THE Art of Pronuntiation, Digested into two parts. Vox audienda, & Vox videnda.

In the first of which are set foorth the Elements and seuerall parts of the voice: In the second are described diuers Characters, by which euery part of the voice may be aptly known and seuerally distinguished.

Very necessary as well thereby to know the naturall structure of the voice, as speedily to learne the Exact touch of pronuntiation of any forraine language whatsoeuer.

Newly inuented by ROBERT ROBINSON Londoner.

Organa naturae tribuit Deus, are docet vsus.

London printed by Nicholas Okes. 1617.

To his Booke.

If that thou chance to come to Zoilus view,
Feare not my booke, though thy in­uention's new:
Tell them, whose want of skill shall thee deride,
To iudge things they not know, 'tis foolish pride:
But if men skild in thee a fault espie,
Craue their best helpe, beare not thy selfe too high.

A Preface declaring the great benefit of Speech and wri­ting, and the order of this Treatise.

GOD (who hath so well disposed and ordered the course of nature in all his creatures,) as hee hath made man his chiefest and set him ouer all the rest of his creaturs of the earth, hauing endued him with ma­ny graces aboue the rest, as wisedome, knowledge, reason, vnderstanding, and the like; euen as so many springs and riuers issuing from the Ocean of his infinit wise­dome: So also that nothing might be wan­ting, nothing superfluous in such a worthy creature, hath giuen him diuers outward [Page] meanes and sences so excellent, meete and conuenient, not onely for the nourishment and preseruation of his owne body (as they are likewise to other creatures) but also as well for the maintenance and increase of those inward graces wherewith hee is so adorned, as for the imployment of them and shewing and setting them foorth to other men to whom he hath not giuen the same measure; whereby he may be glorified of all men as their gracious and glorious Creator, all men may be glorified in him as his chiefest creatures: And to that end as he hath giuen man a reasonable soule to iudge and discerne, so also that all his knowledge, all his graces might not lie hid and smothered in his owne breast, he hath giuen him a voice composed with more rarenesse then in any other of his crea­tures, wherby he may expresse the thoughts of his heart, may praise and pray to his God, may teach and instruct others in that which hee knoweth aboue other men, may aske aduise & councell of others in that he knoweth not, and generally all may com­municate and confer together, as well tou­ching [Page] spirituall matters fit for the soule, as concerning all other things necessary in our worldly affaires: yet although the voice of man be of such needfull vse, that without it mans mind were but as in a dungeon, and in perpetuall thraldome of the body for the time of its being in this earthly habitati­on, if there were no other helpe then tht voice to expresse the mind: man could not be the better for any thing that should bee taught or spoken of no longer then the very words were speaking, or at the longest, but whilest our weake memories could retaine the very matter spoken of, and so it might easily be foreseene how soone all the labors of vs and our forefathers would perish, how quickly the wise councells, witty and graue sayings of the learned would be forgotten. The Princes in euery age (though in one and the same kingdome) would haue a dif­ferent kind of ruling, the subiects a diffe­rent course of liuing, both the Princes and people a different and new course of reli­gion. All our doings, all our sayings, all our customes, and all our manners would be buried in obliuion.

[Page] Then how vncertaine our estates would be, how vncomfortable our selues, how dangerous and pernicious it would be for the state of euery common-wealth, all men may easily iudge, yet God to preuent these inconueniences, for the further benefit of mankind, as hee hath giuen vs a voice to expresse the minde vnto the eare, so hee hath giuen vs hands to frame letters or markes for the voice to expresse the minde vnto the eyes. So that the eyes and eares are as it were the receiuers of message sent vnto the heart, the hands and voice as deliuerers of message sent from the heart: And though the voice be a more liuely kind of speech, yet in respect it is but onely a sleight accident made of so light a sub­stance as the ayre, it is no sooner vttered but it is dissolued, euery simple sound doth expell and extinguish the sound going be­fore it, so that the eare can haue but one touch of the ayre beating vpon it to declare the speech vnto the mind: but the hand though it giue a dumbe and a more dull kind of speech, yet it giues a more dura­ble. A letter is a grosser substance, and [Page] therefore is of more continuance then a sound: what is once written still continu­eth though the hand ceaseth. If the eyes haue not satisfied the mind at one view, they may looke on it againe, yea till they haue satisfied it's desire: And by this meanes of noting and charactring of the voice, all things worthy of memory are de­fended from the iniury of forgetfulnesse; whereby is left vnto vs from most ancient times of our forefathers the most holy will of God, besides many necessary doctrines of godly and religious men, many excellent sayings both diuine and morrall, many hu­mane policies, counsells, and instructions, written by wise and learned men, together with diuers behoofefull arts and worthy sciences, which are hereby as in a sure treasury preserued, maintained and daily increased to the glory of almighty God, and continuall benefit and comfort of vs and our posterity. Of these two excellent be­nefits the first being naturall, is by nature of euery man with a little vse easily pro­nounced, the other being artificiall cannot be perfectly framed vntill the true reason, [Page] order, and distinct parts of the former be first found out and knowne; the want of knowledge whereof, hath caused both in speech and writing, many imperfections and errors, as sometimes taking one simple sound of mans voice to be two, at other times taking two, three, or fower simple sounds to be but one, and according to that mistaken order fitting letters for them, whereby writing is thereby in some part made defectiue, besides by many other er­rors vsed therein, as by misplacing of let­ters, contrary to the order wherein they are pronounced, inserting of superfluous let­ters, where there is no need, nor any sound at all expressed for them, making one let­ter serue for two different sounds, some­times for one and sometimes for another; and contrariwise, vsing for one and the same sound at sometimes one letter, at other times another letter, not proper ther­unto, but to some other different sound in mans voice: by which confused order the speech is so darkely set downe, that our words in speaking seeme as a different kind of language to the same in writing. So that [Page] though by a common vse and beaten pra­ctice euery particular nation can explaine themselues and pronounce their owne pro­per speech by their owne manner of wri­ting, yet it is so intricate to a stranger of another country, that he can neither pro­nounce their speech by their writing, nor write their speech according to their man­ner by hearing of it spoken, whereby no per­fect Dictionary or Grammer hath hither­to been made, that the true order of pro­nunciation might be taught, either to such as are desirous of the skill of languages, or to children, or such as are altogether igno­rant in reading and writing of their owne mother tongue. Besides a great inconueni­ence which by some I haue vnderstood (and doubtlesse it is likely) to haue happened in the ancient learned tongues, Hebrew, Greeke, and Latine, which though they are written and imprinted in all parts, wherein they are in vse, by one and the same order of letters, yet in vtterance of them in speech, they are so diuersly pro­nounced, that men of different nations (though therein very learned) cannot [Page] one suddenly vnderstand the other in any argument, or conference had betweene them in any of those languages, euery one of them inclining to the manner of pro­nunciation of their owne country speech. Hence also it hath come to passe, that not­withstanding all nations of the earth came from one root, our first father Adam, and that God had giuen them all the same forme of body, the like sences, and for their voyce all instruments alike: (howsoeuer he had dispersed them into seuer all parts and habitations) yet the people of one kingdom in their learning of the language of any other nation haue not in many yeers, yea some in the whole course of their life haue not attained to such exact and perfect pro­nuntiation therein, nor so framed their mouthes in speaking but that they might easily be discerned and discouered to be strangers of another Country: Now there­fore seeing in other sciences lesse vsefull, the professors of them haue set them downe in exact propositions; I cannot see (especi­ally considering how necessary a thing true pronuntiation is both for the grace of the [Page] speech, as for the commodity and aduan­tage it may beget to the common-wealth as well at home, as in commerce and traf­fique had in forraine parts with other na­tions by conferring with them in their own languages) how in this it can be accounted vnnecessary to seeke a meanes whereby to remedy these manifold abuses and imper­fections in speech and writing, which are the grounds by which all other knowledges are taught and maintained, That by some ruled arte the true pronuntiation of lan­guages might be learned, which hitherto is taught either by roat, or written in such a confused manner as cannot but seeme vnreasonable to any mans vnderstanding, howsoeuer allowed of and approued by con­tinuance of custome. But here perchance I may be charged with presumption both in respect of my selfe, and in respect of my yeers, in that I professe to be a teacher of a science to others, hauing as it were but newly learned my letters my selfe: Where­unto I answer, that I learned not this my arte out of the books and workes of lear­ned men, neither would my small meanes [Page] afford me to be acquainted with their great volumes, only out of a volume of Gods owne guift and making did I take this small Manuscript, euen to all men hath he giuen one of the same impression, whereby the truth hereof may be examined: yet certainly the vnripenesse of my yeeres, and want of other learning, had wholly with­held me from the publishing thereof, so that it might haue died with my selfe and haue benefited no man, had I not cōsidered that euery one of what estate, degree, or condi­tion soeuer, is bound in ducty to reueale whatsoeuer may be beneficiall to his coun­try; assuring my-selfe that God doth not giue either knowledge or riches to any pri­uate person meerly for his owne particular vse, but imploieth those on whom he be­stoweth such guifts, as Cisternes and con­duits to conuey and impart them likewise to others. Yet he therein so prouideth that themselues also be neuer empty. This con­sideration therefore caused me to thinke it were far better, though with boldnesse to set foorth that portion of knowledge which God had giuen me, then with a di­stard-like [Page] feare for the causes afore re­membred to conceale the benefit; Hauing therefore laboured to finde out the true ground of the speech, that the manifold errors therein might be made manifest, and so auoided. To the intent I might in such sort as God had enabled me, doe some-what for the common good of my Country, and adde something to my pro­fession, I haue framed this small treatise of pronuntiation, and digested it into two parts. In the first by certaine propositions applying my selfe to set foorth the elements and parts of the voice: In the second part appointing for euery simple sound in mans voice sundry letters and characters, that the voice being thereunto once committed may by any (who shall know the vse of them) without any other expositor or in­structor be aptly and truly pronounced vp­on view of the writing, how strange soeuer the language be: yet seeing my intent and purpose herein is not, that I would any waies goe about, or desire to alter the order of letters, which of so long time hath been vsed and allowed of, wherein so many wor­thy [Page] works haue been imprinted, knowing that could not be brought to passe without much difficulty, and greater preiudice then my simple iudgement can discerne. I would not therefore that any man should so much looke into or respect the characters which I herein vse, or the manner of the new pla­cing, disposing, or naming of them, as the mateer and scope whereto I intend them, which is, that I might with the easiest way and meetest order, so paint out euery part of mans voice, that euery one might be se­uerally discerned from other, and that the pronunciation of euery different language which hitherto is chiefly taught by word of mouth, might in a more certain māner be dedeciphered with the pen, wherby any that are desirous that way, may not only the sooner learne the experience of any for­raine language, but may also with more ease, and in a shorter time attaine to the true pronuntiation thereof. For albeit any man in teaching of his owne country lan­guage, doth by his owne speech giue the ve­ry true and absolute touch of pronuntiati­on, yet by reason of the swiftnesse of the [Page] voice, vnwonted composition of the parts thereof and dull apprehension of the eares, the same is not easily and read ly perceiued to a stranger: but the simple and distinct parts, and members of the whole voice (which are the grounds of all languages) being once certainly knowne, and cast into visible letters, (howsoeuer the order of an vnknown language doth diuersly disperse and mix them together) the eye by it's quicke and sharpe sight doth suddenly ap­prehend them, and thereby teach the mouth of one altogether ignorant, & vnacquain­ted with such language as aptly and truly to pronounce it, as any one to whom the same is naturally the speech, wherein he hath been alwayes trained and instructed, from the very time of his infancy, (this only excepted, that the vnaccustomed mixture of the sounds of the voice may at first cause a more slow vtterance.) And, for that cause hauing gathered together diuers letters and characters of sundry sorts and formes, I found none so meet (in respect of the accents which are necessarily to be placed ouer them) as those which [Page] were shortest, and of an equall length, and so hauing my selfe framed some few, I took the rest to make vp my number, and as the best for my purpose out of the Roman and Secretary letters, but haue not so vsed, and placed them in the same sence and order as they were formerly in their owne Alpha­bets; but haue diuersly disposed of them ac­cordingly as seemed fittest for my vse, and the order of the worke did best require; And touching such places wherein I haue bin compelled in respect of the order of the worke to speak of matters incident to mu­sick, for that they are not much pertinent to this art of pronuntiation, I haue there­fore but lightly and briefly touched them, referring such matters to the teachers and professors of that science.

And thus hauing shewed the occasion order, and intent of this my treatise, being the fruit of wearied times between other labors, I cōmit it to the view & practise of those, that shall think it meet for their vse or experience, leauing these few verses to plead my excuse, if any errors haue hapned by reason of my great want of learning.

Candide des veniam, placidū nec contra [...]e frontem,
Inficiat chartas, si qua litura meas:
Nec mihi sollucem, nec praebuit aura calorē
Me tenebris cinctum frigida zona premit:
Sin redeat mihi fausta dies, si deni (que) Phoebus
Lumine, percutiat lumina nostra, suo:
Tum nitar meliora sequi, tū menda vicissim
Tot mihi lux a biget, quot mihi lux aperit.

Vox Audienda, Or THE ELEMENTS OF MANS Voice.

What the Voice is.

THE Voice is a compo­sition of diuers simple sounds intermixed to­gether.

What a simple sound is?

A simple sound is the least part or member of the voice, framed in one only place, and by one only manner proper to it selfe.

What a sound is, and of the efficient thereof.

A sound is an accident effected by [Page] the opposition of these two contra­ries, namely motion and restraint: motion of the ayre out of the inward parts of the body, and restraint of it in its motion.

Of the efficient causes of this motion and restraint.

The causes of this motion and re­straint are primary and secondary: the primary is spirituall, the seconda­ry is instrumentall, the spiritual cause is alike to both: the instrumentall causes are different, some proper to motion, and others proper to re­straint.

Of the primary and spirituall cause of this motion and restraint.

The spirituall cause is the minde, which God hauing made it most like to his glorious image, hath placed in this Microcosmos of mans body, as a principall ruler thereof vnder him, [Page] giuing it such power ouer all the parts of the body, that as God him­selfe is the first mouer of the whole vniuersall world, who only by his in­finit power appointeth both an or­derly course and limitation in the motion of all his workes, so himselfe hath granted and ordained: that the minde of man should bee the first moouer of this little world of the bo­dy, wherein it is inclosed, and of eue­ry member and particle of it made fit for motion, and hath giuen it a liber­ty, to be accompted for to order, re­straine, and limit those motions as it selfe listeth.

Of the instrumentall causes of this motion.

They are the lungs and hollow parts of the body, wherein the ayre is contained, which being drawne to­gether by the motion, or rather the will of the mind, doe thereby expell the ayre, and cause it to be mooued [Page] through diuers passages, as the throat, mouth, and nostrils.

Of the instrumentall causes of the restraint of this motion.

They are the breast, throat, pallat, gums, tongue, lips and nostrils, stop­ping or hindering the free passage of the ayre in it's motion.

How the diuersity of sounds vsed in mans voice happen.

They happen vpon these three occa­sions.

  • First by the diuersity of the instruments of restraint.
  • Secondly, by reason of the diuers places of restraint.
  • And thirdly in re­spect of the different manner of restraint, both by the seuerall instruments, and in the seuerall places.

Of the generall parts of the sounds in mans voice so occasioned.

There are two generall partes, some different only in quantity, and are most pertinēt to Musique, others only in quality, which are most ne­cessary for speech.

Of the number of sounds of different quantity.

They are in number vncertaine, to wit, in some men more, and in some men lesse.

Of two seuerall orders wherein these sounds are different in quantity.

The sounds of different quantity are two-fold: first, in respect of their different height of sound, secondly by reason of their different measure of time, wherein they are sounded.

Of the place of framing of the sounds, different in quantity, and the cause of their different heights.

They are caused by the instrument of the throat, which according to the greater or lesser restraining of the ayre, passing through in one and the same place, doth cause sometimes a more shrill and lowd noise, somtimes a more base and deep sound, but ne­uer differeth the quality more or lesse.

Of the reason of their different measure of time.

It is because they are sounded by a different continuance of the moti­on of the breath, sometimes beeing finished in a shorter time, and some­times continued to a longer.

Of the number of sounds of different quality whereof the speech is framed.

[Page] They are in number certaine, to wit fiue and twenty, and by their se­uerall instruments and places are di­uersly framed in such sort as after­wards shall be spoken of.

Of the framing of the speeche by the said sounds of different quality.

Of the simple sounds aforesaid, of different quality are framed sillables, of sillables, words, and of words the whole order of speech.

What a syllable is.

A sillable is the pronouncing of one of the simple sounds of different quality by it selfe alone, or of two or more of them orderly framed and knit together, without any inter­mission of time put between them.

What a word is.

A word is either one sillable alone, [Page] or els two or mo sillables hauing a very small intermission of time and stay of the breath between euery of them, by which any one thing con­ceiued in the minde, or perceiued through the sences is distinctly na­med and knowne from others.

What the speech is.

The speech is an orderly knitting together of diuers words, whereby any thing forethought of in the mind is sensibly expressed to the eare.

Of the generall diuision of the simple sounds of different quality.

They are of three generall kindes, which for distinction sake I haue na­med by seuerall names, one of which in respect of its office I call a vitall sound, the others in respect of their seuerall natures, some vowels, and some consonants, as they haue been anciently termed: of which in order shall be spoken.

Of the nature, place and office of the vitall sound.

The vitall sound is that which was spoken of before, whereof all the sounds of different quantitie doe arise, and it is framed in the passage of the throat, and it is to be noted, that this sound is onely vsed in com­position, with the others of different qualities to expresse them more liue­ly to the eares of the auditors: for without the helpe of this vitall sound all the other parts of the voice would be but as a soft whispering, and as this sound is so helpfull to the others of different quality, so are they of dif­ferent quality also no lesse excellent and helpfull to the sounds of diffe­rent quantities, which are so framed of that vitall sound bredde in the throat, so that by the composition of both sorts together, the one is made a liuely helper to the other, whereby that part of the voyce appertaining [Page] to speech is made most apt for the same, and the other appertaining to melody is made most pleasing, and thereby it commeth to passe, that the voice of man is worthily accompted more excellent, then any artificiall musicke hitherto inuented.

Of vowels, what they are and of their nature.

The vowells in respect of the re­straint of the motion of the ayre, are the least extreame of all the other sounds, they hauing a more freer passage of the ayre then the rest, so that in them the breath is most light­ly hindred, and their nature is such that they cannot be ioyned in a silla­ble with themselues, but with conso­nants they may, so that if two or mo vowells come together, they of ne­cessity are all different sillables, ex­cept onely certaine sillables arising of them, which are called dipthongs, and are caused by a continuance of [Page] the breath from any of the former, vntill it finish it motion in the place of the last long vowel, and not other­wise.

Of the number of vowells.

They are in number ten, and are euery one of different quality, both in respect of their different manner of framing, and of their diuers places wherein they are so framed.

Of their different manner of framing.

They are framed in two sorts, which are distinguished by short and long vowels, both in respect of the diffe­rence of the time wherein they are vttered, as also because of the diffe­rent organes through which they passe, being in some shorter and in some longer.

Of the generall framing of the short vowells.

[Page] The short vowels haue their passage through certaine short organes, fra­med by the placing of the tongue in sundry partes of the roofe of the mouth.

Of the generall framing of the long vowells.

They are framed by the breath passing through somewhat longer organes, made also by the help of the tongue, by placing of it in seuerall parts of the roofe of the mouth.

Of the number of places wherein the vowells are framed.

They are fiue: the first taking its beginning in the innermost part of the roofe or pallat, and so the rest continuing forward, each one order­ly in his degree to the last place, being more neere to the outmost part of the roofe, and in euery one of these fiue places are framed, one short and [Page] one long vowell, the particular or­der of framing of which vowells in their distinct places hereafter ensueth.

Of the framing of the first short vowell.

It is framed in the innermost part of the roofe of the mouth by the help of the tongue, making of small organe for the passage of the ayre.

Of the framing of the first long vowell.

It is framed in the same place by the helpe of the tongue, extending & lengthning of the organe through which the breath passeth almost to the place of the next short vowell.

Of the framing of the second short vowell.

It is framed somewhat forwarder in the roofe by the help of the tongue making also a small organe for the passage of the ayre.

Of the second long vowell.

It is framed in the place of the short, but passeth through a longer organe almost extended to the place of the next short vowell.

Of the third short vowell.

It is framed somewhat forwarder in the roofe by the helpe of a small organe framed by the tongue.

Of the third long vowell.

It is framed in the place of 'its short, but by the helpe of a longer organe extended almost to the place of the next short vowell.

Of the fourth short vowell.

It is framed also somewhat for­warder and neerer to the outmost part of the roofe passing through a [Page] short or small organe framed by the tongue.

Of the fourth long vowell.

It is framed also in the place of 'tis short, but by the helpe oa longer organe framed by the tongue, and ex­tended almost to the place of the next short vowell.

Of the fift short vowell.

It is framed in a small organe made by the helpe of the tongue in a place also somewhat neerer to the outmost part of the roofe.

Of the fift long vowell.

It is framed in a longer organe, made in the same place by the helpe of the tongue, almost extended to the inward place of the consonants, which are framed in the mouth.

Of Consonants. What are Consonants.

The breath in them is more strict­ly hindered, and they be such as may be ioyned two or more in one silla­ble, either by themselues, or with a vowell or dip-thong.

Of the number of Consonants.

They are in number fourteen, and euery of them of different quality, in respect of their different manner of framing, and of their different places, wherein they are so framed; thirteene of which consonants are framed in the mouth, and one onely in the breast. And first of those in the mouth.

Of the seuerall orders of framing of the consonants in the mouth.

[Page] They are framed in fiue sorts, which I haue named by seuerall names, as mutes, seminutes, greater obstricts, lesser obstricts and a peculiar.

Of the particular number of each sort.

Of mutes there are three, of semi­nutes three: of the greater obstricts three; of the lesser obstricts three, and one only peculiar.

Of the number of places wherein these thirteen consonants in the mouth are framed.

They are framed in three places or regions which may be called the out­ward, middle, and inward regions, and in euery of these places are seue­rally framed one mute, one semmiute, one greater obstrict and one lesser obstrict, and in the middle region the peculiar also is partly framed.

Of the first place.

The first or outmost region is the outmost part of the mouth, namely the lips, wherein are framed fower consonants, to wit, one mute, one se­mimute, one greater obstrict, and one lesser obstrict.

Of the second place.

The second or middle region is the vpper gummes or outmost part of the roofe of the mouth, enclosed by the helpe of the tippe and edges of the tongue, wherein are framed fiue consonants; namely one mute, one se­mimute, one greater obstrict, one lesser obstrict, and the peculiar.

Of the third place.

The third or inward region is a more inward part of the mouth in­closed with the flat of the tongue, ve­ry neer vnto the last place of vowels, wherein are likewise framed fower consonants: that is, one mute, one se­minute, [Page] one greater obstrict, and one lesser obstrict.

What are mutes? of the order of their framing, and of their property.

The mutes, in respect of the re­straint of the motion of the ayre, are the greatest extreame of all the other sounds, the ayre in them being more strictly hindered, then in the rest: and they are framed by the quite stop­ping and cutting off of the breath from 'its motion, which causeth a kind of dumbe sound to be vttered, and they are made three differents, in respect of the three different places wherein they are stopped. And these dumbe sounds cannot well bee vtte­red, vnles they be ioyned with some other sounds to expresse themselues by.

Of the semimutes.

The semimutes are: caused by the [Page] quite stopping of the breath from the passage of it through the mouth, so that in their owne proper places of restraint they giue no sound at all, but by a contrary course, hauing a re­strictiue passage through the nostrils, they thereby admit of a sound, And they are made three differents also, by the three places of their stopping.

Of the greater obstricts.

They are framed by the stopping of the breath not with a full restraint, but leauing some small passage for it, whereby it may bee breathed out at the mouth, And they being not so much restrained as the mutes, nor hauing so free a passage as the lesser obstricts, are as a meane to those two extreames, and they are also three differents, by reason of their three se­uerall places of construction.

Of the lesser obstricts.

[Page] They are framed after the same manner as the greater, onely differ in this, that somewhat greater and freer passage is admitted to them; yet they haue not so free a passage as the vowells, but are as a meane betweene the vowells and greater obstricts, and they are also three differents, in respect of their three seuerall places of construction.

Of the peculiar.

It is framed by a speciall manner onely proper to it selfe, by the stop­ping of the breath with the tip of the tongue in the outermost part of the roofe or middle region of consonāts, yet leauing it two seuerall passages between the edges of the inward gums, and both the edges and sides of the tongue, through which the breath passing, and beating against the cheekes, from thence issueth out at the mouth.

Of the manner of framing, and of the nature of the consonant in the breast.

This sound in respect of the order of framing of it, differeth not from a mute, but to distinguish it from the other mutes framed in the mouth, I haue named it (as heretofore it hath been called) an aspirate, and it is cau­sed by a restraint and suddain stay of the motion of the breath in the breast, before it comes to the passage of the throat, which giueth so small a noise, as it can scarce sensibly be dis­cerned. And it being vsed before or after any of the other consonants scarce sheweth foorth it selfe, but causeth those with whom it is ioy­ned, to seeme different sounds from their true quality, yet with some kind of resemblance thereunto.

Finis de voce audienda.

Vox Videnda. Which is writing, or the Cha­racters of Mans voice.

What is writing.

VVRiting is an artificiall fra­ming of certaine markes and Characters different in forme and shape for euery seuerall sound in mans voice, whereby each simple sound hauing a proper mark appoin­ted to it selfe, may by the same be as apparantly seene to the eye, as the sound it selfe is sensibly discerned by the eares.

Of the generall distinction and naming of the Characters of the voyce.

They are generally distinct, and named by cliffes, notes, and letters. [Page] The cliffes and notes for the sounds of different quantity pertinent to musique, that is, the cliffes to expresse their seuerall heights, the notes to expresse their different measures of time, and the letters for the expres­sing of the sounds of different quali­ty pertinent to speech.

Of the particular naming and di­stinction of cliffes.

They are particularly named ac­cordingly as is set downe in the scale of musique, as gamut, are, and the rest.

Of the particular naming and distin­ction of notes.

They are called of musitions by seuerall names, as crotchets, quauers, minoms, semi-briefes, and such like, ac­cording to the different measure of time, wherein their sounds are con­tinued.

Of the particular naming and distinction of letters.

All Letters are in some sort di­stinctly named by their owne simple sounds, except onely those appointed for the aspirate & mutes, which can­not wel be vttered vnles they be ioy­ned in a composed sillable with some other soūd; yet for the better expres­sing of them, in respect that the short vowells by reason of their slender and vnsteady organe giue but a wa­uering and vncertaine sound, and of the consonants, the aspirate and mutes of themselues, by reason of the quite stopping of the breath in them, giue scarce any sound at all, and the rest by reason of the streight passage of the breath but a dull & muttering kind of sound. It will therefore bee requisite in the naming of them to ioyne the short Vowells in a sillable ending with some setled [Page] consonant, and the consonants in a sillable beginning or ending with some of the vowells, hauing a more clerer passage, that by the cōtrarieties of each sort being ioyned and placed together, both may bee made the more perspicuous and sensible to the eare, euen as contrary colours layd together seeme more apparant, and are better discerned to the eye; that therefore euery letter might haue a certaine and perfect name, I haue dis­posed and ordered them as follow­eth: The short vowells, to expresse the names of their seuerall letters, to be seuerally ioyned with the aspirate and to enioy the first part of the sil­lable, the long vowells being very perfect sounds, to be themselues the names of their owne letters. Of con­sonants, the aspirat to be set before, and ioyned to the first long vowell. The mutes to bee ioyned in this or­der, that in the inward region to the second long vowell, that in the mid­dle region, to the third long vowell; [Page] and that in the outward region to the fourth long vowell. In which composed sillables the mutes to be first pronounced, and according to this order both the greater & lesser obstricts to be also ioyned to the same three last mentioned long vow­ells. But the semimutes to be put af­ter, and ioyned to certaine short vowells, that in the inward region to the second short vowell, that in the middle region to the third short vowell, and that in the outward re­gion to the fourth short vowell: And lastly, the peculiar to be ioyned in the latter part of a sillable composed of it selfe, and the third short vowell to expresse also the names of their se­uerall letters, which are heereafter formed.

Of the order and seuerall formes of the characters for the parts of mans voice.

For the sound in the throat, seeing [Page] it is necessarily in continuall com­position with the rest, to vse any let­ter or marke for it, would but make writing extraordinary tedious, and worke little or no effect, and for that cause I haue appointed it no chara­cter at all. But for the sounds of different quantity arising of the same, they haue excellently of long time been obserued of Musitians, by placing higher or lower (as the case doth require) of sundry formed cliffes, as 𝄢 𝄡 𝄞 signifying thereby the faut, C: solfavt, and G solrevt cliffes, that are chiefly in vse, vpon certaine parralell lynes drawne one aboue a­nother to expres the height or depth of their sounds, in such and the like sort, as is set downe in the three first sections of the ensuing dyagram, and by sundry notes thus figured, 톼텮 톺텥 톹텥 𝆹 with diuers others, framed for the quauers, Crotchets, Mynoms, Semi­briefes, and the like, to expresse the length or shortnesse of the time, [Page] wherein their sounds are to be con­tinued, which after the placing of any of the cliffes to guide the taking of their true heights, they also set high­er or lower, and seuerally disperse vpon and between the same lines, accordingly as the ayre of the mu­sique doth require, in such and other like manner, as in the fourth and last section of the same diagram they are hereafter placed.


Of the formes of the letters wherewith I haue noted the vowels accor­ding to the order of their places.

In the first place.
  • The short vowell I haue figured thus.— [...]
  • The long vowell.— [...]
In the second place.
  • The short vowell.— [...]
  • The long vowell.— [...]
In the third place.
  • [Page]The short vowell.— [...]
  • The long vowell.— [...]
In the fourth place.
  • The short vowell.— [...]
  • The long vowell.— [...]
In the fift place.
  • The short vowell.— [...]
  • The long vowell.— [...]

For the more manifest demonstra­tion of the construction of the vow­ells, I haue here deuised and placed this ensuing figure.

The scale of vowells.


[Page] By the archlyne A B, is represen­ted the roofe of the mouth, by the point C, from whence the fiue seue­rall lynes are drawne, is supposed the roote of the tongue, by euery of those lynes the tongue it selfe, and by the seuerall angles of the same lynes vn­der [...] are supposed certaine eleuations & bendings of the tongue, which cause the fiue seuerall sounds called short vowells, for which the same characters [...] are framed, and by the seuerall points vnder [...] are supposed also seuerall eleuations of the tongue from any one of the said angles or places of the short vowells, to the saide seuerall points, whereby are made certaine longer organes, in which are framed the fiue seuerall sounds called long vowells, for which the said charact­ers [...] are appointed, and by the circle in which O is inscribed, is to be vnderstood the pipe or passage in the throat, through which the breath passeth, before it commeth to [Page] be fashioned by any of the organes of the tongue, placed in the roofe of the mouth, which in the said figure are afore described.

Of the formes of the letters which I haue obserued for the consonants in the mouth, according to the order of their places.

In the first or outward region.
  • For the mute I haue put this chara­cter.— [...]
  • For the semimute this.— [...]
  • For the greater obstrict.— [...]
  • For the lesser obstrict.— [...]
In the middle region.
  • For the mute this.— [...]
  • For the semi-mute.— [...]
  • For the greater obstrict.— [...]
  • For the lesser obstrict.— [...]
  • For the peculiar.— [...]
In the inward region.
  • For the mute this.— [...]
  • For the semi-mute.— [...]
  • [Page] For the greater obstrict.— [...]
  • For the lesser obstrict.— [...]

Of the forme of the letter for the aspirate.

The aspirate I haue noted by this small oblique stroake.— [...]

The pronuntiation of these three letters in this order as they heere are placed xox by reason of the vicini ty of the places of construction is so speedily performed, as that it seemes to be but one simple consonant sound, nor indeed can it be discerned to be otherwise, vnlesse by a very di­ligent obseruation; and because the same is very frequent in speeche, to write it so often at length would be troublesome: Therefore for breuity sake in writing, I haue contracted those three letters falling out in that order into one Character thus. xx

Of the distinguishing of sillables.

That euery sillable might be aptly and seuerally distinguished, it is here meet to deuise some certaine accent [Page] or marke to bee placed ouer the first letter of the sillable, to signifie where it takes beginning. For that accent therefore I haue appointed onely a little point thus (.) where there is no note of aspiration in any part of the sillable, otherwise I haue expressed it with a small stroake parralell to the heads of the letters thus (-) where the sillable hath an aspired note.

Of the manner of placing of the aspirate.

The aspirate note being for the least of all the simple sounds, is as it were too small to bee accompted or placed amongst the other letters, yet too big to be tearmed an accent. Ne­uerthelesse for that it is of so frequent vse amongst the other letters, to a­uoid tediousnes in writing, and for ease of worke, I haue appointed it (as aforesaid) this small Character ( [...]) to be fixed to either or both ends of the long accent, as the case shall require in this order, to wit, if a sillable be­gin with an aspirat, and end not with it (which I call former aspired) then [Page] to fix it at the hither end of the accent towards the left hand thus ( [...]) if a sillable begin without an aspirate, and end aspired (which I call latter aspired) thē to fix at it the further end of the accent next vnto the right hād thus ( [...]) and if both beginning and ending of a sillable be aspired, which I call double aspired, then to fix it at both ends of the accent thus. ( [...])

Of Tones.

There is yet one thing more, very necessary to be known and carefully to be obserued in pronuntiation, to wit, the eleuation and depression of the voyce vsed in speech, being in manner different from the rising and falling of the voyce in the sounds of different quantity spoken of before, and this kind of lifting vp and de­pressing of the voyce is caused by a contraction of the lungs and hollow parts of the body, wherein the ayre is inclosed, sometimes being more spee­dy sending foorth the ayre through 'its passages with a swift motion, [Page] whereby the sound of the speech is made more forceable to be heard, and sometimes being more slow, & more weakly pressing forth the ayre, wher­by the sound of the speech is some­what lessened, and by this different motion and expulsion of the ayre, three kinds of vtterances vsuall in the pronuntiation of words doe arise all differing in proportion, which Grammarians generally doe call toni, and particularly distinguish them,

  • Acutus being the highest,
  • Grauis being the lowest,
  • Circumflexus being the meane.

Kinds of vtterance of each sillable.

And in the continued course of the speeche two sillables following together are neuer pronounced both in one tone, but each sillable is al­wayes vttered either higher or lower then the last preceding in the word or sentence.

Of the figuring of the tones.

They are thus figured by Gramma­rians, namely the acute or highest tone [Page] by an oblique stroke ascending to­wards the right hand in this manner, (´) the lowest tone by an oblike stroke descending towards the right hand thus (`) and the circumflex being the meane between the other two by both the strokes ioyned together with the points downward thus, (^) which tones it is most conuenient to place so neer as may be at the begin­ning of each sillable; but this circum­flex note I wholly omit, and for ease of worke onely vse the other two, so that any sillable hauing no tone mar­ked ouer it may be taken for the cir­cumflex or mean between the highest & lowest. And if either of these two tones happen to fall out in a sillable wholly vnaspired, then that so hap­ning being placed ouer the first letter of the sillable may serue to shew the beginning of the sillable, in stead of this litle point of distinction (.) which before I thought meet to obserue, and in such case that point is to be omit­tde.

Breue de voce poema Latinum in nouo ordine li­terarum ante edocto, iuxta Anglicanam nostram pronuntiationem conscriptum.

[Page] [...]

Idem poema in ordine literarum modò vsitato.

PArua licet, tenuis (que) licet, mihi magna potestas:
Per terram victrix per mare sum domina,
Quem calor & frigus cingant, mihi sub­iacet [...]er,
Aequè vt participem, sic Deus instituit.
Non mihi magna cohors, mea si quadrata caterua,
Quin (que) tibi solùm praestat vbi (que) latus,
Quos si dux sapiens nectat simùl ordine recto.
Sunt faciles (que) boni, sunt rigidi (que) boni:
Hos ducit si quandò expers ratione, re­missi.
Barbari, & insulsi terribiles (que) forent:
Qualis ego, tantae cui vires? nomina cunctis
Imposui, nomen VOX quo (que) fingo mihi;
Mentis ego interpres, artis cunctaeque Magistra,
Expositrix velox discriminis varij.
Doctrinae radix caelos & tartara ram [...]i.
[Page] Tangunt & fructus mors modo, vita modo;
Me famam Latium (que) sagax, me Graecia docta,
Me tenuit primum, sancta Iudaea decus.
Et (Ioue propitio) me magna Britannia Romam
Concussit tetram, pandit & inscitiam:
Hoc tantum reliquis, liceat mihi dicere missis:
Non mihi sit rector, qui sibi non dominus.


VImina non vltravolucris, nec vincta catenam
It canis, & fraenum triste reducit equum.
Mens infausta nimis triplici quae carcere clausa est.
Quid videt vt discat, quid videt vt doceat
En ego protulerim subiecta haec, proxima menti.
Ah, me plus miserum discere vincla vetunt

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