but beeing all traytors to the King, maintained him, so that the Kings officers durst not med­dle with him. The Protector sent to vs, willing vs not to ayd the Pangeanes neither with pouder, shot, nor mē: also hee willed vs to make our selues as strong as we could: because they were mynded to banish Mandelick [...] and feared they should haue some hurly burly before they should get him out.

I answered the messenger, that the Protector needed not to feare, wee would ayd such a rebell, but rather do our vttermost against him: and that I was sory I had so few men, that I could not lend the King some ayd. Also the Sabyndar and the Admirall sent almost euery day to vs, willing vs to make ourselues strong, and to haue a speciall care of our watch in the night: for they all greatly feared, that the rebels would surprise our house, and the Hollanders in the night: which if they could they should haue beene ritcher then the King.

Especially ours: for they should haue had more fol­lowers for our commodities, then all the Kings in Iaua besides.

Also they were not ignorant of the hatred, the [Page] principall rebell bare vs, because I would not trust him, the rebels grew euery day stronger, and stronger, and all the people of the country, and also straungers began to be in great feare.

I was forced to borrow some small ordinance of Chyna merchants, which were our friends: and with chaynes and bushes to fortify our selues, our men be­ing busie euery day making of chayne, Langrell, and Crosbar shot: all trade of merchandise was laid aside; nei­ther did any in the towne looke after buying or selling: and euery day wee should haue the rebels espyalls come into our yeard, who would be very inquisitiue what, and wherefore those were, which our men were all so hard at worke vpon: wee would plainly tell them, that wee looked euery night for such a mans comming, wher­fore we made prouision for his entertainment: they would view the shot very much, and show it one an other, and many times would go aside and whisper to themselues. One day in the middle of this broyle there came to our house one of the Pangeanes, which not long agoe, was King of Iackatra: and now being kept out by a kindsman of his, who held it and doth homage to the King of Ban­tan for it.

This Pangean liued like a mal-content, and was euery day conuersant with the principall rebell, who as we do iudge sent him to our house: [...]ee asked to see some cloth, the which I showed him; no sooner he had seene it but he asked me if I would giue him credyt for one hundred Ryalls worth, or two hundred Ryalls worth: he had beene once with me before, when I denyed him, and hee was forced to bring a Chyna merchant to giue his word for him: wherefore I maruailed hee should come againe so soone, and as I did before so I gaue him the de­nyall againe: then presently hee bid vs carrye it away, asking me if I had any peeces or powder to spare? I [Page] told him no, I had to serue my owne turne, and no more▪ hee was very importunate with me to let him haue some: I answered him againe that I had none, but what was for prouision for our house, therefore I could [...]ell him none of that; though he would giue [...] neuer so much: after that hee fell a reasoning with vs where wee lay a nights: whether we lay below, or aboue vpon the top of our warehouse, which had at that time but a shed vp­on it: I tould him wee lay sometime below, and some­times aboue, according as wee saw occasion: but where­soeuer wee were, I told him our Dogs lay alwaies ready, belowe the most parte of them, and wee had some a­boue too: your dogs said hee which are they? then wee pointed him first to one peece, then to an other, and in­deede wee had a dosen stood very orderly: said he call you them dogs: wee tould him they would barke if occasion serued.

After he had viewed our shot and our fortifications, he departed: shortly after this man had a crue of twoe hundred men came from a towne some seauen miles of where hee dwelled, who in the night time came downe the great riuer in Prawes: presently the Alarum was gi­uen that the Pangranes were vp, and would seaze vpon the King and the Court ▪ which after much hurly burly in the end prooued nothing.

These men, and likewise all the Pangeanes men keepe as the Lord Stanleys men did in King Richard the thirds time, no man knowing which side they would take, but the King and all his parte was in exceeding great feare of them, and durst not trust them: wherefore they sent for the King of Iack [...]tra to come with all speede, and [...]ing all the force hee could make, for they were almost assured that when they should beginne with this princi­pall Rebel▪ that all the rest of the Pangeanes would ioyne with them.

All this while wee looked for nothing but for throte­cutting [Page] euery night, and wee counted our selues no bet­ter then dead men: onely wee made account to sell our liues deare: and because wee would be sure to be ready, wee walked euery night with our matches light in our hatts, and also had our tuchboxes and pruning [...]rons for ordinance in our hands: for if wee should haue pruned our peeces, they would haue cloy­ed and so haue fayled vs when wee should haue need: neither had wee powder to discharge them once in twoe or three dayes, for so wee might haue wanted: wee knew well that if they came, it would be one the suddaine, and with such a crye would haue ranne a­gainst our pales, that wee should haue had no time to light a match, nor yet haue heard what one another said, for their noyse; neither can I forget what a foolish parte the Hollanders played vs, in this daungerous and fear­full time.

It happened one night, when we set our watch, one of my men put a shot in his peece, & discharging it vpright, the shot f [...]ll downe in one of the Hollanders out houses thorough the thatch: where were certain Mallays, which lay at their house, at Supper: the Mallayes as they said (but I doe not beleeue thē) brought the shot to them, & asked them if they could not liue there, secure from shot▪ who when they saw it, their principall merchant caused six of their men to come vp staires into their house, and out of a window to shoote close ouer our yeard.

I was at that present walking alone in our yeard, and verie much troubled in minde; in so much that three of the shotte was passed close ouer my head, before I minded them: then hearing more still which came ve­ry neere mee, and beeing withall moonelight, I thought that some Rogues had gotten into a window, and had made a marke at me: wherefore I stepped behinde the corner of a house, for many times walking there I haue [Page] had stones throwne at me, and came with such violence, that they haue splyt out peeces of boords, where they lighted, missing me very narrowly.

At this time, when the Hollanders were in hand with their shotte, their were certaine theeues that were breaking of a Chyneses house; and beeing moonelight as I said before, also the shotte comming ouer the theeues heads, they thought that some body had shot at them, wherefore they to goe likewise at the verie instant.

The owner of the house had espyed them, and gotten a crew together to persue them: no sooner was the last shotte ouer my head, but I heard a most gree­uous crye and vprore, comming downe the streete, to­wards our house: As the Chyneses, if a Poulcat in the night chance to come out of the woods amongst their hennes, it is enough to make one hundred of them cry out, as if there were one thousand men in armes against them.

Euery one of vs betooke vs to our weapons; verely thinking that now they were comming, whom hour­ly wee expected, and were glad that they came at such a time as wee had euery thing so ready: the theeues after they were a little past our pales, cared not for the Chyneses, but turned againe and cryed Payyon, Pay­yon, which is, wee are ready if you dare, whereby they brought the Chyneses to a stand, right against ou [...] pales.

Wee thinking all this while they had beene our e­nemies, I had much adooe, to keepe our men from shooting thorough the pales; which if they had, they had slayne manie of the townes-men: Anon after▪ wee heard a Chynes (that wee knew) speake; so that then I thought how the matter wente; wherefore I bid one of my men shoote ouer the pales: the theeues [Page] hearing that, as stout as they were, tooke their heeles amayne, and the Chyneses after them, like a sorte of hounds, which when the Foxe turned againe durst not barke. Now wee wondered whence this sixe shotte should come, wee knew well that no Iauans could de­liuer sixe shotte so orderly together: but after wee vn­derstood it was the Hollanders, wee blamed them much, for doing so in such a dangerous time, although they meant vs noe hurt.

The twentith of October, came in the King of Iac­katra, with a crue of one thousand fiue hundred fight­ing men, besides straggelers, and had a thousand more comming after.

Hee challendged the rebell and likewise all the Pangeanes to fight with him and his company one­ly: hee had indeede a great quarrell against them all.

For but a little before they fought meanes to put him out of his kingdome, but now the rebells kept their fortification, and would not come out.

The six and twentith of October, the King of Iackatra, and the Admirall sent for vs, to know if there were no meanes to fyre them, a reasonable distance of, out of the reach of their baces, of which they had a great nomber: wee told them, if there had beene a shippe in the roade, it might easily haue beene done, but for vs to doe it, wee thought wee should hardly find things wherwithall.

The Admirall asked me what things wee would haue? I told him, Camphfyer, fault peeter, and brim­stone.

As for some things wee had already: the Admi­rall said hee would helpe vs to all these, and desired vs wee would helpe them: also he had a long bowe and arrowes fitte for such a purpose: but I thinke a Musket had beene beter.

[Page]Wee were minded to haue caused the Kings ordynāce to haue beene planted, and shot red hot bullyts amongst them; which I thinke would haue made worke both with them, and their thatched houses, and fortifications made of canes: the principall rebell had sought all the meanes hee could to fyre vs, now wee meant verily to see if we could fire him: but whether it was for feare of the King of Iackatra, or hearing wee were about such a matter, the Pangranes and the rebells both came to an agreement: within twoe dayes after the which agreement, was this; that the principall rebell should within six dayes depart out of the King of Bantams dominion, hauing with him onely thirty of his household: the which he did. For the space of tenne dayes, wee looked euery houre both night and day, when the Kings forces and the Pangranes would ioyne battell, for they were both ready: but the Iauans, are very loth to fight, if they can choose: the rea­son they say is, their wealth lyeth altogether in slaues: so that if their slaues be kild they are beggered: wherefore they had alwaies rather come to a se [...] feast, then a pitched battaile.

In this time of trouble, what with ouerwatching, and with suddaine waking out of our sleepe, we beeing conti­nually in feare of our liues; Some of our men were di­stract of their witts▪ especially one, who sometimes in the night would fall into su [...]h a frātike rage, that two or three of his fellowes could hardly keepe him in his bed: neither could he tell in the morning, that he was any such man. I would not wish a more forwarder man in any time of daunger, then hee was, when hee was in his perfit sences, but it is a great vexation to the stoutest man that is, to bee much broken of his sleepe, and when hee doth sleepe in such feare of his life, as wee did there a long time.

Shortly after his departure, the King of Iackatra also departed, who promised vs that if there should [Page] euer come English shippe or pinnys thither, they should be verie kindely vsed: wee were very much beholding to him, for in these troubles wee beeing one day talking with the Admirall and him, wee asked them if they thought the Pangranes would ioyne with the rebels; who aunswered, they would: and that they were a sort of beg­gerly poore men, and would seeke the spoyle of all such Merchaunts as wee, which came thither to trade: and the Admirall said, that if wee had not had a strong house, and kept especiall good watch, they would haue cut our throates long agoe. The King bid vs keepe good watch still, promising that if they came to mo­lest vs in that time, or while hee were in Towne, hee woulde come himselfe, and all his forces to our ayde.

The Towne beeing nowe somewhat at peace with­out brawling or feare of warres (as for blowes I know not one was giuen before) wee sent Prawes for timber, and beganne to builde our house againe, which should ne­uer haue beene for mee, but that wee feared our shipps woulde haue some weake men in them: and if wee shoulde not haue had lodginges for all sortes, it woulde haue gone worse with them then it did: and notwithstanding wee did our beste in that mat­ter, wee founde all to bee little enough for their pre­seruation.

The third of Nouember, came in the Sunne, from Tar­nata, being laden with cloues; which stayed heere twentie daies, and then departed for Holland.

The seuenteenth day of Nouember which wee tooke to bee our Coronation day, and hauing all our peeces and chambers lying laden since the troubles, wee in­uited the Hollanders to dinner; in the middle of which wee dranke a health to our Queene, and also shott off all our Odinance; so that the like peele was neuer shott within the Towne, and the people said wee had Parrets [Page] or Munkies, that gaue fyre to some peeces: for they thought it had beene vnpossible for so fewe men to keepe such a sturre as wee did, what betweene our small shot, and our great: indeed our Queene was dead long before; although wee knew it not, yet God be thanked wee lost not our la­bour, sith God had sent vs both a King and a Queene too. And heere it is not fit I should omit one thing, and yet to make relation of it, some may thinke I doe it of a vaine glorie to my selfe, and those that were with mee: but if any doe so thinke, in this or in any other matter which I haue written, they shall doe me great wrong: for it is well knowne to some men of ac­count, that if it had not beene by their procurement, these discourses shoulde neuer haue beene written, nor a number of them neuer once beene spoken off by mee.

Now to the matter: there is that resort to this towne of Bantan a number of many nations, of which diuers of them are Liedgers: these people hauing heard much fame of the English Nation in times past, before euer they saw any of vs, had an especiall eye to our cariage and behauiour, and wee were growne a common ad­miration amongest them all; that wee beeing so few, should carrie such a porte as wee did, neuer putting vp the least wrong that was offered either by Iauans or Chy­neses, but alwaies did Iustice our owne selues: And when, the Protectour did wrong vs himselfe, it was knowne that wee did not spare to tell him of it soundly, and in such sorte, that hee wanted verie much of his will.

It is well known also that at the first comming of our ships, the Iauans offered vs much wrong in purloyning our goods: but so many as we tooke, were eyther slayne, wounded, or soundly beaten. The Iauans thought wee durst not doe so, when our shippes were gone: Where­fore they did practise to steale both day and night: but they found it all one, the which they did admire at, for [Page] it is most certaine (and I haue hearde many straun­gers speake it, that haue beene present, when wee haue beaten some Iauans) That they neuer knewe not hearde of any Nation but wee, that were Liedgers there, that durst once strike a Iauan, in Bantan: and it was a common talke among all straungers, and others, how wee stoode at defyance with those that hated vs for our goods, and how little wee cared for them, neuer offring any the leaste wronge to the meanest in the Towne, and receiuing from the better sorte a commen­dation before the Hollanders, or any other Nation: and it will bee a thing generallye talked off, in all parts of the worlde, what different carriage wee haue beene of, when it is likely there will bee no English there.

Now euerie day the Hollanders looked for their ship­ping, hauing little pepper, nor knowing where to buy any, for that the Chyneses would rather deale with vs (gi­uing as much as they) then them; and which is more, when our Rialls were gone, they gaue vs credit, till the arriuall of our ships, which was vncertaine to vs; when they might haue had readie money, and thankes of the Hol­landers.

In the beginning of the last haruest, the Hollanders per­ceiuing they should get little pepper, were very importu­nate with vs to share all the pepper wee bought betweene vs in equall halfes: so that they would haue receiued the one halfe of our debts, which wee knew to be all sure, ex­cept some small driblets; giuing vs Ryalls: and wee should haue receiued the one halfe of their debts, which were owing for the most part, by Iauans, and great men too, (so that GOD knowes when they will bee paide) and to haue giuen them Ryalls, for so much as wee shoulde haue receiued: Also what pepper wee had bought for cloath, they woulde haue had the one halfe, and [Page] what they had bought for money, we should haue had the one halfe: their reason (which was very good) was to keepe downe the price: to which if I had consented wee had had little lading against I expected our ship­pinge, wee hauing (what by debts, what by sales,) fiue sackes for their one; they had owing them as much as wee, but wee knew it to bee in such mens handes, as would bee long a paying.

Shortly after that, they began to worke with the Pro­tectour, as I haue before rehearsed, at which time they deli­uered so many Ryall into his hands, aa will not bee paide them againe in haste.

About this present time the emperour of Damacke, who not many yeares before for tyranny, had beene deposed, by the kinges thereabouts; going by sea from Bantam, to an other Towne vppon that coast, was by one of his owne sonnes, stabbed in his bed slee­ping.

All Nouember, and the beginning of December, wee were busied both in building and getting in, and making cleane of pepper.

The fourteenth day of December came in a Dutch pin­nys, which tolde vs of the death of the late Queene Eli­zabeth, and of the great plague and sicknesse that had beene ouer all all Christendome, the which strooke more terrour into our mindes, then all the troubles wee had passed: But they could tell no newes of our shppes, which caused vs much to doubt: Onely they tolde vs the king of Scots was crowned, and that our land was in peace, which was exceeding great comfort vnto vs. Also they tolde vs of the peace, which was likely to bee be­twixt England and Spaine, the which wee were sory for: because we saw what good purchase the Hollanders got in those parts, and wee alwaies hoped to haue the like when our ships should come.

[Page]The twentieth daye of December came in all the Dutch fleete, and because wee heard of no letters for vs in the Pianys, I made hast and went aboord the Dutch Admirall to bid him welcome, also to inquire for letters; the which wee founde in the vice Admi­rall.

The two and twentieth day of December by meanes of some of our friends, Vn-ietee, that was the principall that vndermined our house, was discried and taken, ha­uing beene long in the mountaines, and for want of food was forced to repaire to certaine houses neere the Towne, from whence he was brought to the rich Chynas house: so soone as I heard of him, I sent Master Towerson to the Pro­tector to certifie him of it, and withall to tell him, wee would shortly execute him: for since the time that this mischief happened, I neuer went out of sight of our house my selfe, but once, vntill our shippes came in, the which was when the Protector crossed vs so much that thē I was constrayned, and my feare was so great that I thought all would bee burnt before I should come backe againe. Likewise three times euerie weeke I vsed to search all the Chyneses howses round about vs, for feare of more vn­dermining. The same day towards euening wee dis­cried our ships comming into the road, to all our extra­ordinarie great ioy: But when wee came aboord of our Admirall, and saw their weakenesse, also hearing of the weaknesse of the other three shippes, it grieued vs much, knowing that Bantan is not a place to recouer men that are sicke, but rather to kill men that come thither in health: at my first comming aboord, I found out Generall, Cap­taine Henry Middleton verie sickely and weake, to whom I made relation in briefe, what troubles wee had passed: also I certified him, that neuerthesse wee had lading readie for two shippes, which was some content vnto his minde, which was verie much grieued for the weakenesse of his [Page] men: they had hardly fiftie sound men in their foure ships; and of the sicke men a number died, also those that came thither in health, many neuer went out of the road▪

The foure and twentieth day, our Vice-Admirall Cap­taine Coulthirst came a shore with some other Merchants; on which day we executed this villaine which we had late­ly taken: but it was happy for him, we had other busines to goe about, otherwise he should haue died nothing so easie a death, as he did: After whose execution wee thought our selues reasonable well satisfyed for the trouble, and mi­serie they had put vs too: for now we had slaine the foure principall, and one more was kild for stealing of a woman, as I haue before written. At my comming away, there re­mained foure aliue, of the which two were at Iackatra, one with Mandelicko the traytor, and one with Caysanapatty Lama, the which we could not as them come by: but I doubt not but Maister Towerson will doe his best to get them hereafter: for hee and I both, if wee liue this hunde­red years, shall neuer forget the extreame horror & trouble they brought vs to. The same day our vice Admirall, being accompanied with vs that had beene resident there before, and also some other of the newe merchaunts, went to the Court to certifie the king that our Generall had letters from the King of England, with a present for him: and more, to tell him our Generall was wearie, hauing beene long vpon the seas, and so soone as hee was a little refreshed, hee would come himself to see him, and also to deliuer the let­ters and present.

The fiue & twentieth day being Christmas day we dined aboord with our Generall: but I should haue spoken before of a Counsell that was holden on sonday being the 23 day, wherein it was thought of all, that the Dragon and the As­cension were fittest to goe for the Mulluckoes, for diuers reasons which needed not heere bee rehearsed, and the Hector & Susan to lode pepper, and to be despeeded home, [Page] And the same weeke after wee were busied in getting of fresh victuals, hearbes, fruits, and flowers, for the recoue­rie of our men, which were most pittifully paide with the scuruie.

On sonday following being the thirtieth day of Decem­ber, our Generall inuited the Dutch Admirall to a feast, where all the Hollanders tooke the licker so well, that they were sicke on it most part of the weeke following, by their owne confession; and whereas they purposed to set saile on the monday for the Mulluckoes, what by meanes they were ill at ease, and also that the Dutch Admirall would bid our Generall againe, they staied vntill the monday after: so that by this meanes wee got a weekes time of them, which fell out greatly to our Generals aduantage at the Mulluckoes, as I haue heard by all that I haue talked within our ships. Monday being the 31. day, our Generall came a shore, and being accompanied with all the merchants that were in health, and diuers others, he went to the court and deliuered the Kings letters and present, the which were as followeth: one faire Bason and Ewer, two faire standing cups, all parsell gilt, one gilt spoone, and sixe muskets with their furniture: The which were kindly receiued: a day or two after our Generall spent in visiting our chiefest friends, as the Sabyndar, the Admirall, the rich Chynees, and also gaue them presents, who very thankfully receiued them.

Thursday being the third of Ianuarie, the Dutch Admi­rall inuited our Generall and all his merchants to dinner, where the Hollanders (as it is euer their order at a feast) tooke in their drinke soundly, or else it were no feast with them: and truely wee wanted none, but it is not our countrie fashion to poure it in, after that aboun­dant manner as they will. After this day wee fell all to worke, both a shore and aboorde to packe vp, and taking goods for the Mulluckoes: but after our men were [Page] a little recouered of the scuruie, the flixe tooke them so that we continued still verie weake in men, in so much that it was vnpossible in mans iudgement, that euer wee should bee able to accomplish our buisinesse in that man­ner, as God be thanked it is, who surely heard the prayers of some both in England, and also amongest vs, and loo­king downe in mercie vpon our weakenesse, did raise vs vp againe.

On monday being the seuenth of Ianuarie, the Dutch fleete being nine tal ships, besides pinnysses and s [...]oups, set sayle for Amboy [...]a and the Mulluckoes: so that we rested verie doubtfull a long time, whether our ships should get any lading in those parts that yeare, by reason of their num­ber of shipping which was gone before ours: neyther could our shippes possibly goe sooner by meanes of our weakenesse.

The tenth of Ianuarie the ships that were bound home, began to take in pepper, but they were so oppressed with sicknesse that they could make no dispatch.

Our 2 ships set sayle for Banda, & the Mulluckoes.The eighteenth day our shippes hauing, taken in all the goods which wee thought meete for these parts, set sayle for the Ilands of Banda, hauing their men for the most part extreame weake and sickly: but how they spent their time vntill their returne to Bantan. I must referre to their owne reports: presently after the departure of these shippes the Protectour sent vnto vs to agree about custome, the which wee had thought wee had knowne since our first ship­ping departed; but hee asked many duties which wee neuer heard of before: and because I would not graunt to pay them, hee commaunded the Porters they should carrie no pepper. Wherefore to preuent this shoulde not bee a hinderance to vs in lading our shippes (for wee had hinderance enough besides) I was forced to agree with him to paye in hande, according to that [...]ate as our shippes payde before, and to let the full [Page] agreement rest vntill the returne of our Generall, and hee thought hee did vs great kindnes herein. It pleased God to take away the twoe maisters of these twoe ships which wee were now a lading, Samuel Spencer, Maister of the Hector, and Abakkuk Pery, Maister of the Susan: Also william Smith the principall Maister M [...]te o [...] the Hector, & m [...]ny other of their principall men, with a nomber of their ordinary saylers: so that wee were not onely constrayned to hyre men to doe them all the ease we could there, but likewise to hyre so ma­ny as wee could gett of Goossaratt [...], and Chyneses to helpe bring home our ships; all which hath beene to our excee­ding great trouble, costs & charges.

The one and thirtieth of march, dyed Anthony Sim­kyns, the fourth of February dyed Maister Hogsam Mer­chant.

With much tormoyle wee got them both laden by the sixteenth of February,The depar [...]ture of the Hector and the Susan. but it was the fourth of March before they could make their shippes ready to set sayle: some twoe or three dayes before which time, dyed Captaine Roger Stiles, who was not likely to liue, when our Generall departed, wherefore doubting him, he gaue order, that Captaine William Keelin [...] (whome he left there) should succeede him in place, if God called him; which otherwise should haue remained there vntil his returne, if not after.

Likewise he appointed Maister Edward Hyghlord for commaunder of the Susan, Also he left Maister Surfly [...] the Docter of Physick and preacher, to goe home in the Hector, more he left twentie foure of all sorts, for the house, whereof many were sick and neuer recouered. The fourth of March, as before I haue said, the Hector, and Susan set sayle for England: the Hector hauing sixty three persons in her, of all sortes, English and others: but many of her owne men beeing sick, the Susan so nere [Page] as I could learne, had forty seauen of all sorts, also ma­ny Englishmen sick, I pray God send vs good newes of her.

William Crane beeing Maister of the Hector, and Rich­ard Hackins Maister of the Susan, by reason of contra­ry windes, they were forced to come to an Anker vnder an Iland vntill the sixt at night, when they set sayle a­gaine to the watring place; vnto the which the Hollanders very kindly lent them a Pylot, and also seauen or eight men more to helpe them to water. Presently after the departure of these shippes, the Hollanders bought vpp all the pepper they could: and I thinking our ships would want most parte of their lading which were gone to the east-wards▪ also bought so much old pepper as I could, and likewise put forth money to be payd in new pepper the haruest following: for pepper now is scarce in Bantam, by reason the Hollanders haue men in euery place, that yeelds pepper: so that the shipping of those partes, which was wont to bring it to Bantam, now doe not come: the tenth day I sent a Praw to the watring place, with some Ryce, which they wanted for their strangers.

The twentieth of March dyed Thomas Smith Anno. 1605 The fiue and twentith day dyed Thomas Keyling. Now we looked euerie houre for the Hectors boat which should bee left at Bantam, wherein were many of our owne men belonging to our house, and also of the Hollanders men, which were all gone to helpe our ships to water: wee looked for this boat within ten dayes after our shipps departed from Bantam, but wee heard no n [...]wes of thē in foure and twentye dayes after; wherefore we thought some mischance had befalne them: the Hollanders that were with them would needs haue them keepe vpon Sumatra side, in their returne from the ships, where ran such a currant against them, that they could get nothing a head: after they perceiued they could doe no good, [Page] they crossed all the straights of Sonda to the coste of Iaua, where going a shore to buy victualls, they were very kind­ly vsed of the people vpon that coste. The six and twen­tith of March, we sēt a Prawe to inquire alonge the coste for such a boat: who hearing in euery place where they came that they were gone past, they returned; and (GOD be thanked) our boat and men were come in a day before them.

The eight and twentith day dyed Raph Far [...]l, the Hollanders bound for Cambey. the sixt of Aprill dyed William Wingfield, the eighteenth day dyed Alexander Trauell, the nyne & twentith day dyed Georg Mountney, the thirtith day dyed VVilliam VVheelar Gold­smith: the sixt of May came in a ship from Holland, who had come all along by the coste of Goa, and meeting there with twoe ships more of Holland which were bound out for Cambaya, 4 Portingal ships taken. they three had taken foure Por­tingal [...] ships, wherein they found great riches: onely one of them was laden with great horses, which they set one fyre, and consumed both ship and horses: this shippe came out of Holland in Iune 1604, but they could certifie vs of no further newes then our ships had done.

Now I must speak som-what of the manner and order of the Kings circumcision, & of the triumphs that were held there euery day for the space of a month, & more before his going to church; whereby all the better sorte of the people of that country had beene buisied from the time of the comming in of the Chyna funks, which is in February,Triumphs at the circū ­cision of the yong Prince of Bantam. and March, vntill the foure & twentith of Iune, about making preparation for the same.

The first of Iune dyed one of our men Georg Hart: but now to my matter. There was a great pageant made, the foreparte of which was in likenesse of a huge diuell: vpon this pageant was sette three chayers of estate, the middlemost was for the King, which was placed [Page] higher then the other by some twoe foote: on either of his hands were placed the sonnes of Pangran Goban, who is heire apparant to the crowne, if the King should dye without Issue: this Pageant was placed one a greene, before the court gate, and rayled in round about.

The manner of their country is, that when any King comes newly to the crowne, or at the circumcision of their King, all that are of ability must giue the King a pre­sent: the which they must present in open manner, with the greatest show they are able to make: and those that are not able to doe it of them selues, doe ioyne a compa­ny of them togither, and so performe it, both strangers, and others.

About the fiue and twentith of Iune, those shows be­ganne, and continued all that month, and the next, ex­cept certaine rainy daies: the Protector beganne the first day, & euery noble man, & others had their dayes, not as they were in birth, but in readynesse, and sometimes twoe and three companies in a day: because the Iauans haue no good shotte, the Protector borrowed shotte both of vs and the Hollanders: but when they came to sette forth, there was a great stryfe betweene our men▪ & the Hollanders who should goe before: they would by no meanes goe behind our men, neither would our men goe behind them: they were proud because they were many more in number: and our men were proud be­cause they had much gayer apparrell: for they were all in their sylk suits, hauing scarfes and hat bands of their countryes colours which made a very faire show: and they had on their tardd cotes, greasey thrumbd cappes, & those that had shirts on, they hung out betweene their legges: whereby it appeares, that pryde consisteth not in apparrell altogether, but in minde.

The Hollanders would go formost, but our mē wold not [Page] goe after them, but went in the reareward after the Iauans: but when I heard of it, I wished they had had wit to come home. Euery morning the Kings Guard, which was both of Shot and Pikes, was placed without the rayles round about the pageant, being commonly in number about 300. men, but some principall dayes of showes there was vpwards of 600. the which were placed in Files, accor­ding to our Marshall dissipline: but in marching wee doe much differ. For whereas wee commonly march three, fiue, seuen or nine: they neuer goe but one, and so follow one another so close as they can, bearing their Pikes vp­right. As for shot, they haue not beene vsed vnto; their drummes are huge pannes, made of a mettell called Tom­bago, which make a most hellish sound. They haue also their Colours and Companies sutable, but their Standard and Ensignes are not like ours: their Ensigne staffe is very high, bending compasse at the top, like the end of a long bow, but the colours on it are hardly a yeard in breadth, hanging downe from the top, with a long pendant.

The first day▪ being the greatest day of show, there was certaine Forts made of Canes and other trash, set vp be­fore the Kings Pageant, wherein was certaine companies of Iauans, placed to defend them, and other companies were appointed to assault them: and many times the as­saultants would fire them.

Now a word or two, in what manner the King was brought out euery day, and what showes were presented before him. Alwayes a little afore the showes came, the King was brought out vpon a mans shoulders, bestriding his necke, and the man holding his legs before him, and had many rich treasures caried ouer and round about him. But I should haue spake before of his prin [...]ipall Guard, that came out before him, and was placed in the Rayles round about the Pageant. After the King came out, a number of the principall of the land which gaue their at­tendance vpon the King: and as it should seeme, they had [Page] their dayes and times appointed them. The showes that were brought, came in this maner First a crue of shot be­ing ledde by some Gentleman slaue, after followed the Pikes, in the middle of which was carried their colours, and also the musicke, which was ten or twelue pannes of Tombaga carried vpon a coulstaffe betweene two, these were tunable, and euery one a note aboue another: al­wayes two went by them, which were skilfull in their countrey musicke, and plaied on them, hauing things in their hands of purpose to strike them. Also they had other kind of musick, which went both afore and after, but these pannes are the principall. After the Pikes followed a crue of Targetters with Darts, then was brought in many sorts of trees with their fruit growing vpon them: then followed many sorts of be [...]sts and foules both aliue, and also so arti­ficially made, that except one had beene neere, they were not to be discerned from those that were aliue. After this followed a crue attired like Maskers, which before the King did daunce, vault, and show many strange kind of tumbling trickes: of these there was both men and women. After all these followed sometimes two hundreth, some­times three hundreth women, all carrying Presents, onely at euery tenth woman there went one old motherly wo­man souldier to keepe them in order which carried no­thing. These presents were of Rice and Cashes, the which was laid in frames made of split canes, curiously set out for show, with painted and gilded papers, but the Present it selfe was not commonly worth aboue twelue pence, or thereabouts. After them followed their rich Presents, which was commonly a faire tucke, and some faire cloth of their owne countrey fashion, being curiously wrought and g [...]lded or embrodered with gold for the Kings owne wearing, the which was carried also by women, hauing two Pikes borne vpright before them. Also euery Present which was for the Kings wearing, had a rich tier also borne ouer it: Last of all followed the heire to that party [Page] which sent the presents, which is their youngest sonne, if they haue any, being very richly attired after the countrey manner: with many iewels about their armes and mid­dles, of Gold, Diamonds, Rubis, and other stones; ha­uing also rich treasures borne ouer them. A number of men and women attending on them. After he hath done his obaysance to the King, he sits downe vpon a mat being layd vpon the ground; which is their order in generall▪ the presents are all borne by the Kings Pageant into the Court, where there are some officers appointed to receiue them. After all which past, one within the Kings Page­ant speakes out of the Diuels mouth, and commaunds si­lence in the Kings name. Then begins the chiefest of the Reuels and Musicke, and now and then the shot dischar­geth a volley. Also the Pikemen & Targetters with darts, doe show all there feats of armes: the shot is very vn­skilfull, but the Pikes and Targets are very expert, and alwayes when they come to charge their enemie, they come towards him dauncing, because his aduersarie should haue no steddy aime to throw his dart, or make a thrust at him. Likewise, amongst some of these showes, there came in Iunkes sayling artificially made, being loa­den with Cashes and Rice. Also in these were signifi­cations of Historicall matters of former times, both of the old Testament, and of Cronicle matters of the countrey and Kings of Iaua. All these inuentions the Iauans haue bene taught in former times by the Chyneses, or at lest the most part of them: for they themselues are but blocke­heads, and some they haue learned by Gossarats, Turkes, and other nations which come thither to trade.

Amongsts all others, we were to make a show the best we could: the which must bee vnderstood, could not bee great, by reason of our smale number, yet it was pretty, and such as they had not seene the like before: the manner whereof I will declare. We bought a very faire Poungar­net tree, being full of fruite growing on it, both ripe and [Page] halfe ripe, some yong, and some budded: this tree wee digged vp by the roots, which wee set in a frame beeing made of R [...]tanes or Carricke rishes, somewhat like a birds Cage but very wyde: at the roote of this tree we placed earth, and vpon that greene turfes, so that it stood as i [...] it had beene still growing: vppon these turfes wee put three Siluer-heard C [...]nnyes, which our vize-Admyrall had giuen me: And at the top, and round about vpon the bowes, we with [...]hride made fast a number of smale birds, which would euer bee ch [...]rping, see that the tree was as it had beene growing; (prettie strange beasts▪) the like whereof they had neuer seene (feeding about it▪) full of faire fruite, and birdes [...]erily singing on the top; likewise wee had foure very furiou [...] Serpents which the Chin [...]ses there can make art [...]cially, vpon these wee hung the Cloth, which was for the kings one wearing, which were pieces curious­ly wrought and g [...]lded after their fashion▪ some other pie­ces of Stuffe their were also, which was for the King to bestowe vppon some meaner of his followers. More we gaue him, one faire Petronell damasked, a Case of Pistols damasked, with very faire Cases seuerally belonging to them, the which had great silke strings with tassels of Gould. Now wee had no women to carry these things, wherefore we borrowed thirtie of the prettiest boyes wee could get, and also twoo proper tall Iauans to beare Pikes before them. Maister Towerson had a very pretty boye, a Chines sonne, whose Father was a little before slaine by theiues, this youth we attyrd as gallant as the King: whom wee sent to present these thinges and to make a speach to him, signifying that if our number had beene equall to our good wils, we would haue presented his Maiesty with a farre better show, than wee did; with many other com­pliments.

Vpon the 14. of Iuly we sent these things to the Court in this manner, formost went a Trumpeter, then ten Musketeeres, all very well furnished with their countryes [Page] colors: after which went foure Porters, bearing the Tree, then followed the two Pikemen: after whom went the boyes that bare the Petronell and Pis [...]ols, next the boyes that bare the Serpents with the Kings cloth, ouer which were rich treasures borne according to the order. Last followed the youth which should present them, who had also a rich Canopy borne ouer him. Likewise seuen boyes of his bignesse in sutable liueries attending on him, be­sides diuers others of his schole-fellowes which followed him for good will.

The King and diuers others about him, tooke great de­light in the Connies. Also our men caried some fier­workes with them, which were very delightfull to the young King and his playfellowes, but the women cried out for feare they would set the Court on her, and some of the chiefe commaunded to fier no more: but Augustine Spalden our interpreter, being a bould youth, said, that if the King bad him, hee would fier more whatsoeuer they sayd: Then the King brought them into a bricke Castle, which was uery darke, where they fired all they had, and made the King and all his traine, very good sport.

Now a word or two of the King of Iackatra, who the 18▪ of Iuly, came to present his show before the King of Bantan, also to giue his present, and to doe his homage, the which was performed the 23. day.

In this manner, in the mornin [...] earely, the King of Ban­tans Guard (which was on this day an extraordianry num­ber) were placed in files, their Pikes set vpright in the ground, and their shot lying in order, euery man sitting by his armes, being clothed in red coats.

About eight a clocke, my selfe with some other of our Marchants, and men, went to see this show, and taking vp our standing neere the Kings Pageant, the Kings Guard would often bid vs sit downe: but we would answere them they must first bring vs a forme, for indeed there is no Na­tion suffered to stand in the Kings, or any great mans pre­sence [Page] if they be neere them, but vs and the Hollanders, we were commaunded by the Officers to sit downe as well as the rest: but we were to stout, knowing they had no such Commission to stoope vnder thire yoke: but for other Na­tions they would bring them, if they refused, although the ground and place where they should sit, were neuer so dur­tie. But the Iauans who cannot indure to haue any stand ouer them, would remooue a good distance from vs, and many of the Kings Guard forsooke their weapons, and would goe sit a farre off: neither can they indure that one should lay his hand on their head, the which is not for any point of Religion, as some will affirme, but onely of meere pride. Many times when I haue come into a Chynesses house, where Iauans haue sat in the floore. I sitting downe on a chest as our order was, they haue all start vp and ran out at doores, the Chyneses would tell vs if any o­othr Nation should doe so, but vs or the Hollanders, they would stab them, but they durst not meddle with vs: but now to my former matter.

About nine a clocke, the King was brought out in the same maner, as I before haue mentioned some two houres after the King of Iackatra came, hauing a guard of some one hundreth persons about him, so soone as euer he came in sight, the Kings Guard all rose vp, and euery man pro­ued his weapon: the which wee had neuer seene before, when any show came in: So that it should seeme, that there was great feare, not that the King of Iackatra would offer any violence. But there was a number of other pety Kings, who had great troupes of men, the which Kings were his mortall enemies. Wherefore fearing they might rise a­gainst him, we plainely perceiued the King of Bantams Guard had their charge to be ready to defend the King of of Iackatra if such a matter should happen. When he came neere the innermost file of the Kings Guard, he could not passe to the King, but he must needs go thorow a ranke of these petty kings, whom he knew, did most deadly hate [Page] him: wherefore fearing the cowardly stab which is vsed amongst that Nation, he began to looke very gastly and wildly on it, although hee is as stout a man as any is in all those parts: passe them he would not, but sat downe vp­on a lether that was laid on the ground, the which eue­ry Gentleman hath carried after him for the purpose. So soone as hee was set, hee sent to the King to know if it were his pleasure he should come vnto him. Whereupon the King sent two of the principall noble men about him, to conduct him to his presence, who after the King of Iac­katra had done his obeysance, the young King embraced him, and welcomed him according to the Countrey or­der.

After this was past, the King of Iackatra sat downe in a place appointed for him: all this while there was some o­ther pretty showes presented.

About twelue a clocke came his show in presence, the souldiers about 300. in number, then followed so many women with Cashes and strange foules, both aliue and ar­tificiall. Likewise there was brought in many strange beasts, both aliue, and also artificiall; amongst which was one furious beast called by them a Matchan. This beast is somewhat bigger then a Lion, and very princely to be­hold, if hee bee at liberty, hee is spotted white and red, hauing many blacke strokes, which came downe from the raines of his backe vnder his belly, I haue seene one of them iumpe at the least eighteene foot by many mens esti­mation for his prey: they do kill many people neere the towne of Bantan.

And many times, the King and all the Countrey goeth a hunting of them, not onely in the daytime, but in the night; This Matchan, which I now speake of, was in a great cage of wood, which was placed vpon truckes of old carriages, and being drawne in with Buffels, he lay for all the world like a traytor on a hurdell. There was drawne in, in like manner a huge Gyant, which by our estimation [Page] might be some three hundreth foot in height, also a diuell came in, in like order. More there was drawne in, a Gar­den, hauing many sorts of hearbs and floures in it, in the middle of which garden was a fish pond▪ wherein was di­uers sorts of small fishes, and all sorts of fishes which they do know in those parts, were brought in either aliue, or ar­tificially made. Amongst these things came in many Mas­kers, Vauters, Tumblers, the which was very strangly & sa­uage-like attired, which did daunce & show many strange feats before the King. There was drawne in likewise, a ve­ry faire bed-stead, whereon was a faire quilted bedde also, twelue boulsters and pillowes of silke, embrodered with gold at the end: the postes of the bed-stead was very curi­ously carued and gilded with a faire Canopie wraught with gold.

A number of other pritty toyes was brought in and presented, of the which I neither did, nor could take view of, but onely of the principall.

Last of all came in his youngest sonne, riding in a cha­riot, that it was drawne with Buffeles, which me thought was very vnseemly. In deed they haue but few horses, the which are smal nags, I neuer saw any of them put to draw, but only to ride on, and to run a litle after the Barbarey fa­shion (as I haue heard some Barbarey Merchants say,) the which exercise they vse euery Saturday towards euening except in the time of Lent, which is a little before ours.

The second day after this show was presented, being Fryday, and the Sabboth: the King was carried in his Pageant to Church, where he was circumsised. His Pa­geant was borne by many men: it was reported to me by the Kings nurse, 400. but I thinke she lyed: for me thought there could not stand so many vnder it.

The 24. of Iuly, our Generall came into the Road from Tarnata, so soone as we descerned the ship, and saw it was the Dragon, I tooke a Praw, and went aboard to bid him welcome, who declared to me the daungers they [Page] had passed, and somewhat of the vnkindnesse of the Hol­landers, although he had saued some of their liues, and that (though with great paines and trauell) hee had gotten a good quantity of Cloues towards his lading: wherefore after thankes to God, for his safe returne, with the newes of the Moluccas, which I will leaue to the reports of those that were there, certifying ou [...] Generall that I doub­ted not to prouide him of the rest of his lading.

The 24. day came in the great Enchusen of Holland from Tarnata, and the King of Iacatra came to see our Generall.

The 11. of August came in two ships from Cambaia, who had taken great wealth from the Portingales. The same day came in one ship from Tarnata.

The 16. day came in the Ascension from Banda,

The 8. of September, the Dutch Merchants inuited out Generall and all his Merchāts & Masters to a feast, where there was great cheere, and also great friendshippe was made betweene vs.

The 15. day of September, two Dutch ships set saile for Holland, the one beeing a small ship, which had laden Pepper at Bantan, the other had taken in some Cloues at Tarnata, the rest of her lading was of prize goods, which was taken out of the ships which came from Cambaia.

The 21. day came in the Duch Admirall from Banda.

The 22. day our Generall sent some of his Merchants to the Dutch house to bid him welcome.

I must not leaue out one matter which happened since the comming in of the Assention from Banda, the which was this; There was certaine Iauans which belonged vnto, two of the principall men of that land next vnto the King who had stolne nine Muskets and Caleeuers out of the Assentions Goner roome, shortly after two of them com­ming to steale more were taken by our people with the manner, our Generall sent me abord to examine them and to bring them ashore: They first told me they belonged to [Page] great men, which were our very good friends, but I mis­trusting they did discemble with me, bad thē confesse the truth, & they should find some fauour, then they confes­sed truely whose slaues they were, and sayd the peeces were forth comming.

After they came ashore, our Generall sent the King and the Protector word of it, and desired hee might haue his peeces againe: the Protector sent to the Maisters of these two slaues for them, but they louing the Peeces better thē their men, sayd they had no Peeces but what they had bought with their mony, yet they sent to our Generall to desire him to deferre their execution for a day or two, the which was granted, but because the Maisters were no great good willers to the King, the Protector in the Kings name sent the executioner to put them to death, with a Guard of Pykes: when they came to the place of executi­on, our Generall taking pittie of them, would haue giuen them their liues, but the hangman sayd their liues were in the Kings hands, and not in our Generals, wherefore be­cause the King had sent him he would execute them, and therewithall was going to doe his office. I seeing him so forward, stept to him and wunge his Cryse out of his hand, in the meane time Maister Towerson asked the ritch Chynes which was there with diuers other, if our Generall might not pardon them if hee pleased. The rich Chy­nes with a very frowning countenāce answered, with these words: Bree anie ane orybb mackan taye, appacar [...]iza bree edup: The english of which words for manners sake I will omit, presently after, this same fatall officer dispatched what he came for, which the twoo theeues very pasiently suffered as the mannor of all that Nation is, when they are bound to it, they do hold it the greatest glory that can be, to die resolutelie without any showe of feare, and surely so they do, in as carelesse manner as it is possible for flesh and bloud. The experience of which I haue seene by di­uers both Men and Women, one would thinke these men [Page] shold be good▪ souldiers, but it is not so, their vallor is but when there is no remedy. Against the people of those parts of the world they are resonable tall men, but they dare not meddle with Christians, except they haue some excee­ding great aduantage of nomber or other meanes.

The 26. day of September by meanes of a Iauans shu­ting of a Peece the Towne was set on fire, but by reason we had good helpe of our Marryuars, who were many of them ashore at that time our house was preserued, but the Dutch house being to leewards, although they had neuer so much helpe could not bee saued: The vpar worke of one of the principall houses which did ioyne to their great house was burnt, and the out houses, wherein lay Cables, Hallsers pickelled porke, and diuers other things, where­by they sustayned great losse; some that had serued fiue yeeres lost all that they had gotten in those parts, it should seeme they were abord their ships, when the fire hape­ned whereby they could not preserue their one: Not long after this, but the towne on our side the way was twice fie­red by Iauans in the night, which put vs to great trouble in carrying & recarr [...]ng our things, but by laboure of our Marriners and the Chyneses it was quenched.

The third day of October our Generall made a feast for his farewell, wherunto hee inuited the Dutch-Admi­rall, with also all the rest of hi [...] Captaines, Maisters, and Marchants, where we were all exceeding merry, and great f [...]endshippe was made betweene vs, and I pray God they may still continue it which are there resident, for they shalbe sure to find daungers and troulbe inough besides, although nothing so much as we haue done before. And if we do continue trade in those parts their must be a house built fire-free whatsoeuer it cost: And if we giue ouer our trade there, it will purchase more infamy to our Nation in all those parts and in Chyna, then euer we haue hether­to gained credit, for it will be thought of them all that ei­ther pouerty is the cause, or that we dare not come there [Page] for feare of the Hollanders. I could aleage some other rea­sons, but those that are best able to doe it, will not bee taught by me. The Hollanders haue an hope howsoeuer they came by it, that we meane to giue ouer our trading, of the which they are not a little proud, thīking to be lords of all those parts whē we are gone. There happened quarrels between them & vs, whilest our Ships ridde in the rhoad, which grue by the pride and disorder of the baser sort of thē, who whé their drinke was in, did not spare to come to our house in great troups, vsing some peremtory speaches to our men, & likewise hurt some with their kniues, wher­by we were forced twice or thrice to go by the eares with thē, in which frayes the Hollanders were beaten & persued to their one gates, many were wounded some of thē leuing their armies, hauing cause to remember it, so long as they shall liue. The 4. day of October our Generall being ac­companyed with diuers Marchants & others, went to the Court to take his leaue of the King and his nobles.

The 6. day of October being sunday about 10 a clocke our Generall withall that was bound home went aboard, who going by the Dutch-house went in, & tooke his leaue of the Dutch-Admirall, and the rest of his Marchants. Also there went aboard with him Maister Gabriell Tower­son, who was to stay for Agent there, and some other Marchants, who after dinner some went a shore, & some staied vntill the next day. About 3. a clocke we wayed an­ker & with some ordinance bidde the towne & the Dutch ships farewell. About 11. or 12. a clock at night we came to an anker vnder an Iland, where the next day we took in wood, which our generall had sent men before hand to cut ready. The 7. day towards euening we waied anker again, & set sail: Mr. Towersō & some other of the Marchāts thē took their leaue to go ashore, whō we cōmitted to the pro­tectiō of the almighty, and ourselues to the curtisy of the Sea, desiring God to blesse both thē & vs & if it be his will to send vs a happy meeting in England.

THE DESCRIPTION of Iaua Maior, with the man­ners and fashions of the people, both Iauans and Chineses, which doe there in­habite.

IAua Maior is an Island which lyeth in 140 degrees of longitude from the middle part of it, and in 9 degrees of latitude, being also about 146 leagues long East and West, and some 90 broade, South and North; the middle part of which Land is for the most part all Mountaines, the which are not so steepe, but that people doe trauaile to the toppe of them, both on horse­backe and on foot: some Inhabitants dwell vppon those Hils which stand next to the Sea, but in the verie middle of the Land ( [...]o farre as euer I could learne) there is no In­habitants, but there are wild beasts of diuers sorts, wher­of some doe repaire neere the Valleys adioyning to the Sea, and deuoure many people. Towards the Sea for the most part, is lowe moorish ground, wherein stand their principall Townes of Trade, the chiefest whereof lye on [Page] the North and North-east side of the Island, as Chiri [...]gin, Bantan, Iackatra, and Iortan or Greesey. The which lowe ground is verie vnholesome, and breedeth many diseases, especially vnto strangers which come thether, and yeeld no marchandise worthy trading for, or speaking of, but Pepper; the which hath been brought in times past from all places of the Land to Bantan, as the chiefe Mart towne of that Countrey.

The which [...]owne for Trade, doth farre exceede Achin, or any towne or Citie thereabouts: and Pepper was wont to be brought thether, from diuers other Countreys, which of late yeeres is not, by reason that the Dutch-men trade to euery place to buy it vp. This Towne of Bantan is a­bout 3 miles in length, also very populous: there are three great markets kept in it euery day, one in the fore-noone, and two in the after-noone, that especially which is kept in the fore-noone, doth so abound with people, that they thronge together, as in many Faires in England. Yet I ne­uer saw any kinde of Cattell to sell, by reason that there are ve [...]ie few tame in the Countrey. Their foode is altoge­ther Rise, with some Hens, and some fish, but in no great aboundance.

The Iauans houses are altogether built of great Canes, and some few small Timbers, being sleight buildings; In many of the principall mens houses is good workeman­ship shewed, as Caruings, &c. and some of the chiefest haue a square brick rowme, being built in no better forme than a Bricke-kill, which is onely to put in all their hous­hold stuffe when fier commeth, but they seldome or neuer lodge, nor eat in them. There are many small Riuers run­ning thorough the Towne. Also there is a good Rhode for Ships: whereby if they were people of any reasona­ble capacitie, it would be made a verie goodly Citie; also it is walled round with a bricke wall, being verie warlike built, with Flankers and Turrets scowring euerie way. I haue been told by some, that it was first built by the Chi­neses, [Page] and by others, that it was first built by the Portin­gales; wherefore I cannot say certainely by which of them it was first built, but it is most likelye by the Chi­neses, by reason of the oldnesse of it, for in many places it is fallen to decay for want of repayring. At the verie west end of this Towne, is the China towne, (a narrow Riuer parting them) which runneth crosse the end of the China towne vp to the Kings Court, and so thorough the middle of the great towne, and doth ebbe and flowe, so that at a high water, both Galleys, and Iunckes of great burthen may goe vp to the middle of the great towne. This China towne is for the most part built of bricke, euerie house square and flat ouer-head, hauing bordes and smale tim­bers, or split Canes layd ouer crosse▪ on which is layd bricks and sand, to defend them from fire: Ouer these bricke Ware-houses is set a shed, being built vp with great Canes and thatched, and some are built vp with small timbers but the greatest number with Canes onely.

Of late yeares since wee came thether, many men of wealth haue built their houses to the top all fire-free, of the which sort of houses, at our first comming there was no more but the Sabindars house, and the rich China Mar­chants house, which neuerthelesse by meanes of their win­dowes and sheds round about them, haue been consumed with fire.

In this towne stand the English & Dutch houses, which are built in the same manner, onely they are verie much bigger and higher than the ordinarie houses, and the Dutch-men of late (though with great cost and trouble) haue built one of their houses (vp to the top all of bricke) fire-free, as they suppose.

The King of this place is absolute, and since the depo­sing and death of the late Emperour of Damacke, is held the principall King of that Island. He vseth alway marshall law vppon any offender whome hee is disposed to punish. More, if any priuate mans wife, or wiues bee taken with [Page] dishonestie, so that they haue good proofe of it, they haue power in their owne hands, to cause them presently to be put to death, both man and woman. And for their slaues, they may execute them for any small fault. If the King send for any subiect or stanger, dwelling or being in his Domi­nions, if he send a man, the partie may refuse to come, but if once he send a woman, hee may not refuse, nor make no excuse. Moreouer, if any inferiour bodie haue a suit to a man of authoritie, if they come not themselues, they al­wayes send a woman, neither doe they euer come or send, but they present the party they sue too with some present be their suite neuer so small. To euerie wife that a Iauan being a free man marrieth, he must keep 10 women slaues, which they as ordinarie vse as their wiues, and some of them keepe for euery wife 40 slaues, for so they keepe 10, they may haue as many more as they will, but they may haue but 3 wiues onely. The Iauans are generally excee­ding proud, although extreame poore, by reason that not one amongst a hundreth of them will worke; the Gentle­men of this Land are brought to be poore by the number of slaues that they keepe, which eat faster than their Pep­per or Rise groweth. The Chineses do both plant, dresse, and gather the Pepper, and also sowe their Rise, liuing as slaues vnder them, but they sucke away all the wealth of the Land, by reason that the Iauans are so idle: and a Ia­uan is so proude, that he will not endure one to sit an inch higher in height aboue him, if hee bee but of the like cal­ling, they are a people that do very much thirst after blood. If any Iauan haue committed a fact worthy of death, and that he be pursued by any, whereby he thinketh hee shall die, he will presently draw his weapon, and cry Amucke, which is as much to say, I am resolued: not sparing to mur­ther either man, woman, or childe which they can possi­bly come at, & he that killeth most, dieth with greatest ho­nor & credit. They will seldom fight face to face one with another, or with any other Nation, but do altogether seek [Page] reuenge of their enemie cowardly; albeit they are (for the most part) men of a goodlie stature. Their law for Mur­ther is, to pay a Fine to the King; and that but a small summe: but euermore the friends of the partie murthered, will be reuenged on the Murtherer, or his kindred: so that the more they kill one an other, the more Fines or profite hath their King.

Their ordinarie Weapon which they weare, is called a Crise; it is about two foote in length, the Blade beeing wa­ued and crooked too and fro indenture like, and withall, exceeding sharpe; most of them hauing the temper of their mettall poysoned, so that not one amongst fiue hun­dred that is wounded with them in the bodie, escapeth with his life. The Handles of these Weapons are either of Horne or Wood, curiously carued in the likenesse of a Diuell; the which many of them do worship.

In their Warres their fight is altogether with Pikes, Dartes, and Targets: of late, some few of them haue lear­ned to vse their Peeces, but verie vntowardly.

The Gentilitie (both men and women) neuer goe a­broad, but they haue a Pike borne before them. The ap­parrell of the better sort, is a Tucke on their Heads; and a­bout their Loynes a faire Pintado: all the rest of their bo­dies naked: Sometimes they will weare a loose Coate, somewhat like a Mandillion, of Veluet, Chamlet, Cloth, or some other kind of Silke; but it is but seldome, and vp­pon some extraordinarie ocasion. The common sort weare on their heads a flat Cap of Veluet, Taffata, or Cal­lico Cloth, the which is cut in many peeces, and seamed with a faire stitch, to make them sit flatte and compasse. About their Loynes they weare a kinde of Callico cloth, which is made at Clyn, in manner of a Silke Girdle, but at the least two yards broad, beeing of two cullours.

Also, there commeth from thence, many sorts of White cullours, which they them selues doe both die, paint, and [Page] guild, according to the fashions of that Countrey.

Likewise they can weaue a kind of Striped stuffe, both of Cotten and Rinds of Trees: but by meanes of their lay [...]sinesse, there is very little of that worne.

The men (for the most part) haue verie thicke curled haire on their heads, in which they take great pride, and often will goe bare headed to shew it.

The Women goe all bare headed, some of them hauing their haire tucked vp like a Cart-horse tayle: but the bet­ter sort doe tucke it vp like our riding Geldings tayles. About their Loynes they weare of the same Stuffes which I haue before mentioned, alwayes hauing a faire Girdle or Pintado of their Countrey fashion, throwne ouer one of their Shoulders, which hangeth downe loose behinde them.

The principallest of them, are most Religious; but they very seldome goe to Church. They doe acknowledge Christ to be a great Prophet, whom they call Naby Isat; and some of them do keepe of Mahomets Priestes in their houses: But the common people haue very little know­ledge in any Religion, onely they say there is a GOD which made Heauen and Earth, and them also: Hee is good (they say) and will not hurt them: but the Diuell is naught, and will doe them hurt; wherefore many of them (for want of knowledge) doe pray to him onely, for feare least he should hurt them. And surely if there were men of Learning (which were perfect in their Language) to in­struct them, a number of them would be drawen to the true Fayth of Christ, and also would be brought to ciuilitie: for many which I haue reasoned with concerning the lawes of Christians, haue liked all well, excepting onely their plu­ralitie o [...] Women, for they are all very lasciuiously giuen both men and women.

The better sort which are in authoritie, are great takers of Bribes: and all the Iauans in generall, are badd pay mai­sters, [Page] when they are trusted; notwithstanding their Lawes for Debts are so strict, that the Creditour may take his Debtour, his Wiues, Children, and Slaues, and all that hee hath, and sell them for his Debt.

Likewise, they are all much giuen to stealing from the highest to the lowest: and surely in times past, they haue been no better then Man-eaters, before trafficke was had with them by the Chyneses: which (as I haue heard some of them say) is not aboue one hundred yeares since.

They delight much in Ease and Musicke: and for the most part, they spend the day sitting crosse legged like a Taylor whitling of Stickes, whereby many of them be­come very good Caruers to carue their Cryse handles; and that is all the worke of most of them indeuour to doe. They are very great eaters: but the Gentlemen allow their Slaues, nothing but Rice sodden in Water with some Rootes and Hearbes. And they haue a certaine Hearbe called Bettaile, which they vsually haue carryed with them wheresoeuer they goe, in Boxes, or wrapped vp in Cloath like a Sugerloafe: and also a Nutt called P [...]ange, which are both, in operation very hott, and they eate them continu­ally to warme them within, and keepe them from the Fluxe. They doe likewise take much Tabacco, and also Opium.

The Iauans them selues, are very dull and blockish to mannage any affaires of a Common wealth, whereby all Strangers, goe beyond them, that come into their Land: and many of the Countrey of Clyn, which come thither to dwell, doe grow very rich, and rise to great Offices and dignitie amongst thē, as their Sabenda [...], their Caytomongon, and others: but especially the Chyneses, who like Iewes, liue crooching vnder them, but robb them of their wealth, and send it for Chyna,

The Chyneses are very craftie people in trading, vsing all kind of cosoning & de [...]eit which may possible be deuised.

[Page]They haue no pride in them, nor will refuse any labour: except they turne Iauans (as many of them doe when they haue done a murther or some other villanie) then they are euery whit as proud and as loftie as the Iauans.

For their Religion, they are of diuers sectes: but the most of them are Atheists. And many of them hold opi­nion, that when they die, if they be good men, they shal be borne againe to great Riches, and be made Gouernours: and if they be wicked men, then they should be turned into some vglie Beast, as a Frogge or a Toad.

They burne Sacrifice euery new Moone, mumbling prayers ouer them with a kinde of singing voyce: and as they sing, they ring a litle Bell, which at the end of euery prayer they [...]ing out as fast as euer they can. This Cere­monie they also vse when any amongst them of acount, lyeth a dying.

The maner of their Sacrifice is this: They furnish their Altars with Goates, Hennes, Duckes, and diuers sortes of Fruites, the which are sometimes dressed to eate, and some­times raw, and then are dressed afterwardes and eaten: all that they burne, is onely Papers painted, and cut out in curious workes, and valued by them at a certaine price.

I haue many times asked them, to whom they burne their Sacrifice? and they haue answered mee, to GOD: But the Goserats and Turkes, which are there, say, they burne it to the Diuell. If they doe so, they are ashamed to confesse it.

They are many of them well seene in Astronomie, and keepe a good account of their Months and Yeares.

They obserue no Sabboth, nor one day better then other, except they lay the Foundation of a House, or begin some other great worke, which day they euer after obserue as a Holiday.

When any of them that are wealthie die in Bantan, their bodyes are burnt to ashes: which ashes they put vp close in [...]arres, and carrie it to China, to their friends.

[Page]I haue seene when some of them haue lien a dying, they haue set vp 7. Odowres burning, 4. of them being great, and burning light: and they were set vpon a Cane, which lay crosse vpon two Crotches about sixe foote from the ground, and three set on the ground right vnder them, bee­ing verie small, and burning dimme. I haue demaunded the meaning of it many times, but I could neuer haue o­ther answere, but that it was the fashion of China: and sure­lie many such like thinges they doe, not knowing why or wherefore, but onely that it hath been a fashion amongst them.

They delight verie much in Playes and Singing: but they haue the worst voyces, that one shall heare any peo­ple haue: The which Playes or Interludes, they holde as Seruice to their GOD: In the beginning of which, they often vse to burne a Sacrifice, the Priestes many times kneeling downe, and kissing the ground three times one presently after an other. These Playes are made com­monly when they thinke their Iunckes or Shipping are set foorth from China; likwise when they are ariued at Bantan, and also when they set out from Bantan towardes China: sometimes they begin at noone, and ende not till the next day morning, beeing most commonly in the open streete, hauing Staiges set vp for the purpose.

Moreouer, they haue amongst them some Southsayers, which sometimes rage and run vp and downe the streetes like madd men, hauing Swordes drawne in their handes, tearing their haire, and throwing them selues against the ground: when they are in this franticke taking, they af­firme (and other Chineses beleeue) that they can tell what shall come to passe aforehand; Whether they bee possest with the Diuell or no, which reuealeth something to them I know not, but manie Chineses vse them when they sende a Iuncke of any voyage, to know whether they shall speede well or no: and by their report, it hath fallen out according [Page] as those Souhsayers haue tolde them.

The Iauans vse Playes too, but they haue no more but some Historie painted on a Carde or Mappe, the which one maketh relation of with such [...]esture as befitteth the matter. Likewise there be Puppet playes made by cer­taine people of Clyn, which dwell there: the which Pup­pets are apparrelled like vnto the Christian manner, and they haue Lions and diuers kinde of Beastes artificially made, with which they performe their sport verie pretilie: but these hold the Playes no poynt of Religion, or seruice to their God [...], as the people of China doe.

The Chineses are apparrelled in long Gownes, wearing Kirtles vnder them hanging something lower then their Gownes: They are surely the most effeminate and cow­ardliest people that liue. On their heades they weare a Caull, some of them beeing made of Silke, and some of Haire: The Haire of their Heades is verie long, which they bind vp on a knot right on the crowne of their heads. The Nobilitie and Gouernours weare Hoodes of sundry fashion, some beeing one halfe like a Hatte, and the other like a French Hood: others beeing of Net-warke, with a high Crowne and no Brimmes.

Those people are tall and strong of bodie, hauing all, verie small blacke Eyes: and verie few of them haue any Haire on their Faces. They will steale, and doe any kind of villanie, to get wealth.

Their manner at Bantan, is to buy Women slaues (for they bring no Women out of China) by whom they haue manie Children: and when they returne to their owne Countrey, not minding to come to Bantan againe, they sell their Women, but their Children they carrie with them: as for their Goodes, they take an order to send some at euerie Shipping: for if they die in Bantan, all the Goods [Page] they haue there, is the Kinges. And if once they cut their Haire, they may neuer returne to their Countrie againe: but their Children may, alwayes prouided, that they neuer cut their haire.


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