THE EXCELLENT, ANDE ILLVSTIR Marie queen of scotlande, the mar­gareit ande perle o [...] princessis.

THe immortal gloir, that procedis be the rycht lyne of ver­tu, fra ȝour magnanime auā ­sing of the public veil, of the affligit realme of scotlande, is abundantly dilatit athort al cuntreis, throucht the quhilk, the precius germe of ȝour nobilite, bringis nocht fur [...]ht alanerly, branchis ande tendir leyuis of ver­tu: bot as veil it bringis furtht, salutiffere & hoilsum frute of honour quhilk is ane immortal ande supernatural medicyne, to cure & to gar conuallesse, al the langorius desolat & affligit pepil, quhilk is ar al mast disparit of mennis supple, ande reddy to be venquest & to be cum randrit, in the subiection ande captiuite, of our mortal ald enemeis, b [...] [...]ason that ther cruel inuasions, aperis to be onre­medabil. The special cause of our afflictio­ne, [Page] hes procedit, of thre vehen [...] [...] hes al maist succumbit oure [...] euertione that is to saye, the cruele inu [...] sions of oure ald enemeis, the vniuersal pestlens ande mortalite, that hes occurrit mercyles amang the pepil: ande the contentione o [...] diuerse of the thre estaitis of scotlād, throucht the quhilk thre plagis, the vniuersal pepil ar be cum destitute of iustice policie ande of al verteus by synes of body ande saul. Ande nou illustir princes engendrit of magn [...]nime genoligie, & discendit of Royal progenitu­ris, ȝour regement ande gouernyng, and alse [...]our honorabil amplitude of verteouse dignite incressis daly, in the contenual auansing of the deffens of oure cuntre quhar for ȝour heroyque vertu, is of mair admiratione, nor vas of valeria the dochtir of the prudent [...]on­sul publicola or of cloelia, lucresia, penolope, cornelia, semiramis, thomaris, penthasillie, or of ony vthir verteouse lady that plutarque or bocchas hes discriuit, to be in perpetual memore. for al thair nobilactis ar nocht to be comparit to the actis that ȝour prudēs, garris daly be exsecut, cōtrar the cruel vostis of in­gland. The quhilkȝ volffis ar nocht the ra­uand [Page 5] sauuage volfsis of strait montanis ande vyild fforrestis that deuoris nolt ande scheip for ther pray: bot rather tha ar dissaitful vol­sis quhilk is hes euir been oure ald enemeis. Ande nou sen the deceis of oure nobil illu­stir prince kying iames the fyift, ȝour vmqu­hile faythtful lord ande hisband, tha said ra­uisant volfis of ingland, hes intendit ane on iust veyr be ane sinister inuentit false titil contrar our realme in hope to deuoir, the vniuersal floc of oure scottis natione, ande to extinct oure generatione furtht of reme­morance. Bot nochtheles gode of his diuy­ne bounte, heffand compassione of his pure afsligit pepil, ande alse beand mouit con­trar the rauisant volfis of ingland he of his grace hes inspirit ȝou, to be ane instrament to delyuir vs, fra the captiuite, of the cruel philaris the protector of ingland: as he in­spirit queen esther to delyuir the captiue ie­uis,Iudic. 8 quhen thai & mordocheus var sinister­ly accusit, and alse persecutit, be amman, be for assuerus kyng of iude. and as the holy vedou iudich vas inspirit, to delyuir the ie­uis fra the crualte of that infideil pag [...]m oli­phernes. Ther is na prudēt man that vil inge [Page] that this pistil procedis of assentatiōe or adulatiōe, cōsiderant that ve maye see perfytlye, quhou that ȝour grace, takkis pane to duelle ī ane straynge cūtre distitute of iustice. Ande als ȝour grace beād absēt, fra ȝour only ȝong dochter, our nobil princes, and rychteous he retour of scotlād: quha is presentlye veil tretit ī the gouernāce of hyr fadir of lau, the maist illustir potēt prince of the maist fertil & pacebil realme, vndir the machine of the supre­me olimp, quhar that ȝour grace mycht re­mane & duel amāg the nobil princis & prin­cessis of France, quhilk is ar ȝour natiue frendis of consanguinite ande affinite, ande ther ȝe mycht posses abūdance of al pleiseirs most conuenient for ȝour nobilite bot ȝit the fer­uent loue that ȝour grace baris, touart that tendir pupil ȝour only dochtir ande for the delyuering of hyr here age furtht of captiuite ȝe daly of ȝour gudnes induris as grit pane, as the queē ysicrata indurit vitht hyr lorde metredates, ȝour grace deseruis nocht to be callit ane nobil alanerly, trocht ȝour verteous ver­kis bot as veil ȝe suld be callit ane nobil of genolligie, be rason that ȝe ar discendit of the maist vailȝeant princis that ar vndir the cape [Page 4] of hanyn. ther can nocht be ane mair ample probatiōe, nor is the famous atentic croniklis of diuers realmes, ande alse the verteouse ver­kis dune be ȝour antecessours in oure dais ar euident til vs in this present seicle. In the fyrst ȝour grace is discendit of thē, quhilk is be ther vertu ande be ther victoreꝰ actis hes kepit ande deffendit the liberte of ther subiectis in sure pace ande trāquilite, ande hes repulsit vailȝeant­ly al externe violens. ȝour foir grandschei [...] godefroid of billon kyng of iherusalem, hes nocht alanerly kepit ande deffendit, his pepil ande subiectis of loran, fra his prochane ene­meis that lyis contigue about his cuntre: bot as veil be his magnanyme proues ande ma [...] ­tial exsecutione, he delyurit the holy land of iudia furtht of the handis & possessione of the infideil pagans: quhar for the vniuersal histo­riagrephours hes baptist hym to be ane of the principal of al the nyne noblis. for quha vald cōsidir, the longinquite of his martial voyaige, ande the grite forse of the oriental pepil, and [...] the multitude of infidelis ande pagan princis, quhilk is impeschit hym in that barbir strayn­ge cuntre be diuerse cruel battellis: this veil cō sidrit, thai sal fynd that his magnanyme he­roique [Page] ande martial entreprise, vas conuoyit & succurrit be ane diuyne miracle, rather no [...] be the ingyne of men. it vil be ouer prolixt [...] rehers all the vailȝeant actis of baudonyne his broder ande successour to the realme of ierusalem ande na les prolixt to rehers of his successours, quhilk is var ȝour predecessours, kyngis of secilie, dukis of aniou calabre ande of loran. i suld nocht forȝet the tryumphant victore, exsecut ande coqueist be the vail­ [...]eant ande nobil rene inuictissime kyng of secilie due of calabre ande loran ȝour gud­scheir, contrar, that potent prince Charles due of Burgungȝe,Charlis due of burgungȝe, v [...]ss the grādschoir [...]o this [...] [...]riour. Charlisthe [...]yift kyng of spāgre. quhilk vasrepute to be ane of t [...]e maist nobil men of veyr in cristianite: ȝit nochtheles, he vas vēqueist ande slane, be syde the toune of nancy, be the foir said rene ȝour gudscheir: quhar for it aperis veil (illustir princes) that ȝe ar discendit doune lynyalye of thē that hes been propungnatours for the libertee of ther cuntre ande subiectis. Siklyke the no­bilnes of ȝour vinquhile fadir broder anto­nius, due of calabre loran ande of bar, quha maye be comparit, to the deuot kyng, Numa pōpilius, the sycond kyng of rome, for his prudens ande dixti [...]ite, be rason that he hes kepi [...] [Page 5] [...]is subiectis in liberte but oppressiōe, quhou [...]eit his cuntre lay betuix tua of the maist po­ [...]ent princis that ringis in this varld: that is to say, the catholic kyng of spāȝe elect empriour on ane syde, ande the maist potet cristyn kyng of France on the tothir syde, the quhilk is tua riche kyngis hes hed diuerse tymes birnād mortal veyr contrar vthirs, ȝit nochtheles ȝour nobil fadir broder due of calabre ande loran hes kepit his landis in liberte, fra ther oppressiōe, the quhilk he did be vailȝeantnes ande pru­dens. Siklyke th [...]t maist sapiēt prince ande prelat fadir in gode, ihone o [...] loran, be the permissione diuyne, Cardinal of the apostolic seige, archebischop of narbon, abbot of cluny, fekkē, ande of sanct ouyne quha is ȝour fadir bro­der, quhilk be his prudens for the public veil off cristianite, hes been mediatour, betuix di­uers forane princis, to treitpace ande concor­de in diuerse cuntreis, as in ytalie germanie, flā dris ande spanȝe, quha hes nocht alanerly vsit hym lyik ane sp [...]rutual pastor, bot as veil he hes vsit hym lyik ane vailȝeant captan, for ane verteous captain, can nocht exsecut ane mair vailȝeant act as quhen he purchessis pace ande cōcord, vytht out diminutiōe of his rycht, an­de [Page] vitht out domage slauchtir or hayrschip [...] be amāg the pepil, as this nobil prelat hes du ne diuerse tymes. vythtout dirrogatiōe of his speritual dignite. Nou (illustir princes) i v [...] reherse of ȝour nobil ande vailȝeant fadir, th [...] due of guise, lieutenant general to the kyng of France, of all the cuntre of champayngȝe ande brie, his actis vald be prolixt to reherse, quhil­kis hes been laitly exsecutit in oure dais. The memor of ane of his actis is recent quhen he patane garnison of tua thousand men, vitht in the toune of sanct quintyne, rychtvailȝeāt­ly contrar the vil of thretty thousand of his enemeis, quhar he gart mony of his enemeis resaue ther sepulture be for the said toune, vytht out domage or hurt til his men of veyr quhar for euerye man maye meruel, of his dexterite, vertu, ande martial sciens. his ma­gnanyme proues did ane vthir vailȝeant act, he beand bot sex thousand men, he held in subiectione fourty thousand at the seige of perone, ther durst none of that grit cōpanye, pas bakuart nor forduart, be rason of the mo­ny assaltis ande escarmuschis that he maid cō ­trar them, quhar that he sleu mony of them, vytht out domage tyl his men of veyr, be tha [...] [Page 6] industreus martial act, he renforsit the toune vitht victualis, bagbutaris, ande mun [...]tiōs, for the hagbutaris, past neir to the camp of ther enemeis, ande entrit in the toune but resistan­ce, be cause that ȝour nobil fadir held the grit armye of enemeis valkād on ther tothir syde, throucht the grit assaltis ande escarmuschis that he maid contrar them. The toune of sa­uerne baris vytnes of his delegēt vailȝeantnes, that he maid contrar the iminēt dangeir that vas cummand on the realme of France, at that tyme quhen ane multitude and infinit num­mir of mē of veyr, ande vthirs that lyuit vitht out lau, discendit fra the hicht of germanye, thai var of diuerse sectis, haldant straynge opi­nions contrar the scriptour thai purposit to cōpel al cristianite tyl adhere to ther peruerst opinione: ȝit nochtheles ther disordinat intentiōe vas haistyly repulsit ande extinct be the martial scien [...] of ȝour nobil & vailȝeant fa­dir. Thir vailȝeant actis of ȝour predecessoure (illustir princes) ande ȝour gritprudēs, makkis manif [...]st, that ȝour grace is ane rycht nobil, baytht of vertu ande of genoligie. al thir thin­gis befor rehersit, i beand summond be insti­tutione of ane gude ȝeil, hes tane ane [...]eme­rare [Page] consait, to present to ȝour nobil grace, an [...] tracteit of the fyrst laubir of my pen bot ȝit i vas lang stupefact ande timide, for falt of ane perēptoir cōclusione, i nocht heffand ane per­fyte determinatione, of quhat purpos or mater that var maist necessair ande honest to be dila­tit: than dredour ande schame beand repulsit fra my melancolius cogitations, i began to re­uolue the librarye of my vndirstanding, ande i socht al the secreit corneris of my gazophile, ymaginant vitht in the cabinet of my interior thochtis, that ther var na mater mair conue­nient ande necessair, for this present dolorus tymé nor to reherse the cause an [...]e occasione of the onmersiful afflictiōe of the desolat real­me of scotland the quhilk desolatione hes oc­currit be the mischance, of fureous mars, that hes violently ocupeit the domicillis of tran­quil pace that sueit goddes of humaine felicite. the quhilk tracteit i hef dediet ande direckyt to ȝour nobil grace, in hope that ȝour grace vil resaue it as humainly, as it var ane riche present of grit consequēs. it vas the custum of perse, that none of the subiectis durst cum in the presens of ther kyng, bot gyf tha brocht sū gyft or present, to be delyurit til hym, efferad [Page 7] for ther qualite. the historigraphours rehersis of ane pure man of perse, quha be chance re­countrit kyng darius. this pure man throucht grit pouerte, hed no thyng to present tyll his kyng, eff [...]ir the custum of ꝑse, quhar for he ran til ane reueire that ran neir b [...], & brocht the palmis of his handis ful of that fresche vat [...]ir to the kyng for ane present. that nobil kyng, persauand the gude vil ande hartly obediens of this pure man, he resauit that litil quantite of cleen vattir as humainly, as it hed been ane riche presēt of gold, ande he gart delyuir to the said pure mā sex thousand peces of gold. and ane goldin vattir lauar.Exiguu [...] munus cū dat tibi pauper a­micus. fra this exēpil cum­mis ane vlgare adagia, quhilk sais that quhen ane pure man makkis ane sacrefeis, & throucht his pouerte he vantis ensens to mak the sere­mons of his sacrefeis that sacrefeis sal be acceptabil befor the goddis,Accipit [...] placide & plene lau­dare me­m [...]nto. Chato. be cause that he dois sa mekil, as his pissance maye distribute. it is vrytin in Sanct marc, quhou oure sa [...]uiour estemeit ande commēdit, the oblatione of tua half penners, that vas offrit in the tempil be ane pure vedou that hed na mair moneye. nor he estemeit the grite offrandis that vas offrit be riche opulent men. Nou for conclu­sione [Page] (illustir princes) my esperance is sa grite,Cū venis­set autem vnavidua pauper: mi sit duo mu nita quod est qua­draus. that i beleif that ȝour grace vil resaue this tra­cteit as humainly, as kyng darius resauit the clene vattir fra the pure man of perse. this tracteit is na bettir nor as mekil vattir, bot ȝit my gude vil & hartly intentione ande my detful obediens, excedis the hartly intentione of the pure mā that offrit the fayr vattir to kyng da­rius, pray and to god to preserue ȝour grace in perpetual felicite.Marci. 13.


Indegetet var god­dis of egipt quhilkis hed bee [...]e verteouse princes quhē thai lyuit. AMasis the sycond, quhilk vas the last kyng ande indegete of the egiptiēs, (ande as diodore rehersis, he vas the fyift le­gislator of egipt) maid ane or­dinance, contrar the vice of ydilnes, that al his subiectis of egipt, var oblist vndir the pa­ne of dede, to bring euery ȝeir, ther namis in vrit, to the prouest of the prouince quhar thei remanyng vas: ande ther to testife the stait o­ [...]her [Page 8] vacatione, ande the maneir of ther ly­uing. be this politic ordinance, the egiptiens [...]ar inducit tyl adhere to vertu, ande to leyrne [...] ande mecanyke occupatiōs maist comodius ande cōuenient for the public veil of egipt. Thā efftir this ordinance of amasis the Gymniosophistes institut ane mair strict ordinance amang the pepil of inde:Gymniosophistes var philoso­phours of inde, qu­hilkis var aynakyt, vitht out [...]ny sort of cletyng ther doctrine aperit to be ra­ther ciuil launor philosophi [...]. that is to say, that ane person suld nocht be admittit to resaue his corporal refectione, quhil on to the tyme, that he hed manifest realye, or ellis be certan testificatione the frutis of his laubours, of the daye precedent. the seuerite of thir strict ordinance, var augmentit, be ane edict of se­sostris the grit kyng of egipt for he statut ane ordinance til excerse his propir childir ande the ȝong princis ande gētil men of his court, to yse them til indure excesse of laubirs: he statut that none of them suld tak ther refectione, quhil thai hed gone ande run, the tyme of fife or sex houris: to that effect, that throucht sic excerse, ther membris mycht be purgit fra corruppit humours, the quhilkis humours nocht beand degeistit, mycht be occasione to dul ther spreit, ande to mak ther body on a bil to resist ydiln [...]s▪ thir ordinances of the egi­ptiens, [Page] ar verray necessair to be vsit in al real­mys: be rason that the maist part of the pepil, throucht ther natural fraigilite, consumis the maist part of ther dais in ydilnes. This detestatione that i haue rehersit of ydilnes, par chan­ce maye be [...]ugit be inuyful ignorantis, that i condampe my self, in sa far as thai persaue me nocht ocupeit vitht mecanyc byssynes, non to confound ignorant detrakkers i vil arme me vitht the vordis of publius scipio as ci­cero rehersis in the prologe of the thrid beuk of his officis. sayand that scipio vas neuyr les ydil as quhē he aperit to be idil nor he vas neiuyr les solitair as quhē he aperit to be solitair. for quhē he aperit to be ydil thā he vas solist ī his mynde anent the gouuernyng of the pu­b [...]ic veil ande quhen he aperit to be solitar, than he vas speikand vitht hym self anent his auen byssynes & sa he vas neuir ydil nor solitair quhou beit that he aperit sum tyme in the sycht of the vulgaris to be ydil & solitair nun qua [...] se minus ociosum quam cum ociosus, nec minus solum, quam cum solus esset. i vil apply thir vordis to my self. for quhou beit that the laubir vitht the pen & the studie on speculatiōe of vertu apei [...] to be yd [...]lnes, ȝit thai ar [Page 9] no ydilnes bot rather ane solist byssynes of the body & of the spreit. ande nou sen gode he [...] nocht dotit me vitht speculatione of liberal sciēs nor philosophe, nor vitht stryntht of my body til indure seruile subiectiōe, nor ȝit vitht no art nor mecanyc craft, ther for i vil help [...] the auansuig of the public veil vitht my stu­dye & vitht my pen In the antiant dais, the romans var mair renforsit in curageus entre­prisis be the vertu of the pen, ande be the per­suasions of oratours, nor thai var renforsit be the sourdis of men of veyr. Euerye craft is ne­cessair for the public veil, ande he that hes the gyft of traductione compiling or teching, his faculte is as honest as crafty ande as necessair: as is to be ane marynel, ane marchant, ane co [...] dinar, charpenteir, captan, ciuilist or ony vthir crafft or sciēs. ther is na degreis of vertu amāg thē, for gyf ane craft or sciens be gude, thā it is as gude, as ony craft can be, for al sortis of ver­teoꝰ, facultes ar of ane lyik vertu, as cicero sais ī the thrid of his paradoxis, that ane gude mā can be na bettir nor ane vthir man that is gu­de, for gyf ane man be gude than he is as gu­de, as ony gude man can be siclyik gyf ane craft be gude, than it is as gude. as ony craft [Page] can be ther for ane mā of ane craft, suld nocht detest ane vthir sort of craft, considerand that oure hurt nature hes nocht dotit ane man til vse al craftis. Aristotil sais in the fyrst beuk of his politiques, that nature hes nocht maid ane man lyik gladius delphicus The significatio­ne of gladius delphicus is of this sort.Nihil enī natura facit tale: quale sta­tuarij del­phicū gla­diū obin­diciam sed vnum ad vnum. delphos is ane solemnit place, on the hyl of pernasus, quhar ther standis ane tempil dedicat til appollo, ther cam daly to that tempil, diuerse pure men in pilgremage, ther duelt on that hil, smythis, & forgearis of yrn ande steil, the quhilkis culd mak ane instrament of yrn, conuenient for mony officis for tha vald gar ane instra­ment serue for ane hammyr, ane turkes, ane file, ane sourd, ane knyf ande ane borrel▪ this sort of instramentis var sellit to pure pilgryms that hed nocht mekil moneye,Polit. 1. to by ilk instra­ment be the self: ande be cause that instramē [...] seruit til mony officis, ther for it vas callit gla­dius delphicus, of this sort aristotil makkis ane cōparisone sayand that nature hes nocht maid ane man abil for euerye craft or office, bot nature hes maid ane man abil to be ane prin­ce, ane abil to be ane seruand ane abil to be ane clerk, ane abil to be ane craftis man, be rason [Page 10] that oure hurt nature hes diuidit oure cōple­xions to be of diuerse qualiteis, ande for that cause ve sal fynd amang ane thousand men,Mille ho­minū spe­cies & re­rum disco­lor vsꝰ vel le suū cui­que est nec voto viui­tur vno perseus. Quot ho­mines tot sententie. Ci [...]de fin [...] ane thousand consaitis ande ane thousand cō ­ditions. for that cause aristotil hes said in his politiques that in ilk comunite ther is ane multitude, ande ilk ane hes sum part of vertu of diuerse degreis, ande ilk ane of thir degreis ar ordand til help vthirs in necessite, Cicero gy­uis ane exempil in his retoric, quhou that the citinaris of cartomat in ytalye, sende for ane excellēt payntur, callit eracleon, thai promest to gyf hym ane grit some of moneye, for to paynt ane fayr ymage of the deesse iuno. than eracleon gart al the fayr ande best lyik ȝong vemen of that cite cum in his presens ande thā he chesit fife of the best lyik amang them al, to be his patrone, quhen he hed contemplit & spyit the proportions & propreteis of nature of thir fife ladeis he chesit the face of ane, the een of ane vthir the handis of the thrid the hayr of the feyrd, the armis the myddil ande the feit of the fyift, of this sort he formit the patrone of the ymage of iuno, efftir the pro­portione of diuerse of the mēbris of thir foir­said fife ȝong ladeis: be cause he culd nocht [Page] get al his patrone in ane special lady. for sche that vas pleysand of hyr face, vas nocht pley­sand of hyr hayr, ande sche that hed plesand handis hed nocht pleysand een,Nō in oēs omnia conueniunt. Cic. pro ro­scio amerimo. ande sche that hed ane veil proportionet body hed euil proportionet feit ande to conclude he culd nocht get ane lady in special that vas sufficiēt to be his patrone, nor ȝit that culd be comparit til gladius delphicus quhilk vas ane instrament that seruit til mony officis. be this ex­empil ve maye cōsidir that nature hes nocht dotit ane person to be qualifeit to excerse al sortis of craftis, for that cause aristotil, sais that al sortis of craftis suld cōcur to gyddir, ande ilkane til help vthirs, as nature proui­dit fyrst in the begynnyng. thir prolixt vor­dis befor rehersit, ar ane preparatiue, [...]ōtrar the detractione, of inuyful clerkis that ar mair expert in latyne tong nor i am,Non tā ea que recta sunt probā tur, quam que praua sunt fasti­dus adberent. quhil­kis vil nocht set furtht ane gude verk tyl in­duce the pepil to vertu, nor ȝitvil correct my ignorāt error: bot rather thai ar mair prōpt to repreif ane sm [...]l ignorant falt nor to commende ane grit verteous act. bot ȝit no man suld decist fra ane gude purpose, quhou beitC [...]c. de ora. that detractione be armit vitht inuy [Page 11] reddy to suppedit & tyl impung ane verteoꝰ verk: for quhat euyr he be that intendis to compile ane verk to content euerye man he suld fyrst drynk furtht the occean see.Difficile in dicendo omnihꝰ fatisfac [...]r [...]. Ande quhou beit, that ther var na detrakkers, tyll accuse or to repreif my verkis, ȝit nochthe­les i suld nocht be ouer temerair to set furtht ane verk that surpassis my ingyne: for ane hen that seikis hyr meyt in the mydding, may scraipe sa lang amang the fyltht, quhil sche scraip furtht sum a [...]d knyfe that hes been tynt, the quhilk knyfe cuttis hyr throt eftiruart, as i fall apply ane exempil cōformand to this samyn purpose, as eftir follouis.

❧Annibal that vailȝeant cartagien, beard venquest be nobil scipion, past for refuge, tyl anthiocus kyng of sirrie, quha vas at that ty­me, ane vailȝeant prince,This sto­rye isthe apothig­mes of plutarc. he refauit annibal in his realme, ande in his protectione, ande did hym grit honour ande reuerens, ane prince can nocht schau hym mair nobil, nor mair verteouse, as quhen he resauis in his fauoir, ane desolat prince distitute of remeide, ande disparit of consolatione: quhilk hes bene violently affligit be aduerse fortoune. thir tua princis vsit oft to visye the feildis to tak ther [Page] recreatione, ande to pas til hounting, ande til vthir gammis, conuenient for ther nobilite. at sum tyme thai vald pas to the sculis, to heir the lecture of ane philosophour callit phormion quha remanit in the toune of ephisye, ande techit natural ande moral philosophie to the ȝōg men of the cuntre. on ane day thir tua princis be chance, entrit in the achademya to heir ane lesson of philosophie techit be the said phormion philosophour. he persauand thir tua princis entir in his scule, he changit the mater of that present lectu­re, ande but prouisiōe, he began to teche the ordour of the veyris, declarand quhou that captans suld ordour battellis contrar ther enemeis. this philosophour techit sa pro­fundly the maneir of the ordoryng of bat­tellis in presens of thir tua princis, that thai that herd hym neuyr of befor, meruellit nocht alanerly of his quyk ingyne: bot as veil thai that harde hym daly var in grit ad­miratione▪ it is the nature of ane man that hes ane quyk spreit, ande ane ripe ingyne, that euerye purpos ande questione is fami­liar tyl hym. kyng anthiocus tuke grit gloir, be cause he hed sic ane prudēt philosophour [Page 12] in his cuntre: quhar for he inquirit annibal, quhat iugement he hed of his philosophour phormion. Annibal ansuert vitht as hardy curage, as quhen he venqueist the romans at the battel of cannes: for ane vailȝeant prin­ce, tynis nocht his curage, quhou beit that aduerse fortune resist his felicite: bot rather hes gude hope that dame fortonne vil mit­tigat hyrauen crualte. this vas then ansuer of annibal tyl anthiocus in the presens of phormiō. Nobil prince anthiocꝰ, i hef seen mony ald men tyne ther vyt, bot i sau neuyr sa grite ane fule amang them al, as is thy philosophour phormion for he maye be callit the mirrour of folye, ther cā nocht be ane mai [...] folye, as quhen ane ydiot [...]titute of knau­lage, presumis to teche or to leyrne ane man that hes baytht speculatione ande experiēs. i pray the to tel me (kyng anthiocus) quha [...] hart can thole, or quhat tōg ean be stil. quhē thai see, or heris tel, of the presumpteous comsait of thy vane philosophour, quhilk he [...] been neurest al his dais in ane solitar achade mya of greice, ande ȝit he dar be sa bold to present hym befor prince annibal, to disput ande tyl indoctryne the the maneir of the [Page] [...]eyris ande of the batellis, as he var prince of affrica or captan of rome. for verite he hes ane smal iugement of sic maters, or ellis he estemeis vs to be litil experementit in the veyris. be his vane consaitis that he hes stu­deit on beukis, he beleuis to leyrne annibal, the prettik of the veyris ande the conques­singis of realmis o kyng anthiocus, al the goddis vait, quhat defferens is betuix philo­sophie techit in sculis, ande betuix the stait of captans in the ordoring of batellis on the feildis, ande quhat defferens is to vrit vitht ane pen, & the vsing of ane speyr vailȝeantly in battel. Ande quhat defferens is ther be­tuix mony beukis, ande ane captan heffand his enemye befor his ee. Ther is diuerse mē that can blason the veyris in the tauerne, or at the fyir syde amang the vulgar ignorant pepil, bot i fynd nocht mony that dar hasȝarde ther lyue cōtrar ther enemeis. O anthio­cus, thy philosophour phormion sau neuyr the iunyng of ane battel, vitht cruel eschar­mouschis in the ryding of forrais. he sau ne­uyr the array of men of veyr brokyn, ande tua armeis myxt amang vthirs, fechtand be fellone forse, quhar the desluxione of blude [Page 13] hed payntit ande cullourt all the feildis, he herd neuyr the dolorus trompet sounde befor the iunyng of ane battel, nor ȝit he har­de it neuyr sound to gar the men of veyr retere fra ane dangeir, he persauit neuyr the trason of ane party, nor the couuardeis of ane vthir party. he sau neuyr the litil num­mir of them that fechtis, nor the grite num­mir of them that fleis for dreddour. O an­thiocus, thy philosophour suld teche the thyng that he hes studeit at the sculis & the thing that he hees seen vitht his een: to them that vas neuyr at the sculis, ande to thē tha [...] vas neuyr pretykkit in the veyris: rather not til vs that hes been experimentit in the vey­ris al oure dais. the prettik of the veyris is mair facil to be leyrnit on the feildis of affri­ca. nor ī the sculis of greice. Thou vait kyng anthiocus, that this sex ande thretty ȝeiris [...] hef beene excersit in the veyris, baytht in ytalie ande in spangȝe, quhar that fortoune hes schauen hyr rycht aduerse contrar me: as is hyr vse, to do to them, that vndirtakkis difficil entrepricis, as thou may see be expe­riens: for or i hed ane beyrde, i vas seruit lyik ane captan, ande nou quhen my beyrd is be [Page] cum quhyt, i am be cum ane seruand. i sueir to the (kyng anthiocus) be the gode mars, that gyf ony persone vald speir at me, the maneir of the gouernyng of ane battel, i vait nocht quhat ansuere to mak: be raison that battel­lis consistis vndir the gouernance of fortune, ande nocht in the ingyne of men, nor in the multiplie of pepil. all veyris ar be­gun be princis, on ane iust titil, ande syne procedis be visdome: bot the ende of the veyris consistis in the chance of fortune. Ther for it is grit folye to thy philosophour, til vndir­tak to leyrn the ordiring of battellis vitht in his solitair achademya, it var mair necessair ande honest for hym, to vse his auen profes­sione ande faculte: nor to mel vitht ony faculte that passis his knaulage. annibal said mo­ny vthir gude purposis tyl anthiocus, anent this samyn purpose, as plutarque rehersis in his apothigmatis.

❧This exempil tendis, that al prudēt men, hes mair occasione to condamp & repreif this raggit naykyt tracteit, nor annibal hed occa­sione to repreif the philosophour phormion: for my dulrude brane suld nocht hef been sa temerair as to vndirtak to correct the imper­fectiōe [Page 14] of ane comont veil, be cause the maist part of my knaulage, is the smallest part of my ignorance: ȝit nochtheles i hope that vyise men vil reput my ignorāce for ane mortifeit prudens, be rason of my gude intentione that procedis fra ane [...]ffectiue ardant fa­uoir. that i hef euyr borne rouart this affligit realme quhilk is my natiue cuntre,Nullus lo­cus nobis dulcior esse debet pa­tria. Cice. ad Marc fa­mi. 4. Nou heir i exort al philosophouris historigraphours & oratours of our scottis natione to support & [...]il excuse my barbir agrest termis for i thocht [...]t nocht necessair, til hef fardit ande lardit this tracteit vitht exquisite termis, quhilk is ar nocht daly vsit, bot rather i hef vsit dome­stic scottis langage, maist intelligibil for the vigare pepil. ther hes bene diuerse transla­tours ande cōpilaris in ald tymys,Sermone eo debemꝰ vti, qui notus est no­bis. that tuke grite pleseir to contrafait ther vlgare langa­ge, mixād ther purposis, vitht oncoutht ex­quisite termis, dreuyn, or rather to say mair formaly, reuyn, fra lating, ande sum of thē tuke pleiseir to gar ane vord of ther purpose, to be ful of sillabis half ane myle of lyntht,Cic. offi. as ther vas ane callit hermes, quhilk pat in his verkis, thir lang tailit vordis, conturbabū tur constantinopolitani, innumerabilibus solicitudinibus [Page] ther vas ane vthir that vrit in his verkis, gaudet honorifica bilitudinitati­bus, al sic termis procedis of fantastiknes ande glorius cons [...]itis. i hef red in ane beuk of ane preceptor that said til his discipulis, lo­quere verbis presentibus, & vtere moribꝰ an­tiquis, that is to saye, thou sal speik comont lāgage, ande thou sal lyue eftir the verteous maneirs of antiant men ȝit nochtheles ther is mony vordis of antiquite, that i hef reher­sit in this tracteit, the quhilkis culd nocht be translatit in oure scottis langage, as auguris auspices ides questeours senaturus censours, pretours, tribuns, ande mony vthir romane dictions, ther for gyf sic vordis suld be disusit or de [...]ekkit,Verba in­uēta sunt, nō que impedirent, sed que indicarēt voluntatem. than the phrasis of the antiquite vald be confundit ande adnullit: ther for it is necessair at sum tyme, til myxt oure langage vitht part of termis dreuyn fra lateen be ra­son that oure scottis tōg is nocht sa copeꝰ, as is the lateen tōg. ande alse ther is diuerse pur­posis & propositions that occurris in the la­ting tong that can nō be translatit deuly in oure scottis langage,Cic. pro a cecin. ther for he that is expert in latyn tong suld nocht put reproche to the compilation, quhou beit that he fynd sū [Page 15] purposis trāslatit ī scottis, that accords nocht vitht the lateen regester: as ve hef exempil of this propositione, homo est animal, for this terme homo signifeis baytht man ande vo­man bot ther is nocht ane scottis terme that signifeis baytht man ande voman: ande ani­mal signifeis▪ al thyng that hes lyue ande is sensibil▪ bot ther is no [...]ht ane scottis terme [...]hat signifeis al quyk sensibil thyng, ther for this propositione, mulier est homo is treu, ande ȝit ve suld nocht saye that ane vomā is ane man. Ande siclyik this propositione homo est animal is treu, ande ȝit ve suld nocht say that ane man is ane beyst: of this sort ther is bayth [...] termis ande propositions in lateen tōg, the quhilk vil be difficil to translait them. i hef rehersit thir vordis,Nō tā ea que recta sunt probā tur quam que praua sunt fasti­diis adhe­rent. in hope to eschaipt the de­tractione of inuyful gramariaris: quhilkis ar mair prompt, to reprehende ane smal falt, nor tha ar to commēd ane verteouse act. Nou for conclusione of this prolog i exort the (gude redar) to correct me familiarly ande be cheri­te, Ande til interpreit my intentione fauora­blye, for doutles the motione of the compi­latione of this tracteit,Ci. de ora. procedis mair of the cō passione that i he [...] of the public necessite nor [Page] it dois of presumptione or vane gloir, thy chretabil correctione, maye be ane prouocatio­ne to gar me studye mair attentiulye in the nyxt verkis that i intēd to set furtht tbe quhilk i beleif in gode, sal be verray necessair, tyl al them that desiris to lyue verteouslye indurād, the schort tyme of this oure fragil peregrina­tione, & sa f [...]yr veil.

❧The complaynt of scotland.
❧ THE FYRST CHEPTOVR DECLARIS THE cause of the mutations of mo­narches. Chap. 1.

AS the hie monarchis, lord­schips, ande autoriteis, at sta­blit be the infinite diuyne or­dināce, ande mentemit be the sempeternal prouidēs. siclyik ther ruuyne cummis, be the sentens gyffin be the souerane consel of the diuyne sapiens, the quhi [...]k doune thringis them, fra the hie trone, of ther imperial dominations, ande garris [Page 16] them fal in the depe foffe of seruitude, ande fra magnificens in ruuyne,Regnū a gēte in gē teus tran­sit propter iniusticias &. vniuersos dolos. ande causis cōqueriours to be cōquest, ande til obeye ther vm­quhile subiectis be dreddour. quhome of be for thai commādit be autorite. This decreit prpcedis of the diuyne iustice, be rason that princis, ande vthirs of autorite, becūmis am­bitius ande presumpteous, throucht grite su­perfluite of veltht, ther for he dois chestee thē, be the abstractione of that superfluite that is to say, he possessis vthir pure pepil,Eccle. 10 that knauis his gudnes, vitht the samyn reches, that he hes tane fra thē, that hes arrogantly myskna­uen hym. Ane pottar vil mak of ane masse of mettal, diuerse pottis, of defferent fassons, & syne he vil brak the grite pottis quhen thai pleyse hym nocht ande he makkis smal pot­tis of the brokyn verk of the grite pottis: ande alse of the mettal ande mater of the smal pot­tis he formis grit pottis. this exempil may be applyit, to the subuertions ande mutations of realmis ande dominions, ande of al varldly prosperite. childir that ar neu borne, grouis & incressis, quhil thai be ascendit to the perfyit stryntht of men: bot ther eftir, tha begyn to decresse, ande declinis til eild ande to the dede [Page] siklyik lordschips ande digniteis, hes incres­sing, declinatione, ande exterminatione. the mutations of euerye vardly thyng is certane, quhou beit that prosperꝰ men, prouidis nocht to resist the occasions of the mutabiliteis: qu­hilk occasions ar ay vigilant, to suppedit & to spulȝe, al them that ar ingrate, of the benefe­cis o [...] gode. the mutations of monarchis ande dominions, ar manifest in the holy scriptur, ande in the verkis of the maist famous anciāt historigraphours. quhar is the grite ande riche tryumphand cite of nynyue, quhilk hed thre dais iournais of circuit? at this tyme ther is nocht ane stane, stādant on ane vthir. Quhar is the grite tour of babilone? the quhilk vas biggit b [...] ane maist ingenius artifeis, of pro­portione, quantite, ande of stryntht, it aperit to be perdurabil, ande inuyncibil. bot nou it is desolat, ande inhabit be serpens, ande vthir venemuse beystis Quhat sal be said of the [...] ­che tryumphant toune of troye, ande of ca­stell y [...]ione, quhilk hed al the portis of euoir bane, ande the pillaris of fyne siluyr: bot at this tyme, ane fut of hicht of the vallis can nocht be sene, for al the grond o [...] the palce is of that tryumphand toune ande castel, is ouer [Page 17] gane vitht gyrse ande vild scroggi [...]. Quhar is the grite toune of thebes? quhilk vas foundit be cadmus the sone of agenoir, the quhilk vas a [...] that tyme, the maist pepulus toune abufe the end, it hed ane hūdreth [...] tourettis ande portis, bot nou at this tyme, ther is no thyng quhar i [...] stude bot barrane feildis. Siklyik lacedemo­nya, quhar the legislator ligurgus gef to the pepil strait famous lauis, of the quhilk, ane gri [...] par [...] ar vsit presently, in the vniuersal varld, is [...]ocht that nobil toune extinct furtht of reme­morance? Quhat sal be said of athenes, the vmquhile fontane of sapiens ande the spring of philosophee: is it nocht in perpetual subuersione? Quhar is the toune of cartage, that dan [...]t the elephantis? ande vas gry tumly doutit & dred be the romans: vas it nocht brynt in pul­dir ande asse? ande nou the grond of it is pa­stour for bestial, quhat sal be said of the riche monarche of rome, quhilk dantit ande subde­uit al the varld? is nocht nou the superiorite of it, partit ande diuidit ī mony ande diuerse par­ [...]is, conformand to the vordis of lucan, quha said that the vecht of rome, suld gar it ryue in mony partis: the vecht of it signifeit nocht, the vecht of hauy vallis, housis, stonis, ande vthir [Page] materialis: bot rather it signifeit, the vecht of the inexorbitant extorsions, that it committit on the vniuersal varld. quhilk is the cause tha [...] the monarche of it, is diuidit amang mony diuerse princis. of this sort euere thyng hes ane tyme, for mutations of varldly felicite is ane natural habitude, quhilkis is the cause, that nathyng remanis lang constant in ane prosperus stait: ande that is the special cause, that al do­minions [...]ri [...] dochaei [...] ande cummis, to sub­uersione. The fyrst monarche of the varld vas translatit fra the assiriens to them of per­se, ande fra perse to the greikis, and traslatit fra the greikis to the romans, fra [...]he romans to the franche men, ande fra the franche men to the germanis. ande quhou be it that the pe­pil knauis thir mutations to be of verite, ȝit ther is nocht mony that knauis, the cause of thir mutations,Quis enī cogitabit sensum d [...] mini aut quis consi­liarius e [...] be rason that the iugement of gode (quhilk virkis al thyng) is ane profoūd onknauen deipnes, the quhilk passis humaine ingyne, to comprehende the grounde or li­mitis of it: be cause oure vit is ouer febil, oure ingyne ouer harde, oure thochtis ouer vol­lage, ande oure ȝeiris ouer schort. Ther is mony ignorant pepil,Sapien. 9. that imputis the subuer siōs [Page 18] ande mutations of prosperite, to proceid of fortoune:Intelle [...]i quem om­niū operū dei nullā possit ho­mo inuenire rationē corumque fiunt sub sole. sic consaitis procedis of the genti­lite ande pagans doctryne ande nocht of god­dis lau nor ȝit of moral philosophie: quhou be it that niuenal hes said, that fortoune is the cause, that ane smal man ascendi [...] to digni [...]eis ande that ane grite man fallis in ruuyne. Sic opinions suld nocht be haldin nor bele­uit for ther is no thing in this varld, that cummis on mankynde, as prosperite or aduersi­te, bot al procedis fra the dyuyne pouer, as is vrityne in the .xi. cheptour of ecclesiasticus, bona & mala vita & mors,Ecce. [...] paupertas & honestas, adeo sunt. Ther for it maye be said, that al thai that imputis aduersite or prosperite,Si fortuna volet, fiet de rethore cōsul: si vol [...] hec ea­dē, fies de consule re­thor iuue­nal. to proceid of fortune. thai maye be put in the nū tayr of them that Sanct paul prophetiȝit in the sycond epistil to tymothie, erit enim tempus, cum fanam doctrinam non sustinebunt & ce. Ande alse the prophet esaye, spekend be the spreit of gode, he gyffis his maledictione on al thē that beleuis that fortoune hes ony pouuer, quhar he vritis in the .lxv. chetour ve qui fortune ponitis mensam tanquam die.Sat [...]. 7. This contradictione that i hef rehersit cōtrar fortoune,Eccl [...]. 11 is be cause that mony ignorant pe­pil, [Page] hes confermit ane ymaginet on faythtful opinione in ther hede, sayand that the grite afflictione quhilk occurrit on oure realme in september .m.v. xlvi [...] ȝeris on the feildis be­syde mussilburgh, hes procedit fra the ma [...] talent of dame fortoune, the quhilk y magynet opinione suld be detestit, for fortune is no thyng bot ane vane consait ymaginet in the hartis of onfaythtful men. ȝit nochtheles, quhen i remembir, on the cruel dolourus di­structione of oure nobil barrons, & of mo­ny vthirs of the thre estaitis, be cruel ande on­mercyful slauthyr, ande alse be maist extreme violent spulȝee ande hairschip of ther moua­bil gudis in grite quantite, ande alse oure [...]ld enemeis be traisonabil seditione, takkand violent possessione of ane part of the strynthi [...] ande castellis of the bordours of oure real­me, ande alse remanent vitht in the plane ma­ [...]e landis far vitht in oure cuntre, ande vio­lentlye possessand ane certan of our burg hi [...] villagis ande castellis, to ther [...]en vse but cō ­t [...]dictione: ande the remanent of the pepil beand lyik dantit venqueist slauis in maist ex­treme vile subiectione: rather nor lyik prudē [...] cristin pepil, quhilk is suld lyue in ciuilite pol [...] [Page 19] & be iustice vndir the gouernāce of ane chri­stin prīce. Al thir thingis cōsidrit causit me to reuolue diuerse beukis of the holy scriptur & of humanite, in hope to get ane iust iuge­mēt, quhiddir that this dolorꝰ afflictione be ane vand of the fadir to correct & chestie th [...] sone be mercy, or gyf it be ane rigorus mercy les decreit of ane iuge, to exsecute on vs ane final exterminatione. than efftir lang contene­uatiōe of reding on diuerse sortis of beukis, i red the .xxviii. of deutrono. the .xxvi. of leuitie & the thrid of ysaye the quhilk causi [...] my trublit spreit to t [...]ymmyl for dreddour, ande my een to be cum obscure throutht the multiplie of salt teyris, ande throucht the la­mentabil suspiring that procedit fra my dolorus hart: be rason that the sentens ande conte­ [...]eu of thys said cheptours of the bibil, gar [...] [...]e cōsaue, that the diuyne indignatione, hed decretit ane extreme ruuyne on oure realme. bo [...] gyf that ve retere fra oure vice, ande als [...] to be cum vigilant to seik haisty remeide & m [...]dycyne at hym quha gyftis al grace ande cō fort, to them that ar maist distitute of me [...] ­nis supple.

❧Thir cheptours that eftir follo [...]is cuplanis the ibretoyng ande me [...]as [...]ing of gods con­trar obstinat vic [...]s pepil. Cap. II.

IT is vrityne in the .xxviii. of deutronome thir vordis.Quod si audire no lueris vo­ca domini dei tui ve­ [...]iēt super [...]e oēs ma­edictiones vis i [...] ciuiate, maledictus. Gyf thou obeyis nocht the voce of the lorde thy gode; ande kepis nocht his ordinance this male­diction [...] sal cum on the, thou sal be cursit o [...] the feildis, thou sal be cursit in the cite, the lord sal send maledictione ande tribulatione on el thy byssynes. the lord sal sende pestilen [...] [...]n the, the heyt feueir, droutht, the sourde, tempest ande all euil se [...]knes, ande he sal perse­ [...]ut the, quhil he hef gart the perise, thou sal thole iniuris & spulȝe,Deut. 2 [...]. ande ther sal be na m [...] that can saue the. thou sal spouse ane vyfe, bot ane vthir sal tak hyr fra the be forse,Quod s [...] nō audieri [...]is me ego qu [...]quebec faciam vobis, visita­bo vos ve­lociter in egestate & ard [...]r [...]. thou sal big ane house bot thou sal neuyr duel in it. thy ox sal be slane befor thy eene, & thou sal get nane of hym tyl eyt. thy flokkis of scheip sal be gyff in to thy enemeis, the on­cou [...]ht ande straynge pepil sal eyt the frute of the eyrd that thou hes lauborit. Leuic. xxvi. [Page 20] moyses sais be the spreit of go, degys ȝe obe­ye nocht my command i sal visee ȝou vitht dreddour, vitht fyir ande vitht suellieg, ȝe sal sau the cornis on ȝour feildis, bot ȝour ene­meis sal eit it,Leui. 26. ȝour enemeis sal be ȝour ma­sters, ande ȝe sal flee, fast for dreddour, quhe [...] ther sal be litil dangeir, & there sal be no man follouuand ȝou, ande gyf ȝe remane obsti­nat ande vil nocht be correckt, i sal strik ȝou vitht ane plag, seuyn tymes mair vehement, for i sal gar the sourde cum on ȝou to reuen­ge my alliance, ande quhen ȝe ar assemblit to gyddir vitht in ȝour tounis, i sal send the pe­stilens amang ȝou, ande i sal delyuir ȝou ī the handis of ȝour enemeis.Ecce e [...]ī dominator dominꝰ exercituū auforet a hic rusaiē & a iuda validum & fortē, iudicē & pro­phetam.

❧It is vritin in the thrid cheptor of esaye thi [...] vordis, behold the dominator ande the lorde of armis, the quhilk sal tak fra hierusalē ande fra iuda, the mychty, ande the sterk mā, the victuelis, the men of veyr, the iugis, the pre­cheours. i sal gyf them ȝong childir to be ther kynges. ande effement men sal be ther domi­natours, ande the pepil ilk ane sal ryise cōtrar vthirs, ande ilk man sal be aduersair tyl his nychtbour, ȝong childir sal reproche ald men,Esaye. 3. ande mecany [...] lauberaris sal reproche [Page] gentil men.

Esaye. III. ACTOR. Chap. III.

THe kyng anchises lamentit the distructiōe of the superb troy, exsecutit be the princis of greice. the queene rosaria regre [...] ­tit hir spouse kyng dariꝰ quhē he vas venqueist be grite allexander. the pro­phet hieremye vepit for the stait of the pu­blic veil of babillone, quhen it vas brocht in captiuite. kyng dauid lamentit his sone abso­lon, quhen Ioab sleu hym. cleopatra vas lyike to dee in melancolie, quhen hys loue marcus antonius vas venquest be the empriour agu­stus. the consule marcus marcellus regrettis hauyly the cite of syracuse, quhen he beheld it birnād in ane bold fyir. Crisp salust regret­tit the euyl gouernyng of the public veil of rome. the patriarche Iacob lamentit the absens of his sone Ioseph. the kyng demetrius regrettit hauyly the slauchtir of his fadir antigonus, at the battel of maraton, ȝong octouiā lamētit hauyly the slauchtir of his fadir adoptiue cesar that gat .xxii straiciekis [Page 21] vitht penknyuis in the capitol. thir no­bil personagis deplorit the calamiteis that occurrit in ther dais, bot i hef as grit cause to deploir the calamiteis that ringis presēt­ly vitht in ouer realme throucht the vice of the pepil. & quhou beit that the thretnyng of gode contrar vs be verray seueir ande extreme, ȝit nochtheles i hope that his au­ful scurge of aperand exterminatiōe sal chā ­ge in ane faderly correctione sa that ve vil knau his mageste, ande to retere fra ouer vi­ce,Si in precuptis meis ambulaueritis dabo vobis plu­nias tēpo­ribus suis & terra gī gnet ger­mane suū dabo pacē in finibus vestris. for he hes promest grace tyl al them that repentis ande til al them that kepis his command as is vrityn in the .xxvi. cheptor of le­uitie thir vordis as folluis. Gyf ȝe keip my ordinance, i sal send ȝou rane on ȝour grond in conuenient tyme, ȝour feildis sal bryng furtht cornis, ȝour treis sal bayr frute, ȝe sal eyt ȝour breyde in suficien [...], ȝe sal sleipt at ȝour eyse, i sal sende pace amang ȝou, the sourde of vengeance sal nocht pas throucht ȝour cuntre, ȝe sal follou ȝour enemeis, ande ȝour sourdis sal gar them sal befor ȝou, fiue of ȝou sal follou & chaisse ane hundretht, & ane hundretht of ȝou sal chaisse ten thou­sand,Leui. 2 [...]. [...]nde ȝour enemeis sal fal to the grōd [Page] venquest in ȝour presens, sa that ȝe vil obeye to my command.

Regnū a gēte in gē ­teus trāsit propter in iusticias & vniuersos dolos. ❧O quhat familiar promese is this that god hes prormeist tyl al them that vil obey til his command? quhar for gyf ve refuse this grit promes, i suspect that his iustice sal ex­tinct oure generatione furtht of rememorā ­ce, ande that he vil permit our ald enemeis, or sum vthir straynge natione til ocupie & posses our natural natiue cuntre. bot ȝit i hope in gode that our obstinatione sal altir in obedien [...],Ecc [...]. 10. quhilk sal be occasione, that siue of vs sal chaise ane hundretht of our ald enemeis, ande ane hūdretht of vs sal chaisse ten thousand of them furtht of our cuntre as is rehersit in the foir said xxvi cheptour of leuitic. for quhon be it that god hes permittit the inglis men to scurge vs, as he permittit sathan to scurge the holy man Iob,Iob. ca. 2. it follo­uis nocht that god vil tyne vs perpetualye, nor ȝit it follouis nocht, that the cruel inglis men, quhilk is ar boreaus ande hang men permittit be god to puneis vs, that thai ar in the fauoir of god, for the exsecutione of goddis punitione on vs, as i sal explane be ane exempil of comparisone. ane boreau or hang [Page 22] man is permittit be ane price to scurge ande to puneise trāsgressours, ande ther efftir that samyn boreau, is stikkit or hangit eftiruar [...] for his cruel demeritis, as is the end of them that settis ther felicite to skattir & to skail blude. Siklyike the cruel inglis men that hes scurgit vs, hes nocht dune it of manhede or visdome nor of ane gude ȝoil: bot rather the supreme plasmator of hauyn ande eird hes permittit them to be boreaus, to puneis vs, for the mysknaulage of his magestie. Quhar for i treist, that his diuine iustice vil permi [...] sum vthir straynge natiōe to be mercyles bo­reaus to them, ande til extinct that false seid ande that incredule generatione furtht of rememorance, be cause thai ar, ande alse h [...]s beene, the special motione of the iniust vey­ris that hes trublit cristianite, thus sex hun­dretht ȝeir by past. quha list [...] to reide the prophesye of ysaye tha sal fynd ane exempil cōfo [...]mand to this samyn purpos, quhou that the realme of the assiriens vas the scurge of gode to puneise the pepil of israel for ther disobediens. bot fra tyme that the pepil of israel vas reterit fra ther vice, gode distroyit there scurge, that is to saye, he distroyt assure [Page] the kyng of the assirriens, ande transporti [...] his realme, in the subiectione of the kyng of perse ande meid. Sikliyk the grite toune of babillon vas permittit be gode to scurge the pepil of israel: ande ther efftir quhen the israelieteis var reterit fra ther inniquite gode delyurit them fra the captiuite of babillon ande distroyit that grite toune, ande maid it ane de­sert inhabitabil for serpens ande vthir venesū beystis. Euyrie thing is corruppit be ane vthir corruppit complexione, ane file is ane instru­mento to file doune yrn, ande ane synnar is maid ane instrument of the diuyne iustice, to puneise ane vthir synnar, the file that filit the yrne is vorne ande cassin auaye as ane thing [...]nutil to serue to do ony gude verk: bot the yrn that hes beene filit be the forgear or be ane smyth [...], is kepit to serue to the neces­s [...]te of men, the father takkis the vand or the scurge, to puneise his sonne, that hes bro­kyn his command, ande quhen his sonne be­cummis obedient, the father brakkis the vand ande castis it in the fyir: bot ȝit gyf his sonne rebellis contrar the correctione of the vand, than the father takkis ane batton or sū vthir [...]rk vappin to puneise his sonne, & forȝet­tis [Page 23] fatherly discipline, ande vsis rigorus ex­treme punitione. ane ox that repungnis the brod of his hird, he gettis doubil broddis, [...] he that misprisis the correctione of his prece­ptor, his correctione is changit in rigorus pu­nitione.

❧Quhou the actor conferris the passagis of the thrid cheptour of ysaye, vitht the afflictione of scotland. Chap. IIII.

VE maye persaue for certan, that ve haue bene scurgit vitht al the plagis,De [...]. 28. that ar befor re­hersit in the xxviii cheptour of deuteronome, that is to say vitht pestelens, vitht the sour­de, vitht brakkyng doune of our duelling housi [...], vitht spulȝe of our cornis ande cattel.

Siclyik as it is befor rehersit in the xxvi of leuitic,Leui. 2 [...]. ve haue sauen oure feildis to the behu­fe of oure enemeis, ve haue fled fast fra oure enemeis, quhen there vas nocht mony of thē perseuuād vs. ande alse ve maye persaue tha [...] ve haue beene scurgit vitht the plagis that ar [Page] contenit in the thrid cheptour of esaye, quhilk sais that the lord sal tak auaye the mychty men & the sterk men,Esaye. 3. c fra hierus [...]lem ande fra iuda, that is to saye, the lord hes tane fra vs, oure lordis ande barons ande mony vthir nobil men that vald haue deffendit vs fra oure ald enemeis. the said cheptour sais that the lord sal tak the iugis ande the prechours. that pas­sage of ysaye maye be veil applyit tyl vs, for as to the iugis ande iustice that ringis present­ly in ours cuntre, god maye sende vs betti [...] quhen he pleysis. ande as to the precheours, i r [...]ffer, that to the vniuersal auditur of oure realme. the foir said thrid cheptour sais, that the pepil of iherusalem ande iuda ilk ane sal ryis [...] contra [...] vthirs:Sardana­pala [...]kyng of f [...]rrie, clethith y [...] in vemens [...]haitis & span on ane roc. that passage of the text n [...]di [...] nocht ane alligoric exposition [...], for the expe­riens of that passage, is ouer manifest in oure cuntre. the said cheptour of esaye sais that effē ­menet men sal be superiors to iherusalē ande iuda, that passage is ouer euident in oure cun­tre, for ther is maye of the sect of sardanapa­lus amang v [...], nor ther is of scipions, or ca­millus.Iustineli [...] the fo [...]r said cheptour of esaye sais that the lord sal gyf to iherusalem ande iuda ȝōg kyngis to gouuerne thē ▪ that passage of esaye [Page 24] vald be veil cōsidrit, ande nocht to be vndir­standin be the letteral expositione, as diuerse of the maist famours doctours of the kyrk hes reherfit: for quhou be it that oure ȝong il­lustir princes be ane tendir pupil, ande nocht entrit in the aige of puberte, that follouis nocht, that hyr ȝouthed is ane plage sende be god to scurge vs, for the ȝouthed of ane prin­ce or of ane princesse, is nocht the cause of the runyne of ane realme, nor ȝit the perfyit aige of ane prīce is nocht the cause of theꝰ gude gou [...]ernyng of ane public veil.3. Reg. 12 Roboam kyng of isra [...]l beand fourty ȝeir of aige, he tynt tentribis of his realmis,2. Para. 16 throucht misgouuernance that procedit of euil counsel. Ande in oppo­sit, Osias vas bot aucht ȝeir of aige,Virtꝰ quā etatis, cur­sus celerior quhen he vas vnctit kyng, & quhou be it of his ȝout­hed, ȝit he gouuernit veil the cuntre ande the public veil. ther for as the eloquent cice­ro sais,Cice. phi­lip. 5. ve suld nocht leuk to the aige nor to the ȝouthed of ane ꝑson bot rather to ther vertu. ve haue diuerse vthir exemplis, quhou that realmis hes beene veil gouuernit, quhē the princis var intendir aige, as of spangȝe ande flandris, quhen charlis elect empriour vas bot thre ȝeir of aige. ande quhou be it [Page] that Salomon lies said,Eccle. 10. cursit be the eird th [...]t hes ane ȝong prince, thai vordis ar to be vn­dirstandin of inconstant superiors of ane cū tre that ar nocht in ane accord to gouuerne the public veil, nor ȝit hes ane constans sub­stancial counsel to gouuerne ane realme qu­hen the prince or princes ar ī tendir aige, ther for that terme ȝouthed, suld be vndirstandin for ignorance & inconstance, ande nocht for [...]ong of ȝeiris, for euyre inconstant or igno­rant person, is aye repute ande comparit to ȝong childir that hes na discretione. Sanc [...] paul vritis to the corinthiens that var pepil in perfect aige.1. Corin. 14. quod he, my bredir, be ȝ [...] nocht in ȝour vitlyik childir, bot ȝe sal be o [...] litil maleise, ande of profond knaulage, par chance sum inuyful detrakkers vil maling cō ­trar me, sayand that i suld nocht haue apply [...] nor confetrit the xxviii of deutero. nor th [...] xxvi of Leuitie, nor the thrid of esaye. to th [...] afflictione of our cuntre, be rason that the cō tenu of this for said cheptours var said to the pepil of israel, ande nocht to the pepil of scot­land. thir detrakkers maye saye as veil tha [...] the ten commandis var gyffin to the pepil of Israel, ande nocht tyl cristin men, ande s [...]clyik [Page 25] thai maye saye that the doctryne of the euangelistis is nocht to be kepit be cristin mē, siclyik thai may saye that the epistylis of paul suld be kepit be the romans, corrinthiens,Quecun­que scripta sunt ad nostram do­ctrinā scripta sunt: vs per pa­tientiā & consolationē scriptu­rarū sp [...] habeamūe ep­ [...]eseis, & be vthir nations that he vrit to in his dais, ande nocht to be kepit be vs that professis vs to be cristin men. Sic opinions ande allegeance suld nocht haue audiens amang cristī pepil. for ther is no thyng said ī the scriptour, bot it is said generelye tyl althē that hes resauit the ȝoilk ande the confessione of [...]rist. Sanct paul vritis to the romans, sayand, euyrye thing that is vritin in the scriptur, is vrityn tyll oure edeficatiōe, thir vordis maye suffice til adnul the peruerst opinions of inuyful calumniaturis ande of secret detrackers.Rom. 15

❧Of diuers opinions that the pagan philoso­phours held of the conditions ande induring of the varld, ande quhou the actor d [...]claris that the varld is neir ane ende. Chap. V.

[Page] THe special cause of the scurge that hes affligit vs, hes proce­dit of our disobediens cōtra [...] the command of god. Ande the cause of our disobediens hes procedit of ane varldly affectione ande cupidite that ve haue touart the vile corruptiōe of this varld that the scri­ptour calli [...] mammon,Facite vobis amicos do māmo­ [...]a iniquitatis. quhilk ve hald for ane souerane felicite, bot nochtheles it is bot ane corrupit poison in sa far as vecan nocht serue gode ande it to gyddir.L [...]ce. 16 as Sanct mathou hes said, ȝe maye nocht serue god ande māmon. ther is ane vthir cause that makkis vs disobe­dient,Non pote­stis d [...]o se­ [...]ire & mā mo [...]. mony of vs beleuis in our consait that ther is na thyng perdurabil bot the varld alanerly. sic abusione procedis of onfaythtful­nes, ande of oure blynd affectione, quhilk makkis vs sa brutal, that ve vait nocht quhat thing the varld is,Mat. 6. ca nor quhou lang it sal indu­re, bot rather ve beleue that it sal be perpetual. ther for oure cupidite constrenȝeis vs to desi­re prolongatione of oure dais: that ve maye vse the blynd sensual felicite of it, quhilk mony of vs thynkis mair comodius ande neces­sair for oure veilfayr, nor ve thynk of the sempeternal [Page 26] olimp. Bot vald ve considir the diffi­nitione of the varld, than i beleue that oure solistnes ande vane opinione vald al [...]ir in ane faythtful consait. Ther is mony that speikis of the varld, & ȝit thai vait nocht quhat thing is the varld. the pagan philosophours held mony vane opiniōs & tynt mekil tyme ī vane questions & speculations, ande hes tormentir the spreitis, drauand & cōpil and mony beu­kis, quhilk is ar set furtht in diuerse cuntreis, bot ȝit ther vas neuyr ane final accordance cō cludit amād ehem, for of the final verite that thai socht, thai gat litil, ande the ignorance that thai haue put in vrit, is verray mekil, be rason that the smallest part of ther ignorance in supernatural [...]acis, excedit the maist part of ther knaulage. Plato, aristotel, pithagoras, empedocles, epecurius, thales, & mony vthir of the pagan philosophours, hes hed grite defferens ande contentione to paynt ande di­scriue the origyne ande propriete of the varld Pithagoras said that the varld is ane thing, & it that ve cal vniuersal is ane vthir thyng. the philosophour thales said that ther is bot ane varld. the astrologien metrodore affer­mit, that ther is mony & infinit varldlis. se­lencus [Page] the philosophour said that the vardlis eternal. Plato said that the varld hed ane begynnyng, ande sal haue ane end, epicurius said that the varld is ronde lyik ane boule, & empedocles said that the varld is lang & ronde lyik ane eg. Socrates techit in his achade­mya, sayand, that eftir seuyn ande thretty thousād ȝeiris, al thingis, sal retourne, to that sammyn stait, as thai began, ande he to be borne agane in his mother voymbe, ande to be neurist til his aige, ande sal teche phil [...]sophie in athenes. dionisius sal exsecute his ald tirranye in siracuse. Iulius cesar sal be lord of rome, ande annibal sal conques ytalie. scipio sal put cartage to sac ande to the sour [...]e, an­de grit Allexander sal venques kyng darius. of this sort al thingis that ar by past sal re­turne agane to there fyrst stait. My purpos is nocht to speik of this material varld that i [...] maid of the four elementis, of the eird, the vattir the ayr ande the fyir: bot rather i vil speik of the varld that garris vs mysknau gode, ande disobedient tyl his command, quhē the creator of al thingis, cam in this varld, to redeme vs, fra the [...]ternal captiuite of sathan, he complenit ande repre [...]it the varld, bot ȝit [Page 27] he repreuit nocht the eird, the vattir, the ayr nor the fyir, for thai foure elementis brac nocht his command, i haue herd diuers pepil regret, maling, ande mak exclamations con­trar the varld, sayand, o false varld, o misera­bil. varld, o dissaitful varld, o inconstāt varld, o malicius varld, ande ȝit thai kneu nocht, quhat thing is the varld. eftir my purpos, that vard that the pepil malingnis, is nocht ane substancial material mas maid of eird,Nunc iudiciū est mū di: nūc prī ceps huius mundi. vattir, ayr & fyir, bot rather it is the euyl lyfe of the pepil that conuersis viciuslye, ande the prince of this last varld, is the deuyl, the qu­hilk sal be cassin furtht as is rehersit in the euangel of Sanct ihone: this varld is noch [...] formit of the fouer elementis as of eird vat­tir ayr ande fyir as gode creat the material varld in the begynnyng,Iohā. 12. bot rather it is crea [...] of seuyn elementis of sathans creatione, tha [...] is to saye, auereise, ambitione, luxure, crual­te, dissait, on faythtfulnes, dissimulatione, & insaciabil cupidite. allace al thir seuyn e [...]e­mentis that this last varld is creat of, at ouer abundand, vithtin oure affligit realme, qu­hilk is the cause of the calamite that it in­duris. bot var ve as solist to considir the vanite [Page] of this last varld as Salomon considrit it, than doutles ve vald be verray solist to resist the inuasions of it,Cūqu [...] me conuertissē ad vniuersa opera qua fecerēt manꝰ mee vidi in omnibus va­nitatē & afflictionē adimi. quhilk prouokis vs to vice, or var ve as solist til impung the occasione of syn, as ve ar solist to seik remeid contrar the exterior accidentis that oft occurris til hurt oure body, than doutles our sensual cupidite vald be cum mortefeit ande venqueist. Oft tymys ve seik remeide to keip vs fra euyl accidentis that hurtis oure body, as quhen the su­ne castis oure grite heyt: ve pas vndir the vm­bre or the schaddou. quhen ve ar tirit to gāg on oure feit, ve ar solist to seik horse to ryde. quhē the rane cummis,Eccle. 2. c. ve pas vndir the thak, or vthir couuert place. quhen ve ar thrsty ve se [...]k drynk. quhen the plag of pestilens occur­ris, ve ar solist to seik ane cleene duelling pla­ce vndir ane temperat climat. Bot in opposit, quhen auereise assailȝeis vs, ve seik nocht the vertu of liberalite, nor quhen vile luxure trublis vs, ve adhere nocht to the vertu of tem­perance ande contenens. quhen ire affligis vs, ve seik nocht the vertu of patiens quhen arrogans ande ambitione entris in our har­tis, ve seik nocht the vertu of humilite. ande nou be cause that ve seik na remeid contra [...] [Page 28] our disordinat cupidite, nor ȝit resistis the oc­casions ande temptations of the prouocatiōs of vice, ve becum haistylye venqueist, be ra­son that oure smal resistāce, generis grit har­dynes in the aduerse party of oure saul. ther is ane mair odius thing amang vs, for al the vicis that oure cupidite prouokis vs to con­mit, our blynd affectiōe garris vs beleue, that tha ar supreme vertu ande felicite be cause thai ar pleisand tyl oure fragil nature, the quhilk is the principal occasione that ve con­uerse sa viciusle as this miserabil sēsual lyif var perpetual, ande as the dede hed na pou­uer to sla oure bodeis,Iā vi [...]unt hoīes tan­quā mor [...] nulla se­quatur & velud in­fernꝰ fabula ficta fo­ret. & as there var nocht ane hel to torment oure saulis, bot as ther var ane fenȝet hel of the poietis fictions; as virgil hes set furtht in the sext beuk of his eneados. Bot as i hef befor rehersit, i suspect that there is ouer mony that beleuis in the opinione of Socrates, that is to saye that the varld sal indure seuyn ande thtetty thousand ȝeiris. bot admittand vndir potestatione, that Socrates opinione var of verite, ȝit socrates hes nocht said that the terme of oure lyue dais sal pas the course of nature, that is to saye, to pas the course of ane hundretht ȝeir, [Page] ve haue experiens daly, that quhar ane man lyuis ane hundretht ȝeir in ony cuntre ane hundretht lyuis nocht ane hundretht mo­netht. Nou to confound the opinione of So­crates, ande to confound al them that vil nocht beleue that the varld is neir ane final ende, i vil arme me vitht the croniklis of master ihone carion, quhar he allegis the prophesye of hel [...]e. say and that fra the begynnyng of the varld, on to the consummatione of it, sal be the space of sex thousand ȝeir. the qu­hilk sex thousand ȝeir sal be deuydit in thre partis. the fyrst tua thousand ȝeir, the varld sal be vitht out ony specefeit lau ī vr [...] ▪ quhilk vas the tyme betuix adam ande abraham. the nyxt tua thousand ȝeir vas the lau of [...]irconcisione, vitht ane institutione of diuyne policie, ande vitht adoratione of god, quh [...]lk vas the tyme betuix Abraham ande the in­ [...]arnatione quhen crist ihūs resauit our humanite for our redemptione. the thrid tua thousand ȝeir sal be betuix the incarnatione & the last aduent quhilk sal be the cōsummatio­ne of the varld. bot thi [...] last tua thousād ȝeir, (as master ihone carion allegis in the prophesye of helie) sal nocht be completit, be rason [Page 29] that the daye of iugement sal be antecipet, be cause of them that ar his electis, as is vri­tyn in the xxiiii cheptour of Sanct mathou, & nisi breuiati fuissent dies illi, non fieret sal­ua omnis caro: sed propter electos breuiabū tur dies illi. quha listis to reide al the xxiiii cheptour of Sanct mathou, tha sal persaue euid [...]ntly that the varld is verray neir ane ende, be rason that mony of the singis & taikkyns that precedis the daye of iugemēt that ar ex­premit in the foirsaid cheptour, ar by past, & the remanent ar nou presently in oure dais: ther for efftir the supputatione of helie as mastir ihone carion hes rehersit, the varld hes bot four hundretht fyfty tua ȝeir tyl indure be cause that ther is fiue hundrethe fourty aucht ȝeir by past of the foir said sex thousād ȝeir. bot eftir the vordis of Sanct mathou, the cōsummatione of the varld sal be haistiar nor foure hūdretht fyftye & tua ȝeir. ȝit god hes nocht affixt ane certan daye to fal vitht ī the said terme of iiii. c. lii ȝeir, as is rehersit in Sanct mathou, de die aūt illa & hora, nemo sit neque āgeli celorū nisi solus pater. ther for ve haue mistir to be vigilant ande reddy, sen the terme of cristis cumming is scho [...]t, ande [Page] the day oncertane, as is said in the foir said euangel. vigilate ergo quia nescitis qua hora dominus vester venturus sit. this veil consi­drit, maye be ane probabil rasō that the varld is neir ane ende. quhilk suld be occasione til haue it in detestatione, ande til haue premedi­tatione of rhe future eternal beatitude & felicite, that gode hes promeist til al them that haldis it in abhominatione.

❧Ane monolog of the actor. Chap. VI.

THe solist ande attentiue l [...]ubirs that i tuke to vrit thir passagis befor reher­sit, gart al my body be cum imbecille ande verye, ande my spreit be cum so pit in sadnes, throucht the lang con­teneuatione of studie, quhilk did fatigat my rason, ande gart al my membris be cum im­potent. than til eschaip the euyl accidētis that succedis fra the on natural dais sleip, as cater­ris, hede verkis, ande indegestione▪ i thocht it necessair, til excerse me vitht sum actyue recreatione, to hald my spreti [...] valkand fra dul­nes. [Page 30] than to exsecute this purpose, i past to the greene hoilsum feildis, situat maist comodiusly, fra distemprit ayr ande corruppit in­fectione, to resaue the sueit fragrant smel, of tendir gyrssis, ande of hoilsum balmy flouris maist odoreferant. besyde the fut of ane litil montane, there ran ane fresche reueir as cleir as berial quhar i beheld the pretty fische vā ­tounly stertland vitht there rede vermeil fynnis, ande there skalis lyik the brycht siluyr. on the tothir syde of that reueir there vas ane grene banc ful of rammel grene treis, quhar there vas mony smal birdis hoppād fra busk to tuist, singand melodius reportis of natu­ral music in accordis of mesure of diapason prolations tripla ande dyatesseron, that ha­uynly ermonyie aperit to be artificial music. in this glaidful recreatione i conteneuit quhil phebus vas discēdit vndir the vest northt vest oblique oriszone, quhilk vas entrit that sa­myn daye in the xxv degre of the sing of ge­mini, distāt fiue degreis, fra oure symmyr sol­stice, callit the borial tropic of cancer the qu­hilk be astrolog supputatione, accordis vitht the sext daye of iune, there eftir i entrit in ane grene forrest to contempil the tēdir ȝong [Page] frutss of grene treis, be cause the borial bla­stis of the thre borouing dais of marche, hed chais [...]it the fragāt flureise of euyrie frute tree, far athourt the feildis.Iāque r [...] ­bescebat stellis au­rora fugatis. of this sort i did spa­ceir vp ande doune but sleipe, the maist part of the myrk nycht. instantly there eftir i per­sauit the messengeiris of the rede aurora, quhilk is throucht the my chtis of titam, hed persit the crepusculyne lyne matutine of the northt northt est orizone,Eneo. 2. quhilk vas occasione that the sternis & planetis the dominotours of the nycht, absentit them, ande durst nocht be sene, in oure hemispere for dreddour of his auful goldin face. Ande als fayr dyan [...] the lantern of the nycht, be cā dym ande pail, quhen titan hed extinct the lycht of hyr lāp on the cleir daye. for fra tyme that his Iustrā [...] beymis var eleuat .iiii degres abuse oure oblique oriszone, euery planeit of oure hemespeir be cam obscure, ande als al corrupit humiditeis ande caliginus fumis & infekkit vapours, that hed bene generit in the sycond regione of the ayrꝰ quhen titan vas visiād antepodos, thai consumit for sorrou quhen thai sau ane sycht of his goldin scheaip. the grene feildis for grite droutht, drank vp the drops of the [Page 31] fresche deu quhilk of befor hed maid dikis & dailis verray donc. there eftir i herd the ru­mour of rammasche foulis ande of beystis that maid grite beir, quhilk past besyde bur­nis & boggis on grene bankis to seik ther su­stentatione. there brutal sound did redond to the hie skyis, quhil the depe hou cauernis of cleuchis & rotche craggis ansuert vitht ane hie not of that samyn sound as thay beystis hed blauen. it aperit be presumyng & presuposing,Methamorpho. 3. that blaberand eccho hed beene hid in ane houhole, cryand hyr half ansueir, quhen narcissus rycht sorye soch [...] for his saruandis, quhen he vas in ane forrest, far fra omy fol­kis, & there eftir for loue of eccho he drou­nit in ane drau vel. nou to tel treutht of the beystis that maid sic beir & of the dyn that the foulis did, ther syndry soundis hed nothir temperance nor tune. for fyrst furtht on the fresche feildis, the nolt maid noyis vitht mo­ny loud lou. baytht horse & meyris did fast nee, & the folis nechyr, the bullis begā to bullir quhen the scheip began to blai [...], be cause the calfis began tyl mo, quhen the deggis berkit. than the suyne begā to quhryne quhē thai herd the asse tair, quhilk gart the hennis [Page] kekkyl quhen the cokis creu, the chekyn [...] be­gan to peu, quhen the gled quhissillit the fox follouit the fed geise & gart thē cry claik. the gayshngis cryit quhilk quhilk, & the duki [...] cryit quaik. the ropeen of the rauynis gart the crās crope the huddit crauis cryit varrok varrok, quhen the suannis murnit. be cause the gray goul mau pronosticat ane storme. the turtil began for to greit quhen the cuschet ȝoulit. the titlene follouit the goilk ande gart hyrsing gukguk. the dou croutit hyr sad sang that soundit lyik sorrou. robeen and the litil vran var hamely in vyntir. the iargolyne of the suallou, gart the iay i angil than the ma­ueis maid myrtht, for to mok the merle. the lauerok maid melody, vp hie in the skryis. the nychtingal al the nycht sang sueit notis, the tuechitis cryit theuis nek, quhen the prettis clattrit. the garruling of the stirlene gart the sparrou cheip the lyntquhit sang cuntirpoin [...] quhen the osȝil ȝelpit. the grene serene sang sueit quhen the gold spynk chantit. the rede schank cryit my fut, my fut, & the oxee cryit tueit. tbe herrons gaif ane vyild skrech as the kyl hed bene in fyir, quhilk gart the quhapis for fleyitnes fle far fra hame. Thā eftir quhē [Page] this dyn vas dune, i dreu me doune throuch [...] mony grene dail. i beand sopit in sadnes, i socht neir to the see syde. than vndir ane hin­gand heuch i herd mony hurlis of stannirs & stanis that tumlit doune vitht the land rusche quhilk maid aue felloune sound. thro [...]cht virkyng of the suellād vallis of the brym seye. than i sat doune to see the flouyng of the fa­me. quhar that i leukyt far furtht on the salt flude. there i beheld ane galiasse gayly grathit for the veyr. lyand fast at ane ankir, and hyr salis in hou. i herd mony vordis amang the marynalis bot i vist nocht quhat thai menit. ȝit i sal reherse and repo [...]t ther crying and ther ca. in the fyrst, the m [...]ster of the galiasse gart the botis man pas vp to the top to leuk far furtht, gyf he culd see ony schips. than tbe botis man leukyt [...]alang quhil that he sau ane quhyt sail than he cryit vitht ane skyrl, quod he, i see ane grit schip. than the maister quhis­lit and bald the marynalis lay the cabil to the cabilstok to veynde and veye. than the marynalis began to veynd the cabil vitht mony loud cry. ande [...]s ane cryit, al the laif cryit in that samyn tune as it hed bene ecco in ane hou heuch. and as it aperit to me thai cryit [Page] thir vordis as eftir follouis. veyra veyra, veyra veyra gentil gallādis, gentil gallādis. veyn­de i see hym, veynd i see hym. pourbossa, pourbossa. hail al ande ane, hail al and ane. hail hym vp til vs, hail hym vp til vs. Than quhen the ankyr vas halit vp abuse the vat­tir, ane marynel cryit and al the laif follouit in that sam tune. caupon caupona, caupon caupona. caupun hola, caupun hola caupun holt, caupon holt sarrabossa, sarrabossa. than thai maid fast the schank of the ankyr. And the maistir quhislit and cryit. tua men abufe to the foir ra, cut the raibandis and lat the foir sail fal, hail doune the steir burde lufe harde a burde. hail eftir the foir sail scheir, hail out the bollene. than the master quhislit ande cryit, tua men abufe to the mane ra, cut the raibandis, and lat the mane sail and top sail fal, hail doune the lufe close aburde, hail eftir the mane sail scheit hail out the mane sail boulene, than ane of the marynalis began to hail and to cry and al the marynalis ans­uert of that samyn sound. hou, hou. pulpela, pulpela. boulena, boulena. darta, darta. hard out steif, hard out steif. afoir the vynd, afoir the vynd, god send, god send, fayr vedthir [Page] fayr vedthir. mony pricis, mony pricis. god foir lend. god foir lend. stou, stou. mak fast & belay. Than the master cryit and bald renȝe ane bonet vire the trossis, nou heise. than the marynalis begam to heis vp the sail, cryand, heisau, heisau. vorsa, vorsa. vou, vou. ane lāg draucht, ane lang draucht. mair maucht, mair maucht. ȝong blude, ȝong blude. mair mude, mair mude. false flasche, false flasche. ly a bak, ly a bak. lāg suak, lāg suak. that that, that that. thair thair, thair thair. ȝallou hayr, ȝallou hayr hips bayr, hips bayr. til hym al, til hym al. viddefullis al. viddefuls al. grit and smal, grit and smal. ane and al, ane and al. heisau hei­sau. nou mak fast the theyrs. Than the master cryit top ȝour topinellis, hail on ȝour top sail scheitis vire ȝourli fearis and ȝour top sail trossis, & heise the top sail h [...]ear, hail out the top sail boulene, heise the mysȝen and change it oner to leuart, hail the linche and the schei­tis, hail the trosse to the ra. thā the master cryit on the rudir man, mait keip ful and by, a luf. cūna hiear, holabar, arryua, steir clene vp the helme, this and so. than quhen the schip vas taiklit, the master cryit, boy to the top, schaik out the flag on the top mast, tak ī ȝour top salis, [Page] and thirl them, pul doune the nok of the rain daggar vyise, marynalis, stād be ȝour geyr in taiklene of ȝour salis, euerye quartar master til his auen quartar, boitis man, bayr stanis & lyme pottis ful of lyme in the craklene pokis to the top, and paueis veil the top, vitht paue sis and mantillis. Gunnaris cum heir & stand by ȝour artailȝee euyrie gunnar til his auen quartar. mak reddy ȝour cānons, culuerene moyens, culuerene bastardis, falcons, saikyrs, half saikyrs, and half falcons, slangis, & half slangis, quartar slangis, hede stikkis, murdresaris, pasuolans, bersis, doggis, doubil bersis, hagbutis of croche, half haggis, culuerenis ande hail schot. ande ȝe soldattis & conpang­ȝons of veyr, mak reddy ȝour corsbollis, hād bollis, fyir speyris, hail schot, lancis, pikkis, halbardis, rondellis, tua handit sourdis and tairgis. than this gaye galliasse beand in gude ordour sche follouit fast the samyn schip that the botis man hed sene and for mair speid the galliasse pat furtht hir stoytene s [...]lis, ande ane hundretht aris on euerye syde the ma­ster gart al his marynalis & men of veyr hald them quiet at rest, be rason that the mouyng of the pepil vitht in ane schip, stoppis hyr of [Page] hyr faird. of this sort the said galiasse ī schort tyme cam on vynduart of the tothir schip thā eftir that thai hed hailsit vthirs thai maid them reddy for battel. than quhar i sat i hard the cannons and gunnis mak mony hiddeus crak duf, duf, duf, duf, duf, duf, the barsisand falcōs cryit tirduf, tirduf, tirduf, tirduf, tirduf, tirduf, than the smal artailȝe cryit, tik tak tik tak tik tak tik tak. the reik smeuk and the stink of the gun puldir fylit al the ayr maist lyik as plutois paleis hed been birnand in ane bald fyir. quhilk generit sik mirknes & myst that i culd nocht see my lyntht about me, quhar for i rais and returnit to the fresche feildis that i cā fra, quhar i beheld mony hudit hirdis blauuand therbuc hornis and ther corne pipis, cal land and conuoyand mony fat sloc to be sed on the feildis, than the scheiphirdis pat there scheip on bankis and brais and on dry hillis to get ther pastour thā i beheld the scheiphir­dis vyuis and ther childir that brocht there mornyng bracfast to the scheiphirdis thā the scheiphyrdis vyuis cuttit raschis and seggis and gadrit mony fragrāt grene meduart vitht the quhilk is tha couurit the end of ane leye rig & syne sat donne al to gyddir to tak there ref [...] ctionē, [Page] qusiar thai maid grit cheir of euyrie sort of mylk baytht of ky mylk & ȝoue mylk, sueit mylk and sour mylk curdis and quhaye, sourk ittis, fresche buttir ande salt buttir, rey­me, flot quhaye, grene cheis kyrn mylk euyrie scheiphird hed ane horne spune in the lug of there bonet thai hed na breyd bot ry caikis and fustean skonnis maid of flour than eftir there disiune tha began to talk of grit myrry­nes that vas rycht plesand to be hard. ī the fyrst the prencipal scheiphirde maid ane orisone tyl al the laif of his conpangȝons as eftir fol­louis.

❧O ȝe my frendis that ar scheiphirdis, ve hef grit cause to gyf thankis to god for the hie stait and dignite that he hes promouit vs to posses, the quhilk stait, prefferris al vthir faculte of this varld baytht in honour and in profeit. for sen the varld vas creat scheiphir­dis prefferrit al vthir staitis quhar for the maist anciant nobilis that hes bene in ald tymis, tha detestit vrbanite and desirit to lyue in villa­gis and landnart tounis to be scheiphirdis or to laubir rustic ocupation on the hoilsum feil­dis, as diuerse historigraphours hes maid mē ­tions. fo [...]r in ald tymis pastoral and rustical [Page] ocupatione, vas of ane excellent reputatio­ne, for in thai dais quhen the goldin varld rang kyngis and princis tuke mair delyit on the feildis and forrestis to keip bestialite and to manure corne landis nor thai did to rema­ne in pretoral palecis or in tryumphand citeis riche kyng amphion vas verray solist to keip his scheip. and at euyn quhen thai past to there faldis scheip cottis and Iudgens, he playt befor them on his harpe. Siklyik kyng dauid hed mair affectione to play on his harpe amāg his flokkis of scheip, nor he hed to be gouuer­nour of the pepil of Israel. ande appollo that the poietis callis the god of sapiens he vas scheiphird to keip kyng admetus scheip siklyik the nobil romās in ald tymis var nocht eschamit to laubir and to manure the baran feildis vitht there auen handis to gar the eird becum fertil to bayr al sortis of corne eirbis gyrse & spice as ve hef exempil of the prudent quin­tus cincinatus, quha vas chosyn be the senat to be dictatur of rome, at that samyn tyme he vas arand the land vitht his auen hand at the pleuch siklyik the sapient porcus cathon cen­sor of rome vas verray soliston the art of agreculture. Siklyik romulus the fyrst kyng of rome [Page] set his hail felicite on the manuring of the feildis. ande alse the tua vailȝeant romans, fabricius and curius dentatus var nocht escha­mit til excerse them on the culture of the feildis. Siklyik numa pompilius that deuot kyng of rome statut that the senaturis of rome suld keip there scheip, as is rehersit ī ane verse that i hef red of ane senatur pascebatque suas ipse senator oues. Siklyik paris the thrid soune of kyng Priam of troy vas ane scheiphird and kepit bestialite on montht ydea. And alse the nobil Scipio quhilk vas vailȝeant, ande no le [...] prudent he conqueist affrica and pat cartage to sac and subdeuit numance and venqueist Annibal and restorit the liberte of rome tha [...] [...]his aige of lij ȝeir he left the toune of rome, ande past to remane the residu of his dais, in ane landuart village betuix peȝole & capu [...] in ytalie and there he set his felicite on the manuring of the corne land & in the keping of bestialite, Ande alse lucullus that pruden [...] consul of rome, quha hed conqueist diuerse battellis contrar the parthiens than in his las [...] dais he left the toune of rome and past to du [...] in ane village besyde naples quhar that he excersit hym on rustic occupatione ande on be­stialite. [Page] Siklyik the nobil Empriour dioclesiā, eftir that he hed gouuernit the empire xviij ȝeir, he left the tryumphand toune of rome & past til ane village be syde florens and ther he vsit the lauboring of the cornis and vynis & on bestialite. Ande alse the prudent duc pare­cles, quha hed the gouuerning of the comont veil of athenes xxxvj ȝeiris, ȝit in his aige of lx ȝeiris, he left the glorius stait of athenes, & past to remane in ane litil village quhar he set his felicite to keip nolt and scheip. quhat sal be said of the patriarchis. Abraam Isaac & Iacob, and of the princis & propheti [...] of Israel? var thai nocht hirdis & scheiphirdis for ther prencipal vacatione vas on the nenresing of bestialite. Ther for (O ȝe my cōpanȝons scheiphirdis and hirdis) ve hef grit cause to gloir and to gyf thankis to god for the grit dignite that ve posses. for ther is na faculte stait nor vacatione in the vniuersal varld, that can be conparit til oure stait. for al vthir staitis of al degreis, baytht temporal and speritual that remanis in tryumphand citeis and burrou­stounis ther ringis na thing amang them bot auareis inuy hatrent dispyit discention & mo­ny vthir detestabil vicis and alse there bodeis [Page] ar subiect tyl al sortis of seiknes be rason of the corrupit infectione and euyl ayr that is generit in ane cite quhar maist confluens of pepil resortis quhilk causis pestilens and diuerse vthir sortis of contagius maladeis & alse casione that the maist part of them endis ther the intemperans of ther moucht in eyting & drynkyng consumis ther stomakis & al ther mēbris, quhilk is occasiōe that the maist part of thā endis ther dais in there green ȝouthed. bot it is nocht siclyik of vs that ar scheiphir­dis, for velyif on the fragrant feildis quhar ve ar nenreist vitht the maist delicius tempe­rat ayr and ther is nothir hatrent auareis nor discord amang vs nor there is nothir detra­ction leysingis nor calumniations amang vs ve hef cherite to god & loue tyl our nycht­bours and the maist part of vs hes gude hail in our body quhil ve be ane hundretht ȝeir ande alse quhou be i [...] that the riche and opu­lent potestatis that dueillis in citeis and bur­roustounis, reputis vs that ar scheiphis, to be ignorāt inciuil & rude of ingyne ȝit nochthe­les al the sciencis and knaulage that thai ascribe and proffessis to be dotit in them hes fyrst procedit fra our faculte, nocht alanerly in the [Page] inuentione of natural mecanyc consaitis. bot as veil the speculatione of supernatural thin­gis as of the firmament and of the planetis, [...]he quhilk knaulage ve hef prettikyt throucht the lang contemplene of the motions and re­uolutions of the nyne hauynis. Siklyik phi­sic astronomye and natural philosophie var fyrst prettikit and doctrinet be vs that ar scheiphirdis for our faculte knauis the natur and the vertu of the sternis and planetis of the spere and of the cir [...]lis contenit in the samyn for throucht the lang studie and contemplene of the sternis, ve can gyf ane iugement of diuerse futur accedentis, that ar gude or euyl, ne­cessair or domageabil for man or beyst for it is manifest that sch [...]iphirdis hes discriuit and definit the circlis and the mouyng of the spe­ris as i sal reherse to ȝou that ar ȝong schei­phyrdis to that [...]ffect that ȝe may hef speculatiōe of the samyn In the fyrst [...]hosephus the historigraphour that treittis of the antiquite of the ieuis rehersis in his fyrst beuk, that the childir of seth (quhilk vas the soune of Adā) var the fyrst inuentours of the art of astronomie and inuestigatours of the celest coursis & mouimentis, the quhilk art thai grauit vitht [Page] lettris (for the vtilite of there posterite) in tua tablis of stane, ane of the tabilis vas of baikyn stane, and the tothir tabil of onbaykyn stane the quhilk thing thai did be cause thai hed herd ther father seth reherse, that his father Adam hed prophety sȝit that the varld sal end be vattir and be the fyir and for that cause th [...] baikyn stane vald thole the fyir & the onbayn stane vald thole the vattir and of this sort, the art of astronomie suld ay remane on consumit. ande thai tua tablis hes bene regester and fundatione til al them that hes studeit in cosmographie geographie and in topographie. There for to mak ane diffinitione of cosmaghraphie (as far as ve scheiphirdis hes cōtem­plit) it is ane vniuersal discriptione of the varld, contenand in it, the four elementis, the eird, the vattir, the ayr, and the fyir the sone and mune and al the sterius: ther for ane mā that desiris tyl hef ony iugement of cosma­ghraphie, he suld fyrst contempil and consi­dir the circlis of the spere celest. for be that distinctione of the said circlis, it sal be facil to knau the distance of diuerse cuntreis that lyis vndir the said circlis baytht of there longitu­de and of ther latitude and the proportione [Page] of the climatis, and the diuersite of the dais & nychtis of the four quartars of the varld, and it sal declair the mouyng eleuatione, and de­clinatione of the sone mune, and of the ster­nis fixt and sternis erratic. and it sal declair the eleuatione of the polis, and the lynis pa­rallelis, and the meridian circlis, and diuerse vthir documentis and demonstrations ma­thematikis.

❧Nou fyrst to speik of the mouyng of the spere and of the diuisione of the hauynis, ȝe sal knau that the varld is diuidit in tua partis that is to say. the fyrst part is the regione ele­mentair quhilk is subiect til alteratione and to corruptione. the nyxt part of the varld is cal­lit the regione celest (quhilk philosophours callis quinta essentia) vitht in the concauite of the quhilk, is closit the regione elementar this said regione celest is nothir variabil nor cor­ruptabil it is diuidit in ten speris, and the gri­test spere quhilk is the outuart spere inclosis in it, the spere that is nyxt til it & sa be pro­gressione and ordur euyrie spere inclosis the spere that is nerest tyl it. in the fyrst, the regione elementair is inclosit vitht in the spere of the mune and nyxt it is the spere of mercu­rius, [Page] and syne the spere of venus, and nyxt it is the spere of the sone, and abufe and about it is the spere of mars. and syne the spere of Iupiter [...]nd than the spere of Saturnus. and ilk ane of thir speris hes bot ane sterne or pla­nete that mouis in the zodiac, contrar the muuyng of the fyrst mobil that ve cal the tēt spere. nyxt thir speris, is the firmament quhilkis callit the hauyn or the spere of the sternis and about it is the nynte spere callit the hauyn cristellyne, be cause that there can nocht be na sternis seen in it. Al thir nyne speris or hauy­nis ar inclosit vitht in the tent spere quhilki [...] callit the fyrst mobil the quhilk makkis reuolutione and course on the tua polis fra day to daye in the space of xxiiij houris fra orient til occident and returnis agane to the orient. bot the mouyng of the tothir nyne hauynis is fra the occident to the orient, quhilk is contrar to the mouyng of the tent spere callit the fyrst mobil. ȝit nochtheles the mouyng of the fyrst mobil is of sic violens that it cōstrenȝeis the tothir nyne speris or hauynis to pas vitht it fra orient tyl occident quhilk is contrar to there auen natural mouyng there for the cō ­pulsit retrograid mouyng is callit be astrono­mours [Page] motus raptus accessus, & resessus stel­larum fixarum. al the thyng that circuitiꝰ this last tent hauyn or fyrst mobil is immobil and mouis nocht, there for it is callit the ha­uyn empire quhar the trone diuine standis, as effermis the famous doctours of the kyrk Nou to proceid in the discriptione of the speris of the hauynis. in the fyrst, ȝe sal ymagyn ane lyne that passis throucht the spere lyik til ane extree of ane cart callit axis spere, qu­hilkis the rycht dyametre of the spere, on the quhilk lyne or extre the speris & hauynis turnis on. thā at the endis of the said lyne ȝe sal ymagyne tua sternis quhilk ar callit the tua polis of the firmament ane of them standis at the northt quhilk is callit the pole artic boreal or septētrional, it aperis til vs in our habitatione be rason that it is eleuat abufe our orizo­ne, the tothir sterne standis at the southt, and it is callit the pole antartic austral or meridional it is ay hid fra vs for it aperis neuyr in our hemispere be rason that it is vndir our or [...]ȝō. ȝe sal vndirstand that the sterne quhilk the scheiphirdis and marynalis callis the north sterne, that sterne is nocht the pole artic for the pole artic is bot ane ymaginet point distāt [Page] iiij degreis fra that sterne that ve cal the northt sterne the quhilk sterne is callit alrukaba, and alse ȝe sal vndirstand that the soucht sterne that is eleuat abufe the orizon of them that duellis beȝond the equinoctial it is callit ca­napus ther for it suld nocht be callit the pole antartic for the pole antartic is bot ane ymaginet point, quhilk standis iiij degreis fra the sterne that is callit canapꝰ. There is ane vthir circle callit orizone the quhilk cuttis the spere in tua parti [...], there is tua sortis of ori [...]on [...] [...]ne is callit the rycht orizon, the [...]thi [...] is callit the oblique orizone. thai that hes there zenith in the equinoctial thai hef the rycht orizon be rason tha [...] the tua polis ar in there orizon. ande thai that hes ane oblique orizon, ane of the polis is eleuat abufe ther orizon ande the to­thir pole is hid vndir there hemispeir and oriȝon. Ther is ane vthir circle in the spere cal­lit meridian the quhilk gais betuix the tua polis rycht abufe our hede than quhen the sune cummis fra the orient to that circle it is iust tuelf houris of the daye & quhē the sune is in opposit til our meridian vndir our orizō thā it is mydnycht. There is ane vthir circle of the spere callit, the circle equinoctial the qu­hilk [Page] deuidis the spere in tua partis it is of ane lyik distance fra the tua polis, it is callit equinoctial, be cause that quhen the sune cummis til it, than the day and the nycht ar of ane lyntht in enerye part of the varld and that occurris tua tymis ilk ȝeir that is to say, quhen the su­ne cummis in the fyrst degre of aries quhilk is the xj daye of marche, & in the fyrst degre of libra quhilk is the xiij day of september. Ther is ane vthir grit circle in the spere callit the zodiac the quhilk deuidis the circle equi­noctial ī tua partis the zodiac is deuidit ī tuelf partis and ilk part is callit ane sing the quhilk zodiac extendis til tuelf singnis callit Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces. Ande euyrie sing is diuidit in xxx degreis. Ther is tua vthir circlis in the spere callit colures ane of them passis be the zodiac in the begynnyng of Aries and Libra quhil­kis ar tua singnis equinoctialis the tothir cir­cle passis in the begynnyng of Cancer and capricor [...] quhilk ar tua solstice singnis. Ther is four vthir litil circlis in the spere ane is cal­lit the tropic of Cancer quhilk is the solstice of symmyr it is distāt xxiij degreis xxx munetis [Page] fra the equinoctial touart septemtrion, quhen the sune cūis til it than it is the langest day of the ȝeir to them that duellis betuix the pole artic and the equinoctial. The circle of capricorne is callit the solstice of vyntir, qu­hen the sune cūmis til it passand touart the pol antartic than thai that duellis betuix the equinoctial and the pole antartic, hes ther langast day of the ȝeir & thā ve hef the schortest day of the ȝeir. The circle artic is xxiij degreis xxx munitis fra the pole artic siclyik the circle antartic is xxiij degreis xxx munitis fra the pole antartic & alse the septemtrional solstice callit the tropic of cācer is xxiij degreis xxx munitis fra the equinoctial and the meridio­nal solstice of capricorn is xxiij degreis xxx munitis fra the equinoctial. The point that is rycht abufe our hede is callit ȝenych the qu­hilk is iiij scoir and ten degreis distant fra our orizon ande as oft as ve change fra place to place, as oft ve sal hef ane vthir ȝenycht, and the place that is direct contrar til our ȝenych is callit antipodes, tha that duellis in thai partis, thai hef ther solis direct contrar til our solis ande thai hef the hauyn for ther ȝenych as veil rs ve, & quhen ve hes the langest day of symyr, [Page] than thai hef the schortest day in vyn­tir ande quhen thai hef symmyr than v [...] hef vyntir. ȝit noch [...]heles lactantiu [...] that famous doctor of the holy kyrk, [...]o his thrid beuk in the xxiiij cheptor be [...] the ma­thematiciēs that ess [...]rm [...]s [...]ntipodos & syklyik Sainct agustyne de [...] dei in the ix che­ptour of his s [...]ynt beuk allegis mony freuol argumentis contrar the antipodos quhar for it aperis veil that thir tua doctours, agustin & lactantius var mair expert in theologie nor thai var in cosmographie, cōsiderand that ther is sa mony probabil rasons that preuis that the eird is round ande that the eird is the cen­tir of the ix hanynis and that the sune circuitis and gais about the eird euyrie xxiiij hou­ris for ve maye see be experiens that quhen the sun-rysis at our est orizon, than it ascen­dis quhil it cum til our meridian, and ther eftir it declynis and passis vndir our vest ori­ȝon quhilk is ane manifest taikyn that the su­ne gais about al the eird quhar for it aperis veil that ther is pepil duelland vndir vs and alse ve hef ane vthir probabil sing to preif th [...] the eird and the vattir is rond for admittand that sum man vald set ane stabil mark at the [Page] see syde, and syne this man departand in ane schip fra that mark, sailand quhil he be furtht of the sycht of the said mark than he beand in the body of the said schip quhen he hes tynt the sycht of his mark than he montis and pas­sis vp to the top of the schip and than he p [...]r­sauis his mark perfytly, the quhilk he culd nocht persaue in the body of the schip quhou be it that the body of the schip be nerar his mark nor is the top of the schip this exempil makkis plane that the eird is rond. Siklyik ane man beand on the hede of ane hil he vil see ane schip farrar on the seye nor he vil see at the fut of the hil quhou be it that the futof the hil be nerar the said schip nor is the hede of the hyl, i hef rehersit thir vordis to gar ob­stinat ignorant men consaue that ther is anti­podos that is to say that there is pepil that duellis vndir our feit. i suld hef rehersit of be for quhou that thai, that hes the equinoctial for ther ȝenych ande hes the tua polis in ther orizon thai hef tua symmyrs and tua vintirs euyrie ȝeir for ther fyrst symmyr is quhe the sune entris in the fyrst degre of aries quhilk is [...]o the xj day of marche and ther fyrst vinti [...] is quhen the sune entris in the fyrst degre of [Page] c [...]ncer quhilk accordis vitht the xij. day of iune, and ther sycond symmyr is quhen the fune entris in the fyrst degre of libra quhilk accordis vitht the xiiij daye of september & ther sycōd vintir is quhē the sune entris ī the fyrst degre of capricorn quhilk accordis vitht the xij day of decēber the tua vintirs that thai hef ar nocht verray vehemēt cald bot ther tua symmyrs ar vondir birnand heyt quhilk is occasione that the pepil that duellis vndir the equinoctial ar blac of ther cullour. And fra tyme that the sune be past the equinoctial touart the meridian tropic of capricorn than thai that dueillis vndir the northt pole thai hef ane conteneual nycht and no day quhil on to the tyme that the sune return & is en [...] trit in the fyrst degre of Aries the rason of thir lang nychtis is be cause that the sune beand past the equinoctial touart the meridional tropic than it is al that tyme vndir the ori­ȝon of them that hes the northt pole for ther ȝenych. Siklyik quhen the sone cūmis fra the equinoctial pasland tonart the septen trional tropic of cancer than thai that duellis vndir the meridional pole hes cōteneual nycht qu­hil the sone returne agane to the fyrst degre [Page] of libra be rason that quhen the sone is northt fra the equinoctial than it is vndir the orizon of them that hes the meridional pole for ther ȝenych & sa be this narratione, thai that duel­lis vndir the pole artic hes ane conteneual nycht half ane ȝeir to gyddir and the to thir half ȝeir thai hef cōteneual day and no nycht half ane ȝeir to gyddir and it is of the samyn sort to them that duellis vndir the pol antar­tic. And nou sen i hef declarit the circlis of the spere i vil speik of the reuolutions and of the nature of the vij planetis. O ȝe scheiphir­dir, ȝe sal contempil in the firmamēt ane ster­ne call [...]t saturn quhilk is hie abufe al the laif of the planetis and for that cause it aperis verray litil to mennis sycht it makkis reuolutio­ne in thretty ȝeir, and returnis to the samyn point that it cam fra it makkis ane circle fra occident til orient contrar the fy [...]st mobil it is of ane cald frosty natur. Nyxt saturne stan­dis the spere & hauyn of Iupiter quhilk mak­kis the cours & circuit in tuelf ȝeiris it is of ane temperat natur be cause it standis in the myd vay betuix the caldnes of Saturn & the byrnand heyt that Mars induris throucht the vicinite of sol. Ande nyxt to Iupiter standis [Page] the hauyn and spere of Mars quhilk sum men callis Hercules it reuoluis in ane circle in tua ȝeiris it is inflammit in ane feruent heyt that ascendis fra the sone.Mars Nyxt to Mars standis the hauyn of the sone the quhilk makkis reuo­lutione in thre hūdretht thre scoir of degreis quhilk is the space of ane ȝeir,Sol the verteous heyt of it, tempera [...]is al the sternis of the fir­mament, Nyxt vndir the spere of the soune stādis the spere & hauyn of Venꝰ quhilk is ane grit sterne of ane meruelous lustir,Venus. ī the mor­nyng it aperis ane lang tyme or the soune ryise and gyffis ane grit lycht at that tyme it is callit lucifer be cause it auancis the day befor the crepusculine. and siclyik it aperis verray haisty on fayr day lycht quhen the soune di­scendis vndir the vest ori [...]on, at that tyme it is cal [...]it vesper be cause it prolongis the day, sum men callis it Iuno and sum callis it isis. al thing that the eird procreatis, is confortit be it be rason of the vertu of the fresche deu that discēdis fra it, it makkis ane on stabil reuolution in thre hundretht xlviij dais and ay it is vitht in xlvj degreis fra the soune. Nyxt vn­dir thespere of Venus, standis the spere & ha­uyn of Mercurius,Mercurius quhilk sum men cellis ap­pollo [Page] quhilk makkis reuolutione, nyne dais mair haistiar nor dois venus bot it aperis nocht sa grit as Venus, it is ay sene befor the soune rysing and haisty eftir that the soune is cum to the vestorizon & it is ay xxij degreis neir to the soune. The last and the nerest pla­net quhilk is callit the mune the quhilk is ane familiar frende to the eird,Luna. the creator of al thingis ordād it to be ane remeid cōtrar mir­knes of the nycht it is the maist admirabil ster­ne of the firmamēt, the diuersite & the variā ce of it hes trublit the vndirstāding of thē that cōtēplit it be rasō that sū tyme it grouis & sū it decressis tyme quhilk is contrar the natur of vthir sternis for sum tyme it aperit neukyt heffand hornis and sum tyme it vas al rond and sum tyme it vas bot half rond sum tyme it vald schau lycbt half the nycht and sum tyme it vald schau lycht al the nycht & sū tyme it vald be thre dais to gyddir nocht sene & al­se the reuolutione & circuit of it maid as lāg passage in xxvij dais & viij houris as the pla­net saturn did ī thretty ȝeir. Nou i vil rehers the cause of the variance ande the mutations of the cours of the Mune ȝe fal vndirstand, that the mutatione and variance of the mu­ne, [Page] in sa mony diuerse sortis, procedis as i sal reherse. The mune is ane thik masse, round lyik ane boule or bal, heffand no lycht of hyr self: for sche and al the vthir sternis resauis ther lycht fra the soune, there for sa mekil of the mune that hes hyr aspect touart the sou­ne hes lycht, bot the tothir half of the mune, that hes no aspect to the soune, resauis no lycht. The cause quhy that the mune schauis lycht one tyme, and is obscure ane vthir ty­me, is be rason that sche is moir suift in hyr retrograid cours nor the soune is. for of hyr auen propir mouyng fra occident til orient in the zodiac, sche cummis euyrie xxvij dais viij houris vndir the samyn degre that the so­ne is ī til, at that tyme the vulgaris sais that the mune is in the cōiunctiōe vitht the sone Sum tyme the mune is in oppositione, that is quhē the mune & the soune ar in apposit degreis, thā ve see the maist part of the lycht that the mune hes resauit fra the soune, the vulgaris sais at that tyme, that the mune is ful. ȝit nochtheles the mune is ay ful, as veil at the coniunction as at the appositione bot quhen the mu­ne is in the eclipis for in the tyme of the ecli­pis the [...]ird is betuix the mune and the sou­ne, [Page] quhilk is occasione that the mune resau [...] no lycht fra the soune at that tyme. There [...] ane vthir admiration of the variant course [...] the mune, for sche resauis mair lycht in hy [...] oppositione fra the soune, nor aptris tyl v [...] ▪ The quhilk i sal preif be this rason. Ane [...] roundnes of lycht, sal gyf lycht to mair no the half of ane les roundnes be rason that th [...] superfice of ane grit roundnes hes ane largea aspect, touart ane roundnes, of ane les quantite nor ane smal roundnes cam hef touar [...] ane grit roundnes. There for sen the soune is of ane gritar quātite, nor is the mune be tha [...] cause, mair nor the half of the mune resauis lycht fra the soune. bot ȝit ve see nocht sa me­kil lycht in the mune as sche hes resauit fra the soune in hyr appositione. Ane parsō that behaldis [...]ne roundnes of ane gritar quanti­te nor is the space betuix his tua een, that parson sal nocht see sa mekil, as is the half of that roundnes be rason that the superfice of that roundnes is of mair quantite nor is the space or largenes that is betuix his tua een.The eclips of [...]he sou­ne.

❧Nou i vil reherse the cause of the eclipsis of the soune and mune. ve may persaue manifestlye, that the eclips of the soun [...] cummis [Page] be the interpositione of the mune betuix vs and the soune, the quhilk empeschis and ob­fusquis the beymis of the soune fra our sycht Siklyik the mune is in eclips,Eclipis of the mune. be the obiectio­ne of the eird, the quhilk eird empeschis the soune to gyf lycht to the mune, of this sort the soune is maid obscure til vs quhē it clips be cause the vmbre and schaddou of the bak of the mune is betuix vs and the soune. And also the mune is maid obscure quhen it clips be rason that the vmbre and schaddou of the [...]ird empeschis hyr to resaue lycht fra the sou [...]e, ther for i may efferme that the myrk [...]ycht is na vthir thyng bot quhen the soune [...]nd mune ar vndir our orizon.

❧Nou to speik of the influens and constella­ [...]ion of the soune and mune and of the ster­us doutles, man & beyst ande al vrhir thyng [...]hat euyr vas procreat on the eird, ar subiect [...] ther operatiōe & rasauis alteratiōe throucht [...]here inf [...]uens. The speculatione and contem­ [...]latione of mennis ingyne culd neuyr consa­ [...]e ane final determinatione of the soune mu [...]e and of the sternis. fra ther operations [...]nd constellations, procedis tempest stormis, [...]yr veddir foul veddir heyt, cald pestilens cō ualescens [Page] rane frost and snau and al vthir accidentis that cummis on the eird, and on man and beyst bot ȝit at sum tyme god almychty be his diuyne permissione mittigatis augmentis or dimuneuis baytht the gude operations and euil operations of the planetis efferand for the vertu and vice that ringis amang the pepil ve ar veil experimentit that quhen ther multipleis ane grit numir of sternis ī the equinoctial of Libra or in the solstice of capri­corn, at that tyme ther occurris grit tempestis and tormentis of euyl veddir. Ande alsa at that tyme, men and vemen of ane tendir complexione ar in dangeir of diuers maladeis, as of fluxis, caterris, collic, and gut and to diuers vthir contagius seiknes. Sic lyik throucht the operatione of the sternis, the oliue, the popil & the osȝer tree, changis the cullour and ther leyuis at ilk tyme quhen the soune entris in the tropic of Cancer, sic lyik the dry mynt that hingis in ane house, resauis sum ver­tu of the eird, quhen the soune entris in the fyrst degre of capricorne. Siklyik ther is ane eirb callit hely tropium the quhilk the vulga­ris callis soucye, it hes the leyuis appin as lāg as the soune is in our hemispere and it closis [Page] he leuyis quhen the soune passis vndir [...] orizon. Siklyik oistirs and mussillis & al vthi [...] schel fysche grouis and incressis in ther natu­ral qualite, eftir the coniu [...]ctione of the mu­ne quhil on to the tyme of the appositiōe thā eftir the appositione, thai schel sische dimune­uis and grouis les and of ane var qualite

Siklyik ther is ane sterne callit canis, the euyl constellatione of it begynnis at the sext daye of iulye, and endis at the xx daye of agust, the natur of it is contrar tyl euyrie thyng that is procreat on the eird. The tyme of the operatione of it in our hemespere is callit be the vulgaris, the caniculair dais. the euyl natur of it, inflammis the soune vithr ane onnatural vehement heyt the quhilk oft tymis trublis and altris ihe vyne in aue pipe, in the depe caue, ande alse it generis pestilens feuyrs & mo­ny vthir contagius seiknes. quhen it ringis in our hemispere, than dogis ar ī dangeir to ryn vod rather nor in ony vthir tyme of the ȝeir, Siklyik there is mony vthir euyl accidētis that occurris throueh the euyl constellations of the planetis and of the sternis ande alse sum of them erris and altirs oft tymis fra ther auē natural course quhilkis aue taikyn and sing of [Page] [...] precedent euyl accidentis that ar [...] on princis or superiors of ane real [...]e the historigraphours rehersis that there vas [...]hre sonnis sene at one tyme in the lyft, befoir the ciuil veyris that occurrit betuix anthoniꝰ and agustus cesar, and alse ther vas thre munis sene in the lyft quhen domitius caius aud fla­uius lucius var consulis of rome. Siklyik the­re is diuerse vthir sternis of ane euyl constel­lation quhilk pronosticatis future euyl acci­dentis ther is ane sterne that aperis nocht oft in our hemispere calli [...] ane comeit quhen it is sene, ther occurris haistyly eftir it sum grit myscheif it aperis oft in the northt it aperis oft in the quhyt circie callit circulus lacteus the quhilk the marynalis callis, va [...]lant streit sū tyme it vil apeir lyik lang bludy hayr sū tyme lyik ane dart sū tyme lyik ane bludy speyrit aperit in the lyft lyik ane sourd be for the detht of Iulius cesar and alse it aperit lyik ane trumpet quhen the kyng of perse stra [...]k ane battel contrar the grecians sum tyme it [...]ei aperit lyik tua gait buckis iustād cōtrar vthirt Nou to speik of the generatione of the ra [...]e. it is ane exalatione of humed va [...]o [...]rs gene­rit in calme veddir abufe the vattirs on the [Page] eird and syne ascendis in the [...] of the ayr quhar that it coagulatis in [...] than the sternis of ane euyl constel [...] [...] ne brakkis that clud than it fallis on [...] partis of the eird in diuerse sortis of schou [...] sum mair, sum les, sum be grit vehemens [...] tempest and sum tyme in soft & va [...]me schorris. ī the antiāt dais there vas sene grit meruellis in the rane, quhilkis singnifeit prodigie of future euyl accidētis. In the tyme that m [...] cus actllius and cayus portnis var consulis [...] rome the lyft did rane mylk and on the mo [...]e it ranit rede blude, siclyik quhen lucius [...] lumnius an [...] sergius sulpitius var consul [...] [...] rome the lyft did rane ran slasche. And [...] quhen the vailȝeant roman mateus crass [...] vas slane be the parthiens the lyft did r [...]ne yrn Siklyik quhen lucius paulus and cay [...] marcellus var consuls in rome the lyft did ra­ne grit quantite of vol. and alfe quhen titus annius nilo vas slane the lyft did nane tile f [...] ­nis Nou to speik of the generatiōe of the den it is ane humid vapour generīt in the sycond regione of the ayr in ane fair calme nycht & syne discendis in ane temperat caldnes on th [...] grer [...] eirbis in smal droppis. The hayr ryin. [Page] [...] the quhilk fallis in mysty [...] syne it fresis on the eird. the myst [...] excrement or the superfluite of the [...] the quhilk fallis fra the ayr ī ane sueit [...], quhilk rane can nocht be persauit be the [...] of men Hail stonis is ane congelit rane [...] [...]hilk fallis on the eird be grit vehemens and [...] fallis rather on the day lycht nor on the [...]. The snau is ane congelit rane frosyn [...]nd congelit in the sycond regione of the ayr [...] it is nocht sa ferme and hard congelit as is [...] hail stonis ȝit nochtheles it remanis [...] meltit be rason that it fallis aye in cald [...] ande the hail stonis fallis comontly in [...]myr. The thoundir is ane corrupt fume [...] on the eird of vapours and syne it ascē [...]is is in the sycond regione of the ayr, and [...] in diuerse massife cluddis quhilk stoppis [...]nd empeschis the operatione of the planetis [...] excerse ther natural course, than the vehe­mens of the planetis brakkis thai cluddis, fra the forse of the quhilk there cūmis fyir and [...]ne grit sound quhilk is terribil to be hard & [...]hat terribil sound is the thyng that ve cal the [...] bot or ve heir the thondir, ve see fyrst [...] fyir quhou beit that thai proceid at ane in­stant [Page] tyme, the cause that [...] heir the thoundir, is be rason [...] and cleirnes of ony thing is mair suyf [...] [...] vs nor is the sound. The euyl that the [...] dois on the eird it is dune or ve [...] crak of it. Oft tymis ve vil see fyir [...] quhou beit ther be na thōdir harde. The [...] slais mony beystis on the feildis. & [...] it slais ane man that is sleipand, he sal [...] dede and his ene close, and quhen [...] ane valkand man he sal be sundin [...] his ene appin. The thoundir is [...] for man ande beyst quhen there [...] rane vitht it. The fyir slaucht vil [...] the vyne vitht in ane pipe in ane depe [...] the pipe vil resaue na skaytht. the fyir [...] sleu ane man on the feildis, and it [...] gold that vas in his bag and it meltit [...] vax of ane seyl that vas ī that samyn [...] me there vās ane nobil princesse callit [...] grit vitht child sche vas on the feildis [...] recreatione, quhar that the fyir slaucht [...] hyr, & sleu hyr nocht bot ȝit it sleu the [...] in hyr voyme. There is thre thyngis [...] neuyr in dangeir of thoundir nor fyir [...] that is to saye the laurye tree the sycon [...] [...] [Page] [...] men calli [...] the see volue he [...] the [...]yrn that fleis sa hie. The [...] rehersis that tybereus Cesar [...] of rome h [...]d ouyr ane hat of laure [...] his h [...]de, and alse he gart mak his [...] tentis on the feildis, of selcht [...] that [...]ff [...]ct that he mycht be furtht of [...] of the thoūdir and fyir slaucht, [...] remeid cōtrar thoūdir & fyir slaucht [...] and v [...]en to pas in hou cauernis [...] eird or in depe cauis be cause the [...] dois maist domage tyl hie placis.

[...] to speik of the cause and of the natur [...] e [...]ir the discriptione of the [...] and hirdie of the antiant dais. ȝe sal [...] that the vynd is no vthir thyng [...] or exalatione heyt and dry [...] concauitei [...] and in the [...]ouellis [...]. the quhilk ascendis and discendis [...] doune betuix the eird and the sycond [...] of the ayr. The marynalis at this [...] hoc soc furthe and dif [...]rmit thretty [...] of vyn [...]is, bot ve that ar scheiphir­ [...] [...] iugement bot of viij sortis of [...] quhilk numir ther is iiij callit [...] and the tothir iiij, ar callit vyn­dis [Page] collat [...]ral. the fyrst [...] auster or me [...]dional vynd [...] callis southyn vynd. it is heyt [...] of natur it generis thondir, cluddis [...] rauis ande alse it is [...] of [...] and of vthir cotagius seik [...]es▪ The [...] vynd is callit fubsola [...]ꝰ or oriētal [...] the vulgaris calli [...] estin vynd, quhilk [...] the vertu of the soune is heyt and dry [...] it is hoilsum for man and beyst, [...] it nureseis al thyng that the eird [...] The thrid cardinal vynd is callit [...] or borial quhilk vulgaris calli [...] [...] vynd. it is cald and dry of ane [...], it is hoilsum for man and [...] kepit fra excessis caldnes bot it is [...] & noysum to the frutis of the [...] feyrd cardinal vynd is callit fauonius [...], quhilk vulgaris callis vestin [...] is cald and humid of ane flegma [...]e [...] neuresant for the frute of the eird. bo [...] [...] tyl tendir complexions that ar [...] seiknes. Nou to speik of the iiij collat [...], the fyrst is callit auste [...] aphricus, [...] betuix auster and fauonius, it is call [...] [...] vulgaris. southt vest it generis [...] [Page] [...] The nyxt colateral vynd [...] quhilk is betuix auster & [...] the vulgaris callis it southt est. it [...] dry [...] and it generis [...] [...]he thrid collateral vynd [...] is betuix septemtrion [...] solanus, [...] vulgaris callis i [...] northest, [...] and dry of natur it is mair hoilsum [...] [...]erson nor it is pleysand, it is contrar [...] fleureis and eirbis of the eird.

[...] collateral vynd is callit circius, [...] betuix septemtrione and fauonius, [...] callis it nortuest, it is cald & dry [...] generis snau tempest & vehement [...] is verray noisum til al thē that [...] be see and land. Al thir [...] rehersit of the circlis of the speir & [...] and planetis is said to garȝon [...] that man kynd is subiect to the plane [...] ther influens ther for ve suld [...] prouid to resist ther euyl [...] quhou be it that thai ar the [...] of god ȝit nochtheles he of his gudnes [...] here euyl influens fra tyme that ve be [...] tyl his command.


[Page] ❧ Quhen the scheiphird hed [...] orisō to the laif of the scheiphir [...] [...] nocht litil, quhen i herd ane [...] of bestialite, distitut of vrbanite [...] speculatione of natural philosophe, i. [...] ne his nychtbours as he hed s [...]deit [...] me auerois aristotel galien ypocrites [...] quhilk var expert practicians in me [...] art. Thā the scheiphirdis vyf said [...] belouit hisband i pray the to decist [...] deus melancolic orison quhilk [...] ingyne be rason that it is nocht [...] to disput in ane profund mater [...] thy capacite can nocht [...] for i thynk it best that ve recreat [...] vytht ioyns comonyng quhil on to [...] that ve return to the scheip fald [...] flokkis. And to begyn sic recreatione [...] it best that euyrie ane of vs tel ane [...] or fabil to pas the tyme quhil enyn. [...] scheiphirdis ther vyuis and sarnādis [...] of this propositiōe than the eldest [...] began and al the laif follouit ane be [...] ther aueu place. it vil be ouer prolixt [...] tidens to reherse them agane vord [...] bot i sal reherse sū of ther namys tha [...] [...] [Page] [...] sum vas in verse sum var [...] var flet taylis. Thir var the [...] as eftir follouis. the taylis of [...]. Robert le dyabil duc of Normā [...] of the volfe of the varldis end, [...] [...]landris that mareit the deuyl, [...] of the reyde eyttyn vitht the thre [...] tail quhou perseus sauit androma [...] cruel mōstir, the prophysie of [...] of the grantis that eit quyk men, [...] fortht as i culd found, vallace, the [...] [...]omedon, the tail of the thre futtit [...], the tayl quhou Hercules [...] hidra that hed vij heydis, the [...] the kyng of est mure land mareit [...] dochtir of vest mure land, Skail [...] the kyngis sone of skellye, the [...] four sonni [...] of aymon, the tail of [...] the mantribil, the tail of syr euan [...] [...]nycht, rauf collȝear, the seige of [...] and gollogras, lancelot du lac, [...] he raid on nycht vitht gyltin [...] candil lycht, the tail of floremond of [...] sl [...]u the dragō be the see, the tail [...] the b [...]ld leslye, the tail of the [...] and maliades, Arthour of [Page] [...]itil beriangȝe, robene [...] [...]he meruellis of mādiueil, the [...] [...]amlene and of the bald braband, the [...] the roy Robert, syr egeir aud syr gryme, [...] of southamtonn, the goldin targe, the [...] of honour, the tayl quhou acteon vas [...] formit in ane hart and syne slane be his [...] doggis the tayl of Pirramus and tesbe, the [...] of the amours of leander and hero, the [...] quhou Iupiter transformit his deir loue [...] ane cou, the tail quhou that [...]ason van the [...] fleice. Opheus kyng of portingal, the [...] of the goldin appil, the tail of the thre [...] systirs, the tayl quhou that dedalus maid [...] laborynth to keip the mōstir minotaurus, [...] tail quhou kyng midas gat tua asse luggis [...] his hede be cause of his auereis.

❧ Quhen thir scheiphyrdis hed tald al thy [...] pleysand storeis than thay and ther vyuis b [...] gan to sing sueit melodius sangis of natural music of the antiquite. the foure marmadyns [...]hat sang quhen thetis vas mareit on month pil [...]iō thai sang nocht sa sueit as did thir scheiphyrdis quhilkis ar callit to name, partheno­pie leucolia, illigeatempora the feyrd callit [...], for thir scheiphirdis excedit al thir foure [Page] [...] music ī gude [...] of dyapason prolations and [...], the musician amphiou quhilk sāg [...] quhil that the stanis mouit and alse [...] and nolt and the foulis of the ayr [...]onuncit there bestial voce to sing vitht hym [...] nochtheles his ermoniꝰ sāg prefferrit nocht [...]he sueit sangis of thir foir said scheiphirdis. [...] i vil reherse sum of the sneit sangis that [...] amang thē as eftir follouis, in the fyrst, [...]tance vitht gude companye, the breir byn me [...] soir. Stil vndir the leyuis grene, [...] me the raschis grene, allace i vyit ȝour [...] fayr ene, gode ȝou gude day vil boy, lady [...] ȝour presoneir, kyng villȝamis note, the [...] nounenou, the cheapel valk, faythtis the [...]none, skald abellis nou. The abirdenis non [...]ume brume on hil, allone i veip in grit di­ [...]es, trolee lolee lemmen dou, bille vil thou [...]im by a lute and belt the in Sanct Francis [...]ord, The frog cam to the myl dur, [...]he sang [...]f gilquhiskar, rycht soirly musing in my mynde, god sen the due hed byddin in Fran­ce and delaubaute hed nenyr cum hame, al mufing of meruellisa mys hefigone, Mastres fayr ȝe vil forfayr, o lusty maye vitht flora quene. O myne hart hay this is my sang, th [...] [Page] battel of the hayr lau, the hunttis [...] Sal i go vitht ȝou to rumbelo fayr, Grem [...] my sorrou, turne the sueit ville to me, My l [...] fe is ly and seik send hym ioy send, hym ioy [...] fayr luf lent thou me thy mantil ioy, Th [...] perssee & the mongumrye met that day that day that gentil day, my luf is laid apon an [...] knycht, allace that samyn sueit face, in ane myrthtful morou, my hart is leiuit on the lād

❧Thir scheiphirdis ande there vyuis sang mony vthir molodiꝰ sangis the quhilk is i hef nocht in memorie, tha [...] eftir this sueit celest armonyeth [...] began to dance in ane ring, euyrie ald scheiphyrd led his vyfe be the hand and euyrie ȝong scheiphird led hyr quhome he luffit best. Ther vas viij scheiphyrdis and ilk ane of them hed ane syndry instrament to play to the laif. the fyrst hed ane drone bag pipe, the nyxt hed ane pipe maid of ane bled­dir and of ane reid, the thrid playit on ane trump, the feyrd on ane corne pipe, the fyf [...] playit on ane pipe maid of ane gait horne, the sext playt on ane recordar the seuint plait on ane fiddil, and the last plait on ane quhissil. kyng amphion that playit sa sueit on his harpe quhen he kepit his scheip nor ȝit appollo the god of sapiens that kepit kyng admetus scheip [Page] [...] menstralye none of thir tu [...] [...] mayr cureou [...]lye nor did thir viij schei [...]dis befor rehersit, nor ȝit al the scheiphir [...] [...]hat virgil makkis mentnon in his bucoli­ [...] thai culd nocht be comparit to thir foir [...] scheiphyrdis nor orpheus that playit sa [...] quhē he socht his vyf in hel his playing [...]efferrit nocht thir foir said scheiphirdis, nor [...]t the scheiphyrd pan that playt to the god­ [...]is on his bag pype, nor mercurius that playit on ane sey reid, none of thē culd preffer thir foirsaid scheiphirdis, i beheld neuyr ane mair dilectabil recreatiōe. for fyrst thai begā vitht tua bekkis and vitht a kysse, euripides, iuuenal perseus horasse nor nane of the satiric poiettis quhilk is mouit ther bodeis as thai hed bene dansand quhen thai pronuncit the [...] tragiedeis none of them kepit moir geomatrial mesure nor thir scheiphyrdis did in ther dansing. Nor Iudius that vas the fyrst dansar of rome culd nocht hef bene comparit to thir scheiphirdis, it vas ane celest recreatiō to behald ther lych [...] lopene, galmouding stendling, bakuart & for duart, dansand base dansis, pauuans, gal [...]ardi [...] turdions, braulis, and branglis, buffons vitht mony vthirlycht dācis the quhilk ar ou [...]r prolixt to be rehersit ȝit nochtheles i sal rehers [Page] sa mony as my ingyne can put in menorie in the fyrst thai dancital cristyn mennis dance, [...]he northt of scotland, huntis vp, the comou [...] [...]ntray, lang plat fut of gariau, Robene hude, [...]hom of lyn, freris al, ennymes, the loch of sle [...]e, the gosseps dance, leuis grene, makky, the [...]eyde, the flail, the lammes vynde, sou­ [...]ra, cum kyttil me naykyt vantounly, schayke [...]g, fut befor gossep Rank at the rute, baglap [...]nd al, ihonne ermistrangis dance, the alman [...]aye, the bace of voragon, dangeir, the beye, [...] dede dāce, the dance of kylrynne, the vod [...]nd the val, schaik a trot, than quhen this dan­ [...]ng vas dune, tha departit and past to cal the [...] scheip to ther scheip cottis thai bleu vp the­ [...] bag pipis than the bel veddir for blythtnes [...]eyttit rycht fast and the rammis raschit the [...]hey dis to gyddir than the laif of ther fat [...]kkis follouit on the fellis baytht ȝouis and [...]mmis kebbi [...] and dailis, gylmyrs and dil­ [...]ondis, and mony herueist hog, than i depar [...] fra that companye and i entrit in ane on [...]auen medou the quhilk abundit vitht al [...]rtis of holisū flouris gyrsis and eirbis maist [...]nuenient for medycyn in the fyrst i sau ane [...] callit barba aaron quhilk vas gude remeid [...]r emoroyades of the fundament, i sau v [...]r­meti [Page] [...] vas gude forane febil stomac, & [...] that vas gude for the blac gulset, i [...] mony grene seggis that ar gude to [...] the flouris of vemen, i sau the vattir lill [...] [...] is ane remeid contrar gomoria, i sau [...] say that is gude to purge the neiris and [...] that consumis the ventositeis of the [...], i sau muguart that is gude for the su [...] catione of ane vomans bayrnis hed, i sau [...], the decoctione of it is remeid for ane [...], i sau betis that is gude contrar const [...] tione, i sau borage that is gude to cōfort [...] hart, i sau cammauyne quhilk is gude fo [...] [...] scabbit moutht, i sau hemp that coagulis [...] flux of the sparme, i sau madyn hayr of [...] quhilk ane sirop maid of it is remeid [...] the infectione of the melt, i sau celidone [...] is gude to help the sycht of the ene, & [...] that is gude for the flux is of the belly [...] [...] sau corriandir that is gude for ane ald belly [...] [...] sau sinkil that slais the virmis of the belly [...] sau fumeterre that tempris ame heyt lyny [...] sau brume that prouokis ane person to [...] ald feume, i sau raschis that prouokis [...] sleip, i sau ysope that is gude to purge [...] sleume of the lychtnis, i sau [...] vthir eirbis on thai fresche fragrant [...]. [Page 32] ande al [...] i sau mony landuart grumi [...], pas to the corne land to laubir there rustical ocupatione al this be me veil contemplit, ande beand contentit, of that pleysand nychtis recreatione, i maid me reddy to returne to the toune that i cam fra to proceid in the compi­ling of my beuk. Bot morpheus that slepye gode, assailȝeit al my membris, ande oppressit my dul melācolius nature quhilk gart al my spreitis vital ande animal be cum impotent & paralitic: quhar for on neid forse i vas cōstren ȝeit to be fris sodiour, than in ane takyn of obediens, i maid hym reuerens on my rycht syde on the cald eird, ande i maid ane cod of [...]ne gray stane. than i purposit to preue ane prettie, i closit my een, to see gyf i culd leuk throucht my ee liddis. bot my experiens vas sune expirit for tua houris lang, baytht my eene greu as fast to gyddir, as thai hed bene gleuit vitht glar or vitht gleu i beand in this sad solitar soune sopit in sleipe, ane hauy me­lancolius dreyme, perturbit the foure quartaris of my dullit brane. the quhilk dreyme i sal reherse in this gros dyi [...], as neir the verite as my rememorance cam declair to my rude in­gyne,

❧The visione that aperit befor the actor in his sleipe. Chap. VII.

IN my dullit dreyme ande sopit visione, i thocht that ther ape­rit to me, ane lady of excellent extractione ande of anciant ge­nolygie, makkand ane melanco­lius cheir, for the grite violens, that sche hed sustenit & indurit. it aperit be hyr voful contenens, that sche vas in grite dout ande dred­dour, for ane mair dolorus future ruuyne, that vas aperand to succumb hyr haistylye, in the maist extreme exterminatione. hyr hayr of the cullour of fyne gold, vas feltrit & tra­chlit out of ordour, hingand ouer byr schul­dirs. sche hed ane croune of gold, hingand & brangland, that it vas lyik to fal doune fra hyr hede to the cald eird. sche bure ane scheild in the quhilk vas grauit ane rede rampand lyō in ane feild of gold, bordoryt about viht doubil floure delicis. This rede lyon vas hurt in mony placis of his body. the acoutreme [...] ­tis ande clethyng of this dolorus lady vas ane [Page 33] syde mantil, that couurit al hyr body of ane meruelouse ingenius fassoune, the quhilk hed bene tissu ande vrocht be thre syndrye fas­sons of verkmenschips. the fyrst part quhilk vas the hie bordour of hyr mantil, there vas mony precius stanis, quhar in ther vas grauit, scheildis, speyris, sourdis bayrdit horse harnes ande al vthir, sortis of vaupynis ande muni­tions of veyr. in the middis of that mantil there vas grauit in carrecters beukis ande figuris, diuerse sciensis diuyne ande humain, vitht mony cheretabil actis ande supernatural miraclis. on the thrid part of that mantil, i beheld brodrut about al hyr tail, al sortis of cattel ande profitabil beystis, al sortis of cornis eyrbis, plantis, grene treis, schips, marchant­dreis, ande mony politic verkmanlumis for mecanyc craftis. This mantil quhilk hed be­ne maid & vrocht in ald tymys, be the prudēt p̄decessours of this foyr said lady, vas reuyn & raggit ī mony placis, that skantly mycht i persaue the storcis ande figuris that hed bene grauit vrocht ande brodrut in ald tymis in the thre partis of it. for the fyrst part of it vā ­tit mony of the scheildis ande harnes that vas fyrst vrocht in it ande ane vthir part of [Page] the scheildis & harnes var brokyn ande rou­stit, ande reddye to fal ande tyne furtht of the bordour of that mantil. Siklyik the plei­sand verkmenschips that vas in the middis of hyr mantil, vas seperat fra vthirs, ande altrit fra the fyrst fass [...]ne, that na man culd e [...]tract ony profitabil sentens nor gude exempil furtht of ony part of it. Nou to speik of the thrid part of hyr mantil, it vas verst grathit, ande spylt be ane grit defferens nor vas the tothir tua partis of that mantil: for it aperit that al the grene treis cornis bestialite meca­nyc craftis ande schips ande marchandrei­se, that hed bene curiouslye vrocht in ald tymis in the bordour of the tail of that mantil, vas spilt ande distroyit, ande the eird vas be­cum barran & stirril, ande that na ordinance of policye culd be persauit in it, nor esperan­ce of rele [...]f. Nou to conclude of the fassone of this ladeis mantil, it vas baytht altrit in cul­our ande in beaulte, ande reuyn in mony placis, hingand doune raggit in pecis, in sic ane sort, that gyf thay hed bene present that vrocht ande maid it in the begynnyng, thai vald haue clair myskend it, be rasone that it vas sa mekil altrit fra the fyrst fassone. This [Page 34] affligit lady beand of this sort troublit ande disaguisit, ande al hyr gaye cl [...]this reuyn & raggit throucht the grite violens that sche hed sustenit: sche beg [...]n to su [...]pire l [...]mentabil r [...]grettis, vitht mony salt teyris distillāt dou­ne fra hyrpiteous ene this desol [...]t affligit lady, beand in this perplexite, ande dispa [...]t of remeid, sche began to contempil the vi [...] ­thrid barran feildis, quhilkis in vthir tymis hed bene fertil in al prosperiteis, quhar s [...]he persauit cummand tou [...]rt hyr, thre of hyr auen natiue natural sonnis. The eldest of them vas in harnes, traland ane halbert, be­hynd hym, beand al affrayit ande sleyit for dreddour of his lyue. The sycond of hyr sō ­nis vas sittand in ane chair, beand clehd in ane syde goune, kepand grite grau [...]e, hessand ane beuk in his [...]ād, the glaspis var fast lokk [...]t vitht rouste. hyr ȝongest sone vas [...]and plat on his syde on the cald eird, ande al his clathis var reuyn ande raggit, makkand ane dolorus lamentatione, ande ane piteouse complaynt. he t [...]ke grite pane to ryise vp on his feit, bot he vas sa greuouslye ouer set be violens, that it vas nocht possibil til hym, to stand rycht vp. Than quhen this lady persauit hyr thre sō nis [Page] in that langorius stait, sche began to reproche them inuectyuely of ther neclegēs cou­uardeis ande ingratitude vsit contrar hyr. the quhilk reproche sche pronuncit vitht mony dolorus suspiris, the quhilk be aperens procedit fra ane trublitspreit, desolat of consolatione ande disparit of remede. than i beand in my sopit melancolius dreyme, i thocht that i inquirit of hyr stile, of hyr duelling place & of the dolorus cause of hyr lamentabil re­grettis. Sche ansuert vitht ane dolorouse contenens, quod sche, my name is callit, the af [...]ligit lady dame scotia, vthir tymis i haue tryū ­phit in gloir ande prosperite, bot nou aduer­se fortoune hes b [...]ne inuyful contrar my veil fayr,Nichil est tam mirabile quam ex beato effeci mi­ser. quhilk is the cause that my trium­phant stait is succumbit in decadēs, ther can nocht be ane mair vehement perplexite, as quhen ane person beand in prosperite at his hartis desire, ande syne dechays in miserabil aduersite. thir vordis maye be applyit ande conferrit vitht the dolorouse accidētis that hes persecutit me.Cic. part. ora. for i that hes bene in maist f [...]rtunat prosperite,Clari sunt liberi, pro inqui familiarer, sed oēs omniū chari­tates pa­tria cōple­ctitur, pro qua nemo bonus du­bitabit mortē op­petere fieri sit profuturus. nou i am inuadit ande affligit be my ald mortal enemeis be the maist extreme assaltis that ther ponuer can exse­cute, [Page 35] the quhilk i beleuit til haue resistit be the support ande supple of my thre somnis that standis heir in my presens, be rason that thai ar oblist be goddis lau ande be the lau of nature to be my deffens contrar al externe inuasions, bot thai haue schauen them self ingrat dissymilit ande couuardis in the iust deffens of my veil fayr: as thou sal heir be this reproche that i sal pronunce to them in thy presens as eftir follouis.

❧ Quhou the affligit lady dame scotia re­prochit hyr thre sonnis, callit the thre estaitis of scotland.Cic. offi. 1. Chap. VIII.

O Ignorant abusit ande dissaitful pepil, gone by the paht vaye of verteouse knaulage, beand of ane effemenet courage, degrad it fra honour, ande degenerit fra the nobilite, of ȝour foir fadirs & predecessours. O quhat vanhap, quhat dyabolic temptatio­ne, quhat misire, quhat maledictiōe, or quhat vengeance is this that hes succumbit ȝour honour, [Page] ande hes blyndit ȝour ene, fra the per­spectiōe of ȝour extrem [...] ruuyne?Vim ne­q [...]e p [...]rēti [...]que pa­ [...]e offerre [...]rtet. allace quhy haue ȝe nocht pytie of me ȝour natural mo­ther? or quhy haue ȝe no pytie of ȝour selfis? al [...]ace quhat oratour can discryue, blame, or repreue, ȝour neclegēs, couuardeis ande ȝour ingratitude?Cic. l [...]talo. allace quhy remembir ȝe nocht, that natur [...]es oblist ȝou, til auance the salute, ande deffens of ȝour public veil? ande quhat thai b [...] (as cicero sais) that hurtis the public veil tha deserue as grite reproche as tha hed sellit traisonablye the realme to there ene­meis:Nō est magis vituperandꝰ prod [...]tor pa­trie, quam [...] vtili­t [...]tis, aūt [...]lutis de­s [...]rtor, prop [...]er suam [...]a [...]utē aūt vtilitatē. for the proditione of ane realme succe­dis to the hurt of the public veil. allace than quhy vil ȝe nocht haue misericord & pytie of ȝour natiue cuntre, quhar that ȝe var enge­nerit borne ande neureist, ande ȝour frendis ande childir hes ȝour sustentatione in it? alla­ce the natiuite of ane man suld be litil prisit, ande his lang liue dais les desirit, quhen ther procedis na frute of his laubirs bot for his auē singulair vti [...]ite, ande nocht for the public veil allace the natural loue of,Cic. de s [...]si our natiue cuntre suld be inseperablye rutit in ȝour hartis, con­siderand that ȝour lyuis, ȝour bodeis, ȝour habitatione, ȝour frendis, ȝour lyuyngis, and [...] [Page 36] sustētan, ȝour hail, ȝour pace, ȝour refuge, [...]he reste of ȝour eild, ande ȝour sepulture is in it. than allace quhy ar ȝe nocht solist to deffende the liberte ande to saue the dominione of it. i maye say ande conferme be raisone, that al pepil ar disnaturalit fra there gude nature, quhilkis in nec [...]ssite enforsis thē nocht at there pouer, to purches & til auance the public veil of there natiue cuntre, it beand disti­tut of supple & desolat throucht grite perse­cutione of mortal enemeis. for thai that vil nocht expose there bodeis and gudis, to perrel ande dangeir, for the iust deffens of there honour, lyuis, frendis ande gudis: bot ra­ther vil thole them selfis, ther public veil, & ther natiue cūtre, to perreis al to gyddir, thai ar mair brutal nor brutal beystis. it aperis that the lau of nature, is mair perfytly acom­pleist in brutal beystis, nor it is in ȝou that professis to be natural men: for ȝour verkis testifeis that ȝe ar mair disnaturellit,Bestie pro suo partuita propū ­gnant, vt vulnera excipiant, nullos im­petus nul­los casus reformi­dent. nor is brutal beystis that hes na vndirstanding of raison. the foulis of the ayr vil deffende ther nestis vitht there nebbis ande feit. the beiris lyons, voluis, foxis, and dogis, vil deffende [...]here cauerne & there quhelpis vitht there [Page] tethe & feit. Allace this sair complaynt is to me rycht hauy, bot the litil support that i vil get of ȝou is far hauyar: for ȝe quhilkis suld susten [...] deffende ande releif me, ȝe ar the ad­uerse party of my prosperite, for in the stede of reuarde ande gratitude that ȝe ar oblist to gyf to me,Cic. 5. tus. ȝe purches ande auancis my di­structione for ȝour particular veil. My ald enemeis hes persecutit me outuartly in cruel veyris be fyir ande sourde, bot the veyr that ȝe mak inuartly con [...]rar me, be auereise & ambitione is mair cruel. My mortal enemeis pur­chessis to raif my liberte, ande to hald me in ane miserabil subiectione: bot ȝe hald me in ane mair seruitude be ȝour disordinat necle­gens ande couuardise. my ald enemeis dois me grite domage vitht ane grite armye of men osveyr be see ande be land. bot ȝe vndir the cullour of frendschip purchessis my final ex­terminatione for falt of gude reul ande gou­uernance. Ande alsa ȝe ar sa diuidit amang ȝour selfis, that nocht ane trouis ane vthir, for throucht the suspetione that ilk ane of ȝou hes of vthirs euyrye ane of ȝou seikis his particular releif. for sum of ȝou ar fled far vith [...] in the cuntre, sum of ȝou ar fled to the hillis, [...] [Page] [Page] [Page] [Page] [Page 40] nitione for ȝour demeritis: ande alse ȝe maye persaue be this sammyn text, that ȝour grite afflictione ande tribil sal turne in ioye ande prosperite, gyue sa beis that ȝe vil retere fra ȝour vice. ȝe haue mony manifest exemplis of diuerse cuntreis that hes bene scurgit be the hand of gode, ande hes bene in dang [...]ir of fi­nal exterminatione. ȝit nochtheles gode of his grace hes restorit them eftiruart in ane mair abundand prosperite. nor thai var of befor, fra tyme tha be cam obedient til his ma­gestie.1 Macha­be. 2. Quhar is there ane mair euident exempil nor is in the bibil in the fyrst beuk of the machabeis, quhou anthiocus kyng of sirrie, be vsurpatione ande tirranrye subdeuit the cū tre of iuda ande the cite of ierusalem? he spulȝeit the tempil ande reft the goldin alter, the chandelaris of lycht, ande al the goldin ves­chel, ande the tabil of propositione, the cou­pis, tassis, crouettis, crounis, ande al the gol­din ornamentis of the sanctuar. he sleu men vemē ande childir, ȝong ande ald, ande brynt there housis. th [...] remanent of the pepil var cō strenȝeit to fle to strait montanis ande deseir­tis for refuge, for al iherusalem ande mekil of iuda vas put tyl extreme desolatione. At that [Page] tyme ane man of Israel callit matathias the neuo of Symeon the hie preist, vas sittand on the hil of modin, ande his fiue sonnis besyde hym, callit Iohannam gaddes, symon thasi, iudas machabeus, eleaȝar abaron, ande ieho­nathan aphus. thir fiue bredir var soir vepand for the desolatione of iuda ande iherusalem. Than matathias there father said to them. van hap be on me,Iosephꝰ de anti. allace that euyr i vas bor­ne; to see the distructione of my pepil & the tribulatione of the holy cite of iherusalem,Li. 12. c. 8 quhilk is violētlye possest be my enemeis. ald ande ȝong ar slane on the reuis but mercy, & the remanent of the cuntre ar in captiuite or ellis fled to the strait montanis for refuge. al­lace quhat bettir vil ve be to lyue ony lāgar cōsiderand of this myscheif that is fallin on oure cuntre? Allace my fiue sonnis, i praye ȝou to be ȝelaturs of the lau of gode, ande to gyue ȝour saulis for the alliance of ȝour fo [...]r fathirs, ande remembir of the verkis thai ha­ue dune to there generations,Genesis 22 ande than ȝe sal resaue grite gloir ande eternal name. tak gode for ȝour protector ande ȝe sal prospir.Gene. 41. vas nocht oure father Abraham faythful in tē ­pta [...]ione, quhilk vas repute [...]l hym for iusti­ce? [Page 41] Ioseph keipit the cōmād of the lau, quhē he vas ꝑsecutit, there for he vas maid lieute­nent to pharon kyng of egipt phinehes oure foir father vas maid hie preist of the tēpil for the ȝeil that he hed to the lau of god.Gene. 4. Iosue for the keping of his promis vas maid captā of Israel.Iosue. 1. 2 Samuel 2. Dauid for the pitie that the hed of the pepil that var affligit be the philistiens, conqueist the royal sege of Israel. Ananias,Danyel. 3 Azarias, and misael var delyuerit fra th [...] flam of the fyir throucht the faitht that tha hed to god. Danyel throucht his simplicite and meiknes vas delyuerit fra the throttis of the lyōs.Daniel. [...] Of this sort (o ȝe my fiue sonnis) ȝe may be­leue that fra generation to generatione, that al thai that puttis there hope ī god sal nocht be distroyit. quhen matathias hed endit his miserabil and piteous regret in presens of his fiue sonnis, than his thrid sone callit Iudas machabeus past athort the montanis and desertis and gaddyryt to gid [...]r al the desolat bannest pepil, and vitht ane gryt cu­rage, heffand hope in god thai cam contrair anthiocus and venqueist hym vai [...]ȝeantly: and also venqueist al the israliates that var part takers vitht hym. and ther eftir thai re­formit [Page] the distructiōe of the tēpil and vsit extreme punitione on the tratours and conspi­ratours, and thai gart extreme necessite be cum prosperus vertu: for thai changit the dis­payr of mennis help in esperance of goddis help: quhar for throucht the mytht of god, venqueist men be cam conqueriours and fu­gityuis be cam assailȝeours, and humil affligit pepil of ane lytil nūmer be cam lordis and maisters of ane gryt multiplie of tirrās. The­re is ane vthir exempil of gedeon in the ty­me of the cruel oppression that the kyng of madian did on the pepil of Israel gedeō vitht thre hundre [...]ht men discumfeist ane hūdretht and tuenty thousant men,Iudicū. 8. and he delyuerit the remanent of the pepil of Israel fra capti­uite and misere ȝit nochtheles he vas ane pu­re lauberar of lytil reputatione and discendit of smal linage of the tribe of menasses, quhar for ve may persaue that quhar the grace of god and the vertu of men ar coniunit to gid­dir, there is no leiful thing onpossibil to be exsecut, And ofttymis god puttis in the po­uer of men the thing that mennis vit cā nocht beleue that it is possibil to be done. There is ane vthir exempil of darius kyng of perse, [Page 42] that entrit in grece vitht ane hundretht thou­sand fut men and ten thousand men of ar­mis, At th [...]t tyme thair vas gryt sedition and discentione amang al the gryt personagis of grece quhair for athenes vas of ane opinion to randir them to darius be rason that the grekis var diuidit amāg thē selfis. Bot noththeles god sterit vp ane duc in athenes callit mil­tiades quhilk vitht ten thousand men discumfeist al kyng darius gryt armye and delyuerit al grece furtht of captiuite.

❧ Thair is ane vthir exēpil of xerxes kyng of perse the sone of kyng darius quha gadde­rit ane armye of thre scoir and ten thousand men of armis of his auē realme of perse, and alse he hed of strangearis that var his frendis and of his allya to the nūmer of thre hun­dretht thousand men, as iustin rehersis, and also he brocht sa mony schipis to grece vitht al ordonnan [...]e quhilkis closit al the reueirs quhair for it vas moist lyk that he hed maid ane brig of tre to couuer al the see: ȝit notht­heles his pride vas sune put doune, for leoni­des kyng of lacedemonia cam be hynd the gryt armye of perse vitht four hundretht lace demoniens and escharmouschit xerxes gryt [Page] armye and sleu tuenty thousand persuns be­tuix tua hillis, ȝit noththeles the remanent of his gryt armye past til athenes quhilkis var reddy to be randrit til xerxces throucht the counsel of ane prince of athenes callit circisus quha hed secret intelligens vitht xer­xes kyng of perse, quhilk vas occasione that he seducit diuerse grit personagis to rebel cō ­trar athenes. bot the prudēt themosticles vas cōtrair til his opinione (sayād) O nobil vail­ȝeāt pepil of athenes ȝe suld keyp the liberte of ȝour cūtray & notht to thole the ꝑsans to be ȝour suꝑiors for fra tyme that ȝe be subiect til xerxesal ȝour honest policie sal be aboleist & al verteoꝰ industrie sal be brocht to notht, for the ꝑsās sal do vitht ȝour vyuis and chel­dyr at there pleseir as it is manifest quhou thai haue dune til vthir partis of grece that is nou in thair subiection, there for it is mair honest to dee in the deffens of ȝour liberte nor to liue lyik venqueist slauis in captiuite. Throcht the counsel of themistocles al the atheniens tuke gryt curage contrar the gryt armye of perse, and also the vemen of the toune stanet cyrsilus to deitht be cause of his euil counsel. Than the atheniens and ther allya [Page 43] be gryt vailȝeantnes assailȝet the persans be escharmouschis and incursions quhil that exerxes and his gryt armye var constrenȝeit to depart fra grece. of this sort god turnit the hazard of fortoune and tuke vengeance on xerxes gryt pryde quhilk suld he ane gryt exempil til al princis, that thai gyf notht the­re trest in ane particular pouer of multiplie of men, bot rathere to set there trest in god, for xerxes vitht four hundretht thousand men purposit til vsurpe the dominione of al grece bot fra the tyme that the greikis ac­cordit amang them selfis ane sobir companye of greikis chaissit the persans furtht of grece. It is notht sex scoir of ȝeiris sen the inglis­men var violent dominatours of mekill of Piccardye and of al Normandye, Gascunȝe, guien and of mekil of France, and the kyng of ingland vas crounit kyng of Frāce in Pa­ris, bot as god vald, he vas schamefully chaissit furtht of France and his pepil slane doune be gryt multiplie. The exēpill of the persecutione of oure auen cuntre is manifest til vs al, quhou the inglismen var violent vsurpatours of al scotlād est vest and north [...] quhar thai duellit paciablie and vsit thare auē [Page] lauis, thai biggit triumphand edeficis in al the burrous of scotland, as the grondis of the­re fundatiōe makis manifest presently at this tyme: kyng eduard throucht supple and tra­son of ihone balȝol and vthir scottis tratours vas cronit kyng of scotlād vitht in the toune of breuie and the rychteous kyng of scotland Robert bruce durst nocht remane in no pace­bil place, he tint threttyne battellis contrar inglismen, them he fled furtht of scotland to norouay to saue his lyue, ȝit nochtheles god almythty hauand pitie of our affligit cūtray he restorit Robert bruce to the crone quha rytht vailȝeantly brocht the realme in guid ordour vitht gryt cōfusion til our ald enemis. Be thir exemplis ȝe maye euidently persaue that god almychty tholis notht violent vsur­patours of realmes to ring lang bot rather he scurgis and distroys the tirrans and he resto­ris the affligit innocentis til ane guide stai [...].Al generū [...]reris sine [...] & vulnere. [...] auci. The famous historiographours and cronik­lis of al cuntreis makis manifest of the mi­serabil ruynis that god sendis on vrangus cō questours quhilkis be ambitione and oultrageus pryde hes be thair tyrrany inuadit vthir cuntraysDescendūt reges, & seca mor­te tiranni. [...]utenal. and eftiruart hes tint there auen cū tray [Page 44] and there self hes maid ane euil end. The queen semeramis vas nocht contentit vitht sirrie and babillon bot sche vald pas to mak veyre contrar ethiope and Inde, sche vas sla­ne vitht hyr auen son. Hercules vas nocht cō ­tent vitht the gryt cūtray of libie and of creit bot vald pas to conques the occian see, than ane voman prysonit hym vitht ane sark. Mitridates vas nocht content of his auen realme of pont, bot vald pas in batel contrar the romanis he dred neuyr to dee bot be poyson quhair fot he bure ay apon hym tuēty leyuis of reu, tua kyrnellis of nutis, & tua feggis and ane lytil quātite of salt, the quhilkis he mixt al to giddyr, and thai mixtions he eit euyrie daye vitht ane fastan stomak to keip hym fra poysonynyg.Regemen mitridates contra ve­nenum. that confectione vas callit to name eftiuartantidotū mitridates, bot ȝit that drog culd notht saue his lyif fra his sone that sleu hym. kyng philip vas notht content of the ryche realme of macedone quharfor he past and perturbit al greice bot syne he vas slane vitht ane of his [...]uen sodiours. Grite ale­xander vas notht content of al the varld, bot syne ane drynk of poyson gart hym be content of ane sepulture of siue fute of lyntht [Page] or there by. xerxes vas nocht cōtētit of tua realmys, perse and meid, bot ane of his officiaris contentit hym vitht ane dagar throucht the hart. kyng cirus vas nocht cōtentit of his auen realme bot vald pas to conques sithia ȝit thomaris gart hym be content quhen sche pat his hede in ane pipe ful of bluid sayand til it. O cirus thou culd neuyr be saciat of menis blude bot nou thou maye drynk thy sil of blude.Iustin. Annibal that redoutit capitan trium­phit in conquessing of vthir realmis bot in his last days he vas fugitiue fra al cūtreis and for melaneolye he poysonnit hym self. It is nocht necessair to multiplie ouer mony of thir exemplis,Bocchas. there for quha listis to reid the tragedeis of lucius seneque or ihone Bocchas in his bulk of the ruuyne of nobillis,Seneque in his tragedeis. thai sal fynd al cruel vsurpatours of vthir cuntreis mak ane mischeuous ende. There for i ho­pe in god that vitht in schort days the prote­ctour of ingland and his cruel counsel sal be put in the croniklis in as abhominabil stile as vas philaris, dionysius, nero callugala or do­mician, the quhilkis maid ane mischeuous en­de, for the violent inuasions of vthir pri [...]cis cuntreis but ony iust titil.

❧The actor declaris quhou the inglismen gifis vane credens to the prophe­sies of merlyne. Chap. X.

THe oratours of Ingland at there protectors instance hes set furtht ane buik quhair be thai intende to preue that scotland vas ane colone of inglād quhē it vas fyrst [...]nhabit there rasōs that thai allege aperis to them to be inuinci­bil quhou beit thai be bot freuol.Ciuitatesa maioribꝰ ciuitatibꝰ velud po­pulorū ex aminibus condite colonie nun­cupantur. there speciale intentione is to gar th [...]re cruel inu [...]sions perpetrat contrar oure realme apeir in the presens of forrain princis that thai haue ane iust titil to mak veyr contrar vs and quhou beit that the said po [...]etical beuk be dytit oratour­ly to persuaid the vulgar ingnorans til ad­here til inuentit fablis contrar the iust verite.Augu. de ciui. dei. Li. 10. ca. ȝit notheles realmis ar nocht conquest be buikis bot rather be bluid. there is ane passage in the said beuk the quilk the inglismen hes ane ardant desyr to se it cum til effect. The tenor of the pass [...]ge sais that it var verray necessare [Page] for the veilfayre of ingland and scotland that baytht the realmis var coniunit to giddir, and to be vndir the gouuernyng of ane prince and the tua realmis to be callit the ile of bertan as it vas ī the begynnyng quhē the toriā brutus conquest it fra the giantis and also the inglismen gifis ferme credit to diuerse prophane propheseis of merlyne and til vthir ald corruppit vaticiuaris, to quhais ymaginet verkis thai gyue mair faitht nor to the prophesie of ysaye Ezechiel, Ieremie or to the euangel: the quhilkis prophane prophetis and vatici­naris hes affermit in there rusty ryme that scotland and ingland sal be vndir ane prince. The ardant desire and the disordinat aueri­sius affectione that inglismen hes to be violēt dominatours of oure cuntray hes prouokit them to mak cruel veyris contrar vs thir mony ȝeiris by past, to that effect that there diabolic prophane propheseis may be fulfillit, nocht regard and gyue the vil of god hes permittit be his diuyne gudnes that sic propheseis cum til affect, Nor ȝit thai considyr nocht that al propheseis hes doutsun, and duobil expositionis. ȝit nochtheles i hope in god that the rycht sens of there prophane prophesye sal be ful­fillit [Page 46] in this generatione, and that inglismen, sal get there desire to there perpetual confu­sione. the inglismen exponis the prophesye of merlyne to there auen affectione as the iueis exponit the prophesie of cayphas. Cay­phas of ane euyl intent spak treu prophesye, bot ȝit he and the iueis interpret it to the vrang sens, quhilk vas cause of there auen condamnation. Of this sort cresus kyng of lidie exponit and interpret the ansuer of apollo to the vrang sens, quhen the cruel veyris vas betuix hym and cirus kyng of per sand meid. At that time the tua gryt battellis of onnumerabil men of veyr var campit neir to giddir, except that the reueir of almy ran betuix them. On the morne kyng cresus past to the oracle of appollo in the tempil of delphos [...]syrand to knau the fyne of the veyris that vas sa cruel betuix hym and kyng cirus. Ap­pollo gaue to kyng cresus ane doutsum ansuere of ambiguite this vas his ansuer, cresus perdet almi trāsgressa maxima regna. This vord perdet is ane verb equiuocum it signifeis to distroye and it signifies to tyne it is vritin in th [...] fyft psalme of Dauid, perdes omnes qui lo [...]uuntur mendacium. the expositione of [Page] this passage, signifies nocht that god tynis them that ar learis, for god can tyne na thing, there can no thing be tynt bot quhen he that tynis ane thing, and syne knauis nocht quhair it is: bot god knauis al thing. of this sort kyng cresus exponit the ansuer of appollo of ane sens,Cresus per det almi transgres­sa maxi­ma regna and appollo said his ansuer of ane vthir sens Cresus interpret that verb perdet for to distroye, and for that cause he and his gryt armye past ouer the reueir of almiin hope to distroye kyng cirus, bot cirus venquest cresus and al his gryt armye the quhilk mischeif cā on kyng cresus for the v [...]ang interpretatione of the ansuer of appollo for he considerit nocht that perdet vas ane verb equiuocum quhilk hed ane expositione of ambiguite.

There is ane syklik exempil of pirrus kyng of eporite that past to the oracle of appollo til inquyre of the fyne of the veyris that vas be­tuix hym and the romanis, appollo gaue ane doutsum ansuere of this sort. dico te pirre ro­manos vincere posse, Pirrus exponit that ver­se of this sort, pirre dico te vincere romanos, bot appollo said it of ane vthyr sort, pirre di­co romanos te vincere, as cam til effect eftyr­uart. for the romanis venquest kyng pirrus [Page 47] and chaissit hym furtht of Italie. There is ane vthir exempil of ferrand erl of Flāderis quha maid mortal veyr contrar the ykng of Frāce. he, his mother, and his vyfe,Augureis ane perso [...] that tellis of thyngis that ar to cū throu­cht, the iugement that thai haue of hirdis vo­cis & of therfleing past til ane augure in holland til inquyre of the fyne of the veyris betuix hym and the kyng of Fran­ce. the augure ansuert. quod he thou sal entir in Paris quhair that gryte tryumphe and ioye sal be maid at thy entres. ferrand beand rycht glaid of the ansuere of his augure he enterit ī France vilht ane gryt armye bot or he cam to Paris, he and his armye var venqueist and he vas tane presoner and led to paris than al the parisiens maid gryt triūphe and ioye for blythtnes be cause that ferrand there mortel enemye vas disconfeist. Of this fort, ferrand exponit the ansuere of his augure til ane vrāg sens. Th [...]r exemplis may be conferrit and applyit vitht the prophesies of merlyne to the quhilk the inglismen giffis mair confidēs nor thai gif to the euangel, be cause that there ald prophane propheseis sais that inglād and sco [...] lād sal be baitht vndir ane prince. on this mi­steous prophesels, thai haue intēdit veyris cō ­trar scotland in hope to conques it: bot as i haue befor rehersit, i beleue that there prophe­sie [Page] sal cum til effect bot nocht to their intē [...] and that ingland and scotland sal be ane mo­narche vndir ane prince in this generatione, cōformand til ane prophesie that i haue red in the inglis chronyklis in ane beuk callit pol­lichornicon, the quhilk prophesie sais that in­gland sal be first conqueist be the deynis, and syne be the saxons, and thridly be the Nor­mandis, and there last conquessing sal be conquest be the s [...]octis, quhome inglismen hal­dis maist vile. and fra that tyme furtht inglād and scotland sal be bot ane monarche, and sal lyue vndir ane prince, and sa inglis men sal get there prophesie fulfillit to there auen mi­scheif.

❧Quhou the pretendit kyngis of ingland h [...]s no iust titil to the realme of ingland nothir be electione nor be successione, and quhou thai pretendit kyngis of ingland, hee practikyt ane crafty dissait contrar valis and yrland. Chap. XI.

THir vordis befor rehersit (O ȝe my thre sonnis) suld prouoke ȝou to tak curaige, ther for i vald that hope of victoree var augmētit, & dreed va [...] [Page 53] banest fra ȝou. vald ȝe al perpend ȝour iust de­fens and querrel thā h [...]rdines and curage vald returne vitht in ȝour hartis. and fyrst ȝe suld considyr the pepil, and the titil of them that persecutis ȝou be on iust veiris. quhen ȝe hef veil socht the verite, ȝe sal fynd that it is the false blude that discendit of sergestes and eu­gestes quhilk var tua saxons that cam vitht aleuin thousand saxons fra thair auen cuntra to support and supple the kyng of grit bertanȝe quhilk is nou callit ingland quha vas opprest be cruel ciuil veyris. than eftir that thir tua sa­xons hed venquest the enemes of the kyng of bertanȝe, thai trasonablie banest the rythteus kyng and his posterite fra the realme. and sen syne that false blude hes possest that cuntre violently be tyrranye, and the maist part of thay tirran kyngis that hes succedit of that fals blude, hes beene borreaus to their predecessours as the cronikls of ingland makis manyfest, as of henry the first of that name quhilk vas ba­nest fra the crone, Siklik henry the thrid vas banest fra the crone be his second sone Ri­chart, ihone kyng of ingland gart slay the heretours of his predecessours and brukit the real­me tuenty ȝeirs and syne ther eftir he vas banest [Page] and eftir that kyng eduard vas gart dee meserablye in preson, syklik Richart the sy­cond vas cruelly slane be his auen men, and ther eftir hē [...]y the saxt lossit his liyf de eduard the thrid of that name, than eftir hym succe­dit rechart the thrid quha gart sla the childir of eduard the thrid, and sa brukit the cuntre certā tyme and ther eftir vas exilit frathe crone, and henry the seuynt be the support and supple of the kyng of France gat the crone of ingland, and sa none of them hed rytht to the crone of ingland ergo thai hef na titil to the crone of scotland. Al this veil considerit suld inflam ȝour hartis vitht curage to resist ther cruel vrā ­gus assaltis & to menteme be vailȝeantnes the iust defens of ȝour natyf cūtre. ȝe knau quhou thai and there forbears hes beene ȝour ald mortal enemes tuelf hundretht ȝeiris by past ma­kand cruel veir contrar ȝour predecessours be fyir and suerd, dayly distroy and ȝour feildi [...] villagis and buroustounis, vytht ane ferme pupos to denud scotland fra ȝour generatione and there vas neuer faitht nor promes kepi be them bot aye quhen ȝe beleifit til hef he [...] maist sure pace betuix ȝou and them than tha lay at the vacht lyik the ald subtil doggis by dā [Page 54] quhil conspiratione or discentione suld ryes amang ȝou than be there austuce and subtili­te thai furnest vitht money baitht the parteis aduersaris to slay doune vderis, quhilk vas ane reddy passage to gar them conqueis our realme vithtout straik or battel, throcht the occasiō of the social ciuil and intestyne veyre that rang sa cruelly throucht our cūtre. Valerius maximus rehersis ane exempil confor­mand to this samyn purpos quhen the athe­niens and the lacedemoniens quhilkis var the tua maist famous tounis vitht in the mo­narche of greice thair raise ane discention and discord betuix the said tua tounis, than darius kyng of perse quha hed euer ane ardant desyir to conqueis greice be cause the greiciens hed euer been mortal enemes til hym and til his predecessours, and speciale the toun of athenes resistit hym mair in his veyris nor did al the remanent of greice. for that cause he send his prouest tasifernes vitht gold and siluer to lacedemonia to furneis thē in there veyris contrar the atheniens. at tha [...] tyme alcibiades vas bannest fra athenes and excommunicat be the prestis of there tempil, [...]ftir the consuetude of there lau. than alcibia­des [Page] past for refuge to the lacedemoniens quha var mortal enemes to the atheniens, he vas r [...] sauit rytht honorabilye and gat gryt credit amang them quhilk vas occasion that throcht his consel and throu the gold that the prouest tacifernes hed brocht to lacedemonia fra his maister kyng darius, the lacedemoniens tryumphit contrar the atheniens. alcibiades persauād that lacedemonia vas aperand to be superio [...] of athenes he said to the prouest of kyng da­rius. schir ȝe suld nocht furneis the lacedemo­nens vitht sa grit quantite of gold and siluer contrar athenes, for gif athenes be conquest be the lacedemoniens, than the lacedemoniēs sal be superiors of al greice: and fra tyme that thai be pacibil gouuernours of greice and hes no ciuil veyris, discord, nor discention amāg them, than doutles thai sal intend veir cōtrar ȝour maister darius kyng of perce, as there for bears did ī alld tymis there for i think it maist cōuenient that kyng darius furneis lacedemonia bot vitht sa mekil money as may keip thē on venquest be the atheniens, and als it var verray necessair that kyng darius furnest the atheniens vitht sa mekil money as may resist the lacedemoniens, and that sal gar al the cuntrey [Page 55] of greice hef perdurabil veyr amang thē selfis, and than kyng, darius may eysily con­queis greice vitht litil dommage to his cūtrey. the prouest of darius adherit to the counsel of alcibiades, and send nocht sameikil monye to the lacedemoniens as mytht gar thē conqueis athenes, nor ȝit he send nocht so litil money that throcht necessite thai suld leaue or desist fra the veyris. of that samyn sort he send money to athenes to defend them contrar the la­cedemoniēs. and sa be the counsel of alcibiades darius kyng of perce cōqueist mair of greice, vitht ane hundretht tallentis that he distri­buit secretly amang the grecians to menteme there ciuil veyris ilk ane cōtrer vderis, nor he conquest be forse, vitht ten thousand tallentis. As hary the eycht kyng of ingland did to the empriour & to the kyng of Frēce ī the ȝeir of gode ane thousand fiue hundretht tuenty foure ȝeris, he professit hym self to be neutral bot ȝit he furnest the empriour vitht sex thousand fut men and tua hundretht lycht horse on his auen expēsis quhen the kyng of Frāce vas past ouer the alpes to seige paue ande alse that samyn kyng hary lent to the kyng of Frā ce aucht scoir of thousandis engel noblis of [Page] the quhilk the empriour v [...]s surly aduertest. for quhen the kyng of France ande his armye var deffait be the due of Burbon, the viceroy of naples, the marquis of pesquaire, and the marquis of gonnast, thir said princis gat in the spulȝe of the France men, the kyng of Frā cis pose, quhilk vas al in engel noblis, ande alse thai gat the kyng of inglandis preua vri­ting quhilk he hed sende to the kyng of France at the seige of paue. of this sort the kyng of ingland playit vitht baytht the handis, to gar the empriour and the kyng of France ilk ane distroye vthirs (O ȝe my thre sonnis) the discention & discord that ryngis amang ȝou hes done mair distructiōe til our realme nor quhen the gryt armye & pouer of inglād in­uadit ȝou. the experiens of this samyn is ma­nifest quhou that the kyngis of ingland hes be ne mair solist to hef pace & fauoir of scotlād quhē iustice & cōcord gouuernit the thre estaitis, of scotlād nor tyl hef hed the sauoir & pace of al the riche realmis that the empriour possessis. and in opposit quhen the kyngis of ingland persauis, discord discentiōe, ciuil veyris, iniulte is & diuisione vitht in scotland thā thai forgie fenȝet querrellis contrar our realme, [Page 56] in hope that ilk scottis man sal be mortal enemye til his nychtbour. Quhar for i exort ȝou ȝou my thre sonnis tha [...] ȝe be delegent to remeide ȝour abusiōs of the tymis by past, quhilk sal neuir cum til effect, bot gyf that ȝe­remoue & exp [...]l discentione discord, and ha­trent that ringis amang ȝou for gyf ȝe be enemeis to ȝour selfis, thā quhy suld the kyngis of inglād be accusit quhē thai intēd veyris cō trar ȝou considerant that thai hef bene euyr ȝour ald enemeis i vald spere quhat castel can be lang kepit quhen the enemeis seigis is cruelly vitht out, and vitht ī the said castel ther ringis mortal seyr amang the soudartis men of veyr quhilkis suld lyf ī ane mutual & faythtful accord ī deffēs of the said castel cōtrar ex­terne violēs? this veil cōsidrit suld be occasiōe to gar ȝou expel hatrēt diuisiōe & auaricius lyfting furtht of ȝour hartis, & alse it suld prouoke ȝou to remēbir of the nobil actis of ȝour foir fathers & p̄decessours, quha deffēdit this realme be there vailȝeātnes, & alse reducit there liberte, quhilk vas ane lāg tyme in captiui­te, be the machination of ȝour ald enemes as ȝe may reid in diue [...]sis passis of ȝour cronikillis. And sen ȝe [...]au that god hes schauē sic fauoir [Page] to ȝour foir bearis throcht the quhilk thai hef vēqueist thair enemes and brocht the realme be visdome & manhede ī sykkyr pace quhou beit thai var onequal baytht ī nūmer & puissance to ȝour ald enemes, ȝe suld mak ane mirrour of there nobil actis. for sē ȝe knan that ȝour ald enemes hes intendit to conqueis & to subdieu ȝou to there dominione noch [...] throcht there manhede & visdome bot rather throcht the discētiōe that ringis amāg ȝou, ȝe suld schau ȝou verteous & vailȝeant in ȝour rytht defēce. for quhē ȝe ar in accord & lyuis in trāquilite, ȝour ald enemes sendis ther imbassadpurs to desyre pace & fauoir quhilk is mair necessair to thē nor it is honest, conside­ring of there grit pouer & mytht be see & be land. bot nochtheles the mair reches that thai posses the mair schame redondis to thē, & the mair gloir is ȝouris, sen thai hef beene vēquist be ȝou diuerse tymes quhome thai held maist vile and febil, and nou sen ȝe knau the apering dangeir of ȝour natif cuntre ȝe suld prudent­ly consult to escheu al dangeir and to begyn fic gude ordour ȝe suld prouide al vays to remoue discentione sedetione and auaricius lyffyng, quh [...]k may induce hatrent inuy and [Page 57] rancor amang ȝou, to that effect that ilk perso­ne may lyf eysylye on his auen iust cōques, and that none of the realme hef occasione to do extorsions til vthyris. for sic gude pollycie veil ordorit sal cause the cuntre to increse in gloir honour and reches and dreddor to ȝour enemes. quha ar verray solist and vigilant to conques ȝou, ther prouisione of diuerse sor­tis is vonder grit, nocht alanerly be gryt multitude of men of veyr and ane grit nauen of schipis be seey burde, bot as veil be secret ma­chinatiōe to blynd ȝou be auereis presentand to ȝou gold siluyr and grit promessis of here­tagis to persuaid ȝou to commit traison con­trar ȝour faitht honour and comon veil qu­hilkis ane rycht passage to bryng ȝou and ȝour posterite til ane vile & final exterminatione. vald ȝe maturly consydir the subtilite of in­glismen ȝe sal fynd them aperand faithtful and humain in thair aduersite, bot quhē thai ar in prosperite thai ar ingrat t [...]rrās and cruel abuf al vdir natione. Och quhou dangerus is it, til ony sort of pepil til hef ane cruel tir­ran ryngand abuf them, and to eschaip sic tirranny ȝour forbears hes debatit ȝour cuntre this mony ȝeirs be grit manhede and visdo­me. [Page] quhou beit it vas in dangeir to be in final euersione. the croniklis vil certifie ȝou quhou thae ȝour nobil predecessours and foir bears var slane and the comont pepil brocht to vile seruitude ane lang tyme be the saxons blu­de, and ȝit sic calamite and persecutione indurit bot for ane tyme. for god almythty, that knauis ȝour iust defens hes euer schauen gryt fauoir touart ȝou, therfor ȝe suld tak curage in ȝour iust querrel. ȝe hef no cause to dispayr for falt of supple, for ȝour predecessours hes been in mair dangeir quhen ȝour strynthis and castellis hes nocht been sa defensabil, nor ȝit the cūtre heffand supple of na forane prince. It is tideous to rehers the grit calamiteis the sair battellis and the cruel slauchtyr that vas cruelly exsecutit on scoctis men, and to conclude, al the cuntre vas in extreme subie­ctione fourty ȝeirs and possest be our ald ene­mes. Bot nochtheles god almythty valknit vitht his grace the hartis of ȝour predeces­sours, as he did to sampson Dauid and iudas macchabeus contrar the enemes of Israel, quhair for al ȝour cuntre vas delyuerit fra captiuite to the grit domage of reches and essu­sione of blude on ȝour ald enemes. ȝe vai [...] [Page 58] veil that the ciuil and intestyne veir and the discentione and discord and r [...]ncor that ryn­gis amang ȝou is the speciale cause of the in­glismeis inuasions and of ȝour miserite, for ȝour ald enemes quhou beit of ther puissans vald neuer hef maid sic incursions ande hair schips on the bordours and limitis of ȝour cū tre, var nocht ȝour selfis maid ane reddy pas­sage to thē throcht the occasione of ȝour auen discentions that ryngis amang ȝou. ther for it is n [...]cessa [...]r thai zeal perpend that sic discen­tione be nocht the cause of ȝour auen distructione and sin al ruyne of ȝour natione the kyng of ingland knauand the discention that ryngis amang ȝou, he vil tretcheris and pro­mes grit reches til ony of ȝou that vil adhere til hym contrar ȝour comont veil, bot fra ty­me rh [...]t he get dominione of the cuntre ȝe sal be his sklauis in extreme seruitude, ȝour vyfis and doctheris deflorit be the onbridilit lust of ȝour ald enemes, and violently led auay befoir ȝour facis be the extreme lauis of the veyr. ȝour gold and siluyr aud vthir gudis public and priuat sal be distribut and disponit amang them, the frutis and cornis of ȝour [...]r [...]nd to be vsit at ther dispositione, and ȝe sal [Page] be compellit to laubir the naikyt feildis vitht ȝour auen handis to there proffet. ȝe sal nocht alanerly be iniurit be euil vordis bot als ȝe sal be violētly strykkyn in ȝour bodies, quhar for ȝe sal lyf in mair thirlage nor brutal bestis quhilkis ar thirlit of nature. And ony of ȝou that consentis til his fals conques of ȝour cū ­tre ȝe sal be recompens [...]it as ȝour forbears var at the blac perliamēt at the bernis of ayre quhen kyng eduard maid ane conuocatione of al the nobillis of scotland at the toune of ayre, vndir culour of faitht and cocord, quha comperit at his instance, nocht heffand suspi­tione of his treson abil consait, than thai be and in his subiectione vndir culour of fami­liarite, he gart hang cruelly and dishonestly to the nūmer of sexten scoir of the maist nobil­lis of the cuntre. Tua and tua ouer ane balk. the quhilk sextene scoir var cause that the in­glismen conquest sa far vithtin ȝour cuntre. ȝe may reid the croniklis of al cuntreis and ȝe sal fynd that quhen forain princis hes violēt­lye but iust titil gottin dominatione on vthir cuntreis thā in the begynnyng thai haue tre­tit and flatterit the principal inhabitans quhil on to the tyme that thai var pacebil domin [...] tours. [Page 59] and there eftir thai haue vsit there dissymilit intēt on the pepil, and hes distroyit thē, as kyng eduard did at the bernis of ayre befor rehersit. There is ane exempil confor­mand to this samen purpos rehersit be vale­rius maximus and in titus liuius quhou that tarquinus superbus the sext kyng of rome quhilk maid cruel veyre contrar the cite of gabine til hef hed it subdeuit to the dominio­ne of rome.Titꝰ liuiꝰ Libro: 1. bot that nobil cite dessendit the­re liberte rytht vailȝeantly. his sone sextus tarquinus vas in grit melancolye be cause his father culd nocht conques that cite be fors nor be loue nor ȝit be flattery. ther for he de­partit fra his father vitht ane fēȝet displeseir and past to the cite of gabine makand ane pitteus complanit on the crualte of his fader cō ­trar hym, pray and to them of gabine that thai vald be his deffens contrar his father, and he sal be subiect to that cite imperpetual. the cite of gabine throcht there facilnes gef hasty cre­dit to sextus tarquinus and resauit hym and trettit hym be grit familiarite. than day be day be his fayr vordis thai gef hym credens, in sic ane sort that al the pepil be cā obediēt til hym. than he send ane of his familiaris til [Page] his fader tarquinus superbus declarād quhou he hed conqueist the fauour of al the pepil, desyrand his fatheris counsel quhou he suld vse hym to hald them in subiectione, the messager of sextus past to tarquine superbe de­clarand his message quhar he gat ald tarquine ī ane garding, bot ald tarquine gef nay ansuer to the messanger, bot tuike his staf and syne past throcht his gardin and quhar that he gat ony chasbollis that greu hie, he straik the heidis fra them vitht his staf, and did no thyng to the litil chasbollis. the messengeir gat nay ansuer be tong fra ald tarquine bot returnit til gabine til his maister sextus tarquinꝰ quha askit ane ansuer of his message. the messenger tald quhou his father send nay ansuer be tōg, bot past vp and doune his gardyng vitht his staf cuttand doune the hie chasbollis. than sextus tarquinus kneu veil his fatheris mynd, that his counsel vas to strik of al the hedis of the principal men of the cite of gabine, and than the remanent of the pepil durst nocht reuolt contrar hym. of this sort the nobil cite of gabine vas disauit be flatterye and facilnes of gyffing credit til ane tirrane. sex­tus tarquinus vsit his father counsel for he [Page 60] distroyit and sleu al the principal lordis of gabine as kyng eduard did to the lordis of scotlād at the bernis of ayre. The onfaithful cruel act that kyng henry the aucht vsit contrar yr­land and valis quhen he be cā ther superiors su [...] be mirrour and ane exempil til al scot­land▪ for he vsit the samen practik contrar irland and valis as sextus tarquinus exsecut on the cite of gabine, and as kyng eduard exsecutit on the barrons of scotland at the [...]ernis of ayre, for quhou beit that the kyng of ingland nou present be discendet of the blude of valis, ȝit nochtheles the pepil of va­lis ar in sic subiectione that thai dar neuer ry­de bot iiij to giddir, and als that nane of thē sal cum vitht in the mane cuntre of ingland vitht out ane certificat fra the sceref to gar it be knauen that thai hef sum speciale byssynes vitht in ingland. and als rhersal nane that is borne ī valis beyr office ī valis, nor ȝit in in­gland. and alsa t [...]e principal men of valis ar subiect to pas to the veyris in propyr person contrar scotland or cōtrar France quhen euer thai ar chargit be the kyng of inglādis lettris. Bo at the first apoyntement that vas accordi [...] betuix the kyng of ingland and the lordis of [Page] valis he promest them grit liberte quhil he hed resauit the castellis and strynthis of valis, and hed put inglis captans in thē. bot incon­tinent ther efter he gart strik the heidis fra al the lordis of valis, and fra the principal bar­ronis. and syklik to spek of irland, quhen the kyng of ingland vas accordit vitht the lordis of irland and that be hed resauit ane certā of castellis and sum of the principal tounis, than ane lang tyme eftir he tretit the lordis of ir­land vitht fayr vor dis and gef them riche gyftis, quhil he be his subtilite gart tuef of them cum to london, quha cam at his com­mand be cause thai dreid na cruelte. than in­contynent he gart steik the hedis fra the said tuelf lordis of irland. and sen sine al the irlād men ar sklauis til hym excepand ane certan that kepis them sel on the strait montanis of irland, quhilkis vil nocht obeye to his tyrra­nye for thai hed rather remane in cald and hunger in the vyild forrestis ande hillis at there liberte, nor for to be in his captiuite to be hangit and hedit as he hes dune causles til mony vthyr innocent men. The extortio­ne that the kyngis of inglād hes dune to ȝour predecessours is manifest to ȝou al. the chro­niklis [Page 61] makis manifest quhou that kyng eduard eftir that he hed ouer run al ȝour cuntre and hed brocht al the pepil til extreme captiuite, quhar for compulsione and necessite causit thē til obeye and to mak homage til ingland. thā the crualte of this said kyng eduard nocht sa­teffet nor saceat, he brocht fra ingland ane hū dretht thousand men, and als he brotht ane freir vitht hym callit conraldus the quhilk freir hed commissione to mak ane chronikil of the actis that kyng eduard and his hun­dreth tousand men suld do in scotland. this said grit armye of ingland beand befor ban nocht burne, kyng eduard maid ane perlamēt vitht in his camp vitht ane certā of statutis & ordināce quhilk vasput ī vryit be the said freir This vas the tenor of the said ordinance. in the fyrst he ordand thre vaupynschauyngis to be maid al on ane day in scotland be scoctis men in thre of the farrest placis of scotland, as in til the marse, in gallouaye, and in the northt of scotlande and at thay vappynscha­uyngis, al the vaupynis an [...] armour of scot­land to be delyuerit to the inglismen to be ke­pit in castellis quhil on to the tyme that the kyng of inglād inted to mak veir aganis vthyr [Page] cuntres. the nixt statut he ordand that na scottis man suld veyr na vaupyn bot ane knif offise inche of lyntht vitht out ane point. in the third statut he ordand that na scottis man suld duel in ane house that vas loftit bot ra­ther in ane litil cot house. in the ferd he ordād that na scottis man suld veir ony clais bot hardyn cotis, in the fyft artikle he ordand that the scottis men of scotland suld he partit in thre partis, the first part suld remane ī scot­land to laubeir the cornis on the grond. the sycond part suld be send in ingland to be ser­uandis to laubyr thair grond. and the thrid part of them of the best lyik men, suld be ba­nest fra scotland and to hef ane lecens to pas in ony straynge cuntre to seik ther gude auenture. This cruel ordināce vas maid ī the kyng of ingland campt be for bannothtburne, he beleifit at that tyme that al vas his auen. than god almythty quhilk beheld his pryde and ar­rogance and his on merciful intent, he valknyt vitht his spreit the hartis of the nobil men of scotland and the quhilkis in ane feu numer cam vitht ane hardy curage contrar kyng eduard and sleu thretty thousand of his mē, and chais sit hym self thre scoir of mylis vitht in inglād [Page 62] And in ther returnyng hamuart thai vaisti [...] and brynt northt humyrland and mony vthir plaicis of ingland. this battel vas fochtyn at bannothburne as the inglis croniklis rehersis mair large. thē quhā the tētis pailȝōs & spoulȝe of the inglis armye vas tane & gaddrit vp be scottis mē, thai gat the forsād inglis freir cōraldus vithtin kyng eduardis tent, & als thai gat thyr forsaid artiklis & ordināce quhilk the in­glismen purposit to execut on the scottis mē, bot inglismē tuik nocht god to be their chieftane, bot rather vsit there auē arrogāt mynde therfor their gryt pouer hed na grace to fulfil ther entreprice. this exēpil is vōdir probabil that inglismen vil vse this samyn crualte on ȝou al, gif sa beis that ȝe cum subiect to thē. ȝe knau that thir tuelf hundreth ȝeirs thai leit ȝou neuyr hef pace xvi ȝeir to giddir,Incertisiit exitus pugnarum marsque est cōmu­nis qui sepe spoliantem iā & exultantē euertit & percutit ab abiecto Cice. pro milo. bot ȝit ther tyrranye redōdit aye to their auen dishonestye and domage. and quhou beit at sum tyme ȝour cuntreg [...]t grit skaytht be them, sic thing suld nocht gar ȝou tyne ȝour curagis for the chancis of veir ar nocht certan to na party, al thir vordis befor said ar rehersit to that effect that ȝour facilnes be nocht sedusit be their astuce and subtil persuasions. Titus [Page] liuius rehersis ane exempil in his nynt beuk conformand to this samyn purpos▪ quhilk vas eftir the fundatione of rome 420 ȝeris. at that tyme their vas in rome tua consulis. ane cal­lit titus viterius and the tothyr callit spur­nius posthunius, quha var committit to be cheiffis and captans of the armye of the ro­romans to pas contrar the samnetis,Titꝰ liuiꝰ Lib. 9. quhilkis hed maid mortal veyr thertty ȝeir to giddir trar rome.Valerius maximus Libro. 7. the captan of the samnetis vas cal­lit pontius, quhilk vas the sone of [...]ne vail­ȝeant man callit hereneus, quha vas exempit fra the veyris and fra the gouernyng of the public veil, be raison of his grit aige. The grit armye of the samnites campit them secretly be syde ane place callit furce candide, the quhilk place hed ane narrou entres & narrou i sching and vithtī it, their vas mony cragis and vyild treis. that place stude betuix tua strait monta­nis inhabitabil and onmontabil. In the myd­dis of it their vas ane large grene plane feild. than quhen the samnetis var their logit and cā pit, thai var aduertist be ther exploratours and spyis quhou that the romans var campit neir them in ane place callit calacia. than pontius the c [...]ptan of the samnetis causit ten of his [Page 63] knychtis to cleitht them lyik hyrdis, and he gef them cattel nolt ande scheip to keip, giffand them command to pas vitht tha cattel on the feildis be syde the romans, and ilk ane in ane syndry part be hym self, sayand to them, gif ony of the romans cūis and inquiris at ony of ȝou, quhair our armye is campit, ȝe sal ans­uer that ve ar past to apuilya to gif ane af [...]alt to the cite of lucere, quhilk partenis to the ro­mans than thir neu maid hyrdis past vitht bestial, quhar thai var recontrit be the forreours and exploratours of the romanis, quha led them al ten befor the tua consulis that var captans to the romans. quhen thir ten hyrdis var exemnit seueralie ilk ane be hym self qu­har the samnete armye vas campit. thai ansuerit as ther captan pontius hed giffin them cō mand, to the quhilk vordis the romans gef credit, be rason that thai al beand ane be ane exāmit, condiscendit in ane ansuer.Hanc hi­storiā cor­robora [...]. Titꝰ liuiꝰ than the romans heffand sic ane seruent loue to the cite of lucere, quhilk vas of their anciant alya, thai raisit ther camp to pas to reskeu lucere fra the samnetes. ther vas tua passagis to pas betuix the romans camp and lucere, the first passage vas plane and plesand be the see syde, [Page] bot it vas ouer lang about, the nixt passage vas ful of roche cragis and verray strait and narou, bot ȝit that passage vas verray schort. than the romās for haist that hed to saif that cite of lutere, thai tuke that narrou strait passage, and quhen thai var entrit in it the samnetes be grit subtilite hed gart cut doun grit treis & brac doune roche cragis quhilkis thai pat ī grit nūer at the entres and at the ischyng furtht of that strait passage, and als thai set mony of ther men of veir amang the cragis to empesche the romans that thai culd nothir returne nor ȝit to pas forduart. quhen the romans var disauit of this sort, thai var lykly to dispayr for the displesier and melancole that affligit thē, bot the samnetes var vondir glaid fra tyme that thai hed the romās in that pūd­fald quhar thai culd nothir fecht nor fle, def­fend nor resist, bot on verray neid thai be­huffit to remane vencust vitht out straik or battel. the sānetes beād in this grit blythtnes be cause of ther happy chance, thai determit to send ane message til ald herenius quha vas the father of ther captan pontius til hef his opinione and consel quhuo thai suld vse thē cōtrar the romanis, that thai hed closit vithtin [Page 64] them. this ald herenius send his ansuer and cō sel, and bald the samnetes gyf the romans ther fre liberte to pas hame saue vitht out hurt of ther honour bodys or guidis. the armye of the samnetes nocht beād sateffit nor contentit of this ansuer of herenius. thai send the messen­ger agane til hym til hef ane bettir consel. thā ald herenius send ane vthir ansuer and bald them slaye al the romās and nocht to lat ane of them return vitht ther lyif, quhen the samnetes herd the tua discordabil consellis of he­renius, thai culd nocht meruel aneuthe of his onconstant ansuer, quhar for pontius his sone suspekit that his father dottit in folie throch [...] his grit aige, ȝit noththeles he vald nocht con­clude na exsecutione contrar the romās quhil he hed spokyn vitht his father, therfor vitht the consent of the samnettes he send for his father to cum to their camp, quha cam at his cō mād, ī ane charriot be cause he mytht nothir ryde nor gāg be cause he vas decrepit for aige. he beand aryuit his sone pontius sperit quhuo he suld vse hym contrar the romans that var inclosit betuix the tua strait montans. the ald herynyus changit nocht his tua fyrst consel­lis that he hed send to them bot ȝit he declarit [Page] to them the cause of thyr tua defferent consellis sayand, my sone pontius and ȝe my frendis of samnete, the first consel that i send to ȝou the quhilk i think for the best, that is to say i consellit ȝou to thole al the romans and ther guidis depart saif [...]y in liberte but ony hurt or displeseir, than throtht that grit benefice that ȝe hef schauen to them, o [...] ther free vil & vitht ane guide mynde, that vil allaya thē vitht ȝou quhilk sal cause ferme and perpetual pace to be betuix rome and samnete, the tothir cōsel tha [...] i send to ȝou i ordand ȝou to slay doune al the romans and nocht to saif ane of them, for than it sal be ane lang tyme or the romās can purches sa grit ane armye contrar ȝou. & sa ȝe maye lyif in pace and surete ane lang tyme considerand that the grit pouer and the maist nobilis of rome ar in this present armye inclosit to giddir. ane of thir tua consellis is ne­cessar to be vsit, and the thrid consel cā nocht be gifin to ȝou for ȝour veilfair. than pontius and the princis of samnete nocht beand cōtentit of thir tua cōsellis, inquyrit at ald herenyus sayand. ve think it bettir to tak ane myd vaye betuix vs and them to saif their lyiffis and to resaif them as vencust pepil and ther eftir v­sal [Page 65] mak strait lauis and ordinance quhilk ve sal compel them til obeye. ald herynyus ansuert. that sentens says he, purchessis na frendis nor it makis na reconsiliatione of enemes, therfor ȝe suld animaduert varly to quhat pepil that ȝe purpos to vse sic inurius rigor, for ȝe knau the nature of the romā pepil is of sic ane sort, that gif thai resaif oultrage and beis vencust be rigor be ȝou, thai can neuer hef rest in ther spreit quhil that thai heif reuengit ȝour crual­te, for thai ar of ane vendicatife nature, and the displeseir that thai sal resaif be ȝou sal euer remane in their hartis quhil thai hef reuengit the iniurius defame that ȝe haue perpetrat cō trat them. thyr tua sentensis of herynyus var repulsit and nocht admittit, therfor he departit and returnit ī his chariot to samnite to end the residu of his days. the romans beand inclosit betuix thir tua montans thai purposit mony maneyrs to ische furtht fra that strait place & to pas to secht in fair battel contrar the samnetes, bot al ther lanbyr vas ī vane, for thai var sa strait closit that thai culd nothir pas bakuart nor forduart than thai send ther legatis to de­sire concord and pace at the samneties or els to desire battel on the plane feildis. pontius [Page] ansuert to the legatis of the romans, quod he th [...] battel is fochtyn al reddy, & quhou beit that ȝe ar al vencust ȝit none of ȝou vil confesse ȝour euil fortoune ther for ve gif ȝou for ane final ansuer that al ȝour armye sal be spul ȝit of ȝour armour and of ȝour clais except ilk ane sal hef ane singil coiton ȝou, & ther eftir ve sal put ȝour cragis ī ane ȝoik to be ane per­petual takyn that ȝe ar vencust be vs, and alsa ȝe sal delyuer til vs the villagis castellis and vthir placis the quhilkis ȝour predecessours conquest fra vs in ald tymis, and alsa ȝe sal lyif and obeye til our lauis. and gif this ansuer vil nocht cōtent the romās, i gif ȝou expres char­ge that ȝe returne nocht heir agane. the lega­tis of the romans returnit to the camp of the romans vitht the ansuer of pontius the quhilk ansuer did mair displeseir to the romans nor that pōtius ansuer hed been to sla thē al cruel­le, for in ald tymes ther culd nocht be ane gri­tar defame nor quhen ane mannis crag vas put in the ȝoik be his enemye, for that defame and punitione vas haldin mair abhominabil and vile nor the punitione that trespassours indurit in the galeis for demeritis. bot ȝit ther vas no remeid to saif the romans, therfor ex­treme [Page 66] necessite vas resauit for vertu.In duobus malis fu­giēdū m [...] ius, leu. [...] est eligē [...] than throcht the counsel of ane nobil romane cal­lit lucius lentulus thai condiscendit to cheis the leyst of tua euillis and til indure that vile punitione rather nor til hef been cruelly slane. than the cruel samnetes ordand the instrumēt of the ȝoik of this sort as i sal rehers ther vas tua speyris set fast in the eyrd,Cice. quin tū fratrē. and ane vthir speyr set & bundyn athort betuix the tua spey­ris that stude vp fra the eyrd lyik ane gallus, than the desolat and vencust romans var con­strēȝet [...]o pas vndir that ȝoik ane and ane, bot the tua consellaris quhilkis var captans to the romans thai var compellit to pas fyrst vndir that ȝoik vitht ou [...] their harnes or vaupynnis, than the remanent of the romans follouit ilk ane eftir his auē degre. on euerye syde of this ȝoik ther vas ane legione of the armye of samnetes vitht ther sourdis drauen in ther handis quhar thai manneist and scornit the sillie ro­mans that var in that gryt vile perplexite. O ȝe my thre sonnis, this defame and vile puni­tione of the samnites perpetrat contrat the romās, vas verray cruel, bot doubtles, thai th [...]t ar participant of the cruel inuasione of inglis men contrar their natyue cuntreye, ther crag­gis [Page] sal be put in ane mair strait ȝoik nor the samnetes did to the romans, askyng eduard did til scottis men at the blac parlament at the bernis of ayr quhen he gart put the craggis of sexten scoir in faldomis of cordis tua and tua ouer ane balk of the maist principal of them that adherit til hym ī his oniust querrel quhē he vrangusle brotht mekil of scotland in his subiectione. this protector of ingland purpo­sit til vse this samyn crualte in the ȝeir of god ane thousand fyse hundretht fourty seuyn ȝeris in the monetht of marche quhen the vardan of the vest marchis of ingland cā to hald ane vardan court on the vest marchis of scotland vitht in the schiresdome of galloua as scotland h [...]d been in pacebil subiectione to the crone of ingland, bot as god vald the maister of maxuel the lard of doumlanrik and diuer­se vthir nobil barronis and gentil men cam vitht ane hie curage contrar the inglismen, quhome thai venquest vailȝeantlye, and sleu ane grit part of them and tuke ane vthir part of them presoners, and chaissit the thrid part of them ten myle vithtin ingland, and ther eftir the barronis & gētil mē of oure vest cūtre gat the inglismēs spulȝe vitht in the quhilk [Page 67] spulȝe thai gat tua barrellis ful of cordis and euerie cord bot ane faldome of lyncht vitht ane loupe on the end al reddy maid quhilk thai ordāt til hef hangit sa mony scottis men as thai purposit til hef vēquest at that iournay. Than to quhat effect suld ony scottis men gif credens or til adhere til inglesmen. our croni­klis rehersis of diuerse scottis men of al stait­tis that hes past in ingland sum hes past for pouerte and sum hes past in hope to lyne at mair eyse and liberte nor thai did in scotland and sum hes been denunsit rebellis be the authorite quhilk vas occasione that thai past in inglād for refuge quhom the kyngis of ingland hes resānit fame harly and hes trettit them and hes gisin them gold and siluir the quhilk he did nothir for piete nor humanite bot rather that thai suld help to distroye there auen natif cuntre, bot ȝit he vald neuer gif them hereta­ge nor credit, for the experiens of the samyn is manifest presētlye. for quhou beit that the­re be abuse thre thousand scottis men and there vysis and childir that hes duellit in in­gland thir fyftye ȝeir by past, and hes cōquest be there industre batht heretage and guidis, ȝit nocht ane of them dar grant that thai ar [Page] scottis men, bot rathe [...] thai man deny and refuse there cuntre, there surname, and kyn & frendis, for the sco [...]tis men that duellis in the southt part of ingland thai suere and mente­mis that thai var borne ī the northt part or in the vest part of ingland, and scottis men that duellis in the vest or in the northt of inglād, thai man suere and mēteme that thai var bor­ne in kynt schire ȝoirke schire in london or in sum vthir part of the southt partis of ingland: than to quhat effect suld ony scottis men ad­here til inglis men to gar them selfis be cum sklauis and to remane in perpetual seruitude, ther for ve may verray veil beleif that quhou beit that the kyng of ingland garris tret scottis men vitht gold and siluer as thai var his frendis ȝit doutles h [...] vald be rytht glaid sa that euerye scottis man hed ane vthyr scottis man in his bellye. and als fra tyme that god sen­dis trāquilite amang princis, thai that ar maist familiar vitht the protector sal be haldin maist odius in ingland and euerye inglis knaif sal cal them dispytfully renegat scottis and gif ony of them passis to the protector to regret and lament the abstractione of his familiarite that he seheu to them in the begynnyng of the veyris, [Page 68] he vil ansuer to thē as agust [...]s cesar ansue­rit til ane captan of thrace callit rhymirales qua betrasit his maister anthonius & past to remane vitht agustꝰ cesar quha vas mortal ene­mye til anthoniꝰ', thā be the supple of rhymirales, agustus cesar vequest antonius. thā quhen the veyris var endit betuix cesar and antoniꝰ rhymirales vas nocht sa veil trettit as he vas indurand the tyme of the veyris quhar for he past til cesar sayand. O nobil empriouri hef left my cuntre and my maister anthonius for ȝour pleseir and i hef been the cause that ȝe hef venquest my maister anthonius & nou ȝe schau me nocht sa grit loue and familiarte as ȝe scheu [...]me ī the tyme of the veyris quhar­for ȝe haifschauen ȝou rycht ingrat cōtrar me. Cesar ansuerit to rhymirales i vil hef na fami­liarte vitht ȝou for i loue bot the trason that cūis to my effect and louis nocht the tratours that committis the trason. this forsaid exem­pil maye be veil applyit til al scottis men that beleuis to get mair liherte and honor in inglād nor thai did in scotland for this exempil hes been prectykit thir fyfe hundretht ȝers by ga­ne til al scottis men that hes adherit til inglisnen cōtrar there natyfe cuntre as the croniklis [Page] makis manifest for quhou beit that the kyng of ingland louis the traison that scottis men committis contrar ther prince ȝit he louis nocht the tratours that committis the traison.

❧ Quhou rhe affligit lady declaris til hyr thre sonnis that the familiarite that is betuix inglismen & scottis men in ane pace varld at mor­cattis and cōnentions on the tua bordours is the cause of the traison that the scottis men committis cōtrar ther natyfe cuntre. Chap. XIII.

THere is no thing that is occa­sione (O ȝe my thre sonnis) of ȝour adhering to the opi­nione of ingland cōtrar ȝour natife cuntre bot the grit fa­miliarite that inglis men and scottis hes hed on baitht the boirdours ilk ane vitht vtheris in marchādeis ī selling and bying hors and nolt and scheip out fang and infang ilk ane amang vtheris the quhilk familiarite is expres contrar the lauis and consuetudis, baytht of ingland and scotland in the dais of moises the ieuis durst nocht haue familiarite [Page 69] vitht the samaritanis, nor vitht the philistiēs, nor the romans vitht the affricans, nor the grekis vitht the persans, be rason that ilk ane repute vtheris to be of ane barbir nature fo [...] euere nations reputis vthers natiōs to be bar­bariens quhen there tua natours and comple­xions ar contrar til vtheris, and there is noch [...] tua nations vndir the firmament that ar mai [...] contrar and different fra vthirs, nor is inglismen and scottis men quhoubeit that thai be vitht in ane ile and nythtbours, and of ane lā gage: for inglis men ar subtil and scottis men ar facile, inglis men ar ambitius in prosperite, and scottis men ar humain in prosperite, in­glis men as humil quhen thai ar subieckit be forse and violence, and scottis men ar furious quhen thai ar violently subiekit inglis men ar cruel quhene thai get victorie, and scottis men ar merciful quhen thai get victorie. and to cō nclude it is onpossibil that scottis men and inglis men can remane in concord vndir ane monarche or ane prince be cause there naturis and conditions ar as indefferent as is the na­ture of scheip and volius. quintas cursius re­hersis that darius kyng of perse send ane im­bassadour to alexander kyng of macedon and [Page] offrit hym sax mulis chargit vitht gold, sa that he vald lyue vitht hym in pace and concord vndir ane crone and monarche, alexāder ans­uert to the imbassadour, quod he it is as on­possibil to gar me and kyng darius duel to giddir in pace and concord vndir ane monar­che as it is onpossibil that tua sonnis and tua munis can be at one tyme to giddir in the fir­mament. This exempil may be apply it to in­gland and scotland for i trou it is as ompossi­bil to gar inglis men and scottis men remane in gude accord vndir ane prince, as it is on possibil that tua sonnis and tua munis can be at one tyme to giddir īt he lyft, be raison of the grit defferens that is betuix there naturis & conditions, quhar for as i hef befor rehersit there suld be na familiarite betuix inglis men and scottis men be cause of the grit defferens that is betuix there tua naturis in ald tymis it vas determit in the artiklis of the pace be the tua vardanis of the bordours of ingland and scotland, that there suld be na familiarite be­tuix scottis men and inglis men nor mariage to be contrakit betuix them, nor conuentions on holy dais at gammis and plays, nor mar­chādres to be maid amang thē, nor scottis mē [Page 70] til entir on inglis grond vitht out the kyng of inglād sa [...]e cōduct, nor inglis men til entir on scottis grōd vithtout the kyng of scotlādis saue cōduct, quhou beit that there var sure pace be­tuix the tua realmis, bot thir scuyn ȝeir byga­ne thai statutis and artiklis of the pace ar adnullit, for there hes beē as grit familiarite & cōuē ­tionis and makyng of marchandreis on the bourdours this lang tyme betuix inglis men and scottis men baytht in pace and in veir, as scottis men vsis amāg theme selfis vitht ī the realme of scotlād. and sic familiarite hes been the cause that the kyng of ingland gat intelle­gens vitht diuerse gentil men of scotland. it is nocht possibil to keip sne realme fra con­spiratione and trason fra tyme that the pepil of that realme vsis familiarite vitht there ene­meis ther is ane ald prouerb that says, that ane herand damysele and ane spekand castel sal neuyrend vith honour, for the damysele that heris and giffis eyris to the amourus persua­sions of desolut ȝong men sal be eysile persua­dit to brac hyr chaistite siklik ane spekand ca­stel, that is to saye quhen the captan or so­diours of ane castel vsis familiar speche and comionyng vitht there enemeis that castel sal [Page] be eysylie conquest be rason that familiarite and speche betuix enemeis generis trason. in ald tymis the vailȝeant annibal and vtheris grit captans baitht romans and grecians, thai set mair there felecite to purches secret fami­liarite and comonyng vitht there enemeis nor to get battel. for fra tyme that thai gat fa­miliarite and comonyng vitht there enemeis, than thai vrocht to bring there entreprice and intēt to there effect b [...] trason and be gold and silueir. Salust de bello iugurtino confermis this samyn purpos quhen iugurtha of num [...] die in affrica hed tynt diuerse battellis contrar the romans, quhilk vas occasione that he hed almaist lossit his cuntre, than his frendis consellit hym to decist fra his veyris be rasō that he prosperit nothing and lossit mekil th [...]n iugurtha nocht beand disparit of guid fortone, he past ī Italie vitht ane fresche armye▪ of men of veir and also he tuik vitht hym ane riche quātite of gold and siluyr cunȝet & oncūȝet. thā his frendis reprochit hym be cause his en­treprice aperit to be vane rather nor to proce­de of ane prudēt & mortifet cōsait. iugurtha ansuert til his frēdis. qd he my forse is nocht sufficient to conques rome, bot noththeles gif [Page 71] that i can purches secret familiarite & intelligens vitht sum of the romans that hes autho­rite i beleif to venques them vitht gold and syluyr rathere nor vitht forse of mē of veyr, for euyrie thing is to sel in rome for monye ther for i dout nocht bot i sal gar thē sel the­re liberte for gold, for the auariese that is amāg the romās vil gar ilk ane be traise vthers Thir vordis of iugurtha makkis manifest that there is nay thing that bringis ane realme to ruyne sa sune and sa reddy as dois the fami­liarite that the pepil hes vitht there enemeis, throucht the quhilk familiarite there is sum euil persoune that knauis the secret determi­nations of the lordis of the counsel, & there eftir he reuelis it to sum traisonabil mā, that hes intelligens vitht the kyng of inglād. i can nocht expreme ane speciale man that perpe­tratis this traisonabil act, bot ȝit i am sure that as sune as the lordis of the counsel hes deter­mit ony guide purpos for the deffens & veil­fair of the realme, incōtinēt vitht in tuenty houris there eftir, the sammyn coūsel is vitht ī the toune of beruik & vitht ī thre dais there eftir the post of bernyk p̄sent [...]s it in londō to the cousel of ingland, quhilk is occasione that the inglis [...]e [...] hes there d [...]ffens reddy contrar [Page] our purpos, or ve begyn to exsecut the coun­sel that vas determit. It var verray necessair that the committers of that reuelen var pu­nest mair realye nor hes been ony punitione that hees been exsecut cōtrar ony scottis man that hes cum vitht inglis men in plaine bat­tel til inuaid scotland. thir secret reuelaris of the counsel of scotland, takkis nocht exem­pil of the tua vailȝeant romans pompeus and quintus metellus quhilkis kneu al the secre of the senat, bot there vas nothir gold nor landis, tormenting nor pyne, that vald gar ony of them reueil the secret of the senat to the enemes of rome, valerius maximus rehersis in the trid cheptour of his thrid beuk quhou the romans send pompeus in imbassadre til aysia quhilk vas of the allya of rome,Valerius maximus Lib. 3. c. 3. and be chance he vas tane presoneir in his voyage be gēthius the kyng of esclauonia quha vas mortal enyeme to the romans, the said kyng gen­thius coniurit persuadit solistit and alse he manneist nobil pompeus to reueil the secret counsel of the senat, pompeus bebaldand his onrasonabil request, he pat his fingar in the heytfyit and tholit it to birn, and be the [Page 75] tollerance and paciens of that cruel pane, gē ­tius kneu that there vas na torment that culd gar pompeus reueil the secret of the senat. bot allace there is sum men that knauis the secret of scotland that vil reueil it til inglismen ra­ther nor to birn the fingar of ther glufe. Vale­rius maximꝰ rehersis ane vthir exēpil quhou that quintus metellus beand proconsul of rome vas send vitht ane armye in to spanȝe cō ­trar the celtibriens quhilkis duellit in the realme of nauerne.Valerius maximꝰ. Libro. 7. he set ane seige about the tou­ne of tribie quhilki is the methropolitane & capital cite of that cuntre, that cite resistir and deffendit vailȝeantly contrar quintus metel­lus, than he beand in melancole be cause he culd nocht conqueis that cite, he deuisit ane subtil consait to desaue the celtibriēs, he gart rais his camp and departit fra that cite and past til vtheris diuerse tounis of nauern, sum ty­me bakuart sum tyme forduart, sum tyme he past to the montannis, and sum tyme to the valeis, and remanit neuer in ane stedefast pla­ce, and he gart al his armye keip them in arraay the cause of this agitatione and commotione of his army vp and doun, vas nocht knauen be none of his men of veyr nor ȝit knauen be [Page] his enemes, quhar for ane of his familiar frē ­dis inquyrit hym of the cause of his inconstāt vagatione, quha ansuert, quod he decist and inquyre na mair of that purpos, for gif that i vndirstude that my sark hed knaulege of my secret or of the deliberatione of my mynde, doutles i suld birn it hastelye in ane bald fyir. than quhen metellus hed vagit vp and doune there ane lang tyme, and hed put his host and armye in ignorance, and his enemes in errour eftir diuerse turnād coursis, at hourtht the cū tre, he returnit suddanlye to the forsaid toune of tribie and laid ane sege about it or his ene­mes var aduertest to mak deffens, and sa be this dissimilatione and be the keping of his counsel secret fra his frendis and fra al vtheris, he conquest the said toune. vald god that the counsel and deliberatione of scotland var kepit as secret as metellus kepit his secret fra his men of veyr, than doutles the inglis men vald nocht be so bold. There is na thing that is cause that the counsel of ingland gettis sa haisty aduertessing of the priuitate that is amāg the lordis of scotlād bot the vice of auareis that hes blyndit the raisō & hes infekkit the har [...]is of diuers grit mē of scotlād the ald [Page 76] prouerb is treu th [...]t sais that it is as onpossibil to gar ane auaricius man be faythful, as it is onpossibil to gar ane fische of the depe flude speik hebreu or greik. Quhar for (o ȝe my thre sonnis) i exort ȝou to tak exempil of di­uerse nobil mē, that culd neuir be seducit no [...] persuadit to tak gold nor reches fra there ene­meis. There is ans exempil of allexāder kyng of macedon, quha hed mortal veyr contrar the grekis. he sende ane riche present extendant til thre scoir of thousādis peces of gold til ane nobil man of athenes cal [...]it phosion, ane man heffand gret autorite in athenes. Thā phosion said to the inbassadours of kyng allexander qd he my frendis, for quhat cause hes kyng alle­xander sende this riche present of gold to me alanerly, ande hes sende na thing to the rema­nēt of the lordis of athenes. The inbassadour ansuert, our master kyng allexander hes sen­de ȝou this present of gold, be raison that he hes iugit ȝou to be the maist nobil ande maist verteous, abufe al them of athenes. phosion ansuert. gyf that kyng allexander hes iu­g [...]t me to be of grit prudens ande vertu, ȝe sal praye hym to thole me to remane prudent & verteous for gyf i tak his present of gold thā i [Page] am nothir prudēt nor verteous, for there is no thyng mair regūgnāt to prudēs nor vertu nor quhen ane person resauis gold or reches fra his enemee. there for ȝe sal tel to ȝour master kyng allexander, that he sal nocht corrupt me vitht gold nor venqueis me in battel, nor ȝit he sal conqueis na thing in grece bot sa mekil eird as vil be sepulturis til his nen of veyr. this exēpil makkis manifest that quhen ane prince presentis gold ande siluyr to the subie­ctis of bis enemei doutles his intentione is to seduce them to conspire ande to betraise the­re natiue cūtre. quhar for i exort ȝou (my thre somnis) that ȝe detest auerese ambicion ande traison, ande that ȝe gar ȝour solistnes of the deffens of ȝour comont veil, preffer the solist­nes of ȝour particular veil: for quhē ȝour particular veil is spulȝeit or hurt be ȝour enemeis it maye be remedit be ȝour comont veil. ande in opposit, gyf ȝour comont veil be distroyt than it sal neuyr be remedit be ȝour particu­lar veil, for ȝour particular veil is bot ane ac­cessor of ȝour comont veil ande the accessor follouis the natur of the prencipal, accessoriū sequitur naturam sui prencipalis.

❧Quhou the actor declaris that conspiratours ar ay punest to the detht be the princis that gat profeit of there con­spiratione. Chap. XIIII.

THer is ane exēpil quhou that eftir the dolorus battel of cannes quhilk i hef oft rehersit of befoir quhar that the nobil counsul emilius paulus vas slane vitht xiiii thousand of the maist nobillis of italie, quhen that annibal send to cartage thre muis of gold ryngis, qu­hilkis he hed gottin on the fingaris of the maist nobil romans that var slane, for ane te­stimonial of his grit victorie▪ and eftir this dolorus battel diuerse citeis and castellis of Italie randrit them to annibal, sum be compulsion and sum be fre vil be cause that thai var disparit that the romans culd euer hef pouer to re­sist the cartagiēs, & sū of thē randrit thē be trason for monye that thai resauit fra annibal as did the nobil cite of capee, ȝit noctheles inconstāt foirton alterit the prosperite of the carta­giēs quhilk vas occasione that the romans be grit vailȝeantnes recouerit & cōquest diuerse [Page] of ther auen tounis and castellis fra annibal quhilk vas grit blythnes to sa mony tounis and castellis that vas on conquest be annibal. And als it vas as on grit blythnes to sa mony castellis and tounis quhilkis hed rādrit them be trason to annibal. than thir nobil romans heffand grit affectione to be reuengit on an­nibal for the grit slauchtir committit at can­nes, past vitht ane armye of xxxiii legions befor the toune of cape and be grit industre thai maid tua lang depe fosses about al the toune in sic ane sort that nane of the mē of veyr of cape culd ische furtht bot gif thai cā vitht in the romans camp. at that tyme fuluius slac­cus vas captan and duc of the romans armye, the romans hed nocht monye hors to ryde in forrais and in prikkyng cōtrar ther enemes bot the men of veir of capes as muny diēs quhilk annibal left in garnison var veil furnest vitht grit mummir of hors the quhilkis ischit furtht daly fra capes and did grit domage contrar the romans. ther vas at that tyme ane roman callit auius ane centurion quha di­uysit that the romans suld tak sa mony horsmen as thai mytht furneis and to gar tua men ryde on euerye hors, and euerye ane to hef ane [Page 78] lycht scheild and vij dartis in ther handis. thā quhē the hors men of capes i schit to mak ane scarmouche on the romās the hors men of the romans tua on ilk hors met and recontrit the cartagiens and at ther meting tha that reid belynd on the hors discēdit on ther fute vitht ther dartis. of this sort the romans on hors and on fute disconfeist the cartagiens of capes be cause thai of capes kneu nocht of the subtilite [...]hat the romans hed ordand contrar them, the remanent of the cartagiens that var nocht sla­ne fled vithtin the toune to saif them bot al the romans armye follouit sa haistylye quhil thai gat entres vitht in the toune and pat it to sac and ther eftir the nobil consul fuluius flaccus past [...]o the tribunal & gart al the principal lor­dis of capes compeir, and than he gart bynd ther handis in iryn chenȝeis be cause of the trason th [...]t thai committit contrar ther natiue cuntre. and syne he send ane certan of them to be put in preson in the toune of theane, and ane vthyr certan to the toune of calles, than eftir that he hed put ordour to the maist vrgēt byssenes of capes, he departit and past to thea­ne and to calles to gar exsecut iustice on the conspiratours of capes, quhar he gart strik the [Page] heydis fra them of capes that var in preson in theane and syne past to calles to gar exsecut iustice on the remanent, he beand ther aryuit he gart bryng furtht the presoners to be iusti­fiet, at that samyn instant hour the senat ande faders conscript of rome send ane post in message vitht ane closit vryting to fuluius flaccus chargeand hym to be mercyful and nocht ouer rigorus in exsecutione of his iustice. he hefand suspitiōe of the contineu of ther vry­tingis and als heffand ane feruent affection [...] to puneis tratours, he resauit the vryting in h [...] kar hand, and vald nocht apin it nor reid it quhil the boreau hed strikyn the heydis fra the presoneris of calles quhilkis hed conspy­rit contrar capes, this exsecutione of iustic [...] be and endit, he apnit the vrytingis and eftir that he hed red the contineu of it, he said to the post, my frend this vryting is cum ouer lait and behynd the hand, of this sort the traturs of capes var punest. for this nobil consul ful­uius flaccus gart sla 25 of the maist nobillis of capes. Siklik gif ther be ony of the tounis vil­lagis or castellis of scotland that hes randrit thē to be subiectis til ingland be trason i vald god that fuluius flaccus var diligat iuge to puneis [Page 79] them as he punest the conspiratours of capes, for the forsaid fuluins flaccus gat as grit commēdatione for the extreme iustice that he gart exsecut on tresonabil tratours, as he gat for his vailȝeantnes quhen he conquest the toune of capes fra annibal,

❧ Ther is ane vdir exempil of the punitio­ne of traturs as thucidides the historien greik rehersis in the xv cheptor of his fyrst beuk, quhen pausanias quha hed commissione of the armye of the lacedemoniens quhen he past to defend hellespont he vas depriuit of that dignite be cause he hed intellegens vitht the enemeis of greice than he beand depri­uit he of ane profond maleis departit fra lacedemonia and gart the pepil beleif at his departing that his purpos vas to pas to helle­spōt to be ane sodiour for the deffens of that cuntre be rason it vas ane of the subiectis of rome. bot notheles his purpos vas to pas to the kyng of meid quha vas mortal eneme to al greice in hope to conueen and accord vitht the said kyng of meid contrar the greikis. t [...]ā to mak his traison mair patent, he send ane certan of presoners of meid to the kyng and he gart the bruit gang that thai presoneris hed [Page] eschaipit & brokyn the preson cōtrar his vil, the quhilk presoneirs he hed conquest of be­for furtht of the cite of biȝāte quhen the kyng of meid hed left them in garnison to kep the said cite fra the grekis & also he vreit ane let­tir to the kyng of meid as eftir follouis.

❧Pausanias duc of spart, to the kyng xer­xes salut, i hef send to the thir presoners the quhilk i hef conquest in fair and honest vey­ris, contrar the quhilk present i hef send to the, to that effect that i maye conques thy loue & thy fauoir, and als i am of ane intentione to spouse thy do [...]htir gif it be thy pleseir there for gif thou vil consent to this mariage i sal put al greice in thy subiectione the quhilk i cā do rytht eysylie sa that i can hef intelligence & familiarite vitht the. quhar for gif thou be cō tent of my desyre, thou sal send ane of thy maist familiaris to communicat mair ample of this byssynes. Quhen exerxes hed red this vryting of pausanias he send ane ansuer in vreitvitht ane of his familiar frendis callit ar­tabasus to quhome he gef commissione til ac­cord vitht pausanias. this vas the tenor of ex­erxces vryting. Kyng exerxes of meid to pausanias salut, i thank the of the pleseir and be­ [...]efice [Page 80] that thou hes dune to me in the sen­dyng hame the personers quhilk thou con­quest in my cite of beȝance, the quhilk i nor myne sal neuer forȝet quhil ve dee. i exort the that thou be solist nytht and daye til exsecut and to fulfil thy promes and i sal nocht spair gold syluyr nor men of veir to be at thy command, and as to my dochtyr i assure the tha [...] sche sal be thy spousit vyf, thou sal gif credence to this berar artabasus, quha is my se­cretar and my speciale frend. Quhen pausa­nias hed resauit this vryting fra exerxces kyng of meid he begā euere day to prattik his intent contrar the grekis and als he be cam familiar vitht the barbariens the quhilk fami­liarite vas occasione that the grekis tuke ane real suspetione and ane vehement imaginatione of his cōiuratione and conspiratione. quhar for til eschaip the danger and domage that mytht succede fra his trason, the ephores of lacedemonia send ther sergent to summond hym to compeir in the toune of spart vndir the pane to be reput rebel and enemye to gre­ce. thā he beleuād to keip hym fra ane gritar suspetione and als he fand hope to purge hym of al crymes throcht giftis and moneye that [Page] he thocht to distribut amang the senaturis of lacedemonia, he past forduart vitht the sergent to the toune of spart. than incontenent the ephores constitut hym presoneir for the ephores of lacedemonia var of sa grit authorite that thai mycht constitut and compel ther kyng or ther duc to be presoneir. the senaturs & inhabitaris of spart, hed nocht sufficiēt pro­batione to condamp hym, therfor thai dred to exsecut vengeance on hym be cause he vas discendit of hie geneologie and of the blude ryal of lacedemonia, and als he vas of hie di­gnite. at that instāt tyme he hed ane domestik seruitour quhilk he hed abusit carnalye lang of befoir in his ȝoutheid quhilk seruitur hed borne the last vrytingis that he hed vrytin to artabasus the secretar of kyng exerxes than this seruituir persauand that nane of the messen­geris that hed past of befoir vitht vrytingis to artabasus returnit agane vitht ansuer he heffand dreddor of his auen lyif, he apnit the vrytingis to red the tenor of thē. quhar he gat the samyn thīg ī thē quhilk he suspekit & doubtit of hefor, that is to say quhou that pausanias vrit to artabasus to resaif his vrytingis & ther eftir to s [...]a the messengeir, this said seruitur [Page 81] brocht the vrytingis to the ephores of lacede­monia the quhilk vryting maid the traison of pausanias manifest, ȝit nochtheles thai vald nocht exsecut punitione quhil that the verite of his cryme var mair manifest, than be ane subtile cauteil thai gart pausanias seruitur pas to the tempil to tak gyrtht and protectione as dois ane tresgressor that hed committit cryme in ald tymes, it vas vsit in greice that ane ser­uand that offensit his maister vas punest be the iugis as ane trespassar that hed committit cryme. and syne thai gart ane of ther familiaris aduerteis pausanias quhou that his seruitur hed tane gyrtht in the tempil for sum cryme that he hed committit, and als thai hed gi­fin sufficient informatione to the seruituir of pausanias quhou he suld vse hym touart his maister. than the ephores past to the samyn tē pil and hid them in ane secret place be hynd the curtingis of the tempil to that effect that thai mytht heir the vordis and communica­tionis that vas to be spokyn betuix pausanias and his seruituir. Pausanias beand aduertest of the presonyng of his seruand past inconte­nent to the tempil to inquyre his seruituir of the cause of his cummyng to gyrtht in that [Page] said tempil. his seruituir ansuert, schyr i hed suspitione and dred my lyif be cause that the messengeris that ȝe send of befoir to xerxes returnit nocht agane, therfor i apnit ȝour vri­tingis quhair that i hef fundyn the thyng that i doubtit, quhar for i meruel that ȝe haif vry­tin to gar slame, considerand that i hef been ane faithtful seruituir, and ȝe vait veil that i hef kepit ȝour consel in secret of al ȝour bys­sines that ȝe hef vrocht vitht kyng exerxces contrar the grekis▪ ther for ȝe hef committit ane on humain act ī sa far as ȝe vald gar sla me for my guide seruice. pausanias ansuert sayād, my frēd it is of verite that thou says, sic thing i did throcht ane suspetione that i tuik of the, quharfor i pray the to perdone me and heir i sal mak ane promes that i sal euer be ane faithtful maister to the, and i sal recompens the for thy grit faithtful labouris therfor i pray the to depart incontenent and pas to artabasus and to declair til hym be tong quhou that i am rytht solist to fulfil the promes that i maid til his maister xerxes, the quhilk i beleif sal cum til ane gude fyne rytht haistylie. the ephores that stude be hynd the curtynis knauand and herand the manifest trason of pausanias thai [Page 82] gart hym dee in presone & ther eftir thai gart cast hit body in ane cauerne quhar that the vse vas to cast the carions of comdampnit trans­gressouris and sa pausanias vas recompensit & reu [...]rdit for his trason that he committit con­trar his natiue cuntre.

❧Ter is ane vthir exempif of the punitione of trason in the fyrst cheptor of the secōd beuk of samuel quhen the philistiens faucht in ane battel contrar the childir of israel quhar that kyng saul vas slane on the mōtan of gelboye.Samuel. cap. 2. at that tyme ther departit ane ȝong man of the amalekytes blude fra the camp of saul quha presentit hym on his kneis befoir dauid. than dauid said til hym. quhar fra ar thou cū pre­sentlye, the ȝoung man ansuert, i am cum fra the camp of Israel, dauid said til hymi i pray the that thou declair to me al the nouelles of the battel, the ȝong man ansuert, the pepil ar fled fra the battel and ther is ane grit nūmer of the pepil deid, & als saul and his sone ieho­nathan ar dede. dauid said to the ȝoung man that brocht the nouuelles, quhou knauis thou that saul and ieonathan his sone ar dede, the ȝoing man ansuert, quod he be chance i arrvuit on the montan of gelboye quhar i beheld [Page] saul leynād on his speyrthan he lukit be hynd hym sayand to me, quhat art thou, to quhome i ansuert, i am ane amalaket. than be said, i pray the to sla me for mellancolye hes assail­ȝet me, bot noctheles my lyif is ȝit in my bo­dy, than i past and i sleu hym be cause that i kneu that he culd nocht eschaip vitht his lyif, and i tuke his croune fra his hede and his bra­scheletis fra his armis the quhilkis i haif bro­cht hei [...] to the. than dauid lamentit hauylye the dede of saul and of his sone iehonatan & the slauchtyr of the grit numer of pepil that var slane. than eftir his dolorus lamentatione he said to the ȝoūg man that hed brocht hym the nouuellis. quhy dred thou nocht to put thy handis in the vnctit kyng of the lord. than dauid callit on ane of his sodiours and gart hym sla that ȝong man in his presens, sayand thy blude sal be on thy hede for thy moutht hes testifet contrat thy self quhen that thou co­fessit that thou sleu the vnctit kyng of the lord, of this sort this ȝoung man vas punest for the slauchtyr of kyng saul.Samuel. ca. 5 Ther is ane vthir exempil of the punitione of trason as is vrytin in the fyft be cheptor of the secōd beuk of samuel quhen that rechab and banach his [Page 83] brudir entrir in the house of isbosetht the sone of kyng saul & thair thi strak hym trocht the fyft ryb of his syde vitht ane dagar, quhen he vas slepand in his bed, and ther eftir thai cuttit his hede fra his body & brocht it to dauid til ebron sayād behald heir the hede of isboseth [...] the sone of kyng saul thy mortal enemye, the lord hes tane vengeance on kyng, saul and on his seid, dauid ansuert to rechab and baanach and said, syklik as the lord quhilk delyuerit me fra tribulatione is lyuand, and als sykilik as i gart sla hym that brocht me the nouuelles of the dede of kyng saul, be mair rytht i suld gar sla them that hes slane the iust isbosetht quhē he vas lyand slepand in his bede. than kyng dauid gef command til his sodiours to sla re­chab and baanatht, than the soudiours at da­uid commād fyrst curtit the feit and the han­dis fra the tua tratours that sleu isboseth in his bed and syne hangit thē baytht on ebron hil of this sort traturs suld be ay reuardit quhē thai cōmit trason cōtrar ther prince. Ther is ane vther exēpil of the punitiōe of tratouris that batrasis ther natyf prince quhē the cruel veyris var betuix. darius kyng of perse and grit alexander of macedon, ther vas ane captā [Page] of kyng darius quha vas verra familiar & in grit fauoir vitht darius callit bessus quha sleu his maister kyng darius in hope to get ane grit reuard fra kyng alexander kyng alexāder cam at that instant tyme quhen darius vas in the agonya and deitht thrau troch the mortal vondis that he had resauit fra bessus his seruituir than alexander maid ther ane solempnit vou to reuenge the trason committit be the said bessus thange gart his sodiours serche & seike bessus quha vas gottyn in the forest and vas brocht and led bundyn in ane chenȝe be­for kyng alexender this nobil alexander gart his sodiours pul doune the crops of the green treis and ther eftir tha bād his tua armis vitht cordis to the crops of ane of the treis and he gart bynd his feit to the crops of the tothir tre & than gartlat louse the crops of the rua treis and the sprang vp rytht of ther ald fasson & in the rysing vp thai dreu the body of bessus inpeces of this sort bessus vas reuardit for his trason committit contrar his rythteous prince Ther is ane exēpil of the trason that ane blac [...]acopyne frere cōmittit cōtrar henry the se­uynt of that name the toune of florens vald nocht obeye to the empir. quhar for the said [Page 84] Empriour, Henry brotht ane grit armye to seige the toune of florens than ane blac iacopy­nefrere gat ane grit some of moneye fra the florentynis to tak on hād to sla the empriour be cause this said frere vas familiar vitht the said empriour. than he trocht auereis he poy­sont the host of the sacrament vitht poyson ther eftir that nobil empriour past to resaif the body of god vndir the forme of brede and as soune as he hed resauit it ī his moutht his body begā to suel and sa he decessit. The verite of this trason vas persauit be the phicisians and medicinaris quhar for the men of veyr of this nobil empriour gart quartyr that falsfre re betuix iiij hors and sa he vas reuardit for hit trason. There is diuerse vthirs exēplis of the myscheif that god sendis on cōspiratours there for i exort ȝou my thre sonnis that gyf ony of ȝou hes faltit contrar ȝour comōt veil throucht ignorance or abusione the ȝe cor­rect ȝour selfis than god sal be ȝour frend.

❧Quhou the thrid / one of this fayr lady callit laubir ans [...]ert vitht ane lamenta­bil complaynt. Chap. VX.

O My dolorus mother, quhilk sum ty­me aboundit in prosperite and nou thou art spulȝet f [...]a al felicite, trocht grit affliction of langorius tribula­tione i resaif thy repreif in paciens for ane correctione, and nocht for ane inue­ctyf dispyit, i knau that thy complaynt is nocht disrasonabil nor vitht out cause ȝit noch theles my displeseir is v [...]ndir bittir ī sa far as i hes baytht the domage and the reproche of thy myscheif the quhilk i deserue nocht til hef be rason of my innocens. Allace the ad­uersite of ane innocent is mair nor cruel quhē he induris punitione for ane cryme that ane transgressor committis. i may be comparit to the dul asse in sa far as i am compellit to bayr ane importabil byrdyng, for i am dung and broddit to gar me do & tothole the thing that is abuif my pouer allace i am the merk of the but cōtrar the quhilk euere man schutis arrous [Page 85] of tribulatione allace quhou is iustice sa euil trettit quhilk is occasione that euere man vsis al extreme extorsions contrar me as far as ther pouer can exsecut allace i lau­byr nycht and day vitht my handis to neu­reis lasche and inutil idil men, and thai recō ­pens me vitht hungyr and vitht the sourd. i susteen ther lyif vitht trauel & vitht the suet of my body, and that parsecut my body vitht oultrage and hayrschip quhil i am be cū ane begger. thai lyf trocht me and i dee trocht thē allace o my natural mother thou repreifis & accusis me of the faltis that my tua brethir committis daly, my tua brethir nobilis and clergie quhilk suld defēd me tha ar mair cruel contrar me nor is my ald enemes of ingland. tha ar my natural brethyr bot thai ar my mortal enemes of verray deid. Allace quhou can i tak paciens cōsiderād that ther can na thing be [...]ikkyt to my parsecutione bot cruel dede. i dee daly in ane trāse trocht the necessite that i hes of the gudis that i van vitht my laubyrs, my cornis and my cattel ar reft fra me, i am exilit fra my takkis and fra my steddyngis, the malis and fermis of the grond that i laubyr is hychtir to sic ane price that it is fors to me [Page] & vyf and bayrus to drynk vattir, the teyndis of my cornis ar nocht alanerly hychtit abu­fe the fertilite that the grond maye bayr, bot as veil thai ar tane furtht of my handis be my tua tirran brethir. and quhen i laubyr be mar­chandres or be mecanik craftis i am compellit to len and to fyrst it to my tua cruel brethir, and quhen i craif my dettis quhilk suld suste ne my lyif, i am bostit hurt and oft tymis i am slane therfor laubereris to burtht & land and be see burd, thai indure daly sic violence that it is nocht possibil that esperance of releif can be ymagynit for ther is nay thing on the lauberaris of the grond to burtht and land bot arrage carage taxationis violent spulȝe and al vthyr sortis of aduersite, quhilk is onmercifully exsecut daly. the veyr is cryit contrar in­gland, bot the actis of the veir is exsecutit contrar the lauberaris and consunnis ther mise­rabil lyif O my natural mother, my cōplaynt is hauy to be tald, bot it is mair displesand to susteen my piteous desolatione. i am banest fra my house, i am boistit and māniest be my frē ­dis, and i am assailȝit be them that suld defend me, the lauberaris ar ane notabil membyr of ane realme, vitht out the quhilk the nobillis [Page 86] & clergie cā nocht sustene ther stait nor ther lyif, ȝit notheles thai ar baytht be cū my mortal enemeis, the quhilk vil be the final euersione of ther auen prosperite. therfor i may compair them til ane man in ane frenyse quhilk bytis his auen mēbris vitht his techt, throuch the quhilk his body he cūmis consumit, the romans in ald tymes prouidit prudentlie for the deffens of the comont pepil cōtrar the nobillis, the senat and al vtheris of grit stait or dignites and cōtrar ther extorsions for thai in­stitut ane nobil man of office callit tribunus plebis quha deffendit the fredum and liberte of the comont pepil contrar the crualte of the hie senator ony vthir grit man of grit stait. bot allace it is nocht nou of that sort vitht me for i am left desolat vitht out supple or deffēs amāg the hādis of vrangus oppressours quhilk professit them to be my brethir and defendouris for i indure mair persecutione be thē nor be the cruel veyr of ingland, for my takkissteyding and teyndis ar nocht alanerly tane fra me or ellis hychtil til ane onrasonabil price bot as veil i am maid ane slane of my body to ryn and rashe in arrage & carraige, ther for i am constrenȝet to cry on god for ane ven­geance [Page] contrar them for the imporlabil affli­ctione quhilk thai constrenȝe me til indure the quhilk i beleif sal cum haistyly on them be the rycht iugement of god, conformand to the vordis of the prophet, propter mise­riam inopum & gemitum pauperum nūc ex­urgam dicit dominus that is to say be the ex­positiōe of the doctoris. for the misere of mistirful men, and for the vepyng of pure men, the diuyne iustice sal exsecut strait pu­nitione. therfor thir potestatis and men of stait that dois extorsiōs to the pure pepil thai hef mistir to be verra var and to abstrak them fra the violence quhilk tha parpetrat on the pure pepil, for it it to be presumit that the la­mentabil vo [...]e and cryis of the affligit pepil cōplenāt to the hauyn vil moueto pitie the clemens of the maist merciful and puissant di­uyne plasmator the quhilk trocht his eternal iustice, vil succumb in confusione al violen [...] vsurpatours quhilkis parpetratis sic cruel ini­quiteis on the desolat pure pepil. Therfor (o thou my mother) sen i am in dangeir of the deitht and disparit of my lyif, necessite pulsis and constrenȝes me to cry on god and to de­sire vengeāce on them that persecutis me, in [Page 87] hope that he vil releif me or els to tak me furtht of this miserabil lyif, for the ingratitude of my tua brethir, ther dissolutione, and the mysknaulage of god, and ther disordinat mis­gouernance, is the cause of my impatiēs, and cause of al my afflictione, for as ther euil cō ­quest reches multiplies, ther disordinat pom­pe and ther delicius ydilnes vitht misknaula­he of god augmentis, quhilk is occasione that tha ar ambitius in ther stait, couetuse of gudis and desirus to be gouernouris of the realme, i suld hef said misgouernouris of the realme, the quhilk foliful affectionis vil be ther auen confusione quhen god pleysis, be rason that nane of ther verkis ar cōformād to the cōmād of god. bot al the mānessing that is maid to thē nor ȝit the grit promes that is m [...]id to thē be the holy scripture altris nocht ther couety­se desyre, therfor thai may be comparit to the edropic the quhilk the mair that he drynk the mair he hes desire to drynk. my tua brethir nobillis and clergie ar in sic melancole be cau­se that i complein and murmyris ther crualte bot ȝit nane of thē decistis fra the vice quhilk giffis me occasiōe to murmyr. it is nocht pos­sibil to gar extorsione be vitht out murmur [Page] nor murmur, to be vitht out rumour, of the pepil nor rumour to be vitht out diuisione, & diuisione vitht out desolatione and sklandyr, therfor my īpaciēs suld be supportit be cause that the occasione of it hes suppedit my rason. o my desolat nother thou suld nocht reproche al thy thre childir in general bot rathere to reproche sa mony in special that ar occasione of thy afflictione. thou vait that ane man vil ha­ue childir of deferent conditionis sum gude and sum euil the patriark Iacob hed tuelf so [...] nis of the quhilk his ȝongest sone bēiemyn vas indole and innocēt and Iosept vas faitful and merciful, and ruben vas pieteabil and humain, and the tothir nyne brethir var cruel and dissaitful, quhen thai condampnit there brothere Iosept to dee in ane cesterne, & the­re eftir thai sellit hym to the egiptiens to be ane sklaue. Siklik amang al sortis of pepil and amang al facultes and staitis, there is sum gu­de and sum euil, and fyrst ro speik of the defferēs of kyngis, dauid that roial prophet, vas ane holy kyng, and kyng saul vas cruel & vi­cius, and amang the staitis of preistis matha­thias vas gude, and obnias vas euil, and amāg the staitis of prophetis daniel vas gude, and [Page 88] balaam vas euil, & amang the vedous, iudicht vas gude, and Ihesabel vas euil, amang the pastoirs and hirdis, abel vas gude and abimelech vas euil, amang the staitis of reche men Iob vas gude and nabal vas euil, and amang threligion of the apostolis Sanct petir vas gudee and iudas vas euil. ther for o my dolorus mo­ther thou erris in thy accusatione, in sa far as thou makis na acceptione of personis nor put­tis defferens betuix qualites of conditionis of men. it is concludit be al lauis, diuyne and humain, that euere person sal bayr his auen birding, and that euere person sal be commendit or detestit efferand for his conuersatione. therfor thou suld nocht condamp innocentis and trangressouris baytht to giddir, sic puni­tione excedis the limitis of discretione and of iustice. it is vrytin in the 7 cheptor of genesis that god sauit lotht and his famile be cause of there obediens quhen he distroyit the vicius pepil of sodome and gomore. O my velbelo­uit mother, thou knauis that i am innocent of thy inuectiue accusatione, and that my tua cruel brethir ar the cause of thy desolatione, & of my distructione. for i am sa violētly ouer set be them, that throcht pouerte of gudis and [Page] trocht debilite of my persone, i can nothir do gude to my frendis nor euil to my enemes. quharfor i exort the til altir thy seueir accu­satione in ane cheritabil consolatione. there is ane prouerb that sais, parce sepulto, that is to saye, spair hym that is in his sepulture this prouerb maye be applyit to my dolorus for­toune, for i maye be comparit til hym that is dede in his sepulture considerand that ther can be na dolour eikit to my aduersite, excep [...] cruel deitht. there for thou suld abstrak thy inuectiue reprocha, quhilk is rathe [...] crualte nor correctione, conformand til ane adagia of ane of the seuyn sapientis of rome callit mi­nus publianus that said, crudelis in re aduer­sa est obiurgatio. Allace my deir mother thou consideris nocht quhou that my brethir ar be cum on merciful tirrans touart me. i am hal­dyn be the vlgar pepil for there ȝongest bro­ther, bot i am there eldest brother in verra deid. for i vas gottyn and borne lang befor thē, and it vas i that first instituit there faculteis. for the pollice that vas inuentit be me & my predecessouris eftir the creatione of the varld h [...]s procreat the stait of my brethir. the faculteis and the begynnyng of nobillis and [Page 89] spiritualite hed bot pure lauboraris to there predecessouris. bot nou sen thai ar cum to stait and digniteis trocht me, thai ar be cum ingrat and lychtleis me. my tua brethir professis them to be gentil men, and reputis me and al lauberaris to be rustical and inciuile ondanti [...] ignorant dullit slauis. thai vil nocht consider that al there gentreis hes procedit and discendit. fra me, ther for quhair thai compt the de­greis of there genologie, thai suld fyrst begyn at adam oure foir father and quhen thai pryde them and ascribis in there reches faculteis or digniteis, thai suld fyrst begyn at the suc­cessouris of ouer foir father Adam, quhilkis var lauberaris of the grond and be there prudent inuention and pollice hes procreat the stait that thai posses therfor thai haue na cau­se to gloir in them seluis bot rather th [...]i suld gloir in me and in al lauberaris of the grond quhilkis var fundatouris of al there triūphād prosperite. bot there affectione and there va­ne ignorant consaitis garris them ymagyn & beleif that there predecessouris and al there nobillite and digniteis hes discēdit fra the an­gellis and archangellis & nocht fra ouer fo [...] father adam quhilk is the speciale cause th [...]t [Page] thai lychtlie the lauberaris that fundit thē. i meruel that thai considir nocht the gentris & genologe of kyng dauid that hed ane pure scheiphird til his father. [...]culius hostilius the thrid kyng of rome vas the sone of ane pure lauberar of the grond. tarquinius priscus the fyift kyng [...]f rome vas the sone of ane pure marchant, varro that prudint consul and di­ctatur of rome vas the sone of ane flaschar. the vailȝeant consul of rome perpenna quha reuengit the slaucthtir of crassus vas the sone of ane pure greik marcus cato vas the sone of ane pure man of tuscan. the philosophour so­crates quhilk vas iugit to be the maist prudēt man in the vniuersal varld, vas the sone of ane pure mā callit sophomistus quhilk vas ane grauer of imagis of marbyr stone, and his mothe [...] vas ane meyd vyf. euripides vas the sone o [...] ane pure mā that sellit frut & eirbis. [...]emos [...] nes that prudent due of athenes vas the so [...] of ane pure marchant that sellit ald knyui [...] agathocles kyng of cecille vas the sone of a [...] pottar that formit clay pottis. marcus tuliu [...] cicero vas the sone of ane pure lauberar o [...] arpyne. quhar for i meruel of the vanete of my tua brethir that ascribis and professis th [...] [Page 90] gentil men be successione of ther predecessouris. and thai vil nocht considir that the stok of the fyrst genologe of al the nobillis that hes bene sen the varld began hes been pure lau­beraris and mecanik craftis men, therefor it is grit abusione to them to gloir in there nobil blude, for i trou that gif ane cirurgyen vald drau part of there blude in ane bassyn it vald hef na bettir cullour nor the blude of ane plebien or of ane mecanik craftis man. the va­ne gloir that my tua brethir takis in sic vane [...]entilnes is the cause that thai lichtlye me [...]rocht the quhilk arrogant mynde that thai hef consanit thai mysken god and mā, quhilk is the occasione that i and thou sal neuyr get releif of our afflictiōe. quharfor i pray to god to grant them grace to ken them selfis, for as lang as thai ken nocht them selfis thai sal ne­uyr ken god nor ȝit sal hef pitie of pure affli­git pepil. the quhilk misknaulege of themself and of god sal be occasione of there auen ru­uyne bot gif thai correct them selfis haistylye. O my dolorus mother, this prolixt lamenta­bil complaynt procedis fra ane affligit hart, quharfor i exort the to mettigat thy inuecti­ue vehement accusatione, and to considir the [Page] verite of my innocens. the prudent seneque gyuis cummand to repreif vitht out iniure, and to loue vitht out flattery, bot thou passis the liuitis of baytht thir documentis for thy vordis ar verra iniurius vitht out perspectio­ne to the verite thou accusis me ouer rigou­rouslie of conspiratione and trason, thou knauand veil that trason is neuyr generit nor in­uentit in the hartis of the pure comontis, & quhou beit that there ignorance culd gar thē cansaue ane grondit maleis contrar ane prin­ce that hes perpetrat exactionis on the pepil, ȝit notheles thai hef nothir prudēs nor knau­lege til conuoye and til exsecut ony point of trason. there for quhen the committaris of trason ar tryit furtht, it sal be fundyn that i and al vthir of my faculte sal be clene and inno­centis of that foule cryme, be rason that it is nocht possibil that ane pure man can haue oportunite til exsecut ane traisonabil act con­trar ane prince be cause of sa mony disicil impedimētis that maye impesche hym, as pouer­te dreddour ignorance and notht hefand familiarite vitht ane prince, and the perellis & dangers that maye succed fra coniurationis ar vondir grit nocht alanerly in the conuoyng [Page 91] and in the diuising diuerse consaitis to bring there purpos til effect, bot as veil the dangeir and perrel is as grit in the exsecutione of it and na les dāger and perrel eftir that it be ex­secut therefor i think that ane pure man can commit na trason contrar ane prince, bot gif that he vald haszard his lyif in ane disparit vilfulnes and quhar ony man takis hardynes to commit trason of that sort it is rycht seyn­dil sene that he eschapis the deitht in the pre­sent tyme of his exsecutione. ther for i can nocht beleif that ony person vil offir hym self til ane certan detht vilfully, for quhou beit that pausanias sleu philip kyng of macedon passand to the tempil quhar he hed ane thou­ [...]and of his men of armis about hym in the presens of his sone and of his gude sone, ȝit noththeles that act culd neuyr hef been exse­cut hed nocht been that pausanias hed fami­liarite vitht kyng philip. and siklyik ane spang­ȝard of ane pure stait strak ferrand kyng of spāgȝe vitht ane knyf on the crag quhilk voūd vas nocht mortal ȝit noththeles this spang­ȝard culd nocht hef dune it, hed nocht been that he hed ane hardy hart and alse heffand cō modite and tyme oportune to cōmit that act. [Page] Siklyik ane preist of turque callit deruis schot ane bolt befoir the port of tempil cōtrar basit quhilk vas fathere to solomanuis the grit turk that ringis nou presētlye, that schot, sleu nocht basit bot ȝit the exsecutiōe of that act culd nocht hef been vitht out hardynes and oportunite therfor O my desolat mother ve that ar pure lauberaris suld neuir be suspe­kkit of trason, considerand that ve haue no­thir tyme, oportunite, reches, credens, har­dynes, prudēs, nor familiarite vitht ane prin­ce, therfor al historiographours rehersis that al coniurations hes been exsecut be grit per­sonagis of ane realme or ellis be the familiaris seruandis of ane prince. there for ve that ar pure comontis distitut of credit, prudens, and autorite, and nocht heffand familiarite vitht the maieste of ane prince, ve can hef na comodite of the necessair thingis that ar re­quirit to put ane trasonabil act til exsecutio­ne, for quhou beit that our ignorance vald gar vs consaue ane malicius intent cōtrar our prince, ve behufit fyrst to reueil it til diuerse men to gar thē be participāt vitht vs, troucht the quhilk reuelatione sum of them vald ac­cuse vs til our prince for it is nocht p [...]b [...]l [Page 92] to gar thre sum keip consel and speciale in causis of trason, for euere person hes sum frēd that he louis as veil as hym self, and that frē de hes ane vthir frende, and that tothir frend hes the thrid frende, and the thrid frend hes the feyrd frende and of this sort there intre­pricis is manifest, fra the quhilk succedis per­dition of body and gudis. for there is nocht mony men ī this varld bot sum vil schau the­re secret to ther brother, or to there compan­ȝone, or to there vyfe or to there familiar ser­uandis, and alsa indiscretione of sum coniu­ratours causis there entreprisis to be discou­uert be there seruandis or childir troucht suspectione and coniecture that occurris quhē thir coniuratours ar ouer ample and plane in ther deliberatione of there purpos ande of there entreprice in the presens of there seruā dis and childir, as is rehersit in the fy [...]st be [...]k of titus liuius that quhen the sonnis of brutus var mak and ane sedicius pactione vitht the imbassadours of tarquinus quhilk there fa­ther brutus hed bannest fra rome, at that ty­me ane seruand of the sonnis of brutus herd al the pactione of the coniuratione the quhilk seruad accusit them of trason to there fat [...] re [Page] brutus, and to the senat quilk vas occasio­ne that brutus vsit extreme iustice on his tua sonnis nocht heffand regarde to the pitie that fathers hes touuart there natural sonnis, bot rather he did preffer the public veil befor na­tural loue quhen he gart strik the heydis fra his tua ȝong sonnis. Sum tyme coniuration is reuelit [...]hroucht facilnes of the cōiuratours that schauis there secret til ane voman or til ony frēde that thai loue hartfully, as did ane gentil man callit dinus qusia vas participant of the coniuratione that philotes intendit til exsecut contrar kyng allexander, this foir said dinus reuelit his secreit til ane ȝōg child that he louit callit nic [...]macus, ande nicoma­cus reuelit that samyn secret til his brother ciballinus. and ciballinus reuelit it til kyng alexander quhilk vas occasione that the con­iuratours suffrit the detht. Therefor (o my dolorus mothere) thou may considir that the defeculte of the comitting of trason is vondir grit, and the perrel and the dangeir that succedis is na les, quharfor grit men and alse the familiaris of princis that coniuris, ar affligit in there hart vitht ane thousand deffeculteis or tha tak on hand til exsecute there entreprice. [Page 93] than be mair rycht ve that ar poure comō tis can nothir hef oportunite nor comodite to virk trason contrar our prince. and quhou beit that sū tyme ve resaue iniuris throucht exactions that ane euil gouuernit prince ex­secutis on the pepil, ȝit nochtheles ve indure the exactiōs patientlye and exsecutis no traisonabil vēgeāce, be cause ve hef nothir knau­lage reches nor subti [...]ite to conuoye vs til exsecut sic trason, there for quhen ve commit no traison our ignorance deseruis mair lo­uyng nor dois our prudens the maist cruel vengeance that pure comontis can exsecut cō trar ane euil prince is to gar our vyuis & bayrnis pray nycht and daye to send ane mischeif on hym and to send hym schort lyue dais & to send ane vthir gude prince in his place cō formand to the prayer of sanct dauid in the 108 psalme of his psalter quhi [...]k sais etenē oc­cidantur qui no sperturbant, fiant filij eius orphani, & episcopatum eius accipiet alter, as is contenit at mair lyntht in the psalme callit deus laudem, bot ve nor our vyuis and bayr­nis dar neuyr pray appynly to send sic ven­geance on ane euil prince in drede that s [...]m curtician alege trason on vs and therefur to [Page] by our eschet. ther for ve praye for vengeance qufien ve ly doune at euyn, and quhen ve ryise in the mornyng. bot al the remanent of the daye quhēve happyn to cū in ony straynge companye, ve pray deuotly vitht ane fen­ȝet hart to saue his grace and to keip hym in lang lyue dais and in gude prosperite. as vale­rius maximus rehersis ane exempil quhou there vas ane vyfe of syracuse ī cecille quhilk prayt daly in the tempil in presens of the pe­pil to saue and to keip dionisius the kyng of cecille qusia vas ane prince that committit mony exactions on the pure pepil.Va [...]erius maximus 1.2 ca. 6. the deuotione of this ald vyif vas reportit to kyng dionisius quha culd nocht meruel aneucht of the gude mynde that sche hed touuart hym considerand that al the remanent of the pe­pil of siracuse heytit hym▪ to the detht for the exactions insupportabil that he exsecutit on the pepil. than to be satefeit of his admiratione he send for that ald vyif and inquirit hyr of the cause of the gude mynde that sche bure touuart hym, considerand that he neuyr merit nor deserit sic kyndnes touuart hyr. the ald vyif ansuert to kyng dionisius, quod sche my souuerane prince i vse nocht sic de­uotione [Page 94] to desir ȝour lang lyif dais bot for ane grit rason as i sal reherse. ī the begynnyng quhē i vas ane ȝong damysel ȝour gudscheir molestit the pepil vitht intollerabil exactions quhar for i prayt to the goddis of the tempil to schort his lyif dais, than sune ther eftir he vas slane. than eftir hym succedit his sone quha vas ȝour father, and he did mair extor­sions to the pepil nor did his father, quhar­for i prayt to the goddis of the tempil to send hym schort lyif dais, than sune there eftir he vas stikkit in his secret chalmyr. and nou ȝe succed to ȝour fatheris heretage and til al his vicis, for ȝe commit dayly mair insupportabil exactions nor did ȝour father or ȝour gud scheir, quhar for i pray dayly to the goddis to send ȝou lang lyif dais, for i vait veil sen that iniquiteis and vicis succedis gre be gre fra princis vitht augmentation of the samyn, doutles i suspect that ȝour successour sal be the master deuyl, there for i hed leuyr indure ȝour exactions nor til hef ane var prince in ȝour place. Of this sort (o my dolorus mo­ther) ve that ar comont pepil vsis na vthir tra­son bot murmuris and bannis our prince secretlye quhē he gouuernisnocht veil the real­me [Page] vitht iustice and puneissis transgressou [...] ris. And quhou beit that thou vald alege that ve can nocht purge vs of trason in sa far as ve hef tane assurance of inglis men, allace thou suld nocht imput our assurance for tra­son nor for ane cryme for thou vait veil that ve that ar lauberaris of the grond culd nocht resist the inglis men, for ve that hed our vy­uis and barnis our cattel and corne and our gudis in the boundis quhilk the inglis men pof­lest violentlye, gart it be forse til vs to be assurit or ellis ve hed lossit al our gudis, and our selfis til hef beene slane. for it is veil knauen that sum of vs vald nocht be assurit in hope that my tua brethir nobilis and speritualite vald hef defendit vs and til hef resistit our en [...] meis, bot sic vane hope that ve hed of my bre­thers supple hes gart mony of vs be harey [...] furtht of house and herberye quhilk is occa­sion that mony of vs ar beggād ou [...] meit at­hourt the cuntre and there is nocht ane of vs that ar hereyt be inglis mē that cā get othir ta [...] or steyding or kou or ox fra our tua bredit to [...]elp vs ī this extreme pouerte▪ this veil cōsidi­rit (o my desolat mother) i suld empesche the to iuge that the assurāce that the pure cōmōti [...] [Page 95] hes taine to procede of trason, cōsiderand that necessite vas the cause of our assurance ther­for doutles quhen the autorite & my tua bre­thir passis in gude ordour to resist the inua­sions of our ald enemeis, it sal be maid manifest that the pure comontis that ar assurit of inglis men thai sal preif as gude scottis men eftir there qualite as ony scottis man of scotland that vas neuyr assurit. bot nou at this dolorus tyme ve ar constrenȝet to be assurit the quhilk assurance is bot ane dissimulatione, tariand quhil [...]he tyme virk ane bettir chāce. and i think that our dissymilatione is nothir cryme nor syn, confiderand as the bissynes of the cuntre standis presentlye. for ane dis­similatione that procedis nocht of ane astuce intent suld be callit ane hie prudens rathere nor dissymilatione. the dissymilatione of [...] vailȝeant romane iunius brutus cōquest til hym mair reputatione and gloir nor did his vailȝeant actis that he committit quhen he bannest the tirran kyngis furtht of rome Titus liuius rehersis that tarquinus super­bus the sext kyng of rome vas verra cruel cō ­trar them that var reput vise and prudent,Titus li­uius. Libro. 1. & alse he perpetrat daly intollerabil exactions [Page] contrar the comont pepil. quhen euyrit vas reportit til hym of ony speciale person that vas reput prudent, he gart put that person in his beuk of proscriptione quharfor ȝoung iunius brutus quha vas sistir sone to tarquinꝰ,Valerius maximꝰ. li. 7. ca. 3. heffand dreddor to be slane be his oncle, and to tyne his patrimōe, he of ane prouidit mynde. dissimilit his prudens, & changit his out­uart verteous cōditions in actis of folye lyke ane natural fule, quhar for it vas beleuit be al the romans that he vas be cum frenetic and glaykit quhilk vas occasiōe that tarquinꝰ vald nocht exsecut his crualte cōtrar hym be cau­se he iugit hym to be ane fule. iunius brutus conteneuit in his dissimilatione quhil on to the tyme that sextus tarquinus violet be for­se the cheist lucrecia the quhilk vile act gene­rit ane dispyit and ane rācor vithtin the har­tis of the romans. than iunius brutus persa­uand the commotione of the pepil, he thocht it couenient tyme to leaue his dissimilatione and to practik his prudens, quhar for he past to the frendis of lucrecia and til diuerse othir nobil romans and gart them depone ane ser­ment that thai suld al concur and conuene to gidthir in ane purpose contrar the crualte of [Page] tarquinus superbus. this serment vas veil maid & bettir kepit, for brutus and the vail­ȝeand romans bannest tarquinus fra rome & al them of that surname quhilk vas occasiōe that the comont veil of rome returnit in gu­de prosperite. be this exemplis the pure comō tis of scotland that hes there vyuis bayrnis & there gudis ly and vndir the inglis mennis feit and hes na releif nor deffens to reuenge nor to resist the inglis mēs inuasiōs thai suld mesure and veye there auen forse, and gif thai fynd them selfis sterk aneucht to defend them and there gudis contrar the inglis mē, in that cace thay ar oblist til haszard there lyisis and there gudis to deffend the cuntre quhou bei that thai get na supple of the auto­rite. and in apposit gif the pure comontis that lyis vithtin the inglis men handis be nocht of ane qualite to deffend nor to resist there enemeis thai commit na cryme quhen thai mak ane dissimulit assurance vitht inglis men, and to temptal the cousaitis and vays that thai can iuge to be necessair to gar them be saue of body and gudis fra the crualte of idgland quhil on to the tyme that thai maye be strynthit be the autorite to cum to resist the [Page] inglis mē. Quhar for i exort the (o my desolat mother) that thou imput nocht the assu­rāce of the pure comōtis to proceid of trason, bot rather that thou accuse my tua sophistic brethir quhilkis suld and culd haue rele­uit and restorit the to thy fyrst stait, for god knauis veil that i am innocent of thy accusatione, and the remeid of thy afflictione lyis nocht in my possibilite.

❧Quhou the affligit lady dame scotia ansuert til hyr ȝongest soune ande quhou sche re­prochit hyr tua eldest sonnie for there neclegens in the defens of there comount veil. Chap. XVI.

[Page 97] O Thou my ȝongest soune, callit lauberaris to burgh ande land, i vil nocht gyf eyris to thy excusations nor to thy purgations, be cause, as cicero vritis in ane orison, that na man suld be admittit to be vytnes in his auen cause. Noluerunt maiores no­stri, hanc patere inimicitiis viam,Cice. profent. vt qut quis­que odisset, enī testimonio posset tollere. emē tiuntur enim sepe in eos, quos oderunt. nor ȝit i vil nocht adhere to thy accusations con­trar thy tua brethir, be rason that ane gilty man suld accuse no man of cryme, as crist ihe­sus hes gyffin ane exempil quhen the phara­seis accusit ane voman that vas tane in adultere,Iohānes. 8 desirand his iugement quhiddir thai suld stane hyr to detht conformand to the ald te­stamēt, or gyf thai suld thole hyr to depart on puneist. crist ansuert to the accusaris say and, he that is vitht out syn, sal cast the fyrst sta­ne at hyr this exempil makkis manifest that ane accusar suld be cleene but vice, ande alse crist ihesus hes said in ane vthir passage to the ypocritis that accusit pure synnaris quod he ȝe sal tak furtht ane grit balk furtht of ȝour auen ee,Math. 7. Luce. 6. ande there eftir ȝe maye tak furtht ane litil strey furtht of ȝour nychebours ee. [Page] The poiet confermis thi [...] samyn purpos, sa­yand, that euerye man of this varld baris tua sakkettis vitht hym. the fyrst sakket hyngis befor hym, vitht in the quhilk ar contenit al the vicis that his nychtbour committis, ande the nyxt sakket hyngis behynd his bak, vitht in the quhilk, ar contenit al the vicis that his self committis. bot he can nocht see nor persa­ue his auē vicis be cause he seis nocht the sa­kket that hyngis behynd his bak, bot he seis his nychtbours faltis in the sakket that hin­gis befor hym vt nemo in sese tentat discen­de nemo.Perseus satiric. 4. sed precedēte spectatur mantica ter­go. There for (o thou my ȝōgest soune) i refuse to gyf eyris or audiens to thy accusations contrar thy tua brethir be rason that ane accusar suld be cleen or he accuse his nychtbour as cicero vritis. A [...]cusare debent ij. qui nullo suo peccato impediūtur, quo facilius alterius peccata demonstrate possint. Nor ȝit i vil nocht adhere to the accusatiōs that ony ane of ȝou hes contrar vthirs.Cicero de diuinatio [...]n vero. Thy accusatione is vondir inuectyue contrar thy tua brethir, thy fyifteen iunectyuis philipiqn [...]s of cicero contrar anthonius, excedis nocht the accusa­tions ande calumniations that thou hes pronuncit [Page 98] contrar them ȝit nochtheles i disco­mend there crualte, ande i commend nocht thy accusatione for thou ande al thy sect cal­lit lauberaris to bargh ande land, deseruis no les punitione, nor dois thy tua brethir nobilis ande clergie. for gyf thou ande thy sect hed as grite liberte, as hes thy tua brethir, doutles ȝe vald be mair cruel, nor the vyild beystis of the desertis of arabie. the practic of this samyn is presently, ande euer hes been in tymes by past sen the varld began. for as sune as ȝe that ar comont pepil ar onbridilit and furth [...] of subiectione, ȝour ignorance in­constance ande inciuilite, pulcis ȝou to perpetrat intollerabil exactions. for al the insurre­ctiōis, that euyr occurrit in ony realme con­trar the prīce & the public veil, hes procedit of the ignorāce & obstinatiōe of the comoūt pe­pil. There for none of ȝou suld haue liberte bot rather ȝe suld be daly dātit & h [...]ldin ī subiectiōe, be cause that ȝour hartis is ful of ma­leis ignorāce variāce & incōstāce, for the maist part of ȝou al gyffis louyng tyl vicius men and ȝe hald verteous men abhominabil and quhen ȝe ar al conuenit to gydthir for the auansing of ane gude purpose, ȝe cry & ber­kis [Page] ilk ane contrar vthirs, that nocht ane of [...]ou knauis quhat ane vthir sais ande quhen ȝe hef f [...]yttyn ande berkit but ryme or rason al the lang daye, ȝe accord nocht nor cōdiscē ­dis prudently on ane substancial constāt pur­pose. and he that is the maist cūmirsum cryar ande maist obstinat contrar raison, ȝe reput hym for the maist prudent man of the real­me. than quhē he gois, al the leaue rynnis & follouis hym, lyik the brutal scheip that vil nocht pas throucht the slop of ane dyik for the mannessing of there hyrd, quhil ane of the verst of the flok, mak foir gait, than al the leaue follouis. ande al this procedis of ȝour variance and inconstās i vait nocht quhiddir,Cicero pro d [...]mo sua. ane calme sey in vyntir, or the course of the mune, or ane mysty mornyng in symmyr, or the comont pepil, quhilk of them suld preffer vthirs in variance. Cicero confermis this sammyn purpos sayand. in imperitia multitudi­ne est variet [...]s, & inconstantia, & crebra tan­quam tempestatum, sic sententiarum commutatio. i hed leuyr hef the iugement ande consultatione of ten prudent vyise men, nor til hef al the visdome and consaitis that ane gri­te multiplie of comountis can pronunce.Cicero pro [...]ancio. Ci­cero [Page 99] confermis this samyn purpose. grauior & validior est decem virorum bonorū pru­dentia, quam totius multitudinis imperitie. there is nocht ane mayr ignorant & ane mair blynd thyng in this varld as is til adhere to the iugement of the comont pepil quhilk hes no thir consideratione nor rason, for al there deliberations procedis of there fyrst apprehē sions. there for gyf the entrepricis of the co­mont pepil cūmis tyl ane gude sine, fortone deseruis mair louyng nor dois there prudēs. Siclyik as ane blynd man that passis in ane myrk place quhar he hed neuir beene, & syne eschapis fra ane hurt or fra ane fal. na vyis­men vil saye that this blyind mā seis cleir, for it vas chance that conuoyit hym and nocht his een, for this cause the ciuil lauis deffen­dis & forbiddis al monopoles and conuen­tions of the comont pepil be cause the maist part of them ar euil cōdicionet & ar obedient to there apetitis and to there glaykyt affectiōs. i can nocht conpair the comont pepil that ar onbridilit, bot tyl onbeystis, that ar of ane var nature nor brutal beystis. as ve maye see daly, for brutal beystis keipis ane bettir ordour in there beystly nature nor dois onbridilit co­moūt [Page] pepil that ar dotit vitht rason. ve maye see be experiens. that horse nolt scheip dog­gis voluis lyons ande al vthir brutal beystis, ilk ane vil deffend there auen natur contrar the violens of vthir beystis, as cicero sais, be­stie pro partu suo ita propungnant, & vulnera excipiant, nullos imperus, nullos casus for­mident.Cicero que stitusc. 5. Bot it is nocht siklyik amang the pe­pil for euerye man settis his felicite to distroy his mychtbour. Ande alse the ondantit bru­tal beystys that hes there liberte on feildis & forrestis none of them eytis drynkis nor sleipis bot quhen ther natural appetit requiris. nor the mail vitht the femmel cōmittis nocht the verkis of natur, bot in the saison of gene­ratione. bot the pepil that hes liberte kepis nocht sa gude regement, for thai considir no­thir the vertu of temporance, nor the vice of intemporance, bot rathere subiectis them sel­fis to saciat ony sperk of the foul lust, that there disordinat sensual appetit prouokis thē tyl ymagine as to eyt drynk and sleip abufe mesure at al tymis, contrar there natural ap­petit. ande alse to conmit fornicatione adultere homocide ande diuerse vthir extorsions & iniuris contrar there nychtbour, there for thai [Page 100] deserue to be reput mair brutal, nor beystis that ar brutal of natur. Ande quhou beit that sum of them applyis thē to ve [...]tu quhen thai ar haldin in subiection throucht the quhilk, thai be cum industreus in policie ande in conquessing of reches, be marchandreise or be mechanyc craftis, or be lauboryng of the corn landis or be sernise, ȝit nochtheles, as sune as ony of them, be sic honest industreus ocupations, hes conqueist grit reches or here­tagis, thai be cum mair ambicius ande arro­gant, nor ony gentil man, sperutual or temporal that ar discendit of the maist nobil barons of the cuntre. ande there childir distitut of ciuilite throucht the ignorāce of there fathers ande for falt of educatione and eruditione, thai be cum vane prodig ande arrogant, be cause thai succeid sa eysilie to reches vitht out the suet of there brouis or pane of there body, nocht hefland regarde to the fyrst po­uerte of there predecessours nor of the cald hungir ande punirite that there fathirs and mothers indurit in the conquessing of sic re­ches. ande gyf sa beis that ony of the succes­sours of mecanyc mei (that is to saye the suc­cessours, of lauberaris to [...]urght ande l [...]nd) [Page] be promouit til ony stait abufe there faculte, as to be saruandis to men of autorite, or to be courticians ande officiaris to princis, or ȝit to be promouit to benefeissis or tyl ony vthir digniteis abufe there qualite than arrogan­ce makkis ypocryse manifest. conformand til ane addagia of ane of the seuyn sapientis cal­lit mimus publianus qua said. lapis index auri, aurum hominum. for it is the nature of the comont pepil (beand ascendit indignite abufe there faculte) to mysken them selfis there frendis ande there familiaris. There is nocht ane mair odius thyng in this varld as quhen the successour of ane indigent ignorāt mechanyk lauberar ascendis tyl ony dignite abufe his qualite, for incontinēt eftir his pro­motione, he myskennis god ande man. aspe­rius nichil est humilis cū surgit in altum. Ti­tus liuius rehersis ane passage conform and to this samyn purpose. Barbarici animi est cum fortuna mutare sidē. there is sum of thir me­canyc pepil heffand superflu prosperite, that refusis the genoligie of there fathere ande mothere and alse refusis there surname, and cla­mis to be of the blude of nobilis ande gentil men, than quhen thai ar repute be the vulgaris [Page 101] to be discendit of sic genoligie, thai gloir in there pretenditkyn ande blude quhilk is occasione that there arrogance & there vane gloir garris them commit mair extorsions cō trar the pepil nor dois ony vthir tirran that ar discendit of the grytest nobilis of the cuntre. the preist of peblis speris ane questione in ane beuk that he conpilit quhy th [...]t burges ayris thryuis nocht to the thrid ayr, bot he mycht hef sperit as veil, quhy that the successours of the vniuersal comōt pepil baytht to burght & land, thryuis nocht to the thrid ayr. the so­lutione of this questione requiris nocht ane allogorie expositione nor ȝit ane glose, be ra­son that the text of yis questione is nocht ob­scure, ane person that hed neuyr aduersite & hes veltht that procedit neuyr of his auen industrie & syne hes liberte. and hes neueir knauen education eruditione nor ciuilite, it is on possibil that he can be verteous and he that heytis vertu, sal nenyr thryue. (O my ȝongest soune) this ansuer maye be sufficient to the seueir accusatione that thou hes pronū ­cit contrar thy tua brethir. in tyme to cū thou sal fyrst correct thy self or thou accuse thy mychtbour.

❧Quhou the affligit lady accusis hir eldest sonne callit the nobilis and gentil men. Chap. XVII.

O My eldest sonne (nobilis) this seuei [...] reproche contrar thy ȝongest bro­ther, is no occasione to gar the gloir for gyf thou hed grace token thy self, thou vald sune ꝑsaue, that thy vicius lyif deseruis ane mair extreme repro­che. for the vice of thy ȝongest brother suld be supportit be rason of his ignorance ande of his pouerte bot thou can haue na excusatio­ne to cullour thy mischeuons conuersation ande the violent extorsions that thou daly cō mittis contrar thy tua brethyr, lauberaris & clergie. ande alse thou art the special cause of my ruuyne for thou ande thy sect that pro­fessis ȝou to be nobilis ande gentil men the­re is nocht ane sperk of nobilnes nor gentrice amang the maist part of ȝou. Ande nou be cause mony of ȝou, ascribis [...]a grit gloir of ȝour pretendit gentreis ande nobilnes, i vil discri­ue the stait of nobilnes ande gētilnes, to that effect that ȝe may persaue ȝour grit error.

❧THE PHILOSOPHOVR'S ande [...]r [...]sconsultours in the ancient dais, hes [Page 102] familiarly discriuit one thing be the contrar thyng. thai gart the discriptiōe of ane vilaine (quhilk ve cal ane carlin our scottis langa­ge) manifest the conditions of ane gentil mā siclyik thai gart the discriptione of ane gentil man manifest the conditione of ane villai­ne be rason that ane gentil man or ane nobil man. ande ane villaine hes direct contrar cō ditions, & sa be the discriptione of ony ane of thir tua contrareis, tha gat ane solide knaulage of the tothir. Siklyik quhen thai discri­uit vertu, tha fyrst delatit ande payntit the cō ditions of vice, ande quhen thai discriuit li­berte, thai fyrst payntit ande dilatit the con­dition [...] of seruitude. And nou sen this pur­pos hes occurrit to speik of gentreis ande nobilnes, i vil fyrst discrine the origine of gentil men be the quhilk ȝe may knau, quha is ane vilaine. Bot fyrst i man reherse the stait of the pepil that var in the gude anciant dais quhilk sum men callit the goldin varld, there vas na defferens of staitis at that tyme amang men, [...]othir in preeminens dignite superiorite nor honour, for at that tyme, al men var egal, & nocht partial nor deuidit, for the pepil lyuit al to gydthir in ane tranquil & l [...]uabil cōmu­nite, [Page] ande thai left no thing to there posterite, bot regrettis for the alteratione of that gu­de varld. in thai dais the pepil eit nor drank nocht bot quhen hungir constrenȝet them & than there maist delegat refectiōe vas acquo­rns, vyild berreis, green frutis, rutis & eirbi [...] ande thai drank the fresche vattir. at sum ty­me thay past in the forrestis to the course and hunting, and sleu vyild beystis syne dryit the flasche at the sune or thai eit it. and thai that var of maist tendir conplexione, couurit thē vitht the skynnis of tha vyild beystis to keip them fra cald At that tyme ther vas no cere­monial reuerens nor stait, quha suld pas be­for or behynd, furtht or in at the dur, nor ȝit quha suld haue the dignite to vasche ther hā ­dis fyrst in the bassine nor ȝit quha suld sit doune fyrst at the tabil. at that tym [...] the pepil var as reddy to drynk vattir in ther bonet or in the palmis of ther handis as in ane glas or in ane tasse of siluyr. At that tyme thai la [...] altogydthir in ane cauerne, as dois presenti the sophistic egiptiens. thai purgit ther bel­leis ande excercit the verkis of nature, ilk ane in vthirs presens vitht out schame reproche or offens. than ane lang tyme there eftir nature [Page 103] prouokit thē to begyn sum litil police. for sum of them began to plant treis, sum to dāt beystis, sum gadthrid the frutis, ande kepit them quhil on to the tyme of necessite, ande sum neureist there childir, at that tyme the pepil drank nothir [...]yne nor beir, nor na vthir confekkit drynkis. at that tyme straynge cū ­treis var nocht socht, to get spicis eirbis dro­gis gūmis & succur for to mak exquisit electuars to prouoke the pepil til ane disordinat appetit. At that tyme there vas no sumpteous clothyng of fine claytht and of gold & silk of diuerse fassons. at that tyme ī the begynnyng of ther police, coppir bras and yrn and vthir mettellis var meltit to mak vtēsel veschel ne­cessair to serue ane houshald and var nocht meltit to be gunnis ande cannons to sla doune the pepil. Ande nou sen that goldin varld is past, ther hes succedit ane yrn varld, quhilk hes altrit euerye gude thing in infelicite and myscheif, for meiknes is changit ī maleis, tra­uail in ydilnes, rest in excesse, pace in veyr, eyse in pane, loue in hatrent, cherite in crual­te, iustice in extorsions, almis in thyft, kynd­nes in persecutione, supporting of ignorance in detractione pitie in rigor, ande faytht in [Page] ypocrysie, and sa euyrie thing is altrit fra ane gude stait in ane abho minabil qualite. The cause of this alteratione hes procedit fra the euyl cōditiōs of men that began tyl oppresse there mychtbours, ande til eschaip sic oppressione, the pepil chesit ane certan of gouuer­nours of the maist robust & ma [...]st prudent to be there deffendours, ande alse thai randrit thē tributaris ande subiectis to there said gouuernours & there gouuernous gat for ther panis and laubyr the butin and spulȝe that thai cōqueist fra the tirran oppressours. Thai gouuernours var sa nobil in there auen curage that thai distrubut the maist part of the butine ande spulȝe amāg the pepil that hed vsit them maist vailȝeantly contrar there ene­meis, ande thai that var lasche couuardis gat nothing. Of this sort began the fyrst nobil­nes ande gentreis in the varld, for thai that var vailȝeant, thai var reput for nobilis ande gentil men, ande thai that var vicius & cou­uardis var reput for vilainis ande carlis. The chartagiens vsit that sammyn fassoune ane lang tyme for thai gaue to the sodiours that bure them maist vailȝeantly contrar there enemeis, ane certan of gold ringis, for ane [Page 104] takyn of perpetual nobilite. Siklyik euyrie vailȝeant roman sodiour vas crounit vitht ane croune on his hede in takyn of nobilite. The macedoniens vsit that sammyn vse ane lang tyme, ande quhen ane macedonien hed nocht venqueist ane of his enemeis, he vas bundin til ane post, ande degradit fra his no­bilite. in ald tymis ī germanye, ane al man vas ay repute for ane villain, quhil on to the tyme that he vas mareit, and he gat neuyr lecens to marye, quhil on to the tyme, that he hed presentit the hede of ane of his enemeis to the kyng of germanye. Siklyik in sythia at ane banket of tryumphe, the kyng presentit ane goldin tasse ful of vyne to the companye at the tabil. bot nane of them vas admittit to drynk in that tasse, bot sa mony as hed ven­queist ane of there enemeis in ane conflict, for he that hed neuyr dune ane vailȝeant act con­trar his enemeis, vas reput for ane inciuile villaine. Mardochens conqueist the gre of nobi­lite fra artaxerxes throucht his vertu, ande Iosehp vas maid ane gentil man be pha [...]aon for his vertu. Than the successours of thi [...] nobil men var repute for gentil men as lang as thai vsit verteous verkis of nobilite, as did [Page] there predecessours. Bot fra tyme that the successours of thir nobil men, be cam vicius, than tha var degradit fra there nobilite and [...] fra i bere gentreis, and thai var repute for inciuile vilaynis. Valerius maximus rehersis the nobilite of scipio the affrican,Valerius maximus. Li. [...]. ca. 5. quha hed ane soune that vas nothir vailȝeant nor verteous. on ane daye, he beād clet hid ī ane lang quhyt goune, as the vse vas to be borne at the distributione of the officis of rome, he desirit the office of pretoir at the senat, on ane pla­ce callit campus martius. At that tyme, his frendis cam til hym, & but reuerens, thai reft fra hym ane signet of gold that vas on his fingare, vitht in the quhilk vas grauit his fa­thers hede, say and til hym, o inperfect ande vicius contrafait gentil man, thou deseruis nocht to veyr this nobil signet, vitht in the quhilk is grauit thy fathers hede, considerād that thou hes nothir vertu nor vailȝeantnes, there for ve degraid the, frathe nobilite ande gentreis, that thou pretendit to succeid to, be the deceisse of thy fathere. This exempil of scipio makkis manifest, that na man can me­reit or can be capabil of nobilnes or gētreis bot gyf tha be verteous. There for that stait [Page 105] of gentreis is ane accidental qualite, in sa far as it may cum til ane persoune be his vertu, ande he maye be degradit fra it for his vice. (O my eldest soune nobilis and gentil men) the armys that ȝe bair in ȝour scheil­dis and in ȝour seylis in ȝour signetis, and alse is payntit on ȝour vallis & in ȝour glasyn vin dois, thai var gyuyn to ȝour p̄decessours, be the prince, for ane takyn of nobilnes, for the nobil actis that thay hed dune for the comō [...] veil of the realme & ȝe that ar there successours ȝe bayr the samyn armis for ane takyn that ȝe ar obleist to follou the futsteppis of ȝour predecessours in vertu. or ellis ȝe merit to be degradit fra the armis that ȝe bair & fra the gentreis that ȝe professe, as vas dune tyl ȝōg scipio befor rehersit. There is diuerse prin­cis that gyffis the tryumphe of knychted and nobilite, vitht leuerairis, armis ande herteta­ge to them that hes committit vailȝeant actis in the veyris, siklyik as the empriour makkis the ordur of knychthed of the fleise the kyng of Frāce makkis the ordour of the c [...]kkil the kyng of inglād makkis he ordour of knycht­hede of the gartā. None of thir knychtis resauis thir hie digniteis, throucht ane affectuy [Page] loue that there prince hes touart thē. bot rathere for the vailȝeant actis that there prince hes knauen them til haue committit for ther public veil.Valerius maximus in the che­ptor of tryumphe. The romās in the anciant dais, or­dand ane tryūphe of nobilite to be gyffin to them that hed borne them maist vailȝeantly contrar the enemeis of rome. The ordour of there tryumphe vas of this sort, quhen ony romane hed dune ane vailȝeant act, he vas set in ane charriot veil acoutreit, quhilk vas dra­uen vitht foure hor [...]e, be cause in the anciāt dais, the romans vsit to fecht in battel in charriotis. Than he that hed venqueist his ene­mye be straikis ande string battel he vas crounit vitht ane palme of gold, be rason that the palme tre hes schearp broddis and pikis. And he that hed venqueist his enemye, be practik of veyr ande sleu and tuke his enemeis fleād fra the battel vitht out hurt til hym, he vas crounit vitht ane croune of laure tre, be cau­se the laure tre hes no schearp broddis nor pikis. This last tryumphe of laure tre vas cal­lit tropheum, quhilk singnifeis ane ioyful victoree, for the victoree is ioyful quhen the enemeis ar venqueist vithtout domage to the vē ­quesair. quhen thir romans entrit in rome to [Page 106] resaue there tryūphe for ther vailȝeant actis, the senat the gentil men and the comont pe­pil met them in there best array vitht grit so­lempnite, and syne conuoyit them to the plane mercat befor the capitol to resaue there tryumphe of dignite as tha hed deseruit. Bot allace (o ȝe my eldest sone nobilis ande gen­til men) there is nocht mony of ȝou that meritis to veyr the ensenȝe of the fleise, of the cokkil nor of the gartan, nor ȝit there is nocht mony of ȝou that meritis to be bor­ne in ane charriot to resane the tryumphe of the palme tre nor of the laure tre, for ȝour imbecilite auereis ande contentione that rin­gis amang ȝou, rather deseruis degrading fra ȝour pretendit gentreis, nor ȝe deserne louyng or commedation for vertu. There for ȝe ar in grit error quhen ȝe professe ȝou to be gentil men, & syne committis no actis efferand for ȝour professione bot vald ȝe considir the origine of ȝour gentreis, than ȝe vald nocht be sa arrogant as to desire the gloir and the stait of ane dignite that ȝe deserue nocht. There is mony of ȝou that professis to be gentil men be successione of ȝour predecessours bot ȝe cōsidir nocht that [Page] the gre of gētreis procedis fra vertu. The philosophour sais that the cause of ane thing is of mair efficacite, nor is the thyng that procedis fra the cause, ergo vertu suld preffer the successours of verteous men. Ane verteous man beand discendit of ane verteous genoli­gie doutles he is ane rycht gentil man, and in opposit, ane vicius man beand discendit of verteous genoligie, he suld be reput mair vi­le and odius nor ony infamous vilaine ple­bien, ande alse thai suld be degradit fra there gātreis that thai haue ascribit til haue be suc­cessione, ande thai suld be conpellit to virk vile mecanyk laubir to that effect that the ho­nour of verteous gentil men, be nocht macu­lat vitht the vice ande inciuilite of vicius pre­tendit gentil men. There for as i haue said of befor the sone of ane prince beand distitut of vertu is no gentil man, ande in apposit ane sone of ane mechanyc plebien beād verteous he is ane gentil man for that cause the poiet francis petrarcha florentyne said, i hed leuyr be the sone of vicius tarsites i vsand ane ver­teous conuersatione nor to be the sone of the vailȝeant achilles i beand vicius. The philo­sophour plutarque rehersis, that iphicrate [...] [Page 107] vas ane pure mecanyk craftis man discendit of inciuil plebiens ȝit nochtheles throucht his vertu he vas elect to be kyng of the cuntre, there vas ane vicius gentil man at that tyme callit hermodius quha reprocht iphicrates, sayand, o iphicrates it esseris nocht for thy stait & faculte to be ane kyng be rason that thy father vas ane mecanyc tailȝour discen­dit of inciuile pure pepil, there for thou art nocht ane gentil man. iphicrates ansuert, o hermodius, throucht my vertu, my succes­sours sal be reput gentil men, and sa my gentreis begynnis at my self bot thou ande thy gentreis sal end to gydthir, & thy successours sal be reput for vilaynis be cause of thy vi­cius cōuersatione. This exempil makkis ma­nifest, that ane person may succeid to heretage and to mouabil gudis of his predecessours bot no mā can succeid to gentreis nor to ver­tu, for vertie & gentreis most proceid fra the spreit of hym self and nocht fra his pre [...]ecessours. iuuenal the poiet rehersis, that buci­phal the grit horse of allexāder hed mony comodius propreteis for as sune as he s [...]u ale­xander, he knelit ande maid hym reuertens, ande syne thoht hym to lope on hym, & al [...]e [Page] he vas strynthy ande auful in ane battel contrar the enemeis of alexander. ande quhen he vas saidlyt vitht his best bayrdit harnessing, he vald thole no man to ryde on hym bot ale­xander. This samyn horse busiphal hed ane brother, generit and folit of the samyn hor­se and meyr that folit hym. this to thir hor­se vas grit fayr and gude lyik, bot nochtheles the maist perfyit industreus horse dantars of macedon culd nocht gar hym be veil br [...]dilit nor mane [...]ir in na comodius sort conuenient to serue ane prince, q [...]har for he vas nocht treittit bot rather deiekkit ande chaissit to the vyild barran f [...]ildis to seik his meyt, ande oft tymis he vas put in ane cart to drug and drau, quhar he vas euyl dung & broddit.

This exempil maye be conferrit to t [...]a bre­thir gottin ande borne of ane fathere & [...]o­ther ane of them beand verteours suld be re­put for ane gentil man. and the tother beand vicius fuld be estemeit and reittit lyik ane bar bir inciuil vilaine. There hes been diuerse gē til mē that thynkis schame that there fathe [...]s and mothers gudschers and grandsch [...]us hes bene mechanyt blebiens, Bot sic vane gentil men takkis nocht exempil of agathocles the [Page 108] kyng of ce [...]lle, quha vas the fone of ane pot­tar that formit clay pottis, ȝit nochtheles quhē he vas elect ī dignite royal, he gart gold smy­this graue ane pot in his armys on euerye pe­ce of his siluyr veschel, and alse he gart paynt the vallis of hispalleis vitht pottis, the qu­hilk thing he did to [...]anifest to the pepil that he thocht noschame that his father hed been ane mecanyc craftis ma discēdit of ane pure genoligie.Iuuenal Satiric. 7 it is ane grit soly til ane pers [...]n to pretend to gentreis be successione or be re­ches innenal conf [...]rmis this samyn purpos, nobilitas sola est animū que moribus orna [...], and the vordis of ouid ar consonant to this samyn, Non cēsus nec clarum nomen auorū, sed probitas magnum ingeniumque facit.

There for it is grit arrogance and nales fo­lie quhen ony person gloris in his hie geno­ligie considerand that euyre person is discen­dit of ane origyne, as boiecius de consolatione hes rehersit in his thrid beuk.Boiecꝰ de consolatio­ne philoso­phie.. li. 3. Omne hominum genus in terris simili surgit ab ortu. the­re for vald euyrie man cosidir his fyrst origyne he sal fynd that al man kynd ar creat of mud and clay as is vritin in the sycond che­ptour of genesis, Formauit igitur hominē de [Page] limo terre. ande alse Ihesus sirach sais in the 10 cheptour of ecclesiasticus, quhar he repre­uis the gloir ande pride of men quid super­bis terra et ciuis, that is to say, quhou ar ȝe becum predeful, & takkis gloir in this varld? considerand that ȝe ar bot eird ande puldir. it is vrityn on the 18 cheptour of genesis, lo­quar ad dominum cum sim puluis & ciuis. that is to say, i sal speik to the lord, quhou be it i am bot puldi [...] ande asse. it is vrityn in the 17 cheptour of ecclesiasticus, Omnes homi­nes terra et ciuis, al men ar eird ande alse.

Thir exemplis suld be occasione to gar gen­til men, paynt in there scheildis, ande graue in there signetis, puldir ase ande eirde, rather nor til haue gart paynt ande graue the armis of there predecessours, be rason that fra tyme that thai be aryuit to the fine ande to the li­uitis of there peregrinatione of this mortal lyif. than thai returne to there comont ande general mothere the eird, the quhilk eird ma­kkis na acceptions of persons nor defferens of qualiteis betuix gentil men, and mecanyc men, bot resauis them al indefferently in hir domicil and receptacle than quhen the corrupit flesche is consumit fra the banis, no man [Page 109] can put defferens b [...]t [...]ix ane prince ane beg­gar. The historigraphours rehersis, that qu­hen kyng cirus he [...] ven qu [...]st kyng cresus, he led hym til his p [...]ets ande treittit hym mair humainly, nor is the vse to treit presoneirs. On one day cresus spak hardyly to kyng cirꝰ sayand, Nobil prince the vulgaris ascribis gri­te gloir for the vailyeant actis that thou hes committit for the public veil of perse ande meid, ȝit nochtheles thy father cambifes did mair vailȝeant actis in his tyme, nor thou hes dune. kyng cresus vas temerair ī his questiō for cirus vas offēdit cōtrar kyng cresus thinkand that ane presoneir suld nocht haue bene sa bold, as til reproche ane prince that hal­dis hym in captiuite. Than cresus persauand kyng cirus in collere and ire, he said, nobil prince gyf thy nobil grace vil gyf me lecens to rason the mater, thou sal sune persaue that i said nothing tyl offend the, bot rathere til augment thy gloir. i said that thy grace hed nocht dune sic ane vailȝeant act, as thy fathe­re cābises did in his tyme, for he did ane nobil act, quhen he engeneret the on thy mothere to gouuerne this realme eftir his deceisse, bot thou hes nocht dune sic ane nobil act, as [Page] to genner ane nobil prince lyik thy self to gouuerne the realme quhen thou art dede.

Quhen kyng cirus herd the subtil discymilit pleisant interpretatione of cresus vordis, he smylit and leuch and changit his coller in glaydnes. bot ȝit kyng cirus exortit cresus familiarlye tyl expone the iust verite of his vordis. Cresus ansuert, nobil prince, sen thou hes coniurit me sa extremly to decl [...]ir the verite, doutles i sal hald no thing obscure, qu­hou be it thou gar me suffer the cruel detht the occasione of my vordis procedit, be cause i iuge that thou art nocht sa quyk spretit, sa prudent nor sa nobil, as vas thy fathere cam­bises, ande to cōclude, thou hes nocht sic ane hede, as he hed in al his byssynes. kyng cirus ansuert, i sal sune knau the verite of thy pur­pos. than kyng cirus past to the tempil ande he gart delue vp al the ba [...]is of the detht pepil furtht of there sepulture and keist ouer euy­rye bane ande contemplit euyry hardyn pan, ane be ane than cresus & vthir gentil men metuelit noc [...]t litil of his consait, sayand, ve exort the nobil prince to tel thy intentione of that byssynes. Cirus ansuert o cresus thou said, nocht lang syne, that my hede vas nocht [Page 110] to be comparit to my fathers hede, there for i am leukand gy i cā fynd my fathers hardyn pan, amang thir dede mennis banis bot i can nocht ken it amang them for al the hardyn pannis that ar heir ar al of ane sort, there for i beleue that my fathers hede ande my he­de and al vthir mennis hedis of pure ande ri­che ar but desserens, there for in tyme to cū thou sal mak na comparison betuix men, for i persaue that al men that euyr vas or euyr sal be ar creat of ane masle of clay and eird. This exempil declaris that na man suld gloir in his nobilite or gentil blude considerand that our c [...]rious ande corporal natur and carnal origyne is baytht vile ande infekkit ande there is da defferens nor acceptions of per­sons betuix vs. the prudent Salomon accor­dis vitht this samyn purpos in the 7 chept [...]r of his be [...]k of sapiens sayand sum quidem & ego mortalis homo similis omnibus de genere terreno illius qui prior f [...]ctus est & ce.Sapien. 7. Ne­mo enim ex regibus aliud hal uit natiuitatis initium. i am ane mortal man (s [...]is Salomon) lyik ti al vthir men creat of [...]ird as vas [...]ur foir fathere adam, ande al vth [...]r kyngis hed na vthir begynnyng thir vordis of Salomō beād [Page] veil considerit is ane souerane remeid ande salutair medve [...]n to repreme and distroye the arrogant consait of them that glorifeis & pridis them to be discendit of nobilis and gentil men, consid [...]rand that the crop ande rute of our gentreis ande genologie hes succedi [...] fra adam ande quhen ve entrit in this mortal lyif ve var naikyt and vep and and quhen ve depart ve sal be vile and abhominabil, ande ve sal carye no thing furtht of this varld bot the coulpe of our synnis, or the meritis of our vertu.

❧O my eldest soune nobilis & gentil men, quhy vil ȝe nocht consi [...]ir thir vordis befor rehersit? quhilk vordis suld be occasione to gar ȝou mortife ȝour vane consait of ȝour pretendit gentreis. ȝe professe, ȝou to be gen­til mē bot ȝour verkis testifeis that ȝe ar bot inciuile vilainis. ȝe vald be reput & callit ver­tuous and honest qu hou be it that ȝe did ne­uyr ane honest act, and ȝe reput vthir men for vilanis that did neuyr ane vilaine act, it ape­ris that quhen ȝour nobil predecessours de­cessit, thai tuke ther vertu and gentreis vitht them to ther sepulture and thai left na thing vitht ȝou bot the stile of there gentreis▪ the [Page 111] vordis of the holy man Iob maye be veil ap­plyit to this samyn purpos quhē he said mor tui sunt nobiles, & innobiles sunt filij eoru. quod he al nobil men ar decessit & ther son­nis ande successours ar bot vilanis the vordis of Iob ar ouer manifest in our cuntre, for i see no thing amang gentil men bot vice. for ho­nestee is maculat ignorance is prisit, prudens is scornit, chestite is banneist the nychtis ar ouer schort to gentil men to comnit there li­bedeneus lust and the day is ar ouer schort to them to commit extorsions on the pure pe­pil, ther blasphematione of the name of god corruptis the ayr. The prodig pride that rin­gis amang gentil men is detestabil. nocht ala­nerly in costly clethyng abufe ther stait bot as veil in prodig expensis that thai mak on horse and doggis abufe ther rent or reches. ane man is nocht reput for ane gentil man in scotlād, bot gyf he mak mair expensis on his horse and his doggis nor he dois on his vyse & bayrnis. The poiettis fenȝeis that the gre­cian dyameid hed horse that eit men & alse thai hef fenȝet that acteon vas transformit in ane hart and there eftir he vas stranglit tode­de vitht his auen doggis. The expositione of [Page] thir tua exemplis maye be apply it to the gentil men of scotland The horse of diameid ei [...] no men, bot the supers [...]u & prodig expensi [...] that he maid on corne to feid ane grit nū [...] of onutil horse, gart the victualis be deir and skant, quhilk vas occ [...]sione that the pure pe­pil deit for hungir. of this fort the po [...]ettis fenȝeis that dyamedis horse eit men, be cause tha eit the corne that vald ha [...]e sauit the lyuis of the pure pepil fra hungir. Siklyik acteon vas nocht transformit in ane hart nor ȝit his doggis sleu hym nocht. the expositione of this vas that acteon vas ane vane gentil man that set al his felicite on doggis for huicting on the quhilkis he maid ouer prodig expen­sis abuse his f [...]culte quhilk vas occasione that he sellit his heretage til entretene his vane ple­seir & ther eftir h [...] fel in pouerte. ther for the po [...]etis fenȝeis that his doggis distroyit hym. alace ther is ouer mony horse in scotland lyik dyam [...]dis horse that eitis the pure pepil, and there is ouer mony doggis ī scotland that vir­reis th [...]re master as acteo vas virre it, i repreif nocht gentil men for the halding of horse & doggis, for horse ar necessair and doggis ar for recreatione. bot i repreif the ouer prodig ex­pensis [Page 112] that sum gentil men makkis on horse and doggis abuse ther stait and faculte it var verray necessair and honest for ther auen veil that sie prodigalite var moderat the phi­losophour xenophon rehersis that cirus kyng of perse and meid vas verray solist in hūting ande he maid grit expensis on his horse bot he gart sic expensis cum til ane gude effect. for he vsit hunting til excerse his gentil men to keip them fra ydilnes ande he maid grit expensis on horse be cause thai var necessair for his veyris.

❧O ȝe my eldest soune nobilis and gentil men i exort ȝou to correct ȝour selfis of the artiklis of this accusatione, and alse that ȝe adhere til al verteous byssynes and that ȝe ac­cord and agre vitht ȝour tua bred thir lauberaris ande clergie to that effect that ȝe may re­leis me of my afflictione. for doutles gyf that discent [...]one ande rancour remanis amang ȝou, in schort dais ȝour ald enemeis sal ocu­pie ȝour here [...]agis and dueling placis, & the posterite of ȝour generatiōe sal be put furtht of rememorance. Noui vil saye ane famil [...]iar reproche, be the vay of correctiōe to my sy­cond soune callit sperutualite, to that effect [Page] to gar ȝou al thre brethir concur to gyddir on ane substancial constant gude purpos, for the deffens of ȝour natiue cuntre.

❧Quhou the afflgit lady Dame scotia repre­ [...]is hir sycond soune callit sperualite. Chap. XIX.

O (my sycond soune) sperūalite, thou hes herd the familiar repreif that i haue pronuncit be the vay of corre­ctione, to thy tua brethir nobilis & lauberaris, bot my accusatione con­trar thē is na purgatione to the. for thou de­seruie nocht alane [...]ly ane mair inuectyue re­proche for thy demerttis, bot as veil thou de­seruis to be puneist realy & to be degradit fra thy holy office. the maist part of the vicis that thy tua brethir hes cōmittit, maye be suppor­tit & excusit be rason of chere ignorance bo [...] thou can nocht allege ignorance for thy excusatione, considerand that god hes gyffin the his lau in thy moutht to be distribut betuix the and thy tua brethir, as is vrityn in the sy­cond cheptour.malachias 2. cap. of the prophet malachias, qu­hilk sais, labia enim sacerdotis custodiunt sciē tiam, & legem requirent ex ore eiusrquia an­gelus [Page 113] domini exercituum est. that is to say. the lippis of the preist sal keip the sciens of god, and the pepil sal desire rhe lau to bescha­uen to them, furtht of his moutht, be cause he is the messengeir of the lord. O thou my sycond sonne, this autorite that god hes gy­uyn to the is vondir grit, ther sor sen god hes dotit thy faculte in maist honorabil dignite and autorite, abufe the stait of thy tua brethir nocht alanerly in the knaulage of diuyne sciens bot als veil in humanite as in til sciēs liberalis & in moral & natural philosophie the quhilk gracis and propreteis ar nocht granti [...] be god for thy particularite bot rather god hes ordand the, to be ane dispēsatour of his gyf­tis amang the ignorant pepil, ther for I vald thou var solist to distribute the talent that the lord gef til his saruand. And thou can nocht distribut it bettir nor to purches vnite and cōcord betuix the and thy tua brethir for the prudens and autorite that the lord hes gyffin to the suld suppreme ther ignorante error & obstination Ther for as lang as thou ar ne­neclegent in thy office sa lang sal ther ay be discentione discord & hatrent in the realme, quhilk sal be occasione of thy auen ruuyne. [Page] T [...]erfor i exort the til animaduert and to perpend maturly thir vordis in drede that thou repent thy neclegēs quhen thou hes nalasȝar nor oportunite to remede thy abusion. And fyrst to begyn thou suld set al thy feli­cite to correct thy self of thy lang abusione, that is to say thou suld gyf gud exempil in thy conuersatione, c [...]nformand to thy pro­fessione and to thy doctryn, to that effect that the pure pepil may follou thy futsteppis as is vritin in Mathou Luc and Ihone, sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus, vt videant ope­ra vestra bona. Ther for thai that hes autori­te and gyfis euyl exempil, suld be mair re­lye puneist nor the pepil suld be that contennis and disobeys ther authorite. it is vritin in the brasyn tablis of the antiat lauis of rome, that there vas mair rigorus punitione exsecutit on ane man of autorite that gef euyl exē ­pil nor vas exsecutit on murdresaris and tr [...] ­tours. Romulus the fyrst kyng of rome, inst [...] tut ane lau amang the ytaliens that transgresours suld be puneist mercyfully efferād fo [...] the qualite of ther crymis, and alse he statu [...] that quhen men of autorite and dignite com­mittit thai samyn crymis, tha var led and cō ­uoyit [Page 114] dishonestly to the plane marcat befor the capitol quhar thay resauit doubil punitione, be cause the euyl exēpil of ther maluersa­tiōe prouokyt the pepil til adhere to vice & to detest vertu. Hermes the philosophour said, that the error & the euyl exēpil, of ane man of autorite maye be cōparit til ane on expert master of ane schip, quhilk throucht his misgo­uernance is occasione that the schip pereseis, and tynis nocht hym self alanerly, bot as veil he tynis al them that ar of his companye. ther for it var verray necessair that men of autori­te or ministers of the kyrk, to gyf gude exemp [...]l in ther conuersation to that effect that the ingnorant pepil may follou ther futsteppis. The philosophour plutarque rehersis ane exempil of the partan quhilk repreu [...]t ane of hyr ȝong partans be cause the ȝong partā vald nocht gang euyn furtht bot rather sche ȝeid crukit bakuart and on syd. than the ȝong p [...]r­t [...]n ansuert, quod sche motber, i can nocht gāg of my auē natur as thou biddis me bot [...] theles vald thou gang furtht rycht befor [...]e, than i sal leyrn to follou thy futsteppis. [...]his exempil tendis rhat the discipil follo [...]s the conuersatione of his preceptor rather nor he [Page] follouis his doctrine. allace o my sune sperualite the abusion of thy office is the cause of the discentione that is betuix the and the tē ­poral stait for ȝe tua ar lyike cattis and doggis berkkād on vthirs ther for ther, is nocht ane of ȝou bettir nor ane vthir, for that cause the gramariaris can fynd na greis of comparaisō in ȝour gudnes, for that terne bettiris of the comparatyue gree and that terme gude, is of the positiue gree, the quhilk positiue gree, is nocht in mony of ȝou, conformand tyl ane reul of the lau. L. cum furti. ff. de con di. furti. the quhilk reul sais, compara [...]iuus presupponit posituum. Quhar for i exort the (o my veil belouit sone speritualite to correct thy maluersatione for quhen the pepil diso­beyis thy gude doctryne throucht the euyl exempil of thy maluersatione thou sal be mair doubil puneist nor tha sal be for the disobe­diēs of thy gude doctryne, be rason that god hes gyffin to the baytht knaulage and autorite to gouuerne ther ignorance, doutles thy abu­sione and the sinister ministratione of thy offi­ce is the special cause of the scisma and of di­ue [...]s sectis that trublis al cristianite, & qu hou be [...] [...]hat the rute of thir scismes and sect [...]s be [Page 115] in germane denmark and ingland ȝit nochthe les the branchis of them ar spred athortal cri­stin realmis in sic ane sort that tha hef maye fauoraris no. aduersaris for diuerse men de­siris ane part of the temporal patrimonye of the kyrk be cause of the abusione and euyl exempil of the ky [...]k men. And this plag and scis­ma sal neuyr be reformit for na statutis, la­uis punitiōs, bannessing, byrnyng, hayrschip nor torment that can be deuisit quhil on to the tyme [...]hat the speritualite reforme ther auen abusion. ther for gyf the speritualite var as solist to reforme and to correct ther auē maluersatione as tha ar solist to puneise them that detrakkis & murmeris ther obstinat abu­sione thā for certan the gude exempil of ther gude conuersatione vald extinct and supedeit mair haistyar al peruerst opinions & scismas nor al the punitione that al cristianite can ex­secut. The punitione that the sperutualite remanent in ther abusione, exsecutis on scisma­tikis, maye be comparit til ane man that castis vlye on ane heyt birnand fyir in hope til ex­tinct it and to droune it furtht, the quhilk vlye makkis the fyir mair bold nor it vas of be for. the experiens of this is manifest for as su­ne [Page] as ther is ane person slane brynt or bannest for the halding of peruest opinions incontinent ther rysis vp thre in his place, ther for sic punitione maye be cōparit tyl ane serpent callit hydra quhilk hed seuyn heydis, The poietis rehersis that quhen this said sepent vas assailȝet be men to sla hyr and quhen thir mē straik ane or tua of hyr heydis fra hyr than sche fleid tyl hyr cauerne and on [...]he morne vthir tua heydis vald be grouuen on hyr as of befor and of this sort sche did grit domage baytht to man and beyst, quhil on to the ty­me that nobil Hercules venqueist hyr than he straik al hyr seuyn heydis fra hyr. fra that ty­me furtht sche lyuit neuyr agane, this exem­pil tendis that the scisma that ringis in this varld sal neuyr be extinct for na punitione that can be exsecutit bot gyf al the heydis of the vniuersal cristianite be strikkyn fra them orellis bot gyf the ministers reforme & cor­rect ther auen abusione.

Quhar for (o my sone speritualite) exort the that thou cause al thy membris concur to gyddir to mak reformatione of the sklande­rous abusione that ringis amang them ande ther eftir, thou sal treit vnite and concord betuix [Page 116] the vniuersal leigis of scotland be the maist familiar ande cheritabil vaye that thy ingyne can inuent or ymagyn, to that effect that ȝe my thre sonnis n [...]bilis clergie & lau­beraris may pas in ane faythful accord to re­sist the cruel inuasions of ȝour dissaitful and incredule ald enemeis. Thou hes mair occa­sione and mystir to be vigilād in the dessens of the liberte of thy faculte nor hes thy tua bre­thir, for gyf the kyng of ingland prospir in his oniust veyris & conquessis our realme dout­les thy tua brethir vil tyne ther gudis and there heretage bot there lyuis sal be saif sa that tha vil be suor [...]e to be inglis slauis, and rene­gat scottis. bot he vil nocht grant na grace to thy faculte bot the samyn grace that kyng hē ­ry the eycht gaue to the sperutualite of in­glād that is to saye in the fyrst, he tuke the patrimone & the tēporal landis of the kyrkis of inglād & anext ane part of thē to the propri­te of his croune & ane vthir part he dis [...]r [...]but amāg ane certan of grit personagis of his real me, quhilkis adherit til his tirran opi [...]i [...], & syne he chesit furthr ane certan of the h [...]t [...]e­nologie of ingland that hed bene promouit to cathridral digniteis and til vthir sperutal be­neficis [Page] quhome he gart his flaschar lay ther craggis on ane stok and gart heyde them and syne he gart hyng ther quartars on potentis at diuerse comont passagis on the feildis quhar the maist confluens of pepil passit and repas­sit, and thridly he cōpellit pure speritual men baytht regular and religiouse preistis monkis and fre [...]is to pas to leyrn mecanyc hand lau­byrs sum to be cordinaris, sum to be tailȝours, sum to be marynalis and sa to proceid to di­uerse vthir craftis and thai that var obstinat and disobedient tyl his cruel statutis he gart bannes ane part of them and presone the bo­deis of ane vthir part in perpetual captiuite.

There for (o thou my sycond sone speruali­te) thou may beleue surly that the king of ingland, vil be na mair gracius, curtas nor mer­ciful to the quhome he reputis for his mor­tal eneme nor he hes bene to the sperutuali­te of ingland quha vas his faythtful natyue natural leigis and in habitaris of his realme, of the quhilk ther vas sum of them that var of his kyn and blude bot he regardit nocht tyl ony greis of consanguinite bot rather he vsit his mercyles c [...]ualte cōtrar them, to that effect that his auaricius affectiōe that he hed touart [Page 116] the kyrk landis of ingland mycht be saciat. O ȝe sperutualite of scotland ȝe hef grit cau­se to tak exempil be ȝour nychtbours and nocht be ȝour selfis conformand to thir tua versis. felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum casus dementis, correctio fit sapientis. Al this veil considrit, svld be ane animaduer­tens to gar ȝou be vigilant and delegent to keip and to deffend the liberte of ȝour facul­te, the quhilk sal neuyr be veil kepit nor def­fendit bot gyf ȝe put ȝour hādis to verk that is to saye that sa mony of ȝou, that ar defensa­bil men fal pas ī propir person in battel vitht my lord gouuernour and vitht the nobil lor­dis and barrons of scotland contrar the cruel inuasions of ȝour ald enemeis of inglād. There for sen it is neid forse to cheis ane of tua euyllis. that is to say othir to fecht ī battel for the deffens of ȝour faculte and liberte. or el­lis to be tormētit in captiuite be ȝour ald enemeis, ȝe suld cheis the smallest of thir tua euillis, conformand to the vordis of cicero, that he vrit ad quintum fratrem, sayand, in duo­bis malis fugiendum maius, leuius est elegendum for it les domage and dishonour to fecht in fayr battel for the deffens of ȝour liberte [Page] nor to be tormentit in ane miserabil captiui­te. Quhar for iexort ȝou that ȝe chāge ȝour sperutual habitis, bayth coulis and syde gounis in steil iakkis and in cotis of mail ȝe to deffend ȝour bodeis fra the crualte of ȝour enemeis, and thai that ar agit and nocht abil for the veyr thai heffand patrimone and benefi­cis tha suld furneis pure preistis monkis and freris, vitht al necessair thingis conueniēt for the veyris. And than quhen the veyri [...] ar en­dit thai maye cleitht them agane vitht there spirutual habit conformand to ther professione. And nane of the sperutualite suld be scri­pulus in this byssynes, considerand that god­dis lau the lau of natur positiue lau, ciuil and cannon lau hes condiscendit in ane purpos thac al staitis and faculteis vitht out ony acce­ptione of persons, ar oblist to pas in battel for the deffens of ther public veil, and of ther na­tiue cuntre. Than quhy suld preistis or fre­ris allege exemptions sayand, that there pro­fessione oblicis them to sing and say to pre­che and praye, and nocht to fecht in battel al lace sic exemptions suld be repellit and ad­nullit, considerand that the contrarie of ther allegiance is of verite. The bibil is ane real [Page 117] probatione, that kyng dauid that royal pro­phete vas ane preist, moises vas ane preist, aaron vas ane preist ande al the prophetis of Israel var preistis ȝit nochtheles thay var ay fyrst in the battel for the deffens of the Ian­dis of promissione and nou be cause that there is sum ignorant preistis that ar mair obe­dient to the canon lau nor thai ar to goddis lau, there for i vil sateiffe there scrupulus con­sciens vitht sum cheptours of the canon lau. in the fyrst it is vrityn in the xxiij distinctio­ne in the feyrd questione in the cheptour. Si non, as eftir follouis, sicut antiquitus ducibus concessum fuit bellare: sic & modernis, dum­modo non bellent desiderio fundenti sangui nem: sed rem publicam ampliando. it is vri­tyn in the xxiii distinctione in the vin questione, as eftir follouis, Saraceni bellantes con­tra cristianos, iuste a cristianis impugnantur. i reffer the expositione of this text to the vniuersal cristianite to iuge quhiddir that inglis men b [...] sarrasyns or cristin men. Ther is ane cheptour of the canon lau that sais this vor­dis in the xxiii distinctione in the fyifte question, bella sumpta contra excommunicatos & infideles meritoria sunt i reffer the exposi­tione [Page] of this text to be iugit be al cristin prin­cis, quhiddir that inglis men be excommu­nicat and denuncit goddis rebellis be al lauis for ther infidilite, incrudilite, crualte, tirran­rye, sacreleige, & for the vsurpatione of vthir princis dominions vitht out ony occasione or iust titil. There is su scripulus preistis hef and there consciens subiect to traditions, quha sais that it is nocht leiful to preistis to pas in battel, vitht out the lecens of the pape. i vald thir ignorant preistis vald reid ane che­ptour of the canon lau in the xxiii distinctione in the viii questione callit an episcopo liceat ad bellum proficissi sine licentia pape i exort ȝou my sone sperualite to put al cerimonial scrupulnes furtht of ȝour hartis & that ȝe pas in propir person contrar ȝour ald enemeis & thā doutles ȝour faculte sal nocht be spulȝelt fra the liberte that it possessis.

❧Quhou the affligit lady dame scotia makis ane exortatiōe til hyr thre sonis, quhilk is the conclusione of this beuk. Cha. XX.

O ȝe my thre sonnis i hef accusit euy­rye ane of ȝou pericularly ī special for the abusione of ȝour faculte [...]is and officis. the quhilk abusio­ne [Page 126] is the cause of the cōtentione and discord that ringis amang ȝou, the quhilk contention and discord hes dune mair domage in ȝour cuntre, nor the grit armye of ingland hes dune. i vald speir ane question, quhat medycyn can help ane seik man that hurtis hym selue vilfully and prouokis his auen seiknes daly? or quhat cite can indure, quhen it is seigit and assailȝeit vitht out be enemeis, and vitht in the cite ringis mortal veyr amang the gou­uernours and inhabitantis? O ȝe my thre so­nis, quhat can the varld estime of ȝou, quhen ȝe ar sa solist on the ruuyne or ȝour prospe­ite and on the demolitiōe of ȝour comōt veil? ȝour conditions & conuersations is mair lyik til barbarien pepil nor it is to cristyn pepil, ȝe lament hauyly the cruel veyrs, and ȝe cry & desyris pace at god, ȝe heffand rancor in ȝour hartis cōtrar ȝour nychtbours, ȝe desire mer­cy at god, ȝe heffand ane drauē sourd in ȝour hand to slay ane innocēt, ȝe vald be louit vitht al men and ȝe hef na cherite to n [...] mā Quhy suld god delyuyr ȝou fra ȝour enemeis? sen that ȝe ar mortal enemeis to ȝour selsis, ȝour honour is tynt sen that ȝour vailȝeantnes is changit in berkyng on vthirs lyik cattis and [Page] doggis. ȝe hef left the protectione of ȝour comont salut, and ȝe ar be cum sodiours & pensionaris to ȝour enemeis, and alse ȝe ar be cū enemeis to ȝour auen veilfair and prosperite. allace vald ȝe considir the grit ruuyne & per­ditiōe that hescū on diuerse realmis throucht the discentione and diuisiōe that rang amang the pepil, than i beleue that ȝe vald treit pace in ȝour consciens, and cherite to ȝour nycht­bours. the holy scriptour confermis this sa­myn purpos,Math. 12. quhar crist Iesus said, Omne regnum in se diuisum desolabitur,Luce. 11. al realmis that ar deuidit vitht in them selfis be discen­tione and contentione, sal be left desolat. there for (o ȝe my thre sonnis) it is na meruel that ȝour cuntre cum to ruuyne and desola­tione, considerand that al sortis of detestabil and onleful veyrs and battellis that distroyit the romanis in the anciāt dais, ringis present­ly amang ȝou, throucht the discentione, diui­sione inuy rancor and auareis that ringis vniuersaly throucht al scotland. the fyrst sort of battellis and veyris that broucht the romani to ruuyne vas callit battellis finityuis,Iustin. Lib. 1. A fini­bus, that is quhen ane man vndir takkis to cōques be violence and tirranye, the landis [Page 127] of his nychtbours that marchis and lyis contigue vitht his landis, as did Ninus kyng of the assiriens, quha vas nocht contentit vitht his auen cuntre, there for he maid veyr on al the cuntreis that circuit his realme. this sam­myn sort of v [...]yrs is in scotland for there is nocht mony men, grit nor smal that hes here­tage, bot is aye inuentand cauillatione & vrāg titilis to hef ther nychtbours heretagis that lyis contigue besyde them, othir be proces & pleyis, or ellis be violens. there vas ane vthir sort of battellis amang the romans callit bat­tellis socialis, that is quhen tounis of ane cū tre makkis veyr contrar vthirs, as of diuerse tounis of germanye and ytalie. Thir samyn sort of veyrs ringis presently in scotland, for there is nocht ane boroustone nor landuard paris vitht in the realme, bot thai hef inuy contrar the tounis and parisis that ar nixt nychtbours to them. the thrid sort of veyris var callit battellis ciuilis, that is quhen citi­naris and induellaris of ane cite, hes mortal fede cōtrar vthirs as vas betuix silla & mariꝰ, & quintꝰ lipidius. this samvn sortis of veyris ringis instantly in scotland, for there is nocht ane borroustoune nor parise ī scotlād bot there [Page] is deidly fede amang sum of the induel­lars of the saidis tounis there is ane vthir sor [...] of veyris callit battellis intestynis, that is qu­hen kynsmen and frendis of consanguinite or affinite hes mortal veyr contrar vthirs, as vas betuix Iulius cesar and his gude sone grit pompeus, this samyn sort of veyris rin­gis instantly in scotland for the intestine veyris that ringis amang the barrons and gen­til men of scotland is detestabil to be reher­sit, for thai that ar nerest of kyn and blude, hes maist mortal fede contrar vthirs, quha cā cal­kil the degreis of kyn and blude of the barrōs of scotland, thai vil conferme this samyn. there is ane vthir sort of veyris c [...]llit battellis asephales, that is quhen the pepil gadris to giddir in ane grit conuentione but the auto­rite of the superior, as did the comontis of germanye quhilkis var the numer of ane hun­dyr thousand men, thai did grit domage, thai obeit nocht to their dukis and superioris, thā the duc of saxon and the langraue of hisse vēquiest and distroyit them siclyik as did the comontis of ingland the ȝeir of 1553 ȝeris quhilkis var distroyit vndir the trettye of concord, this samyn sort of veyris ringis instant­ly [Page] in scotland for i he [...] sene nyne or ten tho [...] sand gadyr to giddir vithtout ony commis­sione of the kyngis letteris, the quhilk grit cō uentione hes been to put there nychtbours furtht of ther steding and takkis on vytson veddy insday, or ellis to leyde auaye ane pure manis teynd in heruyst bot thai vald nocht be half sa solist to conuene thre hundretht at the command of the kyngis letteris to pas to resist our ald enemeis of ingland al thir for­said veyrs hes occurrit throucht the discentio­ne and diuisione of the pepil of ane realme.

❧O ȝe my thre sonnis ȝeknau that thir vor­dis befor rehersit ar of verite alse ȝe knan tha [...] ȝour extreme ruuyne approchis verra neir, the quhilk maye be eysylie remedit sa that ȝe vald nocht be obstinat and obdurit in the rancor and discentione that ringis amang ȝou. it aperis to me that sum soseris and vytchis, qu­hilkis ar instramētis of the ald eneme of mā ­kynd hes tempit ȝou and hes venqueist ȝour natural rason i vait nocht quhiddir that i sal iuge ȝou to be cū frenetik or brutal, for ȝour cōuersa [...]iōs in general is ane monstreus thyng rather nor humain as ȝour verkis testifeis. the historiographoris rehersis that the tua prudēt [Page] [...]hilosophoris, heraclites and democrites pa [...] [...]hroucht the varld to haue ane vniuersal iu­gement of the conuersation of man kynd, thā quhā [...]hai var passād throucht the varld & per­sauand the vice and the vanite and euil con­uersatione of euyrie cuntre & als [...] persauand the grit solistnes of diuerse staitis. ī cōquessīg reches, heretagis, digniteis, officies. and autō ­rites, sum be auareis, sum be violens, and ex­torsions, and sum be ane inexorbitant solist­nes cōtrar rason, and sum be raif and spulȝe, and sum be trason, and sum be discentione & mortal fede, nocht heffand respect nor reme­morance of the schort peregrinatione of this miserabil lyif, nor ȝit heffand premeditatione of the future eternal beatitude that god he [...] promest til faythtful men, than heraclites be­gan to veip and lament fo [...] pite that be hed of the extreme disrasonabil abusione that rāg amang the [...] pepil. bot democrites leucht and scornit there foliful conuersatio­ne and solist vanite. allace var thai tua philo­sophours instantly passand throucht the real­me of scotland heraclites vald murn & Iamē [...] for pite, our misire and our affliction the qu­hilk hes occurrit and daly occurris throuch [Page 129] [...]ur auen occasione. and syklyik democrites [...]ersauand our folyful mysgouernance and our miserabil obstinat conuersatione he vald laucht and scorn vs be grit derisione, for doutles thir tua philosophours vald fynd mater aneucht to veip for vs and alse to laucht vs to scorn i vil rehers sex versis in latyn quhi [...]k var conposit be ane knycht of Itale M. An­tonio phiremo fregoso and syne i sal rehers the exposition of them in our scettis tong, as neir the sentens of the text as i can.

Ad lectorem.
Defle hominū vitā plusquā heraclite solebas,
In lachrimas totos, solue, age nunc oculos:
Concute maiori splenem democrite risu,
Et toto resonans ore cachinus hiet.
Vita fuit mūdi post cōdita secula nunequam,
Et risu, pariter dignior, & lachrymis.
To the readar.
Gude readar, veip and murne this mortal lyif
As did the vyise philosophour heraclite
And thou sal laucht for scorne recreatyfe
As fast as did the prudent democ [...]ite
Ane murnit for pite, the tothir leucht ī dispite
Quhen thai beheld this vardlis vanite
Bot var thai nou on lyue, i mycht veil dyit
[Page]That the vald laucht and veip our misire.
Seneca. ❧ Aut ridenda omnia, aut flenda sunt.

THyr exēplis of thir tua phi­losophours makkis manifest that al our varldly byssynes is bot vane & detestabil, there for it is na meruel thocht heraclites regrettit and vepit ouer folyful cōuersatione and that democri­es leucht and scornit our solist abusione, considerād that quhen baytht thir philosophours pa [...]t throucht the varld tha culd persaue na [...] t [...]ing bot vanite.Eccle. 2. the pruden [...] Salomon con­fermis this sammyn in the sycond cheptor of his ecclesiastes sayād, that quhen he hed socht and gottyn al the varldly feliciteis that culd be deuisit al vas bot vanite and afflictione of the spreit. Therfor o ȝe my thre sonnis noblis, lerge, and lauberaris i exort ȝou to retere f [...] vanite & til adhere to vertu & ony of ȝou that thynkis ȝou of maist reputatiō throucht ȝour supers [...]e velcht ȝe suld be solist to ken ȝour selfis, & to be humil to ȝour nychtbours or ellis al ȝour gloire veltht and dignite sal [Page 130] change in vilite. ȝe haue grit occasione to fle thir varldly caduc honouris, the quhilkis can nocht be possest vitht out vice, and alse as vincētius says in his 34 beuk the mair eleuat that ane person be in superfleu digniteis his fal & ruuyn sal be the hauyar. quāto gradus altior, tanto casus grauior. for the gritest green tre that standis hiest on the montane is haisty ar blauen doune vitht the vynd, nor is the smal­lest treis that grouis in [...]he valeyse. summa petit liuor perfluant altissima venti. i haue re­hersit thir vordis be cause of the vane arrogā ­ce that ringis ī the hartis of my tua eldest sonnis nobillis and clergie, quhilk vil be occasione of there ruuyne bot gif thai mittygat and mortife there detestabil pride, inuy, and aue­reis. i meruel that thai considir nocht that god behaldis al there obhomination it aperis that thai beleue that god sleipis and seis thē nocht, for there cōuersation is, as ther var nocht ane detht to sla ther bodeis nor ane hel to puneis ther saulis. I am viuunt homines tanquam mors nulla sequatur, Et velud infernus fabu­la ficta foret God seis al thing & there is nay thing ob [...]enre fra hym as is vrityn in Mathou Marc, and Luc. Nihil enim est tectum quod [Page] non sit retegendum & nihil occultū, quum futurum sit vtsciatur there for it is grit foly [...] to my thre sonnis to couuer there vice vitht dissymilit vertu, for ther is nathing that is hid or sylit, bot the tyme sal mak it manifest for euerye thing is subieckit to the proces of the tyme, and the tyme consumis al thing, as it consumis the quhyt fleureis of green treis except the verite and vertu quhilk sal neuyr cō sume bot rather augmentis in euerye tyme. It vas sperit at the philosophour tales, gyf that the goddis kneu the verkis that men dois in this varld, he ansuert, quod he the goddis knauis nocht alanerly the verkis of men, bot as veil thai ken the thochtis and intentions of men. Thir exemplis suld be apply it to the pepil that ar dissymilit in ther conuersations, and that cullurs and couuers ther false hartis vitht verkis aperand to be verteous & faytht­ful. bot there isna dissymilatiō. O ȝe my thre sonnis amāg ȝou cōsiderād that ȝour hartis & ȝour verkis condiscendis on ane purpos bo [...] rather til euil nor to gude. O my thre sonnis sen god kennis that ȝour hartis ar euil, and that men kennis that ȝour verkis ar euyl i ex­ort ȝou chat ȝe gar ȝour hartis consaue the c [...] mandis [Page 131] of god and that ȝour verkis be conformand to the sammyn & than doutles god sal schau his mercy and sal releue ȝou of the grit afflictione of the thre plagis that hes almaist succūbit ȝour cuntre in extreme ruuyne that is to saye fra veyr fra pest and fra hungir. and sic gude pollice sal neuyr cum til effect quhil that ȝe haue treittit pace and concord amang ȝour selfis, the quhilk concord amang ȝour selfis vil be ane mair auful scurge til ingland nor that the realme of France and the empire hed tane querrel contra ingland, ȝour cronik­makkis manifest that that the inglis mē van neuyr na thing at ȝour handis bot rather lossit quhen thai intendit veyr contrar ȝou, ȝe beād of ane accord. there is ane exempil of cirillus quhilk vas ane nobil prince, in his grit aige he be cam seik to the detht he hed iiij scoir of sonnis the quhilkis he gart compeir in his pre­sens, than he delyurit to them ane certan of smal green treis bundyn to giddir extendand to the numer of iiij scoir fyrst he ordand his eldest soune to brak that būche of treis at ane tyme the quhilk he culd nocht, than he gart al the remanent of his sonnis ilk ane be them self tak the said bunche of green treis and to [Page] brak them al to giddir, the quhilk nane of thē culd do it thā he lousit the būche of greē treis and gaue til euerye ane of his sonnis ane of the said greē treis to brak, the quhilk thai did eysylye, than he said til his iiij scoir of sonnis, i exort ȝou that ȝe remane al to giddir in gu­de accord amang ȝour selfis but diuisione and than ȝour enemeis sal nocht venqueis ȝou. & in opposit gyf that contentione and diuisione cūmis amang ȝou ȝour enemeis sal venqueis ȝou as eysylye as ony of ȝou hes brokyn ane of the green treis syklyik O ȝe my thre son­nis gif that ȝe remane to giddir & beis nocht seperat nor deuidit fra vthirs it sal be as onpossibil to inglis men to venqueis ȝou as it vas onpossibil til ane of the sonnis of cirillus to brac the hail bunche of greeen treis at ane ty­met ȝe suld al tak exēpil quhou that grit Alexander conqueist mekil of al the varld and he left the gouuernyng of his cūtre on his dede bed to be gouernit eftir his deceis be four of the prencipal barrons of his court bot sune eftir his decese, auareis, inuy, ambitione, and particular proffet seperat and deuidit thē fra vthirs quhilk vas occasione that the barbariēs the perfiens and mediens and the grecians cō queist [Page 132] al the grit empire of Alexander and maid sklauis of his pepil. syklyik the romans that var dominatours of al the varld, fra ty­me that discentione and diuisione raise amāg the prencipal romans and speciale the discē ­tione that raise betuix Iulius cesar and grit pompeus for Iulius vald nocht hef ane mar­rou in rome, and pompeus vald nocht hef ane superior the quhilk discentione vas oc­casione of the ciuil and intestine veyrs that rang vniuersale in ytalie. & for that cause the romans that hed dominion athort al the varld be cam subiect to them quhom thai hed dan­tit of befor siclyik the triumphand cite of cartage quhilk dantit al affrica, spangȝe, & ceciland did mony vailȝant actis contrar the ro­mans, it be cam subiect to them that it hed venqueist of befor, fra tyme that discentione and diuisione raise amang the nobillis of tha [...] toune.

❧ Quhar for i exort ȝou my thre sonnis that ȝe expel discentione discord, and ald fe­de that ringis amang ȝou, quhil the veyris be dune, and than ȝe sal triumphe contrar ȝour enemeis. i vald ȝe tuke exempil of diuerse nobil romans and grecians, that hed mortal fe­de [Page] contrar vthiris ȝit nochtheles quhen there enemeis assailȝet there natiue cuntre, than al thir nobillis concurrit in ane accord, and set there particular rancor and fede on syde, as did the tua vailȝeant consulis of rome, ane vas callit marcus emilius lepedus, the tothir fuluius flaccus, quha hed mortal heytrent & deidly fede contrar vthirs. At that instant ty­me Annybal conqueist cannes, at the dolorꝰ battel quhar that the consul emelius Paulus vas slane, quhar that Annibal gat at the spulȝe of the romans, thre muis ful of gold ringis that var on the fingaris of the romans that var slane. Than eftir this dolorus discumfiture of the romans, diuerse citeis and castellis of Italie randrit them til Annibal, sum be forse, and sum be trason, and in speciale the toune of capes vas randrit be trason, be the prenci­pal citinaris of the toune Than thir tua no­bil consulis Marcus emilius lepedus, & ful­uius flaccus quhilkis hed mortal fede betuix them, for particular occasions, and thai persa­uand al there natiue cuntre in dangeir of ru­uyne, thai said til vthirs It is necessair that ve forȝet and put on syde the lange dedly fede that hes beā betuix vs for our particular veil, [Page 133] for gyf Annibal conqueis al Italie, our parti­cular veil sal nocht be saue. of this sort thir tua nobil cōsulis past in ane accord vitht xxxiij legions of men of veyr, and conqueist vail­ȝeantly the toune of capes, & sleu al the char­tagien sodiours, that annibal hed left in gar­nison vitht in the toune of capes, and alse tha gart iustifie to the detht xxv of the prencipal citinaris be cause of there trasonabil seditio­ne committit cōtrar ther comont veil. The­re is ane vthir exempil of the grit hatrent & mortal fede that vas betuix tua nobil consu­lis of rome, ane vas callit Claudius nero, the tothir vas callit liuiꝰ salsinator, the senat send claudius contrar Annibal vitht ane grit ar­mye, at that instant tyme the post cam to the senat declarand, that hasdrubal, quh [...] vas the bruther of Annibal, vas cum fra affri [...]a, and past throcht spangȝe and France and cumandour the alpes of ytalie vitht ane grit armye to succur his brothir Annibal ī hope to distroye al ytalie. for that cause the senat send liuius salsinator contrar hasdribal. quha hed nocht ane sufficiēt nūmer of men. of veyr to resist. hym quhar for the cōsul Claudiꝰ nero heffād dreddor that liuius salsinator and his armye [Page] suld be deffait be hasdrybal, he forȝet the ald fede that vas betuix them, and he send ane roman captan callit emilius hostilius vytht the half of his armye contrar Annibal, quha sleu xxx thousand of Annibal men of veyr and claudius nero past vitht the tothir half of his armye to help and to reskeu liuius contrar hasdribal. than thir tua armes past to gi­thir in gude accord nocht rememorant of there deidly ald fede that vas betuix them and thai vailȝeantly sleu hasdribal and xlvi thousand of his men, and alse thai tuke viij thou­sand presoners, and thai cuttit the hede fra hasdribal. & in there returnyng to rome thai keist the heyde befor thē on the gait & playt vitht it vitht there feit as it hed been ane futbal, fra that tyme furtht Annibal tynt cura­ge in sic ane sort that his men of veyr var da­ly deffait. There is ane vthir exempil of the dedly fede and hat rent that vas betuix Munitius maister of the hors men and the consul fabius, thir tua romans hed the gouernyng of anē grit armye of romans contrar Annibal. Munitiꝰ the maister of the hors men vas ver­ra proud in hym self, and alse in his veyrs he vas mair furius nor prudent, bot his collig fabius [Page 134] vas cald graif and pacient in his bissynes Munitius in his furour vald haue oft gyffin battel til Annibal, bot fabius vald neuyr con­sent be cause he sau the aperand danger that vas to succed throucht the subtilite of Anni­bal, than Munitius desirit at fabius that he vald thole hym to haue the hail gouuernyng of the armye ane daye, and fabius to hef it ane vthir daye and sa euerye ane of them to haue the gouuernyng of the armye his day about to the quhilk fabius vald nocht cōsent sayand i vil nocht thole ȝou til haszard al the grit armie of rome in dangeir throucht ȝour ignorant furius consait bot i am content that the grit armye be partit in tua partis, and ȝe to haif the half of the armye, and i sal haue the tothir half ī gouernyng thā ȝe maye has­ȝard and fecht quhen that ȝe think ȝour comodius tyme. Munitꝰ vas verra glaid of this ansuer, on this accord thai partit and diuidit there legions and campis in tua equal partis. this debait and discention vas reportit til Anni­bal be his spyis and his exploratours, quhilk vas til hym doubil ioye, anē cause of his ioye [...]as be cause he thocht to venqueis the furius [Page] fule hardynes of munitius, euyn as he vald hym self, the tothir cause of his ioye vas, be raison that the half of the stryntht of fa­bius vas dymynischid, be cause of the par­ting of the tua hostis in tua partis. ther vas ane hil betuix Anniballis hoste and the hoste of munitius quhilk hil, quha euyr hed gottyn it, he suld haue been able to do mekil disple­seir til his enemeis, bot ȝit Annibal desyrit it to mak occasione of battel to munitus, quho­me he kneu veil that throucht his furor and fule hardines, vald gane stand and stop hym fra the takkyng of the said hil. than Annibal persauit and spyit at the fut of the said hil qu. hair there vas diuerse cauis and cauernis and grit nolis, vitht in the rocche cragis, vitht in the quhilk he pat fiue thousand fut men and horse men, nocht persauit be the romans. on the morne Annibal send ane feu mūnir of men to tak the forsaid hil. Munitius persauād that ane feu nūmer of chartagiens var in pur­pos to tak that hil, than the romans brak there arraye to ryn to impesche the takyng of the said hil, for fyrst Munitius send lycht harnes­sied ȝong men, and syne he send ane grit numir of horse men contrar Anniballis men. & [Page 135] Annibal send syklyik fut men & horse men to reskeu his men that he hed send to the hil than Munitius in grit furor cam vitht the remanent of his armye contrar the hil takkaris than Annibal seand occasion and tyme opor­tune to gyf battel he past forduart vitht his armye contrar the romans on the tothir syde al the fiue thousand men that var hid in the cauis and holis of the hil ischit furtht on the bakkis of the romans vitht mony hiddeous cryis. the romans beand in this grit perplexi­te, beand closit betuix tua armeis, thai be cam discuragit, quhilk gart them fle fra the battel, bot Anniballis armye follouit and sleu mo­ny romans. At this instant tyme fabius the collig of Munitius persauand the grit discū ­sytur of the romans throucht the misgouuernance and furor of Munitius, he said, fortou­ [...]e hes schauen hir folie na soner nor i bele­uit, Munitius throcht his fule hardines hes lossit the half of the gryt armye of rome he hes euyr been my mortal enemie and nou i haue tyme oportune to reuenge me on hym. bot at this tyme i vil nocht thole the comont veil to perreise for my vendicatyue particular affection [...] there for i vil conteneu our quer­rel [Page] and ald fede til ane moir oportunite than fabius causit his men to display ther baners and standardis and syne cam forduart in gu­de arraye contrar Annibal to succur & reskeu munitius and his men that var fled than the romans that var fast fle and persauand fabius armye cūmand to help them, thai returnit fra there fleyng and cam and iunit vitht the ar­mye of fabius in Arraye, & rycht vailȝeantly thai vēqueist and sleu the maist part of Anni­ballis men and chaissit hym self to tuscan.

O my thre sonnis nobilis clergie and laube­raris, thir exemplis of thir nobil romans that hed mortal fede betuix them, quhilkis cōcur­rit to giddir in accord for defens of there na­tyue cuntre. suld prouoke ȝou to forȝet the hatrent and rancour th [...]t mony of ȝou hes cō trar vthirs, and to gar ȝou tak curage til accord vitht ane consent to resist ȝour aid enemeis of ingland. for doutles ȝe heffan [...] as mekil gold as cresus or me [...]as possest, and beand in as grit nu nir of men as exerxes of perse qu­hen he ca [...] to conq [...]e [...]s greice vitht sex hun­dretht thousand men of veyr, and ȝe heffand as gu [...]e cipians as grit alexād [...]r or Iudas Ma­chabeus and ȝe he [...]fand al the inunitions for [Page 136] veyr that is in europa al thir thingis be for rehersit sal be confusione to ȝou, rather nor supple, as lang as ȝe haue hatrent and secret fede amang ȝourseluis quhar for i exort ȝou to concur to giddir in vnite for the deffens of ȝour cuntre as did thir romans befoir rehersit and in apdosit gyf ȝour particular fede con­trar vthirs remanis in ȝour hartis than dout­les tuenty thousand of ȝour enemeis sal ven­queis ane hundretht thousand of ȝou, & thai sal put ȝour generatione and ther posterite furtht of rememorance, and ȝour mortal enemeis sal inhabit and ocupe ȝour placis.

❧O my thre sonnis, i hef oft tymis rehersit of befor of the trason that occurris ī scotlād. and quhou beit that ther be mony trasonabil actis manifest in scotland, ȝit nochtheles i can nocht condiscend in special on na man that hes committit ony trason, and alse i vait for certan that there is mony nobil men in scot­land that ar suspekkit of trason and ar sklan­drit for the samyn be the vulgar pepil quhou beit that thai be innocēt of that foule cryme. the occasione of the samyn suspitione hes procedit of the subtilite of ȝour ald enemeis, for ane dispyt [...]hat tha haue ymaginet cōtrar [Page] ȝou, be cause that thai dreid ȝour vailȝeant­nes, and for that cause thai haue gart ane se­cret brute pas in scotland that sum of ȝou hes intelligens vitht them, and to gar ther inuen­tit subtil cauteil contrar ȝou entir mair lar­ge in the vulgaris hartis, thai haue gart ther borderaris mak incursions and forrais far vitht in scotland quhar thai haue spulȝeit and reft grit multiplie of mouiabil gudis, ascheip nolt, and horse and thai haue dune na doma­ge nor hayrschipis to su [...] of ȝour stedingis and takkis, the quhilk thing thai haue dune to that effect that ȝe maye be haldin odius and suspetius be ȝour prince, throucht the quhilk suspitione ȝour prince maye gar preson ȝour bodeis, than ȝe beand in varde or in preson, ȝe can nothir resist nor deffend ȝour cuntre fra the on merciful inuasions of ȝour ald ene­meis. Quhair for it is necessair for ȝour veil­sayr that the commit sum vailȝeant act con­trar ȝour enemeis, to that effect that the prin­ce and superioris, and, alse the comont pepil of the realme maye knau ȝour innocens.

Ther is ane exempil conformand to this sa­myn purpos in the feyrd cheptor of the sycōd beuk of tucidides quhou that pericles of athe­cles [Page] [Page] [Page] [Page] [Page 138] and fabius befor rehersit, to that effect that the remanent of the pepil maye gyf con­fidens to ȝou, quhilk vil be occasiōe that the hail body of the realme vil haszard there ly­uis and there gudis in ȝour cōpanye for the iust defens of ȝour comont veil and ȝour natyue cuntre Allace the suspetione that the pepil hes contrar sum of ȝou is nocht causles for men of smal experiēs maye persaue that ther is diuerse men of scotland, that ar be cū neutral that is to say, thai vil nothir tak ane plane part vitht inglād nor vitht scotlād, for quhen thir neutral men speikis vitht inglis mē thai lamēt hauyly the incōstance of the lordis of scotland that hes brokyn ther promit & band the quhilk vas honestly cōtrakkit to compleit ane mariage betuix our nobil princes h [...]re­tour of scotland and eduard the ȝong kyng of ingland, the quhilk contract beand fulfil­lit, vald hef beene the cause of ane perpetual vnite betuix the tua said realmis, and quhen thir said neutral men speikis vitht scottis men that regret and lamentis hauylye the discen­tione and diuisione that ringis amang the nobilis of scotland quhi [...]kis occasione that the [Page] inglis men be ther falsed and subtilite perse­cutis our realme vitht out ony iust titil. Of this sort the neutral scottis men entretenis baytht the realmis quhil on to the tyme that ane of the realmis conqueis the tothir. and than thai vil adhere til his opinione that con­quesis the victore. bothe dissymilit and sub­tyl neutral men at the end of the veyrs vil be reuardit. the cordinar of rome vas reuardit be augustus cesar as i sal rehers. The beuk of the annales of rome rehersis, that in the tyme of the ciuil veyris that vas betuix Augustus Cesar, and Anthonius, quhilkis tua conten­dit for the empire. the iugement of the victo­re that vas aperand to be betuix them, vas verray incertan to the vniuersal pepil of ytalie, be ras [...]n that thai var profond hic spre­tit vailȝeant men and verray opulent in re­ches & of grit allya, quhilk vas occasione that the romans var deuidit in tua ad [...]erse par­teis. at that tyme ther vas ane cordinar of ro­me ane verray subtil riche villane, quha be cā neutral, in during the tyme of the veyris be­tuix Augustus and Anthonius, tariad quhil on to the tyme that ane of them var superior [Page 139] of the tothir, ȝit he nocht beand certan quha suld be superior of rome, and alse beand desirus to haue the grace and fauouris of hym that hapnit to be imperiour, he be grir subtilite neurissit tua ȝong corbeis in tua cagis, in tua syndry housis, and he leyrnit them baytht to speik. he leyrnit ane of them to saye, god saue thy grace nobil victoreus augustus cesar. and he leyrnit the tothir to saye god saue thy gra­ce nobil victoreus empriour anthonius, than this subtel cordinar set ane of his corbeis that gef louyng til augustus furtht at his vindo on the plane reu, quhen he beheld ony gentil men of augustus allya pas or repas befor his house. and siklyik he set furtht his tothir cor­be at his vindo quhen he beheld ony of the allya of Anthonius pas or repas befor his house. the quhilk thing he did to that effect that he mycht vyn the fauoir of augustus & nocht to tyne the fauoir of anthonius. of this sort he vas lyik to the sourd vitht the tua edgis than quhen Augustus cesar venquest antho­nius, & vas pacebil empriour this subtel cor­donar presentit the corbe til Augustus quhilk gef hym louyng in hyr artificial speche, of [Page] the quhilk cesar vasverray glaid, quhar for he gef to the cordonar fyftene hundretht peces of gold, bot sune there eftir it vas reportit to augustus cesar, that the said subtel cordonar hed ane corbe that gaue as grit louyng til an­thonius, than augustus causit the said corbe and the cordonar to be brotht in his presens and quhen he persauit that the cordonar vas ane astuce subtel falou & dissymilit, he gart hang hym on ane potent befor the capitol & his tua corbeis be syde hym.

❧Of this sort (O ȝe my thre sonnis) ony of ȝou that is be cū neutral to scotland and in­gland and is tariand quhil there be ane prin­ce superior to baytht the realmis, doutles ȝe sal be recompensit be that prince for ȝour a­s [...]uce dissymilitnes as the cordinar vas recompensit be augustus cesar. Ther for i exort ȝou to reuoke ȝour neutralite and that ȝe be cum special vailȝeant deffendours of ȝour natyue cuntre. it vas sperit at cicero in the tyme of th [...] ciuil veyris betuix Iulius Cesar & pompeus quhais querrel and part that he vald tak. cicero ansuerit, quem fugiam scio, quem sequar nescio, this is to say i vait quhais part i sal re­fuse, bot, vait nocht quhais part i sal tak. this [Page 69] ansueir of ambiguite declarit that cicero vas be cum neutral in the ciuil and intestine veyris, that vas betuix iulius Cesar and grit pompeus, ȝit nochtheles the romās murmerit h [...]s ansueir of ambiguite to the vrang part alle­geād that he hed mair fauoir to p [...] ̄peus quer­rel nor to Iulius Cesar bot it is the natur of inciuil comont pepil to iuge euirye purpos to the vrang face. Ane propositione or ane respō ce of ambiguite suld be ay interpreit and ex­ponit to the best sens conformand til ane reul of the lau de vsu L creditor, cum ibi no C & L si vsuras. the quhilkis cheptours sais. Ambigua solutio pro meliori & certiori parte est in­terpretanda et intelligēda. bot nou to proceid in my purpose Cicero hed ane honest cause to refuse h [...]ytht ther querellis and to be neu­tral be rason that thai conten in baytht to be superiours and kyngis of rome, quh kvas expresse contrar the antiant lauis of the ro [...]ns The sophist logicinaris per chance may argon that tua contrareis can nocht be baytht [...] and be this mutul at freuole reul of leg [...]e [...]i [...] i vald infer and allegie that Iulius and pōpeus culd nocht baytht hef ane vrangus titil ī ther debait consider and that the comont prouerb [Page] sais that in euyrie tu [...] contrar opinions ther is ane rycht and ane vrang thir freuole sophistarīs that marthirs and sklandirs the text of aristotel deseruis punitione for quhou beit that ther be cōparison of greis in euyrie thyng, that follouis nocht that the positiue gre and the cō paratiue gre ar contrar tyl vthir, for gude and bettir or desserent in greis & ȝit thai ar nocht contrar til vthirs siklyik euyl and var ar of defferent greis bot ȝit thai ar nocht contrar til vthirs. ȝit nochtheles ther is tua reulis in the lau that sais. Aliquid est iustum cuius contra­rium est iustius. L. exigendi C. de procu, per glo. the tothir reul sais. Aliquid est malū cuius contrarium est deterius. ff. de re in L. quotiens bot thir tua reulis of th [...] lau makkis no iust tittil nothir to iulius nor to pompeus quhou [...]e it that ther querrellis var baytht cō trar til vthirs considerand that baytht there querellis tendit to the demolitione of the an­tiant public veil of the romans ther for ther vas na greis of comparison in there debait ther for nocht ane of them hed ane iust titil in th [...]r contrate querellis nor ȝit the opinion of Iulius vas na var nor the querrel of pompeus cōsiderād that the [...] contraire debait var baytht [Page] of ane euyl equal qualite. Nou to mak ane end of this degressione i vil cōclude that the neutralite of cicero deseruis recōmēdatione quhē Iulius and pompeus contendit quhilk of thē suld be kyngis of rome. Bot it is nocht siclyik betuix ingland and scotland. for quhou be in that forane princis that ar indesserent til in­glād and scotlād and alse ther subiectis vil re­mane neutral in our veyris cōtrar inglis men that follouis nocht that scottis men can hef ony iust titil to remane neutral quhen our [...] tre is inuadit be our dissaitful ald enemeis.

Quhar for i exort ȝou (o ȝe my thresonnis) that gyf ony of ȝou be suspekkit that ȝe hef bene neutral in tymis by past that nou ȝe purge ȝou vitht sum vailȝeantnes contrar ȝour enemeis, to that effect that ȝe maye reuēge the extreme violent domage that ȝe hef sustenit be the oniust veyris of ingland. And quhou be it that ȝour ald enemeis vald decist fra ther oniust veyris and that thai vald treit pace vitht ȝou ȝit nochtheles ȝe suld nocht con­discend to sic pace, bot gyf the kyng of inglād vald restoir ande reforme the domage & vio­lens that ȝe haue indurit. And alse doutles the inglis men vil offir ȝou no pace, bot ane dissymilit [Page] pace for ther auen auantage ande to di­saue ȝou eftiruart be ane mair cruel veyr it is knauen throucht al cristianite that inglis men socht neuyr pace at scotland and France at ane instant tyme bot rather quhen thai socht pace at scotlād there purpos vas to mak veyr on France and quhen thai socht pace of France, ther purpos vas to mak veyr on scotland ther for sic dissimilit pace fra the quhilk may succeid veyr, susd nocht be resauit bot rather veyris suld be maid, in hope that sure pace maye succeid conformand til ane cheptour in the xxiij distinctione in the fyrst question quhilk sais. Non pax queritur vt bel um ex­cerceatur, sed bellum geritur vt pax acquira­tur. ther for quhen the legatis of inglād offris to ȝou ane dishonest pace fra the quhilk maye succeid ane mair cruel veyr, ȝe suld refuse it, conformād to the vordis of Cicero in his in­uectyue philipiques cōthar anthonius,Philip. 12. sayād pax est repudianda, si sub eius nomine latitet bellum. There for (o ȝe my thre sunnis) ȝe haue ane iust titil, to refuse pace and til intend cruel veyr contrar ȝour enemeis. for as tuci­dides sais in the thretten cheptour of his fyrst beuk, quod he,Tucidides Libro. 1. as it is cōuenient tyl honest & [Page 143] prudentmento lyue in pace, quhen there nychtbours dois them na oultraige nor vio­lens: Siklyike it is honest and conuenient, to verteous men to change there pace and rest in cruel veyr fra tyme that thai haue resauit oul­trage and violens fra there nychtbours. for the changeyng of ane dissymilit pace, in ane cruel veyr salbe occasione of ane ferme and saythtful pace. Cicero cōfermis this sammyn purpose in the fyrst beuk of his officis.Cice. offi. Suscipienda bella sunt, vt in pace sine iniuria v [...]ua­tur. Ande quhou be it that there is diuers parsons in scotlād that sais, th [...]t rest and pace var verray necess [...]ir for vs. i confesse that honest pa [...]e suld preffer on iust veyris. for that cause the empriour traian said, that it var les skaytht to mak ane iu [...]t veyr nor to lyue in dreddour vndir ane dissymilit pace.Tucididos li. 2. ca. 9. Euerie man is ob­list to deffend the gudis heretagis and posses­sions that his antecestres and forbearis hes left to thē. for a [...] tucidides hes said in his sy­cond beuk. quod he it is ma [...]r dishonour tyl ane person, to tyne the thyng, that his antecestres and forbearis hes conqueist be grite laubours, nor it is dishonour quhē he failȝeis in the conquessing of ane thing that he intendit [Page] tyl haue conquesit fra his mortal enemye. Be this rason, euyrie nobil man suld be ver­ray solist to deffend his iust querrel, for siklyik as ane man offendis his consciens quhen he dois violens extorsions and domage tyl his nychtbour siklyik ane honest man offendis & hurtis his consciens, quhen he deffendis hym nocht in his iust querrel contrar his enemeis & alse reuengis hym nocht of the violens and domage that his enemeis hes perpetrat cōtrar hym. Quhar for i exort ȝou my thre sonnis, that ȝe condiscend in ane faythful accord, thā doutles god sal releue ȝon of the grit afflictione that ȝe haue indurit be the incredule seid of ingland, & alse i beleue that he sal mak ȝou ane instrament til extinct that false genera­tione furtht of rememorance, & sa fayr veil.

❧Heir endis the complaynt of scotland.
‘❧Nichil est turpius, quam sapientis vitam, ex insipientium sermone pendere.’Cice de fini.

¶The table of the cheptours that ar contenit in this beuk.

  • The fyrst cheptour declaris the cause of the mutations of monarchis. fo. xv.
  • The sycond cheptor declaris the thretnyng of god cōtrar obstinat vicius pepil. fo. xix.
  • The thri [...] cheptor is, quhou the actor regre­tis the thretnyng of god. fo. xx
  • The feyrd cheptour, conferris the passagis of the thrid cheptour of ysaye vitht the affli­ctione of scotland. fo. xxiij.
  • The fyift cheptour declaris the opiniōs that the pagan philosophours held anent the terminatione of the varld. fo. xxv.
  • The sext cheptor rehersis ane monolog re­creatyue of the actor. fo. xxx.
  • The 7 cheptor is of the visione that aperit to the actor in his sleip. fo. xxxii.
  • The 8 cheptor declaris quhou the affligit lady dame Scotia reprochit hyr thre sounis callit the thre estatis of scotland. fo. xxxv.
  • The 9 cheptor declari [...] quhou the affligit lady exortis hyr thre souni [...] to tak exempil of diuerse cuntreis that god hes releuit fra persecutione. fo. xxxix.
  • [Page]The 10 cheptour declaris quhou the inglis men gyuis vane credens to the prophesie of merlyne. fo. xlv.
  • The 11 cheptor declaris that the pretēdit kyngis of ingland hes no iust titil to the realme of ingland fo. lv.
  • Quhou the affligit lady declaris that the familiarite betuix scotland and ingland is the cause of seditione. fo. lxvii.
  • Quhou conspiratours ar puneist be the hand of god. fo. lxxvii.
  • Quhou the thrid soune callit lauberaris ans­uert vitht ane lamentabil cōplaynt. fo. lxxxv.
  • Quhou the affligit lady ansuert til hyr ȝon­gest soune. fo. xcvj.
  • Quhou the affligit lady accusit hyr eldest son he callit nobilis and gentil men. fo. ci.
  • Quhou the affligit lady accusit hyr sycond soune callit sperutualite. fo. cxi.
  • Quhou the affligit lady exortis hyr thre sou­uis to be vigilant in the defens of ther natyue cuntre. fo. cxxv.

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