THE GOVERNMENT OF JRELAND VNDER THE HONORABLE, IVST, AND wise Gouernour Sir IOHN PERROT Knight, one of the Priuy Councell to Queene ELIZABETH, beginning 1584. and ending 1588.

Being THE FIRST BOOKE OF THE CONTINVATION OF THE Historie of that Kingdome, formerly set forth to the yeare 158 [...], and now continued to this present 1626.

Whereof The rest succeeding this already col­lected, but not fully perfected, shall shortly follow.

Historia vera, vera vita temporis.

LONDON: Printed for THOMAS WALKLEY, and are to be solde in Britaines Bursse, at the Signe of the Eagle and Childe.


TO MY MOST RE­spected and worthy Cossin BEVELL GRENVILE Esquire.

AT your instant entrea­ty, I spent many houres in a Commentary vp­on Londognos dis­scourse, which was no sooner ended, but lost through a mis-fortune, which fell vpon my Papers, by the last Yeares Infection, lighting in my Lodging. And not being able yet to recouer another of the same Bookes, I cannot begin againe, till my defect be supplied. In the mean [Page] (such being your desire) J aduen­tured on the Story of our Irish Warres, But as I was in my tra­uaile, J discouered the best part of my Iourney already perfected by a better vndertaker. J therefore here stopp, and present you with thus much. Jf this little like you, I will proceed againe another way, as the time shal permitt me. Wher­in you shall view no further then my owne Eyes haue seene. So shall J not turne backe till J haue fini­shed. All being but to please you, dispose as you may in any thing,

Your Kinseman,
and true Friend,
E. C. S.

To the Reader.

THis Noble Gentleman, liking the plaine writing of a Soldier, (in whose profession an Hono­rable minde hath made him add experience to his affection) bet­ter then the eloquence and ela­borate work of a professed Scholler, (affecting Caesars matter not his words) especially, a­mōgst our late writers delighting in two plain discourses of the famous Knight Sir Robert Williams; And finding iust fault that our English are to idle in memorizing their owne exploit. Entreated, nay, cōmanded me (for such is his power) since he could draw no better pencill to so good a picture, to put my selfe in print, (though to the censure of euery busie body) wherein, in obseruance to his will, I spent some time in discoursing vpon the Spanish forme of Discipline, by such exploits of our Nation a­gainst the Spaniard, as I my selfe had seene per­formed. But, by misfortune, already mentio­ned in the Epistle, my labour miscaried. And not hauing meanes to begin againe at this time, as willingly I would for his satisfaction, I was by him enduced to treat of another Subiect, [Page] being yet matter of the same profession, and some part acted within the compasse of mine owne experience; wherein, because the foun­taine might better sh [...]w the streame, I could not chuse but ascend to a time foregoing mine, as well to begin where the former Historian of that Countries Gouernment left; as because, that from that time, the later and succeeding troubles had their likely beginning; purposing to haue proceeded thence, to the end of the last Warres of Ireland: In most part of which, I had spent many of my endeuours, thether re­mooued from the Netherlands, where from a childe, I had receiued breeding, then liuing in those Warres, when this worthy Gouernour Sir Iohn Perrot ruled in Ireland, where, if such had beeue Gods pleasure, we may guesse, it had beene happy that he had gouerned much lon­ger, as well for the good of that Kingdome: as for the honour and contentment of our late most famous and euer renowned Queene, to whom the ensuing troubles (through the faul­ty Gouernment of his Successours, brought dishonour and griefe. First, by the losse of ma­ny worthy men (the flower of our Nation) with an infinite number of guiltlesse soules torne out of this world by misery and slaugh­ter in those Warres, the expence of a won­drous masse of Treasure, with other prouision, enough to haue shaken the Walls of the grea­test Monarchy in Europe, if all these had beene [Page] so imployed, which was not vnlikely, if Sir Iohn Perrot had beene returned into Ireland, as vpon the beginning of the Warres the Queene determined. Then by being so long resisted by such base Rebels concluding her Raigne, (that had flourished with so many famous Acts against the capitall Enemie of her, and her neighbours, by which they at this day, redee­med out of misery, flourish againe in great­nesse) with a strong Warre against so petty Traytours: Whereon, since time will disco­uer the passage it selfe, I shall neede to insist no longer: This purpose of the Queenes to re­turne Sir Iohn Perrot, was preuented by the two sinnes of Couetousnesse and Malice, raign­ing in the then Gouernour there, and a person here transcendent both in power and authori­ty: the one, to maintaine his profit (where­unto some powerfull friend of his had too much relation:) the other not brooking Sir Iohn Perrots high, and (indeede) too chollerick spirit and condition, being fearefull of his ad­uancement, ioyned with the other. So groun­ding a combination, builded vp by the helpe of two other instruments of that State, the one in his owne Nature euill, the other contenti­ous for his particular ends. Thus an Enemie Armed, it was no difficult thing, that a con­demned Traytor should bee encouraged in hope of pardon, and some other mercenarie persons to accuse an Innocent.

[Page] To this forged accusation, That great and iust Prince (incensed to displeasure by such an one as was neere in fauour, who pretended her safety, as the colour of his intended ma­lice, and that displeasure exasperated by some part of the accusation, which to her was per­sonall) was vrged to giue way, euen against her heart to his prosecution, as appeared by her answer to the newes of his condemnation: for she casting into the ballance of her iust iudge­ment his former weighty Seruices, and zea­lous endeuours, and weighing them with those base persons his Accusers, and their light proofes produced against him, said thus in the hearing of men of good account, and some neere to me in bloud and acquaintance. Is he found guilty? Then, in my conscience, they haue found an Innocent guilty.

And had she restored his Estate to his issue, as shee respited his. Execution, being hardly drawne to giue way to his sentence. The fault had wholly layne vpon the false accusations, and sentence, thereupon procured, by the po­wer of his Prosecutors, and Periurie of his Accusers: But so long a Reigne as hers, hath seldome escaped being spotted with greater blots, then this omission, which, if God had spared her a little longer life, she had (as I haue beene credibly tolde) repaired by a Reall re­stitution of his Estate, to such as he had dispo­sed it in his life time.

[Page] Thus much I am moued the more to men­tion by writing his Gouernement, which gaue me occasion to looke further then others haue done into the course and cause of his condem­nation.

As I was proceeding in my intended dis­course, I gayned notice, that this Story suc­ceeding Sir Iohn Perrots time, was already vn­der the pen of a more able hand, one that had taken much paines in that Subiect, (onely hauing omittted Sir Iohn Perrots time for some particular reasons) which must needes ble­mish my worke, because not so substantiall. I abruptly therefore brake off, with such an ex­cuse as to him belonged, who was the mo­tiue of my vndertaking. And if this, thus much, come in Print, I pray you know it, to be his will onely. But if this weake labour be not misliked, I will proceede further, as time shall spare me leasure.

To the Queenes most Excel­lent Maiestie.

Sir Iohn Perrots Opinion for the suppressing of Rebellion, and the well Gouerning of Ire­land, written by him vpon the Queenes com­mandement, in the time of the Earle of Des­monds and the Lord of Baltinglasses Rebel­lion. 1582.

I Haue found the charge that your Maiestie committed vnto mee for the setting downe of mine opinion, how your Realme of Ireland might with the least charge be reclaimed from Bar­barisme to a godly Gouernment, somewhat difficult, by reason of mine owne insufficiency, many wayes for so weighty a cause. Neuer­thelesse, entring into consideration, first of your Maiesties most godly and Princely care in this behalfe, and next of my most bounden duty to your Maiesty; I haue beene embold­ned to set downe what I obserued, were the causes of the disorders of the Land, whilst I [Page] had some peece of Gouernment in it, and what I then thought, and now doe thinke, may bee some meanes to reforme the same, most hum­bly referring both my selfe, and this my sim­ple discourse to your Maiesties, and Councels grauer & deeper consideration, and as humbly crauing pardon, if in seeking to discharge my duty truly and plainely, I touch any thing that may seeme offensiue.

It is most apparant, that the regard your Maiestie hath had to God, and his will in all your Princely proceedings, hath so wonder­fully blessed your Estate, that as wee your faithfull Subiects, doe loue and honour you, so all forraigne Nations doe admire and reue­rence you for it: A cause for vs to thank God most hartily, and a patterne for all Princes to immitate most diligently. Wee therefore to you, and you to God, are to giue all the ho­nour and glory.

It is also apparant, what continuall care you haue had of that your Realme of Ireland. The great and almost insupportable charges that you haue sustained to doe it good, doth well witnesse the same. For so great a masse of Treasure haue you already imployed to that end, that no Prince in the world, (except your Maiestie, who hath bin moued with con­science of your people, and feare of God only) [Page] would in reason or good pollicy, giue so much for the purchase of such an other Land, to bee enioyed in peaceable possession. And yet, notwithstanding all that, your Maiesties care and cost that way, hath not hitherto yeelded that fruit that your Maiesty doth desire. For the State of that Country hath growne dayly from worse to worse, and from dangerous t [...] most dangerous.

Many men doe alledge causes hereof: But next to the want of the true knowledge of God, and of the due course of Iustice, to giue euery man a peaceable propriety of that which is his owne; I take (vnder correction) that the smoothing vp of all former Rebelli­ons, by Pardons and Protections, hath beene the misery and cause of most of this mischiefe. For if it were not too bitter a rehearsall, it were no hard matter to make it appeare, how one Rebellion during your Maiesties Raigne, hath hatcht another; and how againe of all them, this last more dangerous then they all, hath taken this strong rooting with forraigne combination.

Leauing this third cause a while, I craue pardon to say a little of the two former prin­cipall causes, want of Religion, and Lawe. It is a lamentable thing to behold, how gene­rally in that Realme, they are so farre, of not onely, from true, but also (in effect) from any knowledge at all of God; tha [...] Saint Patrick [Page] is more familiar, and of better credite with them, then Christ Iesus our Sauiour. How can a people so estranged from God, and their duty to him, haue any grace to know their lawfull Prince, and their duty to her? The like is to be said of the Lawes, from which they flye, as from the yoke of bondage, and not desire to be tyed by it, as by the linke of humane Socie­ty, as they ought to be; The reformation must therefore begin at God. His will and word must be duly planted, and Idolatry extirped. Next, Law must be established, and lycentious customes abrogated.

The meanes to effect both, is now most fitly offered by the Rebellion now a foore: So as a man that should giue his opinion for the re­formation of Ire [...]and, might conclude all cir­cumstances with this one short resolution: Correct this Rebellion throughly, and reforme Ireland presently. I must therefore craue par­don to say a little more concerning this Rebel­lion, before I meddle with other particulari­ties of reformation. There be three strong rea­sons to moue your Maiesty to correct this Re­bellion with all earnest seuerity, not allowing pardon or protection to be giuen to any man, but vpon speciall and vrgent great causes. The first reason is, The charge that God hath com­mitted to your Maiesty ouer that people, to see the good maintained, or at the least, defended, and the bad suppressed, or at the least repressed. [Page] Then the account that God will require for the innocent blood, that hath beene there cru­elly spilt by Traytors, and for the miserable oppression of the better sort of your Maiesties Subiects, who haue beene there burned, raui­shed, robbed, and spoyled: the cry whereof is now shrill in Gods eare, for vengeance a­gainst these cruell Rebels, and disordered dealers.

The second reason, is a present vrging ne­cessity, which may not be neglected, but with dangerous errour in pollicy of Gouernement. For remit this Rebellion, and yeeld wholly and for euer the Lamb to the Wolfe, and the Subiect to the Traytor, who will so keepe him vnder, that hee shall neither will nor dare euer hereafter to oppose himselfe on your Ma­iesties behalfe or Seruice.

The third reason is commodity: For (be­sides that all rules and orders for reformation, may thereupon be the more readily and lesse chargeably put in execution) there will ex­cheate to your Maiesty by due course of Iustice the better halfe of that Land, whereof what great [...]ue may in short time accrew to your Maiestie, ouer and aboue, what may be imployed to reward and strengthen those that are dutifully disposed, shall in part appeare in place, where the commodities of Ireland shall purposely be spoken of.

Thus it appeareth, that the seuere correction [Page] of this Rebellion, is the first and soundest step of reformation, and that the same is grounded vpon duty to God, necessity, pollicy, and commodity; all which points would yeeld a larger discourse, if that it were either my pur­pose, or needfull to your Maiesty, who know­eth and vnderstandeth all.

Least some might draw this mine opinion of a seuere correction, into the reckoning of a more cruell sentence then I meane: I protest it is farre from me to desire any extirpation; but rather that all might bee saued, that were good for the Country to be saued. Yet this I say, Till your Maiesties Sword hath meeke­ned all, I thinke it neither Honour nor safety to graunt mercy to any. But when the Sword hath made a way, then, as to pardon all, would be too remisse a pitty: So, not to pardon ma­ny, would be an extremity nothing agreeable to your Maiesties most godly and mercifull inclination. Otherwise there would be such a vacuity of ground there, (as it is already too great) that your Realme of England, though it be most populous, through your Maiesties most godly Gouernement, (God be thanked, and long continue it) were not able to spare people, to replenish the wasts.

It resteth now to speake of the particular meanes, as well to represse this Rebellion, as thereupon to reforme the Realme. First, very good choyse being made (as there is already) [Page] of your Deputy, it is most requisite (for the time of his continuance in that Seruice, which in my opinion had need be seuen yeeres for so great a worke) that all his actions there be throughly backed by your Maiestie, and none of them crossed, to worke him your Mai­sties disgrace (which the Irish will soone espie) either by suggestions thence, or practises here, during his continuance in charge there; but vpon his discharge to answere all with his life and liuing: your Maiesties Deputy being thus fortified with credit, he must also be through­ly maintained with sufficiency of men, money, munition, and victuals: but before I speake of them, I thinke it necessary to remember, that for the principall points of the gouernment of that Land, it shall bee requisite that certaine rules be prescribed to euery Deputy by your Maiestie, and Counsell here. And yet he not to be so tyed to any of them, but that vpon vrgent causes he may breake or altar them.

To returne to prouision. And first for men. All wards being furnished, I take 800 English horsemen: 3000 English foot-men, and 1000 Galloglaghes, Kerne, and Irish shott will suf­fice for this purpose: But because it shall bee necessary to ease your Maiesties good subiects of the Cesse for the souldiors, wherwith they haue beene hitherto burthened, I thinke it re­quisite that in leuy of that Cesse, the pay be ac­cording to the rates insuing, as your Maiestie [Page] alloweth in all your other seruices. And the rather in respect as well of the painfull dangers that these Souldiers must abide, as also that they may liue without rauine and spoyle.

The pay.

Euery band of 100 Horsemen to haue a Captaine at 6 s. 8 d. a Leiutenant at 3 s. 4 d. a Guidon at 2 s. a Trumpet at 18 d. a Surgion at 18. d and euery 15120 lib.horseman (besides 10 dead payes) at 12 d. which being all sterling, and euery band by the day to 105 s. by the moneth of thirty dayes, to 157 lib. 10 s. by the yeere of 12 moneths and fine odde dayes to 1890. lib. Jn all by the yeere.

Euery band of 100 foots▪men to haue a Captaine at 4 s. a Lieutenant at 2 s. an Ensigne at 12 d. a Ser­ieant 45625. 12 d. a Drumme at 12 d. a Surgion at 12 d. and euery Souldier (besides 10 dead payes) at 8 d. which being all sterling ancient; euery band by the day to 4 lib. 3 s. 4 d. by the moneth of 30 dayes, to 125 li. by the yeere of 12 moneths and 5 odde dayes, to 1120 lib. 16 s. 8 d. Jn all by the yeere.

Euery band of 100 Kernes, Galloglaghes, and Irish shott, to haue a Captaine at 2 s. a Lieutenant at 12 d. a Guidon at 8 d. a Piper at 8 d. and euery Kerne 6874 lib. 38. 4 4 d. without dead payes, which being all sterling, a­mounteth euery band by the day to 36 s. 8 d. by the moneth of 30 dayes, to 56 lib. 10 s. by the yeere of 12 moneths and 5 odde dayes, to 687 lib. 8 s. 4 d. Jn all by the yeere.

Totalis of your Maiesties pay. 67619 lib. 3 s. 4 d.


Adde for the Deputies and other officers enter­tainment, furnishing of wardes, and other extraordi­nary 37380. lib. 16 s. 8 d.charges, and also towards buildings in places conuenient, whereof the charge is very vncertaine.

And so.

Your Maiesties whole charge in certainty for this seruice, (excepting the vncertainty of the charges 100000 lib.of buildings) will amount vnto.

Here (by the way) I thinke it expedient, for auoyding of confusion of new and old recko­nings together, that old former payes and debts remaining in arrerages vnto the taking of this seruice in hand be cleared, and dischar­ged. And then for this new reckoning thus made, it behoueth to shew how or whence the money may be leauied. In mine opinion, (the things before rehearsed aduisedly considered) it were mony well bestowed for so good a pur­pose, though the whole came directly out of your Highnesse Treasure; And yet it is to be remembred, that besides your Maiesties conti­tinuall yeerely charge which is not small, you haue in some one yeere (as I am giuen to vn­derstand) spent as much as this vpon that coun­trey seruice. But considering the great char­ges that your Maiestie hath and must sustaine otherwayes for the safety of your people and [Page] Countries, you may in reason and honor admit an extraordinary remedie, though at the first sight, it carry some shew of an inconuenience. I suppose therefore (vnder correction) that it shall be good, that your Maiestie after the ex­ample of France, Spaine and Flanders, where most of the small money consisteth of base coynes, doe also cause to bee coyned yeerely during the first foure yeeres, 100000 li. in pie­ces of 8 d. 4 d. 2 d. and 1 d. the same to con­taine, but a fourth part of fine siluer, letting all coines that are currant there of good gold and siluer to run as now they doe: so your Maie­sties charge, besides all charges of coynage, wil amount to no more but 25000 lib. yeerely which in foure yeeres would come to 100000 lib. which by that time your Maiestie with Gods fauour should see would bring you a faire reckoning of that countrey and gouern­ment.

The place fit for coynage, whether at the Tower of London, or any other port towne of England that hath more commoditie for fewell, or else rather in Ireland. I referre to your Maiesties, and Counsels considerations. If in Ireland, I thinke it very necessary to call in all the base money that is there now cur­rant, paying ready sterling mony for the same, at the rates it now goeth. The masse of that base money would presently set the mint a worke: and being new molten, would with [Page] some supply serue this turne. This being thought good: then surely the Towne of Rosse in the Countie of Wexford will bee a most apt place for the mint, by reason of the great abundance of wood which groweth a­long the Riuer that commeth close by that town, the felling whereof will be seruiceable; not onely for this worke, but also for the qui­etnesse of the countrey there abouts.

Some scruple may bee made here by the late experience of this Realme, what inconue­niences may grow by imbasing the coyne. It cannot be denied, but it was somewhat incon­uenient for this Realme, liuing vnder ciuill and orderly gouernment: yet the necessitie of the weighty seruice then being supplied by it, wee see all the inconueniences well ouercome through your Maiesties peaceable gouern­ment, (God be thanked for it.) But the exam­ple of this Realme, or of any other common­wealth already reformed doth not hold in this case: For, as imbasing of coyne and such like dangerous innouocations may breed harme in well gouerned States: So in Ireland being all out of order it can doe no harme at all, but ra­ther it is to be hoped, that the admission of this one small inconuenience, may be a meane to redresse, not onely a number of other greater inconueniences, but also it selfe too withall in the end.

Let it be confessed, that the prices of things [Page] will by that meanes within a yeare or two, vp­on discouery of the basenesse, rise to double, and that both Souldier and Country man shal for the time loose accordingly.

If the reformation doe immediatly recom­pence the losse treble, then may I aske, what harme hath either Souldier or Country man receiued? That it will so, may appeare thus. Scarce the fourth foote of Ireland is at this houre manured; and of that scarce the fourth penny profit made, that the soyle would yeeld, if through a reformation the Husbandman might haue a safe and peaceable vse both of it and of his Cattell. And yet I say nothing of Mynes, and a number of other hidden Com­modities that a ciuill reformed Gouernement would bring with it. Now it may please your Maiesty, that I may reckon, and reason thus: First, coyning in foure yeares 400000 pound, your Maiesties turne is serued for 100000 pound. Then calling it downe at sixe yeares end, to the iust value it is worth, whereby it will be for euer after a very necessary Coyne to bee currant, for the reliefe of your poore Subiects, not onely of Ireland, but also of Eng­land, the Country shall lose 300000 pound. That this shall be treble recompenced, by the reformation I suppose will thus bee prooued. Allow (for example) that the whole profit of Ireland is not yearely aboue 100000 pound. Adde to this a treble profit in quantity of [Page] ground to be manured, and another treble in quality of manuring, for two yeares betwixt the end of the Coynage and the fall, allowing the first foure yeares to be fruitlesly spent in reforming (though there bee hope that that time will be shortned) I thinke the reckoning of a treble recompence, falleth out apparantly. In these matters of State, there can be nothing set downe so plaine, that will not admit a con­tradiction. And therefore (perhaps) it may be said▪ This is a good and easie speculation. But I trust (God giuing good encrease) it will proue as good and as easie an action. To God therefore, and to your Maiesties gracious con­sideration, I thus leaue it.

Victualls and Munition are now to be pro­uided for. And sure there must be speciall re­gard had of both. Experience of the misery, and defect in Sernice, I found that way ma­keth me to giue this speciall caution, leauing all particular direction thereof, to those that haue better skill therein then I haue. Neuer­thelesse, the chiefe Victualer being chosen a man of good substance, skill, and conscience, he had neede (in mine opinion) be imprested 10000 pound currant money of England vp­on good sureties, not onely to answere the Stock, but also to haue Grainers of Corne in places apt for the Seruice.

These things thus prouided; In mine opi­nion, the standing seate for the Deputy and [Page] the Law, would bee translated from Dublin, (which is apt for nothing else, but to send and receiue readily from England) to Atblon, which is (as it were) the Centre of Ireland, and scitu­ate both in a good soyle, apt for all things ne­cessary, and on the Shennon, which is the best Riuer of the Realme, and would with a small charge be made portable twenty miles aboue Athlon at least. By that meanes, as the Deputy may vpon euery occasion (be it neuer so sud­daine) be within twelue houres in the farthest Prouince frō him: So in short time the repaire hither from all quarters of the Realme, would breede a thorow-fare, euen through Desarts and Woods, that are now lurking holes for Rebels, and Nourceries for Rebellion.

The Deputy thus furnished and seated, he had neede for his better assistance, to haue two Presidents with competent Officers to those States, and those such men for Religion, con­science, courage, diligence, and ability both of bodies and purses, as respecting their duties to God and your Maiesty, the good of their Country and their owne credites, may attend their charges constantly against all toylesome dangers, & corrupt gaine, shewing themselues in all their actions reformers & not deformers.

Their standing seates will be most apt, the one for Mounster at Killmallock, the other for Vlster at Liffuer. So (as occasion shall require) may they best answere the Deputy, and the [Page] Deputy then being, as it were, in the middest betwixt them, of equall distance from them both.

Then there is needfull to be two Marshalls, who being aptly chosen for the purpose, should at the direction of the Deputy and Pre­sidents goe to one exployt, while they be ey­ther at some other, or else otherwise necessa­rily ministring Iustice. Thus the Deputy an­swering, and they assisting one another, both the labour will be the easier, and the Enemie the more doubtfull, being set to fiue seuerall wayes. As before of the Deputy, so here of these Officers, I thinke it requisite that their Seruice haue some limitation of time, and that the Presidents fiue yeares, vnlesse sicknes, or other necessity occasion the contrary. And for the Marshalls, it were not amisse they were made Patentees to continue during life, vn­lesse through misbehauiour they should de­serue to be displaced, or through good desert to be better aduanced.

In choise of the Lord Chauncellour and all other Officers, there would be like regard had, that through needinesse they bee not carried from Iustice, which next vnder God must bee the chiefest reformer. The like is to be said of the Clarke of the Check, that he be a carefull man to see the bands full.

Also the Captaines, their Officers and Soul­diers, that they make neither a Haruest of the [Page] Seruice, nor a spoyle of the Subiects, but ra­ther (together with seeking to suppresse the Rebellion without malice to any mans person) to sowe the seede of good example, whereby both themselues, and those that their Seruice shall be meane to reforme, may reape of God and your Maiesty an honest & godly Haruest, to the iust reward of their Seruices both for bodies and soules. There are diuersities of opinions, what seruice were fit to bee first at­tempted, and where.

Some in Vlster against the Scots: Some in Connaught against the Burks: Some in Moun­ster against Desmond: and some in Leynster a­gainst Baltinglass, and each haue their reason: It were not good to neglect any of them, but presently at least to front euery of them: The choyse therefore where to begin, would be left at large at the Deputies discretion, to doe ther­in as he seeth cause. Neuerthelesse, aboue all the rest, that in Leynster, which aptly may bee called an intestin mischiefe, would be (in mine opinion) first dealt withall as well for the in­dignity of the matter, as also for the suppressi­on of the Birnes, Tooles, and Cauenaghes, which (as now to Baltinglass) haue, and euer will be ready Rebellion to the Omoores, Oconers, and all others: For vntill they be ey­ther extirped, or throughly brought vnder by fortifications vpon their fastnesses, Dublin, Kil­dare, Westmeth, the Kings & Queenes Counties [Page] cannot be cleare either of theirs, the Omoores and Oconors incursions & spoyles, or of doubt of the Magoghigans, Omoloyes, & other stirring Irish borderers. But they being suppressed, the Omoores & Oconors lose all their chiefe strength and refuge, and the residue with either the Sword or the Law, will be easily enough kept vnder: So as then the Pale may without feare or danger, attend your Maiesties other Seruice with their best ayde: That being happily (as it willw, ith Gods fauour, be soone at chieued) then is your Deputy to proceede against the rest, and still as hee goeth to make great paces throughout all their Woods and fatnesses, and small fortifications vpon euery their streight and strength, after the example of your Maie­sties most Noble Progenitors in subduing of Wales. And whilst this is in doing your Maie­stie, had neede to haue not onely part of your Nauy to lye on the Coast, to answere forraign attempts if there be cause, and to keep the Re­bels from starting ouer Sea. But also small Ves­sels to lye vpon the Scots to impeach their In­uasions. The Rebellion being repressed, and your Maiesty hauing shewed mercy to those that you shall see cause to bestowe it well vp­on, then must the fruits of peaceable Gouerne­ment be made to appeare; To that end, it shall be requisite to call a Parliament, and by Au­thority thereof, not onely to reuiue all former olde Statutes, that shall be consonant to a re­formed [Page] Gouernment; but also to Enact new for the establishing of the Articles ensuing, and such other, as vpon aduice shall be thought meete.

1. First, for as much as the only way for true obedience to the Prince, groweth by true knowledge of God, it shal be requisite that two Vniuersities, where the same may bee truly taught, be erected with as conuenient speede as may be. The fittest places for them will be at Lymbrick for the south part, and Arnagh for the North: The meanes to doe it, may bee partly by some of the Lands that shall excheat to your Maiesty by this Rebellion, and partly by imposition of workes, labours, carriages, and money, as Fines vpon those that shall bee thought fit to be pardoned.

2 Item, to the end it may appeare, that the reformation tendeth to a lawfull Gouerne­ment, it shall bee meete that a Collection bee made of the Lawes already in force, and a publique denuntiation made by Procla­mation, for the putting of them in pre­sent Execution, especially the Lawes of King Kogish.

3 Item, the Earle of Ormond is to be com­pounded withall for his liberties of Tibredary: so as your Maiesties Lawes onely ruling there, my Lord, neuerthelesse, to haue the Excheats, as by the ordinance of Wales the Lords Mar­chers haue there: As for the Earle of Des­mond [Page] his liberties of County Pallantine in Ker­ry, there needeth no composition with him, he being in Rebellion.

4 Item, that all Ireland bee reduced into Manours; so as hauing Courts, Barons, Leetes, and Lawdayes kept orderly vpon them, the people may haue Iustice for meane actions neere home.

5 Item, that all Cesse, cuttings, and Irish ex­actions, as Bonnaght Coyne, and Liuory, Fowey, Soren Black rents, and such like bee cleane abollished: And that in lieu thereof a certaine Annuall rent bee rated vpon euery Plow Land, to the vse of the Lord by compo­sition, tripartity indented to be made betwixt your Maiestie, the Lord, and his Free-holder by the Lord Deputy, Lord Presidents, or other Commissioners by them authorized, reseruing besides for your Maiesty, according to the Sta­tutes made for that purpose, 13 shillings foure pence vpon euery Plow▪land, with prouiso, that if the Lord doe breake the composition, or take againe any of the said exactions, then hee to forfeit the inheritance of those Lands. And that by that tripartity Indenture, both the Lord and the Freeholder bee bound to let his demeanes, or any other Land that he shall de­mise to the Tennant, otherwise called Churle, at a reasonable rent certaine, for terme of 21 yeares at least.

Thus the Freeholder and the Tennant be­ing [Page] at a certainty, and rid of the vncertaine spoyle, and spending of the Lord, and feeling the ease and commodity thereof, will with­stand the vnlawfull attempts of the Lord, and be ready with his body and goods against him (if neede bee) at the deuotion of the State, that shall be meanes thus to enrich and better his estate.

6 Item, no Lord or Gentlemen for any re­spect or colour of Seruice, be admitted to put vpon his Lordship or Signory any Galloglagh, Kerne, or Shot, or to grant them any Kenelagh. Follow Bonaghbeg or Bonaghburr vpon paine offellony: Neuerthelesse vpon any great ne­cessity the Lord Deputy, or Lords Presidents, shall put in any Galloglagh, Kerne, or Shot, and those to be called and reputed your Maiesties Galloglagh, Kerne, or Shot.

7 Item, that all Brehons Carraghes, Bardes, and Rymers, that infect the people, Friars, Monkes, Iesuites, Pardoners, Nunns, and such like, that openly seeke the maintenance of Pa­pacy, a Traytrous kinde of people, the Bel­lowes to blow the coales of all mischiefe and Rebellion, and fit spies of Antichrist, whose Kingdome they greedily expect to bee resto­red, be executed by Marshall Law, and their fauourers and maintainers by due course of Law, to be tryed and executed as in cases of Treason.

8 Item, if your Maiesty in respect of pol­licie, [Page] or otherwise, doe not thinke it good, vt­terly to destroy the Irish Scots, that doe conti­nually inuade your good Subiects, and ayde the Rebellious against your Highnesse: That it were well your Maiesty did graunt to the Earle of Arguile an yearely Pention for a time, to the end he should restraine them from com­ming euer into England.

9 Item, that the English Horsemen & Foot­men, the Galloglaghes, Kerne, and Irish Shot, bee placed in the seuerall Prouinces of the Realme, as the seruice and the necessity of the place shall require: And that of the Lands in your Maiesties disposition by Excheat or o­therwise, as soone as conuensently may bee, some portions bee allotted to them to dwell vpon, and manure at a certaine reasonable rate. And yearely as the commodity of their Lands encreaseth, the wages to abate, and so at length cleane to extinguish.

10 Item, to the end the Ports in Ireland, espe­cially of Mounster, may be inhabited and for­tified against forraigne attempts; it shall bee well your Maiesty doe not onely strengthen the Priuiledges already graunted, but also graunt new.

11 Item, that Merchants in generall be pro­hibited vpon paine of death, to sell Powder, or any kinde of Warlike Munition to any of the Irish.

12 Item, that honest and skilfull men be ta­ken [Page] out of euery Court of Record here, and placed there for the setling of the due course of the Lawes. And for their better encourage­ment to doe well, that in respect of their ho­nest trauels, they be promised preferments of Offices in the Courts here, as any doe fall fit for them.

13 Item, that the Glybb, and all Irish habite of men and women, be presently abollished, and that Orders be set downe for enlarging the English tongue, and extinguishing the Irish in as short a time as conueniently may be.

14 Item, that the factions of Butler and Ge­raldine, with the titles of Ahmabo and Cr [...]gh­mabo be taken away.

15 Finally, to the end your Maiesties State be more followed, and depended vpon then hitherto it hath beene, and the Lords of the Counties lesse, (reseruing to them the honour and reputation due to their places, as the No­ble men here haue.) I thinke it very necessary that a suruay be taken of all their Lands: and that your Maiesty, by good aduice, shall take such a third part thereof into your hands, as shall lye fittest for the furtherance of your Ser­uice▪ Giuing them of improoued Lands in England by way of exchange, a valuable re­compence. So shall your Maiesties followers encrease, and theirs diminish to the great assu­rance of your State there: Besides, that by that meanes your Highnes shall haue alwayes

A CONTINVATION of the History of IRELAND vnto this time 1626, whereof this is the first Booke, beginning 1584. and ending 1588. the rest shall follow.

Queene Eli­zabeths pro­sperous and peaceable go­uernment. WHen Queene Elizabeth (the mirrour of women, and most famous of Prin­ces) had to the wonder of the world, and her owne euer flourishing fame, go­uerned these her King­doms of England and Ire­land, 1584for the space of almost sixe and twenty yeares, and did now plainely finde; that the Romish and Spanish practises (those ambiti­ous States affecting vniuersall Supremacie; the one in ouer▪ ruling Religion, the other in coue­ting absolute Monarchy) had taken holde of the reuolting disposition & nature of the Irish (now wearier of the English yoke of obedi­ence then euer: in respect of their contrariety in Religion, which (through their wildnesse [Page 2] and barbarisme) they would not haue beene The Romane Locusts, and especially San­ders, incendi­aries of Re­bellion▪so sensible of, but by the stirring vp of the Ro­mane Locusts: the instruments of strife, bloud, and dissention) as late manifestation was made in the fruit of that wicked Priest and Traytor, Doctor Sanders his worke, who not onely drew in the inuading Popish-Spanish forces (one of those States aucthorising, the other The Popish-Spanish for­ces defeated by the Lord Gray then De­puty.supporting) into Mounster, where at Smer­wick they were defeated by her Maiesties for­ces, vnder the commaund of the right worthy and religious Deputy the Lord Gray, but had likewise incited the Lords of Desmond and Baltinglasse, with many their confederates, to an insurrection (not without suspition of the Earle of Kildares conniuencie therein) which fire being well quenched, by the wisedome The too spec­dy recalling of the Lord Gray hindred the vtter extingui­shing of Des­monds insur­rection.and valour of that noble Gouernour, but not vtterly extinct, he being too speedily reuoked thence by the meanes of his enemies at Court, enuying his vertues, and malicing his successe. And the sword committed vnto two Iustices; who as in bodies and qualities, so varied they indispositions and affection. Way was giuen by neglect, (the Handmayde of diuision) to the reuiuing those sparkes, which lay hid, and couered in the embers of the Iesuites forge; which her Maiestic discerning, repented, (no doubt) the calling away of the former Depu­tie, but like a great minded Prince, (vnwilling to confesse errour, or to shew the power of [Page 3] such as had preuailed with her in this particu­lar) called her selfe home to a new election of such a Gouernour, as was likely to answere the necessity of her seruice, and to rule that Kingdome to the good and quiet of her peo­ple, wherein though her happinesse was such, as to haue plenty of worthy seruants (Regis ad exemplum, &c.) yet most worthily, the lot of Sir Iohn Per­rott elected Lord Deputy of Ireland.her iudgement fell at this time vpon Sir Iohn Perrot, a Gentleman discended of an auncient and Noble family, and that illustrated by his owne vertue, which being supported with a faire Patrimony, (the effectuall grace of An­cient Nobility) gaue glory to his minde. His profession being a Souldier, for as his meanes bestowed grace vpon the profession, so the profession returned the more honour to his vn­dertaking; free hazard being indeede the high path to honour, especially when it is guided by a transcendent iudgement, which hee had formerly manifested by diuers imployments. In her Maiesties Nauie hee had not long be­fore, Sir Iohn Per­rotts imploy­ment against Stukely.the commaund of sixe of her Shipps, to encounter Stukeley, expected with the Papall banner, to haue inuaded Ireland: Hee was the Sir Iohn Per­rott the first Praesident of Mounster.first Lord President of the Prouince of Moun­ster, made by the aduice of Sir Henry Sidney: While he was Deputy of Ireland, wherein hee had gouerned with good successe to her Maie­sties Seruice, and such notice had she taken of his iudgement and experience in that King­dome, [Page 4] as shee required his opinion in writing Sir Iohn Per­rotts opinion for reforma­tion of Ire­land, applau­ded by the Queene and Councell.for reformation of errours, and establishing a perfection in the gouernment there, which he performed to her good liking, and the ap­plause of her Councell.

This iudicious and exact discourse I haue added (for the satisfaction of the Reader) to my Preface. These merrits induced that pro­uident Prince to this his Election. So as com­mission Sir Iohn Per­rots taking of the sword.was giuen, and the sword deliuered him in Christes Church in Dublin on the 26. of Iune anno 1584. by the afore mentioned Iu­stices, at which time, (peraduenture in imita­tion of the ancient Romane Gouernours, who were euer accustomed at their Election into Sir Iohn Per­rots speech when he re­ceiued the sword.publique Office, to make Orations to the peo­ple) hee made a briefe speech more plaine and pithy then glorious or eloquent, the words be­ing to this effect.

‘That since it had pleased God and her Maiestie to commit to him that great go­uernment, how weake so euer hee were to vndergoe so heauy a weight, yet hee would doe his best endeuour to distribute equall Iustice vnto all, which hee knew to be her Maiesties minde. And, quoth he, this sword (laying his hand vpon the sword of State) shall punish ill doers without partiality, and protect the good subiect from violence and iniury; but because words and deedes doe now a dayes vse to dwell farre assunder, I [Page 5] leaue you that heare me now, hereafter to iudge mee and my words by my deedes.’ This short speech, being pronounced in such a manner, as his naturall Maiestie of perso­nage, spirit, and countenance did vsually af­ford; receiued no lesse applause from the stan­ders by, then it gaue them hope it would proue a debt wherein the payment would iust­ly follow the promise. The ceremony being ended with the accustomed rites thereunto belonging. The next day hee communicated in Councell his commission and instructions; which for the better satisfaction of such as mistake the graunt of that gouernment, both in limit of authority and terme of Residencie: I haue thought meete to declare, that his Pat­tent was as all other Deputies▪ not with limi­tation The ampli­tude of the Deputies Cō ­mission.of yeares, or time of gouernment, but during pleasure, containing power to make warre and peace; To leauy Armes and Forces for that purpose; To punish and pardon offen­ders; To conferre all Offices, and collate all Spirituall promotions and dignities (a fewe of them excepted) concluded with the greatest Latitude of authority which can bee giuen a Subiect; which is, to doe all things in cases of Iustice and gouernment, as the Prince might doe being present. The reseruation of making Priuie Counsailers, great Officers, Bishops, and such like, alwayes giuen heere by the Prince himselfe, with diuers other things, too [Page 6] long to be here recited. In his priuate instru­ctions, besides matters of profit, as sparing her Maiesties purse, and easing her charge, setling of differences amongst the subiects, and plant­ing indifferencie betweene the superiour and inferiour, taking away thereby dependencie; The erecting of the Vniuer­sity in Dublin, giuē in charge to the Deputy.the bane of that Kingdome. There was pre­cisely giuen him in charge the erection of an Vniuersity in Dublin, for the aduancement of learning, neuer till that time set on foote (and that by this Deputies vrging) though long time before proiected, and in King Edward the sixt time intended; So soone as the mists of Ignorance (the mother of Popish deuotion) was by the shining reformation of Religion dispierced; and most especially requisite in that Kingdome, as a chiefe spring and foun­taine of ciuility.

(His authority thus shewed:) He fell with them in Councell, touching the affaires of that Kingdome, both as it was giuen him in charge, and as they were presented to the viewe of his owne experient iudgement, wherein he spent eighteene dayes; after which consultation, hee fell to shewe the fruites of Councell, in setting downe acts and decrees Amnestia, or the act of Ob­liuion.for the good of her Maiesties seruice and King­dome; amongst which, was Amnestia, or the act of Obliuion, according to the institution of the ancient and excellent Law-giuers, the La­cedemonians, being in the nature of a generall [Page 7] pardon for offences past, which was both a mercifull, and a politique prouision, to keepe Transgressours from despaire; the ready mean to enduce them to the encrease of mischiefe, but being reduced to obedience by this act of clemencie, and so setled in security. It was most probable and likely, that they who had lately felt the smart of raging and wantfull warre; would now kisse peace, and embrace it with a firmer constancy.

At the same time he sent into England, the sonne of the late Earle of Desmond, being but young (and yet held dangerous hee should be bred in that Kingdome, where practise might worke his escape, and little meanes was to yeeld him a meete breeding) with request for his carefull education here, that Religion and ciuility might after leade him to the perfor­mance of those duties, wherein (through bar­barisme) his Predecessours had erred and trangressed.

Then like a good Gouernour, that would abandon ease, the mother of errour and cor­ruption, The Lord De­puties Pro­gresse into Connaught & Mounster.he left Dublin, the seate of State, to settle the remote parts and Prouinces of Moun­ster and Connaught, vnder their Gouernours, newly sent ouer; General Norrys Lord Presi­dent of Mounster, and Captaine Richard Bing­ham chiefe Commissioner of Connaught, in whose choise this Lord Deputy (as I haue heard) had a great hand, iudging them meete [Page 8] men both for the managing of warre, and con­seruation of peace: So much did their valour, iudgement, and experience promise for them; who had at that time gained the reputation of the two most able Captaines of our Nation, wherein his wisedome, or fortune, did appeare the greater: when by such meanes his directi­ons should not onely be skilfully performed, but himselfe cased of that care and feare, a Chiefe is subiect to, when his substitutes be weake: especially such principall Gouer­nours, as haue power to answere suddaine oc­casions vpon their owne discretions; but how sufficient so euer they were, as his authority was to gouerne them, so he thought it his part to guide them by the example of his owne worke, purposing in those Prouinces to heare complaints, to redresse abuses, to decide con­trouersies, and to appease dissentions and quarrels, betweene Lords of Countries, and men of Ability, and speciall quality; whose discords and controuersies had vsually drawne them into vnwarrantable actions, and many times enforced the Prince, both to the hazard and losse of the good Subiects, and to the ex­pence of Treasure, to bring an Army to ap­pease their quarrels, as in the contention be­tweene Desmond and Ormonde had lately falne out, and that which is most dangerous in that Kingdome: It hath alwayes beene found, that Rebellion hath beene the Successour of pri­uate [Page 9] quarrels: Mischiefe like ambition, cly­ming to the highest places. For these ends and purposes, the Deputy tooke his iourney from Dublin, the thirteenth day of Iuly; at­tended on by diuers persons of account in that State, and came to Molingarre, the 16. of the same moneth, where to preuent discouery of such intelligence, as should passe betweene him and the Councell at Dublin, by the inter­ception of his or their Letters: Hee deuised and sent thence to the Lord Chancellour, and Sir Henry Wallop the Treasurer (the late Iusti­ces, and now by him authorised for the di­spatch of the affaires of the State in his ab­sence) The Deputies Alphabeticall deuice of se­crecie.certaine ciphers, and figures, framed after an Alphabet, importing the names of some of the chiefe persons and places in England and Ireland, which deuise for secre­cie was most necessarie in that Kingdome, where the people are very inquisitiue, and in the succeeding Warre, were apt to giue dis­couery to the Rebell, as well for Religions sake, as to gaine fauour vpon his Incursions. The want of this course had like to haue ope­ned to the Rebell, the last and greatest intenti­on of the Lord Burgh against them, by the interception of his last Letter to the State: opened and coppied by a Captaine, trusted with the conueyance thereof; and by him cer­tified to the Traytor Tyrone, but in the way intercepted by the Marshal, Sir Henry Bagnall. [Page 10] The originall of these Cyphers are yet to bee seene, with the worthy Sonne of that most worthy Father, Sir Henry Wallop; of whom, since my heart vpon good knowledge of him guides my Pen: I craue pardon for digressing from my matter now in hand, to speake a word of him. He was of an auncient family, and an Inheritour of a faire fortune, which he managed with so much prouidence, as it be­ing seconded by a well knowne wisedome; hee was Elected to this place of Vice-Treasu­rer, and Treasurer at Warres in Ireland; which, as I haue often credibly heard, he was vnwilling to accept of, (not because the place was in the Market at a price to be had, accor­ding to the Custome of France, but freely dis­posed, as all Offices were by that glorious Queene, who well vnderstood, that he which buyes deare, must sell at the same rate; by which meanes the poore Subiect (whose weale lay next her heart) must suffer inconue­nience:) but out of feare, that treasure which corrupts most men, might doe no lesse to him. This place hee discharged many yeares with so cleane hands, and so vpright a heart, as hee added not to his fortune any matter of mo­ment, but at his death was found vpon an euen ground: neither in debt to the Queene, nor to be charged with any gratuity from Officer, Captaine, or other in that Kingdome, and car­ried this report to his graue: that neuer Trea­surer [Page 11] so wise and prouident enioyed so long, and reaped so little benefit by so beneficiall a place, and dyed without the Taynt of corrup­tion, either in that Office or any other, which hee held by the fauour of the State in that Kingdome.

The Lord Deputy hauing performed this, with many other things of importance: set forwards on his iourney into Connaught, where hee dealt with the chiefe Lords, to change their custome of strife and controuer­sie (at this time frequent) into amity and friendship, (Charity breeding Piety, and both establishing ciuility;) as the Earles of Thomond and Clanrichard, the Lord Bremigham, the Burghs of Euter Connaught, the Okelleis, Ocon­nor Roe, Oconnor Don, Oconnor Sligo, Mac-Wil­liam Eughter, Murtho-ne-doe-Oflarty. The Oneales, Mac Trenor, Mac Mahond, Mac Enis­poc, both the Mac Nemurroes, the two Mac Mahones, and all the Chiefes of Connaught and Thomond: that both they, and the meaner Subiect; might be preserued in peace, with­out priuate wrongs, for assurance of their loy­alties, and the readier payment of their com­positions: He put to death Donnogh Beg Obry­an, Donnogh-Beg-Obryan put to death.(a bioudy murtherer, and spoyler of the good Subiect) with sixe of his accomplices. This naughty person shewed as much resolu­tion in suffering death, as before he had mani­fested cruelly in his bloudy actions, which did [Page 12] argue the goodnesse of the seruice in cutting him so timely off: for he that wants remorce of conscience at the time of his death, is in his soule delighted in doing mischiefe.

The practise of Surleboys inuading Vl­ster, discoue­red. Hee passed on to Limbrick, in the Prouince of Mounster, where hee receiued intelligence from the Baron of Donganon, Sir Nicholas Bag­nall the Marshall, (Captaine Mince then lying in Odonnells Country, and others, of the ap­proach of a Thousand Scottish Islanders, called Redshankes, being of the Septs or Families of the Cambiles, Macconnells, and Macgalanes; drawne to inuade Vlster by Surleboys, one of that Nation, who had vsurped, and by power and strong hand possessed himselfe of the Mac­guilies, and other mens Lands in Vlster, called the Glimes and the Routes: meaning to hold that by force, which hee had gotten without right, by violence, fraud, and iniurie. The Deputy at the same time receiued priuate no­tice, of a Messenger sent from the Irish of Vl­ster, to stirre vp the Lords and Chiefes of Mounster and Connaught, to ioyne with them in Rebellion, for whom he caused wayte to be Tirlogh Ley­naghs fosterer taken.layde, and had him apprehended, and brought to himselfe; who vpon examination, after some deniall, confessed that hee was Tirlogh Leynagh, then called Oneales fosterer, and by him imployed to procure those people to ioyne in Rebellion with him, and his Accom­plices, according to a former combination [Page 13] made before his Lordshippes arriuall in that Kingdome, when it was destitute of an vn­derstanding Commander, or such a Garrison of Souldiers as was fit to answere such an oc­casion: (hereby expressing the condition of that people: to watch all opportunity to de­liuer themselues from the yoake of the English gouernment,) and hee confessed withall, that now hauing moued the Lord Fitzmorrice, and some other Lords of Mounster, to enter into The opinion of the Depu­ties Iustice kept the Lord Fitzmorrice and others frō Rebellion.the promised Insurrection: hee was answered by them, that since Sir Iohn Perrot (who all that Country knew, and esteemed to be a iust man) was arriued and made Deputy; none of them would stirre so long, as hee and the Earle of Ormonde continued in that Kingdome; so as the cause, which makes the English gouern­ment heauy to that people, plainely appeares to be, the corruption of our Gouernours, else had not Sir Iohn Perrot (whose sincerity was knowne to them) had more power to con­taine them in obedience, then another of his Country and quality should haue had▪ & in the processe of this Story it will likewise appeare, that Oneale himselfe was wonn to loyalty, and a peaceable subiection, merely by the Iustice of this Deputy; when hee came once to be knowne amongst them of the North. Neuer­thelesse, the newes of the Preparation in Vlster, The Deputies returne to pre­uent the Ilan­ders.and the danger of a discent of the Scottish Islan­ders there, being by the Deputy wel weighed, [Page 14] broke off his farther proceedings in that Pro­uince, and called him backe, to the preuention of the same; leauing this Prouince secured by taking Pledges of all suspected persons, and constituting in each Country, trusty and able Gouernours, to keepe the people in obedi­ence, if any stirre should happen in his absence; taking the President of Mounster (who was de­sirous to accompany him) along with him to the Northerne Expedition, and appointing such as he suspected, to attend him to Dublin: ordaining in his absence the County of Corke to be gouerned, by the Iustices Walshe and Miagh: The Sheriffe Sir William Stanley; the Lords Barry and Roche; the County of Lim­brick to the Prouost Marshall; the County of Desmond to the Earle of Clancarthie; Sir Owen Oswilliuan, and Oswilliuan More. The County of Kerry to the Sheriffe, and the Lord Fitz-Morris, with others, whose pledges hee tooke with him. The Liberty and County of Tip­perary (whose Iurisdiction was by Charter challenged to belong to the Earle of Ormonde) he left as he found it to the auncient course of gouernment, vnder Thomas the then Earle, a man of singular wisedome and loyalty, and by her Maiestie highly fauoured. This Earle first met him in Connaught with Mac Morris, Oswilliuan More, the Knight of Kerry, and cer­taine Septs of the Galloglasses, who accompa­nied him to Limbrick, where there came vnto [Page 15] him all the principall persons of that Prouince, sauing the chiefe of the County of Corke, as the Lords Barry and Roche, Sir Owen-Mac-Carthie, and others, who did accompany their Sheriffe Sir William Stanley, prouided to enter­taine him, and present themselues vpon the Confines of their owne County: but were preuented by the Northerne newes already mentioned, the Deputy hauing changed his purpose of visiting those parts.

Malachias A­malone, a Fry­ar conuerted. In this passage thorow Connaught, Malachias Amalone, brother to Mac William Eughter (who had long beene a Fryar) was brought vnto him, and by him with priuate consultation, and dispute, made to vnderstand his errours. Hee publiquely, and before a great Assembly did renounce the Pope and Romish Religion, gaue ouer his order and habit, and made his Recantation by professing himselfe a Prote­stant, and conformable to the Religion esta­blished in her Maiesties Dominions.

With these courses of Prouidence, Iustice, ending of Controuersies, and taking security for the preseruation of future Peace: the peo­ple generally seemed to be well pleased and sa­tisfied▪ but in nothing more, then with the correction of the Sheriffes corruptions, and limiting them to a small number of followers, who had formerly vsed with Multitudes to trauaile and Cesse, vnder colour of Seruice, to the grieuous oppression of the Country: so as [Page 16] mixing the peoples case from exaction, with their reformation, they gladly yeelded to the hardest conditions, that colde bee desired to keepe them in obedience and due subiection.

These parts being left to the care of the Iu­stices, and other selected Commissioners: The Deputy retired with as much celerity as hee could towards Dublin, and in his way as hee passed through Leix, hee tooke Pledges of Fi­augh Order taken with the heads of Lemster for the certainty of their obedi­ence. Mac Hugh, (the Fierbrand of the Moun­taines, betweene Dublin and Wexford) which were his Sonne and Vncle, and for the rest of his Sept, the Obyms, and O-Tooles: Sir Henry Harrington, the Captaine and Commaunder of that Country, was appointed to receiue the li [...]e. The two brethren of the Oconnors, who vsed to be followed with great troupes of Sa­uaging and idle people; doing and threatning mischiefe to the Queene and Kings Counties, and the parts adioyning: submitted them­selues there to the Deputy, and were by him reduced to a more orderly course: by putting away their idle men, and bringing their Sept and followers into a smaller proportion, ac­cording to their quality.

After the death of Iames More alias Meigh, the Mores who challenge dominion in L [...]ix, were deuide into two or three Septs: them the Deputy caused to render Pledges for their Loyalties, as the Oconnors had done.

The Cana [...]aghs not being ready with their [Page 17] Pledges, (who are the bordering busie men of the Counties of Wexford, Catherlogh, and Kil­dare) were respited to performe the same to Sir Henry Wallop, Sir Nicholas Walsh, and other Commissioners appointed for the suruaying the Forts of Mary Burgh, and Philips Towne. The Forts of Mary-Burgh and Philips Towne, built by the Earle of Sussex. Philips Towne, and the Kings County was as­signed to the commaund of Sir George Bour­gier; and Mary Burgh with the Queenes Coun­ty, to Captaine Warham St. Leger, which Forts were built, and Counties so named in Queene Maries time, by the Earle of Sussex then Lieu­tenant of Ireland, before begun by Edward Bollingham, being otherwise called Leix and Ophaly; these being the first Counties that The King and Queens Coun­ties diuided by the Earle of Sussex.had beene in this Kingdome since King Iohns Reigne, at what time the twelue first Shires were established: which enlarging of the English Plantation, was a Seruice of very great moment; those two Irish Septs of Mores and Oconnors, possessing these two Countries, be­ing the most powerfull Rebels of Lemster at that time, and by this good Earle and his Pre­decessour happily brought vnder.

The Orealies (as wel Sir Iohn as Philip) being then in controuersie, were thence sūmoned by the Lord Deputy, to repaire to him at Dublin, which shortly after they performed, and sub­mitted their cause to his order, who appeased their controuersie by setling an indifferent course betweene them to both their lykings.

[Page 18] Hauing secured all the Westerne parts in the manner as is declared (which was certified vnto England by those of the Priuie Councell that attended him in this iourney) he repaired to Dublin vpon the 9. day of August, hauing bin absent a moneth wanting two daies, where he remained sixteene dayes, to make prouisi­on of conuenient power and meanes for his Northerne iourney, for to resist the Inuasion of the Scottish Ilanders, whereof his intelli­gence did dayly encrease; and to suppresse the rebellious purpose of the Vlster Confederates, making the greater hast to keepe them from vniting. His force which hee could on such a suddaine make, was the Earle of Ormond and his Rising out, The Earle of Thomond and his: The Army for the North.From Mounster the Lord Barrys his Rising out, sent by his brother: The Lord Roche and Fitz Gibon, called the white Knight, with theirs: The rising out of the County of Kildare. The Lord of Trimelstowne, with the rising out of Meathe; The Vice-Count Gorm [...]nstowne, and the Lord of Heathe, with other rising out of the English Pale, being such of the olde English discent, as were tyed by their tenures and cu­stome of Seruice, to leauy certaine Horse and Foote, called Risings out; to attend the De­puty or chiefe Gouernour for a time, without the Princes charge, in all Seruices of impor­tance, when hee went himselfe in person. To these were added ten English Companies of [Page 91] Foote, of one hundred in each Company, vn­der the Command.

1 Sir Henry Wallops Company commanded by his Lieutenant.

2 Captaine Rees ap Hugh, the Prouost Mar­shall.

3 Captaine Thomas Lea.

4 Captaine Bethell.

5 Captaine Randal Brewerton.

6 Captaine Merryman.

7 Captaine Mince.

8 Captaine Parker.

9 Captaine Collum.

10 Captaine Bangor.

These Companies Risings out, and some halfe Companies of Kerne brought by parti­cular Irish Lords being ready; The Deputy accompanied with the afore-named Lords, Generall Norreys, Lord President of Mo [...]n­ster, Sir Nicholas Bagnall, then Marshall of Ireland; Captaine Iaques Wingfield, then Ma­ster of the Ordnance. Sir George Bourchier, Sir William Stanley, Mr. Thomas Norreys, Sir Hen­ry Harrington, all Gouernours, Commanders, and most of them ancient Captaines, well ex­perienced; with him likewise went Sir Robert Dillon chief Iustice of the Common Pleas, Sir Lucas Dillon chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, Sir Nicholas White Master of the Rolls, Master Ieffrey Fenton Secretary of the State, Master Henry Bagnall, Sir Edward Denny, Sir Iohn Tyr­rell [Page 20] of Farrtallaugh, Master Dudleigh Bagnall, Sir Henry Cooley, Sir Thomas More, Sir Anthony Brabauson, Warham Saint Leger, Henry Warren, and William Warren his brother, set-forwards from Dublin the fiue and twenty day of Au­gust, and came to the Newry the 29. thereof, where within a mile of the Towne met him Tirlogh Ley­naughs first comming to the Deputy. Tirlogh Leynaugh, the chiefe man of Vister, whose rebellious spirit (as well by the report was giuen of the Deputies Iustice and sinceri­ty, as the aduise of his Mounster friends) being quieted, he presented himselfe to the Deputies fauour, without either pardon or protection for his late seditious Conspiracie, whom the Deputy entertained with a louing but graue countenance, accepted his submission, and pro­mise to the State of duty and obedience; for the performance whereof, he willingly put in Pledges. During his stay and abode here; there came vnto him vpon his commandement The heads of Vister come to the Deputy vpon his wordand word of safety, Magenize, Mac, Mahone, Tirlogh Braselogh, and the Irish Captaines and Commanders of the Phews, Farry, Clancarrol, Kilwarlen, Killultagh, and those of Clanyboys side, and others the chiefe borderers, from whom appointing Pledges to be taken; he as­sured their Countries. So as no doubt of In­surrection behinde him could happen, when he should be aduanced to the Enemie and Re­bels abroad. From whence hee marched for­wards with his Forces towards Surleboys, and [Page 21] his inuading Ilanders, who hearing of his ap­proach, with more power and speede then they expected (celerity being the onely ad­uantage to a Commaunder, and the greatest dismay to an vnresolued Enemy) were much appalled; withall vnderstanding, that the De­puty had sent Shipping to surprise their Gal­lies lying at Loghfoyle, as hee had secured the whole Country, those men attending him with their Forces; whom they expected to be their partakers: So as their hoped for friends were now become their assured Enemies. They made a quick retreate to Loghfoyle, and The retreat of the Scots to Loghfoyle, and their escape thence.escaped away in their Gallies before the ap­proach of the Shipping, who came ere they were passed Kenne: So as for a while they gaue chase to them, though to no purpose. This vnhappy escape of the Ilanders, was im­puted to the negligence of the Sea Comman­ders, the Deputy hauing prouided against it, sending the Shipps in good time, fore-seeing what these barbarous Sauages were likely to doe vpon his approach: but it was excused, by the suddaine springing of a leake, which en­forced their stay till it was mended. These fu­gitlues by this aduange being escaped; made the danger of Surlcboys Confederacie seeme small. Neuerthelesse, as well to answere her Maiesties charge, as to punish the Animatours of this Inuasion; Surleboye, Ocane, Bryan Ca­raugh, and others, standing yet vpon ill terms, [Page 22] encouraged by the strength of their fastnesse, and their hope to hold out, till the approach of vnseasonable weather, (Winter hastening on.) The Deputy proceeded on to the Riuer of Bande, where hee diuided his Force into two parts, to pursue them vpon both sides The Deputy deuides his Army.of the Riuer. Himselfe, with the Earle of Ormond, and the rest of the Nobility, kept the side of Claniboy, the other part of the Ar­my hee put vnder the Conduct of Generall Norreys, which (notwithstanding his great Command ouer great Armies in the Low-Countries, where he had achiued famous Vi­ctories) he tooke no skorne of; willing to expresse his readinesse to serue his Prince, and Countrey in any kinde, who accompaned with the Baron of Donganon, kept vpon Ty­rone The Baron of Donganons insinuating with Generall Norreys.side▪ Where this wyly Serpent Donga­non so behaued himselfe to this braue hearted Norreys; as it bredd such an affection, that after was the cause (through the treache­rous Nature of this Rebell) of much mis­chiefe to the State, and dishonour to the ne­uer enough praysed Norreys; such force hath fawning seruility, oftentimes to catch hold of a Noble Nature, and indeed so great was the witt of this fatall Villany, as to diue in­to, and apply himselfe satisfactorily vnto all dispositions, and to change himselfe like Proteus into all shapes, that might bring aduantage to his Treasons, hatched with him [Page 23] in his Cradle. The Deputy spoyled Bryan Caraughs Countrey, and forced him, and Surleboy, to fly into Glancom-K [...]ne with their Criaghts and Cowes, which is the strongest and The Preying of Ochane by Generall Nor­reys.greatest fastnesse in the North. Generall Nor­reys ouerslipping Surleboy, fell vpon Ochane and tooke from him a Prey of two hundred Cowes, which gaue the Soldier good reliefe; Bryan Ca­naughs falling vpon the Horse-Boyes.but a hundred Horse-boyes and Lacqueis, be­longing to his Troopes, Scauaging abroad, and ranging loosely, as their manner is; be­ing carelesse of a flying enemy, were cut in pieces by Bryan Caraughs men. Vpon this their stragling, through their cry, when the Rebell light vpon them, some of the Forces flew into their reskue: Where laques, Sir William Stanleys Lieutenant, was hurt with a Skottish Arrow, and Ouenton, the Baron of Donganons Lieutenant likewise. Thus Boyes follies sometimes procure mens harmes, but if these two had then lost their liues, the losse had beene small, if not gaine, they after proouing bad members to their Countrey. Vpon the reuolt of Sir William Stanley in the Low-Countries, and in the late and great Rebellion of Tyrone, wherein Ouenton was a principall Firebrand. At this time Ma­ster Master Tho­mas Norreys hurt, and Mr. Lambart ta­ken prisoner. Thomas Norreys was hurt in the knee with an Arrow, and Master Oliuer Lambart, then a priuate man, but since, a speciall Comman­der, was taken Prisoner in Ochanes Countrey. [Page 24] Captain Mer­rymans prey­ing the Rebels Captaine Merryman the day before brought a prey of Cowes out of the Rebels fastnesse vnto the Deputies Campe. The day after Generall Generall Nor­reys preying Bryan Caragh. Norreys hauing passed the great woodes of Glancom Kewe, preyed Bryan Caraughs country at the bottome of the Glimes and slew them that were put to defend them.

Ochane finding his Country harrowed, & his Ochanes sub­ destroyed, and himselfe straightly pursu­ed, sued for mercy, and obtayned it: where­vpon his submission and putting in pledges he receaued a graue but sharpe admonition from the Deputy, being the first pardoned man, that had committed acte of hostillity, since his comming to the gouernement; where the reproofe was notso great to Ocane, as it was a lesson to the standers by, who might in time prooue little better affected to the State, then he had bin.

Surleboys pro­secuted by Ge­nerall Nor­reys Surleyboyes flying the Lord Deputies side, betooke himselfe into his strong fastnesse which he trusted to, but the Deputy desirous to bring him into a straight, sent ouer more Horse and Foote, with most of the Kerne from his owne side, to Generall Noris; conceiuing that hee by deuiding his force (with such draughts as might be made by espialls) might doe good Seruice vpon this sugitiue, by force­ing him into such extremity as hee should not escape without death, or yeelding.

In the meane time himselfe, with the rest [Page 25] of his Force, besieged the strong Castle of Don Luce, which though but a small Pile, Don Luce be­sieged.yet in respect of the Seate, is one of the most impregnable Castles of that Ringdome, being scituated vpon a Rocke hanging ouer the Sea, and deuided from the Marine with a narrow neck of Land or Rocke, not aboue foure foote broad, and fifty foote long, the denthes of each side being at the least ten fa­thome. The Castle it selfe commaunding the passage, is seated vpon a hard Rock, which hath in it Caues as it were Sellers, which would se­cure the guard, though the Castle were batte­red and beaten downe: Here was at this time a strong Ward commanded by a Scottish Cap­taine, who being summoned to deliuer vp the Castle to the Queene, resolutely denied; pro­testing to defend it to the last man, whereupon the Deputy, hoping the terrour of the Canon might dismay the Ward (for other hope hee had not to win so strong a place) drew his For­ces nearer, & planted his Artillary (being two Culuerings and two Sakers) for battery. This Ordnance was brought by Sea from Dublin to Skerreys Portrushe, and thence being two miles, was drawne by mens hands (through want of other meanes) to this place. The Ward of the Castle played thick with their small Shot vpon the Souldiers, that made the appraoch; much to the discouragement of the worke­men, and impeachment of the worke, being [Page 26] within Musket shot. The Deputy seeing the Souldiers shrinke, commaunded some of his owne seruants to supply the places of them that were fearefull, to fill the Gabions, and make good the ground, himselfe encouraging A worthy part of a Deputy.both them, and the rest by giuing not onely his presence, but his hand to the worke; by which meanes the Ordnance was planted, & the blin­ders set vp, the Canoniere beginning to play, which at first did little annoy the Castle or the Ward therein; but within a little time the Pile began to shake through continuance, and the discharging at once of the Artillary. Then the courages of the Ward (vnused to the de­fence of such places) began to quaile, inso­much Parley with the Castle of Don the next morning a Parley is demaun­ded, and conditions propounded; leaue to de­part with bagge and baggage, is by the Depu­ty granted; as well to take time while the feare lasted, to preuent such resolution, as de­spaire, & a better consideration of the strength of the place might yeeld them; as to saue the charge of reedifying the Castle, which he in­tended to keepe for the Queene, being a place of no small importance. Besides, the small prouision was then in the Armie, not easily supplied in that place in a short time, by which meanes other intended seruice of no lesse (if not more) importance might be hindred, was another motiue of sauing time and charge, which had bin spent, if the Captaine had con­tinued [Page 27] in his first resolution, and peraduenture without successe to the Deputy, who stoode in doubt of the losse of many men in the as­sault through the difficulty of the entry, as is before mentioned, howsoeuer it would assu­redly Surrender of the Castle of Don Luce.haue cost more time then had stood with the conueniency of the Seruice.

After surrender of this place, and a Ward there established, he tooke in the Fort of Don-fret, The taking of Don-Fret, and another Castle(the Ward hauing quitted it before) and another Castle or Pile neare Portrush. All Surleboys Loghs and Ilands were left without Submission of Surleboys.defence, so as hee had no place of strength within the mayne to flye vnto, but the woods. The Ranglings being the chiefest refuge for the inuading Ilanders to make their aboade in, as the vsuall Rendeuous where they consulted vpon the course of their Inuasion. Surleboys thus beaten from his holdes, Iudging no con­tinuance of safety to be in his flight, sued at length for mercy, as all the rest of his Confe­derates had done, which in after time, through the necessity of the season, and the want of pro­uision, the Deputy much against his minde granted, well waighing what good Seruice it would haue beene, vtterly to haue extirped the nest of these greedy valtures, but necessity oftentimes ouer-rules iudgement.

Odonnell and Sir Owen O­Toole come to the Deputy. During the Deputies aboade here, Odonnell the principal Lord of Tireconnell, and Sir Owen O Toole came, and presented themselues vnto [Page 28] him. There Tirlogh Lenaugh, and the other chiefe Lords of Vister submitted their diffe­rences and Controuersies vnto his Order, The Deputy brings the wilde Irish to the vse of law.whom hee caused to impleade each other by bill and answere, in a legall manner; an vnusu­all course to them who had beene euer accu­stomed to try all by the strength of the sword, which mischiefe had euer kept that Country in barbarisme. He ministred an oath of Allea­geance, and the obseruation of her Maiesties peace vnto them, which they by his perswasi­on The begin­ning of the composition of Vlster.willingly accepted. Hee drew them to a composition proportionably, to finde the Queene a certaine number of Souldiers in Ga­rison, to whose charge she should contribute onely 250. pound a yeare, to euery Company of a hundred, for their maintainance, and the rest should bee payd by the Country in this manner.

Tirlogh Leynaugh (who stiled himself Oneale) for him and the rest, whom hee claymed to be vnder him, as Ochane and Macguire should giue allowance to fiue hundred Souldiers, with the addition mentioned; Odonnell and his followers should doe the like to 200, Macguilly and his followers to 100 Foote, and 25 Horse.

Before the Deputies departure hence, the Lady Cambell, Donnell, Grome, and Oneales Submission of the Lady Cam­bell & others.wifes sonne, came and tendered their submissi­on, whom hee receiued into pardon and pro­tection; and passed vnto them, her Maiesties [Page 29] promised grant; procured by his mother, for so much of the Glimes as were sometime Mas­sets Lands, for which he should pay yearely 50 Beefes, and finde vpon his charge 80 Souldi­ers to serue in any part of Vlster, at the Gouer­nours commaund.

The Deputy preuented from passing further into the Rawghlings as he intended, for the vt­ter rooting out of Surleboys, by the approach of Winter, and want of victuall; the one vsually making the passages difficult, by the riuers ri­sing vpon the fall of raine, and the winde and weather hindring the others arriuall, which had beene long since shipped at Dublin; so as now victuall was very scant in the Armie, hee determined of his returne homewards, hauing happily begun, and hopefully proceeded in this reformation of the North. At which time fell a suddaine and dangerous storme, by which the Riuers grew great and likely to Retreate of the Deputy homewards.proue worse, which enforced him to speede his retreat, not willing to giue aduantage to a perfidious people, but would rather leaue to another time, the perfection & finishing of this work, which he had moulded in his iudgement for the future securing of this quarter, and dis­possessing these fugitiues that had crept and in­truded into it: But necessity, which controules great actions, and ouer-maisters the best reso­lutions; gaue an after-stop to his proceedings therein, as in the sequell will appeare.

[Page 30] The Deputy hauing setled thus much for the establishing of peace: encrease of reue­new, and force for the Prince in Vlster, where nothing but Reuolts and Rebellions had here­tofore beene practised, and now threatned, and begun with a strong combination; likely to haue taken deeper rooting, and to haue spread it selfe into other parts of that long in­fected turbulent State, if his wisedome, indu­stry, and celerity had not preuented it. Now begins to draw homeward towards the Newry, but before his rising thence, considering it the sittest and best meanes to secure that Country: The Deputy plants Garri­sons in the North.he planted Garrisons in all conuenient places. He sent foure Companies of Foote into Tir­logh Heynaughs Country, vnder the leading of Captaine Merryman, Parker, Bangor, and Col­lum, to continue all the Winter: He assigned two hundred foote, and fifty horse of the olde Bands vnder Captaine Carleyle, to lye at Col­raen, to preuent both Insurrection within, and The Deputies comming to the Newry, where all the Lords of Vl­ster present themselues, and conclude the Commis­sion.Inuasion from the Ilands abroad. This done, he came to the Newry the 28. day of Septem­ber, where he remained ten dayes in pursuing and perfecting the courses begun. Whether Tirlogh Leynaugh (according to his Lordships direction and appointment) brought Henry Oneale the sonne of Shane Oneale, Tirloghs pre­decessour in the thiefery of Vlster, who had escaped from Sir Henry Sidney before, and sometimes held by Tirlogh as a prisoner, to [Page 31] preuent his clayme to his Fathers place of O­neale.

Thither came also the rest of the Lords ad­ioyning; as Sir Hugh Macquenize, Mac Ma­hone, Ohanlone, Tirlogh Brasilogh, Mac Car­then; the chiefetaines of the Ferney, Phues, Kilultaugh, Kilwarlen, and others, who all willingly tooke an oath of faith and fidelity to the Queene, and to serue her against all men, and for their performance of the same, deliuered to the Deputy such Pledges as hee demanded, and granted to such composition for the maintenance of the Army, as Oneale▪ Odonell, and Macquilly had formerly done. Hugh Oge, and Shane Mac Bryan for the nea­ther Clanyboy allowed eightie men, Sir Hugh Macguennizo for the County of Enagh four­ty, The Commander of Kilultagh fifteene, of Kilwarlene tenne, Mac Carthen ten.

This composition for the maintenance of a Garrison by the Countrey, mounting in all to 1100. (as it was a Seruice of no small importance, and before it was effected, op­posed by the Councell through their opini­on of the difficultie) receiued great applause and commendation euen of those that ma­ligned his successe in any thing, and did ad­mire that Vlster, which for many yeares to­gether could scarsely endure the Scepter of Iustice or Gouernment, should bee now re­duced to such obedience: as to contribute to [Page 32] the maintenance of their owne yoke; but doubtlesse it was a worke of great danger in the attempt, and of great consequence being atchieued: wherein much was to be attribu­ted to the Deputies person that gaue his per­swasion, grace with the people; so as Maiestie, Hauiour, and Comelinesse, are most necessa­rie qualities in the wisest Gouernour of a bar­barous Nation.

Heart-burnings bred by questions for supe­riority and gouernment betweene Tirlogh Leynaugh called Oneale, The Baron of Dun­ganon; and Sir Nicholas Bagnall, who did ouer­looke them both, (and thereupon as much en­uied of them, as they did maligne one another) Grudging be­tweene the Gouernours of Vlster ap­peased.the Deputy tooke care to appease (though it be difficult to reconcile grudges, growing for gouernment and dominion.)

Hee deuided the greater gouernments into smaller, that no one should be too strong for another, and yet each should haue sufficient, if not to satisfie himselfe, yet to ballance the ouer-growing greatnesse of his neighbour: but indeede his chiefest ayme was to extin­guish the greatnesse of Oneale, which name be­ing by the barbarous people of that whole Prouince had in so great adoration, as neither the law formerly made in Sir Henry Sidneys time, (a most worthy Gouernour,) nor any iniunction of State could abolish, what time and ignorance had so established. Withall to [Page 33] suppresse his clayme to the Vriaghts, and petty Lords, second chiefe men vnto him, whom he stiled his vassalls, and sometime vsed them as his Slaues, when hee had power to preuaile eyther ouer them, or against the State, where­by they becam instruments to aduance his sup­posed greatnes; many times to his ruine and their own, not without much trouble & charge to the State. The Deputy therefore deuided the Prouince into three Lieutenantcies: one he Deuision of the North in­to gouern­ments.assigned vnto Tirlogh Lennaugh, as much as was already vnder his rule. The other two he parted between the Baron of Donganon, & Sir Nicholas Bagnall, then Marshall of Ireland.

Nor did hee neglect to appease and recon­cile the differences of meaner Lords, as of the Claniboyes, to all which Countrey Con mac Neale Oge (by the olde and corrupt custome of Claniboy di­uided. Tanestry) claymed to be Gouernor: And Shane Mac Bryan and Hugh Oge, straue for the domi­nion of the neather Claniboy, and could not a­gree of their portions, opposing the generall and striuing in their owne particular. This the Deputy (through priuate perswasion and counsell ioyned with authority) arbitrated be­tweene them, and concluded with their mu­tuall consent; that Con O Neale should hold the vpper Claniboy, and Shane and Hugh, the nea­ther, to be equally deuided and bounded be­tweene them, by such Commissioners as hee had appointed thereunto.

[Page 34] These courses were of more importance, then by some are conceiued to be: for Pos­sessours of great Territories, and Commaun­ders of many people, being proud of their owne greatnesse, and enflamed with desire of Dominion; drawe many to follow them through the flames of commotion: And the lesser, especially the second sort, either coue­ting to be higher, or binding themselues to the will of their Superiours, that are able to command, runne headlong at their direction, and by consenting, or discenting in times of di­uision, ioyne onely in the bad effects, to trou­ble the State, and to destroy or vexe those that are best affected. Vlster thus suddainly appea­sed, reuolting hearts partly pacified, and part­ly constrained to obedience; a composition of benefit to the Queene, and the Countries qui­et setled. Priuate controuersies ended, or at The Deputies returne to Dublin.the least, abated and qualified. The Deputy re­turneth to Dublin the eleuenth of October, whence hee had beene absent three moneths and two dayes, and thence he gaue an account to the Lords of the Councell here, of these his proceedings; signifying by his Letters, his quick and speedy dispatch, of so many weigh­ty & difficult businesse, by his trauaile through all the Prouinces of Ireland, in the space of fiue moneths; and might with Caesar haue said, Ve­ni, vidi, vici: and withall, that he had refor­med what was amisse, established peace, and [Page 35] encreased the Princes power. This his rela­tion was ratified by like Letters written by such of the Priuy Councell, as did accompa­nie him in these his iourneyes; wherein it is to be noted, that it was a wise part of the Deputy to cause his actions to be iustified by others, who were, Generall Norreys, Sir Lucas Dillon, The Councels report to the Lords, of the successe in Vlster.Sir Edward Waterhouse, and Mr. Ieffrey Fenton. Some so iust, as they would enforme no vn­truthes, and some vsing alwayes to depraue from the Gouernours there: For the conditi­on of our State, was rather to deminish the acts of the Deputy to her Maiestie, then to grace them by a true relation, least as his me­rit might challenge rewards; so the weight of his actions cast into the ballance of her discer­ning iudgement, might shew the lightnesse of their owne little doings.

Thus much to the indifferent: But most of our great men did not rellish Sir Iohn Perrots stoutnesse, who stoode vpon his owne feete onely without dependancy, vpon any of them, but the Queene alone, which made them en­uious of all his good Seruices, but now their mouthes were stopped, her Maiestie being sa­tisfied of the trueth by so indifferent Re­lators.

Now was it found time by the Deputy, to consult how these good beginnings might be prosecuted, and that which was done, might not be euerted by the inconstancy of a waue­ring [Page 36] and yet vnbrideled people, who being brought by force onely to yeeld to that which is good, will bee good no longer then while force constraines them, vntill their ignorance, how farre the good extendes to their owne particular, be taken away by their taste and feeling, which in an instant comes not to The Deputy writes for Sol­diers to be sent out of Eng­land.passe. Therefore to this end hee propounded to her Maiestie and Councell, that sixe hun­dred Souldiers might be sent ouer, whereof 400 to land at Dublin, for supply of the Nor­thern Garrison, and two hundred to be sent to Waterford, to be placed in Mounster, all which should bee mixed with the olde Companies, and maintained by the charge of Vlster, accor­ding to their composition, with small additi­on of payment from her Maiesties Treasure. He likewise propounded, that the large and vnbounded Countries of the North, and o­ther parts, might be deuided into small Coun­ties, for the better gouerning of the rude and vnruly people, who might learne ciuility, and know the lawes, and by that knowledge be brought to loue that, vnder which they did enioy their owne, whereof they were now ignorant.

The Deputies offer, if 50000 pound might be spared for three yeares. Hee offered farther, that if 50000 pound might be added to the reuenew of that King­dome, but for three yeares to come, he would not onely therewith support the charge of the State: but wall seauen Townes, and [Page 37] build as many Bridges in places now scarce passable, (especially in the Winter) and erect so many strong Castles in places of perill: withall 2000 Foote, and 400 Horse, should bee maintained by this allowance, supplyed by the Northerne composition, during the time.

This summe, though it seemed great, yet was lesse then her Maiestie many times was en­forced to expend for the suppressing of a light Rebellion, and the preseruation of her good Subiects, without any other fruit of re­formation, or assurance of future Peace: So as this charge (thus imployed) would not onely secure the whole Countrey for the present, but make other Seruice of importance more easie after to bee perfor­med.

Hee added to these motions, others of con­sequence for execution of Iustice, (a chiefe meane to breede in the people awfull loue and ciuility) as that a chiefe Iustice of The Deputy demaunds a chiefe Iustice out of Eng­land. English birth might bee sent ouer; such a one as for learning in the Law, and integrity, might bee a light, and guide vnto the rest: whereby the Courts and course of Iustice might bee reduced into order, now gouer­ned by such as (for the most part) were ey­ther insufficient in the knowledge of the Lawes, corrupt in Religion, or partiall in their affection, whom he wished might be changed [Page 38] into such as were free from these faulty of­fences.

That Tane­stry might be abolished. And that the bad and barbarous custome of Tanestry might be abolished, which custome (amongst the meere Irish onely is in vse) being that the Sonne doth not inherite his Fathers estate, but most commonly such a one is elec­ted by the Countrey, in the life time of the Lord, as doth expresse by valour, and a stir­ring spirit the best ability, to leade the whole Sept in all their actions, which were most com­monly such as were mischieuous to the State. Him so Elected, they called their Tawnist, vp­on which Election happened oftentimes mur­ther and bloudshed, euen amongst the nea­rest of their kindred, besides other innume­rable mischiefes. This euill and vnnaturall cu­stome the Deputy desired to abolish, thinking (as matter then stood) he had both power and opportunity to bring it to passe.

That charge of Tenures might be made. Hee desired that hee might be enabled to passe estates vnto the Irish, according to the English tenure, vpon surrender of their former claymes, which would bring them to depend vpon the State, and loose them from the ti­rannous yoke of their neere and great Lords, whereto the Irish seemed in his iudgement at this time forward and enclinable.

The Deputy demaunds re­ward for the deseruing Sol­dier. Hee concluded with requests for the re­warding, some principall Seruitors of that Realme, whom hee had found faithfull, and [Page 39] painfull furtherers of her Maiesties Seruice, as encouragements for others to doe the like.

To all these motions, both her Maiesty, and Councell, returneth faire answeres, accepting and applauding his Seruices, giuing GOD thanks for his prosperity, and good successe therein, to the aduancement whereof promi­ses of assistance were giuen; and in particular to his propositions, gaue this resolution.

Touching the composition made in Vlster, for the maintenance of the Garrison, it was well allowed, as a thing not onely tending to the reformation of that Prouince, but to the reduction of the rest of the Kingdome, with more facility to order, obedience, and ciuility: To the rest for the most part they did condis­cend, or at the least gaue him such satisfaction therein, as might encourage his proceeding, concluding with praise and promise of re­ward. A smooth let­ter from the Lords in Eng­land.Which the Queene well knew were the best spurres, to set on so forward a spirit to en­terprise nobly in her seruice.

The next and principall of his cares, (in­deede clayming the first place, and so was it seated in his heart) was to establish Religion, the true supporter of Peace, Obedience, and Fidelity, to which end Letters were addressed to the Bishops, and chiefe of the Clergie, espe­cially of the English Pale, for the repairing The Deputy caused the Churches to be repaired.and re-edifying of their decayed Churches, as a meane, the better to enduce the people vnto [Page 40] Gods seruice, where they might bee taught their duties to God and their Prince.

He wrote likewise into England against the The Deputy against Bish­ops in com­mendam.granting of Bishopricks in Commendam; shew­ing the inconueniencies that follow the heap­ing of many Lyuings into one hand: for the more sufficient men being imployed, the more encrease of Religion is likely; and on the con­trary, the diminution of Teachers must needs hinder knowledge, and encrease ignorance.

In the second place; Aduice was taken, how to bring the rude and vnruly people, to bee plyable to the Lawes (which are the best bal­lances of right, and rules of Iustice) and to that end Letters were directed to the Lords and Chiefes of account, that their Countries which were large in circuite, might be deui­ded into Counties (in places where now were none, as in Vlfter) and to place Officers there­in according to the vse and custome of Eng­land, as Shriefes, Excheaters, Feodaries, Con­stables, and the like; whereby the poorer sort of people might be kept from oppression, and speedier Iustice, with lesse charge, might bee had nearer at home. The ignorant might bee instructed what to doe, and how to liue; The wilfull made subiect to the rule of Law, or corrected by it. The great men kept from ty­rannizing ouer their Tenants and Vnderlings: and the Inferiour sort should know how to support themselues, by lawfull meanes against [Page 41] vnlawfull Vsurpations. This course was con­sented to by most, and not contradicted by any, but some fewe of the worst condition, and that rather by secret then open oppo­sition.

Diuision of Counties in Vlster. The Counties thus made in Vlster, were these, Ardmagh Monahan, Tyrone Colerane, De­negall Fermanagh, and Cauan.

These circuites thus deuided and setled into Shieres, the Deputy (with the Chancellour) appointed sundry of the best estimation to be Iustices of the Peace, to whom hee wrote to shew into what degree of trust they were cal­led, and how important the charge was for her Maiesties Seruice, and that if in them should Admonition to the Iustices of found such industry and sincerity as was ex­pected, hee then saw no cause, but that the course of enormities (which had heretofore runne with more impunity then was meete) might be stopped, and the State of that Coun­try brought from good to better; or at least not suffered to decline againe from bad to worse, as heretofore in the late broken times it had done. Further assuring them, that as hee should be glad to finde them to performe their duties; so hee gaue them to vnderstand, that in which of them so euer hee found any crime or defect (whereby so good a Ser­uice should bee hindered or cortupted) they should bee brought vnder such leuere penalty [Page 44] and reprehension, as the Law could any way permit, besides the diminution of their credit, and good opinion.

This Letter of admonition bare date, the 15 of December 1584, and with it were sent cer­taine Articles of Order, for Iustices of Peace, Orders for the Iustices of peace, and choice of a Co­ronor and Constablesto bee obserued within their seuerall limits, through the whole Realme.

To these were added an Authority, and Writs directed for the choise of a Coroner in euery County, and of two able and dis­creete men to be Constables in euery Barony: besides [...]tty Constables, to be Assistants, and yet inferiour Officers in the discharge of their duties.

These affaires for that Kingdome thus be­gun, and in some sort setled in the first yeare A Parliament in England.of this Deputies gouernment, A Parliament beginning in the end of the yeare in England, and his care continuing to prosecute alwayes for the support of that long vnstayed State; finding but colde successe of the promises to his propositions, from the Lords in England, the Ruler of her Maiesties Purse, being loath to aduance any, neuer so important Seruice, by the expence of Treasure: especially, such a summe, as nothing, but extremity, could make him thinke meete should be disbursed, (which sparing, indeede, brought extremity to that Kingdome,) hee resolued to try what [Page 41] the Parliament would doe in so important a cause, and to that end wrote ouer a Letter, to craue their helpe for the reformation, and strengthening of that ruinous Realme, which because it was such a zeale and directi­on to doe good, and may perhaps serue for a President, when time shall require; for the further establishment of that State, I haue thought good to set downe, and insert the Letter it selfe.

[Page 44]

Sir John Perrot, Lord Deputie of Ireland, to the Commons House of Parliament in England.

The Deputies Letter to the Parliament in England. MOst high and Noble Assem­bly, the duty I owe to God, her Maiesty, and my Coun­try, and the interest I haue in you rproceedings, though I now be not (as often I haue beene a member of that House) moues mee, not onely to pray deuoutly, that God will blesse all your Counsels, but also to thinke care­fully of any thing that I conceiue, may be worthy your graue consultation, and tend to the glory of God, her Maiesties Honour, and safety, and strength, and profit of the whole State.

The malice of the Pope, and all com­binations and practises, both Forraigne [Page 45] and Domesticall thereupon depending, which haue beene most apparently dis­couered from all quarters, and of late partly from hence, I humbly leaue to be by your grauities prouided for, & there­fore her Maiestie hauing assigned mee (though vnworthy) to the charge of this Realme. I am drawne by commisera­tion to present the torne, and miserable estate of the same vnto your viewes, to­gether with the occasions and meanes of redresse that are now offered, and which it humbly imploreth through your godly and Honourable aydes.

I trust I shall not neede to goe about to confute the bad opinion, that hath beene held of some, concerning the re­formation of the same; for I am per­swaded, that there is no one amongst you so vngodly, as doth thinke all mis­chiefe sufferable in a Common-wealth, for pollicies sake; or so ill aduised, as not to see the great charge this Realme hath beene vnto that, and must still breede [Page 46] vnto it, while it is in disorder, or dege­nerate from the Noble courage of our Forefathers; as to doubt that England shall not be able to rule and hold Ireland, being reduced to good estate: For sith all power is of God, and that either of his mercie hee establisheth the happy continuance of all well ordered King­domes, or of his iustice ouerthroweth, or translateth the contrary. No man that hath any spaike of grace, or reason, can hope that euer England may long enioy Ireland, if it suffer it in this licen­tious impunity, to embrewe it selfe in Heathenish and superstitious Idolatries, Treasons, Rebellions, Murthers, Rapes, Robberies, Mischiefes; or doubt, that it may become a strong and profitable or­nament to England, if on the other side, religion, duty, obedience, peace, quiet­nesse, true dealing, order, ciuility, may be planted in it.

Because examples doe more per­swade somtimes then reason, I humbly [Page 45] beseech you to reuiew the ancient State of this Kingdom, and it will appeare by good demonstrations, not vnknowne to some of that most Noble Assembly, that our Predecessours in a very short time planted in euery part of this King­dome, Cities, Towns, & Castles, wher­of doe remaine yet the Reliques euen in Vlster (where Barbarisme most preuai­led) & yeelded vnto England great yeare­ly reuenewes; the decayes thereof grew from Gods heauy hand, visiting the Enemies of that time, first vpon Eng­land, and consequently vpon Ireland, as an appendix by the diuision of Yorke and Lancaster, the harmes (God bee praised) is repaired againe in England by the happy Vnion of those two Houses (all being of one Nation; but not in Ireland, where the Irish pre­uailed against the English, by rea­son of that diuision vnder the facti­ons, raised heere for the maintai­nance of the same, not vnknowne [Page 48] to some of you that haue had the man­naging of these causes of this State: Much bloud hath since beene spilt, and an infinite treasure consumed to reco­uer that dammage, through a deadly hate conceiued betweene the two Na­tions, and that not without the main­tenance of the degenerate English, wher­of the late Earle of Desmond may bee an example for the rest.

This dissention hath beene euer since maintained, and lately nourished by the needy Scots of the out Iles, and lately by the Popes crue vnder Saunders, vpon whom Gods curse preuailed against their Chiefetaines blessing.

Thus you see, how this matter hath long hung in question, what misery and mischiefe hath ensued thereof, and what honour and profit it was, and a­gaine would be vnto England, if it were redressed.

It remaineth: I shew not onely the good occasions, and meanes thereof [Page 49] now offered; but also the good there­by to ensue, and so to conclude with my humble Petition for your ayde. Heretofore the Irish haue beene iealous of the English, immagining that not themselues, but the recouery of the v­surped Lands haue beene sought, and the degenerate English, as Desmond and some others, haue fallen into the same errors, which hath made them to spurn against all Authority, and vse the ayde of the Scots, almost to their owne ex­tirpation.

But now her Maiesties mercy, and gracious meaning, being publiquely de­nounced vpon the ouerthrow of the Rebels and Forraigne Enemies, that her Highnesse equally ballanceth her Subiects, according to their due deserts, without respect of Nation, as hauing interest from GOD in them all alike: they see their errour, not onely in flying from so gracious a Princes and Soue­raigne; but also in embracing the needy [Page 50] rauenous Scot, that had well-nigh de­uoured them all. And therefore I am farre from the opinion of those, that would haue the Irish extirped, sith I see that the occasion of dissention being now taken away, they are (as I suppose) easily made one with vs, and so as like­ly to be continued, as any other genera­tion whatsoeuer, that in their place should be planted.

I make this collection by proofe, I haue had not onely of their willing­nesse, to ioyne with mee in the ex­pulsion of the Scots, but also to yeeld their Lands simply, as many of the best haue done, and the rest are ready to doe, to be resumed of her Maiestie, by Tenures, Rents, and Seruices, both honourable and profitable to her Maie­stie, seruiceable to the State, and com­modious to themselues; which I haue made particularly knowne to her Ma­iestie, and the Lords of her most Ho­nourable Priuie Counsell.

[Page 51] Hereunto I haue to adde, that they are most willing, and ready to leaue olde Irish exactions vpon their Free-Holders and Tenants, and to conuert the same to Rents certaine, whereof what wealth and quietnesse is like to ensue, I will leaue to the report of some of you, that know this State: for I should trouble you too tediously to dis­course it particularly.

I haue besides so preuailed with them as well by good dealings, as by ouer­ruling them with her Maiesties Forces, that I haue wonne them to entertaine English Souldiers instead of Scots; so as I haue compounded with the Chiefe­taines of Vlster, for the maintenance of 1000 English Souldiers, and doe mean to proceed with the rest, with their con­tent anon, and to their owne good, that I hope to haue a trayned Garrison here in a readinesse of two thousand foote­men, and foure hundred Horse rea­die for all euents, and those in time [Page 52] to be but a small charge to her Maiestie, and that Realme.

Those occasions may in some mens opinion seeme good, but vncertaine, and so indeede are, as all occasions are, if they be not well taken hold of, and that in time. For the Irish, as all man­kinde besides, yea, euen borne in Middle­fex, as naturally slippery, vncertaine, and vnruly: and therefore the meanes to be vsed to make them stayed, certaine, and orderly, which are partly by Iustice, and partly by force: Iustice may bee execu­ted with small boast, but so cannot force, and yet the force I meane is not violable, but benefie all to the whole State.

The Irish Rebell, and his Scottish partaker, or rather maintainer, doe greatly trustin in their aduantage of Wood and Bogg, where they runne vp and downe sauagely, and in our disaduan­tage (especially in Vlster the Scot ar­riueth) through want of Bridges, [Page 53] Townes, and Forts, as well to pursue them, and to keepe Garrison against, as also to breede Traffique and good So­ciety, betweene the well disposed of both the Nations, whereof I of late as others before me haue, and doe daily finde the great discommodity. I haue therefore determined there chiefely, and in some part of the Realme besides, to build seauen Townes, seauen Castles, and seauen Bridges in the places here­vnder mentioned, which were these, viz▪ the Townes Athloan, Dingle, Co­lerant, Liffre, Sligo, Newry. The Ca­stles, the black water to be better forti­fied, Balleshannon, Belleck to be new e­rected; The broad water in Mounster, Castell Merten vpon the Rout, Gallin in the Queenes County, Kilcoman in Feagh Mac Hughs Country. The Bridges, Cole­rane, Liffer [...], Ballishannon, Dondalke; the Broad water in Mounster, the Riuer of Veale vnder Slelogher, Kelles in Clana deboy.

[Page 54] With those new Buildings, or rather for the most part reparations of olde ru­ines, and those that be already, the Realme will be as it were walled in (as vpon view of the Charter) will ap­peare vnto you: and by Gods grace, I trust not onely thereby mutuall Traf­fique and amity will growe, the waste part of this Land may be planned, and peopled with good Subiects, those that be dutifull strengthned and countenan­ced, and those repressed that are ill af­fected; but also that the composition al­ready made, or here after to be made for the numbers before mentioned, may be holden good, as also other matters of honour and profit to both the Realmes, may be brought to passe.

But sith this will not be done with­out some charge, albeit the same be not great, in respect eyther of the good it will bring, or of some other greater charges hereto fore bestowed, I humbly pray, that I may presume to recommend [Page 55] the same to your most Noble and fa­uourable considerations, which is, for the fifty thousand pounds a yeare to be had thence for three yeares together.

A sum not exceeding her Maiesties yearely charge, one yeare with another, since the beginning of her Maiesties Reigne, and short of her Highnes char­ges in three yeares, not long since, by al­most 50000 pounds, as may appeare by Auditors Bookes: and as humbly I pray you, that you doe conceiue, that this my motion doth not proceede from any direction, but onely from the cause itselfe; which I haue at Eye, and wherein for zeale and duties sake, I a­uowe, and protest not onely to im­ploy my body and minde, but also all that substance that I am well able to spare, which I know will fall out vpon mee the greatest Subsidie of any Subiect in the Land, through the charge that hath, and will arise of my continuall trauailing to effect these [Page 56] Seruices from place to place, (for other­wise it will not be done) where I might saue by feeling my selfe in places cer­taine.

Hauing thus protested to spend mine owne with good contentation, I trust I may easily auoyde all opinion of in­tent, to get by issuing of the money; for I vtterly denounce the handling or di­recting of one penny, otherwise then by the aduice of such as shall be special­ly assigned to that trust with me.

If our Auncestors, when the world was more needy & bare, did not make stay at great summes to lesser purpose. I trust the present plentifull State of England, will shewe a franke and cheetefull readinesse to aduance a mat­ter, that according to the occasion now offered, requireth present helpe and re­medy. I humbly beseech you thinke what a continuall sinke both of men and money hath this State beene vn­to that.

[Page 57] Thinke also what Forraine Princes haue attempted, and doe still gape for it, wayting onely opportunity, and if they doe catch it, what a dangerous and noysome neighbour vnto England they will make it. Choake vp the sinke at once, make one charge of all, concei­uing you doe but lend so much vpon large Interest, and that you cast now your seede into a fruitfull ground, that will yeeld a profitable Haruest, and by your Honourable Magnanimity and care, put downe the courages of those ambitious Princes, and stop the course of their ambitious intentions against this Realme, and consequently that. And I (for my part) doe auowe, besides that small portion of wealth that God hath lent me, to afford my life, well be­stowed in that action, with no lesse care and diligence then I haue already vsed, in the short time of gouernment I haue passed, which I trust seemeth not altogether fruitlesse. And so crauing [Page 58] humble pardon, if zeale and affection haue any way miscaried me: I humbly end from her Maiesties Castle of Dublin this 17 of Ianuary 1584.

1585 Shortly after, to confirme these conclusi­ons, and to reduce the people to conformity of gouernment, a Parliament (before resolued Parliament in Ireland.on) is now summoned to be held at Dublin, where the Nobility, Clergie, and Commons, being assembled, Order was taken, that none Order for Irish apparell, not to be worne in Parliament.were permitted to goe in Irish attire (as in for­mer time they vsed) but to sort themselues in such habite after the English manner, as was answerable to their seuerall rankes and quali­ties; and because the charge might breede no difficulty with the chiefe men in Parliament, to yeeld to this Order. Hee bestowed vpon Tirlogh Leynogh, the principle Lord of Vlster, and on some others, chiefe of the Irish, Gowns and other Roabes fit for that place, and their degrees; which they embraced like fetters: of which being weary, one of them came to the Deputy, and besought him, that one of his Chaplaines (which hee called Priests) might goe with him along through the Streetes, clad in his Irish Trouses: for then (quoth he) the Boyes will laugh as fast at him, as they now [Page] doe at me, whereat though the Deputy could haue smiled; yet casting a frowne vpon his countenance, told him, there was no cause he should thinke any laughed at him, for wearing those which were fit ornaments for the place he now held, and did present in Parliament: but if any did so, it was at his ill wearing of the same, which want of ciuill custome caused: Therefore since vse would make that seemely, which now was ridiculous, he aduised him to view the difference of being fit for all Assem­blies, and onely fit for the Woods and barba­rous Places; but (quoth the Deputy) if any idle or ill affected person shall put the contrary into your head, beleeue it to be done out of an ill meaning to the State, and worse vnto your person, for contempt of order and decencie, will in the end be your downfall. This aduice was taken eyther as found good, or out of ne­cessity to be followed: but hereby wee may discerne that custome, is commonly preferred before decency, and opinion before reason, especially amongst people where ciuility is vn­planted; Withall it is to be obserued in the The reason, the Irish are vnwilling to sort them­selues to the English habit.proud condition of the Irish, that they disdaine to sort themselues in fashion vnto vs, which in their opinion would more plainely manifest our Conquest ouer them; and this I take to be the cause of their vntowardnesse in this par­ticular, which made the Deputy to set the re­formation more to heart, well knowing that [Page 60] the Lords and chiefe of the Irish, framing themselues in habite and plainenesse to their Vnderlings, made themselues the more po­pular. Willing or vnwilling, they were con­strayned to come to the Parliament in that ciuill habit, which did best fit the place and present seruice.

In this Parliament, which began at Dublin the 26 of Aprill 1585, in the 27 yeare of the Queenes Reigne. Sundry Bills were passed in the first Session, which being Enacted, and new Printed, therefore neede here no further mention; but their disputes and differences arose about a Bill preferred in the Commons A Bill for the suspension of Poynings Acts.House, for the suspention of Poynings Act, which past in the tenth yeare of King Henry the seauenth, before Sir Edward Poynings then Deputy. That no Bill should passe in any Par­liament in Ireland, for a Law, vntill the same had first a Royall assent in England. This the Deputy would haue suspended by Act of Par­liament, to the end, that opportunity might be taken for passing such Bills, as the present oc­casion might offer for the good of the Seruice, without attending the further resolution of England: whereby the aduantage of aduan­cing present Seruices might be lost, making that by delay more vnpassable, which at the present, might easily be perfected: But this, howsoeuer grounded vpon good iudgement by the Deputy, was impugned, especially by [Page 61] some chiefe stirrers in the English Pale, and ouerthrowne by them at the third reading, (who feared perchance, that something might be propounded, and speedily Enacted, which might crosse some purposes of their owne) and therefore by suspition were caried to their own preiudice; yet afterwards vpon better infor­mation (that doubt being cleared) they then seemed more enclinable to the passage of the Bill, and vpon demaund obtained conference with the Deputy, touching the same, and de­parted, seeming satisfied in their duties; where­vpon the Parliament was adiourned for three weekes. Afterwards notwithstanding the qua­lification The Cōmons against the Bill concer­ning Poynings Act.of this Bill (agreed vpon by their Cōmitties) they ouerthrew it the second time.

The iealousie, and mistaking of some Law­yers (ioyned to them of the English Pale) like­wise suspecting the repeale of this Statute, was intended for some other end then was preten­ded, made much contention and dislike about it, and by withstanding it, gaine-saide their owne profits; for indeede it was preferred to no other end, but to haue free liberty, without restraint to treate of such matters as might e­qually concerne the good of that Kingdome, yet such strength hath Iealousie and Suspition to hinder good endeuours, as seeking to auoyd harmes, preuents the good which is intended, and by a by course runnes with a full sayle vp­on the mischiefes feared.

[Page 62] Notwithstanding, this discention about Poynings Act (whereof some that did most in publique oppose it, did afterwards in priuate confesse their errour) yet diuers profitable Acts were passed, both for the priuate and publique in this first Session, which ended the 25 of May, and was prorogued till Aprill fol­lowing. Amongst the rest, a Bill being pre­ferred Prerogation of the Parlia­ment.for the Attainder of the late Earle of Desmond, and passing his Lands by Excheate to the Crowne, receiued at the first some op­position by the meanes of one Iohn Fitzed­monds, A Bill for the attainder of Desmond pas­sed.who shewed there a Feofment, made by the late Earle before he enterd into actuall Rebellion, vntill Sir Henry Wallop the Treasu­rer, brought in an Instrument of Confederacy, betweene the Earle and his Followers, bea­ring date before the Feofment, vnto which Fitzedmonds own hand was subscribed, which Treasonable subtilty being well weighed, and considered of, the Bill passed without diffi­culty.

Soone after the end of this Session, notice was giuen to the Deputy, of a new practise of Alexander Mac Surly's intention to inuade the North. Alexander Mac Surly, sonne to Surleboys (vn­der the colour of a discention, betweene him and the chiefe Lords of Vlster) to draw againe the Scottish Islanders thither, who had prepa­red in a readinesse 400 of those firebrands, dai­ly expected to arriue. And because Tirlogh Leynaugh Oneale, was weakened by want of [Page 63] gouernment, and by age growne vnable to rule his people; but much more disabled by his late dependency vpon the State, and con­formity to the will of the Deputy, through the peruerse Nature of those people, growth was giuen to the Baron of Donganon his aspi­ring, who quickly tooke occasion thereby to aduance himselfe into the hearts of those bar­barous and State despising people. There­fore 1585 the Deputy by the assent of the Councell, resolued vpon another iourney into Vlster, and so speedily performed it, as hee was enforced to go with much lesse power & prouision then hee had done in the former; setting forwards The Deputies second iour­ney into the North.vpon the 26 day of Iuly, and passed speedily as farre as Donganon, in the County of Tyrone, the Barons chiefe seate. Hether (being by the Deputy sent for) repaired all the Chiefetaines of Vlster, except those of the Claniboyes, whom hee appointed to defend that Coast of the Country, against the Islanders inuasion. Oneale with his pretended Vriaghs and Dependents, Odonnell and his Followers, especially Hugh Duffe Odonnell (the elected Tawnist, or next succeeding Lord of that Countrey) who brought with him Odogherty, and Sir Owen Otoole, yeelded to all his Lordships demands, which hee thought meete to require at their hands; but Iames Caraugh, a man of account amongst the Donelaughs, and most deuoted to Shane Oneales family, auoyded the Depu­ties [Page 64] All the chiefes (sauing Bryan Caragh) sub­mit them­selues to the Deputy. presence, of which for the present no great notice was taken.

At this time the Deputy did perfect the re­ducing of this Prouince into Shires or Coun­ties (as was before appointed) by placing and setting bounds (with aduice of the Country) to each County. After which, perceiuing that the Ilanders continued on in their pur­pose of Incursion into Vlster, he sent one Cap­taine Dawtrey vnto the King of Scots, with Captain Daw­try sent into Scotland.Letters to moue his Maiesty against this their frequent course, of inuading the Queenes Do­minion, and that if hee would be pleased to re­straine his people from the same, and to cause restitution to be made of some Irish Merchants goods, taken and with-held in some parts of Scotland, there should bee the like correspon­dencie of Iustice shewed to his Maiesties Sub­iects, comming into Ireland, while he gouer­ned in that Kingdome.

The King of Scots answer. To this the King returned a Princely an­swere, signifying that he had receiued his Let­ter, which manifested his good disposition to Iustice, as formerly he had taken notice there­of, by his Order with the Merchants of Scot­land, restoring their goods restrained in sun­dry parts of Ireland; for which good Office he gaue him many thanks, promising the like, that the Merchants of Dublin and Carick Fer­gus (lately robbed, or pretended so to bee) should haue the same course of Iustice at his [Page 65] hands. As for the restraint of Surleboy, with his brother, their sonnes and followers, which the Deputy omitted in his Letter, as a point committed onely to the credite of the Bearer, the King also promised immediately to direct his Letters to inhibit them vpon paine of Trea­son, from molesting any of the Queenes Sub­iects; and if they (neuerthelesse) should attempt the contrary, his Highnesse would vse them as Rebels, and to that end gaue Commission to Mac Allen, and the Country thereabouts to rise and prosecute them accordingly; but before the deliuery of this Letter (which bore date at Saint Andrews in Scotland, the fourth of August 1585) or immediately after, and before the Kings pleasure could be made knowne to any his Gouernours or Subiects. The Ilanders to The arriuall of the Ilan­ders in Vlster.the number of 400 arriued in Vlster, and ioy­ning with Con Mac Neale Oges sonne, and with those of the Dufferin: The Okelleys, most of the Wood kerne of Kilwarlen, Mac Cartines Country, and with Hugh Mac Felmis son, they had doubled their number within a fortnight to at least 800; such being the condition of that Country people, as to be quickly weary of Peace, wherein the worke of ciuillity might be wrought, being a thing as hatefull to the Barbarous, as Barbarisme and wildnesse is to a people flourishing in wealth and ci­uillitie, vnder a vvise Gouernement. So sweet is Idlenesse to those who haue neuer [Page 66] tasted the fruite of Industry, wherein the Go­uernours of Ireland (for the most part) had hitherto fayled, euen since the Conquest of the same, neglecting the wayes and courses to ciuilize those called the wilde Irish, whereby the English Families (gouerned according to the custome of England) following the Na­ture of man, euer enclining to the worse, ra­ther learnt rudenesse and Barbarisme of the Irish, then taught them ciuillity and man­ners.

The Deputy hearing of these Scots landing, gaue order vnto Captaine Francis Stafford (a man of a forward spirit, and an extraordinary vnderstanding) for their present prosecution in the neather Claniboy, who with a small force, not consisting of the fourth part of these fugi­tiues, and their partakers, made head against Captain Staf­ford encoun­tred the Scots.them with 170 Souldiers, besides a few kerne; and vpon the 28 of Iuly, encountred them in the morning; and according to the loose man­ner of the Irish fighting, continued in skirmish till foure in the afternoone, marching on, and winning ground, much to the commendation of the Commanders iudgement, and the Soul­diers resolution: the custome of these Iland Souldiers (if they may be termed Souldiers) is to flye when they be closely followed, and to be fierce, when they are fearefully resisted, or faintly prosecuted; for indeede neither they, nor the Irish, euer gaue our Nation defeat, [Page 67] but vpon our shrinking from them. At this time Shane Mac Bryan seruing vpon our side, shewed himselfe forward and faithfull to his great commendation. At length Captaine Stafford recouered a place of aduantage, ha­uing in this skirmish lost but eight men, and brought off twelue hurt, and had slaine of the Enemie 24 vpon the place; and wounded at least 40 more, which the Deputy for the grace of the Captaine and his Assistants, gaue a praisefull report of into England; where doubt­lesse it was little regarded, in respect of the small shew it presented: but considering the State of things as they then stoode, it was well done to gaine aduantage, the warre of that Kingdome in those dayes being acted with small numbers.

The Enemie being thus with a fewe, in re­spect of their number, resisted and beaten back, did afterwards shunne place and occasi­on of fight, putting themselues ouer the Riuer of Bande into Tyrone, from whence by the De­puties direction to the Baron of Donganon, Alexander Mac Surly, re­sisted by the Baron of Don­ganon.they were by him, and such Forces as the De­puty had sent vnto him, speedily put to retreat, and Captaine Stafford with a new supply had them againe in chase, which enforced those stragling runnagate Strangers to draw back to­wards Donluce, where Alexander Mac Surly, their chief Cōmander, supposed he might haue had best succour from his Fathers friends, or [Page 68] at least by their meanes might haue shipped away into the Ilands: but the Deputy being still in the North, and studying their preuen­tion euery way; They were constrayned to Alexander re­tires to Enish­owen.take towards Enishowen in Odogherties Coun­tries, to draw force out of Tyrconnell for their Assistants: but Hugh Duffe Odonnell lately mentioned, a man then faithfull, or at least standing firme to the State, for his owne ends, that by the fauour thereof, he might the more surely succeede Odonnell, came to Strabane, a Towne of Tirlogh Leynaughs, not farre from Odonnell of­fers ayde to the English.the Lyffar, and acquainted the English there, that Alexander Mac Surly, being at Enish­owen with 600 Ilanders and others, had a pur­pose to surprise them at Strabane, knowing by intelligence, that the Companies sent thether the yeare before were growne weake, and the Captaines all absent sauing Merryman, who indeede had but 160 able men remaining of the foure Companies: and withall, offered to draw a draught vpon the Enemie himselfe, if Merryman would assent thereunto, which Merryman accepted, and enterprised with those fewe men, marching all night, think­ing to take the Enemie vnprouided; but con­trary to his expectation, hee found them vn­der good guard, hauing (as it seemed) intel­ligence, or suspition, of this their comming, or attempt.

Vpon discouery, the Enemy drawes out to [Page 69] fight. Merryman finding himselfe weake, put­teth his whole Troupe into one Body; Alex­ander Merryman fights with the Scots.his, into three Diuisions, purposing to assault the English vpon so many sides at once, and so to ouerthrowe them easily: but in respect the ground gaue aduantage to the English, hee found the worke more diffi­cult.

Alexander being a daring young fellow, and a good Sword-man, shewed himselfe in the head of his men, and called for Merry­man to answer him in a single Combat, with a Gallinglasse (standing on the out-side of the English, saying hee was the man) accepted. They encounter, and Alexanders Target being at the first blowe by the Gallinglasse Axe bea­ten Alexander Mac Surly kils a his head, was astonished; but soone re­couering himselfe, got within the other, and with his Sword cleft his head, so as he left him for dead; which Merryman seeing, who was not farre off, met Alexander, so as with Sword Alexander & Merryman fight hand to hand.and Target they held for a fewe blowes a good fight: but Alexander being sore hurt by the Captaine on the legge, withdrew, and got Alexander hurt retires, and his men are ouer­throwne.himselfe out of the field to ease and dresse his wound.

The rest of his Company missing their Leader, and loosing withall their courage, beganne to flye, and in the end were vt­terly ouerthrowne and rowted. Captaine Merryman making search for Mac Surly, [Page 70] who he knew, was not able to goe farre with his wound, found an olde woman sitting sad­ly, of whom he demaunded for him: she be­ing terrified by the Souldiers, pointed with her finger to a place where a fewe Turfes were layde ouer Hurdles, vnder which Alexander Alexander Mac Surly's head cut off, and sent to Dublin.was hidden. There they found him stiffe with his wound, and vsing small ceremony with him, struck off his head, which being sent to the Deputy, was set vpon a Pole at the Castle of Dublin.

This Incursion being ended, and the Inua­ders absolutely defeated, being the second good successe of the Deputy in his Warre, and principally atchieued by his presence in the North, which with-held many of the rebelli­ous people, from ioyning with the Ilanders, and especially their Chiefes from giuing coun­tenance to their proceeding.

Hee was neuerthelesse vpon the sixteenth day of Iuly, contrary to the good and necessity The Deputy retires to Dub­lin.of the Seruice, enforced to retire towards Dublin, to prouide himselfe to answere com­plaints, made by some of the Councell there against him into England, who tooke occasion to enforme this his iourney, to be an expediti­on superfluous, chargeable, and vnprofitable to her Maiesty, and the Country.

Surleboys sub­mission. Shortly after Surleboys submitted himselfe at Dublin to the Queenes mercy, where, one shewing him his sonnes head; he made answer, [Page 71] My sonne, quoth he, hath many heads▪ allu­ding (as it seemed) to the Hidra, resembling, indeede a factious and turbulent State, and the disposition of an Enemy, who (liuing in ex­treame pouerty) will euer be finding meanes and heads to leade them to better themselues, by the spoyle of their neighbours, which the death of this one man could not preuent.

The Deputy enformed a­gainst. Amongst the informations against the De­puty, there was obiected, that hee had taken strict courses in his gouernment, as requiring the Oath of obedience; appointing Officers to looke into mens Patents, Warrants giuen in the late Parliament, to preferre Bills for ma­king the like Lawes, as were in England against Recusants. Causing a Bill to be preferred in the first Session, for the suspension of Poynings Act, to the hazard of stirring vp a commotion: Vrging that these courses did decline the peo­ple from peace to vnquietnesse: Such force had slander got by malicious Enuie, as to make a Bee a Spider, and to worke that honey with­out, of the flowers of his iudgement and since­rity, he had painfully gathered, to a corrupt poyson, as by the wofull effect, it, in after time, too manifestly appeared.

This information was giuen against him, by such as hee had left in trust for State causes in his absence, especially by the Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, a man of great wise­dome and experience, and such a one, as for [Page 72] his parts might well merit the estimation of an extraordinary States-man and Councellor, and it was pitty these good things should be the cause of euill effects; for betweene him and the Deputy were discontentments groun­ded vpon directions, giuen by the Deputy in The Deputy and Chancel­lour differ a­bout the ere­cting of the Vniuersity.the last Parliament, for conuersion of the li­uing of Saint Patricks in Dublin, to the main­tenance of a Colledge, and Vniuersity there to be erected: first intended by King Edward the sixt, and now at this time giuen in charge to this Deputy by the Queene, which hee ac­cordingly purposed to prosecute, as a certaine foundation of the reformation of that King­dome; which howsoeuer the Chancellour could not but in his iudgement know and al­lowe of▪ yet in respect some of his kindred, friends, and Allies, were interrested in these possessions; hee gaue great opposition there­vnto, pretending the cause to be in right of the Church, whereof he vndertooke to be the Pa­tron. Likewise (as it seemed) hee tooke to heart the peremptory proceeding of the De­puty, as well in other matters of State as in this, finding himselfe slighted of that regard, some precedent Gouernours had yeelded him; for he being a Prelate, great in place and made greater by the Offices hee had lately borne; now finding that this mans prosperous begin­ning, caried perchance with a more absolute Authority then others had vsually exercised, [Page 73] if it were not crossed, would breede a dimi­nution of his power in that State, by his wisedome already highly planted, prefer­ring his particular too tenderly▪ which to pre­serue, The Chancel­lour raiseth a faction against the Deputy▪hee fell into contention with the Depu­tie, and raised a faction against him of some of the Counsaile; as Sir Henry Bagnall, (who had married his sister to his eldest sonne) and o­thers; so that from hence sprung not onely priuate informations, but publique cros­ings at the Councell Table, euen in things, which, if they had beene peaceably hand­led, might haue much aduanced her Maie­sties Seruice, and the good of that King­dome. Such is the State of Ambition, is it neuer sees any way, but by the staires of its owne climing.

The Deputy makes answere to these ob­iections, against his late Northerne iour­ney, and the other things already mentioned, especially for the conuersion of Saint Pa­trickes Liuing, therein indeede lying the most assured roote of reformation. Neuerthe­lesse, the Lord Chancellour taking vpon him (as is saide) to bee the onely Patron of the Church affaires, and knowing his po­wer with the Lord Treasurer of England, in the ballance of whose wisedome, most State causes (especially concerning England and Ireland) were at that time cast, labou­reth by all meanes to hinder the Deputies [Page 74] proceeding as well by his Letters which here­tofore had beene preualent, as by his Agents who watched the best opportunity, and tooke the right way of preuailing in Court, which the Deputy not suspecting, or at least not fea­ring trusting to the waight of his owne zeale, The Chan­cellor in Eng­land preuai­leth.could not preuent; whereby at length the Chancellour so farre preuailed in that one point, as Letters were written from the Queen and Councell, to make stay of the conuersion of those Liuings; withall, aduertisement is gi­uen by the Queene to them both, that shee had taken notice of their contentions, with admo­nition to for beare such crossing, as must needes giue impediment to the publique seruice. The Queene reproueth the Chancellour by her letters.And by her owne particular Letter to the Chancellour, in expresse manner, shee com­manded a reformation, wherein was to be ob­sorued, how carefull shee was of the common good, though the interest of the Chancellours friends in her fauour wrought deepely, to the aduancement of his particular. But this her gracious admonition was not well followed oney ther side; for the Deputy being by na­ture cholletick, and not able to endure the af­fronts of an Inferiour, especially discerning that the Chancellours particular ends had gai­ned respect aboue his publique, (which to a good Patriots patience was no small mouer) could not containe himselfe vpon the prouo­king words of his wily Aduersary, who omit­ted [Page 75] no meanes, or occasion that might enforce his intemperance; and so distemperd, hee so The Deputy through chol­ler exceeded himselfe.exceeded himselfe, as he spared not the great­est, by whom he thought himselfe wronged: which fault of his is iudiciously obserued by Sir Walter Raleigh, to haue beene the greatest cause of his ouerthrowe; priuate misrespect oftentimes swaying in a Princes heart▪ more then publique miscarriage. So the one not brooking an equall, and the other e [...]ying a Superiour, the bonds of charity, patience, and policy, were by both broken.

Vpon the Chancellours side, the then Se­cretary (a Moath in all the Deputies garments The Secreta­ries double dealing with the Deputy.of his time) was factious, who vpon the be­ginning of the Parliament hold in Ireland, was imployed into England to negotiate in the af­faires thereof, which at the first hee seemed well to attend, and desirous that the successe of that Parliament might breede the common good: but at length either by the euill of me owne disposition, or wrought by the Deputies Aduersaries in Court, or the Chancellours instigation, hee became from a priuate Practi­zer, a publique and professed Aduersary, for whereas by his Letter of the [...]1 Iuly [...] signified her Maiesties good allowance of the Deputies seruice in these words. That hee had procured generall peace, and had gayned the peoples hearts vnto their Prince: but on the ninth of September following, hee wrote [Page 76] of the alteration of the Queenes good opi­nion in some of his Seruices; which being likewise manifested by some other such his sharpe intelligence, and some circumstances: especially her Maiesties owne Letters concur­ring, which hee brought ouer: the Deputy was confirmed in his opinion of the Secreta­ries factions, and false informing courses a­gainst him. Vpon receipt of which Letters, being partly admonitory, and partly repre­hensiue, although the Queene was pleased, to signifie therein, that shee was well perswaded of his care and diligence, and tooke in good part all his doings, as proceeding from a spe­ciall zeale to doe her seruice: yet finding or suspecting a taxe withall to bee layde on his iudgement, in some matters which did arise (as he conceiued) from the perswasion of his Euemies, his nature would not suffer him to The Deputy writeih to the Queene.suppresse, or conceale his griefe. Hee there­fore wrote ouer vnto her, as hee had already done vnto the Lords of her Counsaile, shew­ing the good successe of his late Northerne iourney, with the necessity thereof, and the content of the Councell thereunto, and to his proceeding in tendering the Oath of obe­dience, hee pleaded warrant and pollicie of State, and to all the other allegations, as of Nouelties and supposed inconuemencies, hee replyed: that they were malicious furmises, and without cause of doubt therein, as his [Page 77] Aduersary pretended; alleadging a dangerous consequence, to breede feare, doubt, and dis­quietnesse in the Natiues, which were but sug­gestions, to hinder such seruices, as would ea­sily be performed without perill; finding now the pride and power of the euill affected Irish, to be altogether abated, and the people encli­ned to yeeld conformity vnto his commande­ments. Therefore it seemed fit to him to take the opportunity which the time offered, to worke that which former time could not com­passe. But finding all this (how necessary so euer) crossed by them, which should rather haue giuen furtherance to it, construing his ac­tions astending to innouation, likely to stirre dissention, and produce danger. He confessed that he was much disconraged, but yet would pursue his course in the best manner he could (being so restrayned.) For the view of mens Charters, wherewith hee was charged, hee denied that euer he intended, much lesse pra­ctised the Accusers malice and slander. Hee confessed that hee had vrged some of them to take the Oath of obedience, and gaue his rea­son for it, for finding their obstinacie, and re­pugnance to reason in Parliament; he held this the best meanes to try their sidelily by, conclu­ding with all humility, which tasted something, neuerthelesse, of passion and griefe, for it must needes trouble him to see his zealous care, [Page 78] to assure all things to the good of his Prince, mistaken by the malice of his Aduersaries, whose whole ayme being but at their owne particular, were not so sensible as they should haue beene, how they euerted the publique by pudling the water wherein their fish lay. And to strengthen this their information, to the end hee might be made the more distastfull to her Maiestie, and the Lords of her Counsell. Some of the Lords of the English Pale, are in­cited The Lords of the English Pale write a­gainst the De­ write vnto the Queene 15 Iuly 1585, in complaint against the Deputy, that ouer and besides a composition of two thousand pounds yearely reuennew formerly made in lieu of Cess, and other charges claimed to be­long by Prerogatiue vnto the State, from the fiue Counties of the English Pale▪ hee inten­ded to impose a second charge of fifteene hun­dred pound per Anum sterling; so making the yoake of her Gouernment to appeare heauie and insupportable. But not long after some of those Lords (finding themselues abused) as the Vicount Gormanstowne, the Lords of Slany, The Lords by another Letter recanted their errour. Heathe, and Trimelstene, by another Letter recanted their errour, expressing sorrow for mistaking the Deputies meaning, acknow­ledging his fatherly care of them, & the Coun­try: (for those were the words of their Letter) and that they would not haue written against him, neither for the former particular, nor for the suspension of Poynings Act, if they had dis­cerned [Page 79] or vnderstood what they now found of his disposition, to doe them, and the Coun­try right. This shewes in what a slippery seare they fit, that gouerne that Kingdome, for In­nocencie is not alwayes safe, though it be euer best, for it cannot bee free from imputation, when it is free from corruption, the vnder-Instruments of State aduauncing themselues thereby.

Notwithstanding these complaints, cros­sings and backbitings, the Deputy like a care­full Common-wealths man, and iust seruant to his Prince, professed he would proceede on to the discharge of his duty, as long as he held that place, esteeming it better to be disgraced for doing well, then to be remiss in doing well. Therefore care is had, to settle a Composition in Cannaught sutable to that in Vlster, begun for the encrease of the Crownes reuennew, and setling of some certainty in that Prouince, betwixt the Lords and their Tenants; for the preuention of such mischiefes as had happe­ned formerly, there by their disagreement, and for the reformation of such enormities, as were frequent by the dependencie of the mean person, vpon the chiefe Lords.

To this purpose in the same yeare, so soone as the late begun troubles of Vlster were paci­fied, and the other Prouinces of Ireland began to be plyable, and conformable to Iustice and Peace. A commission is directed to Sir Richard [Page 80]Commission sent into Con­naught for making the composition.Bingham, the Gouernour of Connaught, Sir Nicholas White Master of the Rowles, Sir Tho­mas Lestrange, Charles Calthorpe the Queenes Attourney Generall, Thomas Dillon Chiefe Iustice of Connaught, Gerard Comeford Attour­ney there, and Francis Barkeley, to enter into a course for procuring a composition with the principall Lords spirituall and temporall.

The Chiefetaines of Countries, Gentle­men, and Free-holders of that Prouince of Connaught, to passe vnto the Queenes Maiesty, her Heires and Successours, a graunt of tenne shillings English, or a marke Irish, vpon euery quarter of land containing 120 Acres, manu­red, or to be manured, as the phrase went, and was significantly set downe, that beares either horne or corne, that was, with tillage or cattell, in lieu and consideration to bee discharged from other Cess, taxation, or tallage, excep­ting the rising out of Horse and Foote, for the Seruice of the Prince and State, such as should be particularly agreed vpon, and some certaine dayes labour for building and fortifaction for the safety of the people and Kingdome. Ac­cording to which Commission, and the direc­tions therein contained. These Commissio­ners did trauaile through the seuerall Coun­ties of Connaught, first calling and conferring with the Lords, Chiefetaines, Gentlemen, and Free-holders in their seuerall Precincts and Possessions, to finde their dispositions, [Page 81] how farre they were willing to condiscend, and yeeld to such a course, for the satisfaction of their Prince, and freedome of themselues from further burthens, to make their charge certaine, and that but small. These things well The Com­missioners handled the Commission discreetly.propounded, and discreetly prosecuted: most, and in a manner, all the principall possessours of land in that Prouince, as they were gene­rally dealt withall, did assent to this contribu­tion for their owne ease, as well as for the sa­tisfaction and seruice of the Prince: of the first themselues were sensible, of the other they had onely aduertisement from the Commissi­oners, being well chosen for that purpose; especially, Sir Richard Bingham the Gouer­nour, then whom the Queene had not in her Dominions a more able and sufficient Gentle­man, and that did more neerely lay his actions to a good conscience, so as he did nothing but by the warrant thereof; and nothing did argue his duty to God, and his Princemore, then his The hard cause held a­gainst Sir Ri­chara Bing­ham.vniust fall, (notwithstanding his prime desert) in that [...]nhappy Kingdome, by the deprauing and malicious courses of those Instruments, that in time prosecuted the like against him, as they did now against this Deputy, of whom wee now treat, till the light of his innocencie cleared him (though too late) from their a­spersion, & brought him to a new & further ad­uancement in that Kingdome, though his great heart (disdayning the iniustice was done him) [Page 82] would not hold out long enough, to prosecute the seruice which was in his power to per­forme: but ere I come to relate this tragicall misdeede, I must mention his vertuous acti­ons, by which hee got the hate of his worth­lesse Aduersaries, and must recommend the Earle of Clanrikard, who being a most noble Gentleman, and loyall Subiect, was one of the principall in this Seruice.

After treaties, succeeded Inquisitions to finde what quantity there was in each Barony, The coue­nants between the Queene, and the Lords of Connaught.and who were found owners thereof. Inden­tures were drawne betweene the Deputy in the behalfe of the Queene on the one part, and the chiefe possessioners in the seuerall Pre­cincts on the other, expressing so many quar­ters and quantities of Land, with the Rents thereon reserued, and such other couenants as were therein contained.

In the County of Clare and Thomond, the Earle of Clanrikard, the Baron of Inse [...]uin, the Bishop of Killalowe, the Elect Bisho [...] of Kil­fanorough, with diuers Knights, and chiefe Gentlemen, subscribed to an Indenture of co­uenants for the perpetuall, paying out of the nine Baronies of that County, amounting 177 quarters.

Certaine Freedomes were granted to some speciall persons: some quarters of Land to be exempted from this imposition: In consi­deration whereof, the Lords and Owners of [Page 83] those Lands did likewise couenaot with the Deputy, that the names, stiles, and Titles of Captainship chiefly, and all other Irish Autho­rities and Iurisdictions heretofore vsed by the Lords, Chiefetaines and Gentlemen, together with all elections, and customary diuisions of Lands (which had occasioned great strife and diuision amongst them) should be thenceforth vtterly renounced, extinct, and abollished. The like composition was made vpon the same conditions, with the Lords spirituall and temporall. The Chiefetaines, Gentlemen, and Freeholders in the County of Maio, contai­ning nine Baronies, and 1448 quarters of Land, euery quarter esteemed to be 120 Acres: so that out of this 1448 quarters found in this County, there being graunted so much to bee free, as there remained 1200 quarters charge­able, which amounted to sixe hundred pound sterling in that County. There was also by the same composition and couenants, to be main­tained by the County for the Seruice of the Prince, forty good able Horsemen furnished, and two hundred Footemen well Armed, at their owne costs and charges, whensoeuer they should be called, or commanded thereto by the Deputy or chiefe Gouernour of the Realme, or by the chiefe Officer of the said Prouince, and to finde fifteene good Horse­men, and fifty Footemen well furnished, in such sort, as the Peeres and English Bishops [Page 84] ought to doe the same. The like composition was made for the County of Sligo, & all other Counties, Countries, Baronies, and Territo­ries of this Prouince. By the eighth of Septem­ber 1585, the Commissioners had trauailed through the Okelleys Country, all Thomond, Clanrickard, Eighter, Connaught, and the rest of the County of Galway, which Mac Wil­liam Eighter, and the rest of his name, which were of many branches; besides the petty Lords, and other of the second ranke in their Sir Nicholas White his let­ter to the Lord Deputy.Countries: So that as Sir Nicholas White certified to the Lord Deputy, they conceiued hope to come home loaden with Pledges, and leaue that Country vnloaden of many Macks and Oos, translated by their owne assent (vnto which their hands & Seales were had) to a bet­ter course, and more certainty of liuing, then hitherto they could afford themselues. In the aduertisement of these affaires, Sir Nicholas White did propound vnto the Deputy an inge­nious Enigma or Ridle. That all sorts were eased with their bearing, and yet her Maie­sties reuenue, with the Liuings of the Lords encreased.

From the County of Mayo the Commis­sioners were to repasse to the County of Sligo, and so homewards to the County of Roscoman.

The Commis­sioners doubt­full to meddle with Orurk. With Orurkes Country called Letrim, they were doubtfull how to meddle, considering the condition of himselfe and his Country, [Page 85] both vnciuill and vnruly.

In those places where they had dealt, they began to erect Mannours to hold of her Ma­iestie, besides the Compositions and Royal­ties reserued vnto the Crowne. Vpon the re­turne of this Commission, and the Indentures thereupon drawne, as formerly mentioned. It appeareth there were found in that Pro­uince 8169 quarters of Land, whereof Free­domes were graunted to 2339, so then remai­ned chargeable 6836, whereon there were re­serued in yearely Rent to her Maiesty and the Crowne 3418 pound fiue shillings eight pence sterling, with the Seruice of so many Horse and Foote, as is already mentioned, and here­after set downe.

Horsemen for rising out within the Prouince of Connaught, vpon their owne victuals.
Horsemen for rising out within the same Prouince for forty dayes vpon their owne victuals.
Footemen for rising out within the Pro­uince vpon their owne victuals.
Footemen for rising out of the Prouince for forty dayes vpon their owne victuals.

The Tawnist was cut off in that Prouince.

Mac William Enghters Country being the lower Bourkes, was deuided into fiue parts.

The Lords and their Tenants were agreed together for a certaine Rent, in lieu of all ex­actions.

[Page 86] That Prouince was deuided into sixe Coun­ties or Shieres, where there were but three be­fore: for so I finde it in a note vnder the De­puties, Sir Iohn Perrots owne hand, yet by ano­ther painefull Author I see it mentioned, that Sir Henry Sidney made the whole sixe Coun­ties, Clare, Galway, Sligo, Mayo, Roscomon, and Letrim, then but one, as he had formerly done, the County of Longford in Lemster, being be­fore called the Annaly or Oferralls Country; but I suppose he is mistaken being deuided, and The Counties of Connaught deuided by Sir Iohn Perrot, not by Sir Henry Sidney.peraduenture named by Sir Henry Sidney, but perfected by Sir Iohn Perrot. Iustices of Assize were ordained, and Shriefes, and Iustices of the Peace, with other inferiour Officers, were established in most parts of this Pro­uince.

This Seruice so auaileable to the State by cutting off the Inferiours, depending onely vp­on the Superiour, was affected beyond the ex­pectation of many, who could not conceiue, that Chiefetaines would easily condiscend to quit their cuttings, Cosherias, and other Irish exactions of so long continuance and custome, which the people had borne so long, as they thought it now no burthen, knowing no bet­ter, & feeling that least wherwith they had so long bin acquainted. But now the Chiefes vn­derstanding, that they should haue freedom of lands instead, & lieu of their Chieferies, & the people by perswasion, brought to beleeue, and [Page 87] perceiue, they should by this meanes liue more free from exaction, both yeelded to this com­position, which to this day doth continue.

If this Seruice had proceeded (as the De­puty intended) as well through the whole Pro­uince, as in these parts, and so extended to the rest of the Kingdome: it had surely introdu­ced peace and wealth amongst the people, with obedience, and encrease of reuenue to the Prince, which at that time might easily haue beene affected: but the bloud and fa­tall mischiefes threatned vnto that vnhappy Kingdome, were not to bee preuented by the care and industry of this good Gouernour, whose workes (though built vpon the strong foundation of zeale, knowledge, and integri­ty) were shaken by the stormes, blowne from the breath of his maligners both here & there, vsing not the Engine of slander onely, but like Magicians stirred vp euery spirit, that might moue him to impatience, the already mentioned fault of his Nature. That begot The second information against the Deputy.rash words, which no sooner spoken, but was enformed with aduantage, which tooke away her Maiesties good opinion of his zeale, to 1586 doe her Seruice, so as his faith was interpreted to be vaineglory, which being by him vnder­stood, discouraged his proceeding, and find­ing all his actions (if not slighted) yet brought within the compasse of suspition (a hard re­ward for so much merit) hee was much per­plexed: [Page 88] But heere his misfortune rested not; for now the most perillous practise of his Enemies began to breake forth, which fatally in short time proued his ruine.

Denis Orough­ans practise discouered. One Dennis Oroughan, who had beene a Romish Priest, counterfeited certaine War­rants in the name of the Deputy, directed to all the Queenes Officers within the Realme of Ireland, vnto which Warrants the name of the Deputy was set in the vsuall place of Assignati­on: In them was a generall pardon graunted to the Priest, without limitation of time, or exception of any offence, terming the Realme of Ireland and Councell thereof, as if they had beene his, and hee King of it and them, contrary to all vsuall forme, which seemed not to be the Priests owne deuice, because the ex­traordinary forme must needes bring it in que­stion, and thereby make it of no auaile to him, but the Priest being a fit instrument, in respect of his offence, and the fitter through an extra­ordinary villany grafted in him, was wrought by others to take vpon him this part, to mani­fest the Deputies ambition, and thereby make him odious to the State here; which deuillish plot was more timely discouered, then the Plotters wished, for the Priest being taken with these counterfeited Warrants (vpon o­ther suspition) and brought before the Arch­bishop of Cashell, who taking paines in the ex­amination of him, discouered that these War­rants [Page 89] were written by one Henry Birde, Regi­ster to the high Commission. Aduertisement was giuen hereof to the Deputy, a Commissi­on thereupon was directed to the Lord Pri­mate, Sir Henry Wallop, and Sir Nicholas White, to call Birde before them, and to make search amongst his papers thereby, as by his exami­nation, to finde the meaning of these counter­feited papers of warrant. At first hee denied the writing of the Warrants, but afterwards being tripped in his Answeres, hee confessed hee wrote them; but stifly for swore the sub­scription of the Deputies name thereto, which (as it should seeme) was done by the Priest himselfe, for hee was the man that after accu­sed Denis Orough­an, the false Author of Sir Iohn Perrots accusation in England.the Deputy in England; vpon which hee was condemned: so as either the Deputies owne remisnesse in seuerely punishing this man, or his Aduersaries vnderhand protecting him from his deserued punishment, gaue scope to his detestable accusation, which the villaine Denis Orough­ans repen­tance.a little before his death (being not many yeares since) confessed with a seeming remorse for his so falsly accusing an Innocent, by the procuring of others, who were neuer knowne in this world, to repent their misdeede, how they answere in the next, is onely knowne to God himselfe: but it is a fearefull thing to ob­serue, what power such false persons oftē haue to preuaile against the most innocent, euen in the iustest Common-weales, which neither [Page 90] the wit of man, nor any thing, but the mira­culous hand of the highest can preuent or dis­couer▪

Another practise about this time, or shortly after succeeded against him, which though it were not so dangerous, yet it troubled him no The Deputies secrets be­wrayed.lesse, being a meanes to preuent his intended Seruices, for his Letters and secrets being be­wrayed by (as it should seeme) Iohn Williams, his owne Secretary, vnto his Aduersaries, and by them communicated vnto others, whom they concerned, her Maiestie was defrauded of her Seruice, and he brought into suspition amongst those, where the way of his preuai­ling lay: vpon the first notice thereof he wrote vnto the Lords of the Councell in England, who thereupon gaue commaundement vnto the Lord Chancellour, and the Bishop of Meath, to make the Authors knowne of that discouery, shewing the dangerous conse­quence that followed such practises of publish­ing secrets, which did concerne the State; but they for some particular respects (as it should seeme) disobeyed that commaundement, though the Queene her selfe did after expresly require it to be done. And withall, she wrote vnto the Lord Chancellour, charging him to forbeare contestation with the Deputy, which could not but hinder his seruice, and embolden euill affected persons, disposed to resist the po­wer of her Gouernours, when they should dis­cerne [Page 91] such contention amongst those, that were chiefe in authority.

Shortly after the Baron of Donganon went into England, who hauing beene brought vp with the English, shewed alwayes forward­nesse in the Queenes Seruice against Tirlogh Leynaugh, and Shane Oneale, in times of their disobedience, wherein his speciall ayme was onely his owne aduancement into their title and place, they once suppressed.

Comming into England with the faire shew of his former Seruices, he professeth future fi­delity in himselfe, and aduiseth (vnder colour of the Countries peace and quiet) a suppressi­on of the exorbitant Title, and iurisdiction of Oneale, which notwithstanding hee afterward assumed and extorted vnto himselfe, though a knowne Bastard, taking aduantage of the loose hand was held vpon the Irish in Vlster, and the corrupt Gouernment at that time in the State, as shall in his due time be made manifest; with this profession of Seruice; and by applying himselfe to the greatest in power, and grace at Court, he gained the Queenes fauour, and The Baron of Donganon created Earle of Tyrone.was created Earle of Tyrone: but hereat his ambition was not leuelled, for the name of an Earle was not the thing he aymed at; but, as is mentioned, the barbarous Title of Oneale, for Tyrone his ambition to be Oneale.he hath beene oft heard to say: I had rather be Oneale of Vlster, then Philip of Spaine, who in the Papists reckoning, is the greatest Mo­narch [Page 92] of the world: and as Tirlogh, then the Tawnist Oneale grew in weakenesse and impo­tencie: so this new created Earle did more and more aspire to sit in his roome, within process of time he obtained; so as the Queenes pollicy in making him Earle, to out-countenance the Title of Oneale, made him potent to gaine it, and therby to proue the greatest firebrand that euer that Kingdome had.

Not long after the Composition of Con­naught The Burks re­penting their Composition.before mentioned, some of the Burkes, with others of that Prouince better discerning the pollicy of the State then at first, or at least taught to interpret it so, by the perswasion of the Priests, now fearing that their vsurped po­wer ouer the people, would bee diminished (preferring power to doe mischiefe in after time, before their present profit and plenty,) fell into counsell and consideration, how they might vndoe the knot the State had almost tyed, and proceeded to a promise of combi­nation to the same effect, whereof the vigilant Gouernour Sir Richard Bingham taking light, aduertised the Deputy, and from him recei­ued aduice, not to prouoke the people, by gi­uing them any iust occasion of offence; but to try by all faire perswasions and pollitique meanes, that they might be held in obedience, and to perseuer in such courses of conformity; as they had lately yeelded & submitted them­selues vnto: for this purpose Commissioners [Page 93] are sent to heare their grieuances, and to yeeld A second Cō ­mission sent into Con­naught, to ap­pease the Burks.them right vpon their iust demaunds, (but this course indeede, because it argued feare in the State, made them holder in their practises.) The Commissioners were the Archbishop of Toome, the Bishop of Meathe, &c.

These Commissioners heard their com­plaints, which proued most against the Gouer­nour, and his vnder Officers, somewhat they exhibited for their owne claimes, alledging In­terest. They were offered right, and perswa­ded to obedience, which they promised, but did not long performe: for the matter of their vsurped and customary authority and superio­rity (being of more value in sound and shewe, then in substance) did so ouer-possesse them, as they not long after entred into a second con­spiracy, for the maintenance of that their law­lesse intrusion, which being shaken by the cō ­position, they intended now to hold by force.

And for the better effecting this euill and Trayterous enterprise, they perswaded the Clandonnells, Ioyces, and others (that Sir Richard Bingham had already taken from them their auncient Liberties, and was ready to doe the like vnto all others in that Prouince, if it were not preuented, and therefore entreated them to ioyne in action of Rebellion for their future Freedome.

Thus they began to assemble, and to gather troopes, amongst whom the sonnes of Edmond [Page 94]The Burks enter into an Insurrection.Bourke of Castlebarry, being many were Parti­sans, and so entred into an insurrection. This Edmond, an olde man, was one of the Com­petitors of the Mac William Shie; His sonnes with Edmond Kettaugh Burke; Richard Burest sonne vnto him, called the Deuils [...]ooke, Meyler Oge Burke, Walter Mac Dauid Barie, Cayhir Mac Connell, and others, associating vnto them many idle persons their followers, entred a Castle called Castle ne Kelly, manned the same, and kept it against the Queene, with Thomas Roes Castle, which after his decease was in the hands and possession of his brother Richard Burke.

About this time Mahone Obryan held a Ca­stle called Clan Owen in Thomond, against the State, who was a dangerous and great practi­zer with forraigne power, for the Inuasion in Sir Richard Bingham be­sieged Clan Owen. Ireland. This Castle the Gouernour Sir Ri­chard besieged, and after seauen dayes siege wonne it, and slew Mahon Obryan. The siege was all by water in Boates, for it could not otherwise be attempted, the Castle being sea­ted farre within the Logh vpon a small Iland, where Sir Richard going about to burne a Boate or two belonging to the Rebels, that lay close to the wall of the Castle, was enfor­ced with suddaine rising of winde and foule weather (which much fauoured the Rebell) to leaue the attempt, with the losse of one or two of his Boates, and two or three of his [Page 95] Souldiers: Himselfe & such as were with him, hardly escaping, by the helpe of other Boates, which came as they were appointed in time to second him. The Boate which he lost, the Rebels got, in which they shipped themselues, and fled into the Woods, before hee could re­turne to giue them a new assault.

This Pile, and another of Fardara [...]gh Mac Donnells, Sir Richard razed downe to the ground, as held not fit to be kept by the Eng­lish, and dangerous to be in the hand of the Irish.

Richard Bourk hanged. Richard Bourke called the Vsule of Ireland, was at Castellne Kelly, hanged by Marshall law. Information being there giuen, that hee was confederate with the Rebell, and vnder pre­text of dutifull obedience, and visitation of the Gouernour, intended to betray him and his company.

Some of the Burks sent to call the Scots. The Burkes againe gather greater forces, ioyned with their other confederates, and the more to manifest their malice, they murthered fifteene or sixteene of the Officers of Con­naught, and sent Edmond Kettaugh Burke, with Iohn Iteleaga, brother vnto Walter Kettaugh Burke, to practise with the Scottish Ilanders, to draw them thither to their ayde, whereof the Deputy being aduertised, sendeth directions to the Gouernour, to raise what Forces hee could in the Prouince for the present, promi­sing to send him supplies with all possible [Page 96] The Deputy promiseth to come to the Gouernour. speed, and to come himselfe in person, if the necessity of the Seruice so required; but there­in he reckoned without his Host, for his Ad­uersaries, A plot to re­straine him.finding his former successe, to haue gained him great reputation, whose encrease might make him too powerfull to be shaken by their plots, had procured Letters of re­straint to be sent out of England, to prohibite him to doe any thing, without the assent and approbation of the Councell.

The Gouernour with such Forces as were then in pay in the Prouince, and some other ayde of the Country began vpon the 12 of Iuly 1586, to draw towards the County of Mayo, and came to Ballincrobe, the fourteenth of the same, whereall the Gentlemen best affected in the Country met him, as the Earle of Clanri­kard, the Lord Bremicham, Sir Hubert Mac Da­uie Teige, Okelly, with many others. Thither came the Captaines Mostian, Merryman, and Mordant, with their Companies sent by the Deputy to supply him.

Commissioners are likewise appointed to parley with the Burkes, but could not preuaile: The Burks proyed by the Gouernour, & their F rces ouerthrowne.Whereupon the Gouernour prosecuted them, and tooke from them 3 or 4000 Cowes, whereof 1000 are reserued by the Gouernour, towards the defraying of extraordinary char­ges in that Seruice, done by him for the easing of her Maiesties Charge, but reported by his Aduersaries to be conuerted to his owne vse. [Page 97] The rest were distributed amongst the Forces; in the taking of this prey, were of the Rebels slaine sixe or seauen score, the rest were dis­perced, and forced to sue for pardon.

Hereupon the Gouernour discharged the Kerne, and dismissed the rest of the Forces, all sauing his owne Horse, and three Compa­nies of Foote.

The chiefest of the Gallo­glasses make their submis­sion. Euston Mac Odonnell, chiefe of the Gallo­glasses, made his submission, and gaue his sonne in Pledge for himselfe and his Sept.

Edmond Bourke, Mac Richard Euerren, (sonne to the last Mac William but one) gaue his sonne for Pledge in like manner: But the sonnes of Edmond Burke of Castlebary, persisted in Re­bellion, purposing to make their Father, Mac Edmond Burk of Castlebary executed. William, wherein they continued, till their Fa­ther was Executed, by the course of com­mon Law; so done, that his Lands might bee excheated to the Crowne, being of good va­lue, which could not haue beene, if he had dy­ed by Marshall law. After whose death, his sonnes offered to submit themselues, vpon con­dition of restitution of their Fathers Lands, which the Gouernour referred to the Lord Deputies resolution and pleasure.

As the Bourkes (by the well aduised & quick prosecution of the Gouernor) were reduced to a lowe estate (fewe of them being now able to make head:) newes came that the Scottish Ilan­ders The Scottish Ilanders land.were arriued in the North, being drawn by [Page 98] Edmond & Iohn Burke afore mentioned, in the name of all the rest of the Sept of Burkes, to in­uade vpō condition of hauing part of that Pro­uince to inhabite in, after the expelling of the English by their ayde and assistance. The num­ber of these Inuadors were vncertaine, being by some estimated to be 2700, and by others 2000 little aboue 1600, being perhaps made more then they were by the hope of the Rebell, and feare of the Country. Vpon their landing, they marched speedily, as farre as the Riuer of Earne, towards Sligo.

Of this newes, (hindering the peace of Con­naught for the present) the Deputy was by Sir Richard Bingham aduertised, withall that hee had not sufficient power to resist so great a number as these Inuadors, with the Rebels, The Gouer­nour durst not trust the Irish of the Pro­uince.their Assistants were, neither durst he rely vp­on the ayde of the Prouinciall Lords and Gen­tlemen, who for the most part were allyed to the Rebell Burkes, the Inducers of this Inuasi­on, to which he receiued answer from the De­puty, to the same effect hee had formerly receiued vpon the first making Head by the Burkes.

Vpon this the Gouernours intelligence, it was debated in Councell at Dublin, whether the Deputy should goe in person, with such power as could be there prouided, to assist the Gouernour, which the forward Deputy al­ledged, to be most necessary, for the better [Page 99] countenancing of the action, since his presence was most likely to disunite the Rebell from the Inuador, (as it had formerly done in Vlster) and so make the Warre more easie. Hereto The Deputy and Councell differ about his iourney to Connaught.much opposition was giuen by some of the Councell, and those not of the meanest: so as that the more earnest he was to vndertake the enterprise, the more stiffe they were to with­stand it, alledging for their reasons, that the number of the Inuadors were not so great as was reported; and therefore it was inconue­uient to put the Queene to such a charge, as an Army would require to attend the Deputy in person: Neuerthelesse, the Deputy with some of the Councell, sought to perswade the con­trary, considering Sir Richard Binghams diffi­dence in the assistance of that Country people, the weakenesse of his Forces there (especially English) the number of the Inuadors being certainly knowne to be aboue 1600, besides the daily supplies of the euill affected Irish, so as it could not but be dangerous, not onely to that Prouince, but to the whole Kingdome, to hazard a farre greater charge after, by the spa­ring a little now. Besides, the not taking time which is the mother of good successe; but ce­lerity one of the strongest finewes of action, was not vnderstood by Clergy men and Law­yers; to one of which professions delay breeds profit, and the other were contented, any mis­chiefe might be hazarded; so as their owne [Page 100] ends might bee atchieued, who well knew withall, that the sauing of Charge would make a strong excuse in England, for any er­rour might happen thereby, which proui­dence proued alwayes improuidence, & begot The Councell conclude the Deputy shall not goe in per­son, of which hee complai­neth to the Queene.much mischiefe in the Warres of Ireland: so it was concluded (the greatest numbers of voy­ces carrying the resolution) that the Deputy should not goe himselfe in this Expedition, nor send any extraordinary force, vntill the sequell, should expresse the necessary encrease of her Maiesties Charge; wherewith the De­puty being much discontented, and finding himselfe limited to their opinion, complaineth himselfe to the Queene, and some of her prin­cipall Councellours; That his Authority (for­merly allowed, both by Patent, and the pra­ctise of his Predecessours in that place) was not a little abridged vpon some suggestions (as he conceiued) of his euill-willers, who to work his disgrace and discontentment, had enfor­med many things amisse of him, which were the motiues of this vnexpected or vndeserued restriction. And in this particular Seruice, he expresseth his griefe, that the Inuading Ilan­ders, being, as Sir Richard Bingham in one Let­ter aduertised, aboue two thousand, and there­fore craued speedy ayde: And in a second, being doubtfull of his Prouincialls, request English to bee sent vnto him, hee found it perillous, the Gouernour and his small force [Page 101] should be hazarded in this Streight; besides, the chiefe Charge of the Goueruement lying vpon him as Deputy, who was to encounter all eminent accidents of danger; for the pre­uention of which, he had at this time a purpose to goe himselfe in person, knowing that his presence, besides the power hee should bring with him, would haue giuen countenance to the worke, strengthned the good Subiect, set­led the fickle, and secured not onely that Pro­uince, but others there abouts; yet he was re­strained by most of the Councell, as by their opinions vnder their handes did appeare, and must abide at home whatsoeuer should happen, whence (as hee conceiued) must needes growe contempt of his Gouernement in the English, and disobedience in the Irish. Hee therefore declareth plainely, that not­withstanding The Deputies resolution a­gainst his re­straint.this Tye vpon him by directi­on, if hee found any manifest danger to the State, which hee greatly feared, hee would rather vndertake a iourney without the Coun­cels allowance (though to his owne perill and preiudice) then hazard both that Prouince, and consequently the peace of that Kingdom, by sitting still, when there was most need of his stirring.

By this time the Ilanders being ioyned with the Bourkes and others, who flocked fast vnto them, resolued to enter into Connaught▪ their Force now amounting to almost 3000.

[Page 102] Sir Richard Bingham at the first, either to set­tle things in the safest manner he could, or to gather more force, being in expectation to re­ceiue speedy supplement from the State, went not with all his strength against them, perhaps knowing himselfe vnable to encounter so ma­ny, and being not throughly assured of such as should come to serue him of the Irish Forces The Gouernor dispatcheth the Earle of Clanrikard, & then goeth in person him­selfe against the Scots.raised there, dispatched the Earle of Clanri­kard, (in whom he reposed good confidence) and in respect of his faith and worthinesse had good reason, with some fewe Horse, and three Companies of Foote, ioyned with his brother George Bingham, then Shireffe of the County of Sligo, who had lately leauied some Shot and Horsemen, before the comming of the Earle.

They being thus vnited, were directed to stand vpon their Guard, and to coast the Ene­mie as he should march.

Sir Richard himselfe speedily hasteth after, and commeth to Sligo, and in his way at the Abby of Aboylehe, found Sir Thomas Lestrange with the Rising out of the Country, whom he left to defend those parts. At Sligo he was en­formed, that the Ilanders lay still at the Riuer of Earne, some on one side, and some on the other, that Sir Arte Oneale, and Sir Hugh Mac­guire, had sent them ayde, so that their number was much encreased.

The comming of the Gouernour to Sligo, and the pacification of the County of Mayo [Page 103] being bruted, made their aboade the longer about the Riuer of Earne and Bundroys, to ex­pect more ayde from their Confederates, and to procure that some new stirre might be rai­sed within the Country, whereby the Gouer­nour might be enforced to deuide his forces.

The Gouernour on the other side lay at Sli­go, and the Curlews about fourteene dayes, ex­pecting supply from the Deputy. In the meane time the Enemy drawes on by little and little through Orurkes Country towards the Cur­lews, with intention to passe that way into Mayo. And one night prouing darke and tem­pestuous, The Scot [...] pas­sed by Sir Ri­chards forces.they passed on that way neere Sir Richards Forces, who vpon notice they were a foote, drew out to see their countenance, and came so neere, as himselfe being Armed vnder his Cassock, was shotte with many Arrowes, that hurt him not. They passed on, seeming yet vnwilling to giue him Fight, (which in re­spect of his small force, gaue him the aduan­tage of discerning their fearefulnesse) and esca­ped by a Foard vnknowne.

Sir Richard with his Company marched in­to the Barony of Magherie Leauy, chiefly to preserue the prey of that Country; from thence he marched through the Plaines, a way contrary to the passage of the Enemy, which this aduised Captaine did on purpose to breed Supply is sent from the De­puty to the Gouernour.their security. At length there came some Companies of Foot, and fifty Horse sent from [Page 104] the Deputy to supply him, before their arri­uall, and vpon opinion that Sir Richard was re­tired; The enemy being incamped at Ardna­rey, proclaymed that the Countrey was theirs, and that the Gouernour was returned in feare to Roscomon, and that all his forces had forsa­ken A good Stra­tagem of the Gouernours.him, which Sir Richard caused to be repor­ted to them as a truth; and suddenly so soone as he knew their aboad, and that they were growne secure, marcheth with speed and en­camped within twelue miles of them, whence he rose before breake of day, and came with­in two miles of their Campe, before nine of the Clocke in the Morning, with his Horse, where he made a stand a while, for the com­ming vp of the Foote; then passed on with such silence & celerity, as he approached their Campe within halfe a mile before they knew any thing of his comming; assuring them­selues by rumours, that hee durst not attempt them: so that his Scouts, which he had sent before to discouer how they were lodged, fell in vpon them vnexpected, and gaue them a fearefull Alarume; who being thus surpri­sed, standing without any guard, did neuer­thelesse, striue to make head, but Sir Richard charging, and recharging them with his Horse, kept them in disorder, which they as­sayed to amend, by drawing toward the Bogg, where they might auoide the force of the Horse, but Sir Richard knowing before that [Page 105] he should driue them to that shift, had sent his brother Captaine Iohn Bingham with the Foot to approach them that way; who meeting them, they were charged both in Front and The Scots de­feated.Flank, which quickly disordered them wholy, and so broken, were soone dismayed, and put to rout; neither did hee leaue them any place of safety to flye vnto, but forced them to take the Riuer where such as were not slaine by the sword were drowned, none escaping of aboue 3000, excepting some fourescore, part of whō were slaine by George Bingham, and the rest by their friends the Burkes, that had drawne them thither, who thought that the best meanes to insinuate with the State, by such being the re­ward which the partaker of Treason may ex­pect from the Traytor, yet a fewe, some 6 or 7 escaped by the wily conduct of Shane Mac an Erle, a Bastard of the Earle of Kildares.

Before this discomfiture was giuen, the Deputy fearing the Gouernours strength, was not great enough to encounter the Enemie, in respect of their number, (which indeede had not beene, if hee had beene an ordinarie Commaunder, and not so iudicious and ex­perienced a Captaine, as fewe of his time was like him) raised more power, and march­ing towardes Connaught, notwithstanding the Councels opposition, but by the way, be­ing come as farre as Mullingar, he heard of their defeate by Sir Richard Bingham, when [Page 106] The Deputy discontented, that he came not time e­nough to o­uerthrow the Scots himselfe. it was a question whether hee were more glad that the Seruice to her Maiesty was perfor­med, or sorrie that himselfe in person was preuented of the honour therof; which doubt­lesse besides the greatnesse of his spirit, for o­ther causes he much desired, as well to mani­fest the Councels errour in disswading his iourney, as to satisfie his friends in England of the necessity thereof; so as he could not chuse but emulate the Gouernours good successe; who on the other side made the more speed in his businesse, not onely to gaine the honour, but to shew the State, the benefit of his long experience.

By this victory, whereby the bed of Rebel­lion was in that Prouince, at that time broken. The Deputy had lesse cause to make any long aboade there, where hee remained but tenne dayes, taking order for such affaires, as the present State of the Country, and particular mens causes and controuersies did require: wherein he made the more speede for the ease of the Queenes Charge, vpon which proui­dence, most vnwisely, his ignorant Aduersaries through malice, insisted, for much more time might otherwise to good purpose haue beene spent, in rooting out the originall cause of this Inuasion, and securing the after time of any the like Confederacy. But all things being now whist, and no commotion at that time appearing, the Deputy retired to Dublin, to [Page 107] answere his Aduersaries deuises against him, The third In­formation a­gainst the De­puty.there being now matter giuen them to worke on, by his vncontroulable departure thence.

There the Deputy bent his course to satisfie all the Subiects in their iust complaints, a­mongst which some priuate Iniuries were al­ledged to be done in the County of Cauan, by the Collectours of the Queenes Rents. The Examination and Writing whereof, was by Commission referred to Sir Henry Duke, and others.

Complaints in the County of Cauan redres­sed. The Tenants of the seuerall Baronies with­in the said County, exhibited their seuerall complaints against Patrick White and William Brataugh, Collectours; most of the offences alledged were triuiall, as the taking of di­stresses, being of greater value then their Rents amounted to, with the laying more Cess, for Horsemen and Boyes, vpon the Country, (which did accompany the Collectors & their Serieants) then was meete for that Seruice.

These things being examined, and the proofes returned by the Commissioners, the Deputy, though he saw them to be but of small moment: yet he gaue order for the Complai­ners satisfaction, with expresse Charge for the no more committing of such oppression, which ministred good contentment vnto the Country.

Shortly after, vpon like complaint the like Cōmission was directed vnto certaine Iustices [Page 108] Complaint a­gainst Francis Louell, Sheriffe in the County of Kilkenny. of the Peace, in the County of Kilkenny, vpon allegation made by the Earle of Ormonds Officers against Francis Louell, Sheriffe of that County, that he should execute & put to death by Marshall law diuers persons, out of malice and euill will, for his owne priuate gaine, who were out of the compasse of Marshall law, ha­uing both Lands and Goods, whereunto the Queene might haue bin entitled vpon due of­fence, if proceeding against them had beene at the common law, whose goods he had gotten into his owne possession, to the defrauding of her Maiesty: Withall that he had omitted the apprehension of diuers Malefactors, such as were notorious disturbers of the Country and common peace.

To which Cōmission the Deputy added in­struction to the Iustices, who were to examine the particular complaints, and all parties there­vpon, & to returne the proofes produced (with their proceedings therein, by a certain prefixed time, vnder their hands closely sealed, that they should carrie themselues iustly and sincerely, with especiall care to auoyde exception. This was accordingly performed, the Sheriffe being present, & the Earles Officers appointed their time to bring their witnesses:

At which time the persons names, their of­fences, abilities, and qualities examined, who had beene executed by Marshall law: the Iu­rie found that the parties so put to death, were [Page 109] iustly proceeded against, and not maliciously, as was enformed, they being Vagabonds, ha­uing no Goods or Lands: Saue onely one Patrick Beg Baron, who at his Execution, was possessed of some small things rated at a very little value, whereof part was restored vnto the true owners from whom they were stolne, and the rest being but of the value of twenty shillings, were deuided betweene the Sheriffe and his Officers.

They found likewise that the Sheriffe had not omitted to doe his endeuour, for the ap­prehension of any notorious malefactour, or receiued any reward; but proofe was offered of a gift giuen to the Sheriffs wife, to perswade her husband not to prosecute a Carpinter, who was charged to lodge one Peiree Grace, a man then out in action of Rebellion. The booke of Articles exhibited against the Sheriff, with his seueral answers, was shewed vnto Hen. Sheath, the Earle of Ormonds Steward, and he willed to consider thereof, that he might enforme the Iury, and prouide his proofes; but he refused, alledging he had not sufficient time so to doe: whereupon the Iury returned their verdit, and the Commissioners sent the same, with their Francis Louell cleared.proceedings vnto the Deputy, who vpon per­usall thereof, finding no cause to condemne, but to cleare the Sheriffe, signified so much vnto the Earle of Ormond; and withall, that hee was glad to see an English Gentle­man, as Louell was, seruing in that Country, [Page 110] especially in that Office, charged with so great abuses, to acquite himselfe so well.

This with some other such passages, (which did crosse the Earles Officers, vsing absolute, and in a manner, vnlimitted Authority in their Masters Dominions, especially in the next The Deputy and the Earle of Ormond at oddes.County adioyning, which was his Palatine) bred some dislike betweene the Earle and the Deputy, which in time grew to a heart-bur­ning, though in former time they had beene ancient and inward friends, but now the profit and command of the one being questioned by the Authority of the other, conuerted friend­ship into enmity.

Though at this time there were a generall tranquillity through the Kingdom of Ireland, yet it could not bee but some corrosiues must remaine harboured in the mindes of men, ei­ther misliking good gouernment, which ten­ded to the diminution of their owne powers, or enuying the Authority of others ouer them, or caried away with personall quarrels, or particular respects, which would easily en­duce an attempting spirit to breake the bond of peace and loyall duty.

Walter Reughs entring into Rebellion. Of such at this time one Walter Reugh Fitz Morice, a Geraldine, but not of the right line, (degenerating from the race he pretended to be discended of) entred into actuall Rebellion. This man vpon some great discontent, and an euill disposition in himselfe, with as bad an [Page 111] affection to the State, associated to him: com­pany of lewd and filching people, then com­mitting stealthes in the Country. With these he betooke himselfe to the Woods and Bogs, being the fastnesses of the Countries, Kilkenny, Waxford, and some parts of Leix. His party in short time encreased by the resort vnto him of some of the Oburnes and Tooles, with whom one night by force he entred the house of Iohn Asman▪ dwelling in the Moroughs Country whom they murthered, and preyed of all the Cattell, Sheepe, and Goods he had about his house, which murther and spoile was suspected to proceede from the Conspiracie of some discended of the English, who vpon priuate grudge and malice had drawne the Rebels to fall vpon him; vpon examination whereof some were apprehended as culpable. Walter Reugh himselfe was so straightly pursued (by the Deputies speciall direction) as from thence hee was enforced to flye to the Mountaines, where he endured great misery; yet in the end vpon his humble and earnest sute, putting in Walter Reugh pardoned.pledges for his future loyalty, hee obtayned pardon.

The deuision of Desmonds Lands into Signories. About this time Commissioners were sent out of England, to deuide Desmonds Lands, which after an exact suruay made of all the Lands, were deuided into Signories and halfe Signories, and disposed to diuers personages of good quality of the Kingdome of England: [Page 112] but in this the Deputy had no hand, which, as he had cause, he tooke to be a discountenance to his Authority, and Place, wherein hee felt the Queenes displeasure.

A Regiment of Irish sent with Sir Wil­liam Stanley into the Low-Countries. Not long before, a thousand of the Irish were sent into the Low-Countries, vnder the commaund of Sir William Stanley, by an espe­ciall direction out of England, and at the same time, order came to the Deputy for the cashi­ring Order for the casting of the Forces in Vl­ster.of the Vlster Forces, which the Deputy had raised by Composition, as is formerly mentioned: Two acts, as pernicious, as that time could afford, to the publique Seruice, as the sequell made manifest; for the first not onely proued the losse of a worthy Gentle­man, who had valiantly and successiuely ser­ued in that Kingdome. Hee meeting in the Low-Countries with sharper conceites then his owne, and finding him ignorantly wauering betweene two Religions, fastned him to the worse, and consequently made him to the State, a Traytor; against whom he hath since done great mischiefe, prouing one of the best Captaines vnder the Spaniards Commaund. Besides, those Irish that went with him, haue beene a Seminary of Traytors to afflict that Kingdome, of whom some yet liue to threaten no lesse hereafter.

And the other, those Forces in Vlster so cast, was not onely the pulling of the bridle from the heads of those inconstant people, which [Page 113] no sooner off, but they ranne headlong againe into new practises, but likewise proned a treb­ble charge to her Maiestie in ensuing time, as more particularly shall be expressed in the sto­rie following, yet the chiefe reason alledged, for their disbanding was the ease of the Queenes charge, who was enformed, that it was a needlesse thing to keepe Garrisons in time of peace; and this burthen layd vpon the Country, would in time breake the peoples o­bedience in those parts, where they began al­ready to grudge.

Thus much the Queene signified in a Let­ter, partly written with her owne hand, vnto which shee was wrought by such as were ad­uerse to the Deputy, and desirous to weaken his worke in that Kingdome, whose enuies were set the more on fire by the wily trickes of Tyrone, who tooke this opportunity to lay the foundation of his ensuing rebellion, find­ing their hearts bent to vse all meanes that might extenuate the Deputies merrit, and weaken his Gouernement.

This Letter of the Queenes, as it raised wonder in the Deputy, knowing it tasted not off her high Iudgement; so it gaue griefe to him to see such preposterous Councels take effect against his faithfull endeuours, which The Deputies Letters by Sir William Stan­ly to the Queene and Councell.hee tooke occasion to expresse by his Letter, vpon the dispatch of Sir William Stanley, where­in he signified he had performed her Maiesties [Page 114] pleasure, but could not suppresse his griefe, nor in duty conceale that, which he conceiued would proue perillous to her Seruice, and dis­gracefull to himselfe in that place of Autho­rity, he held vnder her Maiestie, especially for remouing the Garrison of the North so soone in a State so vnsetled. And although the sub­mission of the Chiefes, with the generall obe­dience of the people, did seeme to promise no­thing but peace, yet considering the attempts of her Maiesties forraigne Forces, and the ficklenesse of that people (newly brought to a shewe of conformity) hee could not assure their loyalties, much lesse establish such things as he had begun, and further intended for the good, and aduancement of her Maiesties ser­uice, and that these Souldiers being thus ca­shiered (who were a tye vpon such as had mindes to be troublesome) which were 900, her Maiesty being at charge but of little more then 800 pound a yeare, the rest being bome by the Country. So that now her charge be­ing reduced to the rate it was at his comming to the Gouernement, before the raysing of Forces, to resist them that did rebell, and in­uade Vlster, he wished that this sauing did not The Deputy writeth to be recalled from the gouerne­ment, or ad­mitted to the Queenes pre­sence.proue an after spending of greater summes, with more perill to Her and her Country.

He likewise wrote after his plaine and passi­onate manner to the Queene, that her sharpe reprehension, and restraint of his gouernment, [Page 115] with some taxe layde on his iudgement, made him now stand to the world, vasit (as hee al­wayes conceiued of himselfe) to mannage the weighty affaires of such a place, and therefore he besought her that shee would be pleased to reuoke him thence, or at the leaft to lycenoe his accesse vnto her presence, as well for an­swering the calumniations of his Aduersaries, as to discouer some things for the furtherance of her seruice in that Kingdome; proffering (If The Deputies offer to bring ouer the Irish Lords.her Maiesty were so pleased) to bring with him the Lords, and chiefe Irish Commanders of that Country: so that she would be pleased to disburse 3000 pound, ready for them to re­ceiue at their landing in England, to defray their charges (they being owners of much Land and Cattell, but not of money) which should hee repayed at reasonable prices in Beefes, for her Maiesties profit in the payment of her Forces there. This hee thought would make much for the furtherance of her Maie­sties seruice, since the chiefe men of that King­dome comming ouer in that sort, should take their Lands by such tenure, as her Highnesse should prescribe, whereof diuers of them had already made offer vnto him. Besides, it would be a greater honour vnto her, to haue more of the greatest and wildest Chiefetaines of Coun­tries in Ireland, to prostrate themselues and their estate, at her Maiesties feete and plea­sure in England, then euer had beene perfor­med [Page 116] to any of her Noble predecessours.

The Deputies offer silenced. But this complaint and offer so made vnto the Queene, was silenced, and tooke little ef­fect, either through the vnderhand-working of the Deputies Aduersaries, or else through the presse and multitude of weighty affaires then in hand in England, to defend the Nether­lands, and to preuent Inuasion, with other pe­rils threatned to her Maiestie and her Domi­nions, which might perhaps put out of minde, or at least, set back for the time, the considera­tion of that, which at this season did most con­cerne Ireland.

Within short time after, the Companies of Souldiers were remoued out of Vlster, saue such as remained with Tirlogh Leynaugh at his request.

1587 Some of the Northerne Lords tooke occa­sion and opportunity hereby, to shew their willingnesse to doe euill, rather then be idle; now they sawe the force was gone which was A stir in the North vpon the casting of the Forces.wont to rule their disorders. Amongst which, dislike and complaints were moued by Mac­quire against Mac Mahone, and the Earle of Ty­rone for trespasses, and supposed wrongs to be offered. Sir Oconnor Macquire being behinde­hand for his Composition, and charged with doing some things amisse, was sent to, by the Deputy, and required to performe what was meete for him to doe; or else to repaire vnto his prefence, to answere these contempts; [Page 117] which message was sent vnto him by Sir Hen­ry Duke, who appoints him a place of meet­ing; Macquire writeth vnto the Lord Depu­ty, and excuseth his comming to Sir Henry, according to his appointment, being hin­dered by sicknesse, and the infirmity of the Gowte, complayneth on the Earle of Ty­rone, and Mac Mahone, desiring him not to beleeue complaints against him, and offereth to double the pledges, hee had put in, if any doubt were had of his good disposition to the State.

Mac Mahone likewise exhibites his agree­uance against Tyrone, for Ceasing in his Countrey, and compelling him to main­taine Horsemen for him, as if hee had beene tributary to the Earle, which cause the Lord Deputy heard and determined, freeing Mac Mahone from any such duty as the Earle de­manded.

The rest being but complaints (of which the Kingdome is neuer free) and no practises to draw dangerous consequence to the State (yet discouered) were onely appeased by ad­monition.

Contention betweene O­rurk and Sir Richard Bing­ham. Besides these, Sir Bryan Orurke, the Lord of Letrim, and Sir Richard Bingham, the Gouernour of Connaught, grewe into dislike one with the other, the one being strickt in his Gouernement; the other not willing to bee seuerely commaunded, Sir Bryan wrote [Page 118] vnto the Deputy, that hee had wrongs and indignities done him, being often summoned by Sir Richard, to goe before George Bingham his brother, and Captaine Thomas woodhouse, to answer as well complaints, as to take dire­ctions, which hee held to be a disparagement to him, and to auoyde that inconueniencie, was forced to forsake his Iland, the place of his dwelling, and to wander vpon the hills, which he would not doe, but for the care of performing his promise, to be obedient vnto his Prince, otherwise he said, he would deale well enough with those men, and meete Sir Richard and his brethren with the same mea­sure they measured him▪ therefore in as much as hee meant to doe nothing against her Maie­stie, he desireth they might be kept from him, for he would not goe to them, but in the De­puties presence, whose Commandements hee would in all things else performe, and craueth of him that peace might be kept with him in the Prouince of Connaught, as he doth with them, to which the Deputy returned answere, requiring him to yeeld conformity in all things reasonable to the Queenes Officers, and if any wrongs were offered him, not to right himselfe by resistance or reuenge, but to make The Deputy admonisheth knowne, and he should receiue redresse. He likewise wrote vnto the Gouernour, aduising him to vse a gentle hand in the dealing with Orurke, and people of his quality, men of such [Page 119] fierce dispositions and natures, being with roughnesse handled, would easily be excited to the breach of obedience, which might proue a charge to the State, and a disquiet to the Country. This admonition Sir Richard tooke somewhat vnkindly, as a mistike of his Gouernement, and resteaint of his proceedings against Orurke. and did not stick to tell the De­puty afterward at the Councell Table, that his Lordship gaue countenance to Orurke, vnto the diminution of his Authority in that Pro­uince. So difficult it was for the Deputy to appease or reconcile a difference betweene so stout a Commaunder, and so factious and re­bellious a spirit being powerfull. The Go­uernour being perswaded out of his iudge­ment, that it was now time to prosecute Orurke while the Bourkes were yet weary of their late strugling, so as standing without partakers, hee would the more surely fall, or at least bee brought with more facility to the path of obe­dience, being the onely man now to be doub­ted in that Prouince, hauing in his possession the strongest and fastest Country there. And it is not vnlikely but the Deputy would haue ioyned with him therein, if he had not had pri­uate reasons to the contrary, arising from the present question of his actions in England, and his desire and sute to be reuoked thence, which were things onely knowne to himselfe.

These distempers now yet but flashes, which [Page 120] were kindled by discontent, were quenched by care and prouidence, and had they not beene well met within time, would haue growne to greater flames of commotion, and did after­wards arise againe, for want of like circum­spection in the succeeding Gouernment, which argued both the wisedome of the Gouernour, who would haue taken the time to take away the cause, and the preuailing power in the De­puty, euen in the worst Subiects hearts, to make them conformable against their na­tures.

While the Deputy was busie, to preuent perils which might growe by heart burnings within his Gouernement: Some of his Ad­uersaries were as deepely trauailed to procure A rumour of the Deputies remoue.his disquiet and disgrace. Amongst other in­uentions, Reports were raised, that hee should presently be reuoked, and another sent in his place, being a thing not as yet thought on in England, whereof so soone as hee had notice, though he esteemed them but as rumours, yet lice tooke occasion to renue his suite vnto the Queene for his remouing: And besought her, if such were her pleasure, which hee humbly desired, and shewed reasons for such his desire, that yet her Highnesse would suppresse the o­pinion, and publishing thereof, vntill his suc­cessour should be ready to come ouer, because he knew by experience, that the wauering and worst sort of people in that Kingdome, were [Page 121] apt to take aduantage (vpon the alteration of the chiefe Gouernour, especially in the In­terim of his Gouernement, if they had no­tice before hand) to stirre vp troubles in the State.

The Gentle­men of the English Pale stirre vp the Lords to write to the Queene for the stay of Sir Iohn Per­rot in that go­uernement. The Gentlemen of the English Pale in loue with his Iustice and vpright Gouernement, were much troubled at this newes, of whom diuers of the better sort of Plunbetts, Flem­mings, Barnewells, Bellews, Cusacks, Delahides, Taafs, Nangles, and others of good account, to the number of 67, wrote a ioynt Letter to the Noble men their neighbours, of the no­tice they had taken, of the remouing the pre­sent Lord Deputy from that Gouernement, whom they therein testified to haue gouerned with Iustice, care, and prouidence, for the good of that Kingdome, whereby they had enioyed much peace and prosperity: for the truth wherof they appealed vnto them, whom they besought as they tendered the welfare of their Countrey, to bee a meanes vnto the Queenes Maiesty for the retayning and conti­nuing him in that Gouernement, to per­fect what hee had begun, and was likely to bring vnto a good end, if he remained amongst them.

The Lords of the English Pale vpon re­ceite of this Letter, though many of them (as is said) had beene wrought to write against the Deputie, yet now acknowledging the [Page 122] same the Gentry did, wrote a particular Let­ter, which they sent vnto the Queene, desi­ring the continuance of the present Deputy a­mongst them, giuing him all the specious at­tributes, could be yeelded an extraordinary Patron of that poore Country, some of them (as is already mentioned) recanting their errour of accusing him of heauy and ti­rannous courses, now called him the Father of that poore Kingdome, setting forth his father­like care for the vniuersall tranquillity, and the administration of particular Iustice.

These Letters though they needed not, for as yet there was no intention of his calling thence; yet they gaue a sharpe blowe to his Aduersaries, whose informations must needes be suspected to proceede onely out of malice, since the parties that most felt the good and euill of Gouernement, gaue this testimony of him, which they did in respect of the feare they had of his remoue (being so bruted, as well in approbation of his actions, as to pre­uent the mischiefes which might happen by his going thence, the smart whereof they were like to feele. The Copie of this Letter is yet extant.

The Caua­nagh shew the cause of the Rebellion. About this time Donnogh Mac Murtogh Ca­uanagh, and Murtogh Oge Mac Morough Caua­nagh, lately reuolted from their obedience, made humble submission to the Deputy, shew­ing the cause of their reuolt, as the killing of [Page] their Father by Sir Dudieigh Bagnall, and He­ron whom they slewe. His not permitting them to liue on the Lands giuen by Sir Peter Carew vnto their Father, pursuing and forcing them to flye vnto the Woods, in which pur­suit he was shine. They craue pardon and of­fer Seruice, shewing who they were that pro­cured Mr. Bagnall and Heron to kill their Fa­ther, and to banish them [...] Mac [...] Art Cormagh Mac Anispeck, Conologh Mac Gil­patrick, with other their Followers and Com­panions.

While the Deputies care concurring with the peoples good liking, did preuent many mischiefes like to ensue. The practise of such as he had displeased, by crossing their courses and vndue proceedings, did not cease to worke his trouble and disquiet. Amongst whom the Earle of Ormond was now become one that la­boured The Earle of Ormond en­formes against the secret information, to incense the Queene against him, which procured from her and in her name sharpe reprehensions, which did much disquiet him, and prouoked his cho­lerick and passionate nature to offend and ex­ceede himselfe, for being vexed with indigni­ties and conceiued iniuries, hee could not for­beare to speake, and sometimes to write as tarely, as he found himselfe dealt withall.

The Deputy writeth again to the Queene for his re­moue. And now thinking himselfe wounded in his reputation, he wrote to the Queene her selfe, shewing againe how hee was disabled to doe [Page 124] her Seruice, and dishonoured by her be­liefe of his vniust Aduersaries, their pra­ctises and suggestions: Hee prayeth lycence to repaire vnto her Presence for aunswe­ring of his Accuser, and that hee might be remooued from that vnfortunate Gouerne­ment.

He likewise wrote vnto the Earle of Leyce­ster, who (much fauoured him) protesting in plaine manner, that rather then hee would liue there to bee so vexed in minde, crossed in his best intended courses, and brought in­to the Queenes displeasure, hee wonld take on him George the Chimney sweepers place at Court (those being his words) and there­fore vrgeth his helpe for his remoouall, or leaue to come vnto the Queene: but that Earle then engaged in the Action of the Lowe-Countries, wherein all his power was sette a worke, could not yeeld him that helpe, his loue would otherwise haue af­forded.

Contention betweene the Earle of Ty­rone and di­uers Vlster Lords, preying one vpon another. Diuers dislikes, and some disturbance of the publique, began betwixt Tirlogh Leynaugh Oneale, and the Earle of Tyrone, for whereas formerly there had beene a deuision of the Lands in Vlster, challenged to belong to Oneale, deuided betwixt them both, and of la­ter time Tirlogh Leynaugh had beene drawne by composition to take a thousand Markes Rent by the yeare of the Earle, to be payed [Page 125] at foure Feasts, for certaine Landes during some yeares. Now Tirlogh Leynaugh com­plaineth, that the Earle did not onely refuse the payment of this Rent, but had committed outrages on himselfe and his people, hauing taken diuers preyes out of his Country, ter­rified his Tenants, and had enticed diuers of them from him and his Lands: whereof hee writeth particularly by sundry Letters vnto the Deputy, shewing his vnwillingnesse to breake the Queenes peace; desireth order may be taken for the returne of his Tenants', and their goods, with satisfaction for his men slaine, and such Rent as the Earle was endeb­ted to him.

These complaints being by the Deputy sent to Tyrone, he maketh answer, that first for Tir­loghs Tenants, that since Tirlogh was not able to restraine his people from annoying his Te­nants, hee was not to refuse any that would come from Tirlogh to liue vnder him: denieth any killing or preying vpon Tirlogh; his men or Country by him or his men for the arreare of Rent due or claymed to bee due, hee partly denyeth, and partly euades the payment.

In the meane time while these complaints were exhibited, and answeres expected: more outrages begunne betweene them and their followers, and new violences were offered before the olde could be redressed, for Tirlogh [Page 126] being growne olde, and forsaken by many of his followers, either for want of protection from Tirlogh, or feare of the Earles encreasing greatnesse, Tyrone giues another blowe to Tir­logh, by taking a prey of 2000 Cowes, with many Mares and Garons, from Sir Arte Oneale Tirloghs sonne, whereof the Deputy being ad­uertised, sent to Tyrone what was enformed; and to require him, both to forbeare further acts of hostility, and to restore what had been so taken from Tirloghs sonne or his Tennants, to which the Earle maketh answere by accu­sing Sir Arte Oneale, to haue taken a prey from his people, at his last being at Dublin, and in­steed of restitution which he demaunded, sent the Earle defiance, when he required peace to be obserued. Sir Arthur Oneale affirmed on the other side, that the Earles brother Cor­magh tooke a prey first from some of his men, who in recouering of their losse, tooke the like from his, for which Tyrone spoyled him and his followers, of a farre greater value as hee complained.

The Deputy looking vpon the danger of these brawles, contentions, and spoyles, send­eth two Messengers called Bynion and Bremi­cham, with Letters and streight commaunde­ments vnto Tirlogh and his sonne, and to the Earle of Tyrone, charging them vpon their loy­alties vnto their Soueraigne, to forbeare all at­tempts of violence and reuenge one towards [Page 127] another, and to the Earle he signified, that if it were true that he had receiued some iniuries at the hands of Sir Arthur Oneale, yet it could not be lawfull, that he should be a reuenger of his owne wrongs, and if he had sustained any such domage as hee pretended, hee had being his owne caruer, ouer-recompenced himselfe for the preiudice done vnto him. Therefore hee againe requires him to make restitution of such goods as did exceede the value of what had beene so taken from his followers, and that he would thence-forth take warrant from the State for his doings; so should it be safer for him and his, and for the better ordering of this difference, hee would shortly send Com­missioners which should render vnto each one his owne. This for a time did qualifie their contentions.

But shortly after, Tyrone (finding that Peace would be no way to that which he aspired vn­to) vpon further pretence of iniurie done to him by Tirlogh, and his followers, maketh an in-roade into his Country, and entred with force as farre as Strabane, Tirloghs Towne and Tyrone beaten by the English Companies at of aboade, where Captaine Mostian and Parker, with their Companies, remained for Tirloghs defence: they with such power as Tirlogh could make, charged Tyrone and his troupes, and forced him to flye.

Odonnell de­nies to enter­taine a She­riffe. Odonnell set on by Tyrone (as Tirlogh affir­med) began to quarrell, and offer violence to [Page 128] Tirlogh, and to manifest his Trayterous dispo­sition to the State, denied to entertaine the Sheriffe sent into Tirconnell, lately made a County, seconding it with other signes of dis­loyalty.

The Deputy and Councell certifie their suspition of Tyrone, desire order out of England. The Deputy and Councell, seeing what mischiefe now begun to growe by the casting the Northerne Garrison, giuing way to Ty­rones aspiring, certifies into England his practi­ses, as well in stirring vp priuate quarrels, the fore-runners of Rebellion, as his sending to Agnes Mac Connell, a principall Chiefe of the Inuading Ilanders, certaine of his men, condi­tioning with him to receiue such ayde and sup­plies from him againe, when hee should neede them, or vpon occasion require them, and his desire to be Oneale, clayming the chiefe men of Vlster to be his Vriaghs, and to depend on him. His late sending his sonne to be fostered by Ochane, betweene whom and him there had beene great enmity, which shewed a pre­sent combination, to make way for his further greatnesse. This fostering being the greatest bond of amity amongst the Irish. Of this they craue consideration to be had; withall they desire that the pledges of Mounster now lying in the Castle of Dublin, (for preuention of their escape) might be remoued into England, and conclude with request, that some Trea­sure might bee sent thither, for supply of the Souldiers wants.

[Page 129] These cloudes and ouer-castings of the 1588 calme and Serene times, which had continued some fewe yeares past, did prognosticate, that stormes would shortly follow, if course were not speedily taken to cleare and disperse them.

Odonnell prac­tiseth with the Ilanders. Now Odonnell began to be doubted likewise vpon constant Intelligence sent by Tirlogh Leynaugh, that he had sent into the Ilands for hired men, to assist him in some action he was about to vndertake; which raised a question in Councell, how he should be dealt withall; some of them being of opinion first to sum­mon him to answere his contempts, and then (if he came not) to raise Forces to fetch him in, or punish him for his disobedience: but the Deputy (restrained from iourneyes in his own person) knowing it would aske long and chargeable worke, to subdue him and his Con­federates, dissented from that opinion, and tolde the Councell he would make tryall of a A stratagem wherby Odon­nells sonne was taken.stratagem he had conceiued whereby to bring him in, or secure him from doing harme, be­fore hee would put her Maiesty to so great charge, or hazard her good Subiects, which might breede anoyance to the Country, and interruption of the present Peace; to which, way was giuen, and the Deputy accordingly attempted it, by sending one Skipper, a Mer­chant of Dublin, with a Shippe loaden with Sacks, as if he had come out of Spain, directing [Page 130] him to runne vp by Donagall, as farre as hee could vnto Odonnels Country, where he should not onely offer to sell at a cheape price, but be liberall in giuing Wine to such as should come aboard him: And that if Odonnell or his sonne came aboard him by that meanes, (as he knew they would) hee should giue them so much as might make them forget themselues, and be­ing drunke, should clap them vnder hatch, and bring them away to Dublin. This deuice was as carefully performed as proiected, young Odonnell being by this meanes surprized and brought away: A Seruice at that time very auaileable to the State, for keeping that Coun­try in quiet, and restraining so stirring a person as Odonnell was, from the pursuite of his euill affections, bent at that time against the Queene and her Seruice: Notwithstanding, afterwards in the ensuing trouble, it was imputed as an in­iurie done to Odonnell; and interpreted as an act that did rather interrupt, then preserue the Peace of that Country; the State thinking that the blame which should be layd vpon Sir A simple de­uice of the Councell of Ireland. Iohn Perrots carriage herein would please O­donnell, and make him the more apt to bee drawne to conformity and obedience; but this shallow and colloguing pollicy, did worke little effect in him, whose heart was wholly (by forraigne practise) alienated from his loyalty, and by marriage of Tyrones Daughter, altoge­ther deuoted to his faction and Seruice, be­ing [Page 131] his assistant and partaker in all his Re­bellion.

The Deputy thus busied in the publique, receiues a new interruption by the meanes of his Aduersaries, who had caused a Letter to be written to the Queene, in the name of Tirlogh A letter coun­tersaited to be written by Tirlogh Ley­naugh to the Queene, but disauowed by himselfe. Leynaugh, complayning of the Deputies hard vsage of him, which being certified to the De­puty, much troubled him (because one of his greatest Seruices, was the conforming this man to bee a faithfull seruant to the State) to finde Tirlogh Alyend from him; but Tirlogh had no sooner notice hereof, but hee sent one Salomon his Secretary into England to disa­uowe this Letter, protesting hee neuer caused any such to be written, neither had hee cause, the Lord Deputy alwayes vsing him well, and doing him many fauours; and therefore hum­bly desired, that the Author of this forgerie might be punished: But the Deputies respect in England being extenuated by continuall in­formation against him thence, little was done to his satisfaction in this particular, and the lesse, because the whole State was filled with the forraigne preparation threatned against England, and her Maiesties Dominions; which his Enemies finding, grew more insolent in crossing and opposing his endeuours, which so wearied his impatient Nature, as hee made all the meanes hee could, both by his owne continuall suite, and by the pressing mediation [Page 132] of his friends in Court, to be reuoked thence; The Queene graunts the re­moue of the Deputy.which by long importunity he at length obtai­ned promise of from the Queene, who sent him word shee would shortly prouide him a Successour.

In the meane time, to preuent farther trou­ble in Ireland, that he might leaue all things in as great security as possibly he could, hee (as one of his last, but not least Seruices) sends for all the Lords and Chiefes, which might in any The Deputy taketh pledges of all the sus­pected persons in Ireland.part bee suspected, to take part with the for­raigne Enemie, if any attempt should be made in that Kingdome by them as was doubted, and of all these demaunded Pledges for their owne faithfulnesse, and the quietnesse of their people: and for the more easie enclining them to this demaund, which seemed at first harsh vnto them, he made a solemne speech, where­in hee declared, that it was done as well for their owne good, as for the Kingdomes quiet, for hee knew that the Queene would be well pleased with their willingnesse, to yeeld testi­mony of their loyalty vnto her, which could not but make them better accepted, & trusted in the time to come; protesting that if the case concerned him as it did them, he should chuse rather at this time to be bound, then to be left at liberty, within the danger of suspition, be­ing a deepe corrosiue to euery well meaning man, as he assured himselfe they all were, how­souer their former slips had made them apt [Page 133] to be doubted, aduising them to vse all good meanes for the conseruation of Peace in each of their Dominions, whereby their pledges might shortly haue freedome, and they them­selues gaine a better estimation for euer.

By this perswassion they did with lesse grudging and contradiction yeeld pledges, which were bestowed in the Castle of Dublin, so as all the Heads of all the Prouinces in Ire­land were tyed by this meanes to quietnesse and subiection, which at that time was most necessary, because the Deputy by diuers good intelligences out of Spaine, whereof hee had giuen speedy and often information in­to England, knew the Spanish preparations were great, and whether intended for England or Ireland, or for both, was not certaine, but Ireland threatned by the common bruite.

This done, the Deputy writes againe to the Queene, humbly thanking her, that at his suit, and for the recouery of his health, which now began to impaire, shee had beene plea­sed to promise his discharge from that Go­uernement, and withall besought her speedily to send his Successour, vsing the same reasons he had formerly done, when it was bruited he should bee remoued, before it was intended, the loose people being indeede apt out of their euill affection, to take aduantage of the time, and to attempt that, which they durst [Page 134] not doe in a confirmed and well countenanced Gouernement.

At length when this good Deputy had go­uerned foure yeares with much trauaile, and good successe; notwithstanding, the opposi­tion mentioned in this discourse, of priuate and particular Aduersaries (the enuiers of his felicity) hee obtained his discharge. And Sir Sir William Fitz-Willi­ams sent into Ireland. William Fitz-Williams was sent to succeede him, who had formerly gouerned that King­dome, with liking and commendation, which though it bred some hope in the people, that hee would build well vpon his Predecessours platforme, yet it could not keepe the peo­ples eyes from teares for the losse of Sir Iohn Perrott, such impression had his vp­right and cleane handed Gouernement (vn­usuall to that vnhappy Kingdome) taken in their hearts, as appeared at his de­parture.

The Deputy giueth a Cup to the Citie of Dublin. Before his deliuery of the Sword, he gaue a couered Cup of Siluer guilt to the Maior and Citie of Dublin, with these words vp­pon the top engrauen, In Pace relinquo, mea­ning that hee left the Citie and Kingdome in peace.

At the deliuery of the Sword in Christs-Church, hee tolde the new Deputy Sir Willi­am Fitz Williams in the publique hearing of many, of whom some are yet liuing.

[Page 135] Now my Lord, since that by her Maie­sties direction, I haue giuen vp the Gouerne­ment of this Kingdome into your hands, I must giue your Lordship to vnderstand (and I thanke God I may say so) that I leaue it in perfect peace and tranquility, which I hope your Lordship will certifie vnto her Maiestie, and the Lords of her Councell: to whom the Deputy made answere, that he confessed it to be so, and wished he might leaue it no worse. Then my Lord, replyed Sir Iohn Perrot, I must adde thus much: That if there bee any man in this Kingdome suspected to be euill minded to the State, who is able to drawe but sixe Sword-men after him into the field (if he haue not already put in pledges for his fidelity) so your Lordship shall thinke it necessary; I will vndertake (though now but a priuate man) to send for him, and if hee come not within twentie dayes, I will forfait the credit and reputation of my Gouernement: whereto the Deputy answered, that all was well, it nee­ded not.

The loue of the Irish State vnto Sir Iohn Perrot. At Sir Iohn Perrotts departure from Dub­lin, after hee had left the Sword, many of the Nobility, Gentry, and Commons of that Kingdome, came thither to see▪ and take their leaue of him, so that as hee went from his Lodging to the Key to take Boate. The presse of People comming to salute him, (some with cries of applause, and some with [Page 136] teares bemoaning his departure) was so great, that he was well-neere two houres before hee could passe the Streete, and was enforced twice or thrice to take house for his ease, to auoyde the throng, amongst whom Tirlogh Leynaugh was one, who comming along with him to his Boate, and standing at the Key vn­till hee sawe his Ship vnder sayle, did then weepe, and grieuously bewayle his departure. Such power hath the opinion of Iustice and sincere gouernement, to make euen them that are barbarous, to loue the Ministers thereof, though themselues know not the things, but by the effects.

At Sir Iohn Perrots going to Sea, the Citi­zens of Dublin in testimony of their loue, sent with him some of their young men with Shot to guard him into Pembroke Shire, who passed with him to his Castle called Carewe, whence hee was not long after called to the Court to be made a Priuie Councellour, the step to his fall and ruine.

Sir Nicholas Whites expres­sion of Sir Iohn Perrots Gouernment. Of his Gouernement Sir Nicholas White, Master of the Rolles in Ireland, and a learned man, wrote these fewe words.

Pacificauit Connaciam, Relaxauit Mediam,
Subiuganit Vltoniam, Fregit Lageniaem,
Ligauit Mononiam,
Extirpauit Scotos,
Refrenauit Anglos.
Et his omnibus per aquè vectigal acquisiuit Re­ginae.

[Page] Thus Englished.

He pacified Connaught, loosened the bonds of Meathe, subdued Vlster, brake the bonds of combination in Leynster, and bound fast in o­bedience Mounster. Hee extirped the Inua­ding Scots, bridled the bolde Extortions of the English, and to all these, added much to the Queenes reuenew: for besides the com­positions in Vlster and Connaught mentioned in this discourse, hee drew new encrease, and reseruations of Rents, Tenures, and Seruices from many Lords of Territories, and Seruices from many Lords of Territories, and sundry other persons in the seuerall Prouinces. The particulars are yet extant to be seene, though tedious here to be set downe: which hee did vpon Surrenders, & renewing of their Estates, which bred a double benefit vnto the Crown, the better assurance of their Loyalties, and the aduancement of reuenew.

These Seruices so well begun (if they had beene perfected) had made that Kingdome more peaceable, rich, ciuill, and subiect to good Gouernement: but want of time which makes the best begunne workes to misse the period of their perfection: And Enuie which crosseth the best Designes, left this mans Gouernement, though successefull, yet with­out the full fruite with his longer stay (well [Page] seconded) might haue brought forth. But all humane affaires must haue their Pe­riods, and the successe of good or euill in them all, will bee euer in some sort answe­rable to the Actors intentions.


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