A DISCOVRSE Vpon the Reasons OF THE RESOLVTION taken in the Valteline against the ty­ranny of the GRISONS and HERETIQVES. To the most Mighty Catholique King of Spaine, D. PHILLIP the Third. Written in Italian by the Author of The Councell of Trent. AND Faithfully translated into English. With the Translators Epistle to the Commons House of PARLIAMENT.

LONDON, Printed for William Lee, at the Turkes head in Fleetstreet, next to the Miter and Phoenix. 1628.

TO THE KNIGHTS, BARONS AND BVRGESSES of the House of Commons, assembled in Parliament.

THings compared, though con­trary, or alike in nature, doe illu­strate one the other: Contrario­rum & similium eadem est ratio. Iust. Iust. And therefore, to discerne the strengths, counsels, and ends of diuers Kingdomes, the straigh­test rule is comparison of their actions, gouernment, and foun­dation: All Monarchies and Republiques which haue an end proposed, whether to enlarge, or preserue their Dominion, most effectually worke to their own ends, because such operation is naturall;Polib: Is quino [...]it quaenam sint vniuscuinsque Rerumpublicarum principiae natura­lia, etiam incrementum et florentissimum statum, ac mu­tationem, & finem potest cognoscere.

A wise and rationall Historian comparing and cen­suring diuers Common-wealths, why one subsisted, and others decayed; and how the one preuailed vpon [Page 2] the other; examined the formes and institutions, their designes, and ends, and what was possible to be built vpon them. That of Plato he esteemed vncapable of comparison, other then as a Statue to a man, which had excellent art, without life. Athens and Thebes were not vnderlaid to beare any aduersitie: But when they were most like to rise, the temperature of their policy was insufficient to allay the abundance and increase of humours, & the growth was too sudden and heauy for the foundation: when they began to shake, their root had no earth. The Lacedemonian, to subsist of it selfe, to oppose forraine violence, to need nothing ex­otique, to liue in peace, was in all perfection institu­ted. Caeterùm ad parandum sibi in vicinos dominatum, to extend their Empire, euen their owne foundation was an impediment. A blessed state, if Ambition were banished the world; but defectiue to absolute safetie: For no defence is secure, that cannot offend. There­fore, as soone as that State began to affect conquest, and to raise Armies, they found in their constitution, that the Lawes made to keepe them happy,Plat [...]. were too narrow to hold others in seruitude: and their vntried felicitie blinded their iudgement, to ouer-value their owne abilities. Qui vitam instituisset contra naturam, meritò etiam contra naturam fato functus est. Polib.

The Carthagenians and Romans had larger ends, & a broader foundation, like abilities and aptitudes to ef­fect them, which were Imperium mundi. And though all Common-wealths doe conuenire in aliquo medi [...], yet they which designe quiet possession of their owne, and vsurpation of the Estates of others, are at both ends vtterly repuguant.

[Page 3] The reasons why the Romans preuailed vpon Car­thage Polib. being alike instituted, are another consideration, the manner of building, the constancy, vertue, and goodnesse of Instruments are great differences. In these the Romans excelled▪ and perhaps in the youth (for euery State hath an Infancy, a mature, and a decrepitage) and consequently soonest arriued at their ends. But that wherein most effectually they pre­uailed, was in Counsels; in which they had aduan­tage in the forme of their gouernment: For the peo­ple in Carthage, in all deliberations, had too much au­thoritie, which bred delay, and hindered secrecy; whereas in Rome, the Senate and Optimati, Tacit. experien­ced and wise men, onely resolued. Imus ad bellum, non omnes Nuncios palam audiri, Polib. non omnia consilia cunctis praesentibus tractari, ratio rerum, aut occasionum velocitas patitur. Victoria consilijs, & ratione perfi­citur.

From these Considerations a Consequence is de­duced, that when any two great Kingdomes fall into a warre, that which will preuaile, must consider the ends of the other, and the wayes and meanes where­with they are prosecuted, and to them must apply all industry, and direct opposition. In the ends, as there is great difference, so there is great aduantage by thē: because actiue things, etiamsi agendo repatiantur, weare-out passiue, though of equall strength and hardnesse, as the iron that strikes, in time batters that which suffers. Common-wealths that designe con­quest, and are alway attentiue to watch occasion, get ground vpon the modest, more by vigilancy then force: and fraud, which is a terrible instrument, doth [Page 4] euer accompany Ambition. Counsels vanquish Armes, as spirituall things are predominant vpon ma­teriall, and as fire dissolues the fastest metals: & those Counsels are most preualent, which are vnited in one head, and issue from one fountaine.

Therefore rising and encreasing Empires are dan­gerous, if they once grow great, and must be resisted in their ends, and in their counsels: single defence is not sufficient: troublesome neighbours must be made passiue, to abate their reputation, which the spirit of action presupposeth.

To apply these premisses, hauing read with pleasure the following Discourse of the Reasons of the Reso­lution in the Valteline; and being at leasure, eyther to sleep, or wast in mine owne meditations, I thought it would be a good recreation, and not vnacceptable to my loyall Countrimen, to teach it to speake as plaine English, as it doth truth; and finding the whole scope of the Author (an Authour of great worth, and greater works) to be an information to the World, of the dangerous encrease, and ambition of the house of Austria: and, if possible, to read the King of Spaine a lesson, not to bee learned, but vnder a Rodd of Iron, that in time necessity would open the eyes of all Princes, to oppose his secret proiect of Vniuersall Monarchy; I be­leeued that some profit might be gathered out of this forraine Garden.

I wil suppose that this Theame is sufficiently hand­led; and that there are few practised in the world, who will deny it. The witnesses are great and euident; In­dia vniustly vsurped; Sicily surprised by treason; Na­ples by breach of Contract; Millan held by Intrusion; [Page 5] Nauarre by excommunication of the lawfull Prince; Portugall oppressed by the Sword;Con [...]stag. and the Pope re­fused to iudge either competently, or as Arbiter, the pretences of Parma & Braganza, when it was possible in temporall Causes, his spirit might erre in not ado­ring Spaine: The Valteline possessed vnder the colour of Religion; The Palatinate and the States of Cleue seised by auxiliars, and kept for Debts forced vpon the Proprietaries, which they desired not to borrow: Wesell stollen in a truce; and the Rhyne passed ouer vnder the fauour of a Treaty; Embden attempted; Venice conspired; Piemont assaulted; France twice cor­rupted into Combustion, with holy leagues and open Armes: and England practiced, and inuaded; And to bee able to doe any, or all these, a scelerous peace sought with the Turke, to whom, in truth, Spaine is only a true friend. These are such a Cloud of witnesses, as no modesty will oppugne them.

Which being now manifest to the world, and that it is expected euery wise Prince and State will con­sider, nunc meares agitur, I also haue presumed to warne diuisos ab orbe Britannos; who being separated from Generall Commerce by the Sea, which is our wall, true Information may bee kept out, as well as Enemes.

To which purpose, without any malignity or wil­ling offence, I must looke one age back; For in the for­mer, Alas, the Kings of Castile were good Neighbors, and were content not to bee supplanted by their owne Moores, mingled with their Subiects, both in house and bloud.

[Page 6] England hath been the speciall and most advanta­gious marke at which this new Monarchy hath aymed, since cupido dominandi outgrew Conscience, and all lawes of Iustice; England, the Queene of the Sea, and Lady of Traffique being conquered, halfe of the whole is done. England hath more hindered this vnnaturall growth, then all Europe; it is then out of question, that the wisedome of Spaine, which neuer erreth in the way of greatnesse, loues and hates no kingdome so much, as England.

When Don Iohn of Austria had wonne the famous battaile of Lepanto, Raphael Pereg. and therein laid to himselfe a foundation of advancement, and had gotten possession of the Citty of Tunis; the Spanish Councell, foreseeing the rising Starre of a new Monarchy, though in their owne Princes bloud, rather resolued to rase, and de­stroy that Towne; and accordingly gaue order to the Generall. But hee, who had higher thoughts, fortifi­ed it, and sollicited the Pope Pius quintus, to intercede with the Catholique king, that the Title of that king­dome might bee conferred vpon him, to erect a fresh opposite to the Ottoman Empire. The king of Spaine, iealous of any Concurrent, vtterly refused this honor to his owne Brother: and suddenly, to exercise his great mind vpon some subiect of his priuat seruice, sent him Gouernour into Flanders, where hee was as like to breake, as rise; The young Prince, whose fathers bloud boiled in his veynes, discontent to bee shut vp in so narrow a Compasse, fell vpon a new practise, to conquer England, and procured so farre with the same Pope, that he dealt earnestly with the [Page 7] Catholique King, to consent to that Enterprise, and to contribute Aydes for the Execution, in fauour whereof his Holiness had already granted him Bulls, Breues, Money, and the secret Inuestiture, though this Proiect in the manner was not acceptable to King Phillip, that the Pope should giue that away, without first consulting with him, which hee had embraced in his owne thoughts, yet he yeelded and promised to assist Don Iohn in the Inuasion of England; So much more hee thirsted to depriue a Christian Prince of an antient Inheritance, then to keepe a great Kingdom, opportunely seated to annoy the Turks, from his friends, the Ottomans; I will not Physically conie­cture what bloud begat this Counsell; but propose it, as a worthy and great Consideration.

The attempt of the Duke of Medina, and the in­uincible Armado, was a fruit of the same root; But that the sword might not seeme to cut through all Iustice, to corrupt the minds of the ignorant, and to satisfie the doubtfull and scrupulous, a counterfeit booke;Dolman. vnder a counterfeit name, was published, dis­cussing the seuerall titles of England, and seeming to giue euery one their owne right, it cunningly insinu­ates, that the reasons of the Infanta Isabella were more pregnant then all the rest, which could not come into question vntill Sixteene Princes successori­ly raigning, were condemned for Vsurpers, one of whom her father had married and by her taken the title of England. But God fought for vs; Tonante in coelis Iehouah, Psal: 18. & Excelso edente vocem suam, grando, & prunaeigneae: it a emittens sagittas suas, dispergit, & fulgura iaculans, fundit illos.

[Page 8] When fained Titles were foolishnesse before God and men, and the Chariot wheels of the Enemy were taken off, outward force not prevail [...]ng, Religion, and the defence of that, as the last refuge and Sanctuary of Ambition, was taken vp, and a holy pretence aduan­ced to practise Treason and Rebellion in Ireland. To this end, the E [...]rles of Desmond and Tyron were thrust out, and maintained in defection, against their naturall Prince; and as soone as their actions were worth the avowing, Aids, and Supplies were openly sent from Spaine, and that Kingdome doubly inuaded, by Con­spiracie, and Armes. But Kinsale is a famous sepulcher of their honor: that Climate perhaps hauing as natu­rall an Antipathy to Cholerique complexions, and In­truders, as to noysome and venemous beasts.

I purpose not to enumerate priuate and clandestine minings and machinations: These three notorious examples will proue the general Assertion, That Spaine doth aspire the subiection of Europe by the first ascent of England: yet to shew more clearly the wiles and re­ligious Counsells, wherewith this Designe is pros [...]cu­ted, it will be no vnprofitable digression, to reveale to the world the Negotiations of this Monarchy with the Ottomans, when eyther it hath beene in want, or fe [...]re, or preparing for some new Attempt; Catholique waies, which the Lyon hath neuer trode in the Desert, nor the Vulturs eye seene in the wildernesse.

It is one of the Vaine-glories of Spaine, that they hold no correspondence, nor euer made any peace with the great Enemy of Christendome, calumniating and reproaching all other Princes and States, who, for vtilitie of Trade, maintaine a Civill Commerce with [Page 9] them: But wise men will discerne the fallacy, and dif­ference betweene those, who, according to the liber­ty of the lawes of God and Nations, doe onely traf­fique & communicate the abundancies of their Coun­tries, with Infidels; and others, who will haue no ex­change nor intercourse, but vnder the condition of di­uiding the world, and oppressing, by mutuall consent, of all Princes. And such a Peace and opportunitie the Spaniard hath offered, and sought of the Emperour of Turky: And if this be not sufficient, to returne the ig­nominie cast vpon others; Let it be weighed vpright­ly, and it shall appeare, that all the correspondence and trade of all the Princes in amity with the Grand Signior together, doth not bring to him halfe the pro­fit and securitie, as the dissentions and Intrusions of the House of Austria, wherwith they keepe all Christen­dome in continuall feare, or warre. Wherby that com­mon Enemie liues in safety, and at ease, watching ad­uantages vpon all, indifferently.

About the time that Phillip the second (the holy League to depriue Henry the Fourth of the Crowne of France, failing him) in the Reigne of Mehemet, Grand father of Morat now liuing, a certaine rich Portugall Iew, Don Aluaro Mendes, resident in Constantinople, pretending occasion to send another of his Tribe cal­led Iehuda Serfati, vpon priuate affaires (but practised by the Ministers of Spaine) into that Country; as soon as he arriued at the frontire, by the Kings order he was created an Ambassador from the Grand Signior, and conducted in that qualitie to the Court, and a Counsel held, in what manner to giue him audience; His name was already changed to Don Gabriell di Bona-Ventura, [Page 10] his Instructions drawne by a Iunto for the purpose; and thus hee was shewed abroad, defrayed by the King, and his Message published, that hee was imployed to offer Peace and friendship from the Turkish Emperour.

When this Scene was acted, he was sent backe with true Letters of Don Christofero di Mora, and the Secre­tary Catagna, to the great Vizier, and for his better securitie, a safe Conduct and Credance was giuen him, signed by the King Yoel Rey.

Passing by Sicily, by Catholique Order, Forty Tur­kish Slaues were deliuered him, to present at the Port, in earnest of the Spanish and Ottoman amitie; Letters also of credit for good summes were furnished, to en­able him to spend, & procure answer from the Grand Signior, and fauour of the Vizier, Mufti, and other of the great Officers.

With which Orders and Armes being arriued at Constantinople, he vsed all meanes, with all men, to in­duce an acceptance of the Peace, vrging and demon­strating the earnest affection, and desire of the King of Spaine to conclude it.

But this practise being discouered by the Ambassa­dors resident at the Port, and others not too well affe­cted to Spaine, the falshood was made appeare: and Don Gabriel by the great Vizier was clapt in prison, as a Counterfeit and Impostor.

In a few moneths this Vizier was displaced, and an­other aduanced to his Office, and, as it is a common rule with them, to runne a contrary course to their fallen Predecessors, without examining the merits or causes: this Iew was set at libertie, and all his actions and Letters approued, as true and authenticall; And [Page 11] thereupon Petition made to the Grand Signior to en­forme the Negotiation; and by the counsell of the new Ministers, it was admitted, and accepted, and an­swer granted to the King of Spaine, that seeing hee had shewed so much affection to peace, and to enter into a sincere Correspondence with the Port, especially by the charitable liberty of so many Mahometans freely presented; that the Gates of the Ottoman Empire were alway open to whomsoeuer did seeke their friendship: and that Ambassadors might securely come to treat and conclude it.

With these Letters to the Catholique King, and o­thers to Don Christofero di Mora, and the Secretary Ca­tagna from the Vizier, Don Gabriel was dispeeded with two Messengers of the Port, by the way of Wal­lachia to the confines of the Empire, purposing to take his iourney through Germany.

But Rodolphus being then in warre with Sultan Me­hemet, he was stayed, and examined on the Borders; To free himselfe, he fained that he had Letters to the Emperour; whereupon all his papers were seized, and sent to Prague. His Imperiall Maiesty very discontent, and iealous of such Treaties betweene Spaine and Tur­ky, without his communication, and in such a Con­iuncture; gaue order, that the Iew should be brought to Vienna, and kept in close Prison, vntill he had some advice from Madrid. The Catholique King, finding diu non latêre scelera, to saue the honor of his priuate Designes, denyed the fact, forsooke and protested the poore Don Gabriel, who miserably there ended his life, conassai mala-ventura. It may be collected, that the Spanish ends of this Treaty were such as durst not [Page 12] abide the light, seeing they might not bee trusted to the nearest friend; and it was iudged great modesty, to be ashamed, and the part of a good Christian, to re­nounce secret practises with Turkes, by the mediation of Iewes, but of an ill Master, to leaue and abandon his Seruant. Such Vessels in the hands of Princes are for­med for honor, or dishonor, as their interests counsell them.

In later times, the extraordinary Ambassadors of the Emperour, treating at Constantinople the frontire Affaires, and accidentall Breaches, another ouerture was by them made in the name of the King of Spaine, and the best argument [...]sed was, that the world knew but two great and Imperiall Families, Austria, and Ot­toman, who if they were reconciled, might make ano­ther Diuision of East and West: The rest, it is more hu­manitie to conceale, then Christianitie to negotiate.

This last yeare a Bolognese was sent from the Vice-King of Naples, in pursuit of the same Designe; and counterfeit Letters printed in Spaine, with a Cata­logue of impossible presents, pretended from the Grand Signior, to beg peace, and spread abroad, to add reputation to his Armies; as if the world would trem­ble at a smoake: And though this Engine returned fruitlesse, yet Spaine is not hopelesse. They know the ease and aduantage they should draw, by securitie on this side, to haue all their Gallies at libertie, to shut vp the Straights, to hinder traffique, and to succour Ge­noua; and their Garrisons of Calabria and Sicily free, to be imployed in their other necessities. And here it cannot be ouer-passed, that while Spaine did negotiate this Peace, doubting not to effect it, the same instru­ments [Page 13] were imployed with monies and Letters, to ex­cite the Cossacques (though in preiudice of the Peace of the King of Poland, allyed to the House of Austria by a double mariage) to inuade the Bospherus, that the Armado of the Grand Signior might necessarily be kept in the blacke-Sea, for defence, whereby the Spaniard, by a fine Art, doth enioy halfe the fruits of the Peace, without obtaining it: These are a modell of the wayes and counsels of the Spanish Monarchy.

If the King of Spaine enuied his Brother the Con­quest of a Mahometan kingdome; and treat vnder­hand with the Turks, without respect or knowledge of the Emperour; If he sollicit the seeds of a warre be­tween Poland and the Grand Signior, vnder the colour of a peace, without care of the vtilitie of that Crowne so neerly to him allyed: It may be concluded, that ambition of vniuersall Monarchy, is onely able to extin­guish all obligations, both of Religion and blood: Because, Si violandum jus est, Eurip. imperijgratia violandum est, alijs rebus pietatem colas.

If the first step to this sole Empire be the Conquest of England, as the Designes of the Enemy, from whō some lessons are best taught, and their Counsells to their owne ends doe clearly demonstrate, and the re­solution of diuers Iunto's haue laid for a foundation: It is happy for England to fore-see the blow, and to pro­uide timely to preuent it: and not be bound to the dis­aduantage of making a desperate Bett, when the aduer­sary shall call, and the game irrecouerable.

These Demonstrations admitted for true, the next Consideration will be, by what meanes most effectu­ally and virtually to worke a iust defence; Wherein if [Page 14] the Ends, Counsells, and Wayes, whereby Spaine hath in few yeares aduanced, bee obserued, they will reflect a true light vpon the contrary, how they may be humbled.

The end of Spaine is Vniuersall Monarchy, confor­mable to the Romans in all; but the noble contempt of Treasons: Herein, and in Counsells, they haue ad­uantage of vs. It must then be concluded to op­pose this end, wee must resolue the like, and pursue it with the like wayes, and Counsells, (except onely the wayes of Darkenesse) to take from them those ranke parts, which nourish this Concupiscence.

To discouer the right line of this opposition, it may be enquired, what Spaine did aduance in the last warre, in the blessed dayes of the glorious Queene Elizabeth, either vpon England, France, Germany, I­taly, or Holland, and the totall summe shall be found nothing. Whether they lost in Flanders, or of their owne, is not the question, for the warre was in the end defensiue, and hee is beaten, that assailing con­quers not; But that the Indies were not able to supply, nor appease the mutinies of his Souldiers, nor to pay the Interests of Genoua, and that they had lost all Re­putation, and sought peace on all sides precariò, Hoochstrat, the Electo's, their Bills protested, their tra­uailng Fryars, their owne Ambassages and the World, are irrefutable witnesses.

To account what they haue gotten in these latter yeares of Peace, onely by peace, besides the daring so bold an Act, as to expell many Millions of inborne Enemies, and thereby raising another Indea of trea­sure for a designed warre, at the spring tyde of their [Page 15] full Coffers, would, if it lay together, make a compe­tent estate for a moderate Prince. Somewhat in this point hath beene touched in a generall enumeration, but particulars do fully instruct. Alarache in Barbarie, to strengthen their South Coasts of Spaine, and to helpe to shut vp the Streights of Gibralterra; Acon, vnder the Imperiall Coulours depriued of the libertie of Conscience, the Reformed Magistrates banished, and the Citie reduced to their Deuotion; The non Plus Vltra of the Rhyne, 40 yeares defended, slipt­ouer; and thereby Wesell, the Retraict, and Sanctuary of our Religion, made the Spanish Garrison; Gu­lick, and the Inheritance of the Heyres of Cleue pos­sessed vnder the title of protection, and kept as a pledge; The Palatinate distributed to their Depen­dants, but the Ports and Fortresses of Importance held in hostage; And thus Holland surrounded; The Valtoline blockt-vpp; The Crownes of Bohemia and Hungary intailed, and the Nobility spoiled of their pri­uiledge of free Election; The Euangeliques vniuersal­ly exiled and oppressed; And all Germany trembling vnder the example: These are the fruits of a Spanish peace. If the slumbring Lyon bite so mortally, what shall hee doe, enraged after his pursued Prey? And if in peace, contrary to the nature of peace, such achieue­ments are obtained, that the ship of Spaine runne in the night so many leagues, while the Pilot seemes to sleepe; It is euident, in peace and Warre they haue one end of Conquest.Seneca. Sapiens non semper it vno gradu, sed vnavia.

From these examples wee must learne bellum vtiliter inire, & prosequi. I will not presume to vnder­stand [Page 16] where the Spanish Empire is most sensible and weake; but exhibit some generall rules, that Riuers are onely to be preuented of their waters, by stop­ping or diuerting their fountaines. Aegypt depends vpon the courtesie and payes tribute to the King of Ethiopia to giue leaue to Nilus to water it. The body is soonest reduced to a consumption, by destroying the Liuer, the Indies of blood; And then demonstrate these axioms by a fewe Roman and Spanish Parallels, what they did, and what they suffered, and leaue the application to Actiue men.

That Princely People had no Indies, but their Vir­tue; Rome and the Senate was all; while they caried their Armies abroad, they had no returnes but victo­ries and triumph, and they could loose nothing, ex­cept men, that sold their liues dearely. But when their Emuli the Carthagenians, discouered by their Inuasi­on of Sicily, that their ambition had no limits, and considered that while they fought for their owne ground, they could get nothing, but blowes; They resolued to send Haniball to the Gates of Rome: where he reduced that Empire to nothing, but a Col­ledge of braue old men, prepared to dye in Maiestie. Eighteene yeares this glorious Captaine trode on the spoiles of Italy, and doubtlesse had finished that Do­minion, and in that day, in which he turned to Capua had supped in the Capitoll, Hor. Si quemadmodum sciret vincere, sic vti victoria scisset. From whence grew the prouerb▪ Capuam Hanibali, Cannas fuisse. We must not trust in errors, nor hope this Courtesie of our E­nemies.

When the young Scipio reuiued the hearts of the [Page 17] Romans by vndertaking the Prouince of Spaine, where his Father and Vncle, and so many Legions were buried, he found three Armies greater then his owne,Polib. to oppose him. Vulgaria omnia consilia, & quo­rum venire in mentem cuiusuis poterat, omisit. To fight with all at once was impossible; to beginne with one desperate; the other two were at his back, entire, vincendo, vinceretur. And fortune must not be often tempted; But when he fell vpon the consideration, that new C [...]rthage was the fountaine from whence all the diuisions were supplied, the Port, and harbour of succours, he resolued, omnes vnà aggredi; by taking that City, to dry vp the streames at the spring head; Thus the Enemies retraict & storehouse became his, tota Regio in vna vrbe superataest, and he changed the face of the whole warre, by one deliberation, and was victorious without the vncertaine tryall of Bat­tell, dubium an vtiliori falicioriue concilio.

Lastly, when there was no other way to retire Ha­niball out of Italy, this fate of Carthage vndertooke to transport the warre to their own doores; and then, hee that neuer refused to fight, treated, sought peace, and almost confessed that he was vanquished; then he made that pittifull oration, the most inglorious of all his Acts:Hanib. ad Scip. Si nunc esset integrum, optaturum se fore, vt neque Romani quicquam vnquam eorum quae sunt extra Italiam, nec Carthagenienses, eorum, quae extra Affricam concupiscent. To this moderation must Spaine be re­duced. Haniball knew hee might safelier haue lost all his battells within the Alpes, then one at the gates of Carthage: In them he aduentured nothing, but the superfluity of youthfull blood, which en gaijetè de [Page 18] coeur, sought their desteny in the field of honour. But now the Common-wealth was at stake, and they plaied their Altars, Liberties, Wiues, and Children, at one game; Haniball, to auoid this desteny attempted Italy, to wast Rome at their owne charges. But Scipio had learned that wisedome of him, which himselfe could not vse, and finished at once a double warre: and the Spaniards imitating the one part, shewes vs the way to take the other; Spaine, while it was a sin­gle Kingdome threatned no body, and in Spaine litl e is to be gotten, where me ate must be supplied, and a victorious Army may starue. Therefore, that not be­ing the roote, it must bee sought from whence this e­uill of ambition ariseth: and as in naturall Bodies, there are other parts, besides the head and the heart, which being cut off, or wounded, cause desolution, so it is possible to find a way to weaken that Monster, which cannot bee killed at one blow.

Great preparations at mighty expences giue too great warning, are subiect to many accidents and ha­zard too much reputation. And if one State know any one Designe that may much annoy the Enemy, it is like the other is not ignorant of their owne weak­nesses. Wise Gamesters play not all at a Cast, the By, often helpes the Maine. Therfore, both rule & exam­ple hath taught vs, that Spaine is more easily wasted, then any part of their Christian Dominion conquered, while the streame of money is open, and vndiuerted. But if this long and sure course threaten also a reci­procall Consumption, yet that warre in Europe will bee most profitable for vs, which shall be made nea­rest our owne Kingdome, both for the keeping our [Page 19] forces vnited, and at hand, and for the easinesse of sup­plies in all Euents; and out of Europe, by a Roiall Ac­tion, it is not impossible at one stroke, to behead the Indies,

To oppose them in their Counsels we must first ob­serue what they are,Pierre Mat. Espagne practiquant tousiours sa vieille maxime de se maintenir par la querra de ses voisins.

Sedition, separation, and disunion are the dange­rous weapons wherewith they prepare to themselues easie Conquests, and these Arts haue their first effica­cie vnder the pretence of Treaty, then is the Spaniard most to be suspected,Tacit. because they know how hostibus prodere prima belli tempora, and if they can raise any iealousie, or variance, to remoue any one, all are weak­ned; rebusque turbatis, malum extremum discordia ac­cessit. The contrary then, which is a firme and con­stant League, is onely powerfull, and able to arrest them. In the Colleagued warre of the Common­wealths of Greece against the vnited power of the Spartans, some of the Confederates, who lay next the danger, beginning to wauer, this sentence of their common safetie was giuen,Polib. vnicam spem superesse vi­deo omnibus, agri sui longum tempus possidendi, si Epa­minondae consilio vsi, omnium temporum, omniumque rerum societatem sinceram inter se colant: To hope to diuide indivisibile is lost labour, the Designes of Spaine are one, vnited in the head, in genere generalissimo, the House of Austria, which cannot be distracted. They haue no other maine and important adherent, but the Pope, and his Ecclesiasticall Dependents, and these also make but one, and meet in the Center, concur­ring [Page 20] in common and mingled ends. And they greatly erre, who suppose, that it is euer possible to finde a Pope vnpartiall for Spaine, or to fauour any other Prince against them. Let Vrban the Eighth serue for an example, rais'd and fed by France, yet fallen to their enemies, per ragione di stato. One fresh and pre­gnant instance will discouer both this vnitie, and the aduantage of Spanish Counsells. When the Treaty of Madrid for the liberty of the Valteline was not per­formed, and roundly pressed by the French, some diffi­culties remaining, to prolong the possession, the Forts of that Vally were, by consent, deliuered to the Pope, tanquam communi Patri in Deposito.

This seemed very equall, but the French were o­uer-reached; For they hoped vpon the iustice of their Cause, and that a sentence would timely be giuen for them, which was impossible: For the Spaniard was content, that the Deposition should remaine for euer to his vse; and he knew that the Pope, by accepting it, was engag'd neuer to surrender to the Grisons, be­cause the spirituall Father could neuer deliuer his Children (behold another title) to the subiection and will of Heretiques: and if the French should at last vse force, his Holinesse was doubly intangled, both in honor and conscience, to vnite with Spaine, to main­taine his Depositation. This the French did not fore­see, and fel vpon a disaduantage to recouer it from the Pope, a matter of dangerous consequence. Who, at last, takes Armes in the Cause, as the World knowes. But when both the Pope and Spaine saw such a gene­rall storme, and Colleguation, and foresaw, that there was no remedie but to lose it by Armes, which being [Page 21] victorious, might quarrell with Millan, or finde new obiects of their disdaine, they resolued rather to sur­render it, and to seeme to yeeld to Iustice. But who must doe it? The Pope by no meanes can consent to deliuer part of his flocke to wolues, so his Ambassage protested in France, therefore, by secret conniuence and agreement, the King of Spaine doth suddenly seale the old Articles, and makes the Transaction before Barbarini shall arriue, to saue the Popes honor: For a temporall Prince may saluâ conscientiâ restore Here­tiques to their temporall rights, which the Pope, a higher pretender, ouer soule, body and goods, cannot doe. By this cunning they hope to separate the Prin­ces vnited, the quarrell being, in outward appearance, ended; and by this Intelligence it is euident, that the Spirituall and temporall serue one another, and take turnes, and shift Interests, for mutuall aduantage. But if examples proue not categorically let it be conside­red, that the spirituall and temporall Monarchies, affe­cted by Rome and Spaine, haue such mutuall interest and affinitie, and are so woven one within the other, that though natural affection, or other respects of gra­titude, may for a time retard, & perhaps striue against an open declaration, yet when necessitie exacteth a resolution, the essence and mystery of the Papacie will preuaile: It must forsake father and mother, and cleaue to this double supremacie; for Rome and Spaine must stand and fall together.

To proceed, when the Romans first transported their Legions into Greece, they were called in by diui­sion, to restore that shew of liberty to a part, which they absolutely tooke from all Greece. Separation and [Page 22] disunion by them fomented, opened a Port to a Do­minion, which vnited, was like their Phalanx, not to be broken. And certainly this day, the Spaniards haue more hope to diuide the Princes colleagued, then to vanquish them: To which vse, they haue two dan­gerous Instruments, Money for the Traitor, and a Pope for the Conscience. It is obserued, that Spaine will buy Treasons dearer, then other Nations doe Faith; Om­ne scelus externum cum laetitia habetur. Tacit. And another noteth, that with a bit of parchment, the Pope will reduce any Kingdome to him disobedient, to the State of Nauarre, when the true King Iohn Albret, and Queene Katherine were expelled, l'excommunication du Pape Iules 1.Pierre aquant eu plus de forces que les armes de Castille. Math. And they are not ashamed to glory with Philip of Macedon, another oppressor, that the victo­ries gotten with words, are more sweet then those of the Sword: For euery Souldier can fight, and share the honor, but Arts and deceits of Treaties, are onely proper to the Prince and his Counsell.

I will not enter into a search of the Treaties of Spaine, nor how they are maintained; I will not cen­sure Equivocation, nor rip vp our owne wounds: onely I may haue leaue to note, that anciently some States were branded, there was prouerbially Fides Punica, and Foedus Locrense; and therefore I admonish all good Townes, which capitulate to haue no Citta­dell built within their walls, to prouide, that none bee built vpon them.

By what blood, I know not, the Kings of Spaine are become heires vnto Francis Sforza D [...]ke of Milan, of whom, when Lewes the Eleuenth of France, pressed [Page 23] by the Confederate warre du bien public, wherein his brother, the Earle of Caralois, and the Duke of Bretagny were engaged, desired aydes of money, hee supplied the King with a good Counsell,Comines. to agree to a­ny conditions, with any of the League, to disband, or to sowe a iealousie among them; preseruing onely his Armes entire, with which, whē they were separated, he might humble them singly, at his pleasure; adding, that Princes lost no reputation, when they attained their ends. The History is vulgar, and the successe of that aduice, was, the flight of the Duke of Berry, the staine of Charles of Burgundy, and the beggery of Bretagny. I am perswaded, the Spaniards haue con­cocted the Doctrine, and would come to an agree­ment with any of the Leagues, to disunite them: and the Breach once made is not easily repaired. Per­haps in this Coniuncture, they would (if honour would suffer it) consent to make a generall peace, vntill Armes were deposed; But here is the present danger, to loose an opportunity, not to bee recoue­red in many yeares. The Counsell of Spaine doth know at how great expence of time, and charge of Ambassages, these Leagues haue beene composing; which once dissolued, and lulled asleepe in security, would slowly returne to the present perfection. Therefore there is great Caution to be vsed, in giuing eare to the Enchantments of a Spanish Treaty: For some lye nearer punishment, some make easier Con­ditions, but all singly, shall feele the reuenge of their particular Interests,Polib. in the generall offence, Occasione enim tu [...]itati, [...]os vltum ineunt, qui per occasionem tem­porum ipsis nocuerant. The truce that Amilcar gaue [Page 24] the Romans, Idem. when the Insubrian and Alpine Nations hung ouer them like a Cloud, Vt ne patriam retinere sine periculo potuissent, did more aduance their future Empire, then the three Battailes of his sonne Hani­ball did hinder it, because hee gaue them leaue to grow, and to haue no Enemy but Carthage; There­fore I haue resolued, there is no safety in any sudden ac­cord, [...]or profit in accepting wasted Countries, vntill some ambitious blood bee let out, and the Spanish Re­alls consumed, and that Nation, and all the World brought to know, that it is possible to resist their greatnesse, and to abate their pride, and that in them­selues they are truely humbled.Polib. Hoc igitur, si quid a­liud qui Remp: regunt solicitè obseruandum memine­rint; vt quos animos esserant qui in gratiam positis ini­micitiis redeunt, aut nouam amicitiam ineunt, ne igno­rent quando temporibus cedentes, quando victis animis pacis conditiones amplectantur: vt ab illis quidem, seu temporum suorum Insidiatoribus, semper sibi caueant.

But seeing the end of all iust war is a good and safe peace, qua nihil pulchrius, nihil vtilius, & the meanes thereunto treaty, and the assurance thereof, publique faith; when it shall be necessary to negotiate a recon­ciliation with Spaine, Let it be accepted for a Rule, and foundation, that the one part is neuer secure what the other would haue, esse dolum, quia credidit hostis, and when all reasons of State are narrowly en­quired, and outward Counsells waighed with vtile and honestum; yet there is a secret fit to bee reuealed, That the Kings of Spaine haue a Councell of Conscience, which may approue, or annull all that is, or shall bee transacted, and dormant dispensations, which haue [Page 25] reference to Contingences in ordine ad spiritualia, to continue or dissolue all Conclusions: and this Re­traict is formed like waxe, to take the Impression of the present aspect and necessity of affaires.

In the last treaty betweene France and Spaine, in which Amiens was surprised, when King Phillip saw the vigorous resolutiō of Henry the fourth to recouer the Townes in Picardy by the sword, and that he had giuen expresse Command to the President de Silerye to consent to no Conuention, so long as one foote of ground vnsurrendered, remained in the possession of the Spaniards considering, that the bounds of that Prouince were the entrance into Artois, Pierre and that vi­ctorious Armies extend their pretences with prospe­rity,Math. especially the Title of Soueraignty inuiting, and iustifying that progresse, he consulted first, his Coun­cell of State, for the restitution, who, loath to remit any thing of their stiffnesse, interposed the respects of honour, and so it was necessary, not to confesse ina­bility to keepe them; but the wise King, knowing, to contend might draw the quarrell into the bowells of Flanders, resoluing both to preuent the occasion, and to saue his reputation, called his Councell of Conscience to deliuer their opinion, who concluded, that hee could not by the Lawes of Religion vsurpe, nor dye with quietnesse of soule, if he restored not to euery man his owne: and so those places were piously sur­rendered, which could not safely be maintained; But Conscience extended no further, then present que­stion.

When the same Catholique King found it necessa­ry, for Spanish reason of State, that his own braue and [Page 26] eldest sonne should dye, Nature; and honour both, contended against the Sentence; but obligations were pretended, and found, aboue humanity, as the Act was without humanity. The Councell of Conscience, and to these a Iunto of Diuines were added, to resolue the tender Conscience of a Father, whether hee might with safety of Conscience pardon his owne Child of offences not yet fully published and therefore for euer suspected.Id [...]m. These Ephori pronoun­ced with weeping eies, que le salut de son peuple, luy de­uoit estre plus cher, que celuy du son filz, and the gea­test fauour the Prince could obtaine, was to choose his death, that which was preferred and enioyed by Caesar; & facinus intragloriam fuit.

Before Alua appeared neere Portugall with his Ar­my, the Duke of Ossuna and Don Christofero di Mora, Cones. were imploied to buy a party for the Catholique King, and they promised mountaines of Gold, to withdraw some of the Lords from Don Antonio. When the kingdome was setled, these did demand their recom­pence, and pleaded their Contracts in the name, and by vertue of the Kings order: Who remitted them, not to the Counsell of State, for they must iustifie their owne Acts, but to that of Conscience; Who gaue sentence, that if the Crowne belonged to Don Anto­nio, they could not rightfully conferre it vpon Phillip. If Phillip were the true heire, the Petitioners could not sell their Allegiance to their owne Prince, for mo­ney, so that both wayes they were iudged Traytors, and their expected reward was changed into a shame­full pardon. I conclude, Nothing is sure, without the approbation of this Court of Conscience; Nothing [Page 27] so vnsure, as what Law, or equitie is the rule thereof. Therfore, that Peace onely will be secure with Spaine, which the two Counsells of State, and Conscience shall together resolue, to be profitable, because neces­sarie.

To reduce this Discourse to a briefe Conclusion, If right iudgement of all States arise from their ends; If their Counsells direct the way to discouer them, and both being discerned to affect Conquest, must be actiuely opposed, lest they preuaile vpon a suffe­ring modestie; If the ends of Spaine are apparently Vniversall Monarchy, and all their Counsells, by Ne­gotiations, infamous, and vnchristian, or by practises of fomenting Treasons, and diuisions among their neighbours, are directed to attaine that end; If the Pope must be alway obsequious for the affinity of their common ends; If there be no securitie of Peace, but in their pouerty: What other resolution can bee proposed, then that a liuely warre must bee transported to that part of the Dominions of Spaine, which being separated and cut off, the ancient mo­desty, and naturall constitution of that Kingdome may returne, to bee glad to liue in Peace, and eate quietly their owne Figs and Oliues. And because in great diseases, as well blood and ill humours must be diuerted, as the main Cure intended; so it wil be re­quisite, more for expedition then necessitie of health, to imitate other States in thrift. France in times past, had Scotland, England, Burgundy, and Navarre; Spaine their owne Moores and Barbary, euery king­dome had a back-friend vpon their Enemies. Such may be found vpon the weakest side of the House [Page 28] of Austria, Port d' Atras, drawne from their owne Confessions, that though the Palatinate be conque­red, Hungary & Bohemia will neuer be secure vntill the Hills of Transylvania be made the Bulwarke of their Empire. But this would be too large a Digression.

There remaines onely of my purpose, to preuent a Question; why I haue chosen to dedicate, by this Epistle, the ensuing Translation, to you most worthy Senators of the House of Commons. For this boldnes may be subiect to various misinterpretations. No mā will suspect me of so great arrogance, as that I hope to teach you any thing you doe not know. But seeing your owne wisedome did first foresee the necessity of a warre with Spaine, and your owne zeale to the honour of your King, did counsell to vndertake it, I thought such forraine Meditations as these, concur­ring with your owne thoughts, might also animate and nourish in you a spirit, and generous Resolution, vigorously to maintaine it. You know how much of the good successe of great Actions depends vpon re­putation, and they haue aduanced much, who haue gotten opinion. As Astrologers make their iudgments vpon the first minute of time in Natiuities, so doth the world prognosticate of the happy successes of Princes, by the first coniunctures in their King­domes, and their first actions abroad: Therefore in­standum fame, nam vt prima cessissent, fore vniuersa. You know,Tacit. Monies are the sinewes of warre,Idem. Neque arma sine stipendijs, neque stipendia sine tributis, haberi queunt. If you now restraine your liberall hand, you expose your Prince to dishonor, and your Country to Consumption. It is Time onely that will macerate [Page 29] England, when without traffique and exchange, and that especially of Germany, our owne treasure must be exported to pay forraine Armies. Qui citò dat, bis dat, Seneca. and it is ill husbandry to doe that sparingly, which cannot be well done but at once and speedily. It will be time to be thrifty in the members and particulars, when the Head and the whole State is safe. And if you deferre vntill a lingring warre hath exhausted you, Remember that which remaines will not suffice, because sera in fundo parsimonia; non enim minimum, Idem. sed & pessimum remanet.

Your humble Seruant Philo-Britannicos.

THE REASONS OF the Resolution lately taken in the Valteline against the Tyrannie of the Grisons and the Heretiques.

THe miseries of the vnhappy Valte­line, are now at last so notorious; so intollerable are the barbarous op­pressions, and tyrannies, that the in­habitants thereof doe suffer, as slaues vnder the Grisons, their pretended Lords and Superiours; that they ought certainly to stirre vp great compassion in the mindes, and for their reliefe also, the force of Prin­ces, and people farre remoued; And seeing this, contrary to all expectation and equitie, is not to them administred; now, that of themselues, with the meanes giuen them almost im­mediately from the hand of God, they haue procured to free them from so sharp a bondage, they might beleeue, that for their iustification in that action before the World, there nee­ded no other diligence: Neuerthelesse, seeing the malice of peruerse Ministers, the tongues and infernall pennes (with which Tyrants serue their owne occasions) haue too great credit with the vulgar, to obscure any truth, how cleare so­euer, to calumniate Innocency, and to procure hatred, it hath beene thought fit, to publish this Treatise, by which all men may be informed briefly, and truly, that what they haue done, is not onely right, by all Diuine and Humane law, but [Page 32] worthy to be approued with high praises, of men iudicious, intelligent, and well affected to Iustice and Christianity; and to be protected by all States and Princes.

Omitting therefore colours, and artifice of words, proper to those ministers, who study nothing, but to deceiue: Eue­ry one doth know, that all which a Subiect can pretend, con­sisteth in Soule, Life, Honor, and Goods; Of all these, nothing remained to the miserable Valtoliues, wherein they were not extreamly oppressed, and tyrannized.

Concerning the Soule, it is sufficiently knowne, that the Inhabitants of that Vally were anciently bred, and nourished in the holy Roman Catholique faith; That therein, are many beautifull Churches, dedicated to the blessed Virgin, and o­ther Saints, fauoured by God with graces and miracles, and therefore frequented by the deuout concourse of sundry Na­tions, to the great comfort and benefit of the People, who were by the Catholiques to them admitted, in them to cele­brate Masse, and Seruices, for the health of their soules, accor­ding to the holy Roman Rite. But now these Barbarians, giuen vp in prey, to the most peruerse Professors of euery Heresie, and particularly of Caluinisme, haue so with all their industry wrought, that this poyson hath slided, and infected the whole Valley; from whence it may more easily spread into the bordering parts of Italy. And although first they did not apparently shew to take from the People, the vse of their ancient religion, yet their actions manifestly were thereunto addressed; seeing by their Decrees, they gaue po­wer to the Heretiques, to prophane the old Catholique Chur­ches, with their Preachings, and Burialls; and doe take away the reuenues left to Catholique Churches for Masses, and o­ther offices, which they transferre to hereticall Ministers; That they inforce Catholiques to built them Churches; That they extinguish wholly Ecclesiastical Iurisdiction, depriuing the Catholiques of the publication of Indulgence, and Iubi­lees, and of Entrance into Orders, taking away all their Goods; and from the Pastorall Cure of their Bishop, Not suffering any to obey him, nor that he should come to visit or [Page 33] comfort them; That they permit the Heretique Ministers o­penly to treade downe the Sacraments of the Catholique Church, and if any oppose, hee is suddainly, and barbarous­ly punished in life and goods; That they exclude out of the Vally, almost all the orders of Religion, admitting on the other part, indistinctly, hereticall Ministers, of all Nations; That they erect Seminaries and lately hereticall Colledges, as­signing them the profits, tithes, Canonryes, and Benefits taken from the Curates and Catholique Church. O [...] all these, there are passed Decrees, Statutes, and open Edicts; And of Cases particular, there are publique Acts whereof the memo­ry is too fresh, and renewed by most cruell death inflicted on Catholiques, and Religious men, in the most Infamous ma­ner imaginable. Now what else is this, but to vse manifest Tyrannie ouer the soules of the Catholique Subiects, to take from them those helpes wherewith they aduance their salua­tion, and their way to Heauen, and to enforce them to em­brace a new Religion which leads them downe to Hell? The cause too much declares it selfe, there is no neede of grea­ter exaggeration to make it mani [...]est, and to shew it more in­tollerable.

In the rest, to demonstrate the wretched estate of the said Vally, it shall suffice, simply to represent the maner of Go­uernment vsed many yeares past; it shall be sufficient to say, that it hath beene giuen onely to him that would offer most money, without any the least Consideration of abili [...]ie or o­ther parts necessary to such a charge; and that the Commissa­ries sent in apparance to remedy the forepast iniustice, were of the same quality, and sometimes worse; Insomuch that both the one, and the other had for their aynie, and thereto onely did attend, to get their charges, and to heape vp, by all imaginable meanes, so much Gold that therewith they might returne to their owne houses enrich't for euer.

From hence it proceeded, that the liues of poore Inno­cents were a thousand waies ensnared, and often taken away with open iniustice, at the instance of their Enemyes, who with great summes of money bought them, and sometimes [Page 34] after sharpe Imprisonment, and other torments, hardly were dismissed naked, by the price of all their substance, which re­mained openly to the Officers without any shame, in so much security, that the miserable oppressed, both in life, and goods, durst not thereof lament.

By the same meanes, the estate of the Subiect in Ciuill Causes was alwaies in great danger: For the Magistrates be­ing publiquely mercenary, it often happened that some did loose by an vniust sentence dearely bought of the Aduersary; and others, to preserue them against Iniustice, were forced to present a great part to the Iudge.

No Sentence although confirmed & passed in Iudgement, whether Ciuill or Criminall, was euer secure; because the Successor, to dig out money, did renew the trouble to the part­ty acquitted, and for a new price did often racall without any respect, that which of others, though iustly, had beene iudged.

Safe-Conducts were broken at their pleasure, and pub­lique faith with vaine pretences violated, to depriue life, that by such death, they might enrich themselues. Lawes and Statutes were not now with arts, and Stratagems deluded, but openly despised, and trodden vnder foot, as if all had beene freely giuen to them in prey.

Orphans and Widdows, and others of that Condition, so much recommended, both by diuine and humane law to the protection of Princes, and Magistrates, as vnable to helpe themselues, by infamous meanes; did remaine whol­ly exposed to the auarice of rauening wolues, to the extreame griefe and compassion of good men. On the other part, it often occurred, that those wicked men, which had offended others, in life, goods, and honor, being fallen into the hands of Iustice, in stead of exemplary punishment, were for great bribes, sometimes by vniust Iudgement absolued, some­times vnder couler of feined escape, let free out of prison to the great oppression and affliction of those, whom they had wronged.

There were seene numbers of infamous persons, gracious [Page 35] with the officers of Iustice, and by them rewarded, onely be­cause they serued as Instruments, many and many wayes, to betray the life and goods particularly of Catholiques; From whence did often follow the destruction and ruine, now of one, now of another family, alwayes of the most ancient, and honorable of the Valley.

Lastly, who shall well consider that which the Sicilians did for three yeares suffer in the Roman Common wealth, vnder the gouernment of the infamous Verres, shall find that the vnhappy Valtelines haue endured much more, a longer time from the hands of so many, worse then Verres; and perhapps shall not find, any other gouernment so infamous, and which so well resembles that, as this of the Grisons in the Vally, which should more clearely be manifested, if it were here ne­cessary to represent all the Cases, and their circumstances one by one, as it was for Cicero, handling his Cause for ends far different from ours.

That which makes our Case more full of compassiō, is, that when the miserable oppressed, haue attempted the refuge of their Superiors for remedy against so many Tyrannies, and Acts of Iniustice, the officers themselues, haue opposed with seuerest banishments, and imprisonments, those, who for the publike good intermedled, and when it hath hap­pened, that all Impediments vanquished, the Procurators of of the Vally haue arriued at the Community of the Three Leagues, and haue informed particularly their many, and excessiue grieuance [...]; in the end, after hauing receiued, in diuers places, such affronts, that scarcely Slaues could suffer, they haue rested deluded, without effect, or any pro­uision.

These things without doubt, are sufficient to take away all hope, euer to find, vnder that gouernment, any ease of so many miseries. But there are other accidents thereunto ad­ded, whereby the Subiects are brought into vtter desperati­on. The Assembly in the towne of Tosana, is already noto­rious, which was applied to nothing else but the destructi­on of good, and Catholique men, as well Grisons, as Valtelines. [Page 36] In the Diett there called, many banishments, and many Ca­pitall Condemnations were decreed: amongst which was that against Nicolo Rusca Arch-Priest of Sondrio, a Priest of most innocent life, and a true Martyr of Christ, tormented and put to death, with all cruelty, and possible infamy, with­out any other fault, then being a good Catholique, & a priest. Now these Iniuries and Cruelties hauing necessitated some Catholique Communities, to seeke redresse of so many euills, vsing their vtmost force; they obtained that these Sentences being reuiewed, were, as barbarous, and most vniust, reuo­ked. But a little time the remedy lasted, because those peo­ple, stirred vp by the fury of their Ministers, and which more imported, moued by the practices and monies of that Neigh­bour Potentate (who per ragion di stato makes any thing law­full, how contrary soeuer to the honour of God, and mainte­nance of his holy Catholique faith) returned to reassemble in the City of Tauos, where, in their new Diett, they haue not onely reconfirmed all the euills of that of Tosana, but added others, making Heads of the Persecution, & Executioners of their Arrests against Catholiques, the same hereticall Mini­sters, and by this occasion their tyrannicall gouernment is so visibly established, (particularly by the Assistance and purse of that Potentate, the principall Cause of so many euills to the Christian Common Wealth) that the Subiects can expect no o­ther, but a declination to a worse Condition, and suddainely to arriue at the height and extremity of all euills, now already approaching.

Admitting what hath bin already cōpendiously deliuered, yet in such maner, that the Reader can neuer apprehend the degree, whereto their tyrannicall gouernment was truely as­cended, that seeing, as was in the beginning said, all diuine and humane law did permit the Valtolines, to withdrawe themselues by all possible meanes from so great a Tyranny, it will appeare so cleare to euery one, that it will bee too much vanity to heape vp reasons, proofes, and authorities, in a mat­ter in it selfe vndoubted, euen when it were discussed be­tweene true Subiects, and Vassalls, and their naturall and ab­solute Lord.

[Page 37] But now by so much more shall it appeare lawfull, when two things shall bee considered; the one, that the ancient Ca­pitulations of the Valley with the Grisons (following the end hereof) doe show rather a confederation between them, then a true subiection; and doe speake in such sort, that the Em­pire exercised by them in the Valley, is discouered to bee a meere vsurpation; particularly, the Valtolines doe binde themselues to the Grisons, with limitation to things lawful & honest; besides, the obligation is made ioyntly to the Bishop of Coira, and the Three-leagues; where now, these Tyrants hauing de facto excluded with Sacrilegious exulation, their Bishop, haue alone vsurped that, which neither to them, nor him, was granted. The other thing is, that whatsoeuer the Valtolines yet haue done, hath beene prosecuted onely with Intelligence and helpe of the sounder part of the Grisons themselues, and not to rebell against their Lords (for such certainly the Three-Leagus neuer were) but simply to reduce themselues to the true State declared in their Capitulations, so far forth as the mutations, alterations, and other Accidents would permit them.

The Agreements between the Bishop of Coira, and the Community of the Three Leagues of the one part: and of the Valtoline of the other, in the yeare 1513. Which appeare by the indented Instrument at Iant of the Grison League, kept in the Rolls of Coira.

PRimò, quod homines vallis Tellina, & Communitatis Tilij ve­lint, & debeant Reuerendissimo Domino Episcopo Curi [...]nsi, & tribus Lighis, perpetu [...] temporibus, i [...] omnibus & singulis licitis, & honestis. parer [...], & obedire.

Secundò, quod praelibati homines vallis Tellina, & Communi­tatis Tilij sim, & esse debeant, nostri Vlz: Reuerendissims Domini Episcopi Curiensis, & omniun [...] trium Ligarum cari, & fideles Confoederati, & tales permanere & pro tempore quo necesse fuerit, [Page 38] ad Dietas nostras vocari, in Concilijs pariformiter sedere, & con­sulere omne id, quod eis Communitatibus magis expediens videbi­tur: & quando ad Dietas sic, & pro [...]t supra, vocabuntur, [...]unc debeant de quolibet Tertierio, & Communitate Tillij, vnum mit­tere Consiliarium.

Tertiò, quod homines vallis Tellinae & Communitatis Tilij, gaudeant & vtantur eorū priuiligijs & antiquis consuetudinibus, si saltem fuerint de iure laudabiles & Deo consonae.

Quartò quod praelibatus Reuerendiss. D. Episcopus Curiensis, & omnes Lighae sint & esse debeant, dictis hominibus vallis Tellinae & Communitatis Tilij, adiutorio & consilio erga Caesaream Ma­iestatem & Du [...]atum Mediolani, aut alibi, vbicunque oportuerit, & liberi fiant àtaleis, & similibus, vti homines trium Ligarum.

Quintò, quod homines vallis Tellinae, & Communitatis Tilij teneantur, singulis annis dare, & soluere Reuerendissimo Episcopo Curiensi, & omnibus tribus foederibus, Tainenses mille, in promptis denarijs, persoluendos per quemlibet, seu quoslibet, habentes bona in dicta Valle ad ratam bonorum suorum, exemptum, & non ex­emptum.


Sacred, Royall, Catholique Maiestie:

THE Manifest printed in the name of the Valteline, wherein the Reasons of the Resolutions▪ lately by them taken against the tyranny of the Grisons and Heretiques, are alledged, hath giuen great scandall to all wise men, who ea­sily doe comprehend from whence, and why it was put to the Presse, the Valtelines hauing no notice at all, much lesse any part there­in. Whereupon, hauing proposed, seriously to discourse, and to bring to light, that truth, which others doe endeauor to wrap vp in darknesse; I haue thought it an act of Iustice, and of no little seruice to your Maiestie, whose minde truly reli­gious, [Page 40] it may be feared, lest it become deceiued with a false apparance of Pietie and Religion, with which the Deuill, a perpetuall enemy of Princes well enclined, vseth oftentimes to transforme himselfe into an Angell of light, and to offer his help, as a guide, in the right path of Iustice and honestie, to no other end, but to draw them without discouery, into the crooked way of iniquitie and tyranny. But the better to ground my Discourse, I will beginne somewhat high, and imitate that good Architect, who purposing to build a strong Tower, by how much he designeth to raise the top, so much lower he layeth the foundation.

That of Religion, (ô Sacred, Royall, Catholique Maiestie) is certainly a very powerfull obiect, the which, though fay­ned and disguised, euer raiseth a great commotion in the mindes of them, who thereof make profession. For this cause many Princes of the world, eyther by the counsell of ill mini­sters, or through the greedinesse of their owne desires, wher­with they embrace Prouinces, Kingdomes, and Empires, and yet not satiated, when they want all other iust title to make warre, and to seize by violence, that which they cannot pre­tend by Iustice, suddenly they take the pretence of Religion, vnder which Cloake, they doe not onely seeke to couer their vniust Actions, and to make them appeare lawfull and holy, but therewith they inuite all men to fauour their attempts. Many times also with an affection of holy zeale, with true and vnfained Religion, with most iust and honest Titles, they vndertake some Enterprises truly holy: But the Deuill, who still practiseth to draw poyson from the fairest flowers, and serueth himselfe with good, for an instrument of euill; in the end reduceth that very Religion to proper interest; that zeale of Pietie hee conuerteth to zeale of Ambition; and the most iust Titles, hee vseth to the seruice of Tyrannicall Mo­narchy. Therefore, where ordinarily the question of the Ac­quisition of States is handled, a iust Prince ought very well to consider, if hee haue lawfull cause, and honest right to pos­sesse them; and where hee knowes no other Title, then that of Religion, much more hee ought to be aduised, that it bee [Page 41] not a faire and honest Couer, of a foule and wicked Coue­tousnesse.

Don Pedro the tenth King of Aragon, and third of that name, hauing raised the greatest forces in his power, passed therewith into Affrica, to make warre vpon the Moores, the ancient enemies of our Christian Religion: For which holy purpose he receiued great Aides of money from S. Lewis the most Christian King of France: What more worthy action could he haue vndertaken? Who would haue found occasion to blame him? yet vnder the herbe lay hid the Serpent.Iosephus Bonfi­lis Hist. Sicil. par. 1. li. 8. Gonzalo de Ig­liescas Hist. Pontif. par. 1. lib: 5. cap. 45. M. A [...]ton. Sa­bel. p. 2 E [...]ad. 9. li. 7. This King had sometime before sent into Sicily Iohn Procita, who offended by Charles of Anioy his Lord, desired to be reuen­ged, disguised in the habit of a Fryar, to stirre the mindes of that Nation to rebell, who, for some ill vsage did shew them­selues distasted with the French Gouernment. Iohn Procita effected his businesse: The Rebellion of the Sicilians, and the destruction of the French followed. King Charles armed for the recouery of his lost Kingdome, and the Rebells to re­sist him: In the meane while Peter of Aragon (that scarcely hauing touched the Coast of Affrica, was retyred to Sardinia to be nearer Sicily) obseruing the time, and occasion of his designe fitting, suddenly went to Palermo, where hee was re­ceiued with great ioy and gladnesse, and published, and pro­claimed King of the Siciltans, who flocked to him from all parts of the Island. See now your Maiestie with what insi­dious and cursed Art, vnder the colour of Religion, the King Don Pedro faining to haue taken Armes against the Ene­mies of Christianity, tooke that Kingdome from a Christian King, and foedary of Holy Church; and which is more, with the help of that Gold, which he had receiued from the most Christian King, right Brother of King Charles. Whereupon the blessed Pope Martin the fourth, a man of renowned sanctitie (of whom, as the Spanish Pontificall, and other Histo­ries doe report,Igliescas vbi su­pra. were seene many miracles after his death) did excommunicate and depriue him of his Kingdomes, and ab­solue his Subiects of their Oath of Allegiance, giuing power to any Prince to persecute him, as a common Enemy. Perhaps [Page 42] the holy Bishop thought that, with this rigour, the King Don Pedro would be brought to acknowledge his error, and to restore what he had ill gotten: But it proued without any fruit; for hee which made it lawfull, vniustly to vsurpe the rights of others, did little feare Ecclesiasticall censures for their restitution.

And what more Catholique, and more pious Enterprise could bee imagined, then that of India, for the enlargement or the sacred Gospell? What iuster title, then that which the highest Bishop Alexander the Sixt did grant to the Catholique Kings Ferdinand, and Isabell, in the new world; ordeyning them as supreme Emperors, ouer those Kings and Infidell Kingdomes? But after, what thing was more vniust, then the Conquest of the immediat Dominion of those Countries? I call it a Conquest, to enter with warre, to subdue the peo­ple, before they were allured with the peacefull voice of preaching and to take away the life of lawfull Lords, and Naturall Princes, to vsurpe their States, notwithstanding they did not hinder the promulgation of the Gospell, but ra­ther were ready to receiue the holy Faith. And it is a cer­taine truth, that when also they were not conuerted whilst yet they did not oppose the progresse of Christian Religion, they could not be, by the way of warre, subiected: that be­ing contrary to the will of Christ, who said, Speciosi pedes E­uangelizantium pacem; And much lesse could they bee spoi­led of their Dominion, seeing the same Christ, when he came into the world, did declare, that the empire also of the Gen­tiles is iust, & lawfull, commanding euen his own Apostles to pay tribute to Caesar. Neither is it to bee beleeued, that the Pope, when hee granted to the Catholique Kings, the Soue­raign Empire of the Indies, had any thought to preiudice the immediate Dominion of Gentile Princes, because he could not doe it. The which the great Atabaliba, King of Peru did know by the onely light of nature, to whom Friar Vincenzo di val verde, made the most sottish and abominable oration to reduce him to the holy faith, that could be imagined: a­mongst other Curious things which he spake, this was one.

[Page 43] El Papa, que oy biue, diò a nuestro potentissimo Rey de Espa­na, Emperador de los Romanos,Igliescas p. 2. lib. 6. c. 26. Sect. 14. y Monarca del mundo, la con­quista destas tierras: El Emperador embia agora Francesco Pi­çaro à rogaros seay [...]su amigo, y tributario: y que obedezcays al Papa, y recibays la feè de Christo, y creays en [...]lla; porque uereys como es sanctissima, y quc la que vos agora teneys es mas que fal­sa. Si esto todo no haz [...]ys, sabed, que os hemos de dar guerra: y os que braremos los Idolos; y os sor çaremos a que dexeys la Reli­gion di uuestros falsos Dioses. That is.

The Pope this day liuing, hath granted our most mighty King of Spaine Emperor of the Romans, and Monarch of the World, the Conquest of these lands: now our Emperor doth send Francesco [...] Pisaro, to desire you to be his friend, and Tri­butary: to obey the Pope, to receiue the faith of Christ, and to beleeue therein, because you shall see, that it is most holy, and yours most false. If you doe not all this, know, that wee must make warre vpon you: wee will breake your Idols, and enforce you to leaue the religion of your false Gods.

Who euer heard a holier and wiser Sermon?

Como si el hijo de Dios, que murio per cadauno dellos,Vescouo di Chi­appa nel lib del­la d [...]structione di India. ouicra en su ley mandado, quando dixo, Euntes docete omnes gentes; que se hiziessen requerimientos à los insieles pacisicos, y quietos, y que tienen sus tierras propias; y si no la ricibiessen, luego sin otra predication, y dotrina, y si n [...] diessen a si mesmos al scnorio del Rey, que nunca oyeron, ni vieron, espetialmente cuya gente y men­saieros son tan cruel [...]s, tan desapiadados, y tan horribles Tirannos, perdiessen por el mesmo caso, la hazienda, y las tierras, la liber­tad, las mugeres, y hijos, con todas sus vidas; que es cosa absurda, y estulta, y digna de todo vituperio, [...]scarnio y infierno.

That is:

As if the Sonne of God, who dyed for euery one of them, had commanded in his holy Law, when he said, Goe and teach all Nations, that onely intimation should be made to peaceful and quiet Infidels, which had their proper Lands; and if they did not presently receiue the Faith, without other preaching, or instruction, and should not submit themselues to the do­minion of that King, whom they neuer saw nor heard, whose [Page 44] messengers are so cruell, so impious, and so horrible Tyrants; that they should lose, for this onely Cause, their goods, lands, liberty, wiues, children, and life; which is a thing vnreasona­ble, absurd, & worthy of all reproach, infamy, & it Hell selfe.

Thus, wisely speaking of the same matter, though vpon another occasion, discourseth the Reuerend Bishop of Chiap­pa, a principall Citie of New Spaine in the Indies, called Fryar Bartholmy dalle Case, by Nation a Spanyard, by birth a Siuili­an, but zealous of Iustice, and a friend of truth, in his booke of the destruction of the Indies.

But returning to our Subiect; The King Atabaliba was iustly scandalized, and grieuously moued, at this so learned preaching, that answering to euery point, amongst other things he said these words.

Obedecer al Papa no me esta bien; porque deue de ser loco; pu­esdà lo que no es suyo,Igliescas vbi su­pra. y me manda dexar el Reyno que yò heredè de mi padre, y quiere, que yo le d [...] à qui en no conosco. That is.

To obey the Pope is not good for mee, because hee must needs be a foole, seeing he giueth that to another, which is none of his, and commands me to leaue that Kingdome, which I haue inherited from my father, and would, I should giue it to one, that I know not what he is.

He could not certainly answer more wisely, according to the Proposition; which was also false; Seeing the Pope was not so void of Iudgement, to haue granted any such conquest to the Catholique King, or any other, especially by the way of warre, as the holy Preacher with threats, did af­firme; being in it selfe, vniust and wicked: And therefore the aforementioned, Bishop of Chiappa earnestly defending the truth, did send vpon this matter thirty propositions to the Royall Councell of India, printed in Ciuill in the yeare 1552. In the 23 whereof, he thus speaketh.

Soiuzgallos primero por guerra, es forma, y uia contraria de la ley, y yugo suaue,Vescouo di Chi­appanelle. 30. propositione. y cargal [...]gera, y mansedumbre de Iesu Christo. Es la propia, que lleuè Mahoma, y lleuaron los Romanos, con que inquietaron, y robaron el mondo. Es la, que tienen oy, los Tur­cos, y Moros, y que comenca à tener, el Xarife. Y por tanto, es [Page 45] iniquissima, tirannica, infamatiua del mellifluo nombre de Christo, causatiua de infinitas nuebas blasfemias contra el verdadero Dios, y contra la religi [...]n Christiana; Come tenemos longissima experien­tia, que se hà echo y oy se haze, en las Indias, porque estimande Dios, ser el mas cruel, y mas iniusta, y sin piedad, que ay en los Dioses; y por consiguiente es impeditiua de la Conuersion de qua­lesquiera Infieles, y que ha engendrado impossibilidad de que ja­mas s [...]an Christianos en à quel orbe, gentes infinitas. That is.

To subdue them by warre, is a forme and way contrary to the law, to the sweet yoke, to the easie burthen, and to the meeknesse of Iesus Christ; It is the same which Mahomet, and the Romans did hold, wherewith they did disturbe and violate the world; it is the same which at this day the Turkes and Moores maintaine, and the Xerif doth beginne to practice; and therfore it is most wicked, tyrannicall, infamous to the glorious name of Christ; the cause of infinite and new Blasphemies against the true God, and Christian Religi­on, as we haue by long experience knowne, to haue beene, and yet, vsed amongst the Indians; For they haue an opinion of God, that he is the most cruell, the most vniust, and mer­ciless of all other gods. And by Consequence, it is the hinde­rance of the Conuersion of all sorts of Infidels, and hath cau­sed an impossibiltie, that multitudes of People should euer become Christians.

In the last proposition whereof, he concludes.

De todo lo susodicho en fuerça de consequentia necessaria se sigue, que; sin periuycio del titulo, y scnorio soberano, que à los Reys de Castilla pertenece, sobrea quel orbe de las Indias, todo lo que en ellas se hà echo, ansi en lo de las iniustas y tirannicas conquistas, como en lo de los repartimientos, y en comiendas; hà sido nulla yde ningun valor, ne fuerça de derecho. That is.

From all the fore alleaged matters, it is necessarily infer­red that without preiudice of the title, and Soueraigne Do­minion, which appertaines to the Kings of Castile in that world of India, all that hath beene done, as well concerning the vniust, and Tyrannical Conquest, as the Diuisions, and Commenda's, is void, of no value, and vnlawfull.

[Page 46] And in the seuenth Rule of his Confessaries, the same good Prelate vttereth these words:

Todas las cosas,Vescouo di Chi­appanel Conses­s [...]ionari [...]. que se han echo en todas estas Indias, assi en la entrada de los Espanoles en cada provincia dellas, como en la s [...]je­tion y seruidumbre, en que pusieron estas gentes, con todos los me­dios y fines, y todo lo demas, que con ellas, y cerca dellas, se ha echo, ha sido contra todo derecho natural, y derecho de las gentes, y tam­bien contra derecho diuino; y por tanto, es todo iniusto, iniquo, tirannico, y digno di todo fuego infernal; y por conseguiente, nullo, inualido, y sin algun valor, ni momento de derecho.

That is:

All things which haue beene done in these Indies, as well in the Entrance of the Spaniards to euery Prouince thereof, as in the subiection, and [...]e [...]uitude to which they haue redu­ced this People, with all the meanes, and ends, and all that besides, which therein, or concerning them, hath been done, is against all Law of Nature and Nations, and contrary to the Law of God; and therefore it is wholly vniust, wicked, ty­rannicall, and worthy of Hell-fire, and by consequence an­nihilated, inualid, of no force, nor iuridicall power.

Certainly (Sacred Maiestie,) The Assertions of this Pre­late are such, that they strike honor onely in hearing, and almost resemble open Maledictions of a minde subdued to Passion: But who shall diligently reade all his workes, and shall consider distinctly euery circumstance, shall clearly know, that these are apprehensions of truth, exprest with an holy zeale, free from all p [...]ssion, or interest, onely in the de­fence of right.

Friar Bartholomy dalle Case spent the most part of his life in India, Forty nine continued yeares (as himselfe affirmes) hee saw that which therein was done; and Thirty foure years he laboured in the study of holy Lawes, to be well instructed in the knowledge of Iustice.

He affirmeth nothing which he doth not learnedly proue.

All his works were directed to his owne King, and the Royall Councell: before whom more then once hee appea­red in person, to entreat of this Businesse. Who can then [Page 47] beleeue, that hee durst say that which was not apparant truth? Men vse not to speake ill of Princes to their owne faces. Ig­norance of the fact, or of the Law cannot be obiected to him, so much practised, and who had so long studyed these mat­ters. Argument of affection, or of passion, cannot be imagi­ned in a Prelat of most exemplar life, who renounced his Bishopricke, onely to assist in the Court of his Prince, in the defence of a People, from any interest in him as farre remoued as our world is distant from theirs. From whence of neces­sity it must be said, that onely the loue of truth did moue him, and the inuincible reasons wherewith he maintaines all his Assertions, doe most clearly demonstrate it. So that your Maiestie, who is as much a louer of truth, as of God; consi­dering with a [...], all the fore-alleadged discourses, will in the sinceritie of your conscience, conclude that which in the beginning was declared; That Enterprises vndertaken onely for Religion, are often reduced to proper Interest, and that Titles, Dignities, and Authorities, granted, with most holy zeale, by the Vicar of Christ, haue beene peruersly abused.

It is very true, that this good Prelatate hath indeauoured to excuse the Catholique Kings, by saying that the aboue mentioned euills, were against their Intentions, clearely ex­pressed in many orders, and holy instructions, giuen to those crooked ministers, who obserued no part of them.

But this excuse is not admitted of wise men, yea rather con­futed with most strong Reasons.

First, because it hath not beene found, that the Catholique Kings did euer punish any of those Ministers (vnlesse perhaps some for Rebellion) notwithstanding their wickednesse was manifest vnto them, which the foresaid Bishop doth more then once affirme.

Secondly, because so many iniquities by them committed were neuer retracted; in particular, the Diuisions of the Com­menda's, vpon which the said Author doth exclaime, euen to the Heauens.

Lastly, because the immediate Dominions are encorpora­ted [Page 48] vniuersally and particularly with the Supreme Domini­ons, and this is euident in fact, all faculty being taken from them, which had it to choose their Prince; and the inheri­tance, from them, to whom the estates by succession did ap­pertaine; of whom some miraculously escaping aliue, in that destruction of the Indies, (lamentably by this Bishop descri­bed) were transported into Spaine, lest by the loue of their Naturall Subiects, they should aspire to recouer that, of which against reason, they were depriued. And yet to this day, the Issue of that great Motezuma Emperor of Mexico, doe liue in the Court of your Maiestie, prohibited vpon paine of life, to goe out of Castile. From which most true reasons, the wisedome of your Maiestie may easily compre­hend, how little the aforesaid excuses [...] preuaile, and how great Account, the Catholique Kings haue to render to God, of the vsurpation of the immediate dominion of the Indies vnder pretence of amplifying the Christian faith.

The religious zeale of the King Don Phillip the second, father of your Maiestie, cannot inconsiderately bee ouerpast; when, inuited by the Pope hee tooke Armes against Henry the fourth, King of France: The cause of Christ was in question, against a publique Heretique, and Enemy of Christ. It was expedient that the sacred Catholique King, Protector of the Church of Christ, should abandon his owne Affaires of Flanders to defend that of Christ. The which Heroique Ac­tion (the▪ fruit of perfect vertue, which is rarely found among Princes of the World) did beget, in many, wonder, and in­credulity, and in others, it caused too malitious suspition.

Algunos (saith the Spanish Bishop) que juzga [...]an la virtud agena por la malitia propia, no querian creer, [...]auia Pontif. par. 3. vita di Grigor. 14. C. 9. que el zelo de Rey Catholico fuesse tan grande che desamparando su haziend [...] propia, [...]on tan gran costa fuesse a remediar la agena.

That is,

Some, who iudge the vertue of others, by their owne ma­lice would not beleeue, that the zeale of the Catholique King could be so great, that leauing the care of his owne business, hee should, at so immence Charge, relieue the necessitie of others.

[Page 49] Behold the wonder, and the incredulity.

Otros (as after followes in the history) que no bien conocian la Religion y Christianidad del gran Filippo II. [...]auia p. 3. vita de Innoc [...]ntio 9. C. 9. [...]ondauan en esta jornada un gran edificio, diz [...]endo, que se queria hazer Rey de Francia; ò ponelle de su mano; assegurandosse ensus Estados comar­canos; y sacando à bueltas no pequeno interes.

That is,

Others that did not well vnderstand the Religion and Christianitie of the Grand Phillip the second, did from this vndertaking lay the foundation of a great building; saying that he desired to make himselfe King of France, or to place a King of his owne dependance, hereby assuring his owne neighbouring States, and drawing to himselfe no little ad­uantage.

Behold the malice, and that truely very great, against that most innocent Monarch, who did clearely show, to haue no other interest, nor further desire, then that the Catholique Religion should not be vtterly ruined, as it was freshly threatned in the Kingdome of France.

But what cannot the Deuill doe? Saints and Heremits are rarely secure, much lesse Princes in Courts. Scarcely hath Henry begunne, inspired by the holy Ghost, to shew him­sefe willing to be reduced to the wombe of holy Church, to be truely a most Christian King; when the Catholique fell vpon a Councell, by no meanes to consent that hee should bee King of France. And yet to him the Rights of that Kingdome did appertaine; nor for other cause was the opposition, but for being an Heretique; whence the impedi­ment being taken away, it was most vniust any longer to withstand him. But it was whispered in the eares of the Ca­tholique King, by certaine Machiauells, rather then Disciples, that the Coronation of Henry might bring some danger to his Maiestie for the kingdome of Nauarr, and the County of Burgondy, vpon which States the Crowne of France hath pregnant pretensions; and that his Maiestie had cast away in vaine, so much Gold, and spent so much blood of his people in that warre.

[Page 50] Therefore.

Latarde antes (so saith Bauia) que hiziesse la absolution,Pontif p. 4 vita de [...]le. 8. Cap. 56 el Duq [...]e de Sessa Ambaxador del Rey Catholico, de su parte, hiza al Papa protestacion, que la absolucion, que su santitad pensau a dar à Enrico, no perjudicasse al derecho de su Rey [...]n lo toccan­te al Reyno de Nauarra, y Contado di Borg [...]na, ni à los gastos que hauia echo en la conseruation della feè Catholicho, en el Reyno di Francia, y a instantia y requesta del: y que no pensaua dexar las armas hasta cobrallos. O yo el pontifice atenta mente la pret [...]sta­cion; y tomò della el Duque instrumento publico. Auertiò an­tes à sua Santitad, de algunos inconuenientes che temia, hauian de resultar de la absolucion, que tenia determinado dar à Enrico.

That is,

The Euening before the Absolution should be giuen, the Duke of Sessa, Ambassadour of the Catholique King, on his behalfe protested to the Pope, that the absolution which his Holines intended to giue to Henry, should not preiudice the Reasons of his King▪ in that which concerned the Kingdome of Nauar, and the County of Bourgundy, nor in the expence which he had made for the Conseruation of the Catholique faith in the Kingdome of France, at his instance and request, and that he determined, not to depose Armes, vntill he had recouered them. The high Bishop attentiuely heard the Protest, and the Duke tooke thereof a publique instrument, hauing first aduertised his Holinesse of some inconueniences which hee feared might result from the Absolution, which was purposed to bee giuen to Henry.

These Protests did appeare, to men of sound iudgement, ill grounded prentences, & the alleaged inconueniences false foundations of that great Building, which those malicious aboue mentioned did figure to themselues. They said it was requisite to the strict Christianity, which the Catholique King professed, (all humane Interest deposed) to aduance with all his spirits, the conuersion of Henry, and to exhort the high Bishop, affectionately to receiue the prodigall Sonne, seeing he was returned penitent to his fathers house, and to take in­to his Armes the strayed sheepe, which hee had now found, [Page 51] to carry him to the Sacred sheepfold of Christ: They did blame, as a work very [...] Catholique, but rather as a sugge­stion of the Deuill, to attempt the hinderance of that Absolu­tion, which onely hee ought to haue procured, for the quiet of France, and the publique good of Christendome, which if it had not succeeded, might haue wholly allenated that Kingdome from the Church, as the like had done in England: They did consider that it was wide of the purpose to feare a­ny preiudice in the kingdome of Nauarre, and the County of Burgundy, seeing the Absolution did not deriue any more right to Henry, then that which any other, which should be King of France might haue.

But aboue all, the pretensions of the expence made in the warre, did giue them greatest scandall. They discoursed; if on­ly for the loue of Christ, the Catholique King had disbursed that money, why was he not content to haue Christ his Deb­tor? But how a Debtor? if hee doth enioy of the Patrimony of Christ, aboue Three Millions yearely Reuenue, granted him by the Vicar of Christ, of Tenths, Subsidi [...]s, and Croysado's, and other meanes, with condition to employ them against the Enemies of Christendome [...] why takes hee no [...] penne in hand and comes not to a distinct Account, of the Receipts and Issues, well balancing il dare; con l' hauere, and hee shall finde himselfe not Creditor of one Mara [...]edi, but certainely Deb­tor of many and many Millions, spent, not according to his obligation, for Christianity, but for the interest of his owne priuate Estates? What then doth hee pretend? Why then doth he not lay downe Armes? Vpon what hath hee fixed his thoughts? To what end doth he aspire? If he prosecute this warre, he prosecuteth an vniust warre; How doth that correspond with the zeale of Religion, for which, onely at first he vndertooke it? What change is this? Certainely it proceedeth not from the right hand of the most High. But bee it so, let him follow the warre, at his owne pleasure, there is no remedy, Henry shall bee absolued, and shall bee King of France; Doth the Catholique King perhaps hope, with his owne forces, and by strong hand, to depriue him? [Page 52] If he was not able, with the vnion of so many other Princes, to hinder him from taking possession of his Kingdome, how shall he now be able to expell him, hauing set sure footing in his Throne? He attempts a dangerous Action. Here they pro­ceed with witty and politique Consideration, that a good issue of this warre against Henry, not ensuing, hee should be sure to acquire a powerfull, and perpetuall Enemy, that might in time make Spaine to tremble within her owne bow­els; and the Prophesie had well neare beene verified, (the whole world knowes it) if a violent death had not interposed to [...]stay him. But this yet, which perhaps was foreseene, they did iudge insufficient to free Spaine of the danger; Seeing the offence of the father, and with the offence, the disdaine, might descend to the Sonne, his Successor, as soone as he [...] came to ripe age, and should fall into consideration, that the Catholique King had done his vtmost, to keepe him from being King of France, when hee indeauoured to take the Crowne from the head of his father: and that if his father, in despight of Spaine, mainteined himselfe King, he also in despight of Spaine, might enioy his fathers Kingdome. But all these considerations, which certainely were very great, before any other conceiued them, were resolued by the most wise King Phillip, who by common Iudgement was the Salomon of his time; From whence for the same reasons, that others did iudge it requisite to leaue the warre, hee esteemed it necessary to prosecute it. Seeing he knew he had so grieuously offended Henry, that hee could by no other meanes, secure himselfe from his disdaine, but onely by oppo­sing him to become King of France: Wherefore seeing the cause of Religion did cease, it was expedient to fasten vpon some other pretence; to resist (with his Holiness) the absolu­tion, and in France, the Coronation; and to proue, if it were possible (already reason of State had insinuated that great building of the Malicious) to make a King of his owne fashi­on, as he had already caused to be propounded in Parliament.

Tarde se desengana el desseo de mandar, y ser Rey;Bauia p. 4. vita de Clem. 8. C. 30. Por esto aunque con [...]enos brio, no desistian los pretensores. Proponia el [Page 35] Duque de Feria al Serenissima Infanta de Espana Dona Isabel. Afferma [...]a de [...]ersele el Reyn [...], porque, hauiendo faltado la linea masculina de Hug [...] Cape [...]o, eraquien tenià meior derecho a la Coro­na, como hija de hermana mayor de Enrico III▪ vltimo Rey de Francia. Y dezia con esto, que el Rey Catholico su padre, la ca saria con al un principe Frances; con que, el nombramiento del tal, quedasse en su elecion.

That is.

The desire to command, and to bee King, was slowly cleared from all doubt: For this cause, though with lesse boldnesse, the Pretenders gaue not ouer. The Duke of Feria did propound her highnesse Donna Isabella, Infanta of Spaine. He did affirme the Kingdom to belong vnto her, because the Masculine Line of Hugh Capet being extinct, the best title to the Crowne was deuolued to her, as daughter of the eldest sister of Henry the third, last King of France; And withall, it was said, that the Catholique King her father would marry her to some Prince of France; Prouided, the nomination of that Prince might rest in his Election.


No solamente estaua propuesta la Enfanta de Espana à la Cor [...]na di Francia,Bauia vbi supra. si no tambien el Archiduque Ernesto de Austria, h [...]r­mano de Emperador.

That is.

Not only the Infanta of Spaine was proposed to the Crown of France, but the Arch-Duke Ernestus also, brother of the Emperour.

The French Lords did rest astonished at these so handsom propositions, and grew warie of the danger, wherein the King of Spaine had entangled them: whilst hee professed to defend the Catholique Religion in France.

Por estas razones▪ y otras, iuntamente con las maquinationes,Bauia vbi supra. y negociaciones, que se descubrian, determinaron en la Assemblea, ò Cortes, que el Duque de Vmena, como Lugartinient [...] del R [...]yno, procurasse impedir [...]ost [...]atos, que y ase descubrian: paraque en nin­guna manerase eligiesse à la Carona Princessa ò princip [...] estrange­ [...]o; anulando qualesquier tratos, que hasta este punto hu [...]tessen [Page 54] echo: y qu [...] guardassen las leyes fundamentales del Reyno, en lo tocante à la elecion de un Rey Christianissimo, y Frances.

That is.

For these and other Reasons, together with the Machina­tions and practices which were discouered, it was determi­ned in their Assembly, that the Duke du Mayne, as Lieute­nant of the Kingdome, should procure to dissolue the Trea­ties, that already were vnmasked; because by no meanes, a Princesse or Prince S [...]ranger should be elected to the Crowne, anulling whatsoeuer Treaty, which to that day had beene begunne; and that the fundamentall lawes of the Kingdom, concerning the Election of a most Christian and French King should bee obserued.

Now, let your Maiestie see, from the contexture of the forementioned matters, to what termes the most holy zeale of the King Don Phillip your father, was reduced, and how the faire beginnings, for sincere Religion, were peruerted, onely into an vndue end, of reason of State; For which also, the warre, after the Absolution of Henry, did continue, vntill the most blessed Clement the Eight did introduce the peace.

I could alledge to your Maiestie many other examples vp­on this Argument: but I esteeme these three, so notable, that they are enough with aduantage.

There may perhaps bee some, who will reprehend me, that I haue onely exemplified in the Kings of Spaine, where I might doubtlesse haue beene furnished from Princes of other Nations, and wil accuse me as a man of little Iudgment, and maners, that speaking with your Maiestie I haue presu­med to mingle my tongue in the Actions, of the neuer e­nough praised Don Phillip the second, your father. I would they should consider, that domestique examples moue much more then forrain; from whence, as noble mindes doe, with all possibilitie, endeauour to immitate the Actions worthy, of their famous Ancestors; so, by all meanes they doe endustriate themselues, to auoid that, which in their Prede­cessors was iudged worthy of blame; And, seeing that they, though Princes of worth, and eminent vertue, did sometimes [Page 55] stumble vpon vnbeseeming Actiōs; they do learne not to pre­sume too much vpon themselues, and to bee very watchfull, not to fall, where others slipt; and considering, that being their Descendents, they should not esteem themselues better, but rather worse, then they; seeing in descending, nature doth loose, as vertue doth encrease by ascending. Wherefore, if by nature they are Descendents, they shall grow worse, and onely ascending by vertue, they may make them themselues better. I then, speaking with a Catholique King of Spaine, to admonish him of a snare, now with so much faire and hidden Artifice set before him, that easily he might fall therein; how could I better doe, then to shew him, where his owne Proge­nitors, most wise and Catholique Princes, haue fallen head­long into like disorders?

It is necessary (said the great Henry of France) to shew the errors of Princes,Pirre Mathiew: en la vie du Mons: Vill. that they which succeed them, may not erre in the same, wherein others did loose themselues.

I haue then purposely taken these examples of the Kings of Spaine, as more helpefull to your Maiestie in this present matter, then any other, which might haue beene produ­ced; and haue euer confirmed them with the Authoritie of Spanish writers, to auoid the blame, either of falshood, or Ca­lumny; And because they may bee of greater credit, and more efficacie, in the sincere mind of your Maiestie.

To whose consideration, I at last come to represent▪ That the Rising of the Gouernour of Millan against the Grisons in the Valteline, vnder the like pretence, did apparant­ly tend to the same end, though shadowed, in the Manifest, much wide of truth, of which I shall now discourse, publi­shed (as it was voyced) by the people of that Valley, but in truth by the Ministers of your Maiestie, of whom, if your Maiestie be not more then heedfull, you shall bee certainly induced to such Actions, that being added to the other three Narrations of your Ancestors, will serue for an example to Posteritie, of an impious and wicked Enterprise, vnder a Religious and godly vaile.

Returning to the Discourse; I say, that the causes of pub­lishing [Page 56] that Manifest, were Three.

The first, to insinuate to your Maiestie and the World, that the People of the Valteline, being tyranni [...]ed by the Gri­sons, were of their owne free and voluntary determination, and not by others induced, fallen into Rebellion.

The second, to perswade your Maiestie and the World, that your Ministers had iustly vndertaken the protection of those miserably oppressed, &, that it was consonant to the greatnesse and goodnesse of a Catholique King, not to aban­don those, who refuged to his defence; So formerly, Don Pe­dro of Aragon, Sabell. Enead. 9. li. 7. Non potuisse se aiebat Siculis indigna ferentibus, opemque suppliciter suam implorantibus, non auxilio adesse; yet it was hee that seduced them into defection.

The third, to render the poore Valtelines by so shameless a writing, so odious to their owne Lords, that they should despaire, of euer obtayning pardon; whereby they might rest the more obstinate in their Rebellion, and willing▪ in any sort to subiect themselues to the Dominion of your Maiestie, for feare they should returne into the power of the Grisons.

The first is clearly expressed in the Manifest, which turnes all things to the iustification of the rebellion of the Valtelines: the other two, which are extracted from the intrinsique thoughts of the heart, might appeare Imaginations of my owne fancy, if the matter it selfe did not approue them; But arguing securely, from the effect to the Cause, true, and not imaginarie Conclusions may bee deduced: To this then I inuoke, with all my spirits, the attentiue mind of your Ma­iestie; for when I shall haue demonstrated, that all the Rea­sons of the Manifest are ill grounded, and false, and what the truth of the businesse is: it shall together appeare, that the Gauses of said Manifest cannot bee other, then those aboue specified.

The Reasons drawne to excuse the Rebellion of the Valte­lines, are reduced to two Heads.

Religion and Tyranny.

Vpon these are made great Amplifications, but all is affir­med without proofe; A manifest signe, that it is spoken without foundation.

[Page 57] Concerning Religion; it is said that the Grisons vtterly haue taken from the Valtelines the libertie of Conscience, and haue procured, that all should be infected with Heresie, shewing, in euery occasion, fauour to Heretiques, and the contrary to Catholiques, vpon some of whom, they haue in­flicted most cruell and infamous death, onely in hatred of the Religion. I repeate not euery particular; It is sufficient to take this Maxime, to which all other matters are reduced, and in the Manifest may be distinctly read.

Concerning Tyranny, it goeth painting out a kind of gouernment of the Grisons in the Valteline, like to that, which hertofore Verres vsed in Sicily: and, to speake more modernly, like to some, practised as well by the Ministers of your Ma­iestie, as of your Predecessors in their States of Italy; as by this discourse you shall fully vnderstand; perhaps with some notable benefit to your poore Subiects, who are waiting some ease, from your Royall hand.

But before wee discourse particularly in these two points, it is fit to consider, That the Grisons, though diuided in two Religions, Roman and Euangelique (may it please the diuine Maiestie that in time they may all agree in the vnitie of the true Apostolique) yet, in all matters, in respect of the publique good of the State, thee haue constantly stood vni­ted in the politique Gouernment. With which Concord they haue so many yeares maintained themselues free Prin­ces vndependent of other, and highly estemed of all; For which cause, wee know with how much diligence and charge many great Princes haue sought their friendship. But of late yeares, in this part, some Ministers of your Maiestie, malignant to see them colleagued, now with France, now with Venice, moued with an immoderate zeale of your ser­uice, to which they supposed that such Confederations might bring somepreiudice, and iudging it most important to your Crowne, that you onely should haue the free passage through the straights of the Valteline into Germany, and that to all other Princes, they should, at your pleasure, bee shut; haue gone contriuing Inuentions▪ and insidu [...]us Artifices, to [Page 58] diuide the Grisons, as well in the politique gouernment, as in Religion; to the end they might easily slide into vtter ruine.

To this effect, the late count de Fuentes, Gouernour of Millan erected that Fort, which to this day beares his name, so preiudiciall, as nothing more, to the State of the Grisons; Hauing first with money corrupted some of the chiefe of that Countrey, to the end, that if the Lords would oppose themselues, they should with various Arts be disturbed; as it came right to passe by the labor of Io: Baptista Preuosti, Pom­peio, & Rodolfo Planta; Nicholo Rusca, and others, noted in the Manifest of the Grisons, of the yeare 1618. Instantly after which, Don Pedro de Toledo, Gouernor of Millan, in the yeare 1617. did attempt to make a perpetuall league with the Gri­sons, vpon Articles molded by the Lord Alfonso Casale, Am­bassador of your Maiestie in that Republique, after his owne fashion; In which there was nothing inserted in the fauour of the Grisons, but a delusory promise to demolish the fort of Fuentes; wherewith, it seemed to him, that they should con­discend to all other things, how contrary soeuer to their li­bertie. The same men, who did fauour the building of the Fort, did not faile to aduance also this Confederacie, perswa­ding many, that by al meanes it ought to be embraced; but the crooked practises of these Patriots, Enemies of their Countrey, being to the Grisons discouered, they would not accept these Capitulations; but forming a luridicary, and Ca­pitall Processe, against these Rebels, they found so many Ma­chinations, treasons, and other wicked Actions by them wrought, that proceeding to Iustice, it was requisite, with Banishments, and death, to giue them deserued punishment; From that time, till now, that they remained exiled, aided with money by the Ministers of your Maiestie, with which they proceeded, maintayning fresh practices with their friends and adherents, and corrupting many others, they haue sollicited continually to sowe dissention among this people, thereby to raise some insurrection, as finally hath succeeded in the Valteline. The truth of all this is clear­ly collected from the forealleaged Manifest, of the Actions of [Page 59] the Grisons, in the yeare 1618. to which Credit cannot be de­nied as the Ministers of your Maiesty desire, seeing the things therein related are matters of fact, and iuridically approued, where these affaires haue beene handled without passion, or respect of persons; as euery dispassionate mind, by the reading thereof will iudge.

The intent then of your Maiesties Ministers was not, to esta­blish a Confederacy with the Grisons; which had it bin so, they would haue procured by lawfull wayes, & vpon Conditions reasonable, as other Princes vsed: and not by interuention of particular persons, corrupted with gifts, and vpon Articles, so vnsauory, as among them are seene. But their purpose was, so cunningly to frame them, that they should not be accep­ted, because, being promoued by the factious party of men corrupt, and reiected by the sound part, dis-interressed, and louers of the publique good, there might arise a discord, sowed by this art, to cast these people into Confusion, so that from their diuision, according to the Gospell, the deso­lation of the State, might follow; For the Ministers of your Maiestie, fomenting one part against the other, did hope to oppresse both the one and the other, and highly to merit of you by enlarging, in what way soeuer, your Empire.

This Artifice (O Sac [...]ed Catholique King!) to disunite Sub­iects from their Princes, to send them into destruction, is most proper, and practised by the Ministers of your Crowne; and who would here recount, how often, and in what ma­ner, they haue plotted disunion in the Kingdome of France, should weaue a large Historie. The French Lords doe well know it, and it is a common opinion amongst them, who best vnderstand the Affaires of State, that if all the Hugonotts of France should bee reduced to the Catholique Religion, the Spanish Ministers would therewith be grieuously displeased; seeing that of them they make principall vse, as of most deare friends, to embroile that Kingdome, whensoeuer they haue any doubt, that the French may moue his forces to the dammage of Spaine. And they doe glory, not to feare at all, the Armes of his most Christian Maiestie, not because [Page 60] the are inualid, but that they know the way to keepe them busied, at their pleasure, in his owne house: Which there­fore being well considered, might produce a contrary effect. For, if the most Christian King shall once resolue himselfe, to carry the warre abroad, he shall rest most secure, and qui­et, within his owne Kingdome. The great and warlike mindes of the French Nobilitie, borne to Armes and En­terprises, cannot lie wasting in Idlenesse; While they haue not elsewhere to bee exercised, it is no wonder that at home they may be easily excited to tumults. But if they shall bee imployed in foraine Actions, they will runne greedily to victories and glory, of which they are most ambitious. And will desire, like wise men, that their owne Country should rest in peace, to bee the more able with their Sword to sub­due others: not will they suffer themselues to bee disturbed by the treacherous machinations of them, who affect their ruine.

But this is spoken by the way, by occasion of the like stratagem at present used among the Grisons; the which see­ing it hath begunne to take effect in the Valteline, the Go­uernour of Millan is le [...]pt into the field, not with intent to fauour, but to oppresse the party risen; yet to giue another relish, Preposing still this axiome of Machiauell, that feined Religion doth much aduantage the Actions of Princes: hee would make the world beleeue, that he was moued with pie­tie to take the protection of the miserable Valtelines, oppres­sed (as saith the Manifest) in Religion, and politike life. Of which two things, it is now requisite distinctly to en­treate.

The Grisons doe pretend, that if God when hee created man, left him in the state of free will, the Conscience ought to be free, no man being able to take away that, which is the gift of the Diuine Maiestie. They esteeme their Condition to be most wretched and miserable, who are violently forced to professe to beleeue that, which their Conscience truely doth not beleeue: and therefore they require libertie of Religion. They are diuided into Roman, and Euangelique, [Page 61] euery one followes that part, to which his Conscience en­clineth him. Euery one doth beleeue hee beleeues well, and sinnes mortally when he doth transgresse from that an­cient Institution, wherein he was borne and bred: Violence is done to no man. In the publike Gouernment, aswell the one, as the other, doe participate without any Di­stinction.

Now the Ministers of your Maiestie say, (as may be read in the Manifect) that the Professors of the Romish Religion haue no more libertie to follow their true saith, because the contrary faction doth tyrannously oppresse them; And here they alleage many violent Actions; which if in case some are true, certainly they are not happened, but for grieuous Iniu­ries and offences first done by the Romanist [...] to the Euange­liques: but the truth is, that the most part of them are false, & the effect to this day, hath shewed it to be most false, that e­uer the Euangeliques did attempt to oppresse the Romanists; Vpon which, for better illustration, wee will with reason dis­course a little in the fauour of truth.

These two Factions, Roman, and Euangelique, either are equall, or the one is superiour to the other; If they are equall, & euery one doe persist in their own opinion, (it being certaine that in their Di [...]ts, called by them Dritture, the Ministers of the one, and the other, equally are assistant) of necessitie it must bee said, that when any thing is handled, which doth preiudice the one, or the other, there can neuer be any agreement. But seeing they doe accord as it appeares by the Diett of Tosana, in the yeare 1618. in which so many Rebells, as well Romans, as Euangeliques without all respect were punished; Then it must be concluded not to bee true, that they practise one to preiudice the other; Then it is false, that the Euangeliques doe oppresse the Romanists. But who shall say that the one is too strong, and doth persecute the other? How is it, that in so many, and so many yeares, that part hath not vsurped the absolute dominion? If the Ro­man preuaile, how doe [...]hey consent, that their Clergie men should bee ch [...]stised, and as your Maiesties Ministers [Page 62] affirme, in despight of Religion? If the Euangelique be supe­riour, how can it stand, that putting to death the Arch-Priest of Sondrio, and exiling the Bishop of C [...]ira for being of the Roman Religion, afterward they admitted another Bi­shop, and another Arch-Priest of the same Religion? And why did they condemne only those two, and not many other good and truely religious men, of which in that State there are multitudes? Let it bee then said, not to be a truth, that the Euangeliques doe persecute the Romanists.

And if the aforesaid Clergie-men haue suffered; the tres­passes by them committed, in communem patriam, did cause, that, with Common consent, aswell of the Catholique Ro­mans, as of the Euangeliques, they haue beene punished: as it is notorious by the aforementioned writing of the yeare 1618. And that it was not done in the hatred of Religion, may more clearely from this be discerned, that amongst the accused and condemned there were many more Euange­liques then Romans. Whence it is euident, that with all inte­gritie, and without any respect, those of the Euangelique fac­tion, haue onely aymed, not sparing themselues, at the ad­ministration of Iustice: And Rodolfo Planta, that then was banished, as is knowne to all men, was not onely an Here­tique, but a principall Head of the Heretiques.

With two things about this Subiect the World is greatly amazed and scandalized: The one, that the Ministers of your Maiestie in the Manifest printed by them for the Val­tolines, haue dared to giue the title of a true Martyr of Christ, to the Arch-priest of Sondrio, a man blood-thirsty, and a Traitor to his Prince; whence it appeares, that onely for being their fauourer, he obtained the merit, to be Canoni­sed for a Saint. The other is, that they haue alwayes held so strict Intelligence with Rodolfo Planta, and other princi­pall Heretiques, and haue fauoured, and stipendiated them, both before and after their Banishment, and haue made vse, and yet doe vse them continually in matters very inde­cent. Neither doe they make at all scruple of Conscience thereof, though they publikely proclaime themselues Pro­tectors [Page 63] of the Religion, and perpetuall Enemies of all Here­tiques; If the wonder and Scandall bee iust, I remit it to the Righteous Iudgement, and prudent mind of your Maiestie.

I expect, that conuicted with the force of these reasons, some should step forth, and say; That when notwithstan­ding the Euangeliques doe not seeke to oppresse the Roma­nists, and doe suffer euery one to liue to himselfe, yet by all meanes it is requisite to extirpate the ill race of Heretiques, E­nemies to holy Church. I vnwillingly enter into this particu­lar, but of force the matter requires that somewhat therein bee spoken. I doe beleeue, and I thinke am not deceiued, that to punish Heretiques, the Ecclesiasticall, authoritie is necessary: How then will the Ministers of your Maiestie in­termeddle in that, which to them appertaines not? And who will not say, that greedinesse to vsu [...]pe the State of o­thers, doth moue them also to vsurp the Ponti [...]icall Iurisdi­ction? O God if yet they did vse it well! Holy Church doth continually pray for the extirpation of heresie; not so of He­retiques; But those Ministers, with too much excesse of ho­ly zeale, will first vsurp the Estates of Heretiques, and destroy their persons, throughly to roote out their heresies.

Quid saeuiunt, vt stultitiam suam dum minuere volunt,Lact. ipst. Diu. li. 5. C. 20. au­geant? longè diuersa sunt carnificina, & pietas; nec potest, aut veritas cum vi, aut Iustitia cum credulitate coniungi.

Here a Consideration comes into my head, which makes me astonished. The Euangeliques among the Grisons (so your Ministers affirme, and I beleeue it) are the superiour party. These, as wee say are impious, wicked, and our Capitall Ene­mies, they desire our harme, and our vtter ruine. They might perhaps, haue beene able, with little difficultie, with their owne force, and with the ayde, of those of Zurich, and Berne, obliged to them, by loue by law, and particular Con­federation, vtterly to ruine, destroy, and annihilate the Ro­man faction, in their Countrey, and to become Lords alone of the whole Dominion: And yet these wicked, these impious, these Enemies of the true faith, haue had so much humanitie, [Page 64] that they haue abstayned; and haue beene contented, that the Roman Catholiques liue freely and quietly among them, and to haue them friends and Companions in the po­litique Gouernment. And those of Zurich and Berne, no whit better then the Euangelique Grisons, haue neuer pro­moued, nor counselled them to Alterations; On the con­trary, the true Sonnes of the holy Roman Church, instructed in the meeknesse, patience, and benignity of Christ, Men charitable, pious, and holy, doe make it lawfull to rise against those, who molest them not; to rebell from those, who ad­mit them into fellowship of Gouernment; to procure the losse of State to those who being able, haue neuer attempted to expell them out of the State. And the Ministers of your Maiestie who professe to bee the most true Catholiques this day liuing in the World, are they, who instigate, foment, and ayd, yea who principally doe opperate, in these so honest Rebellions: and with warre, fire, and ruines, doe pronounce, that it is requisite to defend the holy Religion.

O quam honesta voluntate miseri errant;Lactant. vbi su­pra. fentiunt enim nihil esse in rebus humanis Religione praestantius, eamque summa vi opor­tere defendi; sed in defensionis genere falluntur. Defendenda enim Religio est, non occidendo, sed moriendo, non saeuitia, sed patientia, non scelere sed fide; Illa enim malorum sunt, haec bonorum: & ne­cesse est, bonum in Religione versari, non malum; Nam si sangui­ne, si tormentis, si malo, Religionem defendere velis, iam non de­fendetur illa, sed polluetur, atque violabitur. Nihil est enim tam voluntarium, quam Religio; in qua si animus Sacrificantis a­uersus est, iam sublata, iam nulla est.

The Polititians say, that,Salust. de con. Catil. li. 1. Imperium his artibus retinetur, qui­bus initio partum est. So is it consequent to say of our Religi­on; the which was planted, not by killing, but dying, not with crueltie, but patience, not in wickednesse, but faith. With these Arts Christ laid the foundation, with these the Apostles and those holy fathers of the Pri [...]itiue Church did build vpon it, and since their Successors from these wayes haue declined, it is diminished, restrayned, and in many places vtterly extinct: Religion is more free then the will of [Page 65] man, because the forced will, remaines still a will, but enfor­ced Religion, is no more Religion; for in the will, the Act is regarded, and in Religion the minde: And therefore, If the mind of the sacrificer be auerse, the efficacie is taken away, and annihilated.

Then the Ministers of your Maiestie doe erre in these their cruell proceedings against Heretiques: They too farre wan­der from the path in which Christ hath guided them: Let your Maiestie bee aduised, not to suffer your selfe to bee drawn into the same error, by giuing them faculty, & power, to prosecute so bloody Enterprises. Command them by your Roiall authority, to leaue so preposterously to fauour Chri­stian Religion: For now the world doth know their ends, and Christ himselfe doth hate, detest, and abhorre them: And when they shall endeauour to perswade you otherwise, bee not easie to giue them credit, seeing (as I haue already shew­ed) vnder holy pretences, they doe counsell Deuillish acti­ons. Let your Maiestie giue full credence to their Aduices, when they shall perswade you to imploy your forces against the Mahometans, Capitall and continuall Enemies of Chri­stianitie: when they shall say, that therein you ought to spend those many Millions which you draw from the Church for that holy end, when they shall excite you to dresse your Fleets and Armies to recouer so many Prouinces vsurped by Infidells vpon miserable Christians. But why doe I say reco­uer them? I tremble (O Sacred Maiestie) to speake it, but it may not be passed in silence. I feare that they rather will counsell you to take from the Christians; Arzila in Affrica enforceth me to speake, wrested from the possession of the Portugalls by the King Don Phillip the second, and giuen to Muley Achmett, King of Marocco. I well know what they will answer, that he gaue it because he could not defend it. But if a King of Portugall did keepe it, how can it be, that a Monarch of Spaine, of the new World, and of so many other Kingdomes and Prouinces should be vnable? No, no, wee are not deceiued: how matters did then passe with the Por­tugalls doth too clearely shew the truth, Phillip did feare that [Page 66] Muley might succour Don Antonio, who did claime the Kingdome of Portugall, wherfore to extinguish that Christi­an King, the Ministers did perswade King Phillip, with the price of that Citie, to buy the friendship of that Infidell: Con­sider now your Maiestie this perfidious Counsell; the which drew King Phillip into so euill considerations, (though other­wise an excellent Prince) that hee became publikely reproa­ched;Giou. Hist. li. 34. and it was said, that he had learned this liberalitie to Barbarians of the most famous Emperour his father, Charl [...]s the fift:Iglies. vit [...] de Paolo. 3 lib. 6. C. 27 sect 1. who after the Conquest of the Citie of T [...]us in Bar­barie, did presently render it to the King Muleasses, which he would not haue done, if it had bin taken from any Christian Prince;Giou li. 37. Ig­lies. nel Capit. preditto. sect. 9. As he refused to restore Castel nouo to the Republique of Venice, recouered from the Turkes, at the instance of that Common-wealth, and with the ayde of their owne Armado, although by particular conuention thereunto obliged. Then againe I say, let your Maiestie take heed of the false Counsels of your Spanish Ministers; who, where reason of State is in question, would haue Princes vtterly depriued of Conscience.

Antonio de Leua discoursing,Gio. Boteras detti memorabi­ [...]. l. 1. by occasion, with Charles the fift Emperour, concerning the Affaires of Italy, did per­swade him to put to death this, and that Prince, and to take possession of their States, and to make himselfe Lord of all. The Soule? answered the Emperour; What? replied Leua, hath your Maiestie a soule? then renounce your Empire.

This was truly too shamelesse an Impietie of Leua: such, I am sure as none of your Ministers would dare to propound to your Maiestie; for knowing the great goodnesse of your most Catholique minde, they should be sure to incurre your Roiall Indignation. But it doth not therefore follow, that they preserue not in their heads the same rules, and that they doe not thereby gouerne all their Actions, and thereunto conformable, addresse all their Counsells, the which are so much more dangerous, in as much as they couer them vnder holy pretences, as at present in the warre against the Grisons. Wherefore your Maiestie hath so much more cause to feare, [Page 67] and to take heed, and so much more reason to accept in good part this Aduertisement.

But to returne to our Matter; Let your Maiestie consider that to punish Heretiques (as already I haue said) is not the office of a secular Prince; And therefore your Ministers doe ill to put their Sickle into anothers haruest, and so much the worse because they know it. And to deceiue the world, they make it lawfull without the Pontificall authority, to aduance he standard of the high Priest, to iustifie a warre which they know to be vniust; Wherefore his Holinesse, whose Iurisdi­ction is directly offended, ought not, and cannot beare it. And if hee haue, and doe suffer many other things; in the end a long abused patience is conuerted into a iust anger. Be­sides, let your Maiestie be aduised, that all Heretiques are not to be treated as Rebells, with extreame [...]igour, but onely those, who borne within the wombe of the Church, by their owne malice haue reuolted; these which are borne, nouri­shed and brought vp in the Sect of their Parents, it is true, they erre, but vnder an excuse of well doing; they erre it is true, but they knowe not their errour: they are more worthie of Compassion then of penalty, they deserue helpe, and not punishment.

Multum enim interest inter illos qui in ignorantia sunt,Chrisost. 1. Math. Homil. 49 c. & in ignorantia perierunt; & inter [...]os, qui in veritate quidem nati sunt propter aliquod autem mundiale, scientes, ad mendacia tran­ [...]ierunt, & perierunt in cis, & pereunt. Illi enim forsitan aliquo modo habebunt remissionem, isti antem nullam remissionem habe­bunt, neque in hoc s [...]cul [...], neque in futur [...]; quoniam ipsi sunt qui blasphemauerunt in Spiritum Sanctum; Illi enim iudicandi sunt, quia veritatem non quaesierunt, isti autem condemnandi, quia spreuerunt. Leuior enim culpa est, veritatem non apprehendere, quam contemnere apprehensam.

Let Preachers then be sent to instruct them, let gentle meanes be vsed, that they may hearken vnto them; Let prai­ers be continually made for them, and after leaue the care to God, to illuminate them, in the holy [...]aith; seeing that faith is the onely guift of God, which he freely giues, not giuen by [Page 76] Mars, nor by the meanes of warre,

God did command that the Foxes, which destroyed the Vines should be taken,Cant. c. 2. not slaine; Capite nobis Vulpes parnula [...] quae demoliuntur Vineas.

Et si iuxta allegoriam,S. Bernard tom. 1. In Cant. ser. 46. Ecclesias, Vineas: Vulpes, Hereses, seu potius Haereticos ipsos intelligamus, simplex est sensus; vs H [...]reti­ci capiantur potius quam effugentur; capiantur dico, non armis, sed argumentis, quibus reffellantur eorum errores: Ipsi vero, si fi­eri potest, Ecclesiae Catholicae reconcilientur, reuocentur ad veram fidem; haec est enim voluntas eius, qui vult omnes homines saluo [...] fieri, & ad agnitionem veritatas per [...]emire: And a little after; Quod si reuerti noluerit; nec conuictus post primam iam, & secun­dam admonitionem (vtpote qui omninò subuersus est) erit secun­dum Apostolum deuitandus.

This is the way (ô Sacred Maiestie) to proceed against Heretiques, which this holy man doth teach, and not that by the rigor of Armes which your Ministers practice. E­steeme it a truth, that to vse crueltie against Heretiques, doth euer make them more peruerse; And if this in no place should be done, much lesse there where Heretiques and Catho­liques are together mingled, with libertie of Religion; be­cause our persecutiō of them for Religion, doth teach them to do the like, as well for preseruation of their own, which they esteeme as good as we doe ours, as for the securitie of their States & liues. From which so many losses haue hapned to the Church of God, that it is a consideratition worthy of ma­ny teares. Poore Germany, into what state is it reduced by this occasion? which perhaps (but why do I say perhaps) cer­tainly, certainly, had bin in much better estate, if therewith, other proceedings had been vsed. I call not England to wit­nesse, the storie is too notorious. What hath ruined Flanders but a will to introduce with too much rigor, the Spanish In­quisition? And the Citie of Naples, for the same cause hath it not fallen into generall tumult? which, if it had further proceeded, to day, by Gods grace, it remaines Catholique, that perhaps we had found, with all that noble Kingdome, full of heresie. May it please the Diuine Maiestie that the pre­sent [Page 68] warre against the Grisons proue not a fire of faith and Religion, in all Italy. The Deuill hath prepared the wood, the Ministers of your Maiestie haue kindled the flame. If present­ly there be not some ready to extinguish it, this paper (God make me a liar) which some will esteem foolishnes, & others call malignitie, will perhaps be found a Prophesie from hea­uen. But of this enough hath beene said; let vs proceed to the rest.

The second head of Tyranny doth follow: Great matters are related in the Manifest, printed in the name of the Val­tolines; But seeing there is not one particular case obiected, nor any thing proued, it might be said the whole is false; but wee will not vse that aduantage, because wee know many things are most true.

Lucio da Monte, with the money of forraine Princes sup­plied him by Pompeio Planta, to the summe of two thousand florens distributed among particulars, did procure the office of supreme Prouinciall Iudge of the Grison League, bin­ding himselfe to administer that charge, not according to right and Iustice, and the libertie of his Country, but conformable to the will of the said Planta. Whence it is con­firmed for truth, that the Gouernment was conferred vpon him, who did offer the greatest price; that from thence a thousand Tyrannies did proceed against the goods and liues of the Subiects, there is no cause to doubt: seeing this is the way to riches, and he that buyes an office, pretends to haue right to sell it, in selling Iustice; as it was once said of that good Spanish Pope, who by force of money ascended to the Chaire, did dispence for moneyes all Rights of the Church.

Emerat ille prius, vendere iure potest.

Here I could open the eies of your Maiesty with a like abuse in your own Court, and tell you, that los Alguazile [...], or as we call them Marshals, or Captaines of Serieants, pay for that charge fiue or six thousand Ducats; Los Escriuanos, or Nota­ [...]ies of Magistrates, pay, some eighteene, some twenty thou­sand [Page 70] Crownes; los Alcaldes, or speaking in our owne Idi­oms, the Criminall or Ciuill Iudges doe not pay a certaine summe, but they neuer climbe to that degree without be­stowing large donations vpon the Fauorits of your Maiestie. What may then be said of Gouernours, and Vice-Kings, which you send into remote Prouinces? All the Court doth know, and the Prouinces are not ignorant, that no man, gratis, doth obtaine these honours, but they all passe in the Common way. Your Maiestie may well beleeue, that your Ministers are not so zealous of the weale publique, profusely to expend their owne, to goe and wearie themselues, to go­uerne others, though in the most eminent dignitie. Whence you may firmely collect, that they propose to disburse at In­terest, and so prouide that the poore Subiects pay them an annuall Tribute, not of fiue, tenne, or twenty, but of a hun­dred for a hundred, and sometimes a thousand; and that at the end of their Gouernment, they doe leuell the Capitall. I could read in Cathedra vpon this matter, as that which I haue seene with mine owne eyes, and whereof in part to my great losse, haue had experience. But being a publique thing, it behooues not that I wearie my selfe therein. I returne then to the Tyranny of the Grisons.

Pompeio Planta aboue mentioned, did vsurpe the power of Magistracie in the Praefecture of Forstenau: binding all the officers not to intermeddle in any Cause of Importance without his knowledge, or of Redolpho Planta, his Brother.

This man, who was Prouinciall Captaine of the Valtoline & Criminall Iudg of Zernez, & of the bordering Communi­ties, did vsurp the power of Magistracy of the three Leagues, exercising therein most great Tyranny in generall, and against particular men, and did arrogate to himselfe, to iudge the lawes, and to choose them onely Iudges, who to him were pleasing, and whosoeuer would not concurre with him, was sodainly depriued; In which course, attempting to doe vio­lence in the vpper Agnadina hee was the cause, that six per­sons did loose their liues.

He did falsifie the Statutes and ordinances of the Coun­trey [Page 71] in his Iurisdiction, adding and diminishing them, as to him it turned best to accom [...]t.

He d [...]d binde the S [...]biects in many Communities and free Prouince [...] with various corruptions and presents to elect into many offices, men vpon him dependant. Of which his followers, he after made vse to breake the lawes, to excite Commo [...]ons against honest men, and to gouerne all with violent Tyranny [...] his owne disposition.

Vpon delicts o [...] little consideration, hee gaue most rigo­rous sentences, Conuerting them after into great Ransoms, to whosoeuer would redeeme his vexations.

When he had punished some Delinquent, he found occa­sion to entangle many Innocents, saying, that the guilty had accused them o [...] Confederacy, or somewhat else, and enforced them, if they would auoide his persecution, to compound with him in great summes of money.

In Agnadina he did sh [...]rpen [...] quarrells and factions, e­uen amongst Kindred, fomenting them with men and [...]; whereof followed many wounds and many deaths.

What auaileth it particularly to recount the Tyrannies v­sed for many yeares by him and his Brother in Agnadina, Valteline, and other places: And who is able to search the truth of infinite others, practised by their ad [...]erents and fol­lowers? In summe Pompeio▪ and Rodolfo Planta haue beene Tyrants themsel [...]es, and Heads of Tyrants, from them, and by them, all those Cruelties of the p [...]o [...]le, wh [...]ch in the Ma­nifest written in the name of the Valtelin [...]s [...] exaggerated, haue proceeded: without contradiction they are too true, we doe not deny them.

But let it availe to speake the Truth: and who, by your fauour, are [...] b [...]t factious m [...]n, and Dependents vpon the Ministers of your Maiest [...]e? From whom haue they recei­ued the monies to support then Tyrannicall Authoritie, but of the Ministers of your Maiestie? who hath constantly com­forted them in their wicked Actions, but the Ministers of your Maiestie? Then it must necessarily bee concluded that the Ministers of your Maiestie are they who haue seated Ty­ranny [Page 72] in the Valteline, and in other parts of the Grisons, fol­lowing the same designe aboue mentioned, to breed Confu­sion, Disunion, and finall destruction of those People, to the enlargement of the States of your Maiestie; and all these workings haue beene carried in a manner so artificiall, that though the Grisons did see many things ill done, they could not apply a remedie, because they knew not from whence the euill did arise. So great was the Tyrants power, that there was none found who once durst witnesse a truth. But at last when it pleased God to bring it to light, the Grisons did not neglect to vse all diligence to dig vp the euill by the Roote. The Brethren Planta's, fled, Conscious of their owne Iniquitie; whereby not being able to apprehend them, they were punished in such sort as was possible, by most sharpe exile. Looke vpon the writing so often allead­ged, of the Acts of the Grisons; where more distinctly euery particular may be read.

But for a demonstratiue proofe of the aforesaid matters, all the world doth know, how these Brothers Planta's, after their banishment, were alwaies fauoured and sustained by the Ministers of your Maiestie; how at their Instigation, and with their helpe, they wrought the insurrection of the Val­teline, and how, as yet, they negotiate worse actions.

Here are three things, fit to be aduised your Maiestie.

The one, the Deceipt, which is obtruded by your Mini­sters.

The other, the Reproach which they bring to your Roiall name by insidious Complots, which they alway extend to other Potentates.

The last, is the Impudence wherewith they seeke vnwor­thily to wound the name and reputation of good Princes, against whom they haue often prouoked the Predecessors of your Maiestie, and sometime your selfe, and still doe attempt earnestly to induce you to actions little reasonable, making you beleeue, not that they are only iust, but holy.

Vpon this first we shall haue little cause of discourse, seeing from the fore-alleaged matters it is euidently collected, that [Page 73] the Grisons doe not, nor haue not tyrannised their Subiects, neither concerning Religion, nor in the politike life.

That all the Tyranny which was vsed in their State, was treacherously induced by the Ministers of your Maiestie, and that the Rebellion of the Valtelines was not free and volun­tary in them, but practised, procured, and in a manner en­forced by those wicked Arts, I haue fully demonstrated. If then your Ministers, to promoue your pious and reli­gious minde, to embrace the protection of the Valtelines, and to depriue the Grisons, of their Dominions, would make you otherwise beleeue, who knowes not the fraud? who sees not the deceipt? It is superfluous to enlarge, because it is too manifest.

I come to the second: It is certaine that the actions of Ministers are attributed to their Princes, and with reason, seeing it is supposed that they dare not, cannot, as they ought not, to doe any thing which is not to them either commit­ted, or permitted; especially to contriue any great practice, either secret, or open against other Princes. If then a Vice-King of Naples hath once surprised some Castles of the Pope, which after with difficultie were restored: If another did rob the Merchant Gallies of Venice, which yet they haue not restored; If a Gouernour of Millan did once attempt to take Casall of Montferat, a Citie of the Duke of Mantua by trea­son, and the Castle of Bresse from the State of Venice; If ano­ther did leape out to ransack the land of Cremasco; Another did procure to betray the Citie of Crema subiect to the Se­nate: If one of your Ambassadours, with intelligence of the Vice-Roy of Naples, and the Gouernour of Millan, did ma­chinate a most detestable conspiracie against the Citie of Ve­nice it selfe: If now the present Gouernour of Millan hath caused the Valtelines to rebell from the Grisons: And if all these things haue beene done, with the Armes, the men, and the money of your Maiestie, and in times that you haue professed to bee a good friend both to the Grisons, Ve­netians, Duke of Mantua, and the Pope, the world cannot imagine other, but that your Maiestie hath giuen these or­ders. [Page 74] From whence it is publikely spoken, that the King of Spaine doth attend to nothing else, but to raise Rebellions, to con [...]ri [...]e Conspiracies, to sollicite treasons, to ransack, rob, & ass [...]ss [...]ate his friends. Thus by the meanes of his Ministers, his Royall name, without any his owne fault, is stayned with Infamy. I call God to witnesse, that I thus speake, because I so certainly beleeue of your Maiestie; who deriuing your birth from the most noble German Nation, which by nature is free, single, and of a minde farre estranged from frauds, deceipts, and treasons, and are descended from the most famous house of Austria, which hath still produced Princes magnani­mous, adorned with high valour, and true vertue: It is in­cred [...]ble that you should euer encline the greatnesse of your minde to Actions so vnworthy. But all men are not able to distinguish of Nations, nor to know the qualities of Princes; whence the greatest part, hearing the name of a King of Spaine, doe beleeue, that it is spoken of a Spanish King, and doe iudge that he also is such, or rather worse, then are his Ministers. This is an ordinarie forme of Argument. Thus spake the Indians, when those first Conquerours entred among them.

Diziendoles, que se subiectassen à ellos, hombres tam in­humanos,Ves [...]ouo de Chiappa li de destrutt. dell [...] Ind [...]as. iniustos, y crueles en nombre del Rey de Espāna, in­cognito, y nunca j [...]mas dellos oydo, estimauan, ser muy mas iniusto, y cruel, que ellos.

That is.

Saying, if they should be subiected to them, men so inhu­mane, vniust and cruell, in the name of a King of Spaine, to them vnknowne, of whom they had neuer heard: they did iudge, that he was much more vniust and cruell then they.

The same Argument they made against Iesus Christ, our God; because finding the Spanyards, who called themselues Christians, Ves [...]. de Chiap. nel. pr. 23 to vse Iniustice, and horrible Tyranny, they did draw a consequence that the God of the Christians (as was formerly said) was the most cruell, and the most vniust of all other Gods. Let not your Maiestie then wonder that your Royall name is, without your fault, but not without cause, re­proached: [Page 75] neither be troubled, or displeased against thē, who haue reason much too great, and to the world too too appa­rant, to blaspheme it. But he grieued and angry at your own Ministers, who by their euill demeanour giue subiect to all, to scandalize and abhor it. And in as much as your Maiestie liues iealous of your reputation, bee pleased gratefully to re­ceiue this Aduertisement, which you will know to be most important, and may bee vnto you not a little auaylable.

I passe to the third: It is a thing almost ordinary with them who practice euill, vnder the shew of goodnesse to make the world beleeue, that others also, when they doe good, worke iniquitie. For the Actions of the one and the other, being in themselues contrary, those of wicked men cannot be approued for good, vnlesse those of good men be condemned for wicked; whence, vpon their reproach, they pretend to build their owne glory.

The Ministers of your Maiestie blame the Grisons for pu­nishing the Brothers Planto's, and other Rebels, and calls this chastisement, Tyranny: because they would haue it said, that they hauing still [...]auoured and supported them, had done a iust and compassionate action; which certainely the graue Poet would not haue approued, who wisely said, ‘Benefacta malè locata, malefacta arbitror.Ennius.

Rather to speake truth, this is the height of iniquitie. Totius enim iniustitiae nulla capitalior est, quam eorum, Cicer. ess. li. 1. qui cum maximè fallunt, id tamen agunt, vt viri boni esse videuntur. Among Tyrants, to punish the good, and reward the wic­ked, are acts of iustice and pietie: as contrarily to punish euill, and reward good men, is esteemed Tyranny and wicked­nesse. These are iust the termes, which the Ministers of your Maiestie speake, and vse in this occasion; while they would make show to doe well in cherish [...]ng the Rebels of the Gri­sons, and that these haue done euill to punish them.

Now what may the world [...]?

To this they adde, that the Grisons haue exercised this Tyranny by the practise and money of that neighbour Poten­tate, [Page 76] who for reason of State doth make any thing lawfull, how contrary soeuer to the honor of God, and the mainte­nance of his holy faith; and who is the principall Instrument of infinite euills to the Christian Common-weale; Now, who doth not laugh at this so foolish Calumny? Doubtlesse the Grisons had great need of the practices and moneys of some great Potentate to punish halfe a dozen Rebells and Traitors, part in prison, and part fled. And who doth not wonder at so much shamelesnesse? It had beene enough, if that Potentate vnder the pretence of Religion, and Godlinesse, had done any of those many Villanies which were committed in India, to describe him in so handsome colours; But who will not praise that great modesty, which would not by name declare that Potentate? Truely it deserued great praise, if it were not knowne, that extreame hatred did abhorre to name him.

But who doth not vnderstand it? This is that Potentate, which was borne in the wombe of the Holy Catholique Ro­man Religion; This is that Potentate, that in twelue hundred yeares hath neuer embraced other faith, other law, then that of Christ; This is that Potentate, who since the Roman libertie was lost, hath euer maintained libertie aliue in Italy; This is that Potentate, which alone, with iust an honourable titles both by land and Sea, hath largely and gloriously extended his Empire. This is that Potentate, who hath made with his blood, a Counterscarse to Italy, and with his treasure so many ages, hath and doth defend it from the Rapine of the Barba­rous Enemies of holy faith. This is that Potentate, which hates and persecutes all Tyrants, and loues and protects with all his power, lawfull, and iust Princes; for which onely, it seemes he is so much hated and persecuted, by the Ministers of your Maiestie; A glorious, and renouned Potentate, whose most noble Actions, exalted to the Heauens with immortall praise of the histories of all Nations (I doe not decline those of Spaine) who dispassionately honor Vertue with Truth, are abundantly known to your Maiesty. From whence you may well comprehend, that if your Minsters doe seek vnworthily [Page 77] to blemish that their glorie with defamations, they doe it out of intestine hatred, which by naturall instinct they beare to all, who are not to them conformable; in one thing onely iust, vpright, and sincere: that they are no Accepters of Persons, but without any partiality deale alike with all men. And if the Pope, the true Supporter, vpon whom Christ our God hath founded his holy Church, shall not to their will con­forme, they will say, that hee is an Apostate and an Heretique; and when yet they dare not so much, vnder other pretences they will call him vniust, wicked, Disturber of the publique peace; they will esteeme him Enemy, inuade his State, sacke Rome, beseige him in his Castle, take him prisoner, impose vpon him a grieuous ransome, as if hee were Slaue and they Turkes; They will by necessity force him to sell Chalices and Crosses, to redeeme himselfe: and not therewith content, they will haue Cardinalls in hostage, the Castle in their power, Indulgences for the purse; and yet more, if more were to be found.

I durst not certainly say these things to your Maiestie, if in times past they had not happened: They did thus han­dle in the Raigne of Charles the fift,Iglies. lib. 2. C. 26. Sect. 8. C. 30. Sect. 2. much against the will of that Religious Emperour, Clement the seuenth: and would readily haue done the like vnder King Phillip the second, fa­ther of your Maiestie, when they raised warre against Paul the fourth, and tooke from him V [...]letri, Tiuoli, and Ostia, if the King of France, truely most Christian, had not diuerted their fury, and the Catholike King apprehended a conuenien­cie, suddenly to accommodate his differences.

Sacred Catholike Maiestie, if these things are all true, as surely they are; reasonably it may be doubted, that like acti­ons will proceed from like persons; wherefore, to the end you easilie may, as you earnestly desire, vndeceiue your selfe, and free your name from scandall, and other Princes from calumny, and the vnworthy iniuries of your Ministers, which are the three Aduertisements by me proposed, it will not be out of the purpose, to set before your eyes some par­ticulars, which vnder your Empire are done as lawfull, which [Page 78] by all good Christians are held abominable. I implore from a benigne Prince attention, and in at [...]ention, benignitie; so that my words may passe without molest [...]tion of your Royall mind, that receiuing them with a righteous temper, as they are by mee vttered with hearty affection, I am assured they shall not end without some profit.

The Ancestors of your Maiestie haue established in the kingdome of Sicily a supreame Monarchy, both in the tem­porall and spirituall; so that your Vice-Royes dispense not onely Offices and Benefices, but also Excommunications and Indulgences; and who will then wonder that the Duke of Sessa doth publish Iubilies? The great Cardinall Baronius hath fully written vpon this Sub [...]ect, and with Euidences in­uincible shewed the vniust possession of that Kingdome; and that neitheir your Maiestie can hold,Baron. To 11. nor the Pope grant it. If your Ministers had found the least apparant reasons, to answer and confute the doctrine of Baronius, as they did of the passage of St. Iames, into Galitia, they willingly would haue done it,An. Christ. 1097. but failing therof, they had recourse to the fire, and caused the Eleuenth of the Baronian Annalls to be pub­liquely burnt,Vrb. 2. 10. & did prohibite it vpon grieuous paines, to all your subiects; so dexterously working, that your Maiestie beleeuing your selfe lawfull Lord, or at least possessor bona fi­dei, might as you yet continue to vsurpe the spirituall iuris­diction in that Kingdome; as if betwixt you and the Pope, the Apostolique iurisdiction were equallie diuided: What this action may be called, let others iudge.

But proceeding further, they haue also induced your Maiestie to arrogate, not an equality, but a Supremacy vpon the high Priest. So that in the Censures which his Holinesse, or his Nuncio, or others with his authoritie doe send against particular persons into Castile, these men refuge to the Royall Councell, aggrauating the cause of violence, and [...]he Coun­cell doth vsurpe cognition ouer such Censures, and doe com­mand de facto, their suspension, vntill the alleadged violence be determined; and vnder this pretence, oftentimes causeth an absolute Reuocation, that in them there is no further pro­ceeding. [Page 79] In Spaine, Hieron. C [...]uall [...]s Tract. de Cogni [...]. per viam vio­lent. in caus. Eccl. & int. person▪ Eccl. not many yeares since were publikely printed bookes of Lawyers that your Maiestie, & your Royall Councell hath this authoritie, and may iustly vse it: Which doctrine hath greatly scandalized the world, as well for the person that wrote it, who professeth to bee Christian Doctor, as for your Maiestie, which doth admit and serue your selfe by it, and yet are the Catholique King: but much more, in respect of the highest Bishop, who sometime decei­ued by sinister Informations, & malignant suggestions of cer­taine wicked Hypocrits, is seene to fulminate most heauy Censures, & to threaten horrible war against great Potentates, who rightly vnderstood, haue not at all offended his repu­tation, nor his Ecclesiastique Iurisdiction: Neuerthelesse hee doth at present beare these high iniuries, with so much scandall of Christianitie, and so great diminution of his au­thoritie. Some iudge that this is not done without a myste­ry but let him declare it that vnderstands it, I will diuine no more.

This sufferance of the Pope, & greedinesse of the Ministers of your Maiesty: who presume to do alwayes absolutely wel, when they amplifie in any sort perfas, & nefas, the Roiall Iu­risdiction, hath caused, that after hauing made you equall to his Holinesse in dispensing Ecclesiastique Affaires in the king­of Sicily, and superiour in censuring the Pontificiall Censures in that of Castile, they haue also claimed, that you may as­sume the authoritie of the Holy Ghost in the Conclaue of Rome for the election of the high Priest; so it comes to passe, that Abissus abissum inuocat. Let in preuaile to speak truth, ô sacred Catholique King; and what else are those great Pensions, I will not say that your Maiestie giues, but which your Mini­sters make you giue (because you giue not but according to their Counsell and perswasion) to so many Cardinalls, but Simoniacall bribes, wherwith they intend to buy their voices to elect Popes to their Content, and to exclude those who are not of their humour? And although this is not done by way of Contract, yet enough for aduantage to him, who lookes vpon the intention, though cloaked, yet too well [Page 80] knowne to the world; And I am assured, that when they counsell you to giue a pension to any Cardinall (here I call to witnesse of truth the inward Conscience of your Maiestie) they doe not bring to your Consideration, that hee is a man of good life, and poore fortune, or that he well vseth Riches, dispensing them to the poore of Christ, that hee builds Hospi­talls and Monasteries for needy, and religious persons; but they set on the frontispice, that he is a Prince Cardinall, great in blood, great in authoritie, great in dependance, that he is a Subiect capable of the Papacy, that hee is affectionate to your Crowne, that he will euer remaine your deuoted seruant, and obsequious to your will, and such other like; None of which concerne the good of the Church, the honor of God, nor the fruit of Christianitie; but all addressed to the satisfacti­on and Interest of your Maiestie. I say not now, you doe ill to giue pensions to Cardinalls; rather, it is well done, you ought to doe it, seeing you giue them nothing of your Royall Patrimonie, but Ecclesiastique goods, which are the Patrimo­nie of Christ, and cannot better bee dispensed then to those, who are the Pillars of holy Church; The euill is, that with this Interest it is purposed, to oblige them to your wil, so that, at your pleasure, and not according to their Conscience, and Inspiration of the holy Ghost, they should giue their suffra­ges for the Election of the Pope.

Moreouer, it is known in the Court of Rome, & though Hi­stories mentiō it not, yet the memories of men preserue what was practiced with the Cardinalls their Confederates, in the choice of Vrban the Seauenth, & Gregorie the Fourteenth, by the Ministers of the King Don Phillip, father of your Maistie; who glad of the death of the most holy Pope Sixtus the fift (a death desired, and by common opinion also, by them pro­cured) and fearefull of the danger, that another of like thoughts should succeed him, they did embroile the whole Conclaue, least any should ascend to the Papacy who was not trusty, and fauourable to the Crowne of Spaine, as if to the In­terest of Spaine, the good of Christendome ought not to be preferred.

[Page 81] Vrban the Seauenth did succeed Sixtus, who in thirteene dayes died. After Vrban those of the Spanish faction by all meanes would haue the Cardinall Palioto Pope; But God did ordaine, that Sfondrato, called Gregorie the fourteenth was chosen.

This Election made vpon the fift of December, 1590. (your Maiestie may obserue a most Christian and wise Act of your Catholique father) the King Don Phillip who was consenting to the Negociations of his Ministers, dispatched in the Moneth of Iune following, 1591. to the feet of his Holinesse, to aske pardon and absolution of the Censures into which he was fallen, by intermedling of his Ministers in matters of the holy Conclaue. An Act as I haue said, most Christian, be­cause it was an amends of the error committed, and most wise, because it serued as an insinuation by that humilitie, to be reduced to the grace of the new Pope, who could not but bee distasted, as hee was, with the workings which he had seene, scand [...]lized.

Thus the Ministers of your Crowne (O sacred Catholique King) doe negociate in Rome, onely presuming by meanes of Pensions, to hold the Cardinalls in bonds; With which pra­ctices the vnitie of the Church seemes almost to bee diuided, from whence there is nothing else heard of, to the great shame and destruction of Christianity, but factions of French, and factions of Spanish Cardinalls. And although the French Lords, doe not intend particularly to oblige any Cardinall vn­to them, but leaue all in their libertie; Neuerthelesse those are called of the French faction, who by Pensions, or other Interests, are not tyed to depend on the Spaniards, and for them to make a faction; And therefore there is nothing else done, but scrutiny, which of those parties are like to preuaile in the Conclaue, at the Election of a new Pope.

I speake so clearely, and so truely, that I am bound to con­firme it by their owne Spanish Histories. Of the Election of Innocent the eighth, who succeeded Gregory the fourteenth, it is recorded that it passed without any contradiction,Bau. p. 3. vita de Innoc. 9. C. 1. be­cause the Spanish faction (saith Bauia,) which consisted of 29 [Page 82] Cardinalls, and that of Montalto which exceeded 20, did easilie vnite together; But what shall we say of the ne­gociations made in the Conclaue, after the death of Innocent? I will alleage the formal words of the History to obtaine the more credit.

Por hallarse muy poc [...] conformes,Bau. p. 4. uita de Clem. 8. C. 1. las dos principales prouin­cias de Europa, Espāna, y Francia, à las quales, co [...]o à cabe [...]a [...] sellegan las demas, esta misma diuision auia en el sacro Collegio; queriendo cadauno faborecer à la parte, que la razon, ò aficion le obligaua: That is,

By the great inconformity of the two principall Prouin­ces of Europe, Spaine, and France, to which, as Heads, the rest doe adhere; the same Diuision was in the sacred Colledge, euery one desiring to fauour that part, to which reason or af­fection did oblige him.

Behold a confession of the factions, which I mentioned of the French and Spanish Cardinalls; But because at this time France was without a King, and the warre was made against Henry the fourth, the French faction had little credit, whēce it was iudged, that the contrary part was easilie able to create a Pope dependant vpon the Catholike King, wch much impor­ted to the perfection of his affaires. That which makes mee astonished, is, that his Maiestie who had acknowledged his error to haue busied himselfe in the former Election of Popes, and had with so great submission demanded pardon of Gregory the 14. should in this occasion suffer himselfe to be drawne anew into the same error; And if the Historie lye not, your Maiestie also who was then Prince of Spaine, did therein concurre; The Cardinall Santa Seuerina a Neapo­litan, who, saith the Author,

Era vassallo del Rey Catholico,Bauia vbi supra. y tan querido de los dos Phili­pos padre y hijo, que siempre procuraron ponelle en la filla de S. Pe­dro; como lo haz [...]a aora el gran Filipo II per medio de su Em­baxador:

That is:

Was a Vassall of the Catholique King, and so greatly be­loued of the two Phillips father and sonne, that they alwayes [Page 83] sollicited to place him in St. Peters Chaire, as at this present the great Phillip the second did, by meanes of his Ambas­sadour.

And it followes in the History, that the Ambassadour, which then was the Duke of Sessa, was the last that went out of the Conclaue, when it was shut vp; and that if hee had stayed within, as he was perswaded, hee had secured the E­lection of Santa Seuerina: But in respect of modesty, hee would depart, lest it should be beleeued, that it was managed with little libertie; a modestie (well obseruing the Historie) which was no vertue, but a warinesse proceeding of feare, and confidence: of feare, that other Princes would accuse the Election of Spanish violence; and of confidence, to haue so well disposed all matters, that his absence could not be pre­iudiciall. For these respects then, hee came out, but within the Conclaue.

Hazia en este intento Madruccio con el fabor de Espana, gran­des diligentias pensando ga [...]ar alguno de los Eccluyentes,Bauia vib supra, Ca. 2. para santa Seuerina,

That is:

To this end Madruccio, with the fauour of Spaine, vsed great diligence, hoping to gaine some of the Exclusiues for Santa Seuerina.

Thus was it negociated by the Ambassador and Cardinals partiall, as the Catholike King pleased: But Diuine dispo­sition preuailed, which wrought the Assumption of Cardi­nall Aldobrandino to the Popedome, called Clement the Eight: a Bishop truely holy, such as the seruice of holy Church required, and happily giuen by God, and not by any Prince of this world.

This Conclaue was long, disunited, contencious, full of dis­tasts, and iust such as must be, where humane, accompanied with Deuillish power, doth oppose the Diuine will; and in some other Coniuncture might easily haue caused a Schisme in the Church of God, onely by the extraordinarie and ob­stinate Negociations, which for Santa Seuerina were vsed. Of which it seems the new Pope Clemēt was not free of suspi­tion, [Page 84] who would that that Cardinall should resigne all pre­tension which he might haue to the Papacy; Bauia vbi supra. A diligence esteemed important, though Bauia call it superfluous.

From all these premisses (O Catholike & most mighty Mo­narch) the world doth draw one of these two most necessary consequences; which are, that the Spaniards either beleeue not in God, or presume to bee able to doe more then God. Because, if they beleeue in God, they ought to know, and hold for faith, that the Election of a Pope, although made by mediation of men, is the worke of the Holy Ghost: And if they so beleeue, and neuerthelesse attempt, that the Pope should be chosen according to their will, then they presume to be able to depriue the Holy Ghost of that authority, which onely to him appertaines; who can finde a meane to recon­cile those extreames? first the fire shall be reconciled to Ice; Light to Darknesse, Hell to Heauen.

Sacred Maiestie, I can doe no lesse then speake clearly, and if God be Truth it selfe, God now doth speake by my penne; This is one of those things which destroy the Holy Church; And a Catholike King, who is obliged to succour it, ought not, in such a manner, concurre to ruine it; I could add many other things, but because truth produceth hatred, a cursed sonne of a blessed Mother, I doubt that euen these few glanced at, will be ill vnderstood. And now I forwarne this my writing, that for speaking truth, it shall be condem­ned. Be it as it will, I by so much more shall esteeme to haue done my duty, by how much others shall doe against their dutie, And God shall be the Iudge.

But I am too farre wandred, transported with a iust and holy zeale from my purpose, though not beside the purpose; And I pray God, it be not fruitlesse. I returne then to the principall matter of the Valteline.

That it should be lawfull for subiects to rebell from their naturall Prince, to depriue them of their Estates, vnder colo­red pretences, while for iust cause, they haue not intimated a warre; I doe beleeue there is no man of honestie, who is not ashamed to affirme it.

[Page 85] That it is lawfull to Subiects, though ill entreated, to re­bell, onely some Heretique, Epist. 1. Cap. 2. who denyes to holy Scripture, can speake it; St. Peter the Apostle manifestly saying; Serui subditi estote in omni timore Dominis, non tantum bonis et mo­destis, sed etiam dyscolis; Haec est enim gratia, si propter Dei con­scientiam, sustinet quis trist itias, patiens iniustè.

But that it may be lawfull to embrace them, when it shall happen through the occasion of ill vsage, that they of their owne will doe rebell, there are yet some date maintaine it; absolutely professing that all good Princes are bound to suc­cour the oppressed, and that the condition of the miserable should be too wretched, if they might of no side hope of aide; But to vnderstand this case with Iudgement, it must not be discussed with these vniuersal propositions, which only shew a certaine Equity; but it is requisite to reduce it to particular and proper termes of Iustice. Distinguishing then; wee say, that that Prince, to whose protection the rebelled people of another Prince haue recourse, either hee hath right of some action ouer them, as the Subiects of the vassalls of his Feu­datory, or he hath no right of action whatsoeuer. If he hath no Action, neither can he receiue them into protection: Be­cause, if People (though ill handled) doe contrary to the Diuine Law, to rebell; against the same Law he sinnes, who doth fauour and protect their Rebellion. If a Thiefe doe ill to robbe, it cannot be said that he doth well, who doth as­sist, to share in the theft. If a murtherer doe ill to kill, it can­not be said, that he doth well who receiues him, that Iustice may not punish him; And who can then say, that a Prince doth well, to enterraine the Rebells of another: If these in rebelling, absolutely doe euill?

Vniustly then haue the Ministers of your Maiestie done to intermeddle in the Valteline, whē yet it were true, that of themselues they had rebelled; much worse, when euen they, as is demonstrated, haue with wicked Arts induced them to Rebellion: But it shall be the worst of wickednesse, if, con­trary to all Iustice, they will now possesse it by mayne force, as they show to desire to doe, seeing therein already they [Page 86] haue built forts, and that your Maiestie doth consent and approue it; of which the World will iudge that you more esteeme your owne Interest, then all humane and Diuine lawes; which God forbid.

Onely the supreame Prince can hold in himselfe such sort of Dominion, ouer the Countries rebelled from his feudato­ry. But when yet they haue not rebelled; and were ill go­uerned, he may, and ought to depriue the Prince his Vassall: because the inuestiture of the fee is not granted for the peo­ples ruine, but that they should bee gouerned with Iustice; wherefore if the feudatory vse iniustice, and ill entreatment, he falls from his Iurisdiction, and the Soueraigne Prince may thereof depriue him; and not doing it, beeing able, hee shall bee a wicked Prince, and no lesse guiltie of the euill before God, which he suffered his feudatory to doe, then hee the feudatory himselfe is, who acts it.

Now let your Maiestie apply this doctrine, which is wholy conformable to reason and law, to the Actions of your Ministers, to the condition of your Subiects, and to the right of other Princes ouer your Estates in Italy; and you shall clearely see, how your Ministers are damnable, your Sub­iects miserable, and how much other Princes are obliged to releeue them; My words perhaps will seeme bitter, but I beseech your Maiestie to consider if they be true, and finding them so, to take them in good part, as bitter medicines, fiery Cauteries, & sharp lances vse to be gratefully receiued from the hands of Physitians & Chirurgions, to procure health; & be assured you shall find them most profitable; because your Maiestie fully informed of the truth, will correct your Mi­nisters, comforts your Subiects, and ease other Princes of the necessitie to vse their supreame Iurisdiction.

The Cause of Subiects and of Ministers are together vnited, because those are gouerned, and these Gouer­nours; whence, as Correlatiues, they goe paripasso; I will then briefly represent to you Maiestie the Gouernment of your States in Italy so farre as is expedient to the present matter.

[Page 87] The State of Millan in the time of the Emperour Charles the fift, began to bee ill intreated; from whence that sad, la­mentable, and despairefull Ambassage, which they sent by Baptista. Archinto to Nizza is recorded, who onely because he did lament, in the name of his afflicted Countrey, was re­ceiued with an ill eye, sent back without remedy, and by the Imperiall Ministers, at his returne, sharply reprehended; which might haue occasioned the Rebellion of that people, if they had found any better Prince who would haue recei­ued them.

Haec vbi sub ipsum Caesaris à Nicea discessum ex legatione re­nunciata, & per vrbes Cisalpinae Galliae evulgata sunt;Iouius Hist. lib. 37. vsque adeò tantum ex rei indignitate odium Caesari creuit, vt omnes, ex rerum desperatione facilè defecturos appareret. si mitior & clemen­tior, qui dedentes reciperet, Dominus offereretur; immoderatis siquidem, pace, bellòqu [...] tributis oppressi, noua etiam, tum menstruae exactionis onera pertulerant; quae nunquam desi­tura boni mortales crederent, donec viueret Caesar, atque Italiae Imperio potiretur.

After also, a second time, when Strozza Pallauicino Vis [...]n­ti, who made warre for the King of France; approached to Millan, all the Imperiall Ministers held that Citie as bad as lost, onely because it did feele the yoake of Spanish Domini­on too violent and heauy.

Assiduis atque intollerandis trubutis alienata,Iouius lib. 45. parata, credi poterat, ad nouandas res, vt inuistum, & pergraue Hispanici Regni iugum excuteret.

If from that time to this, their grieuances are diminished, or augmented, your Maiestie best knowes.

To what termes that State is at this day reduced, who doth not know, let him consider this, that already many and many yeares it hath suffered great numbers of Spanish Souldi­ers lodged in the houses of poore particular men, at discre­tion; D [...]scretion of Souldiers, and Tyranny, are one and the same thing; who hath not proued it, let him pray to God first to die, and hee shall die happier, then euer to haue pro­ued it. And let him be content to beleeue for faith, that [Page 88] vnder such discretion, goods and honour are dispatched, and hardly is life secure.

I passe ouer the burthen of new Tributes, I leaue the Ra­pine of Ministers, who like blood-suckers haue exhausted the veines of that plentifull bodie, because in comparison of lod­ging Souldiers at discretion, I esteeme all to bee nothing; and he who is able to endure to see them eate the sustenance of his poore family, and that which exceeds all other Tyran­ny, to grow familiar with his wife, daughters, and Sisters, it may be said, that he is growne insensible of any iniury. I remember to haue read in the warres which were so sharpe betweene the Venetians and Genoueses, that these did take a Citie of their Enemies, and held it the space of tenne yeares subiected to discretion: whence it is credible, that besides other matters, they did dispose of their wiues, according to their pleasures; for which cause, to this day, though now two hundred and fifty yeares are ouerpast, there cannot bee done a greater Iniury to those people, then to call them Genoueses Bastards: and notwithstanding that staine, with length of time, and the continued peace of that Citie, which neuer since felt the offence of Enemie, hath beene oftentimes worne out and washed away, yet vpon euery occasion they resent the onely memory of that ancient Iniury done to the honour of their women, which seemes indelible, and eter­nall. If I then say that the greatest of all the Tyran­nies which the State of Millan doth now suffer, is to haue their wiues at the Souldiers discretion, I shall not speak much wide of the purpose, because it is a matter very likely, that in times to come, the Millaneses may be called Spanish Ba­stards; If this be tolerable, let your Maiestie consider.

Wee proceed to Sicily; Let it not be grieuous to your Ma­iestie that I speake this truth; that if this day, there were any other Prince as ready to solicit the destruction of Spanyards, as there was once a Spanish King to procure that of the French; sodainly and easily wee should see another Sicilian Vesper: the causes are the same, and are not newly begunne; Let the Insurrection of Messina bee remembred, [Page 89] then when the Vice King Don Iuan de Cardona, Ioseph: Bonfigl. Hist. Sicil. p. 1. lib. 10. would op­presse that Kingdome with intolerable Tributes. And let it bee considered, with what pride, and with how great dis­daine he vsed the Messinesi, because they defended the liber­tie of their Kingdome. For which cause, iustly prouoked, they did generously to his face, vpbraid him, that he acted another Phallaris, another Dionisius.

Don Vgo de Moncada (who would not start, onely to heare this name? this was that impious man, that sacked Rome) was also Vice-Roy; how can it bee thought, that hee handled them? Let vs obserue the words of the History.

Hee was by Nation a Catalonian, Bonfigl. p. 2. lib. 1. by birth a Barcellonese, a man most ambitious, greedy of Riches, and immoderately enclined to dishonest Luxury; Hee gouerned Sicily with Crueltie, Auarice, and Impudent lust; Hee neglected so farre to punish the falsifiers of money, vntill depriuing it of Com­merce, hee impouerished that Kingdome; and that which more imported, he made publike Merchandise of Graine, inso­much, that hee exhausted Sicily, and of a most fruitfull Countrey, reduced it to the want of bread. Couetousnesse was accompanied with other notorious vices, so that hee be­came to the nobilitie and people hatefull; which being knowne vnto him, when the death of the Catholique King was published, hee durst not appeare abroad for feare of re­ceiuing some notable afront.

Here the Author proceedeth to the Insurrection of that Kingdome against so strange a Monster: who disguised in the habit of a Seruant, saued himselfe by flight, and after got away to his King in Flanders. In whose place was sent Hector Pinatello Earle of Montel [...]one, who by publique Decree would ratifie all the Acts of Don Vgo, how tyrannicall soe­uer. Whereupon the People (who insteed of remedy, saw the mischiefe confirmed) made a new Commotion in the Citie of Palermo, and the new Vice-King was inforced to escape to Messina, vntill the Commons by the Nobility appeased, and many Spanish Souldiers supplied him from the King, he became strong, and was able to vent his rage, as [Page 90] he did, with extreame rigor, vpon the mutined. And Don Vgo de Moncada, who had so ill entreated the poore Sicili­ans, in stead of punishment, was rewarded with great riches, and honored with the standard of Captaine Generall of the Sea.

They, who at present liue, by tradition of their old men, and for as much as themselues haue proued, doe testifie be­fore God, that that kingdome hath continually suffered grie­uances, & cruel extortions, but that the people had almost vt­terly forgotten them, when they felt the heauy yoake of the Duke of Ossuna, because in respect of extreame euills, moderate may be called goodnesse. They exclaime to the Heauens, that he hath left the wretched Sicily, desolate, and rooted vp. They complaine with miserable outcryes, to haue more then once sent into Spaine to lament to your Ma­iestie, and alwaies without fruit: And since, they remaine wholly confused, and astonished with the consideration how he, like another Don Vgo, in stead of receiuing punishment, should be honored, and recompenced with the charge of the Vice-King of Naples.

And now it is time to discourse of Naples it selfe: I should vndertake a great worke, to recount that which I haue seene and tryed, and perhaps I might seeme as passionate, I will then mention onely that, which I haue found in Histories, & that which the Kingdome, with full voice doth proclaime.

It was practiced lately in Naples to introduce the Inqui­sition al vso de Spania: Igles p. 2 l. 6. c. 27 Sect. vlt. The people cryed out, there was no need of so great rigour,Bonfigl p. 2 l. 4. because (by Gods grace) that Kingdome was not full of Moores, and Speudo-Christians. The Vice-King insisting on his purpose, began to vse force: the people instructed by nature, armed to oppose against such violence. The Pope, informed of the business, cōmanded the Vice [...]Roy, in vertue of holy obedience, to be quiet, and he well may doe it, both as Prince of the Church in respect of Eccle­siasticall Iurisdiction, and as temporall Prince, that Kingdome being the proper feude of the Sea Apostolique: yet for this the Vice-King would not d [...]ist, but with small and great Ar­tillary [Page 91] attempted to bring his purpose to effect. All the Citie rose in vprore, Many houses were leuelled with the ground, and men not a few slaine. But sooner hee might destroy all, then those generous mindes be subiected to his will: so that he did great harme, and obtained nothing. Who shall well consider these Actions cannot be perswaded that Christian zeale transported the Vice-King to intermeddle in Ecclesia­stique Iurisdiction, and to desire to burden that people with a yoake, little needfull, and lesse reasonable, against the will of the Vicar of Christ, Soueraigne Prince as well in Tempo­rals as Spir [...]tualls in the Kingdome of Naples. From whence it must be concluded, that vnder that pretence the Vice-Roy had some other end, which certainly could not be, but little for the good of the Subiect.

I know not how to excuse of Tyranny that Action in the yeare 1 [...]85,Bau. Pontif. p. 3. vita Si [...]o. [...]. [...]. 5. when the officers drew out of that kingdome so great a quantitie of Corne, to send into Spaine, that although the yeare were most abundant, the poore Citie of Naples did perish of famine. A Crueltie, indeed horrible, to take from the Neapolitans their owne bread, to feed their Spaniards. Therefore not without cause, that people, conducted by necessitie to desparation, rose all in tumult; from whence the Vice-King, (this also was a Duke of Ossuna) tooke after, occasi­on, to ven [...] his fury, putting to death forty, sending to the Gallies a hundred, and exiling infinite numbers.

The present State thereof imitates that of Sicily, as the Duke of Ossuna succeeded in that Gouernment, after Sicily; To performe my promise, I will say no more, let that In­scription no lesse true then compassionate, by the Kingdome it selfe published to the World, speake; which shall remaine of that Duke a perpetuall, and famous Elogie.

[Page 92]
Miserescite. Exteri. Exhorrescite. Posteri
Petrus. Gironus. Dux. Ossunensium
Natione. Hispanus. Genere. Perduellis. Religione. Turcicus
Italici. Dalmatici. Germanici
Fax. Cruenta. Bellorum
Non. Vnius. Siciliae. Verres
Neapoli. Pollutis. Templis
Conspurata. Nobilitate
Depredato. Aerario
Monito. Mauro. Accersito. Trace
Veneta. Vrbe. Per. Insidias. Ad. Excidium. Tentata
Regis. Simplicitate. Per. Corruptos. Aulicos. Diu. Multum (que). Delusa
Hospitum. Manubiis. Per. Triennium. Ditato. Milite
Compulsis (que). Populis. Ad. Eorum. Stationes. Redimendas
Foedata. Infandis. Exemplis. Ah. Nimis. Ad. Infandū. Prona. Ciuitate
Nobilibus. Aliquot. Adse. Vario. Quà. Munere. Quà Vaframenta.
Largitionibus. Et. Vanis. Spebus. Plebe. Delusa
Atque. Eorum. Seditiosissimo. Bis. Extra. Sortem. Renunciato.
[Page 93] Denique
Frustra. Vetatis. Armis
Tentatis. Arcibus
Et. In. Armatos. Ci [...]es. Per. Triduum. Circumducta. Acie. Scelestorū
Opportuno. Successoris. Aduentu
Cedere. Solo. Et. Salo. Compulsus
Aurum. Nostrum
Quod. Hic. Corrasit. Nequiter. Alibi. Lasciue. Sparsurus
Prouinciae. Neapolitani. Heu. Quondam. Regni
Inermes. Enerues
Populorum. Deglubiti. Greges
Palantes. Balantes
Teterrimas. Suas. Clades
Ignotas. Regi. Longinquo
Et. Torpenti. Fascino. Sando [...]allico
Pagella. Et. Calamo
Quae. Sola. Sunt. Reliqua
Representant. Vrbi. Et. Orbi
Miserescite. Exteri. Exhorrescite. Posteri.

[Page 94] In so wofull manner (sacred Maiestie) Naples doth la­ment; No lesse doth Sicily grieue, and Millan equally com­plaine. But of all their vexations, the vnhappy people are afraid to speake; All their iniuries, with open voice, it is not lawfull to expresse. Scarcely they dare publikely bewaile their extreame miseries; whence their hearts are more corroded.

Tacitus moeror, & luctus;I [...]st. lib. 8. verentibus ne ipsae lachrymae pro contumacia habeantur; Crescit dissimulatione ipsa, do [...]or; hoc alti­us dimissus, quo minùs profiters licet.

Of these three principall Prouinces of Italy vnder the gouernment of the Emperour Charles the fift, I find recorded in Historie, that,

Insubres ex opulentissimis ad egestatem red [...]cti,I [...]v. Hist. lib. 39. dinq [...]e, vel in pa [...]e inamter vexati, frustra apud surdas Caesaris aures praesi­dum acerbitatem querebantur. Neapolitanum verò Regnum quo nihil spoliatius vnquam fuit, euersum exutumque omni pri­stina dignitate conciderat. Et in Sicilia, cum annuis Tributis, tum nouis rei frumentariae vectigalibus, & frequentibus Hispa­norum aestiuis, hybernisque euastata, occasio potius rebellandi, quam consensus, deesse videbatur.

But, certainly, certainly, they are in much worse estate at this present. I beleeue not (O sacred Catholique Maiestie) that there is any Prince in this world, who, for reason of State, doth not sometimes slip into some indecent Action, because it may happen, that the Iudgement and the will are surprised; the one peruerted, the other blinded with passion and interest.

To the conditions of Princes their Ministers ordinarily do conforme; for these are their eyes, eares, hands, and feet; and therefore, as is formerly said, the Actions of Ministers are at­tributed to themselues the Princes; Let vs then say, that Ministers as well as Princes, may, and doe also erre, either by ignorance, or passion, or of pure malice; But in all Christen­dome, I certainly beleeue, that there haue not beene, nor are found, any Ministers, of any Prince, or Republike whatsoeuer, who haue committed so great errors, nor vsed so many wic­ked [Page 95] dealings as the Spaniards. Let your Maiestie consider the few in this discourse alleaged, which are scarce the thou­sand part of those in history recorded, and bee pleased with attention to read what they haue done in India, faith­fully described by the aforementioned Bishop of Chiappa; And you shall clearly see, that to this truth there is no reply; and with great griefe of heart, you will compassionate the condition of your miserable Subiects; you will abhorre the execrable Actions of your Ministers; and as a true Catholike Prince, will prouide to the whole conuenient remedie: which if you shall not doe, then that right of other Princes, which I haue pointed at, will take place.

Your Maiestie doth know that Millan is a feud of the Empire; Naples and Sicily of the Church; Therefore the Pope and the Emperor, when their Subiects in these States are not gouerned with vpright Iustice, are bound in consci­ence to God, either to resume the immediate Dominion, as they haue the Supreme, or to prouide another Prince, that rightly and iustly may gouerne; depriuing your Maiestie of the Inuestiture of those feudes, which will bee escheated by the Iniustice of your Ministers, by you tollerated. And if at present it may seeme, that the State of Millan is secure, the Emperour being of the house of Austria, and your neare kinsman, and that you feare not Naples and Sicily, knowing the high Bishop most inclinable to your fauour; yet in many respects, there remaines much whereof to doubt; The affection of the minde, and the alliance of blood, with some other interest ioyned to the one, and the other, are considerations that can doe much: But the loue of Heauen, and the feare of Hell, and the infallible Iudgement of God, which will giue the one, or the other, as I beleeue, may much more preuaile: So that at last, the Pope, and the Emperour will haue more care of their owne soules, then of your Maiesties satisfaction; I adde, that the Empire, & Pope­dome, are Electiue Principalities, and no [...] hereditarie, whence if the present Bishop bee obsequious to your Maiesties will, perhaps his successor will bee contrary. And though now [Page 96] the Emperour bee an Austrian, in short time an Enemy of the house of Austria, may succeed him; who finding so iust occasion, will certainly bereaue your Maiestie of your feudes: and when neither of these would, I may say, God will doe it, and might alleadg the authoritie of holy men, and prophe­sies of Sacred Scripture, but I will omit them as superfluous; onely this I will adde, that when all other danger should faile, you ought greatly to feare the heauy dislike of all your owne Subiects:Senec. Thabai. Acta. 3. sce. 2. because inuisa nunquam Imperia retinentur diu.

Let your Maiesty then consider (to close vp this Discourse) how your Ministers bring your States of Italy into extreame peril, both in respect of your Subiects, by their maner of Go­uernment, & with the machinations which they continually weaue against other Princes; And if euer Emperor or Pope should take Armes against you, you may bee assured to haue all the Princes of Italy, and perhaps of Europe, your Oppo­sites, because the interest of State hath opened their eyes.

Let your Maiestie imagine to ouer-heare all the Italian Potentates, after this manner to discourse among themselues.

Now what doe we doe? Why doe we not oppose him, who with a thousand frauds doth aspire our ruine? The Spa­nyards possesse in Italy, Millan, Naples, and Sicily, besides many lands wrested from poore particular Lords, as Monaco, Piombino, Corregio, and others, and yet are not content; If now they become Masters of the Valteline, whereby they proiect to shut vp the passage of stranger Nations called to our seruice, and to keepe it at pleasure, open to ioyne with theirs, the German forces of the house of Austria.

By this vnion they promise themselues vtterly to bring to nothing the power of the Republique of Venice, the which being remoued, they hope in Italy to finde no other resi­stance: so that thereof they will soone acquire the absolute Monarchy.

Vt sunt impotentia,Iou. Hist. lib. 10. atque imperandi auida ingenia Hispanorum, qui quum semel irrepserint, ad summam semper potentiam cunctis [...]tibus contendunt.

[Page 97] Then would they expect, that the Pope should bee Chap­leyne of the King of Spaine, and we inferiour Seruants of his Royall house; wee are too sure, that this is the Intention of the Spanish Ministers: Already wee see, in what treacherous manner they seeke to effect it, and wee stand still, with our thumbs vnder our girdles: too late we shall repent, if soone wee doe not resol [...]e. Here, returning their thoughts vpon your Maiestie, in whose name your Ministers worke, they pro­ceed, meditating the same conceit in these words.

Phillip King of Macedon, who alwaies with snares, with treacheries, with sacriledge, attentiue to enlarge his Empire, being by the Thebans chosen Captain of their Army against the Phocians, who robbing the Temple of Apollo, with sacred treasures had armed to make warre on Thebes, vnder the show of piety and Religion; readily accepted the charge and Enterprise, and at the first Encounter, ouercame the Ene­my, whence hee was celebrated with Immortoll glory.

Incredibile,Iust. 8. quantum eares apud omnes nationes Philippo glori­am dedit. Illum vindicem sacrilegi [...] illum vltorem religionum. Quod orbis viribus expiari debuit, solum, qui piacula exigeret extitisse dignum. Itaque Diis proximus habetur, per quem Deo­rum Maiestas vindicata sit.

But finding himselfe victorious and powerfull, hee disco­uered his dissembled piety, and feined Religion, breaking his faith with those, who had made him-their Head, and subie­cting that friendly Citie, like an enemy, which had made him a Conquerour.

Veluti timens, ne ab hostibus sacrilegii vinceretur,Iust. paulò infra. Ciuitates quarum paulò ante Dux fuerat, quae sub auspiciis eius militaue­rant▪ quae gratulatae illi sibique victoriam nactae fuerant, hostiliter occupatas, diripuit.

By degrees discord among the Grecians alway encreasing, hee faining to helpe, now one, now the other side, in the end deceiuing all, vsurped to himselfe the whole Dominion of Greece.

Behold now (say the Italian Princes) behold another Phil­lip King of Spaine, wholly like to that of Macedon, who me­ditates [Page 98] nothing else but to subdue Italy, as the other had sub­iected Greece; and entring with the same pretences of Piety and of Religion, vsing the same Arts of Deceit, and Treason, doth propose the same ends of absolute Monarchy, whereby he may, in time, be celebrated with the same Enco­mium as was the other, and it shall be said:

Philippus Rex Hispaniarum, veluti è specula quadam libertati Italiae insidiatus,Iust. ubi supra. dum contentiones Ciuitatum alit, auxilium in­ferioribus ferendo, victos pariter victoresque subire Regiam ser­uitutem coegit.

They conclude the blow is foreseene, we shall be very vn­wise, if we be not able to defend it.

But the English, French, Germanes, and other Nations, doe noe thinke themselues free of the danger, rather they hold for certaine that the progresses of the king of Spaine, in Italy, are preambles to their ruine, and they remember, that the Ro­manes, after the conquest of Italy, did subdue the world; Wherefore our defence is their interest, and wee and they for this common interest, are bound, by common consent, and with vnited forces, to resist, yea to suppresse the Spanish Armies,Va. Max. l. 2. c. 2 quae oppressurae sunt, nisi opprimantur. And if perhaps some doe not beleeue that the Catholique King can haue so greedy desires, let him well consider that which his Prede­cessors haue done to those many Kings, and mighty Princes of India, and from example of others, let him learne to looke vnto him; Foelix quem faciunt aliena pericula cantum. These (O sacred Catholique Maiestie) are the discourses of the Italian Princes, not Chimera's of subtill wits, but extracted from the firme foundation of Histories, and from the Actions dis­couered of your Ministers.

The Religion and Piety is knowne, they are disguises to make the vnuist vsurpation of the Estate of others to appeare faire and honest, and that, in truth, Libido dominandi, causa belli habetur. So Don Petro of Aragon vsurped Sicily, the Ca­tholique Kings India, and Don Phillip the second attempted to get France; vnder the like pretence the Ministers of your Maiestie haue now surprised the Valteline, the which was not [Page 99] otherwise rebelled of their owne will, because it was tyran­nized in Religion, and in the publique gouernement, as is spread abroad, but induced to Rebellion by the Dissentions in [...]idiously sowed by the Ministers of your Maiestie, and by the tyranny which themselues haue introduced, by meanes of those Traitors Pompeio and Rodolfo Planta, and others on them dependant. Your Maiestie becomes deceiued by such as make you otherwise beleeue, & in stead of perswading you to a iust warre against the Turkes, who are your perpetuall enemies, and worke so great spoiles to Christendome▪ particu­larly in your owne Estates, doe from that diuert you, vrging you with termes of Religion, cruelly to destroy with force of Armes the Gri [...]ons, as Heretiques; whose Conuersion should benignely be produced, by the sweetnesse of prea­ching; With this and other euill actions your Ministers with­out any your fault, doe bring great reproach to your Royall name; Wherefore you ought iustly with them to bee enra­ged, and the more, seeing they practizing so wicked actions, seeke to defame all good Princes with detracting words; And if your Maiestie doth not refraine the tongues, and hands of your Ministers, they will yet say, and doe much worse; not onely against Secular Princes, but against himselfe the High-Priest, to whom they desire your Maiestie should be equall & superiour; and that also you should vsurpe the authority of the Holy Ghost in Election of Popes, that they may on you depend. In briefe, they pretend that your Maiesty should be sole and supreame Monarch of all Italy, and doe beleeue, that thereunto the Dominion of the Valteline is the direct way, the which cannot by you iustly bee kept, though it were true, which is not, that of themselues those people had rebelled; but you are obliged to restore it to their owne Lords, hauing no action in any kind vpon them, as a supreame Prince should haue ouer his feudatory. The which if it shall be well considered of your Maiestie, you will know not onely the Iniustice, which your Ministers desire to doe, in snatching against equity, the Estates of others, but also the [Page 100] danger whereinto they thrust your owne Estates in Italy the which being continually gouerned with violence, ex­tortions, and manifest Tyrannies of your Ministers, doe in­duce a necessitie (if they loue their [...]oules health) in the Pope and the Emperour, their supreame Princes, to depriue your Maiestie of the Inuestiture, and to transferre it to ano­ther, who may iustly and mildly gouerne them: And if euer it shall bee thus resolued, your Maiestie shall finde all the I­talian Princes your opposites, who from the surprise of the Valteline, are confirmed in this opinion, that the Spani­ards proiect, suddenly to subdue all Italy; and referring the action of Ministers to your Maiestie, doe conclude, that you certainly aspire, to make your selfe thereof sole Monarch, as in times past Phillip of Macedon did of Greece; and after the Conquest of Italy, that you haue fixed your thoughts vpon the Monarchy of the World, as did once the Romans. Wherefore it is the Common Interest of all the Princes of Europe, to oppose your Armes, that they doe not in this our World, that which your Ancestors haue done in the new world of India.

All these matters I haue hitherto discoursed, and fully de­clared to your Maiestie, not with intent, as others haue done, detractingly to inueigh, to staine your Reputation, and to ex­cite against you vniuersall ha [...]red: but with purpose freely to discouer that truth, which neuer or rarely is brought pure, sincere, and chast, to the eares of Princes; but viola­ted, corrupted, and adulterated, by those, who by indirect wayes, without merit, seeke to acquire Grace.

I know that your Maiestie feares God, loues Iustice, hates Tyrannie, is content with your owne, doth not couet the goods of others, doth prize your owne name; desires Peace, abhorres Warre, wishes the good of your subiects, the quiet of your neighbours, and the concord of Christen­dome. Whence I am secure, that taking in good part my words, and weighing them in the iust ballance of your great prudence, you will not, that Truth, who is the Daughter of [Page 101] God, sent from God, and speakes in the name of God, should returne backe without any fruit; Let your Maiestie then command your Ministers, to change their works, and thoughts, that the Affaires of Italy may be re­duced to quiet and tranquility, and that the World, from the effects, may know, that your Maiestie is a iust Prince, and a true Catholique King.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.