OPIOLOGIA. OR, A Treatise concerning the Nature, properties, true preparation and safe vse and Administrati­on of Opium.

For the comfort and ease of all such persons as are inwardly afflicted with any extreame griefe, or lan­guishing paine, especially such as depriue the body of all naturall rest, and can be cured by no other meanes or Medicine whatsoeuer.

Dedicated to the Illustrious, High and Mighty Lords, the Estates generall of the vnited Prouinces in the Netherlands.

By ANGELVS SALA VINCENTINVS VENETVS. And Done into English, and something inlarged by THO. BRETNOR. M. M.

LONDON, Printed by NICHOLAS OKES. 1618.

To the Learned, and my worthily respected friends, D. BONHAM, and Maister NICHOLAS CARTER Physitions.

BEE not offended, worthie Doctor, if I presume to pa­rallel you with a Physition, which netther is nor wilbe dubbed Doct. for any mans pleasure, nor cares a whit for any clothing in Bysse, how worthy soe [...]er. For the which I blame him the lesse, sithence nei­ther Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Galen, Auicen, nor any other of the old stampe euer assumed any such title, though better giuen them. But tempora mutantur, and therefore now adaies for distinction and decorum sake it is very conuenient [Page] and necessarie to giue such attributes, especially to men indowed with so excel­lent a qualitie as the true knowledge of Physicke, and guift of healing is. But how vilely this worthie Science and profession is traduced and abused! Witnesse the mul­titude of Mounte-bankes, Quack-saluers, Horse-leaches, Cunning-women, Imposters and Vpstarts, who hauing learned (my chance) the Calcining of Mercurie, the preparation of Antimony, or the compo­sition of some home-spun medicine, and hauing scraped together some triuiall ex­periments out of some old Manuscripts, or from some brazen-fac't Bragadotio, will presently forsooth set the Physition at open defiance, boasting and protesting that they haue saued the life of twentie, whom such and such a Physition had quite forsaken and giuen ouer for dead. Nay I haue heard a good fellow (I will not say a Pharmaco­paean, and that no simple one neither) bouldly affirme that if hee should not now and then adde or diminish something from the Physitions Bill, the fat were in the [Page] fire, and twere as much as the Patients life were worth, aggrauating the matter in such manner that my very eares haue glowed to heare it, seeing that by this their scandalous detraction, they arrogate to themselues and impose vpon the simple people, bringing them into fooles para­dise! But the Physitions are well enough serued, for if they would expulse one packe of these, snaffle another, and take a little paines with Fernelius, to prepare or see prepared their principall Medicines, and not to be so idle as to giue too much credit to the Druggist, nor let each giddie-headed fellow be partaker of their secrets, it were doubtlesse better for the Common wealth, more profitable vnto themselues, and more pleasing vnto God: but of this inough. There resteth nothing now (my worthy friends) but that you would vouchsafe to stand betwixt me and such malicious de­tractors; for if they dare baspheme the tall Cedars, what will they not doe vnto the lower shrubs. The subiect of this trea­tise is so well knowne vnto you, that how­soeuer [Page] some nice and scrupulous persons may make question of the veritie of the passages, or of the safetie and excellencie of the medicine, you are so well instructed in the composition and vertue thereof, that no wise man will oppose you, some may imagine that I might haue made better choice of some famous and remarkable Collegians for my patrons, but vnto you onely, and vnto that worthie Doctor Gwin am I obliged, whose multiplicity of lear­ning, iudgement and discretion, accompa­nied with affabilitie, humanitie and cur­tesie is more then apparantly knowne to all your acquaintance; Let me therefore craue this boone at your hands, that you would accept this simple translation as a testimo­ny of my louing remēbrance towards you, and that you would defend it from the ob­trectations of scandalous tongues, and you shall euer make mee

Yours, THO. BRETNOR.

To the ingenious and indif­ferent Reader.

THE cause moouing mee (curteous Reader) to trās­late and publish this smal Pamphlet, was not onely the scarsitie of the French Copies, but the especiall want of such a Treatise in our owne mother-tongue: for not onely the rude multitude and men of some iudgement through vaine delusion and superstitious feare, but many Physitions themselues through a Galenicall perswasion, make no small question and scruple whether Opium may bee taken inwardly or not; Nay, I haue knowen men of good discretion so farre infatuated by conceipt and [Page] heare say as they haue rather chosen to indure intollerable paines then they would take three poore graines of well prepared Laudanum: but I cannot greatly blame them, for the naked truth is, many moderne Physitions know not well what to make of it. Forestus Mon­tanus and many others with Galen ab­solutely conclude, that it is stupefying and cold in the fourth degree at least, and therefore not fit to be inwardly ta­ken at all, but in Syncopes and ex­treame necessitie; Mercatus is indiffe­rent. Capiuaccius is forced by com­mon experience to grant with Auicen, that for its foure degrees of coldnesse it is furnished with three of heate in operation.

But Platerus, Bauhinus, Zwingerus, Scaliger, Quercitanus and others affirme with Rhasis, that Opium is rather hot then cold, seeing that in tasting there­of it doth Palatum & linguam vrere, caput tentare, Sudorem prouocare, vene­rem promouere, sitim excitare, pruritum [Page] insignem parere, animositatem fi [...]e potius furorem inducere, and being outwardly applied doth (contrarie to all cold things) blister the skinne, discusse and mollifie hard tumors and nodes. But whether it bee hot or cold it skils not much, seeing it is confessed of all true Physitions, that it doth ex forma speci­fica, naturally resist putrefaction and wonderfully and speedily release the bodie from intollerable paines: for, let the torments or griefe proceed from what cause soeuer, either hot or cold, inward or outward it worketh the same effects, so that this onely Me­dicine well prepared would doubtlesse saue many thousand mens liues that trauaile or faile, sub aequatore vel polo Arctico, into the East Indies or Nor­therne discoueries, vnder the hottest or coldest climes in the world, seeing it resembles much the oyle of Vitrioll, Vinegar, Chymicall salts and such like, which are giuen with good successe as well in cold as hot diseases: but what [Page] needs many words seeing the Author himselfe hath sufficiently discouered the benefit hereof, I onely wish you to haue great regard to its preparation: for as in most Physicall Drugges there remaineth some bad qualitie or other which needeth correction, so doth Opium require Vulcans helpe, and other specificall meanes to driue away its sulphurous malignitie: you may read in Quercetane his answere to Anonimus Cap. 2. and in Sennertus his Institutions Lib. 5. part. 3. Sect. 2. Cap. 1. that the an­cient fathers of Physicke made their chiefest Medicines with their owne hands, and intituled them after their owne names, which many retaine to this day, but now the case is altered; The Merchant he will haue his Factor, his Casher and his Broker too, the Grocer his Garbler, the Vintner his Cooper, the Gold-smith his Forger, the Draper his Cloath-worker and Drawer too, the Physition his Apothe­carie, The Apothecarie his Druggist [Page] and his Workeman too: for few of them make all their owne Medicines. In briefe Iohn wilbe a Gentleman at least. But me thinkes, the life of man (so pretious a thing in the sight of God) should not be so little esteemed of as I feare it is in posting ouer hither and thither, I would be loath to be mi­staken, or haue any man thinke I goe a­bout to correct magnificat, or teach others hauing neede of instruction my selfe, but ingeniously (as any conscio­nable man ought) declare my opinion, and to let the friendly Reader know how hee may bee abused if hee looke not about him; for mine owne part, I wilbe so bold, if able, as to prepare the chiefest Physicke I vse my selfe, and for the Medicine handled in this booke, they may haue it well don of my friend Harbert Whitfield in Newgate-Market, of Maister Bromhall, who hath confer­red with the Author and some others, no doubt about this towne. And so in­treating [Page] thy gentle patience for these rude lines, and thy kinde acceptance of this homely translation while better is abree­ding, I euer rest,

Studious of thy health, THO. BRETNOR.

The Authour his Preface to the Reader.

I Make no question (Curteous Reader) but as soone as this little Pamphlet shall come abroade, there wilbe some which will pre­sently beginne to taxe mee; saying, what fellow is this Sala? will hee (like a Master) teach vs what Opium is, and how wee should pre­pare an excellent Medicine thereof called Lauda­num, which will presently appease all griefes of the bodie, extinguish all extreame heates in Feuers, stay all Fluxes of the belly, pro [...]oke quiet rest to the diseased, &c. are not these onely two things, the one whereof hath beene disclosed to the world ma­ny ages agoe, the other reuealed to vs of late by sundry moderne Physitions, so that wee stand not in need of his instructions, hee might well inough haue spared his breath, to haue cooled his pot­tage.

To whom I answere first (concerning the na­turall propertie of Opium) by demanding of them [Page] what ancient Physition was there euer, who hath written of, or declared the nature and vse of this Medicine so well, or so amply giuen such in­fallible and true reasons of its vertue and energie, but there may remaine some gap open, or some sub­iect or other to worke vpon, wherein they may bee controuled, and whereto or from whence a man may adde or diminish something more or lesse: beleeue me (I thinke) they would haue much adoe to finde me such an Author; for if it were so, to what ende should they dispute so often in their publike Aca­demies and priuate consultations of the naturall qualities of Opium? were it not a notable argu­ment of vaine curiositie rather then of solid iudge­ment or discretion to dispute against a doctrine al­ready reduced into necessary and irreproueable Maximes as they imagine? But the naked truth is, that the vse of Opium is yet doubtfull among the greatest part of Physitions: which being gran­ted, I know no reason but that if it bee lawfull for an other to argue and dispute of many things be­side the common conceipt and apprehension of the Ancient: it cannot be accompted idlenesse or va­ni [...]ie in me to vtter my opinion also being grounded vpon rationall termes, and agreeable to the au­thoritie as well of ancient and moderne Sages as mine owne peculiar experience and obseruations, collected and gathered for the instruction and be­nefit of such onely as shall haue occasion to make [Page] good vse of them, not taking vpon me in this tract or any other to teach any man; much lesse those which thinke they know already much more then my selfe.

Secondly (concerning that obiection that diuers Physitions haue written and made mention alrea­dy of the Chymicall preparation of Opium as a principall ingredience into that excellent Medicine called Laudanum) I deny not their assertion, but rather rely vpon their authoritie, and am partly satisfied with such things as they haue already di­vulged, as may appeare hereafter, yet notwithstan­ding the whole world can beare mee witnesse that neither Laudanum nor the vse thereof haue beene things commonly knowne; for it is a thing most certaine, that among a hundred Physitions and Practitioners in Europe, a man can hardly finde fiftie that will take paines to read ouer the workes of Paracelfus, or any other Spagitique which hath written of this subiect; much lesse can the thing it selfe bee common or familiar vnto them: among those fiftie a manshall hardly finde twentie which make vse of it: among those twentie it were strange to finde ten which are able to pre­pare it with their owne hands, and among those ten it were rare to finde three which durst freely pub­lish or manifest its vertues to the world, or propound the vse thereof in their priuate and particular consultations for the benefit of the diseased; or [Page] maintaine the same for such a soueraigne thing as it is indeed.

I am very well assured that although the most part of our Physitions here at the Hage doe sometimes make vse of this Medicine, yet a man may trauaile into a hundred Cities in Christendon [...] where the Physitions neither vse it nor make any more accompt of it then of a thing altogether strange vnknowne and of no vse in the world.

Furthermore, if we come to a popular examina­tion thereof, I am perswaded that in this very Ci­tie (notwithstanding the aforesayd) among a thou­sand men and women which know the name and vse of Treakle, Mithridate and other ordinary Medicinall compositions, and can apply them to their best vse and behoofe when they are diseased or sicke, yet a man can hardly find twentie of them which haue once in their liues heard one speake of Laudanum, the knowledge whereof no question had beene as requisite and necessarie as of either of the aforenamed. What great matter is it then if Iames, Martin, Francis, &c. knew what Laudanum is, and the vse thereof, when so many thousand men know nothing at all, many of them in the meane time languishing and complayning of extreame paines and want of sleepe euen to death, and can finde no ease at all, vnlesse by meanes of this ex­cellent and pretious secret, or such like: Well then, Let vs put the case that this my Treatise were [Page] good for nothing else but to inlarge and make knowne the name of Laudanum among the rude multitude to giue them occasion (when time and oportunitie shall serue) to inquire and de­maund for it of their Physitions, or of others which shall haue the same by them, whereby they may be assisted and fortified against sundry daunge­rous accidents which by no other meanes can be so qu [...]ckely, safely or easily auoyded; so that if it were for no other reason then this, my labours (me thinkes) were not vnworthie regard; but the pro­fit which may redound to many persons by this dis­couery is not small, as the discreet Reader may easily perceiue hereafter. To conclude with the common prouerbe, As hee cannot spit sweete whose throat is full of gall, no more can such as are stuffed with their owne passions (thinking themselues onely wise) euer speake well, or com­mend others labour or knowledge then their owne, yet notwithstanding, neither these nor any other obstacles whatsoeuer, either ought or can hinder the good will and entire affection of him which de­si [...]eth the aduancement of Art to Gods glorie, the benefit of his neighbour and his owne priuate ioy and contentment. [Page] Whether Chymicall Medicines in gene­rall are more violent and dangerous then other ordinarie Medicines are; and whether in respect thereof a man may lawfully administer them except in de­sperate diseases onely as some imagne?

A man shall finde some Physitions in the world which (hauing no skill in Chymicall art) being de­manded of their patients and other people, what they imagine and thinke of Chymicall Medicines and their vse ingenerall, will not altogether blame and reprooue them (as not long since many d [...]d) but in answering perhaps will say, the Medicines are ind [...]f­ferent good, but are alwaies more violent and dan­gerous in their operations then other ordinarie Medicines are, in regard whereof they ought not to be vsed but in desperate d [...]seases onely.

Therfore before we speake any more of Opium, or the Chymicall preparation thereof (for the bet­ter purging of chymicall Medicines and such as vse them from suspition and blame) I thinke it fit­test to resolue this question on this fashion.

First, it may bee easily perceiued, that these Learned M. M. by this maner of answering fall into a double error, and are therefore worthily taxed in two principall points which makes their consequence vnsauery and idle. First, that they [Page] iudge and censure of things whereof they haue no skill, nor exact experience at all, so that what they answere in this point, is either by some vaine con­iecture, blind tradition, or idle report; secondly, by making no distinction betweene generall and par­ticular, they condemne all Chymicall Medicines without exception to be such as a foresaid.

But leauing to reproue the former of these two points, as a thing exploded by each discreet mans conceipt, let vs insist a little to confute the later: in pro [...]ing that they wrongfully impose violence and churl [...]shnesse to chymicall Medicines, seeing that vnder this generalitie they doe not only con­demne those excellent Vomiteries and Cathar­tickes of Antimonie and Mercurie, but also all other kinde of Vomitiues, both meane and gen­tle, all kind of Vegetable, Deiectories or Purga­tiues from the strongest to the weakest, euen from Scammonie to Aloes and so the very Rose, as also all other formes and degrees of Medicines, whether they be Diaphoreticke, Diureticke, Vulnerarie, Be [...]oardicke, Cordiall, Anodyne, Somniferous, Roborating or Specifically ap­prop [...]i [...]tted to diuers parts of the bodie, or resisting diseases of diuers natures, and finally all other kind of wholesome and necessary Medicines, vsed gene­rally as wel among the Spag [...]riques as other ordina­ry Physitions, differing only in maner of their com­position and preparation.

[Page]Hereby you may at first dash perceiue that if they would speake any thing against the vehemence which may subsist in any Chymicall Medicine whatsoeuer, they should change this generall enun­tiation into a more particular, and say, among Chymicall Medicines there be some which be vehement and not to say absolutely and generally that all Chymicall Medicines are so in perfor­mance whereof we will do them right, and presently draw them to confesse that wee onely haue not some vehement and churlish medicines, but that they themselues also haue the like, no man can deny.

Seeing therefore we accord in this (as wee can­not choose) if they will further aggrauate the for­mer accusation, they must of necessitie prooue that chymicall medicines of a vehement nature are more churlish and daungerous then their ordi­nary Medicines of the same nature are, as al­so that their milde and gentle Physicke Chymical­ly prepared, becommeth more dangerous then be­fore, but (alas good men) they can proue no such matter.

For primarily touching those Chymicall Medi­cines, which they pretend to be vehement (as those of Antimonie and Mercurie vomitiue) there is no question made among vnderstanding Physitions (besides daily experience) that being compared with those vehement vomits which the auncien [...] Physitions haue prescribed, as those of white Hel­lebore, [Page] Tythimalls, Spurges, &c. they would bee found as gentle and familiar in their operations, a [...] Sena and Rheubarbe are in comparison of Scam­monie, Colocynthis, and other vehement and alt [...] ­ratiue purgatiues.

And furthermore, if they should say that they neither vse white Hellebore, nor Tithymalls in re­gard of their venemous proprieties, or because they are found daungerous in working, this is the thing wee looke for at their hands, for they can ne­uer make it appeare, that either Antimony or Mercurie well prepared cause any such Sympto­mes in the bodie as these doe: or if they esteeme it a thing fit and requisite to desist from the instituti­ons of ancient Physitions, exploding the vse of such Medicines which they finde to be daungerous; we thinke it far [...]e more rationall on the other part, (obseruing the main end of the foresaid intentions, and so cutting off quite the vsage of euill things,) to appoint and ordaine in their roome such as are more gentle and familiar.

Here they may finde fault (but nothing to the purpose) and say that they custome to make sicke people to vomit is very daungerus, and therefore to that intent they ought to vse no Med [...]cine at all▪ &c. But hauing sufficiently answered this obiection, and proued the contrarie in my Trea­tise intituled Emetologia, concerning the nature and vse of vomitiue Medicines, I thinke it [Page] needlesse to repeate the same in this place.

If notwithstanding what is said these M. M. persist in their opinio [...], saying that Antimonie and Mercurie, are Medicines not so free from Maligne qualitie as I pretend, but that that they in-here and cleaue to the guts, and leaue some se­cret infection in the blood or Radicall humours, the which in continuance of times comes to mani­fest it selfe. And these are those common nui­sances which many obiect, thinking thereby to drawe mens, affections after their owne fan­tasies.

But this vaine opinion is quickely confuted by plaine and euident demonstration when they please, for most men which take either Antimonie or Mercurie well prepared, evacuate or cast the same out into the vessell, whereinto they vomit euen at the very first operation of the Medicine either vpward, or downeward, so that it hath beene often found in the excrements, when nature did worke that way first, as sometimes it falleth out.

Secondly, these (being mettallicke and fixed bo­dies) cannot bee concocted, or brought into chyle or naturall nutriment by any meanes, whence it con­sequently followeth that they cannot intermixe themselues with the blood, or any other substance of the bodie, as all other vegetable and animall Medicines may easily doe, in regard of that Sym­bolization [Page] they haue with the foresaid substances, so that the stomacke may reduce them into chyle at pleasure, which is the cause also that the poysons of euill plants, serpents and other venemous crea­tures are more actiue, sodaine and piercing then Arsink it selfe or Realgar minerall.

I could produce a number of other reasons to demonstrate that Chymicall Medicines of a vehe­ment nature, as principally the two before named (against which all this controuersie doth particu­larly arise) are more gentle then any violent vo­mitiue Medicine which our Ancients prescribed, yea farre more safe then any vomitorie vnder Hel­lebore or any aboue named: but to auoide long discourse let these suffice at this time.

Now let vs come to resolue our selues whether those ordinarie Medicines which be naturally gen­tle and without any offensiue qualitie, after chymi­call preparation change their naturall mildenesse, into that which is euill, and so become vehement and dangerous.

Concerning which point wee haue in this dis­course alreadie spoken some thing in defence of purgatiue Medicines, as those of more frequent vse then others among diseased persons, and therefore wilbe contented to determine the whole matter in the generall defence of Diaphoretickes, Diu­reticks, Alexiteries, &c. chymically prepared.

First, therefore it must of necessity be granted of [Page] all opponents that euery Medicine ingenerall be­reaued of its earthinesse and seculencie▪ and made pure cleane and well digested by fire must of conse­quence be lesse hurtfull, lesse dangerous, and lesse offensiue, and is also farre more apt to worke, ci [...]ò­tutò & miundè (as the Physitions wish) then any crude, earthie, impure or ill prepared Medicine may or can doe by any meanes' possible; the reason is, that when such ill-prepared stuffe is once gotten into the stomacke of any diseased person, nature (al­readie strugling against the disease) becommeth thereby more wearied, ouer-cloyed and oppressed in concocting and seperating the pu [...]enesse from the impurenesse of such drugges then it was before, and therefore can receiue very little or no comfort at all by such Medicines, whereas on the contrary part other medicines (made subtill, actiue, pure and well prepared by art) doe begin to disperce and dilate themselues gently into all parts of the bodie as soone as they are receiued thereinto, and being neuer so little exagitated or moued by naturall heate assist nature her selfe without any alteration or distur­bance at all, and like a good friend aide and pro­mone her; whereas the other wearieth and tor­menteth the body like a Tyrant. Moreouer wee may consider that Chymicall Medicines being pure and neate, as aforesaid, leaue no feculent resi­dence or corruption in the bodie at all, as others commonly doe.

[Page]But if it commeth to passe (as it is not vnlikely) that some should deny these reasons, obiecting that Chymicall Medicines being subtill and pure, can more easily disturbe nature, and moue the body more sodainely then other Medicines do; to whom we answere, that although among our Chymicall Medicines, there bee some of a subtill Nature, as our distilled oyles, the quintessence of wine, and other vegetables: and as there be diuers liquors (we acknowledge) very sharpe and piercing; so in like manner be there some diseases, wherein such Medicines be very requisite and necessary, where­as others of a crosse, seculent, and clammy substance can yeeld no ease or comfort at all; in regard whereof wee ought not to accompt them daunge­rous or hurtfull, but rather very beneficiall and wholesome, especially being well applyed and vsed a [...] all Medicines of what nature soeuer ought to bee.

But vnder colour of these no man ought to comprehend other Chymicall Medicines, or pro­claime them to bee of such a piercing nature, for comming to purgatiue Medicines extracted (be­ing of a sappie, thicke, and condense forme) wee know well that they are not nor cannot bee so sub­till or piercing as oyles, nor are called subtill in regarde of their penetratiue vertue, but rather because they are farre more easily conuer­ted into Liquors, then the substances from whence [Page] they are extracted, and therefore ought in no ease to be called irritatiues.

Experience her selfe teacheth vs that the ex­tract of Mechoacan, Rheubarbe, or Sena (being gentle Med [...]cines) duely administred, shew them­selues farre more milde, gentle and effectuall then when they are exhibited after an entire and grosse preparation.

But what need many words? doe we not plainely see that our Chymicall Art bringeth Colocyn­this and Scammonie (acrimonious and vene­mous purgatiues) [...]o bee so gentle and milde in ope­ration, that a man may as safely and freely admi­nister them as Rheubarbe, hauing onely regard to the qualitie of the disease, and the humour they naturally purge? as namely that of Scammonie whereof a man may boldly giue to one of a strong constitution twentie graines at a time, in sugar ro­sat, or any other conserue; And this will worke ea­sily and well, without any touch of paine, pertur­bance or inflammation in the bowells, as otherwise it would surely do.

And this is a Maxime that not only Scammo­nie, but euerie other purgatiue Medicine of such venemous and vehemēt nature as Hellebore, Ti­thymalls, &c. loose their acrimonie and maligne qualitie, and by meanes of this Art become gentle and effectuall in the extirpation of all such diseases as they naturally concerne or respect, without any [Page] inconuenience or danger at all: and this is no vaine coniecture of mine owne braine, for I can produce a hundred sage and learned Physitions which can & will testifie and make this good as well as my selfe.

And this is all which I purposed to speake at this time in defence of Chymicall Medicines, a­gainst the suggestions of scandalous tongues, not meaning or intendeng hereby to disgrace or vi­lipend those ordinarie Medicines, wherewith the world is and hath beene furnished and serued for so many ages together; for both the one and the other may be found good or euill according to the diuer­sitie of their vsage, notwithstanding I haue at all times indeuored my selfe to the vttermost of my power, to amplifie and illustrate the Art of Phy­sicke for the comfort of the diseased (as euery one ought) without any passion or malice in condem­ning things newly inuented for Paradoxes and Heresies before due exami­nation and tri­all.

Ad Authorem.

EXcuse me worthy Sala if I chance
For want of iudgement thy intent to misse,
In fitting that for England which for France:
Thou paines hast tane and labour to Iwis,
For which and others thou deseruest blisse:
I wish I were thy neighbour, or that I
With such a one might spend my daies and die.
But now the world is such, we cannot find
A man with whom we freely may conuerse,
Some proud, some stately, others so vnkind,
That't greeues my heart their manners to reherse:
Or talke of such selfe-louers in my verse,
When men by nature friendly creatures borne,
Doate on themselues and others foulely scorne.
But thou, Patauian-like, I heare dost ioy
To do poore schollers good, and to impart
Thy secrets best to him thou art not coy,
That's of an honest and a friendly heart,
What wight from such a one would euer part:
Witnesse thy bookes abroade and notes beside,
For which to thee some priuate friends are ti'd.
For what's in Physick more to be desir'd,
Then knowledge how to vse a Medicine well
What in that worthy art to be requir'd:
More then o'th vertue and safe vse to tell?
Wherein than others many dost excell,
For how to strengthen vomit, sweat and rest
Is taught by thee as well as by the best.
Let Carping Criticks, that in corners lurke,
Blaspheme, detract and vtter what they can
Let some of them divulge me such a worke:
And I will say he quits him like a man:
If not I wish him hold his peace till then.
For sure I am that he that fault doth find,
Will come at least a bow and halfe behind.
THO. BETNOR. M.M.

Mod [...]s extrahendi papaueris succum.

[figure]
AMong those powerfull guifts to man infus'd,
What better is thē knowledge of those plants,
Which for two thousand yeares were only vs'd:
As meate and sustinance to humaine Saints
For neither flesh, nor fish, the Highe [...] gra [...]ts:
Till cataclismed world so weake wa [...] growne,
That fruit and hearbs could not suffice alone.
And yet we find in basest plants that grew
('Mongst those accompted weeds of witlesse men)
Such strange effects that farre surpasse we know:
The sence and reason of the learned'st pen,
(More is the blindnesse of our nature then▪)
Witnesse the Poppie whereby Greeke and Turke
By planting profit, and do wonders worke.
T.B. M.M.

OPIOLOGIA.

CHAPTER. 1. The opinion of Ancient Physitions, concer­ning the naturall proprietie and vertues of Opium.

OPIVM (as ancient Physi­tions testifie and moderne confirme) is a certaine iuyce or viscous liquor which one time of the yeares destilleth or [...]sue [...] from the tops of white or blacke Popp [...]e, by me [...]nes of a little gash or incision made in the outtermost rind of them (as wit­nesseth Discordes in his fourth booke of Simples Chap. 60.) the which liquor after due conden­sation is reserued and layd vp for necessary vses, as may not only appeare by the History aforesaid, but by that of Peter Bellon hereaf­ter recited.

[Page 2]Good Opium (as Diescordes and other An­cient Physitions affirme) is weightie and ponderous, bitter in tast, and is quickly dis­solued in water, it is smooth and whitish and not rugged or lumpish, and being streined it doth not like waxe melt against the sun, be­ing kindled it causeth not a blackish flame, and being quenched or put out, it alwaies retaineth its naturall smell.

They ▪vse many times to sophisticate or mixe Opium with Glaucium, Gum, or the iuyce of wild lettice, but that which is sophisticated with Glaucium is easily discerned, for being cut into small peeces, it becommeth yellow; in like manner, if it be mixed with the iuyce of wild Lettice it becommeth more rugged and tart, and hath little or no smell at all; but if it be counterfeited with Gum, it will be bright & shyning in colour, but weake in operation.

Opium taken crude and raw, as asoresayd, to the quantitie of an Orobus or wild Fitch, appeaseth all Aches or paines, helpeth digesti­on, stayeth all Coughes and Destillations or Rheumes, which fall from the braine into the stomack, it is excellent against all kinde of Head-ach if the temples bee anointed and chaffed with the same and oyle of roses: be­ing dropped or instilled into the eares with [Page 3] the oyle of bitter Almonds, Mirrhe and Saf­fran, it healeth and recouereth Hearing, and the sooner being applied with the yolke of an egge hard rosted in the imbers: it auaileth much against inflammation of the eyes, and being mixed with vinegar is very good a­gainst Saint Anthonies fire, and healeth olde vlcers: with saffran and womans milke it is singular in gouts, and being mixed with Sup­posatories, it prouoketh sleepe.

Diagoras, Aetius and Mnesidemus disproue and finde fault with the vsage of Opium in the diseases afore-named, by reason of its stupefactiue qualitie, but Diescordes (affirming the lawfull vse thereof) maintaineth the con­trary, and proueth their opinion to bee idle and false; seeing that the propertie of Opium is quite of another operation; yet hee inge­niously else-where confesseth, that the indis­creet and super [...]uous vsage thereof produ­ceth no small detriment to the patient, ma­king him fall into a Lethargie, whereby death commonly insues; the which he further con­firmeth in his sixth Booke and seuenteeth Chapter of Poysons, and their remedies, where hee reckoneth vp the Symptomes which it causeth in those bodies which haue eaten too much thereof.

Nicander and Aetius haue written of the [Page 4] great annoyances that come thereby; and Gallen also in his second and third bookes D [...] Comp. Med. describeth Opium to bee a daun­gerous Medicine, saying, that it mortifieth the senses, and causeth deadly Symptomes, in regard whereof hee wisheth that no man should vse it, vnlesse his Patient bee in dan­ger of death, through the extremitie of his paine, and, hereunto assenteth Plinie and di­uers others: notwithstanding there bee no small number of moderne Physitions quite of another minde.

The cause of those dangerous effects and Symptomes, which crude Opium by its too much vse is said to procure, is attributed to its exceeding coldnesse; for most Physiti­ons hold, that it is not vnfitly ranged among things that are cold in the fourth degree.

A Small Tract of Opium, taken out of the 13 Booke and 15 Chapter of Peter Bellon his Historie of the singularities of some memorable things found in Greece, Asia, and other Countries.

A Man can hardly find (saith hee) any thing more worthy of obseruation then Opium, which they prepare now a daies in Turkie, and especially at Achara, Carachara, [Page 5] Spartade, Emetelinde, and in other Cities bordering vpon Cappadocia, Paphlagonie and Cilicia.

They sow their fields with white Poppie, as we do with corne, and are so circumspect in the sowing thereof, that euery Paysant or Husbandman shall sow no more then he can procure people to gather the same in due time, for when the Poppie is growne to be headed, they cut a small hole or make inci­sion therein, whence issueth forth certaine milkish drops which they suffer to thicken or congeale: some one of these Peasa [...]ts will gather (may chance) ten pounds, another sixe, another more, or lesse, according to the num­ber of people hee sets aworke, for it bootes nothing to sow a great deale of ground, vn­lesse he can get people enough to gather it. Wee verily beleeue that vnlesse the Turkes vsed it much themselues, it would be as vnus­ually vended among Merchants, as other vn­knowne drugges are, but it is so common among thē, that there is not a Turke but buy­ethmore or lesse thereof, for if he be worth but an Asper in all the world, hee will bestow halfe thereof in Opium, and carry the same at all times about as well in Peace as Warre.

A certaine Iewish Merchant, of the country of Natolia, assured vs that there passed no [Page 6] yeares wherein there were not fiftie Camels laden out of Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Galatia & Cilicia, to transport the same into Persia, In­dia and Europe, and other parts of the Great Turkes Dominion in Africa and else where; the which we should haue hardly beleeued if hee had not related to vs by peece-meale (as it were) what quantitie might bee made and brought from each seuerall Village about the Confines of Carachora, and the Villages of Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Armenia the lesse, and Gall [...]grecia, hee told vs moreouer that the Persians vsed it more aboundantly then the Turkes.

Wee desired one day to make an experi­ment, and try how much Opium a man could take at a time without any offence or hurt, and wee found that a certaine Ianisarie of our acquaintance did vse to eate thereof euery daie, who tooke at one time in our presence the weight of halfe a Dragme, and meeting with him the next daie at a Mercers shop, wee cau­sed him to weigh vs out a whole dragme, which wee gaue him, and hee swallowed it vp all at once without any daunger or hurt at all, sauing that for a while hee seemed like a drunken man.

To [...]ate Opium in Turkie is no new [Page 7] thing, and the reason why it is vsed so amongst them, is because they perswade themselues that it maketh them more ad­uenterous and lesse fearefull of daungers in warre, so that when the Turke assembleth or mustereth any great Armie together, they make such hauocke of their Opium, that they almost disfurnish the whole Coun­trie. They take it in as great snuffe a­mongst them, and accompt it as great an iniurie when one vpbraides another with eating of Opium, as another Countriman would do if one should call him a drunkard.

A Christian-Armenian, with whom wee lodged long time, vsed many times to eate Opium in our sight, and prouing the same our selues, we found no other accident, sauing that it heated our stomackes, troubled some­thing the braine, and caused vs to sweat in our sleepe. Wee thinke that if men were disposed they might as easily plant and sow Poppie in France, Germanie, Italie, and some other places of Europe, as well as in Asia, if they would but take the paines to dresse and gather it as they should doe, for surely the Climate of Natolia is as colde as that of France. It is made in the same manner as Authors doe describe, but I am affraide if wee haue anie brought [Page 8] ouer hither it is sophisticated & mingled, for the Merchants do questionles multiply it be­fore they vent it abroad into the Countries, and therefore because we know some marks and tokens how to choose the best, it is not amisse to set downe the same.

The best Opium is that which is very bit­ter, and so hot in tast that it wil almost scorch and inflame the mouth, it is in colour some­thing yellowish or like to a Lyons skin, and being formed into a lumpe, it seemes speck­led as a masse of diuers colours, for in ga­thering the sayd Opium, the seeds are found clustered vpon the Poppie-heads, which being amassed cleaue together like a cake, its smell is fulsome and strong, and although it be accompted but of a cold temprature, yet it many times scaldeth the mouth.

Opium is formed into cakes in the Coun­try of Natolia, which exceed not aboue foure ounces or halfe a pound at the most, but the Merchants to make the greater profit by their sophistication double the aforesaid quantitie, for the subtill Venetians make the Cakes in their shops to weigh a pound at least, and this is the report of Bellon concer­ning Opium.

Now considering that in his time a man could hardly get any in Christendome that [Page 9] were good, how should we finde any now adaies either in the Apothecaries or Drug­gests shops which hath these tokens, or is so effectuall or pretious in its operation, letting passe the seeds or graines as the onely diffe­rence in gathering.

It is called ordinarily Opium Thebaicum, in respect of the Prouince of Thebes where the best is made.

CHAP. II. Of the assurance we haue that Opium may bee vsed, and taken crude or mixed in Medi­cines without any preiudice or indangering the Patients life at all.

A MAN shall find some Phy­sitions now a daies who ad­hering too much a conscience to the opinion of olde Leeches (capitall enemies to Opium its vse) doe not onely beleeue it as an article of their Creed, that whatsoeuer any Author hath said in detraction and disgrace of Opium is an vndoubted truth: To whom I answere and say, that wee ought not to submit our selues to their iudgement altogether, nor to [Page 10] beleeue the opinion or saying of any Physi­tion, whether antient or moderne otherwise then daily obseruation of the vse of things & our Grandame experience confirme in our vn­derstanding for truth: for seeing that the an­cient Physitions, as well Grecians as Arabi­ans, how great or learned soeuer they were esteemed, yet being all but imperfect men and subiect to errour, had their owne proper passions, and were full of con­tention and iealousie one against another, as wee are now adaies; whence it followes that wee ought not to receiue all their workes for gospell, without condition as aforesayd: for as for example Galen, Plinie, and others, put the world in feare and suspition of Opium, and contrariwise Oribasius, Diescorides and others commend it, and assure and affirme it to bee pro­fitable and necessarie for the cure of many diseases: who then in this case can giue vs better knowledge and satisfaction of truth of these things then Experience her selfe? Now shee tells vs that a man may safely vse Opium inwardly in mens bodies, Oribasius therefore and Diescorides, haue spoken truly, whereas the errour and abuse of others is manifest: which howsoeuer it falls out, it hinders vs nothing at all to search [Page 11] into these things, seeing that neither cause nor reason can preiudice or hinder the au­thoritie of daily experience.

That the vse of Opium deserueth to be ap­plauded of all Physitions, wee haue two prin­cipall and certaine assurances; whereof the former is not onely the certification of Peter Bellon aforesaid, but of a hundred honorable personages, who haue beene in Asia, and af­firme that the Turkes eate thereof in great quantitie almost euery day ordinarily with­out any mischāce or hurt to their bodies at al, which may in part be a sufficient demonstra­tion that Opium is not a thing so venemous and daungerous to the life of man, as some giue out and proclaime it to be.

But heere some (to small purpose) may tell mee that the Turkes may easi­ly digest Opium, how colde soeuer in re­garde of the hot Clime they liue in, where­as the Christians dwelling vnder a colder in Europe can doe no such matter: to whom I aunswere, that if it were graun­ted that Opium were of such qualitie as a­foresayd: yet whether a man could di­gest it or not, cannot bee Physicallie at­tributed to the temprature of the Cli­mate, but rather to the strong constitu­tion, or naturall vigour of the people; for [Page 12] the Turkes being from their very cradle more grossely brought vp and sed then the Chri­stians are ingenerall, become not only more able bodied and stronger thereby, but also more apt and able to eate and digest diuers things which the tender and nice Christians cannot iudure: and that the truth is so, Let vs but consider a little the difference of natu­rall toughnes and strength betweene a Chri­stian Paysant or Carle here amongst vs, and a Gentleman or Citizen; do not we see (I pray you) that the Paysant can more easily indure a purgation made of White Hellebore, Tithy­malls, Euphorbium or Colocynthis (which are accompted violent and venemous Medi­cines) then these tender sparkes aforesayd can brooke Rheubarbe, Mechoacan, Sena, Aloes or the Damaske rose.

But why the Turkes deuoure Opium on this fashion, ought rather to be imputed vnto an ordinarie custome, and common vsage among them, then to any other cause what­soeuer; euen as the Indians are accustomed to take Tobacco, which is a plant not onely Narcoticke and stupefactiue, but of a vio­lent and extreame vomitiue quality also. Notwithstanding we see that Christians, all Europe ouer, by little and little haue brought themselues into such a custome and habit [Page 13] thereunto, that they feele no alteration or preiudice at all (as they thinke) by the vse thereof.

I make no question but a man might finde a number of people among Christians that if they cannot alreadie, could easily accu­stome themselues to eate Opium as familiar­ly, as they take Tobacco: although they could not vse [...]t in such quantitie, nor so often in regard it is a pure essence and extract, which Nature hath seperated from its plant: For es­sentiall things are alwaies farre more ef­fectuall then grosse bee, for confirmation whereof we neede not doubt, that if a man should separate the rosinous and sulphurous substance of Tobaccao, and bring it into such a consistence as Opium is, and afterwards giue it vnto such as vsually take Toba [...]co, they could not possibly indure the tenth part so much of this as of the leaues, as hath beene alreadie practised and tried.

There be some Empericks (I know) which giue crude Opium to their Patiens in as great or greater quantitie at a time then Discorides hath limitted, and that without any great daunger or hazard of life at all, onely cor­recting it a little with the powder of Cara­way-seed; and in case of necessitie I my selfe would not sticke, or make any scruple to [Page 14] vse it, yea I durst, if neede were, take two or three graines thereof at a time my selfe; for although I neuer did eate thereof hither­to indeed, yet haue I often tasted the same, and also receiued great quantitie of the sulphurous vapours, both into my stomacke and head in time of the preparation there­of without any perceiuance, or the least touch of any offence in the world: neuer­thelesse it is not my counsell that any Physi­tion should vse it crude in this maner, seeing we haue Art and meanes to prepare it other­wise.

The second assurance that wee haue con­cerning the vse of Opium, is in that wee finde and see that the most expert and wisest Phy­sitions of olde, found it good, and therefore prescribed this Medicine as a principall in­gredient, and as one of the most important ba­ses in their chiefest compositions, Alexiteries, Diaphoretickes, Anodynes, Cordialls, which naturally resist the most grieuous and vio­lent diseases that can any waies happen to humaine bodies, for which cause they vsu­ally call them Opiate Confections, as that of their Tre [...]cle of Andromachus, their Mithridate of Danocrates, their Triphera magna, Aurea, Alexandrina, Philomuim romanum, Requies Ni­cholai, and others, which they haue vsed as [Page 15] principall Medicines for these many hundred yeares and yet doe; for they are indeed the most pretious and necessarie compositions their ordinarie Apothecaries haue.

The causes which moued Ancient Physi­tions to put Opium vnto the foresayd con­fections are not few, seeing that its proper­ties are to asswage all inward paines, strengthē the passages & conduits which are open, loose, & disbanded: precipitate, disperse and consume these venemous vapours which are raised from one part to another: incrassat and thicken al subtill corros [...]ue & humors, by correcting their malignitie and acrimonie: stop and stay all fluxes as well Dysenterick as Menstruall: appease and extinguish all extremities in burning Feuers: prouoke naturall rest and sleepe to Distressed and Lunaticke persons: and finally, like a Balme defend the partes from corruption, which operations and effects are required in all compositions, which are generally orday­ned to resist the violence of diuerse diseases, in appeasing and repelling whereof some of these properties before named are or­dinarily desired, as Quercetanus in his Pharmacop [...]a (intreating of the vetues of Opium) affirmeth in these wordes, say­ing, Pauci en [...]m sunt morbi qui non simul [Page 16] complacentur vel ardoribus, vel inflammationi­bus, vel inquietudinibus, commotiomibus, la [...]guori­bus, oppressionibus, vigilijs, de [...]luxionibus vel var [...] generis doloribus, capitis, pectoris, ventricul [...], ven­tris vel cu [...]scun (que) alterius Patris: ad quorum omnium Symptomatum ferociam compescendam Opium specificam & peculiarem quandam habet proprietatem, qua vel vnum exhis Symptomatis seorsim, vel plura cum malo coniuncta, Simul cum admirabili astantium, & ipsorum aegrorum admiratione euincit ac subigit, vnde saepeumerò in e [...]usmodi casibus tam mirandos sanationum ef­fectus prodere videmus Theriacam, Muhridati­um, Antidotos Esdrae & similes, quae Opium exci­iunt, &c.

For there bee very few diseases which are not either accompained with heates, inflam­mations inquietude, preturbation, langui­shing, oppressions, watching, fluxes &c. for mitigating and [...]epressing of which Symp­tomes Opium hath a specificall and a cer­taine peculiar proprietie &c.

And this may serue to assure vs that wee may boldly vse Opium inwardly without any preiudice to life, yea rather for its better con­seruation being administred with iudgement and discretion as all other Medicines what­soeuer ought to be.

CHAP. III. Concerning the good and euill affects which Opium may produce in mens bodies.

THat Opium (as aforesaid) be­ing wisely administred to the diseased, produceth in them many good effects, and con­trariwise abused exciteth di­uers dangerous and mortall accidents, is in no sort doubted among discreet Physitions; but touching the cause why Opium doth worke these effects in mens bodies is dispu­table: for most Physitions impute it to that extremitie of the fourth degree of coldnesse wherewith it is endowed, and for proofe and confirmation hereof they produce an argu­ment drawne from the effects of its opera­tion in this manner: Opium (say they) pro­uoketh a vigilant or watchfull man to sleepe, and incrasseth thin and subtill humours: vi­gilancie, then proceeding (for the most part) from a hot and drie cause with matter or without, and the dissolution also of the hu­mours from the like distemprature, Opium therefore contrarying and impugning the causes of these effects must needes bee of the [Page 18] qualitie aforesayd, and for the further con­firmation hereof they alledge Galen, Plini [...] ▪ and others, who in like manner witnesse, that when Opium is vndiscreetly vsed, it causeth Lethargicke sleepe, priuation of sense, stupe [...] faction of members, suffocation of natural [...] heate, and death in the end.

But although I cannot like a cunning Lo­gician, frame sophisticall Syllogismes, or giue such luster to my reasons, as many would doe, which take greater pleasure in the Flo [...] of words, then in the veritie and realitie o [...] things, notwithstanding if it be lawfull for meere Naturalists in plaine and simple termes to discourse of such things, whereof they haue sufficient experience, I may (vnder cor­rection of those which know these things better then my selfe) deliuer my opinion also.

Opium then is not such a colde thing as they would haue it, as I can proue both by reason and experience; by reason in regard it is not onely bitter, but inflaming and ex­coriatiue, which are euident tokens of its hot qualitie and complexion; for so the wisest Physitions in the world iudge of bitter things: and the light of Nature it selfe teach­eth vs that none of the foure elements doe corrode, in [...]lame, or heate, but that of fire. [Page 19] Againe, its nature is knowne by its colour, for being of a darkish yellow, when it is dry­ed and powdered, it must needs be hot, as Aloes and Myrrhe, and all things of like co­lour be, especially if they haue any bitter tast adioyned.

By experience wee may well approue that Opium is not cold in two respects▪ first that when the Turkes eate thereof, they become cheerefull, couragious and fierce in warre, secondly that when one giueth two or three graines thereof to any sick person, and couer him warme in his bed, it will make him sweate more then any other Diaphoreticke, which operations can by no meanes proceed from any cold qualitie it hath.

But if a man should obiect amongst both. these reasons, saying, first the Turkes being of a hot constitution, and liuing in a hot clime, become more faint-hearted and cowardlike then those of colder temperatures, and there­fore Opium tempering that heate maketh him more frolicke and cheerefull accidentally; secondly, that if a man giue but a cup-full of cold water onely to a sicke man to drinke, it will questionlesse make him sweate &c. Whereunto I answere, that if the Turkes doe acquire force and courage by tempering their heate with cold things, they might very [Page 20] well spare that great labour and toyle they take in sowing their Poppie, and gathering their Opium, seeing that spring and riuer­water might stand them in as great stead, be­ing a cold liquor, and dispiercing it selfe in­to all parts of the body, as soone as it is drunke, but it is so farre short of Opium in quickening the spirits, and raysing the cou­rage, that it worketh quite contrary ef­fects.

And whereas they affirme that a cup of water (which is apparantly cold) will cause any sicke person to sweate, I answere, that if it cause one that is in a Feuer, or pestred with some other hot disease to sweate, as many times it doth, it proceeds not from any Dia­phoreticall or sweating qualitie, inherent in it, but commeth to passe rather, per antiperi­stasim, and accidentally, for like as water cast vpon a hot Anuile or burning stone, imme­diately rayseth vp vapours and fumes, [...]uen so doth water giuen to such a bodie, which after condensation, nature either expelleth by vrine or sweate, nor hath it this operati­on in all diseases or tempratures, whence it is manifest that water naturally cannot pro­cure sweate but by accident onely, as is said.

Now let vs returne to their arguments, [Page 21] which goe about to proue that Opium is cold in respect it prouoketh sleepe, thickneth the humours, and taken too liberally causeth daungerous Symptomes and doubtfull e­uents, which reasons (I affirme) are of no force in this behalfe, for first as Opium pro­uoketh sleepe to all those which are afflicted with hot diseases, so doth it also prouoke the same in all other causes without exception, yea although they bee of different qualities, as witn [...]sseth Auicen and others, who haue diligently noted the same: and as for the humours, Opium doth not onely incrafsate and thicken th [...]se which are of a hot quali­tie, but those also which are coldest of all, as that white and christalline humour which floweth and distilleth from the braine vnto the other parts, whence it appeareth that a man cannot produce such a necessarie con­sequence of the operation of Opium, as those men goe about to doe, for it we were tyed of necessitie to adhere and stand to the sence of the former arguments, it would conse­quently follow that all colde things would procure sleepe to the diseased, where no o­ther thing could effect the same: Item, that they onely appeased all inward grieses, in­crassed euery humour, hot, cold or how s [...]b­till socuer, and in briefe had the very same [Page 22] vertues that Opium before is described to haue, whereas ou the contrarie part no hot things could effect the same; but experience proueth it farre otherwise, for if Quick-siluer, the Magisterie of Lead (compared to Saturne) Salt-peter, or Allome (salts of a cold tempra­ture) or the water de Sper: Ran, which is thought to coagulate or congeale the bloud by its extreame frigidi [...]ie, if none of these (I fay) perform those effects which Opium doth, nor Ice nor Snow themselues rationally ad­ministred in neuer so large a dose, can pro­cure sleepe, or cease paines, but rather for the most part cause more vehement fits. Yet I will not deny that cold things may some­times, and vpon some occasions procure rest, though not alwaies when neede is, nor so surely at any time as Opium well pre­pared.

And as for hot things, they are for the most part so farre from causing disquietnesse to mens bodies, or subtilizing grosse hu­mours that quite contrary a man may finde many that will prouoke sleepe, and thicken subtill and virulent humours, rather and soo­ner then other of a colder qualitie, as we may plainely perceiue by Mirrhe, Aloes, Storax, Olibanum, Worme-wood, Betonie, Safran and such other, yea & Sulphur it self (the very fire [Page 23] of nature) doth not onely prouoke sleepe in some reasonable measure, but doth also in such wise coagulate and condense the subtill and hot humours, that it auaileth much the Pthysicall in staying their defluxions, and it is a thing most manifest amongst Spagirists that Sulphur can coagulate water, wine or Aqua-vitae in such sort that a man may beate them to powder in a morter, and after re­duce them to that naturall forme they were in before.

I am not ignorant, that a man may tell mee that things of a cold or hot nature, doe worke diuersely in bodies according to the diuersitie of the subiect they light vpon, as the fire which hardneth clay, and softneth waxe, and so of cold things, in like manner that Opium being extreamely cold, by that extremitie worketh in bodies, where other things of an inferiour degree cannot in any wise; but neither of the two reasons reach to the deapth of our dispute, for first Opium (the subiect of our discourse) worketh not in mens bodies in this or that manner by electi­on, according to the diuersitie of their tem­pratures and complexions, but doth indiffe­rently prouoke sleepe, and causeth all paines to cease of what nature or qualitie soeuer as aforesaid.

[Page 24]Secondly, putting the case that Opium were the coldest thing in the world, yet that small Dose, which we commonly vse to giue at a time, cannot exceed the great frigidi­tie of those things afore-named in their larger Doses.

Were it not a great absurditie, to be­leeue that one graine or two of Opium were colder then a dragme of Allome, prepared or crude, or one scruple of the Magisterie of Lead, or an ounce of the water of the Sperm [...] of frogges, or two ounces of the water of Nymphaa, or as an ounce or two of Quick-siluer, which some haue vsed to giue against the wormes and other maladies, all which passe through the bodie as cold as any ice, and manifestly coole the mouth, and other conduits where they passe, which one small Dose of Opium cannot doe, but rather con­trarily heateth both mouth and stomacke; whence you may gather that these reasons, and the like, are meere palliatiue and stuper­ficiall arguments, and fine gloses to enter­taine long chat, rather then to proue any coldnesse in Opium.

Now touching the Symptomes which Opium causeth being inordinately taken, Ex­perience her selfe teacheth vs, that Aqua-vitae (which is of a hot and subtill essence) being [Page 25] too abundantly ingurged, causeth semblable effects, for many being drunke with Aqua­vitae haue dyed, seased as it were with Stupidi­tie, priuation, of sense, Trembling, Lethargie; and indeed ended their liues in such manner, as if they had swallowed to much Opium, and be­came benummed and stiffe, as if they had di­ed in the very yee and snow.

Wine it selfe also causeth diuers Symp­tomes of Opium in them which abuse it, as wee may plainely see by the lamentable ex­amples vsed in diuers parts of the Papacie, where they commonly make those people drunke which are condemned to any vio­lent death, of whom some goe singing, and some rayling thereunto, and others as dull and senselesse as bruit beasts, none of them hauing any vnderstanding or memorie of their iminent slaughter, and which is worse, haue no true feeling of their sinnes, nor solide iudgement or discretion to re­commend themselues to the mercie of their Creator.

Wine (as all Authors affirme, and Expe­rience her selfe declareth) being abused, doth cause in processe of time Phrensie, Madnesse, Rage, Furie, Stupiditie, Lethargie, Palsi [...] and o­ther dangerous diseases, euen as Opium doth, and is notwithstanding an hot liquor, as all [Page 26] the world knoweth. Wee may then con­clude that Opium maketh not the Turkes fierce and couragious in warre, nor maketh the diseased to sleepe, nor appeaseth all in­ward griefes of the bodie, because of its cold qualitie, or by reason of its heate (although it manifestly appeare to be hot) but in regard of his operations, which doubtlesse procee­deth from a specificall and hidden proprietie wherewith it is indowed, euen as wee see in deiectorie Physicke, which purgeth neither by reason of any heate or coldnesse therein, but rather by a certaine specificall qualitie as is sayd.

Now as purgatiue Medicines rightly vsed, doe not onely euacuate Natures excrements, and bring the bodie to an excellent tempra­ture, but being abused doe mightily offend and bring dissolution to the same; euen so Opium well administred, endoweth the bodie with singular benefits, but abused and vn­temperatly giuen, worketh the contrary, whence it followeth that in the vsage of either of them, it behoueth the Physiti [...]n to be ruled by reason and experience, walking in a good conscience, and practising his Art in the best manner to Gods glorie and his Patients comfort.

CHAP. IIII. Wherein is shewed the Counsell and aduise of Theophrastus Paracelsus, concerning Medicines Narcoticall or Anodynes, and in particular that of Opium.

HAuing generally declared the opinion of ancient Physi­tions concerning the nature, vertue and vse of Opium, and the controuersies which are among moderne Physitions touching the qualitie thereof, it is not amisse to see now what Theophrastus Paracelsus (that great searcher and diuer into nature) saith in this behalfe.

This Author hath generally the vsage of Anodyne Medicines in such high esteeme and reuerence, that hee recommendeth them vnto his disciples as a principall pillor of the whole bodie of Physicke, assuring them that they are the most important remedies of all others to cure the bodies of men of the most grieuous diseases they are subiect vnto: In the seuenteenth booke of his Archidoxes and Chap. De Specifice anodyno, hee saith thus, that we should speake with great reuerence, and [Page 28] regard of the Anodyne or Specificall appeasor, we are moued by diuers reasons, for in par­ticular, wee haue met with some diseases, for cure whereof (finding no helpe or reliese a­mong our best secrets) the Specificall Anody [...] not without great admiration accomplished our desire, and this fell not out casually o [...] without reason, seeing it is the nature of Anodynes to extinguish diseases, euen [...] water quencheth fire. And in his first booke of Naturall things and Chapter D [...] Sulphure F [...]brionato, speaking generally in praise of those things which naturally pro­uoke sleepe, and are Anodynes, hee saith what greater secret would a Physition desire to possesse, then that which can cause all paines to cease, and extinguish all internall heate? hauing this, doth not his skill passe that of Appollo, Machaon or Podalyrius? Let a man consider a little this sentence, and marke with good iudgement the subiect thereof, and hee shall finde no iesting matter of it, In his Commentarie vpon the second Apho­risme of the second Section of Hippocrates, vb [...] somnus delirium, &c. Paracelsus speaking in the end of that exposition, concerning the benefit of wholesome sleepe, saith that sleepe is such a great secret in Physicke, that be­ing spoken without disgrace of other things, [Page 29] [...]ee would gladly haue any man tell him wh [...]re he can in all the world find such a reme­ [...]ie, which can ma [...]ifest such sodaine and [...]ctiue ease and reliefe, to the health of mans [...]odie as it doth.

Hence you may perceiue why these Ano­ [...]ynes (of what kind socuer) ought to bee so well regarded, esteemed and made accompt of among all Physitions▪ for seeing sleepe [...]s a Medicine farre surpassing all gemmes, & [...]ewels in the world, hee that knowes how to [...]pply this Somniferous secret, conueniently [...]nd in good season, ought to be held in great [...]ccompt and estimation among diseased people.

That Theophrastus doth also commend the vsage of Opium among his Anodynes, and Somniferous Medicines, it may easily appeare in the forenamed Chapter De Specifico Anod. wherein hee proposeth Opium onely without addition of other Somniferous things, to make that composition which he calleth his Anodynum Specificum, and attributeth vnto it this excellent proprietie, saying, that it cau­seth not the whole body of man to sleepe, but the diseases onely. In his booke De Morbis amentium, where he writeth of those that be Mad, Lunaticke, Phrantick, Epilep­ticke, &c. hee putteth the quintessence of [Page 30] Opium in the ranke before Aurum Potabile, Argentum Potabile, the Magisterie of Pearles, and all other pretious Medicines which bee ordained for these maladies.

Here some enuious Critick [...] (beside the pur­pose) will hit mee a blow on the blind side, saying how comes it to passe that these braue Spag [...]riques heale not all the patients that fall into their hands, seeing they brag of such singular secrets as these? of whom I de­maund the cause also, why they cure not all theirs, hauing such graue institutions, so­lid grounds and principall Medicines vsed ordinarily amongst them? This is not to proue that although Chymicall Medicines worke more citò, tutó & iucundè, by reason of their better preparation, and exaltation in power then other ordinary Medicines, that therefore they can surely ouercome and cure all hereditarie, inbred and incurable dis­eases, or such others which God for the ex­ercise of his iustice, hath inflicted and con­firmed vpon the bodies of men in such sort, that no Medicine nor skill in the world can cure. For,

Ni Deus affuerit, vires (que) in fuderit herbis,
Quid, rogo dyctamnus quid pauacaea invent?
If God helpe not, and into herbes infuse,
A working power, in vain we Medicins vse▪

[Page 31]In his booke De morbis resolutis, In his first booke of Minerall diseases, and in diuers other passages of his workes, hee maketh mention of Opium, with such great ho­nour and respect as any auncient Physition in commendation thereof euer did: after­wards concerning it's vsage hee mean­eth not that any man should administer it simple and crude, or grosly tempered and mixed with other Medicines before the due preparation, for in his first Chapter De Sulphure Embryonato, and his first booke de Reb. nat. hee aff [...]neth that Opium, Man­drage, and Henbane, containe in them some maligne substance, in regard whereof no man ought to vse them (if he worke wari­ly) before he haue reduced them into a quin­tessentiall f [...]rme, which indeed hath bin the principall occasion, that the Spagiricke Physitions (putting their hands to the plough) haue found the m [...]anes to prepare Opium into such a pretio [...]s and profitable Medicine that in all Spagi [...]icall and ordi­nary practise whatsoeuer, none other can bee comparable either for speedy or won­derfull operation, for w [...]ich onely Medicine all Christian Physitions and people, which know it, are eternally bound to giue the [Page 32] fountaine of all goodnesse, thankes, for his gratious guifts inspired into men.

CHAP. V. Of the inuention or meanes how to prepare Opium well, and wherein it generally cons [...] ­steth.

HAuing hitherto diuersly dis­coursed of Opium, in demon­strating its pretious and nece­sarie vse in Physicke, we [...] now goe about to shew th [...] effectuall manner of preparation, which the Spagirists vse, to the end wee may more fre [...]l [...] and safely administer the same, then the an­cient Physitions did, who commonly put the same into their Medicines vnprepared, which Quercetanus (in his Pharm. Dog. R [...]st. p [...] 186.) treating of the composition of Tre [...]kle, mightily complayneth of in these words, saying, De plorandus enim error est nobilis hui [...], alexipharmaci compositioni in tam magna, trium scilicet vnciarum dosi ad miscere tantum ven [...] ­nū quale Opium crudum & minus praeparatum esse constat. The errour of them is greatly to be lamented, &c. Which Quercetanus auouch­eth not to blame the inuention of auncient [Page 33] Physitions, nor the vertue of Treakle, which [...]ath beene, and yet is daily vsed with great [...]uccesse, but rather to insinuate and shew [...]ow much more warily & safely they should [...]aue delt in the vsage of Opium, then they [...]aue done heretofore, if they had as truely [...]nowne the Art Spagiricke, as wee doe now [...]d [...]ies; how bee it wee ought notwithstan­ding to take these things in good part which [...]hey haue reueiled vnto vs according to their [...]xperience, although the inuention of the [...]rue preparation of Opi [...]m, ought by all [...]eanes to be ascribed to Theophrastus Para­ [...]elsus, as principall and chiefe of the naturall Philosophers and Spagirists, who haue gene­ [...]ally written of the Chymicall preparation of all things in a manner, which are vsed in Physicke: where others on the contrary (in­ [...]reating of the Philosophers-stone) haue bu­ [...]ed themselues to besot and foole the world, [...]nd by that meanes haue rather seduced mens vnderstandings, then produced any [...]od fruits or workes of worth.

Now the best preparation of Opium, con­ [...]steth in three principall practises; the first [...] depriuing, or taking from it its Oleagi­ [...]ous, or sulphurous substance, wherein prin­ [...]ipally consisteth the euill, Narcoticall and [...]upefactiue qualitie; the second in correct­ing [Page 34] and mitigating its causticke and ad [...] [...]ing acrimonie, wherein it is almost parallel­led vnto Tithymalls, Spurges and other lacti­ferous corrosiues; and the third in accom­panying or mixing there with some suc [...] good additaments, and furtherers, as shalb [...] described hereafter.

CHAP. VI. Conteyning three manners, or waies to depri [...] Opium from its nar [...]oticall, stupefactiue an [...] nuisible Sulphur, which must be done be­fore its essentiall extract can be drawne.

IT is formerly said that Op [...] ­um is depriued and freed from its malignitie three manner of waies, the first (as Paracel­sus in his second booke D [...] morbis amentium saith) is by taking Opium, and mixing therewith certaine Aromaticall things, and reducing them into a Ma [...] with the rob or iuice of Quinces, and after­wards putting them, into a Quince, whose coare is first taken out; and lastly, hauing couered or infoulded the same in past, bak [...] it in an ouen like bread, and being taken out reduce or beate it into powder, and infuse i [...] [Page 35] in some conuenient liquor, whereby the es­sense or tincture thereof may be extracted, to which purpose he taketh the spirit of Vitrioll (composed against the Epilepsie) as a specifi­call furtherer in this case.

The second meanes, is to take Opium, and to cut it into small slices, and to put it into [...]a cleane Frying-pan, or vpon a Lamine or broad plate of yron, and with a gentle fire euaporate away its Sulphur, which will ex­hale or fume away like a grosse and stinking smoake, from which smell it is no [...] amisse to abstaine as much as may bee: some in the interim sprinkle it with a little rose Vinegar, and stirre it together with a Spatula or slice as it melteth like Aloes, and after spread it abroad vpon the sayd Lamine of yron, and so let it euapour away as long as any fume will arise, and vntill it become so drie that it may be powdred, alwaies bewaring that it burne not.

This manner of preparation is approued for good of Quercetane, and many other mo­derne Physitions, and I my selfe also alwaies obserue the same methode when I haue oc­casion to make any Laudanum for mine owne vse.

The third way is to dissolue the crude Opium in some conuenient liquor (as is sayd) [Page 36] and letting it digest and boyle easily, still scumming away the froath, and vnctuous Cremor swimming aloft, which indeed is its sulphurous malignitie, and reserue the rest for vse.

This manner of preparation is highly commended of Crollius in his Basilica Chy­mica, in the Chapter intreating of Lauda­num.

Of these three maners of preparing Opium before it be brought to an extract, let euery Physition make his owne choice.

CHAP. VII. How the [...]incture, quintesse [...]ce or (as some call it the substance of Opium) is to be ex­tracted, wherein his manifold vertues con­sist, and how to depriue or take away his maligne acrimony.

THE tincture of Opium (pu­rified from its sulphurous ma­lignitie as before) is ordina­rily extracted with Aqua­vitae rectified, or else with Vineger, iuice of Citrons, Oranges, Quinces or other egar and tart liquors, but of all these I make continuall choice of Vinegar, for egar [Page 37] things generally haue a naturall proprietie to correct all venemous things, and to qua­lifie and mitigate all those which haue any great Acrimonie, or any Causticke or aduring facultie, which a man cannot find that Aqua­vitae can by any meanes doe, and this is the reason that the most sage and auncien [...] Phy­sitions haue ordained that Scammonie [...]ould be corrected with the iuice of Quixces, which is an egar liquor: Euphorbium, the Hellebores, Esula, and other corrofiue and venemous Medicines, are commonly corrected with Vinegar, being therewith sprinkled or to­tally drenched: Antimonie (which is both of a vomitiue and purgatiue facultie as modern Artists know) being extracted in distilled V [...]negar, insteed of any alteratiue or nauseall qualitie, becommeth onely a Bezoardicke Medicine naturally prouoking sweate: Ar­senicke (that great poyson) and Mercurie sub­limate (that violent corrosiue) may bee so corrected by digestion with Vinegar, that a man may safely vse them in Chirurgery.

Vinegar and other sower and tart things are of such high esteeme among Physitions, that (in a maner) no man doth administer either Bezoar-stone, Vnicornes-horne, Terra­lemnia, Treakle, or any other preseruatiue to any sicke person, vnlesse they be mi [...]ed with [Page 38] Oximel-simplex, Syrupe of Quinces, iuice of Citrons, Pomgranates, Berberies, Sorrell or some other tart liquor; the which thing they doe not without great reason, considering that egar things ingenerall comfort the stomack, resist poysons, qualifie inward heates, and defend the parts from corruption; the which thing indeed Vinegar doth aboue all other vegetable things whatsoeuer, as may plainly appeare by its safe conseruation of all things from any corruption that are put therein, which neither the iuice of Citrons, Oranges, Pomgranates, nor any other thing can doe, vnlesse a man couer them with oyle and keepe them close from the ayre; and for my part I haue made sufficient experiment that the essence of Opium extracted with Vinegar is of greater efficacie, and more confortatiue then that which is drawne with Aqua-vitae, which liquor notwithstanding I mesprise not in regard it is a subtill and very excellent essence seruing many Me­dicinall operations, yet in this particular I doe in no wise approue or allow thereof, for many reasons which euery discreet Phy­sition can manifestly yeeld.

The meanes then to extract the Tincture of Opium (after it is prepared and powdered as aforesayd) is to put the same into a con­uenient [Page 39] glasse bodie hauing a strait or nar­row mouth, and that for euery ounce of Opium you poure ther [...]unto eight ounces of liquor at the least, be it Aqua-vitae, Vinegar or what other things soeuer the Physition pleaseth, and being well and close luted or stopped, let it be put in B. M. or set in the Sunne, or by a furnace, or neere the fire-side where it may remaine warme in digestion for the space of thirtie or fortie daies toge­ther, for by that meanes the Opium will begin to alter & change its acrimonious churlish­nesse altogether; for this maner of digestion doth much resemble the Suns operation, in concocting & ripening tart and crude things, & changing thē into a sweet, pleasant & de­lectable tast, as nature hath manifested by the example of Figs, which at first haue such a corrasiue and causticke kind of Milkinesse in them, which (as soone as it but toucheth any part of the body) rayseth pustules and blisters thereupon; which milkinesse not­withstanding is afterward conuerted by the Sunnes-heate into a delicate and sweet iuice.

Hauing thus accomplished the digestion of the Opium, his subtil part is easily separa­ted from the grosse by inclination or fil­tring; And his essence is afterwards easily [Page 40] brought into a required and due consistence by euaporation in B.M. and so may be well reserued for vse, as shalbe declared hereafter.

CHAP. VIII. Concerning the diuersitie of those opiating com­positions, which the Spagirists call Lau­danums.

THE Spagirists (imitating Paracelsus, who in diuers passages of his workes, term­eth Anodyne and mitigating Medicines Laud [...]nums) haue euer since retained that name of Opium so composed: which word signi­fyeth nothing else but a Medicine endowed with noble and singular vertues, and there­fore deserueth wonderfull comm [...]nd [...]tions, which moued Croll [...]us to blazen it in this ma­ner: Laudabile med [...]camentum, quod pl [...]ne suo nomine respondet si Laudanum dicas.

But the preparation thereof is diuersly handled, for euery Spagirist (for the most part) differeth from another, in one thing or other: For [...]irection wherein I haue principally made mention of foure prin­cipall-ones, according whereunto a man [Page 41] for his vse may comprehend all other what­soeuer.

The first Laudanum or specificall Anodyne is that of Theophrastus Paracelsus, which he thus describeth in the seuenth booke of his Archidoxes.

℞ opij Theb. ℥ j. succi pom. aurant. Suc. Citon. ana. ℥ vj. Cinamo. garyoph. ana. ℥ ss. Contus. per­quam opt. simul omnia mixta (que) ponantur in vi­trum cum suo coopertorio caeco: digerantur in ☉, vel simo per mensem, postmodū exprim. & impo­nant. iterum cum seq.

℞ mosch. ℈ ss Amb. gr. ℈ iiij. croci ℥ ss sueci corall magist. perlar. ana. ℈j.ss. Comisco, postquam digestionem eorum vno mense fact. Adde quintess. auri ℈jss quae permixt. caeteris, Anodinum speci­ficum erit ad auferendum quosc [...]n (que) dolores in­ternos & externos, vt nullum tor queatur vel arri­piatur membrum latius.

Here you may behold Paracelsus his Spe­cificall Anodyne, wherein hee ordeineth onely Opium as its principall base, which is the more remarkeable in regard hee doth reckon and esteeme it as a powerfull Medicine to as­swage and cease all griefes by its Specificall forme, which ought to confirme vs no little in our opinion concerning his qualities a­foresayd.

The second Laudanum is that which Quer­cetanus appointeth in his Pharmacopaea. pag. 203.

℞ essent. Opij, a suo dissoluente per B. vaporo­sum vt supra separatae, ℥ij. essent. croci, cum aq. limo. extract. ℥j. Hae duae essentiae confundantur invicem in parvo quodam vasculo argenteo: his adde Gemmarum, Magist. Hyacinthorum, & Co­rallo. ana. ʒ j.ss. ter. sigillat. verae ʒ j. pul. Bezoard. veri, Vnicor. Ambr. gr. ana. ℈ij.

Hi pulveres sufficient ad bonam consistentiam Laudano indu [...]endam: miscendo & agitando om­nia continuò ad ignem lentum, donec ex materia frigefacta pilulae formari possunt: sufficit exhibere de hoc Laudano magnitudine piperis gr. & in­signes a [...] suspiciendos perc [...]pies huius Anodyni effectus, quod te spe tua numquam fi ustrabit: nam confert citra molestiam & cerebi vllam per­turbationem adversus omnis generis dolores á quacun (que) causa subortos: contra omnes Haemor­rhogias siue fluxus sanguinis in quacun (que) corpo­ris parte fuerint: contra omnes defluxiones & fluo­res ventris, dysentericos, Hepaticos, lientericos & similes: & ad adducendam grat [...]m tranquillita­t [...]m in febribus ardentissimis, in quibus ipsis ratio­nis sensus laeditur, & in phrenesim aeger plerum (que) delabitur. After this he describeth an other, [Page 43] whereunto hee adioyneth Henbane, and al­most an hundred Bezoardick and cordiall things: which whosoeuer is curious, and de­sireth to know may finde them written in his sayd booke, for I am vnwilling to set then downe in this place, in regard they require a long and tedious kinde of preparation, and this may serue insteed of all.

The third Laudanum is that of Oswaldus Crollius, according to his description in his Basilica Chymica.

BEfore Crollius describeth his Laudanum, he commendeth the vsage of all Anodynes generally in this manner. Multi sunt morbi, qui abs (que) Anodynis sanari non possuns: Ergo in omnium morborum curationibus, vbi dolorum co­mites vigiliae, virium (que) resolutiones adfuerint, Anodyna intrinseca appropriata possunt admini­strari, vt ablatis symptomatum ipsis radieibus per­nitiosorum cruciatibus, amica quies naturae rod­datur. Afterwards setting downe the com­position of his Laudanum (which hee calleth Laudanum paracelsi) he describeth it thus.

℞ Opij Theb. ℥iij. suc. Hyoscyam. deb. tem­pore collect. & in ☉. prius inspissat. ℥j.ss. Spec. Diamb. & Diamosch. fideliter dispensatorum ana ℥ij. ss, mumiuae transmarinae select. ℥ss, Salis Perla­rum, [Page 44] Corallorum ana ʒ iij. liquor. succini albi per Alcohol vin [...] extract. Oss. de Cord. Cervi ana ʒ j. lap. Bezoad. vnicorn. animalis vel miner. ana ʒ j. Mosch. Ambr. ana ℈j.

In defectu auri potab. nullis corrosiuis coniq [...]i­nati addantur oleorum anisi, carvi, aurant. nuc. myr. caryoph. cinamo. succ. ana gut. 12.

Fi. ex his S. A. chym. massa seu extranctum, [...] quo ad necessarios vsus possint pillulae eff orman And proceeding forward he noteth certaine obseruations concerning the Anteprepara­tion of Opium and Hyosciamus and other cir­cumstances, as also in particular the manner and way of their composition: the Dose hereof according to the Author, is from two graines to foure, and touching its vertues shalbe declared hereafter.

The fourth Laudanum is the Authors Ne­penthes Aurea.

℞ Essens. Opij, per spir. aceti cardiaci ex­tract. ʒ iiij. tincturae croci more Quercetani ex­tract. ʒ ij. Lap. Bexoard. Regij seu auri puriss. mor [...] Spagirorum purpurizat. & in veram medicina [...] cardiacam redact. ℈ij. resinae lig. Aloes, Ambr. gris. opt. ana ℈j.

Let these things be well incorporated to­gether in a small glasse vessell, and after­ward [Page 45] keepe the composition very close.

But because all these Medicines are both very costly, and curious to compound, and perhaps of no greater efficacie then some others which I make, and participate to my friends, I haue made bould for the good of my country to set downe two, the one whereof was communicated to mee at a second hand, from the learned and eminent Physition Io. Hartmannus of Marpurge in Germanie, and the other by the no lesse worthy and my much re­spected friend▪ Maister Dr. Bonham of London, which are as followeth.

Laudanum siue philonium nostrum.

℞ Opij cum spir. vini extract. ℥vj. cui adde seq. tincturam vz. ℞ croci ℥j. cinamo. nuc. myrist. garyoph. mac. torment zedoar bistort. [...]na ʒ ij. ss galang. angel. zz. ana. ʒ ij. florum cord. [...]n [...], [...]. i. pulver. omnia s [...]bt. & cum aq. Cinamomi q. s. F [...]. extract. & m [...]sce cum supradict. opio. tunc adde Oss. de cord cervi, corall. alb. & rub. praepar. succin▪ a [...]b. coru. vnicor. lap. Bezo [...]r. lig. aloes; solut [...]erlarum ana. ℈ij. santal. alb. & cit. ana. ℈j. fol auri pul. ℈ ss ter. lem. verae gr. Xiiij. amb. gris. gr. X. mosch. gr. viij. omnia opt. pulver. & sub­ [...]il [...]ss. cribrat. in fi [...]e adde ol. anisi gut. Xij. ol. nuc. myrist. gut. viij. ol. cinamo. gut. vj. Dosis a. gr. iij. ad v. cum corn. vnicor. & lap. Bezoar. ana. [Page 46] gra. ij. & cons. ros. rub. ℈j. cum itur cubi­tum.

Laudanum p [...]aestantisse. D. Bohami.

℞ Opij Theb. laminatum conscissi & poste [...] exiccati ℥i ss. gum. hyosc. ℥ iij. sem. hyosc. alb. ℥j. mummiae ℈ j. garioph. Cinamo. ā. ℥ ij. rad. leuistic. cal. arom. gallan. ʒ ʒ. ana ℥ j. castor. pip. nig. carpesiorum croci sinceri ana ℥ ss. labdan. belzoin. ana ʒ ij. pul. pul. & ponantur omnia in vitro angu­sti orificij cun [...] spir. vini opt. q.s. ita vt quatuor di­gitos superemineat, ac bene claudatur ter quaterue in die agitando dum tincturam nigram obtineat, deinde tinctura effundatur, & nou [...] spiritus addan­tur donec tota virtus sit educta, tum in B.M. fiat euaeporatio S. A. dum ad extracti consistentiam peruenerit, fiat (que) Laudanum approbatum & tutis­sium.

Vsus huius est.

In saeuis dolorum implacabilium paroxysmis vt pote colicis, podagricis, arthriticis, pleuriticis, stomachicis, Nephriticis. Item in vigilijs, destux­ionibus, haemorrhagijs & dysenterijs in expugna­bilibus & praesertim in vomitu pestilenti & phre­nitide summum arcanum.

Cautio.

Puellis tamen & senibus, quibus etiam vires vel magnitudine morbi v [...]l doloris saeuitia prostratae sunt, non confert. Quod si pulsus strenuns satis & vehemens appareat, siue periculo vti possis.

Extractio gum. hyosc.

℞ cort. rad hyosc. in mense Mart. vel septemb. circa plenilunium collect. exiccentur in vmbra po­stea purgentur & contundantur opt. & in vase vitreo cum q. s. vini alb. arctiss. includan­tur, tum in B. M. coq. per horas 12. vel amplius & rubicundam inuenes tincturam, quam exprimes è rad. fortiter, dein omnem hunc liquo­rem per filtrum transactum euaporato super car­bones viuos donec tinctura remanet instar mel­lus, &c.

Aduertisments.

1 My meaning is that Opium should bee first freed and quit from his sulphurous Ma­lignity, by meanes of its exsicration afore­sayd, and afterwards digested for the space of a moneth in distilled Vinegar, wherein good stoare of white Saunders, Balme, Red­roses [Page 48] roses and Cinamon haue beene infused, and lastly brought vnto the consistence of liquid Pitch, or somewhat thicker.

2 For Bezoar-Regall, I meane fine Gold, reduced into the forme of powder, by the Phylosophers dissoluing balsame, and so brought vnto such a true, reall, comforta­ble, and Bezoardick Medicine, that one graine thereof shall farre exceed six, or eight graines of the best orientall Bezoar; which (if need be) is very demonstrable.

3 That the (Saffron being pure and neate.) be infused after Quercetans-maner in Limon-water, and so the tincture drawne, let the water bee euapored with an easie and gentle fire, lest the more excellent and subtill spirit of the Saffron flie away.

4 To conclude, I put no Magistery or tincture of Pearle, Pretious-stones, Corall, nor of any other Cordiall things in my Lau­danum then you see, not onely because I find the foresayd tincture of Gold to bee as suffi­cient and auaileable as all the rest, but for some other rationall considerations, which here I spare to speake of.

5 And for the Amber-grise put therein, I neuer knew any woman troubled with the suffocation of the Mother, feele any mani­fest nuisance, alteration or offence thereby, [Page 49] [...]s some imagine, but if any man doubt ther­of, let him but onely touch the Pill intended [...]o be giuen vpon such occasion with a little [...]yle of Charabes or Amber.

These are the Laudanums, or Opiating [...]ompositions which I haue bin contented to describe in this booke, which indeed are all [...]ery good and excellent in their operations, [...]lthough they differ something one from an­other in composition, and diuersitie of in­grediences, yet the principal base common to them all, is meerely Opium.

The reason why I [...]aue not set downe the preparation of this Medicine in so ample and plaine a maner and forme, as euery particular Reader might desire to make himselfe Ma­ster of the Mysterie, is in regard I would not wrong any priuate person, who by his great [...]abour, cost and industrie, hath purchased and gotten a more peculiar interrest therein, as hauing sufficient vnderstanding, knowledge and experience in the whole Art of Physick. For although I am willing to make euery man, that shall read this Treatise acquainted with the vtilitie and profit which may re­dound and accrew by the vse of such a Me­dicine, yet is it not my intention for all that, to giue occasion to many presumptuous per­sons, which rashly, and without any true [Page 48] [...] [Page 49] [...] [Page 50] ground other then their owne priuate gain [...] making practise in Physicke, will take in hand with a thing of so great consideration and importance as Laudanum is. And this is the reason also wherefore I doe so freely ad­monish and counsell euery one that loues his owne life, or the preseruation of his health, more then the sparing of a sew scald pence, not to take this Medicine for any in­ward vse at any mans hand, but onely of such as haue good knowledge therein, and will faithfully communicate the same, not giuing quid for quo, as some vnworthy Mercenaries doe, who commonly gape after their owne benefit and commodite, rather then the good and safetie of their sick patient.

Furthermore, I am not ignorant though a man may finde many Spagirists vaunting, and bragging they haue this and that La [...] ­danum, and other excellent Anodynes com­posed without any Opium at all, some saying they can make Laudanum with mixtion only of certaine Cordialls, others would make the world beleeue they haue a certaine em­brionated Sulphur of Vitriall, which is a most rare pretious medicine, and Somnife­rous Anodyne; but these are nothing but vaine ostentations, seeing that without Opium or some other things of equiualen [...] [Page 51] and semblable faculties it is impossible for [...]ny man to prepare any generall, true or cer­ [...]aine Anodyne; how be it I deny not, but by permixtion of certaine things differing one [...]rom another in tast, smel and qualitie, a man may compose a handsome counterfeit Lauda­ [...]um, seeing that I my selfe can prepare such a Medicine of Nutmegs, Mace, Myrrhe, Saf­ [...]ron, Amber, Maske, Aqua-vita, Quintessence, of Sulphur, &c. without any Opi [...], the onely smell whereof will prouoke sleepe, and being administred will appease diuers griefes, yet for all that it is nothing so generall or auaile­able an Anodyne, that it may be compared in any sort with that prepared of Opium, or if it were a man might doubtlesse make as great scruple to take that as the other; for if Opium can indanger the body by its naturall som­ [...]iferous qualitie, why should not another Aromaticall Cordiall do the same, which by art hath acquired the like facultie.

Moreouer concerning the foresayd sul­phurous Anodyne, although Paracelsus tells wonders of such a one, in the seuenth Chap. of his booke De re [...]. natur. wherein he dis­courseth of diuers minerall Sulphurs, it is so (ingeniously with Crollius I confesse) that I neuer saw any such medicine; for hauing try­ [...]d conclusions, and wrought long time vpor▪ [Page 52] Vitrioll, I could neuer perceiue it had any such substance in it, which had like operation to that of Opium, as I haue plainely manife­sted in my booke intituled Anatomia Vitriol [...], divulged fiue yeares since; in regard wherof those are much deceiued which by meanes of its precipitation with salt of Tartar, by boy­ling in an yron pot, or by meanes of sublima­tion doe separate a greenish powder from Vitriol, calling it Sulphur [...]mbryonatum Vitriol [...], which being put to Vulcans Test, a man may quickly find it to be nothing but Copper, or being administred altereth the stomack, and rather prouoketh vomit, then either comfort or disposition to sleepe: it is therefore appa­rant that Paracelsus, intēded some other thing in this proiect then he vouchsafed to disco­uer to vs.

Hence you may behold the reasons, wher­fore we ought not to mis-prise, and vilipend certaine things for vncertain, but content our selues with the aforesayd Laudanums, or such like, with thankesgiuing to the Author of all goodnesse, not suffering our vnderstandings to bee abused by the vaine florishes or idle fantasies of any other.

CHAP. IX. Concerning the vertues and vse of all opiating Laudanums, aswell in generall as parti­cular.

HAuing alreadie set downe the manner how to prep [...]e Opium well, and to make excellent compositions thereof called Laudanums, it behoueth vs now to declare their vertues and vse for the better direction and aduer­tise [...]ent to them which shall haue occasion to vse the same.

The properties of euery Laudanum, which is well prepared and corrected, as beforesayd, are principally sixe.

1 The first is to giue ease, or to cease all inward paines proceeding of what cause so­euer, and that at all times, and to all persons without exception of what complexion, temprature, age, or constit [...]tion of bo­die soeuer, onely hauing regard to the Dose, and other circumstances which are re­quisit for the Physition to obser [...]e.

2 To prouoke those to sleepe which are [Page 54] destitute thereof by reason of any corporall disease, or alteration of spirit, which things it effecteth without dulling or benumming the senses, weakning the members, constipating the bodie, or producing any euill accidents at all in them, as other Somniferous things doe which are naturally cold, and il prepared.

3 To stop all vehement, subtill and corro­ding Cathurrous distillations falling from the braine vpon the lower parts, thickening them by little and little, strenthening the braine, and repressing the grosse vapors which rise from the stomacke vpwards, which are ordi­narily the causes of such defluxions.

4 To stay naturally the Haemorrhagie, dys­senterie and menstruall fluxes, as also the Dyarrhaea and fluxe of the belly, proceeding frō the great distemprature of inward heate, or some sharpe and biting humour.

5 To consummate and cease all burning Fe­uers and praeternaturall heate, proceeding from any wound or vlcer, or frō the fermen­tation or ripening of any cholerick humor, or any causticke or venemous matter.

6 To roborate and strengthen the bowels and all the relaxed and feeble conduits, and those whose vertue retentiue is weakened, by reason of some long sicknesse, or by the too much vse of purgatiue medicines.

Laudanum is more particularly vsed with good successe in these diseases following.

1 Against all maner of head-ach, as inue­terate Megrims, Cephalalgia, or any other kind of excessiue paine, hauing regard that the stomacke bee first clensed from all grosse and corrupt humours, the Dose is one small Pill to bee taken at bed-time, some two houres after supper, either in the water or syr­rup of sweet Maioran, B [...]tony, or some other Cephalick liquor, as the Physitions shall thinke good: or otherwise a man may take it in ale or broth, or swallow it dry as it is, continuing the same as long as need shall re­quire, that is vntill the paine be so tamed, that Laudanum is needlesse, which order must be obserued in all other diseases, wherein it is vsed.

2 Against all subtill Catarrhons, Destilla­tions which fall from the braine vnto the eyes, teeth, or eares, or vpon the inferiour parts, as the lungs, brest, stomack, &c. where­in Laudanum is vsed, as aforesaid, keeping the Patients head in the meane time neither too hot, nor too cold, nor suffering him to drink any wine, stale beere, or other strong drinke, as also to forbeare eating of mustard, garlick, onions, all spices and other things of a hot [Page 56] and drie qualitie, which further and prouoke too much the foresaid distillation. If it bee conuenient to open the body you must vse no other purgatiue then that of Aloes, wa­shed in rose-water, and thickned with the iuice of Rheubarb, Manna, Syrrupe of Roses, or with a conuenient Clister, which indeed is much better, for all other kind of purgatiue, dry and attractiue medicines are very dan­gerous in such accidents.

3 Against all paines of the eares with noise and flatulent tingling, be it by reason of cer­taine wind inclosed in the braine, or of any other vapours arising from the stomack: this medicine is best taken in the water of Fennel, Sage or a little white wine going to bed as aforesayd.

4 Against the ayrie Epilepsie (I speake vn­to Naturalists) whose sits happen with great ebullition of bloud, and afflict the Patient with an Haemorrhagic and great head-ach, we vse to giue Laudanum in the water of Pae­onie, wild Poppy or other appropriat liquor before or after the fit, and this must be giuen once euery quarter of the Moone in the mor­ning before Sun-rise, causing the patient to keepe a good diet, and to bee let bloud in due season and oportunity.

5 Against tooth-ach caused through any [Page 57] hot and subtill destillation, we vse to dissolue a little Laudanum in Vinegar, a few drops whereof the sicke patient must take and hold in his mouth a while, and after spit it out, and so take more and more in that fashion, vntill the paine cease.

7 To those which cannot sleepe by any means, we commonly giue a little La [...]danum with a spoon-ful of the water of Hypericon or Balme, some twice or thrice a weeke, as long as need shall require.

7 To those which haue any great fluxe of bloud at the nose, or mouth, after due inqui­sition of the precedent cause, to the end Phle­botomie, Cupping-glasses, or other means for revulsion-sake may be vsed, which taking no effect, we should instantly giue the patient a little Laudanum in the water of Plaintaine, bursa pastoris Tormentill, or rather (as most ef­fectuall) in Aqua spermatis ranarum per descen­sum distillat. And if the bloud issue from the nose, we put a little lint therein, that is soaked in the sayd water and Laudanum mix­ed, and also apply some dipped therein to the fore-head, by meanes whereof the flux will immediatly stay: But if the partie hath bled much alreadie, vse no more Phlebotomie, but presently haue recourse to this remedie.

8 To those which are subiect to too much [Page] vomiting and cannot brooke any meat on their stomack, by reason of some offensive matter there heaped & congealed, it is neces­sary that expulsion of the aforesaid matter be first made by the fittest Emunctory, either vp­ward or downward, as occasion shal require; or if the vomiting proceed through the abu­dance of wind, or vapors inclosed in the bowels by reason of some obstruction in the reins (as often it falleth out) or of some other part in such case these obstructions should be opened with some good Diureticke, Diapho­retick & other conuenient medicines, other­wise if the vomiting proceed from the parti­cular debility of the stomack, f [...]ō some vlcer, or any other cause then those aforenamed: In such case a man may administer Laudanum in the Syrrup of Quinces or Betony, reiterating the same as often as need shall require.

9 Against burning, malignant and pestilent Feuers (after conuenient vse of vomits, Be­zoardicks and other remedies fit to euacuate grosse humors, or purifie the bloud, if it be needfull) a man may giue the Patient Laudanū in the water of Carduus-be [...]ed ctus, Veroni­ca, Celondine or such [...]like, for in such cases it doth precipitate and consume the venemous vapors which arise frō the center of the body to the braine, causing madnesse, rage, phren­sey, [Page 59] and diuers other dangerous accidents, which by this means may be preuented, for it asswageth the extreame heat in Feuers, com­forteth the body and recreateth the spirits.

10 In intermitting Feuers after due euacua­tion of the offending and grosse humors, by vomit or siege appropriate, and the subtil and thin by conuen [...]ent Diaphoretickes, as also by giuing respiration to the star of Microcos­mick-fi [...]e by Phlebotomie, if need require, after which intentions (if the Feuer cease not) a man may bouldly administer Lauda­num in the water of Centory, Carduus-be [...]e­dictus, Mouseare, or others appropriat an houre or two before the fit, by which meanes twice or thrice vsed, I haue seene many A­guish people cured when no other remedie preuailed, yet I will not affirme this to bee an infallible cure in all, for intermitting Feuers fall out to bee such many times, that the best Physitions in the world know not what to say vnto them, seeing they mock and scorne (as it were both them and their medi­cines.)

11 Against the Collicke, and all gri­ping in the bellie (hauing regard that the bodie be alwaies kept soluble by some Clyster or Laxatiue Medicine, we common­ly giue Laudanum in a spoone-full of good [Page 60] white-wine; but the paine falling out too violent and intellerable we stay for no other remedies, but vse this at the very beginning, and the griefe being ceased, the Physition may happily proceed in his cure by remouing the offending cause, otherwise if hee shall see occasion.

12 In extreame paines and pinches which proceed from the small guts called Iliaca p [...]ssi [...], we administer Laudanum in the oyle of sweet Almonds, or Muscilage of Quince-seed.

13 Against paines of the Matrix, we giue Landanum in the water of Chamomill or Mugwort, but if the paines doe particularly proceed from retention of the menstrues, then must the cause bee taken away by pro­uoking them with conuenient medicines, neuerthelesse the griefe being intollerable, Laudanum may be first vsed, for it ceaseth all paines, represseth and consumeth all noysome vapours, which mount to the braine, and af­flict women with priuation of Sense, Stran­gulation, Epileptick fits, &c. without feare of any preiudice, by neglecting the cause, which the Physition may better meddle withall when the Symptomes are staied.

14 When a woman is deliuered from Child-birth, and her paines fall out after­wards to bee insupportable, causing want of [Page] Sleepe, Sounding, a burning Feuer, and great debilitie. In such a case Laudanum is found to be the most soueraigne remedie that can be, and hath no lesse vertue in the restrayning the too much effusion of bloud after birth, by giuing only one small Pill as aforesaid.

15 In all dangerous Fluxions of the Men­strues, wee vse to giue Laudanum twice or thrice, or as need shall require, and it will doubtlesse stay them, so that the Patient vse a conuenient diet and rest, and refraine from anger and other violent passions, altering and troubling the bloud, I haue cured diuers that haue lost (in a maner) all the bloud in their bodies, by giuing them onely Laudanum, and after taking a course to restore nature with conuenient Viands, and to comfort the heart, cause them to take the Magisterie of Pearle, Corall, the Cordiall Elixer, commonly called the Philosophers Aurum Potabile, &c.

16 In Dysenteries, and also in great [...]luxes of the belly without bloud, hauing first eua­cuated the offending matter with Rheubarbe or other conuenient medicines, according to the quality of the ma [...]er, & the part affected, we vse Laudanum with the Syrtupe of Quin­ces, once, twice or thrice, as need shall re­quire, omitting in no wise expedient Phle­botomie, or any other outward meanes, whe­ther [Page 62] they be Vnguents, Plasters, or whatso­euer.

17 To those which (hauing taken some naughty purgation) are fallen into a violent fluxe of the belly with no little danger of life (as by many examples is apparant) we giue Laudanum in a spoone-full of Red-wine once, twice, &c. vntill the fluxe cease.

18 In exceeding griefe in the Reines (cal­led Nephritis) as also when the vrine destil­leth by drops, scalding and corroding the vrinarie passages, much like to a strong-lee, Laudanū is giuen mixed with a little conserue of Roses, or with some Syrrupe of Violets.

19 Laudanum is likewise giuen to those which are daungerously afflicted with the stone, after the giuing of a mollifyng & car­minatiue Clister, if the body be bound, and then it is best exhibited in Meath, or the Syr­rupe of Liquirise.

20 To those which are exceedingly pained by reason of some inward rupture, Laudanum is vsually giuen in a spoone-full of good wine, annoynting them outwardly with a lit­tle oyle of Nut-megs, and causing them in the meane time to keepe themselues very warme.

21 Against all Gouts, or paines in the ioynts, whether it bee in the Feet, Hands, [Page 63] Knees, Hippes, &c. coniunct with inflam­mation, and when the offending matter is windie and vnconstant shifting from one place vnto another, in such cases to ease the paine, digest the matter, and thic­ken it so that it may bee more easily expelled by purgatiue meanes, or that Nature-selfe may consume it by insensi­ble transpiration) [...]audanum is certaine­ly worthie great commendations, especi­ally when it is giuen from the hand of a skilfull Physition, that is with reason, vnderstanding and in fit time, for in such occurrences where the matter is so vagant and vncertaine, purgatiue Medicines doe more ha [...]me then good by sturring the hu­mour ouer much, and causing inanition of the parts when the inflammation growes more vehement, and the sicke persons farre worse afflicted then before. To Ar­thriticall persons, in whom the offend­ing matter is not so vagant, but constant and resident in one place, who suffer not onely great paine, but an extreame Fe­uer with debilitation, losse of naturall rest and such like cases and Symptones, Laudanum is verie conuenient at the in­stant to stay the violence, after which you may vse purgatiue medicines to take away [Page 64] the cause with farre better successe then before, for if you should tamper and purge during these fits you would raise sundry o­thers of greater danger, for such strong purga­tions as those which are able to exhale the offending matter from the ioynts, would bee vsed when nature is quiet, rather then at such times as she is vexed, deiected & cast downe through violent paines and griefe.

22 To a wounded person, which is assaul­ted with a burning Feuer, Inquietude, Hae­morrhagia, or some other accident, whereby the wound is incensed and in danger to gan­grene: in such a case that Chyrurgian is wor­thie double honour, who knowes well how to vse Laudanum, for the good successe which vndoubtedly followes.

23 If any person afflicted with intollerable great paine by reason of any in [...]eterate vlcers in the legs, armes, or other parts of the body, as many times it falleth out, by giuing a little Laudanum some two houres after supper, the paine will cease without faile. I had once in Switzerland a certaine patient about 90. years of age in cure, who had two great vlcers, which in 15. yeares did so torment him, that he could take no rest, night nor day, so that he was constrained to seeke about for some man to giue him case; to whom hauing but [Page 65] begun to administer a little Laudanum, hee immediatly recouered his naturall rest, and shortly after was able to walke all the towne ouer, the which he could not do of long time before, so that onely by means of Laudanum hee preserued himselfe for the space of one yeare and a halfe together, at the end where­of hee died for very age, the vlcers in the meane time, neate, cleane and open, and that without application of any other outward thing more then a linnen ragge dipped in the water of Spotted Pers [...]aria, and so layd to the soare handsomely as I had directed.

24 Lastly when any person is tormented with any malady whatsoeuer, and hauing tryed all ordinary remedies that can be deui­sed to take away the cause, and being not able to be holpen therby, but remain in conti­nual torments, Dolor, Vexation & Watching, whereby the Radical moysture is so dainly ex­hausted, naturall heate extinguished, &c. In this case Laudanum doth merit to bee called the onely soueraigne salue for languishing people, seeing it ceaseth all their griefe strengthneth their inward parts, maintaineth naturall heate, and produceth such miracles in nature, that none can imagine, but such as haue experience of the same, for I haue ob­serued many examples very remarkeable, as [Page 66] that hauing my selfe, with good discretion and aduice administred Laudanum to some persons, when they haue beene struggeling with death, and assaulted with intollerable Agonies, Paine and torments, they haue had such comfort and ease, that presently after they haue in farre better sense recommended themselues vnto God, giuen order concer­ning their worldly estate, and yeelded their spirits into the hand of their Maker with quietnesse, great comfort and edification of all them that were present about them; But the contrary hath often fallen out and still doth for want of such a Medicine, in whose stead there can be found no parrallel, as expe­rience doth plainely declare, which ought to moue and stirre vp euery Physition, which neither knowes how to procure nor vse the same to acquit himselfe so much the more carefully of his charge before God and his neighbour, for there is no reason, particular opinion, nor any disputation ought to pre­uaile against charitie, by meanes whereof the whole vniuerse doth stand and continue, and whereupon all good Arts and Sciences are founded, so that wee halt in our dutie, when we neglect to search out and procure such things as are wholesome, good, and comfor­table to sicke people, albeit they were inuen­ted [Page 67] and found out by Pagans or Christians, an­cient or moderne, Gallen or Paracelsus or any other Author, whose opiniō we hold for Ora­cles, we cānot render ourselues excusable be­fore God the very searcher of the heart and thoughts: for experience being the great fundamentall booke of Physitions, which is daily read vnto vs by the light of nature, we should continually indeuour our selues, not only to vnderstand but obserue, also her mo­ [...]ions and directions, considering that (as Paracelsus saith) all the meanes and remedies which naturally cure sicknesses, are thetrue Canons and rules of Physick, which I would [...]aue to be construed with all conuenient ex­ception, attributing vnto reason that which [...]s agreeable, and vnto Authors the honour [...]ue vnto them.

Certaine Cautions and aduertisements for the better and more safe vse of Laudanum.

WE may all vnderstand that there is no­thing in the world (be it neuer so good) it for medicine, wherein good iudgement [...]nd discretion for its safe exhibition is not to [...]e required, which indeed is the chiefest rea­ [...]on that mooueth mee to giue further Cau­ [...]on and aduertisement concerning the vse [...] Laudanum.

[Page 68]1 First although in the former passages i [...] hath bin decreed, that [...]his Medicine should be vsed with di [...]ers Vehicles in euery disease, yet there may happen some particular occur­rence, that in one or other, the distilled wa­ters and Syrrups aforesaid may not bee con­ueniently taken as well in r [...]spect of their qualities, smels and tast, as other particular p [...]op [...]rties antipathizing the sicke Patient, whereof wee haue seene diuers examples, as some that cannot indure the smell or tast of roses, others of Quinces, some louing sweet things, others not able to indure them, to some distilled waters are pleasant, to others they cause vomit, and other accidents, so that the Physition ought to looke vnto all these things, and because such occasions may often fall out, it is best to administer Laudanum in Wine, Beere, Chicken-broath or some other Vehicle, agreeable as well to the Patients nature as his disease, whereunto great regard must be had.

2 You must not giue Laudanum twice in one day, vnlesse in great extremitie of paines for once will suffice, nor you ought not to exceed ordinarily the weight of three or foure grains at a time, yet vnto a person of strong consti­tution a man may giue from foure to [...]ix. I [...] is best administred at night two houres afte [...] [Page 69] supper, as aforesaid, vnlesse great occasion fall out otherwise, for then any time of the day must serue, according (to the old saying) ne­cess [...]ie hath no law.

3 You must also haue great regard that the body bee free from superfluous excrements, which must be procured with some conue­nient Laxatiue Medicine, molli [...]ing Clifter, or Suppositorie, but in leane and megre bo­dies, and such as feed very little, and such as are slender, full of heate and destitute of ne­cessary humiditie and radica [...]l moysture, ha­uing withall their veines full of blood, with such you must deale very warily, for they haue more need then a man would thinke to haue their heate cooled, and humected, rather then by purging the body, where no excre­ments are to dry the same more and more, for by diminishing the humours, heat must needs increase, and so will the bodie pine and con­sume away to nothing.

4 To Asthmaticall people, whose Brests, Lungs and other Organes are stuffed with Viscous and clammy flegme, you must take heed of giuing any Laudanum, for in such ca­ses you must vse Medicines to dissolue and clense away the said matter, which Laudanum cannot do being a medicine of a corrobora­ting and indifferent thickning nature:

[Page 70]5 Laudanum is not good or conuenient for Hydropical persons, which for the abundance of water conteined in them haue much adoe to breath and dare not sleepe in their beds for feare of suffocation, yet after the watrie matter is euacuated, the Liuer and other parts vnstopped with conuenient medicines, and deliuer [...]d from the foresaid Symptomes, then a man may be bold to giue them Lau­danum to Roborate the bowels, defend the body from subtill Des [...]uxions and finish the whole cure.

6 Finally, Laudaunum is not conuenient for them, whose stomack is full of grosse hu­mours which should bee euacuated with vo­mitory or Cathariticke medicines, nor for those which haue the Small-pocks, which Symptomes should bee taken away with ap­propriat remedies: In briefe, no man ought to vndertake the cure of any disease with Laudanum, which hath need of mitigation or helpe, either by Vomitories, Cathartickes, Dia­phoretickes, Diuretickes, Alexitaries, Vulnera­ries, Phlebotomie, Diet, or any other appro­priat remedie: And contrariwise it is idle to goe about to cure any disease with an other medicine, which of necessity must be cured with Laudanum: for euerie medicinall rule, and euerie Section of medicines haue vnder [Page 71] them their proper maladies for whose cure they are especially appropriated, yet not­withstanding wee are constrained many times vpon occasion to mixe one thing with another, not only in regard that two or three diseases do often iump together in one body, but also for the varietie of Symptomes, and effects that one only diseases may sometimes produce, so that one while one Medicine, ano­ther while another may be found to be most conuenient, and agreeable. And this is the reason why I propose not Laudanum for a vniuersall Medicine.

CHAP. X. Confuting three erronious obiections which may be proposed against the vse of Lauda­num.

SOme 8. yeares since, [...]being in consultatiō with certain Phy­sitions, about a man which was troubled with a fluxe of the belly a month together, & at that time together with the same had a continuall Feuer, was depriued of naturall rest and mightily tormented with belly-ach, [Page 72] so that notwithstanding the vse of a great number of medicines, yet he was become ex­ceeding weake and feeble: vpon which oc­casion when it came to my turne to s [...]eake, I proposed Laudanum, for an excellent medi­cine in that case: but they vtterly disl [...]king the same, came vpon me with these three ob­iections following, which notwithstanding were not able to renverse or ouerthrow my opinion. To preuent therefore a mischiefe which may happen to some sicke persons for want of Laudanum, being denied the vse thereof vpon so slight reasons, I thought good for conclusion of this Treatise, to set downe their obiections and my refutation of them in manner as followeth.

The Obiections.

1 First that Laudanum, being principally composed of Opium, and still re [...]eyning its Somniferous propertie, might consequently suffocate naturall heate, and benum and stu­p [...]fie all the senses.

2 Seeing Laudanum doth incrassate & thic­ken the subtill humors, it followed that al­though it did cease paine for the time, yet afterwards it made the cause of the sicknesse malignant, fixed and incurable.

[Page 73]3 That it hath beene obserued, that some sicke people haue died some few houres after the taking of Laudanū, inconsideration wher­of we should abstaine from its vse altogether.

The Answere.

Concerning the first obiection, I am of o­pinion, that if such men as goe about to pro­pose any such thing, would either giue place to the authority of great Physitions, or expe­rience-self (both which assuring vs that c [...]ude Opium, taken in small quantity, neither suf­focateth naturall hea [...]e, nor dulleth the senses, as hath beene already sufficiently proued in the beginning of this discourse) they would neither blame, nor so basely esteeme of it; but suppose that a very smal Dose of crude O­pium did produce such effects, must it there­fore doe the same when it is depriued of the superfluity of its narcotical Sulphur, his Acri­monie corrected, and after mixed with such Bezoardick and Cordiall things as aforesaid? No man of iudgement, or of any experience in the Mysteries of nature, can deny that Opiū (the principall ingredience or Basis of Lau­danum) being thus altered both in forme and substance, becōmeth likewise changed in its vertues and operations, and therefore can [Page 74] with no reason censure so hardly thereof as when it is crude: And notwithstanding that Laudanū doth prouoke the diseased to sleepe, yet daily experience teacheth vs that it doth not suffocate naturall heate, but rather pre­serue it when it is about to consume, and in danger to be suddainely extinct by reason of its violent motion, extreame paines, and ex­traordinary watching, whereby it is as rude­ly handled as a lampe or burning-torch is in a mightie tempest, which causeth a greater wasting of oyle, and losse of light then it would doe if it were defended from such an accident.

2 For the second obiection: Laudanum is so farre from aggrauating, impairing or ma­king worse the causes of the disease by reason of its incrassating faculty, that quite contrary it prepareth some offending humours, and maketh them far more apt and easie to be ex­pelled, as in the 21. passage before cōcerning Gouts we haue something declared; For is it not the consent and verdict of the best Phy­sitions in the world, that the preparation of humors before purgation doth chiefly con­sist in two operations, that is in subtilizing and attenuating of those which are Viscouse thick and clammy, and incrassating and thickning indifferently those which are too [Page 75] subtill, virulent, windy & vagant in the body? Now the greatest part of extreame paines and inward heates proceeding from some dissolued matter, that is either salt, sharpe or corroding, or from such as doth excoriate, in­flame and alter the member affected, where­by malignant vapors arise, which passing vn­to the adioyning parts, doe by consent pro­duce sūdry tormēts, & many euil accidents as by experience is manifest: what better course can a man obserue, then by meanes of Lau­danum to thicken and digest the sayd humors & sequestring & consuming the aforesayd va­pours in such sort, that they can by no means exercise their cruelty as before? And in case of superfluity (if it be any waies requisite to be purged, a man may doe it afterwards farre more warily and safely then in the former e­state: is not this represented to any mans vnderstanding, by sundry outward vlcers, which being inflamed and distilling from some subtill and corrosiue humour, cause great Pricking, Dolour and paines and oftentimes by consent a Feuer to the Pati­ent, so that the true remedie in such a case to take away such accidents is some excellent Anodyne, which may mitigate and asswage that vnnaturall heate, and suddenly ripen and indifferently thicken the offending [Page 76] humor which was so subtill and corrosiue, which being done, al other Symptomes cease whatsoeuer; Laudanum then (not onely pro­ducing these effects by its naturall propertie, but also mundifying, resisting putrifaction, and healing, and comforting the weakened parts as it were Balsame) may by good conse­quence take away or extinguish the cause of many euill Symptomes, rather then impaire and make them incureable: for although it doth moderately incrassate, yet notwithstan­ding it doth not coagulate the bloud, nor fixe the substances, which in their owne pro­per nature are liquid in stone, nor soder or glue the parts together as Gypsum doth, for which cause onely men should blame it in such maner as before.

3 Thirdly, we will not deny, but that some sick person may chance to die soone after the receipt of Laudanum, but that Lauda [...]um was the cause of their death, & that in regard ther­of its vse is vtterly to be abandoned and for­saken is the matter now in question.

First therefore it is very apparant by our former discourse, that Laudanum is not a thing of such a venemous quality, as will cause death to the receiuer, for albeit the ob­seruation be true that some haue died soone after the taking thereof, yet that ought not [Page 77] to supersede all other reasons, attestations & experience concerning the good effects, and safe vse of Laudanum, for as it is an absurd and foolish thing for a man to say, [...] did see cer­taine graines of Bezoar-stone, Vnicornes-horne, Pearles, or such like pretious Cordials giuen to a sicke person who died not long after, ergo, that was the cause of his death, and ther­f [...]re take heed of vsing any such thing here­after: or I saw one giue a Clister to such a sicke person who died soone after, Ergo, Cli­sters are dangerous remedies, and ought not to be vsed, as many simple people are accu­stomed to argue; Euen so it is as absurd a thing to hold Laudanum in suspition, because such a one tooke it & after dy [...]d, for although it doe principally and speedily cause all tor­ments to cease, and prouoke the diseased to sleepe, yet that is no consequence that it can preserue a man from death, when by God his secret decree his houre is come, for nei­ther that nor no other Medicine in the world can doe: sleepe and exemption from paines are necessary things, as well for sound as sicke men, the one with distinction, the other with­out all exception; but that these two doe sometimes serue for the maintenance and strengthening of mans life, and other some­times are vnnecessary, and of no vse, this pro­ceeds [Page 78] not through any fault in themselues, but in nature which doth not receiue them for her owne good and benefit, as other times she vseth to doe, which thing is liuely represented vnto vs by the vse of meate, drinke and all other things called Medicines not naturall, which sometimes are good and profitable to the bodie, and sometimes quite contrary, euen as nature disposeth of them for our good, or euill, howsoeuer in themselues they are alwaies good, seeing without thē no man can liue, we may easily perceiue the v [...] ­ritie hereof by the example of any man, who hauing watched, and trauailed moderately vntill at last hee become drowsie and faint, who after a little sleepe, and repose being a­wakened, becommeth as liuely and frolicke as at first. But if this man returne to his la­bour, and redouble his paines & watching in such sort, that hee surpasse the limits of his strength, and so long vntill his vitall animall and naturall functions be vtterly disbanded and weakned, making such an exceeding al­teration in his body and turning it quite vp­side-downe, so that a dangerous and mortall disease insue: Now in this case, if he betake himselfe to this Medicine for rest and sleepe, thinking to finde like benefit and comfort, as before, he shalbe so farre from enioying [Page 79] the same, that quite contrary he must needs pay the price of his life for his vaine ex­cesse and intemperance. After the very same manner may wee iudge of such a sicke person as hath wanted sleepe be­yond measure, indured intollerable paines, taken no food or nourishment, and become extreame weake and at point of death, who afterwards falling into a little sleepe of himselfe, or by meanes of a little Lau­danum, or a spoone-full or two of some restauratiue liquor to comfort him; in­steed of recouering his life by any of these, hee doubtlesse dies; the cause of his death notwithstanding ought not to bee imputed to the little sleepe hee had, nor to the taking of the Cordiall (seeing that sleepe and nourishment are two ne­cessary things for the preseruation of life) but rather in regard that death hauing seized vpon them, these things could not produce those good effects, which by natures intention they were ordained and appointed for. Let this suffice then to con­fute the third obiection aforesaid, in defence of well prepared and discreetly administred Laudanum. For if any man vsing Opium as the Turkes doe, or Henbane, Mandrage, or any other Narcotiall thing so crude, raw, [Page 80] il-prepared or vncorrected hath or doth cō ­mit any notable error in that behalfe, it is farre from my scope or intention to defend any such abuse; my desire is rather that Phy­sitions should beware how they deale with simple people, and lest the Art should bee slaundered, there ought to bee a fit time e­lected for the giuing of Laudanum, that is at the first incounter of the disease, when there is good hope of cure, considering that wee must not onely haue regard to purge Phlebo­mize, prescribe a Dyet, &c. to our Patients, but also to comfort and restore, to aduance and bring them to their naturall rest, and to cease and qualifie their torments. More­ouer wee should omit no occasion at any time, to ease and succour our neighbour, euen vntill the point of death, in all things wee may or can possibly, euen as, wee would bee serued our selues in the like [...]ase, and that with all conuenient exceptions and prote­station for the reason aforesayd; And this shall suffice for conclusion of this present Treatise.

Now I protest to euery one that shall read this same, that I haue no pretension in this discourse, to iniure, or detract from those which worthily make profession of Physick, but onely desire to amplifie the knowledge [Page 81] of this medicine, for the benefit of such per­sons as are ignorant thereof, as I haue before sayd in my Preface. And also to manifest the paines which I take, and the diligence I bestow to find out the properties, preparati­on and true vse of such things as are especi­ally conuenient and necessary in Physicke, and consequently to make it appeare, that those which (mooued with their owne pro­per passions) shall speake any thing against me, deceiue themselues, and derogate from that Noble name whence they are called Christians, thinking it no wrong to detract from anothers honour, so they may by that meanes or any other augment their owne, which I would haue construed with all mo­dest exception, intending not to touch any one mans name more than another, if their owne tongues bee not their owne accusors, wherby if they chance to manifest themselues they shall haue no occasion to blame me, and therefore I commit my right to him which only knowes the hearts of men, and who ad­ministreth Iustice, Equity, Mercie and Grace, vnto all his Creatures, to whom bee glorie for euer and euer. Amen.

FINIS.

Faults escaped in the Printing.

IN the Epistle Dedicatory Pag. 12. line 10. reade Cal­ci [...]ing. In the Authors Preface p. 12. l. 6. r. iucundé. In the treatise p. 2. l. 1. r. Dioscorides, p. 11. l. 12. r▪ nuisance p. 15. l. 1. r. Complicentur, p. 19. l. 17. for amongst r. a­gainst, p. 49. l. 16. r. Mellis.

LICENSED,

Feb. 21. 1669.

Roger L'Estrange.

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