• 1. Of his Place.
  • 2. Of his State.
  • 3. Of his Names.
  • 4. Of his Rising.
  • 5. Of his Raigne.
  • 6. Of his words and actions.
  • 7. Of his times.

Necessarie to be read and knowne of all men, who professe Christ Iesus, and hope to be saved by no other Name.

By G. S.

Mal. 4, 5, 6.

Behold I will send you Elias the Prophet, before the comming of the great and dreadfull day of the Lord. And he shall turne the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, least I come and smite the earth with a curse.

2 Thes. 2, 3, 4.

Let no man deceiue you by any meanes, for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sinne be revealed, the sonne of perdition. Who opposeth and exalteth himselfe aboue all that is called God, & that is worshiped: so that he as God, sitteth in the Temple of God, shewing himselfe that he is God.

Printed in the yeare M.D C. XXV.

To all Kings, Princes, and Potentates, especially to King Charles Defendor of the Fayth, and to the King and Queene of Bohemia professing the Fayth, and therefore per­secuted. Also to all other Christians, whether Reformed, or Romish.

AMongst all those controversies, which like cloudes overcast the Church of Christ at this pre­sent, so that many stumble at noone day as at night, and but a few are truely resolved of their owne aright walking with God, according to knowledge, there is none more necessarie to be generally understood, then that of Antichrist: both because this Egiptian darknesse, which is in the land of Goshen, proceeds from his inchantments, to hold Pharoh still in the hard­nesse of heart: and also because the externall splendor and glorie of his seate, supported with the countenance of Magicall science, bellish unitie, carnall succession, corrupt custome, ragged antiquitie, Idolatrous universalitie. Counterfeit miracles, hypocriticall sanctitie, stupenduous amplitude, blinde devotion, formidable tyrannie, Catho­lique power, and worldly felicitie (as Salomons throne was with ly­ons cunningly carved) doe much dazle vulgar judgments,1 Kings 10, 19, 20. and a­maze the sillie Lambes of Christ. But if this Magitian were fully discovered to be but an Impostor, and onely to bumbast his re­putation with lyes, forgeries and usurpations (like a spirituall Quack-salver) then the more that Princes and people had doted upon him, and deified him, the more they would hate him,Rev. 17, 16, 17. as those Kings shall, who out of godly indignation, hate, strip, eate the flesh of the whore, and burne her with fire.

[Page]This the learned Limbs of Antichrist understand verie well, and therefore eyther terrifie all men from looking into the booke of God, where Antichrist is described (at least from looking into the Reve­lation, where he is set out to the life) or else, as the Scribes and Pharises did with their corrupt glosses and Comments made upon the Prophets, darken the comming of Christ, and denye him being come, putting off the time of their Messias hitherto, deferring, and dallying, as the Turkes doe with their Mahomet, yea fayning his person to be humaine onely, and his Office temporall, thereby to hold the Iewes still in spirituall Captivitie, by causing them to deny the Sonne of God their Saviour: so doe these waue the comming of Antichrist, and with their corrupt glosses, and misapplications turne the truth of God into a lye, causing the world to embrace the Sonne of perdition; by telling them of an Antichrist, that must be a singular person, and not a succession (as if we designed such a succession,This they would proue, by the names giuen him in the singular number, 2 Thes. 2, 3. As also by the article [...], or ille, being de­monstratiue particles. But Gramarians say that not onely proper names, and words that signifie indi­viduall things, but names that signifie a multitude or succession, nownes appellatiue, collectiue, and successiue, are both in Greeke and Latin expressed in the singular number, and joyned with that demonstratiue particle. As hic populus, ille rex, in aggregation, succession, or collection. 1 Pet. 2, 17. [...]. Philosopher; say that [...]num one, may be taken not onely singulatim, but congregatim, and summa­tim. And that a thing may be idem numero, not onely as the sunne, but as a heape of corne, a flock of sheepe, a river, whose parts it may be may increase or diminish, and be in continuall motion and altera­tion, some going away, and others comming in place, and yet continue one and the same singular, heape, flock, river, to which both the singular number, and demonstratiue particle are joyned. Divinitie sayth, that Antichrist is not onely opposed to Christ the Head, who is one, but to Chri­stians, the bodie, the members, who are a succession of kings & priests annointed, or a royall priesthood. 1 Pet.2, 9. And for the use of a demonstratiue particle, or the singular number or name they referr us to 1 Pet. 2, 17. Dan. 2, 38. Thou, O King, art this head of gould. Thou & thy predecessors, thou and thy successors; though per excellentiam, thou aboue all before or after. So 1 Pet. 5, 8. ho Antidicos, not one adversarie or one divell onely, but all. Rev. 13, 2. and 2 Thes. 2, 7. with divers other places. Thus neither Grammer, Philosophie, nor Divinitie will teach me, what these new Roman Pithagorians wou'd force me to beleeue. But ipse dixit is sufficient in the schole of Antichrist, to silence not onely his schollers, but Grammer rules, & the Logicall rules of reason, & the Scripture, yea Christ himself. But he that will not heare Christ, Christ will not heare him, though he crie Lord, Lord never so loud. as did not admitte and containe singulars) a Iewe, and perhaps, of the Tribe of Dan, the sonne of a Divell, or of an Incubus, of a virgin or of a Whore, or of some bodie: that he shall raigne three yeares and an halfe, sitte in the Temple of God in Ierusalem, kill Enoch and Elias, with much other strange legiona­rie stuffe, concerning Antichrist, his person, office, Raigne, warre, and overthrow.

[Page]And least men should examine, and so finde their falsehood, they obtrude these opinions aforehand upon the Church, to be belee­ved as Articles of Fayth, by all their members, viz. That the Church is for the Head, or principall part, Romish, and so particular: for the bodie, Catholique. That the Pope is the Head of the Church, and so as Head of the Church, Judge of the Scripture: and the onely true expounder of it: having that infallible and universall spirit, which di­rects the whole in all truth. That his seate is the Rock immoueable, to which in all stormes the shipwrackt soule should resort for safeguard. That Salvation is no where else to be found. And that his Decrees are to be believed, and obeyed, not to be questioned, or examined in the least.

Loe, thus he hath made sure not to be discovered, except, out of good nature, he will confesse himselfe to be the thiefe, and restore the stollen goods to the right owner. But as the acknowledgement of error, and of injurie, is not to be expected from him or his, who loue the world, the pompe, glorie, and power thereof, a little too well, to resigne their Soveraigntie: So in all these cour­ses, whilst he thinkes cunningly to hide himselfe, he bewrayes him­selfe the more to be ANTICHRIST unto such as haue spirituall eyes, illuminated by grace from aboue, to discerne trueth from falsehood.

Thus you see their Egiptian wisedome, and what paines they take with those Magicall Iuglers, Iannes and Iambres, 2 Tim. 3, 8. to conceale them­selues, and how much it concerns them so to doe.

On the other side, it concernes us, with Moses to relye upon the Hebrew simplicitie and sinceritie for our salvation, but withall to be learned in all the Egiptian wisedome, Act. 7, 22. the better to discover An­tichrist his clowdie walking, that so diverse Controversies may be at an end. For were he fully discovered, then all that belieue in Christ, and loue him, and desire his glorious comming, would hate this Monster, who is like Iudas amongst the twelue a counter­feit Apostle, carrying the bagge, an Hypocrite, playing the parte of a Vicar, a Deputie, a Substitute; but from the stage appearing a na­ked, ragged, beggerly vacabond. And doubtlesse, his person be­ing thus discovered, his lawes and decrees would be rejected, and Kings, Princes and people, would cast the Egiptian yoake from [Page] their overgalled neckes: Yea such as thinke, they doe now God good service, in murthering the poore Lambs of Christ in all places for him, would leaue him, come out of his Babylonish profession, and not so much as trade or trucke with him in the least exchange of those doubtfull commodities, or touch any of those garments spotted with the flesh.

It cannot be denyed, but Iesabell was once young, and Chast and faire: But this proues not, that she is so now. It cannot now be denyed, but that she is full of wrinckles, and a royall whore; the Mother of fornication;Rev. 2, 20. fitte for all commers; and withall painted, to uphold her rotten reputation. And we doubt not, but God will stirre up some Iehu (zealous perhaps for his owne interest, if not for Gods) to cause her owne Eunuchs, those Fryars, Monks, and other Votaries,2 King. 9, 30 to throw her out of the windowe, that he may treade her under his horses feete. And doubtlesse, as this shall in time come to passe by the powerfull preaching of the word, which shall wast him by degrees;2 Thes. 2. so, as an effect of the word prea­ched, first, the usurped authoritie of the Papacie, and Roman Cleargie over Kings and Princes, shall be broken, and reformation shall begin, where deformation came first into the Church. So that Antichrist shall say, as Hanniball once did: Eadem arte qua prius cepimus, Tarentum amisimus. And this is with Iehu to treade Iesabel under foote.

Bellarmine confesseth, that Constantine the Greate gaue the Pallace of Laterane,Bellarm. li. 2, cap. 17. de Rom. Pontif. & multa alia temporalia, to the Pope, Di­tionem tamen spiritualem neque dedit ullam, neque dare potuit.

So the spirituall dition, made way for the temporall donation, and then was poyson powred into the Church, when the bountie of Prin­ces sought to satisfie the ambition of Priests. The Priests then grew downwards towards the earth, and Princes then began to climbe upwards, towards heauen: And the coveteous Clergie finding the fayth of fewe (for the faythfull are but fewe, a verie little flock, and oftentimes not very rich in wooll) not to be so fruitfull as the su­perstition of many, they nourished that profitable and liberall hu­mour by their uttermost arte, and from hence got S. Peter a rich patrimonie being dead, who when he lived, had scarse a house, wherein to hide his head. This temporall patrimonie graced with [Page] so holy a patronage, as the reverenced name of S. Peter, did spee­dily and mightily increase in all places, especially where superstiti­on was interteyned in the name and stead of true Religion, and where Clergie men knew how cunningly to raise questions and quarrels under hand, and then to intrude themselues as equall arbitrators, and impartiall umpires; but ever to manage and determine all for the advantage of the Catholike cause, as they called it, and for the ruine of particulars: as it is reported of that Lawyer, who decided the difference betwixte the lame man and the blinde, concerning their oyster, that each of them should haue a shell, and he the meat. Thus dealing for the Church by pretence (themselues being mostly single and unmarried, and so unsuspected to trade for the world, and posteritie) they had oportunitie to inrich themselues, and their particular fraternities, and to performe such actes with com­mendation, because they pretended S. Peter, and the Church, not themselues, as would haue been counted cousenage, treacherie, exaction, oppression, injustice, and perhaps forgerie and Rob­berie, if perpetrated by any other persons, or to any other ends. But the generall opinion of their Cause and Persons (supposed and stiled sacred) made all passe currant without question or controule. Thus in a short time, where they were lately glad to be graced by Kings; Kings were now glad to be graced by them: And where Kings had persecuted their predecessors for the trueth, they now persecuted Kings for falsehood; and chalenged the investiture of such Princes by right, upon whom their predecessors, out of the opi­nion of their pietie, and the superstitious desire to be inaugurated by so blessed an omen, had been sometimes formerly invited or admitted, to lay their holy hands. Now therefore they began to cutte out large cantles of the earth for their owne share, and made so manie sanctuaries, and Citties of refuge, that they incouraged ma­lefactors, who ought to haue represt them, and gotte well by the bargaine too. For they so mightily grew by this meanes, that the world, and the wealth of it was found with Priests; and pietie was onely found with the poore: the secular was onely regular ac­cording to Christ, and the Regular was master of misrule in all secu­lar affaires: Marchandize, forraigne negotiations, and the Govern­ment civill and ecclesiasticall, first, by the civill and imperiall lawes, [Page] after by the Cannon Law, a Law of their owne) was wholly mo­derated, and managed by them: Kings were made their wardes, and deposed for Hereticks, as soone as they once thought them­selues of age to rule themselues and their people aright, without their helpe: Yea Mars himselfe was interteyned into their service, and the Crosse of tribulation, fayth and patience, which was at first but a staffe in the hand of the Cleargie, to support them in their constant sufferings, was now perverted in the use, and turned up­wards, in prosperitie and spirituall pride, and so became a sword in everie Cleargie mans hand, to invade and disturbe the peace of Christendome: and Confession served, as a secret racke or torture of Conscience, a kinde of holy inquisition, to finde out that sweete sinne, and to pardon it, which might be most profitable to the Church, as having command over the purse of the partie peccant. Thus it grew in time to be rightly called the Sacrament of pennance indeede: for if it had not contrition at the first, yet it ever ended in repentance, though ever a little too late, and therefore to small purpose for the pennilesse penitent.

The Cleargie having by these artes and infinite others (as Ido­latrie is full of invention, for he that can once make his Creator can make all other things) ingrost almost all into their owne hands, they made divisions of Kingdomes, and cutte them out into Bishop­ricks, as all Countries, especially Germanie can well witnesse. Where the Emperor was shackled with Ecclesiasticall Officers of the Sea of Rome, as with fetters of gold; till the necessitie of the pa­pacie, about the rising up of Luther, forced the Pope, to permit the house of Austria to grow a little too great, to the lessening of Antichrists immediate authoritie. In so much, as now the Papacie is made a servant to the House of Austria, under a Catholike title: as the Papacie before made both that House, and all others servants, to increase and support the excessiue greatnesse of that Sea, under the like Catholike title and pretence. But this was then, and is now a violent motion, and therefore not perpetuall: then permitted and practised, to prevent the losse of all, which was justly feared upon probable grounds; and now to hold what that Sea still pos­sesseth, but feareth to loose: and to regaine (if it be possible) what she hath lost alreadie. Which if ever she could regaine by [Page] this meanes, she could then be content to burne the rodde of her wrath, or to weare it out in her worke, with whipping others. In the meane time she is content to make the Spanish kingdome the Catholique sword: so that the Roman Church may still be the Catho­lique scabberd to that sword, and draw it, or sheath it at the Popes pleasure. But I beleeue, that as by these arts that Antichristian Sea hath ascended up to that superlatiue height, wherein it now sitts; so it shall loose all, by the same or the like meanes. For whensoever the world shall be so happie, as to haue an understand­ing Emperour, who knowes his owne, and is able to discover, and recover Antichristian usurpations, that such a man, taking Henry the VIII. of England for a patterne, shall and may easily doe that in Germanie, and so consequently in other places, which that Resolute King, by the advice of the Lord Cromwell, and the ex­ample of Cardinall Wolsey, did in his owne dominions. viz.

That King intending to dissolue all Monasteries, made a division of part to the Nobles and Commons, from whence it first came, and so mette no opposition; The patterne was the Popes owne, who made Church-men Princes, and changed the title and name of those Lands, which were often by them acquired, and posses­sed by ill arts, as if he could haue changed the nature thereof, and made them, what he called them spirituall. The King therefore did but reduce things backe to their right and former order. Here onely was the error of that worke; that the King did not restore the Tenths to the constant maintenance of the ministerie; which portion, whether it now belong to the Church or no, jure divino, I intend not to dispute pro or con: But I dare say, Gods owne order hath manifested it to be both competent and convenient for that pur­pose, beyond all old exceptions or new inventions, and so proues it to agree with the law of nature, if not to flow immediately from thence, deserving therefore to liue after the honourable buriall of the ceremoniall Law, as it breathed long before it.

Had these things been better ordered, and some Bishopricks broken into lesser pieces, so that they might haue been sitte for honora­ble burthens, but not too greate for the portage of one person, who laden with too much temporall honour and revenue, as men o­vergrowne with flesh and fatte, become unwealdie and dishonou­rable [Page] burthens themselues to the Church; then the undertaking had been absolute. For whether it be fitt, that one who will not preach the Gospell, should haue power to silence such as would; that one should haue power to silence a whole Diocesse of learned mini­sters, and a whole Diocesse of these, should not haue power to open the mouth of one? That one should haue double honour for the single worke; Nay for his wilfull idlenes, and obstinate hindering the conscionable worke of others: and others no honour, but con­zumelie, and scorne for doing the double worke diligently? That one should haue the provender belonging to manie labouring oxen for lying in the manger, and hindering the poore asses from meate: whilest divers oxen that would tread out the corne, want come to eate, or corne to treade out, or are muzzeled whilest they treade? That one should rule a place manie miles from his person, as if he had both an infallible, and infinite spirit: and manie should not be able to rule a pettie parish, or to catechise a household without helpe? whether this thing be according to the patterne of the Apostolicall Hierarchie, are problemes, which some thinke fitt to be published amongst those of Antichrist. because it may be doubted, that he who would doe thus, would not perhaps startle at a Cardinals cappe, or the triple Crowne, it they were profered, or could be compas­sed easily: and therefore such a man is no fitte instrument to be used against Antichrist, in the pulling downe of Babylon, or to sit for Christ and rule,Obiect. upon the top of Sion. Object. But kinges and Princes governe by substitutes farre off. Answ. True: But it shall not be so amongst you. Ans. Mat, 20, 26. Matth. 20, 25, 26. Take these words of Christ as a Precept to shewe Bishops what they should doe; or as a prophesie, to shew all men the estate of the true Church what it shall be, it is all one. And doubtlesse such Princes as shall hereaf­ter reforme, will learne to mend what is amisse, by the sight of other mens errors: and so whensoever God shall blesse Germanie with an able and religious Emperour, and shall put it in his heart to re­forme the Church, it is but changing those greate Bishopricks of Mentz, Tryers, Collen, Munster, and the rest into absolute Prin­cipallities, and making them Hereditarie, where now they are Elec­tiue, and the worke is at an end; they will joyne to uphold their owne interestes, and soone exclude the Papacie, and mince the Pre­lacie [Page] somewhat finer.

A speedie and certaine preparation for this, is the discoverie of Antichrist: and it is the duetie of all men therefore that can, to doe their best, according to their talents, in this subject; and amongst others, this learned Author hath done much, and deserues much in this respect of the Church. The Course he takes by Problemes to handle this controversie, is not as if he doubted, or any other man neede to doubt of the trueth; but as it should seeme, being no profest Churchman, he modestly disputes the point, as a man that would learne himselfe and others, by asking questions wisely; and withall inquiring, whether it can be imagined, that any man can be more like Antichrist then the Pope is; he concludes nega­tiuely, that none can; and plainely layes downe in everie Probleme the obstinate absurdities of such, as looke for Antichrist, and be­leeue he shall come, yet cannot now see him to be come; because either he stands too neare them, as a beame in their eyes, and they are parte of him; bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh; or, they expect him, when he comes, to be so qualified for publique observa­tion, as the Church of Rome hath cunningly, and poetically de­scribed him: But such an Antichrist they shall never see; for the church of Rome did so paint him in policie; not for the disclosing, but for the concealing, and clowding of his proper and personall appearance, and diverting the eyes of all men from beholding the right object. For my parte, meeting with this Booke in a manu­script, and seeing the profit it may bring to all, I could doe no lesse, then be a midwife for the edition of this, since I am not able to be parent, for procreation of the like. And I haue taken the bold­nes upon me, to dedicate it to no lesse persons, then to the Kings and Potentates of the Earth, for it concernes them all especially, aboue and more then others, to reade, and to understand this Con­troversie, least they should be made drunke, or kept drunke; with the dregges of that abhominable cuppe of Inchantments, wherewith diverse of their forefathers haue been intoxicated, and slept to death; and least they should under the appearance of Christianitse, counte­nance and support Antichristianisme, and so thinking to doe Christ good service, persecute his poore members ignorantly. Besides many of them haue suffred much from the hand of Antichrist, and [Page] his members. The Kings of France haue beene butchered by their instruments, and the kingdome put in Combustion, by their in­cendiaries of the Roman Catholique league or partie. Our Queenes Father Henrie IIII. of renowmed memorie, must not be forgotten: his blood is yet too fresh upon their fingers, to be hidden from her Majesties eyes; except they force her weake sexe (as they haue done manie of the masculine gender) to winke; by threatning to dippe their fingers, as deepe in her bloud, (which the Lord forefend) if she cast an eye towards her Fathers Funerall, or so much as inquire whether or no, he dyed by age, or by some injurious and traiterous hand. Our Kings haue beene, and are still, excommunicated, cur­sed, exposed to slaughter, and deposition by them. The King and Queene of Bohemia, haue beene pursued from place to place; and all Christendome imbroyled with bloodie warres for the upholding of Papall usurpation, against regall Iurisdiction. Other Princes haue formerly felt, and may hereafter feele the strength of his Imperiall and Catholique Armes; and therefore it concernes these also, to knowe the man of sinne, for their owne comfort, that they may the better beare their Crosses, considering from what head, and hand they come; and that they may with more courage and assurance, looke up towards deliverance, Luke 21, 28. as Christ hath willed them, who at the length will be too hard for Antichrist, and giue a happie yssue to all their afflictions.

And as it concerns Princes especially, so it concerns others also, as much as their salvation may concerne them, to know Christ their Saviour, and Antichrist the chiefe enimie of their Saviour, and of their Salvation, from each other; and therefore I haue dedicated it to all Christians. But if any wonder, why in the Title of the Dedication, I use these words: To all Christians Reformed and Ro­mish, as if I contradicted my selfe, in calling the Romish professors Christians, which in other places I terme Antichristians: I answer that the Pope himselfe could not be the Antichrist, except he were a Christian, and tooke upon him also to be the chiefe Christian, in externall profession. A man may in diverse respects be a Christian, and an Antichristian at once. The Pope is baptized, professeth the fayth in generall termes, as Peter did; and thus he is a Christi­an, and one of S. Peters successors, as all other Bishops are; but [Page] as he chalengeth to be head of the Church, universall Bishop, of an infallible spirit, Iudge of the Scripture, &c, he is Antichrist, that is,Rev. 18. Rome, as head of the church is Babylon, & such as so dwell in it, mystically by adhering to it, are in Babylō whether they be in Rome or no, & such as renounce this Babylonish do­ctrine of Ro­mish suprema­cie & suprela­cie, holding the true head, which is Christ Iesus alone, those are with out Babylon, though they dwel in Rome▪ for Christ▪ in shew, but against him in trueth. So those of the church of Rome, are Christians in outward profession, but as they ad­here to the Pope, as to the Ʋicar of Christ, and head of the Church, they are Antichristians: and such of them as belong to Gods electi­on, are called out of Babylon by the holy spirit, and may come out from thence, by renouncing the Babylonish doctrine of the Church of Rome, though for their persons and dwellings they con­tinue in the same place and cittie still. And that these Romish Chri­stians may be informed, and all other Reformed Christians established in the trueth, is the end which the Author proposed to himselfe in the collection and composition, and I in the publication of this trea­tise.

All that I feare is, that both this worke, and my owne indea­vour shall meete the greatest discouragements from some of those, that should protect and countenance us: who eyther from error of judgment, deny the Pope to be Antichrist, and yet separate from him (at which I wonder) or else out of humane wisedome and poli­cie, seeme still to be in doubt, and will not be resolved, as fearing a diminution of their worldly greatnesse and glorie, if this truth should be generally acknowledged. Because they suppose much of their authoritie would be found to be built upon the sandie foun­dation of Antichristian usurpations. But shall we loose heauen for earth? or looke so low, as to bring temporall respects into the bal­lance with eternall? Can there be no provision for upholding the honour and countenance of the Clergie, from common contempt, and for the incouraging and rewarding of learning, but what Antichrist invents to uphold himselfe withall? Then let me rather be still poore and despised with Christ, and accounted ignorant with his Apo­stles, then rich and respected & learned with those of Rome: Truth and simplicitie are the chiefe ornaments of Church-men, and should be inseparable. Their serpentine wisedome should not be used for this world: for that naturall subtiltie, which hath no mixture of doue-like simplicitie infused by grace, Christ did not teach to his Apostles: but Adam and Evah learned it of the old serpent, and ha­ving therewith lost Paradise, left it then, with the wide world to [Page] boote, as a Legacie for all their posteritie. I would faine therefore finde that simple Christian Policie, which lookes directly forward, to the price of the high calling, Phi. 3, 13, 14 and contents it selfe with that respect, which followes the worke, Rom. 2, 29. whose praise is of God and not of men. If the worldes wages comes with it, I shall take it as the faithfull performance of his gracious promise, who hath wild us, first to seeke the kingdome of God; Matth. 6.32. and his righteousnes, and all needfull things for this life, shall be ad­ded unto us.

This is my resolution, and I am resolved besides, that he, who upon those earthly respects, before mentioned, or any the like humane grounds, and motiues, opposeth this booke, or the like, doeth therein sufficiently declare himselfe to be Antichristian, and shall neede no further eviction or confutation, then the evi­dence of his owne actions. Kings and Princes therefore must cast an eye upon such, and they shall soone see all their Councell is to uphold their owne earthly commaunds, for personall respects: a watchword sufficient for him that is wise, to beware of such, for they are wolues in sheeps cloathing.

And now to conclude, how much are we to magnifie the Lord for our King, Nobles, Cleargie, and Commons, mette together lately in the high Court of Parliament, and there so well according, for matter of Religion, that the Subiect no sooner shewed his grievance with complaint, but the Soveraigne applied the remedie with com­passion. Such a Head shewes it selfe sensible of the suffering of the feete: and such members will never forget (as they haue protested) thankfulnesse to such a Head. Thus they are happie in knowing each other; So that the king having any attempt against Antichrist, neede not doubt the bodie: And the people fearing the incroach­ments of Antichrist, neede not doubt to acquaint the Head with their feares. How happie a thing is it to heare that ecclesiasticall corruptions had no backs in eyther house, nor no sonne of Belial there to pleade for Baal. It is the bellie, and not the conscience, that speakes in such cases;Whether they be greater friēds to schol­lers and learn­ing, who pro­vide for a few covetous and ambitious persons; or they that provide for the generall number of carefull and con [...]cionable persons, blinde men may see and judge: what portion had Fulke, Fox, Whitaker, Rey­nolds, Perkins, with many others in the Church. Or were not these men learned? Or who was more learned, painfull, and profitable to the Church of Christ, then these? He that thinkes me an enimie to the Bishops for this, is deceived. Nay rather I wish, that where there is but one Bishop now, there were twentie, so farre am I from schisme, or from being Antiepiscopall. and howsoever of old, such penny-wise Fa­thers haue been applauded, as the onely pillars of the Church, and friends (forsooth) to schollers: yet now the world knowes better, [Page] that, as a man cannot fill his mouth, and speake, both at one time; so they who are most greedie and unsatiable in seeking after offices, haue least leasure and desire to performe the Dueties of them. And that both the Parliament that desired, and his Majestie who graunted, and the Cleargie who never opposed the reimployment of silenced Ministers, (who were not turbulent) did well understand. For these men will be contented with litle, and yet withall will labour to giue much contentment in the workes of their vocation: so that if they may haue free and peaceable passage, we shall see Superstition and Idolatrie haue a greater blowe in a few yeares by their labours, then in manie yeares before by the unfruitfull & unprofitable warre stird up against them, as betwixt Fathers and their children, which gaue way to the contrarie humour to increase. And were some of these men well provided for, and protected in Ireland, I doubt not to say, we should soone see the happie effect thereof, and that an Armie of Priests would do more perhaps, then an armie of secular souldi­ers; and so settle that kingdome in obedience to Christ, that we should not fear any invasion or inward motion by Antichrist, or his instruments in those parts. He that doubts this may looke into Scotland, a place sixt [...]e yeares since, as obstinately averse from the fayth, as Ireland is now; where in a few yeares Poperie was wholly rooted up, and scarce a man to be found, that would professe him­selfe to be a Papist; till these late dayes, when the unhappie division betwixt the Cleargie gaue them oportunitie and incouragement to in­crease and multiplie. It is our charge to conquer the Irish soules to Christ, as well as the Irish lands and bodies to our selues; and I am perswaded, God hath not prospered our worke for our parte, be­cause we haue had no greater care to compasse his parte: If they were Christs, they would be ours too, in spite of Rome and Spaine: but being Antichrists in affection, their able bodies are imployed as instruments against us in all places, and their Countrie used now by Spaine, as Scotland of old by France, to divert and distract our warlike attempts, and to hold us busied at home. Their conversion would haue beene the glorie of our church government, shewing [Page] that our Cleargie did not seeke themselues, but Christ; as now it is our shame, that whilest the Romish Cleargie haue conquered ma­ny Countries for Antichrist, in the East and West Indies, we should neglect a neighbour countrie, long in our possession, suffering them still to liue in spirituall captivitie, under the hands of ignorance, Idolatrie, darknesse, and death. But now we haue better hope, seeing the re­concilement of the Fathers to their brethren, and doubt not, but that will be effected there, which hath been performed in England and Scotland heretofore, by the conscionable, plaine, painfull, and powerfull preaching of the Gospell; whilest men are not distracted, nor their hearts alienated from each other, by domestick contro­versies. For these Church quarrels about Ceremonies, besides the distraction, do by the scandall hinder the progresse of Religion, causing the enemie to insult in their unitie, against our truth, because they see us divided, and in our divisions pursuing each other more bitterly, for those things, which we professe to be circumstanciall and indifferent; then we doe them in fundamentall controversies: And so they say truely, we shew little charitie, and therefore can haue no true fayth.

The Lord therefore joyne the hearts of our King, Peeres, Cler­gie, and Commons in one, to finish this good worke which they haue begun, to the overthrow of Antichrist: and blesse this worke to his full discoverie; that Kings, Princes, Priests and People, may learne to leaue him. And so craving pardon for that capitall crime of plaine-speaking, which I haue herein used, I ende with the Authors owne Epistle, or Preface to the Reader.

Quod à suis olim Lectoribus, petiit, pater doctissimus, id te oratum volo (pie Lector) ut sicubi me errasse animadvertes, me corrigas: siteipsum, mecum redeas; ubi pariter cerius es, per­gas mecum; ubi pariter haesitas, ores mecum; ut sic Christianae unitatis & pietatis leges inviolatas teneamus.

THE SVMME OF THE FOLLOWING Discourse: conteyning Seuen Problems concerning Anti­christ, everie one resolved into seuen Questions, necessarie in these times to be considered.

I. Probleme. Concerning the Place of Antichrist, whether it be Rome Christian.
  • 1. Whether Rome be that great cittie described in the 17. ch. Apoc.
  • 2. Whether it be the great cittie where the beast shall make warre a­gainst the witnesses of God: which cittie is spiritually called So­dome and Egipt &c. Apoc. 11.
  • 3. Whether Rome be Babylon the great, which is mentioned Apoc. 14.
  • 4. Whether it be the great cittie spoken of Apoc. 18.
  • 5. Whether it may be understood to be the place called Armaged­don. Apoc. 16.
  • 6. Whether it be the place. noted by the Apostle to be the Temple of God. 2 Thess. 2.
  • 7. Whether it be the mountain of holynes between the seas. Dan. 11
  • Summa. If these prophecies do all concurre in Rome Christian, and cannot be understood of any other place. then is Rome Christi­an the seate of Antichrist.
II. Probleme. Of the State or bodie Politike of Antichrist whether it be the state or dominion of Rome.
  • 1. Of the prophecies of Daniel concerning the fourth Beast, and the Prophecies in the Revelation how they differ, and how they may be reconciled.
  • 2. Whether the fourth Beast in Daniel do signifie the Roman state under Consuls, Decemvirs, &c. or what else.
  • 3. Whether the first Beast rising out of the Sea Apoc. 13. do signifie the Roman state under Caesars, or what else.
  • 4. Whether the Beast in the 17 of the Apoc. doe signifie the Roman state under Antichrist. or what else.
  • 5. Whether the little Horne in Daniel do signifie Antichrist, or what else.
  • 6. Whether the second Beast in the 13 of the Apoc. do signifie An­tichrist.
  • 7. Whether the woman in the 17 Apoc. do signifie Antichrist.
  • [Page] Summa. If these prophecies do concurr and be all fulfilled in the Roman state, and the Governours thereof, and cannot be fulfilled in any other, then is that the state of Antichrist.
III. Probleme. Of the Names of Antichrist.
  • 1. Whether the name of Pontifex Maximus do agree to Antichrist.
  • 2. Whether the name of Servue servorum do agree to Antichrist.
  • 3. Whether the name of that Antichrist may be giuen to the Pope, & to all the succession of Popes, since the yeare of our L. 700.
  • 4. Whether the name of Anomos .i. the Lawlesse, or the man of sinne, may be applied to that succession.
  • 5. Whether the name of the Sonne of Perdition may be giuen to that succession.
  • 6. Whether the name Abaddon may be giuen to that succession.
  • 7. Of the numerall names of 666. and how they are applied to the Pope. Summa. If these names and prophecies do all concurre in the Popes and their succession, & can be truly verified of none other, then is the Pope (collective, as it is sayd, Nomen successionis) That Antichrist.
IIII. Problem. Of the Rising of Antichrist.
  • 1. How the Monarchie of Antichrist must beginne to rise, whether all at once, or by degrees in tract of time.
  • 2. When it must beginne, & whether it must not beginne, before the power of the Emperor be fully removed out of Rome.
  • 3. When the power of the Emperor began to be removed, & how long it was in removing.
  • 4. Whether it may stand with the scripture to say, that Antich. must be a singular person, or whether he must be a monarch successiue.
  • 5. By what means the Popes did rise to their height of power & su­premacie, whether it was not by sedition and schisme.
  • 6. Whether they did not contend and warr against the holy Bishops and Saints of God to get their supremacie.
  • 7. Whether they did obtein their dominions and supremacie by re­bellion and perjurie. Summa. If all the prophecies concerning the Rising of Antich. be fulfilled in the Pope successive, & cānot be fulfilled in any other, then is the Pope successive Antich. & none else can be.
V. Probl. Of the Raigne of Antichrist.
  • 1. Whether the Great Whoore described Apoc. 17. doe signifie the [Page] state of the Antichrist regnant.
  • 2. Whether al parts of that description may be applyed to the popes successiue since the yeare of our Lord 700.
  • 3. Whether the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is, Apoc. 17. doe signifie the Pontifex Max. that is, the Pope of Rome.
  • 4. whether any Iew, Turke, or other person whatsoever hath been supported by so many Nations, Peoples and tongues as the Pope hath been during his supremacie since the said yeare.
  • 5. whether it be possible, or likely, that any Iew Turke or other person whatsoever should obteyne such greate and inestimable riches, as the Popes haue gotten in that time.
  • 6. whether any Iew, Turke or Pagan ever had or claymed such ab­solute and supereminent power to depriue and depose kings and princes by their sentences, to absolue their subjects from their alledgeance, & to dispence with oathes, as the Popes haue done, & whether it be possible that any Iew, Turke, or Pagan can ob­teine such power.
  • 7. whether ever any Turk or Iew pretended or claymed such abso­lute supremacie & authoritie, that if he lead multitudes of soules caetervatim into hell, yet he was not to be reproved, nor called to account for it, as the Popes haue arrogated: and whether it be probable that any shall be able to attain to such power hereafter.
  • Summa. If all the prophecies concerning the Raigne of Antich. be fulfilled in the Pope, and cannot be otherwise, then he is Antich.
VI. Probl. Of the words and actions of Antichrist.
  • 1. Whether any Iew or Turke, or other whatsoever haue so much & in so high degree, blaspheamed God, and our Lord Christ Iesus, as the Pope and his Church haue done since the said year 700: namely, in affirming, that the old and new Testament haue their authoritie from the Popes decree, and such like. &c.
  • 2. whether any haue caused or procured so many rebellions, Trea­sons and murders to be committed, as they haue done: and whe­ther it be possible for any in time to come to doe the like.
  • 3. whether any haue changed lawes so much as the Pope hath done, by his decrees, decretals, pardons, dispensations, Faculties, Indulgen­ces, &c. and whether any Iew, Turke, or Infidell ever tooke upon him such authoritie, to dispense with sinnes before hand, and to [Page] giue indulgence for sinnes to be committed, as the Popes haue done more then God himselfe.
  • 4. whether any haue changed times so much as the Popes haue done & whether it be possible for any in time to come to make such changes. viz. by feasts & fasts, Lents and Iubilees, decretals, di­spensations and Calenders.
  • 5. whether any Iew, Turke or Infidell hath erected, or maintained such open and notorious Fornication, adulterie, and Sodomie as the pope hath done, and whether it be possible for any in time to come to do the like.
  • 6. whether any Iew, Turke or Infidell haue so wilfully & obstinate­ly erected and mainteyned so manifold Idolatrie, & so many se­verall Idols as the popes haue done: and whether it be possible for any in time to come to do the like.
  • 7. whether any Iew or Turke did ever sitte in the Temple of God, boasting himselfe to be God, as the Popes hath done: and whe­ther it be possible for any to do the like, & to be believed there­in, as the Pope hath ben.
  • Summa. If all the prophecies concerning the words & actions of Antich. be fulfilled in the Pope, and cannot be fulfilled in any other, then he is Antichrist.
VII. Probl. Of the times of Antich. how they be fulfilled, and to what Period they are come.
  • 1. Of the first working of the Mysterie of iniquitie, how long it con­tinued.
  • 2. Of the time of the rising of Antich. & when it was fulfilled.
  • 3. Of the Revelation of Antichrist, and how that is fulfilled.
  • 4. Of the signes of the times of Antich. & how they are fulfilled.
  • 5. Of the times of the raigne of Antich. how long it continued.
  • 6. Of the Consumption of Antich. & to what point that is come.
  • 7. Of the end & abolition of Antich. which must be by the bright­nes of the coming of our L. Christ, who is God blessed for ever.
  • Summa tot. Si probatur propositum, & non probatur contrarium, quid am­plius desideramus? If all the prophecies of Antich. be fulfilled in the pope, and cannot be fulfilled otherwise, then the Pope is Antichrist.

Caeli faciem nostis discernere: signa temporum non novistis?

Matt. 16.


That the Apocalyps is to be searched.

THose that are taken to be masters of learning, teach us in everie subject and matter propo­sed, first to aske the question An sit? whether it be, & whether it be possible to be known, and attained unto; least spending our time in things impossible or imperceptible, we both loose our labour, & become ridiculous. The same is taught us by our greatest master, in the parables of the man intend­ing to build, and the king going to warre.

Desiring therefore to finde out and discover that great enemie of the Church of Christ, Antichrist, who it is,Luke 14. and whether he be come or not, (after the grace and mercie of our Lord and master Christ Iesus most humbly & devoutly implored, without whom we can do nothing) I think it not amisse to consider first of the difficultie & obscuritie of the Book of the Apocalyps or Revelation, wherein by the con­sent of all learned Christians, Antichrist is understood to be most spoken of, and his Place, State, Actions, and other cir­cumstances most largely described and discovered unto us: [Page 2] Seeing there can be no doubt made, but there must be such a person, as the Scripture speaketh of by that name, and he must be such a one as is there intimated, & howsoever ob­scurely, yet by him that knoweth all things truly and suffici­ently described: not intending neverthelesse to make any exposition of the said book, which being but a simple Laick I dare not enterprise of anie part of Scripture, but onely to examine some parts thereof, which may seem pertinent to the matter in hand, thereupon to propose some questi­ons wherein I desire to be resolved.

And first to speake somewhat of this booke of the Apo­calyps in generall:Iunius. which is by all men confessed to be full of mysteries, and that it is by reason thereof verie darke and obscure, is by manie affirmed: yet I see this hath neither disswaded the mindes, nor discouraged the industrie of god­ly men in all ages from searching to find out the true sence and meaning thereof, amongst which Iustinus Philosophus and Irenaeus godly Martyrs, S. Ierom & S. Austin excellent Fathers, Haimo, Iohannes de Rupescissa, Ioachimus Abbas, and others of the former age, Luther, Balaeus, Fox & Iunius, in our fathers time, the learned Abbat bishop of Salesburie, Paraeus, Napier, and others of our own time, Alcasir & Ri­bera Romanists, and aboue all, our most Gracious & learned Soveraign King Iames, deserveth to be remembred. Vpon great reason and judgment surely haue all these entred into this waightie work, well knowing, that being sent unto us by God and our Lord Iesus Christ, we as duetifull servants ought to search out the understanding thereof,Deut. 6, 7. and to talke of them, as of a message sent unto us from our chief Lord & master, who hath given it to be shewed to his servants, and hath annexed a blessing unto it: For blessed is he that readeth, and heareth, Apoc. 1, 3. & keepeth the words of this Prophecie. That there­fore which God will haue to be opened,Math. 25. no man ought to [Page 3] shut: that which he will haue to be shewed forth, no man ought to conceale: that which he will haue to be knowne, none ought to neglect. For he giveth not his gifts to be bu­ried in the earth, nor his talents to be tied up in a napkin,Luke 8. neither do men (saith he) light a candle, and put it under a bedde or a busshell. Wherefore neither I (howsoever unwor­thie) durst altogether suppresse these my poore meditations concerning Antichrist, much spoken of in this book: but having obteyned grace of God, adventured to put them in writing, thereby to giue occasion (the questions being thus opened) to the learned that shall vouchsafe to read them, the better to consider of them, and instruct others, & to the unlearned the better to inquire and learn; beseeching the great Bishop of our soules, & Illuminator of all men, Christ Iesus, to instruct & inlighten us all. And for the same cause I thought it best to propose them under the name & forme of Problems, or Questions; reduced to the number of seven, in a due observation of that mysticall number, so manie times observed in this heavenly booke: which by the opi­nion of some learned men, ought to be used as the key to open these divine mysteries. But before I come to the main question, I think it necessarie to say somewhat, touch­ing the difficultie of this booke, and of the end and subject of it, for a further declaration whereof I haue conceived these seven Problems ensuing, upon the two first verses of that Book, which are as followeth: The Revelation of Iesus Christ, &c.

1. Vpon these two verses, standing like the two-leaved gates of the Temple, which must be opened before we can goe any further, with fear and reverence,1 Reg. 6. as at the gates of Gods owne house,Ez [...]ch. 41. I demand whether they do not present seven things to our consideration? 1. first the name given to this book by the Author, Apocalypsis, A Revelation, or Dis­coverie, [Page 4] not Apocrypsis, a Concealment, or covering. 2. The first originall Author, God, who gaue both the booke it selfe to be shewed to the Church, and the name to the booke.

3. The most true, immediate & rightfull owner by the gift of his Father, Christ Iesus, who sent & shewed it to his servants.

4. The end wherefore it was given, to be shewed.

5. The persons to whom it must be shewed, his servants.

6. A touch of the subject, Things which must shortly come to passe.

7. The meanes & Instruments imployed by our Saviour in this service of Revelation, an Angell, and an Apostle, euen that Apostle who before had ben tried and found faithfull, in bearing witnes of the word of God, and of Christ Iesus, and of all things that he saw: his servant Iohn: the same who by the H. Ghost was authorised aboue all others, to in­title himself,Ioh. 21, 24. & 19, 35. A witnes of the things which he saw, and there­fore of credit aboue all exception, and that aswell in his Gospell and Epistles,1 Ioh. 1, 1. as in this Revelation.

Now upon these seven grounds touched in the entrance, I propose this Question: How this booke can be reputed darke and obscure, which God himself hath intitled a Re­velation,Ephes. 5. E [...]ai. 5. or Manifestation? Light maketh all things mani­fest sayth the Apostle. And doth the spirit of Trueth call darknes light, or light darknes?

2. God the Author is light and in him is no darknes. 1 Ioh. 1. He maketh light to shine out of darknes,2 Cor. 4. not darknes to come of light,2 The. 2, 10. unlesse it be to the children of darknes that loue not the light. Also our Saviour Christ is the true light, that lighteneth everie one, yea the Brightnes of Light. He is the Trueth,Ioh. 1. Hebr. 1. & protesteth of himself in these words, whatsoever I have heard of my father, I have made known unto you. How then can it be said,Ioh. 15. that he hath not made this also known, which God gaue him to be shewed?

[Page 5]3. Our Saviour Christ the true and rightfull owner,1 Cor. 12. as in his mysticall body is one with his Church,Ephes. 5. and we are all members of that bodie, how then can that be said to be concealed from the bodie, that is revealed to the head?

4. The same inference will follow upon all the other four points aboue noted; as upon the 4, Seeing God gaue it to be shewed; upon the 5,Ps. 119, 125 seeing it is directed to be shew­ed to his servants, who must labour to know their Masters will. Vpon the 6,Luke 12. seeing it concerneth things that must shortly come to passe, and therefore inconvenient to be hid and kept secret. And upon the 7, seeing it was committed to two most faithfull ministers of purpose to be signified to the church, and thereupon most godly men haue laboured from time to time to search it out and expound it: why should we despair to speake of it, as the Heathen man doth in Minutius, that neither it is given to us to know it, nor per­mitted to search it, nor lawfull to require it? And not raither say, as it is there by the Christian Oratour replyed, that to us, whose faces God hath lifted up to Heaven, and whom he hath in­dued with speach and reason, whereby to know and speake of him, yea more to whom he hath directed it to be shewed; It is not law­full to reject this heavenly brightnes, which not onely offreth, but intrudeth itself into our eyes and senses. The obscuritie of this Booke is not to terrifie us from it,Aug. de civ. d [...]i. l, 20, 17 but to exercise our mindes in it, sayth the learned Father. Let this therefore suffice cōcerning the obscuritie, that it is not invincible, but we ought to search it out.

2. Let us now therefore (Christo Duce) for a second Pro­blem inquire of the meanes whereby we may attain to the understanding of this booke. For it cannot be denied, but there are in it manie mysteries, which it is not giuen to all men to understand, but it is giuen to some, of whom our Saviour sayth, vobis datum est, it is giuen to you,Marc. 4. and for [Page 6] them he hath ordeyned meanes. I demand then, what are the meanes? And whether are not those the best m [...]es, which God himselfe and our Lord Iesus Christ hath shewed us in the Scriptures.Aug. de civ. dei li. 10, 23. Phocyll. Nazianz. Aut. nin. in sum. p. 4.1.4 Prov. 8, 13. Wisd 1. viz. 1. True and serious repentance, which is (as it were) the true purgation of the soule, so much inquired for by Philosophers, and onely revealed to Christians, to make us fit to behold heavenly mys [...]ies. For wisdome (sayth he) entreth not into a malicious minde, nor dwelleth in a sinfull bodie.

[...].2. Constant obedience and care to serue and please God according to our knowledge. If any will do his will, he shall know the doctrine: And if ye continue in my words, ye shall know the trueth.

Naz. Ioh. 7, 17. & 8, 31. Rev. 5, 4. & 10, 9.3. Earnest prayer and invocation of God in Christ Iesus, which our Apostle used, and thereby obteyned to see the opening of this booke and to haue it delivered unto him ac­cording to the manifold promises of our Saviour Aske & ye shall receiue, Mat. 7. seeke and ye shall finde, knock and it shall be opened. For whosoever asketh, receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. Whereupon, Aske, (saith venerable Beda) by prayer, seeke by reading and hear­ing, and knock by doing and practise.

4. Diligent reading and meditation upon this booke, of­ten recommended unto us by this our Apostle in the Text. Blessed is he that readeth, Rev. 1, 3. and heareth, and keepeth the words of the prophcie of this booke.

5, Diligent reading and perusing other bookes and pro­phesies of the Holy Scripture, and conferring one with the other a speciall means to understand the sense and meaning of Propheticall words and Phrases much used in this booke,Dan. 9, 2. by which means also Daniel confesseth that he understood the end of the Captivitie. And some learned men do make no doubt, but the literall sence of everie place of Scripture [Page 7] taken with the consent of other places, and repugnant to none is the true meaning of the H. Ghost: Consent being the most certain badge and cognisance of truth. For in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall everie word be confirmed.

6. Methodicall proceeding by the rule of learning, à no­tioribus ad minus nota: from things once cleared to that which is more obscure and difficult, or to use the Apostles Phrase from milke to strong meat.Hebr. 5. We must not be alwaies children in understanding, and stick in the rudiments or principles; nor call that into question, which is once made clear. And here by the way I would craue a litle leave to aske a question or two concerning the writings of the Fa­thers and other good Authors: what account we are to make of them, and whether it be not necessarie for us to search and looke into them to the end we may know what is now, or hath heretofore ben revealed or made cleare. For the Fathers, it may seem that their consenting testimonies in the exposition of the Scriptures ought to be held of so great authoritie as we do esteeme the Cōmunion of Saints, professed in our Creede. For if we hold not a Communion of faith with the Saints that are now in Heauen, it may proue a question whether we shall come whither they are gone before us. And therefore not without cause doth the godly and learned Vincentius so earnestly exhort us to hold fast quod ubi (que) semper, & ab omnibus creditum est, not that which some few or perhaps some particular Church hath conceited, but that which hath been everie where and at all times and of all Christians beleeved, that is (if I understand him aright) the common Creed & profession of our faith left unto us by the Fathers. And he maketh the consent of the Fathers, though not a rule of faith equall to the Scrip­tures, yet a singular good help to the understanding of them.

Concerning the writings of Heathen men also, I [Page 8] aske how we may safely neglect them, where they teach us any point of truth or goodnes? seeing there is no truth can be uttered by any man, or Angel but it must pro­ceed from that Eternall and incommunicable Truth our Lord Christ Iesus, nor any good can be done or spo­ken, but it must come frō the highest & soveraign Good, which is God himself. And therefore most truely and divinely speaketh that godly Father.Augustin. Bonus verus (que) Chri­stianus Domini sui intelligat esse, ubicun (que) invenerit verita­tem. A good and true Christian must understand that truteh wheresoever he findeth it is, the word of his ma­ster Christ Iesus. And though Abana and Pharphar the rivers of Damascus were not so sanctified as Iordan to cleanse Naamans leprosie: yet they were made of God to wash our hands and quench our thirst. Though com­mon bread be not equall to the sacrament: yet it must be received with prayer and thanksgiveing, as the gift of God, to satisfie our hunger. Yea let us well consider whether it be not necessarie for us to looke into them: seeing we may be sure that the vertues, moralities, and doctrines of the Heathen, shall be no lesse objected un­to us at the day of judgement then the examples of the Queene of Sheba, the King of Nineveh, Ty­rus and Sidon, Sodom and Gomorrha. Is it not needfull then to know, what shall be laid to our charge, and prepare our selves to answere it? God nath provi­ded & preserved for our use the learned writings of the Heathens, shall we not use them? may we not in refu­sing them seeme to abridge God of some part of his glo­rie? for let us a litle better consider it. The excellent vertues, wisdom, temperance, justice and fortitude, & the illustrious examples of these vertues shining in them, their invincible patience, fidelitie inviolable, justice in­flexible, [Page 9] unwearied industrie, their profound learn­ing, mellifluous eloquence in perswadeing men to ver­tue and temperance, Their heroicall magnanimitie, readie to undertake all dangers, to save, succour, and defend those that were unjustly oppressed, and other such divine vertues: what think you, were they of God? or of men? If you say of God acknowledg it. If of men; why doe not you the like, that have greater helps? How can the weake and corrupt nature of man inthral­led to sin and Satan bring forth such fruits? But I know what a schooleman may say: splendida peccata, because not ordinate to Gods glorie. True as in men, but are they not therefore to be acknowledged for a part of Gods ad­ministration and providence, who holdeth the begin­nings ends & middesses of all things, & without whom no man can do any thing, as the Philosophers also,Plato, Arist. Cic. Hesiod. Theog. Vir­gil. Phocyll. &c. and Poets with open mouths confesse? What then shall we say to their excellent sciences of Geometrie, Cos­mography, and Arithmetick, which we have received wholly from them? What to their Historyes and com­putations of Times? Shall we not accompt these a part of Gods dispensation, and therefore good in the Foun­taine, from whence they flowed, howsoever corrupt in the vessels, wherein they were received & conveied? Doubtlesse if we will be good Christians, that is of the holy priesthood, we must learn to seperate the precious from the vile, the cleane from the vnclean, and not cast away the wheat because of the chaff;1 Cor. 15. S. Paul vseth the words of Heathen Poets, in a point of manners to the beleeving Corinthians, yea to Titus a Bishop:Tit. 1. Act. 17. and in a point of faith to the vnbeleeving Athenians which S. Luke maketh a part of Scripture to the beleeving Chri­stians. So saith our Prophet,Revel. 21. They shall bring the Glory and [Page 10] Honour of the Nations unto it. Esai 60. And the riches of the Gentiles shall come unto thee saith the Lord. Let us therefore give to God his due, and restore the holy vessells to the Tem­ple, notwithstanding Belshazzars drunken prophanati­on. Let us I say hold fast that we have received, and use that to Gods glory, which they abused to their owne. And this have I debated somwhat the more at large, to satisfy the nicenesse of some, which in this point seeme to be more scrupulous, then is convenient.

To return to our purpose, the seuenth meane to attain to the understanding of prophecies is to exercise our selvs in discerning the times, by diligent comparing of the events with the prophecies, which we may the bet­ter doe by the help of the godly and learned writings of former times, whereof I have spoken, especially Histories and Chronologies,Rom. 15. which the Allforeseeing provi­dence of God (for our learning doubtlesse) hath cau­sed both to be written and preserved. This help the Fa­thers of the Primitive Church had not, and therefore it is no marvell if they could not so well expound these prophecies, which are best understood by their accom­plishment. This is that which Salomon commendeth saying,Eccles. 8. that the wiseman discerneth the time and judgment. The men of Issachar,1 Chron. 12. and the great Princes of Media, and Persia are commended for the same,Esther 1. and the Scribes and Pharises sharply reprehended for neglecting it.Matth. 16. And so I conclude this Problem that God hath given suf­ficient means to attain to the understanding of this booke.

III.My third Problem or Question is of the persons to whom it is ordeyned to be shewed, which may easily be conceived aswell by the meanes, as by the Text. For it must be such as use these meanes and they are [Page 11] here noted by the name of the Servants of Iesus Christ. Ioh. 15. For it were absurd to thinke that he would shew his se­crets to his enemies, and not to his servants and freinds. Concerning whom I desire to be resolved in 7. points.

1 Vpon the words long before spoken by our Savi­our vobis datum est. Matth. 13. To you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdome of heaven; whether by these words he meant to signifie onely his Apostles, or all his disciples, and them also which (as he speaketh in another place) should beleeve in him through their words? Iohn 17.

2 Why in these words he made no speciall mention of Peter or his successours, which do now vindicate to themselvs the sole authoritie of the keyes, aswell of sci­ence, as of power and jurisdiction.

3 whether those, who by our Saviour are there sig­nified by a vobis datum, be not the same, which are here called the servants of Iesus Christ, and why here also there was no mention of Peter or his successours, or of the Roman Church, which was then in the Imperiall Cittie, and doubtlesse had many godly men in it,Rom. 16. and some of great dignitie?

4 When our divine Evangelist writeth these things to the seven Churches of Asia, whether he did not in this according to his direction? and whether he doe not hereby shew, who were meant by the name of the servants of God and Christ?

5 what reason the Apostle had to send it to those Churches, and not to the Roman church either as chief, or as one of the rest; was it perhaps for the reason of S. Hillarie. Anne ambiguum est Antichristum in his te­ctis esse sessurum? Or was he not an Apostle and Pro­phet to the Romans, as well as to them of Asia? or for what other reason?

[Page 12]6 Whether in writing to those seven, he did not in­tend to write to the whole universall Church of God as well to come as present: as S. Augustine expound­eth Numero septenario vniversae Ecclesiae significata est perfec­tio. De Civ, 17, 4. And onely to the Church, and whether all others be not excluded by a vobis non est datum?

7. And lastly whether in writing to the seven Chur­ches and their Angels equally and indifferently, he do not sufficiently shew that the state of the Church upon earth is neither in the nature of a Monarchie, nor of a De­mocratie, but of an Aristocratie, where the several An­gels preside in their severall Territories, precincts, and congregations, agreeing in the unity of one faith un­der one eternall head, the God of Truth, Christ Iesus? Let us not deceive our selvs. Babilonians use to lisp. They cannot speak the language of Canaan with a true spirit. Neither onely this booke but all the Scripture is dark and obscure to them, whose minde the God of this world hath blinded,2 Cor. 4. Hosh. 8, 12. and so much for the Persons.

IV.My fourth Problem is concerning the finall ende & scope of this book in the verses above briefly touched, to shew to his servants things which must shortly come to passe. And here I must necessarily speak of the Subject which is so joyned with the end, that the consideration of the one cannot be severed from the other. I demand therefore, what things must be shewed to the Church of God? Surely takeing a generall view of this divine prophecy, for my part I conceive that the most here spoken of, is of the enemies & of their persecutions, & malicious practises against the Church, and of the de­fence and deliverance of the Church, and the punish­ment of her enemies. and so I finde S. Hieroms opini­on,In prologo. Revelat quanta Ecclesia Christi passa et passura sit. And [Page 13] to what end must these things be shewed unto them: if not to the same for which our Euangelist in his Euan­gile reciteth many excellent sermons of our Saviour Christ, namely to comfort and incourage the faithfull, and to excite them to repentance, vigilance, patience, and perseverance against the troubles to come? Repent saith he to the Churches of Ephesus and Pergamus. Fear not to Pergamus, Hold fast to Thyatira. &c. So in the Gospell. These things haue I spoken unto you that ye should not be offended. So in his Epistle, Let that abide in you, Iohn 16. 1 Iohn 2. which ye have heard from the begining. Take heed I haue foretold you. Marke 13. Now if this be the end, namely to arme the faythfull with those vertues against the troubles to come: then what is or can be the subject of this book, or what mat­ter can it speak of, but 1. it must describe the state of the Church in her severall times. 2. The Head of the Church, who is also her Saviour & Protector in all her troubles. 3 The enemies of the Church, and their persecutions and practises. 4. The Confusion of those Enemies and the punishments inflicted upon them in this world. 5 Their Everlasting Damnation. 6 The Deliverance of the Church. And lastly her Everlast­ing Glory and felicity. Whether this be not so, I desire to know upon the three Problems ensuing.

My fift Problem therefore is concerning the Church,V. whether it be not with sufficient plainenesse set forth unto us in these seven places.

1 In the vision of the seuen golden Candlesticks,Revel. 1. in the middest whereof Christ Iesus walketh.

2 In the vision of the Beasts, and Elders in the midst of whom is the Throne of God and of the Lamb.Revel. 4.

3 In the vision of the Temple of God,Revel. 12. set forth to be measured and opened.

[Page 14]4 In the vision of the woman travelling with Child, which bringeth forth Christ Iesus,Revel. 12. and then is forced to flye into the wildernes, where she must continue for a long time after.

5 As Mount Sion whereupon the Lamb standeth with all his Army.chap. 14.

6 As a Bride trimmed for her husband.chap. 19.

7 As the City of God the new Ierusalem whose wals are founded upon the Twelve Apostles.chap. 21.

VI.My sixth Problem is concerning our Saviour Christ, the great and mighty Lord Protectour, Prince, and Sa­viour of his Church, whether he also be not as many waies described unto us. viz.

1 As the great Bishop and Teacher of his Church, in the midest of the seuen golden Candlesticks.R [...]vel. 1.

2 As the Sacrifice for his Church,chap. 4. and yet the Defen­der & Protectour in the middest of the Throne. a Lamb & a Lyon.

chap. 10.3 As the great Lord of Heaven and Earth, Land & Sea,D [...]u 32, 40 determining the end of Times, which is not revealed to any Angell.Matth. 24.

4 As the seede of the woman, and yet the Sonne of God.Revel. 12.

Revel. 14.5 As the Lamb standing on mount Sion.

6. As a most mightie & valiant captain,chap. 19. or invincible Prince going forth to warre against his enemies, him­self in the forefront, readie to charge them in the face.

7 And lastly as an inevitable Iudge both of quick & dead sitting on his Throne of majesty.chap. 20.

VII.The seventh and last Problem therefore must needs be concerning the Enemies of the Church, whether we may not understand that of them, also in this booke there be named Seven. viz.

[Page 15]1 The Divel that old Serpent, the great Red Dra­gon with seven heads, and ten horns,Rev. 2, 10. & 12, 9. and seven crowns upon his heads.

2 False Apostles, Hypocrites.Rev. 2, 2.

3 Nicholaitans. Hereticks.chap. 2, 15.

4 The followers of Iezabel and Balaam.chap. 2, 20. Licentious and Idolatrous Teachers.

5 The first beast rising out of the Sea.chap. 13. The old hea­thenish Roman Empire.

6 The second Beast rising out of the Earth, which seemeth peculiarly to signifie Antichrist unto us,chap. 13. the proper and principall subject of this our Investigation.

7 Gog and Magog heathenish and open Persecutors joyned with secret and intestine enemies, whereof wee have not here to speake

These things seeme to me not altogether improper nor inconvenient. yet seeing I am no Prophet nor the sonne of a Prophet, I dare not determine of them but leave them to Theologians to consider. And with fa­vorable permission going forwards to search and find out this great enemie of the Church of God: I de­maund whether he be not fully described unto us in this book of the Revelation and other parts of Holy Scriptures, by seven notable and notorious Attributes.

1 His place.

2 His state, or body politick, which must be subject vnto him and support him.

3 His Names.

4 His Rising.

5 His Raigning.

6 His words and actions.

7 His Times. Of which Christ Iesus assisting I meane to speak in order.

J. Of the place of Antichrist.

BY the rules of methode we ar taught to proceed à noti­oribus ad minus nota, frō things better known to infer & proue things not so well known: & of things knowen, they say those are best knowen, which are visible or sen­sible, and that the outward visible & sensible adjuncts & accidents do very much conduce to finde out and discover the nature and essence of everie thing. Euen our divine Euangelist & Prophet, being taught by the spirit of God, seemeth to approue of these observations, where he begin­neth his Epistle with this protestation. That which was from the beginning, 1 Iohn 1. which we haue heard, which we haue seene with these our eyes, &c. making the senses a sufficient proofe of the humanitie conjoyned with eternitie. This is the cause wherfore I thought best to begin my enquirie at the Place of Antichrist. For what is more cleare and evident then that everie thing which hath an existence, must haue a place, & he that seeketh for a thing out of his proper place, or element, as they now speak, doth as if he should seeke for a fish in the fire, or a swallow in the Sea. The learned Grecian,Aristotle. (the riches of whose learning I see no cause but it may be brought into the Holy citie according to the Pro­phecies) referreth place to the Predicament ubi, which im­porteth a Relation, & defineth it verie acutely, & I thinke truly to be [...]. Which I know not how well; but thus I think it may be rendred, The unmoueable and nearest confine of that which compasseth any thing about. He calleth it unmoueable; because in all motions it is not the place that removeth from the thing, nor with the thing, but the thing it self is removed from one place to another. It must be nearest, & indeed contigu­ous for els it can not be the place of one thing, but may [Page 17] contein another; & it must compasse it about: for if it do but touch it in part, it is to be called adjacent, or contiguous, but not a place. The most learned Roman maketh place one of his four principia. Varro. August. And the learned also of later age number it among those things which necessarily concurre to the constitution of things Existent.Cajc [...]an. By all agreed to be a Relatiue, which therefore must haue a Correlatiue. Eve­rie place is so called, in respect of the bodie placed in it: Everie Continent in respect of the thing conteyned: eve­rie Principle in respect of the thing proceeding from it: as a Father cannot be so called without a sonne, nor a master without a servant, nor a cause without his effect. Here­hence are derived those rules and observations of the lear­ned: Posito corpore necesse es [...] poni locum; posito loco, locatum poni necesse est. That Places must haue a due proportion of quantitie and magnitude, great things must haue greate places, for else they could not be compassed or compre­hended in them. Litle things litle places, for els there would be vacuum. Things of long continuance, must haue places of equall duration, and places of long conti­nuance are not appropriated to things that must soone perish or passe away. Also Places must haue a due tempera­ment of qualitie, agreeable to the things placed, and the things placed to the places, for else the one would destroy the other, and contraries can no more be and continue in one place, then in one subject. These Observations being discovered unto us by the ordinarie light of nature, it hath pleased the God of nature whose majestie is ter­rible, his wisdome incomprehensible, and his waies past finding out; who numbereth the droppes of the Sea, and the sand of the shore, who calleth the starres by their names, and filleth heaven and earth, to descend into the narrow and poore capacitie of humane intelli­gence, [Page 18] and by these outward visible & sensible things to teach us (& who is a Teacher like to him?) to finde out things most obscure and difficult. Let us see therefore what place, of what capacitie, quantitie and quality the great Governour and Disposer of all things hath appointed for Antichrist.

And first I demand, whether it be not plainly descri­bed to be Rome, and that Christian, upon the conside­ration of these seven places of Scripture that follow? The first in the seventeenth chapter of the Revel. where it is set forth to be 1. That great citie. Revel. 17. 2, which was set upon seven hills. 3. which had seven heads or governours. 4. And ruled over the kings of the earth. 5, which in a mysterie is cal­led Babylon. And 6. Most aboundant in riches & glory. 7, Yet most filthy in all fornication and uncleannes. Let us examine these words every one by it self. It is first a great Citie. A city is by some considered as it consisteth of howses and buildings neare joyning together: so Ninivie, Ty­rus the old,Gen. 10. Babylon, and others in the Scripture are called great citties: So Tully calleth Pergamus and Smirna cities,pro Flacco li. 1, de bell. li. and Caesar also calleth Rome, Civitatem. taking that for a principall cause of his Parricidial warrs, ut Trib. plebis ex civitate expulsos restitueret, that he might restore the Tribunes of the people that were driven out of the city, who (as he said before) were fled ex urbe:i. polit. others, as Aristotle &c. take a city which they call Polis, the word used here by the Apostle, to consist of a multitude of men gathered together under the same lawes and government; which is also called universitas or respub. de civ. dei. Cic. in somn. Iusta [...]. l. 2. and so S. Augustin in some places. Some o­thers also measure a city by the extent of her domini­on, liberties, and franchises. Now these and other cir­cumstances being considered, I seek for a city where­in [Page 19] all concurre to make it great, & for the first, I aske whe­ther ever anie citie haue had a téstimonie of greatnes, like to that which Lucan thus describeth?

Vrbem populis victis (que) frequentem
Gentibus, & generis coeat si turba capacem
Lucan. 1, 1,

A Citie populous, full of conquered nations, and able to receaue all mankinde, if they should come together. I thinke it cannot be denyed, but this was a verie great citie,v [...]bis appella­tio muris, Ro­mae contineu­tibus aedificiis. finitur. LL. de verb. Sig. that was able to receaue humanum genus, all mankind. And yet that we may see plainly, that he meant it of the citie, as it consisted of walles and buildings, he nameth it, first ur­bem, and then goeth forward,

— Cum pressus ab hoste
Clauditur externis Romanus miles in oris.
Effugit exiguo nocturna pericula vallo:
Tu tantum audito bellorum nomine Roma
Desereris; nox una tuis non credita muris.

What cittie in the world, was like to this great cittie?Rev. 18, 18. truly therefore sayth our divine Apostle. But this was poe­ticall and hiperbolicall, may some say, let us heare a testi­monie historicall: Although I thinke, that learned poet would never haue beene so bold, or impudent, to giue such an attribute of greatnes to Rome, if it had not been a verie great cittie, and doubtlesse the greatest then known in the world; yet let us heare Historians. Truly Lipsius (out of Martinus Polonus and Pliny) sayth, the walles of Rome were first xlij. miles in compasse, and out of Vopiscus, de magnitud. Rom. Blondus in Romanist. that they were afterwards enlarged to 50 miles compasse, but of the suburbes, si quis intuens, magnitudinem Romae velit ex­quirere, frustra eum fore, & haesurum ubi desinat urbs, ubi in­cipiat. ex Dionis. So it was a great cittie within the walles,Herodot. l. 1. and a greater without. It seemeth indeed by Herodotus that [Page 20] the walles of old Babylon were 160 stadia on everie side square: but note, that Babylon was all within the walles, and so Rome in respect of her suburbs & buildings adjoyn­ing, was much greater, as by this testimonie of Lipsius out of Dionis. appeareth. Might not this then well be called Babylon the great, in respect of the other?

But heare what Pliny saith both of Babylon and Rome. Of Babylon first he sayth,Plin. lib. 3. Babylon sexaginta millia passuum, amplexa muris. Of Rome; Effecit passuum per directum xxx. millia DCC. LXV. which xxx miles and three quarters being taken for the diameter, must make the circumference to be at the least 92 miles. which is farre aboue the reck­ning of Lipsius. And yet saith Pliny farther: Ad extrema verò tectorum cum castris praetoriis a Milliario in Capite Rom. fori statuto per vicos omnium viarum mensura colligit, paulò amplius septuaginta millia pass. And if that be taken for the Diameter of Rome and the suburbs, then must the com­passe be almost 200 miles. Quo si quis (saith he againe) al­titudinem tectorum addat, dignam profecto aestimationem con­cipiat, fateatur (que) nullius urbis magnitudinē in toto orbe potuisse comparari.

And it is also to be observed what the same Pliny writes of Babylon,Plin. lib. 6. in the time of Vespatian, that it was then brought to solitude being exhausted by the vicinitie of Se­leucia, which was built for that purpose. And this was be­fore the exile of Iohn in Pathmos, where he saw the Re­velation, and therefore this great cittie could not be literall Babylon, or Babylon in Chaldea, which then was not great; but mysticall Babylon, that cittie Rome, which was then at the greatest.

Let us goe to the next consideration, where a cittie is said to consist of a multitude or societie of men, gathered together, and we shall finde a far greater cause to aske the [Page 21] question of our Prophet, what cittie was ever like it? for what cittie in the world can we finde so famous, for num­ber of Tribes, and multitude of citizens, as Rome?Livy. Alex. ab Alex. l. 1, c. 17. The Tribes of Rome were at the least fiue and thirtie, everie one consisting of many thousand citizens, whereas the two kingdomes of Iudah and Israel had but twelue; yea the mightie kingdome of Persia, which afterwards grewe so great, had but twelue in the beginning.Herod. 1. Xenoph. Grop. l. 1. Liv. l. 10, in fiue 1. belli Punici lustro undeuicesimo. Tacit. An. 11 Fasc. Temp. The number of Roman Citizens in their weake estate was found to be aboue two hundred and fiftie thousand: but in the Empe­ror Claudius his time, it is said to haue been aboue three­score & eight hundred thousand, and so in Augustus time, in which number women, children, servants and forriners not infranchised (though inhabiting) were not conteyned. What cittie therefore was ever like to this great cittie? A­gaine if we consider the extent of her franchises, and liber­ties, not onely the Volsci, Hernici, Lucani, Appuli, Campani, Cic. offi. 1. Hetrusei and other nations of Italy, but the Transpadani and Transalpini the Gawles and Spaniards were receaved into the freedome: nor the Europeans onely, but those of Asia; S. Paul borne at Tarsus in Cilicia averreth himself before a Roman Iudge to be a citizen of Rome free borne.Act. 22. And for her dominion it seemeth to be true, that the Poet sayth, that the cittie of Rome was as great as the world:

Gentibus est aliis Tellus data limite certo;
Romana spatium est urbis & orbis idem.
So againe:
Roma armis terras, ratibus (que) subegerat undas:
At (que) iidem fines urbis & orbis erant.

So Dionisius Halicarnasseus calleth it, Vrbem terrae, ma­ris (que) dominam. Claudianus Cuncti gens omnia sumus. & ma­ny like other sentences do we meet with in their bookes. Neither was this the opinion of the poets, or vulgar onely, [Page 22] but their learned lawiers in the end grew to be of the same judgment,Panorm. Vbi Caesar, ibi Roma, wheresoever Cesar is, there is also Rome. What cittie therefore was ever in the world in greatnes like to this? The use that is commonly made of this consideration is none other, but to admire and ex­toll, the majestie of Rome, as Lipsius doth in admirandis de magnit. Romana. but the true and worthie use thereof, is to acknowledge the truth of Gods word, revealed in this and other prophecies, which (we see) are confirmed by the te­stimonies of Heathen men, that never heard of them.

These certaine Typographies plain'y also re­fell the idle o­pinions of those that take Ba­bylon or Anti­christ for the whole multi­tude of the ungodly.2. The second note is that it is seated upon seven hilles, & what cittie was ever so famous or renowmed for seven hilles, as Rome hath been.

Quae nunc de septem totum circumspicit orbem
Montibus, imperii Roma deum (que) locus. saith Ovid.

and Propert. septem urbs alta jugis.

And the names of these hilles are common in their hi­stories, Palatinus, Caelius, Tarpeius which is also called Capito­linus, Aventinus, Esquilinus, Viminalis, and Quirinalis.

3. Thirdly, what cittie was ever so noted for seven kinds of supream governours, whereof every one had the power of a king, summum imperium, power of life and death, from which there was no provocation, or appeale? All of them are expresly named, both by Livy and Tacitus, their prin­cipall Historians; Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Decemvirs, Tri­bunes, Caesars, and Pontif. Max.

4. Fourthly, what cittie did ever so powerfully rule & command over the kings of the earth, as this hath done? All other Empires, and Imperiall citties had their severall Emperors, kings or princes, and were subject to them, and ruled by them; as the Assirian, Persian, Grecian, Tartarian, Turkish, Cathaian, Abissine, Empires; the Sirian, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Parthian, Median, Indian and Macedonian king­domes [Page 23] and all their citties; the great citties of Ninive, Persepolis, Ecbatana, Constantinople, Traperus, Mexico, Quin­zay, Memphis, Ocmus, & all other citties, that we read of, even Babylon it self was ruled by kings and Emperors,Dion. Hal. onely Rome was called Terrae maris (que) domina.Cic. pro pro­dom [...].Et illa po­pulus est dominus regum, victor at (que) Imperator omnium gen­tium, sayth Tully. — Illa inclita Roma

Imperium terris, animos aequavit Olimpo, saith Virgil. But what need I seek or cite forrein testimonies,1 Mach. 8, 13 chap. 15. The book of Machabees giveth us ample proofes of the high and predominant power of Rome,See also Brightm. in Dan. c. 11. shewing how they commanded the great Kings of Egypt and Asia, Ptolo­mee, Demetrius, Arsaces, Attalus, and others, to ab­stain from warre against the Iewes, and that com­mand was obayed. what City ever in the world did the like?

Fiftly for the mysticall name of Babilon,See these au­thors cited by Riberain Apo. & recited by Paraeus. Aug de civit. dei. lib. 18. Roma velut altera Babylon. Idem. Occi­dentalis Baby­lon, & passim. See M. Dow­nam his treat. of Antichrist lib. 1, ca 2. Psal. 137. I think it needlesse to dispute to whom it belongeth, seeing S. Augustin, S. Ierom, Tertul. Theophilact. Orosius, Oe­cumenius, Eusebius and many others, both old and new haue expresly applyed it to Rome, and so cleared that point also, and that upon great reasons: First in regard of the greatnesse and largenes of dominion, wherein Rome and Babylon excelled the other two Monar­chies. Secondly for continuance, for these two con­tinued longer, and immediately upon the decay of Ba­bylon, Rome began to growe. Velut prioris filia, saith Augustine. Thirdly for cruelty against the saincts, for of Babylon the first, the Prophets testifie sufficiently. So Rome is by Tertullian called Babylon, Quia sanctorum debellatrix. Fourthly for promiscuous filthines beyond others. Fiftly for Idolatry.Lipsius in Epist. Sixtly for confusion mo­rum aeris—linguae saith Lipsius. Seuenthly for power & [Page 24] riches, whereof I haue now to speak. For her power riches and glory mentioned in the text, I appeale to them that haue recorded, that the wealth of all the world was in Rome, and called it Mundi compendium, & in this Inventorie of riches & glorie, is to be cast also the account of their innumerable victories, the great­nes of their Empire; their prudence and policie in go­vernment; their providence, fortitude & industry in war, their learning and eloquence, the justice, temperance and other morall vertues which appeared in some of them, the riches of their minds, aswell as of their out­ward estate,De doct. chr. l. 2. cir. sinē. wherein they excelled all the world: and so doth S. Augustin call the excellent learning, morality &c. of the heathen,Viri pati mu­lichria mu [...]ieres pudicitiam in propatu'o ha­bere. Salust. much more in Tacit. Annal. Sueton. in vi­ta Virgil. in priap. Ovid. Inv sat 6. Tibul. Catul. Propert. Mar. Hor. s [...]r. l. 2, 3 & [...]. 1, sat. 2. de civ. l. 3. the gold and silver of Egipt. And lastly for their fornication and beastlines, I desire them to speake that haue read their best authours▪ Salust, Ta­citus, Sueton, virgil, Ovid, Iuvenal, and others, Horace confesseth of himself Mille puella [...]ū, puero [...]ū mille furores. Caesar was called omnium virorum mulier, et omnium muli­erum vir, And who hath not heard of the beastlines of Tiberius and Caligula, Claudius and Nero; in a word, it is almost incredible, and most abhominable, what they write in this kinde, either of themselves, or one of another, But if we take fornication in this place for the spirituall adulterie, which is Idolatry. They that read S. Augustine de Civ. Dei, Livy, and others of their own authours doe know, that (besides their Majores de­os, and four hundred and four and twenty Temples, a­mongst which was the Pantheon or Temple of all De­vils (as Tertullian well calleth it) and the Temple of the city it self,1 ips. [...]x [...]tit. Imperij. See more i [...] Chenu [...]i exam c [...]nc. Trident. de magin. which they worshipped as a Goddesse) besides all these, and their Princes whom they deified after their death, every house had Penates and Minores [Page 25] deos, so that their Idols were innumerable.Hereupon as some called Rome Epito­men [...]. so some christi­ans called it Epitomen [...]. 2 Chron. 28, 23. Religione (saith Tully truly, who knew no religion but Idolatry) om­nes gentes nationes (que) superavimus. And with this kinde of fornication they made all nations drunk, for every one seeing them so prosperous and victorious would have their gods, and worship them in hope like Achaz to prosper and overcome as they did. Now therefore laying all these things together, I ask whether they can be applyed to any other Place in the world, but one­ly to Rome? To this also may be added consuetudo lo­quendi interpres optima, which amongst the auncient Iewes of the Sanhedrin was,Buxter [...]. ex cod. Sauhedr. by the name of the city to understand Rome, as accounting none else worthy or fit to carry that name, note also that the Holy ghost in the last verse of the 17 ch. of the Apoc. addeth an ar­ticle of emphasis and distinction to every word [...] &c. Also Magister in princip. glossae episto­lae ad Romanos telleth us that, cum dicitur Apostolus intelli­gitur Paulus, cum dicitur urbs intelligitur Roma: which common notice may be the cause why our Prophet did so much ingeminate that article, to shew that he spake of a city well inough knowen to be such viz. Great and Imperiall. And if this be cleare and evi­dent, that by the name of the Great cittie, and of Babylon in this Revelation, Rome, and onely Rome is meant this I hope will serue to illustrate other pla­ces; As for example, the second place,Rev. 11. where it is said that the beast shall make warre against the two witnesses of God, and shall overcome them and kill them. And their dead bodies shall ly in the streets of the great City, which spiri­tually is called Sodom and Egipt where also our Lord was cru­cified; Although some doubt might be conceived of the names of Egypt and Sodom in this place, and [Page 26] where our Lord was crucified, yet the name of the Great cittie, ought by the reasons & authorities aforesaid, to hold us fast to Rome. For none else was then great, nor worthie to be so called, as I haue shewed before. Let us see then how these names Sodome and Egypt may be ap­plied to Rome, and therein first what it is to be spiritually called. There be many spirits mentioned in the scriptures, but here I think that spirit is meant, which is spoken of by our Lord in the Gospell,Ioh. 14, 17. & 16, 13. euen the spirit of truth, which shall lead us into all truth, and so to be spiritually called, is to be truly so called, according to their works, effects, and fruits, as the spirit of truth teacheth us to call things. Whe­ther doth not the Prophet Ieremie explain this, in alter­ing the name of Pashur;Ier. 20, 3. whether doth not our Saviour ex­plain it,Matth. 7. when he sayth, Ye shall know them by their fruits, do men gather grapes of thornes, or figs of thistles? as if he should say, men do not call that a thorne, of which they gather grapes, nor that a thistle, of which they gather figges: but that is called a vine, and this a fig-tree. For it is not an evill tree that bringeth forth good fruits, nor a good tree that bringeth forth evill fruits.Luc. 6, 46. And why do ye call me Master, and do not the things that I speak: if I be a master, where is my fear,Mal. 1, 6. sayth the Lord? If a father, where is my loue? And who art thou,Iohn 1. say the Pharises to Iohn Baptist, The voice of him that cryeth in the wildernes, Make straite the wayes of the Lord sayth S. Iohn;Matth. 11. as if he should say, I am the preacher of repentance against the coming of the Mes­siah; Art thou he that should come? saith he again: go tell him (saith our Saviour) The deaf heare, the blinde receaue sight, the lame walk, the leapers are cleansed, &c. if I do the works of the Messiah, I am he: and if ye were Abrahams children,Iohn 8. ye would do the works of Abraham. Where­upon I aske, what is the meaning of all these places, but to [Page 27] teach us to judge and speak of men by their works, as we doe of trees by their fruits? So then, where we finde the works of Sodom and Egypt, that must be called Sodom & Egypt spiritually, that is, truly,Esa. 1, 10. as the spirit of truth hath taught us to speak,Ezech 16. and as the Prophets use to speak. Now the workes of Sodom, and Egypt were beastly filthines, Gen. 19. & 12, 15. & 39, 13. and bloudie crueltie, as we read in the scripture, and besides,Exod. 1.14. in Egypt also we finde, infinite Idolatrie, whereof there are sufficient testimonies in the scripture,Num. 3, 3. besides that which heathen men do write to the same purpose,Ier. 43. namely Hero­dotus, Iuvenal. Diod. Sic. Anaxandrid. and Plutarch. Esa. 30. And were not these the works of Rome in S. Iohns time? Read their own Authors, Tacitus, Sueton, Virgil. and he rest that I cited before, concerning their horrible filthines and Ido­latrie. Read the Ecclesiastick Histories of their persecuti­ons, and their best Historians, Tacitus & Suetonius of their tyrannies & crueltie. Are they not still the works of Rome in these later times? Read Petrach, Mantuan, Platina, Ble­sensis. Roma est jam tota lupanar, sayth one; It is notorious that almost all the Cardinals of Rome haue their Manfro­nes Cinaedos, sayth another, who by authorities and argu­ments drawn out of Iacobatius, & other authors of the Ro­manists, without exception, fully proveth, that there is not now, nor hath beene for many yeares past any true Pope, nor lawfull Cardinall, but that they are all Intruders, Simo­niakes, Sodomites, &c. and so haue been of long time, and therefore by the sentence of the Pope himself,Dist. 23. in the De­cree, declared to be Antichrist. The abhominable acts of Iulius the III, that made his Ganymede a Cardinall, & crea­ted Iohannes Casa, Archb. of Beneventum, & Legate à Latere, who set forth a book in commendation of that crying sin, are not yet forgotten, and that booke also passed currant a long time amongst them without controule. The bloudy [Page 28] actions of Aluisius, Borgia, Diazius, Minerius, Gardner, Bon­ner, the murdering Dominican in France, and the Pouder­traitors in England, and many others, were not onely not disallowed by them, but praised and commended, yet Qui non vetat peccare, cum p [...]ssit, jubet, saith the Pagan, & I desire to know, whether any man ever saw, read or heard of any nation, Christian, Iew, or Turke, Saracen or Savage, where­in Sodomie hath been so publiquely practised & allowed, as in Rome? Their Idols and images also, are knowen to be innumerable, whereof we shall speake more hereafter. What shall we say then of the fourth note of this place, where also our Lord was crucified? In Ierusalem, sayth the Babylonian: but Ierusalem at the time of the writing of this Apocalyps, was so far from being a great cittie, that it was no cittie at all, for it was utterly destroyed before by Titus. And if it had been then a cittie, yet was it far from being great, or bearing rule over kings, and although Ieru­salem be some time called the holy cittie, yet is it never cal­led the great cittie,Hierom. Hierusalem sanctior locus rupe tarpeìa, &c. See more in the Epistle of S. Hierom to Marcella, inviting her to come to Bethleem, and likewise in his Epistle writ­ten in the name of Paula and Eustochia to the same Mar­cella, to the same purpose, wherein he proveth, that this name of the great cittie could not be giuen to Hierusa­lem; &c. but rather to Rome, or to the world &c. the chief cittie whereof, is Rome. Neyther yet are we directed to the name of Hierusalem, but to that place, wherein it is spiritually sayd, that our Lord was crucified. Ierusalem is not spoken of in the text, neither indeed was our Lord crucified in Hierusalem, but extra portas, without the gates, as the Apostle speaketh.Hebr. 13, 12. Let them answer then, who haue read the Gospell,Iohn 19. by whom was our Saviour accused? who condemned him? what kinde of capitall punishment did [Page 29] he suffer? who crucifyed him? in what place? for what crime or offence? or upon what accusatiō was he brought in question? was he not accused by them that cryed, we haue no king but Caesar the Roman Emperor? was not Pilate the Roman he that condemned him? was not the cause pretended, for that he spake against Caesar, in making himself a king? was it not by that kinde of punishment & execution,Vide Scalig in notis ad Ioh. 18, 31. which by learned men is observed to haue been properly used by the Romans? were they not Roman souldiers by whom he was crucifyed? was it not extra por­tas Ierusalem? & was it not all done by the power of Cae­sar? and what followeth of all this, Vbi Caesar, ibi Roma, where Caesar is there is Rome, sayd the old Lawiers, as the new say now a dayes, Vbi Papa, ibi Roma, Panorm. where the Pope is there is Rome. To this adde, that all voide places, and places appointed for publique execution of justice were by Roman civill Law, Iuris publici, the proper demeanes of the Empire of Rome. Now it is manifest that Golgatha was the common place of execution, and therefore de Iure publico of right belonging to Rome. We must therefore confesse, that our Lord was crucifyed in Ròme, unlesse we shall thinke, that S. Iohn, yea the spirit of God, do not speak properly; And if he had meant the old Ierusalem, what needed so many words, or circumstances to describe it?

These four points therefore being cleared, it is not hard to apply three others unto it, which are mentioned in the same place of scripture, to make up the number of seuen, viz. 5. That this is the same great cittie, where the beast should make warre against the saincts: and 6, where he should kill the witnesses of God: and 7, where their dead bodies should lye in the streets, and therefore the place of Antichrist.

A third scripture speaking of the place of Antichrist,Rev. 4. is [Page 30] that where her destruction is briefly denounced, and there it is called Babylon that great cittie, the spirit of God giving us thereby to understand, that he would haue that cittie seuen times at least in this booke called Babylon the great, to be sufficiently known unto us, to be Rome, the second Babylon, which then was great, & not the old Babylon, which neither in her best estate was able to compare with the greatnes of Rome, and in the time of S. Iohn was in great decay, having beene twise or thrise before taken, sacked and spoyled; name­ly first by Cyrus,Dan. 5. drawing & diverting Euphrates, while Belshazzar sate feasting and drinking. Secondly by Da­rius with the help of Zopirus,Herod. lib 3. Iustin. who reduced it to an ab­solute subjection under the Persians, and with the rest of that Empire, it was conquered by Alexander the Great,Diod. Sic. l. 19. and after his time, it was spoyled againe by De­metrius, and thereupon forsaken by her inhabitants, and never rose afterward to any greatnes, authoritie or power. Whereupon S. Augustine observeth, that as the Assyrian monarchie decayed, so Rome the second Ba­bylon, and as it were the daughter of the first grew, and so it was in S. Iohns time, the great cittie, Ladie of the world, and governed onely by Caesars, one of her seuen Heads, which ruled over the kings of the earth.

A fourth scripture is that,Rev. 18. wherein her destruction is much more largely and particularly described by seuen notable attributes, most agreeable to Rome. 1, She is called againe Babylon. 2, That great cittie. 3, With whom the kings and nations of the earth haue commit­ted fornication. 4, Most proud and vaine-glorious, for she sayth: I sit as a queen, and am no widow. And so Tully calleth her,Vide Lip [...]. de magn [...] Rom. Princeps omnium terrarum: and Frontinus, re­gina & domina orbis: and beyond all these Martial, Terra­rum [Page 31] Dea Gentium (que) Roma. 5, Therefore in the text she is truly called mightie. 6, Abounding in all riches and Treasures, Non auro tectisve modus. And 7,Lucan. lib. 1. abounding in all delicates and pleasures, abundantes voluptates. Livy in prol. Of which points I haue said somewhat before, and for the two last notes of the super-aboundance of their riches, and wantonnes in pleasures and delicates, I will cite but two examples more out of Horace. whereof the first shall not be of any of their Princes, Senators, or Patritii, no nor yet of their Equites or Gentlemen but of the meanest sort:

Quinti progenies Arri, par nobile fratrum
Nequitia & nugis. — A couple of knaues:
Horat. Serm.▪ lib. 2, sat. 3.
Luscinias soliti impenso prandere coemptas.

They were wont to dine upon Nightingales though verie deerely bought. A dish that I thinke no Prince in Christendome would desire for any good taste, nor these men, but for their luxurious prodigalitie. And yet see another not of Antonius, or Cleopatra, but of a stage players sonne:

Filius Aesopi detractam ex aure Metellae
(Scilicet ut decies solidum exorberet) aceto
Diluit in signem baccam. —

O braue drinker that dissolved in vinegar a pearle worth fiue and twentie thousand Crownes (as the In­terpreters expound it▪ in Eng. coine about 6250 pound, if you take these crownes to be English. taken from the eare of the Ladie Metella, that he might drinke it of at a draught. I would faine knowe whether these men did more abound in riches or in Luxurie, in wealth or in wantonnes, that were so costly luxurious in their meats and drinks.Ioseph, antiq. lb. 18. Nei­ther do I now marvail at the summe which another Ro­man gentleman offred to expugne the chastitie of the Ladie Paulina being 25 Myriades drachmarum everie 100 [Page 32] drachmae, being accounted worth 58 shil. 4 pence, and consequently, amounting in our English coin to aboue 7290 pounds. what cittie was ever like to this in trea­sures or filthie pleasures?

But I hast to a fift place of scripture which will deserv both longer stay and better consideration. And because I shall herein differ not a little from all other interpre­ters that I have read, I have the greater reason to con­tinue my course in Problems.Rev. 16 The text of Scripture is the Prophecy of Armageddon or Armagedon, noted for a place where the Kings of the earth are gathered together to the battell of the great day of God almigh­ty. The word is Hebrew, and because the Hebrew names by reason of the difference of the points are subject to diverse manner of readings I would first learn whether it may not be taken for Harmegeddon which signifieth the mountain of pleasant and precious fruites? For so the word Meged importeth,Cant. 4, 13. as it is expounded in other parts of the Scripture,Gen. 24, 53. to which is added the Hebrew letter Nun, Ezr. 1, 6. Buxtorf. a termination aswell of the Femi­nine as of the Masculine and common gender, to note that those precious and pleasant fruites belong to wo­men aswell as to men. Now this doth plainely agree with that which in the former place hath beene observ­ed of Rome the second Babylon, viz. that she abóundeth in riches delicates and wantonnes, and it hath an An­tithesis to the description of mount Sion, as it is ex­pressed unto us both in the 14. chap. of this Revelation and in the second Psalm.Psal. 2. For there saith God I haue set my King upon Sion Har-codshi, the mountain of my holynes. But here the Kings and Princes of the earth are gathered to Har-megeddon the mountain of the pre­cious and pleasant fruits of the earth. The companie [Page 33] of the Lamb upon Mount Sion,Rev. 14. are such as haue not defi­led themselues with women. But these pleasant and pre­cious fruits belong to women as well as men. And the like Antithesis may be noted in other places of the scripture, as where the Prophet prayeth to be delivered from men of this world, which haue their portion in this life,Psalm. 17. & whose bellies God filleth with his secret treasure: But I (sayth he) will behould thy face in righteousnes. So the Apostle de­scribeth certain men, whose God is their belly,Phil. 3. and who minde earthly things. But our conversation (sayth he)is in heauen: so the true church of Christ is set forth, to be ad­orned with all heauenly graces. Fayth, hope and charitie;Rev 12. namely, the Sun of righteousnes to cloth her in fayth, the starres to crowne her with light of truth, and hope of im­mortalitie, preached by the twelue Apostles; & the moone and all mutable earthly things to suppor [...] her in works of charitie, or to be despised and troden under foot in respect of eternitie. But the Antichristian Church sitteth like a Queene of earthly felicities, clothed with purple, skarlet,Rev. 17. pearles, gold, and precious stones, abounding in all plea­sures & delights, & supported by the nations of the world. Neither is the other circumstance to be neglected, namely the meeting and congregation of Princes & Rulers of the earth, noted as well in the second Psalme, as here in the Revelation, in regard whereof,Livy, du [...]in, Pla [...]ma in sal. 2. Rome was in ancient time called Regum urbs, for the multitude and magnificent state of their Senators: so did the Emperor Constance also call it in the latter time, & so it may be still called, for the num­ber, pompe, and glorie of their Cardinals, who will be ho­noured, and accounted princes. Another question would I aske, whether this word may not thus be distinguished, Arma-geddon, with the first Alpha radicall, to signifie the pallace, or castle of the Troupes of women, as well as men. [Page 34] Now, where that pallace or castle is, where women aboun­ding in treasures and pleasures, are best mainteyned and de­fended. I would haue them to answer, that haue seene Rome of late, or that haue read these verses made for her commendation:

Q [...]ot cae [...]m si elias,
Vide Abbat. dem. Anti [...]h. cap. 11.
tot habet tua Roma puellas:
Pascua quot (que) haedos, tot habet tua Roma Cynaedos.

And many such like, or the faculties dispensations par­dons and decrees, flowing from the castle of S. Angelo, and the pallace of Lateran in their favour. And lastly, upon the same word I would aske, whether that the Hebrew word, which in the Greek writing is Armageddon, may not by an easie transposition,So Mo [...]ines maketh it Ha. Romagedah to signifie the destruction of Rome. onely of one letter and a prick in the Hebrew, be read and taken for Romageddon; & so by name lead us to Rome, that high cittie; for so the word Rom, also in Hebrew signifieth: and their own Authors call it septem urbs alta jugis, Hieron. at (que) altae maenia Romae, where princely men as the Cardinals and women abounding in treasures and pleasures, as the Cortesanaes are gathered together. Which transposition of a letter is verie usuall in the Hebrew, and warranted by many examples of the holy Scripture. And upon all these precedent places & circumstances I demand,Dan. 7, 1. & passim ali­bi. whether it be possible to apply these prophecies to any cittie or place in the world besides Rome? True sayth the Babylonian, it is to be understood of Rome, (for so they confesse of late,1 Pet. 5. upon the word of S. Peter) but Heathen not Christian. To omit that answer, which is obvious, that the old Ethnick Empire of Rome was the impediment, & therefore could not be the seat of Antichrist, and that ano­ther Ethnick Empire should be erected there towards the end of the world is incredible; and if it should, yet it could not fulfill the Prophecies, for many reasons which may be produced, and to instance, because Antichrist must be one [Page 35] of the seauen heads of Rome, whereof fiue were fallen in S. Iohns time, and the Empire was one, and the seuenth must be reveled, after the impediment removed: yet to passe by all these, consider of two textes more, which shall not come single, but eyther of them fortified with an Au­thenticall contestis.

The sixth scripture then, speaking of the Place of Anti­christ, telleth us plainly,2 Thes. 2. August. de civ. dei. l. 20 cap. 19. Nulli dubliim est cum de Antichristo ista dixis [...], &c. Antichristus in domo do­mini in sede Christi sedebit. Ambros. in locum. Male Ecc'esiam Dei in tectis aedificiis (que) veneramini, Anne ambiguum est Antichristum in his esse sessurum. Hilar. contra Aux. that it must be the Temple of God. It is the word of S. Paul, which would never haue called the Ethnike state of Rome, the Temple of God. It must therefore be understood of the church of God, & so the Fathers take it without all doubt or question, & that in Rome, for out of Rome it is in vain to seeke, as by the for­mer places may fully appear.

And yet this text goeth not single, but seemes to be drawn out of an ancient prophecie of the Euangelicall Prophet, where he bringeth in the prince of the first Babylon, a tipe of the second, using these words: I will ascend into heauen, Esa. 14. and exalt my throne aboue, beside the starres of God. I will sit also upon the mount of the Church or Congregation. so farr the Prophet. Now lay the words of the Apostle to them. That man of sinne exalteth himselfe aboue all that is called God▪ or that is worshiped, so that he doth sit in the Temple of God, shewing himself, that he is God. On the mount of the Church, sayth the one. In the Temple of God, sayth the other. The Temple of God was in Ierusalem saith the Babylonian.Object. Answ. But that is excluded by all the former places of Scripture, most signall and significant. I demande then, how this place can be understood, but of the Church of God in Rome? and who can be said, or ever could be said, to sit in that Church as God, but the Pope?

[Page 36]But marke the seauenth, and see whether yet againe Rome, and the Church of God in Rome, be not precisely described. It is in the Prophecie of Daniel, that beloved Prophet, as our Euangelist was the beloved disciple. He shall plant (saith he) the Tabernacles of his Pallace betweene the seas, Dan. 11, 45. In the Glorious mountaine of Holynes; Neither goeth this place alone, but commeth with a witnes; For the like is said of the King of Tyrus, a tipe also of Antichrist, in that severe Priest and Prophet Ezechiel. Thou hast sayd, I am a God, Ezek. 28. I sit in the seat of God, in the midest of the seas. That which Daniel signifyed by setting his Pallace betweene the seas, in the glorious holy Mountain; that Ezekiel expres­seth, by sitting in the seat of God, in the middest of the seas, and whether both these do not prefigure unto us the Church of Rome: I desire the Learned to judge. It must be a mountaine of Holynes, Esa. 11, 9. and the seate of God, which are the proper Titles of the Church in the old Prophets. And this church must not be an obscure, Psa. 2 & 48. Zach 8, 3. or litle, but a glorious church; and this Glorious church must be betweene two seas; How this can be applyed to Tyrus, Babylon, Ierusalem, Constanti­nople, or to any other cittie in the world beside Rome, I ask of all that know the two famous seas that imbrace Ita­lie, whereof the one is called MarC superum, Adriaticum, or the Gulfe of Venice: the other is Mare Inferum, Tirihenum, or the Straights? both mentioned by Vergil in one verse, for the glorie of Italie.

An mare quod supera memorem, quod (que) alluit infra?

Betweene these two seas Rome was, and is seated, which was in the beginning a church truly glorious, both for the Martyrdome of many godly men, & for their constant pro­fession of the truth against Heretikes (for I will not detract the least thing from them) and for that it was the Impe­riall cittie. For which cause it was called Prima sedes, which [Page 37] was the greatest title that it had for 400 yeares.Prosper was first Pope Leo his secretarie. But after that, Pope Leo the eloquent Orator, and Prosper his famili­ar friend, or Secretarie, an excellent Poet, began to ascribe higher titles unto it:

— Peslem subeuntem prima recidit.
Archb. of Canterb. in his answer to D. Hill. Prosper in lib. de ingratis. Marke the statelines of these verses, with the resonans of his letters S. P. Q. R.
Sedes Roma Petri, quae Pastoralis honoris
Facta caput mundo, quiCquid non possidet armis.
Religione tenet.

After this (I say) and such like,Tacitus li. 1. by little and litle taking upon her (as Augustus did in taking of the Empire) of a church truly Glorious, she began to be vain glorious, but still glorious, for none else could be the seat of Antichrist. And it seemes, they followed the wit and pollicie of their founder Romulus, of whom it is said, that he was,Livy lib. 1. Tum f [...] ­ctis vir magnificus; tum factorum ostentator haud minor. He would loose nothing for lack of seting forth. And the like is said of Scipio, and other Romans. But if any will apply this text to Antiochus, and say, that he placed the Taberna­cles of his Pallace in Ierusalem; I will not deny, but Antio­chus might be signified in Daniell, to be the type of Anti­christ: but if they will say, that this place is meant onely of Ierusalem and Antiochus, I would desire them to answer me well to these three questions: First, how the church of God in Ierusalem could be called a glorious church, or the temple, a glorious temple in those times, when it appear­eth by the Prophets,Hag. 2. that the second temple then standing was as nothing to the former, & the church was not one­ly oppressed, and persecuted by Antiochus and others:Vid. Aug de civ. dei. l. 18. cap. 45. but devided into sects in it selfe, namely the Sadducces, Phari­sees, Essees and others? Secondly between what seas is Ie­rusalem seated? True it is the great Midland sea is of the one side, but of the other, there is none, but either Asph [...]l­tis, [Page 38] or Tiberius, or Euphrates, which are but pettie flouds to make a sea. But granting they might be called seas (as they are some times) yet where do we read, or can we finde that ever Antiochus planted his seat in Ierusalem? If they will needs haue a litterall exposition; let them shew how and when this was fulfilled? But in Rome all these things con­curre, a glorious church, between two seas, and a place noted by other prophecies, to be that great, that septimountaine, that Imperiall cittie, whereupon Antichrist should sit. The same argument will serue to proue, that it cannot be meant of Babylon, Constantinople, or any other cittie. For it can­not stand with the Prophecies. Yet another objection is made;Object. If the temple of God, and a mountaine of holynes, then how Idolatrous? Sodom? Egypt? &c. as the place of Antichrist must be? if idolatrous, how christian? This I shall declare more at large, when I come to speak of the times of Antichrist,Distinguo tempora. and there it shall appear, how it was Christian, and how it fell to idolatrie, and other sinnes, still reteyning the name, and outward profession of christia­nitie.Ans. But in the meane space the godly, and reverend Bi­shop Salvianus shall answer for me, who sheweth that Rome in his time, in the times of her best bishops and un­der Christian Emperors continued still in her heathenish idolatrie and abhominable filthines. It would be too long to recite all his words, although most worthy, but amongst the rest, after that he had verie grauely & seriously inveyed against the intollerable exactions and oppressions of those times, he addeth these words, which I think fit to recite somewhat the more at large for the full clearing of this point, and because the booke is not common. At (que) hoc vi­delicet Laici tantummodo, non quidam etiam Clericorum; sae­culares tantummodo, non mulit etiam religiosi. Imo sub specie Religionis, vitiis saeculatibus mancipati, qui scilicet post vete­rum [Page 39] flagitiorum probra, & crimina, titulo sanctitatis sibimet inscripto, non conversatione aliis sed professione, Whom doth he mean by this title of ho [...]ynes? nomen tantum denotavere non vitam: & summam divini cultus habitum magis quam actum existimantes, vestem tantummodo exuere, non mentem▪ and a litle after, Quomodo igitur tales isti paeni­tentiam se egisse non penitentes sicut etiam illi de conversione, ac Deo aliquid cogitasse, qui à conjugibus propriis abstinentes, à rerum alienarum pervasione non abstinent: & cum profite­antur continentiam corporum, incontinentia debacchantur ani­morum. Novum prorsus conversionis genus. Licita non faciunt: & illicita committunt. Temperant a conjugio, & non tempe­rant à Rapina. Quid agis stulta persuasio? Peccata interdixit, Deus, non matrimonia. and a little after. Quid ergo simile apud barbaros Gothos? quis ecrum amantibus nocet? tu aman­tes persequeris: tu offerentibus munera, manus amputas; tu diligentes proximos necas. Non metuis? non expavescis? with such and many other like words in his first booke, with great authoritie and severitie (like a worthie Bishop) he re­prehendeth their greivious sinnes of oppression, which in the Scripture is accounted a kinde of murder, a crying sinn according to the verse:

Voces clamorum, vox sanguinis, & Sod [...]morum;
Vox oppressorum, & merces detenta laborum.

To which we may adde,

Turba idolorum, & blasphemia sacrilegorum.

For so he goeth forward in his sixth booke to shew the sinnes, not onely of murther filthines, and Sodomy, but of most abhominable and Hethenish idolatrie, used and con­tinued in Rome, euen in those her best times: whereof he proveth, not onely particular persons, but the whole cittie euen the Christians in it, to be guiltie. First for murder he prooveth them to be guiltie, by their common shewes in theaters, where men were cast to be devoured of beasts, [Page 40] for the pleasures of the spectators: then for their idolatrie in their playes: & for their filthie beastlines everie where. his words be these. Nihil ferme vel criminum, vel flagitio­rum est, quod in spectaculis non sit: ubi summum delitiarum genus est mori homines, aut quod est morte gravius acerbius (que) lacerari: expleri ferarum alvos humanis carnibus: comedi ho­mines cum circumstantium laetitia; conspicientium voluptate; hoc est non minus penè hominum aspectibus, quàm bestiarum dentibus devorari. And a little after: Sed haec (inquis) non semper siunt: Certum est, & praeclara erroris est excusatio; quia non semper siunt: quasi verò unquam fieri debeant, quae Deum laedunt; aut ideo quae mala sunt bene fiant, quia non ju­giter fiant. Nam & homicidae homines non semper occidunt, & tamen homicidae sunt, etiam quando non occidunt. Et latrones omnes, non semper latrotinantur: sed latrenes tamen esse non desinunt. sic uti (que) omnes hi qui spectaculis istiusmodi delectan­tur, etiam quando non spectant innoxii tamen à spectaculorum maculis mente non sunt, quia semper vellent spectare, si possent. So much for murder, now for Idolatrie and sacriledge. It followeth, Nec solum hoc, sed sunt alia majora. Quid enim? nunquid non consulibus & pulli adhuc Gentilium sacrilegiorum more pascuntur? & volantis pennae auguria quaeruntur? ac pene omnia fiunt, quae etiam illi quondom Pagani veteres frivo­la, at (que) irridenda duxerunt? Et cum haec omnia ipsi agant▪ qui annis nomina tribuunt, & a quibus anni ipsi exordium sumunt, credimus nobis bene annos posse procedere, qui a rebus talibus ordiantur? vel ordinan­tur. At (que) utinam sicut haec, propter consules tantum fiunt: ita illos tantum incestarent, propter quos fiunt. Illud est feralissimum & gravissimum, quod dùm consensu publico agun­tur, honor paucissimorum fit crimen omnium. And againe speaking of their playes and spectacles, he sayth: Per turpi­tudines criminosas aeterna illic salus Christianae plebis extingui­tur, & per sacrilegas superstitiones maiestas divina violatur. [Page 41] Dubium enim non est quod ledunt Deum, u [...]pote Idolis conse­cratae. Colitur nam que & honoratur Minerva in gymnasiis, Venus in theatris, Neptunus in cercis, Mars in arenis, Mercu­rius in palestris, & ideo pro qualitate auctorum, cultus est su­perstitionum. So much for their Idolatrie. Now for their detestable and Sodomiticall filthines. De quotidianis im­puritatibus loquamur (sayth he) Equidem quia longum est di­cere de omnibus, Amphitheatris, scilicet odaeis lusoriis pompis athletis, petaminariis, pantomimis caeterisque portentis (quae piget dicere, quia piget malum tale vel nosse) de solis circorum & theatrorum impuritatibus dico. Talia enim sunt quae illic si­unt, ut ea non solum dicere, sedetiam recordari aliquis sine pol­lutione non possit. With many words to that effect, & con­cludeth the place with an Ecce qualia aut omnes aut pene omnes Romani agunt. and againe, Ecce in numera Christiano­rum millia in spectaculis rerum turpium commorantur. And againe, Christo ergo (o amen ta monstrosa) Christo Circenses offerimus & mimos: Christo, pro beneficiis suis theatrorum ob­scaena reddimus. Christo ludicrorum turpissimorum hostias im­molamus. And again, Vbi christianitas nostra, qui ad hoc tan­tummodo sacramentū salutis accepimus? ut maiora postea prae­varicationis scelere peccemus? Nos ecclesiis Dei ludiera antepo­nimus. Nos altaria spernimus & theatra honoramus. Si quan­do enim venerit quod scit; saepe evenit, ut eodem die & festi­vitas ecclesiastica, & ludi public [...] agantur, quaero, ab omnium conscientia quis locus maiores christianorū virorum cepias ha­beat, caveane ludi publici an atrium dei & templum omnes sec­tentur magis an theatrum. Where shall we finde greater armies of christians in the church or theater? And again, Vitiositas & impuritas quasi germanitas quaedam est Romano­rum hominum, & quasi mens at (que) natura.

And in the seuenth booke, of their Sodomitrie he sayth, Quid fieri prodigiosius potuit? in urbe christiana, in [Page 42] urbe ecclesiastica, quam quondam doctrinis suis Apostoli in­stituerant, quam passionibus suis Martyres coronarant, viri in semetipsis foeminas profitebantur, & hoc sine pudoris umbraculo, sine ullo verecundiae amictu: ac quasi parum piaculi esset, si malo illo malorum tantum inquinarentur authores, per publicam sceleris professionem, fiebat etiam scelus integrae civitatis. Videbat quippe hoc universa urbs, & patie­batur: videbant judices, & acquiescebant: populus videbat, & applaudebat: ac sic diffuso per totam urbem dedecoris sceleris (que) consortio, etsi hoc commune omnibus non faciebat actus, com­mune omnibus faciebat assensus. And a little after: Vniver­sa Romani nominis dignitas facinoris prodigiosi inurebatur in­famia. Is not this sufficient to prove Rome, even chri­stian to be full of Sodomie and Idolatrie? A great deale more hath he. His whole booke is most worthy to be read over. And this was in his time, which was about the yeare of our Lord 460, when there had been at least ten christian Emperors, and aboue twentie Martyrs and Saints Bishops in Rome, where then was the excellent puritie of the Roman Church, or golden Common­wealth, which some do so much boast & admire? where was their christianitie, as Salvianus himself demandeth? Doth not the holy Ghost teach us to speak much more truely,Marke well the Prophecie of Ezec. 7. where he spea­keth of the worst of the heathen, & cō ­sider by the circumstances whether it can be understood of any but the Romans. when it representeth that Empire unto us, under the name of I [...]on mixt with dyrt? as the Emperor Tibe­rius was called Lutum sanguine maceratum, dyrt mixt with bloud? unles you will therefore call it golden, because in filthines and Idolatrie it was like the old Babylon, which was figured by the head of Gold? or because it is the seat of the golden Harlot? But of this else-where. In the mean space I demand again, where was the zeale of their Bishops to reforme or correct these enormities, euen of the Christians? where were their decrees or [Page 43] decretals to restrain them? where was the courage of the Priests or Clergie to reprehend or censure them? was there none amongst them all, but that Tertullian of Carthage and Salvianus of Massilia must rise up to speak of it? Videbat hoc universa urbs & patiebatur, videbant Iu­dices, & acquiescebant: sayth he: So here was Babylon, and yet I confesse there was Sion also, But Sion dwelling in Babylon. Whereof the Prophet Zacharie, after the re­turne from the first captivitie seemeth to speak saying:Zach. 2. Deliver thy self o Sion, Rev. 18. that dwellest with the daughter of Ba­bylon. And our Evangelist repeateth: Come out of her my people; shewing that the prophecie of Esay and Ieremie concerning her destruction are not yet fulfilled. I de­mand then upon all these premisses, whether any place can be found in the world qualified for to be the seat of Antichrist, according to these Prophesies, besides the Septimontane Rome, and that Christian: the mountain of holynes, and yet Sodome; the Temple of God and yet Egypt, Sion and yet Babylon? which euen in her best Christianitie retained the Barbarous crueltie, the ab­hominable filthines, and horrible idolatrie of Egypt, So­dom and Babylon in their publike sights and shewes, Theaters, solemnities, ceremonies & common practise. And no sooner did they suppresse those old Pagan Ido­latries, but they fell to this new Idolatrie of worshiping of Images, which they still practise & defend, together with their ever accustomed filthines & crueltie; where­upon I must propose this Problem: whether by any possibi­litie or imagination of man, these things can be applied to any other place, but Rome?

II. Of the state of Antichrist.

THE next thing after the place, which offereth it self to our senses and consideration, seemeth to be the subject, or bodie without which no Accident can consist, and therefore used in the definition of Accidents, especial­ly Relatiues, which cannot be without their Correlatiues: as a father cannot be so called, but in respect of his sonne, nor a Monarch or king, but in respect of his monarchie, kingdome, or state Politike subject unto him And this al­so must be proportionable, as we said before of Relatiues. For as great things must haue great places; so a great and mightie Monarch, must haue a great state under him: And as by the greatnes of the place we may measure the body: so by the greatnes of the state subject to any Prince, we judge of the greatnes & power of the Prince himself. We haue seene alreadie a great place appointed for Antichrist; Let us now see the greatnes of the state and bodie politike that must be subject unto him and support him. And this also hath not been neglected in the H. Scriptures; but is set forth, and described in divers places, especially three, as the best Interpreters do obserue, which also do concurre, and haue good correspondence with the prophecies concern­ing his place aboue specified. First in the seuenth chap. of the prophet Daniel. Secondly the 13 ch. of the Rev. And thirdly, the 17 ch. of the Rev. which places agree in some things, and differ in others, and that agreement and those differences, together with the reasons thereof deserue to be narrowly sifted.

First in Daniell we finde a great and terrible Beast with ten hornes, and amongst the rest a litle horne rising up, &c. In the 13 of the Rev. we fynd two beasts, one rising è mari out of the Sea, as all the beasts in Daniel, with tenne [Page 45] hornes &c. the other rising e Terra. In the 17 chap. of the Rev. we fynde a great beast with ten hornes, and a whore sitting on his back. Let us first consider of the description of this great beast rising out of the sea, in the 13 ch. of the Rev. where he seemeth to be most fully set forth positiue­ly, and after comparatiuely. Here therefore the great beast rising out of the sea is described first, in his existence or parts. Secondly, in his power & actions. For his existence and parts, it is first said to be a beast, rising out of the sea. Secondly, having seauen heads. Thirdly, ten hornes crow­ned. Fourthly, upon his heads were names of blasphemie. Fiftly, his bodie like a Leopard. Sixtly, his feet like a beare. And seuenthly, his mouth like a Lion. For his power and actions it is said. 1, that the dragon gaue him his power, and his throne, and great authoritie. 2, That one of his heads was wounded, as it were to death, but his deadly wound was cured. 3, All the world wondered after the beast, and worshiped the Dragon, which gaue power to the beast, and worshiped the beast, saying, Who is like to the beast? Who is able to make warre with him? 4, There was giuen him a mouth to speak great things and blasphe­mies. 5, Power was given to him to doe and continue two and fortie months. 6, He opened his mouth in blas­phemie against God, to blaspheame his name and his Ta­bernacle, and them that dwell in heauen. 7, And it was giuen to him, to make warre with the saints, and to over­come them, and power was giuen him over all kindreds tongues and nations. And all that dwell upon earth shall worship him whose names are not written in the Book of Life, and Loe here a strange and mightie beast. Now what is meant by the name of a beast rising out of the sea, the prophet Daniell telleth us. For he saith plainly,Dan. 7, 23. that it signifyeth a kingdome rising upon the earth. And the fourth [Page 46] Beast (saith he) is the fourth kingdome. Which seemeth to be the same that is here spoken of. The prophet Ezechiel useth the same phrase,Ezce. 19, & 17. saying. Wherefore laye thy mother as a Lyonesse among the Lyons? &c. And againe, the great Ea­gle, &c. Now if this be a kingdome, which is spoken of by our Euangelist, of necessitie it must be some verie great and mightie kingdome, for so it appeareth by all parts of the description, especially where it is said, that all the world wo [...]shipeth it. And in the question that is asked: Who is able to warre with him? paralel to that question asked in ano­ther place, What cittie is like to this great cittie? As the de­scription also of this beast here, is almost the same with that which is expressed in the 17 chap. of this Book. I ask then, what kingdome or Empire can be understood in this place? Surely he that will say that this beast here, and the beast in the 17 chap. do signifie any other kingdom beside Rome, must produce some other great Empire, to whom the seaven heads, and the other attributes there given unto it, may be applied, aswell as to the Roman, which no man yet could ever do. Let us therefore see the description of this mightie Empire comparatiue, and wherein it doth a­gree or differ from that which is described by the Prophet Daniel, and by this our Euangelist in the 17 ch. The fourth Beast (saith the Prophet) comming out of the sea, was fearfull and terrible, and verie strong. It had great Iron teeth, it devou­red and brake in peeces, and stamped the residue under his feet, it was unlike the other beasts, for it had ten horns, & there came up among them another little horne, before whom three of the first hornes were plucked away, and in this horne were eyes like a man, and a mouth speaking presumptuous things. And this fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdome, and shall be unlike to all kingdomes, and shall devour the whole earth, and tread it downe, and breake it in peeces, and the teene hornes out of this [Page 47] kingdome are ten kings, and another shall arise after them, and he shall be unlike the first, and shall subdue three kings. And shall speak words against the Most High, and think that he may change times and lawes, and they shall be given into his hands untill a time, times, and half a time. But the judgment shal sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and destroy it unto the end.

This is Daniels description of the fourth Monarchie. Let us heare again how the Euangelist describeth it in the 13 chap. I saw a beast rising out of the sea having seuen heads, Rev. 13. and ten hornes (so Daniell) and upon his hornes ten crownes, & upon his heads the names of blasphemie. And the Beast which I saw was like a Leopard, and his feete were as the feete of a Bear, & his mouth as the mouth of a lyon, and the dragon gaue him his throne and great authoritie: and I saw one of his heads as wounded to death, but the deadly wound was healed, and all the world wondred and followed the beast, and they worshiped the dragon, which gaue power to the beast, saying, Who is like to the beast, who is able to make warre with him? (so Daniell) it shall devour the whole earth, &c. And there was giuen un­to him a mouth that spake great things & blasphemies, & power was giuen him to continue 42 months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemie against God, to blaspheme his name, & his Taber­nacle, and them that dwelt in heauen. And it was giuen unto him to make warre with the Saints, and to overcome them, and power was giuen him over everie kindred, tongue and nation. Therefore all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the booke of life, of the lambe which was slayn from the beginning of the world.

In the 17 chap. of the Revelation it is thus: The woman sate upon a scarlet beast, full of names of blasphemie, Rev. 17. which had seuen heads and ten hornes. (so in the former prophecies) And the beast which thou hast seene, was, and is not, and shall [Page 48] ascend out of the bottomlesse pitte, and shall goe into perdition. And they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names are not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. Here is the minde that hath wisdome: The seuen heads are seuen mountains, they are also seuen kings, fiue are fallen, one is, ano­ther is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a short space. And the beast that was and is not, is the eight, & is of the seuen, and shall go into destruction. And the ten hornes which thou sawest are ten kings, which yet haue not receaved a kingdome, but shall receaue power as kings at one houre with the beast. These shall haue one minde; and shall giue their power & athoritie to the beast. These shall fight with the Lamb, and the Lambe shall overcome them, & the ten hornes shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh and shall burne her with fire. They that be of in­different Iudgment may see in that Prophecie of Daniell many things that cannot be applyed to Antiochus, or to the kingdome of the Seleucidae.Vide Brightm [...]. in Dan. 11. As first the great power of this fourth kingdome, which the Prophet setteth forth in more terrible, & dreadfull manner, then any of the for­mer. But was the kingdome of the Seleucidae more terri­ble or more powerfull then the Assirian, and Caldean, the Median and Persian? or the Grecian Monarchie? was An­tiochus any way comparable to Nabuchadnezzar, Cyrus or Alexander? Did he devour the whole earth? Also this fourth kingdom shall think to make changes of times or lawes,Dan. 7. &c. did Antiochus so? Besides by the words of Daniel, it may seem that the fourth kingdom shall conti­nue untill the finall judgment, which cannot agree to the Seleucidans. Letting therefore that opinion passe as a Iew­ish conceit approved by none of the ancient, that I can finde,Hieron. in Da [...]. but Porphyry, & some few of late, that are too much [Page 49] addicted to the Rabbins, I thinke there is litle doubt to be made (but although some things may be applyed to Antiochus:Hieron. in Dan 2 & 4. Quar­tum regu. per­spic ue pertinet ad Rom. August. Nich de Lyra. An­toninus, Mar­sil. Fic. Slei­dan. Napier in Apoc. Ab­bat. demonstr. Ant [...]chr. P [...] ­raeus Not. Ge­neven. &c▪ yet) this beast here signifieth the Roman Monarchie, and the little horne signifieth Antichrist, shadowed in some things by Antiochus. And so I finde the opinion of the ancient and best interpreters. Then to goe forward, and see what points these two excel­lent and divine Prophets apply to the Roman Empire; and wherein they agree or differ. And truly to my un­derstanding they seeme to agree in seuen points, verie materiall.

1. In the rising of this beast, which both affirm to be out of the sea.

2. In the name, a Beast, that is, a Kingdom, as the An­gel expoundeth it, not one King individuall: although if he did say a King, we may understand well enough the whole succession: as where he saith, Thou (o King) art that head of Gold.

3. In the attribute which they give unto him. Great strength and power unmatchable, and unresistable.

4. In his disposition most cruell and bloudy.

5. In the instruments of his power, Ten horns, that is, ten Kings.

6. In his Warre against the saincts, & prevailing against them.

7. In his Blasphemie against God. Vpon which 7. conside­rations I demaund whether we may not safely cōclude with S. Hierom S. Augustine, and the other excellent expositors above cited, that this Kingdom perspicuè, manifestly doth belong to the Romans. which is also here proved by these seven Attributes.

1. His rising out of the sea of great commotions in the world, like others.

[Page 50]2. A politick state or kingdom like the others.

3. More powerfull then any other, for none over­came the whole earth like the Romans; none had pow­er over all kinreds tongues and nations like to them.

4. None so cruell and bloudy.

5. None had so many great Kings at command.

6. None raised so great persecutions against the saincts, and true Church of God.

7. None have beene so blasphemous against God as they, whereof hereafter.

These Attributes therefore seeme to be applyed to the Roman Empire, as one body.

Now let us see the singularityes wherein every one of these three prophesies differeth from the other, and consider whether they also do not properly belong to Rome. The singularities in Daniel are such, as being well considered seeme to declare unto us▪ that it was the intention of the Holy Ghost not onely to represent unto us the Roman Empire and therein Antichrist a­farre of: But to shew us also a Type of Antichristian impiety in Antiochus, that was then to come neare at hand (both being enemies to the Church, it could not be, but that one should be like the other in some­what.) And in the Roman Empire also: to note that State wherein it stood before the Caesars, and there­fore tempereth his words somtimes more significantly to expresse the truth, sometimes more properly to shadow the Type. A thing not unusuall in sacred pro­phecies:Aug. de civ. dei lib 17. For so David speaking of our Saviour in his owne person: I have sworn once by my Holynes that I will not faile David, Psal 89. his seed shall indure for ever &c. which properly belongeth to Christ, yet addeth these words more proper to himself. Thou hast broken the Covenaunt [Page 51] of thy Servant, Let Theologi­ans cōsider the p [...]aces, where David pr [...]y [...]th God to con­found o [...] de­stroy his ene­mies. thou hast broken down all his wals &c. So God in pronouncing his judgment upon the Serpent useth these words most significantly, to foreshew that our Saviour should overcom the Divel. The Seed of the woman shall breake the Serpents head. yet these words in the same place, upon thy belly shalt thou goe, and dust shalt thou eate, seeme more proper to the materiall serpent.

So it seemes in this prophesy, Daniel though he speak principally of the fourth great kingdom more power­full than any of the rest, which was the Roman; yet he inter-laceth somewhat concerning Antiochus the Type being though not a Roman, yet an enemie of the saincts: but more applyable to Antichrist the great e­nemie, as may appeare by these seven particulars or singularities.

1. In that he doth not resemble this fourth kingdom to any beast as he did the first to a Lyon. The second to a Beare. The third to a Leopard. but of this he doth not shew of what certaine form or shape it was, but onely that it was unlike to the fo [...]mer, & most strong & terrible, where­upon I ask how this can possibly be applyed to Antio­chus who had but a peece of Alexanders Empire; and whether it do not lively expresse unto us the Roman state, before it was setled in the Caesars: when it had gott the Monarchie of the world, as Polyb affirmeth, & yet had no certain form of government, but was some­times ruled by Consuls, sometimes by Dictators, some­times by the Senate; somtimes by the People; some­times by the Opimates & Patritii, & sometimes by the turbulent Tribunes and seditious multitude? But in the time of S. Iohn this Empire was grown to a certain, though a monsterous form under the Caesars: & there­fore we see it by him more certainly described.

[Page 52]The second singularitie in Daniel is, that it is sayd to haue ten hornes, which are not here said to be crowned, as they in the Revelations. And this much more properly signifieth the kings subject to the Roman state, who made kings their ministers and servants, then to the Selucidan Princes, which were absolute kings, crowned, & acknow­ledging no Superiour. But in the Revelation, these things signifyed by the name of hornes, are said to haue crownes, & by certaine notes distinguished from the other. Whereof hereafter.

The third singularitie in Daniel is that among these kings there arose another unlike the first. And this seemeth to pre­figure Antichrist, whose kingdome is indeed most unlike to any of the other kings, & can not be applied to Antiochus.

The fourth note in Daniel is, that before this litle Horne or king three other kings were plucked away, which by some Interpreters is very hardly drawen to Antiochus, but if we consider the Roman Antichrist, it will appear to be easily applied, and truly fulfilled. For it is manifest that the Ro­mans draue first the Grecian Empires, secondly the French, and thirdly the Germans out of Rome, and Italy, as shall be shewed hereafter. So those three kings were plucked away, to make roome for this little horne. As for the Exarch of Ra­venna, which was but the Emperors Vice-Roy, I cannot afford him the qualitie or title of a king; and for the Lom­bards they never setled their state in Rome.

The fifth singularitie in Daniel is, that this king coming up last, spake presumptuous words and blasphemies. And this I call a singularitie in Daniel. For although blasphemie is attributed to this beast by S. Iohn also, yet here it is sayd onely to be in his words, but by S. Iohn in his names. Now this was fulfilled in Antiochus, & much more it is in An­tichrist, as it is noted in the Revelation.

[Page 53]The sixt singularitie is, that this little horne shall destroy the saints, and faithfull servants of God, and this was partly done by Antiochus, but much more prophecied and per­formed by Antichrist: of whom it is said,Rev. 13. that he shall make warre with the Saints, and overcome them.

The seuenth is, that this little horne shall thinke to change times and lawes, things which God hath specially reserved to himself. Litle of this doe we read to be done by Antio­chus, and indeed in such things what could one man doe? Lawes can verie hardly be changed in a short time: but to alter times in a short time is impossible. But this is verified fully in the Roman Antichrist, as shal be shewed hereafter.Probl. 6. Having therefore thus observed the singularities of the prophet Daniell, in describing the Roman beast, especially before the Caesars. Let us now see the singularities obser­ved by our Apostle, describing it in the 13 chap. under the Caesars, and in the 17 under Antichrist. First in this 13 ch. this Empire is represented under a certain form, like a Leo­pard, which Daniel doth not say.

2, It hath seauen heads, expounded to be seauen hils, and seauen kings. Cap. 17.

3, It hath his ten hornes crowned.

4, Here is no mention of any little horne arising up after [...]he rest, nor of any of those things, which Daniel speaketh of him: but there is a second beast rising up after the first. Consider now whether the little horne be not now be­come this second beast.

5, It is said, that upon his heads were names of blasphemie.

6, One of his heads was wounded to death.

7, His deadly wound was cured.

Let us come to the description of this beast, in the 17 chap. which I mean but onely to touch, leaving the fur­ther examination thereof, to a place more convenient.Probl. [...].

[Page 54]1, In Daniel, there was a [...]ittle horn. In the 13 of the Re­velation, a second Beast, whereof in the 17 chap. there is little or no mention.

2, In this chap there is a woman sitting upon the seuen-headed beast, whereof in Daniel, or in the 13 chap. there is nothing, what is become of the horne, or second beast, if it be not this woman?

3, In the 13 ch. the beast is not said to be of any colour, but in the seuenteenth of a skarlet, or Crimson colour.

4, Power is giuen to the beast over everie kindred, tongue and nation, in the 13 ch. but in the 17, the woman is sup­ported by peoples, multitudes, and nations.

5, Here in the 13 ch. the beast maketh war with the saints, but there the woman is druncken with the bloud of the saints, and Martyrs of Christ Iesus.

6, Here the names of blasphemie are onely upon the heads of the beast: but there the whole beast is full [...]f [...] [...]f [...]s­phemie.

7, Here all the world wondreth at the beast & worsh [...]p [...]th the dragon and the beast. But there the kings of the earth [...]m­mit fornication with the woman, and the Inhabitants [...]f the earth are druncken with the wine of her fornication. so both are drunke, she with bloud, and they with fornication, and there is no more speach of worsh [...]ping the beast. Very no­table and remarkable differences. If I be not much decea­ved; whereof to speak shortly my opinion under correc­tion. I am persuaded to collect, that the state of Rome in Daniel is signifyed by the fourth beast, specially before the Caesars: in the 13 of the Rev by the first beastè Mari, un­der the Cesars, and in the 17 by the skarlet coloured beast under the whore. Antichrist in Daniel is the little horne; in the 13 of the Apoc. the second beastè terra in the 17 the whore. Which being well observed the reason of all the [Page 55] Concordances and differences between these prophecies will easily appear. For the proofe whereof, le [...] us cast our eye back again, & consider the severall parts of the descrip­tion of this beast, and therein see, whether it do not fully agree to the Roman state, in these severall times, and whe­ther it can be applyed to any other. And first why it is cal­led a beast, amongst other things, for which the Romanists of these dayes do calumniate the professors of true and sin­cere religion. One is this, that we say some places of scrip­ture are to be taken figuratiuely. This a late Iesuit objecteth against us, calling it a sh [...]ft: but whether it be a shift or not, it is none other then the ancient and best interpreters ad­vise us to looke unto,Aug. de doct. C [...]r [...]st lb, 2, & 3. namely S. Augustin in his books de doct [...]ina Chrisit [...]na where he sheweth, that not onely proper but translated words are used in the scripture, and of some figures, not onely the examples, but the names are there to be found, whereof one (sayth he) is allegoria, Con [...]es l. 11. which is no­thing els but a Met [...]phore continued. Pauca sunt quae proprie l [...]quimur, p [...]ura non proprie, sayth he in another place, whereupon learned divines,Tb. Aquin. in 1 sentent. both Hebrew and Christian haue alwayes confessed, that there is not onely a litterall sence to be admitted in the exposition of the scripture, but an Allegor [...]all and Anag [...]gicall, 10. Picu [...] Mi [...]. in Apolog. so it be with consent of other places. So our Saviour when his Apostles doubted what he meant, by the leaven of the Phar [...]sees, Mat. 16. and of the hypocrisie of the Pharisee. And when his disciples murmur­ed, for that he sayd, Except ye eat my flesh, ye haue no life, Luke 12. &c. He answereth, What if ye should see me ascend into heauen. Ioh. 6. It is the spirit that giveth life, the fl [...]sh profiteth nothing. So wheresoever any absurditie, or (as S. Augustin speaketh) fa­cinus or fl [...]gitium, wickednes or mischief will follow upon the proper exposition, there it must be understood to be spoken figuratiuely, for there is nothing taught in the [Page 56] scripture (sayth he) but the loue of God and our neighbour, so here not onely by the consent of all interpreters, but by the warrant of the spirit of God expounding it to Daniel, by his Angel, we are taught to understand, that the name of a beast in propheticall scriptures. Concurrentibus his, quae requiruntur, other places either concurring, or not repugn­ing, doth signifie a kingdome going in succession from man to man, and we haue no warrant to take it for one particular, or individuall person, or in any other sense, then the Angel hath expounded it. And this is no new or uncouth man­ner of speach, to call great kingdomes by the names of great beasts, as I haue touched before: but why and for what reason, or upon what ground they are so called, is a consi­deration, not unworthie to be searched out, so far forth as the mercie and grace of our Lord Iesus Christ, shall illumi­nate our understanding, and direct our mindes; wherein, if I be somewhat long, I hope the value of the matter may countervayl our pains: Assist us therefore in this investigati­on, [...]es. 4. O Lord, who art ascended up on high, and givest gifts unto men. First then I demand, whether we may not hold it for a certaine and infallible veritie, that the later Prophets did converse and exercise themselues in reading and meditate­ing upon the law,Deut 6, 6. and the writings of the Prophets, that were before them, [...] 18, 15. as all are commanded to doe by Moses, exhorted by David, [...]l. 1. and taught by the example of Daniel? Secondly,Dan. 9. I demand, whether we may not beleeue, that they did thereby obtaine an habit, or grace of God to use the words and phrases of the former Prophets, & to make use of them by a kinde of progression. As when the pro­phet David had recorded that excellent prophecie of our Saviour Christ, I haue set my King upon Sion, the Hill of my holynes. Psal. 2. Psal. 69. He himself goeth forward saying, An high hill is Gods hill, in which it pleaseth him to dwell, he will dwell in it [Page 57] for ever. And in another place, He will heare me from his ho­ly hill. The prophet Micah goeth yet farther,Psal. 50. saying that the Mountaine of Gods house shal be set in the tops of the mountains, Mich. 3. and manie nations shall flow to it. Which the Prophet Esay turneth to exhortation. O house of Iacob, Esay 2. come ye also and let us walk in the light of the Lord. And the prophet Daniel useth it by way of progression to a farther prophecie, cal­ling it first, a stone, cut out without hands, Dan. 2. which dasheth the kingdoms of the world in peeces, and grew to a mountain filling the whole earth. Doubtles this Propheticall progression is most excellent and observable. But I know not whether in all those heauenly writings any be so usefull, or worthie of contemplation, as that of our Saviour Christ, whom when Moses by the dictate of the H. Ghost, had first styled, the seed of the woman, & afterward the seed of Abraham. The Prophet Esay goeth forward, and calleth him the roote, Gen, 3. Esay 11. and then the stem, & then the branch. Hereupon again the pro­phet Hosea goeth forward, and with most sweet & loving words, to comfort the people of God in their afflictions, applyeth this to the mysticall bodie of our Saviour.Hosh 14. I will heale their rebellion (saith he) I will l [...]ue them freely, I will be as the dew to Israel, and he shall grow as the lilly, and fasten his rootes, as the Caedars of Lebanon, his braunches shall spread, and his beutie shall be as the oliue, &c. Lo first, a seed, then a root, then a stem, then a braunch, and now a tree bearing and spreading his braunches. Yet no word is all this while of fruit, it comes anon: but by the way these heauenly Pro­phets make many excellent uses of these propheticall me­taphors. Esay thus: He shall grow before him as a braunch, Esa. 53. & as a root out of a drye ground, noting his humiliation. Iere­mie thus: I will raise to David a righteous braunch, Ier. 23. and a king shall raigne and prosper, to note his kingdome and exal­tation. Zacharie thus:Zach. 6. behould the man whose name is the [Page 58] braunch, he shall build the temple of the Lord. to signify his priesthood, intercession and mediation. Our most gratious and blessed Lord being come in the flesh, to shew the ful­filling of all these prophecies, calleth himself now no lon­ger a roote, or a braunch, but I (sayth he) am the true generous and fruitfull vine. Ioh. 15. Yea sayth S. Paul, not onely a vine bea­ring fruit of it self, Rom. 11. but an oliue receaving grafts of others. Whereupon he inferreth a most loving and graue admo­nition to all Christians, Be not high minded. Thou bearest not the roote but the roote, thee. This example of propheticall progression so sweet, so excellent, so comfortable and so well followed, I could not, I would not, I durst not conceal or omit. To returne to our purpose. Why should I not think that the prophet Daniel and our propheticall Euan­gelist S. Iohn in the description of these four Monarchies observed some such thing? The prophet David saith, that a man without understanding is like a beast. He saith also, that he that maketh an Image, Psal. 49. Psal, 115. and he that trusteth in it, is without sense like the Image it self. Ieremy goeth forward, Everie man is a beast by his skill, Ier. 10, & 51 everie founder is confounded by the gra­ven image. Dan. 7. Lo, now an Idolater is a beast. The prophet Daniel taketh up that, and resembleth great Monarchies unto great beasts. It cannot I think be supposed, but he doth it, upon the same reason, namely because they erected or mainteined Idolatries. For which cause they were all repre­sented before, in one Image of divers mettals; to shew that they all agreed in the worshiping of Idols, though in divers manners. Now the Prophet Daniel resteth not here, but by the illumination of Gods spirit goeth forward to shew the properties of these four kingdomes under the figures of severall beasts, and therefore calleth the first a Lyon, the second a Beare, the third a Leopard, and the fourth he saith, it was most strong, terrible, cruell, and powerfull, yet he [Page 59] findeth no name for it, nor beast whereunto it is like, but where he leaveth, S. Iohn goeth forward, saying that it was like to divers beasts in his severall parts.Rev. 13. For it hath the bodie of a Leopard, the mouth of a Lion, the feete of a Beare &c. Thus then haue we seene (as I suppose) a pro­bable reason, why these great Monarchies were resem­bled to beastes: out of which this consideration may re­sult, that the last of them all, which must of necessitie be that of Antichrist, must exceed all the rest in Idolatrie & tyrannous maintenance of Idolatrie. Let us now consider the severall parts of this last kingdome.Rev. 17. And first of the heads. These are said to be seauen, expounded by the Angel to signifie seuen kings, and seauen mountains, and wheresoever we finde the seuen Mountains, there we must finde also the seauen kings. But (sayth the Angell) it is the great cittie that ruleth over the kings of the earth, an inseparable and individuall propertie of Rome. No cit­tie but that, was ever called Septicollis or Septimon­tium. No mountains better known by their seve­rall and distinct names, then those seauen of Rome. None did ever boast of seauen Mountaines in one cittie but the Romans. Here therefore we must looke for the seauen kings. and yet we need not to seek far, for Livy & Tacitus haue expressely named everie one of them, as I shewed before, namely their Kings, Consuls, Dictators, De­cemvirs, Tribunes, Caesars, and Pontifices Max. But here by the way, there is a singularitie to be observed,Rev. 13. which is not mentioned in any other place, but in this 13 cha. namely that one of these seauen heads was wounded to death, Napier. but his deadly wound was healed. This most aptly agreeth to the Romans, as it hath been well expounded by others,There be some who (because it is said that this was the wound of a sword, & there is no sword in the scripture so well noted, as that of the word, Ephe. 6. do interpret this of the wound given to the Caesarean idolatrie, by the preaching of the gospell, which is healed and restored by the Pont. max. Let Divines judge. to signifie either the wound that was giuen to the Caesarean [Page 60] head by the murder of Iulius, which was healed by Augustus, or the wound of the same head in Nero, & the healing of it by Ve­spasian, Sueton. in vita Vesp. of whose restoring the Cōmon wealth, Suetonius professedly maketh two whole chapters. But a most signall singularitie of these Heads is noted in the 17 ch. Fiue (sayth he) are fallen, one is, and another is not yet come. This bringeth us by the hand into Rome. For it is mani­fest, that of the seauen governments of Rome, fiue were fallen before the Revelation: namely, the fiue first named by Li­vy,Livy l. 6. Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Decemvirs and Tribunes: One was then in being, namely the Caesars: and this not ob­scure.Rev. 17. But who that one was, that was to come, and to con­tinue but a short space, and how the beast is called the eight, & yet one of the seauen, seemeth somewhat intricate and dif­ficult to explain. But I demand here, what is the word in the text?I am not igno­rant that this differeth from some others, whom I reve­rence: but, Sit liber judex. Another is not yet come. What other? Not another Head, but another King or Caesar. For it is not [...], but [...] ▪ and so the beast is called, not the eight head, but Ogdoos, the eight king. This in my opinion di­recteth us to Constantine the Christian Emperor, as to him that continued but a short time,He that will apply this to the eccles. state of the B B. un­der the Greciā Caesars, must consider how it can be pro­ved, that those B B. had regall power, and if they had, then how their power can be distinguished frō their suc­cessors. For he altereth the forme of the Empire, reducing it from Heathenish to Christian, and translated the sea of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, and therefore may well be called an other, but another Caesar, not another Head. For he continued Caesar still. But God would not suffer that godly Christian Emperor, long to continue Head of the Antichristian beast; and therefore moved him to remoue his Emperiall seat, that the Impediment might be remo­ved, according to the Prophecy. 2 Thes. 2.

Then to the second question, who is the beast, that is the eight king, and yet the seauenth head, & one of the seauen; who else can it be, but those that immediately succeed­ed [Page 61] the Caesars in the government of Rome? And who were they, but the Pontifices maximi, dist. 96. as both by their lawes and histories appeareth, For (sayth the decree) Constantine gaue to Silvester, who then was Summus Pontifex, his pal­lace of Lateran and his Imperiall ornaments with power and principallitie &c. I know it is objected, that this is un­der the title of Palea. And much adoe there hath ben about it to little purpose. For looke in another part of the decree,Caus. 12. q. 1. and there it is registred for authenticall, that Constantine left to Silvester imperialem sedem his Imperiall sea. If it be objected that the donation of Constantine is held by ma­ny to be forged, that is nothing to the purpose.Angelus R [...]c­cha de Bibliot vat. bringeth divers authors to proue that Co [...]st. cessit Pontisici. For it is not here said, that he gaue it, but that he left it, neither is it here in question, what Constantine truly gaue, but what the Bishop of Rome truly had. Now their Histories do plentiful­ly testifie, that whether by the gift, or cession of Constan­tine, or by what other means,See Probl. 4. pretence or colour soever it was, their power after the departure of Constantine grew dayly more and more absolute, untill they had by little and little wrought the Emperors not onely out of Rome, but out of all Italie, and in the end brought them under their feet. Platina seemeth to affirme the donation, saying that he gaue to Silvester his Diadem, and for his sake built the pallace of Lateran. Howsoever if we belieue their owne Authors, there is no Empire now to be found in Rome,in epi. ad Thes. & vide Tho. Aquin. & Lyr. in 2 Thes. 2. & al. as Stapulensis confesseth. Vbi nunc est Romana Monarchia? ubi qui in ea mundum regat habemus? But of the Pope or Pont. Max. it is no lesse evident, that he now hath, and for these many hundred yeares hath had,Sū. Pon. Dic­tator perpetu­us quē princi­pes orb [...]s ado­ra [...]t. And a­gain, Totū or­bē terrarū Ro▪ the absolute government of that great cittie, and the state, Territorie and Tribunes, thereto belonging, as witnesseth Blondus. Which who­soever hath after the removing of the Empire, must be confessed to be Antichrist, in beeing the seauenth head of [Page 62] Rome.curia sibi sub­jectum habet. Blondus in Roma instaurata. Vbi plura. Vid. Adrian. 4. apud Aventi [...] & Tho. Aquin. &c. I referre me to thine owne judgment Christian Reader, whether hereby all the difficulties of the Text be not cleerly discussed. First where it sayth: The beast which was and is not, is the eight, and is of the seauen. And againe, The beast, which was, is not, and yet is. Whether these words can be understood, but of this Roman Pontifex. For the Pon. Max. was instituted by Numa Pompilius the second king of Rome, to be the cheef Iudge & decider of all mat­ters concerning Religion, & this continued still in Rome, in great honor,Livy lib. 1. untill the time of Iulius Caesar, distinct from the Dictator: but he tooke that, as an high dignitie upon himself. And so did Augustus and other Emperors. And amongst the rest,Sueton. it is thus reported of Titus. Pontifi­catum max. ideo se professus accipere, ut puras servaret manus, fidem praestitit, nec author posthaec cuiusquam necis nec conscius. Whereby we may see that the law of that supreame Ponti­ficate, was that they might not be Iudges of capitall crimes, nor sentence any man to death. But I haue not yet found it written of Domitian, in whose time our Euangelist re­ceiued this Revelation, that he tooke upon him this Pon­tificall dignitie. And it seemeth he did not. For else why doth not Sueton. speak of it, as well in him, as in others, and he is not onely noted by the Christians for a bloudy Persecutor, but for a cruell Tyrant amongst the Heathen. From which, if he had taken upon him the high Pontifi­cate (if nothing els, yet) this their owne law, & the shame of the world, I thinke, would somewhat haue restrained him. I doe not read it I say. Therefore I thinke he was not Pon. Max. And so the words of our Prophet are exact­ly fulfilled, that the Beast, the Pont. was formerly in Rome instituted by Numa, exercised by Nasica, Scipio, Iulius, Au­gustus, Titus, and many others: and it is not in Domitian, and yet is, though not in him de facto: yet in the state of [Page 63] Rome in potentia, when they list to set it up. And it is the eight king of that state, reckoning Constantine the Chri­stian to be the seauenth, yet it is but the seauenth head, and of the seauen, because Constantine had no distinct forme of Regall authoritie from the other Caesars, and therefore could not be reckoned to be another head from the Cae­sars: And this Pont. Max. who in the time of the Consuls and Pagan Cesars, was but like a little horne growing, in time of the Christian Emperours like a Beast of power ascending, now sitteth like a queen upon the back of the Roman state commanding. And it shall ascend (sayth the Angell, out of the bottomlesse pit. It shall ascend to his high exaltation of power and dignitie, out of the same place, from whence the Seauen headed Beast was raysed, or to speak plainly, it shall be exalted to the highest by the divell, who gaue to the first Beast his power. For this cannot be meant of his first rising: because it is expressely sayd in the text, that this beast was before. And so it seemeth that all the difficulties may be cleared touching this seuenth Head, which as it is evident in the Text, is sometimes called the Beast. And now for a breathing I desire to know, whether any person, monarchie or kingdome can be found in the world, or whether any can be imagined to come hereafter, to whom all these Prophesies can be so fitly applyed? I come to the next re­markeable circumstance: which is, the ten crowned hornes. That the Roman Empire, as well in the time of their Con­suls, as of their Cesars, had many kings at their commaund is evident by their Histories, and I haue partly proved be­fore. But in this Revelation,Probl. [...]. and specially in the 17 chap. there are divers singularities to be observed, in the descrip­tion of these hornes, whereof in Daniell there is no men­tion. First, because it is said, that at the time of this Reve­lation they had not received a a kingdome. 2, But they shall [Page 64] receaue power, at one hour with the beast. 3. They are crow­ned. 4. They haue one minde to giue their power, and autho­ritie to the Beast. 5. They shall fight against Christ. 6. They shall be overcome by him. 7. And then they shall hate the whore, and make her desolate and naked, & shall eate her flesh, and burne her with fire. Not one of these things can be tru­ly applyed to the kings that were under the ancient Ro­man Empire, which are indeede spoken of by Daniel. For they had receaved their kingdoms before, and were not to expect it in time to come. 2. They are not sayd to be crow­ned, because perhaps they held their crowns, but as tenants at sufferance. 3. They did not giue their power to the Ro­mans, but were conquered and subdued. We do not read, that they did professedly fight against Christ, although they were Pagans, or that they were overcome by him, neither can it be said, that they did hate the whore, or burne her with fire. Massinissa, Prusias and Ptolomee gaue their kingdoms to Rome, but they had receaved them long before S. Iohns time, and did never hate the whore, nor make her desolate, or burne her with fire. The Goths & Vandales did burn Rome, but they never gaue their power & authoritie to the Romans. The like differences may be shewed of all other kings that were in the time of the Roman Empire or before. These ten hornes therefore spoken of in the 17 chap. of the Reve­lation cannot be understood of those ten, which were spo­ken of by Daniel, although they may haue somewhat in common with them. But where now shall we finde these kings? Look over all the world, and see where they may be found. When shall they receaue their kingdome, and how long shall we looke for them? The impediment of the Roman Empire is long since removed, by the testimo­nies,See Probl. 7. as well of Divines as Chronologers. If the beast or these kings be not yet come, when will they come? Out [Page 65] of Rome, I say again, as it is said, or the Roman Empire,Vide Abb. de­monst. Antic. c. 4. & there note the words of the Synod▪ cited out of A­ventin. ann. 7 it is in vain to seeke. And if these kings which shall giue their power and Authoritie to Rome, haue not yet re­ceaved their kingdome, nor given it to the beast, when shall they receaue it, or giue it to him? or when shall we see the accomplishment of this Prophecie? shall we looke for it as the Iewes looke for their Messias? But it is the opinion of the best & soundest Interpreters,Our most ex­cellent learned Soverain king Iames holdeth this opinion in Ep. Admonit. So Napier in Apo. Rensuer. in Isag. &c. that these ten hornes do signifie the ten chief Provinces subject to the Roman Empire, which at one time with the beast, namely upon removing the power of the Empire, re­ceaved their power, and by degrees grew up into king­doms about the same time, when also the Pope began to take upon him the title of Pontifex Max. namely a­bout the yeare of our Lord 700, or within an hundred yeares after. As it may be these Graecia, Germania, Gallia, Brittania, Asturia or Leon. Whereunto now is joyned Spaine, Pannonia or Hungaria, Polonia, Suetia, Dania, and Norvegia. Greece, you may say, was before. True, as a Roman Province, but upon the translation of the state it became a Monarchie in it self, which was not absolute as long as the chief title was giuen to Rome. Now if this be so, when shall we see this performed, if it be not al­readie? When we see that all these great Princes of Christendome heretofore did yeeld their authoritie & power to the Roman Pontifex. And now, many of them haue forsaken him, as England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, and others of Germanie, A great parte of the Dutch, Swisses, and divers other, which are fallen away from Rome: France and Venice wavering, is it to be imagined that they will againe, giue their power & authoritie to Rome, or ever come againe to giue their power and au­thoritie to any other? Therefore I say, that this prophe­cie [Page 66] is now fulfilled, or never to be expected. For if we consider well the times forepast, we may see, that all the great kingdoms of Europe, which were before subject to the Roman Empire, did arise and begin to take upon them absolute soveranitie, and power of the sword, up­on the remoue and decay of the Roman Empire, which was the time foreshewed for the revealing of Anti­christ. And did all giue their power and authoritie to the Roman Pontifex, they did all fight against Christ Ie­sus in persecuting the professors of his word and Scrip­tures, by the incitement and instigation of the Pope.

And all those which are fallen from the Pope, haue been overcome by the scripture & word of God, which is called the sword of Christ Iesus. If these things be so, then why should we looke for any other accomplish­ment of these Prophecies? or how should we under­stand, that they can be fulfilled, if not alreadie? Can it be denied, but all Christian kings gaue their power and authoritie, and some gaue their lands and territories al­so to Rome? Constantine, they say, gaue to the Pope his diadem, with the pallace of Lateran, and imperiall seat. Arithpertus, otherwise called Herebertus the Lom­bard gaue the Cottia Alpes, wherein standeth Genua. Pipin, and Charles of France, gaue the principallitie of Ravenna, with the Duchie of Beneventum, and Spole­tium. Henry the IIII Emperour of Germanie, and Iohn king of England gaue up their crownes, to whom, but to the Pope of Rome? Can it be denied? All the Christian kings of that part of Europe, which was sub­ject heretofore to Rome, gaue him authoritie, and power to do what he lift in their kingdoms. Was ever the like done to any Monark, Prince, Potentate or Man heretofore? or may we expect, or looke for the like to [Page 67] be done to any in time to come? True it is, we see not yet the Whore made naked and desolate, nor burnt with fire,Psal. 31. the time is in Gods hands, and he that beleeveth will not be too hastie. Leaving therefore that which is to come,Hab. 2, 3. unto the disposition of the great disposer of times. Let us goe as far as men may in the description of this mightie Empire, to see what is fulfilled alreadie. The next note or circum­stance here observed is that upon his heads were the names of blasphemie: but in the 17 ch. it is said that the Beast is full of names of Blasphemie: A difference not to be neglected. For the understanding whereof, it is necessarie for us, to see how the word Blasphemie is taken in scripture, and thereby we shall see, how this also agreeth to Rome the Pontifical. First I demand, whether it be not blasphemie,Vide Thom. 2, 2. q. 13. when infi­nite power, or infinite knowledge, or other inseperable & incommunicable properties of God,Antonin, sum. par. 2. t. 8, c. 7. are attributed unto men? In which respect the Iewes hearing our Saviour say,Sum. Angel. t. blasphem. Marc 14. Destroy this temple, and I will raise it againe in three dayes; ac­cused him of Blasphemie, as claiming infinite and divine power to himself, whom they thought to be but a man. Him they accused falsely: but such in truth was the Blas­phemie of Sennacharib and Rabsake. Who are they among all Gods, that haue delivered their Lands? 2 Reg. 1 [...]. that the Lord should deliver Ierusalem out of my hands? So that of Holofernes.Iudit. 6. But the Blasphemie of Nebuchadnezzar king of the first Babel, seemeth to goe a step farther,Dan. 3. who not onely asked the same Question, Who is the God that can deliver you from me? But upon the wicked perswasion of his own power, presumed to make an Image, & commanded it to be wor­shiped as a God. And shall a man make Gods (sayth the Pro­phet) is not this a blasphemie beyond all blasphemies?Ier. 16. in asmuch as he that saith he can make a God, doth not onely make himself equall to God, but greater, better, more [Page 68] powerfull and mightie, as the efficient cause is alwaies bet­ter, and more powerfull then the effect. Now in this kinde of Blasphemie, I demand, who ever went beyond the Ro­mans? who not onely made many Gods, and commanded them to be worshiped, but onely such as were made by them, or received by the publike authoritie of their com­mon wealth or Senate, by pretence of which Law, they re­fused our Saviour Christ, although recommended to the Senate by Tiberius,Rival in Hist. Iud. Eusebius Tertull. with a prerogatiue of his own voice, as some report. So then by the Lawes of the Romans they would haue such Gods, as they made themselues, & would haue none other to be worshiped. And whether this were not most horrible & abhominable blasphemie, I desire to be answered. If it were, let us see how it was used in the old time, when Rome was Ethnick, and how it hath ben used since. In the Ethnike Rome none were made Gods, but by the Senate, as appeareth by the Law aforesaid, and none were worshiped as Gods, but publicè asciti, such as were publikely accepted. And the Senate made no Gods but their king Romulus, the murtherer of his brother, and the Caesars, which were the heads of that fourth beast or Monarchie. But now in the time of Christianitie, all de­grees are Canonised, and worshiped by the Popes authori­tie, namely, Munkes and Friers, Nunnes and Priests, as well as kings or princes, popes or patriarkes. So that now we may see the whole bodie of this Popish Empire full of names of blasphemy. Again, do they not hold & affirm, that everie priest and frier in celebrating the Masse, doth make God, and that a God to be worshiped, as not onely the reall but the carnall body of our Lord, and the verie same that was borne of the virgin Marie?See more of their blaspemies in D. Willet, of the 4 Pil­lets. I ask whether this be not Blasphemie? and whether these names of Blasphemy are not now spread over all the bodie of the beast? If they be, [Page 69] then whether this difference betweene the Beast in the 13 chap. and in the 17 of the Revelation be not herein most precisely and plainly fulfilled? Having observed this diffe­rence, let us returne againe to the description of this great beast, representing the old Roman Empire. It is said, it hath the bodie of a Leopard, the feet of a Beare, and the mouth of a Lyon. This hath been verie well expounded by the learned Napier, and others, to signifie, that it hath all the Instru­ments of tyrannie of all the former Monarchies: viz. the Leopard in swiftnes and eagernes of the Macedonians.Polyb. lib. 3. For within three and fiftie yeares, as Polib. noteth, from verie small beginnings it got the Monarchie of the world. The Bearelike pawes of the Persians, that is, innumerable armies, apt to march everie where, & to take hold of everie thing, as the Beare doth with the pawes. And the Lion-like mouth of the Babylonian, not onely to devour men, but to roare out blasphemies against God: as by the instance aforesaid may appear: Who is that God that can deliver you out of my hands? said the Babylonian; so the Assirian before him, and so the Roman after him, by reason whereof, they did not onely reject our Saviour Christ (as I said before) but stirred up, nine or ten horrible persecutions, against Christians,Onuph. in Plat. in vit, Silvest. Vid. Aug. de civ. dei. l. 8, the first by Nero. 2, by Domitian. 3, by Trajan. 4, by Anto­ninus. the 5, by Severus. the 6, by Maximinus. the 7, by Decius. the 8, by Valerianus. and the 9, by Dioclesian. to which they adde, the 10 by the Arrians, which was also by the power of the Roman Empire. No lesse cruelties haue they exercised, since Rome was Pontifical. but of these els­where. And thus haue we seene this beast in his essence & parts. Whereupon for a pause, let us demaund againe the question: whether these things can be verified, of any other per­son, Monarchie, or state in the world, but onely of the Roman? And so let us proceed, and consider of the same beast, in his [Page 70] power, and actions, and see, whether they also do not most aptly agree to the same state. And here again, we finde seuen things noted in this Beast. 1, That the Dragon gaue to this beast, Rev. 1. his power, and his throne, and great authoritie, doth not Tully say the same in effect of Rome, though in other words? Omnis Deorum immortalium potestas aut trans­lata est ad vos, aut communicata vobiscum. Doth not Virgil say as much:

Divisum imperium cum Iove Caesar habet. And again,
Iupiter in Caelis, Caesar regit omnia terris.

2, All the world worshiped the dragon and the beast. Is there any man ignorant of the generall idolatrie & worship, that all the world offered aswell to the Divell, as to the state of Rome in those times?

All the world wondred and followed after the beast, saying who is able to warre with him? Is not the same question moved by Livie. Where he proposeth it as doubtfull. If Alexander the great had come into Italie, whether he could haue conquered it? yea he concludeth it, upon ma­ny reasons, to be without doubt, that he could not. Polyb. also seemeth to affirm the same. Againe was it not verified in the time of Dioclesian, whose victories were so great, that the Roman Empire was said to haue no bounds, but where their soldiers could not march.

4, There was given to him a mouth speaking great things & blasphemies, as that which was recorded of Augustus, that he would haue himself be honoured in Temples by Priests, & Flamines,Tacit. [...]n. 1. with all the Ornaments belonging to the Gods, and although he seemed at the first to refuse it, (if we be­leeue Sueton) yet it appeareth, he was afterward well enough content with it,Suetoni [...]s. as the same Sueton witnesseth, that divers Provinces made temples, altars, and playes to his honour, as they did to other of their Idols. so Virgil.

[Page 71]
Hic illum vidi juvenem Melibaee quotannis
Bissenos cui nostra dies altaria fumant.
Virgil. Argl. 1

And againe — Illius aram ‘Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.’ which was followed by his successors,Petr. Crinit. de honesta discip. l. 17. Ne (que) illud ignoratur more fuisse Rom. Imperatoribus suas quo (que) imagines in templis adorandas apponere, quod a Tertulliano magnis convitiis accu­satur. Such also are the speeches, which they were con­tent to hear from others, and to allow and reward them.

En huius (nate) auspiciis illa inclyta Roma,
Imperium terris animos aequavit olympo.

5, Power was giuen him to do, or to continue two and fortie moneths. Which reckoning according to propheticall com­putations everie moneth for 30 dayes, make 1260. This may be understood eyther of the continuance of the pow­er of the Roman idolatrie from the beginning, or of their persecutions of the Christians. For the first, reckon 1260 yeares from the first setling of the Roman state;Livy lib. 1. after the death of Tatius the Sabin, when Romulus alone held the government peaceablie, and enlarged the cittie, by taking in the Caelian and Quirinal hilles, and established the dive­lish worship of Iupiter in the first temple, that was made in Rome, which was the 25 yeare of his raigne (before which time it was in continuall wars and troubles) reckon I say 1260 yeeres from that 25 yeer, and we shall come to the yeer 1285 ab urbe condita, which was the yeere from the nativitie of our Lord 533, the verie next yeer after which, (that is to say) in the yeere 534 à Christo nato, the Christian Emperor Iustinian the first perfected his learned and excel­lent bookes of the civill lawes,In co [...]. wherein beginning with a most christian and pious confession of his fayth and confi­dence in our Lord & Saviour Christ Iesus, he first purgeth and suppresseth all the ancient Idolatrous and superstitious [Page 72] lawes, and then enacteth speciall lawes for the confirmati­on of the true Christian fayth, as appeareth in the begin­ning of the Code. And this was in the year of our Lord 534. as the best Chronologers do agree,Marianus, [...]ibhander, Helvins, Onuphr. Rensuer. and in this booke reciting the former godly constitutions of Constantius, Gratianus, Arcadius, and other christian Emperors for the shutting up of Idolatrous Temples, and abolishing of dive­lish sacrifices and auguries, he gaue such vigour and force thereunto by his authoritie and confirmation that shortly after the Roman Consuls, which (as Salvianus testifieth, euen in Christian times were wont to be inaugured with heathenish and idolatrous rites) utterly ceased, and were left off, and so may you see the 1260 yeares of the continu­ance of this Roman beast, or Monarchie of idolatrie in Rome fulfilled to a day. Although if any man think bet­ter to follow the computation of the Godly learned M. Fox, I will not speak against it. He maketh of this two & fortie moneths the number of 294 yeres, by taking everie moneth for a sabboth of yeares: and so interpreteth this prophecie, to signifie the continuance and determination of the great persecutions of the primitiue Church, begin­ning the account of those yeares, from the first persecution of our Saviour Christ, under the Iewes and Herod, unto the end of the last persecution under Licinius. I will not (I say) speak against it. For I must needs with open armes accept and imbrace the judgment of that Godly Father. Who sayth,de civ. dei. li. 11. that the obscuritie of the word of God is pro­fitable in this respect, that it bringeth forth often times in one word, many sentences of truth, and sheweth them to the light of our understanding, whiles that one man ap­prehendeth it in one sence, another in another: so that al­wayes (sayth he) that which is collected in one obscure place, be confirmed eyther by the attestation of other ma­nifest [Page 73] things, or by other places not doubtfull; for the same Author (saith he in another place) in the same words which we labour to understand peradventure did see,de doctr. chri. lib. 3. and thinke upon this same other sentence, and without all per­adventure, the spirit of God, which used the Author for a pen-man, did foresee that such a sence or sentence, also should offer it self to the Readers understanding. Yea, and did provide & prepare this sentence also to meet with his intelligence, because this sentence also is true, aswell as the other. For out of whose mouth soever a truth doth pro­ceed, it is not to be ascribed to a mutable and mortall man that spake it, but to the immutable and eternall God that gaue it,Vide August. in confes. l. 12 and therefore here I will not be afraid most humblie to confesse my great darknes and ignorance in all divine know­ledge unto thee, O light of my soule, and soule of my life. But what hurt is it to me, if I thinke the meaning of the Prophet is not as another man thinketh it to be: so long as I make no other sence of his words, then that which thou, the light of all true speaking mindes hast approved to be true. But if any be conten­tious, then O life of the poore, my God, in whose light, Aug. in conf. there is no contradiction, & in whose goodnes, there is no shadow of change, raine downe meeknes into my hart, that I may patiently beare with such, as do not so much understand the sence of thy Prophet, as they loue their own prejudicate opinion, not because it is tru­er, but because it is their own. For otherwise they would in like manner and measure loue and approue the true sentence of ano­ther, as I also loue that which they say, when they speak truth▪ not because it is their sentence, but because it is truth. Therefore to returne to our purpose: whichsoever of these two inter­pretations we take, or if we take a third more unlikely then eyther, (considering whereof we speak, namely of the con­tinuance of the power of the Ethnike Roman Monarchie) that these 42 moneths, making 1260 dayes, are to be taken [Page 74] for so many yeares from the incarnation of our Lord, it must needs be, that they are long since expired, and con­sequently, that the power and time of that first beast and Monarchie is long since ended. For to take them literally for three yeeres and an half, (as that godly Father, from whom I do not willingly dissent) doth in another place li­mit the continuance of Antichrist, upon the words, a time, two times, and a half: To take them I say literally, that is, for three yeeres and an half, I thinke to all that haue eyther read or heard of their actions, will seem to favour of much mistaking, I might say of much ignorance, but that reve­rence to that good Father, who had not then the help and light, which we now haue, makes me forbeare other mens affected, and obstinate, and wilfull blindnes in this point, which deserveth the whipping post. But of this more hereafter.

Let us come therefore to the sixth note, which is of his Blasphemie against God and his Church. But of this I neede not speak any more, having said so much alreadie.

The seuenth is of his warres against the Saints, whereof also I need speak but little, seeing the said ten horrible per­secutions, and many others, stirred up by the Roman Em­perors against the godly christians of the primitiue church, are notorious and known to all men, and never the like to be found in any kingdome or nation whatsoever, no not under the Turkes. But I proceed, this Beast or Empire had power over all nations. As to giue instance, but in one, we may read of Dioclesian, that within a verie short time, he obteyned mightie and great victories in all parts of the world then known, namely in Africk over Egypt, in Asia over Persia, in Europe over France and Brittanie. Vpon all which premises, I conclude with this Problem, Whether these things can be applyed to any person, kingdome, state or mo­narchie [Page 75] besides Rome. And whether any other can be the Anti­christ, according to these prophecies, but onely he that is the seauenth Head, king, or Commander, of the Roman state? And thus we see the place of Antichrist, and the state or bodie politique which he must haue. Let us now come a little nearer to consider of his names.

III. The Names.

No men est per quod, quid (que) noscitur: The name of eve­rie thing is that, whereby it is known, or as it were not a men, it is that, whereby everie thing is noted or distin­guished. The authoritie to giue names belongeth prima­rily to God, as Gen. 1,Gen 1. Secondarily to princes and superi­ours, as Adam Gen. 2.Gen. 2, 19. Thirdly, to the people, by consent, as Ioh. 13, 13.Ioh. 13.13. The conditions required in the imposition of names, to make them answerable to the definition and notation aforesaid, are veritie, congruitie, & certaintie. Vide Platon. in Cratyl. Thus being imposed and approved, they are not to be changed. For they are notes of our notions, notions of things, limits of distinctions and dignities, signes of truth, and measures of certaintie, which being violated or neglected, all knowledg turneth to error and confusion, all justice to injurie, all vertue to villanie, as Cato in Salust well noteth;In Con. Cat. I am pri­dem nos vera rerum vocabula amissimus. And Seneca com­playning of the wickednes of times; Prosperum & faelix sce­lus virtus vocatur. And hereby may we see the force of the Apostles argument Heb. 1.Hebr. 1, 4. and the ignorance and presum­ption of Heretikes & Schismatikes, who dare take to them­selues new names, and leaue the common name of Chri­stians, giuen by oracle from God, & most certainly appro­ved by God. Now if in names giuen by men,Acts 11, 26. certaintie [Page 76] ought to be observed, shall we think that the Spirit of God giveth uncertaine names, or will call darknes light, or light darknes?Esa. 5. Questionlesse he doth not giue idle or uncertain names:Hebr. 4, 12. but in this, as in all things els, useth words liuely and significant. And herein is to be noted a difference betweene the names giuen by God, & the names instituted by men. For men giue names a poste­riori, because things are so, and men conceiue them to be so, therefore they call them so. But the names giuen by God are a priori, because God the Almightie, maker of all things, hath ordeyned that they shall be so, there­fore he calleth them so, and because he calleth them so, therefore they must be so. Let us see therefore what names are giuen to this great enemie of Christ and his Church, and how these names are used and applied in the Scripture. And first of the name Antichrist. This name (as all men, though but meanely learned in the Greeke tongue do know) is a word composed of the preposition Anti, and the word Christ: Anti is used in Greeke, sometimes to signifie an adversarie, sometime a Deputie, or Vicar, as many learned men haue heretofore observed and proved. That it signifieth an adversarie is confessed by all, that it signifieth a deputie, substitute or vicar appeareth by the word Anthupatos, which is ex­pounded by some Proconsull, Act. 19, 38. & 18, 12. by others Deputie. Now the names of Christ,So AntiStrate­gos signifieth either a lieute­nant, or the adverse cap­teyns. which in Hebrue is Messiah, and in English signifieth anointed, is diversly taken in the holy Scripture. First properly, personally, and Individually, for our Lord and Saviour Iesus Christ, who is God blessed for evermore.

Secondly,Aug. de civ. dei l. 17, c. 4. appellatiuely, for all that haue a similitude with him by their unction, as Kings, Priests and Prophets, in which sence it is used in the Psalme;Psal, 105, 15 Touch not mine [Page 77] annointed, and doe my Prophets no harme: and David of king Saul sayth, The Lord keep me from doing that unto my master, 1 Sam. 24, the Lords annointed, to lay mine hand upon him, for he is the annointed of the Lord. Thirdly, the name of Christ is used mystically, for the mysticall bodie of our Saviour Christ,1 Cor. 6. which is his church. In which sence the Apostle speaketh Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? 1 Cor. 11. And again,Christ is the head of everie man. for as the bodie is one, 1 Cor. 12. and hath many members, and all members of one bodie, so is Christ▪ for by one spirit we are all baptised into one bodie. &c. And this that divine Apostle himself learned of the words of our Saviour Christ from heauen: Saul, Saul, Act. 9. why perse­cutest thou me? Now according to these different accepti­ons of these two words, let us consider of the word Anti­christ, and to whom it may be applied. And first for the name of Vicarship. The Pontifex max. of Rome who is the seauenth head or king of the Roman state, and confesseth and professeth himself to be head & Governour of Rome, he also confesseth, and professeth himself to be the Vicar of Christ, and of God, and in this sense the name agreeth un­to him; and so his advocates and followers affirme him to be. But as the word Antichrist signifieth an enimie to Christ, it is by them all stoutly denied, that the Pope is that Antichrist. Let us come therefore to the touch, that is the text where Antichrist is named, and thereby learne, how the word is to be understood. The first place where it is expresly named, is in this our Apostle S. Iohn: Who is a lyer (sayth he) but he that denyeth that Iesus is the Christ, 1 Iohn 2, 22 The same is the Antichrist. And againe,1 Iohn 4. Everie spirit that confesseth not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God, 2 Iohn 7. but this is the spirit of the Antichrist. These be all the places where I can finde the verie name used in the New Testament. It may percase seeme strange to finde it in the old, and yet [Page 78] there it is to be found, and that in a most excellent prophe­cie, though not the same in letters, yet the same in sence and signification,Psal. 2. The kings of the earth set themselues (sayth the Prophet) and the princes assembled against the Lord, and against his Anoynted. This Psalme (if we marke it well) conteyneth in brief words the summe and effect of all the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Revelation, concerning the enemies of the Church, and namely Antichrist; and that appeareth in seauen particulars. First, the rage and furie of the enemies. 2, their joyning together against God and Christ, and their intention to shake off the yoke of Christ Iesus. 3, the providence of God for his church, sitting in heauen, as in a watch-tower, watching over his enemies, & laughing them to scorne. 4, the meanes which God useth to defend them, by setting Christ to raigne in his church. 5, the anoynting of our Saviour in his eternall generation, and arming him with regall and soveraigne power to sup­presse all his enemies. 6, a loving and serious advise to all Princes and Rulers of the earth, to beware to whom they cleaue and adhere, either to Christ, or to his enimies. And lastly, an assured promise of happines to all those that trust in him. Behold then an excellent Prophecie, and the same is touched againe in the 89 Psalme and other places.Psal. 89, 51. But to our purpose.Psal. 2, 2. The word in this Psalme is Al-Meshico, against his Anoynted, wherein Messhiah, as it is commonly known signifieth Annointed or Christ. And the preposi­tion Al, or Gnal, in Hebrue, is taken as [...] in Greeke, not onely for adversus, but for juxta, or secundum, and some­times super. In the second signification, that is, juxta or se­cundum it is accepted by the Pope, neither is it denyed by him or his followers in the third signification, which is su­per, if we take the name of Christ, either for his mysticall bodie, (for therein he affirmeth himself, to be aboue the [Page 79] Church, & to be head thereof) of if we take the name Christ, for all that are anoynted, namely, kings, prophets and priests, he affirmeth himself to be superiour and aboue them also: which is a speciall note of Antichrist, as S. Paul sayth, He shall exalt himself aboue all that is called God, or that is worshiped. Neither do I finde,2 Thes. 2. that ever any Emperor, Prince, Prelate, or Potentate, but onely the Pope tooke upon him the names, either of Vicarius Dei, or Christi Generalis, or Caput ecclesiae catholicae, or to be su­per ecclesiam catholicam, not the Emperors of Rome, not the Turke, nor any other. But the onely thing that they stand upon is, as I said before, that he is not adversarius Christi, personally, and therefore not Antichrist. But how can this be? For Christ is in heauen, and Antichrist for all his malice & power cannot touch him there. Let us therefore examine the places of Scripture aforesaid, where the name of Antichrist is used, and we shall easily perceiue that the name of Christ cannot, neither ought to be taken for his person. For Christ cannot be found personally present upon earth: but either spiritually ac­cording to his graces, or sacramentally in the Sacra­ment, or appellatiuely, as the name is communicated to others, or mystically, as to the Church. So therefore must the name of Antichrist be taken for an enimie to the graces, Sacraments or ministers of Christ, and that not individually in one person, but spiritually in his works, or appellatiuely in succession. For otherwise it can not expresse the true intention, or effect of the thing, for the Emphasis, or principall force of the sen­tence in all the places aforesaid, resteth upon the word Christ, that is Anointed: as in the first place, He that de­nyeth our Saviour is the Anointed, he is Antichrist:1 Ioh. 2, so in the second and third places:1 Ioh. 4, He that denyeth that the [Page 80] Anointed Saviour is come into the world, is Antichrist. So in the Psalme, The kings and princes set themselues against the Lords Anointed. Now the ointment where­with our Saviour was anointed, was the fulnes of the graces of the H. Ghost, as the scripture testifieth. 1, that he was full of grace.Iohn. 1. Hebr. 1. 2, that he was full of truth. 3, that by himself he purged our sinnes. 4, that he is made to us wise­dome.1 Cor. 1. 5, Iustification. 6, sanctification. And 7, redemp­tion. & such like. Now he that denieth these graces in our Saviour, and fighteth against those that ascribe these graces unto him, he or none must be the Antichrist, for other warres against Christ, who sitteth in heauen at the right hand of God cannot be made. Who then are those, that send us to other Mediators and Intercessors, namely to the virgin Marie, the Apostles, and Saints, to speak and pray for us? if it be the Pope & his followers, then I aske them, why or for what reason they will haue us so to do? if they do acknowledg our Saviour to be full of grace, why do they send us to others, if our sinnes make us unworthie to goe to him, that calleth us to himself, how many we go to the virgin Marie, or the H. Apostles who do not call us? Is he not as full of grace that calleth us, as they that call us not? Is he not as easie to be intreated now in heauen, as he was upon earth, when he did not reject Marie Magdalen, that had seauen divels, the woman of Canaan, whom he rebu­ked by the name of a dog, nor the man possessed with a legion. Secondly, how do they acknowledg him to be full of truth, when they say, that his H. word doth not contain all truth, but it must be pieced out with the traditions, Ca­nons and expositions of their Church? 3. How do they acknowledg him to be our wisdome,Scriptura seip­sam exponit. Chris. & Aug 2 Tim. 3. when they will not haue his word to be sufficient to interpret it self, and to in­struct us, & make us perfect in all good works, but we must [Page 81] resort to the Church and receiue her judgment from the mouth of their Pope? 4, How do they acknowledge our Saviour Christ, by himself, to haue purged all our sinnes, when they say, that we must satisfie by good works in our life, and after our death we must go to Purgatorie? 5, How do they acknowledg him to be our justification, when they say, that we are justified before God by our good works, and not onely by faith in his death and passion, al­though it be written, if thou confesse with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and belieue in thy heart, Rom. 10. Hebr. 10. that God raysed him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. 6, How do they confesse him to be our sanctification, or that by one sacrifice, he hath con­secrated for ever them that are sanctified, when as they teach, that there must be offered up dayly sacrifices for us in the Masse? And lastly, how do they accept him for their Redeemer, which affirm that our poenarie works,Concil Trid. ses 14. Bellarm. de paenitent. l. 4. truly & properly do satisfie God for the guilt of our punishment, which after the fault forgiuen, remaineth to be expiated? But these points, with many others which may be produ­ced, to proue that the Pope and his Church, if not expres­ly, yet by consequence (which is equivalent) doth deny the fulnes of all graces to be in our Saviour Christ, I leaue to our learned Divines, of whom some haue urged these things alreadie, and others I doubt not, will prosecute them more at large hereafter. The summe of all this may be reduced to this Problem: Whether any may more properly be called Antichrist, or may be called an adversarie to Christ, then he that thus denieth the graces of our Saviour?

Let us come to that which is not onely easie to our un­derstanding, but evident to our senses, which may be seen with our eyes, and felt with our hands. For if we take the name of Christ here, as he is in the sacrament, who hath been a greater enimie to Christ, thē the Popes, one of them [Page 82] poysoning it, another casting it into the fire, all chang­ing, adding or diminishing it? But take the name as it is communicated to Kings, Priests, and Prophets, and so Antichrist to be an enimie to them, I demand, who hath in secret, (as Antichrist must be deceiueable) been a greater enimie to all christian kings and Princes, then the Popes, sometimes incensing them to fight with Pa­gans and Saracens abroad, as de did Godfry of Bulleyn, & many Princes with him, in the meane space neglect­ing their Christian subjects at home: our king Richard the first, and the Emperor Frederike: sometimes stirring up seditions and rebellions at home, as he did against the Emperor Henry the IIII. Henry the IIII. king of France, and Queen Elizabeth, sometimes ministring oc­casions to make wars betwixt themselues, as Pope Iohn did by crowning another Emperor while the first was living; sometimes, by giving away their kingdomes, as Navarre and England, sometimes leaving them destitute of succour, and open to the universall professed enimie of all Christians, the Turke, as they did the Grecian Emperors: sometimes setting secret Traitors to murder them, and sometimes procuring open enimies to invade them, ever excommunicating, cursing and interdicting one or other of them. Let the histories of late times be perused, and see whether their ende and drift hath not been continually for these 900 yeeres and upwards, to maintaine and advance their own power, riches, juris­diction and preeminence, by holding christian princes alwaies obnoxious to them, and to make them obnoxi­ous, and to keepe them under awe, by such meanes as aforesaid? So likewise for Priests and Prophets: is he not an adversarie to all that will not submit themselues unto him? as namely to the Greek Church, and all the [Page 83] bishops and learned pastors of the same, to the godly Valdenses, Albigenses, Wicklevites and others? Lastly if we take the name of Christ here for his mysticall bo­dy, which is the Church, this is also a speciall note of Antichrist. For so it is plainly said, that the woman was drunke with the bloud of Saints and Martyrs. And who hath shed more bloud of godly men, professing the word of Christ Iesus, then the Popes haue done for these last nine hundred yeares? I referre my self to the histories and Chronicles of those times.See Abb [...]t de­monst. antich. In that one warr which they caused Christian Princes to undertake for Ierusalem, under Godfry of Bollen, it is recorded, that there were slayn two thousand millions of Christi­ans. In Merindall, Cabriers and other places held by the poore Valdois, they murdered all, men, women, and sucking children. In the Massacre of France Anno 1572 within eight daies were murdered a hundred thousand, beside many other at other times, in England and else where. So that howsoever we take the name of Anti­christ, either, as Vicar to Christ, or as adversarie, eyther denying his graces, or suppressing his Liuetenants and ministers, or persecuting his members; I finde this name most agreeable to Rome: and I demand, Whether it can be so well applied unto any other? But here will be deman­ded of me a question, how this name Ho Antichristos that Antichrist (as they expound the Greeke Article, which they would perswade, is to be understood of one man) can be applied to a succession of men, especially, seeing some of the Fathers seeme to speake of him, but as one man? For the Fathers (to clear that first) it must be con­fessed, that quaestionibus non dum motis, P [...]k in Prob. they spake some­times impropriè, & incautius, as Bellarm. confesseth, or securius, as S. August. sometimes Rhetoricè as S. Ierom. [Page 84] sometimes populariter, as others do affirm. This question concerning Antichrist, was not appointed for them, but for us, upon whom it must needs be confessed, that the ut­termost ends of the world are fallen, neither did they much labour in it. And yet we see not all of them runne in one straine. Hilarie seemeth to speak more largely. He that re­fuseth the judgment of the Scriptures, Antichristus est. Chrysoft. in opere imperfecto doth not restraine himself to one man: but we (sayth he) videmus abominationem desola­tionis jam stantem in loco sancto, id est, populum Antichristi in locis ecclesiae. and yet confesseth that Antichrist must conti­nue to the end. Let the whole place be considered. How­soever it be, it can not be said, that this question was so well ventilated in those times, as it hath been of late. Then for answer I demand, what, or how much, the question will be altered if the Pope be acknowledged to be Anti­christ, though he be not proved to be that Antichrist? what difference will it make in the end? Must not all true Christians beware, avoide, & detest everie Antichrist? But to the point. It is cōmonly known in Grammer schooles, that this particle, Ho, in Greeke, is not alwayes used signi­ficantly; nor in a significant use, is it alwaies taken to sig­nifie a particular and individuall person; nor yet in parti­culars is it alwaies used to note Eminence or singularitie. Sometimes, and that verie frequent it is used indefinitely; many times it is joyned with a name of multitude, or with a name of succession. He that hath any knowledge in the Tongues may easily obserue, that Ho, in Greeke, is not so Emphaticall as Ha, in Hebrew, or the, in English, which yet is sometimes emphaticall, and sometimes not. For in the same chapter, where it is said, Ho Antichristos, in the same it is said [...],2 Ioh. 2. he that sayth he is in light, and hateth his brother is in darknes. And again [...]. [Page 85] &c. The lust of the flesh, the pride of life &c. and the verie last word of that Epistle is [...]. Keepe your selues from Idols. So in other places it is joyned with names indefinite, as [...] in another place with the name of Christ,Ephes. 5. to signifie his mysticall body consisting of a multitude successiue, under one head im­mortall. [...] (sayth he) so is Christ. Hebr. 9. Abbat. in de­monst. And in ano­ther place it is joyned expressely with a name of personall succession, [...], which is ever translated, thé High-Priest once a yeare entred into the holy place, there spoken of.1 Pet. 2, 17. So in another place [...], Honour the King. Will any man say it was meant onely of one king? And again [...] by the Highpriest. Hebr. 13, 11▪ And the use of Ho in these places, wherein it cannot be meant of one singu­lar Priest or King, is so like and paralell to the use of it in the name of Ho Antichristos, that I see not what difference can be made betweene them. Yet if any will not take this for a sufficient answer, let him well consider, how he can answer the problems following, by which I thinke it will appeare, that the Pope is not onely an Antichrist, but euen that Antichrist, whereof the Scripture speaketh. Foras­much as the Prophecies can be verified of none but of him, and that not of one alone, but of the whole successi­on. And therefore, to proceede to the Names, I desire the Reader to examine, whether any of the six names that I shall now produce, do not fully agree to the Pope, and to all the Popes that haue bèen in Rome, since the time of Pope Constantine: and if these names do agree, I must de­mand, How it can be denied, but that they, and everie one of them, is Ho Antichristos, that Antichrist?

The second name therefore is Pontifex maximus, or sum­mus, the Higest or Great Priest. This name I am sure they will not deny to their Pope, and likewise I am sure that, [Page 86] they will deny it to any other, unlesse it be to our Saviour Christ. To our Lord it belongeth of right, & if any other take it upon himself, it must be by usurpation, and such an usurper of the right and title of our Saviour Christ, must be Antichrist. It was never given to any by God, but to our Saviour Christ. Mel [...]hisedeck is called a Priest of the High God,Hebr. 6, 20. and 8, 1. Aaron is called an High Priest, our Saviour Christ the High Priest, and the great Sheepheard of our soules,Ecce Pontif. sum. qui non eget alieno ex. piarisauguine Aug. medit. and such like titles: but the title of the Highest, or Greatest belongeth to none, but peculiarly to our Saviour Christ. I aske then first, whether the Pope of Rome do not declare himself an enimie to Christ, in that he doth exalt himself aboue all that is called God, or that is wor­shiped, in taking a name upon him higher and greater then was ever giuen to the sonnes of men? not to Aaron the holy, not to Phinehas the zealous, not to Iehojada the worthie, not to Iehoshua the noble, not to Simeon the glorious, not to Iohn the fore-runner, nor to Melchisedek the royall and singular: everie one in his time, the type of our great and eternall High Priest, farre aboue them all, whose consecration is eternall, whose Priesthood is eter­nall,Hebr. 7, 16, 24. & 6, 8. & 9, & 10. whose entrie into the Holy place is eternall, whose oblation is eternall, whose sacrifice is eternall, whose me­diation is eternall, and whose presence in his Church is eternall. Againe, the Apostle proveth the excellencie and divinitie of our Saviour farre aboue all Angels, because he hath received a more excellent name. Doth not the same ar­gument proue, that the Pope in taking an equall name, maketh himself equall in dignitie? therefore never durst any of the faythfull Martyrs, or Bishops of the primitiue Church, take upon him this name of Summus, or Maximus Pontifex, never any of the Holy Patriarks, or Prophets, ne­ver any of the divine Euangelists, never any of the most [Page 87] blessed Apostles, for they all knew it belong onely to that great High Priest, whose Priesthood is for ever. And how darest thou (O miserable mortall man) take upon thee a name so divine, as to be called the Highest or Greatest Priest, whilst he is living to whom it so inseparably be­longeth? Why dost thou not also directly call thy selfe Christ, as well as the Highest Priest, which is equivalent? I demand againe, whether in taking this name, thou dost not proclaim, that thou dost deny, that our Lord Christ Ie­sus is now the Highest or Greatest Priest? and so professe thy self to be his enimie, and claime to be aboue him: see­ing it must be confessed, that if the Pope be greatest, then Christ is not the greatest. For two may be great, but of two each of them cannot be greatest, no more then two can be infinite, or two principall. But (say they) Christ is in heauen Head of the Triumphant Church,Panorm, the pope is onely head of the church militant upon earth. (O blaspheamer [...] is not Christ Iesus truly God? in earth, as present by his power,Enter, praesen­ter Deus est. & ubique po­tenter. Ps. 139 Sed familia­rius in electis pergratiam. to rule the church militant, as in heauen? How then darest thou, sitting onely at Rome, proclaim thy self Head of the universall church, as well, which is in Brittanie, Germanie, France, Spaine, Africa, America, and India, parts where thou art not, as at Rome? and yet confine him to heauen, as if he were wholly excluded from the earth, who is here, as present as there? But they say againe, the Pope claymeth onely as Vicar to Christ, O still blaspheamer! answer againe, what hath a Vicar to doe, in the presence of his su­periour? yea of such a Superiour, who filleth heauen and earth, and hath bound himself by speciall promise,Ier 23. Matth. 28. to be with his church for ever? Dost thou not, in making thy self his Vicar, deny his presence, and in denying the pre­sence of our Lord and Saviour Christ in his church, deny him to be truly God? Quid verba audiam, cum facta vide­am? [Page 88] Againe I aske, whether thou dost not in this name usurpe the rights of our Saviour, and so also declare thy self to be his enimie? When the valiant King Edward the third, of England, intended warr against Phillip the French King, he proclaymed himself King of France, & that was the beginning of the warr, & so everie Prince taketh it for a denuntiation of war, when his neighbour Prince taketh his title. And shall not we say, that this is a publike proclamation of war, by the Pope against our Saviour Christ, when he taketh upon him the stile of Pont. Max. that properly belongeth to our Saviour, and was never giuen truly to any man, but to him? yea doth he not exalt himself aboue Christ? For Christ did not take it to himself, but received it of his Father. But the Pope taketh it to himself, without the gift of any, un­lesse it were of Phocas the Murtherer, of whom we shall speake hereafter. Neyther yet doth he onely take this title to himself, but other titles also not inferiour, as ca­put, and sponsus ecclesiae, &:c. which onely belong to our Saviour. I demand further, whom doth he follow in this title? Doth he follow Melchisedek, or Aaron? They were both called High Priests, and they were indeede Types of our Saviour Christ, (the onely true High-Priest) and ordeined by God for certeine signes that he should come, and so had a lawfull calling. But when the truth was come, then all types were abolished, yea and they also are abolished from Christ, & fallen from grace, whosoever do use them. Whereupon the godly Fa­thers do affirme, that the Céremonies of the Law are now not onely mortuae, but mortiferae, not onely in use dead, but to be used deadly. And the reason is appa­rant, for that whosoever doth use them, doth deny that our Saviour is come in the flesh, namely, by using those [Page 89] Ceremonies which were Instituted to shew that he was not then come, but to be expected. But the Pope using the title of High Priest after the order of Melchisedek, or of Aa­ron doth use a Ceremonie, instituted to shew that Christ was not come in the flesh, but was to be expected: There­fore I aske, Whether he doth not denye that Christ Iesus is come in the fl [...]sh, and so also declare himself to be Antichrist? But if they will say, that in taking this title upon him, he follow­eth our Saviour Christ: I aske by what authoritie, or who calleth him to it? No man (sayth the Apostle) taketh this title upon him, saue he that is called of God, as was Aaron. And againe, the Priesthood of Christ cannot passe from one to another. The reason, because Christ is God eternall, who can haue no successor in his offices, and therefore he that will take upon him to succeed Christ, doth deny his divi­nitie, as he that will be his Vicar, by pretence of his ab­sence. Well, if the Pope can shew no calling, then I ask, by what example or precedent? if it were a title lawfull to be used, why did none of the Apostles nor of the Disciples use it? not Tuus, not Timothie, not Paul nor Peter, not Iames the brother of our Lord, Bishop of Ierusalem, & Pre­sident of the counsell of the Apostles, nor yet our Apostle S. Iohn, which outlived all the rest, and therefore might best do it. In a word, I finde none to whom this title of Summus, or Maximus Pontifex hath any wayes ben applied, but either Melchisedek, or Aaron, or to our Saviour Christ: nor any that hath taken it upon them by humain authori­tie, but onely the Idolatrous Pontifex Maximus that was in Rome, of whom I haue spoken before. And if the Pope cannot justifie his highest and greatest Pontificalitie, by some title from one or other of the three first, it will fall out inevitable, that he is the true and undoubted successor of the last. And that is most consonant and agreeable to [Page 90] the words of our prophecie, that Antichrist should be one of the seauen heads of Rome, and namely that head of whom S. Iohn sayth, He was, and is not, and yet is, as is before pro­ved.Probl 2. The same also may be proved by his name Papa, whereof divers haue made divers derivations, but for my part I thinke none more probable, then to say it cometh from one of the titles, used or usurped by the old Roman Emperors, which upon their coines were wont to stampe Pa. Pa. for Pater Patriae, and now the Roman Prelate, as he succeedeth them in the name of Pont. Maximus, so he taketh that title of Papa likewise, to proue himself their undoubted Successor. I will not therefore stand here fur­ther to confute their pretence and claime, to be Vicarius Christi, although I might say. that it cannot stand with the celsitude of a Pontifex max. to be but a Vicar, neither can a Vicar dispense with the lawes of his superiour: nor will I answer to, Tu es Petrus, and such like, which haue been so many times answered by our learned divines, neither do I think my self bound to refute the immoderate titles giuen to the Pope by S. Barnard, or other late Doctors, a pointe of this weight is not to be carried away with swelling phrases of Rhetorick, but by evident testimonies of un­doubted truth. Certain it is that he who said Tu es Petrus, never sayd Tu eris Pontifex Maximus, nor Tu eris meus vica­rius, Chrysost. no nor super hunc Petrum aedificabo &c. neither did he giue any keyes to him, more then to the rest of the Apo­stles. But if I may speak my opinion, this name Pontifex max. is the verie name of blasphemie written in the fore­head of that purple whore, euen that Antichrist. &c. So much therefore be spoken of this name of Pontifex Max. which the Pope taketh to himself. A third title is Servus servorum Dei. This attribute the Pope also, and he alone accepteth, acknowledgeth and useth it. But this title was [Page 91] never giuen to any, but by the godly prophet and patriarch Noah, to the cursed Canaan, whose Father was the scorner of that godly patriarch, and his posteritie the mortall eni­mies of our Saviour Christ in his Church of Israell, and so a type of Antichrist, and therefore were commanded utter­ly to be destroyed, rooted out, and abolished, as Antichrist shall be. It will be said, that the holy man S. Grigorie used this name. I will not deny but he was an holy man, and although a man subject to some errors and infimities, yet as I verily believ a Prophet. For he prophecied of the com­ming of Antichrist. It is the last houre (sayth he) the king of pride is at hand, an armie of Priests is prepared to attend him. But I know that the prophets by the instinct of Gods spirit did and said many things, which were in them pro­pheticall, but in others would be absurd & inconvenient, as Esaiah and Hosea, naming their children with strange names. Ezechiel lying many dayes upon one side, baking his bread in doung, and creeping out through a wall at noone, and such like; or if these things be taken to be visi­ons or parables, yet that cannot be denyed, that one of the prophets commanded another to strike and wound him. Iacob was by an Angell called Israel, and Salomon was na­med by a prophet. And who knoweth whether that pro­pheticall Bishop Gregorie did take that name in humilitie, foreseeing that his own successors would use it in pride, & as the king of pride? It might be a title holy in him, and yet accursed in them, as the name of Iudah was blessed in the patriarch, and in one of the Apostles, but most accur­sed in the Traitor. These two names therefore used by the Pope, you see may well be applied to Antichrist. Now wil I shew forth three other names giuen in the Scripture to Antichrist, which may as well be applied to the Pope, whereof the first is the man of sin, or the Lawlesse one: for the [Page 92] word Anomos in Greeke doth signifie so properly, and the word Belial in the old Testament is near to the same effect. And in this, as in the rest of the names that follow, it is worthie to be observed, that as the title of Summus Ponti­fex, Servus servorum, & others, which the Pope doth take unto himself, and approue, do aptly agree to the types and descriptions of Antichrist in the scripture, so likewise the titles giuen to Antichrist in the scripture do most aptly a­gree to the actions and practises of the Popes, recorded in their owne Histories. For instance, in this name of the man of sinne, or the Lawlesse man, what Monarch, prince, prelate, or potentate, did ever so much practise allow, and maintain open and notorious sinnes, as the Popes do and haue done now for these many hundred years, by their fa­culties, pardons, licences, and dispensations? Adulterie, [...] incest, Sodomie and Treason, murder & parricide, & wha [...] not besides? What enormous, horrible and abhominable practises do we read of Boniface the 7. and 8. Gregorie the 7. otherwise called Hildebrand: Silvester the 2. Stephen the 6. Iohn the and all the rest? It may easily be observed in their Histories, how many of them haue ben Simoniakes, Idolaters, Adulterers, incestious, mur­derers, Traytors, Sacriligious, Sodemites, and Conjurers. Easi­ly do I say, nay not easily, unlesse you name all since Pope Constantine. For everie one of them since his time, which was about the yeare of our Lord 707, exalted themselus aboue the Emperors, & tooke away from them their pro­vinces and Territories, therein committing open Treason and rebellion. All of them since that time openly, & stout­ly maintained Idolatrie, and not one of them but hath been taynted with some other of the crimes aforesaid. For proof whereof let me ask, which of them hath reformed, or dis­avowed the wicked actions of their predecessors? namely [Page 93] the Idolatries, Adulteries, Stewhouses, Luciferian Pride, and such like? And yet; who they are that will be lawlesse and subject to no mans censure,Platin [...]. let them answer that haue read in Platina the life of Pope Leo the 3. who being ac­cused to the Emperor, Charles the great, for certain offen­ces, the Emperor intending to examine the matter, Respon­sum est ab omnibus (sayth the Author) sedem apostolicam om­nium ecclesiarum caput, à nemine, Laico praesertim, judicari de­bere. It was answered by all the Bishops, Clergie & people of Rome, that the Sea Apostolike, the Head of all chur­ches, ought to be judged by none, especially not by a Lay man. Which resolution they haue held, & continued ever since. Let them answer that haue read their Decree,Dist. 40. & can. 9, q. 3. That the Pope though he draw millions of men, catervatim, by heaps into hell, yet is to be judged by no man. Let them answer that haue read their Doctors, Canonistes, and Casuistes, deter­mining,Sum. Angel, t. Papa. That the Pope may dispence with some of the Comman­dements of the first Table, and all of the second, as (sayth my Author) Pope Martin did with him that had taken his owne sister to wife. And if consent and approbation do make a man partie, or accessorie to the sinnes of another, accord­ing to the common Rules of all lawes; let them answer, which of them haue disadvoued or dissented from the ac­tions of the said Pope Constantine, who erected & main­teyned Idolatrie; and for that cause,Onuphr. in Plat. Palam & in os (sayth the Historian) openly and to his teeth resisted the Empe­ror, rebelled against him, and deprived him of the govern­ment of all Italie?See more of this lawlesnes in M. Downh. treatie of An­tichrist, lib. 1. cap. 5, & 6. where he citeth Hostiensis and others, with these sentences: Legi non subjacet ulli. Item, potest dispensare supra jus, contra jus, & extra jus. And out of Panor. Potest omnia sacere quae Deus. Item, Papa potest dispensare contra ius Divinum. &c. Which of them doth not acknowledg his succession from Silvester the 2. and Gregorie the 7, the great Necromancers: and from Iohn the 11. and 12. the great adulterers? which of them disavoweth the acti­ons [Page 94] and decrees of Boniface the 8. Benet the 12. Iulius the 2. and the rest of that rabble, that filled all Christendome with warres and bloudshed? Let us but cast our eyes upon the moniments of some of them. Of Boniface the eight it is thus written: Intravit ut vulpes, regnavit ut leo, mortuus est ut canis. Of Benet the 12. thus:

Hic situs ille Nero, Laicis mors, vipera clero,
Devius a vero, cuppa repleta mero.

Of Pius 2. the learned Cardinall, that would needs take the name of Pius upon him, when he was made pope.

Vendidit aere polum, terras in morte reliquit,
Styx superest Papae, quam colat una Pio.

Of Paulus the 2. thus:

Pontificis Pauli testes ne Roma requirat
Filia quam genuit sat docet esse marem.

Of Sixtus called the 4. thus:

Dic unde (Alecto) pax ista repulsit, & unde
Tam subitò reticent praelia? Sixtus obit.

Of Innocent the 8. thus:

Spurcities, gula, avaritia, at (que) ignavia deses
Hoc (Octave) jacent, quo tegeris, tumulo.

Of Alexander his next successor, thus:

Vendit Alexander Sacramenta, altaria, Christum
Emerat ille prius, vendere jure potest.

Of his daughter Lucretia thus:

Hoc jacet in tumulo Lucretia nomine, sed re
Thais Alexandri filia, sponsa, nurus.

Of Iulius the 2. thus, that he threw the keyes into the ri­ver Tibris, saying, that the sword of S. Paul should help him:

Quandoquidem clavis nil juvat ista Petri.

Such kinde of excellent Elogia are giuen to all the rest, and yet still their successors, Parasites & Sectaries call them Most holy Fathers, and the Vicars of Christ. But if I should [Page 95] recite all, it would ask a just volume of it self.See [...] Myst. Let these be sufficient to shew, that these are the men to whom these titles, The Man of sinne, and The lawlesse man may most rightly be given. And if any man will yet deny or doubt of it, let him answer upon good advisement, whether ever he read, or heard of such monsters of men, among the Iewes, Turkes, Infidels, or any Pagans in the world: and whether he thinke it likely, that any man should go beyond these men in wickednesse, and yet withall obteyne such a privilege and prerogatiue to be lawlesse. And if not, then whether this be not, that man of sinne, that lawlesse man, that Antichrist?

I come to the fifth name which is giuen to Antichrist in the Scripture, which is, The Sonne of perdition. A title first giuen by our Saviour Christ to Iudas the Traytor,Iohn 17. 2 Thes. 2. and after by S. Paul to Antichrist, shewing, as may easily be collected, that Antichrist should be like to Iudas, in profession a Christian, in calling a Bishop, Of Iudas see Act. 1, 20. in title an Apo­stle, in practise a Traitour. Now, whether all these things do not most properly concurre in the Pope, let them answer, that haue read the Histories of England, Germa­nie, France and Italie, especially of late dayes. For of his profession, Bishoprik, and Apostolate no question is made. And of his treasons: let them tell me, by whose practises Rome and Italie rebelled against the Empe­rors,See more in Fox Monim. in his deserce of the L. Cob­ham and heye probl. 7. by whose practises such rebellions and treasons were set on foote in England & Ireland, against Queene Elizabeth, and in France against the late Henry IV. by whose Partisans traitors of late time haue beene most set a worke, approved and commended, and whether he be not called a Christian, a Bishop, and an Apostle.

The sixth name is Abaddon, a Destroyer, well agree­ing with the former names. And how many millions of men the Popes haue destroyed, by setting Christian [Page 96] Princes sometimes to destroy their own subjects under the names of Heretikes, sometimes to fight with Pagans and Turkes, and sometimes to fight one with another, they can best tell us, who are conversant in their histo­ries. I will here instance but in one or two examples, in which I desire them to answer; how manie thousand Christians were slaine in the civill warres, stirred up in Germanie by the Popes, in the times of Henrie the IV. and Henrie the V. Conradus Frederick, and Adolphus of Nassau, Emperors of Germanie? Also in the warres stirred up between the two Antipapes, Vrban and Cle­ment,Fro [...]ssart. when each of them sent out Bulles, to stirre up Princes to destroy the adherents one of another?See more Probl. 5. How many thousand christians were destroyed by the Turks, by occasion of that wofull discomfiture at Varna, whereunto the King of Hungarie was thrust, by the im­portunitie of the Pope, and his Cardinall Iulian, incite­ing him to break the Truce, sworne to, with the Turke? How many in France in the civill warres there stirred up by the Legue? How manie in Germanie in these last warres, which are yet in hand? And yet herein is further to be observed, that whereas the Turke & other Tyrants do murder and kill onely mens bodies, and yet do not professe that, but desire to be called mercifull & gracious Lords: onely the Pope professeth, that if he draw millions of mens bodies and soules with him into Hell, yet he is to be judged of no man, he is to be re­dargued of no man for it. I aske then, whom shall we call Abaddon, a destroyer, if this be not he, that professeth he may do it without controulment. Or, what Abaddon shall we looke for besides? But if any man will contend that the title of Abaddon belongeth to the Divell; yet I thinke he cannot thereupon inferr, that it ought not to [Page 97] be giuen to Antichrist, at best wise if we consider of the Rule in S. August. De diabolo & eius corpore. Dedoct. christ. For it is no more inconvenient, that the name of the Divel should be giuen to him, that doth the works of the divell,Psal. 82. then the name of God to good princes, which do the works of God.Iohn 10, 34. And so our Saviour expressely calleth Iudas a Divell, yea the Apostle Peter he calleth Satan,Iohn 6, 70. Matth. 16. & a scan­dall, perhaps intimating, that his pretensed successors should possesse the seat of Satan, & be the greatest scan­dall of all others, when they should begin to savour the things of men.

The seauenth and last name giuen to Antichrist in Scripture, is that which is not expressed, but signified by three Greek letters, yeelding the number of 666. which to count the H. Ghost commendeth unto us, as a point of wisedome. Neither can I easily be drawne to reject the computations of Names of this number by the Fathers, and other godly Interpreters. Let everie man bring forth his opinion without prejudice to o­thers, and pray to God to inlighten us all. I, for my part, thinke it best to follow the ancient opinion so farr as it may stand with the Scriptures. Now it is knowne that the ancient godly Father Irenaeus seeking for names answerable to this number, findeth none so fit, as Lateinos. For although he mention other names, as Tei­tan, &c. yet to the name of Lateinos he addeth his judg­ment of approbation, saying that it is verie like to be the true name. For (saith he) the truest kingdome is cal­led by that name, and Latini sunt, qui nunc dominantur. They are Latines, which now do raigne. This also su­teth with other prophecies of Antichrist, whereof I haue spoken before, and with the interpretation that some do make of the prophecie of Balaam, where he [Page 98] sayth, that Ships from Chittim shall afflict Ashur and Eber. which cannot be verified of any but the Romans, and S. Hierom there interpreteth Chittim to be Italie. And the Affliction of Eber, must be also understood of the Prince of Eber, the Starre of Iacob, and that in his My­sticall body aswell as his Naturall. This also agreeth with other names, which godly learned men haue foūd out representing the same number, all leading and di­recting us to the Pope, as the name of Romanus or Ro­myth, [...] in Hebrew letters observed by the venerable Di­vines, Fox and Paraeus. So also Dux Cleri, by the godly Walter Brute a scholer of Wicleue our Country-man. Vicarius Dei generalis in terris in Latin, taking onely the numerall letters, & Ecclesia Italica, in Greek letters. And what shall we say to the names of divers Popes contey­ning the same letters in effect & sound, which are used to expresse the said number of 666 in the Apocalyps. In the name of Calixtus is there not the perfect sound of all those Greeke letters [...]? And may not the same be easily conceited in the name of Sixtus? And was not Calixtus, whom they call the second, but indeed the first of that name, that was called Summus Pontifex, he that forbad mariage to Priests, which S. Paul calleth the Doc­trine of Divels. The ancient verse may serue for a suffici­ent testimonie:

O bone Calixte, nunc totus Clerus odit te,
O lim Presbyteri poterant uxoribus uti,
Hoc destruxisti, postquam tu Papa fuisti.

And was not Calixtus the second of that name (that was called Pont. Max.) he that made such a terrible and solemn vow to persecute the Turkes by war, curses, &c. and by colour thereof levied a tenth of the Clergie, & put all into his purse? And when as afterwards the [Page 99] noble Vaivod of Hungarie, Hunniades had obteyned a glorious victorie, against that publike enemie at Bel­grade, was it Calixtus, that ever helped to advance the Christian cause, or to prosecute such a good beginning? Or did he not rather set his minde upon his own profit, by drawing to himself not onely the chiefe Bishopriks, but the whole kingdome of Naples, after the death of Alfonsus, and so labour to disinherit his sonne Frede­rike, if the incomparable Prince Scanderbeg had not assisted him? And what shall we say of Sixtus? Do not the Latin letters X. & T. being joyned together yeeld the same sound, as all the said three numerall letters would do, if they were put in the same place? And was not Sixtus (who by them is called the fourth, but in­deed, the first that was called Pont. Max. for those be­fore him were called Xisti, & had no greater title then bi­shop of Rome) was not that he that raised so many wars in Italie to advance his kinred, and in stead of a church or Hospitall, built the famous Lupanar, the bitcherie house at Rome, Vtri (que) Veneri, for which cause Agrippa called him the great bawde? Was it not he that upon a Petition exhibited unto him, for the use of Sodomie,Homicus A­grippa. subscribed, Fiat ut petitur? Let be as is desired? and rai­sed the rents of the Stewes to so high a Rate, that it is now accounted for a principall revennue of their church? O excellent Father, and chast Vicar of Christ! The Primitiue Christians were half perswaded that Ne­ro was to come againe and be Antichrist. And haue not we reason to belieue that this is he, of whom also it is written for his Elogium.

Gaude Prisce Nero: vincit te crimine Sixtus.
Paedico, insignis praedo, fucosus Adulter
Qui moriens nullos credidit esse Deos.

[Page 100]And was not Sixtus the 2. who is by them called the 5. he that sent out his blasphemous Bulles against the late King of France Henrie the third, who was shortly after most villanously murdered by one of their breeding? And was not he the same Sixtus, who most highly commended that wicked Parracide, in a solemne Panegyrick, before his Cardinals? Was not he the same that excommunicated the noble Henry the fourth of France, when he was but King of Navarre, who was afterwards also murdered by one of their Sectaries. Was not he the same who animated the Spaniards to invade this kingdome of England, in the year 1588? In setting forth of which action, it is worth the Observation,Cicarell in vita Sixti. how carefull the Parasite is to perswade us, that the English and the Spaniards never came ad justam pagnam, to a just fight, as if the English did affirm any such matter. No Cicarella. Farre be it from us to challenge the glorie of that victorie to our selues. That God who gaue us the grace, upon the newes of the approch of that navie, to humble our selues before him, with fasting and prayer: (a thing howsoever neglected or forgotten by some of our Historians, yet most true and registred by others, and re­membred by many yet living witnesses▪) That God, who detected and defeated the Treasons and Rebellions of San­ders, Parrie, Ballard, Lopas the Powderplot, and many o­thers, was he that fought for us, as he did sometimes against Sisera. and for Theodosius. and ‘Sic conjurati venere ad classica venti.’ Witnesse our most excellent Soveraine, a witnesse aboue all exception, in his Sonnet worthie to be remembred:

The Nations banded gainst the Lord of might,
Prepar'd a force, and set them in the way:
Mars drest himself in such an awfull plight,
The like whereof was never seen they say:
[Page 101]They forward came in such a strange array.
Both sea and land beset us everie where,
Their brags did threat our ruine and decay;
What came thereof the issue did declare,
The windes began to tosse them here and there;
The sea began in foaming waues to swell,
The number that escapt, it fell them faire:
The rest were swallowed up in gulfes of hell.
But how were all these things so strangely done?
God lookt on them from out his heauenly Throne.

This Sonnet publisht with the consent and applause of all the ancient Brittain Nation, inhabitants of this kingdome, truly euen of verie ancient time,Polydore both by a king and a Saint, intituled the kingdome of God, shall be an everlast­ing testimonie for us, that we never challenged the glorie of that action to our selues. The same also will be con­firmed, by the ordinarie remembrances, and thanksgivings which our Preachers usually make thereof, in their prayers and Sermons. The same also is proved by the Paper lately set forth, so well accepted and bought up by all sorts of people amongst us, wherein the defeating of that invinci­ble Armada, and the Powderplot is represented & expres­sed. Behold then you Iesuites & Romanists against whom you fight, and who it is that fights for us. It was God who then pleaded the cause of Religion against superstition, of Pietie against Idolatrie, of Christ against Antichrist. It was he onely (for he onely searcheth, ruleth, and moveth the Hearts) who then put it into the heart of our Zenobia, and of her servants to send out those Peti-fierbotes, that made the grear Sea-castles to cut their cables, loose their Anchors and flye away. It was he that stirred up the courage of our seamen, and inflamed the hearts of our nation with incre­dible loue and zeale, to defend their Countrie & religion. [Page 102] Now also our drummes and trumpets sound nothing else against you, but God and Christ Iesus; our Martiall cryes are nothing else, but Christ Iesus; our gunnes thunder out no­thing, but Christ Iesus against you. For him we fight, & in this quarrell, that he onely is our High Priest, our Media­tor, our Iustification and Salvation. This was our course then, and this must be the course of all that will prevaile against Antichrist & all Antichristian forces, namely prayer to God, and unitie amongst themselues. But to returne to my purpose, this may suffice, to shew how this Sixtus not one­ly in name, conteyning in it the sound of those three mys­ticall letters, but in his actions represented Antichrist. What shall we say of Pope Paul the fifth, was not his pic­ture made with the inscription of Paulo Vo. Vicedeo. com­prehending in numerall letters the same number of 666. Neither yet will I affirme, that eyther he, or Sixtus, or Ca­lixtus, or Gregorie the seuenth, or Boniface the third, or the eight, or any other of them was individually Anti­christ, any more then the rest of that order. No, nor yet Pope Ioane, whose historie though they by all meanes la­bour to suppresse, yet they cannot blot out their bookes that haue written of her, being at least six and twentie, all learned, and all Catholikes, amongst which Martinus Polo­nus, Archbishop of Consentia, and the Popes owne Peni­tentiarie, Marianus Scotus, monke of Fulda, Platina and Theodoricus the Popes Secretaries, Antoninus Archbishop of Florence, Baptista, Mantuanus, and Cornelius Agrippa, Nanclerus the Cardinall, and Trithemius the Abbat, were men, I think, as well thought of for learning & fidelitie in their times, as any of these our new masters, Bellarmine, Baronius, Onuphrius or Florimondus, who labour to rase out of ancient moniments and Records, that which the christian world for fiue hundred yeares or more, most un­doubtedly [Page 103] beleeved. Yet neither she, nor any of the rest do I affirme to haue been individually and exclusiuely An­tichrist, but one of that mysticall bodie, and succession, which is called by our Apostle Antichrist, as I proved be­fore, that the article Ho in Greek is used & applied aswell to a succession or multitude, as to a singular person. But why may not we thinke that in this succession, the All seeing spirit of God in his secret providence, and divine admini­stration, the better to awake and stirre up his church and children, to beware of this great and yet deceitfull enimie, would haue the marks and signes of Antichrist to appeare some of them more evidently in some of them, and some in others, as the name of Pontifex Max. in Boniface the third, the person of a whore, in Pope Ioane, their filthie ad­ulterie, Sodomie, and incest, in Sergius, Iohn the 11. and 12. Boniface the eight, and Alexander, the number of his name in those before named? It may be also demanded, who were the types of Antichrist before the comming of our Saviour? For types are a kinde of notation. And so it may seeme that the wisedome of God hath ordered the course of times, that in so great varieties nothing should be new, Eccles. [...]. but that former times should be figures of the future. I dare not say but more may be found, yet I think in the Scriptures principally seauen are to be noted. 1, Cain. 2, Cam. 3, E­sau. 4, Egypt. 5, Amalek. 6, Antiochus. 7, Babylon. which haue some things in common, & some things pro­per and peculiar. They were all persecutors, & for the most part murderers and parricides, and that without cause, as the Prophet David speaketh, They hated me without a cause. And therefore they were all cursed of God. Yea some of them so detested, that the people of God were charged to make no peace with them: as for instance, Canaan the Issue of Cham and Amalek: & God executed his heavie wrath upon them [Page 104] all. In particular, 1,1. Gen. 4. Cain persecuted Christ in semine. 2,2. Gen. 9. Cham in radice. 3,3. Gen. 27. Esau, in stirpe. 4,4. Exod. 1. Egyptus, in Ger­mine. 5,5. Exod. 17. Amalek, in frutice. 6,6. Dan. Antiochus, in propagine. 7,7. Ier. 50. Babylon, in capite. Cain persecuted Christ in the seed. Cham in the roote, Esau in the stock, Egypt in the bud, Ama­lek in the shrubbe, Antiochus in the spread, and Babylon in the Toppe or head. Cain is noted for murdering his onely brother, Cham for scorning his godly Father. Esau for his profanenes. Egypt for bloudinesse. Amalek for malice. An­tiochus for Tyrannie. and Babylon for blasphemie. How these things may be applied to Rome is not hard to be un­derstood by them who are conversant in their stories. Let me here make but one instance, that Romulus the first king, being the first head of that Seauen-headed beast, was a murderer of his brother, like to Cain. Brutus the first Consull put to death his owne Sonnes and his Brothers. Appius the Decemvir by his beastly and outragious lust forced the father to commit a Paricide upon his chaste daughter Virginia. The Tribunes, Dictators, and Caesars the fourth, fifth, and sixth Heads, what were they all, but ambitious turbulent spirits, incendiaries, & raisers of most bloudie intestine warres, wherein manie innocent & quiet citizens were wickedly murdered? And of the Pontifex Max. the seauenth head I haue sayd somewhat before, and more I shall haue occasion to say hereafter. Let this suffice for the Names of Antichrist; from all which I demand, Whether they do not fully agree to the popes, and everie one of them, since the time of Constantine, that was Pontifex Max. about the yeare of our Lord 707? And whether they can be so fitly, and so many wayes, applied to any other Prince, person or state: And whether we may looke for any other in time to come, to whom they may be more truly and fitly applied?

IIII. The Rising of Antichrist.

THose who think that a great and mightie monarch, king or Commander of the cittie of Rome, able to subdue other kings, and to raise up a greater and more ter­rible persecution against Christians, then any of the old Emperors of Rome, should rise up like a mushrump in a night, and continue so short a time, as three yeares and an halfe, seeme to take litle consideration of the manner of Gods proceedings and administration, who, as he hath ap­pointed a time and season for all things, so he limiteth times and seasons proportionable for the effecting of such things. A woman cannot conceiue and beare in a moneth or a day. An Elephant must haue at least two yeares, and some say ten. Quando, when, is a Relatiue, as well as ubi, where, & everie thing existent must haue his due propor­tion, as well of the one as of the other.

Let us now then come to the rising of this fifth Beast or monarchie of Idolatrie, and see how that is described in this divine Revelation, and whether that description also do not most aptly and properly sute the Popes, from the time that the impediment of the Roman Empire began to be removed by Constantine the Emperor, untill the Pope attained to his Antichristian name in Boniface the third, to be called Pontifex Maximus, and his superlatiue power to resist the Emperor in Constantine the Pope. This Rising is described by seauen adjuncts. 1, His kinde or Existence,Revel. 13. another beast. 2. The place from whence he came, comming out of the earth. 3, Having two hornes like a lambe. 4, He spake like the Dragon. 5, His actions, seauen fold, as shall be shewed hereafter. 6, His Marke. 7, And lastly his Name. Whereas he is called another beast, and yet not resembled to any Beast, working in the presence of the first, seauen things [Page 106] are again to be observed. 1, The time of his rising. 2, That this which is here described must be an Empire or monar­chie, which is signified by the name of a Beast, as all the former were, and as the Angell in Daniel hath taught us to interpret. 3, It must consist, not of one particular man, but of a Succession. For so all the former did, or else it should not haue the name of a Beast, without distinction, as it hath, and as they had. 4, It is not like any of the rest. For if it were like in any part, it would be so expressed, as it is said that the first was like a Lyon, the second like a beare, the third a Leopard, the fourth in severall parts like everie one of them, but this like none of them. 5, It is not onely un­like to them, but it is of no certaine forme. And herein our Apostle in the description of this last Beast observeth the same caution,Dan. 7. that was before by the Prophet Daniell, in the Description of the fourth beast, saying, it was unlike any of the former, and yet not expressing whereunto it was like. So indeed was the Roman Empire in its Rising, for that after the kings, who were as the nursing Fathers of that state were expelled, it held for a long time no certain form of government. So it seemeth our Propheticall Apostle intendeth, that the kingdome of Antichrist in his Rising, must be of an uncertaine forme. 6, It must arise in the pre­sence of the first beast. And this agreeth with the words of S. Paul,2 Thes. 2. who sayth not, that he which withholdeth must be abolished, destroyed, determined, or ended, but that he must be removed, or set out of the way, in some other place. So this Beast, or Monarchie must arise after the Roman Monar­chie, not ended, (for sayth Daniel, that fourth Beast or Mo­narchie must continue till the judgment be set) but remo­ved out of the way, from Rome, the place appointed for Antichrist. 7, It must still be a Beast, that is, a Monarchie of Idolatrie, as all the rest were. Now let us see how, and [Page 107] to whom these Prophecies may be applied, wherein we must so goe forward, that we do not forget that which went before. By the former Problems I suppose it hath ap­peared, that the place of Antichrist must be the Great cittie Rome, and that in time of Christianitie, that the State subject unto him, must be the state of Rome, and that he must be Summui Pontifex, one of the seauen Heads of that state. In this part of his description we may see not onely a further point revealed unto us, which is the time, and manner of his Rising, but a further confirmation of those former points. And first, for the time, a most materiall circumstance to be considered, I demand, Whether it be not here sufficiently and plainly expressed in the Text, that this second beast must arise, while the former is yet in being, and that not altogether, but in tract of time: seeing it is sayd, that he doth all that the first could do, in the presence of the first, or before his face, and causeth the first Beast to be worshipped? And seeing it is confessed, that the place of the first Beast was Rome, it must follow, that the place of the second must be Rome, and seeing the second must worke before the face of the first, and cause the first to be wor­shipped, it followeth evidently, that both these Beasts, that is to say, the first Beast departing, and the second arising must be at one time in Rome. This therefore confirmeth that which hath been sayd before concerning his place. And this be­ing compared with the words of the Apostle to the Thess.2 Thes. 2. that Antichrist must be destroyed by the brightnes of our Lords comming, is a strong proof of his times, viz. that he must arise, before the Emperor be quite departed out of Rome, & must continue to the end of the world, which cleerly overthroweth the opinions of all Demiseptennians, and Ho Antichristians. For if he began then to work, and must be in Rome in the presence of the first Beast, that is, of the Old Empire, & must continue till the comming againe of our Lord: How can it be [Page 108] imagined, that he should be but one man, or that he should continue but three yeares & a halfe, or that he is not yet come, or such like dreames, &c. Or let any man shew me with consent of Scriptures, who besides the old Roman Empire, can be meant by the first Beast, who besides Antichrist can be meant by the second? For to say, that these two beasts are to be taken for one thing, is verie absurd, and contrarie to the Text, which calleth the second Beast, another. To say that by the first is meant Antichrist, can hardly stand with the Text; for then what is meant by the second? If you say his bodie or Clergie, how can that be admitted? when it is sayd first, that it is another, therefore no part of the same: Also it riseth from another place, viz. the Earth, whereas the first rose from the sea: Also it doth all those things which the first Beast could do before his face: But that is verie absurd to say, that the Body doth as much as the Head, or the Clergie, as the chief Prelate. By the same, or like reasons are refelled the opinions of those that take the first beast for the Di­vell. For how can that stand with the Text, that the Dra­gon gaue him his Throne, and great power, &c. So the opi­nion of those that take Antichrist, or the first beast pro cae­tu impiorum, for the multitude of the wicked, may be refel­led by the Text. For then, why should it be distinguished into two severall Beasts, the one rising after the other? and why should there be so many severall attributes applied unto it? Therefore not intending to stand long upon the refutation of other mens opinions, but following the counsell of the excellent learned Scholler of S. Paul,Dion Ar. to finde out that which may be most agreeable to the Text of the Scripture, and the Truth of Historie, I aske whether this Prophecie of the rising of Antichrist in this second Beast, were not fully performed in the Roman Bishops, who succeeded Silvester from the yeare of our Lord, 313. untill the time of [Page 109] Constantine the Pope, in anno 707? Was not the old Empire continued in Rome for the most part of that time? Were there not in Rome for the most part of that time, namely, untill the yeare of our Lord 540, Consuls, which repre­sented the Imperiall power, and were elected and created with Heathenish and Idolatrous rites, and Auguries,See Helviens Rensuerus & other chrono­logers. as Sal­vianus aboue cited doth testifie? Were not the Emperors themselues many times made Consuls of Rome in that time? And yet were not the Idolatrous Stageplayes, with Bestiall filthines, still celebrated in Rome, as the same reve­rend and Godly Author, and not he alone, but the irrefu­table Doctor S. Augustin witnesseth:De civ. Dei lib. 1. ca. 23. See also Blon­dus. That pestilent corrup­tion (sayth he) did infect the soules of miserable men with so great deformitie, that euen now, the cittie of Rome being spoy­led, men possessed with that pestilence, flying from thence to Carthage, dayly play the mad men upon stages. And this wrote he about the year of our Lord 413, fully an hundred yeeres after Silvester, and after that the cittie of Rome was gover­ned by Christian Bishops; agreeable to that which I pro­ved before out of Salvianus. Besides, did not the Emperor Constantine and his successors, for an hundred yeeres after him, reteyn the name of Pont Max.Pless. ex Zosum & Baron. and use the Robes & Ornaments? So then, here was the first Beast, still continu­ing both in Idolatrie and Majestie. Yet notwithstanding I thinke no Papist will deny, but that the Bishops of Rome after Silvester, had the Imperiall sea, and exercised the same principalitie, and did the same things, which the Emperors or Consuls were wont to doe. For so is their decree.Dist. 96. And what else do they clayme or pretend by the Donation of Constantine, which they so stoutly maintayn, but that they had that power lawfully, which they exercised apparantly? And yet, this was not in any certaine form of government, or resolute manner, but sometimes by schisme and faction, [Page 110] and sometimes by flatteries obteyning the consent or connivence of the Emperors. When they saw the Em­perors able to please or displease, then by and by they were their good Lords and Masters, and they caused men to worship them. But when they would get it by faction or otherwise, the Emperor was but a Cypher in Augrim. as appeareth by the Histories and records of that time. Sometimes the Consuls governed, some­times the Exarches, and sometimes the Roman Bishops were opposed by other great Bishops. So the Rising of this second beast was not altogether at once, but by de­grees, and this second Beast in his Rising was (as hath been sayd) of an uncertaine forme. And this being so, the o­ther points will consequently be confessed. For what can they deny? Will they deny that this principally, which the Bishops of Rome held after Silvester, was a Monarchie or state governed by one onely at once? which is the second point. or thirdly, will they denye that it went in succession? Fourthly, will they say, that it was like to any of the former Beasts? This being a state Ecclesiastick, & all the former Saecular? Fiftly, will they affirme that these Bishops had any setled and abso­lute forme of Soveranitie, during the time aforesaid? Will they deny that they were at Rome in the pre­sence of the Consular and Imperiall Authoritie, or that they caused men to adore the Emperors? Seuenthly, or lastly, will they deny the Testimonies of S. Augustin and Salvianus, that the Idolatrous Rites, Superstitions, Auguries, & Stage-playes were still exercised at Rome? I will here set downe a short, Catalogue of the Bishops of Rome of those times out of their owne Historians, and let it be shewed in which of these things they will differ from me, and whether it were not with great op­position, [Page 111] contention and schisme, that they got their supremacie?

Silvester, who had the Imperiall Sea and Principalitie of Rome by donation, as some of them affirm, or Cession, Platin. Onuph Ba [...]. &c. as others.

Marcus, about the yeare of our Lord 335, tooke up­on him the Title of universall Bishop. in Epist.

Iulius tooke upon him, by absolute Authoritie,He warreth a­gainst the saints to re­store certaine Bishops of the Easterne Churches, depo­sed by their owne Synods.

Liberius, an Arrian Heretike,Platin. Pautal. &c. excommunicated the godly Athanasius, and therefore was excommunicated by the godly S. Hilary.

Faelix the second, a Schismatike and perjured,Onuph. Contention. and slayn by sedition of Liberius, as some say. Schisma 2.

Damasus, a Schismatik, advanced by violence & mur­der, and that in the church, in time of divine service,Plessis ex Mat­cellin. Platin. Pantal. &c. where there were found in one day 137 bodies slayne.

Siricius, about the yeare of our Lord 396, or as some say 383,Ambition & Contention. ambitiously claymed the superioritie over the bishops of Spaine and Afrik, and contended with them for it

Anastasius 1. anno Dni. 398, continued but few yeers.

Innocentius 1. anno Dni. 402 still urgeth and main­teyneth his superioritie, and the Apostolike honor of his Sea (for so they called it.) In his dayes Rome was spoy­led by the Gotts and Vandales.

Zosimus anno 417 seeketh to draw all causes to RomeContention. A wisedome earthly, sensu­all & divelish Iames 3.

Bonifacius 1, anno 420, getteth the Papacie by con­tention with Eulatius in a Schisme: which is accounted the third Schisme in that Church.

Caelestinus 1. anno Christi 423 contendeth with the bi­shops of Africa, amongst whom was S. August, and [Page 112] other godly men.

Xistus 3. anno 432 continueth his claym of supremacy.

Leo Magnus anno 440. magnifieth S. Peter, &c. In his dayes the Roman Empire was grievously spoiled by At­tila the Hunn. Idolatrie. The cause whereof Salvianus imputeth to the continuance of their Heathenish Idolatries, with o­ther sinnes in Rome.

Hilarius anno 461 continueth &c.

Simplicius, anno 467. This man greatly laboured to ad­vance his supremacie,Heresi [...] and for that purpose tooke upon him the Patronage of Eutiches the Heretike.

Faelix anno 483 continueth &c.

Gelasius anno 492. Heathen Idolatries still continue in Rome.Anomos. Pantal. yet, this man, Se & successores a nemine in terris ju­dicandos asserit. he will be iudged by no man.

Anastasius 2. anno 469. An Heretike, and Patron of the Eutichians,Reprobatus. Dist. 19. and Nestorians. Schisma 4.

Symmachus anno 498. advanced by faction, sedition and murder.Paul. Diac. Sabel.

Hormisda anno 513. In his time Cassiodorus compo­sed the schisme between the Pontif.

Ioannes I. anno 523.

Faelix 4. anno 526.

Bonifacius 2. anno 530. created by Schisme and Sedi­tion Schisma 5.

Ioannes 2. anno 532.

Agapetus anno 534.

Sylverius anno 535. a Magician, put down by schisme. Schisma 6.

Vigilius anno 537. A seditious Schismatike, and Euti­chian: whom Baron. also calleth Antichrist.

Pelagius 1. anno 555.

Ioannes 3. anno 566. in policie to crosse the Con­stantinopolitan, [Page 113] decreed that none should be called chief Bishop.

Benedictus 1. anno 576.

Pelagius 2. contended with the Archbishop of Con­stant. for Primacie and Supremacie.

Gregorius Magnus, anno 590 condemneth the title of Vniversall Bishop in the Patriarch of Constant. & yet (if we beleeue Baron. and some others) was contented to hold the Supremacie, and for that purpose wrote letters of great flatterie to Phocas the Murderer.

Sabinianus anno 604, did so much malice his Predeces­sor, and advance Gregorie, that he could hardly conteyne himself from burning his books;Platina. and after him Boniface the 3, 4, 5, and others all mainteyned their Supremacie, & the power of that Sea, untill Constantine, of whom we shall haue cause to speake hereafter.

Lo, these were the Roman Prelates of those times, whose Histories diligently collected and layd together,Plessis. are more at large to be seen in that excellent worke De Mysterio Ini­quitatis. Whereupon I demand, Whether they do not fully answer the description made of this Beast rising out of the earth? Out of earth­ly desires of Honour, &c. First here is another Beast or Monarchie, unlike to any of the former, and yet not of any certaine forme of Government, alwayes ascending and striving to get supremacie, some­times by one meanes, sometimes by another, stirring up schismes and seditions, patronising Heretikes, contending with other Bishops, yea with those heauenly Doctors and Lights of the world, whom they could no way counter­vaile, Athanasius, Hilarius, Augustin, Aurelius, and two hundred Bishops of Africa with him. And yet pretending great humulitie and subjection to the Emperor, as appear­eth by the letters not onely of Vigilius to Anthinius, and other principall Heretikes, at the command of the Em­presse, [Page 114] but of Gregorie the Great also to Phocas the Mur­derer. Yet by Schisme and faction seeking to get the place, as oft as they could, without their consent. See more at large of these things in that Booke of Philip Marnay. Where also you may reade what S. Hierom writeth of Rome in his time, expressely calling it Babylon, and the pur­ple whore. And telling them of their Riches, covetousnes, lewdnes, and Lupercatia. There are the Trophees of the Apo­stles and Martyrs, there is the confession of Iesus Christ (sayth he:) but there is also ambition and Tyrannie, which keep men back from doing good. Neyther he onely, but Marcellinus. I do not (sayth he) marvail, considering the braverie of that cittie, that men ambitious of that place, set up their Rest for the purchasing of it. For having once aspired thereunto, they are sure to be inriched with the offrings of Ladies and Noblemen, & to be carried in their coaches sumptuously attyred, and so magni­ficent in their feastes, as passeth any kings table. Many such testimonies collected are to be read in the discourse of that Learned Lord. But especially is to be observed, what he hath diligently drawn out of Baronius, where he sayth that Constantine in the 24 year of his raigne, ordeyned that the Bishops of the Christian Law should from that time forward haue the same Priviledges, which the Idolatrous Priests had in time past. They had (sayth he) their Rex Sacrificulus, and Pontifex Maximus. And who can think, that Constantine would long indure, that they should exceed the Christians in Pompe and glorie? So Baron. their Cardinall and lear­ned Annalist, yeeldeth unto us, & freely confesseth a point of no small moment, that this their Pontifex Maximus, who now is in Rome, succeedeth in priviledge, Pompe and glorie to the Heathen Pont. Max. which was before in Rome. Yet the same Baron. sheweth also, that Constantine first tooke the name of Pont. Max. to himself, and giveth a reason for it, [Page 115] namely that the Senate and people of Rome, those that were, yet of the Heathenish faction, might not so easily be drawen to conspire against the Christian Emperors (was it not a verie Christian policie think you?) And yet (sayth he) the Pope had the power of supreame judge in all causes. So that this standeth most consonant with all Prophecies & histo­ries, that these two Beasts were at one time, both together in Rome, and that the new Pont. Max. of Rome hath the power of the Pagan Pontif. But that his power appeared very slowly, and that the Pontificall name in Temporall cau­ses was for a long time verie base and obscure appeareth by the testimonie of the learned Guicciardin,Guicc. l. 4. and other Histo­ries. I demand therefore, Whether we may not here see the manifest performance of this prophecie. I, Another Beast ari­sing after the first in Rome, and in the presence of the first. 2, Arising by degrees out of the earth, that is, out of the earth­ly lusts and desires of riches, luxurie, Pompe and pride,1 Iohn 2. Iames 3. and also by earthly wisedome strife and envie. 3, Having two hornes indeed, that is, a power temporall & spirituall, but short and weake, and (as Guicciardin sayth) obscure and al­most invisible, as the Hornes of a lambe. 4, Speaking like the Dragon, that is, contrarie to the Commandements of God,Revel. 13. as the Serpent did to our mother Eue: but equivocally, as Vigilius, whom Baron. himself calleth Antichrist, did equivocate with Sylverius his Predecessor, and Theodora the Empresse. See the Historie in Platina. And divers o­thers of them did flatter & equivocate with the Emperors. The fifth consideration therefore is of his Actions. The 6, of his works. And the 7, of his Name. But of his name I haue spoken before, and of his marke, I might referre the Reader to the writings of the Excellent Paraeus, Napier, & Iunius upon the Apocalyps. But I cannot omit the greate and learned Archbishop Antonin. In summa where he [Page 116] sheweth that everie one that entreth into their Holy Or­ders receiveth a Character, p. 3. t. 14. & p. 4. t. 13. which he interpreteth, to be principale instrumentum ordinis. But in another place upon the place of the Apocalyps now in hand,Apoc. 13. he expoundeth the Character of the Beast to be cultum Bestiae, the worship of the Beast in his right hand; that is (sayth he) in his spirituall works, as fasting, Almes, prayer, &c. or in his forehead, in out­ward appearance, at the least, and in outward conformitie. We may also obserue, that if we subscribe to the opinion of Irenaeus, that the name of the beast is Latinus, this is ob­served in all their prayers. But considering well, and com­paring the opinion of Napier with Antonin, & both with the Text, I cannot chuse but thinke, the Character is ex­pressed unto us in the superstitious use of the crosse, which they make upon the forehead, or otherwise, with their right hands. But for his Actions, they are here somewhat largely set forth in this 13 chap. For first it is sayd, that he exerciseth all the power of the first Beast, before his face. So did the Popes before the Emperors, as I haue shewed be­fore. Secondly, he causeth the earth and earthly minded men to worship the first beast. So did the Popes to the Emperors, while they were in power, and continued Pontifices Max. Thirdly, he doth great wonders making fire to come downe from heauen in the sight of men. So the Popes in fulmina­ting their Excommunications out of the Church, which is commonly called Heauen in this Apocalyps. Fourthly, he deceiveth men with these wonders. So the Popes, for they are but ignes fatui, Prov. 26. causeles curses, and so forcelesse. Fiftly, He sayth to earthly men, that they should make the image of the first beast. So the Popes in setting up another Pontificate, with like power to the first. Sixtly, it was permitted to him to giue a spirit to the image of the Beast, that he should speake. So do the Popes animate this image of the first Pontificate. [Page 117] And seauenthly, to cause that as many as would not worship the image of the Beast should be killed, Regall power of life & death. And whether the Popes haue not exercised that power, let all men judge. What part or point then of this description is not fully accomplished in the actions of the Popes aboue named? Is it not manifest, that the popes did exercise all the power and authoritie of the old Idolatrous Pont. Max. in Rome, before the Emperors face, who for a while held that title of Pont. Max. If we should deny it, doth not Baronius himself affirme it? The power of the first Beast is sayd to haue been in making warre with the Saints, and prevayling against them, Rev. 13. and over everie kindred tongue and nation. And did not the Popes most stifly con­tend, both with other Christians, and with the godly Bi­shops of the Graecian and Easterne churches for appeales & Supremacie, untill they had obteyned it? Did not Iulius enter into contention with the Orientall Bishops, and a­mongst them S. Athanasius, and reprehend them for hold­ing a Counsell without his leave to confute the Heresie of Arrius? Did not Liberius excommunicate the same worthie Father and saint Athanasius, which made the god­ly Father S. Hilarie so bitterly to cry out.The Pope in his first rising ex­communica­ted by S. Hil­larie. Anathema to thee O Liberius, and all thy Companions. Anathema againe and againe to thee thou false hearted double dealing Liberius. Doth not S. Hierom complain of the senate of Pharisees, saying, that there was not so mean a scribe of that faction of Ignorance, but did conspire against him, which made him to forsake Rome, and returne to Ierusalem? Did not Celestinus seeke with force and armes to restore Antonius a Bishop of Africa, de­posed by the Bishops of that countrie, amongst whom were those Excellent bishops, Aurelius, Alipius, & S. Au­gustine? which caused that godly and learned Father ve­rie earnestly to put him minde of the words of S. Peter, [Page 118] that he should not domineer over his Bretheren. And did not most of them contend with the Patriarchs of Constanti­nople for Supremacie? What was all this but warring against the Saints? And when did these Contentions cease, but when the Pope had prevailed against, & got­ten the Supremacie over all these Christian Nations? And after he had subjugated all Bishops, how they haue continually made warre against other godly Christians, namely the Valdenses, Albigenses, Wicklevites, Hus­sites, Bohemians, and others, everie man may read in the Histories of these later times. Now if these things be so, How can these prophecies be otherwise fulfilled then they haue been in these Roman Bishops? To whom else can they be applied, & how may we expect any in time to come that may ac­complish these prophecies, if they be not alreadie? It is not amisse here a litle to stay our contemplation, and as far forth, as the Sunne of Righteousnes, and most pure light of truth shall illumine our understanding, to search out the cause, why the same blessed and all seeing spirit, to whom all times are present, would not onely repre­sent the four Monarchies, or Great Beasts of Idolatrie by four severall mettals: but also, why it pleased him to make choise of those Mettals, viz. Gold, Silver, Brasse, Iron, and none other, saue with the last there is mixed earth or clay. Although the Prophet Daniel hath alrea­dy shewed the chief & principall reason, yet if we finde any other reason thereof, which is agreeable to the truth, and no way repugnant to that holy prophecie, I hope it will not seem unworthie of our consideration. That the Babylonians, Persians, Greekes and Romans were all Idolaters, is confessed, and therefore they were aptly joyned together in one Image. But why is this Image made of these severall mettals? Surely somewhat [Page 119] may be found if we search into it. He that hath com­manded us to seek, hath promised that we shall finde. Thou O King, art that Head of Gold, Dan. 2. sayth Daniel to Nebuchad­nezzar: thou and thy Successors kings of Babel. Why? for you in your Idolatrous services use Gold. Herod. l. 1. Not. Genev. in Esa 46. Dan. 3. Thou wor­shippest an image all of gold, the table before him is all of gold, the Altar is gold, and thou makest a Statue of gold, to be worshipped. And we may well thinke the Prophet Esay had some respect to this in calling it the Golden Ba­bel. The Persian Monarchie is resembled to Silver. Esay 14. Why? They, and all the rest of Asia worshiped Diana with silver shrines. The Grecians are likened to Brasse:Act. 19. Why? They made Statues of Brasse, Herod. l. 9. and dedicated pre­sents of Brasse, as the Brasen Triped, Natal. Comes li. 7. which gaue occasion to that great civill & sacred warre. The Romans Idola­trie is represented by Iron. Why? They for the most part offred Iron Armours, as Romulus offred his Opima spo­lia, being the Armour which,Livy l. 1. he being Generall tooke from the Generall of his Enemies. Which examples the Romans did much emulate, as Virgil witnesseth of Mar­cellus. Tertia (que) arma patri suspendit capta Quirino. A [...]neid. 6. Yea, so eagerly were his examples followed, that Rome was filled with bloudie armours, Plutarch in Marcell. making a very horrid spectacle, sayth Plutarch. Yet they had many Images of Earth, as Iuvenall maketh mention of Fictitis Iupiter. Petr. Crinitus hon. dis. l. 14. Non dubium est Romanorum regum temporibus lignea simulachra & fictilia in urbe fuisse. sayth another. Their Great goddesse Vesta or Cybete, the mother of their Gods, was no­thing but the Earth, or focus urbis, the hearth of the citie sayth Tully. Matrem (que) Deorum tellurem sayth Virgill. S. Augustin also sheweth, that Iupiter was nothing but the world, Proserpina and Ceres the Earth. And Arno­bius witnesseth, that their Images, many of them were [Page 120] of earth, Je [...]g 2. such as perhaps Virgil speaketh of in that verse.

Oscilla ex alta suspendunt mollia pinu.

And now I demand, whether doth not the Summus Pont. which the Romans haue now set up with Pompe and glorie, like to the former Pagan Pontifex, maintaine and command such images also to be worshipped? And whether are not many of their Images now in use made of Playster of Paris and such like stuffe? And doth he not now command them to be burned as Heretikes, which refuse to worship these Images? For what cause [...] moved Sabinian to burne the bookes of Gregorie? but because he had defaced Images, howsoever Platina goeth about to blanch the matter? What else did they object against the Emperors of Greece? What else did they urge against the Valdenses and Wicklevites, but that they refused to worship the Roman Pontifex and his ima­ges? What else did they object to Cranmer, Ridley, La­timer, Hooper, Sanders, Bradford and other godly men in Queene Maries time, that I may speak of England & not of other countries, but that they refused to ac­knowledge the reall presence, and so to worship the Sa­crament, & other of their images? I demand also whe­ther the Turke, or any other Idolater do command and compell men to worship images, under such capitall and Tyrannous paynes? Whether any Idolater do compell men to worship so many Images? or set up so many to be worshipped? And whether any do proceed so cruel­ly against those that refuse to worship their Images? The Popes in their lawes, declare them to be Heretikes, and excommunicate, which do not worship their images, and consequently depriue them, not onely of lands and goods, but also of their liues: yea if it be a Prince, they absolue his subjects from obedience and alleagiance, gi­vin [Page 121] his subjects power & libertie to kill their Natiue king, and giue away his kingdome to another? Did ever any Iew, Turke, Infidel or Pagan attempt to doe the like? If they should, is it credible, or likely that they should be believed, and obeyed as the Popes haue been? Thus therefore their actions being so agreeable to the Rising of this second Beast: I demande againe, How these Prophecies can be otherwise performed by a­ny Monarch, Prince, Potentate, State or person whatsoever, past present, or to come? And if not: then, Whether this be not that Antichrist, or whether we may expect any other? And so we come to the description of Antichrist, mounted upon the Roman State, and raigning in his glorie, which is the fifth generall parte of his description.

Ʋ. The Raigne of Antichrist.

IT is not unworthie of our observation that the Holy Ghost in setting forth the kingdome of Antichrist useth no such forme of speech, as when he speaketh of particular men, but such as is commonly used & applied in scripture to signifie greate kingdomes and Monarchies. When he prophecieth of particular men, for the most part, he noteth them by some proper Adjunct. As of Iohn Baptist.Esay 40. A voyce cryeth in the wildernes, prepare the way of the Lord. &c. So of our Saviour Christ, My Righteous servant shall justifie many. and againe, He was broken for our sinnes. &c. Sometimes by the name of some other man: as,Mal 4. Behold I send you the Prophet Elijah. &c. Sometimes he calleth them by their proper names, as that, He sayth to Cyrus my Sheepheard. Esay 44. &c. and I will call Eljakim. and so he prophecieth of Iosiah and against Shallum & Coniah, The king of Babel and Tyrus.Esay 22. Ier. 22. But when he speaketh of great kingdomes or Monarchies, he [Page 122] figureth them sometimes under the names of Great Beasts, as all the four Monarchies in Daniel: sometimes under the names of women, [...]zech. 23. as Ezechiel calleth the two kingdomes of Ierusalem and Samaria, Two women. Nahum calleth Ni­niveh,Esay. 47. the beautifull harlot. Esayah and Ieremie resemble Babylon sometimes to a woman tender and delicate, some­times to a Queene, Iu. 51. sometimes to an Harlot, whose words and Phrases our Apostle delighteth much to use. It is no marvell therefore, that having here to speak of the state of two Great kingdomes, namely the Kingdome or Church of Christ, and the kingdome or Synagogue of Antichrist. He de­scribeth one of them, as a Chaste and undefiled spouse prepa­red for her husband: and the other, as a sumptuous, glorious, luxurious, proud and intising Harlot, alluring kings, princes. and all sorts of people to come unto her. Wherein, al­though it be true, that Contraries compared & layd together, do illustrate one the other, yet I will not here prosecute that glorious and heauenly description of the true Church of our Lord Christ Iesus, able to take up all my thoughts and meditations, but strictly following my former course, ob­serue seuen Attributes in the Description of the Antichri­stian state and power,Revel. 17. now mounted upon the back of the Roman state. First, it is called the Great Whore. Secondly, which sitteth upon many waters. Thirdly, with whom the kings of the earth haue committed fornication, and the Inhabi­tants of the earth haue been made druncken with the wine of her fornication. Fourthly, most richly, and gorgeously cloathed and adorned with purple and scarlet, gold and pearles, having a golden cup in her hand, full of her fornications. Fiftly, shee hath a name written in her forehead, a Mysterie, Babylon, The great Mother of Harlots & abhominations of the earth. Sixtly, She is druncken with the bloud of the Saints and Martyrs of Christ Iesus. And lastly, to make all plaine, who this is, It is [Page 123] (sayth our Prophet) the Great Cittie that ruleth over the kings of the earth. Of some parts of which Description I haue spoken before, both in the first and second Problem. For which cause I shall not neede to speak much here, but one­ly, of such things as haue not been touched before. And to speake a word by the way of that which is most plain and evident, which is last mentioned, that it is called the Great cittie, by which name we commonly understand, the king, Prince, or Prelate thereof, as in the Prophecies against Iu­da, Israell, Babell, Ninive, we understand many times their Princes and principall men; and in our common speech we call Prelates by the names of their Seas: as Canterburie, Lon­don, Magunce, Trever, &c. So here, by the most proper Ad­junct we understand Rome, and by Rome her Prince, Prelate or Governour. It will be in vaine therefore to aske whe­ther this be hee, seeing the Holy Ghost sayth, this is he. But it will be (I thinke) worth our labour, to consider, how these qualities may be applied to the chief Pontifex of Rome, and whether they may be applied to any other: And if to them alone, then whether to one more then to another: or to the whole succession. Let us therefore peruse them in order. The first qualitie is, The Great Whore. Whoredome in Scripture (as hath been sayd) is understood sometimes literally, for the corporall filthines: sometimes mystically, for the spirituall whoredome, which is Idolatrie. Now for this later it is evident, not onely by the Testimo­nie of Salvianus, aboue recited, but of their own histories, that the verie Heathen Idols continued undefaced in Rome, and worshiped untill the time of Boniface the fourth, who having obteyned the Pantheon of the Em­peror Phocas did consecrate that Temple to the honour of the Virgin Marie, and of all martyrs, Platina. Fasc. Temp., ejectis prius Gentium si [...]ulachris. First casting out of it the Images of the Hea­then. [Page 124] Now if he first cast them out, then consequently they remayned unto his time unremoved. And although S. Gre­gorie is sayd by some Authors in a zeale to Christian Reli­gion to haue broken & defaced some of these divelish mo­niments, and that therefore Sabinian his Deacon, & next Successor, was so much offended with him, that he was a­bout to burne his bookes,In vita Sabin. yet Platina stiffely denyeth that either Gregorie did deface Images, or that, that was the cause of Sabinians malice against him, although he himself sheweth no other cause for it. But howsoever it was, whe­ther Gregorie did so, or not so, yet both by the testimonie of Platina, and by the Action of Boniface, we may see that the Romans still continued those heathen abhominations. And no sooner had Boniface, who succeeded next but one after Sabinian, cast out the Heathen Idols, but shortly after, they erected the Images of Saints, and commanded and compelled men to worship them,about the yeer 625. & that with such eager­nes, and furie of contention, that they deprived the Gre­cian Emperors, and tooke from them all Italie, because they resisted them, namely Leo, whom they called in scorne Iconomachus, that is, a fighter against Images. This worshipping of Images was then, and ever since condem­ned by godly men, and held to be direct Idolatrie, unexcu­sable, whatsoever distinctions they pretend, which indeed are but Glosses of their schoolemen, and haue no ground nor evident proofe in the Scripture. For what Scripture warranteth us to giue the worship of Doulia to any Image or Saint whatsoever? I am sure the Text in one place sayth: Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serue: where the word is the same that signifieth Doulia. What warrant haue we in Scripture to giue the same worship to the picture, Image, or Crosse of Christ, that we giue to Christ Iesus? What warrant haue we to [Page 125] set up Images for remembrances? Yea, what shall we say, also those grosse and Heathenish superstitions and Rites in observing the Calends of Ianuarie, the dayes Egiptiacall, and the course of the starres, all which S. Augustine held to be Idolatrous, and yet continued in Rome till the dayes of Pope Martin,Can. 2 [...]. qu [...] 7. which was about the yeare of our Lord 640. yea untill the dayes of pope Zacharie. Where then was the zeale & godlines of the Romish prelates before to reforme these things? And yet no sooner were they condemned by the sayd pope Martin, but that shortly after, euen by the same pope Martin was commanded both the adoration of Images, and the vow of Chastitie to be observed by Monks and priests, which was the beginning of the Corporall Forni­cation also, in that, that under the name & pretence of cha­stitie they restrayned them from lawfull mariage. Which when they had thus taken away from the Monkes, shortly after, that is to say, in the yeare of our Lord 660 or there­aboutes, the pope with his Councell decreed, that the Cloysters of Nunnes should be subject to Monks and Fryers, Conc [...]l. Hispa contrarie to the Synod Agath. Vide Tom. 1. Concil. ciroa ann. 475. Pantal. then which nothing in the world could be devised more forci­ble, and opportune to induce & increase common whore­dome betwixt them. And about the yeare 697. a king of Spaine gaue publike libertie to priests, that everie one of them might keepe as many Concubines, as he would, which ey­ther he durst not haue done, or the priests durst not haue put in practise, without the popes consent. And by the counsel of Toledo, about the same time, Priests were licen­ [...]ed to keepe everie one a Concubine. May we not then here plainly see the power of the Greate Whore beginne to shew it self, about the year of our Lord 666, when as these three great things were in that time publikely established: first the Popedome, or universall Pontificate, in Boniface the fourth, Secondly, the adoration of Images. And thirdly, [Page 126] this corporall fornication. But of the power of the pope, how it grew and increased,Problem 7. I shall speak more hereafter. In the mean space let us take a Review of these things, and compare them to the first Attribute and Notation here giuen to Antichrist by the Holy Ghost, when he repre­senteth him and his estate to a Great Whore. And let us aske the Questions before touched: First, Whether the Popes for these nine hundred yeares last past, haue not continually mainteyned these two kindes of Fornications by their lawes, fa­culties, dispensations and practises? Secondly, Whether all of them haue mainteyned them, or whether any one of them hath reformed any of these sinnes, during that time? Thirdly, Whether any other Prince, Potentate, State or person haue done the like? Fourthly, And if not, then whether they may not well be comprehended and understood under the name of one Man, as the whole succession of the princes of Iudah and Israel, is called Iuda, Iacob, Israel, Ephraim, &c. And here, although to any that well considereth the places of Scrip­ture aboue cited, it may seeme idle and impertinent to seeke for Antichrist in any place out of Rome, or to ima­gine, that he should be any other then the seauenth Ru­ler of that Septimontane cittie: yet because there are some which thinke the Turke to be Antichrist: others that think Antichrist must be a Iew, and of the Tribe of Dan, and such like vayn opinions: I demand, Whether ever any Turke or Iew commanded, mainteyned, or suffred the worshiping of Ima­ges, and the publique use of whoredome, so much, and in such open manner, as the Popes haue done? And seeing both the Iewes and Turkes by the grounds of their Religions do ab­horre and detest Images: Whether it be likely, that any Iewe or Turke will ever suffer such Idolatrie as is common amongst the Papists? And yet further because some do thinke that the Raign of Antichrist must continue but three yeares and [Page 127] an half, and some thinke he must be one particular man; and such like fantasies: I demande, Whether it be possible, that there should be so much whoredome and Idolatrie commit­ted, within that short space of time, or in the life of one parti­cular man, though he liue an hundred yeares, as hath been com­mitted within the Popes kingdome and Iurisdiction, during the sayd nine hundred yeares last past? I demand (I say) Whe­ther it be possible, that there should be so many millions of For­nicators, Whores, and Idolaters, in the life of one man, as in the time of these Popes? Item, Whether it be possible in so short a time, for any man or divell to establish, use and practise such powerfull meanes, for the increase of whoredome and Ido­latrie? And if the Sectaries of the Roman Pontif. will not answer, I will aske the Earth, (as Esra is called to do) Whether within the compasse of such a time she be able to bring forth, or beare so many millions of whores, Fornicators, 2 Ezd [...]u [...] and Idolaters, as in the Succession of so many ages she hath sustey­ned? And if she cannot answer, but as the wombe of a woman, that it is altogether impossible to bring forth so many at once, as she doth in tract of time, then will I aske againe: Whether any of the Popes be free of this, and whether they be not all of them as one man, guiltie of these great sinnes, by act, approbation, consent and imitation, and conse­quently, fit to be represented under one person, and called one Man? And if this be so, then will I demand (as Salvia­nus doth) of the consciences of all men, that haue any sence or feeling of Truth: Whether this be not that great Whore, here described, then whom never any, no not the Divel himself, if he ruled the Earth, but three yeares and an half, or for one mans life onely, could practise or cause more fornication or Idolatrie to be committed? And so much of the first note, the Great Whore.

The second is, that she sitteth upon manie waters. Which [Page 128] the Angell expoundeth, to signifie Peoples, and Multi­tudes, Nations, and Tongues. Here first I obserue the word of sitting, which is used not onely here, but by the Apostle 2 Thes. 2. And it is a word [...]metimes ap­plied to Kings, sometimes to Bishops. Kings are said to sit on their Thrones, Bishops in their Chayres or Churches. Both are applied to Antichrist. For in the 2 Thes. 3. it is sayd, He sitteth in the Temple or Church of God: and here upon manie Nations. The one place sheweth, he must be a Bishop, the other a King: can this be applied to any but the Pope? Now that the Pope and Church of Rome for these nine hundred yeares haue been supported by many Peoples, nations and Tongues, I will desire to haue none other witnesses, then their owne chief Authors and Advocates, who make their greatest brags of their Vniversalitie:Bellarm. Sta­pl [...]ron. [...]len­dus &c. & how the power of their Pontif. extend­eth it self, not onely to Europe, but to all, euen the far­thest remote parts of the world, America and India: which the Turke, nor any other Potentate cou [...]d never yet attaine unto. And if this be evident and undenia­ble, let us againe peruse over the Questions [...]boue pro­posed: Whether this may be affirmed of any Iewe or Turke. And whether it be possible, that the power of any Iew or Turke, or any one man whatsoever, should within the space of three yeeres and an half, or of one mans life so far prevail, or procure to haue so many Peoples, Multitudes, Nations and Tongues subject unto it, as the Multitudes, Nations and Tongues, which haue served the Popes for these nine hundred yeares do amount unto? Or to giue a nearer instance: so many at once, as within that time haue come to Rome to their Iubiles & solemni­ties.

The third note of this Antichristian Harlot is, that the Kings of the Earth haue committed fornication with her, [Page 129] and the Inhabitants of the Earth haue been made druncken with the wine of her fornication. And what king was there in Europe, for these nine hundred yeares, which did not committ or permit fornication both corporall and spirituall with the Church of Rome? Which of them did not worship the same Images, and use or permit the same uncleanes? And I demand againe, whether this can be verified of any Iew, Turke or other person whatsoever, past, present or to come?

The fourth note, is her exceeding great riches, pompe and gorgeousnes. Let me instance, but in one or two particu­lars. Majora, vel certe paria, &c. sayth Blondus. All Europe sendeth to Rome greater, or surely no lesse Tributes, In Roma in­st. urata. then were payed to the Ancient Roman Emperors. Pope Iohn left at his death in treasure, ducentos quinquaginta Tonellos Ducatorum, Bib [...]iand. ex Palmerio ad ann. 1334. sayth another. Omnes Reges mundi non possent tantum de Thesauro reddere infra unum annum, quantum fuit de Papali Palatio asportatum, & de Palatiis trium Cardinalium & Mar­chionis. sayth another, speaking of Pope Boniface the eight,R. Avesb. and three Cardinals, and the Marquis his nephew. I de­mand then, Whether Prince or Potentate, State or person haue had the like testimonie of Riches, and whether it be credible, that any in three yeares & an half, or one mans life time should attaine to the like?

The fifth note: She hath a name written in her forehead, A Mysterie, Babylon the Great, Mother of Harlots and abhomi­nations of the earth. First it is called Great. I demand, Whe­ther ever this title were so much giuen to any cittie besides Rome? The old Babylon was never so many times called great. And I thinke, none will make question of any other. And Whether the Bishop of Rome, the Church of Rome, and the cittie of Rome, haue not everie one of them had a speci­all title of Greatnes, I referre me to the consciences of the Romans themselues, to their Decrees and Canons, who [Page 130] giue to their Bishop the Title of Pontifex Max. or Summus, so Lipsius, that hath written a Booke, De magnitudine ur­bis Romae, and to that other, who writ a Booke, De magni­tudine Romanae Ecclesiae. So their Church is great, their cittie is great, and their Bishop is greatest of all. Of the name of Babylon I haue spoken sufficiently before. And for the other title of Mother of Harlots or Sodomites (as Scaliger and others reade) and abhominations of the earth: I demand of all that know Rome, eyther by travelling in those coun­tries and eye witnesse, or by reading and hearesay: Whether there be in any place of the world, being of no greater extent so many Harlots, and Sodomites, and so publikely mainteyned, and allowed, as in Rome, and the Popes Iurisdiction, and where his power is acknowledged, and whether any other Prince or Pre­late, Church or State, Turke or Iew, haue giuen or made such, and so many faculties and dispensations, pardons and Lawes, for such things. Let the notable booke of the Taxa and the ca­ses reserved to Papall dispensation be perused. And here is to be noted the Name that the Holy Ghost giveth to her, calling her, The Mother of Harlots or Sodomites and for­nications, which is singularly Emphaticall. For it cannot be denied, but there are many Harlots and Fornicators in other places, neyther can it be denied, but other Empires and kingdoms are called Whores, as Inda and Israel by Eze­kiel, Ninive by Nahum: Babylon by Ieremie. But no other place is called the mother of Harlots or Sodomites. This of all the rest seemeth to be Proprium quarto modo. A pro­pertie inseparable, which agreeth to the Popes, omni, soli, & semper, to them onely, and everie of them ever since the Councels of Hispal. and Toledo aboue mentioned. For nōne but the Popes haue forbidden Mariage, nor made Lawes that the Cloysters and Convents of Nunnes should be subject to monkes and Fryers, and that it should be lawfull [Page 131] for Priests to haue Concubines. No other Prince, State or per­son, hath built such Stewes and Brothelhouses for Venerie and Sodomy. Wherein whores, Sodomites and Fornicators are dayly bred, cherished, increased and multiplied. None but they haue granted pardons, faculties and dispensations for such things. And if any had done, or should do the like, may we thinke it possible, or credible, that he should obteyne such absolute power and reputation of Holynes, as the Pope hath to be credited and beleeved in the same? Was there ever any So­domite, Aegyptian, Babylonian, Iew, Turke, or Infidell so desperately impudent, as the Romans haue been, not onely in doing such things, but in boasting of them, and setting forth bookes thereof, as of old, Virgil, Ovid, Ti­bullus, Catullus, Propertius; and of late Casa, the no­ble Archbishop of Sodom? Boccate, their Conceits upon Orlando, Baptista de Albertis, Petrus Haedus and manie o­thers.Cornel. Agr. de van. Sci. cap. 63, 64. Vidi ego nuper Italica lingua editum Dialogum utrius (que) Veneris, omnium flagitiosissimum. And againe, Flagitiosissi­mi Lenones, scelestissimae (que) Lenae saepe sub Religionum pellibus delitescunt. And hereupon againe I aske, Whether this can be applied to any Prince, Potentate, State or person, and whe­ther these prophecies can be otherwise fulfilled?

The sixth note also is evident. She is druncken with the bloud of the Saints, and Martyrs of Christ Iesus. Peruse the Histories of the Christian Church, & likewise of all Iewes, Turkes, Infidels, and Pagans, that haue been since the be­ginning of the world, and shew me, whether ever any na­tion haue shed so much Christian bloud, or haue caused so much to be shed, as the Romans haue done? To omitt those ten Primitiue Persecutions, which remaine without parallell of any other: How many millions were slayne in those sacred warres, stirred up by the Popes, to recover Palestina? in the civill warres of Germanie and France? [Page 132] How many were massacred in France in the yeare 1572, and not long before in Merindall and Cabrieres? How many Reverend Bishops, and godly Preachers were bur­ned in England, with Men, women, Children and Infants under pretence of their fierie zeale? How many thou­sands, did their great Champion, the Duke of Alva destroy in few yeares in the Netherlands, what by his Soldjors, what by his Hangmen, and executioners? How many haue they swallowed up in their bloudie Inquisitions? To speake nothing of those which they count but viles ani­mas, as the Valdenses, Hugunots, Gewses, Lutherans and Calvinists, how many Princes and Noblemen haue they made away? Egmond, Horne, and the Prince of Orenge, in the Low Countries. The Admirall Chastillon, Count Rochfocault, Teligni, the Queene of Navarre, and two Kings, in France. In Spaine, Prince Charles, besides many others. But what talke I of particulars. Let all Princes of the world joyne together against the Lord and his Christ, as the Iewes and Romans did against our Sa­viour: Yea, let the greate Turke and great Divell joyne with them, and raigne but three yeares and an half, or but for a mans life, and spend all that time in murdering the Saints of Christ Iesus, and I will yet aske, Whether any man can imagine, that in so short a time they be able to kill so many godly Christians, as haue been murdered and slayne by the power, practises, and procurement of these Pontifices Max. since they got that Antichristian title? And if men will not confesse the truth, I will againe appeale to the Earth, and aske, Whether she in so short a time, be able to bring forth so many to be martired? And if the Consciences of men be not more dull and dead then the earth, I will demand againe of them, Whether all these Pontifices maximi, and everie one of them, be not guiltie of all the Bloudsheds of their [Page 133] Predecessors, by Consent, Approbation, Imitation and prose­cution? And whether the like can be sayd, of any State, Po­tentate, prince or person in the world besides? Let us yet cast our eyes a litle more abroad, and consider of the great destructions of Christian men, by Turkes and Saracens. It cannot be denyed, but these open and professed enemies of Christ haue shedde much Christian bloud, yet I thinke if Histories be diligently searched, and compared together, it may be proved, that since the sayd yeare of our Lord 700. the Popes and their Sectaries haue been verie Great, if not the chiefest meanes and causes, eyther by procurement, Qui non de­fendit nec ob­sistit, si potest infuriae, tant est in vitio, quam si paren­tes, aut patriā aut sucios de­serat. Cic. lf. Offi. or destitution, of the Effusion of all, or the most part of the Christian bloud, that hath been shed by those Miscreants in Europe. For what was the meanes, whereby, the Sara­cens first prevailed in Asia, but the weaknes of the Grae­cian Empire? And what caused that weaknes, but the Re­volt of Italie and other westerne Countries from the Em­pire, procured by the Pope? Whereby the Graecian prin­ces were not onely deprived of many mightie Christian kingdomes, but distracted by Rebells at home, from de­fending their subjects abroad? And what then brought the Turke into Europe, but the weakenes of the same princes, when they were neither able to hold their Pro­vinces which they had in Asia, nor to suppresse the facti­ons in Graecia? Who stirred up the Christian Princes of Britayn, Germanie and France, to spend their subjects bloud in Syria, where so many millions of Christians were slayne, and then left them succourlesse to their ene­mies, and sometimes rewarded them with excommunica­tions & seditions stirred up against them at home, where­by their subjects rebelled, and their enemies prevailed? Who moved our noble King Richard the first, to enter into that Saracenicall warre, where he lost so many men,Math. Fari [...] [Page 134] and yet when he was taken Prisoner by a Christian Prince, in his Returne, what meanes did the Pope make for his libertie,Blesensis. for all the pittifull letters of his mother, when in the mean space his kingdome was most gree­vously oppressed and spoyled? What help had the Gre­cian Emperors,In conc. Lugdun. ann. 1275. & in concil. Bouon. circa 1439. a'ter which, within 16 yeres the Turk tooke Con­stantinople. when with most humble submissions & supplications they sollicited the Pope to assist them, be­ing Christians, against the Turke, being the common enemie of our fayth? Who was the cause of that wo­full and never sufficiently deplored slaughter of Chri­stians at Varna: but the persidious Pope, and his Car­dinall Iulian, causing the poore seduced King, to violate his oath and league with the Turke? What helpe or succour did the Popes giue or procure to those two In­vincible Soldjours of Christ Iesus, Hunniades and Scan­derbeg,Historia Scan­derb. against the Turke, though this later with all hu­militie in person desired it, offering to driue that pub­like enimie out of Europe, if he might haue assistance? It is sayd indeed, that Pius the second gathered an ar­mie, such as it was, to help him, but nothing came of it, and perhaps he lost nothing by the Bargain. And what shall we say of Boniface the eighth, who hired the Sa­racens to warre against the Christians in Sicilia? What shall we say also to the first comming of the Turkes in­to Europe? Who transported their armies by Sea, but the Popes owne subjects of Genua, the countrie that was giuen to the Pope by Herebertus the Lombard, and whom he might haue easily restrayned, if he would. More of this might be sayd, but let this suffice; and let me demand upon it, whether we may not justly thinke him guiltie of all the Christian bloud, that hath been shed by the Turkes in Europe? I aske againe, whether any of these Pontifices Maximi haue amended these [Page 135] things, or shewed any repentance or sorrow for them, or any dislike thereof since their perpetration: yea, whether they haue not by all meanes extolled and ap­proved of those their Predecessors, boasting of their Succession from them, and mainteyning that they can­not erre, and that they ought not to be judged by any man? And therefore before I passe from this point, let me speake one word to thee, (O Lord of Trueth Loue and mercie) or let my teares speake to thee, that yet at length, thou wouldest take pittie upon thy rent and torne bodie, thy poore distressed Church, which by intestine dissentions, and the malicious practises of this inward and secret enimie, is become the common stage and Theater of all bloudie Massacres, and dolefull Tragedies, while their enimies both forreyn, and domestick prosper, and triumph in their unitie and agreement. O let it please thee at length to reunite in Trueth and Loue, that the enimie may no longer say, Where is their God?

Well, the last note is inseparable and undeniable. It is (sayth the Holy Ghost) that Great cittie, that ruleth over the Kings of the Earth. Whereof I haue sayd sufficiently before, and having shewed that it cannot be applied to any other place in the world, and that the Antichrist can be no other then the seuenth Ruler of that High seuen hilled Cittie, and namely, that Head which next succeeded the Emperors, as the best Fathers, and an­cient Interpreters with one mutuall consent do agree: I will adde to the description of this Antichristian state, a short survey of the words and actions of Anti­christ, as by the H. Apostles and Prophets they are no­ted, to shew, how all Prophecies are fulfilled touching the comming of Antichrist, and do all concurre in the Roman State and Prelate, and this is the sixth generall part, which I proposed at first.

ƲI. Of the words and actions of Antichrist.

THe Prophet Daniel speaking of Antichrist, giveth us four notes,Dan. 7, 25. verie notable and remarkeable. Whereof the first is, He shall speake words against the Most High. Secondly, He shall consume the Saints of the Most High. Thirdly,Apoc. 17. He shall thinke to change times. Fourthly, He shall thinke also to change Lawes. Our Apostle repeat­ing also the two first, addeth two more, Adulterie and Idolatrie. 2 Thes. 2. And the Apostle Paul addeth one, namely Lu­ciferian pride, and Exaltation. For he exalteth himself against all that is called God, or that is worshiped, and he sit­teth in the Temple of God, boasting himself, that he is God. Of some of these things I haue spoken so much alreadie, that I need not stand long upon them. First, He shall speak words against the Most High, which is Blasphemie. Did Antiochus so (for of him some do interpret this place) when he forbade sacrifices,1 Mat. 1. and burnt offerings to be made unto God, when he burnt the bookes of the Law and commanded Idols to be worshiped? And haue not the Popes of Rome done so, when they forbid prayers and thanksgiving to God in the vulgar tongue, caused the Bibles, translated into English and other tongues to be burned, and commanded Images to be worshiped? Second­ly, He shall consume the Saints of the most High. Did Antio­chus so, in commanding godly men to be put to death? And hath not the Pope done much more? Haue they not caused many millions of Christian men to be slayne in their great expeditions and Massacres? Hereof suffi­cient hath been sayd before, and yet because it cometh now to hand, I hope it will not seeme tedious to adde one instance more,Do not eccl. cap. 18. out of the Arch-advocate of Anti­christ Bellarmin. who confesseth that in France, in one [Page 137] expedition under Innocent the third, there were slayne an hundred thousand. Thirdly, He shall thinke to change times & Lawes, two things which God seemeth to challenge, as reserved, and peculiar to himself. For of Times David sayth, My times are in thy hands. and Daniel,Psal. 31. God changeth times and seasons. And our Saviour Christ himself sayth,Dan. 2. that God hath kept them in his owne power. And of Lawes,Act. 1. Salomon sayth, By me Kings and Princes decree just things. Prov. 8. Now I aske of those that will haue these Prophecies to be applied onely to Antiochus: What did he in this kinde? what times did he change, or what Lawes? But of the Pope and all the Popes since Boniface, who is called the fourth, but indeed the second that tooke upon him that title, which was about the yeare of our Lord 607, I de­mand, whether they haue not all taken upon them this power, to change times and lawes? Did not Boniface him­self make a new feast to the honour of all Saints? Haue not his Successors likewise made verie many new Feasts and Fasts? Let their owne Kalenders be witnesse. Haue they not ordeyned Iubilees, and altered them at their pleasure? Haue they not altered the whole Kalender of the Iulian year from the Dionysian account, to the Litian or Gregorian? and thereby altered all the Feasts, both moueable and un­moueable, from the times, wherein by the old account they are observed? Haue I neede to stand long to proue this point, which is knowen to all the world? Hath this been done upon any warrant of Gods word? Or hath it not beene done by Astronomicall computations of Mi­nutes and Seconds, which are almost insensible and im­perceptible. Will they say it may be done by Arte? And what will they answer to those excellent learned men, who deny their account, and haue noted great defects in men of no meane estimation among the learned, namely [Page 138] Scaliger,Vid. Thuan. l. 129. Petavius, and Vieta, to speake nothing of our owne Countriman Lidyat. What will they say to those that hold the Arte of Astronomie, not onely imperfect, but impossible to be perfected: and therefore compare the studie of it, to the building of the Tower of Babylon? And that also was the sentence of a man not of the mean­est account, no lesse then Raimarus Mathematician to the Emperor Rudolphus?Act. 1. So that the sentence of our Savi­our Christ may seeme to extend to this also: Non ad ve­strum scire tempora. You must be content sapere ad Sobrie­tatem: to be wise, and not too wise, but within the com­passe of sobrietie. Now let me aske, Whether any Prince, Potentate, State or person ever did the like in the changes of times, as these Popes haue done: and whether any can do the like, especially that shall continue but three yeares and a halfe, or one mans life time? Again, haue not the Popes and eve­rie one of them changed lawes, by establishing a New law, which they call the Canon Law? Haue they not added to their Decrees, Decretals, Extravagants, Clementines, and do they not still publish new Bulles, Faculties, and Dispen­sations with speciall words of Non obstante? I hope no man will put me to proue any of these things; unlesse it be some that will make a question, whether that rule of Law be to be held, which sayth, that Notoria non sunt pro­banda? or make a doubt, whether the Popes Bulles, Fa­culties, Dispensations, and other publike Instruments be Notoria. Anton. sum. part. 3. t. 22. Sum. Angel. tit. Papa. Againe, do they not teach and mainteyne, that the Pope may make New Religions, change the ordinances of Generall Councels, and dispence with all Lawes, both of the Temporall State, and of the Church, yea with all the Laws of the second Table, and with some of the first? As when God in his Law sayth, It is not lawfull for thee to haue thy Brothers wife. Doth not the Pope say, It is lawfull by my [Page 139] dispensation. When God sayth, Thou shalt not kill: doth not the Pope say, thou mayst kill euen thy Prince, when I haue de­clared him to be an Heretike? Is not this to change lawes, [...] and haue not all the Popes, for these many hundred yeares now last past, with one consent and voice, all making one Man of sinne, or Lawlesse one, arrogated this power, and practised it? Haue they not all maynteyned and approved the Actions of their Predecessors in doing such things? And do they not still maintaine and practise the same? So that I need not to say with Salvianus, Etsi hoc commune om­nibus non faciebat actus, faciebat tamen assensus. For which of them hath not done it? And what else hath been the cause of so many millions of sinnes committed in the Christian world, for these many hundred yeares, but the Bulles, Indulgences, Pardons, absolutions, faculties and dispensations of the Pope, together with the perswasion that men had of their Holines, Infallibilitie, and power to grant such things, and that by such Bulles, Indulgences, Pardons and Dispensations their sinnes were forgiuen? Now let any man shew me, Whether ever any Prince, Po­tentate, State or man haue done the like, or whether it be pos­sible for any, in time to come, to doe so much in this kinde, as the Popes haue done: namely, to make so many Lawes, to break and change so many Lawes, and to grant so many Bulles, facul­ties and dispensations, especially within the compasse of three yeares and an half, or one mans life time? Concerning their Adulteries, which is the fifth, I haue sayd sufficiently be­fore, onely this one question may be added, viz. Where shall we finde Antichrist, and Babylon the Great Whore, and mother of Whoredomes, but in that church and state, whose chief Bishop publikely alloweth them, because he hath a greate part of his Revennues from them, which as some in former times haue accounted, hath been to the [Page 140] value of fortie thousand ducats yearly? Concerning their Idolatries also I haue spoken before, and shall say more hereafter. There resteth but the last note, which S. Paul giveth,2 Thes. 2. and is principally to be observed, because the Fa­thers do agree, that it is without doubt spoken of Anti­christ, viz. That he sitteth in the Temple of God, as God, boast­ing that he is God, and exalteth himself aboue all that is called God, or that is worshiped, and yet working with all deceiuable­nes of unrighteousnes. If any man yet remain doubtfull whe­ther the Pope be that Antichrist, let him answer me up­on these words, Who ever was comparable to the Pope in these things? Aug. de civ. dei li. 20. Who ever besides him hath sitten in the out­ward visible Church, or Temple of God, as chief Bishop, head or Governour thereof, or upon the Church, as commanding, ruling, and raigning over it. or as the Temple of God, with such a singular opinion of sanctitie and infallabilitie, (for all these wayes doth the Father interpret that word) as the Popes haue done? And whether it is credible that any shall do the like in time to come? Whether is there, or was there ever any Prince, Potentate or person, Christian or Iew, Turke or Pa­gan so adored as he hath been, and that in the verie Temple, and Charch of God, and that by the chief Bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals, Patriarks, and Primates of the Church? Whether can they giue any greater Adoration to God himself out­wardly, if he were corporally present? Or do they giue any greater to the Sacrament, in which they affirme the bodie of our Lord Iesus Christ to be really present? Again Whether hath any Prince, Potentate or person, Christian, or Iew, Turke or Pagan, invented, or practised such a pow­erfull meanes, to depriue or depose Emperors, Kings and Princes, as the Popes haue done by their Excommunica­tions, Suspensions, Interdictions and Decrees? Did ever any so practise, to discharge Subjects of their Alleageance [Page 141] and oathes, to giue kingdomes away to others, to crowne and uncrowne Emperors with his foote, to treade upon them, and yet still reteyne such an opinion of Holynes,See more in the Collect. of M. Fox in the end of his first Tome. and haue a Cleargie singing to him in the meane while, Super Aspidem, & Basiliscum, &c. Did ever any do the like, and was obeyed in such things, and thought to do it law­fully and rightfully? And hath he not in these things more then ever any other exalted himself as God, aboue all kings and Princes, which are called Gods and worshiped? See much more of this in M. Downhams Treatise of Antichr. l. 1. cap. 5. Yea doth he not exalt himself aboue our Lord Iesus Christ, as much as man may doe, when he affirmeth, that not onely he himself, but everie one of his Masse-priests and Friers is able to make the verie carnall bodie of our Saviour, which must be worshipped as God? Doth he not cause the Sacrament to be caried before him by a Pedarie, or Foote­priest, when he himself is mounted up in a Throne of Majestie, and caried upon mens shoulders? Doth he not exalt himself aboue our Lord, when he weareth the Cru­cifix (which he likewise commandeth to be worshiped as God) upon his shoes and pantofles,Possevin [...] which euen the Rude Moscovite, when he heard of it, utterly abhorred and de­tested? Doth he not exalt himself aboue God, when he taketh upon him to alter the Articles of Fayth, and adde to those which were anciently made, and declared in the times of the Apostles, or soone after, by the consent of the Primitiue Church? For what is that they haue declared so imperiously; subesse Romano Pontisici,Extra. Com. de Majorit.omni humanae crea­turae declaramus, definimus, &c. esse de necessitate salutis. and therefore, where the ancient Creed teacheth us to beleeue the Catholike Church, they will now haue us to say the Ca­tholike Roman Church? Doth he not exalt himself aboue God, when he dispenseth with the Lawes of God, and with sinnes; not onely with sinnes done, but to be done, [Page 142] which God himself never would doe? For proofe where­of let the Bulles be reviewed which he hath granted, as to Henry the eight to marrie his Brothers wife, and such like; Also the Bulles which he hath sent forth against Queene Elizabeth and King Iames, the Kings of France and other princes, exciting their Subjects to Treason, mur­der and Rebellion. Yea hath he not granted to private men faculties or pardons for sinnes to be done? I am sure our Soveraine king Iames telleth us of two such pardons,His Majesties Meditaetion upon the Lords prayer. which he saw himself. Did ever any Iew, Turke, Infidell or pagan take upon him to doe the like? Or is ever any to be expected that may do more? I demand also, whe­ther ever any other hath had, or whether any other may be expected in time to come, that may haue greater, or the like power to deceiue men in unrighteousnes, or to make them beleeue, that it is lawfull for them to commit sinne and wickednes in such manner as the popes haue done by their pardons, Faculties and such like marchandize? And whether this hath not been a most effectuall and potent meanes to induce men into sinne and unrighteousnes? And, Whether it be possible for any other man to do the like in time to come, especially in the Church of God, and within so short a time, as three yeares and a half, or one mans life time? as hath been done by the Popes in all these seauen points last before set downe. And if it be altogether impossible, let us at length abandon that, and such like incredible, and impossible opinions, and not suffer our selues to be delu­ded any longer, but ingenuously and freely confesse, that this is he; and that it is in vaine to looke for another. And thus by the gracious & merciful assistance of our Almigh­tie Lord, Christ Iesus, I haue passed through these six parts of the description of Antichrist; his Place, his State, his Names, his Rising, his Raigne, and his Words and Actions, [Page 143] everie one of them so sutable to the Roman Pontifex, that I for my part thinke it imp [...]ssible to apply them to any other. And so I come to the seauenth and last part, which is his Times.

VII. Of the Times of Antichrist.

ONE of the greatest Arguments, that the Popish Advocates do insist upon, to proue that their Pope is not Antichrist, is this of the Times: wherein first they stifly mainteyne, that Antichrist shall raigne but three yeares and an half, whereas the Pope hath raigned (say they) many hundred yeares. Marke here by the way, they confesse that he raigneth in Rome. Secondly, they hold that Antichrist shall be but one man, and shall not come, untill shortly before the end of the world. Thirdly, that Enoch and Elias must come before, or in his time. All which conceits are without any warrant of the Holy Scriptures, and haue been largely refuted by others, especially by the excellent learned Robert Ab­bat late Bishop of Salesburie. and for the two first, I haue sayd before sufficiently. Against the last I will pro­pose but one question, which shall be drawen out of the verie words of the Text.Apoc. 11. For in the 11 chapter of the Revelation, where there is mention made of the two Prophets; whom they will haue to be Enoch and Elias, it is sayd, that they shall be slayne by the Beast which commeth out of the bottomlesse pitt, and not by the Beast which cometh out of the Earth. Now in the 13 chap­ter we finde two Beasts, the first ascending out of the Sea, having feauen heads and ten hornes. Which is by the best Interpreters judged to be the Old Roman Empier, and [Page 144] the Temporall state thereof: The second Beast ascendeth out of the Earth, and that [...] properly understood to be An­tichrist, as hath been sayd before. And in the 17 chap­ter it appeareth, Rev. 17. that the first Beast, which hath the seuen Heads, is that which is sayd to ascend out of the Bottomlesse pitt. I aske then upon the Conference of these Texts together, How it can stand with these Prophe­cies, to say that these two Prophets must be Enoch and Elias, & shall be slayne by Antichrist, when as they must be slayne by the Roman Empire, and not by the second Beast, nor by the Whore? and the Roman Empire must be removed before Anti­christ be revealed. Iudicent Theologi. But these and such like conceits of theirs being brought into the light, and appied to the flames of those holy burning and shining Candles, the Prophets and Apostles, will easily dissolue and melt away like ice before the Sunne. For whoso­ever applieth himself with any heede and diligence to reade and marke the Scriptures, and compare them to­gether, may soone perceiue that the blessed spirit of Trueth, who leadeth us into all Trueth, verie often, and verie largely speaketh of the Times of Antichrist, de­scribing them with seauen remarkeable Considerations, whereof not one of them telleth us of Henoch and Elias, or that Antichrist shall be but one man, or indure but three yeares and an half, &c. But contrariwise represent­eth unto us long Periods and continuance of times. As to the Purpose: First, that which we may call Praepara­tiones or Dispositiones Materiae, which by the Apostle I thinke is called the working of the Mysterie of Iniquitie, and began in the Apostles time, 2 Thes. 2. and must continue till the re­moving of the Roman Empire, which was about three hundred yeares. The second is the Removing of the Im­pediment, and the Rising of Antichrist, which in reason [Page 145] must follow, for sublato impedimento emergit actio. And this not at an Instant, but at least in 300 or 400 yeares more. For so long it was before the Empire was cleane removed out of Rome. The third is his Revelation not upon a sodayne, but by degrees in long time, accompany­ing his Rising. The fourth therefore is his Raigne more near to a Septingentan, then to a Demi-Septennian. The fifth is of the Signes of his times, and the manners of men in those times, not incident to a short time. The sixth is of his decay and consumption, not hastie: and the seauenth of his finall end, and utter destruction; which must be by the se­cond comming of our Lord Iesus Christ. So that the working of this mysterie, and the progresse thereof must be from the time of the Apostles unto the end of the world. And there is not one of these seauen Considerations but is ex­pressely spoken of in the Scripture most of them verie of­ten, as shall appear by that which followeth: Whereupon I aske, Whether it would not seeme verie vaine and unseem­ly not onely for the majestie of divine Truth, or dignitie of Apo­stolike writings; but euen for the gravitie of a sober man to speake so often, or make such incuications of things, that should either come so late, or continue so small a time. Therefore to speak of the first consideration, I [...]ske whether it be not expressely & directly intimated unto us by the Holy Apo­stle S. Paul, where he sayth,2 Thes 2. the Mysterie of Iniquitie begin­neth to worke alreadie. And by S. Iohn,1 Iohn 2. Euen now there are manie Antichrists. And againe,2 Iohn 7. now alreadie he is in the world. And againe, Manie deceivers are entred into the world, which confesse not that Iesus Christ is come in the Flesh, 2 Pet. 2. such a one is Antichrist. And S. Peter, and S. Iude, with many words & great diligence warne the Church of God,Iude epist. that there were then certaine men crept in, which defiled the fl [...]sh, and despised government. Is it possible that the [Page 146] Apostles should be so carefull to admonish and advertise the church, that there were such beginnings, and such workings of Antichrist in those times, and yet that he should not come in 1600 yeares after? or should continue so short a time? I am not ignorant that it was the opini­on of some learned and godly men, from whom I do not willingly dissent. But I know that God doth not reveal all things, to one man, nor all things at one time, nor in one manner. Iohn 3. Everie man hath his gift and measure. Everie thing hath his time and season; and everie time his temper and disposition. Eccles. 3. It was sayd of a verie learned and excellent Doctor of the Church. Non videt omnia. And he that is non unus è multis, See Io. Pic. Mir. in apolo. sed inter omnes prope singularis, held some strange opinions. Yea Moses and David erred in some things. It may be also that the Fathers of the Primitiue Church, having other great Controversies in hand, gaue themselues but little to the studie of the Apocalyps, that booke being then in question, as it seemeth, and not pub­likely received untill the Councell of Toledo, which was about the yeare of our Lord 630,Vida concil. & Pantal. as if our Lord had provi­ded it against that time. Yet somethings they saw, and where their opinions are consonant with the Scriptures, they are verie much to be regarded. Leaving therefore the ignorance of those godly Fathers in some points, to sleepe with them in their graues, and covering them with a vail of just excuse, in that they saw not the successe of times, and fulfilling of divers prophecies, which haue since ap­peared, and with a Robe of Honorable and Sacred Me­morie for the gifts and graces of God, which otherwise shined in them (as Shem and Iaphet did the nakednes of their Father) Let us follow with straight steppes the light of divine Trueth, shining in the Scriptures, whereun­to the Fathers themselues do send us, to guide us out of the [Page 147] mistie cloudes and perplexed Labyrinths of Humane Er­rors. And let us see what the Apostles meant by the words aboue cited, as where one of them sayth,2 Thes. 2. The Mysterie of iniquitie worketh alreadie. And againe; His working is with all deceiuablenes &c. And another,Iohn 3. Euen now there are ma­nie Antichrist &c. and there are many deceivers gone out &c. Did they meane this of Turks, which were then scarce heard of in the world? or of Iewes, which did not then deceitfully, but had long before openly and professedly shewed themselues to be the Enemies of Christ and all Christians? Or of Heathenish Pagans, that were also open persecutors? or of any that should openly and professedly deny that Christ was come, as now the Greate Patrons of the Romish cause would perswade us? If so, what needed they to tell us of a Mysterie, Deceiveablenes, Deceivers, &c. What Mysterie or deceit could there be in the direct and professed denying of Christ?1 Iohn 3. Or doth not S. Iohn teach us plainly that they meant it of perverted & Hereticall Chri­stians, where he sayth: They went out from us, but they were not of us. For if they had been of us, they would haue con­tinued with us. They went out from the Church, and they would haue continued with the Church: Do not both these words signifie, that they were sometimes of the Church? and not Iewes, Turkes, or Pagans that were ne­ver of the Church? So in the Epistle to the Elect Ladie, where he sayth: Such a one is a deceiver. So S. Paul, His comming is with all deceiueablenes. These admonitions might seem verie impertinent, if they had understood that Antichrist should haue been a Iew, Turke, Pagan, or other professed enemie of Christ. So in another place: They professe that they know God, but by works they deny him, and are abhominable, disobedient, Titus 1. and to everie good worke repr [...] ­bate. The like may be sayd of that fatherly and serious ad­monition [Page 148] and charge, which the beloved Apostle giveth unto us:1 Iohn 4. that many false Prophets were gone out into the world, and therefore that we should trye the Spirits. What tryall neede we make of anie Turke, Iew, Pagan, or pro­fessed enemie of Christ?2 Pet. 2. And the Apostle Peeter seemeth also to warne us of such men, whom he calleth False Tea­chers, which should privily bring in damnable Heresies, deny­ing the Lord that bought them, &c. He sayth Heresyes: shall we say Iudaisme, Turcisme, Paganisme? He sayth privi­ly, shall we say openly? What manner of Interpretation is this to contradict the Text? Surely the Ancient Fathers would not so interpret it. Tertullian, Qui pseudoprophetae sunt nisi falsi praedicationes?De praescript.qui pseudoapostoli nisi adulteri Euangelizatores? qui Antichristi interim & semper nisi Chri­sti rebelles? Ad Magnum. Cyprian. Indignandum & dolendum est Christia­nos Antichristis assistere & praevaricatores fidei, at (que) prodito­res Ecclesiae, intus in ipsa ecclesia contra ecclesiam stare. August.August. Opera loquuntur & verba requirimus? Magis men­dax est Antichristus qui ore profitetur Christum, & factis ne­gat. In Matth. Chrysostom. Exercitus Antichristi sunt omnes Haereses, praecipue ista,Bern.quae obtinuit Ecclesiae locum. Ministri Christi ser­viunt Antichristo? Were these men ignorant of the Ca­tholike veritie? Or are not these ynough to proue that which Vincentius requireth: Quod ubi (que) semper & ab om­nibus creditum est? Vincent. Let us returne then to the Apostle S. Iude,Iude epist. who exhorteth us earnestly to maintaine the faith against such as turne the grace of God into wantonnes, and de­file the flesh speaking ill of Magistrates denying the onely Lord God and our Lord Iesus Christ. If we should aske upon these words, who they be that deny God, would not the Apo­stle himself answer us, that they are the same who turn the Grace of God into wantonnes, defiling the flesh, and speake ill of Magistrates? Such perhaps as the Nicholaitans, Ebion, and [Page 149] Cerinthus were, which at first were Christians and would be called Christians, and yet fell to teach Heresies in Doc­trine and loosenes of life: Cerinthus did not deny in word that Christ was come in the flesh, but taught that the works and Ceremonies of the Law were necessarie to Sal­vation. Whereupon the Apostle inferreth,Gal. 2. Then Christ dy­ed in vayne. So by consequent he denyed Christ, in denying the effect of his death and passion to be such as the Apostles teach us. So the Primitiue Fathers teach us to understand the denying of Christ. Hilar. Quisquis Christum, qualis ab Apostolis praedicatus est negat, Antichristus est. Ambros. Chri­stum negat, qui non omnia quae Christi sunt confitetur. See more of these in that learned Demonstration of Antichrist set forth by Doctor Abbat.Ca. 12. For in Charitie indeede we must hold, that He that is not against us is with us:Lucae 9. but in Fayth, He that is not with us, is against us. Ebion did not denye Christ to be come, but denyed him to be verie God:Luc. 11▪ and so denied him to be such as the Apostles taught, and therefore against him S. Iohn wrote his Gospell. The Ni­cholaitans did not deny the comming of Christ verbally, but in turning the grace of God into wantonnes, holding that wiues ought to be common, and using Promiscuous filthines and adulteries, they denyed that great and insepa­rable effect of his comming to call us to repentance and holynes of life, and to be a Saviour to saue us from com­mitting sinne, as well as from the punishment of sinne committed. So the Simonites and Menandrians, which were also in the Apostles time, in holding that the graces of God were to be purchased by mony, denyed by conse­quent the effect of Christs comming, namely the free give­ing of the Grace of God: as it is written: He ascended up on High, and gaue gifts unto men. Nazianz. Ephes. 4. And so it may be sayd of all other Heretikes, which professing Christianitie, do affirm [Page 150] and teach any thing contrarie to the Doctrine of the Apostles and Prophets. For there are two kinds of denying God, In Tetrast. Tit. 1. sayth Nazianzen, out of the Apostle: Verbo & Opere, in Word, or in Works. Or as David: Ore & Cor­de. Ps. 53. Naz. or as by another is proved, Expresly, or by Consequent: Non tantum divinam Authoritatem habent & fide tenenda, sunt ea quae in sacris Scripturis expresse continentur, sed etiam ea omnia, quae ex illis necessaria & evidenti consequentia dedu­cuntur, sayth the Father. By all which testimonies layd together, I thinke it may easily appeare, what the Apo­stle meaneth, when he sayth, that manye Antichrists are gone out into the world, which deny that Christ Iesus is come in the Flesh. And, His comming is with deceitfulnes, &c. Not any Iew, Turke, Pagan, or other that should expressely, directly and verbally deny the coming of our Saviour, but such as professing Christianitie teach any false Doc­trine, and so by consequent, denie him to be such as the Scripture hath taught us. This also agreeth with o­ther parts of the Description, as with his place, in the Temple of God: with his names, to be Vicarius Christi, as well as Adversarius: to be the Successor of Iudas, &c. I demand then, if the name of Antichrist was so intend­ed by the Apostles and Primitiue Fathers; and if that were then held the denying of Christ, to denie him by works or by consequent, what warrant haue we to hold, that the Great Antichrist must be a Iew, Turke, Pagan, or any other, that should verbally, expresly, or directly deny Christ Ie­sus, as now the Romanists would haue us to beleeue? And if these Prophesies must be understood of Christians that were Heretikes: and these were the preparations or workings of iniquitie, then surely the Great Antichrist himself must be of like qualitie, and he that is held to be the highest, and chiefest of all Christians, if he be an [Page 151] Heretike he must be That Antichrist. For so sayth Chry­sostom: The greatnes of sinne is considered, eyther by the Magnitude of the offence, or by the Altitude of his dig­nitie that committeth it. So of all Christians,Dist. 40. he that most excelleth in dignitie, and most turneth the grace of God into wantonnes; He that is most advanced, and yet most defileth the flesh, and despiseth government, speaking ill of them that are in Authoritie; he must, and none else can be that Antichrist. And who that is I re­ferre it to thine owne conscience, Christian Reader. Who is it that being in dignitie among Christians, most supereminent, doth yet most defile the Flesh, and despise go­vernment? Who is it amongst Christians most High, and yet most preacheth Christ otherwise then the Apostles teach us? as where the Scripture sayth, that the Spirit quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing, I aske whether they which teach, that the flesh carnally taken doth conferr Grace, Ioh. 6. opere operato, may be sayd to confesse such a Christ to be come, as the Scripture setteth forth? So he that affirmeth, that the Picture of Christ, or the Crosse, or the Virgin Marie is to be worshiped with divine adoration: I aske whether he do confesse; that such a Christ is come, as the Apo­stles haue preached? if yea; then where did our Saviour Christ or his Apostles teach any such thing? And so of other points of doctrine and manners, which I leaue to learned Divines to prosecute. And how the Pope hath been declared to be an Heretike, not onely by some particular men or congregations, but by the whole Christian Church in Europe, and that in three great and generall Councels shall be shewed hereafter. So much therefore be spoken of the beginnings or prepa­rations of Antichrist, which the Apostle plainly affirm­eth, was in his time, adding this.2 Thes. 2. Onely he which now with­holdeth [Page 152] shall let, till he be taken away, and then shall that law­lesse man be revealed. This concerneth our second consi­deration,Hierom Lact. [...] Theo. Cecum Am­bros August. Tertul Abb. in demonst. c. 4 & alij. Then the ea [...] of the Dragon. Rev. 13, 2. wherein we haue first to speak of the With­holder, or Impediment, secondly of the Remoue, and third­ly, of the revelation. Concerning the Impediment. The most learned and best Interpreters, both old and new do agree it to be the Roman Empire, which as the Apo­stle sayth, shall withhold, donec e medio fiat, untill it be removed out of the way, or out of the midest: he saith not, till it be abolished: Marke. And then (sayth the A­postle) shall that wicked man be revealed. But when that was, or how it should be removed it is not so well ex­playned: although comparing the Scriptures and times well together, it seemeth to me, that we may well un­derstand it, if we marke the steps and degrees. Nemo re­pente fuit turpissimus, sayth the learned Poet, but more learnedly; ad summum non per saltus, sed per gradus perve­nitur, sayth a Reverend Bishop, so this Removing of the Empire was not all at once, no more was the rising of the Pontificate, but by degrees, as by that which fol­loweth may appear. Therefore to obserue the proceed­ings of this remoue of the one, and rising of the other, I demande upon the 13 chap. of the Revelation, where­of we haue spoken before, Whether the time of that Rising be not there precisely pointed out, when he sayth, that Anti­christ there signified by the second Beast, shall worke before the face of the first Beast, that is, of the Roman Empire. And I demande also, Whether we may not well say that the Roman Empire began then sensibly to be removed, when the Emperor Constantine removed the Imperiall Sea from Rome to Constan­tinople? yet no man can say, but the Imperiall power, and the Majestie of an Empire continued still in Rome, in the Consuls, which dignitie the Emperors also them­selues [Page 153] many times tooke upon them, as I haue noted before. This therefore may be well taken for a begin­ning of the Remoue of the one, and Rising of the other, which was about the yeare of our Lord 327, and but a beginning. For the better assurance whereof let us first consider the Prophecies of the Scripture, concerning the continuance of the Roman Empire, and then see by Histories, how they were fulfilled. By the Euangelist we are taught, that the first Beast, that is,Revel. 13. the Heathenish Roman Empire should continue and make warr against the Saints two and fortie Months. Rev. 12. So it is sayd in another place, that the Holy cittie, (whereby we under­stand the Church of Christ) should be trode under foote of the Gentiles two and fortie moneths, and that the two witnesses of God should prophecie in sackcloth one thousand, two hundred and sixtie dayes, that these Prophets should be slayne, Rev. 12. and rise againe after three dayes and an halfe, and that the woman fi­guring the Church, fled into the wildernes, where she hath a place prepared of God a thousand, two hundred and sixtie dayes, and that there she should be nourished, for a time, times, and a halfe time. All which places do manifestly speak of the persecutions of the Church: of the Paucitij & Po­vertij of the Preachers and Teachers of Christian religi­on in those times, and of the flight of Christians into the wildernes, and other secret places, to avoide the furie of those persecutions.Deut. 18. 22 Nothing can better ex­pound a prophecie then the event and fulfilling of it. But it is manifestly and certeynly knowne that the per­secutions of the church by the Heathenish Roman Em­pire ended about the yeare of our Lord 326. about which time the last Heathen persecuting Emperor Li­cinius was slaine, and Constantine calling the Church out of the wildernes, as in a Triumph caused that great [Page 154] and reverend Councell of Nice, the first to be held, wherein the Nicene Creede was publikely proclaymed, to the utter condemnation and profligation of all Hea­then superstitions, and confutation of the great Here­sie of Arius, which then was newly begunne. This time falleth out so agreeable to the prophecies, on the one side, and to the events on the other, that it seemeth no doubt can be made, but that here begann the Remoue. For if we follow M. Foxes computation in the severall times aboue mentioned, we shall finde that those seve­rall Notations of time, as they speake but of one thing, that is, the persecutions of the Church by the Roman Emperors: so they signifie but one time, namely two hundred, ninetie four yeares, the ende of which falling so certeyne in the dayes of Constantine, do shew that the beginning must be accounted from the Ascen­tion of our Lord, in the yeare of Grace four and thir­tie, or there abouts.

For first, a thousand two hundred and three­score dayes,Note this li­mitation of a time, two times, and half a time in severall places seemeth to sig­nifie severall times: for in Dan. 7, 25, 26. it seemes to intend a cō ­tinuance of the time of the Roman state, under the litle Horne unto the ende of the world. But in Rev. 12.14. compared with Rev. 12, 6. and Rev. 11.2. and Rev 13, 6. it seemeth rather to signifie the time of the persecutions of the Church, under the Heathen Roman Empire. See the places. make two and fortie moneths, take everie moneth for seauen yeares, as everie one of Da­niels weekes were to be counted, it maketh two hun­dred ninetie four yeares.

Secondly, three dayes and an halfe, or a time, two times, and halfe a time. Reckon, as our Saviour doth, twelue hours to everie day, and we finde two and for­tie hours, then account everie hour to be a sabbath of yeares, and it maketh also two hundred ninetie and four yeares, which being added to the yeares of our Saviours life upon earth, being four and thirtie, ma­keth 328 from his Nativitie.

[Page 155]Of the other side, if we account the beginning of these yeares to be certaine,Rev. 12. the continuance and end al­so will fall out evident. But by the twelfth chapter of the Revelation it is manifest, that the Dragon went out to persecute the Church, when? After that our Saviour was ta­ken up into heauen: so then reckoning these 294 yeares to beginne at the Ascention of our Lord, we must adde the yeares of our Saviours life upon earth, which was about four and thirtie yeares, and it commeth fully to the yeare 328, about which time the said great Nicene Counsell was celebrated. And so taking the beginning of our computation from the end of the persecutions, in the time of Constantine, about the yeare of our Lord 328, and reckoning backwards 294 yeares, we come to the same yeare of grace 34, wherein was the Ascention of our Lord. So that both wayes, whether that we expound the prophecie by the event, or mea­sure the event by the prophecie, we are brought to the same yeare of our Lord 328. Now therefore, no lon­ger was the holy Cittie troden under foot of the Gen­tiles, Now the Martyrs of God, which had so long time prophecied in sackcloth, and were slayne, were a­gaine revived in their Doctrine. Now the two Witnesses of God, the Old and New Testaments, So expounded by his Majes­tie in Praefat. admonit. with consent of the best Interpre­ters. which were so long time hidden, and as it were layd dead, were brought to light, and ascended into heauen, that is, in the Church, which is called the kingdome of Heauen. For now the Church of God returned out of the wildernes, & now the power of the Heathenish state of Rome, to make warre against the Saints, was ended, though their Idola­trie (as Baronius confesseth) continued long after, name­ly unto the end of another period, whereof we haue spoken partly before, and shall speake somewhat here­after. [Page 156] Not long before that time also arose that great Heretike Arius who by the common voice of Godly chri­stians in those dayes was called Christomachus and Principi­um Antichristi, Arius affirm­ed that the HGhost was Creatura silij, & si ium non esse ejusdem cum patte substantiae. Pantal. ex Hi­lar. Ruf. E­piph. & alijs. the Holy Ghost (as it seemeth giueing out that for a watch-word, to stirre up the Christians at that time to expect the comming of the great Antichrist. About the same time rose up Macedonius the Heretike, who affirmed the Holy Ghost to be a creature, against which Heresies it seemeth, that not onely the Creedes of Nice and Athanasius, but also the verse Gloria patri, &c. and Veni Creator Spiritus, and the beginning of the Letanie was instituted. About the same time also the seat of the Em­pire was removed from Rome to Constantinople and shortly after a godly Emperor, making a graue and Chri­stian exhortation to the Bishops, to agree together in peace and unitie,Hilar in libro quem Constā ­tio ipsi tradi­dit. and to determine their controversies by the Scriptures; it is answered againe by a learned and godly Father,1 Ioh. 4 6. Hoc qui repudiat, Antichristus est. He that refuseth this is Antichrist, therein also giving us another speciall signe or marke whereby to judge of Antichristian Doctrine. About the same time also, or shortly after rose up the He­retike Pelagius, who affirmed freewill and the merits of human works; also Eutiches, who defended, that the flesh of Christ Iesus was not like ours, and that he was not truly borne of the Virgin, and many others. So that here we may see a great concurrence & consent of prophecies, with events, and with the Iudgements of godly Christi­ans upon the corruptions of true Doctrine in those times, that now Antichrist was beginning to rise. And certaine it is, that the Bishops of Rome from this time forward, sometimes by flatterie, sometimes by sedition, sometimes by patronising Heretikes, sometimes by opposing the god­ly did incroach to themselves dayly more and more autho­ritie, [Page 157] untill they had obteyned the full and absolute go­vernment of the Septimontane cittie, the seat of the first Beast, driuen the Emperors out of Italie, and so become Heads of that cittie, appointed to be the seat of Antichrist. What the Roman Bishops were from Silvester untill Bo­niface the third, I haue shewed before.Pantal. Bibli­and. Baron. About the yeare of our Lord 333 the Temples of Heathen Idols were com­manded to be shut up by Constantine, yet that Command (as it seemeth) was not executed, the Empire was setled in Constantinople,Salviamiss. and the Romans euen then began lesse to regard it, yet the title of Pontifex Max. was reteyned by Constantine, and Consuls were still made in Rome, with Heathen rites and Ceremonies, and many of the Senators and Nobles continued still in their Pagan Idolatrie. Con­stantine therefore againe commanded the Heathen Tem­ples to be shut up, about the yeare of our Lord 348. But the sacrifices and abhominable Auguries by the entrals of Beasts and such like were forbidden,God. tit. [...] de Pagan. first by Theodosius and then by Gracian and Valentinian about the yeare of our Lord 387. Yet long after this their Idols and Heathenish Auspices and Rites in the creation of the Consuls remay­ned;Salvianus. and likewise their Idolatrous & abhominable playes and shewes, in their Circis, Gymnasiis, and Theatris, as wit­nesseth Salvianus. But in the yeare 533, or thereabouts Consuls began to cease, and were no more made with such abhominable auguries, which bringeth as fully to the end of another Period of 1260, from the fiue and twentienth yeare of Romulus, whereof I spake before, in the second Problem. So that we may see, how by many degrees the Heathenish Idolatrie and Roman Empire were removed. In the same times also the seauenth head of Rome arose,Aug. Steuch. de Donat. Const. and the kingdomes of Christendom, signified by the tenne Hornes began to take their power, namely, in Brittanie, [Page 158] France, Spayne, Greece, Germanie, Pannonia Den­marke, Polonia, Suetia and Norway. All which in time gaue their power to the Pope,2 Thes. 2. and were subject unto him. About those times also was the great Schisme between Sil­verius and Vigilius,Platina. Onuphr. for the Papacie, the one an Heretike, the other a Schismatike, and perjured at least. And short­ly after, about the yeare 580, Pelagius was made Pope by Election of the Cleargie, without any licence from the Emperor, and Iohn Patriarch of Constantinople tooke upon him the title of Vniversall Bishop, whereby was kind­led the great contention for Primacie, which continued untill the time of Boniface, of whom I will speake here­after. Thus, I say, the old Idolatrie was by degrees suppres­sed, and the second Beast began to worke in presence of the first. But here by the way a question may be moved, be­cause we haue entered into a consideration of the times li­mited in the holy Scripture, for the accomplishing of Pro­phecies, whether those times are to be alwayes accoun­ted by an exact Astronomicall Calculation, as some learned men haue laboured to doe, casting up Minutes & Seconds of time, which are scarce sensible or apprehensible, with more curiositie then profit, or whether we may content our selues with a vulgar computation, onely observing signa temporum, the signes of times, the neglect whereof our Saviour in many places objecteth to the Pharisees. For answer whereunto, it must needs be confessed in common sense and experience, as the Philosopher also noteth, that things of great moment cannot be removed in a minute. Ney­ther can I choose but thinke, it was for some cause, that our Saviour, when he forewarned his Disciples of the de­struction of Ierusalem (though it were then neare at hand) yet did not tell then of the certayne day, moneth or yeare, but gaue them a signe of it:Luc. 21. When ye shall see Ierusalem com­passed [Page 159] about with armies, then know, that the destruction there­of is at hand. Luc. 12. So when he reprehendeth the Scribes and Pharisees, he doth not reprehend them, for not making the precise computation of the seauentie weekes of Dani­el, but for not marking signa temporum: so he teacheth his Disciples to judge of summer, by the greennesse of the leaues, and of harvest by the whitenes of the corne,Matth. 24. and of the ende of the world by the signes that shall goe before it. And what to call signum temporis, Luc. 2 [...]. the Apostle teacheth us, when he sayth, that in the last dayes there shall come peri­lous times: For men shall be lovers of themselues, Ioh. 12. &c. So our Saviour, when his Apostles told him, that certayne Grae­cians desired to see him, answered that the time was come that he should be glorified amongst the Gentiles: intimating thereby, that the inclinations, dispositions and works of men, are evident signes of the times. But the ancient ora­cle delivered by God unto Abraham is most of all remark­able:Gen. 15. for (sayth God) thy seede shall be a stranger in a forrain land four hundred yeares, yet Moses coming to reckon those yeares, upon the departure of the children of Israell out of Egipt, setteth four hundred and thirtie yeares,Read Matt. 11. what an­swer and use our Saviour maketh of the Message of Iohn Baptist. And what an heavie voe he pronounceth a­gainst thē that did not marke his works. whereby it seemeth plainly, that in the prophecies of the holy Scrip­ture, either propter rotunditatem numeri, or to check our curiositie, that we should not search after points, and mi­nutes, or for some other reason, the holy Ghost will haue us to conteyn our selues within a sobrietie of knowledge, and to rest our selues upon the observation of the signes, which he hath expressed. And this agreeth with the rule de temporibus given by the Fathers, which is the rather to be observed by us,Aug. de doct. christ. l. 3. & saper. Exo. q. 47. Isidor. Raimarus. for that we see these accounts of Astro­nomie are such, as the best learned men can hardly agree upon, and the Arte it self by a man not unlearned, is com­pared to the tower of Babell, & as some say, to the Temple [Page 160] of S. Peter at Rome, ever in building and never perfected. And what difference there is betwixt Chronologers, especi­ally of later times,Of these dif­ferences Panta­lion oftē com­playneth vid. Pantal. aun. 645. in consi­ [...]iis. whosoever looketh upon the Chronolo­gies of Eusebius, S. Ierome, Beda, Marianus, Martinus, Regino, Hermanus, Bibliander, Scaliger, Baronius, Keplerus, Suslyga, and others may easily perceiue. Who besides many other differences can hardly agree, how many yeares our Saviour lived upon the earth,I haue of late looked up­on Chronolo­gers, and do findetheir dif­ferences verie great and ma­ny, concerning the account of the yeares before the comming of our Saviour Christ, and the true Epocha of his incarnation. Rensuerus in Isagoge, reckoneth up about eight and twentie severall opinions, everie one placing it in a severall yeare of the world; Himself finding it in the yeare 3970, and therein a­greeing with Io. Picus. Bucholcerus, Dresserus, and Pantaleon. Yet others are not so contented, whose differences he that desireth to see, may peruse the writings of Baronius, Scaliger, Deckerus, Sus [...]ga, Ke­plerus, Vieta, Patavias, our Countriman Lidyat, and the last of all Alstadius. Which t [...] o last, be­ing as I thinke yet aliue, I could haue wished, to haue taken some paynes, to haue explayned their opi­nions more at large; especially M. Lidyat, who seemeth, not without reason, to insist upon an aera, diffe­rent from all the rest. And as their differences of the yeares before Christ are great, so in the account of the yeares since his comming, they differ somewhat, which I leaue to the consideration of the learned. in what yeare of the world he was borne, or how many are past since his Nativitie: the Ho­ly Ghost seeming to reproue such precise accounts, with a non est vestrum scire, It is not for you to know them. Act. 1.

And yet they do not so much disagree, but that we may follow any one of them, so long, as we haue an eye to the signes, to which, as to a most certayne sea-marke, our Sa­viour directeth us. Let us then goe forward, and see how the Prophecies doe agree with the signes, and the signes with the times, and both with the actions of men in those times, recorded by credible Histories, as we haue done in the former consideration of the removing of the Impedi­ment, which must preceede his Revelation, as the Apostle affirmeth, and began, as we haue shewed, about the yeare of our Lord 328. Now the next step or degree of time, that we come to, is the yeare 666, which is not much more then double to the former number, and is expressed in the text,Rev. 13. and by the best Interpreters applied to Anti­christ, and figured in the second Beast, of whose Rising we [Page 161] haue shewed how it began, from the removing of the Im­pediment of the Roman Empire, in the dayes of Constan­tine, and increased more and more, untill it grew neare to this notable Epocha of 666, whereof both the precedents and consequents are worthie to be observed. First there­fore in the year 600 that great and vigilant Bishop S. Gre­gorie, observing the immoderate ambition and conten­tion, that was then for Primacie and Supremacie, between his Predecessor in Rome, and the Patriarch of Constanti­nople, out of a propheticall spirit, moved no doubt with grief of hart, to see such things in the Church of Christ, made as it were a publike Proclamation of the comming of Antichrist. Filioli novissima hora est, &c. As if he should say, Litle children, do you looke for the accomplishment of the times of Antichrist, or of those 666 yeares? Be­hould it is the last yeare of the last times, the last day of the last yeare, and the last hour of the last day, The Pro­phecies are fulfilled, the king of Pride is at hand, and an ar­mie of Priests is readie to attend him. What shall we say to this notable Proclamation, made by this great and emi­nent Bishop? Was it true or false? If false, then that great Bishop was a false Prophet: if true, then is Antichrist come into the world long agone, and the Pope must needs be he, for none else hath had Armies of Priests to attend him, neither doth S. Gregorie goe single. For S. Barnard seconds him: Ministri Christi &c. The servants of Christ now serue Antichrist. And in another place: The Beast of the Apocalyps, speaking blasphemies, and warring against the Saints occupieth the chaire of Peter. But to returne to S. Gre­gorie. He writing to Iohn of Constantinople affirmeth, that whosoever calleth himself Vniversall Bishop in his elation is the forerunner of Antichrist. Was this also a true prophe­cie, or did the holy man fayle in his predictions? if true, [Page 162] then was Iohn of Constantinople the forerunner; and Sa­binian, or Boniface of Rome, who next called himself by that title,Rensuer. was Antichrist himself. This first contention for Primacie began about the yeare 588, and continued till the Pope had gotten it to himselfe. But that great Bi­shop did not fayle in these prophecies. For immediately after his death Sabinian was made Pope, a man of obscure birth,Platina. and more obscure in manners, and therefore might well be sayd,Rev. 13. to rise out of the earth: And he tooke upon him this Title of Vniversall Bishop, and had armies of Priests readie to attend him. Et invidia exarsit in Gregori­um homo malevolus, sayth the Author: And the malicious man was so incensed with envie against Gregorie, that he had almost caused his bookes to be burned. See at first how he warreth against the Saints. Boniface the third, and the fourth went forward in the same course, and obtayned of Phocas the Paricide,By Traytors Tyrants, and Murderers & usurper; the Pope is advan­ced viz Pho­cas Arithper­tus &c. the priviledge of Primacie, which none of their predecessors had: and therefore here ought the Catalogue of Popes to beginne, and not as they doe with S. Peter or Silvester. For it appeareth manifestly by Gregorie, that none of the former Bishops of Rome had the title of Vniversall giuen to him. I aske therefore, whe­ther here were not an evident beginning of the Revelation of Antichrist. The Emperour was removed out of Rome, the making of the Consuls was discontinued; the tenne Kings began to receiue their kingdomes. The Pope tooke upon him to rule in Rome, and was Summus or Maximus Pontifex, onely, the Exarches remayned at Ravenna, with little power. I aske then, Who was now revealed to be the seaventh Head, or Governour of the Roman State, but this Vniversalis, and Summus Pontifex? Let us see then how by degrees this Antichrist was dayly more & more revealed.Platina Fasc. Temp. About the yeare 608 the Pope obteyned of Phocas the Pan­theon, [Page 163] or Temple of all Divels, and consecrated the same to the honour of the Virgin Marie, and all Saints. So sayth the Carthusian: Vbi impij colebant Daemones, ibi Christiani colunt omnes Sanctos; sic ars deluditur arte. About the same time the Pope gathered a Synod at Rome, for the confirmation of his primacie. About the yeare 618 Boni­face the fifth succeeded, who ordeyned, that churches should be Sanctuaries for theeues and murderers. About the same time began the great Apostacie and departure of the Greeke Church from the Roman, of the East Church from the west, the Greeke church not yeelding to the Ro­man supremacie, and the Easterne churches receiuing the damnable doctrine of Mahomet: so the prophesies by litle and little began to be fulfilled. The Empire it self was now almost wholly removed, the Kings were risen, that after gaue their power to the Pope. The Apostasie was come, the pope was called Summus Pontifex: one of the seauen dignities, which had long before been of greatest power and authoritie in Rome, and which the Heathen Emperors had used, and so the seauenth Head of the Ro­man state began to appear. Three things yet lacked: One to haue their supremacie fully confirmed and acknowledg­ed by the Emperor (which yet was questioned, as well by the Exarches, as by the Emperors) for in the yeare 647 Pope Martin, one of the best of them that succeeded Gre­gorie, was taken by Theodorus the Exarch,Pantal. anno 650. and sent priso­ner to Constantinople, and from thence banished into Pontus. A second thing was after such confirmation ob­tained to shake of all subjection, and all signes of subjec­tion to the Emperor. And a third, to make this an Empire of Idolatrie, and as it were the Image of the old Idolatrie, used by the Pagans. All three followed shortly after. For about the yeare 663, the Emperor Constans comming to [Page 164] Rome, confirmed their priviledges and prerogatiues, and about the year 684 Benet the Pope obtained of the Emperor, that whosoever should be chosen by the Cleargie,Pla [...]i [...]. Rensu. people, and Armie of Rome to be Pope, he should be Pope, without any further confirmation of the Exarch or Emperor. Marke he nameth the Clear­gie, People, and Armie of Rome: claiming thereby as well the Temporall, as the spirituall state, which before he had not. Then came the yeare 700, which was but 666,Rev. 12, 5, 6 after the ascention of our Lord, which is proper­ly S. Iohns aera,Ioh. 16, 19, 20. and so foretold by Christ, that the sor­rows of the Church should beginne, when the Bridegrome was taken away:Luke 5, 35. Therefore about the same time, as Bellar­mine collecteth,Pantal. anno 700. namely in the yeare 699, Aripertus the usurping Tirant gaue to the Pope the Cottian Alps, where now Genua standeth: and soone after, that is to say, in the yeare 707, the Emperor Iustinian the second falleth downe before Pope Constantine, and kisseth his feete,Platin. Na [...]cl. Bibliand. Rensuer. thereby acknowledging him to be the absolute Head of Rome. And about the yeare 712, the Pope now in fulnesse of power commandeth of his owne au­thoritie, Images to be worshiped, and when the Emperor Philip resisted, the Pope pronounced him excommu­nicate, and likewise, when the Emperor Leo, and Con­stantine after him, in a zeale of godlynes, and detesta­tion of Idolatrie, commanded Images to be defaced, the Pope,On up in Plat. Paul. Diac. Sigiber. Rens. Polidor. Paul. anno 710, & 725. not secretly or under hand, but palam & in os, openly and to their faces resisted them (sayth Onuphrius) and forbadde all Italy to pay them Tributes, discharging the Italians from their oathes and alleagiance: and so in the ende deprived the Grecian Emperours of all the Empire of the west. And soone after, that is to say, about the yeare of our Lord 755. the Pope by colour [Page 165] of the guift of King Pipin, usurped the Exarchate of Ravenna, with a great part of Italie. I aske therefore, what accomplishment of the Prophecie, concerning the Revela­tion of Antichrist may we looke for, or can we expect, if it be not here fully accomplished? Whether was there not here in the open sight of the world, another Head of the Roman cittie and state? Whether was not the Impediment of the Empire now fully and wholly removed? And whether had not the second Beast now giuen life sufficient to the Image of the first Beast, or Idolatrous Monarchie? Neyther was this by Tumult, but with an orderly proceeding. For the Pope gathering an Armie of Priests, as S. Gregorie calleth it, namely a counsell of a thousand Fathers, or rather Step­fathers at Rome, decreed that Images should be worshiped. Blund. Pal [...] ▪ Sigiber. Anton Biblian. Reus. Here therefore both Chronologers and Divines,Hermanus cō ­tract. Paul. Diac. Biblian. Avent. Lyra in 2 Thes. Staputens. Fasc. Temp▪ with great concent, do end the supputation of the Roman Empire. And with great reason, for now they saw the Summus Pontifex was set upon the back of the Ro­man State, Romanorum Imperium (sayth the Author) cir­ca haec tempora, ubique in orbe terrarum caepit deficere irrecu­perabiliter. And a little after: Et sic jam omnes quatuor Monarchiae defecerunt, & non restat alia, nisi Antichristi. The Roman Empire began to faile about this time without recoverie. And so all the four Monarchies are decayed, and none other remaineth, but that of Anti­christ. The Romans sayth Baron about this time tooke a solemne oath, to be obedient in all points,In anno 726▪ and to all purposes to the Pope. And here (sayth he) was an end of those Dukes and Governours, which the Emperors were wonte to seeme to command in Rome, and the places thereabouts. So also sayth Sigonius, that Rome,vide Sigon. li.4. de regno I­taliae. and the Dukedomes of Rome, the Exarchate of Raven­na, the Duchies of Perusia, Tuscia and Campania were [Page 166] giuen to the Pope: and Mornay out of Zonaras and Cedrenus setteth downe particularly,Pless. in myst. progress. 27. what Townes and Territories fell to the Pope, upon this revolt. Also Onuphrius telleth us in plaine termes, that Pope Gre­gorie succeeding Constantine,Vide Pantal. anno 760. tooke away from the Grecian Emperor all the Empire of Italie, which was not possessed by the Lumbards. About the same time also there was another Councell gathered at Rome, wherein was decreed, that whosoever would not doe religi­ous honour unto Images should be cut off from the body and bloud of Christ, and from the unitie of the whole Church. So the power of the Pontifex Max. and Idolatrie grew up together. And although many Synods were held, some in the East, as at Nice, and Constantinople; others in the west, as at Frankford, wherein these Idolatries were condemned: though both the Emperors, aswell Char­lemain of France, as Constantine of Greece, opposed themselues against these Idolatries, having also the Au­thoritie of the Elibertin counsell, Picturas ad Ecclesiis ar­cendas, ne quod colitur aut adoratur in parietibus pingatur. Yet the Popes prevailed. Curavimus Babylonem, & non est sanata, Ier. 51. sayth the Prophet. The zeale of Charlemaine to haue this Idolatrie suppressed was excellent, and ex­emplar, for he not onely caused a Synod to be held within his owne Empire for that purpose, but sent the booke of the Synode of Nice, which is called the se­cond, wherein the worship of Images was decreed, in­to Great Brittanie, in which Booke, Proh dolor (sayth our Historian) out alas, manie things were found inconve­nient,Honed. anno 792. and contrarie to the true fayth, especially, that with one consent of the Orientall Bishops, three hun­dred or more, it was inacted, that Images should be worshipped. Quod omnino Ecclesia Dei execratur. Which [Page 167] the Church of God doth hold altogether execrable. And the learned Albinus wrote an Epistle against it marvelously fortified with authoritie of the scripture,Almaricus Gall theolog. imagines, alta­ria & invoca­tiones sanctorī [...] Idololatrians censce. which he presented to the Emperour. So fully were the Godly of those times perswaded, that the adoration of Images, then newly thrust upon them by the Pope, was meere, and inexcusable Idolatrie. And yet, when the same Emperour Charles came to Rome, to reforme the abuses of the Pope, and began to inquire of them,Bern. Lutz. Pantal. anno 1205. Responsum est ab omnibus, &c. it was answered by all,Platin Blond. dec. 2. Pant. that the Apostolike Sea, being the Head of all Churches, ought to be iudged of none, especially not by a Lay man. I aske then up­on all these premises, If Antichrist were not now suffi­ciently revealed, when will he, or how can he be revea­led? Rome the great cittie, that ruled over the kings of the Earth, the cittie of seauen Hills, and that had receaved seauen kings of Soveraigne command; Rome that glorious mountaine of holynes, yet full of Sodo­miticall filthines, and Egyptian Idolatrie. Rome and the Roman Empire so many times, and so significantly de­scribed by the holy Apostles and Prophets, had now set up her Seauenth Head, the Summus Pontifex, the pro­pheticall number 666 was fulfilled, as well in his time, as in his name, the Impediment of the Empire was remo­ved. This Summus Pontifex was become the absolute Ruler and king of that State, acknowledging no supe­riour, Controull, or Countermand. And hath done such, and such things according also to the prophecies of Antichrist, as no Iew, Turke, or divell can do in so short a time, as they would make us beleeue is allotted for Antichrist: If by these things he be not sufficiently revealed, when will he come, or when shall we expect him: or shall we imitate the Iewes, in looking as long [Page 168] for Antichrist, as they doe for Christ? To this may be added an Argument à sufficienti divisione, which I propose in this manner. First upon the words of Tertullian, that Antichrist must be a rebell to Christ, and S. Aug. that is Refuga Christi. Now if a Rebell, then eyther one profes­sing Christ, or not professing. If you say not professing, S. Augustin is against you, which sayth, that he doth pro­fesse Christ in words. Also S. Chrysostom. Exercitus Chri­sti sunt omnes Haereses, praecipue ista, quae obtinuit Ecclesiae lo­cum: If a professor of Christ, then either revealed or not revealed; if you say not revealed; then how can you an­swer the Apostle, who sayth, that he shall be revealed when the Impediment is removed. And the Fathers, who with great consent affirme, that by the Impediment there is meant the Roman Empire. And the great Consent of Di­vines and Chronologers upon the same place, affirming that the Roman Empire is long since removed. If revea­led, then eyther it is the Bishop of Rome, whom manie godly men haue published and proclaymed to be Anti­christ, or else you must shew some other, who is not to come, but alreadie declared to be Antichrist. And if you can shew none, then must the Pope necessarily be that An­tichrist.Rev. 17. Againe, either it must be he to whom the kings of the earth haue giuen their power, or some other. If you say some other, then how do you answer the text. If he: then to whom haue the Kings of the Earth giuen their power but to the Pope? Againe upon 2 Thes. 2. and the exposition of S. Ambrose, and other Fathers upon that place. Antichrist shall sit in the house of the Lord, in the seat of Christ; If he shall so sit, it must be either as a king, or as a Bishop, or as both, or as neither. If not as a King, then how upon manie peoples and Nations? If not as a Bishop, then how in the Temple of the Lord? as the [Page 169] Apostle sayth, in the House of the Lord? as S. Ambrose, in the Houses and walles of the Church? as S. Hilarie, in Ecclesia as Theodoret? in the Holy places of the church as S. Chrysostom? in the chaire of S. Peter, as S. Barnard sayth. If as both, then who hath done so but the Pope? Neither neede we much to stick at the swelling words of the same S. Barnard in another place, Tu es Sacerdos magnus, & Pontifex Summus, tu princeps Epis­copurum, tu Haeres Apostolorum. Tu primatu Abel, Cuber­natu Noe, Patriarchatu Abraham, Ordine Melchisedec, Dignitate Aaron, Authoritate Moses, Iudicatu Samuel, Potestate Petrus, Vnctione Christus. This sentence of S. Bernard, though it seemeth he was somewhat caried a­way with the overflowing streame of his Eloquence, yet it appeareth his purpose was to drawe the Pope to a more serious consideration of his dutie. But the Popes and their followers, which ought to haue tem­pered it with humilitie, haue made it but a step and ad­vantage to their Elation,Anton. sum. p, 3. c. 22. as appeareth in their Decretals and Canonists, where they arrogate and assume to them selues Plenitudinem potestatis & scientiae, See M. Down ham of Antic. lib. 1. c. 5. and that they haue one and the same Tribunall with God and Christ Iesus, and that Christ and the Pope are but one and the same head of the church. Which titles none but the king of pride durst to take upon him.

Let us yet goe forward, and see how he is further re­vealed in the time of his Raigne, and how the prophe­cies of that time also were fulfilled, we haue before considered the description of his raigning, and how he sitteth on the seauen headed Beast. Now of the time: which falleth out to be likewise 666 yeares, or therea­bouts. For that is the number of the Beast,Rev. 13. sayth our Euangelist. And if we adde this to the former number, [Page 170] we come againe to another strange and wonderfull con­currence of prophecies & events, times and actions, name­ly the yeare 1366, and 1400, whereof we will speak here­after, when we haue taken a view of the actions that fell out in the meane time, namely, in the end of the said first 666 yeares, and beginning of the second, and somewhat considered what manner of men raigned over the Roman state, during the second terme of 666 yeares. First there­fore, as the Apostle prophesied, that there should be an Apo­stasie, so there fell out (about those times especially) divers great and lamentable Apostasies, such as the like were ne­ver seene, neither can the like be expected in any time to come: namely, first about the year 760 the great and wo­full rent and departure of the East Church from the West, by reason of that wicked contention betweene the Patri­arches for primacie, and that abhominable doctrine of Ido­latrie, which an Historian verie Christianly calleth execra­ble. Secondly, the wofull rent, and departure of the west Empire from the East, by the Popes setting up of the French kings Pipin and Charles. Thirdly the rent and di­vision of the greatest part of the East Empire from their lawfull Prince, by the sodaine and great victories of the wicked Saracens in Asia, sent of purpose to plague Chri­stians (I thinke) for their Idolatrie, as they do object it unto us unto this day. And fourthly the lamentable spoyle and falling away by that meanes, not onely of those seauen excellent churches, whom S. Iohn by his Epistles so strong­ly fortified and forewarned: but of all the rest of the flou­rishing Churches of Asia, which yeelded either by feare or force, to the overflowing Impieties of Mahomet, ô lamen­table times! O times never without grief, and shame, and teares of Christians to be remembred! Within a few years, and as it were with a sodaine floud and inundation of im­pietie, [Page 171] blasphemie, and filthines, the great and mightie kingdomes of Arabia, Syria, Palestina, Phoenicia, Anato­lia, Persia and Media, and many other Countries, the fa­mous churches of Ierusalem, Antioch, Ephesus, Nice, Ga­latia, and all the rest of the lesser Asia, which the Apostles had so diligently planted with their doctrines, which the Martyrs so plentifully watered with their bloud, & crow­ned with their Confessions, yeelded to the horrible blas­phemies and Idolatries of Mahomet, with infinite effusion of Christian bloud, and murder of Soules. What Aposta­sies were ever like to these? or how can we looke for the like in any time to come? Say that we should imagine an Antichrist yet to come, can we haue the prophecie of the Apostle S. Paul concerning an Apostasie precedent so ful­filled? Hath all the Christian world now sufficient roome or place, wherein the like Apostasies may fall out? What do these Summi Pontifices, these Vniversall Bishops, which would needs be the Head of the Catholike Church in the meane time. Let us take a short view of their actions also in generall and particular, and see whether it be possible for any Antichrist hereafter to do the like. The first great action that we meete with of theirs, is the puting downe of three kingdomes to advance themselues; according to the prophesie of Daniell, concerning the Litle Horne, be­fore whom three of the other Hornes fell. For first they draue the Grecian Emperors out of Italie, upon the quarrell con­cerning Images, by the helpe of the Lombards. Secondly, having subdued the Lombards by the helpe of the French, they draue out the French by their owne dissentions, and the help of the Germans: and lastly, they expelled the Germans also by raysing factions amongst them selues: the Histories whereof, because they are too long for this place, & are well collected by the learned Mornay, I think [Page 172] needlesse here to prosecute. Is it possible for any Antichrist to come to doe the like? Are there any such three kingdomes in the Christian world, everie one of them having command of Rome and Italie, to be put downe hereafter, to make roome for another Antichrist?

And it is to be observed, that this first Action contain­eth in it self, manifest Treason and rebellion against their lawfull Princes the Emperors, whom Gregorie and all the Bishops of Rome before him had acknowledged to be their gratious Lords.Colimus Imp. ut hominem a Deo secundū soloque Deo eminorem. Ter­ul. ad Scap. Whom they were bound to obay, as those to whom God had giuen power over all men. The second great action, was their ambitious and Lucife­rian exaltation aboue all Bishops, Patriarchs, Princes, and Emperors, in taking the title of Vniversall Bishop, and usur­ping power over them by excommunications, deprivati­ons, interdictions, and other sentences: incouraging sometimes their Enimies, and sometimes their subjects against them: as they moved the Lombards against the Emperors, the French against the Lombards, and cherish­ed factions and divisions amongst the French, and thereby still increased their owne power and dominion. And in this they advance themselues against God, and our Lord Iesus Christ, to whom onely the Supreame and Royall Priesthood after the order of Melchisedek is confirmed by the oath of God himself: and that individually, as we noted be­fore: and who hath placed Kings and Emperors in their supream places. A third action is the lawlesse pardoning and dispensing with horrible and crying sinnes, still to ad­vance their owne authoritie. As namely, their dispencing with the horrible Parricides, Treasons and Rebellions of Phocas, who murdered not onely the Emperor Maurice, but all his male children; namely Theodosius then crow­ned,Plessis. Tiberius, Paulus, and Iustinian, Peeter his brother, [Page 173] Constantine a principall Senator, and divers others. And this is that Phocas notwithstanding, whose actions they all to this day justifie, and Baronius will haue us to beleeue that he was a good Catholike. Although he can shew no testimonie of his repentance, but that he sent his owne picture and his wiues to Rome, which were presently sett up in the pallace. And in this point also the Popes advan­ced themselues aboue God himself, who never pardoneth sinnes without repentance. But this Phocas, three years after the murders of Maurice and his sonnes,Plessis. hearing that the Empresse Constantia and her daughters were kept se­cretly hidden in a Church, sent certayne Souldjers to make them away. But Cyriacus the Patriarch of Constanti­nople withstood them: and would not deliver them, till he had taken an oath of the Tyrant, that he would do them no violence. Whereupon this good Roman Ca­tholike conceived a deep and inplacable hatred against the Patriarch, and for the present put them in a Monasterie, but about a yeare after caused them all to be murthered: and so Phocas four or fiue yeares together continueth still a murtherer, adding to his paricide perjurie, and to his perjurie parricide, with extreame hatred against the good patriarch Cyriacus, that would not approue of such hideous actions. But the Roman Pontifex made good use hereof. For thereupon, and by slattering this Catholike Phocas, he obteyned of him the title of Soveraigne, Catho­like, or Vniversall Bishop, which from that time to this they all maintaine. A fourth noble action was their vio­lent and open usurpations, of the Territories and Lands belonging to the Emperours, their lawfull Souverains: which they gotte partly by the Lombards, partly by the French: another act of perfidious Treason and rebellion. A fifth action was their favouring, exciting and counte­nancing [Page 174] of Subjects to rebell against their lawfull princes, and to depose them, as they did the French against the Emperors of Greece: Pipin against Childerick of France, and Advaldus the Lombard against the king his Brother in law, all to serue their owne turnes. And this also the popes to this day do allow and maintaine, still reaping the fruits, and enjoying the Territories and lands, which they got by these practises. A sixth action is their horrible Ido­latrie, in the erecting and worshiping of Images, which howsoever they labour to blanch, excuse, or defend with subtill or Sophistike distinctions, which cannot be pro­ved by the Scripture (as they ought to be, for Vbi Scrip­tura non distinguit, neque nos distinguere debemus, quia sen­sus nostri & enarrationes sine Scripturis testibus non habent si­dem:) yet both at the first beginning and ever since it was still judged to be open and manifest Idolatrie, and that not onely by godly Christians,vide Agrip. de van. sci [...].57 Morton in A­pol. cath. li. 1. cap. 46. lo Pic. Mir. in Apol. as at the first by the Churches of Graecia and Asia in the East, and of France and Britaine in the West, and by many godly men in particular, but also by Turkes and Iewes, which do utterly condemne it, as it is used by the Papists, for meer Idolatrie, and unex­cusable:See the place Esai 41, 21, 22, 23, 24. & such like, and consider how it can be answered by their idle di­stinctions of Image & I­dolum. lat [...]ia & donlia, &c to which we may adde the Canonising of Saints, and making them to be publikely invocated in their so­lemne Leiturgies, therein taking upon them another in­dividuall propertie of God, who onely maketh Saints, and so committing manifold blasphemie, joyned with Idola­trie of invocation. And a seauenth or last notable action is the publike declaration and proclamation to the world, that they hold themselues absolutely lawlesse, and that if the Pope neglect his owne Salvation and others, and thereby draw millions of soules into hell with him, yet no man may judge of him, no man may reprehend him. These were the first, and the generall actions of this seauenth Head of the [Page 175] Septimontan cittie. And all of them are justified and mainteyned by the Popes, and by all of them with one consent, from their first perpetration and beginning, unto this day. All of them take the benefit, all of them do allow and approue of these things, magnifying these ther Predecessors, justifying their succession from them, and mainteyning their Decrees and Actions: holding this for a Principle inviolable, that they will not confesse themselues to erre in any thing, as Thuanus hath observed.Thua [...] Whereupon I demand, Whether they do not all of them thereby declare themselues to be that Sonne of Perdition, that exalteth himself against, and aboue all that is called God, or that is worshiped? And I demand, whether such things haue been done in any other kingdome or nation under heauen, and whether we may expect such things to be done by any Turke, Iewe, Pagan, or any other person whatsoever, in Rome the place determined, in any time to come? Now let us see and consider of the particular actors of this Antichristian person during the time of his Raigne, which from the former Period, must continue for 666 yeares more, or thereabout, and in everie one of them, I desire thee (Good Christian) to consider, which of them all is not Homo peccati sedens in Templo Dei. that man of sinne that fitteth in the Temple of God, and is worshiped, and exalteth himself aboue all that is called God, or is wor­shipped; &c. And also what may be thought of the whole succession taken together.

Anno Domini 707 Constantine the Pope would haue his foote to be kissed, like another Dioclesian, thereby making evident demonstration,King of pride. if not in words yet in deede, that he claymed to be his successor.Onuphr. And it defence of Images he openly resisted Philippicus the Emperor of Greece. But Iustin, and Anastasius ty­rants [Page 176] and Murderers submitted themselues unto him, and approved his Decrees.Idolatrie and rebellion. This adoration, rebellion, and Idolatrie the Popes haue continued ever since.

Anno 720 or thereabouts, Gregorie the second and third continued the same Idolatrie and rebellion, and caused all Italie to withdraw their obedience from the Emperor Leo. and to deny their Tributes, because he had commanded Images to be broken and burned, and for the same cause also excommunicated him, & tooke to themselues the Cottian Alpes,Cursing Prin­ces. by colour of guift from the Lombards.

Anno 749 Zacharie incourageth and assisteth Pipin to depose his master Childerick king of France, and to take upon him the kingdome of France, which was af­terwards confirmed by the Popes that followed, for which the sayd Pipin gaue to the popes the Exarchat of Ravenna, which belonged to the Grecian Emperor.

Anno 756 Stephen who cofirmed the kingdome of France to Pipin, this man would be caried upon mens shoulders, which his successors haue continued ever since.

Anno 757 a notable Schisme, wherein Constantine the second gott the papacie by mony and armes. This Schisme is reckoned the ninth.

Anno 772 Adrian the first, a valiant defender of Ima­ges and ldolatrie.Changing. He beganne to grant priviledges and dispensations.

In his time there was held a counsel at Rome, where­in the pope with the consent of the Counsell,First horn put downe. clearly to cashier the Greek Emperors & thrust them out of all, made Charlemain prince of the Senate,Dist 63 can. Adrian. papa Romā &c. this was Adrian the first. giving unto him the power of investing the pope. And as Mornay collecteth out of Sigonius and others, the pope ac­knowledged [Page 177] to hold of him Ravenna and other pieces by fealtie and alleageance, adoring him after the man­ner that was used to the ancient princes. Yet no sooner was Charlemayn dead, but they wrought upon the good nature of Lewis his sonne: and about

Anno 816 Stephen procured himself to be chosen and consecrated without consent of the French Empe­ror,Second Horne put downe. and so Paschatis and others after him. Whereupon followed Schismes, Seditions, and Murthers, in the times of Eugenius, Gregorie, Sergius and Leo.

Anno 854 pope Ioane.The kingdome of the whoore. Sexum mentita veritatem faemi­na, — To whom also it is sayd that the Divell answer­ed in verse, ‘Papa, pater patrum, papissae pandito partum.’

A storie omitted by some for the filthines of the fact, sayth Rainulphus: but averred by so many and so lear­ned authors, that it will never be blotted out.Polychron. whereof I haue spoken before.

Anno 856 Benet the third, Schisma 12.

Anno 860,vid. dist 19. Si Romanor. Blasphemie. pope Nicholas who admitteth that the Old and New Testament were to be received by vertue of the papall decrees. And if any man will say, that this was but by way of argument, let him consider of some other of his Decrees. As that, that none presume to re­prehend his judgment, nor to judge of it.9. q. 3. patet. That the pope may not be bound or loosed by any secular power,Dist. 96, sa­tis evident. He boasteth that he is God be­cause he is called God, and God cannot be bound, or loosed by any man.Dist. 19. That all the popish Decretals be observed, &c. All these Decrees haue his Successours mainteyned, and do mainteyn them to this day.

Anno 868, Adrian the second. This man caused a Counsell to be gathered, wherein it was decreed,Dist. 63, A­drian 2. that no Lay Prince or Potentate should intermeddle with [Page 178] the election of any Patriarch,So here the French Em­perors were quite cashierd. Rensu. & alij. Metropolitan, &c. are these pettie-matters, or are these proofs insufficient?

Anno 872, Ioannes, who crowned three severall Emperors, all liuing at one time, thereby giving occa­sion to most grievous civill warres, to the infinite effu­sion of Christian bloud.Exalting him­selfe aboue God, And this man granted pardons to them that were dead.

After him Martinus, Adrianus, Stephanus followed in the same steppes.

Anno 891, Formosus made Pope by a great schisme.

Anno 896 Boniface by tumult and faction. About this time Sanctimonia & Pietas omnis Pontifices dereliquit. Platina,Respōde Sua­res. Pantal. &c.

Anno 897 Stephen by Schisme. He caused the car­casse of his Predecessor Formosus to be taken out of his graue, comdemned of Symonie, and cast into the river of Tibris. And so they continued in Schismes and tu­mults between the Factions of Formosus and Sergius from the yeare 891 untill 907.

Anno 906 Sergius a notable Schismatike. Famous for abhominable filthines with the Noble Strumpet Maro­zia,Kingdome of the Whoore. by whom he had issue, Iohn, who afterward obtey­ned the papacie. And about this time the impudent, and filthie whoore Theodora, and her sonne Albericus, with her two daughters Marozia and Theodora in fil­thines like their Mother, governed all things in the Church of Rome. Whereupon Baronius beginning the storie of these times, confesseth it was an Iron age, bar­ren of all goodnes: and a Leaden age, abounding with all wickednes. For this Theodora gotte the kingdome of Rome,See Plessis ex Leithpr. & Pantal. sayth the Historie, by whoredome with Pope Sergius, and continued it to her posteritie, by advan­cing her Paramours, and her daughters Paramours or [Page 179] Bastards to the papacie, and prostituting her daughters to the Popes succeeding one another. Proh dolor! Sic Baronius, Quid ad haee Suares. e [...]quid pudet. proh dolor! (sayth Baron) Here thou mayst see the abhomi­nation of desolation in the church. So proclaimeth our great papall Annalist. How then hath it been removed therehence since that time? Yet behold greater abho­minations.

Anno 932, Iohn, called of some the eleuenth,In reckoning of these Iohns there is great difference a­mong Chron [...]l. of others the twelfth, the Paramour of Theodora, as some say.

Anno 938, Stephen the eighth made Pope by the power of Marozia, and Hugo king of Artes her hus­band.

Anno 956 Octavian, otherwise Iohn sonne of Maro­zia by Sergius, was made pope by Aberik, the sonne of Theodora. This Iohn was made pope,Monstrum hō minis. Platin. being but a childe, and after grew to be most beastly in Adulterie, making the pallace of Lateran Prostibulum, Au. Incest. Plessis ex Pan­tal. & la [...]th. a Stye or Brothell house (sayth the author.) He used adulterie with Raineria, Stephana, and many others, and com­mitted rapes with such violence and outrage, euen in the most holy places, that women durst not come to the Church, for feare of him. This is he that caroused in wine an health to the Divell: and playing at dice, used to call Iupiter, Venus, and all the Divels to help him, and at length was slayn by the divell, being taken in adulterie, as some write. And so the Rule of these Harlots and their children, in the open sight of all the world, continued in Rome almost an hundred yeares. What pope? what Cardinals? what succession from Peter was here? and where shall we find the Whoore, where shall we find Antichrist, if this were not he?

Is there any Historie or record whatsoever, of any [Page 180] prince or Monark, Salvage, or Barbarous, Iew, Turke, or Pagan, of ancient or later time, that can shew measure of such abhominable and horrible practises: and yet see more.

Anno 964, Leo the eigth was made pope, in whose time a Synod was held,Plessis ex Al­bert. Crants. wherein Pope Leo with all the Cleargie and people of Rome, to avoid the French (as they had before the Grecians) granted, and confirmed to Otho, the first King of the Germans, and his successors, authoritie to elect, and ordaine the Bishop of Rome, pro­nouncing Anathema, and banishment, or death to them that should doe the contrarie: and confirming by oath to him and his successors, all that which they held by dona­tion, or otherwise, from Iustinian, Charles, Pipin, or Arithpertus, declaring that whosoever should hinder the effect thereof, should by the Law Iulia, incurre the pu­nishment of high Treason. So now they were become subjects to the Germane Emperors. How long did they hold it? Otho was no sooner dead, but that in the yeare 974, Boniface the seauenth, contrarie to the Law, and to their oathes, was made Pope by sedition and murther, having strangled his predecessor, Benet the eigth; and put out the eyes of Iohn, that was chosen against him. And so the Popes and Clergie of Rome; who first rebelled against their Leige Lords the Graecian Emperors, and after against the French,Third Home put downe. Go up against the land of re­bels. Ier. 50.1 became now perjured, Traitors, and Rebbels against the Germans; usurping their Rights, and invading their territories.

Anno 995, Gregorie and Iohn Schismatikes. And thus haue I runne over about three hundred years of the raigne of Antichrist, from the time that the Pope was become universall Bishop, had set up his kingdome of Idolatrie, and dispossessed the Emperors of all Italie. And if these seeme [Page 181] not evill inough, Behold yet greater abhominations.

Anno 998, Silvester the second got the Popedome by the helpe of the Divell, to whom he did homage,Kingdome of the Divell. Fasc. Temp. Volat. Plessis ex Pantal. Quid ais Sua­res. which was so well knowne, that divers of his Successors made those diuelish Artes their profession. Was this the Chaire of S. Peter? are these his Successors? If these be not, who are their Successors?

Benet the eight, and Iohn the one and twentieth,And of these Necromantick popes there were 22. saith Napier, one of Zegedin. And this be­ing now the seat of the beast & the di­vel, how hath it been reco­vered from them since? Responde. both Magicians.

Benet the ninth, otherwise called Theophilact, the scholler of Silvester. This Benet sacrificed to Divels in woods and mountains, and by Magick practised to gette himselfe the loue of women, (sayth Cardinall Benno.)

Silvester the third, and Gregorie the sixth, also Magi­cians. And at this time, being about 1046 the Sea of Rome began to shew it self like the Divell, having three heads like Cerberus: namely, Silvester the third, Benet the ninth, and Gregorie the sixth.

Anno 1048 Damasus gott the popedome by poysoning his predecessor, and intrusion: shortly after whom fol­lowed two Schismes more:Yet the king­dome of the divell. and so we come to the renou­med Gregorie the seauenth, otherwise called Hildebrand, famous for Negromancie, Blasphemie, Sacrilege,He also threw the holy sacrament into the fire. sic Benno. Responde Suarez. Perju­rie, Simonie, Treason and murther: the Trumpet of Se­dition, and firebrand of Civill warres, who ruled all things at his pleasure, in the times of divers of his predecessors, untill he had gotten the papacie to himself, which is sayd to be in anno 1073.

Anno 1080 followed another notable schisme for one and twentie yeares together.O abomina [...]i­onem de ola­tonis. Plessis. ex Lamperto Herveld. Responde Sua▪

Anno 1103, Anselmus Archbishop of Canterburie in a Synod, publikely declared, that by forbidding Priests to marrie Sodomie became frequent amongst them.

[Page 182]Anno 1118 followed another Schisme, in number ac­counted to be the two and twentieth Schisme of that Sea, and that was no sooner ended,

But anno 1124 another Schisme being the three and twentieth, and anno 1130 the four & twentieth schisme, and so for many yeares one schisme followed another, which continued till the year 1138, [...] of cursing Psal. 10. vid. H [...]eron in io­cum. the Popes still curs­sing and excommunicating one the other, whereby arose manie factions and seditions in Rome, in the time of In­nocent the second, which continued still to 1188.

Anno 1154 Hadrian the fourth thundered out excom­mmunications against the Romans, untill they had driuen their Consuls out of the cittie, and likewise against the Emperor Frederick, for holding his left stirrop, and put­ting his owne name before the Popes, and thereupon sow­ed the seeds of Rebellion in the Empire.

Anno 1177 Pope Alexander most insolently treadeth upon the necke of the Emperor,Plat [...]n. Biblian Pless. ex Pant. &c. when he had submitted himself to him, his Cleargie singing in the meane time, Super aspidem & Basiliscum, &c.

Anno 1181 Lucius the third, of whom that moderate Elogium, which I will recite for a breathing & recreation to the Reader.

Lucius est piscis, rex at (que) tyrannus aquarum,
A quo discordat Lucius iste parum.
Devorat hic homines, hic piscibus insidiatur.
Esurit hic semper hic aliquandò satur,
Amborum vitam si lanx aequata notaret,
Plus rationis habet, qui ratione caret.
Which may be thus Englished:
Lusy the fish a tyrant is, or king of fish by title,
From him Pope Lucy differeth in nature but a litle.
The fish hunts fish, men to devour the man doth exercise:
[Page 183]The fish is sometimes satisfied, the man will nought suffice.
If both their liues were laid in scale, & weighed with equall hand,
More reason would be found in him that none doth under­stand.

Anno 1188 Clement the third filled all things with robberies and murthers, while he sought to get the king­dome of Sicily by armes, as escheted unto him.

Anno 1198 Innocent the third excommunicated King Iohn of England,Full of cursing psal. 10, 7. another spe [...] ­all mark of Antich. and filled England with Rebellions and murders, till he had forced the poore King to yeeld up his crowne, and yet so he could not be in quiet. The same pope also excommunicated the Emperor Phillip, and pub­lished the fiue first bookes of the Decretals.

Anno 1215 Transubstantiation was decreed and con­firmed in the councell of Lateran, consisting of 1300 Prae­lates: whereupon insued the Idolatrous worship of the Sa­crament.

Anno 1223 Gregorie the ninth excommunicated the Emperor Frederick,He loved cur­sing psal. 109 and sent him to warre against the Sa­racens, and in the meane time tooke Apulia from him, ab­solved the Emperor for a great somme of mony, and then excommunicated him twise againe. He canonized Fran­cis and Dominick, whom their followers compare with our Saviour Christ, and are by the Pope allowed.

Anno 1243 Innocent the fourth excommunicated the Emperor Frederick the second againe, and corrupted some of his houshold servants to poyson him. The Popes suc­ceeding for many yeares continued in most disloyall and wicked practises against the Emperors, of whom I will not speake particulerly, because me thinks I stay too long from the most excellent and renowned pope Boniface the eight, anno 1290, or 1300.

[Page 184]Who commeth in with a pageant of Antichristian pride, fulfilling all the prophecies concerning the Re­velation and Raigne of Antichrist, the place Rome, and the state of Rome, the thousand two hundred and three score dayes in the Apocalyps being fulfilled, and the 1290 dayes of Daniell also being expired,Dan. 12. the time▪drawing neare to the 1335 dayes of the same Prophet, which conteyneth fully twise 666. Another great concur­rence of prophecies. The actions suteable, first he re­neweth the Iewish Ceremonie of a Iubile, by consequent denying,Responde Sua­rez. that Christ Iesus coming in the flesh had end­ed all Iewish Ceremonies, and brought in an eternall Sabboth and Iubile. By the same he maketh a change of times, and by his Indulgences he dispenceth with lawes. He sheweth himself one day in Pontificalibus, as Pontifex Max. the next day in Imperialibus, with a naked sword before him as an Emperor, and absolute head of the Ro­man Empire, arrogating to himself (in his Decretals, and namely in the Sent, which he published) fulnes of knowledge and power, and so boasting that he is God. Clai­ming supreame power and dominion over all princes, Kings and Emperors, and so advancing himselfe against, and aboue all that is called God. Pronouncing full remissi­on of all sinnes, not poenitentibus, as our Lord Iesus Christ did, but visitantibus Apostolorum limina. These things doth this man, a Murderer of his Predecessors, (if we beleeue Collenucius) a nourisher of intestine warres a­mongst Christians (as he did in Greece) a rebell to his Soveraigne the Emperor, forbiding all Cleargie men to pay Tribute to Kings & Princes, as he doth in the Sent. a stirrer up of Treason and Rebellions, by excommu­nicating princes, and absolving their subjects from their alleagiance, as he did the French: An Heretick in deny­ing [Page 185] the soule to be immortall, an Incest with two of his owne Neeces, and a confederate with the publike and pro­fessed enimies of our Saviour Christ, the Saracenes, whom he intertained in pay against the Christians in Sicilia. Can there be any more in a lawlesse man, in the man of sinne, in Antichrist? Yet this mans Acts and Decrees all his suc­cessors haue, and yet do maintaine defend, and imitate, as occasions are offered, so making themselus one with him.

Then followed Clement the fifth, not onely in publish­ing the Clementine decretals, as his predecessor did the Sext: but in excommunicating of Princes and Free states,Cursing nati­ons. Balaam. namely the Venetians, Florentines, and Luccanes; and af­ter him Iohn the 21, 22, or 23, (for they cannot agree up­on the reckoning) an open Heretick, denying that the soules of good men should see God before the last day. He published Septimum Clementinarum, he also excommuni­cated the Emperor, and stired up rebellions against him. Tell me good Christian, and giue me Instance, but in one of these, which of them was not the man of sinne, sitting in the Temple of God, advancing himself aboue all that is called God? Which of them was not Rex superbiae? And if in this Catalogue I haue omitted any, it is but some few, which continued but for short times, and so could not do much; but that they did was like their predecessors. Now short­ly after the time of the said Iohn, last spoken of, followed that noble schisme, which lasted fortie or fiftie yeares to­gether, one pope sitting at Avinion in France, the other at Rome in Italie, continually cursing and excommuni­cating one the other: and in this time, sayth the Carthu­sian, I know not who was Pope. Where then was the Succession? Where was the infallible chaire? How can we now know who is pope, seeing they knew it not themselues? And by this notable schisme we are brought [Page 186] to the fulfilling of many prophecies, & propheticall num­bers, accompanied with so many, and such great actions, as the like are no where againe to be found, but in this Antichristian succession. But if any will object, that these things were not done by all of them, I answer still with Salvianus: Ne (que) homicidae semper occidunt. And againe, Etsi hoc commune omnibus non faciebat actus, commune tamen omnibus faciebat assensus. For which of them reformed or reproved any of these things? Which of them shewed any disallowance or dislike of them? Which of them hath re­fused the adoration giuen to Constantine? Which of them hath restored the Townes and Provinces Traite­rously and rebelliously gotten from the Emperors, their Liege Lords, to whom they had sworne fealtie? Which of them abrogated the decree de Majoritate? the Idolatrous worship of Images? or other decrees or decretals made by Innocent, Boniface, Clement, or Iohn? Which of them I say, hath put downe the great Baudie house of Sixtus, or reproved the Incests, Rebellions, Negromancie, Sodomie, unjust excommunications, or other sinnes of their prede­cessors? And I demand, Whether any man, Iew, Turke, Infi­dell or divell can be imagined, or any time hereafter can be ex­pected, wherein such a consent, and concurrence of Prophecies and events, with the judgments of godly learned men can be imagined to come? For if we take Daniels aera, that is, the ceasing of the dayly Sacrifice, by the destruction of Ierusalem and the Temple, which was in the yeare of our Lord 70, and adde unto 70 that number 1290, limited by the same Prophet,Dan. 12. it cometh to the yeare of our Lord 1360, about which time the excellent Iohn Wicklieue in England, and shortly after Iohannes de Rupescissa in France, whose la­bours upon the Apocalyps are said to be extant, prophe­cied, or rather, declared many prophecies out of the Apo­calyps, [Page 187] concerning Antichrist, amongst which that is nota­ble, which the Carthusian recordeth, that there should arise two Antichrists, &c. And in the verie next leafe the same Author sheweth, that within few yeares after there did a­rise two popes, one at Rome, the other at Auinion, each of them called Pont. Maximus, and exercising all manner of Antichri­stian impieties, having mouthes full of cursing, as the Prophet speaketh, and so making that greevous schisme, like to the which was never heard of in any Christian Church, whatsoever. And this schisme began about the yeare of our Lord 1378, and continued fiftie yeares, as some do account, namely to the yeare of our Lord 1428, or thereabouts. Within the com­passe of which fiftie yeares, the number of many other prophecies were accomplished, & accordingly many other things verie obserueable, were done in the Church of Christ; whereof some shall be remembred. For besides that number of 1290 the number of 1335, to which the Prophet Daniell giues a blessing is also fulfilled. For ac­count that from the desolation of the Temple, and ceas­sing of the dayly sacrifice, which happened about the said yeare of our Lord 70. Add (I say) to that 70 the number 1335, and it commeth fully to the yeare of our Lord 1405. Againe, if we take the Apocalyptik number 666 double it makes 1332, adde that to 70, & it maketh 1402, or take the Apocalyptick number of 1260, and adde that to S. Iohns aera, which is the ascention of our Lord, and was in the yeare of our Lord 34, or 35, and it maketh 1394, or 1395, which is also within tenne yeares of the former numbers. The like may be sayd of the number of 42 moneths, which yeeldeth 1620 dayes, and of three dayes and a halfe, which accounting twelue houres in the day, as our Saviour Christ doth, yeeldeth 42 houres, and everie houre to be reckoned according to propheticall ac­counts, [Page 188] a sabbath of yeares, or seauen yeares, ariseth to l260 yeares. So a time, two times, and half a time; everie of these reckoned from the Ascention of our Lord cometh to the same yeare 1394: all concurring within the fiftie yeares aboue mentioned, and making a great concurrence and consonance of Propheticall yeares. So that here we may boldly say, that seauen thunders, namely many Pro­phets uttered their voices, that is to say,Psal. 29. the voyces of God mightie in operation, like to the thunder, as the Psalmne spea­keth, in a time doubtlesse, which the All-seeing spirit of God, to whom all times are present, would not haue so marked out, but for some speciall purpose. Let us then consider the actions of these times, and see, whether they also be not sutable to these prophecies. The actions of the popes we haue briefly touched before, Now let us see the works of God in these times, which truly are wonder­full,Psal. 111. and most worthy to be remembred. For shortly upon that yeare of our Lord before remembred 1405, God as­sembled his whole church of Europe,Italie, Brita­nie, Germanie, France, Spain. In this order they are na­med Consil. Basil. Sess. 1. consisting of fiue great and worthie Nations, three severall times, in three great and generall Councels, and in everie one of them, notwithstanding all the power of the Popes (a thing not a little to be wondred at) it was decreed, that the generall Councell was and ought to be aboue the Pope, and that whoso­ever denyed that Trueth, was an Heretike, Anathema. And thereupon in the Councell of Pisa, being first of the three, the two popes then standing in schisme, were both decla­red to be Heretikes, and unworthie, and compelled to ab­dicate, and another was made pope, namely, Alexander the fifth. And to this councell there came learned men out of this our Countrie of England, as well as out of other nations, and were entertayned by that famous and excellent learned Chancelour of Paris, Gerson, who de­clared [Page 189] the consent of the Church of France with the Eng­lish church in that matter. Shortly after this the Papall Church had againe three popes together, and so became Triceps, like to Cerberus: and so the great cittie (sayth Lu­ther) was divided into three parts, according to the prophe­cie Apoc. 16. Soone after that therefore was assembled the second great councell of the said fiue Nations at Con­stance. And therein it was againe with great consent, namely of 900 Bishops and learned men, fully concluded and decreed, against the Popes Law, that the Councell is a­boue the Pope, and hath authoritie immediately from Christ, unto which all, of whatsoever state or dignitie, etiamsi Papa­lis, albeit the Papall, is bound to obey. And yet in the same councell, the pope shewed himself in his Antichristian pride, riding to Church on horseback, the Emperor of the one side, and one of the Princes Electors on the other side, leading his horse: yet in the same Councell the god­ly Bohemians Iohannos Hus, and Hieronimus Pragensis, open­ly protested against the Pope: saying, that if he did not fol­low Christ in his life, he was not Christs Vicar: for which & other like sentences, they were condemned and burned, contrarie to the publike fayth, and safe conduct of the Em­peror, and to the eternall condemnation of all Popish faith and fidelitie. And yet in the same Councell God himself overruled their voices, and caused them to decree against the Popes canon law, as aforesaid. Thirdly, within the same compasse of yeares, there followed another great Councell at Basil, of the same fiue Nations;Sess. 38. Fasc. tem. 88 Carleton of Iurisd. pa. 276. Wherein af­ter much contention and disputation, it was decreed again contrarie to the Popes comon law, and his great Proctor Panormitane, that the Councell is aboue the Pope, and that the Pope hath not power to dissolue, prorogue, or transfer it to ano­ther time or place. And whosoever denyed that veritie, should [Page 190] be judged an Heretike. Yet against all these Councels, the popes and all their Successors ever since haue, and to this day doe oppose themselues, in mainteining their Antichri­stian power,Articulos sol­vit synodum­que facit ge­vera [...]em. elation, and authoritie: affirming, That the Pope onely may make a generall Councell and cannons, and that to him a man may appeale from the generall councell, and that the Councell can determine nothing without the Pope; and so that he is aboue all generall councels, still continuing al­so in their abhominable Idolatrie, filthines, and wicked practises. And so all the Popes since that Councell of Ba­sil stand openly declared Hereticks, by the consent of all the Christian Churches of Europe, in three great Coun­cels.Clemangis. But to crosse these, the Pope gathered another councell at Rome, wherein after a solemne Masse, of Ve­ni Creator Spiritus, If th [...] be de­nyed let them shew forth but one act or de­c [...]ee of that Counc [...]ll. there appeared a hideous and dreadfull owle, and the Councell shortly after, without any thing done, dissolved. Neyther hath the Antichristian Sect any thing to object against the Decrees of those three former Councels,See the histo­rie of this c [...]ū ­sell set forth by Pet. Scave & judge whe­ther it were any thing else but a saction. unlesse it be a Conventicle, and conspiracie of their owne faction at Trent, where the fiue Nations did not meete. What then shall we say to these things? Were not these extraordinarie great actions, or are not these acti­ons sutable to the Prophecies? or may we ever expect the like againe? Whether then may we not here safely rest and fixe the eyes of our attention and contemplation upon this notable periode, so manie times pointed out and defi­ned by God himself, and accompanied with so great and notable events, as happened within this one Centure of yeares, or litle more, namely from the time of Boniface the eight, till the Councell of Basill. In the beginning we see the Pope like a God, proclaiming a Iubile, and thereby changing times and lawes, renewing a Iewish Cere­monie, and thereby denying that Christ is come in the flesh, [Page 191] clayming the absolute Lordship and command of all the world, as well in temporall, as in spirituall things, ex­communicating great and vertuous Princes for small faults, and yet he himself weltring and wallowing in Egyptian filthines, and incest with his owne Neeces. Then great schismes in the church, his Successor moun­ted on horseback, the Emperor & Prince Elector lead­ing his Palfrey by the bridle, with many such like notes of more pride and elation, then was ever read or heard of to be used by any mortall man whatsoever. And in the end the Pope, notwithstanding all his pride and Lu­ciferian exaltation, by three great and generall Coun­cels gathered out of all Christendome, declared to be an Heretike, which in respect of the greatnes of his Sea, his followers, his long continuance, and other circumstances, must needs be understood the greatest Heretike, of all that ever were or can be; and so by un­deniable consequence declared to be Antichrist. Not so, will some Babylonian peradventure say. It is not a­ny of those circumstances, nor all of them, can make him the greatest Heretike, no more then Arius in his time was therefore accounted the greatest Heretike, because the whole world (as it is sayd) became an Arian; but because he denied one of the greatest points of our fayth, namely, the equalitie of God the Sonne, with his Fa­ther, and therefore was called Christomachus. Be it so: yet I thinke no man will deny, but caeteris paribus, the circumstances aforesaid will both augment, and aggra­vate the Heresie. But let us consider first, the greatnes and extent of that point, which the said three generall Councels condemned for Heresie: secondly, what o­ther Heresies, and how manie and great the Pope doth maintaine, and if either that point so condemned be [Page 192] great, yea verie great, or that he mainteyneth more or greater, then any other; then will I leaue it to thine owne Conscience Christian reader, to judge and deter­mine, whether the Pope be the greatest Heretike, that ever was or not. And because it is not my meaning ei­ther to build upon weake foundations, or to make long work, of that which is readie at hand, I desire thee to consider of the termes of this disputation, ut constet quid sit id qou de agitur: First I say, I desire to know whe­ther thou dost hold, that there is a Rule of the Catho­like fayth, whereby to judge of Heresies, which rule ought to be certaine and knowne to us; as not onely the Fathers,De verbo dei, l. 1. c. 2. but we at this day do all agree, and Bellar­mine the great Champion of the Romish Church affir­meth; For (sayth he) if it be not knowne it connot be a rule unto us, and if it be not certaine, it can be no rule at all. So sayth the Scripture.Prov 22, 21 The words of trueth are certaine, and therefore was the Scripture written,Luc. 1.4. that we might knowe the certaintie of that we haue learned. Second­ly,Summa provi dentia carere fuco voluit ca quae divina sunt, ut omnes intelligerent, quae ipse omni­bus loqucha­tur Lailant. De verbo dei. l. 3. c 2. 2 Tim. 2. I aske how it is knowne, whether it be not knowne according to the literall sense, out of which effectuall arguments ought to be drawne, as we also are agreed. For certaine it is (sayth the same Bellarmine) that that sense which is immediately gathered of the words, is the sense of the Holy Ghost: which I thinke he intendeth; so as it stand with other plaine places: For in the Word of God no con­tradiction is to be admitted. God cannot denye himselfe. But the senses mysticall and spirituall, which may be ga­thered out of the Scriptures are various, and therefore cannot be used for arguments to confirme points of Fayth, because we are not certaine, that they are in­tended by the Holy Ghost, as the said Bellarmine affir­meth out of S. Augustine. Lastly then, it resteth to [Page 193] know, what that rule is, and where to be found. Of which because thou mayst see, that I will not hide, or disguise any thing from thee: I finde four opinions. Whereof none in my understanding can justly be re­proved: for they all agree together in substance. The first is of the most ancient Tertullian,De praescript. who goeth no further for the rule of fayth, then to the Vulgar Creed,The same as it seemeth is fol­lowed by Dio­ny. Ar. commonly called the Creede of the Apostles, which (sayth he) amongst us hath no questions, but such as Heresies bring in and make Heretikes: To know nothing but this, is to know all that we ought to know. And they that do not beleeue this, are not faythfull, are not Christians, are not to be admitted to dis­pute of the Scriptures (sayth he.In Enchirid. ad Laur.) The second is that of August, who affirmeth, this rule to be conteyned in the Creede and the Lords prayer: For (sayth he) therein is the whole summe of all Christian religion, namely, whatsoever con­cerneth fayth, hope, or charitie. A third opinion is that of the common Catechistes, which adde to the two before named, the Decalogue, and the doctrine of the Sacra­ments. The fourth is that which is now commonly im­braced, which maketh the Scripture in generall, to be the rule of fayth. And in this Bellarmine also consenteth. My question therefore is, whether thou do not approue these rules, or any of them? if thou do, and do acknow­ledge, that these Rules, or any of them be certeyne and knowne to us, and to be litterally understood, as Bel­larmine confesseth, it followeth then to consider, who by these Rules shall be said an Heretick, and whether that be not clearly defined unto us by Moses, S. Iohn,Deut. 12. Rev. 22. and S. Paul to be such a one, as doth adde any thing to the true fayth expressed in these Rules,Tit. 3, 10. or taketh any thing from them, and will not be reformed by due ad­monition. To this agreeth Vincent. Lirinen. c. 32. Christi [Page 194] Ecclesia sedula depositorium apud se dogmatum custos, nihil in iis unquam permutat, Haeresis graece Electio latine, est sententia humano sensu electa, verbo dei contraria, palam docta, pertinaciter de sensa. Grosse­test. Epis [...]. Lincoln. in Mat. Paris. nihil minuit, nihil addit. Then to the point: I aske first concerning that Article, by the coun­cels aforesaid decreed, That the holy Catholike church, being the body of our Saviour Christ, represented in a generall Councell, is aboue the Pope, and hath autho­ritie immediately from Christ, unto which the Pope himselfe, as a member to the whole, ought to obey, & whosoever denieth that verily is an Heretike: Doth not the Pope (as I said) and haue not all the Popes since the making of that decree, mainteyned themselues to be aboue the generall Councell, and so denyed that ve­ritie, and that no decree of a generall Councell is able to binde them, neither is lawfull, if it be made without the authoritie of the Roman Pontifex? Aske Bellar­mine their Advocate. Do they not maintaine that he is the head of the Church? that he cannot erre in matters of fayth, and that all are bound to obey him, ex necessita­te salutis? Are these things expresly and literally to be found in the Creede, the Lords prayer, the tenne Com­mandements, the Sacraments, or any part of the Scrip­ture? If they be, why did all the Christian Churches of Europe so manie times determine against these Prero­gatiues of the Pope? If not, then whether are not these most great additions to that Rule, to which none must adde, and from which none must deminish? If we will truly judge of the greatnes of this Heresie, let us consi­der the greatnes of the buildings erected upon it. For great buildings must haue great foundations. First there­fore upon this Supremacie over the Church of Christ, represented in the generall Councell, they haue groun­ded their absolute power to call, beginne, determine, ende, prorogue, and transfer generall Councels at their [Page 195] pleasures, and also to confirme and allow, or to abro­gate and disanull them. Which point if it be granted, they are sure, that nothing can be determined against them in any such Councell. Then an absolute power over all not onely Bishops and Prelates, but kings and princes will easily be inferred. For it standeth with rea­son, that he who is aboue the whole, is aboue everie parte, in toto & pars continetur. Then followeth their power to adjudge and condemn that for Heresie, what­soever he thinketh fit. Then the power to excommu­nicate Nations and Countries, to depriue and depose kings and princes, & to giue their lands for an Heritage to whom they will. And in a word, their absolute Ano­my and lawlessenes, that no man may judge of him, no man may dispute of his judgment, or call it in question, though he draw millions of soules with him into hell; a prero­gatiue which the Scripture never intimateth to be clay­med by any but Antichrist, and never claymed by any but the pope; wherein all the authoritie, power and states of Christian kings, and subjects, prelates and gene­rall Councels, with their lands and goods, bodies and soules are giuen to the Pope, and that without appeale, revocation or question, whether he goe to heauen or hell. Iudge then Christian Reader, whether this Here­sie be not greater then that of Arius, Pelagius, Monta­nus, Ebion, Cerinthus, Simon Magus, or any other? Who although they raysed damnable Heresies, yet never clai­med such prerogatiues? Yet you will say, that these Heresies mainteyned by the Pope do not denye Christ Iesus, as it is sayd of Antichrist, that he denyeth both the Father and the Sonne. Well, if thou be not satisfi­ed by that which I haue sayd before, consider what o­ther Heresies are mainteyned by the Pope, and how [Page 196] great they be. First in the Creede, when we beleeue in one God,1 Tim. 6. 1 Ioh. 4. the Father almightie, who is a spirit invisible, whom no man hath seene at any time, nor can see; for he dwelleth in light inaccessible: is it a small Heresie, to maintaine, that that most glorious and invisible spirit may be represented to us by the picture of an old man, pain­ted upon a wall, or graved in stone or wood? Is this to be found in the expresse and literall sence of any the Rules aforesaid? When we beleeue in one Lord Iesus Christ, who was borne of the virgin Marie, as a naturall man (though not onely man) crucified dead and buried as a true man, and ascended up into heauen; is it a small addition or Heresie to say, that this naturall and carnall body now conteyned in heauen, is in so manie thousand millions of consecrated Hostes upon earth, carnally flesh bloud and bones? Must we now haue so many millions of Lords, and the Virgin Marie so manie millions of naturall sonnes borne of her bodie? And our Saviour must haue so manie millions of bodies, that suffered upon the crosse, died and was buried for us &c. Yea but Hoc est corpus meum, and God is Almightie, and can doe what he will, and so we must beleeue. It is true he hath said, this is my bodie, but did he ever say, This is my carnall bodie, or naturall Bo­die: or this is changed, or shall be changed into my natu­rall bodie? Is there one word to that effect produced by Bellarmine out of the Scripture, or out of any the rules a­foresaid? He sayth, This is my bodie. So it is said also, that we are members of his bodie, Ephes. 5. of his bones, and of his flesh. And the head of everie man is Christ. 1 Cor. 11. Must we beleeue then that we are members of his naturall bodie? If not, then it appeareth,Aug. Sent. 340, 341. de doctr. chri­stiana lib. 3. 1 Cor. 15. that Christ hath another bodie, which is called mysticall or mixt, namely his Church. There is also a spirituall bodie, as well as a naturall, sayth the Apostle. [Page 197] And may we not say, that he hath a representatiue or Sa­cramentall bodie,1 Cor. 11, 39. upon the words of the same Apostle concerning the Sacraments.1 Cor. 10, 17 Now if there be so manie kindes of bodies attributed to our Lord, where is that knowne and certain rule of Fayth, whereby we are bound to beleeue that the words of the Sacrament are meant of his naturall bodie? Of which of his bodies is it said, that it ascended into heauen? Of which is it said, that the heauens must conteyne him untill the time of restauration? Of which is it said, that the flesh profiteth nothing? Of which I say of his bodies are these things said, if not of his naturall? We must beleeue, that God is Almightie, and can do all things; but will he haue us beleeue things contrarie or contradic­torie?Esa. 40, 26. We must beleeue God hath ordered all things in number and measure.Wisd. 11, 17 For this is the difference betweene the Creator, and the Creature.Ioh 28, 25. And will he haue us to be­leeue, that a naturall bodie created,Prov. 8, 29. should be contained in heauen, and yet dispersed in earth; carnall in substance, and yet invisible and imperceptible; finite in measure, yet infinite in places? one in number, and yet innumerable? Do they that affirme such a Transubstantiation, confesse the sonne to be truly man of the substance of his mother, as the Creede speaketh? or doe they agree with Eutiches? Gods word is true,1 Ioh. 1, 1. but would he haue it without witnes­ses? He would haue our eyes, eares, and hands, to be wit­nesses of the true incarnation of our Saviour.Marc. 5, 19, 30. Luc. 17, 17 Act. 1, 22 & 10, 41, He would haue manie witnesses to his miracles, twelue at least to his Resurrection, and in ore duorum aut trium, &c. In the mouth of two or three witnesses everie word shall stand: And would he haue us to understand the words of the Sa­crament, in absence, which hath no witnesses, nor any e­vident place to proue it? Looke into Bellarmine, and shew but one peece, word, or place of Scripture, that he bring­eth [Page 198] to proue it. Christ worketh miracles: but will he haue us to beleeue a miracle, where neither our senses can perceiue it, nor he nor any of his Apostles doth say it? still I appeale to the Rule of Fayth, which must be certaine and knowne, as Bellarmine confesseth. And if this sense that they will haue of the words of our Saviour cannot be knowne▪ or certain by any of the Rules of fayth, then saith Bellarmine, it is no rule; and then I aske, whether this be not a great and wicked addition, which they haue made in this point, for which so many godly Christians haue been so cruelly martired by them? Let us passe to another pointe, where we beleeue that our Lord Iesus Christ shall come to judge both quick and dead, that to him the Father hath giuen all judgment, Ioh. 5, 22. as to him that is verie God of verie God.Athan. in Symb. Is it a small matter or addition, to say that there is an other summus I [...]dex, whom that eternall Iudge hath made (as they would haue it) his Vicar generall, Soveraign Iudge over all the world,Bellarmine. both of fayth and manners, and that can make lawes to binde the Consciences of all men. Dispence with Gods Lawes, giue Indulgences for sinnes, and cannot erre? Doth he who mainteyneth such things confesse the Sonne of God to be the onely Iudge, or doth he deny his Divinitie with Arius,To deny in fact is more then in word. in saying he hath neede of a Vicar? For God is everie where, if Christ also be everie where, then to what purpose serveth a Vicar generall.Mat. 2, 31. And where is this point certainly and litterally to be found in any the Rules aforesaid in such sort as may stand consonant with other parts of the same Rules? If not, then whether doth he that affirmeth such things, confesse the Father and the Sonne,Christum ne­gat qui non omnia quae Christi sunt consitet. Ambros. Quisquis Christum, qualis ab Apostolis predicatum est, negat, Antichristus est. Hill. in such manner, as by the said rules we are taught? So when we beleeue in the H. ghost, who spake by the pro­phets, [Page 199] who is the spirit of trueth, that shall leade us into all truth, whom God promised to poure out upon all flesh,Ioel 2. Act. 2. Acts 10. & our Saviour Christ would haue not onely his Apostles, but Captaines and Souldjours Iewes and Gentiles to be baptised with that spirit, and hath promised to giue it to everie one that beleeveth,Io. 7, 38, 39 Luc. 11, 13. and to everie one that prayeth for it: Is it a small addition, to say that that spirit is now not to be found, neither in any particular beleevers, nor in any Christian Church, nor in anie Nationall Councell, nor in the Prelates, who are called the Angels of the church, nor in all the Churches gathered together in a ge­nerall Councell, but onely in the Pope of Rome and his Church? Without whom no Decree of any Generall councell must be held firme or lawfull. When we beleeue the holy Catholike Church, is it a small addition to say, that this Catholike Church is now confined to Rome. When we beleeue the forgiuenes of sinnes, is it a small ad­dition to say, that we haue this forgiuenes by the Popes pardons, and indulgences, eyther for ever, or for so manie thousand yeares? Doth this agree with that article, where­in we beleeue, that Christ shall judge the quick and the dead? shall he judge, when the Pope hath pardoned, or shall he judge according to these pardons? Is it a small de­traction from the commandements to leaue out a parte of the first? Is it a small addition to the Sacraments to make seauen in stead of two, to adde spittle and other such trash to baptisme? Is this literally to be found in the rules afore­said? is it knowne? is it certaine? Is it a small addition to giue to the Sacrament of the bodie of our Lord devine adoration? or is it a small detraction to make it private, and so to take it away from the common people, except set and solemne times, and the cup alwaies? Finally, when we are agreed, that the litterall sense of the Scripture is the [Page 200] most certaine and safe rule of our beleefe, and that it hath in it selfe an incredible harmonie and consent, and is the sense of the Holy Ghost; is it a small addition to this point, also to say, that the Pope is the supreame interpreter thereof, and judge of fayth and manners? And that he cannot erre? If this be knowne and cer­taine, then why did none of the rules aforesaid expresse and say so? Why is it not expressed in the Scripture, why did no ancient generall Councell decree it? yea why did the three generall Councels aforesaid, decree contrarie, that the generall councell is aboue the pope? Admitte the case to be, that the pope judge contrarie to the litterall sense of the Scripture, must it be no error? Admitte that he maintaine, that the Scripture is to be received by vertue of his authoritie? that he may dis­pence with the commandements of God? that he is the generall Commissarie of God, assumed into the pleni­tude of power, are these small additions to the rules a­foresaid? The like may be sayd of manie other points, upon all which I thus propose, and referre it to thine owne soule and conscience (good Christian) to judge if these be great additions and detractions, and more, & greater, then ever any other Heretike made to those Rules of fayth before mentioned, and if they haue been oftentimes reproved, and admonished for them, and yet still maintaine the same, then, I say, I leaue it to thine owne soule to judge, Whether the Pope be not the greatest Heretike that ever was? And whether we may not well affirme him to be that Antichrist, then whom never any was nor can be greater, Dan. 12. and with the Prophet Daniel say, that they are hap­pie and blessed, that lived unto these times, to see so great an Enemie of Christ his Church, and yet so disguised; so holy in name, and yet lawlesse indeede; so great a Prelate in show, and [Page 201] yet in deede so great an Heretike: Such a Vicar generall of Christ, and yet indeede Antichrist, to be discovered and decla­red by three such great and generall assemblies of the Church. It will percase be demanded, how I can call him an Here­tike, that maketh the same confession of Fayth, as we doe. And I aske, if we confesse the same fayth, why doth he call us Heretikes? But I thinke it appeareth suf­ficiently by that which hath beene sayd, that in making so great additions to the true Catholike and Apostolike fayth, he hath declared himself to be the greatest Here­tike that ever was, and consequently that Antichrist. Let us then consider the signes of the times of Anti-Christ, and see whether they also do not concurre in discribing men fit for such times and actions, fit to be ministers unto Antichrist, and who those men may be but the Roman Cleargie: First our Saviour Christ gi­veth us a short but notable and notorious signe import­ing blasphemie, which is such a propertie of Antichrist, as no man can doubt of; Many (sayth he) shall come in my name, and shall say, I am Christ, or annointed, Mat. 24. for so the word signifieth: is not this litterally fulfilled? Haue not all the popish Cleargie taken this title upon them? And what: not for any good or godly purpose, but to de­fend themselues in their most heynous and flagitious crimes against the sword of secular justice, by alledging that place of the Psalme, Nolite tangere Christos meos, Psalm 105. touch not mine annointed. I appeale to the consciences of all men, that haue beene any whit, though meanly con­versant in the Histories of late times, or observed their actions: if any will say, that this text may be used, as it is in that Psalme, for the defence of godly Prophets, I will not deny it, so it be not used for their protection in wicked actions: for to use it in the protection of [Page 202] sinne is no lesse a blasphemie, then to make our Saviour Christ the protector and Author of sinne and wickednes. A second notable description of men of those times is made by S. Paul. For (sayth he) In the last dayes (which S. Iohn calleth the times of Antichrist) men shall be lovers of themselues, 2 Tim. 3. coveteous, boasters, proud, cursed speakers, disobe­dient to parents, unthankefull, unholy, without naturall affection, truce breakers, false accusers, intemperate, feirce, dispisers of good men, Traytors, headie, high minded, lovers of pleasures more then lovers of God, having a shew of godlynes, but haue denied the power thereof. So farre the Apostle. And these men who they haue been, and who they be, is not hard to be discerned. For who be they that now for many hun­dred yeares haue laboured, onely under the title of the church, with unmeasurable and unsatiable coveteousnes to inrich themselues? The goulden Historian Matthew Pa­ris, Aventinus, and all other Histories of Christendome, proclaime it is the Pope, and Courte of Rome, according to the Common verses: ‘Curia Romana non captat ovem sine Lana.’ and againe: ‘Bursas exhaurit & arcas’. and againe:

Roma caput mundi est, omnia nam (que) capit,
Ejus avaritiae totus non sufficit orbis:
Ejus luxuriae meritrix non sufsicit omnes.


The Romish Cleargie haue turned the tenne comman­dements into two words,See more in Abb. demonst. and in M. Domuham. Da pecuniam, sayth S. Brigitt. So if we aske, who haue boasted themselues, and in pride ex­alted themselues aboue all princes, Kings and Emperors? who hath excommunicated and cursed Christian Princes, Nobles, States, and Nations? Who haue seduced Chil­dren and Subjects, to take upon them habits, and vowes of Religion, and so to cast off all obedience to their Parents and Superiors? who haue shewed themselues most un­thankfull [Page 203] to their Benefactors, and specially to their Leige Soveraignes, under whose gratious and peaceable govern­ment they were borne and bredd, and haue injoyed their goods and Lands, houses and Inheritance, Wiues and chil­dren, Liues and livings, and yet haue gone about most wic­kedly & traiterously to take away their Crownes and king­domes, yea their life and breath, by whose onely mercie they injoy their owne? Who haue taught men to breake their truces, oathes, Leagues and covenants by new trickes and devices, sometimes of Equivocation, mentall reserva­tion in themselues, sometimes of dispensation from their chief Bishop the Pope, sometimes of false and malitious ca­lumniations, pretending that they be Heretikes and Infi­dels, with whom no fayth is to be holden, as they haue learned of their good predecessors Atreus,Cie. 3 offic. in whose name that doctrine was first published, and Laomedon that prac­tised it, according to that verse.

Laomedont aeae luincus perjuria Troiae.
Virg. Georg. [...]

Yet by the way, I will not denye that sentence of a godly Father, vouched in their Decree: In malis promissis rescin­de fidem. Impia est promissio, quae scelere adimpletur. But it is one thing promittere malum, and another promittere malo. If we promise an evill thing it is better to breake it, then to keepe it, as we learne by the said Sentence, and the ex­ample of Herod. But if we promise to an evill man, yet if the promise be not evill, we are bound to performe it,Ios. 9. 2 Sam. 21. as by the example of Ioshuah, and king David. And yet who hath giuen them such a superlatiue and supereminent pre­rogatiue, that whomsoever they call an Heretike or Infi­dell he must be so? yea in their owne causes, contrarie to the Decree of immutable Iustice; that None ought to be a Iudge in his owne cause. Who haue againe by false infa­mous and seditious Libels accused and slandered Princes, [Page 204] Nobles and whole nations, as they did Queene Elizabeth, calling her a Bastard, & flagitiorum servam: the late Prince of Orenge, calling him an Heretike, and all that protest against their impieties, calling them Heretikes, Valdenses, Hussites, Lutherans, Calvinists, Hugonots, and I know not what? Finally, who haue shewed themselues most intem­perate, fierce, and cruell? who haue most despised good men? Who haue been most traitors? who most headie and obstinate? who most proud and high minded? who haue most followed their pleasures, and yet made most hypocriticall shewes of godlines? I haue neither read nor seene much, I know litle or nothing, and therefore will not take upon me to say any thing, but I referre it to thine owne conscience (good Christian) and I desire thee to con­sider in thine own hart, whether thou do know any such men in the world or not? and if thou doest, then whom they serue and follow? A third note of the times of An­tichrist is that which the same Apostle telleth us in ano­ther place,2 Thes. 2. that there should come an Apostacie first, and then that man of sinne shall be revealed. Consider with thy selfe whether in anie Historie of times past, thou canst find any Apostasies in any degree parallell or comparable to those, whereof we spake before? or whether in any probabilitie the like may be expected in any time to come. Or if by the word of Apostasie in that place thou wilt understand, that whereof the same Apostle speaketh elsewhere, that some shall apostate and fall from the fayth, giving heede to se­ducing spirits and doctrines of divels, 1 Tim. 4. speaking lyes in hypocri­sie, forbidding mariage and meats. Consider also who they be that teach such things? And who they be that forbid meats and mariage, some meats to all men at some times, and all mariage to some persons at all times. Fourthly S. Pe­ter giveth us another none of them,2 Pet. 2. saying: They walke af­ter [Page 205] the flesh and despise government, speaking evill of dignities. I neede not aske what these men be: But I aske whether any other of any Religion, countrie, nation or profession, either in these, or in any of the former, haue been like to those that professe the Roman Catholike, or Popish super­stition? Fifthly S. Iude following S. Peter,Iud. epist. describeth them thus: They haue gone in the way of Cain, and runne greedily after the error of Balaam, and perish in the gainsaying of Core. Who be those that haue most followed Cain in mur­ther and Bloudshed, not onely of private men, but of prin­ces? Who haue runne after Balaam, to curse, excommuni­cate, & interdict ▪ not onely perticular offenders, but whole nations, townes, citties and countries? and that for cove­teousnes, when they refused to pay their unreasonable de­mands? Who also haue followed, Core, Dathan, and Abi­ram, in opposing themselues against Magistrates and Superiours, Iames [...]. plotting of conspiracies, and raysing insurrections? Sixtly S. Iames describeth a wisedome which is carnall, sensuall, and diuelish, consisting in cursing and bitternes, envie, and strife. Consider of these who they be, that haue been most giuen to these things, and whether ever any like or comparable to the Romish Synagogue? Lastly, as we touched before S. Iohn giveth us a speciall note: He that is not of God hea­reth us not: and hereby we know the spirit of trueth, 1 Iohn 4. and the spirit of Error. Who be those that flye from the Scriptures, and will haue us with an implicit fayth, and blinde obedi­ence to submitte our selues to their decrees and decretals, cannons and traditions, Church and Pope, whom they will haue to be accounted of science infallible, power ir­resistable, and judgment unquestionable: Neither are these things to be shifted of with that rotten distinction, that these are vitia hominum, non professionis, the faults of particular men, and not of the whole profession, ranke or [Page 206] order. The Heathen man will refell that, telling us, that where all runne one way, eyther by act or consent, the corrupti­on of the singulars, giue a denomination to the totall.

Heliaca urbs simul est mendax at (que) ebria, Talis
Tota urbs est, Domus ut quaelibet esse solet.

Yet I cannot chuse, but thinke there were some Infants there, that were neither lyers, nor druckards actually: but ubi maior pars ibi tota. So the severall kinds of consent ex­pressed by their owne confessors:

Consulo, praecipio, consentio, provoco, laudo,
Non retego culpam, non punio, non reprehendo,
Participo, defendo, meum in caput ista redundant.

Salvianus will tell them, Etsi commune omnibus non fa­ciebat actus, Cic. 1 off. faciebat tamen assensus. Cicero will say, Qui non defendit nec obsistit (si potest) injuriae, tam est in vitio, quam si parentes, aut patriam, aut socios deserat. Their owne De­cree will teach them: Quid est immundum tangere, nisi pec­catis consentire? Quid est exire inde, nisi facere quod pertinet ad correctionem; If they will avoide this charge, let them shew, how they haue corrected, punished, reprehended, or disliked these things. If not, then must we needs say, that all are guiltie.Gen. 3, 17. & 6, 12. And as the earth it selfe is sayd to be cor­rupted and cursed,Psa 107, 34 when the Inhabitants haue corrupted themselues with sinnes;Esa 24, 4. so, and much more all states pro­fessions and degrees of men. To this S. Augustine will adde, that as our Saviour Christ hath his mysticall bodie, which is his church: so the Divell hath his bodie, or his Synagogue, comprehending all the wicked, qui sunt eius quodammodo corpus, sayth he. And so all the Reprobates are one in the divell, as all the elect are one in Christ. And as he that is joyned with an Harlot maketh himselfe one bodie with her, by the sentence of the Apostle; so he that joyneth himselfe with Antichrist (the great whoore) espe­cially [Page 207] in the head, becometh one with him, euen that Lawlesseman, that childe of perdition. What then shall we say to these things? Places and Times, Persons and Ac­tions, Names, and things Prophesies and Events, do all con­curre in the revelation of this man of wickednes, consist­ing wholly of most horrible and enormous sinnes, by act and consent, in particular and in generall, in singu­lar persons, and in their whole bodie politike, order & succession: Such sinnes, so many, and so great, that the Divell himselfe can no way match or parallell. For if one divell should do homage or sacrifice to another, or commit or giue a licence to commit Treason, Incest, or murther, yet that could not be any way so great a sinne, as when a Christian, baptised in the name of Christ, and for whom our Saviour Christ the onely sonne of God, hath shed his most precious bloud, com­mitteth such an offence, or giveth such a Licence. And by the same rule of proportion: if these haynous Idola­tries, Treasons, Murthers, Adulteries and other sinnes, which haue beene committed by the Popes, and their Licences and dispensations, were done, or licenced, committed, or permitted by any other then a Christian, & one that taketh upon him to be the head of all Chri­stians, and over all Christian Bishops, yea and such an Head as cannot erre, certainely these sinnes in any o­ther could not be judged so great, offensiue, or in intol­lerable. As it is in the ancient Lawes truly defined, Re, persona, loca, tempore atrociores injuriae indicantur. And so the Prophets everie where aggravate the sinnes and of­fences of the people of God, by the greatnesse of the benefits which they had received: and our Saviour Christ teacheth us, that he to whom much is committed, of him much shall be required. And he that knoweth his masters [Page 208] will and doth it not, shall be beaten with manie stripes. It fol­loweth therefore inevitably, that these sinnes in the pope are farre greater, then if any Christian, Iew, Turke or Heathen did the like. And now seeing we haue ob­served Antichrist in all these mayne and principall cir­cumstances, of his Place, and State, his Name and Rising, his Raigne and Actions, his Times and Manners, what is more to be expected, but his Consumption and Destructi­on two times, which the Holy Prophets, and divine A­postle expresse in one verse, saying, that the Lord shall consume him with the breath of his mouth, Dan 7, 26. and destroye or abo­lish him with the brightnes of his comming. E [...]a 11, 4. Whereof I will speake breefly,2 Thes. 2. partly because others haue sayd suffici­ent, but chiefly because of the times to come we must not presume too farre, either to judge, or to inquire. First therefore in his Consumption two things are to be considered, the Times and the Manner. The times are two fold, past and to come. For the time past, it seemeth to haue beene ever since the said yeare aboue mention­ed 1405, being the time that Daniel blessed. For if we account those 1335 years noted by Daniel, from the de­struction of the Temple,Dan. 12. which is Daniels aera, and was about the yeare of our Lord 70, adde that 70 to the numbers 1335, and it falleth out fully in the year of our Lord 1405, as I shewed before, which was within four yeares of the Councell of Pisa, the first generall Coun­cell, that declared the Pope to be an Heretike; shortly after which the Noble Zisca, Procopius Magnus and other worthie Bohemians began to breake downe the Popish Idolatrie, and ever since the Romish Antichrist hath de­cayed more and more, as everie one that is acquainted with the stories of Christendome may easily perceiue. So that we may well say, that the consumption hath [Page 209] now continued about 220 years. For the time to come I would desire all godly Christians to consider of these particulars: First, whether we may not expect that the tenne Kings shall ioyne together to spoyle the whore, Rev. 17▪ and burne her with fire?

Secondly, What account or answer Christian Kings can make to their great Lord and Master, for continuing in their warres against their brethren, and neglecting that warre, whereunto God himself hath called them.

Thirdly, whether upon the destruction of the Whoore we may not hope for the conversion of the Iewes, in a more gratious man­ner, then yet we see. And there by the way must be observed the word which the Holy Ghost useth;Dan. 12, 11. Abhomination of de­solation: whereupon I aske, Whether it may not be un­derstood of Antichrist, to signifie, that so long as the Anti­christian abhominations shall continue in the Church, so long the Church must continue desolate of one of her principall parts, namely the ancient people of the Iewes, which must make the o­ther maine wall, to be ioyned with that of the Gentiles in one principall and fundamentall corner stone, Christ Iesus, which is not to be expected, as long as the abhominable Antichristian Ido­latrie raigneth in the Church?

Fourthly, What we may thinke of those froggs in our Apostle, Rev. 16. who they be that must gather the kings of the earth to the bat­tail? Wherein is to be observed that the Frogge hath his name of his voice, which the Latins call Ran, Ran, like a trumpet, the Grecians Trac, Trac, like a drumme; and so in the Text it is sayd, that they goe forth to the kings of the earth to gather them to battail. Concerning the Hebrew name, I would saine learne of the learned, whether it may not be ta­ken for a word compounded of two words, whereof the one signifieth to make hast, the other Defection or de­struction, & so signifieth hasting to destruction or defection, [Page 210] which agreeth with the Text. Their nature, as we see by dayly experience, [...]nimalia amphibia. is to leape on the land, & swimme in the water, spoyling, polluting and corrupting in both. And to whom this may be applied, I leaue it to learned Divines to consider.

The fifth thing to be considered is the joyning of the Beast,Rev. 19. and the Kings of the earth, and the gathering of their armies.

The sixth is the gathering of Gog and Magog toge­ther:Rev. 20. and whether this be the same battail, which is spoken of in the former chapter.

The last is the glorious and triumphant victories of our Lord Iesus Christ, who is God blessed for ever­more. But of these things I dare not speake, but one­ly moue them; desiring to learne, and not thinking it altogether unlawfull to search, so it be done with Christian modestie and humilitie, no more then the ancient Prophets did thinke it unlawfull for them to search,3 Pet. 1. what time the sufferings of Christ should be ac­complished, & the glorie to follow. But for the manner of the consumption of Antichrist, that also seemeth to be two fold: The one by the preaching of the Gospell, the other by the open falling away of peoples, nations & countries from Anti­christ. Of both which other godly learned men, haue suf­ficiently spoken at large: namely, M. Fox in his Martiro­loge, the two learned Bishops Abbat and Downham in their severall bookes of Antichrist: also Catalogues Te­stium, the learned Morney, in his booke De Mysterio Ini­quitatis, and many others. And concerning the last time which must be the second comming of our Lord Iesus Christ, because God hath reserved it to himselfe,Act. 1. I therefore rest in the prayer, prescribed to the Church by our Apostle:Apoc. 22. Euen so come quickly Lord Iesus.

The Conclusion.

VPon all these premises, for a conclusion, I would desire the Christian Reader, to consider of these seauen short Problems, first concerning these prophe­sies before touched, as I haue demanded of them everie one in particuler: so now of them all in generall: If they be not fulfilled alreadie, I demand, how they can be accomplished, or how long & when we shall expect their accomplishment? There are now almost 1600 yeares past, since they were giuen.Rev. 1. And the Holy Ghost testifieth, both in the first and last Chapter of his Revelation, that the time was not long, but shortly to come. Rev, 22. and by another, that the mysterie of Iniquitie beganne euen then in the Apostles time to worke. Secondly,2 Thes. 2. if these pro­phesies be fulfilled, as hath beene shewed, and if the Pope be indeed that Antichrist, spoken of in the Scrip­tures, and all the prophesies concerning Antichrist do concurre in him, and can be applied to no other, so apt­ly as unto him: then I aske, why should we halte any longer betweene two opinions? why should we flatter our selues, 1 Reg. 10. or dallie with idle distinctions of the Antichrist, and an An­tichrist, as if any Antichrist might be admitted to stand in competition with our Soveraigne Lord Christ Iesus: If that distinction must yet still be observed, as well at this time, as in the dayes of S. Iohn; unlesse the distin­guisher can shew some other that may be called the An­tichrist, besides the Pope: I demand, whether it may not be inferred: that The Pope is The Antichrist, and that everie Papist is an Antichrist. O deare Christi­ans, let us at length awake, and if God be God serue him; if Rome be Babylon, let us flye out of her, and [Page 212] if the Pope be Antichrist, let us utterly forsake him. For to follow both, serue both, cleaue to both, or relie upon both, is absolutely impossible. Thirdly, if these things be so, I aske in what case they be that take parte with Antichrist, or entertaine him eyther by way of Obedience, conversation, assistance, permission, connivence, or howsoever: seeing it is written, that if any man worship the Beast, the same shall drinke of the pure wine of the wrath of God. And what concord can Christ haue with Be­lial? Fourthly, upon the same grounds, I demand what power this Pontifex Max. which is Antichrist, can haue over Christian Kings, Princes, Magistrates, or other persons whatsoever to excommunicate, interdict, de­pose or depriue any of them? Fiftly, I aske what au­thoritie he hath to interpret the Scriptures, or what he hath to doe with them, or to pardon or dispence with sinnes, namely incest, murther, treason, Idolatrie, &c. or to make Canons, Decrees or Decretals to bind Chri­stians? Sixthly, seeing the Monarchie of the Pope is di­rectly holden of the Divel, by homage actually perfor­med by some of them, and assented unto by all their Successors, in approving and maintaining their succes­sion from, and by them which did it: I demand whether all that follow the Pope, or take parte with him, do not thereby submit themselues to the Divell, in approving of that horrible Act; and withall renounce and forsake our onely true and right­full Lord, and Soveraigne Christ Iesus? And lastly, all the premises considered, whether it may stand with the policie, safetie, or peace of any Christian kingdome state or common wealth, to permit and suffer Antichri­stian and diuelish practises of filthines, infidelitie, mur­ther, treason, Idolatrie, blasphemie, and superstition to increase amongst them. And whether it be not high [Page 213] time for all Christians to awake, and betime to flye out of Babylon, least they be taynted with her sinnes, & so made partakers of her punishments, and for Christian Kings to reward her (according to Gods commandements) as shee hath rewarded the servants of Iesus Christ.

Saue thy selfe O Sion, that dwellest with the Daughter of Ba­bylon.

Zach. 2, 7.

Ecclesiae querela. Woe is me, that I sojorne in Meshec, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar. My soule hath long dwelt with him that hateth peace: I am for peace, but when I speake, they are for warre.

Psal. 120.

Arise O Lord, let not man prevaile: Let the Nations be judged in thy sight.

Sententia divina. Put your selves in aray against Babell, round about. All yee that bend the bow shoote at her, spare no arrowes: for she hath sinned against the Lord. Shoute against her round about, she hath giuen her hand. Her foundations are fallen, her walls are throwne downe: for it is the vengeance of the Lord. Take vengeance upon her, as she hath done, doe to her.

Ier. 50.

Babylon is fallen it is fallen. Apoc,

A Problem what successe is to be expected by Christians in any action, joyning with Anti­christians or Idolaters.

Iosh. 7.THus sayth the Lord God of Israhel, there is an accursed thing in the midest of thee O Israell. You cannot stand before your enimies, untill you haue ta­ken away the cursed thing from among you.

2 Chron. 16. 13. Asa made a covenant with Benhadad king of Syria: then Hanani the Seer came to him & said: [Page 214] Because thou hast relied on the King of Syria, and not re­lied on the Lord thy God, therefore is the Host of the King of Syria escaped from thee. Herein thou hast done foolishly. Therefore from hence forth thou shalt haue warre.

2 Chron. 19. Iehoshaphat King of Iuda, helped Ahab a­gainst the King of Syria, and Iehu the sonne of Hanani, the Seer, went out to meete him, and said to King Iehosha­phat: Shouldest thou helpe the wicked, and loue them that hate the Lord, therefore is wrath upon thee, from be­fore the Lord. And shortly after the Moabites and Ammo­nites came against him.

2 Chron. 20. Iehoshaphat joyned with Ahaziah King of Israel, who did verie wickedly, and he joyned with him in making ships to go to Tarshish. Then Eliezer the sonne of Dodavah prophesied against King Iehoshaphat, saying: Because thou hast joyned thy selfe with Ahaziah, the Lord thy God hath broken thy works. And the ships were bro­ken.

2 Chro. 21. Iehoshaphat had taken Ahabs daughter for a wife to his sonne Iehoram, hoping perhaps to draw back the kingdome of Israell, but it proved the overthrow of his posteritie.

2 Chro. 23. Amazia hired an hundred thousand mightie men out of Israel, for an hundred tallents of silver. But there came a man of God to him saying, O King, Let not the armie of Israel go with thee. For God is not with Is­rael. &c.

Esa. 48. Ier. 51. Rev. 18. Flye out of Babylon my people, that ye be not partakers of her sinnes, and that ye receiue not of her plagues. See more Esa, 20, 5.30, 1, 2. Ier. 17. &c. and consider of all the leagues, and treaties made by the Kings of Iuda with the Syrians, Egyptians, Assirians, Baby­lonians [Page 215] &c. what came of them? What good gott Salo­mon by his affinitie with the Egyptians? was not his sonne spoyled by them? What gotte Hezekiah by his courtesie shewed to the Babylonian Embassadors? Esa 39. &c.

It were a worke not unworthie the vacation of a lear­ned man, to adde unto this a consideration of all the Leagues, Pacifications, and Treaties, that haue been made by the Romish Catholikes with other Christians, as name­ly with the Graecians, the Albigenses, Valdois, Bohemians, Lutherans, Calvinists, Huguenots, Protestants &c. How they haue observed their covenants and fayth, and what hath beene the ende and successe of everie of them. What good the Grecian Emperors, what good the Albigenses under the E. of Tontons, what the Valdois, Bohemians, and others gotte, by submitting or yeelding to the Roma­nists, and what fayth those Romish Catholikes haue held with them: also what is come of all the great warres, that Christian Princes haue undertaken by the instigation and procurement of the Pope, as namely those of ancient time for Ierusalem, and those of late in France. Also what good hath come to Christendome by all the victories gotten by Romish Catholikes against the Turkes: haue they enlarged or defended Christendome? haue they not lost a great part of it? Yet they hold some part. True, taking Christen­dome in their sense, who admitte none to be Christians, but those that are subject to the Pope. But for other Chri­stians it is much worse. For the Grecian Christians, though grievously oppressed, are suffred in some sorte to liue under the Turke, but Protestants in no sort under the Pope. &c.


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