[Page] A PATH-WAY to Military practise.

Containinge Offices, Lawes, Disciplines and orders to be obserued in an Army, with sun dry Stratagems very beneficiall for young Gentlemen, or any o­ther that is desirous to haue knowledge in Martiall exercises.

Whereunto is annexed a Kalender of the Imbattelinge of men: Newlie written by Barnabe Rich Souldiour, seruaunt to the right honorable Sir Chris­topher Hatton Knight.

Malui me diuitem esse quam vocari.

Perused and allowed.

AT LONDON Printed by Iohn Charlewood, for Robert Walley. 1587.


To the most High and mighty Princesse Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queene of England, Fraunce and Ireland, de­fendres of the Faith, &c.

YOur Souldiour, (most excellent Princesse,) hauing receiued so manie gratious wordes for other of his writinges, the which it hath pleased your Maiesty so fauorably to vouchsafe, is not therby onely incouraged, now once againe to betake him to his Penne, but also he is imboldned to present to your gratious viewe, this litle labour, containing A Path-way to Military Practise. The title best befitting to come from a Soul­diour, yet the circumstaunces not vnnecessarie to bee considered of, by such as be in authoritie.

And although I knowe the greatest number (which can not abide to here of warres) are as vnwilling to admit of any thinge appertaining to Martiality when they haue so longe continued in Peace, yet as in the time of warre, circumspect care of peace may not be o­mitted, so in the time of peace, such thinges must bee foreseene appertaininge to the wrrre, that the want of warlike prouiisons, bee not preiudiciall to this sweete [Page] and quiet peace, for as Valerius Maximus faith, the custodie of blessed Peace consisteth in the know­ledge of VVarre: Plato praising the Arte, commaun­deth that children should learne it so soone as they were of abilitie, Cirus sayd it was as necessarie as hus­bandriē, Augustine and Barnarde, both Catholique doctours of the Church doo approoue it.

The Romaines appointed a longe and spacious field which they called Campus Martius, wherein they exercised their youth in the knowledge of Martiall feates: They likewise inuented glorious triumphes, which was to no other ende but to stirre vp the minds of their people to magnanimitie and martiall exer­cises. Cambises the father of Cyrus being asked by what meanes countries might best be kept in safety, aunswered. If the gouernours of the same coun­tries, thinkes they can neuer bee warie inough of their enemies.

And although Salomon, (who in the holy scrip­tures is called Rex Pacificus) beeing promised by the mouth of God a peaceable raigne, and was still busied in the building of the holie temple, forgat not yet to fur­nishe himselfe more strongly with all manner of war­like prouisions, then his father Dauid had done before him, notwithstanding he was still exercised and busi­ed in the warres

Here I could alleadge infinite examples, and as ma­nie probable reasons might be geathered, all in defence of martiall practise, for he that taketh away the knowledge of feates of armes, worketh the ouerthrowe of his [Page] owne countrey and common wealth: And as by the knowledge of warre and exercise of armes, Empires haue beene purchased, Kingdomes enlarged, Princes preserued, Iustice maintained, good Lawes protected, and the Common wealth defended, so in neglectinge martiall exercises and laying aside of their weapons, how many kingdomes hath beene brought to calami­tie, howe many countries ruinated, and howe many florishinge Citties sacked, beaten flatte to the ground, couered ouer with moulde, and almost worne out of memorie. But as your maiesty, hauing most prouident­lie furnished euery parte of your Realme, withall man­ner of warlike prouision, in such sorte, as none of your predecessours hath euer heeretofore come neere, so could I wishe, that in England wee were as well fur­nished, with practised Souldiours and expert warri­ours, although I doo not meane, that they should bee warre loouers.

And as it is most apparaunt, that the regarde your maiestie haue had (euen sith you first became our soue­raigne) in all manner your princely proceedinges, hath so wonderfully blessed your estate, that all Christian Princes doo honour and renowne you, so wee your loo­uinge subiectes (feeling the benefit of your peaceable gouernement) haue no lesse cause to giue God all ho­nour and glory, and daily to pray for the longe conti­nuaunce of so gracious a princesse. And as it hath plea­sed God, so wonderfully to defende your maiesty, from such seueral practises, intended against your roiall per­son by Papistes, let their treasons (most humbly I be­seeche [Page] you) be made examples (aswell for your owne safetie, as also for the benefit of the whole common wealth of England) whom your maiesty may hereafter trust.

These be the men (O most gratious Princesse) that he sworn your mortal enimies, these be the men, O noble England that seekes thy wracke & ouerthrow: Let thē haue no gouernement within your maiesties domini­ons, let them beare no sway in any part of your terri­tories: Plucke him from the bench though he sit robed in purple, dismisse him the barre, though he be called Sergiant at the Law, put him out of comission, though hebeare the name of Iustice of Peace: pardō me (most gracious Princesse) in discharging my dutie, though simplie yet truely, Souldiours are but blunte, but sure they looue plainnes.

Thus desiringe God most earnestly and according to my duety, that as he hath hether to wonderfullie pre­serued you in most magnificent and Princely regality, (in dispite of all the enterprises and practises of trai­terours Papistes) so he would continue your maiesty longe to raigne ouer vs, to the great comfort of all your loouing subiectes, and for the prosperity and flou­rishing estate of the common wealth of England.

Your Maiesties Souldiour most humble and dutifull to bee commaunded: Barnabe Riche.

❧ To the most noble Captaines and renowmed Souldiours of Eng­land, health to their persons, and happi­nes to all their honourable attemptes.

ALthough I haue vndertaken (honorable gentlemen) to set down directions for younge Souldiours not yet ful­ly perfected in Militarie Practise, yet for the bet­ter experienced (of whō my selfe would gladly be instructed) as I haue not presumed to offer them prescriptions, so I hope they haue no cause to mislike of this mine enterprise. It is now 24. yeres agoe, sith I first vndertooke Armes & serued at New hauen, vn­der that most honorable Earle of VVarwicke (a father to Souldiours at this day) sithe which time, what I haue either practised by experi­ence, seene by example, or gathered by Historie concerning Martiality, I haue here set them downe, to the benefit of my countrie men, that are not yet practiled in so honourable and exer­cise, what faultes I shall commit through ig­noraunce. I hope you will pardon of curtelie, when they shall proceede rather of the zeale I haue to please, then of any desire I haue to of­fend: thus submiting altogether to your dis­creete corrections, I ende.

Yours as his owne, Barnabe Rich.

To the freendly Readers in generall, Barnabe Riche Souldiour, sendeth greeting.

IT may be (freend­lie Reader) that thou wilt thinke my labour might very well haue beene spa­red to write of any thing appertaininge to warres where euery man is desi­rous to liue in peace, I knowe will rather purchase dislike then win mee looue, yet as I am not ignorant, that quiet peace is to be preferred before bloody warre, so in the time of peace, warlike disciplines must not be omitted in a well gouerned common wealth, where so many euill neighbours are so readie to incroch but especially when both Prince, Countrie, religion, lawe, iustice, subiectes and altogether are vnder the protection of armes.

VVhere is become the dominions of the Assiri­ans, Persians and Grecians, or what is become of the glory of that learned Citty of Athens, or what hath wasted the renowne of the Cittie of Rome that it had not beene perpetuall, but onely when in the time of peace, they fell to inordinate ryot and delicacie, neglecting the feates of war, laying aside their armes and weapons: For to doubt and feare [Page] nothing was more hurtfull to common weales, then their very neighbour enimies, the feare of whome was their safety and assuraunce. For this cause Scipio though it vnnecessary that Carthage should vtterly be destroyed, fearing that after the subuersion, the Romaines leauing of their martiall mindes should fall to idlenes, ryot and outrage, and as he looked for so it came to passe, as it was testified after by Saint Augustine, who in a booke which he had written intituled, De ciuitate Dei, hath these wordes.

More hurtefull was the Citty of Carthage to Rome after hys distruction, then duringe the whole course & season of the warres whych the Romanes had wyth her, for that whylest they had enemyes in Affricke, they knewe not what vyces meant in Roome. In the time of peace therefore, there must be had speciall regarde to the disciplines of warre, and not onelie prouisions of warlike furnitures to be made, but also men of seruice and practised Souldiours to be had, releeued, and maintained: for what should you doo with armes, weapons, munitions and fur­nitures, when you haue not men of experience to vse them King Phyllyp of Macedon vsed the lyke comparison to that noble Captaine Antipater in these wordes.

VVhat, fearest thou the Cittyzens of Athens, the Gallyes and theyr peere, are but trifles vnto mee, for what account is to be made of those fellowes that giue themselues to daunsinge, loytring, banqueting and [Page] to belly cheere, but if Demostines onely were not a­mongst them, I would sooner make account to winne Athens, then eyther Thebes, or Thessalia of which I am already possessed.

By these premisses it may be perceiued that it is the Souldiour, that protecteth the Prince in his seate, it is the Souldiour, that defendeth the Diuine in his pulpet, it is the Souldiour, that vpholdeth the Iudge in his place of Iustice, it is the Souldi­our as Varo sayth, that resisteth the outward force of enemies, that represseth domesticall seditions, and defendeth the libertie of subiects: If his seruice be then so beneficiall to all, O what pitty, he is not better considered of by some, that are so bountiful in rewarding pipers, parasites, singers and dauncers and other like ministers of their pleasures, and suffer poore Souldiours to begge, and will sooner affoorde him a payer of stockes, then a single pen­nie for his almes.

Epaminondas Captaine generall of the Thebanes, vndestanding of a very ritch man that had no care of the poore, sent a needy souldiour vnto him, cō ­maunding him vnder great penaltie to giue 600▪ crownes to this poore man, this Cittizen recei­uing this commaundement, came to knowe the cause, it is (quod Epaminōdas because this man be­ing honest is poore, and thou which hast liued by the spoyle of the common wealth art ritch. O that our Vsurers in England might sometime haue such messengers sent vnto them, I thinke [Page] the errande would neither offen de God nor man: Neither can I see why there should not be a gene­rall contribution giuen through the realme, for the mayntenaunce of men of warre, when theyr seruice concerneth such publique profit: The Prince is not able to recompence all, and the soul­diour must fight in defence of all, why should hee not be maintained by the helpe of all.

But here some wil think I speake for my selfe, & I confesse it, souldiours must learne of other men to speake for them selues, for there is no body else that will: VVhat trade or handicrafte haue you so simple, but if it begin a little to decay, but by and by it pleades pouerty, runninge to the Prince or Parliament for releefe, eyther by repelling some statute, by making some priuiledge, or by attay­ning some consideration: And if vppon any occa­sion betweene Nations trafique be stopte, howe clamerous is the Marchaunt in the eares of hys Prynce, till hee hath his passage againe freely set open:

The Lawyer will permitte no Edicte to come forth that makes against his owne profit, though otherwise it be beneficial for the whole common wealth: The Deuine findes fault that their spiri­tuall promotiones should so many wayes bee be­reaued them, and (I thinke) complaineth of it not without some cause: If euery profession hauely­bertie to say for them selues, giue souldiours leaue to speake, when by the vnkindnes of their coun­trimen [Page] they are brought to the worst, and yet as profitable members to their common wealth, as they that thinkes them selues best: Is it not the Souldiour by hasarding his life abroade, that vp­holdeth the Artificer to sit quietly by his worke at home. And what would it auaile the Mar­chaunt to speake for forraine gaine, if the souldi­our were not to defende him from domesticall spoyle. The Lawyer makes no plea but for priuat profitte, and burldes goodly houses, and purcha­seth whole countries about him.

The souldiour serues his countrye for a small stypende, and would be contended with alowance but to buie meate, drinke, and cloath: And that very religion which the deuine but coates downe in his quiet studie without any perill, that very re­ligion the souldiour maintaineth with the losse of limme and life. How much more might heere be alleadged in the behalfe of souldiours and their seruice, yet these be they that the politique wyse man (him I meane) (that is better practised in Machauils policies, then studied in the new Tes­tament) would haue to be kept vnder. But leauing prophane histories, out of the which great volums might be writtē, haue we not examples out of the holy Scriptures, howe valiant mindes haue beene rewarded, and men of seruice liberallie gratified: in the 14. Chapter of the booke of Numbers. Caleb was promised reward by Gods owne mouth for his owne constancie and couragious perswa­sion [Page] to the children of Israell: The same Caleb to gratifie Othuiel his brothers sonne, for takinge the Cittie Cariathe, bestowed of him his faier daughter Athsah: Dauid likewise receiued great ritches with the daughter of King Saule, for kil­ling Goliah: Dauid him selfe promised great re­wardes to such as should ouerthrowe the Iebusits, and Iesus the sonne of Syrach sayth: There be two thinges that greeue my hart, and in the thyrd is a displeasure come vpon mee, when an expert man of warre suffereth scarsenes and pouerty, when men of vnderstanding and wysedome are not set by, and whē one departes from righteousnes to sinne.

But is not that countrie to much vngratefull which hath no manner of remorse to those men whose blood hath scarletted the grownd so much to their glory, and no lesse to their preseruation: If souldiours must be had (as of necessity they must) how would you haue them liue, wyll you sette downe no course: Giue me leaue then to say my minde I speake but in sporte, but that it might come to passe I would wish in good earnest. Lea­uing many presidentes, let vs fetch our example from the people of the lowe Countries, who bee­ing generally giuen to drunkennes, hath such an excise imposed both of Beere and VVine, that it well neere suffiseth to pay all their souldiours du­ring the time of the ciuill warres.

Now our people of England being as general­lie giuen to inordinate lawing, if the like impositi­on [Page] might be raysed for euery action they should commence, for euery writte they should fetche foorth, and for euery sentence in lawe that should be pronounced with them both, or against them, no doubt it would maintaine a great many of souldiours to grade them, whereby they might the more safely follow theyr lawe, and when they had spent all amongst Lawyers (as a number of them already hath doone) they might haue some cul­lour to craue gratification from the Prince or Country for theyr good seruice, as if you will beare with me, I will shewe you the like president. About tenne yeeres agoe, (vpon occasion) beinge in Hollande at a towne called Gorcum, a good fel­low comming to the States, craued of them some recompence, for his indeuours, which (as he sayd) had beene wonderfully beneficial to their state and gouernement.

The States willing him to make repition of his seruice, and he should finde them ready to consi­der of good desert, this good fellow then so well incouraged beginnes his tale.

It is not vnknowen (quod he) that within these seauen yeeres, I was worth 4000. Guilders, sithe which time vntill this present (so longe as I had one stiuer left) I am sure there is no man that euer sawe me goe sober to bed: Now gentlemen, if you will wisely consider of this, how beneficiall my drinking hath beene to your common purse of excyse, and not onely what my selfe haue spent of [Page] mine owne, but also by my drawing in of many other good drinkers in my company, I doubt not but as you must confesse I haue beene a good member to my commen wealth, so you will not fayle to gratifie me, according to my desert.

Now, if the like excise were sette of the Lawe, why might not a fellowe that had beggerd him selfe by lawing, craue like consideration, and by as good desert: I speake not against the triall for title of landes, which I knowe must be decided by the verdit of a Quest, or the discretion of a Iudge, but I speake against these vnkindly Actions of Tres­passe, commonly commenced for the speakinge of a word, for a neighbours goose that shall but looke ouer a hedge, and for other such like occa­sions, wherein they will not sticke to spende more poundes, then for the releefe of a souldiour, or de­fence of their countrye they are willinge to giue pence. But as it is necessary such clyentes should be a little wronge by the purses, so such counsay­lers should not goe scotfree, that are the annima­ters to such causes. I remember longe sithens, (when I was a little bookishe,) I reade a History in our English Chronicles, and although I canne not set you downe the place, yet as I can I will tell you the matter.

A Prince of this realme (vpon what occasion I knowe not) fined all the Lawiers of this lande, for their extortion bryberie and deceite, but to one a­mongst the rest, that was found to be vncorrupted [Page] there was giuen 300 pounds. If it pleased her ma­iesty to followe this example, and to fine euery Lawyer but at tenne pound, that hath cozoned his countrimen at the least of renscoore, to them that shal be found free from corruption, she might double her beneuolence and make the three hun­dred pound 600. in Gods name, and yet saue an honest portion for the maintenaunce of her wars: It was sometime though that one Lawyer, and one Gossehauke were enough in a whole shyre, and as Plato concludeth, it is a token of a corrupted estate, where there are many Lawyers, and manie Phisitions, because the multitude of Lawyers are maintained by the contention of people, and such store of Phisitions, by their excesse in dyet, drun­kennes and gluttonie. But pardon me here I praie you, the tellinge of a merry tale that comes but nowe sodainelye in my minde, and thus at fol­loweth.

There was sometime a Lawyer dwelling farre in the North that had serued a writ of a poore Cumberland man, for his appearaunce at VVestminster in the beginning of the next Terme, this poore mā for want of a horse comming to London on foot, and by the way as he passed, where he sawe a signe he was sure to finde meate, drinke, and lodging for his money, but comming to London, and by for­tune hitting into Holburne, seeing a signe at euery mans doore, began to make doubte, and callinge to a Boye that passed by, asked him where hee [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] might finde an Inne, the Boy (disposed to play the wagge) pointes him to one of the Innes of Court, the poore fellow going in, and seeing many Ta­bles couered in the Hall (for it was almost dinner time) thought with him selfe there was good cheere towardes, walkes vppe and downe, till the gentlemen came in, and sitting downe, he fell in amongst them to the Table, the Steward (who to see good orders) perceiuing one without a gowne and a cappe, comes to him and telles him howe that was no place for him, and willes him to arise, the poore man aunswers him, gude fellowe I ha siller in my purse ayse pay for what I take, but the Steward seeing his simplicite and how he was de­ceiued, aunswers him againe, my freend this is no place for you to spend your siller in, this is for gentlemen Lawyers, and there comes no other here but such the poore fellow heering his words arose from the boorde, and in a great chafe aun­swereth thus.

Now the foule ill tae them, be all thure lawyers, marry had I kende that, I had rather haue eate no breade these two daies, then haue come amonge sayke a company; thus as he was hastily goinge forth of the doores, the gentlemen sporting at his folly, followed him laughing, which when he per­ceiued, calling to the porter he sayd, ay say, my gude fellowe slot to the doore, by the bread a gad and all thure may once breake out, there is neere a poore man in England that shall liue in whayet [Page] by them. Now here letting slippe the simplicity of a Clowne, let vs returne againe to speake of soul­diours, who as they are little prouided for in the time of peace, so they are as smally cared for in the season of warre, and this is not a little to bee meruailed at, that when any occasion of seruice dooth happen, some bee appointed for Captaines as knowes not how to place 100. men in good or­der of araye, vnlesse it be (peraduenture) to marche them 3, or 5. in a rancke, as they vse to fetch home a may pole.

VVee doo finde in the holy scriptures and that in seuerall places, both in the bookes of Moyses, in the booke of Iosua and others, where they haue vsed not litle regard aswell in the chosing of their Captaines, leaders and conductors, as also in pre­scribing lawes and disciplines of warre, which sometimes were appointed by the almighty God him selfe: Phillip King of Macedonia, did mer­uaile why the Athenians did euerye yeere choose newe Generalles and Captaines of the wars, when he him selfe had found but one good, namely Per­menyo: Alexander admitted none to the roome of a Captaine vnder the age of 60.

But in England, wee neuer number his yeeres, we neither consider his knowledg, we little regard his worthines, we lesse esteeme his experience, wee scarce examine his honestye: Our Captaines are appointed, more for fauour then for know­ledge, more for feendshippe then for experience, [Page] more for opinion then for desert: God graunt wee neuer come to make triall of the seruice of suche Captaines as I haue seene some, if wee should, there were great feare of vnhappy successe.

And this is to bee lamented amongst vs, that wee can bee so prouident in matters of no impor­taunce, and such causes where in our owne safeties dooth especially consist, wee eyther neglect them altogether, or else performe them with little care and lesse foresight. If the matter were well exami­ned we should finde that the safety both of Prince state, country, subiects, and altogether consisted in the worthines of the Captaine: and to this most fitly agreed the saying of that noble souldiour Sir VVylliam Drury, who many times woulde vse these wordes.

The want of a horsse shooe nayle, may bee the losse of the shooe, the losse of the shooe, the spoile of the horsse, the spoyle of the horsse, the losse of the man: the losse of a man, the ouerthrowe of an army: the ouerthrowe of an army, the losse of a Princes crowne: If small thinges thus by degrees, may conclude suche great preiudice in the wyn­ding vppe, (as it can not bee denayde) what suc­cesse is to be looked for, where captaines and lea­ders are so vtterly ignoraunt, that many of them knowes not when it is time to charge, nere when it were good to retire: and as Socrates saith, the boldenes of the ignoraunt ingendreth manye euilles, and Agesilaus affyrmeth, the lacke of expe­ryence [Page] breedeth the lacke of corage: And as histories make mencion, more feeldes haue beene loste for wante of gouernement, then for want of strength.

To giue a braue charge, is a thing proper to e­uery ordinarie souldiour, but to make a good re­treat in time, & in order, therin consisteth the skill of the Captaine: The vnexpert Captaine, and the vnlearned phisition, doo buy their experience at to deere a rate, for it is still purchased, with the price of mens liues: The place of a Captaine is honou­rable, and ought not to bee giuen but to men of experience, of valiaunce, and of vertue, and yet I haue heard tell, where they haue beene made mar­chandyse of, and bought and solde for money, but I dare not say that I haue knowen it my selfe, for paraduenture I should offend.

But I hope souldiours shall not bee still illegiti­mate, they shall be esteemed accordinge to desert. The Deuine for tellinge a learned discourse in a Pulpette is rewarded with a Bishopricke, and but accordinge as hee is worthy, the Lawyer for makinge a good Plea at the Barre, is brought to the Benche, and it is doone wyth conside­ration.

The Souldiour that watches, that wardes, that trauelles, that toyles, that makes hys bo­dye a defence for Cannon shotte, and feareth no perrylles for the looue of hys Countrye, [Page] I trust will be better considered of God hath wonderfully blessed vs with sweete and quiet peace but let vs not be secure, as though we had it by pat­ten we haue enemies abroade if they had oportu­nitie, but take heede of papistes here at home, they are more to be feared, then hee that was borne in Spayne.

Haue they not made sundry profers to stirre vp seditious tumultes, nay what doo they leaue vn­attempted, to disturbe this happye gouernement: But would you haue some speciall markes howe you may knowe them, then listen, and by these meanes you may easely smell them out: You shall haue them inquiring of newes, spreading of rumours, lying, forging, counterfeiting and dis­sembling, what action hath there beene so honou­raly performed, sithe that noble Earle of Leicester vndertooke these lowe country seruices, whych hath not beene defaced (heere at home) by our slaundering Papistes.

VVhat good newes hath there come ouer which they haue not paraphrased, what enterprise so iustly attempted, which they haue not eclipsed, or what exployt so brauely accomplished, which they haue not methamorphised: Such is the deuo­tion of our religious Catholiques, that they straine no curtesie to forge lyes, to practise treasons, to commit murthers, to stirre vppe rebellions, nay what outrage is there so mischeeuous, which they wil not enter into to doo their holy father seruice. [Page] These be their workes meritorious which so ma­ny times they boast of, and by this ladder they thinke to clime vp to heauen gates, where saint Peter standes watching ready to let them in. O how many vngodly practises, haue they intended against our most gratious princesse, how are they continually busied in conspiring against her: but that almighty God who first planted her to their subuersion, hath not fayled still to protect her (no doubt) to their confusion. VVere not the furie that ouerruleth them more then extreame, they could not be such enemies to their owne discreti­on, but that they might well discerne, it is Gods blessing, that so mightely defendeth her against the Popes cursing, and although his holines hath taken great paines, in sending foorth his Iesuits, his Seminaries and other his ministers (from time to time) with so many conspiracies, and such se­uerall practises against her maiesty, yet at their departure when they come to craue his fatherlye benediction, (God be thanked) he blesseth them al to the gallowes.

And although that accidentes are many times sufficient to serue their turne, either to confirme, eyther to confound religion according to the e­uent, I wonder they cannot aswell condemne a Papist in his ill successe that is sent ouer with so many hallowed bulles, as they will doo a protes­tante, for the least misfortune that may befal him, but if this light were sufficient for men to iudge [Page] cullours by, who more blessed then our gratious Elizabeth who so happily hath raigned ouer vs this 28. yeeres, how mightily hath God preserued her, from the conspiracies of Popish traytors, howe many forraine princes haue sought to her for succours, that like as auncient Rome (while the gouernement rested in the souldiour) was the ve­rie refuge for such as were distressed by oppressing Tyrantes, so the greatest parte of Christendome, hath thought their states the better assured, when they haue combyned with her Maiestye, and shrowded them selues vnder her gratious protec­tion, with what peaceable gouernement hath she continued her subiectes, how hath England flori­shed sithe she became our soueraigne, what would you more, of her selfe she is mercifull, her noble Counsaylers carefull, her loouing subiects duti­full, that to conclude, if these presidents be testimonies of the looue of God (as without all question they are) then O thrice happy England that doost enioy so excellent a Princesse.

Nowe contrary wise, let vs but consider of the Popes best belooued the King of Spaine, howe hath he beene shaken in the most partes of his do­minions, his Indies (the fayrest flower in his Gar­land) the inhabitantes whereof, are so oppressed with the tyrannie of the Spanish gouernement, that they let not daily to enter into rebellion, see­king all meanes to shake of that seruitude, by rea­son whereof, the great summes of treasure hee [Page] was wont to receiue out of those partes, beginnes to deminish, and is like to decrease euery day lesse then other: For the regimentes in Italy, who knowes not how discontentedly they endure the Spanish gouernement, but the garrisons so keepes them vnder, that the poore Italians must bee con­tented for a time to beare the burthen, although it be so much against their willes.

In Spayne it selfe, the Gospell of our sauiour Ie­sus Christ hath taken such effect in the hartes of a multitude, that the King is busied in nothinge more then in keeping vnder of his Protestantes and questionles, as it hath pleased God to suffer it to take rooting, so in time it will bring foorth fru­tes, let my maisters of the holye house looke to it as wisely as they can.

The tyrannie the Spaniardes vsed in the lowe countries, the cause of the peoples reuolt, is so welknowen to all, as I should but waste the time to make a new repitition, but this I may not omitte that the King of Spayne (beeing so mighty a mo­narche as they would make him) could not by force of honourable warre, in so many yeeres sub­due the poore prince of Orange, but in the ende setting aside all dignitie, honour and reputation be fitting a King (in most shamefull and infamous maner) practised his death by murther, the mater is so fresh in memory, as I neede spend no loger time to repeate it: Be these the examples of Christian humanitie, nay vndoubted confirmations of Tur­kysh [Page] tyranie, but (as they say) such Carpenters such chippes, such Saintes, such reliques, such tree such fruite, euen so it may be sayd, such quarrell, such conquest, And hath not the Prince of Per­ma, made the like conquest in recoueringe againe of Sutphen Scance, and in taking of Deuentre: the one the Earle of Leycester wonne from him by ho­nourable and braue assault, the Prince beeing at at hand with his whole force within the hering of the battery, so that it cannot be sayd it was stolne vpon him, Deuentre in like case (hanging but in doubtfull Ballaunce) was asured by the Earle, at that very instante whiles hee laye before Sut­phen: neyther practised by deceipte nor compas­sed by trechery, but perfourmed by honourable polycie, the Prince beeing in the fielde and had continuall intelligence of euery action that was attempted, so that it may bee sayd, euery thing was doone before hys face: But hee taking hys time whyle the Earle was out of the Country, re­couered them againe by the lyke stratageme, as he vseth to atrayne the rest of his conquestes, which are euer obtained by tyrrannie, by treason, by cor­ruption, by murther, and by such other deuillishe practyses, both detestable before God, and disho­nourable amongst men: but thys is best befittinge men of theyr religion, and iumpe correspondent to theyr holy fathers doctrine.

I would nor here bee mistaken, neyther doo I meane (by any thinge before sayde) that where a [Page] Prince is perturbed by warre of otherwise, that such euentes are for tokens of the displeasure of God towardes him, but this I inferre, that where the cause of such troubles doo proceede through hys owne tyrannie, although, I knowe the Pope may well bestowe his blessing in such a cause, yet God with his owne mouth hath cursed the cruel­tie of such oppressours, and the executours of so notorious outrage.

There resteth nowe no more, but that wee bee prouident for our owne safeties, our enemies lookes about, they watche but oportunity, let vs bee as vigillant, least they happe to catche vs nap­ping, the enemie is by no meanes sooner repuls­sed, then when he shall perceiue we be already wel prouided for him: wee haue already committed some errours and a little troden awrie, we haue let slip oportunities, we haue fostered serpents in our owne bosomes, and although they haue bitten vs yet we can not beware, but let vs lament follyes vnder more couert termes, for the worlde is giuen to see too much, our cōtinued peace hath bene the nourisher of many vices, we haue entertained pride newe fangled fashion, and monsterous atire, what extortion is found to bee in the mighty, what op­pression in the wealthy, what vnsariable desire of hauing, what vnreasonable practise in gettinge. VVhat corruption of such as giue bribes, what persurie of such as take bribes, what buying of othes in the one, what selling of conscience in the [Page] other VVhat greedy speaking Lawe against Ius­tice, what deuillish counsaile giuen for money a­gainst lawe, what enuy in the clyent, what crafte in the counsayler, what couetousnesse in bothe: VVhat impyetie in tale herers, what impunity in tale tellers, what mallice in the one to seeke them, what flattery in the other to bringe them.

VVhat pride and disdaine in the higher sorte, what stubburne disobedience in the lower sorte, what lacke of looue in the one, what neglect of duety in the other, what frowarde hart in bothe: VVhat makinge and repellinge of many lawes, what contempt and breach of all lawes, howe ma­ny Iustices in euery place, what wante of Iustice in all places.

VVhat Marchandyse is made of lawe, what buyinge and sellinge of Iustice, Offyces that were wont to bee rewardes of good desert is nowe set to bargaine and sale for who wyll giue most, yea the blood of poore innocentes is sometime bought and solde for money: The honesty of the suter is not regarded, the equitie of his cause is not examined, if hee wyll bestowe any Crownes they shall bee viewed: wee punishe iniuryes of­fered to ourselues, but wee omitte such offen­ces as are dyrectlie against the honour of God, if thys that I haue sayde bee not enough, to say any more would bee to much. I wyll therefore conclude, humbly beseechynge God longe to pre­serue [Page] her Maiestye to raygne ouer vs, God con­founde her foes and bringe to lyght all Popishe Conspirators, and Trayterous confederates that practyse agaynst her. God so blesse her no­ble Counsaylers that in all theyr consultations, they may determine nothyng but that may redounde to the safetye, honour and renowne of noble England.


A Path-waie to Militay Practise, first of the election and choosinge a Generall.

AS sweete and qui­et peace is the blessinge of God, and is especially to be preferred amongest true Christians, yet as Cicero sayeth, wée must sometime take warres in hand, to the ende that wée may the more safelye inioye this happye peace, and Verro likewise affirmeth, that armes are many times necessary, to resiste the outward force of enemies, to represse domestical seditions, and to defend the liberty of subiectes: and it is holden for a principle in common policie, that it is better to offende then de­fend.

That Princes in policie shoulde vse all possible meanes, for the defence of true religion, for the safety of his owne estate, for the maintenaunce of his louing subiectes, for resisting the crueltyTyrantes, is both warranted by the opinion of all politique wryters, and in of the holy Scriptures, not onelie tolerated, but in ma­nie [Page] places expresly commaunded. In the 14. of Genesis Abraham entred into armes for the recouerye of hys brother Lot, in the 31. of Numeri Moyses is willed to make warres vpon the Madianites, by the expresse commaundement of God, Saule in the first booke of Kinges the 15. Chapter hath the lyke commaundement, in the book of Iudges Chapter 2. the children of Israell were blamed for making of peace with the Cananites: A prince therefore that mindes to enter into armes, is fyrst to consider of the equity of his cause, then ma­king choyse of a Generall, such a one as feares God, is likewise to fortefie him selfe with the goodnes of his quarrell, neither is there any meane more rather to incite men to valiaunce, then when they shall remem­ber they goe to the fight in a righteous cause, for forti­tude euer fighteth for equitie and iustice, and valiaunce without iustice is to be accounted rashnes, but euery vertue hath his counterfeite folower, as deceipt some­time créeping in is called policie, so rashnes shrowdeth it selfe vnder the title of fortitude.

And as Plutarche sayth, all valiaunt men are hardye but al hardy men not valiaunt: the distinction groweth, where men wil oppose thē selues into perril, sometime without iustice, sometime without iudgemēt, according to this saying of Plato. That not onely the knowledge which is seuered from Iustice, is rather to be called sub­tiltie then wisedome, but also the courage which is forwarde to daunger with out iudgement and for a common profit, may rather beare the name of lewde hardines then valiaunce.

A Generall thus fortefied in his owne conscience, with the iustice of his quarrell, is nowe to satisfie his whole company with the example of his vertue, and as the eye (aboue the rest of our sences) is least mistaken, [Page] and the minde apter to receiue impresion by what the eye séeth, then by that the eare heareth, so there is not a more spèedy meane, to make inferiours to embrace vertues, then when they shall sée the gouernour or Ge­nerall, giue first example in his owne person. A Gene­rall therefore must especially both looue and feare God, he must not be without learned Preachers and Mini­sters of gods word, which must instructe and teach the Armie, practising them aswell in the feare of God, as in duety and obedence to theyr Commaunders, Cap­taines and Officers.

In his owne person he must be magnanimious, cur­teous, gratious, easie to be spoken with, constant in his counsayles, quicke in his executions, and secréete in his determinationes, that his intentes may be kept close. Thus shall he be honoured, not for feare of his power, but for the loone of his vertue, the good opinion where­of béeing setled in the hartes of his souldiours, is of wonderful eficacie, for the accomplishment of al his at­temptes and enterprises. When Scipio had vnderta­ken the subuersion of Carthage, in marchinge on his way towardes the execution, a noble man demaunding of him wherein his hope consisted for the performaunce of so difficulte an enterprise, Scipio aunswered, in the looue of my Souldiours, which I knowe to bee such towardes me, that if I shall bidde them to cast them selues from the height of yonder Rocke, they will not refuse it, when it shall redounde to my honour and re­putation.

Mercy and Iustice in a Generall, be two precious ornamentes, aswell to winne the looue of his owne peo­ple, as to drawe the hartes of his very enemies, and many times haue béene of greater effecte to subdue them, then the force and strength of mighty armes: [Page] there is no one thing more requisit in a General, then a a francke and liberall minde, which maketh a souldi­diour more profitable to the battell in the day of fight, then a miserable vnthankfull wretch, with multitudes of treasure. He must be milde, courteous, gentle and louing amongst his souldiours, preferring the safety of his owne people before the killing of his enemies: A Generall thus adorned in his owne person, is nowe to make choyse of his counsaile for the warres, his great Officers for the feelde, his Captaines, leaders and con­ductours of his army.

His counsalers should bee men of quicke capacitie, ready witte, and sound iudgement: and here (accordinge to the minde of the Philosopher) I would wishe a ge­nerall should rather be aduised by suche as looues hym, then by those that are best belooued of him selfe: the first he shall fynde faithfull and firme for his honour, the o­ther perhappes may flatter and speake to please hu­mours. His Officers, Captaines and leaders, must bee chosen for vertue, not for oppinion: for knowledge, not for fauour, for experience, not for fréendshippe. They should not bée men detected with vices, for pride bréeds disdaine, couetousnes, extorting bothe of Prince and Souldiour, swearing bringeth hatefulnes to all honest eares.

Cato béeing Censurer to make choyse of a Generall of the Pannonian warres, sayde with a loude voyce that hée woulde dysmisse Publius, because hée had séene him walke the stréetes of Rome perfumed, but in my oppinion it is a president of some errour, to sée a Captayne that shall goe all to bée guilded, and to sée hys poore Souldiours followe, with neyther Hose to theyr legges nor Shooes to their féete.

Good perswasion, and to knowe howe to speake wel [Page] is a most necessary vertue both in Generall, Officer and Captaine, some time by oration to adde incourage­ment to theyr Souldiours, some time it containeth them in order and diseipline, and many times it more preuaileth to bringe the enemy to composition and a­greement, then their squadrons and troupes were able to winne by force.

Cineas, by the excellencie of his oraforie, brought more townes in subiection is his maister Phyiihus by his tongue, then Phyiihus him selfe could do by his va­lour. Generalles are now to prouide for all manner of warlike munitions and prouisions, both offenciue and defeneiue, aswell for the féelde as the towne: he must be prepared of pay, of victuall, artilerie for all pur po­ses, of poulder and shorte, as well for the Cannon as the Caliuer, of match, of armour, of weapons, of cari­ages, of all manner of tooles, for cutting, frenching, mi­ning, scalinge, fortefying, al these and many furnitures about the Ordenaunce, and belonging to the charge of the maister of the Ordenaunce, the Generall must first prouide for, and that in such sorte, as when he shall thinke hym selfe to bee best furnished, yet to haue care of the time that is to come: hee must bée furnished with Inginers, Armourers, Carpenters, Smithes, Masons and Pyoners.

But a Generall must especially bée well prouided for the payment of his retinewe, for the want of paye, dooth not onely infeeble and abate the courage of soul­dyours, when they shal be pincht both with hunger and colde, but it breedeth mutinies, it causeth dys­orders, it neglecteth seruice, and lettes slip oportuni­ties. To set downe in particulers what great preiudice hath happened for want of paye in seuerall armies, would aske longer discourse then were requisite in [Page] this place to stay vpon.

There is nothing that better maintaineth discipline amongst souldiours, then to sée them well payd and to haue them well punished, and I dare vndertake that where a Prince hath occasiō of seruice, 10000. men that should be truely and duely payde, should bee able to doo more and better seruice then 30000. as I haue séen, for want of pay scarce able to goe of theyr legges. A ge­nerall therefore that would expecte the regarde, dutie, obedience, & looue of hys souldiours, must sée them well payde, so shall his prescriptions, orders and disciplines bée inuoyolably kept, him selfe duely honoured, and hys souldiours able to serue: héere might much more be said of a Generall touching his eperience, learning, and knowledge of Artes, behouefull for many purposes, but this may suffise, and a generall thus appointed as I haue sayd, shall be both honoured, looued, followed and serued.

❧ The Lordhigh Marshall.

THe Lord highe Marshall ought to bee a man of such perfection and knowledge, that of his owne experience he may as well instructe inferiour of­ficers in their duties, as correcte and chastice thē for their misdemeanours: to his office appertaineth the administring of iustice, the punishing of abuses, the cor­recting of all disorders, & to giue euery man his right. The highe Marshall is to appoint the camping place, where in he must haue this ordinarie consideration, for woode, water and forrage. He is to quarter the campe, assigninge to the quarter Maister where the regimen­tes of footemen shall bee lodged, and where the horse­men [Page] shall like wise haue theyr places: He must appoint the watche, and surueying the places of greatest perill, he must giue order to his inferiour Officers to haue them furnisht with requisite guard, directing the scout to places of most conuenience.

The order that is obserued in the Lowe Countries, where the Sentinel is reléeued by the Corps de gward, euery two howres, is both better and easier, then where they vse to make them stand the whole night. When the Campe shall remooue, hee is first to appointe the Scoute Maister to sende out discouerours which waie the armie must passe, that must wearely suruey straightes, copses, and all places fitte to hide ambush­mentes, and accordinge as they finde occasion, so to giue intelligence. He must then signifie to the maister of the Ordenaunce, and in like manner to the Caryage mai­ster, that the artilerie, munitions, and all other carri­ages may be made readie and set forwardes. He must then giue order to the Sargiant Maior in what forme he wil haue the battell to march, wherin he hath to con­sider both of straightes, and otherwise of the nature of his passage, assigning both guides to conduct them, and Pyoners to mende or make waies for the cariages and armie the easier to passe.

It is not good that an armie should march long iour­nies, but vpon vrgent occasion, to the ende they may come timely to theyr lodginges, to builde theyr Cab­bens, to fetch in forrage and all manner of necessaries. As the Lord high Marshal in his owne person is to de­termine matters of greatest importaunce, so of neces­citie hée must haue a Prouost, with other inferiour mi­nisters, that must likewise be skilfull in lawes and or­ders of the fielde, and must still be attendaunt in the Campe to decide pettie brables, and small controuer­sies [Page] as they shall happen to arise: and because the Pro­uost is an apendaunt to the Lord Marshall, I thinke it best in this place to set downe his charge.

❧ Of the Prouost.

THe Prouost is to haue the charge of the Marshal sea hée must be prouided of Fetters, Giues, hand­lockes and all manner of Irons, for the safe kée­ping of such prisoners as shall bee committed to his kéepinge.

He is to sée due execution of all malefactors, hauinge receiued sentence of death from the Generall or Lorde highe Marshall. He is to kéepe the peace, to sée iustice, to punishe abuse, and to apprehonde the authours of a­ny disorder: He must rate the prizes of such victuall as shall come into the Campe in such reasonable sort, as both the Uictualer may bee a computent gainer, to the ende he be not driuen to shunne the Campe, and also that the souldiour be not to much exacted on, to the ende his little pay may be able to finde him, he must haue care that the Uictuall bee good and whole­some, and in any wise he must not suffer the Uictualer to receiue abuse, because there is nothing more bene­ficiall to a Campe, then that it be followed with great store of Uictualers. He is to sée the Campe cleanely kept, neyther anoyed by vnmannerly Slouens that haue no regarde where they ease them selues, nor by any other filthe or garbege of beastes that shall happen by butchery, he must haue like regarde that the waters be cleane and purely kept, and not onely to forewarne but surely to punish, as many as shall be found offen­ders in the premisses: the watch being set, he must not [Page] suffer any noyse or great stirre in the Campe, as many times it happeneth where souldiours be merry, and at conuenient houres must cause all victualers to shut vp their doores, that all things may be husht, quiet and stil.

Of the office of the Lief­tennaunt or Generall of Horsemen.

THe Generall of the horsemen or Caualary, which hath béene deuided in foure kindes, the first men at armes, themselues armed Complet, and theyr horses likewise barbed, and were to giue the first charge to disorder the squadrons or batalions of pikes. The second launces, lighter armed with corselets, and to breake in with the men at armes where they hadde made way or otherwise as they could sée aduauntage. The thirde light horsemen, commonly armed with a coate of plate with a light staffe charged on the theigh, seruing for many purposes, as to scoute, to discouer, to breake foreray, or to followe a chace that is put to a re­treat: The fourth and last called shot on horsebacke, but now lately called Carbines, commonly light horsed without armour seruing either with Pistoll or Petro­nell: and as the shotte one foote béeing charged doo re­tire for succours to theyr pikes, so these Carbines may skyrmidge loosely and deliuering their volleies, are not able to stand any charge but must retire to the launce for his safety. The Generall of the Horse hauinge the roles of al the bandes, with the names of their Captaines, is to deuide them so equally for euery seruice, that such as be imployed in the day must be releeued in the night, and those that haue serued in the nyght must haue rest in the daye, other wyse the Horse wyll [Page] so sodainely be inféebled, that he will be seruiceable but a very small time: In the day of fight he is to de­uide his companies into winges and troopes, appoin­tinge who shall first giue charge, who shall come to seconde them, who shall stand for rescues, and thus to directe them, that euery man knowing what he hath to doo, may the rather hope of victory, or at least keepe them selues in safety.

The Generall of Horse ought to giue warninge through his companies, that they neither disarme themselues, neyther vnfadell nor vnbridell their Horse, tyll the Campe be impalde and scoutes put foorth. The Generall of the Horse, must not bee vnprouided of Smithes, Farriers or Horseleaches, Sadlers, in lyke manner euery Captaine of Horsemen furnished in his cariages with Sickles Sithes, Combes, Cordes, Bet­les, stockes, &c. The Generall of the Horsemen may haue his Leiftenaunt, a man sufficient in skill bothe to assist him in all occasions, and in his absence, to com­maunde in euery thing with lyke authoritie as his ge­nerall might doo, and is called the Lieftenaunte of the Horse.

❧ The Colonell generall of the footemen, or Eanteri.

A Colonell Generall is a place of great authority, and is to commaunde all other Colonelles of foote regimentes, if the Generall shall haue oc­casion to vse companies for any seruice, the Co­lonell generall is to appoynte them which they shalbe, he must therefore haue a role of all the Colonelles and Captaines of euery other regiment, to the ende hée [Page] may order and deuyde them as vpon occasion he shall sée méete, he is onely to be directed by the Generall or Lord Marshall, & after they haue determined, he him selfe directeth all the rest. Upon occasions of seruice where honor is to be won, he is to vse all the regimen­tes with such indifferency, as they haue no cause to grudge or repine.

¶ Of the high Treasurer at VVarres.

THis Office amongest the reste is of great recco­ning, he is euer of the counsaile, and may fréely speake his opinion, concerninge any action or en­terpryse, he is to make paiment vpon the receipt of the Generalles warrant to all Collonels, Captaines or Officers what so euer, but yet defeating of all are­reges wherwith he shall be charged either by the mai­ster of the Ordenaunce, the Uictualer, or clarke of the chek. He is to receiue from the Muster maister the perfect number and true charge both of Horse men and foote men, and of all the rest that taketh pay through the whole Campe, then geathering a proportion of the charge as it monthly amounteth vnto, he is to present it to the Generall, to the ende hee may make prouision for pay accordingly.

The office of the Serieant Maior.

THis Officer should bee a man of most exquisite knowledge, throughly examined in all manner of fourmes and proportiones of imbatteling, hee [Page] must haue the perfect number of euery sorte of wea­pon that is brought into the fielde, so shall he orderly martial them with the quicker expedition & lesser confu sion. In the day of fight he must haue consideration to ye nature of the place, and in fourming of his battell take any aduantage that the ground will afforde him. Hée must likewise consider of the forces of the enemie, and whether his strength more consisteth in Horse men or in footemen, and as he shall finde them prepared, to dis­pose of his owne order thereafter: and as by aduaunta­ges of groundes many helpes may be taken, so in the plaine where there is nothing to trust but order, I can­not thinke any proportion more defencible against both Horse and foote then the iust squadron, for that it is stronge euery way a like.

We haue many fourmes of battell (as hereafter I meane to write on) some altogether vnnecessary, other some though very excellent, yet very daungerous to bée ranged before an enemy, where Souldiours are not more excéeding perfect, then commonly we haue them in England. But the iust square is a most sure fight, plaine and not curieus in orderinge, and in the plaine fielde as seruice holdeth at this day, I know no fourme that may be iustly sayd to better it.

The Sarieant Maior, hath for his assistauntes the foure Corporalles of the féelde, which should be men likewise of good experience, and should still be atten­daunt to the direction of the Sarieant Maior, helping him in euery quarter, and at euery season as he shall giue them instructiones. The day when the army shall remooue, he must repaire to the Lord high Marshall or Colonell generall, to knowe in what order the armye shall marche.

❧ Of the Master of the Ordenaunce.

THis Office is of great reputation, and asketh both iudgement and experience, he taketh charge of the Artillery and all other munitions, the which in the Campe he must sée safely intern­ched, and in the day time conueniently guarded with a warde, and in the night time as surely watched. Hée must haue knowledge in fortification, to plante his or­denaunce in places of most aduauntagè, aswell for the guarde of the Campe, as to make batterie in beséeging either Towne or Forte.

He must not onely haue his Ordenaunce well and stronglie mounted, the cariages and wheles surelye bounde with Iorne, but he must bée likewise furnished with spare axeltrées, wheles, cariages, ingens to mount them, ladels, rammers, sponges, crowes of I­ron and leauers to vse them. Many other thinges hée must be furnished of about the drawing of them, whe­ther with Oxen or Horse, they must haue Carte ware ropes and other necessaries which the Cannoners are to looke for, but the maister of the Ordenaunce must make prouision for the same.

He must haue from the Marshall, Pyoners and La­bourers to goe with the ordenaunce, aswell to make or mende waies through Moores or Fennes as they shall happen to passe, but also if by casually a péece shoulde be ouerthrowne there may be helpe readie to mount it. He must be prouided of skilfull Cannoners, Inginers, Smithes, Whele wrightes, Carpenters and such like. There are many other thinges that concerneth this [Page] office, as for sundry occasions to be prouided of fyre workes, and all suche simples and necessaries fit to compound them: with inginyng, myninge, trenchinge and such like, are to be directed by the maister of the ordenaunce, and for his better helpe is alowed a Leife­tenaunt, which should be a man well séene and exercy­sed in the premisses.

❧ The Master Gunner.

THe master Gunner béeing an officer depending of the maister of the Ordenaunce. I will there­fore in this place set downe his charge, he ought not onely in him selfe to be exactly perfect in his Péece, but also make trial of the rest that be vnder him, that he may be assured they be able to discharge theyr places, he must be lyke assured that they bée still atten­daunt in theyr place of charge, and to haue all things in readinesse to take oportunities.

He should practise them to beate such places vsuallie traded by the enemie, that he may the better know his marke when he shall sée occasion: which is very bene­ficiall to such as are beséeged, and defending of some pas­sage may much annoie a Campe. His wantes of poul­der, shotte, ladels, sponges, rammers, and other like ne­cessaries concerninge his arte, are to be supplied from the maister of the Ordenaunce.

¶ The Trench master.

TH Trench master is likewise appendaunt to the maister of ye ordenaunce: for the intrenching of a Campe, it is commonly staked out aswel the cur­tines, [Page] ringes as flankers: his greatest care must be so to conuey his trenches, eyther before a Towne or Fort that shall be beséeged, that the enemy doo not flanke them, for that the castinge and conueying of Trenches orderly, dooth concerne great safetie to so many as shall haue occasion to passe to and fro.

¶ The Munster master.

IN making of Musters, this Officer is to suruey euer Souldiour, whether Horse man or Footeman, not onely of the ability of the person, but also of the suffi­ciency of his furniture, aswell Horse, Armour, Wea­pon, and altogether, and eyther to passe or defaut them as he shall finde reasonable cause, and to make certifi­cate accordingly to the Treasuror, yt he may stop suche defautes of theyr pay. The Munster maister is to make out warrantes by his booke for so many as be in paye, from the fyrst of his enterie forth on from time to time vnder his hand, which béeing signed by the Generall is sufficient to the Treasuror.

¶ The Scoute master.

THe Scoute maister euery euening vpon the soun ding of the Marshalles Trumpet to the watche, must receiue by assignement from the General or Liefetenaunt of the Horsemen a sufficient num­ber to scoute, the which by him selfe must be directed into crosse wayes and other places of perrill in euerie quarter of the Campe, he must exhorte them still to si­lence, and to haue regard to looke about them, and not [Page] to forsake theyr places appointed, till discouerers be put foorth in the morning to the fielde: Hee is in the mor­ning (by lyke assignement) at the discharginge of the watche, to receiue a competent number of men to disco­uer, the which he must likewise appoynt to places of most conuenience for the purpose: in like manner when the Campe dooth marche, he must bée styll scouring a­fore to sée the coast be cléere.

¶ The Forrage master.

THe Forrage master is likewise to receiue from the Liefetenaunt of the Horse, an able companie of Horsemen for the guarde of forragers and such as shall fetche in necessaries, the which vpon the sounde of a Trumpet must altogether goe forwarde, not suffering them nor any other to straggle out of his companie further then he is able to rescue them, and if they be farre from the Ca [...]up [...], not to suffer any to de­parte home warde till they be all prouided, and then as they came foorth, so to returne all againe togeather.

¶ The Carriage master.

THe Carriage master in lyke manner is aswell to haue a Cornet of Horsemen from the Liefe­tenaunt of ye Horse for his guard, as also loose shot from the Colonell Generall, or else to marche with all his baggage betwéene the troopes of footemen for his more suretie.

¶ Of a Colonell.

THe place of a Colonell is of honourable reputati­on, and therefore besides experience, he should be a man of credite and good countenaunce, and as that most noble Gentleman, Sir William Rus­sell, (a Parragon of Armes at this day) is many times accustomed to say, that he which wanteth liberalitie, is possessed with all the vices in the world, so that Colo­nell that hath not a bountifull minde, and a francke dis­position to lende reléefe to a poore distressed Souldiour, especially of his owne retinue and regiment, is vnwor­thy to haue the comaunding of men, and not fitte to haue gouernement nor beare office in a Campe.

In places where Souldiours are not leuied by the Princes Commission, the generall is to make choyce of his Collonels, men both sufficient in countenaunce and credyt, for the leuying of such companies as the Gene­rall shall commit to his charge, then receiuing his com­mission with imprest, the Colonell in like case is to make choyse of his Captaines, impresting euery of them lykewise for the raisinge of theyr seuerall compa­nies.

But in England vpon occasion of seruice, Souldi­ours are euer leuied by the Princes commission, where if such consideration were had in the choosinge of them as there ought, it were the more safety for the seruice, better for the Captaine, and much more beneficiall for the Souldiour, considering his furniture is allowed him by the Countrie, which other wise is cut of from his pay if hée be not able to furnish him selfe The Colonell hath the commaunding of all such Captaines vnder his [Page] owne regyment to directe vpon any occasion of seruice as hée shall sée good: A Colonell may haue his Liefete­naunt Colonell, his Sarieant Maior, his Prouost, and his Quarter master, within his owne regyment. A Colonell may correcte misdemeanours of his Cap­taines, he may call a Marshall Courte of his owne of­ficers, for the punishing of offences, or for the admini­string of Justice.

¶ Of a Captaine.

THe place of a Captaine is not lightly to be consi­dered of, vpon his skill and knowledge consisteth the safety or losse of many mens liues, but especi­ally seruice standing nowe as it dooth most com­monly in skirmidges, where the Captaine most ordena­rily is not holpen but with the aduauntage of his own experience.

In the olde time many yéeres agoe, when armyes many times vsed to appoint the fielde, where their whole forces were brought to incounter: the weakenes of a Captaine might the better be borne with all, when theyr were so manye superiour officers to dyrect hym: and yet in those dayes they vsed circumspection in no­thing more, then in choosing of theyr Captaines, but seruice standing as it dooth at this instant ouer it was then, wee ought to haue thrée times more regarde then they had, and yet we vse tenne times lesse then they did. And I wonder howe so many insufficient men dare oppose them selues to vndertake a matter of so great importaunce, whose inexperience, besides (by cyr­cumstaunce) that it concerneth the losse of a countrie, so in it consisteth the hazard of many mens liues, if it were [Page] more but his owne, the matter were the lesse, for hee may value of that as him selfe shall sée good, but remorse of conscience should touch him to consider of his Coun­trimen, when his want of knowledge, shall sometime bréede to much rashnes, and sometime againe to little courage. A Captaine that might be thought worthy, should aswell haue knowledge how to gouerne, as ex­perience how to traine, wherein he is to vse great dili­gence, instructing them in theyr order of aray, the vse of theyr weapons, teachinge them to know the soundes of Drummes.

He must in no wise be iniurious to the Souldiour for his paye, but as carefully he must vse diligence to get it, so as chéerefully he must paye euery may his due, hée that neglecteth this, neglecteth his owne credite and reputation, nay more his honesty, neither is it fitte hée should goe vnpunished, yt barreth or deminisheth a soul diour of hys paye. A Captaine should bée loouing and comfortable to his companie, and as he is to correcte and punishe them for their faultes, so he is to commend and incourage them in theyr well dooinges: some con­sideration a Captaine should haue, for the carriage of conuenient necessaries for his souldiours, when they goe to the fielde, yet no more then must néedes he had, he shold haue some store of Hatchets to cut bowghes to make their Cabbines, for want of which they breake many Swordes, to conclude, a Captaine that can care­fully consider of his Souldiours necessities, and leuing­lie prouide to furnishe theyr wantes, shall haue bothe vnfayned looue, and dutifull obedience of hys Souldi­ours, without the which, he is not onely assured to loose his credite, but many times in more perrill of his owne company then of the enemy.

❧ Of a Liefetenaunt.

THe Liefetenaunt of a companie, in his Cap­taines absence hath authority to directe all, and in his Captaines presence to disburthen him of some inferiour toyles: His place requires know­ledge in the fielde, trust to his Captaine, fréendship to his inferiour officers, and looue to the Souldiours. In discharging his duetie, his office is painefull, and ther­after to be considered if his Captaine be gratefull.

❧ The Ensigne.

AS the Ensigne in the fielde is the honour of the bande, so the Ensigne bearer in like case shoulde bée honoured by his company, and this reputa­tion is best attained, by his owne curteous de­meanour towards ye souldiours, the looue of whom con­cerneth greatly his owne safety, in all perrilles and at­tempts. M. Furius Camillus séeinge his armie begin to stagger and to stande at a staye, thrust his Ensigne bearer amongst his enemies, in whose recouery, the Soul­diours taking courage charged againe a freshe. The Ensigne bearer therefore should be a man of curteous disposition towardes the Souldiours, couragious and chéerefull when he is before the enemie, in any dis­tresse resolute rather to loose his life, then to loose hys Cullours.

❧ Of the Sarieant.

IT is requisite in euery bande, that besides a Captaine a Lieftenaunt and an Ensigne, there bee for euery hundred men a Sarieant: this Sarieant should bee a man of good experience of quicke and liuely spirite, and able to take paine. He should be a father amonge Souldiours, makinge the Captaine or Leifetenaunt priuie to theyr wantes, and to sée all thinges equally distributed amongest them that there be no cause of dis­cention: he ought in gentle and fréendly manner to ap­pease all strifes and contentious quarrelles that shall fall out amongest Souldiours, and if by curtesie he can not perswad thē, let him then bring the offenders to pu­nishment. He must be ready to trayne and practise such as he shal finde to be vnperfit in their weapons, gentely to shewe them the best and readyest way: Hee must sée them to marche straight in theyr ranckes carrying their weapons orderly without any communication, or loude speaking amongst them. A good Sarieant in a bad com­pany, shall finde busines more then inough tell they bée well trayned, and is therefore to be considered of by his Captayne.

The Drummes.

IT is necessarie that euery company haue two drums, the one to be stil resident with the Cullours the other to marche with the Troupes, as vpon occasion they shall be drawne foorth. These Drummes must bée perfect to sounde a call, a march, a charge, a retrait, a la­rum, [Page] and such lyke poyntes of warre: And for that they are many times sent on messages to the enemy about prisoners or other causes, it were conuenient they should be discréet and sober, least they should be vnder­mined.

The Chyrurgion.

A Good and skilfull Chyrugion is a necessary man to bée had in a companie, suche a one as should worke accordinge to arte, not practisinge newe experimentes vpon a poore Souldiour, by meane whereof many haue béene vtterly mayned by a Chyrurgions practise, that other wise might haue doon very well. A Chyrurgion knoweth what salues, oynt­mentes, oyles, balmes, and instrumentes, are requisite to bée had, and must haue them in readines, hée should not lykewise in the time of seruice be without his baul­dricke that he might be knowne, it serueth his turne likewise in the night to passe the watche without the worde, when vppon occasion hée must goe to his cures.

The Clarcke of the Band.

THe Clarke of the bande is to bée placed by the Captaine a man of great trust, and hath to kéepe the Countes and recconinges betwéene the Cap­taine and his Souldiours: His greatest commen­dation is to write, to reade, to cast accountes, to bée ho­nest and iuste betwéene the Captaine and his Souldi­ours.

Of the Corporall or Launce­prezado.

IT is much beneficiall for the redines for seruice, that accompany of men should be deuided into fower squadrons, the weapons equally deuided, and to be com­mitted to the charge of foure Corporalles, who is not onely to exercise them in the vse of their weapons, to sée them continually furnished with all necessaries, and the shotte to be still prouided with poulder, match, bullets, and such lyke, but especiallie to haue care to the kéeping of theyr furniture cleane and seruiceable: A companie that is thus deuided, and the Corporall dutifull in hys place, is very readie eyther to watch or warde, or to ma­nie other purposes where one or two squadrons are to be drawne foorth, and may suffice for some seruices. A wise Corporall, that thinketh to come to credit, will vse dilligence in his place because it is his first step of pre­ferment, and for his more ease he hath his Launcepreza­do or deputie to assist him.

Of a priuate Souldiour.

IN the choyse of a Souldiour, his manners and condi­tiones is first to bee respected, otherwise you may make choyse of an instrument of many mischéefes, the composition and abilitie of his body is then to be con­sidered, in the like manner his sufficencie for yeeres.

In England when seruice happeneth we disburthen the prisons of Théeues, wee robbe the Tauernes and Alehouses of Tospottes, and Ruffines, wee scoure [Page] both Towne & Cuntrie of Rogges and vagabons. And is not a Captaine that is furnisht with such a company like to doo great seruice, and to kéepe them in good disci­pline. In other Countries where they vse the seruice of malefactours, they admit them not for souldiours, but they send them to theyr Gallies and to other places of like slauery: And those Captaines that hath made triall of such Souldiours, would gladly be ridde of his charge to be eased of his trouble.

The first thinge therefore that is to be respected in a Souldiour is the honesty of his minde, which beeing lincked with religion, there is no doubt but that Soul­diour will be brought both to the feare of God, to the o­bedience of his Captaine, and to the obseruaunce of dis­cipline. The Romaines who for theyr martiall obseruation were most renowned, the rather to kéepe Souldi­ours vnder awe and discipline, they adioyned to theyr owne lawes and ordinaunces the authority of God, and vsed with great; ceremonie to make them sweare to keepe the disciplines of warre. The Grecians in like manner, their souldiours being armed and brought to the Church receiued this oathe.

I will not doo any thinge vnworthy the sacred and holy wars, neither wil I abandō or forsake my band & Captaine to whom I am appointed, I will fight for the right of the Church and safety of the State: I will not make my Countrey to be in worse case then it is, but I will make it better then I founde it: & I will euer frame my selfe reuerently to obey those lawes also that the State shall hereafter by common assent inacte or sette downe, that if any one shall chaunge the lawes or not obay them, I will not suffer him to my power, much lesse will I allowe in so dooing, but I will be a sure de­fender of right aswell by my selfe alone, as when I am [Page] with others, and I wil euer more honor the religion of my Countrey. To these my sayings I call the Gods to witnesse. These and such other like cathes the antiqui­tie administred to their Souldiours to nourishe obedi­ence, for besides valiaunce, a souldiour must be adorned with these special vertues, which are silence, obedience and truth: a good souldiour must haue speciall regard to the kéeping of his furniture cleane & seruiceable, in stéede of dicing, drincking & swearing, let him vse run­ning wrasteling, leaping, or such other like exercises of agility, let him kéepe his owne quarter and not depart without the licence of his officer, a Souldiour thus dis­posed may cōfort him selfe with hope of aduauncemēt.

¶ Of Disciplines.

AS these considerations in the choosing of Captaines officers and souldiours, haue euer béene especiallie regarded amongst the most renowned, and best experi­enced warriours, so an army béeing thus chosen, ye lyke respect must be had in the appointing of lawes, discip­lines and orders, the which ye Generall by aduise of his counsaile is discréetly to set downe, and to haue them openly published by sound of Trumpet, that the whole Campe may take notyce therof: and béeing thus pro­claimed, he must vse as great seuerity to haue thē maintained, for what wil it auaile the making of good lawes where there is no care had to sée them surely kept.

We doo finde in the holy scriptures, and that in many places, aswell in the booke of Moses as the booke of Iosua, where lawes and disciplines of warre, were many times appointed by ye almighty God him selfe, and that he would not suffer disobedience to escape vnpunished, it is euident by Corah, Dathan and Abiram that were swallowed vp in the earth, for mutinie. But the Romanes who aboue the rest did most excéede for their [Page] martiall prescriptiones, so they were as seuere in pu­nishing the offences, of suche as shoulde infringe and breake theyr lawes of armes: They punished with death him that lacked in the watch, he that forsooke the place that was giuen him to fight in, he that caryed any thinge hidde out of the Campe, if any man should say he had doone some worthy thinge in fight and had not doone it, he that for feare had cast away his weapon, and when it happened that the whole Legion had committed the like faulte, their names were taken and put together in a bagge, and euery tenth man as they were drawne were executed.

When Marcus Cato (after a token giuen) had loosed from the coast of his enemies, where he had laine a cer­taine space and sawe one of his Souldiours lefte on the shore, crying, calling and beckoning to be taken in, hée cast about with his whole Nauie to the shore againe, and commaunded the same Souldiour to bee taken and straight put to death: willinge rather to make him an example to the rest, then that he should be slaine by his enemies with reproch and infamie. The Romanes pu­nished nothing with more seueritie, then those actions that were either attempted against commaundement or enterprised against reason, but as they punished those victories that were attained by lewde hardines, so misfortune deminished not his reputation, that at­tempted with discretion, neyther attributing cowardli­nes to ill successe, nor valiaunce to good fortune, for the euent of such enterprises commendes not the execution, neither is it the successe that makes vs perfect wise, but to attempt with reason and iudgement, confirmes wee séeme to haue wisdome.

Papirius Cursor being Dictatour required, that Fabi­us Rutilius, should first be beaten with roddes, and then [Page] bée beheaded, because he fought without his commaūde­ment (notwithstanding he had the conquest,) neither would he forgiue the punishment, for the contention or entercession and request of the Souldiours, neither (per suing him to Rome whether he fledde) would he there remit this dreafull sentence, till Fabius him selfe with his father fel both on their knées, and yt also the whole Senate and people made intercession for him. This were a harde world for some hare brainde Captaines, that are ready to choppe vpon euery chaunce, like a gudgion that is readie to bite at euery baite, neuer fearinge the hooke till she be hanged by the lippes.

Manlius Torquatus caused his sonnes head to be stric­ken of because he had forsaken his place, and went to fight with an enemie that had challenged him and stue him. And Salust dooth report, that there were more soul­diours put to death amongst ye Romanes, for setting vpō theyr enemies before they had licence, then for running out of the fielde before they had fought. And as the Ro­manes were thus precise in maintaininge theyr discy­plines seuerely, so their Campe in those daies was a Schoole of honour, Iustice, Obedience, duety and loy­altie: where nowe a denne of deceipte, trechery, theiuery, iniurie, and all manner of impiety.

¶ Heereafter followeth sundry Stratagemes, and many good instructions practised by the anti­quity, and necessary for diuers purposes.

❧ What is to be respected before you enter Battel.

THe most renowned Emperour Augustus, gaue these instructions for Captaines as followeth, that although a Prince were mighty, yet if he were wise, hee would neuer giue battel, vnlesse there were more apparant profit in the victory, then losse if the enemie should ouercome. And the most ap­prooued Captaines helde this opinion, that it were not good to bringe theyr men to fight, except they had ad­uauntage or else brought to it by constraint. The aduaū tage groweth by the Scituation of the place, by order, or hauing of more or better men: The necessity happe­neth, when they shall perceiue by deferringe of Battel it must néedes fall out to theyr discomodity, as when fa­mishment were ready to assaile them, or when the ene­mie looketh for some newe supplie, in these causes it were better to attempt Fortune where she may fauour rather then by deferringe, to sée thy certaine ruine: Vi­gesius giueth counsaile neuer to bring an armie to fight except they hope to haue the victory, for what greater signe is there to loose, then not to beleeue to bee able to winne: to adde incouragement therefore to Souldiours there hath béene seuerall practises vsed by diuers. L. Sil­la in the warres against Archelaus, Mithridates Liefe­tenaunt at Pirea, perceiuing his Souldiours had little stomacke to fight, so weried then with continuall la­bour, that they were glad to desire to fight.

Q Fabius, knowing the Romaines to be of so liberal & honest nature, that by spiteful and contumelous dealing they would be soone mooued, vexed and gréeued, and loo­king [Page] for no honest nor equall dealinge of ye Persians who were his enemies, sent vnto Carthage Ambassadours to intreate of Peace, which was consented vnto, but with such proude and vnreasonable conditions, that the whole armie of the Romanes, were thereby stirred and incouraged to fight.

When Agesilaus, had pight his fielde not farre from Orchomeno, a Cittie that was in league with him, and perceiuing that manie of his armie had theyr treasure and chéefe riches in the Campe, hee commaunded the townes men to receiue nothing into the towne belong­ing to his armie, to the intent, his Souldiours might fight the more fiercelie, knowing they should fight for liues and goodes. Fabius Maximus, fearing that his soul­diours would not continue the fight manfully, by reason they might quickly fly to their shippes, commaunded they should be set on fire before he would begin the bat­taile. Some haue constrained their men to fight through necessity, takinge away from them al manner of hope of sauing them selues vnlesse they did ouercome.

And there is nothing to concitate the mindes of men more to incouragement then perswasion, for him that knoweth howe to speake well, for it kindleth the minde and humaine passions of a man, it taketh away feare, it ingendreth obstinacie to fight, it discouereth deceiptes, it sheweth perrilles and the way to auoide them, it pray­eth, it promiseth rewardes, it reprehendeth, it threate­neth, it incourageth the mindes eyther of hope, eyther else of dispaire. Epaminondas being ready to enter bat­taile with the Lacedemonians, to the ende that the strength of his Souldiours might be holpen by some ser uent meane, pronounced to them in his exhortation, that the Lacedemonians had determined (if they gotte the victorie) to slaie all theyr men, to make theyr wiues [Page] and children bonde for euer, and to beate down the Cit­tie of Thebes flat to the ground: these wordes did so mooue the Thebanes to such heate and furie, that at the first incounter they ouercame the Lacedemonians. It is much beneficiall for Captaines aduisedlie to consider of the Captaine of his enemies, whether he be rashe or politique, whether he be fearefull or hardie, whether he be more stronge in horsemen or in footemen, and there after to vse his owne aduauntage.

Hannibal, perceiuing that Fuluius the Romane Cap­taine was negligent, and attempted many thinges vn­aduisedly, takinge the aduauntage of a miste that had some thinge obscured the ayre, he made a small troupe of his Souldiours to shewe them selues to those that kept watche in the Romane tentes, Fuluius hastelie rushing towards them with his Hoste, Hanniball on the the other side inuaded his Campe, and breaking out in the backe of the Romanes slue their captaine with 8000 of theyr best men at armes.

Iphicrates of Athens hauing knowledge that his ene­mies were accustomed to eate still at one time of the day, hee therefore commaunded that his owne people should take theyr repast some thing more timelier, then raunging foorth in battaile in that instant that his ene­mies should haue fallen to their victualles, he so dalied with them as hée would neither giue them battaile nei­ther suffer them to depart, when it drewe towardes night, with drawing him selfe as though he went to his lodging, and kéeping his men still ready armed, his ene­mies being aswell wearied with longe standinge and with long fasting, made hast to refresh them selues, and to betake them to theyr victualles, Iphicrates bringinge foorth his armie againe on the suddaine, setting on his enemies easely ouer came them.

[Page] It is many times behoueful for Captaines to [...] from fight, when the enemie is brought into some despe­rate passion through famine or other like naturall ne­cessities, and this caused the Lacedemonians, (béeing certified by theyr spyes) that the Messenians were sette on such a rage that they came to the battaile, men, wo­men and Children, which caused the Lacedemonians to to deferre the fight.

Like wise when Caesar in the cyuill warre had inclo­sed the Host of Affranius and Petricus, within a trench, that they were pyned with thyrst, in so much that they became desperate, destroying all that would withstande them or proffered them fight, which being perceiued by Caesar, kept in his men supposing it then no time to be­gin. The like respect is to be had that in fight they bring not the enemie into any extreame desperation, so to inclose them that dispayre should make them fighte, which caused Hanniball, (when he had inclosed the Ger­maines at Tarsimenus by which constraint they fought excéeding féercely) to open his armie and to make them away to get out, beating them downe as they fled with out any perrill to his owne people. The like was vsed by L, Marcius a Romane Knight, when he had in­closed the Carthaginenses, and so did Agesialus with the Thebanes.

When Themistocles had vanquished the power of Xerxes, he would in no wise agrée that the bridge shold be broken, ouer the which they should returne, sayinge it were better to driue them out of Europe them to fight in dispaire: All thinges thus considered, and a wil­lingnes, setteled through the armie to fight, let them force that the charge be not giuen in a furie, which yet was neuer seconded by vertue, for it bréedeth disorder and breache of araie, that if victorie be not had at the [Page] very first brunte, theyr confidence beginnes to quaile, and then followeth presente discomfiture: Nowe other wise where resolution with order is obserued there is no difficultye that may arise, but will bee an oc­casion to confirme and strengthen theyr courage with hope of victorie, which is neuer wanting where order and resolution are linked togeather.

Hanniball neuer gaue fight but he was still prepared with some Stratagem, wherewith to amaze his ene­mies, which many times did stand him in steede for the attaining of seuerall victories. The spreading of ru­mours (duringe the fight) affirming the Captaine of the enemies to haue béene slaine hath manie times holpen, as Iugurth, in the battaile against C. Marius by the same policie made the Romanes to giue backe, so did Mironi­des of Athens against the Thebanes, whereby hee gotte the victory.

When Valerius Leuius fought against Pirrhus, and had kilde a priuate Souldiour, holding vp his sword all bloody, made bothe the hosts beléeue that he had kylled king Pyrrhus, wherefore his enemies supposing them selues to be destitute by the death of theyr Captaine, all abashed theygaue ouer ye fight. When a barbarous alien (in battaile) had brought worde to Q. Sextorious, that Herculeius was slaine, he slewe him straght with his dagger, least he should haue borne those newes any fur­ther to haue discouraged ye armie. Captaines are in like case well to consider howe they followe theyr enemies till the battaile be perfourmed, for he that with his peo­ple disordered persueth the enemie, may sometime giue the conquest from him selfe, as Q. Fabius Maximus con­sull, béeing sent to succour the Sutrines against the He­truscines, the whole force of his enemies assayling him, hée dissembling as though hee feared them made showe [Page] of flight til he had gotten the aduauntage of ground, the other following out of order, were by him not onely surprised but also bereaued of cheir Campe.

¶ Obseruations, aswell for the vic­tor as conquered.

WHere victory is attained it is most necessary (especially for Christians) reuerently to giue thanks to the most high almighty God, humbly to ackowledge his grace and goodnes in all theyr accomplishmentes, and this to be doon with all humilitie vpon theyr knées yet enery mā to kepe his place, wherin the Captaine is to vse great respect, & not through ye affiaunce of his victory to leaue him selfe disordered, for so sometimes from a victor he may become vā quish [...]: as T. Martius a Romane knight, being gouer­nour of the residue of the host that remained after the death of the two Scipioes, this T. Martius perceiuinge the two hostes of the Persians not lyinge farre from hym, carelesse and out of order through affiaunce of theyr victory which before they had attained, perswa­ded with hys Souldieurs to set vpon the host that laye next vnto him in the midde of the night, where they made suche a slaughter that there was not so much as a messenger left aliue, to beare tidinges of this miserable mischaunce: then giuing hys souldiours some small re­spyt to refreshe them, the same night with all spéede preuenting the same of any thing doone, inuaded the o­ther armie, and thus twyce in one night inioyed like happy chaunce of Battel, and still following oportuni­tie, be euery where destroyed the Persians, and restored Spaine againe to the Romanes.

[Page] The victor after fight is so to deuide the spoyle as there may fall out no contention, he must not forget to burie his dead that shall be slaine in the conflicte, hee must raunsome home suche of hys Souldiours as the e­nemie holdeth prysoners, to deale fauourably with hys enemies that are taken prysoners by hym selfe, not one­lie wynneth theyr hartes but maketh hym the more re­nowned. These thinges thus perfourmed, he is eyther to followe the aduauntage of hys seruice, or else to re­tyre to some: place of securitye where they may rest: The persued haue vsed to scatter money in the way, to hynder the followers. By this meane Triphon King of Siria escaped Antiochus Horse men, and when the Gaulles should fight with Attalus, they deliuered all theyr Golde and Siluer to bee kept of certayne men that might scatter it abroade if it happened they were put to flyght, to the intent they might the more ease­ly escape, theyr enemies béeing hyndred with the gathe­ring vp of the pray, but Galltroppes were to a more purpose to hynder Horse men, and were better chepe to bée scattered about, then eyther Golde or Siluer. When Q. Sertorius was put to flight of Quintus Metel­lus Pius, hée supposed it not a thinge sure inough to flye, but also he warned hys Souldiours to disparple them selues diuers wayes, assigning them a place whether he would haue them to resorte.

Some to preuent the worste, would beginne the fight a little before night, to the ende that if they were ouer­throwne, through the darkenes of the night they might the better scape away. What might farther be sayd, I leaue to the discretion of the skylfull Cap­taine, and will bréefely speake of other necessaries not a­misse to be remembred for some other purposes.

¶ Marching through vn­knowen places.

AN armie that shall marche through places that be vnknowen, (but especially being in ye enemies countrie) must vse great diligence for béeing be­layde either as they are to passe riuers, straights, or other places of aduauntage fitte to hide ambushes. Alexander vsed to haue such places discribed in mappes, which should be hanged in the Campe, to be viewed by all, whereby they might learne to knowe the places, the distaunces, the wayes, the hilles, the Riuers, the fennes, the straightes, the wooddes, and all places of perill: fitte for the enemie eyther to take aduauntages, or to hyde ambushes.

Ambushes haue sometimes béene discouered, by the raysing of great dust, or when Dooues or Byrdes hath béene séene to flye about in flockes, turninge to and fro and hath not séemed to light, but the surest way is to haue wise and diligent scoutes and banquerers to view those places to sée the Country cléere. And as troupes may fal into these daūgers by marching thus vnawares so they must wisely fore sée that they be not trained into them by crafte, as the Fideniens, who lying for Romu­lus as hee should passe, which hee by espiall gettinge intellgence of, laying part of his armie in secréet am­bushe, then approching where his enemies were, from whom he fayned fearefully to flie, and they hastely per­suinge him, hee brought them where his ambushes were layd, who assailing them on euery side easely slewe them: Some of purpose hath put foorth a pray and by suffering the enemie to take it, hath belayed theyr pas­sage [Page] which way they should driue it and by this meanes haue intrapped them. They must therefore take héede, & not hastely to bite at euery baite or vnaduisedly chop vpon such things as are contrarie to reason, if many of the one side be driuen away by a fewe of the other, or if a few on ye one side assaulte many of the other, or if some sodaine flight be made not standing with reason, let thē in these causes iudge the worst, so shall they be assured to be least beguiled.

❧ To passe Riuers and Straightes; what hath beene practised.

TO passe Riuers, some haue cut out a Trench lyke a raine howe or halfe moone, filling it full of woode and settinge it then on fire by these meanes haue passed. This policie was vsed by Q Sextorius in Spaine, likewise by Pelopidas a Theban against the Thessalonians, When Cressus might not wade ouer the Riuer Hal is, neither yet could make Boate nor bridge he cast a ditche behinde his armie and turned the course an other way.

Caesar in Fraunce tooke the benefit of a Woode where in he left certaine companies; which after hée was mar­ched away caste a Bridge ouer a Riuer that he was to passe, the which they likewise fortified till his comming and that he was passed: When Pericles of Athens, be­ing driuen by them of Peloponesus into a place inuiro­ned with sléepe hilles where was but two wayes to es­cape, before the one way, where he intended to get out, he caused a ditche to bée cast of great breadth, vnder pre­tende to shut out his enemies, and to the other side hée lead his Hoste as though hee would there haue broken foorth, wherefore hys enemies beléeuinge he might in [Page] no wyse escape that way, where he him selfe had cast the ditche, withstoode him with all the power on the o­ther side, then Pericles hauinge bridges prepared for the purpose caste them ouer the ditche on the other side, where he conueied ouer his armie, no man being there to let him.

When Spartacus was inclosed by L. Varinus, hee pitched vp stackes heere and there before the entring of his Campe and set thereon dead car cases clad and Har­nised, to make a showe vnto them a farre of, that watch and warde was dilligently kept, and leauing fiers in e­uerie quarter of the Campe, by this couller he deceiued his enemies conueying away his Hoste by night wyth­out interruption. Darius to deceiue ye Scithes at his de­parting lefte Dogges and Asses in the Campe, whose barking and braying caused the enemies to thinke how Darius had still remained there: With the like errour the Genowayes blinded the Romanes.

❧ Fugitiues and Runnagates.

HAnniball hauing certaine of his men that were latelie fledde, and knowing the enemie to haue spyes in the Campe, he pronounced openly that those runnagats were gon by his assignement to harken and spy what his enemies entended, the Ro­mane spyes returned these newes to theyr companies, whereupon these fugitiues were taken, theyr handes cut of and thus sent backe againe to Hanniball.

When Hanno vnderstood that 4000. Gaulles which hée had hired would leaue him and goe to the Romanes, because they were vnpayd of certaine menthes wages, he durst not punishe them for feare of sedition, but pro­mising [Page] them very liberallie, to rewarde the iniurie they had sustayned by theyr long forbearinge of theyr paye, which for the time did some what appease them, then presently sending his most trusty Stewarde to Otaci­lius Consull, this Steward fayning to flye away about a controuersie happening betwéene his Captaine and him in a certaine accompt that was betwéene them, hée tolde him further that the next night 4000, Gaulles should be sent out to get pray and pillage, if it pleased him to take any aduauntage, Otacilius neyther hastelie creditinge this runawaies tale, neyther thinkinge it a matter to bée dispysed, layed an ambushe for them of his best approoued Souldiours, and incoūtering the Gaulies which Hanno of purpose had sent foorth, put them all to ye Sword, and in the fight were some of themselues slaine in lyke manner, which satisfied the expectation of Han­no accordinglie.

Obseruations aswell for those that shall beleager, as for the beseeged.

FOr the surprising or taking eyther of Towne, Fort, or Castell, it is eyther to bée doone by Composition, by Mininge, by Famine, by batterie & so by assault. But of al other, that victory is to be accounted most worthy that is obtained by honourable composition, ra­ther then by spillinge of blood. Mining (if the Scituation wyll permit it) is next to be preferred both for expediti­on and lightnes of charge. The Captaine that mindeth to surprise eyther Towne, Forte, or Castle by famine, is sometime inforced to it, when the Scituation is so stronge as it admitteth no other forceable meane: other whyles, they vse it of policy for the safety of their owne [Page] people, but it is necessary in theyr setting downe to in­trench them selues so surelie euery way, that neyther behinde they might bee indaungered by any force that should purposedly come to annoy them vnawares, nei­ther from the towne they might receiue preiudice by is­suing out vpon any sodaine Canuazado: Where battery is to be presented, the flankers are first to be displaced, the breach being after made, the assaulte must then spée­delie be giuen, that they neither haue respite to fortefie the breach, nor leasure to strengthen themselues with­in.

I speake not here of Treasons or other corruptiones whereby many townes hath béene bought and solde, the be séeged are well to consider of that, and to kéepe good watch and warde to preuent many other practises, let them lyke wyse take héede of stalles howe they bee drawne foorth, for by such meanes they are many times betrayed: the lyke respect they must haue whome they receiue in, neyther trusting to any apperaunce of out­ward showe, nor to any pretence that they come for theyr succours, till there be good assuraunce had what they bée, for Townes haue some times receiued theyr e­nemies, vnder the Ensignes of theyr fréendes that should haue come to theyr ayde.

❧ Allarmes.

IT hath euer béene a custome amongest Souldiours of experience, sometimes to giue Allarmes to theyr fréendes, whome they would eyther prayse or discom­mende according to the readines they founde to bee a­mongst them, and although they vsed this as a necessary meane, to induce theyr Souldiours to be the more care [Page] full, yet styll in this sorte to deceiue them, is a meane rather to make them secure then heedefull, when they shall finde them selues to be so often mockt: The Allar­mes that are giuen by enemies, are most vsually for the accomplishment of some exployte, sometimes to trayne to ambushe, sometimes to cast some bridge, sometimes to plant ordenaunce, sometimes to make discouery, ey­ther of order, number or strength: but when any Al­larme shall be giuen in the night it is very expedient to chaunge the worde.

There bée many skilfull Souldiours that thinkes it better vppon occasion, to make secréetepreparation and readines, and not to take Allarme in such sort as the enemie should perceiue it, and to maintaine theyr opi­nions they aleadge sundry reasons the which Iomitte, with many other matters vntill my oportunitie may bet­ter serue.

A KALENDER containin …

A KALENDER containing the square roote of any number from 100. to 10000.

Seruing for the orde­ringe of iust squares and sufficient for the Imbatteling of any number.

By Barnabe Riche Souldiour.

Malui me diuitem esse quam vocari.


Fourmes of Bat­tels, which necessary and which vnnecessarie.

THe antiquitie longe sithens before either Muskette, Caliuer or Hargubuse was knowen, armed theyr people with Crosbowes, Targettes, Longe swordes, Glaues, Parti­sines, Halberdes and such other like shorte weapons, in the ordering whereof, he euer had the aduauntage that in the fourme of his imbatte­linge, could bring most men to fight, whereupon they framed many proportions which were both requisite and beneficial as the seruice then required, but as time hath nowe altered the manner of fight, would serue to no purpose at all.

For example, the one if hee had séene the enemie imbattailed in a Triangle, he would presently haue ordered himselfe into a sheare battaile, incounteringe one of the corners of his aduersarie according to this figure.


[diagram of battle formation]

Againe for the incounteringe of a Sheare battaile, they vsed an order which they called a Sawe battaile as appeareth in this fourme.

[diagram of battle formation]

[Page] THese wt many other proportions which they vsed as their halfe moone, their worme, ther D. their G theyr S. with such like are not worth ye fyguring foorth as the seruice now standeth. Their hearse battailes, their broad squares, their baase squares theyr bastard squares are very good, but best to be vsed vppon aduauntage of ground, and although my leasure wyll not now permit me, to set them downe proportionable to euery number, yet I hope in the meane time you will accept of some fewe that shall hereafter followe. The Crosse battaile (the figure wherof is this insuing) is a most excellent fight, but to order it in due proporti­on to euery number is a little difficult and asketh lon­ger time then I can now stand about, and will there fore leaue it tyll some other oportunitie.

The Crosse Battaile.

[Page] THere bée other fourmes of battailes framed of many battalions, impaide with sléeues and fillets of Pikes, which as they are very excellent a­gainst the enemie, so they are most daungerous for that they are quickly disordered, where Souldiours be not most exquisitely trained. But the fight now one­lie consisting in Shot and Pikes, there is no fourme of imbatteling to be preferred before the iust square, or if your numbers be sufficient to order them into 2. 3. or 4. squadrons according to these figures.

¶ A battaile of 2. squadrons.

Fronte. Flanke. Flake. Rereward.

¶ A battaile of three squadrons.

Fronte. Flanke. Flake. Rereward.

¶ A Battaile of 4. squadrons.

Fronte. Flanke. Flake. Rereward.

THese fourmes for pickes, when they are winged and trouped with shot accordinglie, as (in the plaine fielde) there is no other order that dooth ex­céede them for strength, so they are better for o­ther purposes as hereafter shall appeare, but this is to be respected that where ther is not at the least 2000, pikes in place, they shold not be deuided into more squa drons thē one, vnlesse it be to kepe some straight or gap or vpō some other aduauntage of ground, neither were it good to deuide the pikes into more then thrée Squa­drons, where there is not fiue or sixe thousand in the fielde, nor into foure, squadrons, where there is not tenne or twelue thousand: for this hath euer béene obserued for a principle amongest souldiours of the best experience, the stronger your pikes are together in [Page] number, the battaile is accounted to be the more force­able, but the shot to be deuided into manie troupes, are the better to maintaine fight, and the apter for seruice.

I haue hetherto made no mention of our olde Eng­lish weapons, namely the Bowe, the browne Byll, or Halberd, sometimes had in great reputation, a­mongst vs, the bow is alreadie set aside, yet there bee some that thinkes it to be a weapon of wonderful ser­uice, and to maintaine their opinions, wil aleadge sun­dry reasons, manie of them scarce woorth the speaking of, but this might suffice, that men of iudgment and dailie experience, findes them to be to so little purpose, that we sée they neuer call for them, yet this I wyll say, (and it cannot be denyed) that where bowes may be brought to serue against horse, they might be very well, and stand in some stead, but so many ready shotte that were placed in their roomes, woulde doo a great deale better, and more daungerous to the enemie. In like manner our browne Bill, Halberd, or other shorte weapon, are most naturall for our Englishmen for where they may be brought to dealing of dry blowes, I think there is no other Nation that were able to stand against them, but the childe that is but this day borne from his mothers wombe, shall neuer liue to sée two battailes incounter pell mell, the one with the other, as héere before they haue doone, and to what ende then should so many short weapons serue, that are euer pla­ced in that part of the battaile which should bee moste strong, where they can neuer be brought to doo seruice. But such as will néedes haue such store of short wea­pons, were better to place them in some winge, readie to be drawne foorth vpon anie execution, for which purpose they might be very requisite: and yet if anie inuasion should be made in our own Country, I wold [Page] neyther mislike of bodies nor bylles for a readines, our people béeing so much inclined, and best practised in thē and might be so ordered wt the helpe of other weapons, as might doo seruice for ye present: but ye very strength and bulwarke in the field, is the stand of pykes, which béeing impald and trouped with shot orderly, are de­fensible both against horse and foote, but so many shorte weapons placed in the middle of the battel, dooth won­derfullie weaken it, and make it more easse and pace­able for ye Launce: I haue sometimes séene squadrons so placed, as their short weapons haue made deuision of their pykes, running quite through the body of theyr battaile from flanck to flanck, and the pykes but onelie guarding the fore and rereward, the which kinde of imbattelling is neither strong nor formall, but if you will néedes haue short weapons placed in your squa­drous, let them be impald euery way a like as well with pikes as with shot. And that the iust square is especially to be preferred, may easely appeare by these considerations.

First it is not very curious in placyng, second it is easie for Souldiers to march, especially if they haue to passe any straights through the which they may bee drawne by 5. or 3. in a ranck (if the place will affoorde no greater scope) and be suddainly brought againe in­to their first proportions without any manner of con­fusion: but especially the iust square is most defencible and strong, both against horsemen and footemen, wher there is no aduauntage to be taken of ground, either of hedge or dytch, ryuer, hyll, or other like.

To this end I haue set downe a Kalender wyth the true roote of euery number, from 100. to 10000. by the helpe whereof, knowing how many armed men be in place, they may suddainly be brought into a iust square [Page] 2. 3. or 4. as the numbers wyll suffice to make them strong, the which béeing once placed, as an easie work­man (the foundation béeing first layd, findes it no great dificulty to goe forwarde with the residue of the buil­ding, so the armed men béeing thus placed in iust pro­portion, then after to impale with shot to proportio­natly, according to the number of the pykes, and to deuide the ouerplus of the shot into seueral troupes ready to be drawne foorth vpon any occasion, the mat­ter is so easie to be performed, as a Souldiour that is but of one monethes trayning, will neuer erre nor stumble in the executing.

❧ A Kalender for the imbatteling of iust squares, the first collumne is the number of men the second how many should be added, from the first number to the second, and so forth to all the rest to make them square numbers, for exam­ple, the first number in the first collumne is 100. (the roote whereof is 10,) as in the thyrde collumne is shewed, to the which 100. adde 21. and it makes the number 121, the true roote whereof is 11. and thus you are to proceede through the whole.

12 [...]56935
30 [...]510955
4 [...]5613166

❧ Heere followeth the broade squares, baase squares, and bastard squares, for cer­taine euen numbers, from 100. increasing by 100. to 4000. a very good manner of imbattelling, where there is aduauntage to be taken eyther of hedge dytch or otherwyse.

100. THe square 10. none vnplaced, bastard square 11. in front 9. in flanck 1. vnplaced, broade square 14. in front 7. in flanck 2. vnplaced.

200. The square 14. 4. vnplaced, bastarde square, 15. in front 13. in flanck 5. vnplaced, broad square 20. in frōt 10. in flanck none vnplaced, baase square, 22. in front, 9. in flanck 2. vnplaced.

300. The square 17. 11. vnplaced, bastard 13. in front 16. in flanck 12 vnplaced, broade square, 25. in front, 12. in [Page] flanck, none vnplaced, baase square 21. in front, 14. in flanck 6. vnplaced.

400. The square 20. none vnplaced, bastarde 21. in front 19. in flanck 1. vnplaced, broade square, 28. in front 14. in flanck 8. vnplaced. Baase square, 25. in front 16. in flanck none vnplaced.

500. The square 22. 16. vnplaced, bastard, 23. in front 21. in flanck 17. vnplaced, broade 31. in front 16. in flancke 4. vnplaced, baase 27 in front, 18. in flanck 14. vnplaced.

600. The square 24. 24. vnplaced, bastard 25 in front 24 in flanck none vnplaced, broade 35 in front 17 in flanck 12 vnplaced, baase 30 in front 20 in flanck none vnpla­ced.

700. The square 26. 24. vnplaced, bastard 27 in front 25. in flanck 25. vnplaced, broade 38. in front 18. in flancke 16 vnplaced, baase 45 in front, 15 in flancke, 25 vnplaced.

800. The square 28. 16 vnplaced, bastard 29 in front 27 in flanck 17. vnplaced, broade 40 in front 20 in flancke none vnplaced, baase, 50 in front, 16 in flanck, none vnplaced.

900. The square is 30 none vnplaced, bastard 31 in front. 29 in flanck, 1 vnplaced, broad 42 in front 21 in flanck 18 vnplaced, baase 25 in front, 17 in flanck, 16 vnplaced

1000. The square 31, 39 vnplaced. bastarde 40 in front 25, in flanck none vnplaced, broad 45 in front 22 in flanck 10 vnplaced, baase 55 in front 18 in flanck 8 vnplaced.

1100. The square 33. 11 vnplaced, bastard 34 in front 32 in [Page] flanck 12 vnplaced, broade 47 in front 23 in flancke 19 vnplaced, base 56 in front 19 in flanck 36 vnplaced.

1200. The square 34. 44 vnplaced, bastard 35 in front 34 in flanck 10 vnplaced, broade 49 in front, 24 in flancke 24 vnplaced baase 60 in front 20 in flancke none vn­placed.

1300. The square 36. 4 vnplaced, bastard 37 in front 35 in flanck 5 vnplaced, broad 50 in front 26 in flanck, none vnplaced, baase 44 in front 29 in flancke 24 vnplaced.

1400. The square 37, 31 vnplaced, bastard 38 in front 36 in flanck 31. vnplaced, broade 53 in front 26 in flanck 22 vnplaced, baase 46 in front 30 in flanck 20 vnplaced.

1500. The square 38, 56 vnplaced, bastard 39 in front 38 in flanck 18 vnplaced, broade 55 in front 27 in flanck 16 vnplaced, baase 68 in front 22 in flanck 4 vnplaced.

1600. The square 40 none vnplaced, bastard 41 in front 39 in flanck 1 vnplaced, broade 57 in front 28 in flanck 4 vnplaced, baase 69 in front 23 in flanck 13 vnplaced.

1700 The square 41, 19 vnplaced, bastard 42 in front 40 in flancke 20 vnplaced, broade 58 in front 29 in flancke 18 vnplaced, baase 50 in front 34 in flanck none vnpla­ced.

1800. The square 42, 36 vnplaced, bastard 43 in front 45 in flanck 37 vnplaced, broade 60 in front 30 in flancke none vnplaced, baase 74 in front 24 in flanck 24 vn­placed.

1900 The square 43, 51 vnplaced, bastard 44 in front 43 in flanck 8 vnplaced, broade 62 in front 30 in flancke 40 vnplaced, baase 76 in front 25 in flanck none vnplaced.

[Page] 2000 The square 44, 64 vnplaced, bastard 45 in front 44 in flanck 20 vnplaced, broade 64 in front 31 in flanck 16 vnplaced, baase 55 in front 36 in flanck 20. vnplaced

2100 The square 45, 75 vnplaced, bastard 46 in front 45 in flanck 30 vnplaced, broade 65 in front 32 in flanck 20 vnplaced, baase 80 in front 26 in flanck 20 vnplaced.

2200. The square 46, 84 vnplaced, bastard 47 in front 46 in flanck 38 vnplaced, broade 66, in front 33 in flanck 22 vnplaced, baase 81 in front 27 in flanck 13 vnplaced.

2300 The square 47, 91 vnplaced, bastard 48 in front 47 in flanck 44 vnplaced, broade 69 in front 34 in flancke 54 vnplaced, baase 82 in front 28 in flanck 4 vnplaced.

2400 The square 48, 96 vnplaced, bastarde 49 in front 48 in flanck 48 vnplaced, broade 69 in front 34 in flancke 54 vnplaced, baase 60 in front 40 in flanck none vnplaced.

2500 The square 50 none vnplaced, bastard 51 in front 49 in flanck 1 vnplaced, broade 71 in front 35 in flancke 15 vnplaced, baase 86 in front 29 in flanck 6 vnplaced.

2600 The square 50, 100 vnplaced, bastarde 51 in front 50 in flanck 50 vnplaced, broade 72 in front 36 in flanck 8 vnplaced, baase 88 in front 29 in flanck 48 vnplaced.

2700 The square 51. 99 vnplaced, bastard 52 in front 51 in flanck 48 vnplaced, broade 74 in front 36 in flanck 36 vnplaced, baase 90 in front, 30 in flanck none vnplaced.

2800 The square 52, 96 vnplaced, bastarde, 53 in front 52 [Page] in flanck 44 vnplaced, broad 75 in front 37 in flanck 25 vnplaced, baase 65 in front 43 in flanck 5 vnplaced.

2900 The square 53. 91 vnplaced, bastard 54 in front 53 in flancke 38 vnplaced, broad 76 in front 38 in flanck 12 vnplaced, baase 93 in front 31 in flanck 17. vnplaced.

3000 The square 54, 84 vnplaced, bastarde 55 in front 54 in flanck 30 vnplaced, broade 76 in front 38 in flanck 36 vnplaced, baase 68 in front 44 in flanck 8 vnplaced.

3100. The square 55, 75 vnplaced, bastard 56 in front 55 in flanck 20 vnplaced, broade, 79 in front 39 in flanck 19 vnplaced, baase 96 in front 32 in flanck 28 vnplaced.

3200. The square 56, 64 vnplaced, bastard 57 in front 56 in flanck 8 vnplaced, broad 80 in front 40 in flanck none vnplaced, baase, 69 in front 46 in flanck 24 vnplaced.

3300 The square 57, 51 vnplaced, bastard 58 in front 56 in flanck 52 vnplaced, broade 81 in front 40 in flanck 60 vnplaced, baase 100 in front 33 in flanck none vnplaced.

3400. The square 58, 56 vnplaced, bastard 59 in front 57 in flancke 37 vnplaced, broad 82 in front 41 in flancke 38 vnplaced, baase 71 in front 47 in flanck 63 vnplaced.

3500 The square 59, 19 vnplaced, bastard 60 in front 59 in flanck 60 vnplaced, broade 83 in front 42 in flanck 14 vnplaced, baase 72 in front 48 in flanck 44 vnplaced.

3600 The square 60 none vnplaced, bastard 61 in front 59 in flanck 1 vnplaced, broad 85 in front 42 in flancke 30 vnplaced, baase 74 in front 48 in flanck 48 vnplaced.

[Page] 3700 The square 60. 100 vnplaced, bastard 61 in front 6 in flanck 40 vnplaced, broade 86 in front 43 in flanck, 2 vnplaced, baase 75 in front 49 in flanck 25 vnplaced.

3800 The square 61. 79 vnplaced, bastard 62 in front 61 in flanck 18 vnplaced, broad 88 in front 44 in flanck 28 vnplaced, baase 108 in front 36 in flanck 12 vnplaced.

3900 The square 62, 56 vnplaced, bastarde 63 in front 61 in flanck 57 vnplaced, broad 89 in front 44 in flanck 36 vnplaced, baase 77 in front 52 in flanck 14 vnplaced.

4000 The square 63, 31 vnplaced, bastarde 64 in front 62 in flanck 32 vnplaced, broad 90 in front 44 in flanck 40 vnplaced, baase 78 in front 51 in flanck 22 vnplaced.

Some occasion of busines at this instant calling mee from my pen, hath made me conclude with more breui­tie then at ye first I intēded, wher I haue erred through ignoraunce, I hope you wil pardon of curtesie, when o­portunitie shall better serue me, and that my leysure may permit me, I doubt not but so to fit you with some conceit, wherein (if peraduenture) you shall finde but small pleasure, yet I wyll assure you it shal bring some profit. In the meane time, accept to these so fréendly as I haue meant them, & I will rest thankful.

B. R.

Faultes escaped.

Page 3. line. 26. for wrrre, read warre. line 27. for prouiisons read prouisions. B. 1. page 2. for Scipio though, read Scipio thought. B. 3. li. 7. to speake for, to seeke for. B. 4. li. 6. to grade them, to guard them. D. 2. li. 1. what speaking law, what seking law. E. 4. page 2. li. 24. for Eanteri, reade Fanteri. F. 3. line. 8. In making, reade in taking. lin. idem. suruey euer, suruey euery G. 1. page. 2. line. 17. for M. Eurius, read M. Furius.


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