Regimen sanitatis Salerni.

This boke techyng al people to gouerne them in helthe / is translated out of the Latyne tonge in to englishe by Thomas Paynell.

Whiche boke is as profita­ble & as nedefull to be had and redde as any can be to obserue corporall helthe.


To the ryght excellent and honorable lorde Iohū Erle of Oxforde / and hygh chamberlayne of Englande Thomas Paynell gretynge.

REdynge of olde authors and stories my most honorable lorde / I fynde / that mē in tyme past were of lōger lyfe / and of more propsperous helthe / than they are nowe adayes. Whiche thynge as hit greued me / so in maner hit enforced me / to seke the cause of this sodeyne and strāge alteracion. For why / it is written / Gen. v. yt Adam lyued .9 [...]0. yere. The Sibyls of Cumane liued .iii C. wynters: Nestor .iii.C. wynters: Arganton / kynge of Tartesses .iii.C. yeres: and Galen that famous doctor .C. and .xl. yeres: but nowe adays (alas) if a man may aproche to .xl. or .lx yeres / mē repute hym happy and fortunate. But yet howe many come therto? To serche & gyue ye very true reason herof passeth my small capacite: without I may say hit be / bicause we fulfyll nat the com­mandementes of almyghty god: whiche to well wyllyng ꝑsones are very lyght / and of no burden. For our lorde sayth: My yocke is swete / Mat. x [...]. Psal. 127 and my burden lyght to be borne. Sayth nat the prophet Dauid: that who so feareth god / and walketh in his wayes and preceptis / shal se his childers chil­dren? And Salomon sayth: O my childrē / Prouer. 3. forget nat my preceptes & lawes: for they shall kepe you & ꝓlōge your days & yeres. And I wyll (saith our [Page] lorde god by Dauid) lengthen his dayes.Psal. 90. Than may nat this be a reasonable cause of this our so shorte and wretched lyfe? Trewely I suppose hit be by our myslyuynge and fylthy synne? whiche beynge so abominable and so horrible / Cap. quia infirmitas de peni et remis. is at som­tyme the very cause of corporall infirmite / and of short lyfe. Sayd nat our lorde / the phisician of all phisicians / to the sicke man: Nowe I haue heled the / depart thou from hens: and loke thou syn no more / Ioan. 5. lest a worse harme happē vpō the? Or whe­ther shall I say / yt hit chanceth by our mys diete? and to moche surfettynge? Truely the prouerbe sayth / that there dye many mo by surfet / than by the sworde.Ecclesia­stici. 37. Accordyng wherto ye wyse mā sayth: Surfet sleeth many a one: and temperance pro­longeth the life. Surfet and diuersites of meates and drynkes / lettyng and corruptyng the digestiō febleth man / and very oft causeth this shortnes of lyfe.Plin. li. 7 What other thyng but mys diete caused Ptolomeus Philadelphus to be so miserably & peyn­fully vexed with the goute: and so (as hit is writ­ten) that nothyng coude relesse his peyne / sauyng dethe? What caused Antipater / & that noble man Mecenas / to be contynually vexed with the feuer but yll dite? What other thynge infected Aristar­cus with the dropsy / but yl diete? Yll diete (as me thynketh) is chiefcause of all dangerous and in­tollerable diseases: and of the shortenes of mans life. Than hit must nedes folowe / that a tēperate and a moderate diete / prolongeth mans lyfe: and saueth hym from all suche peynfull diseases. And [Page A iij] therfore Asclepiades that noble phisiciā / v. necessa [...] thynges in regiment of helthe. professed There are .v. necessarie thynges to conserue and prolonge mans prosperite and helthe: that is ab­stinence from meate / abstinence from wyne / rub­byng of the body / exercise / and digestiō. O howe holsome is hit than to vse good diete / to lyue tem­peratly / to eschewe excesse of meatis and drinkes?Salerne. Yea howe greatly are we Englishe men bounde to the maisters of the vnyuersite of Salerne (Sa­lerne is in the realme of Naples) whiche vouche­safed in our behalfe to compile thus necessari / and thus holsome a boke? But what auayleth hit / to haue golde or abundance of riches / if one can nat vse hit? What helpeth costely medicines / if one re­ceyue them nat? So what profiteth vs a boke / be hit neuer so expedient and frutefull / if we vnder­stande hit nat? Wherfore I / consydryng the frute yt myght come of this boke / if hit were translated in to the englishe tonge (for why / euery mā vnder­standeth nat the latine) I thought hit very expe­dient at some tymes / for the welthe of vnlerned ꝑ­sones to busy my selfe ther in: For lerned ꝑsones / and suche as haue great experiēce / nede no instru­ctions to diete them selfe / nor to conserue theyr helthe. Yet if suche other wyse and discrete par­sones / as is your lordeshippe / by chance rede this boke: they may ꝑauenture fynde that shall please them: and that besides theyr owne diete and cu­stome of lyuynge / shall be for theyr corporall wel­fare and good helthe. I wyll nat / nor it becometh me nat / to exhorte your lordshyp / with let of other [Page] your great busynesses / to rede this my powre trā ­slacion: but if per chaunce at your leisure ye rede hit / I humbly desyre and praye your good lorde­shyppe to rede hit with forgyuenes / and to accept the same as hit is worthy.

Here foloweth the table.

¶To vnderstande this table / wytteth that euery lettre of the alphabete ī the boke hath iiii. leaues / saue .f. the laste queyre of the small al­phabete / whiche hath .vi. leaues: and euery lefe is .ii. pages or sydes. The nombre that stādeth at the lynes ende / shewethe what page or syde of the queire the thyng is in that ye wolde knowe.

In the queire of .B.
  • ¶Howe one shulde kepe his body in helthe. i.
  • Thre generall remedies to conserue helthe. iii.
  • A speciall medicine for the syght and eies. v.
  • Howe to kepe the tethe frō stynche and ache. vii.
  • Hurtis that growe of the after noone slepe. viii.
In the queire of .C.
  • Yet of the hurtis of the after noone slepe. i.ii.iii.
  • The hurtes that be engendred by longe holdyng or reteynyng of wynde in the body. iiii.
  • To make a lyght souper: and whether we shulde eate more at dyner or at souper. vi.
In the queire of .D.
  • How we shuld nat eate tyl we haue nede & lust. iii.
  • That prolongynge of tyme at meate is hurtfull / and howe longe we shuld sytte at dyner. vi.
  • [Page]Whether eatyng of peches be good or no. vi.
  • Whether eatynge of peares be good or no. vii.
  • Whether eatyng of apuls be holsome or no. viii.
In the queyre of .E.
  • Whether eatynge of mylke be holsome or no. i.
  • To chose mylke / and what mylke is best. ii.
  • Whether eatyng of chese be holsome or no. iii.
  • Eatyng of salte meate or smoke dryed. iii.
  • Whether eatyng of hartis fleshe / hare fleshe / got­tis fleshe / and oxe fleshe be holsome or no. iiii.
  • How to choce fleshe: and the goodnes of porke. v.
In the queyre of .F.
  • The variance of phisicians in choyce of fleshe. i.
  • What fleshe shulde be sodde and what rosted. ii.
  • What meates norishe most / and fyrst of egges. ii.
  • How many & the best ways yt egges be dressed. iii.
  • Of redde wyne: howe wynes vary in colour. v.
  • The operacion of wynes / and for whom whiche wyne is beste / for coolyng of thyrste / hete / and for norishynge and fattyng of the body. vi.vii.viii.
In the queyre of .G.
  • Of suppynges or brothes made of good fleshe. i.
  • Of bread: choyce of wheate: & of butt mylke. ii.
  • Of gottis mylke / grene chese / cockes stones / porke / and eatynge of braynes. iii.
  • What braynes are beste / and what marie. iiii.
  • Why delicious meates be good / of rere egges / ri­pe fygges / and whiche figges be best to eate. v.
  • Of thoperaciō of grapes: & whiche be the best. vi.
  • By what tokens we may knowe good wyne. viii.
In the queyre of .H.
  • [Page]What hurtes be engendred by swete meates. iii.
  • What hurtes are engendredde by the ouer moche drynkynge of redde wyne. v.
  • Remedies agaynst poyson / & fyrst of garlyke. vii.
In the queyre of .I.
  • Wherfore eatyng of lykes and oynions is good. i.
  • Wherfore eatyng of garlyke and nuttis is good / and what diseases eatyng of nuttis bredeth. ii.
  • Wherfore rue is holsom / and .ii. kyndes therof. iii.
  • Of peares: and of radishe rootes. iiii.
  • Of triacle. and choyce of holsome ayre. v.
  • What is to be done / whan one is diseased or sicke by drynkyng of wyne ouer nyght. viii.
In the queyre of .K.
  • What hurtes are engendred of dronkennes. i.
  • Fyue bonties of wyne moderately dronke. ii.
  • The propretes of melancoly and of wyne. iii.
  • vii. doctrines to chose wyne. iiii.
  • Howe we shulde chose good ale or bere. vii.
In the queyre of .L.
  • Diete after the .iiii. seasons of the yere. i.
  • Why we shuld eate lyttell meate ī somer / and why we ought to eschew eatyng of frute in autūne. iii.
  • What herbes be holsome to put in our drynke. v.
  • A remedy for parbrakynge on the see. vi.
  • Howe we may make a cōmon sauce. viii.
In the queyre of .M.
  • Of dyuers good sauces for sondry meates. i.
  • Wherfore we ought to washe after meate. ii.
  • To chose breadde: eatynge of hotte bread: and of fyue propretes of good breadde. iii.
  • [Page]The comparasion betwene porke and mutton. v.
  • What hurtes muste or newe wynes bredeth. vi.
  • What hurtis are engēdred by drȳking of wat. vii.
In the queyre of N.
  • What veale / and what foules are best to eate. iiii.
In the queyre of O.
  • To chose fishe / and of .x. sortes most holsome. i.
  • What condicions good fishe ought to haue. iii.
  • What tyme and who shulde nat eate fishe. vi.
  • Howe we shuld eate & drynke at dyner & souꝑ. viii
In the queyre of P.
  • What tyme and howe peasen be holsome. i.
  • To chose mylke .iiii. The propretes of butter. vi.
  • Propretes of whey .vii. The ꝓpretes of chese. viii
In the queyre of Q.
  • The absolute reprofe of the vse of chese. i.
  • To drynke lyttell and ofte at meate / and howe we shulde begynne our souper with drynke. ii.
  • Why we shuld drynke after eatyng of an egge. iii.
  • Of a nut megge. And wherfore we shulde drynke wyne after eatyng of peares. iiii.
  • Eatynge of cheries .vi. What prunes are best. vii
  • For what cause we drynke wyne with peches. viii
In the queyre of R.
  • Wherfore playsters made of figges are good. i.
  • A playster made of figges and popie sede. i.
  • What eatynge of figes engendreth. ii.
  • For what cause eatyng of medlars is good. ii.
  • The propretes of muste or newe wyne. iii.
  • The .viii. propretes of good ale or bere. iiii.
  • What vtilite cometh by eatyng of rapes. vi.
  • [Page]Of the hart and mawe of beastes. vii.
  • Of the tonge and lyghtes of beastes: and for what the brayne of an henne is good. viii.
In the queyre of .S.
  • Wherfore eatyng of fenell sede is good. i.
  • Wherfore anise sede is good: in the place wherof dylle is wrytten / for the whiche dylle ye muste rede anise. ii.
  • The vertue of Spodium / and what thyng it is. ii.
  • Of salt / and the holsomenes therof. iii.
  • The hurtes that very salt meates engēdreth. iiii.
  • The qualites of all talages / salte / swete / bytter / sharpe / tert / sower / tough / and suche lyke. v.
  • For what cause wyne soppes ben holsome. viii.
In the queyre of .T.
  • Why we ought to kepe diete or custome. i.
  • Thre maner of dietes / and whiche they be. iii.
  • What and howe many thynges the phisiciā shuld consydre whan he ministreth diete. iiii.
  • Wherfore colewortes and theyr brothe is good. vi.
  • The propretes and effectis of mallowes. viii.
  • Of a mynte / and why it shulde be so called. viii.
In the queyre of .U.
  • The bontie and vtilite of sage. i.
  • Of the vertue of sage / and of sage wyne. ii.
  • Two kyndes of sage / and whiche is the best. iii.
  • What are the effectes or propretes of rewe. v.
  • Howe to kylle and rydde the house of fleas. v.
  • Of oynions / and of theyr sondry operacions. vi.
  • The complexion of mustarde sede. viii.
  • What are ye propretes or effectes of violettes. viii.

Regimen sanitatis.

Anglorum regi scripsit schola tota salerni.
Si vis incolumem / si vis te reddere sanum
Curas tolle graues. Irasci crede prophanum.
Parce mero. cenato parum. non sit tibi vanum
Surgere post epulas. somnum fuge meridianum.
Non mictum retine. non comprime fortiter anum.
Hec bene si serues / tu longo tempore viues.

THis littell boke was compiled at the instance & for the vse of the moste noble and victorious kynge of Englande / and of Frāce / by the doctours and phisitians of the vniuersite of Salerne / to conserue and kepe mans body in good helthe and prosperite. The auctor in the be­gynnynge of this boke teacheth .viij. generall do­ctrines / whiche here after be specified and also de­clared. The firste doctrine is to eschewe & auoide (if we desyre corporall helthe) greatte charges / thought and care. For thoughte drieth vp mans boby / hurtynge and leauynge the spiritis in deso­lation and comfortles: whiche so lefte / and full of of heuines drieth vp the bones. In this doctrine be cōprehended melancolynes and heuines / whi­che greatly hurte the body: for by their operation the body waxeth lene and colde / the hatte shryn­kethe vp / the wytte and vnderstandynge cometh dulle / the reason troubled / & the memorie vtterly marred. Yet neuerthelesse / it is very expedient for fatte and corsye folke to be some tyme pensyue and heuy / that there by they may moderate the ranke [Page] heate of their spiritis / and make their bodies lea­ner and more sklender. The seconde doctrine is / to eschewe anger. For anger in lyke maner drieth vp the body / and excessiuely chaffeth & inflameth the membres. And to greatte heate (as writethe Auicen in the firste dist. and fyrste chap. of the .iij. doctrine) drieth vp mans body. Secondly anger hurtethe by the heate and inflāmation of mans harte / and lettethe also the operations of reason. Some there be that naturally / or by sickenes / or chance of poyson / are colde: for suche folke to be angrye is verye necessary for their bodily helthe / that their naturall hete by suche meanes may be stered vp / gotten / and kepte. The thirde doctrine is to eate and drynke sobrely: for eatynge & dryn­kȳge excessiuely causeth vs to be vnlusty / drousy / & slouthfull / hurtynge & infeblynge the stomake. Many other inconuenientises (as saith Auicen in the chap. of wyne and water) groweth and chan­ceth throughe excesse of meates and drynkes / as here after shall be declared. The .iiij. doctrine is / to make a lyght souper. For to moche meate takē at nyght causeth and ingendreth gnawynge and payne in the bealye / vnquietnes / let of naturall rest / and other grefes / whiche we fele and se by ex­periēce: the whiche here after shalbe more playn­lye declaredde. The .v. doctrine is to walke after meate. For therby the meate discēdeth to the bot­tum of the stomake / where (as Auicen sayth) re­stethe the vertue of digestion. For the mouthe of the stomake desireth foode / and maketh digestiō. [Page B ij] The .vj. doctrine is to eschewe slepe incōtinent af­ter meate / whiche causeth helthe and auoideth di­uers infirmities / as hit is after shewed in these verses: Febris / pigrities &c. The .vij. doctrine is to make water as ofte as nedethe: For who that ke­peth or holdethe his water longer than nature re­quirethe / shall auoide it with great peyne: and so hit may chance that dethe shall folowe / as Auicen saith in his .xix. dist. li.iij. and chaptre of the diffi­culte of makynge of water. Also to kepe the dreg­ges and superfluite of mans foode longer thā na­ture requireth / ingendreth many incōuenientises in the body. For the liuer and veynes called mese­raikes / drie vp (for the moste parte) the humors of the forsayd superfluite / and so made hard / can nat be auoided: and thus causethe opilations in the guttis and ventosites / and (so it may chance) impostumes: as after shall be shewed. The .viij. doctrine is / that one doynge his easement and a­uoydyng ordeurs and filth of the body / shuld nat moche inforce and constrayne his fundement: for so doinge the emerardes & fistule shal greue hym / and the fundemēt many tymes is mysordred and thrust out of his propre & naturall place. Finally thauctor saythe / that who so wyll obserue the for­sayde doctrines / shall lyue longe in good helthe and prosperite.

Si tibi defitiunt medici / medici tibi fiant
Hec tria. mens leta / requies / moderata dieta.

Here thauctor gyuethe .iij. generall remedies to conserue in helth al creatures / and specially noble [Page] men. The firste is to lyue ioyfullye: for ioye and myrthe causeth man to be yonge and lustye. By moderate ioy and myrthe youth is conserued / na­turall vertue cōforted / the witte sharped / & therby man is more prompt / quicke / and of abilite to do all good and honest operation. Nor it is nat sayde without a cause that our ioy and myrthe muste be moderate. For whan it is without measure / it in­gendreth dethe bothe bodilye and goostlye. This moderate ioy is mooste conuenient for them that haue moche care and trouble. Whiche ioy may begotte by the vse of delicate meates and drynkes / by auoidynge of suche thynges as ingendre me­lancoly. And also (as Auicen sayth in his .xj. boke & chap. of faylynge of mans harte) by dwellynge and accompanyng amonge our frendes. The .ij. remedy is trāquillite of mynde / of vnderstādyng / and of thoughte. For noble men throughe theyr great busynes and charges / are moche more gre­ued & troubled thā other meane persones. Great care of mynde and vnderstandyng distroyeth the natural rest of man / most expedient for noble mē / whiche moste cōmonly are naturally drye and co­lerike: for whom rest is ryght profitable and con­uenient. The .iij. remedy is moderate diete / that is to eate and drynke moderately. And after shall be declared what inconueniences growe through excesse of meates and drynkes.

Lumina mane manus surgens gelida lauet vnda.
Hac illac modicum pergat. modicum sua membra
Extendat. crinem pectat. dentes fricet. ista
[Page B iij]Confortant cetebrum / confortant cetera membra.
Lote cale / sta / pasce / vel infrigisce minute.

Here are declared .vj. doctrines / whiche conforte mans brayne & the other membres of the bodye. The fyrst is whan we ryse in the mornynge yarly to wasshe our eies with clere colde water. The e­ies wolde be wasshed to clēse away the ordure and fylthynes that hange in the bries of them. And Auicen saythe in the .xiij. dist. of his .iij. boke / and chap. of conseruacion of the eies / that the souerāst thyng to mundifie and clense / and to make sharpe of syght the eies / is to open them / for the eies. and so to put & plunge them in clere water. And agayne he sayth in the .iij. dist. and chaptre of feble syghte / that to bathe and plunge the eies in clere water / & therin to open them / cōforteth and concerueth the sight / and specially of yonge folke. The reason why the eies muste be clensed with colde water / is bycause euerye thynge muste be conserued by that that is lyke hit. For Galen in his .iij. boke de reg. saythe / that hotte bodies haue nede of hotte medicins / & colde bodies colde medicins: Considerynge than that mans eies be colde of nature: hit standethe with reasō / they shulde be washed with colde wa­ter & nat with hotte. The .ij. doctrine is to washe our handes whan we be vp in the mornynge / for they be intrumentes ordeyned to kepe & to mun­difie the membres / by the whiche the suꝑfluites of the brayne be expulsed and auoided / as by the nostrils / the eies / the eares / and other naturall conditis. And therfore the hādes specially oughte [Page] to be washed with colde water / for the washynge of the handes with hotte water engendreth wor­mes in the bealy: and specially to washe them in hotte water incontinent after meate / as Auicen saythe in the .xvj. dist. of his .iij. boke / the .v. trea­tice / the chap. of wormes. For the wasshynge of handes in hotte water incontinent after meate / draweth the inwarde and naturall heate of man to the exterior partis / and so the digestion is vnꝑ­fet: the whiche vnꝑfet digestion is the principall cause that wormes be engendred. The thirde do­ctrine is to rome a lytell hither and thyther whan we are rysen from reste / that so the superfluites of the stomake / guttes / & lyuer (as the grosse mat­ter of the vrine) may ye spediler be thruste vnder. The .iiij. doctrine is competently after reste to ex­tende and stretche out our handes / fete / and other lymmes / that the lyfely spiritis may come to the exterior partis of the bodye / and so cause the spi­ritis of the brayne to be more quicke and subtile. The .v. doctrine is to combe our heed in the mor­nynge / to open the pores of the heed / to auoide su­che vapours as yet by slepe were nat consumed: and also to quickē the spiritis of the brayne. Far­ther more to combe the heed is very holsome / and specially for aged mē. And Auicen saith in the .iij. dist. of his .iiij. boke / and chap. of feble sight / that to cōbe the heed is holsome / specially for olde men. Therfore one shulde dayly & ofte combe his heed. For ofte combyng draweth vp the vapours to the superior partis / and so seperateth them from the [Page] eies. The .vj. doctrine is to washe and purge the tethe. For the filthynes of the tethe causethe the brethe to stynke. And of the filthynes of the tethe growethe certeyne vapours / that greatly anoye the brayne. Farther more the filthynes of ye tethe myngled with thy meate / causethe the meate to putrifie in the stomake. Auicen in his .vij. dist. of the .iij. boke and chap. of cōseruacion of the tethe / for the tethe. teacheth how we may kepe the tethe from ache & stynche. That is to washe the mouthe with wyne twyse a moneth: but to make the brethe swete / it muste be boyled with the roote of spurge. Who so euer vsethe the forsayde decoction & medicine shall neuer haue the tothe ache. In the laste verse are certeine generall rules: The first is that after we haue washed and bathed our selfe / we muste kepe vs warme: For than the cunditis of the bodye / that is the pores / bene open: wherby colde wyll perce in to the bodye / and ingendre in vs diuers diseases. The .ij. is / that after we haue dyned or taken our repast / we muste for a whyle stande vp ryghte / that so the meate may discende to the bot­tum of the stomake / and thā walke a litel softely: for hasty mouynge driueth naturall hete from the interior partes to the outwarde / and causeth il di­gestion. The .iij. is / that one of colde complexion shulde nat warme hym selfe to sodaynly / but lytell and lytell. for sodayne change hurteth nature: as Galen sayth in the glo [...]e of this canon: Secundum multum et repente &c. All stronge thynges and of ex­treme nature corrupt the body.

Sit breuis aut nullus tibi somnus meridianus.
Febris / pigrities / capitis dolor / at (que) catarrus
Hec tibi proueniunt ex somno meridiano.

Here are declared .iiij. incōuenientices engēdred by after none slepe. Fyrst the after none slepe cau­seth and ingēdreth feuers by reason of opilatiōs. For the naturall hete and spirite of man by daye draweth to the outwarde partes of the body: and therfore digestion by day is but feble: But whan naturall heate and spiritis of mā drawe to the in­warde partis of the bodye: than throughe theyr motion naturall heate is stered vp: and therfore the nyght is the very season of perfite digestion: and the vndigested & rawe humours are ye cause of opilations / whiche opilations engēdre feuers / as Auicen saythe in the .j. dist. li.iiij. and chap. of putrifaction. Secondly after none slepe causethe man to be slouthfull in his operations & busines / by the reason afore sayde / for grosse humours and vndigested cause mans spiritis slowelye to moue the bodye: For as a subtile quicke spirite causeth lyghtnes of body / so a lumpishe spirite causeth a sluggishe boby.cause of heed ache. Thyrdly / the after none slepe en­gēdreth heed ache: For the grosse and vndigested meate that remayneth in the stomake lyfte vp to the brayne grosse vapours / whiche trouble hit. And of very cōsequens / if vapours of gros mat­tier be stered vp & caused / they must also be gros. For Galen saythe in the glose of this aphorisme: qui crescunt &c. that hit muste nedes folowe / that all thynges be lyke those thynges / of whom they be [Page C] engendred. The .iiij. incōuenience is the pose and reume. Reumes be humours that rounne from one membre to an other / and as they rounne in di­uers partis of the bodye / so they haue diuers na­mes. For whan the reume cometh to the lightes / they be called catarri: and whan they discende to the chekes / they be called branchus: and whan they come to the nose / they are called corizam: as appereth by these verses:

Si fluit ad pectus / dicatur reuma catarrus /
Ad fauces branchus / ad nares dico corizam.

But besides the reasōs of the diseases before re­hersed / there be many other reasons / and more ef­fectuell. The cause of the first incōueniēce / that is of feuers / whiche some tyme are called putrified feuers / and some tyme feuers effimeres. A feuer effimere is engēdred of vapours and smudge fu­mes kept and reteined after the after noone slepe / the whiche absteynynge from slepe is wont to cō ­sume. The forsaide smudge fumes mixyng them selfe with mans spiritis engendre an vnordinate and a strāge feuer called effimere. The putrified feuer is ingengdred of the humidites in man vn­digested / and augmēted by the after noone slepe. The .ij. inconuenience that is to be slowe in opera­tion and motions / chanceth by reason that by the after noone slepe the humidites and fumes in mā are reteined about ye muskyls / veynes / & iointis / and causeth the forsayde membres to be astonyed and a slepe: and therfore the bodye after dyner is slowe and heuy in operations. The thyrde incon­uenience [Page] (that is the heed age) cometh / as is be­fore declared in the .ij. incōueniēce: that is to say / by the humidites & vapours reteined in the body throughe slepe and rest: whiche by suche meanes are troubled and moued towarde the brayne / and so cause the heed age. The .iiij. inconuenience is (that is the catarr̄) signyfyenge al maner of reu­mes / chanceth to man and vexeth hym / through vapours and fumes / whiche are wonte to be dis­solued & cōsumed by watche / by slepe they drawe to the inwarde partis of mā / and fume vpwarde towarde the brayne: whiche fumes ingrossed by colde / retourne to the lowe partis caterrisans of mans bodye. Auicen in the .xiii. dist. li.j. in the .ij. doctrine and .ix. chap. allegeth many other incon­ueniencis & diseases engendred of the after noone slepe. The firste disease is the goute and palsey. Whiche greue vs / by reason that the humidites / that are wonte to be dried vp and cōsumed by the heate of the sonne / and by watche remayne styll in the body. The seconde is the color / and corrup­tion of the face / through the wattrishe humidites lyke vnto mans vrine myngled with the bludde / whiche are wonte to be wasted by watche / yt nowe with the bludde they ascende towarde the brayne & the face / and cause it to swelle / and to waxe pale. The thirde incōuenience is / that after noone slepe ingendreth the splene / and that by the kepynge in of the grosse melancoly humours by the day rest. For as watche with the heate of the day (whiche do open) gyueth mouynge and way to melancoly [Page C ij] humours / by the strayte cundites of the body: so the daye slepe letteth and distroyeth the passages and ꝓpre wayes of them: & specially it destroyeth the cundites / yt come from the splene to the mouth of the stomake / made to prouoke mans appetite / by whiche cundite all melancoly superfluites are wonte cōmonly to be clarified. The .iiij. is / that after noone slepe mollifieth the veynes / by cause the humedites / whiche are wonte to be desolued by the day watche / can nat be resolued: whiche so remaynynge in mans body drie vp the veynes. The .v. incōuenience is / that mā by reason of rest or slepe / losethe his appetite / for lacke of humors resolution: whiche resolution is chiefe and princi­pall cause of ye appetite. An other reason is the re­plenisshynge of the stomake by fumes and humi­dites / mollifieth and fyllethe the mouthe therof. The .vi. incōuenience / that after noone slepe doth engendre / is impostumes / by meanes of humidi­tes encreased by ye day slepe / whiche drawe to one membre or other / and so cause it to swelle. Auicen sayth / that besides all these aforsayde / there be .ij. other speciall causes / that proue the after noone slepe to be hurtfull. The fyrst is / that the day rest is soone corrupted / bycause the heate of the daye draweth the corporall heate to the exterior partis of man: but the nyght rest dothe clene contrarie / for it draweth the corporall heate of man towarde the inwarde partis. Of the whiche two motions there is engendred a violent mocion that distour­bethe nature. And therfore they that wyll slepe & [Page] rest them by day: are counsayled to slepe in darke places / and in the shadowe. The .ij. cause is that the day reste maketh a man vnlusty / drousy / and as halfe a ferde / and that by the changynge of na­ture from his olde custome / that is from digestiō of his meate: yet nat withstandynge that the af­ter noone rest is generally dispreysed / & the nyght reste greatly cōmended and preysed / yet the slepe that is taken in the mornyng from .iij. houres be­fore the sonne rysynge / tyll .iij. of the clocke after ye sonne is rysen / is nat to be dispreysed: As Hippo­crates saith in his .ij. boke of pronostic. Slepe cō ­uenient and naturall taken by nyght or by day is allowable / and contrarie is hurtfull: but the mor­nynge slepe of all the day is lest worthy dispreise. And all be hit the day slepe and at after noone are forbyden by olde fathers and doctours / yet for all that / nowe adayes slepe taken in the day tyme is nat greatly to be blamed specially as Bartrutius saythe / if these .v. condicions therin be diligently obserued. The fyrst is / if hit be customably vsed: The .ij. that it be nat taken immediatly after dy­ner. The .iij. that one slepe nat with a lowe heed. The .iiij. nat to slepe to lōge. The .v. nat to be wa­ked sodeynly & ferfully / but with good moderatiō.

Quatuorex vento veniunt in ventre retento.
Spasmus. hydrops. colica / vertigo. quatuor ista.

Here are declared .iiij. inconueniences that come by to longe holdynge of wynde in mans bodye. The fyrst is called the crampe. The ventosites of the body / ronne ofte amonge the iointes & veynes [Page C iij] fyllynge them with wynde. Qf the whiche fyl­lynge cōmethe retraction and wrynkelynge to ge­ther of the veynes. And Auicen saythe in his .ij. dist. the crampe is a disease that lyethe in the vey­nes: by the whiche the membres of man moue & extende them selfe. This crampe is diuers: one is caused by replenyshynge: wherby the membre is made shorte and great / and wrynkelynge to ge­ther as lether / or a harpe strynge / throughe the matter / replenyshynge the mēbres. This kynde of crampe cometh sodaynely. There is a nother kynde of the crampe moche lyke a taboret: whi­che inforceth the membre after his lengthe & lar­genes to crompull to gether like parchement cast in the fire. This kynde of crampe cometh slowly. The seconde incōuenience is called the dropsye / a materiall disease engēdred of mattier ryght colde entrynge and inflatynge the membres or places of mans body / in whiche is the regiment / that is the digestion of meates and humours as the sto­make / the lyuer / and the voide places about the bealye. For dropsye neuer engendreth / but whan the lyuer is corrupt by reasō of the bludde. There be .iij. spices of dropsy. Iposarca / asclides / & tym­panites: & of the tympany this .ij. incōueniēce is vnderstande. A tympany (as sayth maister Bar­truce) is ingēdred of ill cōplextion / by coldenes of the stomake / & lyuer / nat sufferyng mans drynke or meate to be cōuerted in to good humours / but tourneth them in to ventosites / whiche if they be auoyded by belchynge / by sweate / or other wyse / [Page] they wyll stoppe the wayes of voidāce. Also these ventosities gether to gyther betwene the places of the bealye called mirac / and siphax / and there ingendreth the dropsy. The .iij. inconuenience / is called the colike / a perillous & a paynefull disease / it ingendreth in a gutte named colon. Like as the disease called ilica / is ingendred in one of the gut­tes called ylion. And these .ij. diseases are ingen­dred by ventosites closed in the guttes. The .iiij. inconuenience and disease is the heed ache called vertigo: whiche maketh a man to wene that the worlde turneth: the ventosites of the brayne cau­seth this infirmite: whiche drawē to the brayne / & myxte with the lyuely spiritis / causeth the heed age called vertigo. Auicen in his .xvj. dist. reher­seth these inconueniēces with other: and he sayth that ventosites kepte longe / cause and ingendre the colicke / by reason they assende and gether to gether / feblysshynge the guttes. And some tyme ingendreth the dropsye: and some tyme darkenes of syght / and some tyme the megryme / and some tyme the fallynge yuel / and some tyme it runneth in to the ioyntes and causeth the crampe.

Ex magna cena / stomacho fit maxima pena
Vt sit nocte senis / sit tibi cena breuis.

Here we be taughte to make a lyght souper. For to moche meate lettethe mans naturall reste / and causeth anguyshe & gnawyng in the bealy / & cau­seth the face to breake out: & maketh one to haue a heuye heed in the mornynge / and an vnsauerye mouthe. Here this question cometh well to pour­pose. [Page] Whether a man shulde eate more at dyner or at soupper? For a diffinicion here of / it is to be no­ted: that after the quantite of the bodye more or lesse / meate is conuenient at soupper / or at dyner. For other the bodyes be holle and sounde / orelles sycke. If they be sycke eyther incline to materiall sickenes / or to vnmateriall: If ye sickenes be nat caused through some humour: one may eate the more at soupper: bicause in suche sickenesses / na­ture only endeuereth to digeste the meate. If the sickenes be materiall / one maye eate the more at diner / as it is declared in the .iiij. treatise in the .v. chap. of the curation of fallynge sickenes on this wyse: He that can nat be sufficed with one repast in a day / bicause he is other wyse accustomed / he must deuide his meate in thre partis / and eate .ij. partis at dyner / and the other parte after tempe­rate exercise at soupper. The reasō here of is this: For in suche sesonne ye feble nature hath helpe by the naturall heate of the sonne to digest / and the superfluites there by are more resolued / wherfore the refection shulde be larger at diner thā at soup­per. And more ouer bycause the heate of the day / whiche causeth digestion / ioyneth with the natu­rall heate of mans body: and so by day are .ij. son­drye heates to helpe the digestion: but it is nat so in the nyghte. Lyke wyse nature endeuereth by night to digest the suꝑfluites. Therfore it shulde nat be hyndred to digest with to moche meate. And though it be so that the naturall heate of mā be in many thynges fortified in the nyght: as by [Page] retraction of the spiritis and reductiō of slepe: yet that selfe heate can nat digest .ij. diuers thynges / as the meate / & the suꝑfluites. Than it foloweth that suche folke shulde eate lesse at souper. If the bodyes of suche seme hole / or elles be verye hole / stronge / & without any sensibilite of superfluites / auoydynge all through theyr vigour / as myghty bygge men: suche may eate more at soupper. For the nature of these bodies / labour only by nyghte to digest the meate receyued: and nat to rype the superfluites: for in a maner they haue none. Also they labour onely to fortifie theyr bodies / whiche waxethe more stronger by nyghte / than by daye: bicause the bludde and corporall spiritis be ingen­dred by nyght in a more quantite / and better deui­ded throughe out the bodye. If the bodies be nat greatly disposed / as is rehersed: but are disposed to be lyghtly sicke: Than whether they trauayle and labour sore cōtinually with theyr armes and handes or nat: hit is best they eate more at dyner than at soupper. For meate is nat onely taken to norishe & restore ye body: but also to make moyste / to ouer sprynkylle and water the membres / that through great labour and trauaile they waxe nat drie: and lyke wyse to withstāde the dissolution of naturall heate. Nor suche trauayle & labour let­teth nat theyr true digestion. For we se by experi­ence / that they eate twyse or thryse in a daye with good appetite / and good digestion. If the bodies be nat apte nor disposed to labour cōtinually / as ye bodies afore rehersed: hit may chance .ij. wayes: [Page D] For either they labour very sore / but nat continu­ally: or they labour febly: wherby suꝑfluites en­creace. They that trauayle moche: as in rydȳge or goynge aboute theyr worldlye busynes / shulde eate more at soupper than at dyner: bycause the vnaccustomed great trauaile wolde nat suffre the meate taken at dyner to digest / but corrupte hit. Yea and farther through superfluous mocion the naturall heate is disolued / & spredde in euery mē ­bre of the body: whiche in the nyghte draweth to the inwarde partis of the body / and is the princi­pall cause of good digestion. And therfore a good and a large soupper is more expedient for them / than a large dyner. Also the same ꝑsons were nat brought vp before this sesonne in suche great tra­uayle: and therfore theyr bodyes are full of humi­dites: whiche lyttell meate at dyner maye resyste ye resolutions caused by great motions & trauaile. But in case they trauaile lyttell and easelye by the way / to eate more at dyner thā at soupper is best: as hit is declared in sicke bodies / for they most cō ­monly are feble bothe of cōplection & of digestion / and the heate and lyght of the sonne cōforte theyr naturall heate and spiritis. Also the reason herof is this / the corporall cūdites and passages by day are open: wherfore the suꝑfluites of the body are sooner expulsed by daye than by nyghte. Farther they ought to eate but lyttell meate by nyght: for thā nature is greatly occupied to digest rawe hu­mours: the whiche slepe must digest and brynge to good poynt. And though the digestion to digest and [Page] great repletions of meates / and the superfluous humours be holpe by the night. Yet neuer ye lesse / the streingthynge therof is nat sufficiēt to digest great repletions of meates / and also superfluous humours. And weteth well / ye custome in eatȳge moche or lyttell at dyner or soupper / oughte to be regarded / and kepte. For custome is good and ne­cessary / for helthe of ye body / and to cure sickenes: as appereth .li.ij. of sharpe diseases. For sodeyne change of custome is very hurtfull / and specially for olde folkes. For nature can nat beare nor yet suffre sodeyne mutation. And thus it is well pro­ued / that we ought to eate more at dyner than at soupper: and that bicause sickenesses are most cō ­monly materialles / yet for all that / if a man coude be contented with one repast in a day / it were bet­ter to take it at soupper / than at dyner: so that he be nat diseased in the eies / or the brayne: for than it were better to take it at dyner / than at soupper. For the repletion of the soupper / hurtethe sore the brayne and the eies. And witteth well that nat o­nely the repletion of the soupper / hurteth the sto­macke / but also al maner of other repletions. For they ingendre opylations / feuers / putrifactions / the lepre / and vndigested humours. And Auicen (in the .xiij. dist. of his .iij. boke / and chap. of thin­ges that hurte the stomake) sayth / that al maner of repletions hurt the stomake: nor ye great eater by repletion augmenteth nat his bodye / for he di­gesteth nat his meate: but he that eateth mode­rately / hath alwayes some appetite / & increaseth [Page D ij] his body: for he digesteth well his meate. Ther­fore we ought to take good hede we hurte nat our stomake by ouer moche repletion: nor yt we make nat our selfe poursye / and the pulse to beate more vehemently. In lyke maner repletion that ingē ­dreth lothynge of meate / ought principally to be eschewed / but specially whan it cometh of ill mea­tes. For if hit come by ill meates / hit ingendreth payne in the ioyntes / in the raynes / in the liuer / and the goute: and generally al other fleumatike diseases. And if it come by clene meates: it ingē ­dreth sharpe feuers / and hotte impostumes. It foloweth than that this repletion muste be esche­wed aboue al other. For it greueth both soule and body. Secondly we muste take hede we ouer fylle nat our stomakes: and vtterly distroye our appe­tite: but we muste kepe some appetite: and speci­ally they that haue a strōge and a good appetite. Some there be that haue a feble appetite / & these ought to eate more than their appetite requireth.

Tu nun (quam) comedas / stomachum nisi noueris ante
Purgatum / vacuum (que) [...]ibo quem sumpseris ante
Ex desiderio poteris cognoscere certo
Hec tria sunt signa subtilis in ore dieta.

Here are certeine cōmandementes / whiche man desyrynge helth / muste of necessite obserue & kepe more duely than eate or drynke. The fyrste is / he shulde eate no maner of meates / without his sto­make be net / and purged of all yll humours / by vomet or other cōuenient wayes. For if a man re­ceyue meate with corrupte humours in to his sto­make: [Page] they wyll myngle them selfe to gether and cause the meate newely eaten to corrupt. The se­conde is / to eate no more tyll the fyrst meate eaten be digested and auoyded out of the stomake. For there is nothynge more hurtfull to mans bodye / than to caste meate vpon meate nat digested / but only begunne to be digested. For the meate last ta­ken / shall let the digestiō of that yt was first eaten: and the digestion of the meate firste taken / shalbe first finyshed: whiche departeth to the lyuer by ye veines called miseraikes / and therewith cariethe the meate laste taken nat yet well digested. Wher­of rawe humours and vndigested be multiplied in mans bodye. Farther in the texte are put .ij. to­kens / to knowe whan the stomake is voide of the meate before taken. The fyrste is verye hunger. And for a knowlege hereof / witteth well yt there is ij. maner of hungers / very hunger / and feyned hunger. Very hunger is discriued by Galen in ye cōment of the canon of the aphorisme / Indigentia non oportet &c. Very hunger (saythe he) is whan a man nedeth meate: But fayned hunger is an ap­petite to haue meate / thoughe the bodye hath no nede therof. And as verye hunger cometh by con­traction and corrugation of the veynes procedȳge from the mouthe of the stomake / by sugillation of the membres nedynge meate: so in lyke wyse fey­ned hunger is wonte to be caused of them that cō ­strayne that they shulde ꝓuoke the mouthe of the stomake / the membres hauyng no nede of foode / as by colde thynges harde or sharpe. And of this [Page D iii] signe & .ij. precept precedent / Auicen .iij.j. doct .ij. cap. de eo quod &c. saythe: No man ought to eate but after he hath a luste: Nor he shulde nat tarye longe therin / whan lust pricketh / onles it be a fey­ned luste / as the luste of kronkers / or suche whose stomake aborrethe meate: For to endure hunger longe fylleth ye stomake with putrified humours. And after in the same chap. he saythe: That who so euer loue their helth / shulde neuer eate tyll they haue a sure luste: nor tylle theyr stomake and vp­permoste entrayles / be voided of the fyrste foode. For the dangerust thinge that may chance mans body / is to receiue meate vpon dndigested meate. The .ij. that signifieth true luste / or very hunger / is sklendre diete precedēt: that is small sustināce before taken: for whā hunger foloweth there vpō it is verye true hunger. Farther more knowe ye / that to eate moche and of sondry meates mixed to gether at one repaste or refection / is worste of all: as fleshe and fishe / chekyns and porke: and after to ꝓlonge the tyme in eatyng: For the first meate begynnethe nowe to digest / whan the other are brought to the table: and so the partis of ye meate are vnlyke in digestion: So that the fyrste taken are digested / or the last taken come to the myddes of theyr digestynge: And this causethe that some partis corrupt other some. And this thyng Auicē iij.j. doct. cap. ij. de eo &c. warneth / sayeng: There is nothynge more dangerous than to myngle di­uers sustinances to gether: and after to prolonge the tyme in eatynge. For whan the laste meate is [Page] receyued / the fyrste is welnere digested. Therfore the said meates in diuers of theyr partis (as tou­chȳg digestion) be nat lyke. But yet witteth well / that prolongynge of tyme in eatynge moderately (as an houre space) to chawe and swolowe our meate well / [...]lōginge [...]ne at [...]ynet. is allowable / & helpeth moche to the conseruation of helthe. For good chawynge and swalowynge downe is as halfe a digestion: And ill chawyng of the meate doth either let digestiō / orels doth greatly hyndre it. But prolongynge of tyme in eatynge / with talkynge and tellynge of tales .ij. or .iij. houres / is ryght hurtfull: & therof are ingendred the diseases before rehersed.

Persica. poma. pira. lac. caseus. et caro salsa.
Et caro ceruina. leporina. caprina. bouina.
Hec melancolica sunt / infitmis inimica.

Here are declared .x. maner of meates or foodes that ingendre melancolye / and are vnholsome for sicke folkes. Of whiche the fyrst is eatynge of pe­ches:Eatyng of peches. Wherof Galen .ij. alimentor̄ / cap. ix. sayth / the ieuce of peches / and their materiall substance is soone corrupted and vtterly yll. Wherfore they ought nat as some say / to be eatē aft other meate. For they swymmynge aboue are corrupted. But this oughte to be mynded / whiche is a commune thynge / that all that is moyst / slyppery / & lightly gothe vnder / shulde be eaten fyrste: and so shulde peches: whiche swyftely go to the bottum of the stomake / and make way for the meates that come after. But whan they be eaten last / they corrupte them selfe and the other meates. And thus it ap­pereth [Page] / that this sayenge ought to be vnderstāde of peches eaten after other meate. For whan they be eaten before meate they be good for ye stomake / mollifie the bealye / and prouoke the appetite: as Auicen in the .ij. Canon & chap. of peches saythe: Ripe peches be good for the stomake / & gyueth an appetite to meate. And farther he saithe: They ouhgte nat to be eaten after other meate: for they corrupt after / but they must be eaten before. Like wyse Serapion / in ye chaptre of peches / by aucto­rite of Dioscorides / saithe: Rype peches are good for the stomake / and they mollifie the bealy: But whan they be nat rype they make a man costiue: and whan they be drie they bynde sorer. And de­coction made of drie peches and dronken / doth let the flowynge of humidites to ye stomake & bealy. And the pouder of peches cast vpō ye place where one bledeth / stancheth the bludde. And al though peches haue these medicinable vertues aforsaid: yet bicause they ingēdre putrified humours / they be hurtfull to sicke folkes / and specially whā they be nat taken dewly. Peches be colde in the fyrste degree / and moyst in the seconde. The seconde is peres / or eatyng of peres. The cause is / Eatyng of peres. for peres (and generally al maner of newe and rawe frute) fylle ye bludde with water / boylynge vp in the bo­dy: And so prepareth the bludde to putrifie / and by consequens hurtfull for sicke folkes. Peres / as Auicen in .ij. canon̄ / and chap. of them / sayth / en­gendre the colicke. But yet peres aboue all frute make folke fatte. And therfore hogges fedde with [Page] peres / are made fatter thā wt any other frute. And bicause peres ingēdre ventosites / and so cause the colicke: therfore they be vsed to be eatē with suche frute that breake or auoide ventosites: or elles to withstāde the ill operation of these frutes / drynke after them / a draughte of olde wyne of good sa­uour. And the sweter sauour that peres haue / & the more doulce / the better they be. And also sodde peres be better thā rawe: and they may be sodde with anys sede / fenell sede / & suger. The thirde is eatynge of apples:Eatyng of apples. whiche as Auicen saythe (.ij. can̄. cap. j.) to eate often and moche cause ache of the senowes. And also apples haue an yll ꝓprete / in engēdryng ventosites in the seconde digestion / wherfore they be vnholsome for sicke folkes. And also for lyke cause as hit is before sayde of peres. And these sayenges of peres and apples oughte speciallye to be vnderstande whan they be rawe / and nat whan they be sodde or roste. And nat only these frutes shulde be eschewed of them that be sycke / but also all other frutes that fyll the bludde with boylynge water: as newe frute / whose ieuce boylethe in mans bodye as hit were must or newe wyne. And ieuce of frute boyle without in a vessell and that is through the hete of the sonne that re­mayneth in them whan they ryped. These newe frutes / through boylynge of their ieuce / cause the bludde to putrifie. All though whā they be eaten they comfort a mans bodye with theyr moysture. And for this cause Auicen forbyddeth them speci­ally eatynge of frute / yt haue the ague / in his .iiij. [Page E] dist. and chap. of the vniuersall cure / sayenge: All frutes hurte them that haue the ague / throughe theyr boylynge and corruptyng in the stomake. The .iiij. is eatynge of mylke:Eatyng of mylke. the cause why ea­tynge of mylke is nat good / is bicause it is lyght­ly corrupted / and turneth vnto fume or sharpenes in the stomake / as in theyr stomake specially / that are diseased with putrified feuers: & therfore they that haue a putrified feuer are forbyden eatynge of mylke. And to them also hit is hurtfull yt haue the heed ache / to them yt haue the swyns pockes / & to many other. Wherof Hippocrates speakethe in the Aphorisme: Lac dare caput &c. to gyue them mylke that haue the heed ache is verye hurtefull. Yet nat withstandynge in some diseases / mylke is agreable for them that haue the tysike / the feuer etike / and for some other: as Hipp. saith in ye afore allegate aphorisme. And also folowynge / some thinge shall be saide whā we come to Lac ethicis &c. And all though mylke in the forsayd diseses is blamed / yet in them that be holle it is allowable / and that if it be well digested in the stomacke & lyuer. For thā it washeth the ētrayles with it wattrishe­nes / and hit mundifieth with hit buttrines: and striueth agaynst venomous humours: and with hit chese moysteth the membres / and alleuiateth the grefes of the brest: and hit doth mitigate the shotynge or prickynge of the longes / guttes / ray­nes / entrayles / and of the bladder: and it is good agaynst prickynge humours in the entrayles. Farther more mylke is good for tēperate bodies / [Page] whose stomake is clene from colerike and fluma­tike humours. For to suche folke mylke well dige­sted is great nourysshynge / hit ingendrethe good bludde / it nourisheth the body / and conuenientlye moysteth and makethe faire ye exterior partis: as Isaac saith in the vniuersall dietis. And there al­so he sayth by auctorite of Ruffus: that they that wyll drynke mylke / must drynke it fastynge: and it must be dronke hotte from the cowe: and to eate nothynge tyll that be digested: and nat to labour nor stere aboute moche than. Yet seldome or at no tyme one shulde forbeare walkynge / but than one muste walke an easye pace / tyll he parceiue hit be discended to the bottum of ye stomake. But mylke is vnholsome for these bodies that be distēpered. For in hotte bodies it is soone turned in to colerike fumosite. In suche as be colde / hit tournethe to sharpenes and putrifaction. Also mylke is vnhol­some for an vnclene stomake: for therin it corrup­teth.Choyce of mylke. Touchynge the choyce of mylke / hit is to be noted / that meane mylke is to be chosen for nouri­shement / and nat thynne mylke / as mylke of a ca­mell / or of an asse: nor the most fatte and grosse is nat to be chosen / as mylke of kyne & shepe: wher­fore goottis mylke shulde be chosen. For hit is nat so wattrishe as camels mylke: the whiche is nat apte to nourishe / by reason of humidite / and hit maketh a man to laske: Nor it is nat so fatte / nor so grosse / nor so full of curdes and butter / as kowe mylke and shepis mylke is: whiche by reason of theyr fatnes / stoppe the heynes / and engendre vē / [Page E ij] tosites: and is more harder of digestion thā is ne­cessary in gouernance of helth. Therfore mylke of a gootte / nat to nere kyddynge tyme nor to farre from it / and that goth in a good pasture / & whan pastures be at the best / shulde be chosen. The .v. is eatynge of chese:Eatyng of chese. and it may be vnderstande of all sortes of chese / but specially of olde chese. The reason is bycause newe chese is colde / moyst / and of grosse substance / and harde of digestion: & en­gendreth opilations and the stone: and helpeth or cōserueth mans helth (by way of nourisshement) very littell or nothynge: And olde chese is hotte & drie / by reason of the salte therin / hit causeth di­gestion: but yet of it selfe / it is harde of digestion / & of small nourishemēt / and hurteth the stomake / & drieth ouer sore / & agreeth wors thā newe chese. But chese betwene bothe / neyther newe nor olde / The bon­tie of chese nat to tough nor to brittill / to harde nor to softe / to swete nor to sower / nat to salte / nor to full of eies / of good tallege & of good sauour whan it is cutte / whiche tarieth nat lōge in the stomake / made cō ­ueniently of good mylke / sufficiently oyly. Suche chese is good and shulde be chosen afore all other: wherof after meate we shulde eate a lyttell quan­tite: for moche in quātite / in way of nourishemēt is vniuersally ill / and hurteth the stomake / & wyll nat digeste / and engendreth opilations / the stone in the raynes / grosse humours in the body / & ven­tosites. Therfore that chese is onely good that cō ­meth out of any gardes handes. The .vj. is salte meate: dryed with salte or smooke / Salte meate. and of what [Page] kynde of best so euer hit be / hit engendreth grosse bludde and melancoly: and so per cōsequens / it is vnholsome for sicke folkes: nor holsome for them that be hole: as Auicen .ij.j. doct. ij. cap. xv. about the ende / sayth: that salte flesshe nourissheth but littell / and that it is grosse / & engēdreth yl bludde. The .vij. is hartis fleshe / Hartis fleshe. whiche lyke wyse engē ­dreth melancolye bludde / as witnesseth Rasis Al­mā .iij. cap. de animalibus siluestribus et domesticis. The .viij. is hare fleshe / Haare fleshe. whiche lyke wyse engen­dreth melancoly bludde / as Rasis sayth in ye place afore allegate: This fleshe engēdreth more melā ­colye than any other. And of this Isaac in dictis vniuersalibus sayth: that hare fleshe shulde nat be eaten as meate / but onelye vsed in medicines. And witteth well that hare fleshe & hartis fleshe / whan they be olde oughte vtterly to be eschewed: yet neuer the les they may be eaten / & they be best before caluynge tyme / that theyr drines may be tempered with the age: And yet they ought to be eschewed excepte they be fatte. For their drines is tempered with theyr fatnes. The .ix. is goottis fleshe. The .x. is oxe fleshe. For these be melanco­lye flesshes. For Isaac in dictis vniuers. saythe: Gootis fleshe and oxe fleshe be worst / Gootis fleshe. [...]. hardest / and s [...]owest of digestion: and whan they be digested / they engendre grosse bludde and melancoly. And Auicen in his .ij. canon of goottis fleshe saythe: Goottis fleshe is nat very good / and ꝑchance the humour is very yll. And lyke wyse ye shal vnder­stande of goottis fleshe and cowes fleshe: whiche [Page E iij] are worse than the forsaide fleshes / gootis and oxe fleshe. For of them Auicen in the .ij. Canon the chap. of fleshe / sayth: Cowe fleshe / hartis fleshe / wylde goottis fleshe / and great foules engēdreth the feuers quartans. And yet farther he saythe of cowe fleshe: that cowe fleshe nourissheth moche / and engendreth grosse melancoly / and melancoly disseases. And he saythe farther that cowe fleshe engendreth lepre. And of goottis fleshe he saythe that hit is absolutely yll. And for as moche as hit is touched in ye texte what fleshes shulde be esche­wed / specially of .iiij. footed bestes: me semeth hit were conuenient / to shewe / what fleshe of .iiij. foo­ted bestis are to be chosē. And in the choyce of fle­shes the phisitians agree nat.Choyce of fleshes. For Galen and cer­teyne other say / that porke is best. Some other / as Auicen / Rasis / and Auerroys say / that kyddis fleshe is beste. Yet nat withstandynge Auerroys in the .v. coll. blamethe Auicen / by cause he sayde porke was beste: yet he sayde it nat as though he helde therwith / but after the christen opinion. Some other preyse vele aboue all other. The .ij. is / a man may knowe the best fleshe of .iiij. footed bestis & ye goodnes therof many maner of wayes. Fyrst by great nourisshynge / whiche thinge beto­keneth harde digestion / & by the lykenes of mans fleshe: and this wise porke is better thā any other fleshe / fyrste for the lykenes vnto mans fleshe: as witnesseth Galen .iij. alimentor̄ / where he sayth: That porke is like mans fleshe / may be knowen / by that that many haue eaten mās fleshe in stede [Page] of porke / and coude nat perceiue neither by the sa­uour nor the taste / but that hit had bene porke. And Auicen .ij. canon̄. cap. de sanguine / saythe: Mans bludde and hogges bludde be like in euery thynge: so that there haue bene that haue solde mans fleshe in stede of porke / whiche thyng was nat spied / tyll a mans fynger was fonde amōge ye fleshe. Auerrois writeth ye same in the .v. coll. cap. de carne. Secondely / Porke nourisheth greatly. For Gal. saithe .iij. alimentor̄ / that porke aboue o­ther fleshe nourishe mooste: wherof those that be called athlete haue beste experience. And after in the same boke he saythe: One can eate no fleshe ye nourisheth more thā porke. Thirdly porke engē ­dreth a stedfaste and a stronge nourishement / resi­stynge resolution. This is Galens opinion in the places afore rehersed / where he preferrethe porke aboue all other fleshe: and in his .viij. boke de in­genio / he saythe / Porke of all fleshe is moste lau­dable: so that it be wylde brought vp on montay­nes: and next porke kyd. And lyke wise in .v. tera. he saith: Of al fleshe of .iiij. footed bestis porke is most laudable / whiche is temperate in heate and moysture: and engendreth better bludde thā any other fleshe: so that hit be of yonge swyne / that is of a yere or .ij. olde / whether hit be wylde or tame: nor yonge suckers are nat so good: for theyr fleshe is mooste moyste. And of a more lykelyhod wylde porke broughte vp in the woddes / is better than tame brought vp at home: for tame porke is more clammy thā it ought to be. And of wylde hogges [Page] fleshe or boore / Auicen .ij. Canon̄ / cap. de carne / sayth: Christen men and their folowers say / The beste hog fleshe that the best wylde fleshe that is / is of a wylde swyne. For besides that that it is more light than ye tame swynes fleshe / it is of more strengthe and moche more nourishynge / and more soner digesteth: and in wynter there can be no better fleshe. So thā it foloweth that hogges fleshe is ryghte good & hol­some for their bodies that be yonge / hole / stronge / occupied in labour / and nat disposed to opilatiōs: & for them that desyre to be fatte. For suche haue nede of moche nourishement: and harde of dige­stion. And therfore Rasis .iij. Almāsoris / cap. de virtute carniū / saith: Grosse fleshe is conuenable for them ye labour moche: but clene fleshe is beste for them that do contrarie wyse. Auicen wyll the same .iii.i. ca. de regimine eius quod comeditur. sayenge: They that labour moche maye better a way with grosse meates than other. The choyce of good fle­she standeth in .iij. thynges: in temperance of cō ­plection / in lightnes of digestion / and ingendrȳge of good bludde: that is to say / the better fleshe is of temperate complection / easy of digestion / and temperate in engendrynge bludde / betwene hotte and colde / sklendernesse / and grossenes. And for this cause kydde fleshe is better & more laudable than any other fleshe / after the mynde of Rasis / Auicen / and Auerrois. For Rasis .iii. Almāsoris / ca. de animalibus / siluestribus et domesticis. saythe: Kydde fleshe is temperate / without any yll mixion: the whiche though it ingendre temperate bludde / yet [Page] hit is nat conuenient for laborers: but yet for all that / no nother fleshe shulde be preferred before it. Hit is nat so weke / that man strength is mini­shed therby: nor the nourishynge therof is so mo­che grosse / ye replecion shulde come of it / or grosse bludde be engendred. The bludde also that is en­gendred therof / is betwene subtile & grosse / hotte and colde. Nor this fleshe is nat mete for greatte labourers / but for attemperate yonge folkes / v­synge meane exercise. For this fleshe engendreth bludde / that by myghty exercise or labour is sone resolued / but nat with meane trauaile. And (tou­chynge the intētion) as kydde fleshe is better thā any other housolde fleshe / so gottis flesshe is bet­ter thā any other bredde in the woddes. And next to kydde flesshe many phisitians / as Rasis and Auerrois / put muttō. And Auerrois saith .v. coll. cap. de carne: That mooste part of phisitions are of this opiniō / saue Galen whiche laudeth nat mut­ton. And he thynketh that veale nourisheth more than mutton. And perauenture Galen vnderstā ­deth here the betternes of nouryshement of that that is to nourishe moche / and to gyue nourisshe­mēt more harde of resolution / whiche more agre­eth vnto veale than mutton / syns mutton is of more humidite. Thirdly the goodnes and choyce of fleshe maye be taken by reason of theyr smalle clāmynes / and by theyr good sauour: and herein veale is better than any other fleshe. And this is shewed of Auerrois .v. coll. ca. de carne / sayenge: And veale is good fleshe bicause hit is nat clāmy / [Page F] colde / nor drie as befe is / and veale hath a swetter sauour than any other fleshe: and in these poyn­tis it is better than kydde fleshe: for in kyd fleshe one may perceiue a clammynes before it is sodde: and in that ye veale ingēdreth better humours / it is better thā kyd. And thus it appereth playnely what is the cause of controuersite amonge phisi­tians touchynge the choyce of flesshes.The cōtr [...] uersite in choyce of fleshe. Farther witteth well / that the fleshe of drye cōplection / is better nere caluynge tyme thā farre from it: And therfore kyddis and caulues be better thā goottis and oxen: bicause their drines is abated with the humidite of theyr yongnes. But fleshe of beastis of moyst complection / is better and more holsome in age than in youthe. For theyr ouermoche hu­midite is dried moche awaye / as they encreace in age: And therfore wethers of a yere olde are lesse clāmy and more holsomer than suckynge lāmes: and lyke wyse porkes of a yere or .ij. olde / are bet­ter thā yonge pygges. And therfore Auicen saith well .iii.i. cap. de reg. eius quod comeditur. It behoueth yt the meate / that conserueth helth shulde be suche as the fleshe of kydde or a suckyng caulfe is / or lā ­mes of a yere olde. By these reasons it apperethe than that the fleshe of goottis male and female / of olde mutton / of befe / of olde porke / and speci­ally of brawne / of pygges / and of suckynge lam­mes / is nat verye holsome for the conseruation of mans helthe: but the fleshe of yonge caulues / of yerelynge wethers / and porke of a yere or .ij. olde / is conuenient inoughe to eate to preserue mans [Page] helth.Fleshe. And it is to be well noted / that fleshe encly­ned to drynes / muste be sodde: and inclynynge to humidite / muste be rosted / to attempre theyr hu­midite: And therfore the fleshe of conys / haaris / hartes / calues / and kyddis / shulde be sodde: and porke and lāme rosted: for sethynge attemprethe the drynes. And herby appereth / that in moyste seasons / and for moyst complections fleshe dispo­sed to drynes / shulde be rosted: and in drie seasōs / and for complections drie and olde / moyst meates be more conuenient.

Qua recentia / vina rubentia / pinguia iura.
Cum simila pura nature sunt valitura.

Here in this texte bene expressed dyuers noury­shynge meates.Of egges. The fyrst are newe layde egges / whiche be of that sorte / that in littell quātite nou­rishe moche / as saythe Auicen .ii. canon̄. cap. de ouis. and lyke wyse he saythe in .iiij.j. cap. j. Thynges (sayth he) of smalle quantite and great nourishe­ment are egges and cockes stones. And the selfe same he repetethe in manye other places. Tou­chynge the choyce of egges / witteth well that the egges of hennes / pertriches / and fesances yonge and fatte are very good in regiment of helth / and simply / better thā any other egges: For the prest daughter sayde / that lōge egges and smalle were the best of all / as in these verses:

Filia presbiteri iubet pro lege teneri.
Quod bona sunt oua / candida / longa / noua.

Farther / poched egges / are better than egges rosted hard or rere / and they be of great nourishe­ment [Page F ij] / and of good and lyght digestion / and engē ­dre bludde speciallye proportionable to the harte: Wherfore they be excedynge good for suche as be recouered from sickenes / for aged folke / and for weake ꝑsons / and specially the yolke. For Auicen in the treatise de viribus cordis saith: that the yolke of egges / of foules whose fleshe is good to be eatē / as of hennes / pertriches / and fesantis / thoughe they be nat medicinable for the harte / yet they cō ­forte ryghte moche. And he addethe folowynge: That they be lyghtly turned in to bludde: & after they be turned / they haue small superfluite: And therfore they comforte mooste specially the harte. And farther he saythe / that they be excellent good to restore the spiritis & bludde of the harte: Rere rosted egges are lyghtly digested / and they ease ye longes and the breste / and mollifie the bealy tēpe­rately / but they nourishe nat so moche as poched egges. Harde egges sodde are harde of digestiō / and they nourishe the body grossely / descendynge slowly to the stomake / & slowly they entre therin: Farther witteth well / that egges by the dressinge of them are made better and worse:Dressynge of egges. For eyther they be rosted / sodde / or fried / or sodde with some brothe. Rosted egges be more grosse than sodde / and more harde of digestion: for the herthe or fire driethe vp theyr substanciall humidite. And they be rosted .ij. wayes: For either in the shelles they be raked in the hotte imbers / orels they be broken in the shelles. They that be broken be worse than the other: but they that in the shelles be raked in [Page] the hotte imbers are done .ij. maner of wayes / ei­ther they be all raked in the imbers / orels sette v­pon imbers & coles with parte vncouered. They that be al couered be worse: for by reason that the heate of the fire goth about them / the fumosites / are kepte styll in / they that be sette vpon the ym­bers / parte vncouered / auoyde out the fumosites and be mundified. They be better soddē in water thā rosted: for the humidite of the water striueth with the heate of the fire / drienge their humidite. And so they be dressed .ij. wayes: For eyther they be sodde in the shelles / orels broken in the water. Sodden in the shelles are worse than the other. For the shelles lette dissolution of fumositees and grossenes. Whan they be poched / the heate of the water temperately perceth in / and maketh more pure theyr grossenes: and takethe awaye the yll smell and sauour. Wherfore poched / they be most holsome / and worst fried: For fried they ingendre most yll humours / Rasis opi­niō in dict. vniuersa. and hurte the stomake / & cau­sethe fumosite and corruption / and maketh one to lothe his meate. But sodde in some good brothe are betwene bothe / rosted and poched. Also wyt­teth well / that there is a diuersite in an egge / tou­chynge his cōponde partis. For the yolke is tem­perately hotte: The white is colde and clammye / and hardlye digesteth / and the bludde also therof engendred / Rasis .iii. Alm. ca. de vir. ouorū. is nat good. And as the forsayde eg­ges / that is to say of hennes / pertriches / and of fesantis / be more cōuenable in ye regimēt of helth: so egges of duckes / gees shouelardis / & suche like [Page F iij] foules / are vnholsome in the regiment of helthe / and shulde be eschewed. The .ij. is redde wyne.Red wyne Where vpon ye shall vnderstande / yt wynes differ in colours. For some wynes be whyte / some cla­ret / some citrine / and some blacke. White wyne is febler thā any other / colder and lesse nourishyng / but they leest hurte the heed / and they make one to pysse better than other. That they be weaker than other wynes appereth: for after Galen. suꝑ .i. canone .iii. ꝑticule regiminis acutorum. Weake wyne is hit / that leest heteth or enflameth / & lesse greueth the brayne than other. That white wynes be col­der than other apperethe by Galen in the cōment of the canon .iii. partic. reg. acutorū. where he saythe of white wyne / thus: It is impossible that white wyne shulde greatly enflame any man. And after he saith: White wyne enflameth or heteth leest of all wynes. Whiche thynge is trewe / if one wyll make cōparison betwene white wyne and redde of one countre growynge / and none other wyse. For the redde wynes of Frāce are nat so hotte / nor yet so stronge as the whyte wynes of some other coū ­tre. And therfore the cōparison muste be made be­twene the wynes of one maner and countre: and that they nourishe lesse than other wynes appe­reth by Galen in the cōment of this aphorisme .ii. particule aphoris. It is easyer to fyll one with drinke than with meate: where he saythe: Watterysshe sklender & white wyne / is vniuersally neighbour to water: and as touchynge nourishement is like water / wherby it prouoketh one to pisse / and nou­risheth [Page] one to pysse. And this is the cause / that stronge wynes / be nat cōuenient for feble brayned folkes / as it is saide: But it agreeth well with them that haue a stronge brayne: For a stronge brayne resi­steth vapours whā they smyte vp there vnto / as Auicen saythe .iij.j. and chap. afore allegate. And here noteth well / that the witte of a man hauyng a stronge brayne / is clarified and sharped / if he drynke good wyne / than if he dranke none / as Auicen saythe .iij.j. and chap. afore allegate. And the reason is / bycause of good wyne more than of any other drynke are engendred and multiplyed subtile spiritis clene & pure. And this is the reasō why that these diuins / imagynynge & studyenge highe and subtyle matters / loue to drynge good wynes. And after the opinion of Auicen in the for­sayde chap. these wynes are good for men of colde and flumatike complection. For suche wynes re­dresse and amende the coldenesse of complection: and they open the opilations & stoppynges / that are wonte to be engendred in suche persons / and they digest fleme / helpinge nature to conuert and tourne them in to bludde: they lyghtlye digeste / and entre quickely / they encreace & greatly quickē the spiritis. But wyne citrine is nat so burnynge as redde claret / as Galen in the cōment of the ca­non afore allegate saythe. Redde wynes be hotter than white / & therfore they greue the heed more / as Galen saythe in the canon / Potus autem duicis. Also claret wyne nourisheth lesse than redde / and more than whyte. And in some places they calle [Page G] claret wyne white: and that is ye cause that some say that white wyne doth quickely enflame mans bodye. The blacke wynes be nat so feruent hotte as the redde be. And therfore they hurte the heed lesse. But for as moche as they discēde more slow­ly in to the bealy / and prouoke more slowly mans vrine / they greue the heed more thā white wyne / as Galen saythe in the canon Potus autem dulcis. And these wynes nourishe lesse than white or ci­trine / and lesse than redde wyne. The thyrde is suppynges / made of good brothe of flesshe / suppinges or brothes. but specially of chekyns: for suche brothes are verye frendly to mans nature: and are lightly cōuerted in to good bludde / and ingendrethe good bludde / specially whan hit is made with fyne flower. For flower / principally of wheate / is greatly noury­shynge / and causeth great nourishemēt / as saithe Ra [...]is .iij. Alman. And these .iij. forsayde thynges Auicen putteth .ii.i. doct. ii. sūma. i. ca. xv. in ye ende / where he saithe: Example of clene and good nou­ryshynge meates and humours be the yolkes of egges / wyne / and brothes made of flesshe: and there vpon he concludeth / that these .iij. forsayde thynges are comfortable and of great restoratiue for mans body.

Nutrit et impinguat / triticum / lac / caseus infans.
Testiculi / porcina caro / cerebella medulle.
Dulcia vina / cibus gustu iocundior / oua
Sorbilia / mature ficus / vue (que) recentes.

Here are touched .xij. maner of thynges / whiche greatlye nouryshe and make fatte mans bodye. [Page] The fyrst is breadde made of wheate:Breadde. whiche as Auicen saythe .ii. can̄ cap. de pane. fatteth swyftely / specially whan it is made of newe wheate. Rasis iij. Alm̄ sayth: wheate is neighbour to tēperāce / all though it incline a littell to heate: & the heuiest and soundest / nourisheth best: and of all graynes hit is most holsome for all folkes: And the bludde engendred therof is more temperate than of any other grayne.Choyce of wheate. Touchynge the choyce of wheate / ye shal vnderstāde that the election is to be consy­dered .ii. maner of wayes: Fyrst on the bihalfe of his substance: an other way on the bihalfe of his preparation. The choyce on ye byhalfe of his sub­stāce Auic. putteth .ij. can. chap. of corne / sayenge: That is the better that is neither harde nor softe / great / fatte / and newe / nat to olde / betwene redde and whyte. Blacke wheate is an yll nouryssher. Rasis saythe hit is heuye. Touchynge the choyce concernynge the preparation / witteth well / that all thinges made of wheaten flower descēde from the stomake slowelye / engendre grosse humours / cause opilations aboute the lyuer / augment the splene / and engendre the stone / and digested nou­ryshe moche. Wheate sodde is heuy meate and in­digestable / but whan it is digested / it nourisheth strongely / & strengthe a man moche. But wheate made in bread / well leuened / and bakē in an ouen / hatte with moderate fire / is marueilous holsome. All these thȳges are gethered of Galen Alimētorū. The .ij. thynge is mylke:Buttter mylke. and after the mynde of some doctours / it is vnderstāde by butter mylke / [Page G ij] called o [...]or / and cōmonlye called balbuca. there is nothynge nourisheth more than this mylke / whā hit is newe sopped vp with newe hotte breadde. Hit maye also be vnderstande by goottis mylke:Gootis mylke. Grene chese. whiche nourysheth moche: wherof we haue lar­gely spokē before. The .iij. thynge is grene chese / whiche as Auicen saythe .ii. can. cap. de caseo / is a nourisher and a fatter. And al though grene chese nourysheth and fattethe / yet hit is nat holsome in the regiment of helthe: for therof come the incon­ueniences before declared / Persica poma &c. The .iiij. thynge is stones: and specially stones of fatte cockes: whiche as Auicē .ii. can. ca. de testiculo /Coyllion [...]. sayth: be very good and great nourishers: And he saith that in a small quātite they nourishe moche. This also may be vnderstande of hogges stones verye fatte / that hath nat boorred a lowe. For as porke of all .iiij. legged bestis (touchyng his nou­ryshynge) is best / in lyke maner the stones / in re­garde of other beastis stones / are the beste. And here is to be well noted / that the stones of aged bestis / whose sede is fermented / be nothynge nou­ryshynge. But the stones of yonge bestis / nat yet able to do theyr kynde / whose sede of generation is nat yet rype: be of metely good nourishement / if they be well digested. The .v. thynge is porke / Porke. in chosynge wherof / and of theffecte of the same / is largely declared before / there / Persica poma &c. The .vj. thinge is eatynge of braynes: And wyt­tethe well that brayne is yll for the stomake / Eatyng of braynes. and causeth lothsomnes / and takethe a waye a mans [Page] appetite / and engēdreth grosse humours: yet ne­uer the lesse hit nourisheth the body / if hit be well digested: But in no wyse hit shulde be eaten after other meates. And if hit be dressed with penyriall or nepte / to attempre the clāmynes & colde therof / or with thynges / that by theyr vertue gyue hete: hit is good and holsome. And take hede / eate no brayne / outcepte hit be fyrst hatte vpon the coles. And witteth wel / that it is nat good for them that be sicke other while of colde diseases: but for them that be hotte of cōplection hit is holsome / as Ra­sis .iij. Alm. sayth / in the chap. de virtutibus membro­rum animalium. And brefely hit is forbydden in the regiment of helthe. But yet some tyme hit dothe well in medicine: as the brayne of a lyttell gootte is good agaynst venome / and against venomous byttynges: And a haaris brayne agaynst trem­blynge: And some say the brayne of chekyns and capons is good for the memorie / and comforte the wytte.Choyce of braynes. Yet touchynge the choyce of braynes / hit is to be knowē / that the best braynes be of foules that flee / and proprely aboute montaynes. And of .iiij. foted bestis the best is of a rāme / and nexte of a caulfe / as Auicen saythe .ii. can. cap. de cerebro. The .vij. is marie / whiche well digested noury­sheth moche:Mary. as Auicen saith in the forsayd canon and chap. of marie. And hit is lyghtly tourned in to bludde: yet neuer the lesse / it distroyeth the ap­petite / and makethe one to lothe his meate: And therfore Auicen teachethe vs to eate them with peper. And touchynge the choyce / Auicen saythe [Page G iij] the mary of veale / of a hart / of a bulle / of gootis / and of shepe / is moste holsome. And some say the marye of yonge fatte bulles / is very holsome and good. The .viij. is swete wynes: wherof we shall entreate after there / Sunt nutratiua. Delicious meates. ii. particu­la aphoris­morum. The .ix. is de­licious meates / for suche most specially nouryshe / as Hippocrates sayth. And Galen sayth / that all souorie meate / wherin one deliteth whā he eateth hit / the stomake receyueth and reteyneth / and di­gesteth that with a farre greatter delectation thā other: But if the meate be lothsome / the stomake wyll nat abyde hit: wherof vomite / abhorrynge of meate / inflation / and belchynge are engēdred. And that is ye cause we se some more helthye with cours meate / thā with good / bicause the course is more delicious vnto them. The .x. is rere egges:rere egges whiche in small quantite nourishe moche / wherof we haue spoken before at oua recentia &c. The .xj. is ripe fygges: whiche through their swetnes / nou­rysshe and fatte moche. And touchynge fygges / Rype fyg­ges. thoughe they nouryshe nat as stronglye as fleshe and grayne: yet there is no frute so stronge a nou­rysher: as Auicen sayth .ii. can. cap. de ficubus. And there he saythe / that fygges nouryshe more than any other frutis. And he saith in regimine eius quod comeditur / that frutis of moste nourishement / and most lyke and nere vnto fleshe in nourishynge / be fygges / very rype resyns / and dates. As concer­nynge the choyce of them / witteth well / Choyce of fygges. that after Auicen in the place aboue allegate de ficubus. The white is best / for hit is lighter: nexte the ruddy or citrine / [Page] Rasis in the place before allegate / hit nourishethe well / and comforteth the stomake and lyuer / and auoydethe opilations. And hit is sayde / that the lyuer is fatted with them / and specially if they be clensed from ye graynes or kyrnels. And thus the forsaid text may be vnderstāde of a freshe gethred grape or a resyn: or of a drie grape called passula.

Vina probantur odore / sapore / nitore / colore.
Si bona cupis vina. hec tunc probantur in illis
Fortia / formosa / fragrantia / frigida / frisca.

Here in this texte be declared .v. maner of pro­ues of good wyne.The tokēs of good wyne. The fyrst is ye smell / for wyne of good odour and flauour multiplieth mans spi­ritis: and as Constantine .v. theorice saith / it nou­rishethe well and engendrethe good bludde: But stynkynge wyne is vnholsome for mans nature / engendrynge grosse and melancolye spiritis. And after the mynde of the sayde Constantine / hit en­gendreth yll bludde and heed ache of the yll fume ascendynge to ye heed. Galen .iii. reg. acut. cōmento. i. speakynge of the diuersite of wynes / of the odour saith: that wyne that hath good smell / engēdreth good bludde / but it fylleth ones heed full of fumes & vapours / bicause of the subtilte & heate therof: But yll smellynge wyne / after the quantite of yll bludde engendred therby / hurteth the heed verye lyttell / bycause hit is colde and grosse. The .ij. is sauour: for lyke as good sauorye meate norysheth better and is better receiued of the stomake / as is aforsayde / in lyke wyse so doth wyne. But ye shall vnderstāde / ye wynes differ in sauour: for some be [Page H] swete / more nourishynge thā other / engendrynge grosse bludde / and moystynge the bealye / yet they be harde of digestion / and engendre thyrst. There is a nother sorte of wynes called pontica or styptica / whiche cōforte the stomake / and easeth the bealy / but hit hurthe the breast and purtenance / as the longes / and the pype therof: holsome for the en­trayles & harde of digestion. There be other wy­nes yt be sharpe or sower: that ꝓuoke ones vrine / they engendre nat / but they dissolue grosse hu­mours. There be other bytter wynes lesse hotte: as saythe Constantine .v. theorice. The .iij. is cle­renes or brightnes / whiche sheweth the purenes of the wyne / and so consequentlye of the spiritis therof engendred. The .iiij. is the colour. In co­lour wynes vary and differ greatlye in theyr nou­ryshynge. For the ruddier wynes of the same pa­rell are more noryshyng than white. And therfore they be more holsome for leane folke than white: yet the white be more holsome for them yt be fatte. And of this diuersite of wyne in colour / we haue spoken before at / oua recentia. Farther in the texte are put .v. speciall thȳges / howe a mā shulde ꝓue & knowe good wyne. Fyrst is by ye strengthe / whi­che is knowen by the operation.Gal. com­mēto .i.iii. pari. reg. acutorum. For as Gal. saith stronge wyne is hit that vehementlye enflameth a mans body / & repleteth the heed. This stronge wyne is special encreacer of the spiritis / & a great norysher. But yet I aduise them yt haue a weake brayne to be ware howe they drinke strōge wyne / outcept hit be well alayed with water. For the fu­mishenes [Page] therof hurteth ye heed. The .ij. is faire­nes of the wyne: For the fairenes or goodlynes of the wyne / causeth one to drinke it desirously / whi­che causeth hit better to digest / & better to norishe. The .iij. is fragrant and of good odour. For fra­grant and redolent wyne cōforteth moste / and en­gendreth subtile spiritis / as it is sayde. The .iiij. is / that wyne muste be colde touchynge the taste / but hotte in effecte and operatiō. For wyne made hotte / by reason of the clerenes / and fynes / ouer cometh a mans brayne the soner / febleth the seno­wes / and hurteth the heed but if hit be taken mo­derately. The .v. is / that wyne muste be friske & sprynkelynge / and with the spumynge to make a littell noyse / and the spume to be thynne and soone flashed / and the spume to tarye in the myddes. For if it haue nat these ꝓpretes / it must be called hangynge / that is feble wyne / and specially if hit make no sowne / & hath great bubbuls & spume / that tarieth longe by the sydes of the cuppe.

Sunt nutratiua plus dulcia candida vina.

Here is one doctrine of wyne declared: whiche is that grosse and swete wynes be more nourishynge than any other of the parell. To this agreethe Constantine in the aboue allegate place: & so doth Auicen .iii.i. cap. de reg. aque et vini. where he sayth: Grosse wyne that is doulce / is beste for hym that wolde be fatte. The reason is / bicause the doulce wynes / for theyr doulcetnes / are vehemently dra­wen of the mēbres / where with nature reioyceth. For Auicen sayth .ii. can. tract. i. cap. iii. that the ope­rations [Page H ij] of dulce wynes are digestion / mellowȳg / and encreasynge of nourishement / and nature lo­ueth hit / and the vertue attractiue drawethe hit. And all thoughe this texte may be verified by all doulcet wynes / yet the moderate doulce wyne / is to be chosen / & nat that that is excedynge doulce / as muskadell: For suche corruptethe the bludde / by reason that nature draweth hit violently from the stomake to the lyuer / before it be wel digested / & before the suꝑfluite therof be ryped / & throughe the great dulcetnes therof / hit fyllethe the bludde with vndigested aquosite / that maketh ye bludde apte to boyle and putrifie. And this also shulde be vnderstande by other meates excedynge swete. And farther wytteth well / Three in­conueniēce engendred of doulce foodes. that of the vse of swete wyne and other doulce nourishementes .iij. incon­ueniences are to be feared / specially of them yt be inclined therto. The fyrst is lothyng: for ye swete foodes / through their heate & moysture suppull & fyll the mouthe of the stomake / and there engēdre a disposition cōtrarie to the vacuation & corruga­ciō of hit / that causethe hunger. The .ij. is swyfte inflāmation of these doulce foodes & conuertynge in to coler. For doulce thinges most aptly engēdre coler. Therfore hony aboue all other thinges soo­nest engendreth coler / bicause of swete thynges it is moste swetest: and nexte honye is swete wyne / as Galen saith. And here vpon riseth thyrstynes / Gal. in cō mēto can. iii. ꝑt. reg. acutorum. nor hit is nat holsome for them that haue ye ague / nor for colerike folkes. The thyrde is opilation of the lyuer and splene: For these .ij. membres / and [Page] specially the lyuer drawe dulce thȳges with theyr dregges / to them / for the great delite they haue in them / before they be digested. Wherfore ther they lyghtly cause opilations / through the helpe & ope­ration of the grosse substance / wherin the sauory­nes of swetenes is grounded / as Auicen sayth .ii. can. tract. i. cap. iii. And this is the cause that swete wyne doth lesse stere one to pysse thā other wynes. Agaynst these .iij. nocumētis egre or sharpe sauo­ry thynges are very holsome: for with theyr tart­nes they prouoke the appetite: & with theyr cold­nes they quēche enflāmation / & with theyr fynes of substance they open opilations. Farther / wyt­teth well / that all though swete wynes / and other doulce nourishementes / stoppe or shutte the lyuer and splene: yet they vnstoppe the lōges. And the reason why they stoppe nat the longes as well as the lyuer and splene / Gal. declareth in the cōmēt of the can̄ .iii. part. reg. acut. Bicause doulce thinges in their passage / resude nothȳge there to / but that that is fyne and pure: and the bludde engendred of doulce thynges cometh to the longis / purified fyrst in the lyuer / Hipp. iii. ꝑticu. reg. acut. can. Mētem le­mus &c. and fyned in the harte. Also as Hippocrates sayth / Doulce wynes do leest make one dronken. Thus we may cōclude / that if wyne be dronke for nourishement / for restoratiue of the body / and to make one fatte / as it chāceth in them that be leane / whether it be naturally or acciden­tally: than doulce wynes and grosse / sufficiently colored are holsome. For suche wynes are noury­shers / restore [...]es of suche as be lowe broughte / [Page H iij] and fatters. Wherfore they be moste cōuenient to fatte leane bodies. But if we entende nat to nou­rishe / to restore or make fatte our bodies / as they that be corsye and fatte: than though we may nat vse swete wynes but subtile / yet they muste chose suche as be amiable / and haue good sauour and flauour / enclined to whitenes / & sufficiētly strōge. If one drynke wyne to quenche his thyrste / than he muste take white wyne / thynne and feble. For suche wyne do moyste more / and coulethe more: & so cōsequently / better quencheth thyrste: And the greatter the thirst is / the holsomer suche wyne is. But if so be wyne be dronke to refreshe ye spiritis / and comforte the corporall vertue: than hit wolde be subtile / swete / & of delectable sauour / of meane colour / & of sufficient strengthe: and suche wyne ought to be taken with litell meate: and hit must be depured from either superꝑfluite / and to be ta­ken in small quantite. But if we purpose to scoure the breast and longes / & to cause vs to laske: than doulce wynes of meane substāce / and of good fla­uour shulde be chosen.

Si vinum rubeum nimium quando (que) bibatur /
Venter stirpatur / vox limpida turpificatur.

This texte sheweth to vs .ij. hurtis / that come by ouer moche drynkynge of redde wyne. The fyrst is / that ouer moche drynkynge of red wyne / maketh one costyue. The cause after the opinion of some / is. For suche redde wyne heatethe more than other of the parell / and is more nutratiue. For in that that hit is hotter / hit drieth more: & in [Page] that ye hit is more nutratiue / it is more desirously reteyned of nature. But yet this texte may be vn­derstande by ouer moche drinkynge of byndynge redde wyne / whiche is some what eger / sharpe / & costiue. Yet concernynge this / wytteth well / that if the stomake or the guttis be feble in their natu­rall operation: than redde or blacke wyne / called stypticke / that is some what tarte / ought to be v­sed and drōken: as they do / that by debilite of sto­make / can holde nothynge / but be laxatiue. This saith Hippocrates in the canon Palmeus quidem &c. And also Galen in the cōment of the same. But if we wyll comfort the vertue of digestion / the clene wyne or meane in substance and colour / of good odour / and of conuenient sauour / and of sufficient strength / & some what stipticke / is most holsome. The .ij. is horsenes of ye throte / whiche horsenes / some redde wynes / through their drynes & erthy­nes / cause and enduce. And this hurt cometh also by drinkynge of red wynes growynge in the par­ties of Brabant / throughe theyr stipticalnes and erthynes: and speciallye whan the sayde wynes be nat fyned / this grefe chancethe. But yet they make nat a man costiue: For must that is verye redde / is wonte to cause the flixe / by reason of his erthye dregges myngled there with all: whiche byteth and gnaweth the guttis: of whiche gna­wynge comethe the flixe. And suche wyne shulde nat be dronke tyll hit be fyned. For so longe as hit is gnawynge / through the erthy dregges therof / a mordicant fume is reysed to the brayne / whiche [Page] gnawethe or bytethe the eies / and maketh them redde: Suche inconueniences are engendred by newe vnfyned wynes of Brabant / whether they be white or redde / through theyr erthynes. The cause why this fume is mordicatiue is by cause ye wyne that he cometh of is mordicatiue.Gal. in cō mento illi­us aphori. Et qui crescunt &c. For Gal. saythe: What so euer is dissolued from a thynge / muste nedes be lyke the thynge / from whiche hit is dissolued.

Allea / nux / ruta / pira / raphanus / et tyriaca.
Hec sunt antidotum contra mortale venenum.

In this texte are cōprised .vj. remedies agaynst venome. The fyrste is garlyke: whiche is verye medicinable agaynst suche incōueniences / Garlyke. as are wonte to engendre of water: and speciallye hit is holsome / if one drynke yll corrupt water. Wherof Serap [...]on in the segregatis and chap. of garlyke saythe: That if one eate garlyke fyrst / and drinke corrupt water after / hit shall nat hurte hym. In lyke wyse saith Auicen .ii. can. cap. de alleo. et .iii.i. ca. de conser. a nocu. diuer. aquarum. The same operacion is also in oynions / as Auicen saith .ij. can. & chap. of oynions / and so oynions may be comprehended vnder garlyke. And Auicē in ye fore allegate place sayth: That an oynion is subtile / percynge / and scourynge / with stipticite: and openeth strongly: and is hotte in the thirde degree: wherfore it hea­teth yll waters / ꝓhibitynge / that they with their coldnes hurte nat the stomake: and hit makethe pure grosse humours / causynge them lyghtely to penytrate. And vineger myxte with an oynion [Page] dothe greatly fortifie his vertue subtile and peni­tratiue / and kepeth one from thyrstynes / whiche oynions eaten are wonte to enduce. This same is verifiedde of garlyke. And Auicen sayth in the a­boue allegate place / that one shulde eate garlyke / after drinkyng of grosse and troblous waters: for hit fyneth them / and maketh them lyghtly to dis­cende: & lettethe that they hurte nat the stomake and entrayles: and that they stoppe nat the vey­nes. And garlykeis good eatē before one take his iourney. and after that hit is one of the beste and most holsomest thȳges that can be / for them that come out of a colde aier or go in to hit: as Auicen saith .iii.i. cap. de regendo iter. And by this appereth that garlyke is specially good for them that iour­ney and wander ouer dyuers countres / & vse dy­uers drynkes / accordynge to these verses:

Allea qui mane ieiuno sumpserit ore.
Hunc ignoratum non ludit potus aquarum.
Nec diuersorum mutatio facta locorum.

More ouer garlyke is good agaynst ye styngynge of venomous wormes / & bytynges of serpentis / whan hit is dronken with wyne: whiche thynge Auicen in the .ij. can. and chap. of garlyke / sayth / he hath proued. And also hit is good agaynst the bytynge of a madde dogge: And a playster made of garlyke / fygge leaues / & cōmyn / is good layde to the place bytten with a venomous beest called mugall. An oynion / as Auicen sayth / the .ij. can. and chap. therof / is eke holsome for bytynge of a madde dogge / whā the place bytten is annoynted [Page I] with the ieuse therof / or a playster therof made with falte and rewe. And an oyniō eaten expelleth the hurte of venomous thynges. And some saye they engēdre in a mans stomake a moyst humour very holsome agaȳst ye hurt of venomous thȳgis. And here is to be noted / that garlike / oynions and also lykes are nat holsome for temperate bodyes / nor hotte / and speciallye rawe. For they nourishe verye lyttell / and they nourishe yll / and engendre sharpe prickynge bludde: yet they make subtile grosse humours / and breake or cutte the clāmye. And after they be sodde / they lose the prickynge / and yet than theyr vertue incisiue and subtilatiue remayneth. Therfore they be holsomer sodde thā rawe. Lykes be hotte and drie / Eatyng of lykes. and their norishe­ment is naughte / they hurte the eies / and engen­dre blacke melancoly bludde / & terrable dreames: they hourte the senowes with theyr prickynges: they hurte the tethe and gommes: and colerike & melancoly folkes shulde nat vse to eate them / and specially rawe. Oyniōs be hotte / Eatyng of oynions. & they haue an erthy superfluous heate / with a wattrishe moyst­nes / subtile / vndigested. If they be eaten rawe they engendre yll humours / and corruptable pu­trifactions in the stomake / and they cause yl drea­mes and dredful / and heed ache. And if they be to moche vsed / they marre the memorie / and trouble the vnderstandynge / and make one besyde hym selfe. But in case they be sodde with the brothe of good fleshe / & eaten / thā they cause good digestiō / and their hurtfulnes is diminished / and they mo­derate [Page] the coldnes of meates / where with they be sodde:Eatyng of garlyke. but the beste is / nat to vse them. Garlyke is hotte / declynynge some what to humidite / but lesse than oynions / hit is medicinable agaynst vē ­tositees / and the cough / and maketh one to spytte well / but hit hurteth the syghte and causeth heed ache: and hit is tryacle for vplandyshe men. And thus the forsayde thynges / are holsome for them onely / that haue fleumatike grosse and clāmy hu­mours / but colerike folkes ought to absteyn from them.The vse of nuttes. The .ij. thinge is walnuttis: wherof Aui­cen .ii. can. cap. de nuce / sayth: That it with fygges and rewe / are medicinable agaynst all maner of venome / and therof / of oynions / & salte is made a playster to laye to the bytynge of a madde dogge. And this specially is vnderstande of a drie nutte / taken before meate / in forme afore sayd. And wit­teth well / that drye nuttes are worse / than newe and moyst.Diseses ē ­gendred by eatynge of nuttes. For the drie are more oylye: by reason wherof they tourne to coler / and cause heed ache / they trouble the eies / and engendre swymmynge in the heed / and specially taken after meate: they cause the paulsye in the tonge / and prouoke one to vomite / and make blisters in ones mouthe: and they that haue a colerike stomake ought specially to eschewe drie nuttis: and the older they be / the worse they be. The newe nuttis haue lesse of yll oylynes / and therfore they engendre nat the ache or swymmynge in the heed / & suche lyke diseases / as the drie do: and by reason of their slippery hu­midite / they make one haue the laske. And if they [Page I ij] be a littell warmed at the fyre and eaten after dy­ner / they presse downe the meate. And thus it ap­pereth ye newe nuttis are more holsome for folkes in helth than drie.Of rue called herbe grace. The .iij. is rewe. Wherof Aui­cen .ii. can. cap. de ruta / saith / that it resisteth poyson. And after he saythe: If one feare leste he drynke poyson / or to be stōge of a venomous best / let hym take .3.j. of the sede / with ye leaues therof / & drȳke it with wyne / and a nutte stamped and myngled to gether. And Aristotell in his boke de animalibus saythe / that whan the wesill wyll feyght with the edder / or the toode / she eateth rewe fyrst and sleeth the other: For the smelle of rewe is foo to poyson. The eatynge of rewe in the mornynge with fyg­ges & swete almondes / preserueth from venome. Here is to be noted / yt there be .ij. kyndes of rewe.ii. kyedes of rue. The one is gardeine rewe / ye other is wylde rewe. The gardeine rewe is better than the felde rewe. For the felde rewe is excedynge drie. Hit is hotte / & drie in the .iiij. degree: wherfore it is hurtfull to take moche therof. The gardeyne rewe is moyst hotte and drie in the .ij. and .iij. degree. It perceth and resolueth ventosite / and specially / if it be drie. For Serapion in the chap. of rewe saith / that drie rewe of al medicins for ventosites is the best / and most holsome: but moyst it engendreth ventosite. Also rewe vehemently quickeneth the syght / and specially the ieuse therof / with the ieuse of fenell / and honye made in an oyntement orels eaten / as Auicen saythe in the .ij. canon and chap. of rewe. But yet for as moche as the ieuce of rewe hath a [Page] proprete hurtfull to the eies / it were beste to fanne wynde vpon your eies ther with: & in no wyse to tuche your eies with ye materiall rewe. The .iiij. is peres:Peres. wherof Auicen .ii. can. cap. de piris / saith: that they be holsome agaynst mortall diseases en­gēdred by mushroms or toode stooles. For peres / sodde with mushroms / do alaye theyr hurteful­nes. Orels this text may be vnderstāde by peres aromatike / whiche by reason of their swete smell / comforte the spiritis and so repel poyson. The .v. is radishes:Radyshe coolis. wherof Auicen in his seconde canon / and chap. of them sayth: that they be holsome a­gaynst bytynge of a snake: and drōke with wyne it is good agaynst the bytynge of ye beest cornute: and the sede therof is good agaynst all venomes. And the sede of radishe layde vpon a scorpion / hit sleeth hym / and the water therof hath in that be­halfe ben proued / and it is stronger than the sede: and if a scorpion bite one that hath eaten radishe / hit shall nat hurte hym. Hit is also verye good a­gaynst chokynke of mushroms. Or hit maye be saide hit is good agaynst venome / bicause hit pro­uoketh one to vomite: and so by reasō of vomite / the stomake is purged of yll humours. And here is to be noted / that radishe and radishe rootis are like of cōplectiō / whiche are vnholsom for colerike folke: for they engendre sharpe prickynge bludde: and radishe is vnholsome for the stomake / for hit makethe one to belche / and engendreth grosse hu­mours. And if the digestiō be feble / hit engēdreth rawe humours: yet it is of a subtile and percyng [Page I iij] nature. But some men eate radyshe after other meatis to comfort digestion: wherat Galen mar­uayleth. And counnynge phisitions say / that if it be eaten after other meates / it helpeth digestion: and vnlosethe the bealye. But if radishe be eaten before other meates / hit lygftethe vpwarde the meate / and causethe one to vomite. But it is good to eate a smal quātite with vineger and salt / after other meate. Yet neuer the lesse they hurt the eies and the heed. Rasis .iij. Alm̄. sayth / that radishe / lyenge lōge in the stomake / voide fleume / the lea­ues wherof digesteth meate / and helpeth the ap­petite / takē in a smal quātite. The .vj. is triacle / whiche of euerye sorte is good agaynst venome:Triacle. and therfore hit is good both for man and beaste / agaynst venome / as well colde as hotte. And vn­der the name of triacle the noble medicine Metri­datis maye be cōprehended: whiche .ij. be lyke in operation. For Auicen of triacle saythe:Auicē .vi.iiii. cract. iii. cap. i. Ye shall vnderstande / that the greattest rule in curynge of venome is to comforte naturall heate: and to la­bour to dryue hit out / as triacle doth. And of tria­cle and the medicine Metridate to gether / Auicē .vi.iiii. tract. i. ca. de med. cōmun. Auicen saythe: There be certeyne medicines contrarie to venome: whiche will nat suffre venome to appro­che nere the harte / as triacle and Metridate.

Aer sit mundus / habitabilis / ac luminosus.
Nec sit infectus / nec olens fetore cloace.

This texte declareth .iiij. thinges touchynge the choyce of holsome ayer. Of whiche the fyrste is / Choyce of holsome ayer. that one oughte to chose a clene ayer / nat enfected [Page] with vapours: For vncleane aier altereth ye hart after the nature of the cōplection / yt it is myngled with / Haly. iii. [...] in cō mēto illius [...]. as Haly sayth. The .ij. is / one shulde chose lyght ayer: For darke aier makethe a man heuye and dulle spirited: for suche aier myngleth it selfe with the humours in mans body / and so trubled runneth to the harte: wherby of it and of the hu­mours / grosse and troublous spiritis ben engen­dred / whiche make one lumpyshe & slowe. Ther­fore there is nothinge maketh a mā more iocunde and lesse heuye / than to walke in a clere aier / or to ryse yerly. The .iij. is / that we ought to eschewe infected aier / yt is where slaughter of people hath bene. For cōmonly in those places where as great slaughter of people hath bene / and in places nere to / foloweth great pestilence: for whan we drawe in the infecte aier / hit enfecteth the spiritis in our bodye. The .iiij. is / we shulde eschewe gunges / synkes / gutters / chanels / stinkynge ditches / and all other perticuler places infected with carreine / & placis where deed carkeses or deed folkes bones are caste / and places where hempe and flacce is wattered. For aier so enfected enfecteth the spiri­tis of our body / Auicē .ii.i. [...]octri [...] cap▪ ii. and specially hurteth the brayne. And therfore Auicen saythe / that as longe as the aier is temperate and clere / and no substance con­trarye to mans nature myngled there with / hit causeth and conserueth mans helthe. And whan hit is changed / it dothe contrarie to the operation therof: And for a more declaration of the forsaide thingis / witteth well / that aier in the regiment of [Page] helthe is necessarie .ij. wayes. Fyrst / for the refre­shynge of the harte. Secondly / for the auoidyng out of fumishe suꝑfluites / that trouble the spirite and naturall heate. For lyke as we se by exterior thynges / the fier without fannynge of the aier is schoked & quenched: so lyke wyse we may imagin that the spiritis and naturall heate in man haue nede to norishe conserue and attempre them. The attēperāce of natural heate is caused by drawyng of the aier / and his purgynge is caused by expul­synge of the aier. The fyrste is done by motion of the attraction / & the secōde by motion of expulsiō. Therfore if we drawe in aier stynkȳge & vnclene / it corrupteth the natural heate and spirite. Ther­fore the aier shulde be of good substance / without vapours and mistis. The aier shulde nat be trou­blous & cloudy / nor myxed with yll vapours. For suche aier troubleth the humours / and maketh a man heuy and sadde / as is afore sayde. The open aier wolde be chosen / and nat betwene walles or houses: and truly to speake the shutte aier shulde de eschewed. Yet neuer the lesse in tyme of pesty­lence / whan the aier chancethe to be enfected / the shutte aier is to be chosen. Therfore at suche sea­sons / hit is good for vs to abyde within our hou­ses / and to kepe our wyndowes fast shutte / lest the putrified aier enter in: But elles the open aier is beste. Farther in the regiment of helthe / the aier shulde be eschewed / whiche is myxed with va­pours of lakes / and depe pittis conteinynge styn­kynge waters: and of certeyne herbes / as cole [Page] wortes / homlockes / and suche lyke: and of trees / as fygge trees & walnutte trees. Farther the aier is to be chosen / wherin the wynde blowethe from highe or egall gronde. And also we ought to take good heed / that the aier excede nat in any of his fyrste qualitees / that is in heate / colde / moystute / and droughte / whiche if hit chance / hit muste be tempered by craft as moche as is possible. These thynges Auicen teacheth .ii. primi. doct. ii. de diuersis.

St tibi serotina noceat potatio vina /
Hora matutina rebibas / et erit medicina.

This texte teacheth one doctrine / whiche is / if a mā be diseased by drȳkynge of wyne ouer nyght / He muste on the morowe a freshe drynke wyne a­gayne. For either drynkynge of wyne ouer nyght causeth dronkēnes / thyrst in the mornynge / or in­flāmation of the body. If hit inflāme the bodye / than hit is ryghte vnholsome agayne in the mor­nynge to drinke wyne a freshe / for that were to lay fyre to fire: But if one happe to be dronke & there with parbrake a lyttell: than hit were holsome to drynke wyne agayne a freshe in the mornynge. For the drynkynge of wyne agayne / than dothe lyghtly cause one to vomite / wherby the stomake is clensed: For by that clensynge / the hurt of drō ­kennes and parbrakynge gothe lyghtly awaye. And therfore Hippocrates counsayleth to be dron­ken ones a moneth: that of the dronkennes may come vomite: whiche thynge preserueth vs from yll diseases of longe continuance. If drynkynge of wyne ouer eue hurte one / and that by reason he [Page K] is nat accustomed to drynke wyne: than he maye drinke wyne in the mornynge / to accustome hym: and so the drinkynge of wyne shal lesse hurt hym. For as Hippocrates sayth / Hipp. ii. a­phorismo. Ex multo tēpore &c. of a customable thyng cometh lesse grefe. But in case that thyrstynes in the mornynge foloweth on drynkynge of wyne o­uer eue: than to drynke water in the mornynge / shulde coole his thirst better. For as moche as we haue spoken of hurte commynge by drynkynke of wyne: witteth well / that a ꝑsone hauynge a feble brayne / and eke of what so euer other condicion he be / he oughte moste circumspectly to beware of dronkennes. For ofte dronkēnes / as Auicen saith:Auic. iii.i. ca. de regi. de aque & vini. Sixe incō ueniences engendred of dron­kennes. causeth .vj. inconueniences. Of whom the fyrste is corruption of the lyuers cōplection. For wyne excessiuely taken / comynge to the lyuer / resolueth the heate therof: wherby the lyuer loseth his na­turall generation of bludde: and in stede of blud / engendreth wattrishenes / causynge the dropsye / or hit cuttethe the lyuer or the humours therof / wherby lepre or wodnes is engendred. The .ij. is / corruption of the braynes complection / throughe thycke and continuall assendynge of fumes of the wyne therto / disposynge the hotte brayne to wod­nes and frenesye: & the colde to the fallynge yuel / forgetfulnes / and palsey. The .iij. is weakes of the senowes. For we se that these dronkerdes / as well in youth as in age haue the palsey in ye heed / & other theyr mēbres. The .iiij. is diseases of the senowes / as the crampe & palsey. For suꝑfluous drynkynge of wyne / oftymes tourneth to vineger [Page] in the stomake / whiche hourtethe the senowes. Also often tymes / for faute of digestion / hit tour­neth in to vndigested wattrishenes / whiche mol­lifieth the senowes. And often tymes it enduceth grosse humours to the senowes / wherby they be stretched out / or drawen to gether. The .v. is the palsey / through humidites of the brayne / encrea­sed by the wyne: so yt they stoppe holly the wayes of the lyfely spiritis / procedynge from the brayne to the other membres. The .vj. is sodeyne dethe / for whyle the dronkerde snortethe or slepethe / his wynde pipes / through abundāce of wyne / or hu­midites therof engendred / are closed / wherby he is sodaynly strangled. And though the immode­rate drynkynge of wyne causeth ye forsaid incōue­niēses: Yet wyne moderatly taken / is holsome di­uers wayes. And Auicē in ye afore allegate chap. reherseth .v. bonties of wyne moderatly dronke. The fyrste is / [...]. bonties of wyne moderatly dronke. that hit easely conueyeth ye meate / that hit is myngled with / to al the mēbres of the body / through the heate / subtillite / and hyd con­uenient proprete therof. The .ij. is / hit digestethe fleume / and resolueth hit throughe the heate and subtilite of his substance / makynge hit apte to a­uoyde out / openynge the wayes / and cōfortynge nature to driue hit out. The .iij. is / hit auoydeth redde colour by vrine / and by other insensible va­cuations / as swette and suche lyke. And this is to be vnderstande of claret wyne / or whyte / that is feble of his nature / or alayde with water: or elles hit wolde encreace coler / by tournynge it selfe in to [Page K ij] coler / and inflāmation of the lyuer. The .iiij. is / hit makethe melancoly / whiche is grosse and mo­ueth slowely / easelye to slyde by hit propre pypes / from the liuer to the splene / and from the splene to the brymme of the stomake: and at last / with the dregges / to auoyde out of the body. And hit decli­neth or represseth the hurte of melācoly / through contrariousnes of complection / and maner of sub­stance / in the effectis therof. For melancoly engē ­dreth heuynes / feintnes of harte / & couetousnes:Propreties of melan­coly and of wyne. But wyne engendreth ioye / boldnes / stoutnes of stomake and liberalite. The .v. is / hit resoluethe all causes of werynes / outcepte it be myxt with some other heate. For wyne reuiueth the resolute spiritis agayne abundantly / and comfortethe na­turall vertue / and taketh awaye or diminishethe humidites lefte in the musculs / senowes of the harte / or in the ioyntes. And if the body dryed by werynes / nedeth moystynge / wyne moystethe hit quickely / so it be alaide with water. Farther more besides these wyne hath many other good propre­tees. For aboue all other thȳges wyne is a swefte and a sodaine nourisher: hit comforteth the heate and naturall spirite / and heteth all the bodye / hit clereth the wytte / appeseth anger / putteth away heuynes / and stereth to bodily lust. And no drȳke digesteth rawe humours so well. And wyne ma­keth one manlye bothe in stomake and body. And they that drynke no wyne are nothyng in regarde of theyr equals that drynke wyne / neyther in sto­make nor corage.

Gignit et humores melius vinum meliores.
Si fuerit nigrum / corpus reddit tibi pigrum.
Vinum sit clarum (que) / vetus / subtile maturum.
Ac bene limphatum saliens moderamine sumptum.

This texte declarethe one doctrine of wyne: and that is / the better wyne is / the better humours it engēdreth. The cause is / for blacke wyne is more grosse and erthie than other: therfore the spiritis therof engendred be grosse: Like as hit is proued by Gal. sayenge before. Grosse spiritis make the body heuy or slowe.vii. doctri­nes to cho­ [...] wyne. And farther ther are put .vij. doctrines touchynge election of wyne. The firste is / the wyne ought to be clere. For suche wyne by reason that hit is subtile / engendreth subtile and clere spiritis. The .ij. is / hit ought to be olde and nat newe. For newe wyne or must doth soner ouer come ones brayne / and make one haue the laske / than other of the parell: hit engēdreth the colike / and other accidentis / that shall be declared after / whan we come to / Impedit vrinam. Nor ye shulde nat vnderstande / that wyne ought to be to olde. For suche wyne / Auic. iii.i. ca. de regi­mine aque [...] vini. as Auicē saith / is as a medicine / and nat as drynke. For suche wyne dothe rather alter a temperate body to heate and drought / thā nourishe it: hit is of small norishemēt. For whan hit is so very olde / hit receyueth agayne hit fyrste naturall verdure and sharpenes / and is than all firye: wherfore the aggregatour / in the chap. de vite / by authorite of Galen writethe / that hit is hotte and drye in the .iij. degree. The .iij. is / that wyne oughte to be subtile. For subtile wyne ma­keth [Page K iij] the spiritis of mā subtile / and grosse wynes grosse spiritis. The .iiij. is / wyne shulde be rype / and nat vert or eger / orels hit wyll depriue man of all his naturall vacuations and good helthe / as Galen sayth in the cōmēt of the canon .iii. part. reg. acut. And therfore hit is hurtefull for them / that wante euacuation by vrine and all other their vp­per mēbres. Yet as Gal. in the same place saythe / suche wyne stypticall / is holsome for diseases that chance in the guttes. Yet as Galen saythe there / the stypticalnes of the wyne wolde be put awaye by moche mynglynge of water. The .v. is / that wyne shuld be alayde with water: For therby the fumosite of the wyne is put away: and so ouercō ­meth the brayne lesse. This is treuth / if the wyne be subtile / but if hit be grosse / hit ouercometh the brayne the sooner: for therby it is subtiled & made more fumyshe. And of this wyne Auicen vnder­stode whan he saide / Auic. [...]ii.i. ca. de regi­mine aque et vini. that wyne alaide with water doth soner ouer come the brayne than pure wyne. The .vj. is / wyne shulde be sprinkelynge / whā one tastethe hit: and this is one of the condicions of good wyne / before saide. The .vij. is / taken of the drynkers condicion / and nat of the wyne: that is / we must drynke wyne tēperately: For wyne tem­peratly taken / sharpeth the wytte / and engēdreth all the holsome thynges before declared. By all these. thynges here expressed we maye conclude / that wyne moste to be chosen and best in the regi­ment of helth is meane wyne / egall betwene olde and newe / clere / some what redde / of good odour [Page] and flauour / of egall sauour / that is neither eger / sharpe / nor swete: whiche is nat grosse / nor to mo­che subtile: and eke that hit be nat to stronge nor to weake: and that hit growe nat on stony & hylly grounde / nor on simble plaine & earable grounde / but on highe grounde / lyenge open towarde the southe / in a countrey nat to hotte nor to colde. And these thȳges are partly gathered out of Gal. iij.j. the place afore allegate. Touchynge the regimēt of wyne / cōcernyng the ages / the rules that Aui­cen putteth in ye aboue allegate place / are to be no­ted. The first is / to gyue children wyne to drȳke / is as one layde fire to fire of drie wodde. For chyl­dren be tender and soone enflamed / throughe tha­bundāce of theyr naturall heate / & their senowes and brayne be weake & feble. Wherfore wyne hur­teth them many wayes. First by quicke inflāma­tion / by strykynge of the brayne / by lyghtly per­cynge of the senowes / and abundant fumosite. Therfore whan one gyuethe wyne to chyldren to drynke / the flamynge heate of the wyne is added to ye flamynge heate of chyldrē bodies / whiche is of small resistence / as drie styckes / reedes / or towe is agaynst the fire. The .ij. rule is / that one gyue an olde man as moche wyne to drynke as he can beare without hurt / that is / as moche as his na­turall and due appetite desireth. For lyke as olde bootis and buskyns that be drye and wrynkeled / are made soupull and playne with oyle / lyke wyse ben the bodies of olde folkes by drinkynge of cho­sen wyne / as wyne of Beuuois. Auncient folkes [Page] are colde / and wyne heateth / their spirite is heuy / and they be fulle of melancolye: but wynes ma­keth them mery / and represseth melācolyes: and cōmonly olde folkes slepe yll / but wyne makethe them to slepe well. They be prone to opilations / but wyne openeth and letteth them. And so / lyke as wyne to children is moste contrarie / so for olde folkes hit is most holsome. The .iii. is / that yōge folkes drynke wyne temperatly / temperately is / touchynge measurable quantite / and conuenient alayenge with water. And al though yōge folkes are as hotte as chyldren / yet they haue theyr mē ­bres more sounde / the senowes and brayne more stronge / wherby they may the stronglyer resiste the hurte of wyne drynkynge. There folowe ma­ny good thinges of drynkynge wyne sobrely / that is to saye / the voidynge of coler / the quickenynge of the corporall myght and wytte / and the abun­dance of subtile spiritis.

Non sit acetosa ceruisia / sed bene clara /
De validis cocta granis satis ac veterata.

This texte declareth .v. thȳges to chose good ale by. Fyrste that hit be nat sower / for that hurteth the stomake. A sower thynge / as Auicen sayth in many places / hurteth the senowes / for ye stomake is a mēbre full of senowes / and that is touchynge the brynke. The .ij. is that ale muste be clere: for troubled ale is a stopper / and hurtethe them ouer moche that haue the stone / hit fattethe and enfla­tethe and maketh one shorte wynded / and engen­dreth moche fleme. The .iij. is / ale shuld be made [Page] of good corne nat corrupte / that is to saye of the best barly / wheate or [...]otis: for the better ye corne is / the better is the humour therof engendred. The .iiij. is / that ale oughte to be well sodde: for it is the better digested / and more amiably receiued of nature: and the incōueniētis therof growyng / are the better borne. For ale nat well sodde engen­dreth vētosites in the bealy / gnawynge / inflasiō / and colike. The .v. is / ale oughte to be stale & well purged / and nat ouer newe. For newe ale engen­dreth the same hurte that ale doth that is nat wel sodde: and there with mooste easilye causeth the strayne coilion.

De qua potatur / stomacus non inde grauetur.

Here is taught one lesson touchynge ye vse of ale. That we must drinke it moderatly / so that the sto­make be nat hurte therby / nor drōkennes caused. For hit is worse to be dronke of ale than of wyne / and lōger dureth: the fumes and vapours of ale that ascende to the heed are grosse / wherfore they be nat so resoluable / as they that be mōted vp by wyne. Where vpon it is to be noted / that in the be­gynnynge of dyner or soupper / hit is holsomer to drynke ale before wyne: the cause is / for at ye be­gynnyng of our repast or dyner / the body is hun­grye: so ye stomake before we began to eate meate was hungrye / and so drewe superfluites from the mēbres. Therfore if we begynne with wyne / for that nature greatly desirethe hit / for the great no­rishemēt therof: the suꝑfluites / to gether with ye wyne drawen of the stomake / are drawen to the [Page L] parties of the bodye: but nature so desirously dra­weth nat ale. Lyke wyse ale washeth ye humours hāgynge about the brymme of the stomake. And for this cause phisitions counsaile / that whan one is moste hungrye he shulde fyrste assay to vomite or he eate any meate / that those suꝑfluites drawē to gether of the hungrye stomake / may be voided out / leste they be myngled with the meate. Lyke wyse he that feareth to be thyrsty by superfluous drinkynge of water / shulde drinke ale: For it quē ­cheth vnnaturall thyrste.

Temporibus veris modicum prandere iuv̄eris.
Sed calor estatis dapibus nocet immoderatis.
Autumni fructus caueas. ne sint tibi luctus.
De mensa sume quantum vis tempore Brume.

Here is determined what quātite of meate shuld be eaten / Diete af­ter the .iiii. seasons of the yere. after the diuersite of the .iiij. seasons of ye yere / whiche are ver or springe tyme / sommer / au­tumne / and wynter. He saythe that in the tyme of ver / we must eate littell meate. The same wylleth Auicen / & sheweth the reason why / bicause / Auicē. ii.i. doct. ii. ca. vi. & .iii.i. doct. v. de reg. tp̄m cum recti auris. saithe he / in wynter mans body is nat greatly gyuen to labour and exercise / through prohibution of reso­lutiō / rawe humours are encreased / and specially fleumatike: whiche after the ꝓportion of the sea­son / thā specially be engendred: whiche humours by reason of colde / are enclosed in the bodye. But whā ver or spryngetyme cometh / it causeth these rawe humours / gethered to gether / to melte and sprede throughe all the body: wherfore nature is than greatelye occupied in digestynge of them. [Page] Therfore in ver season / if one eate moche meate / hit letteth nature to digeste suche fleumatike hu­mours / and shulde be diuerted an other way: for by these humours and great quātite of meate na­ture shuld be ouer pressed. And so suche humours shulde remayne in the body vndigested: and run­nynge to some membre / shulde cause some disease there. And therfore we oughte to take good hede / that we eate no greatte quantite of meate in ver. For diminishion of meate in this season / is a speci­all preseruation from diseases reynynge in ver / as Auicen saythe .ij.j. the place before allegate. And this sayenge is of a trouthe / from the myddes to the ende of ver / and nat in the begynnyng: for the begynnynge of ver is lykened to wynter: wher­fore than one maye norishe the body as well as in wynter. And this also may be vnderstande whan vere fynde the body full of humours / than meate is to be gyuen after the naturall heate and resolu­tion / that is caused of the body: for than the cause is auoided: for whiche meate shuld be diminished. And the same willeth Hipp. j. aphorismorū / where he saithe: Bealies in wynter and vere are mooste hotte / and slepe most longe. Therfore in those sea­sons / for the naturall heate is moche: therfore hit nedeth larger norishement. Secondly he saythe / that to eate to moche meate in somer is hurtefull: bycause than the vertue of digestion is feble: For the spiritis and naturall heate / whiche are the in­stumentes of corporall operation / are than ryght feble / sparcled / and resolute / throughe outwarde [Page L ij] heate / vehemently drawyng them to the exterior partis: and contrary wyse / moche meate can nat be digested. And here is to be noted / that for the vehemēt resolution of humidites / as well substā ­ciall / as mutrymentall of the bodye / grosser and more meate in sōmer shulde be eaten / if the night digestiue coulde digeste so moche meate: but by­cause nature can nat digeste moche at ones / we muste eate a lyttell / and ofte:The reasō that one oughte to eate lytel meate in sommer. as Galen saythe in the cōmēt of this Canon / Et quibus semel aut bis &c. In sōmer we must eate many tymes and lyttell: many tymes bicause the body hath nede through ofte dissolution: a lyttell / for defaute of digestion. And al though littell meate shulde be eaten in the sommer / yet one maye drynke moche: for than is greatter resolution and drought of the body: and the naturall heate of the bodye excedeth the moy­sture therof: and man is more thyrsty than / than other tymes. But yet than one oughte to drynke lesse wyne / specially if hit be pure / for suche wyne soone enflameth / and causeth the naturall heate / hatte by the ardent heate of sōmer / to burne / and therfore if we drynke wyne / we muste myngle hit with moche water: and we muste forbeare olde & stronge wyne. Thyrdly he sayth / To auoide eatynge of frutes in Autūne. that in Autūne we ought to beware of frutes / specially of ye same season / as grapis / peches / figgis / and suche like: or at leaste to eate but littell of them / for suche fru­tis engendre bludde / apte to putrifie / through the boyllyng that they make in the body & humours: & specially if they be receyued in to an vnclene sto­make [Page] / or a corrupt body / whiche for the most part chanceth in autumne. And so than / yll and fylthy diseases are engendred / as the pockes and other pestilent sickenesses. Yet for a farther knowlege of the regiment of meate and drynke in Autumne / wytteth well / that in haruest / hunger and thyrste shulde be eschewed / & to eate moche meate at one meale: as Rasis .iij. Alm̄ sayth / cap. de reg. corporis secundum tp̄s. The wyne also that is dronke in har­uest / shulde be alayde with moche water / that hit may moyst the bodye / and cole the heate: but nat so superfluously alayde with water than / as in sō ­mer: nor to be than dronke so superfluouslye: for thā nature febled / is nat able to welde and digeste it: and to moche alayenge with water / wolde di­stroye naturall heate / & encreace vētosites: wher­by ye colike may be engēdred. Fourthly he saithe / yt in wynter we maye eate as moche as we wyll / that is to say / more thā in other seasons / after the mynde of Auicen in .iij.j. the place afore allegate. And Galen sayth / in the canon of the aphoris. E [...] quibus semel aut &c. In wynter moche meate leiserly shulde be eaten. The reason is bycause the heate of our body in wynter is strongest / both by reason hit is conieled to gether / and fortified / by position of his contrarie / that is to say / the coldnes of the aier / enuironynge our bodies about. And this is verified in bygge bodies & fleshie / and nat in bare and feble: for on suche bodies coldenes of wynter enclined doth nat cōforte with heate / but feblethe them more: For in wynter as Hippocrates saith: [Page L iij] bealies be hottest of nature and slepe moste longe. Hit foloweth / that the grosser norishementis and harder of digestion are holsomer in wynter than in other seasons / by cause the heate is stronger. But the wyne that we muste drynke than oughte to be ruddye as a rose / and nat white / and alayde with a lyttell water. Here is to be noted / that all though / through the strēgth of heate / and vertue of digestion in wynter / the grosse and strōge mea­tis are holsomer: yet bicause the seasons than are disposed to opilations and repletions / throughe verye moche fleme / hit were holsome than to vse meane meates / betwene heuy and lyghte / grosse & subtile / as kydde / veale / mutton / pikes / perche / and creuesses. And they that vse grosser meates / as befe / porke / venson / gottis fleshe / & suche lyke / shulde eate but one meale a day: orels to vse mea­tis laxatiue / as persly / cressis / mustert / and suche lyke / and to vse great labour.

Saluia cum ruta faciunt tibi pocula [...]uta.
Adde rose florem minuit potenter amorem.

Here are put .ij. remedies agaynst yll drynke.Herbes holsome to put in drynke. The fyrst is sage / the leaues wherof put in to the drynke fordothe the hurte of hit / with it proprete / and also hit comforteth the senowes and brayne: whiche comforted / resiste the better the yl fumes / that of the yll drynke ascende there vnto. The .ij. is rue / whose leaues holle without any brusynge / shulde be put in to the drynke / for with hit heate & proprete / it fordoth the malice of the drynke. And howe good rue is agaynst poyson / hit hath bene [Page] declared before at / Allea nux / tuta &c. And this text saythe / to the .ij. forsayde herbes / we may put the rose flower. And this speciallye shulde be vnder­stande of a red rose: for the swete smell & stiptical­nes therof / amendeth the malice of the drynke.

Nausea non poterit quem (quam) vexare marina.
Aurea cum vino mixtam si sumpserit illam.

A remedye for parbra­kynge on the see.Here is put a remedye to auoide parbrakynge or spuynge / for suche as are nat accustomed to passe the see. He that wyll passe the see / muste a fewe dayes before he take shyppynge / myngle the see water with his wyne. This is a remedye for the ryche: but if hit be a poore man / than he muste drynke see water / that he maye easelyer eschewe spuynge. The reason herof is / bicause the see wa­ter is salte: and so with his saltnes and stipticite / that foloweth saltnes / it closeth the mouthe of the stomake / and therby fordothe spuynge. And here is to be noted / that as Auicen saythe / a trauayler on the see / Auic. iii.i. de reg. iter agentis in mari. shulde nat moche go about to withstāde or to forbeare parbrakynge or spuynge / at the be­gynnynge / but to vomite / vntyll he thynke hym selfe well purged: for that preserueth from many diseases / and nat only preserueth / but also healeth or alleuiateth greuous & great diseases / as lepre / dropsye / palsey / coldnes and swellynge of the sto­make. Thus saythe Auicen .iii.i. doct. ii. ca. ii. But in case that the trauailer on the see spue so moche / that he therby is ryght greatlye febled / he must [...] than restrayne hit by eatynge frute stypticall and sower / as ben vnrype frute / crabbes / sower pomegarnades [Page] and suche lyke: wherwith the mouthe of the stomake is comforted / & humours expelled downe: and also the stomake therby comforted / driuethe away humours flowynge there vnto by tossinge of ye water. Orels we may take musterte sede dryed by the fier / and drynke hit with wyne / or wormewode may be eaten or dronken / or a toste wette in redolent wyne is good to eate. And gene­rallye tarte meates be good for trauaylers on the see / for they comforte the stomake / and prohibite vapours & fumes to ascēde to the heed / as herbes sodde in vineger / or in the ieuse of sower grapes.

Saluia / sal / vinum / piper / allea / petrocilium.
Ex his fit salsa / nisi sit cōmixio falsa.

This texte teacheth vs to make a cōmon sauce if we lacke a better.To make a common sauce. And .v. thȳges goth to the ma­kynge of this sauce. The fyrst is sage. Wherwith we maye make sauce for a goose roste or sodde. For cōmonly a goose rosted or a pygge is stopped with sage / to drawe vp the humidites and clāmynes of them / and also bicause the fleshe shulde smell some what therof: yet after it is rosted / the sage shulde be cast away and nat eaten. Like wise of sage vp­landyshe folke make a sauce to eate with a goose: for they stampe sage and garlyke to gether / that the sage maye abate some what of the garlykes sauour. The .ij. is salte with wyne: & this sauce is for ryche and noble men. For whan they wante mustert / or ver ieuse / they put wyne in a saucer / & myngle hit with a lyttell salte. The .iij. is peper / vplandyshe folkes sauce. For they myngle peper [Page] with beanes and peasen. Lyke wyse of breadde tosted / with ale or wyne / & with peper they make a blacke sauce / as it were pappe / that is called pe­per / and that they caste vpon theyr meate fleshe and fysshe. The fourth is garlyke / where of the vplandishe people make a sauce: for they myngle softe chese and mylke / and stampe garlyke to ge­ther / and so eate hit with their meate / whether it be roste or sodde / salte or fresshe / and with harde egges. The .v. is perslye: the leaues wherof stā ­ped / with ver ieuse or white wine is made a grene sauce to eate with roste meate. And here is to be noted / that sauce or sauces vary after the seasons. For in hotte seasons / hit muste be made of colde thynges / or of stuffe of lyttell heate / and in colde seasons contrarye wyse. Therfore sommer sauce shulde be ver ieuse / or eysell / or vineger / the ieuse of lēmons / or of pome garnades with rose water and suche lyke. And other whyle in sauces made in sōmer / one may put a lyttell pellitorie & persly / to attempre the coldenes of the forsayde thynges. But the mattier of cōpetent sauces in wynter are musterte / carloke / gynger / peper / cynomum / ge­lofers / garlyke / sage / myntes / pelitorie / & perslye: wyne water of fleshe / vineger nat to stronge / but verye nere to the nature of wyne: And in meane seasons / they shulde be mean / neither to hotte nor to colde. Secondlye sauces differ by reason of the meates for whiche they be made: for one meate wil haue one sauce / an other meate a nother sauce: as lordis cokes knowe. Sauce for mutton / veale [Page M] and kydde is grene sauce / made in sōmer with vi­neger or ver ieuse / with a fewe spices / without garlyke / with persly / white gynger / ver ieuse / and tosted breadde with vineger. In wynter the same sauces be made with many spices / & a littell quā ­tite of garlyke / and of the beste wyne / and with a littell ver ieuse / or with mustert. Sauce for rosted befe is made with peper / tosted breadde / brothe of fleshe and grapes. And the same sauce is good in wynter to eate with porke. Also porke in sommer maye be eaten with vineger and perslye in the be­gynnynge of our repast. But in case / the forsayde meates be baked / & specially befe & porke / in wyn­ter / than serue in a white oynion / and a small quā ­tite of swete spice beaten in pouder. But in sōmer without oynions / and with ver ieuse / orels with a fewe small oynions. But if the pastis be made of more tender fleshe and lyght of digestion / serue in ther with no oynions: but in sōmer almon mylke with ver ieuse / and a lyttell blanche pouder: and at the last ye may put therto / an egge brokē with ver ieuce. But in wynter in stede of ver ieuse take wyne / and more spice. With rosted rabbattis and chekyns / sauce made with cynomume / Dyuers good sau­ces for son­dry meates crūmes of breadde / and with ver ieuse in sōmer is holsome / and in winter with wyne. For rosted porke take of the dryppynge / tempered with good wyne and oynions in winter: and in sommer take the grene sauce aboue named. For rosted fesantes / pigions / and turtyls / take none other sauce but salte. For boylde capons and cockes take of the same brothe [Page] with a lyttell blāche pouder. And precisely if they be boyled with sage / Isope / & persly / this is good sauce in wynter: and in sōmer / the brothe of the capon / and a lyttell vergis myngled to gether is a holsome sauce. For fatte capons & hēnes baked / serue in none other sauce / but a smalle quantite of blanche pouder: and at the ende the aboue named grene sauce in sōmer / and in wynter good wyne. But fishe the grosser it is / the harder of digestion / the more superfluous / and moyster of nature / the more hit nedeth hotte sauces and sharpe: and the same rule is lyke wyse true in all maner of fleshe.

Si fore vis sanus ablue sepe manus
Lotio post mensam tibi confert munera bina
Mundificat palmas / & lumina reddat acuta.

Here are declared .ij. holsome thynges that come by wasshynge of our handes after meate. The fyrst is / the palme of our handes are mundified. The .ij. is / our syght is sharped there by / and that is specially by accidens / for the hādes be ye instru­mētis to clense the eies: and hit is ryght holsome for them to be mundified: wherof we haue before spoken at Lumina mane manus.

Panis non calidus. nec sit nimis inueteratus.
Sed fermentatus / oculatus / sit bene coctus.
Modice salitus. frugibus validis sit electus.
Non comedas crustam / coleram quia gignit adustam.
Panis salsatus / fermentatus / bene coctus.
Putus sit sanus. qui non ita sit tibi vanus.

This texte toucheth .ij. thinges concernynge the choyce of breadde. The fyrste is heate. For bread [Page M ij] oughte nat to be eaten hotte.Eatyng of hotte bread Hotte bread is hurt­full to mans nature: as Auicen saith .ii. ca. de pane. Hotte bread is nat conuenient for mans nature: and bread that cometh hotte from the ouen is vn­holsome. The reasō is / bicause it stoppeth moche. And agayne after he saith: Hotte bread throughe hit heate causeth thyrstynes: and swymmeth by reason of his vapourous humidite: & is of quicke digestion / and of slowe discence. And all thoughe hotte breadde in the regiment of helthe be vnhol­some to eate / yet ye smell therof is ryght holsome / hit relyuethe one in a sownde: and hit is possible / that some folkes maye lyue by the smelle of newe breadde. The .ij. is / we ought nat to eate breadde very stale / or mouldy: for suche breadde is vnhol­some for the nourishement of mans nature: for it driethe the body / and engendrethe melancoly hu­mours: wheron hit folowethe / that bread shulde nat be to newe nor to stale / but a day olde. Farther the texte declarethe .v. propretes of good breadde.v. ꝓpretes of good bread. The fyrst / hit muste be well leuende / as Gal .i. ali­mentorum / ca. ii. sayth: The beste breadde for dige­stion / is hit that is verye well leuende / and baked in an ouen hatte with moderate fire. And agayne in the same chap. he saythe: Vnleuende bread is holsome for no body. And after the mynde of Aui­cen / Breadde made with littel leuen / Auicen .ii. can. cap. de pane. nourishethe moche / but the norishement therof is a stopper / outcepte they eate it / that labour moche. The .ij. is / that bread ought to be light / for therby is kno­wen / that the clāmynes is goone. Yet neuer the [Page] lesse this bread / after the mynde of Auicen / in the chap. and place before sayd / is a swefte entrer / and of lesse and worse nourishemēt / as bread is / made of moche branne. The .iij. is / that bread oughte to be well baked: for breadde yll baked is of yll di­gestion / and engendrethe grefe in the stomake. And Auicen in the forsaide canon and chap. saith: That the bread yll baked / norisheth very moche / but the norishement causeth opilations / outcepte they labour moche that eate it. And bread baken on a stone or in a panne is of the same fashion: for hit is neuer well baked with in. The .iiij. is / that bread oughte to be temperately salted. For bread ouer swete is a stopper / & ouer salte a dryer. But bread moderately salted norisheth beste / so it haue the other conditions. The .v. is / that it shulde be made of the beste grayne / that is to say / of ye beste wheate. More ouer the texte warnethe vs to be­ware of crustis eatynge: for they engendre adust coler / or melancolye humours / by reason they be burned and drie. And therfore great estates / whi­che of nature be colerike / cause the crustis aboue and benethe to be chypped awaye. Wherfore the pithe or the crūme shulde be chosen / whiche is of more and swyfter noryshemēt than the cruste. Yet nat withstandynge crustis are holsome for them that be holle / and haue theyr stomake moyst / and desire to be leane / but they muste eate them after they haue dyned. For they enforce the meate to discende / and cōforte the mouthe of the stomake. Farther / in the .ij. and laste verses is mencioned / [Page M iij] that good bread ought to haue these .v. cōditions / that is / ye hit be salted / leuende / well baked / made of good corne / that is / that ye corne be pure / reapt / gethered / shefte / and housed in due season. And these conditions Auicen remēbreth in the forsayde place / sayenge: Hit behoueth that bread be pure / salted / leuende / well baked / and a day olde. And here is to be noted / that if one desire to norishe his bodye / he muste haue his breadde made of pure flower / the branne clene taken out: if one wyll be leaner / leaue some branne therin. For branne no­rishethe but lyttell / and vnlosethe the bealye / and flower dothe contrarye wise.

Est caro porcina sine vino peior ouina.
Si tribuis vina / tunc est cibus medicina.

Here in this texte porke is compared to mutton. If porke be eatē without wyne it is lesse holsome than mutton / but porke eaten with wyne / nouri­shethe beste / and it is medicinable: for hit moy­steth moche. And is to be vnderstande specially of rosted pygges / and braune well dyghte. And here is to be noted / that porke / salted / or dryed in the smoke / suche as men of the coūtrey vse / called ba­kon / are in no maner wyse so holsome as mutton / whether hit be eaten with wyne or no: but hit is vnderstande by rosted porke / or pigge / or braune / as is before sayde.

Ilia porcorum bona sunt / mala sunt reliquorum.

This texte saythe / that hogge tripes / be better than of other beastis. The reason is / by cause we eate fewe entrayles / outcepte they be full of blud / [Page] and of verye fatte beastis / as hogges be. Nowe only hoggis bludde / through the complexion / and similitude of complexion with mans nature / is bludde / of whiche the bowels be fylled. And lyke wyse hoggis be soner fatte / than any other bestis. Therfore we eate rather the tripes & chitterlȳges of an hogge than of other bestis.

Impedit vrinam mustum / soluit cito ventrem.
Epatis infraxim splenis / generat lapidem (que).

This texte openeth .v. incōueniēces / that growe by drynkynge of newe wyne or muste. The firste is / that muste letteth the vrine: and this may be vnderstande .ij. wayes. Fyrste / for grosse muste / throughe his grosnes / myxed with the dregges / stoppethe the lyuer and the raynes / so that the v­rine can nat easely haue hit course. Secondly / hit lettethe the vrine of hit due course / as some rein­nyshe muste doth / and certeyne other subtile wy­nes lyke wyse: For there is some reynnyshe must / that whose lyes are mordicāt or bytynge: & while hit runneth in to the bladder the erthye lyes byte and pricke the bladder: and cōstrayne one to pisse contrarie to the due order and maner that he was wonte to do. The .ij. is / hit losethe the bealye / by reason that hit scoureth the entrayles / & through the sharpnes of hit lyes / hit pricketh the guttis to voide out the ordeurs: fyrste / through mordicate­nes of the lyes. Secondly through vētosite / whi­che suche wyne causethe. Thyrdlye / by reason hit maketh ye guttis slyppry / by way of vndigestible­nes / and grefe of the stomake / wherfore the sto­make [Page] leuseth / and openethe the wayes that were shutte. The .iij. is / that muste hurtethe the good cōplection of the lyuer: For hit stoppeth the lyuer through moche mynglynge of hit lyes: and cau­seth disease in the lyuer called dissenteria / through swellynge / wherby ye lyuer is febled. Thus sayth Auicen .iii.i. ca. de reg. aque & vini. And thus it engē ­drethe an yll colour / and yll diseases of the lyuer / that is to say spices of ye dropsy. The .iiij. is / that muste hurtethe the splene and disposition therof / throughe the same cause that hit dothe the lyuer: for hit stoppeth the splene: and so causethe it to be harde. The .v. is / that must engēdreth the stone: and specially that is in the reines: whiche is rud­dy / and lyghtly frangyble / by reason of opilation / that hit causeth by hit grosse substance. And this is certeyne if the muste be of very swete wynes / whose lyes be nothynge bytynge or sharpe. For muste / that hath sharpe & bytynge lyes / preser­ueth a man from the stone: for hit makethe one to pysse often: as some reinyshe must / that causethe sande or grauel to be sene in the vrine: ofte prouo­kynge one to make water: whiche ofte makynge of water / wassheth away the small grauell / that cleueth to a mans raynes / and so auoydeth hit.

Potus aque sumptus / sit edenti valoe nociuus.
Infrigidat stomachum. cibum nititur fore crudum.

Here are declared .ij. hurtes / hurtis that comme by drynkynge of water. that come by dryn­kynge of water. The fyrste is / that drynkynge of water hurteth ones stomake that eateth: by rea­son that water cooleth and leusethe the stomake: [Page] and specially hit distroyeth the appetite. The .ij. is / that drynkynge of water with meate lettethe digestiō / for it maketh ye meate receiued rawyshe. After the mynde of Auicen / Auic. iii.i. ca. de reg. eiu [...] / quod comeditur. Auic ca. de regi. aque et vini. sayenge: Nor after meate / moche water shulde nat be dronken: For hit deuideth the stomake and the meate / and cau­seth hit to swymme in the stomake. And he saith: And whan nature dothe digeste meate / and that sufficient quātite of water be myngled therwith / than after that / if we drynke more water / hit let­teth very moche the digestion that was begonne. And agayne Auicen saythe:Auicen. ii. can. tract. i. cap. iiii. that drynkynge of water shulde be eschewed / outcepte hit be to helpe the meate downe / whan hit stycketh or discendeth slowelye. But with meate water shulde neuer be takē or vsed. Auerrois in his cōment sheweth the reason / whan we receyue water vpon meate / hit maketh the stomake colde or it be through hotte: and maketh the meate rawyshe: and eke causeth the meate to swym in the stomake: and hit is the cause: that the meate stycketh nat fast there as it shulde digest / as hit cōueniently shulde. The ope­ration of the stomake is / to make a good myxion of thynges receyued there in / and to digest them well. That done there foloweth an ordinarie / and a naturall seperation of pure & vnpure thynges. And as a greatte quantite of water put in a potte slakethe the sythynge of the meate therin: so lyke wyse hit chanceth in the stomake / by drynkynge of moche water: But to drynke a lyttell quantite of colde water / with our meate / before it descende [Page N] downe in to the stomake / is nat forbydden but al­lowable / specially if we be very thyrsty: for a littel quātite of colde wat / takē after ye forsayde maner / easethe the stomake and quenchethe thyrste. The coldnes of the water enforcethe the heate of man to descēde to the very bottum of the stomake / and so fortifieth the digestion therof. Thus saith Aui­cē in the aboue allegate placis. But witteth well / that though water be more cōuenient to quenche thyrste than wyne: yet wyne for a mans helthe is more holsome than water. And though water v­niuersally quenche thyrste better than wyne / by­cause hit is colde and moyst / yet to make naturall and good cōmixion of meates / and to cōueie them to the extreme partis of mans body / wyne is bet­ter thā water. For wyne through his subtile sub­stāce and operation / myngleth it selfe better with the meate / than water doth: and nature delyteth more in wyne than in water: therfore the mēbres drawe wyne more sooner vnto them / mynglynge hit with the meate. This mixynge in this maner is as a boylynge or sethyng of thynges to gether: whiche is greatly holpe by the heate of the wyne: but warer with hit coldnes / letteth hit. So than it appereth / that wyne in mynglynge with meate and delatynge of the same / is better than water. For wyne / by reason of hit subtilite of substance / and vertuous heate is a marueylous percer. And so by consequens wine delateth or spreadeth more thā water / wherin is no vertuous heate / nor sub­stance of ayre nor fire: the water letteth ye passage [Page] therof. Farther / water is nat so holsome drynke as wyne: for water hyndrethe the norishement of the bodye: by reason hit nouryshethe verye lyttell or nothynge at all: So that the more wattrysshe that meate is / the lesse hit norisheth. Therfore hit is very holsome to drynke wyne with our meate: for hit doth nat hynder norishement / but greatlye fordreth hit: for wyne is a speciall norishemēt and restoratiue / and norisheth sweftely / as hit is afore sayd. Farther / ye shall vnderstande / that to drȳke water with meate / is nat only hurtfull / but also in many other cases / Auic. iii.i. ca. de regi­mine aque [...] vini. whiche are declared of Auicen. Fyrste hit is vnholsome for a mā to drȳke fastyng: for hit perceth in to the bodye by all the principall membres therof: mortifienge hit naturall heate. This is of trouthe / if one that is truely fastynge drinke hit. Yet for a dronken man / it is some tyme holsome: nor it hurteth hym nat / though he drȳke hit fastynge: For a dronkerde fastynge is nat vt­terlye fastynge / his stomake is nat vacande / but some what remayneth of the other dayes ingur­gynge. But in whose nitrosite / water dronke in ye mornynge doth mitigate: and the stomake / there with washed / & the vapours & fumes repressed / is disposed to receyue newe sustinance. The .ij. hurt is to drynke water after great labour & trauaile: and lyke wyse after the fleshely acte / betwene mā and woman: For than the poris of the bodye be verye open: wherby the water entrethe in to the bottum of the membres / mortifienge the natural heate. Whiche heate also after the fleshely acte is [Page N ij] weaked. The .iij. incōuenience is after baynyng / specially / if one bayne hym fastynge: for than the cundites and wayes of the bodye be verye open: wherfore the water entrynge in hurteth / as is a­fore sayde.Auicē .v [...]. quarti / s [...] ­ma .ii. ca. vltimo. Of this drynkynge of water Auicen sayth: That of water dronke tastynge / after bay­nynge / and after carnall copulation / corruptynge of cōplection & dropsy is to be feared. Fourthly / it is hurtfull to drynke colde water to quēche feyned thyrst / in the nyght / as hit chanceth to surfetters and drōkerdes: For by drinkynge of colde water / the resolution and digestion of salte humours are prohibited / whether it be of wyne or other sharpe thynges / causynge thyrste: & so sone after drynke thyrste commeth agayne / as stronglye as before. But in case the thyrste be so vehement / vexynge & vnquietynge ouer moche / that neither coldenes of brethynge / nor washynge of the mouthe with colde water / can suffice / than let the thyrstie drȳke colde water / out of a narowe mouthed vesselle or cuppe / or syppynge / that the water more slowlye maye come vnto the brymme of the stomake: for so hit shall beste quenche thyrste / and lesse therof shalbe dronke / and than it shall nat vtterly distroy digestion. Fyftelye / generallye / hit is yll for holle folkes to drynke moche colde water / for hit quen­cheth naturall heate / greueth the breast / marreth the appetite of the stomake / and is verye hurtfull to all the senowye mēbres. Yet neuer the lesse wa­ter temperatly colde some tyme per accidence / ste­reth one to haue an appetite / and maketh the sto­make [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] stronge / helpynge hit / openynge and clen­synge the wayes therof.

Sunt nutratiue multum arnes vituline.

Here the author saith that veale nourisheth very moche. And this Auicen affirmeth / sayenge / that meate that conserueth helth must be suche as the fleshe is. For they are of lyke nature / & very apte to be conuerted in to bludde: and specially kydde / yonge suckynge calues / and yerelynge lammes. And this veale Galen .iii. alimentorum /The beste veale. preysethe highlye / sayenge / that veale of .vj. or .viij. wekes olde rosted / is more holsome than mutton / hit is soone digested / and norisheth very moche. And of these fleshes we haue spoken before.

Sunt bona gallina / capo / turtur / sturna columba
Quiscula vel merula phasianus / ethigoneta.
Perdix / frigellus / orex / tremulus / amarellus.

The beste foules to eate.This texte sheweth what wylde foule are moste holsome to eate / to nouryshe mans nature. The nombre of them is .xiiij. The fyrste is an henne: the whiche is verye holsome to eate. For Haly / Auenzoart / and Mesue say / that the beste fleshe of pultry is an henne / that neuer layed / & of a cocke / yt neuer trad henne. For they without superfluite are soone turned in to bludde: theyr proprete is to tempre mans complexion: and theyr broth is the beste medicine that can be for lepers. And Galen sayth / Galen. ii. can. ca. de g [...]inis [...] gallo. that fleshe of yonge pullettes / augmēteth intellection / hit clereth the voyce / and encreaceth the sede of generation. The .ij. is a capon / whose fleshe consiliator / in his .lxviij. question / nombreth [Page N iij] amonge the mooste holsome fleshes. And these fleshes / and lyke wyse the other afore sayde / the stomake of hit proprete / doth digest. The .iij. is a turtyll / whiche also nourisheth well / and engen­dreth good blud.Auicen .ii. can. ca. d [...] cane. The fleshe wherof Auicen high­lye preysethe / sayenge: There is no foules fleshe better thā a turtyls or a hennes / nor subtiler. But yet they are nat so nouryshynge as the pertriche. The .iiij. after the opiniō of some is a stare. This byrde shulde be eatē yonge. Some other call this foule Starna: whiche Rasis .iij. Alm̄ preisethe a­boue al other foules / sayenge: A sterlyngis fleshe is lyghtest of all other foules / & holsome for them that wyll kepe a sklender diete: and by this maye be vnderstande a greatter foule / as a grey goose / the fleshe wherof / is ryght cōmendable / specially yonge. And on this wise Almans. vnderstandeth / preferrynge this fleshe before other. Orels by a stare may be vnderstāde / certeine small ꝑtriches: wherof Moyses semeth to vnderstande / sayenge to the Iewes: Lyke wyse stares are vnholsome for our kynge / for they cōstreyne and indurate the bealye. And this proprete some ascribe vnto per­triches. For theyr fleshe bynde the bealy / as wit­nessethe Rasis .iij. Alm̄. The .v. is a doue / whose fleshe is colerike. Whiche / as Rasis sayth / is exce­dynge hotte: the whiche engēdreth blud feruētly hotte / and lyghtly engēdreth the ague. And ther­fore pigions be better baked with sower grapis / than rosted. For by the sower grapes / the heate engendred in the bludde is alayde. And the best to [Page] eate be yonge pigions / redye to flie / for suche be of lyght digestion / and of better humour. For yōge pigions / nat able to flee / are superfluously hotte & moyst: wherby they engēdre grosse humours / as Auicen sayth the .ij. canon / & chap. of pigions. But olde pigions and theyr fleshe / for theyr ouer great heate / drought / and difficulte of digestion / are to be eschewed. And lyke wyse olde turtyls. The .vj. is a quayle. Some doctours saye that a quayle is of light substance / and engendreth good bludde: and is very holsome for holle folkes. But after the mynde of Isaac / quayles are worse than any other wylde foule: nor they for nourishement nor digestion oughte to be preysed. For throughe eatynge of their fleshe the crampe is to be feared. As Auicen sayth .ii. can. cap. de cotur. And he saythe the reason is in the substance of theyr fleshe / that they engendre the crampe. And for this reason frenche mē bake & eate quayles with softe buttry chese. Yet by the quayle maye be vnderstāde an o­ther byrde a lyttell more than the forsayd ꝑtriche / of the same colour / with redde feete and bylle / of a delicious sauour. And on this wise Rasis .iij. Alm̄ taketh a quayle / whā he preferreth ye fleshe therof aboue the fleshe of a stare / and all other foules. The .vij. is an osell: whiche lyke wyse shulde be eaten yonge. The .viij. is a phesande: whiche of all phisitians is nōbred for one of the best fleshes. For the fleshe of that foule is mooste holsome for mans nature: and it is meate for princis & great estates. Consiliator sayth / that the wylde fesante [Page] is beste / both for helth and strength. And also per­auenture vniuersally / seinge yt they are nere like vnto hēnes / and welnere of the same shappe. And they be drier of ayer and of fedynge / and larger of exercise. The .ix. is a wodcocke / the fleshe of this byrde is specially holsome. The .x. is a pertriche: whose fleshe as Auicen sayth / is subtile / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de cubigine. Galē .iii. alimētorū. cap. xvii. et .xviii. de iugenio cap. ii. & a great fatter / hit scoureth away the dropsye / comforteth the stomake / and augmenteth carnal lust. Yet ne­uer the lesse it is a bynder. And this fleshe Galen preferreth aboue all other. And hit is sayde that customable eatynge of this fleshe / comforteth the memorie. The .xj. is a ruddocke / called robyn red brest / she eatethe grapis / and fleethe sweftly as a stare doth / but hit nourishethe better than a stare doth: and they haūte moche aboute the vines / & they be dronke by eatynge of grapes / and they be best in season to eate about al Halomas. The .xij. is orex / whiche as some say is a fesant henne / and as some saye a more henne: whether hit be a phe­sant henne or a more henne / the fleshe is of good norishemēt. The .xiij. is a byrde called tremulus: whiche byrde cōmonly abydeth nere the see coste / lesse in quantite than a henne / in colour russet / hit criethe loude and fleethe sweftelye / and whan his plumeth vpon the erthe / the tayle waggeth styll / and therfore hit is called tremulus / and vpon the heed therof groweth lōge fethers. Hit is nat that byrde / ye phesitions call a wagge tayle. The .xiiij. & last / is amarellus: whiche also is a water foule / lyke vnto a ducke / but hit is lesse. And to speake [Page] generally / amōge foules to eate / they be best prey­sed / that be swyfter in flight. And as the fleshe of the forsaide foules are of a cōmēdable norishemēt / and of easye digestion: so lyke wyse the fleshe of some foules is of a discōmendable nourishement / harde to digest / and of vnegall cōplection / as the fleshe of geese / pecockes / and malardes / and vni­uersally of al foules / that haue longe neckes / lōge bylles / and lyue vpō water. And the fleshe of spa­rowes / whiche are excedinge hotte / & vntēperate / sterynge to bodily lust. But touchynge election of foules fleshe / ye shall vnderstande / that theyr na­turall norishynge must be cōsidered / that is whe­ther they be restoratiue / lyght of digestion / lyght of substance / or of subtile operation: and so after theyr diuers propretes to preyse them. Wherfore Galen beholdynge the easye alteration & subtilte of pertriches fleshe / preferreth them. But Rasis with Isaac / cōsiderynge the subtilte and lightnes of the stare / preysethe that beste. Isaac also after the diuers intētions of wylde foules fleshe / prey­seth diuers. Auicen commendethe turtyls fleshe aboue other: either hauynge respecte to the pro­prete / wherby it strengtheth and comforteth mās vnderstandynge: orels yt in the countre of Araby / where Auicen was borne / turtyls are better than in other countreys. Farther wittethe well / that fleshe of foules is more holsome / than of .iiij. leg­ged beastis / for them that forsake labour / & gyue them to studie and cōtemplation / for hit is sooner digested: as Galen .iij. alimentorū saith: yet this [Page O] fleshe of foules is soner digested than of beastis / & specially of ꝑtriches / whiche engendreth cleane and pure bludde: disposed to augmēt & to sharpe the operations of the brayne / that is mās vnder­standynge / cogitation / and memorie.

Si pisces molles sunt / magno corpore tolle
Si pisces duri parui sunt plus valituri.

This texte openethe .ij. knowleges in choyce of fyshe. For either fysshe is harde or softe: if hit be softe / the elder the better. The reason is / for softe­nes comethe of humidite: whiche in yonge fyshe is vndigested / and in olde is more digested: and so whan suche fyshes be yōge / they engendre fleme / but whan they be olde they do nothyng so moche. And so appereth / that an olde yele is holsomer thā a yonge / as some say. But if suche fishe be harde / than it is holsomer yonge / that is / soner digested / as pikes & perches be. For the hardnes resistethe digestion. This is the opinion of Auicen .ii. ca. de piscibus / sayenge: Of harde fyshes take the smal­lest: and of softe fyshes / chose the greattest.

Lucius et parca / saxaulus / & albica / teuca.
Gurnus / plagicia / cum carpa / galbio / truca.

Here are rehersed .x. sortis of fishes very holsome for mans body. The firste is a pike / called the ty­ranne of fishes: For he nat only deuoureth fishes of other kynde / but also of his owne. On whom these verses were made:

Lucius est piscis rex & tyrannus aquarum.
A quo non differt Lucius iste parum.

The fishe of a pike is harde / and swyfte in swym­mȳge. [Page] The .ij. is a perche / diriuied of this verbe parco / parcis to forbeare or spare / by a clene cōtrary sence / for a perche spareth no fyshe / but wondethe other fyshes with his fynnes on his backe: nor a pike dare nat venture vpon a perche: but as Al­bertus sayth / in his boke of beastis nature / there is a natural amite betwene the perche & the pike. For the pike hurt of an other fishe / is healed with great difficulte. But whan he is hurte / he gothe vnto the perche / whiche seynge hym hurte / tou­chethe and sokethe the wounde / and so the pike is healed. And the perche is like wise an harde fishe. The .iij. is a see fyshe called a sole / whiche is a spe­ciall good fyshe. The .iiij. is a whytyng. The .v. is a tenche / Whiche is a freshe water fyshe / whose skynne is slyppery & slymely / some what blacke: the meate therof is harde. Whan so euer we wyll dresse a pike / a perche / or a tenche / we muste take the skyn away. The .vj. is gurnus / whiche is a see fyshe. This fyshe is as greatte in quantite / as halfe a mans myddel fynger / the whiche is eaten with the heed and fynnes. The .vij. is a playce. The .viij. is a carpe / a freshe water fyshe / whiche is moche slyme: but greatte estates haue them soddde in wyne / & so the slymynes is done away. The .ix. is a rochette / a see fishe / and is a fishe of harde meate & holsome. Some other textis haue gouio / yt is a goien / whiche is very holsome fyshe. The .x. is a troute / whiche in eatyng is like samō / and yet it is no samon / it is longe / and nat grosse: it is taken in great ryuers / and wyll suffre it selfe [Page O ij] to be rubbed and clawed / beynge in the water / & so it is taken / & therof pastis be made with spicis / and hit is a ryghte deynte fyshe. Touchynge the choyce of fyshe / ye shall fyrste vnderstande / that fyshe / compared with fleshe / is lesse nourishynge / lyghter of digestion / and the nourishement therof is full of fleumatike superfluites / colde / & moyst: and they be hardely digested / and abyde longe in the stomake. And by reason the stomake laboreth in digestynge of them / and other whyle they be corrupted in the stomake / they receyue a certeyne putrified qualite / and engendre thyrstynes. And surely the norishemēt of laudable fleshe is better than of fyshe. Secondly / witteth well / ye see fyshe is better in regiment of helthe / than other of the same sorte takē in freshe water. For their noryshe­mēt is nat so superfluous / and is more nere to the nature of fleshe. But bycause see fyshe are harder than other of the sorte taken in freshe water: ther­fore they be of more difficulte in digestion / of more and pure nourishement. Yet nat withstandynge / freshe water fyshe is holsomer for sycke folkes / by reason of theyr feble digestion. Thyrdelye note / Cōditions of good fyshe. that fyshe / as well of salte water as freshe / shulde be chosen / the whiche dressed are white / & nat clā ­my / but brittyll / nat verye grosse / but subtile / nat of harde sauour but soute / that doth nat soone pu­trifie / of good colour / nat bredde in lakes or pon­dis / nor in fylthy placis / nor in water wherin gro­weth yll wedes. And they oughte nat to be to olde nor to yōge / that be swyfte of mouynge / & of smal [Page] clāmyshenes. And if it be see fyshe / we must chose suche as is taken in ryuers a good waye from the see / and hauynge the other forsayde conditions: And the more skaly that fishe is the better hit is: and hit is lyke wyse vnderstande by the fynnes. For many fynnes and skales / betokē the purenes of the fyshes substance. Also amonge see fyshe / ye beste be they that brede in the dippest water / that ebbeth and floweth. And therfore / the fyshe that is taken in the northe see / that is more surgynge / and more tempestious / & more swyfte in ebbynge and flowynge / are better than the fyshe taken in the deed or the southe see. And ye shall lyke wyse vnderstande of freshe water fyshe: For fyshe bred in depe water / is better thā other of the sorte bred in shalowe & vnnotable waters. And here by may be sufficiētly knowen / whiche fyshe shulde be cho­sen / and whiche nat. For beastiall fyshe / as the see swyne / dogge fyshe / and dolphin / are vnholsome in the regiment of helth. For they be harde of di­gestion / and of suꝑfluous humours. Nor in the meate of the forsayde fysshes / the aboue nombred conditions appere nat / as whitenes / subtilite and suche other. And if those fyshes & suche lyke chāce to be eaten / they shulde nat be sodde as soone as they be taken / but shulde be kepte a fewe dayes after: tyll tyme the meate of them mollifie / and waxe tender / without corruptynge of theyr sub­stance. And also the forsayde fyshes be better a ly­tell corned with salte than freshe / or vtterly salte. And amonge all see fyshe / the forsayde conditions [Page O iij] considered / the rochet and gurnat seme to be most holsome. For theyr meate and substance is mooste pure / and than nexte a playce and a sole. But the meate of those is more clāmy / lesse frangible / lesse whyte / more grosse / & lesse subtile: nor the sauour or smel of them is nat so delicious / and per chance the whitynge is more cōmendable thā the rochet. For hit is nat so grosse and clāmy / as a playce and a sole / and hit substance is frangible inoughe / but the releshe / smel / colour / purenes / of substāce / and mobilite cōsidered / hit is nat so good as the rochet and gurnade: And lyke wyse ye shall vnderstāde of herrynge. And the fyshe called morua / beynge yonge inoughe / draweth nere the forsayde fyshes in goodnes / so that hit haue the aboue sayde cōdi­tions: yet hit is grosser and more clāmy / than the forsayde fyshes. But salmon / turbut / and macke­rell / be nat so good: for they be moche grosser / more clāmy / harder of digestion / and fuller of su­perfluite. Therfore they be onely holsome / for la­borers / and yonge folkes of stronge complection: theyr clāmynes / grossenes / and coldnes / maye be taken away with certaine sauces. Amonge freshe water fyshe / the forsayde conditions cōsidered / the perche and pike are the best / so they be fatte: and nexte are the vendosies / and than lopsters. And though the perche be more skaly than these afore sayde / yet the meate therof is so whyte / frāgible / and subtile / as the pike and carpe: and hit is ofte founde in pondes. And vniuersally / the best freshe water fyshe of the same sorte / is hit that is taken [Page] in water stonye in the bottum / runnynge northe warde / depe / and labourynge moche / where into ronneth no vrdeurs of cites: and wherin no we­des growe. Creueces both of the see and ryuers / are moche nutratiue / and corrupte nat lyghtly in the stomake: but they be harde of digestion. Far­ther more note / that freshe fyshe moyste the body / and encreace mylke and sede of generation: & is verye holsome for colerike folkes.Eatyng of fyshe good & badde. And after great trauaile or bigge labour / we shulde nat eate fishe / for than hit soone corrupteth in the stomake. And they that haue a weake stomake / or full of yll hu­mours / ought to beware of eatynge fyshe. More ouer / grosse fyshe / corned with a lytell salte / is bet­ter than freshe fyshe. And fyshe of longe tyme sal­tynge is vnholsome. Also fyshe & fleshe to gether shulde nat be eaten: nor fyshe and white meates: nor fyshe shulde nat be eaten after other meates. Also fyshe a lyttell salted / and in smalle quantite taken is holsome: hit stereth vp the appetite / and fortifieth hit / if one haue an appetite therto.

Vocibus anguilie praue sunt si comedantur.
Qui phisicam non ignorant hec testificantur.
Caseus anguilla nimis obsunt si comedantur.
Nitu sepe bibas. et rebibendo bibas.

The auctor sayth here / that the yele is an vnhol­some fyshe / and specially hurtethe the voyce. And this he proueth by the sayenge of phisitians / and studentis of naturall philosophe. The reason is / an yele is a slymye fyshe / clāmy / and speciallye a stopper: and wantethe moche of the cōditions of [Page] good fyshe before spoken. And this that is sayde by an yele / may be vnderstande of lampreys: all though lampreys be a lyttell holsomer thā yeles / and lesse ieoperdus / seynge they be nat so clāmye and grosse as yeles. And thoughe these fyshes be delicious in taste / yet they be verye perillous: for theyr generation in the water / is lyke generation of serpētes on the erthe. Wherfore it is to be dou­ted lest they be venomous: and therfore ye heedes and tayles / in whiche the venome is wonte to be / & lyke wyse the strynge within / shulde in no wyse be eaten. Also hit is good to plunge them alyue in good wyne / to take away theyr clāmynes / and let them lye styll therin tyll they be deed / and than let them be dyght with galentyne made of the beste spicis / as great estates cokes are wonte to do. Yet hit is good to parboyle them twyse before in wyne and water: and that brothe done awaye / to sythe them through / and to make galantyne for them / or elles to bake them / or frye them in grene sauce with stronge spicis / & a lyttell good wyne in wyn­ter: in sommer to dresse them with a lytell wyne / vergis & vineger: but he that can foreare these .ij. fyshes dothe beste. Farther the texte saythe / that chese and yeles hurte moche if they be eaten: and this is to be vnderstande if ye eate great quantite therof. The cause of chese / is before shewed at Persica poma &c. And of yeles here nowe before. Hit folowtth in the texte / that if those thynges be taken with ofte drinkynge of wyne / their hurtful­nes is amended: & this shulde nat be vnderstāde [Page] of subtile and percyng wyne: nor of wyne that is gyuen in way of drinke cōductiue: for suche wine shulde nat be gyuen vpon meate / that engēdrethe yll humours / whan hit is eaten: nor before / nor after hit is digested:Auic. iii.i. ca. de regi­ [...]ne aque [...] viiii. as Auicen saithe: For suche wyne enduceth great hurte: for hit causeth yl hu­mours / engēdred of that drynke / to entre in to the extreme partis of the body: whiche perauenture were nat able to entre without helpe & leadȳge of the wyne. But this is to be vnderstande of strōge wyne / nat greatly percynge / ofte and in smal quā ­tite gyuen / to thentēt to myxe ye meate to gether: For suche wyne doth alay the malice of ye meate / cōforteth digestion / and directeth the fleumatike colde humours: wherfore hit helpeth the digestiō of chese and yeles / that are of yll digestion.

Inter prandendum sit sepe parum (que) bibendum.
Si sumas ouum / molle sit at (que) nouum.

Here the auctor toucheth .ij. thinges. The firste is / that one at dyner and soupper shulde eate well and drinke ofte and a littell at ones. And nat to do as a brute beast doth / that eateth his fyl of meate and drinketh after warde: For the better ye drinke is myngled with the meate / the sooner the meate is mollified / and the more capace of digestion. And here is to be noted / that there is .iij. maner of drynkynges. The fyrste is that mynglethe the meate to gether: the .ij. that delateth hit: the .iij. that quencheth thyrst. The fyrst that we spake of is to be vnderstande of drynke myngled with our meate / thoughe we be nat thyrstye. Thus we [Page P] oughte to drynke euen as we haue eaten a lyttell. For outcepte a better reason / I say we may nat a­byde tyll the meales ende / nor tyll we be a thyrste. And this maner drynkyng is specially good / for them that fede on meate actuallye drye: as appe­rethe by sicke folkes / that eate drye breadde. But drynkynge to quenche thyrste / for suche as be in good tempre / shulde be forborne tyll the meales ende: for than comethe the true thyrste / throughe the heate of the meate hotte and drye. Hit is nat verye reasonable that thyrste and hunger shulde assayle vs bothe to gether: for they are of cōtrary appetite. and this drynke shulde be gyuen after as the thyrst is more or lesse. Drinkynge delatiue is moste conuenient after the fyrst digestion regu­larlye / and a lyttell before we take other meate. And this maner of drynkynge is holsome / whan the meates before taken were grosse in substance: nor thus to drynke / we maye nat tarye tyll we be thyrsty. For this drinkynge prepareth ye stomake to receiue other meate: and causeth the meate di­gested to descende from the stomake to the lyuer: nor this drinkynge shulde nat be in great quātite: to thende hit may sone be digested. For before hit be digested / hit goth nat to the lyuer. And this is of trouthe / outcepte suche drynke delatiue were water / in whiche one muste nat tary tyll digestion before hit come to the lyuer. But regularly conue­nient drynke delatiue or ꝑmixtiue / oughte nat to be water / but wyne / orels ale / bere / syder / ꝑtey / or suche lyke / than all whiche wyne is better. Se­condly [Page] wittethe well / that the grosser / dryer / and colder that meate is / the bygger the drynke par­myxtiue and delatiue shulde be. And contrarye wyse / the hotter / subtiler / and moyster that meate is / the weake the drȳke ꝑmixtiue & delatiue shuld be. And the more subtile / hotte / and digestible the meate is / the weaker the drynke or wyne ought to be. Wherfore strōger wyne shulde be dronke with befe / than with chekyns / & we shulde drynke strō ­ger wyne with fyshe than with flesshe. The .ij. doctrine is / that if we will eate an egge / hit must be rere rostedde and newe: the cause therof is be­fore shewed.

Pisa (que) laudare decreuimus ac reprobare.
Pellibus ablatis sunt bona pisa satis.
Sunt inflatiua cum pellibus at (que) nociua.

Of peasē.This texte reherseth a notable thyng of peasen. That is yt they some way are preised / & some way dispreysed. They be lauded whan they be eaten / the huskes taken away / and discōmended / whan they be eaten with the huskes: for than they en­state. And therfore it is nat artificial to eate them in the huskes / for the nature of that within & the huskes / disagree. The one labourethe to be losed and to go out: the other withstādeth / & byndeth / as Isaac saythe in dictis vniuersalibus. Wherfore a hurlynge mouynge is caused in the bodye / indu­cynge gnawynge and inflasion in the bealye. And peasen do nat this all onely / but also all pulce / as beanes / chiches / chestons / and suche lyke. And speciallye suche as haue moche huske / as beanes [Page P ij] and blacke ryce. Also the huske of them all nory­sheth worse than the pithe within. And here is to be noted / that there is a maner of whyte rounde peasen: wherof the codde is very small & thynne: & one may eate these peasen with the huske more surelye than other / all thoughe hit were better to hulle them. And albe it that the reason afore sayd is true touchȳge al pulce / yet ye shall vnderstāde / that the hulles of grene pulce is lesse / and lesse di­uersite is betwene the huskes & the pithe within / and more easye to digeste: And therfore some saye they be more holsome for folkes in helthe: but hit is nat so: For grene pulce is of ryght great super­fluite and corruptible substance / wherfore they be lesse holsomer for holle folkes. And note this for a treuthe / that drye pulce / the vtter huske taken a­way / are more holsome than grene: but grene are better than drie vnhulled. Farther ye shall vnder­stance / that the substance of all pulce / is inflatiue and harde of digestion: and their yll nourishemēt is vnholsome in the regiment of helthe: but the broth of them is holsome: For the brothe of them maketh the bealy laxatiue / and maketh one pisse / and vnstoppeth the veynes. Wherfore hit is hol­some at suche tymes as folkes vse grosse and opi­latiue meatis / as on fastynge dayes. For in this brothe or pottage conueniently made / are nat the hurtes that be in the substāce: therin is no infla­sion / nor difficulte of nourishement and digestion / nor the malice of norishemēt. This broth is made on this wyse. The ryce or peasen / muste be layde [Page] in sythynge water: and therin a good whyle to be all to robbed with ones handes: and after in the forsayde water shulde be tempered all the nyght: and therin the nexte nyghte folowynge to be boy­led twyse or thryse / and than dyghte / and so re­serued: And whan the houre of dyner drawethe nere / to dresse it with cynomum and saffron / and a lyttell curtsy wyne put therto: and than boyle hit ones / and so eate hit at begynnyng of our refectiō. And the brothe or pottage of ryce and of rounde white peason is better / and more holsome & frēdly to mans nature: and lyke wyse theyr substance.

Lac ethicis sanum. caprinum post cametinum.
Ac nutritiuum / plus omnibus est asininum.
Plus nutritiuum. vaccinum sit et ouinum.
Si febriat caput et doleat / non est bene sanum.

To chose mylke.Here the auctor teachethe vs certeyne lessons to chose mylke. The fyrste is / that goottis mylke is holsome for them that be in a consumption / or be leane / Auicenna ii. can. ca. de lacie. et i.iiii. tract. iii. ca. de remor. medic humect. e­chicos. or that haue a consumyng ague. And Aui­cen sayth / that goottis mylke and assis mylke are good for them that be in a cōsumption. The rea­son is / for that gootis mylke is temperate / and of moche nourishemēt. And nexte to this is camels mylke. For that is subtile / and of moche aquosite & humidite: wherby hit may moyst them. Yet for trouthe this mylke / throughe hit ouer moche hu­midite / nourishethe lyttell: wherfore hit is nat so holsome for them as goottis mylke: yet this ca­mels mylke / newlye after folynge / is holsome for them that haue the dropsye / and for them that [Page P iij] haue disease in the lyuer: for it reuiueth the liuer / as Auicen saythe. Secondly he saythe / Auicen. ii. can. ca. de lacte. that assis mylke is holsomer than other / for drie folkes in a consumption. This is of trouthe / comparynge assis mylke / with mylke of other brute beastis: for hit enclinethe to coldnes and humidite / and is subtile and soner entreth: and more slowelye con­ieyleth / than the mylke of any other brute beast / as Galen sayth. The same saith Auicen / Galē. vi. de ingenio cap. vii. Auicen de lacte. and that after womās mylke / there is none to assis mylke. And he sayth if any helpe the feuer ethicke / hit is assis mylke. Yet to compare assis mylke with wo­mans mylke / hit is nat so holsome. For womans mylke taken by suckynge is mooste holsome / as Auicen sayth. The reason is:Auicen .i. quarti loco preallex. for womans mylke is colde / moyste / more lyke to mans nature / swift­lier entred / quickelier digested / & more norishyng. And this mylke to be gyuen to them that be in a cōsumptiō / shulde be mylked as nere the paciētis beddis syde as is possible / & forth with to ministre hit vnto hym / lest the ayer corrupte hit. And here is to be noted / that in some cases / sower or butter mylke is better for folkes in a consumption / than womans mylke or assis. Fyrste is whan by this feuer ethike / they be caste in a laske. The .ij. is / whan they suspecte coagulation of the mylke in ye stomake / either by vehement heate of the feuer: orels by cause the stomake of hit selfe is colerike / the mylke shulde turne to coler. The .iij. is whan the ethike / is coupled with a putrified feuer: spe­ciallye whan there be nat many opilations in the [Page] interiour partis. For sower mylke restreineth the bealy / and turneth nat lyghtly in to coler: for the buttrines of it is gone: wherby the mylke lightly enflāmeth: nor in a putrified feuer / it is nat sone putrified. The .iiij. is / if the stomake be foule / for thā the mylke corrupteth lyghtly therin. The .v. case is / whan he that hath the ethike disease / ab­horrethe doulce & cleane mylke / but nat the sower or butter mylke. The .iij. lessō is / that cowe milke and shyppe mylke are more nutratiue / for they be fatter and grosser than other / Aui. ii. ca. ca. de lacte for so sayth Auicen: And that all beastis mylke / that in bryngynge forth yonge / continueth longer than a woman / is vnholsome: but the mylke of those / that beare e­gallye with woman / is mooste holsome / as cowe mylke.Rasis .iii. Alm̄. cap. de lacte. But Rasis sayth: that cowe mylke is the moste grosest mylke that any beast gyuethe: and therfore hit is holsomer than other / for them that desyre to be fatte. The .iiij. lesson is / that mylke hurteth them that haue ye ague / or the heed ache / The cause why is before shewed at Persica poma &c.

Lenit et humectat. soluit sine febre butirum.

Thre pro­pretes of butter.Here the auctor sheweth .iiij. ꝓpretes of butter. The fyrste is butter mollifieth the bealy / and ma­keth it slyppery / throughe it oylyues. The .ij. is / that butter is moyste / for hit is made of the beast partis of the mylke / wherfore hit muste nedes be moyste / seynge that the mylke is moyst / wherof it is made. The .iij. is / that hit leuseth the bealye / and that is by the slypperynes that hit causeth in the guttis. These .iij. propretes Auicen reherseth [Page] ii. can. cap. de butyro. And these .iij. propretes butter induceth in a body / nat sycke of a feuer: for it hur­teth them that haue an ague / for butter with hit vnctuosite augmentethe the heate of the feuer. Here is to be noted / that though butter cause the forsaide propretes: Yet by reason of it ouer moche humidite and vnctuosite / it is vnholsome in waye of meate: speciallye to eate moche therof. For if one vse to eate moche therof / hit engendreth loth­somnes / and maketh the meate to swȳme aboute the brymme of the stomake: and laxeth the bealy out of measure / & causeth vomite. Therfore but­ter shulde in no wyse be eaten as meate in greatte quantite / and speciallye hit shulde nat be eaten af­ter other meate: but to vse hit with other meate / hit is very holsome.

Incidit at (que) lauat / penetrat / mundat quo (que) serum.

This texte openeth .iiij. ꝓpretes of whey.The pro­pretes of whey. The fyrste is / hit is incisiue or subtile. The .ij. hit is washynge or scourynge. The .iij. hit is persynge / whiche proprete procedeth of the fyrste. The .iiij. is / hit clenseth or purgeth. Auicen resitynge these propretes saythe: that whey is subtiliatiue / Auicen .ii. can. cap. de lacte. Rasis .iii. Almāsoris. was­shyng / & leusynge: and therin is no mordication. Rasis saythe / that whey dothe expelle ruddye co­ler / skabbes / and pushes: and also pympuls in the face: and also it is holsome for them that haue the ianders: and for them that be distempered by to moche drynkynge of wyne.

Caseus est frigidus / stipans / grossus quo (que) durus.
Caseus et panis bonus est cibus hic bene sanis.
[Page]Si non sunt sani / tunc hunc non [...]ungito pani.

Two thynges are here touched. Fyrste he put­tethe .iiij. propretes of chese.Foure pro­pretes of chese. The fyrste is / that chese is of a colde nature. And this is to be vnder­stande of grene chese / whiche is colde and moyst: and nat of olde chese / whiche is hotte and drie / as Auicen sayth:Auicen .ii. can. cap. de [...]aseo. Orels hit may be vnderstande by chese / that cruddeth onely of the mylke / without mynglyng of any other thyng. For there is some chese of hotte nature / that heatethe the stomake & byteth the tonge / by mynglynge of other thyn­ges there with: as some chese grene in colour: of whiche if one eate moche in quantite / dothe heate and enflame the bodye. The .ij. proprete is / that chese maketh one costife: this is of trouthe / speci­ally if hit be harde / and made with moche renles. The .iij. is / that chese engēdreth grosse humours: & this is trouthe of all chese: for all chese is made of the grosser and more erthye parte of the mylke. The .iiij. ꝓprete is / yt mylke byndeth the wombe / and this and the .ij. is all one. Farther the texte saith / that though chese eatē alone be vnholsome / wherby cometh yll digestion / yet if one eate a lyt­tell curtsye with breadde / hit shall digest with the bread / and nat other wyse: this is trouth / if holle folkes and nat sycke eate hit. We spake before of chese at Nutrit et impinguat &c.

Ignari medici me dicunt esse nociuum.
Sed tamen ignorant cur nocumenta feram.
Languenti stomacho caseus addit opem.
Si post sumatur terminat ille dapes.
[Page Q]Qui phisicam non ignorant hec testificantur.

Here the auctour blameth them that absolutelye reproue the vse of chese. And he declareth .ij. vtili­tes therof. Fyrste chese cōforteth a sicke stomake. And here is to be noted / that al chese doth nat ease euerye diseased stomake. But in other cases all chese hurteth the stomake of selde knyttyng / and euerye stomake weaked by longe syckenes. But newe grene chese of small clāmynes / cōfortethe a hotte stomake / for as Rasis sayth: hit repressethe his brounes and heate. And eke hit comforteth a drie stomake / through it humidite. And olde chese or very tarte / or moche cruddye / hurtethe moche suche stomakes. But olde chese / or verye cruddye chese / comfortethe a stomake / where aboute han­geth moche fleme: for suche chese with his tarte­nes / cuttethe and scourethe away the fleme. But newe & softe chese hurteth suche a stomake ryght moche. And thus hit appereth / that in some case these hurteth alwaye / and nat in some. And that newe chese is some tyme good / & some tyme olde. The .ij. vtilite is / ye chese eaten after other meate / maketh hit to discende downe in to the place of di­gestion: that is the bottum of the stomake. All this they knowe / that haue the verye science of phisicke. And of tarte chese Rasis saythe: Neuer the lesse a lyttell curtsye therof eaten after meate / fortifieth the mouthe of the stomake: and taketh away the ouer moche satiete & lothyng of meate / that are wōte to be engēdred of swete & vnctuous meatis / about the stomakes mouthe.

Inter prandendum sit sepe parum (que) bibendum.
Vt minus egrotes / non inter fercula potes.

Here be .ij. lessons. The fyrste is / that a man at his meate shulde drinke lyttell and ofte. But this thynge is al redy declared. The .ij. lesson / is that betwene meales / we must forbeare drynke: speci­allye if the meate that we dyd eate be vndigested in the stomake / excepte great necessite constrayne vs: for drynkynge than letteth and breakethe di­gestion of the meate fyrste taken. For hit causeth the meate to discende from ye stomake vndigested: & putteth away the appetite: greueth the bodye / and engendreth the feuers and other diseases.

Vt vites penam / de potibus incipe cenam.

Here the auctour sayth / that one ought to begyn his soupper with drynke. Some expounde this verse thus: If thou wylt eschewe sickenes / drȳke at soupper or thou begynne to eate. But this ex­position is reproued. For after phisitians / a man shulde begynne his soupper with meate / and nat with drȳke. And all though this boke was made for englishe men / yet they kepe nat this rule: For at what houre of the day so euer they drinke / they eate a morsell breadde fyrste. Therfore this verse may be expounde other wyse:Hippoc. ii. partic. a­phonsm̄. takynge drynke for meate moyste and easye of digestion / as Hippo­crates taketh drynke whā he sayth: Hit is easyer to fylle one with drynke thā with meate. So that the sentēce of this verse shulde be thus: It is bet­ter to begynne our soupper with drynke / that is with meate moyste / and easye of digestion / than [Page Q ij] with grosse / harde / and yll of digestion. The rea­son is / if we eate meate moyst & easie of digestion / after grosse & harde of digestion / it wolde through the digestiue heate of the night / be soner digested longe before the grosse meates. And whan it can nat haue issue for the grosse meate vndigested: hit burneth ouer moche: or if hit issue / hit pluckethe parte of the grosse meate vndigested with hit. Therfore it is beste to begynne with meate moyst and easye of digestion: that whan hit is digested / hit may without lette issue out.

Singula post oua pocula sume noua
Post pisces nux sit / post carnes caseus assit.
Vnica nux prodest / nocet altera / tertia mors est.

Here be certeyne lessons. The fyrst is / after the eatynge of euery newe layde egge rere rosted / we muste drynke / and specially a draughte of wyne. The reason maye be / by cause a newe layde egge rere rosted / is of ryghte great nourishement / and easely digested: and it is of that sorte that in smal quantite nourisheth moche: and principallye the yolke / as is before sayde at oua [...]centia. So that the wyne / whiche is frendlye to nature / causethe that the egge is more desirously drawen of the no­rishynge membres / and helpethe hit to entre. An other cause may be. An egge discendeth but slow­lye: and drynke helpethe hit to discende. The .ii. doctrine is / to eate nattis after fyshe / in stede of [...]hese: For nuttis through theyr drines / hyndreth thingendryng of fl [...]me / that is wonte to be engē ­dred of fishe. And for this cause nuttis are the last [Page] seruice in lente. The .iij. lesson is / that after fleshe we must eate chese and nat nuttis: for nuttis drie ouer moche / and so doth nat chese: but it causethe the meate to discende to ye buttum of the stomake / where the vertue of digestion is. And this is cer­tayne / if the chese be neyther to olde nor to newe. Farther the texte hath in ye last verse / A nutte megge. that a nutte megge / is holsome for the body: hit makethe the mouthe to sauour well / hit comforteth the sighte / and lyke wyse the lyuer / splene / and speciallye the mouthe of the stomake / as Auicen saith. But the other cōmune nuttes / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de [...]uce mus­ [...]ata. called a walnut / is hurtful. This walnut / as Auicen saythe / doth inflate / in­gendre ventosite in the wombe / hit is harde of di­gestion / and stereth one to vomite / & that by reasō of hit calidite. But the .iij. nutte / that is the nutte of the crosse bowe / is dethe / for the crosse bowe sle­ethe men. Orels we maye vnderstande the nutte methel: whiche as Auicen saythe / is venomous / wherfore hit sleeth.

Adde potum piro / nux est medicina veneno.
Fert pira nostra pirus / sine vino sunt pira virus.
Si pira sunt virus / sit meledicta pirus.
Si coquas antidotum pira sunt / sed cruda venenum.
Cruda grauant stomachum / eleuant pira cocta grauatū.
Post pira da potum / post pomum vade fecatum.

In the fyrste verse here / he lerneth vs to drynke wyne after peres. For peres (as is before suffici­entlye declared) engendre ventosite: and of theyr proprete cause the colyke / and engendre blud fulle of aquosite: and therfore with them one shulde [Page Q iij] drynke stronge wyne: whiche consumethe vento­sites and aquosites engēdred of peres. Secondly the texte sayth / that nuttis is a remedye agaynst venome: as hath bene shewed at Allea nux &c. Farther in the .ij. and .iij. verse he shewethe / that peres eatē without wyne are venomous / that is / hurtfull to mans nature / the cause is shewed in ye fyrst verse. Yet for al that peres be nat venomous simply / for if they were / they slee / and peres so do­ynge are accursed. In the .iiij. verse he shewethe / that rawe peres are venomous / that is: hurtful: for they make the humours to boyle / and cause ye colike / sleme / & skabbe. Yet if they be sodde / they be medicinable / in maner as is before said / that is to saye with wyne: and specially eaten after other meate: for so they expulce the dregges. In the .v. verse he sayth / that rawe peres greue ye stomake: for they let his digestion / and inflate: but sodde peres releue the stomake greued: and dispose hit naturally. In the last verse are .ij. thynges. The fyrste is after peres we must drynke / for the cause before sayde. The .ij. is / that after eatynge of ap­puls / we muste go to siege: for Auicen saythe:Auicen .ii. can. ca. de pontis. If swete or sower appuls fynde any grosse humours in the stomake / they force them to discende from thence to the guttis: for appuls are moche infla­tiue and engendre ventosites: whiche nature ex­pelleth to the inferiour partis.

Cerusa si comedas tibi con [...]ett grandia dona.
Expurgans stomachum / nucleus lapidem tibi tollit.
Et de carne sua sanguis erit (que) bonus.

[Page] Eatyng of cheries.Here are declared .iij. commodites / that come of cheris eatynge. The fyrste is / that cheris purge the stomake. This some say is trouthe / whan the stones be broken and eaten with al: for these .ij. to gether / of their proprete scoure and clense. The .ij. is / that the kyrnell of the cherie stone / by his ver­tue / breaketh the stone in ones raynes or bladder: & is eaten drie or made in mylke. The .iij. is / that the substance or meate of cheries / engēdreth very good bludde / comforteth / and fattethe the bodye. And this is proued by experience: for we se that sparowes / whiche are greatte eaters of cheries / that in cherie tyme theyr lyuers be farre greatter thā in other seasons: wherby appereth that che­ries encreace and cōforte the lyuer. Yet here is to be noted / that there be .ij. sortes of cheris / grosse / & smalle. And eke of the grosse are .ij. sortes / some are swete / and some sower. All doulce and smalle cheris are vnholsome: for they lyghtlye corrupte / and brede vermyn. The grosse and sower cheries are called cina: and of these are .ij. sortes: Some be ruddye and softe of substance: and suche must be eaten freshe and newe gethered / and at begyn­nynge of dyner: theyr nature is to scoure the sto­make / and to prouoke the appetite. The other are blacke / grosse / and harde of substāce / and specially the sower. And these shulde be eaten at ye begyn­nynge of dyner or soupper. The cause is / for by theyr sowernes they close the mouthe of the sto­make / wherby better & spedier digestiō foloweth.

Infrigidant / laxant / multum prosunt tibi prima.

[Page]Here he putteth .ij. vtilites cōmynge by eatynge of prunes. Fyrste / prunes coole the bodye: And therfore Portugals / that dwelle in a hotte coūtre / alwaye with theyr meate sythe prunes. The .ij. prunes cause one to laske / by reasō of theyr humi­dite & clāmines: as Gal. saith.Galen .ii. alimētorū. Auicen .ii. can. ca. de prunis. This is of trouth if they be rype: for prunes yt be nat rype / be styp­ticall & norishe lytell as Auicen saith. And though damaske prunes haue the forsayde vtilites / yet proprelye they be ascriued to prunes of Armeny. For prunes of the countre of Armeny / are better than any other: And they vnbynde the wombe more vehemently than other / as Auicen saythe. For a more declaration / ye shall vnderstande / that rype prunes are vsed / & nat vnrype.The beste prunes. And prunes most holsome for mans nature be the longe ones / that haue lyttell substance about the stone / small / harde / in maner drie / and the vtter skyn thynne: & they shulde nat be swete in taste / but some what sower / and of this sorte are Damaske prunes: and suche refreshe and coole the body / as sayde is. There be many other sortes of prunes / whose vse is nat accepted. There be also prunes / calledde wylde prunes / whiche growe in ye woddes: these be nat laxatiue: of them water is distilled to bȳde the wombe. Prunes that are taken to make one to laske / muste fyrste be layde in colde water: for than they coole and moyst more perfectly: and by slipperynes they leuse the coler that they come to: and so the stomake is better disposed to receyue foode. And here is to be noted / that moyst prunes [Page] and newe are more alteratiue / thoughe they be of worse norishement / and of more superfluite: but drie prunes cōforte more / and better nouryshe the body. And as hit is sayde by prunes / so after the maner is vnderstande of cheris. Yet nat withan­dynge the humidite of cheris is subtiler and lesse clāmy / wherby they norishe lesse than prunes.

Persica cum musto vobis datur ordine iusto.
Sumere sic est mos / nucibus sociando racemos.
Passula non spleni tussi valet / est bona reni.

Here be .iij. doctrines. The fyrst is / that with pe­ches we shulde drynke muste / for .ij. causes: the fyrste is / for must is hotte / & boyleth in our body: whiche boylynge and heate the peche with it cold­nes fordoth. The .ij. cause is / for peches be ryght colde / and coole the bodye verye moche: Therfore that wyne shulde be dronke vpon them / whiche heateth more than other. But that is muste / that is knowen by experience. The maner howe we shulde eate peches and other frutis / is declared at Persica poma &c. The .ij. doctrine is / that with olde drie nuttis we must eate resyns. For newe gethe­red nuttis are by them selfe holsome: but olde dry nuttis are greatte driers: & through theyr vnctu­osite they lyghtelye enflame the bodye: wherfore with them resyns must be eate / whiche restrayne inflāmation & drynes / by reason they moyst. And of nuttis is spoken more largely at Allea nux &c. The .iij. doctrine is / that resyns of corans hurt ye splene / for it causeth opilation therof: yet they are holsome for the raynes: for by theyr prouokynge [Page R] of vrine they purge the raynes.

Scrofa / tumor / glandes / ficus cataplasmate cedit
Iunge papaner ei confracta foris tenet ossa.

Here be declared .ij. holsome thynges / that come by playsters made of fygges. Fyrst / figges sodde in water / & moyste layde to any of these .iij. disea­ses cureth hit / that is swynes yuell / kyrnels / and swellynges. By swynes yuell is vnderstande in­flasion vnder the chynne about the throte. And it is called scrofula a scrofa / that is to saye a sowe or a swyne: either bicause this disease chanceth many tymes to swyne through theyr gulosite: orels by cause ye shappe of this disease is likened to swyne / as Auicen sayth.Auicen .iii.iiii. tract. ii. cap. de stropulis. By kyrnels are vnderstāde im­postumes / whiche cōmonly chance vnder ye arme pittis / and in the groynes. And by swellyng may be vnderstande inflasions in any parte of ye body. Wherfore to hele these impostumes / and specially to rype them / figges shulde de sodde with water:A playster made of fygges. and with the water shulde be mixed a litell curtsy of vineger: whiche shulde helpe the vertue of the figges to entre. And whan it is sodde / the fygges must be beate in a morter: and thā myngled with a curtsy of the water that they were sodde in: and so make a playster. A playster is proprely a medi­cine made of some herbe / or flower / and the ioyce therof: as this verse sayth: Tunc cataplasma facis / cum succum ponis et herbam. The .ij. vtilite is / that a playster made of figges and popie sede ioyneth or setteth broken bones to gether agayne.A playster of fygges & popie sede. And they muste be sodde to gether in water wtout vineger: [Page] and than stampe hit in a morter / and put therto a littell of the water that it was sodde in: and so lay hit to the sore. The reason herof may be: bicause popie sede both taketh away the sensiblenes of the mēbres / wherby the ache / that is wonte to chāce in breakynge of bones / is done away / and prouo­keth to slepe. Fyggis eke drawe the humidites of the bodye to the vtter partis: whiche humidites broughte to the bones / maye drawe / retayne / or holde them to gether / but neuer perfectely knytte them. And witteth well / that there be .iij. kyndes of popis / whyte / redde / and blacke. The redde is venomous / and growethe amonge corne. Yonge schole [...]s are wonte to stampe the flowers therof / to make them redde ynke.

Pediculos / venerem (que) facit / sed cuilibet obstat.

Eatyng of fygges.Here be declared .ij. operations of fyggis. The fyrst. Moche eatȳge of fyggis maketh one lousy: and this is for certayne / if the fygges be drie / as Auicen sayth.Auicen .ii. can. ca. de ficubus. And he saith yt the cause is through the maliciousnes and corruption of the humour of them engendred. And eke an other cause maye be / for that figges stere one to swete moche / wher­of lyce are engendred. The .ij. operation is / fyg­ges stere one to carnall luste: and lyke wyse they haue many superfluites / and augmente the sede of generation.

Multiplicant mictum. ventrem dant escula strictum.
Escula bona dura / sed mollia sunt meliora.

Here are declared .ij. vtilites of medlars. The fyrst is / that they enc [...]eace vrine: that is by reasō [Page R ij] they make the dregges harde / and so the wtattry­nes turneth in to moche vrine. The .ij. vtilite is / medlars make one costife throughe their sower­nes and stipticalnes / and therfore the texte sayth / harde medlars be good to stoppe the laske. But yet the softe medlars be better than the harde: for they noryshe more and bynde lesse. And here is to be noted / that medlars noryshe lesse than appuls / peres / peches / fygges / and suche lyke: whiche thynge apperethe playnelye by theyr egernes of relishe or taste / & hardnes of theyr substance after they be ryped on the tree / and therfore we shulde eate fewe medlars / and rather in way of medicine than meate. And bicause they be verye stipticall / they be holsome for ye laske. And bicause medlars ripe nat on the tree softe inough to eate / they must be layde tyll they be softe: and than they be more delectable and lesse stipticall.

Prouocat vrinam mustum / cito soluit / & inflat.

Thre ꝓpretes of muste be here touched. Fyrste / muste prouoketh one to pysse / for in muste are the erthy ꝑtis scouryngly bytynge the bladder / whan they come therto: by reason wherof the bladder is constrayned to auoyde the vrine. And this pro­prete is vnderstāde of mustis / that haue bytynge lies / as moche reinnishe muste. For mustis that haue grosse lies are nat nyppȳge / but rather stop­pynge and lettynge of vrine / as is before sayde at Impedit vrinam &c. The .ij. proprete / must maketh one lyghtly laske / through the same cause shewed in the fyrst proprete. Thyrdly / must is inflatiue: [Page] for the boylynge that hit maketh in the body / rey­seth vp ventosites. The causes of these .ij. propre­tes are shewed before at / Impedit vrinam.

Grossos humores nutrit seruisia vires.
Prestat / augmentat carnem / generat (que) cruorem.
Prouocat vrinam / ventrem quo (que) mollit & inflat.
Infrigidat modicum / sed plus desiccat acetum.
Infrigidat / macerat melanc dat / sperma minorat.
Siccos infestat neruos / & pinguia siccat.

Here the auctour toucheth .ij. thynges. Fyrst he putteth .viij. propretes of ale or beare. Fyrste / ale engendreth in mans body grosse humours / whi­che is of trouth in regarde of wyne. And after the diuersite of the corne or grosse substance the ale is made of / the grosser humours are engendred. Secondly / ale augmentethe the strengthes: and this doth ale made of the best grayne & wel sodde: for by reason hit nourysheth moche hit encreaceth strengthe. Thyrdly / it encreateth fleshe: by rea­son hit nourysheth moche: and for the same cause hit encreaceth the bludde. And these .iij. laste pro­propretes is in stale ale / well sodde / and made of the beste grayne. Fyftely / hit stereth one to pysse. Syxtly / hit maketh one to laske. And these .ij. ꝓ­pretes is in clere bere / yt hath moche of ye hoppe / as bere of Amburgens / whiche by reason of the hoppes bryngethe one in a laske. And hit is nat good for them that haue a weake braine. For this bere / by reason of hoppis doth lyghtlye ouercome the brayne. Seuently / hit enflateth the bealye: this is of trouthe if hit be yll sodde: as Holande [Page R iij] bere doth: whiche enflateth most / and stoppeth / and therfore fatteth ryghte moche. The .viij. is / that a lyttell curtsye ale colethe. So dothe bere of Hollande / Brabande / Heynault / and Flanders. And this is hit that we vse daylye. And this pro­prete is for certaine in respecte of wyne. Here is to be noted / that ale may be made of ootis / barly / & wheate. And as the grayne is altered / so is the cō ­plexion of the ale. Hit that is made of barly / incli­neth more to colde / for barlye is colde. Hit that is made of barly and ootis / stoppethe lesse / and lesse engendreth ventosites / and lesse nourisheth. And ale made of wheate malte / inclineth more to hete / nouryshethe more / and stoppethe more. And the grosser the ale is / the worse hit is / the subtiler the better. Farther / ale made of thynges / that ma­keth one dronke is worste / as of darnell. For this grayne specially engendreth heed ache / and hur­teth the senowes. Farther in the texte are .v. pro­pretes of vineger. The fyrste is hit driethe. For Auicen sayth / hit is a stronge drier.Auicen .ii. can. ca. de aceto. Auic. iii.i. in ca. vni­co. doct. v. And therfore phisitians bydde in tyme of pestilence to vse hit with meate and drinke. For Auicen sayth / he that vseth vineger in his meate and drinke in pestilēce tyme / nedeth nat to drede the sickenes. The .ij. is / that vineger of it owne ꝓprete coleth. Thyrdly / hit maketh one leane / by reason that hit driethe. And this is for a very trouth if one take it fastȳg / as Auicen sayth. Yet neuer the lesse / Auic. iii.i. doct. iiii. cap. v. cōtinuall vse of vineger / specially fastynge / causeth many incō ­ueniēces: it febleth the syght / hurteth the breast / [Page] causethe the cough / hit hurtethe the stomake and lyuer / and vehemētly oppresseth the senowes / and ioyntes: them vexynge with arteticall grefes / tremblynge and shakinge. Fourthly / vineger en­gendreth melancoly / by reason it cooleth & drieth. Fyftely / vineger diminisheth ye sede of generatiō / for that hit coolethe driethe / and makethe leane. These ꝓpretes Rasis putteth / sayenge / Vineger is colde and drie / whiche maketh leane / distroieth the strengthes / diminisheth the sede of generatiō / enforceth blacke coler / weaketh ruddye sanguine coler / and makethe the meate subtile / that hit is myngled with. In the last verse the auctour put­teth .iij. thynges. Fyrste / that vineger hurtethe leane folkes / by reason hit drieth / and hit tartnes maketh hit drie the more. For lyke ioyned to lyke / maketh ye one more furious. And eke eueri decaide complexion is holpe by the contrarye / and by the like / is brought in worse case. Secondly / vineger hurteth the senowes / & thirdly hit maketh leane / as is before fayde.

Rapa iuuat stomachum / nouit producere ventum.
Prouocat vrinam / faciet quo (que) dente ruinam.
Si male cocta datur / hinc tortio tunc generatur.

Here are declared .iij. vtilites of rapes tēperate­ly sodde / and one incōuenience of the same. Fyrst / rapis comforte the stomake: for the stomake di­gesteth them well / and is nat greued there with. Secondly / rapes breake wynde / as apperethe by experience. Thyrdly / rapes prouoketh the vrine. Yet besydes these propretes / Auerrois sayth / ra­pes [Page] greatlye cōforte the syghte. The hurte of ra­pes is / the continuall eatynge of them hurtethe the tethe. In the laste verse he sayth / rapis cause throwes or gnawyng in the bealy / by reason they multiplie ventosites / as sayth this verse: ‘Ventum sepe rapis / si tu vis viuere rapis.’ The tayles of rapis leusethe the bealye. Farther more note / that of all rootis / rapis do best norishe mans body / as appereth by the swetenes founde in theyr sauour. For all swete meates nouryshe more the body than sower / bytter / or terte. Ther­fore by cause rapes be sweteste of all rootes / & lesse sharpe / they be moste holsome in waye of meate: but yet they engendre grosse melancoly bloudde / if they be nat well digested. And hit is good to pu­rifie them from the fyrst water / and in no wyse to eate them rawe. They stere one to bodily lust / and clense the wayes that the vrine ronneth.

Egeritur tarde cor digeritur quo (que) dure.
Similiter stomachus melior sit in extremitates.
Reddit lingua bonum nutrimentum medicine.
Digeritur facile pulmo / cito labitur ipse.
E [...]t melius cerebrum gallinarum reliquorum.

In this passage are noted .v. thynges. The first is / that the har [...]e of beastis is slowelye digested: by reason the harte fleshe is melācolious / whiche is hardly digested / and slowly descendeth / and as Auicen sayth / is vnholsome fleshe / Auicen .ii. can. ca. d [...] nuce. and as Rasis saythe / hit nourisheth lyttell. The .ij. is / that the mawe lyke wyse is yll of digestion / and slowe of discendynge: by reason hit is a senowye membre [Page] and gristly: wherfore it digesteth yll / & engēdreth yll blud. Farther the texte saith / that the extreme partis of the mawe / as the bottum and brymme are better digested: by reason that those ꝑtis are more fleshie and fatte. The thyrde is / that ye tōge is of good nouryshement / and that is touchynge the rote / [...]. can. [...] cap. de [...] as Auicen sayth / by reason hit is fleshie / and of easye digestion. And amonge all other / a rosted pygges tonge / ye skynne scraped of / is lyke braune: as princis karuers knowe. A netis tōge by reason of hit moystnes / is nat verye holsome. But for al this / these delicate felowes / or they rost a netis tonge / they stoppe hit with cloues / where by the moystnes is diminished / and the meate is apter to eate. The .iiij. is / that the lyghtis are easye of digestion / and easye to be voided out / and this is by reason of theyr naturall softenes. Yet theyr norishemēt is vnholsome for mans nature: for hit is lyttell and flematike / as Auicen saythe. And here is to be noted / Auic. can. [...] cap. de pu [...]mone. that thoughe the lyghtis of a tuppe be vnholsome to eate / yet hit is medici­nable for a kybed or a sore hele / if it be layde hotte there vnto / as Auicen saythe. The .v. is / that a hennes brayne is best:Auicenna [...] anone. whiche (as Auicen sayth) stancheth bledynge at the nose. Hit must be eaten either with salte or spices: for of hit selfe hit ꝓuo­keth one to vomite. And phisitians say / that chic­kyns braynes augment ye memorie. The brayne of a hogge is vnholsome for man: but the brayne of a shepe / of a hare / or a cony / may be eaten with salte or spices. And of the brayne we haue more [Page S] largely spoken before at / Nutrit & impinguat &c.

Semen feniculi fugat / & spiraculi culi.

Here is declared one doctrine of fenell sede called maratrum / whiche breaketh wynde:Eatyng of fenel sede. by reason hit is hotte and drie. And here is to be noted / that by eatynge of fenell sede / as phisitians say / are engē ­dred .iiij. cōmodites. Fyrste / hit is holsome for the ague. Secondly hit auoydeth poyson. Thyrdly / hit clenseth the stomake. Fourthly / hit sharpethe the syghte. These foure vtilites are rehersed in these .ij. verses.

Bis duo dat maratrum / febres fugat / at (que) venenum.
Et purgat stomachum / lumen quo (que) reddit acutum.

And eke Auicen rehersethe these .iiij. propretes.Auicen .ii. can. ca. de feniculo. And as touchynge the last of the .iiij. he saythe as folowethe: Democritus demed / that venomous wormes desire newe fenell sede / to cōforte & sharpe their syght: and serpentis after wynter / issuynge out of theyr caues / do rubbe theyr eies agaynst fenell / to clere theyr syght. Farther note / that fe­nell digesteth slowly / and norisheth yll and lyttell: and therfore hit is vsed as a medicine / and nat as meate. Wherfore hit oughte nat to be vsed in the regiment of helthe / but to expelle the vnholsome­nes of other meates: As we vse some time to eate persly with lettis / to resiste the coldnes and humi­dite of the lettis: so lyke wyse fenell may be sodde with gourdes and rapis / to withstande the vn­holsomenes of them.

Emendat visum / stomachum confortat anisum.
Copia dulcoris anisi sit melioris.

[Page]Here thauctour openethe .ij. vtilites of dyll. Fyrste / dyll comforteth the syghte / and secondlye the stomake: by reason yt hit mundifieth the sto­make / and heteth hit: and eke for the same reason hit comforteth the syghte:Most hur­full for the syghte. for nothynge hurtethe the sight more / than vnclenes of the stomake. For from the vncleane stomake ascende vncleane va­pours / that hurte the eies in troublȳge the sighty spiritis. These are the .ij. ꝓpretes of doulce dylle. And besyde these / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de aniso. Auicen rehersethe many other profites of dylle / sayenge that hit aswagethe do­lours / breaketh wynde / quencheth thyrst / caused of salte moystnes / hit openethe opilations of the lyuer and splene / engendred of humidites: and lyke wise of the raynes / bladder / and matrice: hit prouoketh vrine / and menstruous flixe: hit clen­seth the matrice from white humidites: & stereth to carnall luste.

Si cruor emanat spodium sumptum cito sanat.

Here thauctour puttethe one cōmodite of spodiū: and that is that spodium taken healeth the blodye flixe: by reason that of hit owne vertue hit cōfor­tethe the lyuer: and so the lyuer fortified (whiche is the originall fountayne of bludde) the blud is there better reteyned.Auicen .ii. can. ca. de spodio. And Auicen saythe / that spodium is the rootes of redes burned. And hit is sayde / that these rotes / moued by the wynde / and rubbȳge them selfe to gether / burne one a nother. Yet Symon the Ianway sayth / that spodium is a thyng whose begynnynge is vnknowen vnto vs: hit semeth to be a thynge brente / and diuisions of [Page S ij] redes burned. And hit dothe nat onelye helpe the bluddye flyxe / but also the laske and spuynge / as Rasis saythe. Hit helpeth also a sharpe ague / and is comfortable agaynst the shakynge therof / and for ouer moche auoydynge of coler hit helpeth the stomake / as Auicen sayth. And as spodium dothe helpe and cōforte the lyuer: so there be other me­dicines / that haue lyke aspecte and lyke proprete to comforte other speciall membres: as mace the harte: muske the brayne: lykeres the lyghtes / caper the splene / and galyngale the stomake / as appereth by these verses.

Gaudet eparspodio / mace cor / cerebrum quo (que) musco.
Pulmoliquiricia / splen / epar / stomachus (que) galanda.
Vas condimenti preponi debet edenti.
Sal virtus refugat / & non spacium (que) saporat.
Nam sapit esca male / que datur abs (que) sale.
Vrunt persalsa visum / sperma (que) minorant.
Et generant scabiem / prur [...]tum / siue vigorem.

This texte openeth .iij. thynges. Fyrste he put­tethe a generall doctrine obserued euerye where: that before all other thynges salte muste be sette vpon the table / as the vulgare verses teache vs:

Sal primo poni debet primo (que) reponi.
Omni [...] mensa male ꝑonitur abs (que) sale.

Secondlye he touchethe .ij. holsome thynges of salte. Fyrst / that salte resisteth venome for .ij. cau­ses. Fyrst for that salte is a drier: and so with hit drines / drieth vp the humidites yt wolde corrupt. An other cause is / that salte drieth and supresseth the humidites / drawynge them out of the body / and so shutteth the poores / and consequently stop­peth the entrance of venome / whiche is wonte to [Page] entre by the poores. The .ij. holsome thynge is / salte maketh mans meate sauorie. For cōmonlye we se no meatis sauorie without salte / as saythe the thyrde verse. Thyrdly ye auctour openeth .iiij. incōueniences of salte or meates to moche salted. Fyrste / very salte meates marre the syght / for .ij. causes. The fyrst is / that salte thynges drie ouer moche / whiche is contrarie to the eies / the instru­mentis of syghte / for the eies are of the nature of water / [...] in de sensu & sē ­ [...]. as the philosopher saith. The .ij. cause is / for that meates verye salte engendre ytche & nyp­pynge / in maner as is afore sayde. Of mordica­tiue meatis beynge in the stomake / fumes mordi­catiue are lyfted vp / whiche by theyr nyppynge hurte the eies / and make them verye redde. And therfore we se that they that make salte / haue cō ­mōly redde eies. The .ij. hurte is / that very salte meates diminishe ye sede of generation: by reason that verye salte meatis drie ryghte moche all the humidites of the bodye: wherbye also the sede of generation is dried / and so lessed. The .iij. hurte is / it engendreth the scabbe: by reason that salte engēdreth a sharpe bytynge humour adu [...]t / whi­che causeth ye scabbe. The .iiij. hurte is / hit aug­menteth ytche: by reason hit engendrethe a mor­dicatiue ytchynge humour. And these .iiij. hurtis Rasis remembreth speakȳge of salte / thus: Far­ther hit burneth theyr blud that take great quan­tite therof: hit febleth theyr syght / minisheth the sede of generation: and engēdreth ytche & scabbe▪ and besydes these hurtis / very salte meate engen­dreth [Page S iij] rynge wormes / drie scurfes / morphewe / le­pre / in them that be disposed there vnto / & sleathe the passage that the vrine ronnethe / whan they are longe continued: yet whan hit is a lyttell pou­dred hit taketh awaye lothynge / and maketh one to haue a good appetite.

Hi feruore vigent tres salsus / amarus / acutus.
Alget acetosus / sic stipans ponticus at (que).
Vnctus et insipidus / dulcis dat temperamentum.

Here are put the qualites of all sauerines. Fyrst he saythe / that these .iij. sauerinessis or relishes / salte / bytter / and sharpe / heate the body that re­ceiueth them. Secondly he saythe / that these .iij. sauerinessis / terte / stipticall / and ponticke / coole. Thyrdly he sayth / yt these .iij. relishes / vnctuous / vnsauery / and swete / are temperate / they make the bodye neither hotter nor colder. Farther after Auicē / there be .vii [...]. talages or sauerinesses / that folowe vnsauerynes: and they be / swete / bytter / Auicen .ii. can. tract. i. cap. iii. sharpe / terte / pontike / stiptike / & vnctuous: and to nombre vnsauerynes for sauerynes / as ye texte doth / there be .ix. and than sauerynes is taken for euery thynge iuged by the tast. And amōge these talages there be .iij. hotte / as sayth the texte / salt / bytter and sharpe: and as Auicen sayth / ye sharpe is the hotter / and nexte is salte / and than bytter: for as moche as sharpe is stronger to resolue inci­dentis and scoure / than bytter. And than salte is like bytter / broken to gether with colde humidite. And of these talages .ii [...]. be colde / eger / stiptike / & pontike. But pontike is colder thā the other: and [Page] nexte is stiptike / and than eger. And therfore all frutes / that come to any swetenes / haue fyrste a talage pontike / of a vehement coldnes: and after that by digestiue heate of the sonne / the frutes be digested / there apperethe in them stiptisite: and after they decline to sowernes / as grapes / & than to swetenes. And thoughe terte be nat so hotte as stiptike / yet throughe hit subtilite and persynge / is in many of more coldnes. And after Auicen pō ­tike and stiptike are in talage verye lyke: but yet the stiptike causethe the vpper parte of the tonge to be sharpe and roughe / and pontike causeth the tonge to be roughe within. And .iij. of these tala­ges are temperate / neyther excedynge hotte nor colde / as swete / vnctuous / & vnsauery: for though swete be hotte / yet therin apperethe no myghtye heate / as Rasis sayth. And euery talage hath hit owne operations / as Auicen and Rasis say. The operations of swete saith Auicen / be digestion / so­kynge / and encreasynge of norishement / & nature louynglye desireth hit / and the vertue attractiue draweth hit. And after Rasis / swete engendrethe moche ruddye colour / and opilations of the lyuer and splene / specially if the sayde membres be apte there vnto. And therof foloweth ye flixe. Hit mol­lifieth the stomake / and comforteth the breast and lightis / hit fatteth the body / and augmenteth the sede of generation. The operations of bytter / af­ter Auicen / be sharpynge and washynge awaye. And after Rasis / bitter heateth & drieth strongly / and lyghtly reduceth the bludde to adust malice / [Page] and augmēteth ruddye colour in the blud. The o­perations of pontike talage / after Auicen / is con­traction / if the ponticite be feble / orels expression / if hit be stronge. And after Rasis / pontike cooleth the bodye / driethe the fleshe / and diminisheth the bludde / if one vse hit ofte. Also hit comforteth the stomake / byndethe the wombe / and engendrethe melancolye bludde. The operation of stiptike ta­lage after Auicen / are contrarie / thyckyng / hard­nynge / and holdynge. And after Rasis the opera­tiōs therof are lyke pontike / though they be wea­ker: for he semeth to comprehende stiptike talage vnder pontike: for of stiptike he saythe nothynge expressely. The operations of vnctuous talage / after Auicen / are sokynge / slipperines / and smalle digestion. And after Rasis / hit mollifiethe the sto­make / maketh one laskatyue / and fyllethe one or he hath taken any necessarye quantite of meate: and it heateth / specially them that be vexed with a feuer: and that haue a hotte liuer and stomake. Hit moysteth & soketh the body: but hit augmen­teth fleme and slepe. The operatiōs of sharpnes be resolution / incision / and putrifaction after Aui­cen: And after Rasis encreaceth heate / & lyghtlye enflameth the body / and burneth the bloud / tur­nethe hit in to redde coler / and after in to blacke. The operations of salte talage / after Auicen / is to scoure / washe / drie / and let puttifaction. The o­peratiōs of sharpe talage / after Auicen / is to cole and diuide: and after Rasis / hit refrayneth coler and bludde / and restrayneth the bealye / if the sto­make [Page] & guttis be cleane: but if there in be moche fleumatike matter / hit maketh the bealye laske / cooleth the bodye / and eke weaketh the vertue of digestion / proprely in the lyuer. It hurteth the se­nowes and senowye membres / it drieth the body: but hit stereth vp the appetite. But of vnsauery­nes operations Rasis sayth / that some vnsauery thynge norisheth well / & that is suche as is tem­perate. There is other some that heateth tempe­rately / and an other that cooleth temperatly / and if moystnes be ioyned there with / hit moystethe / and with a drye thynge / hit drieth.

Bis duo vipa facit / mundat dentes dat acutum
Visum / quod minus est implet / minuit quod abundat.

Here are declared .iiij. cōmodites of wyne soppis. The fyrst is / they purge the tethe / by reason they stycke longer in the tethe / thā wyne alone or bread alone: therfore the fylthynes of the tethe is the better consumed / and the tethe the better purged. The .ij. cōmodite is / that hit sharpeth the syghte: for it letteth the yll fumes to ascende to ye brayne: whiche by theyr mynglynge to gether / darke the syghte. And this is by reason hit digesteth all yll matters beynge in the stomake. Thyrdly / hit di­gestethe perfectly meates nat well digested: for it closeth the mouthe of the stomake / and conforteth digestion. Fourthly / hit reducethe suꝑfluous di­gestion to meane. All this is of trouthe / so that the breadde sopped in wyne / be fyrste tosted / or dri­ed on imbers.

Omnibus assuetam iubeo seruare di [...]tam.
[Page T]Approbo sic esse / ni sit mutare necesse.
Est hipocras testis / quoniam sequitur mala pestis.
Fortior est metha medicine certa dieta.
Quam si non curas / fatue regis / et male curas.

Here are certayne doctrines. The fyrste is / that hit is good for all folkes to kepe customable diete.To kepe diete▪ And by diete is vnderstande the ministrynge of meate & drynke. The reason is this. Breakynge from customable vse hurteth greuously: for custo­mance is an other nature: Therfore / as hit beho­ueth vs to kepe nature / so lyke wyse hit dothe cu­stome: and specially if the customable vse be lau­dable. And as hit behoueth to kepe the wonte ad­ministration of meate and drynke: euen so hit be­houethe vs to obserue custome in other thynges nat naturall / for the selfe reasō. Wherfore if a mā wonte to labour moche / wyll for go this custome & lyue ydelly: or labour moche lesse: or go in hāde with other labour: or take an other tyme / or a no­way: vndouted it shall ryght moche infeble hym. So in like maner it is in mans diete / in his slepe / in his watche / and suche lyke accidentis. For tru­ly good custome in all thyng must nedes be obser­ued / if hit be laudable or indifferent in goodnes or hurtfulnes / in respecte of hit / wherto the change is made. And wytteth well / that they that be ac­customed to labour / and exercise them selfe in any kynde of labour / all be hit they be feble or olde / hit greueth them lesse / and labour more strongly thā if they were yōge felowes / vnaccustomed / as Hip­pocrates sayth .ii. aphorism̄. by reason that these fe­ble [Page] or olde persones haue more inclination and cu­stome to these labours: For nowe the custome be­fore taken is lyghter / as is sayde in the aforsayde aphorisme. And this is the cause / why we se olde & feble craftes men / to do that stronger and yonger than they can nat do / and hit greueth them lesse: as a feble olde mylner to lyfte a greatte weyghtye sacke: A smythe to awey with greatter hammer labour / than a yonger mā nat therto accustomed. The .ij. doctrine is / that greatte harme folowethe change of diete / as Hippocrates saythe: outcepte hit be nedefull to change hit. Fyrste hit is nedeful to change it / whā greuous diseases shulde growe therby: as custome to fede on yll meates / whiche at lengthe of necessite wyll brede in vs yl diseases. Suche a custome and lyke muste nedes be amen­ded and changed by lyttell and lyttell / but nat so­daynly. For al sodayne chāges hurte vehemētly / specially from a thynge customable / to vnaccusto­mable. Secondly / it is nedeful to change / to then­tent / it lesse greue vs / if we happen to change our diete. For he yt vseth hym selfe to all maner diete / shall hurte hym the lesse. And this eke muste be vnderstande of other thinges nat naturall / for as Hippocrates saythe .ii. aphoris. A thynge longe cu­stomed / though hit be worse than these we haue nat vsed / hurteth the body lesse. Therfore hit be­houethe vs to vse thynges vnaccustomed. And here is to be noted / that euerye man shulde take hede / howe he accustomethe hym to one thynge / be hit neuer so good / whiche to obserue were nede­full. [Page T ij] Example. If a mā custome hym to one ma­ner meate or drynke / or to absteine holly frō them / or to slepe / or to knowe a woman carnally / it were very dangerous for hym / if he other whyle muste absteine from this custome. Therfore euery body shulde be disposed / to endure heate and colde / and to all mocions and norishemētis / so that the hou­res of slepe and watshe / the house / bedde / and gar­mentis / may be changed without hurte: whiche thynge may be done / if one be nat to nere in obser­uynge custome. Therfore other whyle hit beho­ueth to change customable thinges / Thus sayth Rasis. The thyrde doctrine is / that the stronger and nere way in healynge a pacient / Rasis .iii. Alm̄. ca. de conseruat. consuet. is to ministre a certayne diete: For whiche if the phisition doth nat care / and wyll ministre an other vndue diete / he foolishely gouerneth his pacient / and healethe hym yll. And note / that there be .iij. maner of di­etes / grosse / whiche is holle folkes diete / Thre ma­ner of di­etes. sklender diete / whiche is to gyue in maner nothinge: The thyrde is meane diete / whiche absolutely is called sklender. And this diete is diuided in to sklender diete / declinynge to grosse diete: as the brothe of fleshe / rere rosted egges / small chickyns: and de­clinyng to sklender diete / as mellicratum / & wyne of pome garnades: and meane diete / whiche is called certayne diete / as barly ieuse nat bearen to gether. And this certayne diete is holsome in ma­nye diseases / but nat in all. Hit is nat holsome in longe diseases: for in suche diseases / the myght of ye pacient / with suche meane diete / can nat indure [Page] to consume the sickenes / without great debilite: Therfore in suche diseases / the meate muste be in­grossed. Lyke wyse it is vnholsome in sharpe dis­eases / as these that ende within .iij. dayes space or sooner: for in suche mooste sklender diete is beste / as Hipp. saythe .i. aphoris. there: The mooste soue­rayne helpe is to diete the paciēt after his strēgth and corporall myghte.

Quale / quid / & quando / quantum / quoties / vbi dando.
Ista notare cibo debet medicus dietanda.

This texte reherseth .vj. thynges / to be conside­red of the phisitian in ministryng of diete. Fyrst / of what qualite the meate ought to be: for in hotte syckenes / we muste diete the pacient with colde meate: in moyste sickenes drie meate / and in drye sickenes moyst meate. Yet the naturall cōplexion must be obserued with diete lyke therto: For Gal. saythe:Ga. [...]. teg. The hotter bodies nede the hotter medi­cines: the colder bodies / the colder medicins &c. The .ij. thynge is / of what substance the meate ought to be: For they that be stronge and lustye / and exercise greatte labour / muste be dieted with grosser meate: for in them the way of digestion is stronge: & so they oughte nat to vse sklender mea­tes / as chyckyns / capons / veale / or kydde: For those fleshes in them wyll burne / or be digested o­uer soone: wherfore they muste nedes eate ofte. But noble men and suche as lyue restfully / muste vse diete of sklender substance: for in them ye ver­tue digestiue is weake / & nat able to digeste grosse meates: as bacon / befe / and fishe dried in ye sonne. [Page T iij] Lyke wyse they that be sicke of sharpe diseases / oughte to vse more sklender diete / than they that be sycke of longe diseases / as a feuer quartane. The .iij. is what tyme diete oughte to be gyuen: for they yt be in helthe oughte specially to regarde custome. Wherfore they that ryse yerly in somer / and eate but .ij. meles a day / oughte to eate about the houre of .x. or a lytell before: and nat to abyde tyll noone / bycause of the ouer great heate. Lyke wyse they ought to suppe aboute the houre of .vj. or a lytell after. But in wynter they ought to dine at a .xj. of the clocke / or at .xij. bycause of the lōge slepynge: and than to suppe at .vij. a clocke / or a littell after. And specially custome shulde be kept. Tyme also in dietynge of sycke folkes / muste be consydered. For they that haue an ague / whan it begynneth to vexe them / or a littel before or after / they shulde eate nothynge: for if one eate a lyttell before / or whan the fytte cometh: therby nature / that shulde entende to digest the meate / is diuer­ted an other way. If he shulde eate sone after the fytte is gone / hit were vnholsome: for the vertue of digestion is very weake / by reason of the fytte paste: Therfore he muste eate so longe afore / as the meate may be digested or ye fytte come. Orels so longe after the fytte is gone / whan nature is come to due disposition. This is of trouthe / out­cepte ye drede great febleshynge of nature: for thā at al tymes he muste eate. For whan so euer mās strengthe be feblished by any chances / he shulde eate forth with as saith Galen / in the glose of this [Page] aphoris. Contēplari autē &c. Fourthly / the quantite of the meate must be considered: For as hit is be­fore sayde / in somer we muste vse a small quantite of meate / at euerye meale: for than the naturall heate is feble through the ouer great resolutions. But in wynter we may eate a great dele of meate at a meale. For thā the vertue digestiue is strōge / whan the naturall heate is vnied / through circū ­stant colde as we sayde at Temporibus veris &c. The .v. is / howe ofte we shulde eate in a day: For in somer we muste eate oftener than in wynter: in autumpne and ver a lyttell at eche meale / as is before saide. Lyke wyse / if the vertue digestiue be weake / we muste eate lyttell and ofte: but if the vertue digestiue be stronge / we may eate moche / & make fewe meales. Syxtlye / the eatynge place must be considered: whiche shulde nat be to hotte nor to colde / but temperate.

Ius ca [...]lis soluit / cuius substantia restringit.
Vtra (que) quando datur / venter laxa [...]e paratur.

This texte declareth .iij. thynges. The fyrst is / that the brothe of colewortis / and speciallye the fyrste brothe if they be sodde / leuseth the bealy: by reason that in the leaues and vtter partis of colewortis / is a sopy scourynge vertue / weakely cle­uynge / and lyghtly separable by small decoction or boylynge: whiche spredde abrode by the same water is made laxatiue. And this is ye skele that the fyrst water colewortis be sodde in / laxe rather than the seconde. The .ij. is / that the substance of colewortes / after they are boyled / restrayneth the [Page] bealy: by reason that all theyr vertue laxatiue is taken away by the decoction: and the erthye drie substance remayneth / whiche byndeth ye wombe. The .iij. is / that bothe taken to gether / the brothe and substance of colewortis / leuse the bealye: by reason the scourynge sopy vertue remayneth in ye water / whiche leuseth all. And note that colewor­tis engendre melancoly humours / & yll dreames / they hurte the stomake / norishe lyttell / duske the syght / cause one to dreame / & they prouoke men­struosite and vrine / as Auicen and Rasis saye. Farther more note / that colewortis / the decoction or sede therof / kepe one from dronkennes / as wry­teth Aristottell .iii. partic. problem. askynge for what skele colewortis kepe one from dronkennes. And this thynge is affirmed of Auicen and Rasis. The reason / as some thynke / is the grosse fumes / Auicen .ii. canone. Rasis .iii. Almansol. that by eatynge of colewortis are lyfted vp to the brayne / engrossynge the fumosites of the wyne / whiche engrossynge let them to entre to ye brayne. Aristotell in the forsayd place sayth / that al thȳge that draweth to hit the moystnes of the wyne / ex­pellethe hit from the body / and that coleth the bo­dy / kepeth hit from dronkennes: cole wortes are of suche nature / ergo &c. And that colewortis are of this nature / he prouethe thus: By the ieuse of colewortis / the vndigested humidites of ye wyne / are drawen from all the bodye in to the bladder: and through it coldnes lefte in the stomake / whi­che coleth all the body / the persynge therof is for­done. And so by this meane it kepethe a mā sobre. [Page] For the subtile superfluites that naturally coude nat discende / by reason the heate of the wyne ste­reth them to ascende vpwarde towarde ye brayne: are repressed downe / and by vertue of this ieuse drawen to the bladder.

Dedixerunt maluam veteres / quia molliat aluum.
Malue radices rade dedere feces.
Vulue nocuerunt / et fluxum sepe dederunt.

[...]e [...].Here are put .iij. ꝓpretes or effectis of malowes. Fyrste / malowes mollifie the bealy. For hit is one of them that mollie. There be .iiij. that mollifie: malowes & double malowes / branca / vrsina / and mercury / of whiche most cōmōly clisters be made / to mollifie al indurate and harde mattier in man. There be .ij. sortis of mallowes: the one bearethe a bludde redde flower / the other a whyte flower: and this of hit proprete dothe mollifie more than ye fyrste. The .ij. effecte of mallowes is / yt malowe rootis shaued / and suppositories made of them / suche as phisitiās are wonte to make of mercury / drawe out of mā the indurate matter & dregges / The .iij. effecte is / malowes cause the mēstruous flixe in women / and that through the great moy­stynge and slipperines therof: wherby ye veynes about the matrice sone poure out / as Platearius sayth / and as appereth by experience.

Mentitur menta / si sit depellere lenta.
Ventris lumbricos / stomachi vermes (que) nociuos.

Here the auctour sayth / that a mynte shulde nat be called a mynte / outcepte it haue myght to kylle wormes in the bealy & stomake. A mynte hath a [Page V] great stronge sauour / and is ryghte bytter: and therfore as worme wodde killeth wormes so doth the mynte. And ye ieuse therof / as of wormewod / muste be dronke and nat the substance. Yet note / bicause hit is hotte and drie / burnynge the blud / hit is vnholsome in way of meate in the regiment of helthe. But yet in medicines / it is holsome / for hit comforteth the stomake / and heateth hit / and stynteth yexynge and digesteth / and prohibitethe vomite flematike and sanguine: and through in­flation stereth to bodily lust / and prohibiteth spit­tynge of bludde: hit is very holsome agaynst by­tynge of a madde dogge: and if ye crymble mynt in to mylke / hit wyll neuer turne to make a chese / as Auicen sayth .ii. can. cap. de menta.

Cur moritur homo / cui saluia crescit in horto?
Contra vim mortis non est medicamen in hortis.
Saluia confortat neru [...]s / manum (que) tremorem
Tollit / et eius ope febris acuta fugit
Saluia / castoreum lauendula / premula veris
Nastur athanasia sanant paralitica membra.
Saluia saluatrix natura consiliatrix.

In this texte ye author toucheth principally .iiij. thynges. Fyrste he sheweth the greatte vtilite of sage / askynge as thoughe he doubted:The boūte of sage. wherfore man diethe / that hath sage growynge in his gar­deyne. He answereth in the .ij. verse / that no medicine growyng in the gardeyn can withstand deth al though in the gardeyne growe medicines that kepe the body from putrifaction / and defēde that natural humidite be nat lightly consumed away / [Page] as techeth Auicen / Auic. iii.i. [...]p. sing. sayeng: The sciēce of phisicke dothe nat make a man immortall / nor hit dothe nat surely defēde our bodies from outwarde hurt full thingis: nor can nat assure euery man to lyue to the laste terme and daye of his lyfe: but of .ij. thynges hit makethe vs sure / that is from putri­faction and corruption: and defendeth that natu­rall moysture be nat lyghtly disolued & consumed. Secondly / he puttethe .iij. effectis of sage. The fyrste is / The ver­ [...]ue of sage that sage comforteth the senowes: for it driethe the humidites / by whiche the senowes be lette and leused. The .ij. is / hit taketh awaye the shakynge of the handes: by reason that it comfor­teth the senowes / as is sayde / nowe all thynge cō ­fortynge the senowes / remoueth tremblynge / for tremblynge comethe of feblenes of the senowes. And therfore some olde men and women specially put sage leaues in theyr meate & drynke. Thirdly sage letteth the sharpe ague to assayle vs: by rea­son that hit driethe humours / hit letteth them to putrifie / wherby a sharpe feuer myght be engen­dred. Farther note / that sage is hotte and drie / & therfore hit is nat verye holsome alone in waye of meate. Yet bicause sage comforteth the senowes greatly / folkes in helth vse hit moche .ij. maner of ways.Sage. Wyne. Fyrste they make sage wyne: whiche they drynke specially at begynnȳge of dyner or souper. This wyne is holsome for them yt haue the palsey or fallynge sickenes / moderately taken / and after the purgation of the accident mattiers. Second­ly they vse sage in sauces: for it ste [...]ethe vp a mās [Page V ij] appetite / and specially whan the stomake is ful of yll humours / rawe and vndigested. There is .ij. kyndes of sage. One yt hath great brode leaues.Two kin­dis of sage An other cōmonly called noble sage / whose leaues be more narowe and lesse: phisitiōs cal it silifagus. Thyrdly thautour reherseth .vj. medicines good for the palley. Hit is sayd / that sage / castorie / that is a castors stones / lauander / primerose / watter­cresse / and tansey / cure and heale membres enfect with palsey. Why sage doth helpe it we haue she­wed / for hit cōforteth ye senowes / whiche by palsey be weaked. And eke bicause sage is hotte & drie / it consumeth the flematike matter remaynynge in the senowes / wherof ye palsey groweth. And that castorie is holsome for the palsey appereth by that hit is mooste comfortable / heatynge and dryenge of the senowes: For Auicen sayth therof / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de castoreo. that hit is subtiler and stronger than any other that hea­teth and drieth. And after he sayth / that hit com­forteth and heateth the senowes / the shakynge / the moist crampe / and benomed membres caused of the palsey. And eke he sayth: there is nothyng better for ventosite in the eare / thā to take as mo­che as a pease / and tempre it with oyle of spike / & so let it droppe in to the eare. Castorie hath many other vertues whiche Auicē reherseth. Castoriū is the stones of a see beaste called castor. The oyle also of Castorie is as specially good for the palsey / as castorie after voidynge of the matter: for than hit consumeth the resydue of the mattier that re­mayneth / & comforteth the senowes. Of lauēder [Page] apereth: For with hit swete sauour / it comforteth the senowes / and with hit heate dothe consume the palsey mattier. And also of the primerose eke appereth / for with hit swete sauour and heate / hit comfortethe the senowes. This flower is called premula veris / bicause hit is the fyrste swete flower that spryngeth in ver. The .v. is a watter cresse / for hit is hotte / drie / subtile / incisiue / and resolu­tiue: wherby it taketh away ye mattier of palsey / And Auicen saith / hit comforteth all mollification of the senowes / for hit heateth / and drawethe out fleme / and clenseth the senowes from fleme: and phisitians coūsaile vs to eate water cressis in lent bicause lenten meate is flematike. Watercresse is a cōmō herbe growyng in colde / stony / & watrishe places / where as be many wel springes. The .vj. is tansey: The vertue of this herbe is to purge fleme / and with it heate drieth the senowes. Also hit purgethe a man of wormes / and the mattier wherof they be engendred. And therfore frenche men vse cōmonly to frie egges therwith in ye ester weke / to purge away the fleme / engēdred of fyshe in the lente: wherof wormes are soone engendred in them therto disposed. In the ende of the texte the auctour saythe / that sage is called the sauer and keper of nature.

Nobilis est ruta / quia lumina reddit acuta.
Auyilio rute vir quippe videbis acute.
Ruta viris coitum minuit / mulieribus auget.
Ruta facit castum / dat lumen / et ingerit estum.
Cocta facit ruta de pulicibus loca tuta.

[Page V iij]This texte declareth .iiij. ꝓpretes of rue.iiii. propre­tes of rue Auicen .ii. can. ca. de ruta. Fyrst hit sharpeth the sight / & proprely the ieuse therof / as Auicen saith: and as is afore saide at Allea nux ruta. The .ij. is / rewe diminishethe ye desire of car­nall lust in men / but in women rewe augmenteth hit: by reason that rue by hit heatynge & dryenge diminisheth the sede of mē / whiche is subtile and of the nature of the ayre / but in women rue ma­keth subtile and heatethe the sede: for in them hit is wattrishe and colde: and therfore hit sterethe them more to carnall luste. The .iij. is / rewe ma­keth a man quicke / subtile / and inuentife: by rea­son that by heatynge and dryenge / hit maketh a mans spiritis subtile / and so clerethe the wytte. The .iiij. is / that the water that rue is sodde in / To kylle flees. cast and sprinkeled about the house / riddeth away flees / and as phisitions say / it kylleth them. And after Auicen: whan the house is sprinkeled with the water of wylde gourdes / the flees lepe & flee away: And lyke wyse doth the water that blacke thorne is sodde in. And after Auicen saythe / Auicē .vi.iiii. tract. iii. cap. de effug. pu­licum. that some haue sayde / if goottis bludde be put in a pyt in the house / the flees wyll gether there vnto and dye. And lyke wyse if a logge be annoynted with the greace of an yrchyn / ye flees wyll gether ther­to and dye. Flees can nat abyde the sauour of colewortis / nor leaues of Oleandre. Some say / that nothynge is better to auoyde flees than thynges of stronge sauour: & therfore rewe / myntis / horse myntis / and hoppis be good / and aboue all thyn­gis horse dounge orels hors stale is the chiefe. [Page] Also the house spryncled with ye decoction of rape sede kylleth flees. And the parfumyng of ye house with a bulles horne / driuethe awaye flees. Yet to take flees / nothynge is better / than to lay blan­kettis on the bed / for therin they gether them self.

De cepis medici non consentire videtur.
Colericis non esse bonas dicit Galienus.
Flegmaticis vero multum docet esse salubres.
Presertim stomacho. pul chrumque creare colorem.
Contritis cepis loca denudata capillis.
Sepe fricans poteris capitis reparare decorem.

[...]Here the auctour speaketh of oynions / and decla­reth .v. thynges. Fyrste / touchynge theyr opera­tion phisitions agree nat: For some saye they be good for flematike folkes: and some say naye / as Rasis / whiche sayth / that they engēdre superflu­ous and flematyke humours in the stomake. Secondly / Galen saythe / they be ryghte hurtfull for colerike folkes: bicause as Auicē saith / oyniōs be hotte in the thyrde degree: and therfore they hurt hotte folkes / as colerike be. Thirdly oyniōs be holsome for flematike folkes: For they be hot / persynge / subtile / scourynge / and openyng / wher­fore they digest / cutte / make subtile / and wype a­way fleumatike and clāmy humours / growen in the fleumatike folkes. Fourthly / oynions be hol­some for the stomake / for they mundifie hit from fleme / and heate hit. And therfore Auicen saithe / that hit / that is eate of the oynion / throughe the heate therof comfortethe a weake stomake. And eke therfore they make a man well colered: For it [Page] is impossible for one to haue a lyuelye coler / if his stomake be verye fleumatike / or fylled with yll / rawe / & flematike humours. The .v. is / oynions sodde and stamped / restore heares agayne / if the place where ye heares were / be rubbed therwith. This is of trouthe / whan the heare gothe awaye throughe stoppynge of the pores / and corruption of the mattier vnder the skynne. For the oynions open the pores / & resolue the yll mattier vnder ye skynne / & drawe good mattier to he same place. And therfore / as Auicen saith / ofte rubbyng with oynions is very holsome for balde men.Auicen .ii. can. ca. de preal. Et vii.iii. ca. de curatiōe alo perie. Wherfore the texte concludethe / that this rubbynge with oynions prepareth ye beautie of the heed: for hea­res are ye beautie of the heed. For a farther know­lege of oynious operation / witteth / that they stere to carnall lust / ꝓuoke the appetite / brynge colour in the face / myngled with hony they distroy war­tes / they engendre thyrste / they hurte the vnder­stādynge (for they engēdre an yll grosse humour) they encreace spittell / & the ieuse of them is good for wattrynge eies / and dothe clarifie the syghte / as Auicen sayth. Farther note / that oynions / ho­ny / and vineger stamped to gether / is good for by­tynge of a madde dogge. And therfore some adde these .ij. verses vnto the forsayde texte.

Appositas perhibent morsus curare caninos.
Si trite cum melleprins fuerint et aceto.

But of this is spoken before at Allea nux. &c.

Et modicum granum / siccum / calidum (que) sinapis.
Dat lachrymas / purgatque caput / tol [...]t (que) venenu [...].

Here the auctour touchethe .ij. thynges. Fyrste [Page] he putteth the cōplexiō of mustarde sede / of mustard sede. sayeng / that mustarde sede is a lyttell grayne hotte and drye: whiche is true: for it is hotte and drie vnto the .iiij. degree after Auicen .ii. canone. cap. de sinapi. Secondly / he putteth .iij. propretes or effectes of mustarde sede. The fyrste is / it maketh ones eies to water: For with hit greatte heate / hit maketh subtile and leusethe the humidites of the brayne: wherof than by theyr flowynge to the eies / the teares come. The .ij. effecte is / hit purgethe the brayne / mundifienge and clensynge away the fle­matike humidites of the heed. Also hit purgethe the heed / put in to the nose thyrllis / by hit mordi­cation prouokyng one to nese. And therfore hit is put in their nostrils / yt haue apoplexie / for by rea­son of nesynge the brayne is pourged. And lyke wyse mustarde sede / through it great heate / doth dissolue and leuse suche flemes as stoppe the cun­dites of ye brayne: of whiche foloweth apoplexie: And thus hit apperethe / that mustarde sede is a great leuser / consumer / and clenser of flematike humidites. The .iij. effecte is / hit withstandethe poyson:Auicē. loco prealleg. For Auicen saythe / that venomous wor­mes can nat abyde the smoke of mustarde sede.

Crapula discutitur / capitis dolor / at (que) grauedo.
Purpuream dicunt violam curare caducos.

The pro­phetes of [...].Here are put .iij. ꝓpretes or effectis of violettis. Fyrst / violettis delay dronkennes: by reason that violettis / haue a temperate swete sauour / whiche greatly cōforteth the brayne: For a strōge brayne is nat lightly ouer come with drinke / but a weake [Page X] is. Also a violet is colde / wherfore hit colethe the brayne: and so maketh hit vnable to receyue any fume. The .ij. is / violettis slaketh heed ache and grefe / that is caused of heate / as Auicen / Rasis Alma. and Mesue say: by reason that violettis be colde / they withstande hotte causes. The .iij. is / violettis helpe them yt haue the fallyng syckenes. Though some say thus / yet this effecte is nat cō ­monly ascribed vnto violettis. And therfore if vi­olettis haue this proprete / hit is but by reason of theyr swete smell / that cōforteth the brayne: whi­che strengthed / is nat hurte by small geefes: and consequently falleth nat in to epilencie (whiche is called the lyttell apoplexie / chaunsynge by stop­pynge of the sensible senowes.

Egris dat somnum / vomitum quo (que) tollit ad vsum.
Compescit tussim veterem / colicis (que) medetur.
Pellit pulmonis frigus / ventris (que) tumorem.
Omnibus & morbis subueniet articulorum.

This texte openethe .vij. propretes of nettyls. Fyrste nettyls cause a sicke bodye to slepe. For hit is subtiliatiue / cuttynge / and scourynge of fleme and grosse humours / greuynge nature & lettynge slepe. Secondly it doth away vomite / & custome therof: by reason that vomite and parbrakyng is caused of a clāmy humour / whiche the nettel cut­teth. Thyrdly / the nettell fordothe olde coughe: and specially hony / wherin nettell sede is tempe­red. For the nettell auoydethe clāmye fleme out of the breast / as Rasis sayth.Auic. ii. cā. cap. de vt. And Auicen saythe of the nettell: that whan hit is dronke / with water is [Page] is / ther [...]yll dronke with wyne / healethe the bealy ache: For hit asswageth inflasion caused of grosse ventosite / wherof the ache cometh / for hit leuseth ventosite of the stomake and all other guttis / and openeth stoppynge / and there vnto the wyne hel­peth. Thyrdely / cherfyil cessethe vometynge and the laske: by reason hit is hotte in the .iij. degree / and dry in the .ij. it digesteth / and drieth that mat­tier wherof vomite commeth. And this is verye trouthe / whan vomite or the laske come of colde flematike mattier. And besides these effectis / hit prouoketh vrine and the menstruosite / and swa­geth ache of the sydes and raynes / and speciallye taken with mellicratum.

Enula campana reddit precordia sana.
Cum succo rute / si succus sumitur huius.
Asfirmat ruptis nil esse salubrius istis.

Here the text openeth .ij. effectis of enula cāpana.Elfe doc [...]e [...]worte or horse [...]ele. Fyrste / hit comforteth the harte strynge / that is / the brymme of the stomake is proprely called the harte stringis / orels the vitall membres / that is / the wyndye membres / whiche be nere the harte / and specially the harte rote. That hit comforteth the brymme of the stomake appereth / in that the swete smellyng rote of enula cōforteth the senowy mēbres. The brȳme of the stomake is a senowye membre. That hit comforteth breathy membres appereth. For wyne made of enula / called vinum enulatum /Auicen .ii. can. ca. de enula. clenseth the breaste / and lyghtis / or lon­ges / as Auicē sayth. Also enula swalowed downe with hony / helpeth a man to spytte: and it is one [Page X iij] of those herbes / that reioyce and cōforte the hart. The .ij. effecte is / the ieuse of this herbe / with the ieuse of rue / is very holsome for them yt be burste / and that is specially whā the burstennes cometh by ventosite: for these .ij. ieuses dissolue that. And besidis these effectis / enula is good for a stomake / filled with yl humours: and it openeth opilatiōs of the lyuer and splene / as Rasis saythe. And hit comforteth all hurtis / colde grefes / and motions of ventosites / and inflasions / as Auicen sayth.

Cum vino coleram nigram potata repellit.
Sic dicunt veterem sumptum curare podagram.

Here are put .ij. effectis of hyll worte.A remedye for coler. Fyrst hyll worte / & principally the water therof taken with wyne / purgeth blacke coler. Secondly / hilwort / heleth an olde goute. For the ꝓprete of this herbe is to melte and dissolue fleme: wherof / very oftē / the goute is wonte to be engēdred. And note / that after Platearius / hil worte is hotte and dry in the thyrde degree. The substaunce therof is subtile / the vertue comfortable / through the swete smell / of hit substance hit openethe / and of hit qualites draweth: of hit fyrie substance or nature / hit con­sumeth / by burnynge and drienge.

Illius succo crines retinere fluentes
Alitus asseritur / dentisque curare dolorem.
Et squamas succus sanat cum melle perunc [...]us.

Here he puttethe .iij. effectis of water cresses.water cresses. Fyrste / watercresses reteyne heares / fallynge a­waye / if the heed be annoynted with the iewse therof / orels if the ieuse or water therof be dronke. [Page] This effecte Auicen toucheth sayeng:Aui. ii. cā. cap. de [...]. The dryn­kȳke or annoyntyng with watercressis cure tothe ache: specially if the ache come by colde: for it per­sethe / resoluethe / and heatethe / as apperethe at Cur moriatur homo. Thyrdly / ye ieuse of water cresse takē with hony / or the place annoynted therwith / doth away skales that cleaue to ones skynne: by reason yt suche skales be engēdred of salte fleme. Watercresse as is sayde / purgeth all fleme: ther­fore if hit be dronke / hit resisteth the cause of ska­les: and the place annoynted therwith auoydeth the skales / and specially myngled with hony: for that is a clēser / and so helpeth the cressis to purge. Beside these effectis / cressis drie vp the corruptiō of the bealy / clenseth the lyghtis / heateth the sto­make and liuer / and is holsome agaynst the gros­nes of the splene: proprely whā therof and hony / a plaister is made / it causeth one to caste vp coler / hit augmenteth carnall luste: and by dissoluynge auoydeth out wormes / and prouoketh menstruo­site / as sayth Auicen.

Cecatis pullis / ac lumina mater hyrundo /
Plinius vt scribit / quamuis sunt eruta / reddit.

of celendine.Here is putte one notable thynge of Celendine. Whan yonge swalowes be blynde / the dāme brin­geth celendine / and rubbeth theyr eies / & maketh them to see: wherby the auctour shewethe / hit is holsome for the sighte. And this appereth playn­ly / sith hit is cōmonly put in medicines agaynste feblenes of syghte. Celendine hath ieuse & is well knowen. And why swalowes knowe it better thā [Page] other byrdes may be / by cause theyr yonge be oft­ner blynde: swalowes donge doth make blynde: and so the dāme dōgeth some tyme in the yonges eies / and maketh them blynde. And after Plate­arie / celendine is hotte and drie in the .iij. degree. And of it qualites and substance / hit hath vertue to dissolue / consume / and drawe. And the rootis therof stamped & sodde in wine / are good to purge the heed / and womans priuite from broken moist humours / if the paciēt receyueth the smoke ther­of at the mouth / & after gargyse wyne in ye throte.

Auribus infusus vermes succus necat vsus.
Cortex vertucas in aceto cocta resoluit.
Pomorum succus flos partus destru [...]t eius.

Here thauctour reherseth .iij. thȳges of wylowe.To kylle vvormes in ones eares. Auicen .ii. can. ca. de salice. Fyrst / the ieuse of wylowe poured in to ones eare / kylleth wormes: by reason of the stiptisite & dry­enge therof. And after Auicen nothynge is better to heale matterynge at the eares / than the ieuse of wylowe leaues. Secondly / the rynde of wylo­wes / sodde in vineger / dothe awaye wartes. And Auicen saythe / wylowe ashes with vineger / To voyde wartes. dra­weth vp wartis by the rotis: by reason of ye ashes vehement drienge. Yet to distroy wartis / nothȳg is better / thā to rubbe them with purslane. This purslane doth of hit ꝓprete and nat qualite / after Auicen. Thyrdlye / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de portulaca. wylowe flowers and ieuse of it frute / letteth the byrthe of a childe: for through hit stiptisite and drought / hit causeth the childe to be borne with great payne.

Confortare crocus dicatur letificando.
of saffrō.
Membra (que) defecta confortat epar reparando.

Here are put certayne holsome thȳges of saffrō. Fyrste / saffron cōforteth mans body / in gladdyng it. And wytteth well / that saffron hath suche pro­prete / that if one take more therof than he ought / hit wyll kylle hym in reioysynge or laughynge. Auicen saythe / [...]. ii. cā. [...] de [...]reco that to take a drāme and a halfe / wyll kylle one in reioysynge. Secondlye / saffron comfortethe defectiue membres / and principallye the harte. Hit comforteth eke the stomake / by hit stiptisite and heate: and for the same cause resto­reth the liuer / and specially through hit stiptisite / whiche wyll nat suffre the liuer to be disolued. Yet to vse hit ouer moche / induseth parbrakynge / and marreth the appetite. Of this Auicen warnethe vs / sayenge: Hit causeth parbrakynge & marreth the appetite / bicause it is contrary to the sharpe­nes in the stomake / whiche is cause of appetite. Besydes these ꝓpretes / faffron maketh one slepe / and dullethe the wyttes / and whan hit is dronke with wyne / hit maketh one dronke / it clenseth the eies / and lettethe humours to flowe to them / hit maketh one to breth well / it stereth to carnal lust / and maketh one to pysse.

Flegma vires modicas tribuit / latos (que) breuesque.
Flegma facit pingues / sanguis reddit mediocres.
Sensus hebes / tardus motus / pigritia somnus.
Hic somnus lentus / piger / in hac sputamine mul [...]us.
Et qui sensus habes pingues / facit color albus.

This texte sheweth certayne propretes of the cō ­plexiō of fleme. Fyrst / flematike folkes be weake / [Page Y] by reason that theyr naturall heate / whiche is be­gynner of all strength and operation / is but feble. Secondly / flematike folkes be shorte and thycke: for theyr naturall heate is nat stronge inoughe to lengthe the bodye: and therfore hit is thycke and shorte. Thirdly / flematike folkes be fatte / bicause of theyr great humidite. Therfore Auicen sayth / that superfluous grese signifieth colde and moist­nes: For the bludde and the vnctious mattier of grese / persynge through the veines in to the colde membres (throughe coldnes of the membres) do conieile to gether / and so engendre in man moche grese / as Galen sayth in his .ij. boke of operation. He saythe after / that sanguine men are myddell bare betwene the longe and the shorte. Fourthly / flematike folkes are more inclined to ydelnes and study than folkes of other cōplexion: by reason of theyr coldnes / that makethe them slepe. Fyftlye / they slepe lōger / by reason of theyr great coldnes / that prouoketh them to slepe. Syxtelye / they be dull of wytte and vnderstandynge: for as tempe­rate heate is cause of good witte and quicke vnder stādyng: so cold is cause of blūt witte & dul vnder­stādyng. Seuēthly / they be slouthful / & that is by colde: for as heate maketh a mā lyght & quicke in mouyng: so cold maketh a man heuy & slouthful. The .viij. is / they be lumpyshe and slepe longe.

Reddit fecundas permansum sepe puellas.
Isto stillantem poteris retinere cruorem.

This texte openeth .i [...]. cōmodites of lekes. Fyrst ofte eatynge of lekes make yonge womē frutfull:Of lekes. [Page] by reason as Auicen saythe / Auicen .ii. can. ca. de porro. lekes delate the ma­trice / and taketh awaye the hardnes therof: whi­che letteth the conception. Secondly lekes stynce bledynge at the nose / as Auicen saythe. Many o­ther effectis of lekes are rehersed at Allea nux ruta.

Quod piper est nigrum non est dissoluere pigrum.
Flegmata purgabit / digestiuam (que) iuuabit.
Lencopiper stomacho prodest / tussis (que) dolori.
Vtile preueniet motum febris (que) rigorem.

Pepper.This text declareth many cōmodites of pepper: and fyrst .iij. of blacke pepper. Fyrste / blacke pep­per / through hit heate & drines / leuseth quickely: for it is hotte and drie in the .iij. degree. Secōdly / hit purgeth fleme: for it draweth fleme from the inner parte of the body / and consumeth hit. Lyke wyse hit auoydethe fleme out that cleuethe in the breast and stomake / heatynge / subtilynge & dissol­uynge hit. Thyrdly / hit helpethe digestion. And this appereth by Auicē / Auic. ii. cā. cap. de pi­ [...]. sayenge: that pepper is digestiue causynge appetite. And this speciallye is to be vnderstande by longe pepper: whiche is more holsome to digest rawe humours thā either whyte or blacke / Gal. iii. de reg. sanitatis. ca. vii. as witnesseth Galen. Secōdly / he declareth .v. holsome thinges of white pepper. Fyrste / whyte pepper comfortethe the stomake. And this appereth by Galens wordes / sayenge: that hit cōforteth ye stomake more than ye other .ij. To this agreeth Auicen / Auic. loco preal [...]eg. sayenge: whyte pepper is more holsome for the stomake: and more vehe­mently dothe comforte. The .ij. is / pepper is hol­some for the coughe / specially caused of colde fleu­matike [Page Y ij] mattier / for hit heatethe / dissoluethe / and cutteth hit. To this Auicen assenteth / sayenge: Whan pepper is ministred in lectuaries / it is hol­some for the coughe / and aches of the breaste. Thyrdely / white pepper is holsome for ache / and that is to witte of the breaste / and vētous payne. And for that all pepper is good: for all pepper is a dimynysher and a voyder of wynde. And Auicen saythe: that white pepper and longe is holsome for prickynge ache of the bealye / Agaynste belyache. if hit be dronke with honye & freshe baye leaues. Fourthly / pep­per withstandeth the causes of a colde feuer / for it digesteth and heateth the mattier. Fyftly / white pepper is holsome for a shakynge feuer / by reason that pepper with it heate comforteth ye senowes / and consumeth the mattier spredde on them. And Auicen sayth in rubbynge it is made an oyntmēt (with vnguentum) holsome agaynst shakynge. These .v. ꝓpretes are ascriued to ye other kȳdes of pepper / as Auicē saith. And besyde these effectis / pepper heteth the senowes and braunes of mans body: it mundifieth the lightis / and a lyttell ther­of ꝓuoketh the vrine / but moche leuseth ye bealy / as saythe Auicen. There be .iij. sortis of pepper / white pepper / called lencopiper / longe pepper / cal­led macropiper / & blacke pepper / called melancopiper. Hit is called whyte pepper that is very grene and moyst: and whan it is a lyttell dried / and nat per­fectly rype / hit is called longe pepper. But whan hit is perfectly rype / hit is called blacke pepper.

Et mox post escam dormire / nimis (que) moueri.
[Page]Ista grauare solent auditus ebrietas (que).

Hurtefull to the he­rynge.Here are touched .iij. thynges that greue the he­ryng. The fyrst is / immediate slepe after meate / and that is if one eate his fyll. For the immediate slepe wyll nat suffre the meate to digeste: and of meate vndigested are engēdred grosse vndigested fumes: whiche with theyr grossenes stoppe the cundites of heryng: & eke they engrosse & trouble the spiritis of herynge. The .ij. is to moche mo­uynge after meate: for that also letteth digestion / and the due shuttynge of the stomakes mouthe: by reason that than the stomakes mouthe closeth nat so easely / as by a lyttell walkyng / wherby the meate discendethe to the bottum of the stomake. For whā the stomake is nat shutte / many fumes ascende to the heed / that greue the herynge. The thyrde is dronkennes / wherof many fumes and vapours are engēdred / whiche ascēde to the heed / & organ of herynge / troublyng the spirite therof / and greuynge the herynge. And drōkennes doth nat only hurte the herynge / but also the syghte / and all the sensis / for the same cause / as is before sayde.Auicē .iiii. [...]ii. cap. ii. de conser­uat. sanit. auris. There be .iij. thynges / as Auicen saythe / that hurte the eare and other senses / lothynge / repletion / and slepe after repletion. And some text hath this verse: Balnea / sol / vomitus / affert repletio clamor. Whiche thynges greue the herynge / but specially great noyse. For Auicen sayth / if we wyl here well and naturallye / we muste eschewe the sonne / laborious baynynge / vomite / great noyse / and repletion.

[Page Y iij]
Metus / longa / fames / vomitus / percussio / casus.
Ebrietas / frigus / tinnitum causat in aure.

Here are touched .vij. thynges / whiche cause a hummynge & a noyse in ones eare. The fyrst is / feare / and after some / motion. The cause is / for in feare / the spiritis and humours crepe inwarde towarde the harte sodaynlye: by whiche motion ventosite is lyghtly engendred / whiche entrynge to the organ of the hearynge causeth tyngynge or ryngynge in the eare. By corporall mouynge also humours and spiritis are moued / of whiche mo­tion ventosite is lyghtly engendred / whiche com­mynge to the eares causethe ryngynge. For ryn­gynge is caused through some mouynge of a va­pour or ventosite about the organ of the heryng / mouynge the naturall aire of those pipes cōtrary to theyr course. The .ij. is great hunger:Auicē .iiii.iii. cap. ix. Auicen sheweth the reason sayenge: that this thyng chā ­cethe throughe humours spredde and restynge in mans body. For whan nature fyndeth no meate / she is conuerted vnto them / and resoluethe & mo­ueth them. The .iij. is vometynge: For in vome­tynge / whiche is a laborious motion / humours are specially moued to the heed. In token wherof we se the eies and face come redde / and the syghte hurte. And thus also by vometyng / vapours and ventosites are soone moued to thorgan of the he­rynge. The .iiij. is ofte beatynge about the heed / specially the eare. For therby chanceth vehement motion of the naturall aire / beynge in the organ of the herynge. For whan any membre is hurte / nature [Page] is hurt. The .iiij. is the wynde / and specially the southe.Hippoc. a­pho. illo. [...]as [...]rini flatus &c. Wherof Hippocrates saythe: the southe wynde is mystye / and duskethe the eies: for that wynde fyllethe the heed with humidites / whiche dulle the wyttis and darke the syghte. The .v. is pepper / whiche through ye sharpenes therof / en­gendrethe fumes that byte the eies. The .vj. is garlyke / whiche also hurteth the eies / through it sharpenes and vaporosite / as is sayd at Allea nux. The .vij. is smoke / whiche hurtethe the eies / through hit mordication and drienge. The .viij. is lekes: For by eatynge of them / grosse melanco­lye fumes are engendred: wherby the syghte is shadowed / as is before sayde / at Allea nux ruta. &c. The .ix. is oynions / the eatynge of whiche hur­tethe the eies / through theyr sharpenes. The .x. is lens / the moche eatynge wherof / as Auicen sayth / dusketh the syghte / through the vehement dryenge therof. The .xj. is to moche wepynge: whiche weakethe the eies / for hit causeth debilite retentiue of the eies. The .xij. is beanes: the vse wherof engendreth a grosse melancoly fume / dar­kynge the visible spiritis / as lekes do. And ther­fore the eatynge of beanes / inducethe dredefulle dreames. The .xiij. is mustarde / the vse wherof febleth the syght through hit tartnes. The .xiiij. is to loke agaynst the sonne: and that is through the vehement splendour and bryghtenes therof: wherby the syghte is distroyed: as apperethe by experiēce. For the vehemēt sensiblenes of a thȳg / nat proporcioned to mans sense / as the sonne bea­mes [Page a] / corrupte mans sense. The .xv. is to moche carnall copulation / and specially after greatte fe­dynge or repletion / or after great voidȳg or empti­nes: but this is all redye declared. The .xvj. is fire / the beholdynge wherof / causethe vehement drines in the eies / and so hurteth the syghte: and eke the bryghtnes therof hurtethe the eies. And therfore we se cōmonlye / that smythes and suche as worke before the fyre / be redde eied and feeble sighted. The .xvij. is to great labour / for that eke drieth vehemently. The .xviij. is smytynge vpon the eies / whiche hurteth the eies and syght / for it maketh them bludde shotte / & troubleth ye vissible spirite: & other whyle engendrethe impostumes. The .xix. is to moche vse of te [...]t or sharpe thȳges / as sauces: and that is through the tertnes of fu­mes of them engendred. The .xx. is duste / or wal­kyng in dusty places: in whiche duste fleeth light lyin to the eies / & duskethe the syghte. The .xxj. and aboue other hurtfull to the eies and syght / is to moche watche: For to moche watche inducethe to moche drynes in the eies. And generally all re­pletions hurt the eies: and all that driethe vp na­ture: and all that trouble the bludde / by reason of saltnes or sharpenes. All dronkennes hurteth the eies: but vometynge cōforteth the syght / in that hit purgeth the stomake: and hurteth hit / in that hit moueth the mattiers of the brayne / dryuynge them to the eies. And therfore if hit be nedefull to spue / hit muste be done after meate without con­straynynge. Also to moche slepe incontinent after [Page] meate / and moche bludde lettynge / and proprelye with ventosites / hurtethe the syghte as Auicen sayth .iii. tract. iiii. ca. iiii. where he expresseth many of the forsayde causes.

Feniculus / verbena / rosa / celidonia / ruta /
Ex istis fit aqua / que lumina reddit acuta.

This texte recitethe .v. herbes / whose water is verye holsome for the syghte.To clarifie the eies. The fyrste is fenell / whose ieuse put in to the eie / sharpeth the syghte / after Rasis .iij. Alm̄. The .ij. is verueyn / wherof the water is of many phisitians put in resceytes holsome agaynst feblenes of syghte. The thyrde is a rose / whose water dothe comforte the lyuelye spirite and syghte. The .iiij. is celendine / whose ieuse is citrine / hit is called celidonia / that is / gy­uynge celestiall gyftes. The .v. is rewe: ye water of those .ij. herbes is holsome for the syghte / as phisitians cōmonly say.

Sic dentes serua / porrorum collige grana.
Ne careas iure cum iusquiamo simul vre.
Sic (que) per embotum fumum (que) cape dente remotum.

Here the auctour reciteth certeyne medicines for tothe ache.For tothe ache. He saythe / Lykes sede & henbane bur­ned to gether / is good for the tothe ache. They must be ministred on this wyse: The ieuse of hē ­bane with the lyke sede must be burned to gether: and the smoke must be resceiued through a fonell / on the side that the ache is. The vertue of the hē ­bane taketh away the felynge of the payne. And the vertue of ye lyke sedes fume kylleth wormes: whiche other whyle lyenge in the concauites of ye [Page a ij] tethe / cause intollerable payne / as Auicen saythe / ii. canone cap. de porro.

Nux oleum / frigus capitis / anguilla (que) potus.
Ac pomum crudum faciunt hominem fore raucum.

This text declareth .vj. causes of horsenes. The fyrste is eatynge of nuttis: for nuttis drie moche: and therfore they asperate the voice / and make it like a cranes voyce. The .ij. is oyle / the vse wher­of may engendre horsenes: for some clāmy partis therof cleue fast to the pipe of the lyghtis / causȳg horsnes. Secondly / hit may make colerike folkes hoorse for that in them ye oyle is lightly enflamed / and so that inflamation causeth exasperation and horesnes: but the fyrste cause semeth better. The thyrde is colde of the heed: For colde of the heed doth presse to gether the brayne: wherby the hu­mours discende towarde the throte / and the pype of the lyghtis: enducynge horsenes / throughe to moche moystnes of the pipe. The .iiij. is eatynge of yeles: for the eatynge of them multiplieth clā ­my fleme: whiche comynge to the lyghtis / stycke there styll / and cause horsnes. The .v. is ouer mo­che drynkynge / speciallye towarde bedde. Nowe the vehement wetynge of the pipe of the lightis / dothe chieflye cause horesnes of the voyce / as all phisitians say. The .vj. is rawe apuls / for in that they be rawe they encreace fleme: and if they be nat rype / but sharpe and sower / they make the throte roughe.

Ieiuna / vigila / caleas dape / valde labora.
Inspira calidum / modicum [...]ibe / comprime flatum.
[Page]Hec bene tu serna si vis de pellere reuma.
Si f [...]nat ad pectus / dicatur reuma catarrus.
Ad fauces branchus / ad nares esto corisa.

Here are touched .vij. thȳges that cure ye reume. The fyrste is abstinence from meate / [...]or the [...]. or fastynge / for therby the mattier of reume is dimynyshed: for abstinence drieth / and the mattier is better ry­ped and consumed: For whan nature fyndethe no matter of foode / wheron she may worke: she wor­keth vpon reumatike mattier and consumeth hit: and so the heed is lesse fylled therwith. Wherfore Auicen saythe: that a man hauynge the catar or the pose / shulde take hede he fylle nat hym selfe with meates. The .ij. is watche: for watche dry­eth the brayne / and withstandeth that ye vapours ascende nat to the heed. The .iij. is hotte meatis and drynkes: for throughe theyr heate the colde mattier of the reume is digested. The .iiij. is to labour moche: for therby the mattier reumatike is consumed: by reason that moche labour drieth vp ye suꝑfluites of the bodye. And in stede of val [...]e some textis haue veste: and than the sentence is / that warme garmētis is holsome for the reume / specially whan hit cometh by colde mattier. The v. is inspirynge of hotte aier / and speciallye if the catarre procede of colde matter: for by breathyng of warme aier / the mattier is warmed and riped. The .vj. is to drynke lyttell and endure thyrst: for therby the reumatike mattier is consumed. And eke by lyttell drynkynge the heed is nat fylled as with moche drinkynge. The .vij. is to holde ones [Page a iij] breath: for that is specially good in a catarre / cau­sed of a colde mattier: by reason that this holdȳg of the breathe heatethe the partis of the breast: and so the colde fleumatike mattier / causynge the catarre / is better digested. These thynges and many other Auicen toucheth / sayenge:Auicē. loc [...] prealleg. Hit beho­uethe to kepe the heed warme continuallye. And also hit must be kepte from the northe wynde / and proprely after the southe. For the southe wynde / repleteth and makethe rare. The northe wynde / constrayneth. Also he must drinke no colde water: nor slepe on the day tyme: He must endure thyrst / hūger / and watche: as moche as he can: for these thynges in this sickenes are the begynnynge of helth.Rasis .ix. Almauso [...]. Farther more Rasis biddeth hym yt hath ye reume / to beware of lyenge vp ryghte. For by ly­enge vp ryghte the reumatike matter floweth to the hynder partis of man / where as be no mani­feste issues / wherby the mattier maye voyde out: Therfore hit is to be feared lest hit flowe to the se­nowes / and cause the crampe or palsey. And lyke wyse he ought vtterly to forbeare wyne: for wyne is vaporous: and in that hit is verye hotte / it dis­solueth the mattier / and augmenteth the reume: And lyke wyse he must nat stande in the sonne nor by the fire: for the sonne and fire leuse the mattier and augmenteth the reume. In the last .ij. verses thauctour puttethe difference betwene these .iij. names / catarrus / branchus / and corisa. And the dif­ference standeth in ye mattier flowyng to one part or an other of the body: Whā the mattier rōnethe [Page] to the breaste partis / hit is called catarrus: whan hit ronneth by the nose / it is called corisa: whan hit ronnethe to the necke / hit is called branchus. But this worde reume dothe note & signifie generally all maner of mattier flowyng from one membre to an other.

Auripigmentum sulphur miscere memento.
His decet apponi calcem commisce saponi.
Quattuor hec misce. commixtis quatuor istis.
Fistula curatur / quater ex his si repleatur.

Here the auctour putteth a curable medicine for the fistule / For the fistule. sayenge: that a playster made of auri­pigmentum / brymstone / white lyme / & sope myn­gled to gether healeth the fistule. For these thyn­gis haue vertue to drie and mundifie: whiche en­tentions are requisite in healynge a fistule. Pla­tearie sayth / auripigmentum is hotte and drie in the .iiij. degree: it dissolueth and drawethe / consu­methe / and mundifieth. Brymstone and sope as he sayth / are hotte & drie: but brymstone is more vehemente: for hit is hotte and drie in the .iiij. de­gree / but sope is nat. Auicen saythe / that lyme washed / drieth without mordicatiō / and makethe steddye. The fistule is a rounnynge sore / whiche auoydeth mattier more or lesse / after the diuersite and course of the moone. Auripigmētum is that ye grauers fastē bras & other mettals wt to stones.

Ossibus ex denis bis sentenis (que) nouenis
Constat homo denis bis dentibus et duodenis
Ex tricentenis decies sex quinque (que) venis.

For the [...]Here thauctour nombreth the bones / tethe / and [Page] veynes in mans body. Fyrste / of bones. he saythe there be CCxix. bones. Yet after the doctours of phisike / as Hippocrates / Galen / Rasis / Auerroys / and Auicē / the bones in mā be .CCxlviij. And though herin be variance / yet there is a mayster of phi­sicke that saythe:

Ossa ducenta sunt / at (que) quater duodena.

Secondly thauctour sayth / that a man most cō ­monly shulde haue .xxxij. tethe.The nōbre of tethe. But yet hit chan­ceth that some men lacke .iiij. the laste tethe: whi­che be behynde them that we call the grynders: & these haue but .xxviij. tethe. Some lacke these iiij. laste tethe in childe hod only: some other lacke them tyl they be very olde: and some all their life.Aui. i. doct v. cap. de anoth. dē ­denttum. Here is to be noted / yt after Auicen / the .ij. formost tethe be called duales: and .ij. on either side of these twayne / are called quadrupli. There be .ij. in the vpper iawe / and .ij. in the nether: al these tethe were ordeined to cutte: and therfore some cal them cut­ters / and speciallye the duales. Nexte vnto those quadruples / are .ij. tethe aboue / and .ij. benethe. cal­led canini / whose office is to breake harde thingis. After those be .iiij. other on either side called gryn­ders .iiij. aboue and .iiij. beneth. After those some haue a tothe called sensus / on either syde / and as well aboue as benethe. These also are ordeyned to grynde mans meate. And so the holle nombre of ye tethe is .xxxij. orels .xxviij. in them that haue nat ye tethe called sensus. There is than .iiij. duales iiii. quadruples .iiij. dogge tethe .xvj. grinders / & .iiij. sensus. Thyrdly the text saith / that there is in mā CCClxv. veynes / as appereth in the anothamie.

Quatuor hu [...]ores in humano corpore constant.
Sanguis cum colera / flegma / melancolia.
Terra melan. aqua / fleg. et aer / sanguis coler ignis.

Here the auctour declarethe the .iiij. humours in man / as bludde / fleme / coler / and melancoly. And shewynge the nature and complexion of them / he compareth eche to one of the .iiij. elementes. Me­lancoly is colde and drye & so cōpared to the erthe / whiche is of lyke nature: Fleme is colde & moyst / and so cōpared to water. Bludde is hotte & moist / and so compared to the aier. Coler is hotte & drie / and so compared to fyre. These thynges are de­clared in these verses.

Humidus est sanguis / calet / est yis aeris illi.
Alget / humet / flegma / sic illi yis sit aquosa.
Sicca calet colera / sic igni fit similata.
Melancolia friget / siccat quasi terra.

Aui. i. doct iiii. cap. i.For a farther knowlege wittethe well / that after Auicē / there be .iiij. humours in mās body / blud / fleme / coler and melancoly / as is sayde. The best of them is blud / fyrst by reason hit is the mattier of mans spiritis: in whom consistethe mans lyfe and operations. Secondly bicause hit is comfor­table to the principles of lyfe / hit is temperatlye hotte and moyste. Thyrdly / bicause hit restoreth and nourisheth the body more than the other hu­mours: and it is called the treasure of nature: for if hit be loste dethe foloweth forth with. Nexte to bludde in goodnes is fleme: Fyrst by reason that if nede be / hit is apte to be tourned in to bludde. Secondly / bicause hit is very nere like humidite / whiche is as fūdatiō of lyfe. After fleme in good­nes is coler: whiche is partner with natural hete [Page b] so longe / as it kepeth conuenient measure. Than foloweth melancoly / as dregges and durte remo­ued aparte from the principles of lyfe / ennemy to ioye and liberalite / and of nere kynred to age and dethe. Secondly note / that in the diuision of hu­mours / there is .ij. kyndes of blud / that is to say / naturall & vnnaturall. Naturall blud is ruddye: that is to saye / veyne bludde ruddye and obscure: and arterie bludde ruddye and clere: without yll sauour: and in comparison of other humours / is very swete. Unnaturall is double: the one is vn­naturall in qualite / that is to say / whiche is chā ­ged from good cōplexion in it selfe: orels by myn­glȳge of an other humour. There is an other vn­naturall bludde / whiche throughe mynglynge of other humours / is yll bothe in qualite / substance / quantite / and in proportion of the one to ye other. And this is double: for the one is nat naturall / by mynglyng of an yll humour / that cometh to hym from without. The other is vnnaturall by myn­glynge of an yll humour / engendred in the selfe blud: as whan parte of the blud is putrified / and the subtile parte therof is tourned in to coler / and the grosse part in to melancoly: orels that coler / or that melācoly / orels both remayneth in the blud. And this vnnaturall bloud / by mynglynge of an yll humour / varieth from naturall bludde many wayes. Fyrst / in substance: for hit is grosser and fouler: sith melācoly is myngled therwith: orels hit is more subtile / whan wattrishenes or citrine coler is myngled therwith. Secondlye in colour: [Page] for some tyme / whan fleme is myngled therwith / hit enclineth to whitenes / or through melancolye to blackenes. Thirdly in sauour: for by mynglȳg of putrified humours hit is more stynkynge: or­els by mynglynge of rawe humours hit hath no sauour. Fourthly in talage: for by mynglyng of coler / hit enclineth to bitternes / and by melancoly to sowernes / or by fleme to vnsauerynes. Also of fleme there be .ij. kyndes / naturall & vnnaturall. Naturall is that / whiche within a certeyne space wyll be bloudde: for fleme is vndigested bloudde. There is an other spice of fleme / whiche is swete and some what warme / if hit be compared to the bodily hete: But comparynge hit to ruddye blud and coler / hit is colde. Fleme is naturally whyte: and this is called swete fleme / extendynge this name swete to all the talages delitynge the taste: for other wise this natural fleme is nat swete: but vnsauery and watrishe / and very nere the talage of water. And to this fleme / nature hath nat gy­uen a ꝓpre mansion / as she hath done to coler and melancoly: but nature maketh it ronne with the bloud: for it hath a very nere similitude to bloud. And of this fleme there be .ij. necessites and one v­tilite. The fyrste necessite is / that hit be nere the membres / so that theyr vertue maye digeste and turne hit in to bloudde: and that the membres by hit may be nourished / whan they haue loste theyr naturall foode / that is for to saye / good bloudde / throughe restrynte of material bloud / whiche re­streynt is caused of the stomake & lyuer / through [Page b ij] some causes accidentall. The .ij. necessite is / that hit myngle with the bloud / and make hit apte to nourishe the mēbres of flematike complexion / as the brayne and nuche: for that that must noryshe these mēbres / must be well myngled with fleme. The vtilite of fleme is that hit moyst the ioyntes and membres / that moue moche / leste they waxe drie through the heate that cometh of theyr mo­uynge and rubbynge. Vnnaturall fleme may be deuided. Fyrste in hit substance: & so some therof is muscillaginosū: and that is fleme / to ones se­mynge / diuerse: for in some parte it is subtile and thynne / and in some other grosse and thycke: it is called muscilaginosū / bicause hit is lyke muscila­ges / drawē out of sedes. There is an other fleme that appereth egall in substance / that is in subti­lite & grossenes to ones demynge: but for a trouth hit is diuers in euery parte: this is named rawe fleme. And this encreasethe in ye stomake and en­trayles. And to auoyde hit out of the stomake / Hippocrates byddethe vs spue twyse a monethe: and to voide hit out of the guttis / nature hath or­deyned coler to runne from the chest of the gall to the entrayle ieiuniū / & so forthe to the other lower guttis / to scoure away that fleme from the brym­mes of the entrayles / and to cause hit to discende downe with the other dregges and fylthe. Some tyme this fleme is encreased in the veynes / speci­ally of olde folkes / by minishyng of theyr digestiō: and there remaynynge / is by lyttell & littell aug­mented and engrossed / hurtynge nature / whiche [Page] can nat by the veynes / therto ordeyned / voyde hit out / yet it doth that is possible to kepe it from the harte / and other inwarde membres: and driueth it to the outwarde membres / and specially to the legges: for by hit heuynes hit naturally draweth to the lower partis of man: And this is the cause why olde folkes legges are swollen / & that if one presse downe his fynger therin / there taryethe a hole: specially towarde night / and in fatte folkes / & suche as were wonte to be nourished with moyst meates. There is an other spice of fleme / verye subtile / & wattrishe / lyke vnto water / some what thicke: This fleme is verye often myngled with theyr spittyll / that haue yll digestion / and of those that be great drinkers: it runneth from ye brayne to the nose / as hit is wonte in the begynnynge of the pose: and whan by decoction and boylynge in man / hit cometh grosse / hit is turned in to fleme / grosse / white / and muscillage. There is an other fleme grosse and white / called gipseum: the subtile partis of this fleme is dissolued / through it longe bydynge in the iointis: and the grossenes therof / remaineth in ye ioyntis as harde as stones. This fleme engēdrethe a goute vncurable. There is an other fleme thycke and grosse / lyke to molt glasse / in colour / clāmynes and weight. Secondly vnna­turall fleme differethe in talage: for there is cer­tayne fleme / yt is swete / whiche is by mynglynge of bludde with fleme. And vnder this is contey­ned the vnctuous fleme: whiche is engendred by mynglynge of vnctuous bloud and fleme. There [Page b iij] is an other maner of vnsauerye fleme / caused of rawnes: as certeyne glassy fleme. There is an o­ther salte fleme / caused by mynglynge of coler. And this is more bytynge / drier / and lyghter / thā any other fleme / through the coler / mingled ther­with / whiche is drie lyght / and sharpe. And this fleme is ofte founde in theyr stomakes / that be flematike / that drinke moche stronge wyne / and that vse salte and sharpe meates / and cleuynge to the stomakes / causeth other whyle thyrst intolle­rable: and runnyng by the guttis / hit some tyme fleeth them: and causethe the bluddy mensyn: & in the fundemēt ofte tymes induceth stronge [...]o sti­uenes. There is an other fleme that is sharpe by mynglynge of sharpe melancolye therwith: and some tyme / throughe boylynge of fleme: as hit chanceth in the swete ieuses of frutes: that fyrste boyle / and after waxe ripe: And this fleme appe­reth oftner in theyr stomakes that digest yll / than in other partis. For naturally coler floweth to the mouthe of the stomake / to stere vp thappetite: whiche descēdyng downewarde / some tyme myn­gled with fleme / maketh it sower: and this is ꝑ­ceyued by sower belchynges. And other whyle this fleme is engendred in the stomake by boylȳg with a weake heate. There is an other fleme cal­led pontike / whiche is some tyme caused by myn­glyng of pōtike melancoly. But this is seldome / by reason that pontike melancolye is very scarse. Hit is some tyme caused throughe vehement cold­nes therof: wherby the moystnes therof is cōiey­led [Page] / and some what altered to erthynes: and ther­vpon cometh no weake heate / whiche causynge it to boyle / shulde conuerte it in to sharpenes: nor no stronge heate / whiche digestyng hit / shulde turne it in to blud. There be .ij. kyndes of coler / natural and vnnaturall. Vnnaturall coler is the fome of blud / whose coler is ruddy & clere / that is / citrine / in the laste degree of citrines: as saffron heedes: and hit is lyghte and sharpe: and the hotter the more redde it is. And after this coler is engēdred in the heed / hit deuideth in two partis / one parte gothe with the bloud in to the veynes / the other gothe in to the purse of the galle. The parte that gothe with the bloud / entreth therwith bothe for necessite and profite. Hit is nedefull that hit myn­gle with the bloud / to nourishe ye colerike mēbres. Hit is behoueful / that hit make the bloud subtile / and cause hit to entre in to the veynes. The parte that gothe to the purse of the galle / gothe eke the­ther for necessite and profite. The necessite is dou­ble. The one is nedefull for all the bodye / to mun­difie hit from colerike superfluites. The other ne­cessite is in respecte of the galles purse. The pro­fite also is double. The one is to washe ye entray­les from dregges / and clāmy fleme / cleuynge to them. The other is to pricke ye guttis & musculs / that they may fele the thynge that hurteth them / and voyde all other fylthynes. The profe of this is / that colike chanceth oftetymes by stoppynge of the hole that comethe from the purse of ye galle to the guttis. Vnnatural coler is double. For one [Page] is vnnaturall throughe outwarde cause myngled there with. The other is vnnaturall throughe a cause in it selfe: for the substance therof is nat na­turall. Coler vnnaturall throughe an outwarde cause / is an other knowen and famous: And hit is that that fleme is myngled with. And it is cal­led famous or notable: by reason hit is ofte engē ­dred. And of this kynde of coler cometh ye thyrde / wel knowen. There is an other yt is lesse famous / and that is hit / wherwith melancoly is myngled Famous coler is either citrine / and engendred by mynglynge of subtile fleme with naturall coler / orels hit is yolkye / lyke to yolkes of egges / and is engēdred by mynglynge of grosse fleme with na­tural coler. Coler of lesse fame is caused .ij. ways. One is whan the coler is burned in hit selfe / and turned to ashes / from whiche the subtile parte of the coler is nat seperated / but myngled therwith. And this coler is the worste. An other is / whan melancoly cometh from without / and mynglethe hit with the coler. And this coler is better than o­ther / and is ruddye in colour: hit is nat clere nor flowynge / but more lyke to veyne bludde. This vnnaturall coler / hauynge his owne propre sub­stāce / without mynglynge of any other humour / is ofte engendred in the lyuer: by reason that the subtilnes of the bloud burneth hit selfe / and tour­neth in to coler / and grossely in to melancoly. An other coler there is / engendred in the stomake of yll meatis nat digested but corrupted: orels it is engendred in the veynes by other humours. And [Page] of this coler be .ij. kyndes. For one is called coler prassiue / lyke the colour of ye herbe called prassion: whiche is engendred of the yolkynes whan hit is burned: for ye burnȳg causeth a yolky blackenes ī ye coler / whiche myngled with coler citrine / engē ­dreth a grene coler. The other is called rusty co­ler / lyke to rusty iron: & it is engendred of passiue: whā prassiue is burned only tyl the humidite ther of be dried away: and through hit drines begyn­neth to waxe white. And these .ij. last colers be yll and venomous / and yet rusty is the worse. Lyke wyse there be .ij. kyndes of melancolye / naturall and vnnaturall. The naturall is the dreggis and suꝑfluite of good bloud / whose talage is betwene swete and pontike. And this melancoly / whan hit is engendred in the lyuer / is parted in .ij. partis. Of whiche one entreth with the bloud / and there with remayneth in the veynes. The other is con­ueyed to the splene. The fyrste parte entreth with the bloud for necessite and profite. Hit is nedefull that it myngle with the bloud / to norishe the me­lancoly / colde / and drie membres / as the bones. The vtilite is to make thycke the thynne bloud / to stynte the suꝑfluous runnynge therof / to make it stronge / and to strengthe these membres in to whiche hit muste be conuerted. The other parte / that nedeth no bloud / gothe to the splene both for necessite and profite. The necessite is double / one vniuersall throughe out the bodye / to purge hit of melācolious superfluite. The other is but ꝑticu­lar / only to gouerne the splene. This melācoly is [Page c] also profitable for mans body / for hit runnethe to the mouthe of the stomake / straynynge out the humidites / that hit fyndeth there / as a woman straynynge a cowes dugges / drawethe out the mylke. This vtilite is double. Fyrst hit constray­neth / thycketh / and comforteth the stomake. Se­condly / by reason it moueth the mouthe of the sto­make / through hit egernes / hit maketh one haue an appetite and lust to meate. Vnnaturall melā ­coly is as a thynge burned or ashes in respecte of other humours. Of this there are .iiij. famous kyndes / though there be many nat famous. The fyrst is ashes of coler: and this is bytter. The .ij. is ashes of fleme: and if the fleme that is burned were very subtile and wattrishe: than the melan­coly therof engendred wyll be salte in talage. But if the fleme be grosse yt is burned: than the ashes therof / or the melancoly of hit engendred / encly­neth to sowernes or ponti [...]ite. The .iij. is ashes of bloud / and this melancolye is laste / a lyttell dra­wynge to swetenes. The .iiij. is ashes of naturall melācoly. And if natural melancoly / wherof so it be / be subtile: thā it will be very sower. And whā hit is caste out vpon the grounde / hit boyleth and sauoureth of the aire / and causeth both flies and beastis to voide the place. But if the naturall me­lancoly be grosse / the vnnaturall therof ingēdred / shall nat be so sower.

Natuta pingues isti sunt at (que) locantes.
Semper rumores cupiunt audi [...]e frequentes.
Hos venus et Bacchus delectant fercula risus.
[Page]Et facit hos hytares / et dulcia verba loquentes.
Omnibus hi studiis abiles sunt / et magis apti.
Qualibet ex causa / nec hos leuiter mouet ira.
Largus amans / hylaris / ridens / rubei (que) coloris.
Cantans carnosus / satis audax / at (que) benignus.

Sanguine folkes.This texte techeth vs to knowe sanguine folkes. Fyrst / a sanguine persone is naturally fatte. But we may nat vnderstande / that sanguine folkes be proprely fatte: for that is a token of a colde com­plexion / Auicē .ii.i. doct. iii. cap. iii. as saythe Auicen: But they be fatte and fleshye with all: for fatte in sanguine persones is taken for fleshye. Auicen saythe: that abundance of ruddy fleshe and styffe / signifieth a hotte and a moyst cōplexiō / as a sanguine ꝑson is. For thabū ­dance of ruddy fleshe / wytnesseth fortitude of ver­tue assimilatiue / and multitude of bloud / ye worke and waxe by heate and moysture / as witnessethe Galen / sayenge: Thabundance of fleshe is engē ­dred by abundance of bloud. For heate perfectlye digestynge / and the lyke vertue to fleshe makethe the fleshe faste & styffe. Also Auicen saythe: eue­ry fleshye body without abundance of fat & grece / is sanguine.Galen. ii. [...]egni. Wherto Galen assēteth. Secondly / the sanguine person is mery and iocunde / that is to say / wt mery wordes he moueth other to laugh: orels he is gladde / throughe benignite of the san­guine humour / ꝓuokynge a man to gladnes and iocūdite / through clere & perfect spirites engēdred of bloud. Thyrdly he gladly hereth fables & mery sportis / for the same cause. Fourthlye he is encly­ned to lecherie / through heate and moystnes / pro­uokynge [Page c ij] to carnall copulation. Fyftly / he gladlye drinketh good wyne. Sixtlye / he delyteth to fede on good meate: by reason the sanguine ꝑsone de­syrethe the mooste lyke to his complexion / that is good wynes and good meates. Seuenthlye / he laugheth lyghtly / for bloud ꝓuoketh to laughȳg. The .viij. is / the sanguine persone / hath a glad­some & an amiable countenance / through lyuely­nes of colour / and fairenes of cōplexion. The .ix. is / he speaketh swetelye / throughe amiablenes of sanguine nature. The .x. is / he is apt to lerne any maner of science / throughe lyuelynes and perspi­cuite of his wytte. The .xj. is / he is nat lyghtlye angry: and this cometh through moystnes aba­tynge the feruour of coler prouokynge to anger. The laste .ij. verses recite some of the forsayde to­kens / and also some other. Fyrste / a sanguine ꝑ­sone is free / nat couetous but liberall. Secondly he is amorous. Thyrdly / he hath a mery counte­nance. Fourthly / he is moste parte smylynge: of whiche all the benignite of the bloud is cause and prouoker. Fyftlye / he hath a ruddye colour. For Auicen saythe / that ruddy colour of the skynne / signifieth abundance of bloud: And this must be vnderstande of brighte ruddy colour & nat darke: suche as is wonte to be in theyr facis that drynke stronge wynes abundantlye / and that vse sauces and sharpe spices: for suche colour signifieth lepre to come. Syxtly / he gladlye singethe and herethe syng [...]ge / by reason of his mery mynde. Seuēth­lye / he is fleshye / throughe the cause afore sayde. [Page] The .viij. is / he is hardy / through the hete of the bloud / whiche is cause of boldnes. The .ix. is / the sanguine persone is benigne and gentyl / through the bounte of the sanguine humour.

Est humor colere / qui competit impetuosis.
Hoc genus est hominum / cupiens precellere cunctos.
Hi leuiter discunt multum comedunt / cito crescunt.
Inde magnanimi / sunt largi summa petentes.
Hirsutus / fallax / irascens / prodigus / audax.
Astutus / gracilis siccus / grocei (que) coloris.

Here the auctour teacheth vs to knowe a persone of colerike complexion. Fyrst / he is hasty / by rea­son of superfluous heate / that mouethe hym to hastynes.Auicē .ii.i. doct. iii. cap. iii. And therfore Auicen sayth / that dedes of excessiue motion / signifie heate. Secondly / the colerike persone is desirous of honour / and coue­teth to be vppermoste / and to excelle all other: by reason that suꝑfluous heate maketh mās mynde prone to arrogāce and foole hardynes. Thyrdly / they lerne lyghtlye / by reason of the subtilnes of the colerike humour. And therfore Auicen saithe / that the vnderstandynge / promptnes and quicke agilite to intelligence / betokenethe heate of com­plexion. Fourthlye they eate moche: for in them the heate digestiue is stronger / & more resolutiue than in other bodies. Fyftly / they encresse soone / through strength of naturall heate in them / whi­che is cause of augmentation. The .vj. is / they be stoute stomaked / that is they can suffre no iniu­ries / by reason of the heate in them. And therfore Auicen sayth secunda .i. doctrina .iii. cap. tertio: that to [Page c iij] take euery thynge impa [...]iently / signifieth heate. The .vij. is / they be liberall to those that honour them. The .viij. is / they desire highe dignites / & officis. The .ix. is / a colerike persone is hearye / by heate openynge the pores / & mouyng the mat­tier of heares to the skynne. And therfore hit is a cōmon sayenge / the colerike man is as heary as a gotte. The .x. is / he is disceyuable. The .xj. is / he is soone angry / through his hotte nature. And therfore Auicen sayth: ofte angry / and for a smal [...] cause / betoketh heate / through easy motion of co­ler and boylynge of the bloud aboute the harte. The .xij. is / he is a waster / in spendyng largely to optayne honours. The .xiij. is / he is bolde: for boldnes cometh of great heate specially about the harte. The .xiiij. is / he is wylye. The .xv. is / he is sklēder membred / and nat fleshie. The .xvj. is / he is leane and drie. The .xvij. is / he is saff [...]on co­lored. And therfore Auicen saythe: that coler sig­nifiethe dominion.

Restat et adhuc tristis colere substancie nigre.
Qui reddit prauos / per tristes pa [...]a loquentes.
Hi vigilant studiis / nec mens est dedita somno.
Seruant propositum sibi / nit reputant fore tutunt.
Inuidus et tristis / cupidus / dextre (que) tenacis.
Non ex per [...] fraudis / timidus lutei (que) coloris.

Here he declareth some tokens of a melancoly ꝑ­sone. Fyrst / melācoly maketh folkes shrewde and yll manered: as they that kyll them selfe. The .ij. is great heuines: for melancolye folkes are moste parte sad / through theyr melancoly spiritis / trou­blous [Page] & darke: lyke as clere spiritis make folkes gladde. The .iij. is / they talke lyttell / by reason of theyr coldnes. The .iiij. is / they be studious / for they couet alway to be alone. The .v. is / they are no slepers / nor slepe nat well / by reason of the ouer moche drines of the brayne: and through melan­coly fumes / they haue horrible dreames / yt wake them out of theyr slepe. The .vj. is / they be sted­faste in theyr purpose / and of good memorie / and harde to please: and this comethe throughe theyr drines. The .vij. is / they thynke nothynge sure / they alway drede / through darkenes of theyr spi­ritis. In the .ij. laste verses he recitethe some of ye forsayde signes and other. Fyrste / the melancolye persone is enuious. The .ij. he is sadde. The .iij. he is couetous. Fourthly / he holdeth fast / and is an yll payer. Fyftly he is simple / & yet disceitfull: and therfore melancoly folkes are deuoute / great reders / fasters / and kepers of abstinence. Syxt­lye / he is fearfull. Seuenthly / he hath an erth ye browne colour: whiche colour if hit be any thinge grene / signifiethe the dominion of melancolye / as Rasis sayth .ij. Alman.

Hi sunt humores / qui prestat cui (que) colores.
Omnibus in rebus / ex flegmate fit color albus.
Sanguine fit rubeus / colera / [...]ubea qu [...] (que) ruffus.
Si peccet sanguis / facies [...]ubet / extat acellus.
Inflantur gene / corpus nimium (que) grauatur.
Est plusquam frequens plenus / mollis / dolor ingens
Maxime fit stontis / et constipatio ventris.
B [...]ca (que) lingua sitis / et somnia plena rubo [...].
[Page]Dustior adest sp [...]ti / sunt act [...]a duicta que (que).

Here the auctour puttethe ye colours that folowe the complexions. A flematike persone is whitely coloured: the colerike is browne and tawnye: the sanguine is ruddy: the melancoly is pale / colered lyke erthe. Afterwarde the texte declareth .xij. co­lours / signifienge superfluite of bloud. The fyrst is whan the face is redde / by ascendyng of bloud / to the heed and face. The secōd is / whan the eies bolle out farther than they were wonte. The .iij. is / whan the eies are swollen. The .iiij. is / whan the bodye is all heuye: for nature can nat susteyne nor gouerne so great quātite of bloud. The .v. is / whan the pulce beateth thycke. The .vj. is / whā the pulce is full by reasō of the multitude of hotte and moyst vapours. The .vij. is / whan the pulce is softe / throughe to moche humidite / mollifienge the mattier. The .viij. is ache of the forheed. The ix. is whā the bealy is costife / throughe great hete that drieth vp the fylthy mattier. The .x. is whā the tonge is drie and rough for like cause. The .xj. is great thyrste / through drines of the stomakes mouth engēdred of great hete. The .xij. is whan one dreameth of redde thynges.Auicē .ii.i. doct. iii. cap. vii. This Auicen af­firmeth sayenge / Slepe that signifieth abūdance of bloud / is whan a man dreameth he seeth redde thynges: orels yt he shedeth moche of his bloud▪ orels / that he swymmeth in bloud and suche lyke. The .xiij. is / the swetenes of spyttell / throughe swetenes of bloud. Here is to be noted / that lyke as there be tokens of abundance of bloud / so there [Page] be signes of the abundance of other humours / as in these verses folowynge:

Accusat coleram dextre dolor asper alingua.
Tinnitus / vomitus (que) frequens / vigilantia multa.
Multasitis / pingr [...]s / egestio / torsioventris.
Naul [...] a fit morsus cordis / languescit ore [...]is.
Pulsus [...] est grocilis / d [...]us / velo [...] (que) calescens.
Aret / amarescit / incendi asomni [...] fingit.

The tokens of abundance of fleme are cōteyned in these verses folowynge.

Flegma supergrediens proprias in corpore leges.
Os facit incipidum / fastidia cerebra / [...]il [...]as.
Costarum stomachi / simul occipitis (que) dolores.
Pulsus adestrarus / ettardus / mol [...]s / inanis.
Precedit fallax / fantas [...]ata / somnus aquosa.

The signes of abundance of melancoly are con­teyned in these verses folowynge.

Humorum pleno dum fex in corpore regnat.
Nigra cutis / durus / pulsus / tenuis et [...]rina.
Solicitudo timor / et tristicia / somnia tempus.
Accrescet rugitus sapor / et sputaminis idem.
Leu [...] (que) precipue tinnit et sibilat auris.
Denus septenus vix fleubothomia [...] petil annus.
Spiritus vbe [...]ior erit per fleubothomiam.
Spiritus ex potu vini mox multiplicatur.
Humorum (que) cibo damnum lente reparatur.
Lumina clarificat / sincerat fleubothomia.
Mentes / et cerebrum / calidas facit esse medullas.
Viscera purgabit / stomachum / ventrem (que) [...]oerce [...].
Puros dat sensus / dat somnum / tedia tollit.
Auditus / vocem / vires producit et auget.

Here thauctour speaketh of bloud letting. Fyrst he sheweth what age is required to be bloud lettē / sayenge: At .xvij. yere of age one may be let bloud: And touchynge this Galen saythe:Galē .xl. [...]e iugenio that children shulde nat be let bloud / oneles they be .xiiij. yere olde at lest: bicause childrē bodies be sone resolued from outwarde heate: and therfore by voydynge [Page d] of bloud they shulde be greatlye weaked. Also for that they nede to nouryshe theyr bodies and aug­ment them / they shulde nat diminishe theyr blud. And eke for that they be soone dissolued from out­warde heate / hit suffiseth / wherfore they nede nat to be let bloud. And wittethe well / that as bloud lettynge is nat conuenient for children / so it is vn­holsome for olde folkes / as Galen saythe:Gal. lx. tegni. For the good bloud is littell and the yll moche: and bloud lettyng draweth away the good bloud / & leaueth the yll / as Auicen saythe: and therfore bloud let­tynge is vncōuenient for suche persones.Aui. iiii.i. cap. x. Secōd­lye / he puttethe the hurte of bloud lettynge. Of necessite with voidynge of bloud / done by bloudde lettynge / mans spiritis beynge in the bloud / do grealye auoyde. Thyrdlye / he sheweth howe the spiritis shulde be cherished and restored: and that is by drinkynge of wyne after the bloud lettyng: For of all thynge to norishe quickely / wyne is best as is before sayde. The spiritis also be cheryshed and restored by meatis / but that is nat so quickely as by wyne. And the meate after bloud lettynge / must be lyght of digestion / and a great engendrer of bloud / as rere egges / and suche lyke. And all thoughe meate restore the spiritis after bloud let­tynge / yet let ye pacientes beware of moche meate the fyrste and .ij. day. For Isaac saythe in dietis: that they muste drynke more than eate: and yet they must drynke lesse than they dyd before bloud lettynge: for digestion is weaker. Fourthlye / the auctour putteth .xj. conueniences of bloud lettȳge [Page] duly done. Fyrste / temperate bloud lettynge com­forteth the syghte: for diminishynge of humours doth eke diminishe fumynge to the heed / and the repletion therof / darkynge the syght. Seconde­lye / hit clerethe and maketh pure the mynde and brayne / through the same cause. Thyrdly / it hea­teth the mary: for it minishethe the superfluites / that therto come and cole it. Fourthly / it purgeth the entrayles: for nature vncharged of bloud / di­gesteth better rawe humours that be lefte. Fyft­ly / bloud lettynge restreyneth vometyng and the laske: for hit diuerteth the humours from the in­terior partis to the outwarde: & specially lettȳge bloud of the armes / as Auicen saith: For lettyng bloud of the feet stoppeth nat so well: yet ꝑchance the bloud lettynge shall augmente the laske / and that .ij. wayes. Fyrste / by bloud lettynge nature is discharged of her burden: and thā comforted / hit prouoketh other vacuations. Secondly / if the laske be caused by great weakenes of vertue con­tentiue: For than / for that by bloud lettynge ver­tue is weaked / the laske is augmented. The .vj. is that blud lettyng clereth the wyttis: For it mi­nisheth vaporation that gothe to the heed & trou­blethe the wyttis. The .vij. is hit helpethe one to slepe / for therby many humours be voyded / by whiche sharpe vapours and diuers are lyfted vp / lettynge one to slepe. The .viij. is / hit takethe a­waye tediousnes and ouer great grefe: for therby vertue is vnlodē of grefe: and eke with the bloud melācoly / the dregges of bloud / whiche induceth [Page d ij] tediousnes and grefe / is drawen out. The .ix. is / hit cōforteth the herynge: for therby the vapours and humours ascendinge to the heed / and lettȳge the herynge / are diminished. The .x. is / hit com­forteth the voyce: for therby the superfluites and humidites / that may come to the breaste or pype of the lyghtis / and let the voyce / are diminished. The .xj. is / hit augmentethe the strengthes: for therby the body is vnladen of hit grefe / wherfore vertue is augmented.

Tres insunt istis Maius / september / aprilis.
Et sunt lunares / sunt velut ydra dies.
Prima dies primi / postrema (que) posteriorum.
Nec sanguis minui / nec carnibus anseris vti.
In sene vel iuuene / si vene sanguine plene.
Omni mense bene / confert incisio vene.
Hi sunt tres menses / Maius / september / aprilis.
In quibus eminuas / vt longo tempore viuas.

Here thauctour sayth / that these .iij. Maye / sep­tember / & aprile / are the monethes of the moone: and in them are dayes forbidden to let bloud / that is the fyrste of Maye / and laste of september and aprile. Thoughe this be a cōmon rule / yet hit is false. For the forsayde dayes maye be as good and worthy to be chosē as the other / after the diuersite of constellation in them. Farther / the auctour saith / yt in those days none shuld eate goose fleshe: whiche also is false & erronious / and very witche­craft. I thynke thauctour had this sayeng of the iewes / whiche obserue suche maner. Secōdly he saith / yt men of myddell age & yonge folkes / whose [Page] veynes be ful of bloud / may be let bloud euery moneth: for those may well resist resolutiō: & in them is great quātite of good bloud. Thyrdly he saith: that blud lettyng for mans helth / must be done in one of these .iij. monthes / maie / septēber / & aprile. but yet with difference. for in aprile & maie the ly­uer veyne muste be let bloud / bicause than in vere tyme the bloud encreaseth: and in septēber in the splene veyne / bicause of melancoly / whiche than in autumpne encreaseth.

Frigida natura frigens / regio / dolor ingens.
Post lauachrum / coitum / minor etas / at (que) seniles.
Morb [...]s prolixus / repletio potus et esce.
Si fragi [...]is vel subtilis sensus stomachi sit.
Et fastiditi tibi sunt fleubothomandi.

Here thauctor putteth .xij. thynges that let blud lettyng. The fyrst is coldnes of complexion. for as Galen saith: bloud lettyng cooleth & augmenteth coldnes: bicause / as Isaac sayth / bloud is the foū dacion of natural hete: and in that bloud lettyng voydeth bloud / hit voydeth hete / & so consequētly cooleth. The .ij. is a feruent colde contrey / vnder whiche a cold season shulde be cōprehēded / whiche also letteth bloud lettyng: for in a coūtrey & season very cold / the blud is closed in the depest partis of the body: and the bloud that taryeth in the vtter partis / the colde maketh thycke / whiche to voyde is no wisedome. The .iij. is feruēt ache: vnder whiche eke may be cōprehended great inflāmation of the body: for if one in suche accidētis be let bloud / there foloweth motion agitatiue / contrarie to na­ture [Page d iij] / and greatter inflāmation / whiche weaketh nature more. The cause of this motion agitatiue is attractiō to diuers partis: for by bloud lettyng attraction is caused to the place yt is let blud: & by great ache / attractiō is caused to the place of ache. The cause of greatter inflāmaciō is / yt by blud lettyng ye humors be moued / wherby they be more inflamed. And this is trouthe whan blud lettyng is lyttell & artificial. Yet if it be done tyl one swoūd hit is holsome in the forsaide cases: for this bloud lettyng / whan it ouercometh the attraction of the ache: it causeth nat motion agitatiue. & like wise it taketh awaye inflāmation / whan there be no hu­mors / that shuld moue hete / and cause more inflā ­macion. This is Galens mynde / sayeng:Gal. in cō men. illius apho. que egerunt. there is no better medicine for an īpostume of feruēt inflā ­mation / feuers / & a great ache / than blud lettyng. The .iiij. is baynyng / specially resolutiue: for that letteth bloud lettyng: for that were vacuatiō vpō vacuatiō / whiche nature can nat esily beare. The v. is carnall copulacion: for īmediately ther after one shuld nat be lettē bloud / bicause of double weakyng of nature. The .vi. is to olde or to yonge / as it is before touched. Of this Auicen sayth: Take hede howe thou lettest one bloud in any of the for­said cases: outcept thou trust in the figure / in solidite of the musculs / largenes of the veynes / ye ful­nes of them / and ruddy colour. The .vii. is longe sicknes: for by suche lettȳg of blud / nature is dou­bly febled / both by the lōge sickenes & diminishiō. This is of trouthe sayth Auicen / outcept there be [Page] corrupt bloud / for than bloud lettyng is holsome. The .viij. is great replecion of drynke. The .ix. is to eate to moche meate: and vnder this is cōprised meate vndigested. The cause hereof (as Auicen sayth) is this: there be .iij. thynges that drawe to them / that is voydnes / hete / and secrete vertue or proprete. Than if the veynes be empty through voydyng of bloud / they drawe to them frō the sto­make or lyuer / vndigested or suꝑfluous meate or drynke: whiche vndigested meate cōmen to ye mē ­bres / can nat be amended / that is / digested: for ye third digestion can nat amende the faute of the .ij. nor the secōde of the fyrst: if the faute be so great yt hit can nat conuert into the mēbres: hit there re­maynȳg may cause some disease. The .x. is feble­nes.Gal ii. [...]. for bloud lettyng is a stronge voyder / as Ga­len sayth: therfore a feble persone may nat endure great diminishyng of blud. The .xi. is subtile sen­siblenes of the stomakes mouthe: whiche is called the hart strynge: for of suche bloud lettyng swoū ­ [...]yng foloweth easily. And vnder this / weakenes of the stomake is eke cōprised / and easy flowynge of coler to ye mouthe therof / endusyng vometyng. Wherfore they yt haue the forsaid accidentes shuld nat be let bloud: for by bloud lettyng the humors moued be enduced to the stomakes mouthe / as to a place accustomed: and bicause hit is a weake & an impotent membre to resiste that flixe: therfore by suche lettynge of bloud many inconueniences chāce. This is one cause why many swoūd / whā they be let bloud: by reason the coler floweth to ye [Page] stomake: whiche bytynge the stomake / pyneth ye hart & stomake so / that hit causeth one to swoūde. The .xij. is lothyng: for if in this lothynge one be let bloud / whan the veynes be empty / they drawe to them yll mattier causyng lothesomnes. Auicen toucheth many of these .vi. last accidentis. And besides the forsaid accidentis there be other that let bloud lettyng. First voydyng of menstruous flixe or the emeraudes: for one diseased with eyther of these shulde nat be let bloud: yet it may be done to diuert the flixe or matter. The .ii. is rarenes of cō ­position: for in rare bodies is moche dissolucion: & therfore this resolution suffiseth them without e­uacuation / as Galen sayth .ix. teigni. The .iii. is rawnes and clāmynes of humours: for than be­ware of bloud lettyng / bicause it encreaseth rawe­nes of humours: and therfore in lōge sickenes ye shuld nat let bloud: for rawnes of humours encreseth / strength febleth / and the sickenes prolōgeth. And therfore Auicen sayth / that in longe sickenes before one is let bloub / he shuld take a laxatiue / although he nede bothe. Rawnes of humors is caused .ii. wayes. One is throughe abundance of hu­mours chokyng naturall hete: whiche chokynge bredeth rawe humours / and than bloud lettynge is holsome. Wherfore Alexander sayth: Lettyng of bloud in ye begynnyng of the dropsy is holsome:Alex. ii.ii. ca. de hy­droppist. whan it cometh by abūdance of mēstruous blud / that through some cause is prohibited to issue: or by abūdance of the emeraudis: For lyke as a lyt­tel fire is quēched vnder a great heape of wodde: [Page] lyke wise natural hete is suffocate with abundāce of humours. The .ij. cause of rawe humors / is fe­blenes of natural hete / as in folkes of feble cōplex­ion / or that haue ben longe sycke / or be very aged: for than ye said blud lettyng is vnholsome: bicause hit augmenteth rawenes: for the blud that obserueth hete / is drawen out / and so the body is made colde and the humours more rawe: Therfore the bloud must be left to digest these rawe humours. The .iiij. is vndue disposicion of the aire / eyther to hotte or to colde: for moche hete causethe stronge resolucion: and great colde maketh ye blud thicke and vnapte to issue or auoyde.

Quid debes facere / quando vis fleubothomar [...].
Vel quando minuis / fueris vel quando minutus.
Vnctio sine potus / lauachrum / vel fascia motus.
Debent non fragili tibi singula mente teneri.

v. thynges in bloud lettyng.This text declareth .v. thynges that ought to be done about bloud lettyng: some before / som at the tyme / & some after. The first is anoyntyng / whi­che other while is vsed in the bloud lettyng / as to anoynte the place or veyne yt is opened: to aswage the peyne: somtyme hit is vsed after blud lettyng to kepe the gashe that it close nat vp to soone / that the humours left in the veynes may haue som respiracion / and some yll fumes voyde out. The .ij. is to drȳke / and specially wyne / whiche is good in blud lettyng / if one hap to swoūde: and also hit is very holsome after blud lettyng / to reuiue the spi­rites & engendre newe blud / whiche thyng in pra­ctyse all phisitians obserue. The .iij. is baynyng / [Page e] whiche is holsome .iij. dayes before and .iij. dayes after blud lettyng / & nat the same day. Hit is good before / if one thynke he haue grosse humors with­in hym: for baynyng leuseth & moueth humors: & for the said cause / hit is holsome to take a sharpe syrope before / to moue / dissolue / and make subtile the humours. And therfore / whan ye wyll let one blud / ye must rubbe the arme / that the humours in the veynes about may be made subtile & prepared to issue out more esily. Hit is holsom after blud lettynge / that the residue of humours & vapours left behynd / may be leused. Hit is nat holsome the same day / for baynyng maketh ye skyn lynnowe / whiche made lynnowe / wyl nat abyde ye stroke gyuen in blud lettyng / & that is dāgerous. The .iiij. is byndynge with lynnen clothes / whiche is very holsome to stop the blud after euacuation therof: & before bledyng / to drawe the humours to the veynes / and to cause them to swel / & better to appere. The .v. is moderate walkyng before blud lettyng to dissolue & make subtile the humors: afterward to leuse the residue of the humours lefte behynde. Here note / that some vse to be let blud fastyng: but some other say / hit were better to eate a rererosted egge fyrst / and therto drynke a draught of wyne / about the houre of .ix. or .x. before dyner / and forth with to be let blud. The cause is / whā ye stomake is empty / nature reteyneth styl ye blud more strōgly / lest she shuld lacke norishement: but whan one hath eate a lyttel norishyng meate / as wyne & eg­ges is / than nature suffreth ye blud better to issue.

Exhi [...]ara [...] tristes. iratos placat amantes.
Ne sint amentes fleubothomia facit.

[...]Here be declared .iii. effectis of blud lettyng. First it maketh a sad ꝑsone mery. Secondly it appeseth angry folkes. The reason is this: moche melāco­ly myngled with the blud / causeth heuynes / and moche coler causeth āger: whiche .ij. humors / as they be myngled with the blud / are drawē out by blud lettyng. Thirdly hit kepeth louers from fu­rious rauyng / for it remoueth the blud frō ye heed auoydyng it by the other exterior partis. Farther note / that there be .v. causes of blud lettyng. The first is / that the abundance / whether it be in qua­lite / or quantite / or bothe / shuld be voyded. For as Auicen sayth / two maner folkes must be let blud. One is they that be disposed to be sicke / that haue abundāce of blud in quantite. The other is they yt are sicke alredy / through the malice of humors or blud. But there is difference in these .ii. blud lettynges. For blud lettyng for the abūdance of blud ought to be moche: but whā it is done to auoyde yll blud / it must be moderate / as Galen saythe .ix. metategni. And therfore they do very yll yt let them selfe blede tyll they ꝑceyue the good blud issue / for ꝑauenture all theyr blud shall rūne out / er they se any good blud appere. Therfore they shuld voyde a lyttel at ones: and after the mynde of Galen / in this case: before they let one blud / they shuld gyue hym good meates / to engēder good blud / to fulfyl the place of the yl blud auoyded: and after within a lyttell space / to let hym blud a lyttel and a lyttel. [Page e ii] This is called directe lettȳg of blud: for it is done to auoyde abundāce of blud / and of suche humors as shulde be auoyded. The fyrst indirecte cause is the greatnes of ye disease / and greatnes of the ap­parent vehement inflāmacion: for as Galē saith / ther is no better medicine for an īpostume of vehement inflāmacion / feuers / & great ache / Gal. in cō men. illiu [...] apho. qu [...] egerunt. thā blud lettyng. The .ii. indirect cause is / that the mattier whiche must be auoyded / be drawen to y place frō whens it must be auoyded. And therfore in reten­cion of ye menstruous flixe & emeraudis / the great veyne in the [...]ote called sophena / must be opend / as Galen saith / to draw downe the mattier of ye blud. The .iij. indirect cause is / to drawe ye humours to the place contrary to that place that they flow to / to diuert the mattier frō yt place. Therfore / for to moche abūdance of mēstruosite / the veyne basilica must be let blud / to turne the mattier to ye cōtrary part / and so to voyde hit frō hit propre course. And therfore he yt hath a pluresie on his lyft syde / must be let blud on the right side / to diuert & drawe the mattier to the place cōtrarie to yt place that it inclineth to. And like wise if it be on ye right side / to let blud on the lyft. The .iiij. indirect cause is / that bi lettyng of blud one portion of the mattier may be auoyded / that nature may be the stronger vpon ye residue: and so lettyng of blud is holsome / whan ye body is ful / lest impostumes growe: for ye regimēt of nature is feble / ī regard of these humors: wher­fore a portion of ye mattier is voyded / lest through vnablenes of nature in gouernyng the mattier / ye [Page] mattier shuld flowe to som weake place and brede an impostume.

Fa [...] plagam largam mediocriter. vt cito fumus
Ex [...]at vberius / liberius (que) cruo [...].

Here thauctor sayth / yt the gashe made in lettyng o [...] blud / ought to be of a mean largenes / that the same & grosse blud may esily issue out: for whan ye gashe is straite / the pure blud onely goth out / and the grosse abith styl in. And note / yt somtyme the gashe must be great & somtyme small. The gashe must be great for .iii. causes. Fyrst / bicause the humours be grosse / and grosse blud must be voyded: as in them yt be melācoly. Secondly / in wynter ye gashe muste be great / for colde engrosseth the hu­mours. Thyrdly / for thabūdāce of humours / for they auoyde better by a great gashe than a small. But the gashe must be small / whan the ꝑsone is of weake strengthe / that the spiritis & naturall hete auoyde nat to moche: and lyke wise in a hotte sea­son / and whan the blud is pure.

Sanguine subtracto sex horis est vigilandum.
Ne somni fumus ledat sensibile corpus.
Ne neruum ledat non sit tibi plaga profunda.
Sanguine purgatus non carpas protinus escas.

Thre thynges must be consydred whā one is let blud. Fyrst / yt he slepe nat within .vi. houres after [...]est ye fumes engēdred by slepe ascēde to the heed & hurt ye brayne. There be other causes. Fyrst / lest he in slepe turne hym on the arme that is let blud and therby hurt hym. The .ii. is / lest ye humours by slepe flowe to ye peynful mēbre / by reason of the [Page e iii] incision / & so brede an impostume. For Galē saith / that if impostumes brede in ye body / or in a mēbre hurt: the humours flowe thervnto. But Auicen assigneth an other cause / that by suche slepe may chance cōfraction of the mēbres: The cause may be as Galen sayth / that slepe is vnholsome in the ague fyt: for natural hete goth inward / Gal. ii. a­pho. suꝑ il­lo. In quo &c. and ye out ward ꝑtis waxe colde / & ye fumes remayne vncon­sumed: wherby the rigour is augmented / and ye feuer fyt ꝓlonged. Also by mouyng of ye humours ī lettȳg of blud / fumes are reised vp to ye senowes and braunes of ye armes: whiche remaynyng vnconsumed / waxe colde in slepe / and ingrosse in the vtter partes. And therfore if one slepe īmediately after lettyng of blud / they cause confraction of the senowes and braunes of tharmes. Secondly / he sayth / that one in lettyng blud must beware / yt he make nat ye gashe to depe / lest he hurt a senowe or an arterie strynge vnder ye veyne: for hurtyng of a senowe causeth a mortal crampe / or losse of a mē bre / as an arme or a fynger: and hurt of an arteri strynge / causeth bledyng vncurable. The .iiij. is / one ought nat to eate īmediatly aft he is let blud / but he must tary tyll ye humors in hym be in qete / lest ye meate er hit be digested be drawen together with the blud / to succour the hurt membre.

Omnia de lacte vitabis rite minute.
Et vitet potum fleubothomatus homo.
Frigida vitabit. quia sunt inimica minutis.
Interdictus erit minutis nubilus aer.
Spiritus exultat minutis luce per auras.

[...] [Page f] subtile / & to rūne through out al the body / outcept the matter be furious. The .ii. is abūdance of the matt [...]er: for Galē sayth on ye aphorisme: Inchoan­tilus morbis. &c. yt it is than behoueful to be let blud / or take a medicine laxatiue / to alleuiate nature lo­ded with abūdance of mattier. The .iii. is great­nes & sharpenes of the sickenes / as whan there is a great & an acheful impostume / though the mat­tier be lyttel.Gal. xiii. [...] For Galē sayth: if the impostume be great / ye must let blud at the begynnyng though there be but lyttel mattier: lest it breke or open er it be rype: therfore to eschewe many incōueniēces blud lettyng must be done. [...] is so [...] ey­ther to [...] or deth [...] The .ii. rule is / yt blud lettȳg may nat be done on the day of mociō of the sickenes as in crisis) nor no other vacuacion nor diuertyng of mattier frō the place that nature sendeth it to. Nor like wise in the ague fyt. For Galen sayth .i. aph. that whā the sickenes is in hit estate neyther blud lettyng nor laxatiue shulde be done: for than the matter rypeth / whiche rypeth better by quietnes tha [...] [...]rryng. The .iii. rule is / yt let­tyng of blud shuld nat be done in begȳnyng of the sickenes / whan crisis is remoued: for Isaac saith in his boke of vrins / that though the hart be the engēdrer of the blud & spiritis / yet the blud is fundaciō of natural hete / & susteyneth hit: for hete is naturally therof engendred: and therfore one voydyng blud voydeth hete: whiche shulde digest the mattier of the sickenes: and so cōsequently the sickenes is prolōged / & strengthe weaked. And ther­fore hit is to drede / lest through lengthynge of the [Page] sickenes / and weakyng of ye strēgthe / nature shuld fayle. The .iiii. rule is / that ye body hauyng dreg­ges or filth ī the guttis / shuld nat be let blud. The cause is: there be .iii. thȳges yt draw to them / hete emptynes / & all the shap: nowe the veynes ēpted by lettyng of blud / dawe to them frō the next mē ­bres / as the guttis & stomake / wherby yt bealy is indurated / & the mattier in the veynes more infe­cted: the miseraike draweth the humidites of the ordeurs / & the ordeurs are dried the more: therfor ye must fyrst mollifie the bealy with clisters or suppositories / except it waxe laxatiue alone. The .v. rule is / That lettyng of blud shulde nat be moche vsed: for by oft vsyng therof / one waxyng olde / falleth in to dyuers diseases / as epilencie / apoplexie / and palsey: for by remouyng of ye blud & hete / many flematike suꝑfluites are engendred / that cause these diseases. The .vi. rule is / that a woman mē ­struate / or with childe shuld nat be let blud. A wo­mā with childe shuld nat / for therby the hete that digesteth meate is dimin [...] and the foode of yt that she goth with / taken away: specially whan it that she goth with waxeth great / for thā it nedeth more foode. This sayth Hippocrates .v. aph. whā the menstruosite kepeth due curse & voydeth naturally inough / lettȳg of blud shuld nat be done / but whan it voydeth to moche / than to diuert the mattier it must be done: for nature wolde nat be let of her operacion. The .vii. rule is / that after the colerike passion one shuld nat be let blud: for bi reason that lettyng of blud sturreth vp the humors / a co­lerike [Page] on the right side of the body stādeth ye mēbre that engendreth blud / that is the lyuer: and the recep­tacle of coler / the galle. Autūne engēdreth melan­coly / whiche is gethered to gether / & nat resolued by wenter: therfore in ver̄ and wynter / those vey­nes shuld be let blud / in whiche melācoly hath do­minion / whiche be the lyft side veynes: for ye splen is on the lyft syde of the body / whiche is the recep­tacle of melācoly. Secondly he sayth yt these .iiii. mēbres / the heed / the hart / the fote / and the lyuer after the .iiii. seasons of the yere / must be empted: the hart in ver̄ / the lyuer in somer / the heed ī wynter / and the fote in autumne.

Dat saluatella tibi plurima dona minuta.
Purgat epar / splenem / pectus / precordia / vocem.
Innaturalem tollit de corde dolorem.

Here he toucheth .vi. cōmodites that come by let­tyng blud of the vey [...]e called saluatella. hit is the veyne on the backe of ye hāde / betwene ye myddyll fynger & rynge fynger. Fyrst / it purgeth ye lyuer / Secōdly it clēset [...] [...]ene. Thyrdly it mūdifieth the breast. Fourthly hit preserueth the stomakes mouthe frō hurt. Fyftly hit doth away hurt of ye voyce. Sixtly / hit doth away vnnaturall ache of the hart. The reason of all these cōmodites is / bi­cause the forsayd veyne auoydeth blud frō al these places / as after it shall appere. For a more ample declaracion hit is to witte / that in lettyng of blud / other while the veynes be opend / and somtyme ye arteries. The openȳg of the arterie is dāgerous: the chiefe cause hereof is the ouermoche bledyng: [Page] whiche is caused .ii. ways. One is through feruēt hete of the arterie blud. for a hotte thyng is soone mouable / & delateth & openeth ye arterie: and therfore hit helpeth moche / to voyde ye blud in lettyng blud the arterie. The .ii. cause is mobilite of ye ar­terie: and therfore the woūde or gashe in it is slowlier healed: for woūdes without rest can nat heale. Yet this lettȳg of blud is holsome .iii. maner wise. Fyrst / whan there is abūdāce of subtile blud ī the body. Secōdly whan ye blud is vaporous. Third­ly whan it is hotte. For subtile blud / of whiche natural blud & spiritis be engēdred / resteth in the ar­terie: but grosse blud that norisheth the mēbres / resteth in the veynes. Lyke wyse vaporous blud is cōteyned in the arterie / & sanguine blud in the veynes. Also the hottest blud / whiche of the harte the hottest mēbre is engēdred & digested / is cōtey­ned in ye arterie / & the other b [...]d ī the veynes. Secōdly note / ye veynes are opend in many mēbres / somtyme in ye arme / or in the great hāde or small / somtyme ī the fote / somtym [...] [...] nose / in the for­heed / in the lyppes / somtyme vnder the tonge or ī the ruffe of the mouthe / somtyme in the corners of the eies toward the forheed. Frō the arme pyt to the elbowe are .v. veynes to be opend / as Rasis & Auicen say: One is called cephalica / whiche is the heed veyne: the .ii. is called basilica / whiche is the liuer veyne. The .iii. is mediana or cardiana or nigra after Auicen / or matrix after Rasis. The .iiii. is as­sellaris. The .v. is funis brachii. In the lesse hāde is saluatella: so that in the arme / in that it cōteyneth [Page] the more and lesse hāde / are .vi. veynes to be opēd. Cephalica empteth the partis aboue the necke: and therfore to open hit is good for diseasis of ye heed / ye megrym & other hotte grefes / or caused of hotte mattier. This veyne begynneth at the shulder / & goth forth toward the lyft syde of the arme. Basi­lica empteth the partes vnder the necke / as frō ye breaste & lyuer: and therfore lettyng blud of this veyne is holsome for diseases of the breast & lyuer / and right good in a pluresy. This veyne begyn­neth at the arme hole / and goth alōge to the bow­yng of the arme. Mediana is betwene these .ii. said veines / & is cōpact of them both: for it is ye brāche of eche. And it is eke median in vacuation: for it voydeth frō al about / vnder / frō / & aboue ye necke. Wherfore it is the vniuersall veyne to all the body in voydyng: nat vniuersall (as some say) bicause it begynneth at ye [...] ▪ but bicause it is ye brāche of cephalica and basilica. Therfore if ye wold let ce­phalica blud / and it appereth nat: ye shuld rather take mediana tha [...] [...]ica. And like wise if ye wold let basilica blud / & it appereth nat / ye shulde rather minishe mediana than cephalica: for it agreeth bet­ter to bothe / than one of them with the other. Sal­uatella is the veyne betwene ye myddell and rynge fynger / more declynyng to ye myddell fynger. Hit begynneth of basilica. This veyne is opend in the right hāde for opilacion of the lyuer / and in ye lyft hāde for opilaciō of the splene. There is no reason why it shuld be so as Auicen sayth / but experiēce: whiche Galen foūde by a dreame as he sayth: He [Page] had one in cure / whose lyuer & splene were stopte / and he dreamed to let hym blud of this veyne / & so he dyd / and cured the pacient. This veyne is let blud / puttyng ye hāde in warme water / to engros and dilate it / bicause it is subtile: and yt the gashe shulde nat close to soone / and to make ye grosse blud thynne. Assellaris is vnder basilica / and appereth ī byndyng the arme: and like iugemēt is of it as of basilica. Funis brachii is ouer cephalica / orels the hyndermost bone: and is of one iugemēt with cephali­ca. Therfore as Auicē & Galen say / though in ope­nyng of veynes / be vniuersal vacuacion of all the body: yet nat frō al veynes egally: nor like ieoꝑdy is nat in all. For Rasis sayth cephalica is ye surer / & basilica more to be feared: and cardiaca is to feare / but nat so moche as basilica. Cephalica is surest: for there is neyther senow [...] aboue nor dnder hit: but vnder cardiaca is a [...]owe: and vpper a­boue it is a subtile senowe: therfore hit is to feare lest it shuld be cutte. Basilica is [...] ieoꝑdous: for vnder it is an artery / & nere [...] [...]now & a muscul. Saluatella is nat ieoꝑdous: and therfore ye bett to open it / it wold be put in warme water. In ye fote be .iii. veynes / sciatica / sophena / & the hāme veyne. These be opend whan we woll draw the blud to ye lower ꝑtis / as in prouokyng mēstruosite: and the hāme veyne is better than sophena or sciatica / for it is nerer the matrice. Sophena draweth blud frō ye yard / coddis / & matrice: and sciatica frō the ancles raynes / and other mēbres toward mans lyft side. sophena frō the matrice & mēbres there about / tho [Page] they be branches of one veyne. In the myddis of the forheed is a veyne / whiche is opend for old dis­easis of the face / as morpheu / drie scurfe & scabbe. & for disesis of the eies: but fyrst cephalica must be minished. There is like wise a veyne in the nose / & in openyng of eche the necke must be boūde / & one opend after an other: & by byndyng the necke they wyl better appere. There be veynes in the lippes whiche be opend for īpostumes ī the mouthe or gō mes: but cephalica is first minished. The .4. veines ī the ruffe of the mouth opēd / auayle agaynst reumes flowyng to the tethe / & causyng them to ake. These veynes apere playnly / & must be opēd whā the mattier is digested. There be veynes ī the corners of the eies / toward the forhed / & they be opēd for disesis of the eies / cephalica fyrst minished. Also there be veynes vnder [...]he tonge / whiche are let blud for the swynal [...] [...]ephalica fyrst minished. The veynes in the timpu [...]s be let blud for the megrym and for great & [...] heed ache. And those be the veynes / yt Hippo [...] & Galen call iuueniles: the incision of whiche maketh a mā vnable to get children. Also ī the necke be veynes / called guides: whiche must be opend in the begynnyng of lepre: and specially for stoppyng of the wynd pipes / & in the swynacy / whiche letteth one to drawe his breath.

Si dolor est capitis ex potu limpha bibatur.
Ex potu nimio nam febris acuta creatur.
Si vertex capitis vel frons estu tribulentur.
Timpora frons (que) simul moderate sepe fricentur.
Morella cocta necnon calida (que) lauentur

[Page]Here thauctor noteth .ii. thynges. Fyrst / A medicine for the heedach caused by drīkyng if heed­ache come by to moche drȳkyng specially of wyne / or of any other drȳke / yt maketh folkes drōke: one must drynke cold wat vpō it: whiche with it cold­nes ingrosseth the fumes lifted vp / & letteth them to hurt the brayne. The .ii. is / that if the toppe of the heed or forheed be greued with to moche hete: than the tympuls shulde be moderately chafed / & after washed with warme water that moderwort is sodde in: for motherworte is colde and cooleth.

Temporis estiui ieiunia corpora siceant.
Quolibet in mense confert vomitus quo (que) purgat
Humores nocuos / stomachi lauant ambitus omnis.
Ver / autumnus / hyems / estas dominatur in anno.
Tempore vernali calidus fit aer humidus (que).
Et nullum tempus melius sit fleubothomie.
Vsus tunc homini veneris co [...]ert moderatus.
Corporis et motus. ventris (que) [...] ▪ sudor.
Balnea purgantur tunc corpora medicinis.
Estas more cale siccat nascatur [...]
Tunc quo (que) precipue coleram [...] dominari.
Humida frigida fercula dentur. sit Venus extra.
Balnea non prosunt. sit rare fleubothomie.
Vtilis est requies. sit cum moderamine potus.

Here thauctor noteth dyuers thynges. Fyrste / yt moche fastynge in sommer drieth the body: for in that that somer of hit nature is hotte and drye / it [...]esolueth the humours: the whiche also be resol­ued by oft sweatȳg in somer: & so fastyng thervpō drieth ye body moche more: for whā the humidite of meate is gone / ye hete of ye body worketh on hit [Page] owne humidites / drieng them vp. Wherfore Hip­pocrates sayth: Hūger is expediēt for those / yt are very moyst: for hūger drieth the body. The .ii. is: that vometyng ones a moneth is holsom: for therby hurtfull humours / conteyned in all the circute of the stomake are voyded. To this agreeth Aui­cē / Hip. [...]. ꝑt. [...]. sayeng: Hippocrates byddeth one vomete eche moneth twyse .ii. dayes one after an other / that ye ii. day may auoyde it that the fyrst day cōude nat: this conserueth helth / scouryng the stomake from fleme & coler. The stomake hath nothȳg to purge it / as the guttis haue red coler. Auicen putteth o­ther profites of vometyng well done. Fyrste hit is good for heed ache / caused by moyst vaporoꝰ mat­tier ascendyng frō the stomake to the heed: but if heed ache come of hit owne hurt of ye brayne / thā vometyng doth [...] hurt thā ꝓfite. Secōdly it clereth the syght [...]rke [...] by vaporous mattier of the stamake / orels nat. The .iii. is / hit doth away wamblyng cau [...] [...] [...]make / in auoydyng the hu­mour that [...]. The .iiii. is / hit comforteth the stomake / in to the whiche coler is descended / ye whiche corrupteth the meate. The .v. is / hit doth away lothyng or aborryng of meate. The .vi. is / hit doth away the cause / that maketh one haue a luste to sharpe / ponticke / and sower thynges: the whiche cause of these disposicions remoued / put­teth awaye the effecte therof. The .vii. is / vome­tynge is holsome for the laske that cometh before the dropsy: for hit auoydeth the mattier of ye sayd laske / and purgeth the stomake. The .viii. is / hit [Page] is holsome for the grefes in the raynes and blad­der: for the mattier flowynge to these partes / hit diuerteth an other way. The .ix. is / if vometyng be done by constraynt of elborie / hit auoydeth the mattier / wherof lepre groweth: hit amendeth the fyrst digestion / that the other digestions may the better be done. The .x. is / hit maketh one to haue a good colour. The .xi. is / hit purgeth ye stomake of a humour / that causeth epilencie. The .xii. is / by stronge constraynt hit remoueth a stoppynge mattier / ye whiche causeth ictericie: And like wise hit auoydeth a flematike mattier / whiche comon­ly is cause of this stoppyng. The .xiii. is / hit auoydeth the mattier that causeth asma: the whiche is a disese causȳg one to draw his breath peynfully: and eke hit comforteth the spiritall membres / by whose hete / the superflu [...] causynge asma / are consumed. The .xiiii. is / hit [...] [...]lsome agaynste shakyng and palsey: for hit auoy [...]h the mattier that is cause therof. The .xv is [...]s holsom for one that hath great blacke sore [...] his lower partes: for hit turneth the humours away frō thēce. Al though vometyng duely & wel done be cause of these cōmodites: yet whan it is vnduely done / hit induceth many hurtes: for it febleth the stomake and maketh it apte for mattiers to flowe into / hit hurteth the breast / the syght / the tethe / olde heed ache. &c. as Auicen sayth .iiii.i. cap. xiiii. The .iii. thynge that is noted in the texte is / that there be foure seasons of the yere / ver̄ / somer / autumpne / & wynter. Ver̄ in respect of other seasons / is hotte [Page] and moyste / though hit be temperate in it selfe / as Galen sayth in his boke of complexions: wherof hit foloweth / yt this season is more apte to let blud in than the other: for hit dothe more encreace hu­mours. And therfore in this season moderate vse of carnal copulacion / tēperate mociō / laske / flixe / and swette / is conuenient: and like wise tēperate bathyng to diminishe repleciō. This season is eke good to take purgaciōs in. The .iiii. is / somer he­teth and drieth: and therfore hit encreaseth redde coler / hotte and drye. And for this cause in somer we must fede on colde moyst meates / to diminishe the feruentnes of hete and drought: and than we must absteyn [...] from carnal copulacion / whiche al­so drieth: and frō oft bathyng / and be let blud sel­dome / for like cause. We must vse quietnes and lyttell mocion: for [...] [...]s doth moyste / and moche mocion dryeth [...] [...]is season in speciall we must vse moderate [...] [...] drynke: for suꝑfluous dryn­kyng of cold [...] [...]nke / by reason that the pores be open / doth ma [...] [...]e body sodaynly a colde / or cau­sethe the palsey / or laxite of the membres / orels sodayne dethe: From the whiche he defende vs / that lyueth and reigneth eternally. Amen.


Thus endeth the regimēt of helthe. Imprinted at London in Fletestrete / in the house of Thomas Berthelet / nere to ye cūdite / at ye signe of Lucrece.

Anno domini. 1528. mense Augusto·

Cum priuilegio a rege indulto.

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