PVRCHAS his PILGRIMAGE. OR RELATIONS OF THE WORLD AND THE RELIGIONS OBSERVED IN ALL AGES And places discouered, from the CREATION vnto this PRESENT.

In foure Partes. THIS FIRST CONTAI­NETH A THEOLOGICALL AND Geographicall Historie of ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA, with the Ilands Adiacent.

Declaring the Ancient Religions before the FLOVD, the Heathnish, Iewish, and Saracenicall in all Ages since, in those parts professed, with their seuerall Opinions, Idols, Oracles, Temples, Priestes, Fasts, Feasts, Sacrifices, and Rites Religious: Their beginnings, Proceedings, Alterations, Sects, Orders and Successions.

With briefe Descriptions of the Countries, Nations, States, Discoueries, Priuate and Publike Customes, and the most Remarkable Rarities of Nature, or Humane Industrie, in the same.

By SAMVEL PVRCHAS, Minister at Estwood in Essex.

Ʋnus DEVS, vna Ʋeritas.

LONDON, Printed by WILLIAM STANS BY for Henrie Fetherstone, and are to be sold at his Shoppe in Pauls Church-yard at the Signe of the Rose. 1613.

[Page] TO THE MOST REVE­REND FATHER IN GOD, GEORGE BY THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE, LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBVRIE, Primate and Metropolitane of all ENGLAND, and one of his Maiesties most Honourable Priuie COVNCELL.

MOst Reuerend, Dutie makes me bold, euen at my first looking and leaping out of the dungeon of Obscuritie, which hitherto had in­closed me, to interrupt your more serious affaires, with the view of these my labours. It is not their worth, but your worthinesse that causeth this presumpti­on. For to whom should I rather present my first-fruits, then vnto the High Priest, That hee might shake them before the Lord, to make them acceptable? Neither is any meeter to Patronise a Historie of Re­ligion, then he, to whose Person Religion giueth, and from the same mutually receiueth, Patronage. And there­fore I, the meanest of Leui's sonnes, doe here offer vnto your Grace, ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA, and that in their withered and fouler hue of passed [Page] out-worne rites, or present Irreligious Religions; not wa­shed with the purer streames of sacred Baptisme. EVROPE challengeth a roome in this kind by her selfe: nor would Christian Historie vouchsafe these Stran­gers her holy companie, and therefore hath enioyned me a second Pilgrimage, and Perambulation ouer the World, to trace her footsteps, and obserue euery where her Plan­ters, Corrupters, and Reformers.

Great is this burthen of atwofold World, and requires both an Atlas and an Hercules too, to vndergoe it. The newnesse also makes it more difficult, being an enterprise neuer yet (to my knowledge) by any, in any language, at­tempted; conioyning thus Antiquitie and Moderne hi­story, in the obseruations of all the rarities of the World, and especially of that soule of the world, RELIGION. Yet haue I aduentured, and (I speake it not to boast, but to excuse my selfe, in so haughtie designes) this my first Voyage of Discouerie, besides mine owne poore stocke laide thereon, hath made mee indebted to seuen hundred Authors, of one or other kind, in I know not how many hundreds of their Treatises, Epistles, Relations and Histories, of diuers subiects and Languages, borrowed by my selfe; besides what (for want of the Authors them­selues) I haue taken vpon trust, of other mens goods in their hands. Wherein had I enioyed that Academicke leisure, [...] Or the benefits of greater Libraries, or conference with men more skilful: my Braine might haue yeelded a fairer issue, a more compleate and better-armed Minerua. But besides the want of these, the daily cares of my Fa­mily, [Page] the weekly dueties (in Preaching and Catechising) of my Ministerie, the grossenesse of the Aire where I liue, which (some say) makes a duller wit, I am sure, a sicklier body; maypleade excuse for me. If not, ‘Clades Authore leuatur,’ The World is the weight that presseth me, and my booke shall haue this praise in the greatest dispraise, ‘Magnis tamen excidit ausis.’

Howsoeuer; I shall thinke my selfe happie in your Gra­ces Examination and Censure, if it be not Impietie in me to offer to intercept, and with interposition of these lines a while to Eclipse, your Gracious aspect and influence vnto our Church and State. And though your Grace can­not, for more necessarie imployments, and needes not, as knowing them better alreadie, afford your Precious time to these things of baser worth: Yet if your Recrea­tions shall vouchsafe them as Remembrancers, out of my labours to refresh yours, I shall bee more then sufficiently recompenced. Others may hence learne by that most la­borious, though not mostlearned argument of Inducti­on, two lessons fitting these times, the Vnnaturalnesse of FACTION and ATHEISME: That law of Na­ture hauing written in the practise of all men (as we here in the particulars doe shew) the profession of some Reli­gion; and in that Religion, wheresoeuer any societie of Priests or Religious persons, are, or haue beene in the World, no admittance of Paritie; the Angels in Heauen, Diuels in hell, (as the Royallest of Fathers, the Father of our Countrie hath pronounced) and all Religions on Earth, as here we shew, being equally subiect to inequali­tie, that is, to the equitie of subordinate Order. And if I liue [Page] to finish the rest, I hope to shew the Paganisme of Antichristian Poperie, and other Pseudo-Christian he­resies; and the Truth of Christianitie as it is now profes­sed and established in our Church, vnder the Great Defender of the Faith: for whose long Raigne, and your Graces prosperous seruice vnder so Religious a So­ueraigne, I heartily pray vnto the King of Kings, and cheefe Shepheard of our Soules, IESVS CHRIST. Nouemb. 5. 1612.

Your Graces in all duetie, Samuel Purchas.

TO THE READER.

AND now, Reader, I come vnto thee, with whom I dare bee somewhat bolder. Being, I know not by what naturall inclination, addi­cted to the studie of Historie, my heart would sometimes obiect a selfe-loue, in following my priuate delights in that kind. At last, I resol­ued to turne the pleasures of my studies into studious paines, that others might againe, by delightfull studie, turne my paines into their pleasure. I here bring Religion from Paradise to the Arke, and thence follow her round about the World, and (for her sake) obserue the World it selfe, with the seuerall Countries and peoples therein; the cheife Empires and States; their priuate and publique Customes; their manifold chances and changes; also the won­derfull and most remarkeable effects of Nature; Euents of Diuine and Hu­mane Prouidence, Rarities of Art; and whatsoeuer I find by relations of Hi­storians, as I passe, most worthie the writing. Religion is my more proper aime, and therefore I insist longer on the description of whatsoeuer I finde belonging thereto; declaring the Religion of the first men; the corrupting of it before, and after the Floud; the lewish obseruations; the Idols, Idolatries, Temples, Priestes, Feastes, Fastes, Opinions, Sects, Orders and Sacred Cu­stomes of the Heathens; with the Alterations and Successions that haue therein happened, from the beginning of the World hitherto.

This Worke I diuide into foure partes. This first exhibiteth, Relations and Theologicall discouerie of ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA: The second, when God will, shall doe the same for EVROPE: The third and fourth, in a second visitation, shall obserue such things in the same places, as I hold most remarkeable in the Christian and Ecclesiasticall Historie; and that according to the same method, which is squared in the Whole by order of Place: going still out of one Countrie into the next, in each particular part and seuerall Countrie, by the order of Time; deducing our Relations, so farre as wee haue others foot-prints to guide vs, (though not exactly naming the day and yeare, and determining questions in Chronologicall controuerfies, yet in some conuenient sort) from the Ancient times, and by degrees descen­ding to the present. If thou demaundest what profit may bèe hereof; I an­swere, That here Students of all sorts may find matter fitting there Studies: The naturall Philosophers may obserue the different constitution and com­mixtion of the Elements, their diuerse working in diuerse places, the varie­tie of heauenly influence, of the yearely seasons, of the Creatures in the [Page] Aire, Water, Earth: They which delight in State-affaires, may obserue the varietie of States and Kingdomes, with their differing Lawes, Politics, and Customes, their Beginnings and Endings. The Diuine, besides the former, may here contemplate the workes of God, not in Creation alone, but in his Iustice and Prouidence, pursuing sinne euery were with such dreadfull plagues; both bodily, in rooting vp and pulling downe the mightiest Em­pires; and especially in spirituall Iudgments, giuing vp so great a part of the World vnto the efficacie of Errour in strong delusions, that hauing forsaken the fountaine of liuing waters, they should digge vnto themselues these broken pittes that can hold no water; deuout in their superstitions, and superstitiuous in their deuotions; agreeing all in this, that there should bee a Religion; disagreeing from each other, and the TRVTH, in the practise thereof.

Likewise our Ministers may bee incited vnto all godly labours in their function of preaching the Gospell, seeing otherwise, for outward and bodily ceremonies, the Turkes and Iewes in their manifold deuotions in their Ora­tories euery day, and other Heathen would conuince vs of Idlenesse. And let mee haue leaue to speake it for the glorie of God, and the good of our Church; I cannot find any Priestes in all this my Pilgrimage, of whom wee haue any exact Historie, but take more bodily paines in their deuotions, than is performed by not-preaching Ministers, especially in Countrie-villages, where on the weeke daies they cannot haue occasion, or companie, for pub­lique prayers: and therefore if they onely read the seruice then, and neuer studie for more (which I would it were not the idle practise of some) euen the Heathen shall rise vp in judgment against them. I subscribe with hand and practise to our Liturgie, but not to such Lethargie: whose darknesse is so much the more intolerable, in this Sun-shine of the Gospell, wherein wee haue a gratious King, so diligent a frequenter of Sermons; and Reuerend Bi­shops (notwithstanding other their weightie Ecclesiasticall employments) yet diligent Preachers.

The studious of Geographie may somewhat be helped in that kind: not that wee intend an exact Geographie, in mentioning euery Citie with the degrees of longitude and latitude, but yet limiting euerie Countrie in his true situation and bounds; and performing happily more then some, which take vpon them the title of Geographers, as their chiefe profession: and more then any, which I know, hath done in our language.

He which admireth and almost adoreth the Capuchine Iesuite, or other Romanists for selfe-inflicted whippings, fastings, watchings, vowes of obe­dience, pouertie, and single life, and their not sparing their limmes and liues for their wil-worships, may see, in all these, the Romanists equalled by Hea­thens, if not out-stripped euen by the reports of the Iesuites and other their Catholiques. I. Tim. 4.8. Bodily exercise profiteth little, but Godlinesse is profitable vnto all, and hath the promise of this life and that which is to come.

Here also the Reader may see most of their Popish Rites, deriued out of Chaldaean, Aegyptian, and other fountaines of Paganisme; as in the later taske we shall haue more occasion to shew. Here euerie Englishman may see cause to praise God continually for the light of his truth, communicated to vs: whereas it is (in comparison) but a small part of the world, that soundeth [Page] the sacred name of IESVS; and of those that professe it, how infinite are the sectes and superstitions? God hath shewed his Word vnto our IACOB (THE DEFENDER OF HIS FAITH) his Statutes and his iudgments vnto this I­srael of Great Britaine. He hath not dealt so with euery Nation, neither haue the Heathen, nor scarsely, if sarcely any other Christian Nation, so much knowledge of his iudgments. And yet how seditious are some? how prophane are other? how vnthankfull the most? That beastly Sinne of Drunkennesse, that biting Sinne of Vsurie, that Deuilish Sinne of Swaggering, ruffling in deformitie of clothes, like monstrous Chimaeras, and barking out a multi­formitie of oathes, like hellish Cerberi, as if men could not be Gallants, vnlesse they turned Deuils: These are the payments we returne vnto the Lord, in­stead of prayers for, and loialtie to his Maiestie; peaceablenesse and charitie to each others; modestie and sobrietie in our selues.

For the forme, I haue sought in some places, with varietie of phrase, in all, with varietie of matter, to draw thee along with mee in this tedious Pil­grimage. Some names are written diuersely, according to the differing Co­pies which I followed, which thy discretion will easily conceiu.e I doe not in euerie question set downe my censure; sometimes, because it were more then needes; sometimes because of the difficultie. I mention Au­thours sometimes, of meane qualitie, for the meanest haue sense to ob­serue that which themselues see, more certainly then the contemplations and Theorie of the more learned. I would also acknowledge the labour of the meanest. I haue laboured to reduce relations to their first Authours, set­ting their names to their allegations: the want where of hath much troubled me, whilst the most leaue out their Authors, as if their own assertion were suf­ficient authoritie in things borrowed. I haue (to my great paines) contracted and epitomized whole volumes (and some very large) into one chapter; a thing vsuall through these relations. Where I haue found plentifull dis­course for Religion (my chiefe aime) I am shorter in other relations; and where I haue had lesse helpes for that discouerie, I insift more on the won­ders of Nature, and discoueries by Sea and Land, with other remarkeable accidents. These Rarities of Nature I haue sometimes suted in a differing phrase and figure of speech; not that I affect a fantasticall singularitie; but that these diuine workes might appeare in Robes, if not fitting their Maiestie, yet such as our Word-Robe did willingly without any great affectation or studie, afford: not without example of the Scripture, which vseth to bring in the mute creatures, speaking and performing, (as it were) other personall offices; nor without this effect, to make the Reader staie a while with obser­uation and wonder; besides that varietie, of it selfe, is delightsome.

If any mislike the fulnesse in some places, and the barrennesse of wordes in others; let them consider, wee handle a World, where are mountaines and vallies, fertile habitations, and sandie desarts: and others steps, whom I fol­low, hold me sometimes in a narrower way, which elsewhere take more li­bertie. I touch sometimes a Controuersie; both for illustration of Historie; and in season, and out of season, to shew my affection to the truth.

Now if any man thinke, that it were better these rotten bones of the pas­sed and stinking bodies of the present Superstitions were buried, then thus [Page] raked out of their graues; besides that which hath beene said, I answere, That I haue sufficient example in the Scriptures, which were written for our learning to the ends of the World, and yet depaint vnto vs the vgly face of Ido­latrie in so many Countries of the Heathens, with the Apoitasies, Sects, and Heresies of the Iewes, as in our first and second booke is shewed: and the Ancient Fathers also, Iustin, Tertullian, Clemens, Irenaeus, Origen, and more ful­ly, Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Augustine, haue gone before vs in their large Catalogues of Heresies and false Opinions. And what doth more set forth the glorie of Gods grace, then in pardoning; his power, then in reforming; his justice, then in giuing men vp to such delusions? Are not these the Tro­phees and glorious victories of THE CROSSE OF CHRIST, that hath subuerted the Temples, Oracles, Sacrifices, and Seruices of the Deuill? And maist not thou see herein, what Man is, and thou thy selfe maist be, if God leaue thee to thy selfe? Reade therefore, with praises vn­to God, the father of thy light; and prayers, for these Hea­thens, that GOD may bring them out of the snare of the Deuill, and that Christ may be his saluation to the ends of the World.

And let me also obtaine thy prayers in this my Pilgri­mage, to be therein directed, to the glorie of God, and good of my Coun­trie. Euen so Lord IESVS. (*⁎*)

ΕΙΣ τιω ΣΑΜΟΥΗΛΟΥ τȣ ΠΟΥΡΧΑΣΟΥ ΑΠΟΔΗΜΙΑΝ

[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
SOlamen Fidei, Salutis aras
Diám (que), Effigiem, Deí (que) Veri
Aeternum placitum piè docendo,
Mystes quam meritò celebris audis.
At, PVRCHASE, tui nouâ Coronâ
Iam circundatur, endó (que) ore docto
Viuet Nomen, Honos (que): qui prophana
Scrutas Numina (Gentium Nefastos
Erroris (que) Deos;) Volumine horum
Sacro multa reperta,* prodiêre hinc
Multa; haec sic studijs tuis benè aptas,
Pulchre (que) Historias, Locós (que) pandis.
Hoc vnum adijciam: DOCERE quiqui
Nôstis quid fuerit, Reconditum (que)
SCIRE, haùt invideatis Huic merenti.

* Nimirum a S. S. Alia in impietatis opprobrium notata, at (que) ex impiâ lin­guae Sanctae interpretatione Alia pri­mum ficta. Ex [...] Genes. 1. fortè Phoenicum & Aegyptiorum Thoth & [...]. Thoth autem siue Theut ab Her­mete seu Mercurio haùt alium fuisse facilè suadent Platonis Phaedrus, La­ctantius, & Eusebij Praeparat. Euange­lica. Qui insuper Baeoticè dictus [...], i. antiquus, Oriens, aut Sapiens Deus (quae Mercurio quadrant) latere suspicor. Consulas Isac. Tzetz. ad Lycophron. p. 33. & 44. & Scholiast. ad Apoll. Rhod. [...]. Et quis non videt Beli nomen ex He­braico [...] provenisse, i. Domin', (v. Iu­dic. c. 2.) vnde Thurijs (testatur Eupho­rion in Scholijs ad Aeschyli Persas) & ipsi Aesch. Rex dicitur [...]. Hinc Mi­dianitarum Baal. phaeor, Num. 25. Deut. 5. Hof. 9. forsan Priapus, cui obscoena pars sine veste a­perta erat, vti in Priapeis lusit ille, quod nec ab ipso Phaeor abludit; [...] n. est Aperire. Baal­zebub, cuius quiquid in causa sit nominis, cum haut malè dixeris quem [...] indigeta­runt in Elide, quo & Hercules vocamine Romanis cultus; vt è Pausaniae Elia c.α. & Clem. Alex­and. Protreptico discimus. Nec prorsus a [...] existimo alienum Belins nomen, pro Apolline priscis Gallis & Britannis nostris, quod Ausonio legitur & vet. Inscriptionibus. Aegyptiorum Horus, i. Apollo, nonne [...], i. Lux, Genes. 1. disertè loquitur? qui eàdem mente Graecis [...] dicitur, vt benè emendauit Macrobium [...] Batauorum ille Hug. Grotius ad Arati Diosemela. Vbinam Dercitidis (deprauatè legitur Architidis Macrob. Sa­turnal. 1. cap. 21.) siue Atergatidis etymon sinon ex [...], & [...], 1. piscis magnisicata? apage n. illud Antipatri apud Athenaeū Dipnosoph. 8. & visas Nobiliss. Iof. Scalig. ad 4. Varronis de LL. Is eam ipsam Dagon illud Philistaeorum idolum (Iudic. cap. 16. cuius & fanum dicitur [...] Hasmon. lib. cap. 10. com. 83.) fuisse proculdubio recte sensit; &, quo minus sanè a [...] i. frumen­tum (quod nonnullis placet) deducatur, faciunt quae è. Xantho, Mnasea, & Antipatro excerpsit Athenaeus, quin & Erithracus & Hegesias apud Hygin. Fab. 197. & Poet. Astron. 2. Phurnu­tus de Nat. Deor. in Rhaea, cui & Artage appellatur, Caes. Germanicus ad Arati phoenomena in Pisce, & Aquario (vbi malè Phacetis pro 'Dercetis scribitur) Ouid. Fast. 2. Lucian. [...] [Page] & quae pleno horreo demensa sunt a summo illo literatorum Principe Ios. Scalig. ad Ma­nilium & Hug. Grot. ad Imagines. Vnde & hanc ipsam Venerem fuisse (Diuûm antiquissimam) a Columbarum cultu & Pisciū (hi vero iam nunc Astrologis sunt Veneris Exaltatio) iure autumâ­ris; cum & Phoeniciam [...] iam diu est quod scripsit Aechylus in Suppli­cibus; & Veneris [...] Ascalonitarum dum menimit Herodot. hist. [...]. hanc, nifallor, voluit. Confusa sunt nonnunquam, Latinis & Graecis, Huius & Astartes vocabula. Astarte (quae [...] Iudic. 2. Com. 13. [...], & [...] 1. Reg. 11. Com. 5.) non Assyrijs modò vt videtur, ve­rum & Phoenicibus Dea. Vide quae suprà citauimus, & Achill. Tat. [...], At (que) hanc forsan ipsam Mineruam Oncam Thebanorum (de qua Aeschylus in [...]. Steph. [...]. & maximè Aeschyli Scholiastes, qui, sibi non constans, nunc Phoeniciam nunc Aegyptia cam vult esse vo­cem [...] non iniuria putaueris, si modo in Minerua Siga (quam velut corruptam apud Pau­saniam, lib. [...]. noui mutatam, à nonnullis, in Oncam) non lateat quid Dagonis: nam Piscem Phoenicas, etiam Sidon vocasse autor est Trogus Hist. 18. & certè cum [...], Eccles. 2. Com. 8. fit quibusdam Pulchra siue Honorata foemina (nec aliam Phoenicum linguam, quam Syriacam, i. ferè Hebraicam non potes non nosse) quis non videt & eiusdem vestigia in Siga? Nec enim ego Pausaniam temerè corrigendum (pace doctorum) arbitror, nisi [...] fortè legêris. Quoe & Veneri, i. Dagoni & Astartae (fortassè Mineruae) aequè tamen potest tribui. Nam & Lyco­phroni Mineru [...] [...] dicitur; & Suidas, [...]. Quae, è Rabbi Kimchi, & id genus alijs, de Ouis imagine producuntur haut flocci facio. Quid Samothracum illi [...] (queis de, ante alios, Mnaseas in Schol. ad Apoll. Argonaut. [...].) aliud, quam Dij Fortes, [...], & Potes, vt Varroni dicuntur, & Potentes Tertulliano lib.de spectaculis. [...] enim potens seu magnus in sacris saepius interpretatur; quod etymon Magno Scaligero me de­bere agnosco. Vnde melius Satyri quam a [...], i. Pilofi daemones, vel capri, Leuit. 17. & ibi Chald. Paraphras. & P. Fagium vide, cum Ies. 13. Com. 21. & Rabbi Mos. Ben-Maimon Per­plex. 3. cap.47. Habemus & [...] Mercurium in [...], Prouerb. 25. Com.8. quin &, [...] vocabulum [...] in Ies. 34. Com. 14. resipere censeo. Imò & Tetragrammaton illud summè venerandum nomen & ineffabile Veri Dei, in Oraculis dicitur [...], vnde Iouis fluxit. Mitto Remphan, Molech, & id genus alia; & adnotes licet, quod in Hasmonaeorum libri editi­one Drusiana cap. 3. Com.48. legitur de Iudaeis ab Antiocho miserè oppressis; [...] vbi in pleris (que) habe­tur [...]. &c. Eò magis verò in his nimius fui vt manifestius redderetur quantum sacrae ad prophanas, prophanae vicissim ad sacras literas intelligendas mutuò condu­cunt, ne fortè scilicet malè impingat quis ad illius Monachi morem, qui Act. Apost. 28. Com. II. pro [...], in Latin à Hieronymi versione, scripsit cui erat insigne Castro­rum (vti & vetustus MS. penes me, & perpulcher habet) cum nihil minus nempe, quam qui fuerint Castores (ita nonnullis dicti) intellexerit ille indoctus librarius. Quis autem Gentium Theologiae prorfus expers siue hoc nomine hos siue alio illo Syriaco [...], i. Geminorum, sa­tis apprehenderet. Verum, Lector, non immeritò me incusas, qu [...]d affectare vide or [...]

On the learned Preachers Pilgrimage Religionis ergô.

THE Body of this Booke is HISTORIE,
Clad in quaint garments of GEOGRAPHIE,
Adorn'd with Iewells of CHRONOLOGIE,
Fetch't from the Treasur's of ANTIQVITIE.
The better part thereof, THEOLOGIE,
Soule of the World; Religious PIETIE
Addes life to all, and gives ETERNITIE.

THE CONTENTS OF THE SEVERALL CHAPTERS IN THE NINE BOOKES ENSVING.

ASIA.

THE FIRST BOOKE.

Of the first beginnings of the World and Religion: and of the Regions and Religions of Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestina.

CHAP. I.
OF GOD, One in Nature, Three in Persons, the FATHER, SONNE, and HOLY GHOST. pag.1.
CHAP. II.
Of the Creation of the World. pag.5.
CHAP. III.
Of Man, considered in his first state, wherein he was created: and of Paradise, the place of his habitation. pag.10.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the word Religion: and of the Re­ligion of our first Parents before the fall. pag.15.
CHAP. V.
Of the fall of Man: and of Originall sinne. pag.20.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Reliques of the diuine Image after the Fall, whereby naturally men addict themselues vnto some Religion: and what was the Religion of the world before the floud. pag.25.
CHAP. VII.
Of the cause and comming of the Floud. pag.30.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the repeopling of the World: and of the diuision of Tongues and Nations. pag.35.
CHAP. IX.
A Geographicall Narration of the whole Earth in generall, and more parti­cularly of Asia. pag.41.
CHAP. X.
Of Babylonia, the originall of Idola­trie: and the Chaldaeans Antiquities be­fore the Floud, as BEROSVS hath re­ported them. pag.45.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Citie and Countrie of Babylon: their sumptuous Walls, Temples, and I­mages. pag.49.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Priests, Sacrifices, religious Rites, and Customes of the Babylonians. pag.53.
CHAP. XIII.
The Chaldaean and Assyrian Chroni­cle, or Computation of Times, with their manifold alterations of Religions & Go­uernement in those parts, vntill our time. pag.58.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of Niniue, and other Neighbouring Nations. pag.64.
CHAP. XV.
Of Syria, and the ancient Religions there: of the Syrian Goddesse, and her Rites at Hierapolis: of the Daphnaean, and other Syrian superstitions. pag.67.
CHAP. XVI.
Of the Syrian Kings, and alteration of Gouernement, and Religion, in these Countries. pag.72.
CHAP. XVII.
Of the Theologie, and Religion of the Phoenicians. pag.76.
CHAP. XVIII.
Of Palaestina, and the first Inhabitants thereof, the Sodomites, Idumaeans, Moabites, Ammonites, and Canaa­nites, with others. pag.81.

THE SECOND BOOKE.

Of the Hebrew Nation and Religion from the begin­ning thereof to our times.

CHAP. I.
THe Preface of this Booke: and a descri­ption of the Region of Palaestina, since called Iudaea, and now, Terra San­cta. pag.87.
CHAP. II.
Of the Hebrew Patriarchs, and their Religion before the Law: also of their Law and Politie. pag.93.
CHAP. III.
Of the Religious places among the Iewes. pag.97.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the Iewish computation of Time: and of their Festiuall daies. pag.101.
CHAP. V.
Of the Festiuall dayes instituted by GOD in the Law. pag.103.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Feasts and Fasts, which the Iewes instituted to themselues: with a Kalendar of their feasts and fasts through the yeare, as they are now obserued. pag.109.
CHAP. VII.
Of the ancient Oblations, Gifts, and Sacrifices of the Iewes: and of their Priests and Persons Ecclesiasticall and Re­ligious. pag.111.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the diuers Sects, Opinions, and Al­terations of Religion amongst the He­brewes. pag.116.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Samaritans. pag.129.
CHAP. X.
The miserable destruction and disper­sion of the Iewes, from the time of the desolation of their Citie and Temple to this day. pag.133.
CHAP. XI.
A Chronologie of the Iewish Historie [Page] from the beginning of the World, briefly collected. pag.138.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Iewish Talmud, and the Com­position and estimation thereof: also of the Iewish learned men, their Succession, their Scriptures, and the Translations of them. pag.140.
CHAP. XIII.
Of the Moderne Iewes Creede, or the Articles of their Faith: with their inter­pretation of the same. pag.149.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of the Iewish Ceremonies about the birth of a Child: of their Circumcision, Purification, and Redemption of the first­borne, and Education of their children. pag.156.
CHAP. XV.
Of their Morning-Prayer, with their Fringes, Phylacteries, and other cere­monies thereof. pag.161.
CHAP. XVI.
Of their ceremonies at home after their returne, at their meales, and other­wise: and of their Euening Prayer. pag.165.
CHAP. XVII.
Their weekely obseruations of Times, viz. Their Mondaies, and Thursdaies, and Sabbaths. pag.168.
CHAP. XVIII.
The Iewish Passeouer, as they now obserue it; and other their Feasts and Fasts. pag.172.
CHAP. XIX.
Of their Ceremonies and opinions con­cerning the Dead. pag.177.
CHAP. XX.
The Iewes Faith and Hope touching their Messias. pag.179.
CHAP. XXI.
Of the hopes and hinderances of the Iewes conuersion. pag.183.

THE THIRD BOOKE.

Of the Arabians, Saracens, Turkes, and of the ancient Inhabitants of Asia Minor: and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF Arabia, and of the ancient Reli­gions, Rites, and Customes there­of. pag.187.
CHAP. II.
Of the Saracens Name, Nation, and Proceeding in Armes. pag.193.
CHAP. III.
The life of MAHOMET, the Saracen Law-giuer. pag.199.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the Alcoran, or Alfurcan, con­teyning [Page] Mahumetan Law: the summe and contents thereof. pag.206.
CHAP. V.
Other Mihumeticall speculations, and Explanations of their Law, collected out of their owne Commentaries of that Ar­gument. pag.215.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Pilgrimage to Mecca. pag.220
CHAP. VII.
Of the Successours of MAHOMET, of their different Sects, and of the dispersing of that Religion through the World. pag.227.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Turkish Nation: their Originall, and Proceedings. pag.231.
CHAP. IX.
A Continuation of the Turkish warres and affaires: together with the succession of the Great Turkes, till this present yeare 1612. pag.237.
CHAP. X.
Of the Opinions holden by the Turkes in their Religion. pag.244.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Religious places among the Turkes: the Meschits, Hospitals, and Monasteries: with their Lyturgie and Circumcision. pag.250.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Sepulchres, Funerall rites, and opinions touching the Dead, among the Turkes. pag.256.
CHAP. XIII.
Of the religious Votaries among the Turkes, and of their Saints. pag.259.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of their Priests and Hier archie. p.264.
CHAP. XV.
Of the Regions and Religions of Asia Minor, since called Natolia and Turkie. pag.268.
CHAP. XVI.
Of Asia propriè dicta: now called Sarcum. pag.273.
CHAP. XVII.
Of Ionia and other Countries in that Chersonesus. pag.280.

THE FOVRTH BOOKE.

Of the Armenians, Medes, Persians, Parthians, Scythians, Tar­tarians, Chinois, and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF Armenia Maior: and Georgia: and the Neighbouring Nations. pag.287.
CHAP. II.
Of the Medes. pag.293.
CHAP. III.
Of the Parthians, and Hyrcanians. pag.297.
CHAP. IIII.
Of Persia, and the Persian affaires, vn­till the Mahumetan Conquest. pag.301.
CHAP. V.
Of the Persian Magi, and of their an­cient Religion, Rites, and customes. p.310.
CHAP. VI.
Of the alterations of the State and Reli­gion in Persia vnder the Saracens. p.316.
CHAP. VII.
Of the Sophian Sect or Persian Reli­gion, as it is at this present. pag.325.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Seres, and of their Religion. pag.331.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Tartarians, and of diuers Na­tions which they subdued; with their pri­stine [Page] Rites. pag.335.
CHAP. X.
A continuation of the Tartarian Hi­storie, and the question discussed, whe­ther Cathay and China bee the same. pag.342.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Religion of the Tartars, and Cathaians. pag.347.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Festiuall solemnities, and of the Magnificence of the Gran Can. pag.352.
CHAP. XIII.
Of the alteration of Religion among the Tartars: and of the diuers sorts, Sects, and Nations of them now remayning. pag.354.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of the Nations which liued in, or neare to those parts, now possessed by the Tar­tars: and their Religions and Customes. pag.359.
CHAP. XV.
Of other Northren people adioyning to the Tartars. pag.363.
CHAP. XVI.
Of the Kingdome of China. pag.366.
CHAP. XVII.
Of the Religion vsed in China. pag.370.

THE FIFT BOOKE.

Of the East Indies, and of the Seas and Ilands about Asia, with their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF India in generall, and the ancient Rites there obserued. pag.381.
CHAP. II.
Of the Indian Prouinces next adioyning to China. pag.387.
CHAP. III.
Of the Kingdome of Pegu or Brama. pag.391.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the Religion in Pegu, and the Coun­tries thereunto subiect. pag.396.
CHAP. V.
Of Bengala, and the parts adioyning. pag.400.
CHAP. VI.
Of the great Mogor. pag.405.
CHAP. VII.
Of Cambaia, and the neighbouring Nations. pag.407.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Indian Nations betwixt Cam­baia and Malabar, and their Religions. pag.412.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Indian Bramenes. pag.414.
CHAP. X.
Of the Regions and Religions of Mala­bar. pag.418.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Kingdome of Narsinga and Bis­nagar. pag.423.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Creatures, Plants, and Fruits in India. pag.429.
CHAP. XIII.
A generall discourse of the Sea: and of the Ilands adioyning to Asia. pag.434.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of the Ilands of Iapon, and their reli­gions. pag.440.
CHAP. XV.
A Continuation of the former discourse touching the Religions of Iapon. pag.444.
CHAP. XVI.
Of the Phillipina's. pag.449.
CHAP. XVII.
Of Samatra, and Zeilan. pag.457.

AFRICA.

THE SIXT BOOKE.

Of Aegypt, Barbarie, Numidia, Libya, and the Land of Negro's; and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF Africa, and the Creatures therein. pag.463.
CHAP. II.
Of Aegypt, and her famous Riuer Nilus: of her first Kings, Temples, and Monuments, according to HERO­DOTVS, DIODORVS, and others. pag.469.
CHAP. III.
Of the Aegyptian Idols, with their Legendarie Histories and Mysteries. pag.470.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the Rites, Priests, Sects, Sacrifices, Feasts, Inuentions, and other obseruations of the Aegyptians. pag.475.
CHAP. V.
Of the manifold alterations of State and Religion in Aegypt, by the Persians, Gre­cians, Romans, Christians, Saracens, and Turks: with the Aegyptian Chro­nologie, since the beginning of that Nati­on, till our times. pag.482.
CHAP. VI.
The Aegyptian Chronologie out of MANETHO, high-Priest of the Aegy­ptians; and others. pag.489.
CHAP. VII.
Of the Oracle of IVPITER AMMON: and of Cyrene, and the Regions adioy­ning. pag.494.
CHAP. VIII.
Of that part of Barbarie, now called the Kingdome of Tunis & Tripolis. p.497.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Kingdome of Tremisen Algier, and other places, anciently called Maurita­nia Caesariensis. pag.503.
CHAP. X.
Of the Kingdome of Fesse, part of Mau­ritania Tingitana. pag.507.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Kingdome of Marocco, with a discourse of the Kings thereof: and of the SERIFF, XARIFF, or IARIF, and his Posteritie, now reigning in Barbarie. pag.518.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Arabians, and Naturall Afri­cans: and of the beginnings and procee­dings of the Mahumetan superstition in Africa: Of the Portugals forces and ex­ploits therein. pag.527.
CHAP. XIII.
Of Biledulgerid and Sarra, otherwise called Numidia and Libya. pag.533.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of the Land of Negro's. pag.537.

THE SEVENTH BOOKE.

Of Aethiopia, and the African Ilands: and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF Aethiopia Superior, and the Antiquities thereof. Pag.547.
CHAP. II.
A Continuation of the Aethiopian Antiquities: and of the Queene of Saba. pag.552.
CHAP. III.
Of Presbiter Iohn: and of the Priest ­Iohns in Asia: whether that descended of these. pag.557.
CHAP. IIII.
Of the Aethiopian Greatnesse. p.561.
CHAP. V.
Of the Hill Amara, and the Rarities therein. pag.565.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Election of the Emperour their Schooles, Vniuersities, and Regall Ci­ties. pag.568.
CHAP. VII.
Of other Countries betweene the Red Sea and Benomotapa. pag.572.
CHAP. VIII.
Of Benomotapa, and the parts adioy­ning. pag.575.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Kingdome of Congo, and the other Kingdomes, and Nations adioy­ning. pag.580.
CHAP. X.
Of Loango, the Anzichi, Giachi, and the great Lakes in those parts of the World. pag.586.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Seas and Ilands about Africa: the ancient and moderne Nauigations, and Discoueries. pag.592.
CHAP. XII.
Of the Ilands of Africa, lying from the Cape hitherwards. pag.595.

AMERICA.

THE EIGHTH BOOKE.

Of New France, Virginia, Florida, New Spaine, with other Re­gions of America Mexicana, and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF the New World, and why it is called America, and the West Indies: with certaine generall discourses of the Hea­uens, Fire, Water, and Earth, in those parts. Pag.601.
CHAP. II.
Of the first knowledge, habitation, and Discoueries of the New World, and the rare Creatures therein found, Beasts, Birds, Trees, Hearbs, and Seedes. pag.609.
CHAP. III.
Of the North parts of the New World (Groenland, Estotiland, Meta Incognita, and other places) vnto New [Page] France. pag.617.
CHAP. IIII.
Of New-found-land, Noua Francia, Arambec, and other Countries of Ame­rica, extending to Virginia. pag.625.
CHAP. V.
Of Virginia. pag.631.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Religion and Rites of the Virgi­nians. pag.636.
CHAP. VII.
Of Florida. pag.642.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Countries situate Westward from Florida, and Virginia, towards the South Sea. pag.648.
CHAP. IX.
Of New Spaine, & the conquest there­of by HERNANDO CORTES. pag.653.
CHAP. X.
Of the ancient Inhabitants of New Spaine, and the historie of their Kings. pag.659.
CHAP. XI.
Of the Idols, and Idolatrous sacrifices of New Spaine. pag.666.
CHAP. XII.
Of the religious Places and Persons in New Spaine: wherein are also handled their Penance, Marriages, Burials, and other Rites, performed by their Priests. pag.669.
CHAP. XIII.
Of the supputation of Times, Festiuall solemnities, Colleges, Schooles, Letters, Opinions, and other remarkable things, in New Spaine. pag.677.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of Iucatan, Nicaragua, and other places betweene New Spaine, and the Streights of Dariene. pag.684.

THE NINTH BOOKE.

Of Cumana, Guiana, Brasill, Chica, Chili, Peru, and other Regions of America Peruviana, and of their RELIGIONS.

CHAP. I.
OF the Southerne America, and of the Countries on the Sea-coast, between Dariene and Cumana. pag.691.
CHAP. II.
Of Cumana. pag.695.
CHAP. III.
Of Paria, Guiana, and the Neighbour-Countries, both on the Coast, and within the Land. pag.698.
CHAP. IIII.
Of Brasill. pag.704.
CHAP. V.
Of the Warres, Man-eating, and other Rites of the Brasilians. pag.707.
CHAP. VI.
Of the Riuer of Plate, and the Coun­tries adioyning, and of the Maggellane Streights. pag.711.
CHAP. VII.
Of Terra Australis, and Chili. pag.714.
CHAP. VIII.
Of the Conquest of Peru by the Spani­ards: and of their Ingua's or Emperors. pag.717.
CHAP. IX.
Of the Countrie of Peru: Naturall, Oeconomicall, and Politicall obseruations. pag.721.
CHAP. X.
Of the Gods or Idols of Peru, and o­ther their opinions. pag.726.
CHAP. XI.
Of the religious Persons, Temples, Confessions, and Sacrifices in Peru. pag.729.
CHAP. XII.
Of their Supputation of Times: of the Feasts, Sepulchres, and other Peruvian Superstitions. pag.734.
CHAP. XIII.
Of the Ilands adioyning to A­merica. pag.737.
CHAP. XIIII.
Of Hispaniola: and a touch homeward at Bermuda. pag.741.
CHAP. XV.
Of the Spanish cruelties, and their per­uerse Conuersion of the people vnto Chri­stianitie, in America. pag.746.

[Page] The Catalogue of the Authors.

I Haue here mustered in thy view, Courteous Reader, those Au­thors which from mine owne sight I haue mentioned in this Worke. Some of them, I confesse, are of no great note, and some are noted for notorious counterfeits: but all are of some vse, and meet to be here placed, that they may haue their due: some of thankefulnesse for their worthie and great industrie (wherein those de­serue a place though otherwise obscure, who by their Nauigations and Discoue­ries, haue made the world knowne to it selfe) others, that they may be knowne to be lies and meere changelings: I was the rather induced to guie thee a Table of their names, because nothing in the Impression hath escaped more faultie then the misse-naming (besides the Where you haue not the Authors rightly placed in the Mar­gin, you shall finde it neare the same place. Marginall misse-placing) of Authors; of which I thought good here to giue notice; the other faults being such (except a few which hast in the Presse hath caused) as the judicious Reader may easily see and amend. I acknowledge that Ramusius and M. Hakluyt, in their Bookes of Voyages, haue beene two Libraries vnto me of many Nauigations and Disco­ueries, here mentioned. In this, and all kinds, Sacred, Prophane, Learned, Vn­learned, Ancient, Moderne, Good, and Bad; I haue toyled my selfe to benefit thee. Some hundreds more I could haue added to this Catalogue, if I should follow others examples: but some I did not mention in my booke, as hauing no­thing new; some for some causes I would not, and some were namelesse, and I could not: besides, such as I borrowed at the second hand; also the holy Scri­ptures, and Apocrypha-Authors: many Dictionaries of diuers sorts, Authors of Maps, Translators, and Translations in diuers languages of the same Books, wherewith I consulted, many Manuscripts, and many Relations from friends of mine yet liuing: all which I haue made vse of, and mentioned the most in my Booke, but haue not here added, lest it might sauour of Arrogance and Ambi­tion: and the Table is long enough without them. The letter F signifies that we haue but a fragment of the said Author: and Ps. brands him for a counterfeit.

A
  • DOct. Abbot.
  • Abdias, ps.
  • Christ. Adrichomiꝰ.
  • Ado Viennensis.
  • Clement Adams.
  • Aelianus.
  • Aesopus.
  • Abidenus, f.
  • Agathias.
  • A. Gellius.
  • Alhacem Arabs.
  • Alcuinus.
  • Alcoran.
  • P. Aemilius.
  • Ambrosius.
  • Ambros. de Armariole.
  • Iac. Anton.
  • Alex. ab Alexandro.
  • Alex. Polyhistor. f.
  • Adrianus Romanus.
  • Pet. Alcaçeva.
  • Ioseph Acosta.
  • Christophorus Acosta.
  • Emanuel Acosta.
  • L. Almeida.
  • Alex. Aphrodiseus.
  • Alexand. 6. Bulla.
  • Phil. Amadas.
  • Baptista Antonio.
  • Io. Alphonse.
  • Fer. Alarchon.
  • Apollonius.
  • F. Alvarez.
  • C. Agrippa.
  • Angiolello.
  • A. Arivabene.
  • Arabs Nobilis.
  • Appianus.
  • Albricus.
  • Apollodorus.
  • Annius.
  • Aristoteles.
  • Arrianus Nicomed.
  • Arriani Perip.
  • Athenagoras.
  • P. Alvarez.
  • Athenaeus.
  • Aretius.
  • Arnobius.
  • Augustinus.
  • Aristophanes.
  • Ausonius.
  • Aventinus.
  • [Page]G. Arthus Dantisc.
  • Athanasius.
  • T. Aquinas.
  • Ant. Arnauld.
B
  • BAsilius.
  • Beda.
  • T. Beza.
  • I. Barros.
  • C. Baronius.
  • Bellarminus.
  • Mar. Barletius.
  • Du Bartas.
  • Iosafa Barbaro.
  • Gas. Balby.
  • Hist. of Barbarie.
  • Berosus, f.
  • Berosus, ps.
  • Ph. Beroaldus.
  • Mat. Beroaldus.
  • I. Bale.
  • P. Bellonius.
  • G. Best.
  • P. Bertius.
  • Odoardo Barbosa.
  • L. Bayerlinckus.
  • Ed. Barker.
  • An. Barker.
  • I. Bermudesius.
  • Hier. Benzo.
  • Vinc. Beluacensis.
  • Bardesanes Syrus, f.
  • Bernardus.
  • T. Bibliander.
  • T. Blundevile.
  • I. Bodinus.
  • S. T. Baskervile.
  • Biddulph.
  • P. Bizarus.
  • Ia. Boissardus.
  • Boskhierus.
  • D. Bound.
  • H. Buntingus.
  • Brocardus.
  • I. Boemus.
  • G. Botero Benese.
  • B. Breidenbachius.
  • Mar. Broniouius.
  • Theodorus de Bry.
  • Ioannes de Bry.
  • Israel de Bry.
  • Boetius.
  • Stephen Burrough.
  • Herman de Bree.
  • Steph. de Brito.
  • And. Boves.
  • A. Busbequius.
  • H. Broughton.
  • Bucanus.
  • Burgensis.
  • T. Brightmannus.
  • Mat. Burgklehnerus.
  • Buxdorfius.
  • Bullingerus.
  • Io. Brereton.
C
  • M. T. Cicero.
  • C. I. Caesar.
  • I. Calvinus.
  • G. Camdenus.
  • Chrysostomus.
  • Seth. Calvisius.
  • D. Carleton.
  • Ioac. Camerarius.
  • Ph. Camerarius.
  • Dionys. Carthusianus.
  • Cato Annij, ps.
  • Eman. Carvalius.
  • I. Cassianus.
  • Canariae Insulae d.
  • Iaques Cartier.
  • Christ. Carlile.
  • G. Chaucer.
  • Lop. Castaneda.
  • Catholike Traditions.
  • Cartwrights Trav.
  • Carion Chron.
  • Iul. Capitolinus.
  • T. Cavendish Nauig.
  • Melch. Canus.
  • Laon. Chalcondyles.
  • Centuriae Magdeh.
  • Cedrenus.
  • Chronicle of the Bible.
  • Castaldo.
  • Leon. Chiensis.
  • Catullus.
  • Claudianus.
  • D. Chytraeus.
  • Nat. Comes.
  • Nic. di Conti.
  • Comito Venetiano.
  • Codomannus.
  • Contugo Contughi.
  • Gil. Cognatus.
  • Cael. S. Curio.
  • Cornel. de Iudaeis.
  • Car. Clusius.
  • Q. Curtius.
  • Cōstantinus Porphyrogenitus.
  • Io. Copley.
  • Ric. Cheiny.
  • Ctesias, f.
  • Melch. Cotignus.
  • Hen. Cuyckius.
  • Bar. delas Casas.
  • Vrb. Calveto.
  • Chronic. Saracen.
  • Chronic. Graec.
  • Al. Cadamosto.
  • R. Chanceller.
  • And. Corsali.
  • R. Couerte.
  • R. Clark.
  • Alan. Copus.
  • Vasq. deCoronado.
  • P. Cieça.
  • Nic. Challusius.
  • Christoph. Columbus.
  • Comestor.
  • Costerus.
  • Ed. Clisse.
  • I. Chilton.
  • L. Corvinus.
  • N. Cusanus.
D
  • DIodorus Siculus.
  • Ant. Dalmeida.
  • Davidis Aeth. lit.
  • N. Damascenus, f.
  • Io. Davis.
  • [Page]Diogenes Laertius.
  • Dion Nicaeus.
  • Dion Cassius.
  • Dares Phrygius.
  • Dictys Cret. ps.
  • D. Downam.
  • Drusius.
  • Dionys. Halicarnasseus.
  • Dorotheus.
  • Nic. Doglioni.
  • Durandus.
  • Durantus.
  • Mat. Dresserus.
  • Dionys. Areopag. ps.
  • Hermannus Dalmatae.
  • Wol. Dreschlerus.
  • S. Fr. Drake nav.
  • Drandius.
  • G. Ducket.
  • Dorbel.
  • P. Diaconus.
E
  • GAspar Ens.
  • R. Eden.
  • Epiphanius.
  • Enoch ps. f.
  • Baptista Egnatius.
  • Arthur Edwards.
  • Tho. Ellis.
  • Io. Etrobius.
  • Erasmus,
  • Evagrius.
  • Nic. Euboicus.
  • Euripides.
  • Eutichius.
  • I. Evesham.
  • Eusebius.
  • I. Eldred.
  • Th. Erastus.
F
  • MArsilius Ficinus.
  • Io. Forsterus.
  • Fortalitium fidei.
  • Iac. Fontanus.
  • Io: Fox.
  • Ralfe Fitch.
  • L. Florus.
  • Rob. Fabian.
  • Damiano Fonseca.
  • Descript. of Florida.
  • Minutius Faelix.
  • Fran. Fernandos.
  • G. Fenner.
  • Ab. France.
  • Nova Francia.
  • H. Fracastorius.
  • Lud. Frois.
  • Caes. Frederike.
  • Froissart.
  • Martin Fumee.
  • Fulgentius.
  • I. Funccius.
G
  • THeod. Gaza.
  • Balt. Gagus.
  • Pet. Galatinus.
  • Vasco de Gamae.
  • Genebrard.
  • Gregor. Magnus.
  • Gregor. Nazianzenus.
  • Conrad. Gesnerus.
  • I. Gerardus.
  • S. R. Greenvile Nav.
  • D. Gourgues.
  • Hesselius Gerardus.
  • Ant. Guevara.
  • Glossaordinaria.
  • Dam.à Goes.
  • Step. Gomes.
  • Ant. Geufraeus.
  • Ant. Galvano.
  • A. Guagninus.
  • Bened. Goes.
  • Io. Goropius B.
  • Lud. Georgius.
  • Gramaye.
  • R. Greenham.
  • F. Guicciar din.
  • B. Georgiovitz.
  • P. Gyllius.
  • Grafton. Chron.
  • Lopes de Gomara.
  • Nic. Gibbins.
  • Fra. de Gualle.
H
  • R. Hackluyt.
  • Steph. ab Hagen.
  • Halls Chron.
  • D. Hall.
  • W. Hareborne.
  • Haíton Armen.
  • Th. Harriot.
  • Ed. Haies.
  • S. Io. Hawkins Nav.
  • Henry Hawks.
  • I. Hart.
  • A. Hartwell.
  • Hegesippus.
  • Herodianus.
  • Heroldus.
  • Heliodorus.
  • Christop. Hall.
  • Holland. Navig.
  • Io. Hermannus.
  • Iob Hortop.
  • Herodotus.
  • Helenae Aethiop. lit.
  • Honterus.
  • Nic. Honiger.
  • Horapolle.
  • Sig. Herberstein.
  • Ed. Hogan.
  • Io. Hondius.
  • Hospinianus.
  • D. Harding.
  • Horatius.
  • Homer,
  • R. Hooker.
  • Hieronimus.
  • Hugo de S. Victore.
  • A. Hyperius.
  • Iulius Higinus.
  • Garcias ab Horte.
I
  • IAcobus Rex.
  • Th. Iames.
  • Io. Iane.
  • Iamblichus.
  • Pierre du Iarric.
  • Ignatius.
  • Ios. Gorionides ps.
  • [Page]Iosephus.
  • Paulus lovius.
  • Mich. Isselt.
  • G. Interianus.
  • Siluester Iourdan.
  • A. Ingram.
  • Da. Ingram.
  • A. Ienkinson.
  • Irenaeus.
  • Isidorus.
  • Io. Isacius.
  • Iosephus Indus.
  • Iuvenalis.
  • Instinus Mart.
  • Instinus Historicus.
  • F. Iunius.
  • Iunilius.
  • R. Iohnson.
  • B. Iewell.
K
  • D. King.
  • La. Keymis.
  • Bart. Kicherman.
  • Io. Knolls.
L
  • LActantius.
  • Ralfe Lane.
  • W. Lambert.
  • Rene Laudonniere.
  • Io. Lampadius.
  • S. Ia. Lancaster.
  • Lauaterus.
  • And. à Lacuna.
  • Wol. Lazius.
  • Legenda aurea.
  • Io. Leo.
  • Leunclavius.
  • I. Lerius.
  • Le. Lemnius.
  • Char. Leigh.
  • Io. Lock.
  • Nic. Longobardus.
  • Ed. Liuely.
  • Livius.
  • Lindanus.
  • I. Lipsius.
  • Lidyat.
  • T. Linton.
  • Lucianus.
  • Lucretius.
  • Petrus Lambardus.
  • T. Lopez.
  • Ph. Lonicerus.
  • Lucanus.
  • Nic. Lyra.
  • I. Linschoten.
  • Lutherus.
M
  • MAcrobius.
  • Am. Marcellinus.
  • Val. Maximus.
  • Gab. Matosus.
  • Simon Maiolus.
  • Maldonatus.
  • A. Masius.
  • A. Maginus.
  • P. Mart. Flor.
  • P. Mart. Mediolan.
  • P. Maffaeus.
  • Nestor Martinengo.
  • Bapt. Mantuanus.
  • Marbodius.
  • Cor. Matelivius.
  • L. Madoc.
  • T. Masham.
  • W. Magoths.
  • Martialis.
  • Manetho. f.
  • L. Masonius.
  • Mercerus.
  • Io. Meursius.
  • Mermannij theat.
  • A. Menavino.
  • Gonsales de Mendosa.
  • Ant. de Mendosa.
  • Iaques Morgues.
  • N. Monardus.
  • Hen. Morgan.
  • Sir Th. Moore.
  • Moresinus.
  • Mat. Westm.
  • Mat. Michovius.
  • Pomp. Mela.
  • P. Messia.
  • S. Munster.
  • D. Morton.
  • I. More.
  • Megasthenes f.
  • Metasthenes ps.
  • Sir I. Mandeuile.
  • Ar. Montanus.
  • Methodius ps.
  • Mercator.
  • P. Merula.
  • Ph. Mornaeus.
  • Ph. Melancthon.
  • T. Moresinus.
  • Manetho. f.
  • Manetho ps.
N
  • IAcobi Neccij Navig.
  • I. Neander.
  • L. dela Nou.
  • Marco de Nisa.
  • T. Nichols.
  • T. Nicholas:
  • Nicephorus Greg.
  • Nicephorus Cal.
  • Nic. Nicolay.
  • Dom. Niger.
  • Oliver Noort Navig.
  • Melchior Nunnes.
  • Christ. Newport.
O
  • OLivarius.
  • Odoricus.
  • Opmeerus.
  • A. Ortelius.
  • Organtinus.
  • Orpheus f.
  • Olaus Magnus.
  • Origenes.
  • Osorius.
  • P. Orosius.
  • Ovidius.
  • Oviedo.
P
  • PAusanias.
  • M. Parker.
  • [Page]H. Pantaleon.
  • Pagninus.
  • M. Paulus.
  • Paludamus.
  • Ia. Paludamus.
  • Fran. Pasius.
  • St. Parmentus.
  • Palaephatus.
  • Parkhurst.
  • B. Pererius.
  • Perkins.
  • Fabr. Paduanus:
  • Christ. Pezelius.
  • Galeotto Perera.
  • Fr. Patritius.
  • Pappus.
  • Henricus Penia.
  • C. Peucerus.
  • Persius.
  • Pius Papa.
  • Philo Iudaeus.
  • Philo Antiq.ps.
  • P. Pigafetta.
  • Ant. Pigafetta.
  • Philostratus.
  • Pbrygio.
  • S. G. Peckham.
  • Phornutus.
  • Pilgrimage to Meeca.
  • Nic. Perro [...]us.
  • Nic. Pimenta.
  • Eman. Pinnarus.
  • La. Pignorius.
  • Mat. Paris,
  • Pierius.
  • Miles Philips.
  • Vine. Pinzon.
  • Mel. Petoney.
  • Plato.
  • Plutarchus.
  • Platina.
  • Plautus.
  • Io.de Plano. Car.
  • Perondinus.
  • Plinius.
  • Polibius.
  • Polyaenus.
  • A. Posseuinus.
  • Pomp. Laetus,
  • Hen. Porsius.
  • Io. Pory,
  • I.Bap.Porta.
  • Policie. T. Emp.
  • Postellus.
  • Poly-olbion.
  • Plotinus.
  • D. Powel.
  • Procopius.
  • S.A.Preston.
  • Am.Polanus.
  • Ptolomaeus.
  • Proceeding ag. Traitors.
  • Aemilius Probus.
  • Trebel. Pollio.
  • Propertius.
  • Rob. Pont.
Q
  • QVadus.
  • Fern. de. Quir.
R
  • RAmusio.
  • I. Ramus.
  • D. Rainolds.
  • S. W. Ralegh,
  • Rabanus.
  • Rich. Rainolds.
  • Relat. di Persia.
  • Rel. de Regno Mogor.
  • B. Rhenanus.
  • Mat. Ricci.
  • Mart. del Rio.
  • Io. Ribault.
  • A. Riccobonus.
  • El. Reusnerus.
  • Rein. Reineccius.
  • Io. Reaclinus.
  • L. Riseburgius.
  • Chr. Richerius.
  • Richardus frat.
  • Relat. of Relig.West.
  • L. Regius.
  • Ribera.
  • Ric. Rogers.
  • Tb. Rogers.
  • Cael. Rhodiginus.
  • Rob. Retenensis.
  • Ia. Rosier.
  • Hen. Roberts.
  • Fra. Roberuall.
  • Rhemistae.
  • W. de Rubruquis:
  • Ruffinus.
  • Is. Ruthenus.
  • W. Rutter. Nau.
  • G. Russelli.
  • Rupertus.
S
  • SImon Sa.
  • Sabellicus.
  • Salustius.
  • Saconiatho F.
  • Io. Saracol.
  • Th. Sanders.
  • Sardus.
  • Iul. Scaliger.
  • Iosep. Scaliger.
  • F. Sansouino.
  • Scala Mahometica.
  • H. Sauonorala.
  • Serarius.
  • Sixt. Senensis.
  • Septemcastrensis.
  • I. M. Sequanus.
  • Seneca Philos.
  • Seneca Trag.
  • Dionise Settle.
  • Sulpit Seuerus.
  • Servius.
  • Ios. Siluester.
  • Sibillae.
  • S. P. Sidney.
  • Car. Sigonius.
  • Admiranda Sinens. Reg.
  • Dial. Sinensis.
  • Nunho de Silua.
  • S.A. Sherly.
  • Huld. Shmidel.
  • I. Sleidanus.
  • Sheldon.
  • P. di Sintra.
  • [Page]Hugh Smith.
  • D. Smith.
  • Cap. Smith.
  • Ael. Spartianus.
  • G. Spilbergius.
  • Socrates.
  • Sozomenus.
  • Soranzo.
  • Solinus.
  • Mel. Soiterus.
  • Ed. Spenser.
  • I. Stadius.
  • Stadius Brasil.
  • Stobaeus.
  • I. Stow.
  • Bilib. Stobaeus.
  • Reg. Scot.
  • T. Scot.
  • Sommario di pop.orient.
  • Suidaes.
  • Th. Steuens.
  • Strabo.
  • Strabus.
  • Henry Stephanus.
  • Surius.
  • Stuckius.
  • Suares.
  • Suctonius.
  • Did. Stella.
  • Io. Mar. Stella.
  • Tileman Stella.
T
  • TAtianus.
  • C. Tacitus.
  • Fri. Thamara.
  • Theodoretus.
  • Theophilus.
  • Tertullianus.
  • Terentius.
  • Theophilactus.
  • Temporarius.
  • Thesoro Politico.
  • ⟨G. Tuesley: F.⟩
  • Theophanes, F.
  • A. Theuet.
  • Thucidides.
  • Tibullus.
  • Ro. Thorne.
  • Timberley.
  • Ro. Tomson.
  • W. Towerson.
  • Trelcatius.
  • Tremellius.
  • Mas. Transiluano.
  • Tripartita hist.
  • Mer. Trismegistus.
  • Trithemius.
  • Toletus.
  • Turrianus.
  • G. Tyrius.
  • Con. Trident.
  • Turselinus.
V
  • LOp. Vaz.
  • Fr. Vaez.
  • Ioa. Vadianus.
  • F. Vatablus.
  • A. Valignanus.
  • R. Verstegan.
  • Com. de Vena.
  • L. Vertomannus.
  • Eman. de Veiga.
  • Io. Verrazano.
  • Verhuffi Nauig.
  • Viperanus.
  • Viaggio in Persia.
  • N. Life of Virginia.
  • F.à Victoria.
  • S. A. Victor.
  • Victor Vticensis.
  • Nic. Villagagnon.
  • Casp. Vilela.
  • Gerar.de Veer.
  • Virgilius.
  • Pol. Virgil.
  • ⟨Pub. Virgu [...]teius: ps.⟩
  • Viguerius.
  • Voy. du Villamont.
  • L. Viues.
  • Fr. de Vlloa.
  • R. Volateranus.
  • Vrsinus.
  • Luys de Vrreta.
  • Fla. Vopiseus.
  • A. Vesputius.
W
  • TH.Walsingham.
  • L De la Ware.
  • D. Whitakerus.
  • D. Willet.
  • Whitney:
  • Ia. Wesh.
  • Webb.
  • T. Windam.
  • L. Warde.
  • Siluester Wiet.
  • Seb. de Wert.
  • Io. White Nau.
  • D. White.
  • T. Wiars.
  • The World.
  • Descrip. of the World.
  • Henr. Wolfius.
  • Io. Wolfius Theol.
  • Io. Wolfius, I.C.
  • Wolf. Wissenberg.
X
  • XEnophon.
  • F. Xauier.
  • Hier. Xauier.
Z
  • HIer. Zanchius.
  • A. Zachuth.
  • Zaga Zabo.
  • Zonaras.
  • Zeni Nau. &c.

[Page 1] THE FIRST PART OF THE RELATIONS OF THE WORLD, AND THE RELIGIONS OBSERVED IN ALL AGES AND Places discouered, from the Creation, vnto this present.

THE FIRST BOOKE.

CHAP. I.

Of God, one in Nature, three in Persons, the Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost.

THE Poets were wont to lay the foundations and first beginnings of their poeticall Fabrikes, Homer, Virgil, Ouid, &c. with inuocation of their Gods and Muses, although those workes were sutable to such workmen, who according to their names were Makers, of those both Poems and Gods. I, as far short of their lear­ning, as beyond them in the scope of my desires, would so farre imitate their maner, in this matter which I intend; that, although I enuie not to some their foolish claime of that Poeticall (not propheti­call) inheritance, to make my Maker: and my matter, as in a Historie (not a Poeme) must bee made to my hands: Yet in a Historie of Religion, which hath or should haue God to be the Apoc. 1.9. Alpha and Omega, the efficient, from whom, the end to whom it proceedeth: the matter, of whom, the forme by whom and whose direction, it entreateth; I could not but make a religion to begin this discourse of Religion at him; this being the way which all men take to come to him. First therefore I beseech him that is the first and last, the eternall Father, in the name of his beloued and onely Sonne, by the light of his holy and all-seeing Spirit, to guide me in this perambulation of the World, so to take view of the Times, Places, and Customes therein, as may testifie my re­ligious bond to him, whose I am, and whom I serue: and the seruice I owe vnto his Church, if at least this my Mite may be seruiceable to the least of the least therein: [Page 2] that he as he is in him selfe the beginning and ending, Apoc.1.8. so he would bee, in some mea­sure, of this worke the Author and finisher, that in beholding this Mappe of so in­finitely diuersified superstitions, we may be more thankefull for, and more zealous of, that true and onely Religion, which Christ by his bloud hath procured, by his word reuealed, by his spirit sealed, and will reward eternally in the heauens. And hereto let all Christian readers say with me Amen, to him which is Apoc. 3.14. Amen, that witnesse faithfull and true, that forsaking all the by-wayes which this Labyrinth exhibiteth, we may receiue his witnesse as faithfull and true Disciples, that follow the Lambe whi­ther soeuer he goeth, and will not heare the voice of strangers.

In the next place, I hold it not vnfit briefely to expresse somewhat of Him, which indeede and throughly can neuer be expressed. For the wisest of the Prophets hath said of him and to him, that the 1. King. 8.27. heauens and heauens of heauens, are not able to con­taine him: and the 2 Cor.12.11. chiefe, or at least he which was not inferiour to the chiefe of the Apostles, as rauished with such a height, and swallowed in such a depth, cried Ro.11.33. O Al­titudo, O the deepnesse of the riches both of the wisedome and knowledge of God! how vn­searchable are his iudgements, and his wayes past finding out? As for my selfe, I may most fitly borrow the words of AGVR, Prou.30.2. Surely I am more foolish than any man, and haue not the vnderstanding of a man in me:Ver.3.For I haue not learned wisedome nor attai­ned to the knowledge of boly things. Ver.4. Yea indeede, who hath ascended vp to Heauen, and descended? Who hath gathered the Winde in his fist? Who hath bound the Waters in a garment? Who hath established all the ends of the World? What is his name, and what is his Sonnes name if thou canst tell? Tell this mysterie we cannot. And yet so farre as he hath told vs by his word and workes, we may. Of the one the next words testifie: Ver.5. Euery word of God is pure: Of the other elsewhere: Ps.19.1. The heauens declare the glo­rie of God: Ro.1.20. and The inuisible things of him, that is his eternall power and god-head, are seen by the creation of the world, being considered in his workes. AR.14.17. God hath not (therefore) left himselfe without witnesse, who besides the testimonie of Nature, written in our hearts, hath added those of the Scripture and of the Creature, that this threefold Cord might not easily be broken, and by the mouth of two or three witnesses, we might learne plainely that he is, and in some measure what he is. That there is a God: Heauen and Earth, Angels and Deuils, Man and Beast, Reason and Sense, Greeke and Barbarian, science in the most, in the rest conscience, as a thousand witnesses, all that wee see, and which we see not, say and proclaime, that all may see, and in maner palpably feele his present deitie; in Act.17.18. whom we liue, moue, and haue our beeing. D. King lect. in Ion.4. [...]. Hitro. ille Cice­ro. This is a common no­tion, and impression, sealed vp in the minde of euery man: a remnant of integritie after the fall of ADAM, a substance or blessing in the dead Elme, sparkles of fire ra­ked vp vnder the ashes, which cannot die whiles the soule liueth. What a one he is, is not so deeply ingrauen in Nature, Nat. Doi. li.1. Nomen qu [...]a dat notitiam. whose owlish eies are dazled with the brightnesse of this light. But when heere wee might renue the question, What is his name, and what is his sonnes name? he himselfe answereth in scripture by attributing to himselfe such names, whereby wee may know him as the Creator from all creatures, as the true God from all false Gods: and so farre as is meet and necessary to our saluation. Hee then that dwelleth in light inaccessible, whom no man hath seene, nor can see 1.Io.3.2. as he is, in this our infancie, hath manifested himselfe vnto vs, 1.Co.13.12. as through a glasse darkely, that we may with MOSES haue some glauncing Exod.34.6. view of his hinder parts.

These names and diuine attributes I meane not with large explications heere to ex­presse, as not so fitting my abilitie, or purpose, & being by Dionys. de Diuinis nomin. P. Galatin. de Arcanis, l.3. Zanchius de. Nat. Dei. l.1 Bullinger. de Origine erroris, l.1. others learnedly done alrea­dy: Yet to say a litle, where the tongues of men & Angels cannot say enough: the scrip­ture attributeth, or he in Scripture attributeth to himselfe, names, in regard both of au­thor & obiect diuine; sometimes (as they terme it) in the As true, wise, liuing &c. concrete; sometimes in the As truth, wisedome, life, &c. abstract; the first signifying his perfect subsistence; the other his supersubsisting perfe­ction; those more fitted to our capacity; these to his diuinitie: who eternally & effenti­ally is, whatsoeuer he is said to be, or in himselfe to haue. And therefore all perfections are in him but one, and this one himselfe, euery way infinite and incomprehensible, no­thing [Page 3] being in him either by participation, or as a qualitie, or as a naturall faculty, or as a mutable passion, or in such sort simply, as wee (whose vnderstandings are limited in their finite bounds, and for that cause receiuing in a finite measure, conceiuing in a finite maner) do or can comprēhend. Who can take vp the Ocean in a spoone? and yet these are both finite, and hold neerer proportion than the great Creator, and the greatest of creatures. Yet is this glimpse of this bright shining Sunne comforta­ble through this chinke and key-hole of our bodily prison, and euen the Taste of these Delicacies, more than sweete and delectable. Some of these names are attributed to him in regard of his being, in it selfe considered, as Iehouah, Iah, Ehieh;[?] and some in re­gard of the persons which al haue that one being, and euery of which haue all that be­ing, which Hock. Etclisi­ast. Polit. li. 5. in it selfe is indiuidually one: and their seueral manners of hauing it, is that which is called their personall proprietie and incommunicable. Such a name is, Elo­him, applied to the Father, Sonne, and Holie-Ghost, in signification mightie, in forme plurall. Some of these names are such as are communicated to Creatures also, but with this difference, that those which in the Creature are borrowed, imperfect, acciden­tall, are in him Nature, Perfection, Substance. Some are absolutely considered as he is God blessed for euer; some relatiuely with respect vnto his Creatures. De Dco etiam vera loqui peri­culusum. Arnob.in Psal. 91. Aug de Trin. li.1.c.3. Some againe are Negatiuely spoken, others affirmatiuely: some properly, others by a figure. But this is indeed a thornie waie, of which we may say with AVGVSTINE, Nothing is missed more dangerously, nothing sought more laboriously, nothing found more pro­fitably. Euen the Angelicall Seraphins had their Es.6.2. sixe wings, whereof two serued to execute their prompt obedience; two couered their feet, because of mans weaknesse not able to comprehend their glory; and yet they themselues thus glorious, with two other wings couered their face, as not able to endure the brightnesse of a greater glo­rie. Let vs then be wise, but to Rom.12.3. sobriety. Let vs go to the Lambe to vnclaspe this sea­led booke. Col.2.3. For in him all the treasures of wisedome and knowledge are hid. Let vs so know as we may be knowne, and so Phi.3.10. comprehend as we may rather be comprehen­ded. Let vs feare, loue, beleeue, and serue him: and then God will Ps 25.9. teach the humble his waie, and 10.7.17. They which will doe him will shall know of the doctrine. This is our way to eternall life, thus to know him, and whom he hath sent Iesus Christ: if namely we so learne Eph 4.21. Christ as the Truth is in Iesus, if we 1.Co.3.18. become fooles that we may be wise, and put­ting off the old man be renued in the spirit of our mindes, and put on the new man which after God is shapen in righteousnes and irue holynesse. Otherwise, we 1.Co.8.2. know nothing as we ought to know, otherwise, we know nothing more, nor so much as the Diuels know. Pro.1.7. The feare of the Lord is the beginning of this wisedome. And for this cause hath he called himselfe, and proclaimed those his names, Ex.34.6. Iehoua, Iehoua, strong, mercifull and grati­ous, slowe to anger and abundant in goodnesse and truth, &c. and the like in other places; not that we may know to know, (a foolish curiositie) but that hauing such light, wee may beleeue and walke in the light, that wee may be children of the light. Iehoua the most essentiall (and after the Iewish superstition ineffable) name of God, is not therefore only reuealed to vs that we may know him in himselfe and of himselfe to be, Heb.13.8. Yesterday, to day and the same for euer, Apoc.1.8. which is, which was, which is to come: but also as the Creator, of whom, in whom, and for whom are all things: and as the redeemler; which is known by his name Iehoua as himselfe Ex.6.3. interpreteth it, by giuing a reall be­ing, and accomplishment to his promises. In which one name (as in others of like sig­nification) is expressed the simplicity, Immutability, Infinitenesse, blessednesse, eternity, life, perfection and other attributes of God. When he calleth himselfe strong, therein is declared his almightie power, whether wee vnderstand it actually in producing and preseruing all things in heauen and earth; or absolutely, whereby he is able to do e­uen those things which in his wisedome he doth not: whereby he is able to doe all things which either Quae contra­dictionem im­plicant sub diui­na omnipotensia non continen [...]ur. Non pro defectis potentiae, sed quia non possunt habere rationem patibilis vel pos­sibilis. Conuenientius dicitur, quòd eae non possunt fieri, quàm qùòd De­us non pessit fa­cere. Aq.1.q.25. art.3. & d. in themselues (as implying contradiction) or with him (as im­perfections) are not impossible, both those kindes not excluding, but concluding the power of God, which because he is almightie, 2.Tim.2.12. cannot lie or denie himselfe.

What should I speake of his wisedome, whereby all things are open in his sight, [Page 4] both himselfe, and his creatures, past, present or to come, and that not as past or fu­ture, but with one, eternall, perfect, certaine, immediate act of knowledge, which in regard of second causes are necessary or contingent, or in effect but meerely possible, and neuer actually subsisting. Truth is in him as a root, from whence it is first in the be­ing; next in the vnderstanding; thirdly in the writing or saying of the creature. True he is in himselfe, in his workes ordinary, and extraordinary, and in his word reuealed by the Prophets and Apostles. What should I adde of his goodnesse, grace, loue, mercy, Iustice, and other his attributes and names not yet mentioned? as Adonai, which sig­nifieth the Dominion of God due to him, by Creation, by purchase, by mutuall co­uenant. Saddai, which signifieth his all-sufficience; Ehie, his eternall stabilitie; and o­thers. Yea in one Chapter P Gal. l. 2. c.13.14.Cod. PETRVS GALATINVS rehearseth threescore and twelue names of God out of the Rabbines workes, multiplied and diuersified in ten sorts, which make in all seuen hundred and twentie names. To dilate of these at large would aske so many large Commentaries, and yet euen then should we still finde this God incomprehensible; of whom we may, in respect of our capacitie, rather say what he is not, Deus vbique est, vel magis pro­priè est ipsam vbique. Trelcat. than what he is, whose goodnesse is not to be distinguished by qualitie, or his greatnesse discerned by quantitie, or his eternitie measured by time, or his pre­sence bounded by place: of whom all things are to be conceiued, beyond whatsoe­uer wee can conceiue.

The Persons, Deus vnus in Trinitate, trinus in vnitate. Ar­nob. in Psal. 145. which communicate in this Diuine Nature, are three: This is their owne witnesse of themselues; There are three which beare record in Heauen, the Fa­ther, the Word, and the Spit it, and these three are one. This mysterie was manifested in the Mat.3. Zanch. de 3. Elohim haec fuse. baptisme of Christ, and in our baptisme in the name of the Father, Sonne, and Holy-Ghost. The Angels vnto this glorious Trinitie Esay.6. sing their Holy, Holy, Ho­ly: the Scripture it selfe applying that which there may be interpreted of the Father, both to the Sonne Io. 12.41. and to the Spirit, Act. 28.25. These with other places do also signifie their personall distinction. The creation was not only the Fathers worke, but also of the other persons, as appeareth by that nowne plurall ioined to a verb sin­gular in the first words of MOSES, and other like plurall appellations Es. 44.24 and Es.54.5.2.Sam.7.23. & many such places. [...] The Apostles apply the couenant, worship, and works of God mentioned in the Old Testament, to the Sonne and holy Ghost in the New, neither can the one be the Sonne, or the other the spirit of God, naturally and in proper maner of speech, but they must also subsist in the same Nature with the Father, which being infinite, spirituall, immutable, can be but one, which must wholly, or not at all, be communicated. In a word, the equalitie, the names, the proprieties, the workes, the worship peculiar to God, are applied to the Sonne and Holy Ghost, equal­ly with the Father. Which they, that list, may learne in such as especially treate of this subiect: where this mysterie of the Trinitie is auerred against all heretikes, Iewes, and Infidells: Yea by some Morn.de.ver. C.R. P Gal. I.I2. alijque plurimi. also, out of their owne authentike Authors, whether they re­ceiue Scriptures, Rabbines, Philosophers or any other. I intend only to annoint the doore-posts of this house with this discourse, that I may make a fitter entrie thereinto, leauing the fuller handling of this mysterie to such as purposely frame their whole e­difice with large common places heereof; which yet alway must be more certainely receiued by faith, than conceiued by reason: according to that of IVSTIN MARTYR, Vnitas in Trinitate intelligitur, & Trinitas in Vnitate noscitur: id vere quomodo fiat, nec alios scrutari velim, nec ipse mihi possum satisfacere. li. Confes. fidei. Thinke of one: a threefold light wil dazle thee; distinguish into three, & an infinite vnitie wil swallow thee. Vnus, & si dici debet, vnissimus, saith BERNARD Ber. ad Eageni. D. Abbot. pars 3. Defenc. pag.9. . Hauing thus with trembling hand written of that dreadfull mysterie of the Trinitie, of which wee may say, cum dicitur, non di­citur; It is not told with telling, nor can be described by description; The next to be considered are the workes of God, which are either inward and immanent, or outward and transient. The inward are eternall and vnchangeable, indeed no other but him­selfe, although accounted and called workes in regard of their effects in the World and of our conceiuing. For all the proprieties of God are infinite, as they are imma­nent [Page 5] in himselfe, yet in their transitiue and forren effectes are stinted and limited to the modell and state of the creature wherein the same effects are wrought. Such an immanent worke we conceiue and name that decree of God touching the creation of the World, Trelcat. Zanch. de Na D. l.5.c.1, 2. with his prouident disposing all and euery part thereof, according to the counsell of his owne will, and especially touching the reasonable creatures, Angels and Men, in respect of their eternall state in Saluation or Damnation. The outward workes of God are, in regard of Nature, Creation and prouidence: in regard of Grace, Redemption and Saluation, in the fulnesse of time performed by our Emanuel, God manifested in the flesh, true God and perfect man, in the vnity of one person, with­out [...] confusion, conuersion, or separation. 1.Io.5.20. This is very God and life eternall, Iesus Christ the Sonne of God our Lord, which was conceiued by the holy Ghost, borne of the Virgin MARY, suffered vnder PONTIVS PILATE, who was crucified, dead and buried; descended into Hell; rose againe the third day; hee ascended into Heauen; where he sitteth at the right hand of God the Father almighty, from whence he shal come to iudge the quicke and dead. And to such as are sonnes, Gal.4.6. God doth also send the Spirit of his Sonne, to renue and sanctifie them as children of the Father, members of the Sonne, temples of the Spirit, that they, euen all the elect, may be one holy Catholike Church, enioying the vnspeakeable priuiledges and heauenly preroga­tiues of the Communion of Saints, the forgiuenesse of Sinnes, the Resurrection of the Body, and Euer lasting life. Euen so, come Lord Iesus.

CHAP. II.

Of the Creation of the World.

THey which would without danger behold the Eclipse of the Sunne, vse not to fixe their eyes directly vpon that bright eie of the World, (although by this case darkned) but in water behold the same with more ease and lesse perill. How much fitter is it likewise for our ten­der eyes in beholding the light of that Light, Iam.I.17. the Father of lights 1.Io.1.5. Qui scrutatur Maiestatem opprimetur à gloria. in whom is no darknesse, to diuert our eyes from that brightnesse of glory, and behold him (as wee can) in his workes? The first of which in execution was the creation of the World, plainly described by MOSES in the booke of Gene­sis, both for the Author, matter, maner, and other circumstances; Reason it selfe thus farre subscribing, as appeareth in her schollers, (the most of the Heathens and Philo­sophers in all ages) That this World was made by a greater than the World. In pro­uing this, or illustrating the other, a large field of discourse might be ministred: nei­ther do I know any thing wherein a man may more improue the reuenues of his lear­ning, or make greater shew with a little, Ne si forte suas repetitum vene­rit olim, Grex auium plumas, &c. decking and pruning himselfe, like AeSOPS Iay, or HORACE his chough, with borrowed feathers, than in this matter of the Creation, written of (after their maner) by so many, Iewes, Ethnikes, Heretikes, and Orthodoxe Christians. For my part it shall be sufficient to write a little, setting downe so much of the substance of this subiect, as may make more plaine way, and easier in­troduction, into our ensuing Historie: leauing such as are more studious of this know­ledge to those which haue purposely handled this argument, with commentaries vpon MOSES text: of which, besides many modern writers (some of which haue almost oppressed the Presse with their huge volumes) there are diuers of the Primitiue, mid­dle, and decayed times of the Church.

Gen.1.3. In the beginning (saith MOSES) God created the Heauen and the Earth. Wherein (to omit the endlesse and diuers interpretations of others, obtruding allegoricall, ana­gogical, mystical senses on the letter) is expressed the Author of this worke to be God, Elohim; which word, as is said, is of the plurall number, insinuating the Holy Trinity, the Father as the fountaine of all goodnesse, the Sonne as the wisedome of the Father, [Page 6] the Holy Ghost as the power of the Father and the Sonne concurring in this worke. The action is creating, or making of nothing, to which is required a power superna­turall and infinite. The time was the [...] Basil. hum.1. in principio tempo­ris, id est simul cum tempore. Th. Aqu.1.q.46. art.3. beginning of time, when as before there had neither beene time, nor any other creature. The worke is called Heauen and Earth; which Merula & Percrius inter­pret tiouem banc Chrysofto­mo tribuunt. some interpret all this bodily world, here propounded in the summe, and af­ter distinguished in parcels, according to the sixe dayes seuerall workes. Some vnder­stand thereby the Calui [...].in Gen. First matter; which other Theodoret. Beda. Alcuinus, Iyra, & plerique scho­lastici. apply only to the word Earth expoun­ding Heauen to be that which is called Empyreum, including also the spirituall and su­per-celestiall inhabitants. Againe, other, whome I willingly follow, Zanch.de oper. Det, pars 1. l.1.c.2. Polarus, Buca­nus, &c. Paul. Merula. Cos [...]ogr. part.1.l.r. Pe [...]er. in Gen. interprets by Heauen the heauenly bo­dies thē made: and after per­fected with light and mo­tion; by Earth the element of Earth. Iunius by Hea­uen vnder­stand, the out­most circum­ference and by Earth those things vnder it, or the mat­ter of them. extend the word Heauen to a larger signification, therein comprehending those three Heauens, which the Scriptures mention: (one whereof is this lower, where the birds of the Hea­uen doe flie, reaching from the Earth to the Sphere of the Moone: the second, those visible Orbes of the Planets and fixed Starres, with the first Moueable: the third cal­led the Heauen of Heauens, the third Heauen and Paradise of God) together with all the hoast of them. By Earth they vnderstand this Globe, consisting of Sea and Land, with all the creatures therein. The first verse they hold to be a generall proposition of the Creation of all Creatures, col.1.16. visible and inuisible, perfected in Gen.2.I. Exod.20.11.Iob. 38.7. sixe dayes, as many places of Scripture testifie: which, as concerning the visible, Moses handleth after particularly, largely, and plainely, contenting himselfe with briefe mention of those inuisible creatures, both Gen. 32.1. good and Gen.3.1. bad, as occasion is offered in the fol­lowing parts of his Historie. In the present, Pet. Martyr. in Gen. he omitteth the particular description of their Creation, least some (as Iewes and Heretikes haue done) should take occa­sion to attribute the Creation to Angels, as assistants: or should, by the excellencie of that Nature, depainted in due colours, be carried to worshipping of Angels: a superstition which men haue embraced, towards the visible creatures, farre inferior both to Angels and themselues. Moses proceedeth therefore to the description of that first matter, and the creatures thereof framed and formed. For touching those inuisible creatures, both the Angels and their heauenly habitation, howsoeuer they are circumscribed, and haue their proper and most perfect substance, yet according to the interpretation of Diuines, Zanch. de operib pars 1. l.1.c.4. their nature differeth from that of other creatures, celestiall or terrestriall, as not being made of that first matter, whereof these consist. Let vs therefore labor rather to be like the Angels in grace, that we may be like vnto thē in glorie, than prie too curiously into their Nature (to our vnderstandings in man­ner supernaturall) and endeuor more, in heeding the way which leadeth to that Hea­uen of the Blessed, than busie our wits too busily in descrying or describing it. Onely thus much we may obserue thereof, that it is beyond all reach of our obseruation: in regard of substance not subiect to corruption, alteration, passion, motion: in quanti­tie, Ioh.14.2. many dwelling places, most spacious and ample: in qualitie, a Paradise, faire, shi­ning, delightsome, wherein no euill can be present or imminent; no good thing ab­sent: a meere transcendent, which eye hath not seene, nor care heard, nor the heart of man can conceiue. Where the Apoc.21.3. Tabernacle of God shall be with men, and he will dwell with them, and shall be 1.Cor.15.28. all in all vnto them; where the pure in heart shall see him, and euen our bodily eyes shall behold that most glorious of creatures, the Sunne of righ­teousnesse, and Sonne of God, Christ Iesus. Embracing these things with Hope, let vs returne to Moses his description of the sensible World; who sheweth, that that Heauen and Earth, which now we see, were in the beginning or first degree of their being, an Earth without forme, and void, a darkened depth and waters: a matter of no matter, and a forme without forme; a rude and indigested Chaos, or confusion of matters, rather to be Heb.11.3. beleeued than comprehended of vs. This is the second natu­rall beginning. For, after the expressing of the matter, followeth that which Philoso­phers call a second naturall Principle, Arist. Phys.l.1. Iun. praef. in Gen. Priuation, the want of that forme, of which this matter was capable, which is accidentally a naturall principle, required in regard of generation, not of constitution, here described by that part next vs, Earth, which was without forme, as is said, and void. This was the internall constitution: the exter­nall [Page 7] was, darknesse vpon the face of the Deepe. Which Deepe compriseth both the earth before mentioned, and the visible Heauens also, called a Depth, as to our capacitie in­finite, and plyant to the Almightie hand of the Creator: called also Waters, Gibbins on Genes. not because it was perfect waters, which was yet confused, but because of a certaine re­semblance, not onely in the vniformitie thereof, but also of that want of stabilitie, whereby it could not abide together, but as the Spirit of God moued vpon these Waters, to sustaine them; and Hier.l.trad. Hebr. Trem. & Iun. Basil.bom.2.cx Ephrem. Syro. as the Henne sitteth on her egges to cherish and quicken, as Hierome interpreteth the word, so to maintaine, and by his mightie power to bring the same into this naturall order. Here therefore is the third begin­ning or Principle in Nature, That forme, which the Spirit of God, the third person in Trinitie (not ayre or wind, as Merc. de Fab. Mundi, & ante cum, Ter­tull.ad Hermog. Theodoret.qu.8. in Gen. Caictan. de Angelis inter­pretatur. some conceiue, being things which yet were not themselues formed) by that action framed it vnto, and after more particularly ef­fected.

This interpretation of the Spirit mouing vpon the Waters, agreeth with that opi­nion which some attribute to the Stoikes, That all things are procreated and gouer­ned by one Spirit: and Virgil most elegantly and diuinely singeth, and seemeth to paraphrase on Moses words:

Virg. Aeneid. l.6. on which words Seruius commenteth, Deus est quidam diuinus spiritus, qui per 4. in­fusus clementa, gignit vniuersa:
Principio Caelum, ac Terras, camposque liquentes
Lucentemque globum Lunae, Titaniaque astra,
Spiritus intus alit: totamque infusa per artus
Mens agitat molem & magno se corpore miscet:

That is,

Heauen first, and Earth, and Watrie plaines,
Bright Moone, of Starres those twinckling traines,
The Spirit inly cherisheth,
Loues, moues, great bodie nourisheth;
Through all infus'd this All containes.

The first creatures which receiued their naturall forme, were the Elements: the first, lightest, and highest whereof is Fire, whose effect is the light, whereof it is said, that God said, Let there be Light. For howsoeuer some vnderstand this of the Vatab.in Ge. Sunne, which they will haue then to be created, Basil.bom.6. some of a qualitie diffused through that confused matter, Zanch.de op.D. part.2.l.1. & B. Pererius recen­sel multos sau­tores buius sent. some of a Cloud formed of the waters, which as a charriot of light with his circular motion caused day and night: to omit the more friuolous in­terpretations of such as apply it allegorically or mystically to men or Angels, in re­spect of the regeneration of the one, or first generation of the other; I rather follow the opinion of Iunius, Iun.in Gen. c.1. sic Damas­cenus de Fide, l.2.c.7. Greg. Nyssen. bomtl. super Hexemeron. who applyeth this to the fierie element, whose act and quali­tie is to enlighten; although perfectly to affirme what this Light was must be by our enlightning from him, who commaunded this Light to shine out of the darkenesse. This Light God made by his Word, not vttered in sound of syllables, nor that, which in the Ioh.1.1. Verbum Dei significat impe­rium, decretum & voluntatem eius efficacem. Pererius in Gen. beginning was with God, and was God (and therefore could not be this Word, which now had a beginning) but by his powerfull effecting, calling things that are not as though they were, and by his calling or willing causing them to be; thereby signifying his will as plainely, and effecting it as easily, as a word is vnto a man. This Word was common to the Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost, each and all, by doing, vt­tering this will or decree, the manner of doing neuerthelesse being diuers, according to the distinction of persons. Here yet is a testimonie of the Trinitie: for as by su­staining that matter the power of God appeared, and therefore it is attributed to the Spirit; so by the order and disposition of the creatures his wisdome is manifest, which is the essentiall Word of the Father, 10.1.3. without which was made nothing that was made, which after became flesh, and dwelt among vs. Gibbins on Gen. The Trinitie decreed, the second Per­son effected, Let there be Light, and there was Light: for by the word of the Lord were [Page 8] the Heauens made. That vncreated Light commaunded this elementarie Light to be, that so the thinner and higher Element, seuered from the Aire, might by his enlight­ning operation, effect; and the Aire, according to the nature thereof, receiue this lightsome shining: which to the Fire was an essentiall propertie, to the Aire an acci­dentall qualitie, approued of God, as good both in it selfe, and to the future creatures. This Light did God separate from the darknesse (which indeed is nothing in nature, but the absence of Light) so disposing thereof, that Light and Darknesse should in their Hemisphere succeed each other. Whether it were so moued by the motion of the ninth Sphere, or first moueable, the highest of the moueable Heauens, and out­most circumference, created in the beginning, as Iun.in Gen. praelec. some interprete the first words of Moses, or by any other meanes, then appointed by God, it is hard to determine. For we may not reason à facto ad fieri, from the order of their constitution, in which they now are, to the principles of their institution, whiles yet they were in making, as Simpl.arg.22. confutat. à Iunio. Simplicius, and other (Philosophers may I call them, or Atheists?) haue absurdly done, in this and other parts of the Creation. This was the first dayes worke.

In the second, God said let there be a Firmament in the middest of the waters, &c. The word Rakiah, translated Firmament, signifieth Trem. & Iun. expansum, or a thing stretched out; or as some Gibbins on Gen. say, a thing made strong by stretching out, designing that vast and wide space and ayrie Region, by the extension thereof, made thinner, purer, and stronger, able to beare those waterie Clouds, which it separateth from these inferior waters, in their proper and elementarie Seat. In which sense He is said to stretch out the Hea­uens like a Curtaine, and to lay the beames of his chambers in the waters. Psal.104.2.

After the Aethereall Aether hath two parts, higher and lower; and so the Aire. Region (reaching in the hither part thereof from the middle Region of the Aire to the Moone, and from thence in the higher part to the highest Heauen) and the Aire (distinguished also into two parts, the middle, and the lower part, as the Philosophers tearme them, when they consider not the whole, as here we doe, but that part, wherein the Meteors are caused) after these two Elements, thus in the two first dayes ordered and disposed: in the third day followeth the perfecting of the two lowest Elements, the Water and Earth, which yet were confused, vntill that mightie Word of God did thus both diuorce and marrie them, compounding of them both this one Globe, now called Drie Land, and Seas. The waters which yet oppressed, and by their effusion and confusion did tyrannize, rather than orderly sub­due, and gouerne this inferior myrie masse, were partly receiued into competent cha­nels, and there also gathered on swelling heapes, where, though they menace a re­turne of the old Chaos, both by their noyse and waues, yet hath Iob.38.10.11. God stablished his commaundement vpon it, and set barres and dores, and said, Hitherto shalt thou come and no further, and here shall it stay thy proud waues. Otherwise, Psal.104. 6,7. the Deepes, which then couered it as a garment, would now stand aboue the Mountaines. At his rebuke they flie, who with fetters of sand (to shew his power in weakenesse, with a miracle in na­ture) chayneth vp this enraged Tyrant, that the creatures might haue a meet place of habitation. Thus did not onely the drie Land appeare, but by the same hand was en­riched with Hearbes and Trees, enabled in their mortall condition, to remaine im­mortall in their kind. And here beginneth Moses to declare the creation of com­pound bodies; hitherto busied in the Elements.

Now when the Lord had made both Plants, Trees, and Light, without the influ­ence, yea before the being of Sunne, Moone, or Starre, he now framed those fierie Balls, and glorious Lights, whereby the Heauens are beautified, the Aire enlightned, the Seas ruled, and the Earth made fruitfull. Thus he did the fourth day, after those other things created, least some foolish Naturalist should bind his mightie hand in Natures bands, seeing these Lights now become the chiefe officers in Natures Court. That shining, before dispersed, was vnited in these bodies, whether by refraction of those former beames by these solide Globes, or by gathering that fierie substance into them, or by both, or by other meanes, I leaue to others coniectures. These be appointed to distinguish day and night, to dispose the diuers seasons of the yeare, to [Page 9] exercise also a naturall influence into inferiour compounded bodies, although not in such vnlimited power as the Esai.41.22. & 44.25. Ier.10.2. Star-gazers imagine; which yet if they had, could ne­uer be knowne of vs in such a multiplicitie of causes, and suddennesse of change, in that vnspeakeable swiftnesse of the Heauens, as appeared by Aug. de ciuit. Dei. lib.5. cap.3. Nigidius Figulus his wheele, which he turned with the swiftest violence, and making a blot or marke ther­in, as it turned made another spot in or neere the same place, as it seemed in that swiftnesse of motion to the beholders, but at the standing still of the wheele, appeared much distant. Of these lights the greatest, not in quantitie, but in operation and see­ming, are the Sunne and Moone, the greatest lights after Macrob. Om­nes ferè deos ad solem resert. Sa­tur. lib.1. cap.17.1. [...], regina coeli, &c. Alij octies, alij 170.solem faciunt terra ma­iorem, &c. abused to the greatest darknesse: the greatest of which seemeth to our eyes little, and yet by rules of Arte is found farre greater then the earth; that we may learne not to trust our sense too much in heauenly things.

In the fifth day God created the Fishes and Fowles, blessing them with power of propagation.

The like he performed the sixth day, in forming the Beasts both wilde and tame, and creeping things: thus furnishing the aire, water, and earth, with their proper In­habitants.

Ouid. Meta­mor. lib. 1.
Sanctius his animal mentis (que) capacius altae,
Deerat adhuc, & quod dominari in caetera posset.
Natus bomo est.

After hee had thus prouided his cheere, hee sought him out a guest, and hauing built and furnished his house, his next care was for a fit inhabitant. Of this, Moses addeth, Furthermore God said, Let vs make man. But this will aske a longer discourse. In the meane time wee haue this testimony of Moses of the Creation of the World, whose sense if I haue missed or misted in these many words, I craue pardon. And al­though this testimonie might suffice a Christian, Faith is the e­uidence of things not seene. Vbi vides non est fides. which must liue by faith, and not by sight: yet to preuent cauillers, we haue other witnesses both of reason and autho­ritie, That this World had a beginning, and that the builder and maker thereof, was God. For, doth not Nature both within and without vs, in the admirable frame of this lesse or that greater World, in the Notions of the one, and the Motions of the other, in the wise & mightie order and ordering of both, lead men vnto a higher and more excellent Nature, Natura natu­rans. which, of his goodnes, we call GOD? When we behold the whole World, or any part of it, in the elements such agreement, in such disagreement: in the heauenly motions such constancie, in such varietie: in these compound bodies, being, liuing, sense, reason; as diuers degrees, diuersly communicated to so many formes and rankes of Creatures: Wee can no more ascribe these things to chance, than a Printers barrell of letters could by chance fall into the right composition of the Bible which he printeth, or of Homers Iliads; to vse Cic. de Nat. Deor. Tullies similitude: neither can any ascribe the Creation to the Creature, with better reason, then if by some shipwracke, being cast on a desolate Iland, and finding houses, but seeing no people therein, he could esteeme the Birds or Beasts (all the Ilanders he seeth) to be the fra­mers of these buildings. But thou mayest thinke it eternall; Thou mayest as well thinke it to be God, Infinite, Vnchangeable, in the whole and in all the parts. Doth not the Land by seasons, the Sea by ebbing and flowing, the Aire by succeeding changes, the Heauens by motions, all measured by Time, proclaime that they had a beginning of Time? Are not Motion and Time as neere Twinnes, as Time and Eter­nitie are implacable enemies? Nay, how canst thou force thy mind to conceiue an E­ternitie in these things, which canst not conceiue Eternitie? which canst not but con­ceiue some beginning, and first terme or point, from whence the motion of this wheele began? And yet how should we know this first turning of the Worlds wheele, whose hearts within vs moue, be we vnwitting or vnwilling, the beginning where­of thou canst not know, and yet canst not but know that it had a beginning, and to­gether with thy bodie shall haue an ending? How little a while is it, that the best [Page 10] So Lucret. l.5. cur supra bel­lum Thebanum & funera Troie, Non alias olij quoque res ceci­nere Poetae?—recens (que) Natura est [...], neq, pri­de exordia cepit. Deus nunquam minus solus, quàm sum solus. Totus cum Deo mundus, non pluris est, quàm Deus solus. Stories in euery Nation, shew the cradle & child-hood therof? Their later receiued Letters, Arts, Ciuilitie? But what then, say they, did God before he made the World? I answere, that thou shouldest rather thinke Diuinely of Man, then Humanely of God, and bring thy selfe to be fashioned after his Image, then frame him after thine. This foolish question some answere according to the foolishnesse thereof, saying, He made Hell for such curious inquisitors. Confess.lib.11.cap. 12 & 13. Aliud est videre, aliud ridere, saith Augu­stine. Libentius responderim nescio quod nescio. Quatempora fussent, quaeabs te condita non essent: Nec intempora tempore praecedis, sed celsitudine semper praesentis aelernitatis, &c. Tert. aduers­Prax. Before all things were, God onely was, and he vnto himselfe was in stead of the World, Place, Time, and all things, hauing all goodnesse in himselfe: the holy Trinitie Prou.8.30. delighting and reioycing together. To communicate therefore (not to en­crease, or receiue) his goodnesse, he created the World, Plin.lib.2 c. 4. quem Graci Pyibagnras is reported the first which cal­led it [...] Merula. [...], (saith Pliny) nomine ornaments appellant, nos à perfecta absoluta (que) elegantia Mundum. But for this matter, it is also of the wisest and most learned in all ages confessed, as their te­stimonies, alleaged by Iustin Martyr, Lactintius and other Ancients, and especially by De veritate C. R. Viu. de veritate christians fidei. Philip Morney, do plainly manifest. To him therefore, to Viues, and others which haue vndertaken this taske, by reason, and by humane authoritie, to conuince the gain-sayers of our faith, let such resort, as would be more fully resolued in these curi­ous doubts. As for all such Of the opi­nions of Phi­losophers tou­ching the ori­ginall of the world, see Me­rula cos.p.1.l.1. strange and phantastical or phreneticall opinions of He­retikes, or Philosophers which haue otherwise related of this mysterie of the Creati­on, then Moses, they need not confuting, and for relating these opinions wee shall find fitter place afterwards. I will neere adde this saying of Vines to such vnnaturall Naturalists, as vpon slight and seeming naturall reasons, call these things into questi­on. De veritate fidei, lib.1. c. 10. Quam stultum est de mundi creatione ex legibus huius Naturae statuere, cùm creatio illa naturam antecosserit? Tum enim natura est condita quando & mundus, nec aliud est natura quam quod Deus iussit; alioqui minister esset Deus naturae, non dominus. Hence was Aristotles Eternitie, Plinies Deitie ascribed to the world, Democritus, Leucippus, and Epicurus, Atomi, the Stoikes Aeterna materia, Plato's Deus, exemplar & materia, as Hex li.1.c.I. Ambrose termeth them, or as Plotinus Enn. 1. lib. 2. vnum or bonum, Mens, Anima, the Platonikes Trinitie. others, vnum or bonum, Mens & Anima (a Trinity without perfect vnitie) the Manichees two beginnings, and an endlesse world of er­rors about the Worlds beginning, because they measured all by Naturall axiomes. In Euseb. Chron. Graec. Scalig. Orpheus, as Theophilus the Chronographer, cited by Cedrenus, alleageth him, hath his Trinitie of [...] to which he ascribeth the Worlds Creation: but the Poets dreames are infinite, which might make and marre their Poeticall Worlds at pleasure.

CHAP. III.

Of Man, considered in his first state wherein he was created: and of Paradise, the place of his habitation.

HItherto we haue spoken of the framing of this mightie Fabrike, the Creation of the visible World, leauing that inuisible to the spirituall Inhabitants, which there alway behold the face of the heauenly Fa­ther, as not daring to prie too farre into such mysteries, Col 2.18. Rashly puft vp with a fleshly mind: This whereof we treate they need not, as fin­ding all sufficience in their Al-sufficient Creator: The inferiour Creatures (which hi­therto haue been described) know it not, but content Bernard. sup. Cunt. Serm.5. themselues with themselues, in enioying their naturall being, mouing, sense, Onely Man, in regard of his body, needeth it, and by the reasonable power of his soule can discerne and vse it. Man therefore was last created, as the end of the rest, an Epitome and Mappe of the World, a compendious little other world, consisting of a visible and inuisible Na­ture, so resembling both the worke and the Worke-man: the lastin execution, but [Page 11] first in intention, to whom all these Creatures should serue, as meanes and prouoca­tions of his seruice to his and their Creator.

Man may be considered, in regard of this life, or of that which is to come: of this life, in respect of Nature of Grace: and this Nature also sustaineth a two-fold consi­deration, of integritie and corruption: For Eccles.7.vlt. God made man righteous, but they sought to themselues many inuentions. His first puritie in his Creation, his fall from thence by sin, his endeuour to recouer his former innocencie by future glory, either in the by-waies of superstition, which Nature (a blind guide) leadeth him into, through so many false religions; or by the true, new and liuing way, which God alone can set him, and doth conduct him in, is the subiect of our tedious taske; the first two more briefely pro­pounded: the two last historically and largely related.

In that first state, his Author and Maker was Iehouah Elohim, God in the plurality of Persons and vnitie of Essence; the Father, by the Sonne, in the power of the Spirit: whereunto, he did not only vse his powerfull word as before, saying, let there be Man, but a consultation, let vs make Man: not that he needed counsaile, but Quia ratio­nalis creatura, quasi cum consi­ [...]lio facta videre­tur. Iunilius in Genes. that he in this Creature did shew his counsaile and wisdome most apparantly. The Father, as first in order, speaketh vnto the Sonne and holy Ghost, and the Sonne and holy Ghost in an vnspeakeable manner speake and decree with the Father; and Socrat. lib. 2. cap.25. the whole Trinitie consult and agree together, to make Man: which Cyril. Al. cont. Iul. lib. 1. for Mans instruction, is by Mo­ses vttered after the manner of Men. The manner of his working was also in this Crea­ture, singular; both in regard of his bodie, which, as a Potter his clay, he wrought and framed of the dust into this goodly shape; and of his soule, which he immediately breathed into his nosthrils.

Thus hath Man cause to glorie in his Creators care, in himselfe to be humbled, ha­uing a bodie framed not of solid earth, but of the dust (the basest and lightest part of the basest and grossest element, Psal 62.9. So vaine a thing is man) his soule of nothing, lighter then vanitie, in the infusion created, and in the Creation infused, to bee the dweller Iob 4.19. in this house of clay, and habitation of dust. Yea not a house, but a 2.Cor.5.1. taberna­cle continually in dissolution. Such is the Maker and Matter of Man. The forme was his conformitie to God, after whose Image he was made. Christ onely is in full resem­blance, the Col.1.15. Image of the inuisible God, Hebr.1.3. the brightnes of his glory, and the ingraued forme of his Person. Man was not this Image, but made ad imaginem, according to this Image, resembling his Author, but with imperfection, in that perfection of humane Nature.

This Image of God appeared in the soule properly, secondly in the bodie (not as the Epiph h [...]r. 71. Anthropomorphite Heretikes, and Papists pi­cture the Tri­nitie, the crea­tion, &c. Popish Image-makers imagine, but) as the instrument of the soule, and lastly in the whole Person. The soule in regard of the spirituall and immortall substance, resembleth him which is a Spirit, and euerlasting: to which some adde the resemblance of the holy Trinitie, in this, that one soule hath those three essentiall faculties of Vnderstanding, Will, and Memorie, or (as others) of Vegetation, Sense, and Reason. In regard of gifts and naturall endowments, the soule in the vnderstanding part receiued a Diuine impression, and character, in that knowledge, whereby she measureth the heauens, bringeth them to the earth, lifteth vp the earth to heauen, mounteth aboue the heauens to behold the Angels, pierceth the center of the earth in darknesse to discerne the infernall regions and legions, be­neath and aboue them all searcheth into the diuine Nature: whereby, Genes. 2. Adam was without studie the greatest Philosopher, (who at first sight knew the nature of the beasts, the originall of the Woman) and the greatest Diuine, (except the second A­dam) that euer the earth bare. The will also, in free choice of the best things, in Ephes. 4.24. righ­teous disposition towards man, and true holines towards God, was conformed to his will, for whose willes sake it is, and was created. The body cannot so liuely expresse the vertue of him that made it, but as it could, in that perfect constitution, ( Psal. 139.14. so feare­fully and wonderfully made Pronaq [...], cum spectent anima­lia caeter a ter­ram, Os homini sublime dedit, &c. Ouid. ) and as the organ of the soule, whose weapon it was to righteousnes, had some shadow thereof. The whole Man in his natural Nobilitie be­yond, & Princely dominion ouer the other Creatures (that we mention not the hope [Page 12] of future blessednesse) sheweth after what Image Man was created, and to what hee should be renued. The end whereunto God made Man, is God himselfe, who hath made all things for himselfe: the subordinate end was Mans endlesse happinesse, the way whereunto is religious obedience.

Moses addeth, Gen. 1.27. He created them male and female, thereby to shew, that the Wo­man in OEconomicall respect is 1.Cor.11.7. the image and glorie of the Man, being created for the Man, and of the Man, but in relation to God, or the World, She as a Creature, was also framed after the same Image. As for that monstrous conceit of the Rabbins, that the first Man was an Hermaphrodite, it deserueth not confutation or mention. The order of the Womans creation is plainly related. God Gen. 2.21. finding not a meet help for Adam, in his sleepe tooke one of his ribs, whereof he built the Woman. This in a my­sterie signified that deadly sleepe of the heauenly Adam on the Crosse, whose stripes were our healing, whose death was our life, and out of whose bleeding side was by Diuine dispensation framed his Spouse the Church. This may be part of the sense, or an application thereof, as M [...]tak de S [...]riot. quest. 5. some say, to this mysterie; or the signification rather of the [...] [...] [...] op [...]ic [...]lat [...] qui [...]d [...] [...] [...] Si [...] diffe­ [...], q [...]d in cop [...]um per [...]ba quae reci­tantur, de rebus qibusdam agi­tur: quae rursum res, viceverbo rum, ad signifi­cation acia­rum rerum pro­pan [...]tur. Hugo de S. Vict. to. 1. thing it selfe heere declared, then of the words, which properly and plainely set downe the Historie of a thing done, after the literall sense to be expounded.

According to this sense, Moses expresseth the Creation, the making and marry­ing of the Woman. The Maker was God, the matter a ribbe of Adam, the forme a building, the end to be a meete helpe. The Man was made of dust, the Woman of the Man, to be one flesh with the Man, and of a ribbe, to be a helpe and supporter of him in his calling, which requireth strength: neither could any bone be more easily spared, in the whole bodie, which hath not such varietie of any other kind: nor could any place more designe the Woman her due place, not of the head, that shee should not arrogate rule; not of the feet, that the husband should not reckon her as his slaue; but in a meane betweene both, and that neere the heart, in which they should (as in all Diuine and Humane Lawes else) be fastioyned. The building of this bodie of the Woman was, in regard of the Progenie, which was in that larger roome to haue the first dwelling. The soule of the Woman is to bee conceiued, Ne animū [...]d [...]ertas externo homini; integumentum est h [...]: sane & anima [...]lis est: in v [...]lami­n [...]us differentia est. Basil. as the soule of the man before mentioned, immediately infused and created by God, herein equall to man.

Being thus made, she is married by God himselfe vnto Adam, who brought her vnto him, to shew the sacred authoritie of marriage, and of parents in marriage: A mutuall consent and gratulation followeth betweene the parties, least any should ty­rannically abuse his fatherly power. And thus are two made one flesh in regard of one originall, equall right, mutuall consent, and bodily coniunction. And thus were this goodly couple glorious in nakednes, not so much in the ornaments of beautie, which made them to each other amiable, as of Maiestie, which made them to other crea­tures dreadfull: the Image of God clothing that nakednesse, which in vs Apoc. 3.19. appeareth silthie, in the most costly clothing. God further blessed them both with the power of multiplication in their owne kind, and dominion ouer other kinds: and gaue them for food Gen.1.29. euery herbe bearing seed, which is vpon all the earth, and euery tree, wherein is the fruit of a tree bearing seed. He doth (as it were) set them in possession of the Crea­tures, which by a charter of free gift he had conueyed to them, to hold of him as Lord Paramount.

But least any should thinke this but a niggardly and vnequall gift, whereas since the sloud more hath been added, and that in a more vnworthinesse through mans sin: let him consider, that, since the fall, Gen 3.17. Gen.9.3. the earth is accursed, whereby many things are hurtfull to mans nature, and in those which are wholesome, there is not such varietie of kinds, such plentie in each varietie, such ease in getting our plentie, or such quality in what is gotten, in the degree of goodnes and sweetnes to the taste & nourishment. Which had they remained in this sickely and elder age of the world, we should not need to enuie Cleopatra's vanitie, or Heliogabalus his superfluity & curiositie. And had not man sinned, there should not haue needed the death of beasts to nourish his life, [Page 13] which without such stay should haue beene immortall: the vse whereof was after granted, rather to supply necessitie, when the Floud had weakened the Farth, then to minister a greater abundance then before it hand: and least of all to satisfie the gree­die and curious appetites of more then beastly men.

Liberall and bountifull was Gods allowance, which yet as man abused in eating the forbidden fruit, so whether any sinfull men did transgresse by eating the flesh of beasts, as iniquitie increased, it is vncertaine. And yet it is likely, that when the earth was Gen. 6.11. filled with crueltie, as men escaped not beastly but chery, so beasts escaped not but cherly inhumanity: and men, that stay not now for commission to eate mans flesh, would then much lesse aske leaue to feede on beasts. Then did the godly Pa­triarches liue many hundred yeeres The Fathers did not eate flesh before the floud. Orig­in Gene. hom. i. Chrysost. hom. 27.Genes. without such foode, whereas now wee reach not to one with this helpe, that I speake not of those which by abuse heereof are as cruell to themselues, (in shortning their dayes by surfeits) as to the Creatures, ma­king their bellies to become warrens, fish-pooles, shambles, and what not, saue what they should be? Had not man bin diuellish in sinning, he had not bin beastly in feeding, nay the beasts had abhorred that which now they practise, both against their Lord and their fellow-seruants. Es. 11.6. The Woolfe should haue dwelt with the Lambe, the Leopard should haue lien with the Kid, and the Calfe, and the Lion, and the fat beast to­gether, and a little Childe might leade them. Eas.hex. ho. 11. lunil. in Ge. Pererius rela­teth the opini­ons of Bona­uenture, Tolla­tus, Ephrem, Isi­dore: Also Va­dianus, Goropi', Beroaldus in Chronico, Iunius & others haue largely hand­led this questi­on of paradise. And this in the time of the Floud appea­red, when all of them kept the peace with each other, and dutifull allegeance to their Prince in that great family and little mooueable world, Neahs Arke.

The place of Adams dwelling is expressed by Moses: And the Lord God planted a garden Eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whome he had made, Gen.2.8.Maruell it is to see the confusion which sinne bringeth, which appeareth not onely in the bo­dy, soule, diet and other prerogatiues of our first parents, but in this place also, then a place of pleasure, a Paradise and garden of delights: after, a place prohibited, and kept by the blade of a sword shaken: now the place cannot be found in earth, but is be­come a common place in mens braines, to macerate and vexe them in the curious search hereof. Ambrose in his long Trea­tise de Paradiso leaneth too much this way. Some doe conuert this History into an allegorie, as did the Mani­chees, and the Originists, confuted by Methodius, as Epiphan.libr. Ancor. & contr.baeres.libr.2. Epiphanius witnesseth. Hie­rome in 'Dan.10. saith, that seeking for shadowes in the truth, they ouer-turne the truth it selfe. Vmbras & imagines in veritate quaerentes, ipsam conantur euertere verit a­tem, vt flumina & arbores & paradisum putent allegoriae legibiss se debere subruere. Such mysticall Mist-all and Misse-all Interpreters are our Familists in these times, by vn­seasonable and vnreasonable allegories, raising mists ouer the Scripture-sense, which thereby they misse and cannot finde. De Gen.li 8. ca. 1.& de Ciu. Dei li.12 ca. 21. Augustine relateth three opinions, that alle­goricall, which hee confuteth: the literali, and that which followeth both the one and the other, as himselfe doth. The Aug.de Haeres. Hermiaens and Seleucians are said to deny, that there was any such place: And the naked Adamites accounted their Church to be Pa­radise. Others are as prodigall, and ascribe hereunto all the Earth, which was a Para­dise, til sinne brought in a curse. Thus holdeth Wolfg. Wis­senburg praefat. ad Dom.Nig. Gor.Bec. Becces. Ioac. Vad.de Paradiso. Likewise Hu­go de S. Vict. reckoneth this opinion totam terram suturam Paradisum, si homo non pec­casset: totam fa­ctam exilium per peccatum. Annot.in.Gen. Wolfgangus Wissenburg, Goropius also, and Vadianus are of like minde, That mans exile was but the alteration of their hap­py condition, that the fiery sword was the fiery Zone &c. A great while it went for currant, that it was a pleasant region, by a long tract of sea and land separated from our habitable world, and lifted vp to the circle of the Moone, whereby it was out of the reach of Noahs floud. This hath Histor Scho­last. Petrus Comestor and Stratus: and many tra­uellers in old times haue trauelled with this conceit, but brought forth a lie, as ap­peareth by their Legends. Leg.aurea. That saint Brandon sailed thither from Ireland, is as true as that he met Indas in the way released from his paines, (as he was alway from Sa­turday to Sunday Euensong:) or that they made fire on a fish (supposing it to be an Iland) which if he could once get his taile into his mouth, would ouerturn the world, as that Legend telleth. It should seeme the man in the Moone called him, and shew­ed him the way to this Paradise. Others place it Eastward, in the highest top of the earth, where the foure Riuers, mentioned by Moses, haue their originall, whence they [Page 14] runne, and are swallowed vp of the Earth, and after rising in diuerse places of the world, are knowne by the names of Nilus, Ganges, Tigris, Euphrates. Hugo Annot. in Genes. Hugo de S. Victore and Adrichomius Adric. Chron. are of this opinion: yea the great Cardinall Caietane Caictan.in Genes.7. and Bellarmine, Bell.de Rom. Pont.lib.3.ca.6. & de grat. pri­mi hominis. place Henoch and Elias in earthly Paradise, yet liuing there vntil the time of Antichrist, which wood he cannot see (being in the middest of it) for trees. But the discouery of the World by Trauellers, and description thereof by Geogra­phers, wil not suffer vs to follow them (to the want of which Art, I meane Geogra­phie, such phantasies may bee imputed) whereby also is confuted the opinion of them, which place it vnder the Equinoctiall circle, as Durandus and Bonancntura.

Phil.Melanc, & Carion. Others account so much to Paradise, as those foure Riuers doe water, euen the chiefe part of Afrike and Asia: and some confine it in streighter limits of Syria, Ara­bia and Mesopotamia, as if Adam had beene so couetous as his Posteritie, or so la­borious as to husband so large Countries. The salfe interpretation of those Riuers to be Nilus, Ganges &c. was the cause of this errour, the In Es.23.3. & Iere.2.1.8. Septuagint translating in stead of Sichor (which is Nilus) Gihon the name of one of these streames.

Moses as it were of purpose by an exact chorography and delineation of the situ­ation, doth meete with those errors, and with other the like, which I doe not heere relate. Neither is their opinion to be followed, which drowne all altogether in the deluge, seeing that after that time Moses wrote this. Franciscus Iunius in his readings on Genesis See also, An­not. Trem.& Iun.in Gen.2. hath largely and learnedly handled this matter, and added a Mappe al­so of Heden in which it stoode, and the course of the Riuers with the Countries ad­iacent. In him the Reader may finde satisfaction. He sheweth out of Curtius, Plime, and Solinus, the miraculous fertilitie of that part of Babylonia, which Ptolomy cal­leth Auranitis or Audanitis, easily declined from Heden, the name given by Moses, mentioned after Moses time, 2.Rag.19 12. and Es.37.12.

For the foure Riuers he sheweth them out of Ptolomey, Strabo, Plinie, Dion, Mar­cellinus &c. to be so many diuisions of Euphrates, whereof Baharsares or Neharsa­res is Gihon, that which passeth through Babylon is, for the excellency, peculiarly cal­led Perath or Euphrates; Nehar-malca or Basilius, Pishon; Tigris, Tigris is both the grea­ter riuer and a smaller which runneth out of Euphrates into Tigris, which is heere meant. Chiddekel. For the fiery Sword he obserueth out of Pliny li.2.ca.106. a certaine miracle of Nature in Ba­bylonia, where the ground is seene burning continually about the quantitie of an a­cre. But this place will not serve to dispute this poynt. If those Rivers doe not now remaine, or have altered either channell or names, it is no new thing in so old a con­tinuance of the world. It is more then probable, that heere in these parts Paradise was, although now deformed by the Floud, and by Time consumed and become a stage of barbarisme.

Neither hath the place alone bin such a pitched field of Opinions, but the fruit al­so which Moses expresseth to be the instrument & occasion of Adams ruine, hath set some mens teeth on edge, who tell vs what it is, as if they had lately tasted of it, a certayne signe indeede, and fruit, of that once vnlawfull tasting. Goro. Becan. Indoscythica. Goropius a man addicted to opinions, which I know not whether hee did holde more strangely, or strongly, though he enlargeth Paradise ouer the world, yet he maketh Adam an In­dian (maruaile he placeth him not in Dutch-land, for that was his language, if Beca­nus be to be beleeued.) About the riuer Acesines betwixt Indus and Ganges (saieth he) groweth that admirable Figge tree, which hee at large describeth out of Plinie, Theophrastus and Strabo, whose branches spreading from the body, doe bend them­selues downewards to the earth, where they take hold, and with new rooting multi­ply themselues, like a maze or wood. One told Car.Clus.Exo­ticorum. Clusius that hee himselfe had beene one of eight hundred or a thousand men, which had hidden themselues vnder one of these trees, adding, that some of them were able to couer three thousand men.

Strange is this tree, and Becanus is with conceit hereof ravished into the pleasures of Paradise. This tree Linschoten lib. 1.ca.58. Linschoten describeth growing about Goa, and (to bring vs out of Goropius Paradise) saith that it hath no fruit worth the eating: but a small kind like Olives, which is food only forbirds. He telleth vs c. 55. of another Indian Fig tree, [Page 15] growing rather like a Reede then a Tree, a mans height, a spanne thicke, the leaves a fathome long, and three spannes broad: The Arabians and Indians suppose this to be that dismall fruit. The cause of this opinion Paludanus in his Annotations vpon Linschoten ascribeth to the pleasantnes of the smel and tast. Being cut in the middle, it hath certaine veines like a Crosse, whereon the Christians in Syria make many spe­culations. Yea the same Author telleth of a hill in the Ile of Seilan, called Adams hill, where they shew his foot-print, to prove that he lived there: of which reade our dis­course of that Iland, lt. 5.ca.14. Boskhier in his Ara coeli citeth out of Moses Barce­pha, That wheat was the Tree of knowledge of good and euill; and so doe the Sa­racens hold: so curious and vaine is blinde Reason without a guide.

But I thinke I have wearied the Reader, with leading him thus vp and downe in Paradise; small fruit I confesse is in this fruit, and as little pleasure in this Paradise, but that variety happily may please some, though it be to others tedious. And for a conclusion it is, I thinke, worth the noting, that M. Cartwright an eye-witnesse, The Prea­chers trauells. by the counsel of the Nestorian Patriark at Mosul or Niniuie visited the Ile of Eden, stil so called, and by them holden a part of Paradise, ten miles in circuit, and some­time walled: which if it be not part of that garden-plot mentioned by Moses, yet it seemes, is part of that country somtime called Eden, in the East part whereof Paradise was planted, and not far (according to Iunius Map) from that happy vnhappy place.

CHAP. IIII.

Of the word Religion, and of the Religion of our first Parents before the fall.

HAuing thus made way to our history of Religions, the first (and there­fore best) Religion, is in the first place to be declared. Only somwhat may be, not vnfitly, spoken before of the word. Religion in it selfe is naturall, written in the hearts of all men, which wil (as here we shew) rather be of a false then no Religion: but the name whereby it is so called, is by birth a forreiner, by common vse made a free-denizen among vs, descen­ded from the Romans, which by their swords made way for their words, the Authors both of the thing it selfe and of the appellation, to a great part of this Westerne world. But as the Latines have accustomed themselves to multiplicitie and varietie of Rites, so have they varied not a little about the Parents (as I may say) of this child, (as the Grecians sometimes, about Homers birth-place) some giving one etymolo­gie and derivation of the word, and some another, that there needeth some Herald to shew the true petigree, or some Grammarian Dictator to cease the strife.

Saturnal.libr.3.ca.3. Servius Sulpitius (as Macrobius citeth him) calleth that Religion, which for some holinesse is removed and separated from vs, quasi relictam à relinquendo dictam. Servius deserveth to be relinquished, and his opinion removed and separated even with an Anathema, if he would remove and separate Religion from vs, which is the life of our life, the way to our happines. The like is added of Ceremonia à carendo di­cta, a iust name and reason of the most of the present Romish Ceremonies, whose want were their best company. Massurius Sabinus in Noc. At.libr. 4 ca 9. A. Gellius hath the like words. Religio, with Tully, is Cultus deorū, the worship of the gods, hereby distinguished from Superstition, because they were, saith he, called Superstitious, that spent whole daies in praier & sacrifices, that their children might be Superstites, survivors after them: (or rather as Lact.l.4.c.28. Qui superstitens memoriā defunctorū colunt, aut qui parentibus suis superstites celebrant imagines eorū domi, tanquā deos penates. But they which diligently vsed and perused the things pertaining to divine worship, & tanquam relegerent, were called Religious, Religiosi ex religendo tanquā ex eligendo eligentes, intelligendo intelligen­tes. [Page 16] Religiosum à superstitioso ea distinctione dis­cernit Varr [...], vt à superstitio [...]o di­cat timeri deos, à religioso autem tantum vereri vt parentes, non vt hostes timeri. Aug. de Ciuit. lib 6.ca.6. Saint Augustine better acquainted with religion than Cicero commeth neerer to the name and nature thereof, deriuing it De Ciuit Dei libr.10.ca.4. à religendo of chusing againe. Hunc eligentes, vel potius religentes, amiseramus enim negligentes, vnde & religio dicta perhibetur: This word Religens is cited by Nigidius Figulus in Aulus Gellius; Religentem esse oportet, Religiosum nefas: Religiosus being taken in bad sense for superstitiosus. The same Fa­ther elsewhere, in his Booke de Vera Religione In sine. acknowledgeth another originall of the word, which Lactantius béfore him had obserued, à religando, of fastning, as be­ing the bond betweene vs and God. Vbisupra. Ad Deum tendentes, saith Augustine, & ci vnire­ligantes animas nostras unde religio dicta creditur. Religet ergonos Religio vni ommpe­tenti Deo. Lactantius his words are; Diximus nomen religionis à vinculo pietatis esse deductum, quòd hommem sibi Deus religaucrit & pietate constrinxerit, quia seruire nos ei vt dommo & obsequi vt patri necesseest. Melius ergo (quàm Cicero) idnomen Lucretius interpretatus est, quia dit sereligionuin nodos exolvere. And according to this ctymolo­gie is that which Master Camden saith, Religion in old English was called Ean-fast­nes, as the one and onely Assurance and fast Anker-hold of our soules health. Camden Rem.

De vocabulo Religionis vide Suarez ae Re­lig [...]li 1. & Stuck­ [...]m de sacris & sacrificijs Gentium. qui E­tymon dat eti­am [...]iuum, Cultus, Ceremonia, P [...]e [...]as, &c. Graec. Latin. Hebr.buc per­tinentiu [...]. This is the effect of sinne and irreligion, that the name and practise of Religion is thus diuersified, else had there bin, as one God, so one religion, and one language, wherein to giue it with iust reason, a proper name. For till men did relinquere. relin­quish their first innocencie, and the Author of whom, and in whom they held it, they needed not religere, to make a second choice, or seek reconciliation, nor thus religere, with such paines and vexation of spirit to enquire and practise those things which might religare, binde them surer and faster vnto God: and in these respects for seue­rall causes Religion might seeme to be deriued from all those fountains. Thus much of the word, whereby the nature of Religion is in part declared, but more fully by the description thereof.

Religio est, saith 83. Quaest.q.31. Augustine, quae superioris cuiusdam naturae quaem diuinam vo­cant, curam ceremoniamque affert. Religion is heere described generally (whether falsely or truly) professing the inward obseruation and ceremoniall outward worship of that which is esteemed a higher and diuine nature. The true Religion is the true rule and right way of serving God. Or to speake as the case now standeth with vs, Ma [...]n.de vera Christ relig, [...].20 True re­ligion is the right way of reconciling and reuniting man to God, that he may be saued. This true way he alone can shew vs, who is the Way and the Truth, neither can we see this same, except hee first see vs, and giue vs both eyes to see, and light also where­by to discerne him.

But to come to Adam, the subiect of our present discourse. His Religion before his fall, was not to reunite him to God, from whome he had not beene se­parated, but to vnite him faster, and daily to knit him neerer, in the experience of that which Nature had ingrafted in him. For what else was his Religion, but a pure streame of Iusticia origi­nalis. Originall Righteousnesse, flowing from that Image of God, where­vnto he was created? Whereby his minde was enlightned to know the onely ve­rie God, and his heart was engrauen, not with the letter, but the life and power of the Law, louing and prouing that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God. The whole man was conformable, and endeuoured this holy practise, the bodie being pliant and flexible to the rule of the Soule, the Soule to the Spirit, the Spirit to the Father of Spirits, and God of all Flesh, which no lesse accepted of this obedience, and delighted (as the Father in his Child) in this new modell of himselfe. How happie was that blessed familiaritie with God, societie of Angels, subiection of Creatures, enuied onely of the Diuels, because this was so good, and they so wic­ked? Nature was his Schoolemaster; or if you will rather, Gods Vsher, that taught him (without learning) all the rules of diuine Learning, of Politicall, Oeconomicall, and Morall wisdome.

The whole Law was perfectly written in the fleshie Tables of his heart, besides [Page 17] the especial command concerning the trees in the middest of the Garden, the one be­ing an vniuersall and euerlasting rule of righteousnesse, the other by speciall autho­ritie appointed, as the manifestation of Godss Diuine prerogatiue in commanding, and a triall of mans integritie in obeying. For the first part hereof, since it was so blurred in our hearts, it was renued by the voyce and finger of God on Mount Sinai, giuen then immediately by God himselfe, as God ouer all; whereas the other parts of the Law containing the Ceremoniall and Politicall ordinances, were mediately giuen by the Ministerie of Moses, as to that particular Nation.

Neither know I any that make doubt of this whole Law naturally and origi­nally communicated: saue onely that some make question of the Sabbath. How­beit, I must confesse that I see nothing in that Commandement of the Decalogue prescribed, but is Naturall and Morall: for, both the Rest is so farre Morall, as the outward actes of Diuine worshippe cannot bee performed without suspen­ding for a while our bodily labours: although Rest, as a figure, bee Iewish, and in it selfe, is either a fruit of wearinesse or idlenesse. And that the seuenth dayes obseruation is naturall (I meane the obseruing one day of seuen in euerie weeke) appeareth both by the first order established in Nature, when God blessed and sanctified the seuenth day; Caluia. Fagi­t [...]s, Pagninus, vrsinus, Hospin­ [...]tyr, tumus, Zanch. OF. co­lamp. Gibbins besides Per­kins, round, Greenham, Ro­gers and o­thers. the streame of Interpreters, especially the later, run­ning and ioyning in this interpretation, (the Elder being somewhat more then e­nough busied in Allegories): by the reason in the Commandement, drawne from Gods example and sanctification in the Creation: by the obseruation of a Sab­bath, before this promulgation of the Law, Exod. 16. and by the diuision of the dayes into weekes, The Hea­thens by the light of Na­ture had their weekes; as ap­peareth by na­ming the daies after the seuen Planets: and Saturday or Saturns day was by the Gentiles sequestred from Ciuill and Martiall af­faires, being esteemed most fit for contem­plation and deuotion, as saith Aretius, Probl. de Sab. both then and before by Noeh, Genes.8. 10. 12. by the ne­cessitie of a Sabbath, as well before the Law in the dayes of the Patriarkes, as in the times of Dauid or Salomon: by the perfection of the number of seuen in the Scriptures: by the generall consent of all, that it is Morall to set apart some time to the Lord of times, and an orderly set time to the God of order, which men might generally agree on for their publike deuotions: which the Patriarkes pra­ctised in their sacrifices and assemblies; the Heathens blindly, as other things, in their Feasts.

Hereunto agreeth the iudgement of Aquinas, Secunda se­cunde. q.122. art.4. Praeceptum de sanctificatione Sab­bathi ponitur inter praecepta decalogi, in quantum est praeceptum morale, non in quantum est caeremoniale. The Precept of sanctifying the Sabbath, is set amongst the Precepts of the Decalogue, as it is a morall, not as ceremoniall Precept. It hath pleased him, Eccles. Pol. lib.5. [...].70. saith M. Hooker, as of the rest, so of times to exact some parts by way of perpetuall homage, neuer to be dispensed with al nor remitted. The Morall law requiring therfore a seuenth part through­out the age of the whole world to be that way imployed, although with vs the day be changed in regard of a new reuolution begun by our Sauiour Christ, yet the same proportion of time continueth which was before, because in reference to the benefit of Creation, and now much more of renouation thereunto added by him, which was Prince of the world to come, we are bound to account the sanctification of one day in seuen, a dutie which Gods immutable law doth, exact for euer. Thus farre Hooker.

This indeed in the Sabbath was Iewish and Ceremoniall to obserue onely that last and seuenth day of the weeke, and that as a figure, and lastly with those appointed Ceremonies, and that manner of obseruation. Thus saith Aquinas Vbisupra: Habere aliquod tampus deputatum ad vacaendum dominis, cadit sub praecepto morali. Sed in quantum, &c. To haue some set time for the seruice of God is morall: but so farre this Praecept is ceremoniall, as in it is determined a speciall time, in signe of the Creation of the World. Likewise it is ce­remoniall, according to the allegoricall signification; in as much as it was a signe of the Rest of Christ in the graue, which was the seuenth day. And likewise according to the morall signification, as it signifieth a ceasing from euery act of sin, and the Rest of the mind in God. Likewise according to the Anagogicall signification, as it prefigureth the Rest of the fruition of God, which shall be in our Countrie.

[Page 18] To these obseruations of Thomas we may adde that strictnesse of the obseruation, That they might not kindle a fire on the Sabbath, and such like. And howsoeuer some testimonies of the Fathers be alledged against this truth, & to proue, that the Sabbath was borne at Mount Sinai, as of Cited by Bellarmin. de imagin.l.2.c.7. and by others. Tertullian, Iustin Mariyr, Eusebius, Cyprian, Au­gustine, which denie the Sabbatising of the Patriarchs before that time, and account it typicall. Why may we not interprete them of that Sabbath of the Iewes, which wee haue thus distinguished from the morali Sabbath, by those former notes of dif­ference? Bronghton in his Concent alledgeth the Consent of Rabbins, as of Ram­ban on Gen.26. and Aben Ezra vpon Exod. 20. That the Fathers obserued the Sabbath before Moses. And Moses himselfe no sooner commeth to a seuenth day, but he sheweth, that Gen.2.2,3. God rested, blessed, sanctified the same.

It resteth therefore, that a time of rest from bodily labour was sanctified vnto spi­rituall deuotions from the beginning of the world, and that a seuenth dayes rest began, not with the Mosaicall Ceremonies in the Wildernesse (as some men will haue it) but with Adam in Paradise. That which is morall (say some) is eternall, and must not giue place; I answere, That the Commaundements are eternall, but yet subordinate. There is a Mark.12.28,&31. first of all the Commandements, and there is a second like to this, like in qualitie, not in equalitie: and in euery Commaundement, the Soule of obedience (which is the obedience of the soule) taketh place of that bodie of obe­dience which is performed by the bodie. Mercie is preferred before sacrifice, and charitie before outward worship; Act.10.9. Paul stayeth his preaching, to heale Emychus: Christ patronizeth Mark.2.25. his Disciples, plucking the eares of Corne, and affirmeth, That the Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath. Although therefore both rest and workes of the Sabbath giue place to such duties, which the present occasion presenteth, as more weightie and necessarie to that time, yet doth it not follow, that the Sabbath is not morall, no more than the Commandement of almes is not morall, because (as Qualitas praeceptorum praefigit metam. Esi. v.g. man­datum, non fu­raberis, & est mandatum, omni petenti re, da. Virumque quidem magnū, quoniā [...]trum (que), diuinum, sed de non [...], maius. Non aequè displicent tena­ces at (que) fures Bern. de praecep. & dispensat. Bernard obserueth) the prohibitiue Commaundement of stealing is of greater force, and more bindeth. And in a word, the Negatiue Precepts are of more force, and Negatiue Precepts bind at all times, & to all times: the affirmatiue bind at all times, but not to all times: and therefore negatiue are of more force. Perkins Ser. Causarum. more vniuersally bind than the affirmatiue. A man must hate his father and mother for Christs sake, and breake the Sabbaths rest for his neighbour, in cases of necessitie. And therefore such scrupulous Refert. Tho. Rogers. fancies as some obtrude vnder the name of the Sabbath, esteeming it a greater sinne to violate this holy Rest, than to commit murther, cannot be defended.

Pardon this long Discourse, whereunto the longer Discourses of others haue brought me. But now mee thinkes I heare thee say, And what is all this to A­dams integritie? Doubtlesse, Adam had his particular calling, to till the ground: his generall calling also, to serue God; which as hee was spiritually to performe in all things, so being a body, he was to haue time and place set apart for the bodily performance thereof. And what example could hee better follow then of his Lord and Creator? But some obiect, This is to slacken him running, rather then to incite and prouoke him; to bind, and not to loose him, can not be a spurre, but a bridle to his deuotion: but they should consider, that we do not tie Adam to the seuenth day onely, but to the seuenth especially, wherein to performe set, publike, and solemne worship. Neither did Daniel, that prayed thrice a day, or Dauid, in his seuen times, or Saint Paul, in his iniunction of praying continually, conceiue that the Sabbath would hinder men, and not rather further them in these workes. Neither was A­dams state so excellent, as that he needed no helpes; which wofull experience in his fall hath taught. God gaue him power to liue, yea with an euerlasting life: & should not Adam therefore haue eaten, yea and haue had conuenient times for foode and sleepe and other naturall necessities? How much more in this perfect, yet flexible and variable condition of his soule, did hee need meanes of establishment, although euen in his outward calling he did not forget, nor was forgotten? Which outward workes, though they were not irkesome and tedious, as sinne hath made them to vs, yet did they detaine his body, and somewhat distract his mind, from that full and [Page 19] entire seruice which the Sabbath might exact of him. Neither doe they shew any strong reason for their opinion, which hold the sanctification of the Sabbath, Gen. 2. to be set downe by way of anticipation, or as a preparatiue to the Iewish Sabbath, or­dained Setbus Ca­tris. 2453. Bur. Ormeerus, &c. 1454. 2453 yeares after.

If any shall aske why the same seuenth day is not still obserued of Christians; I answère, this was figuratiue, and is abolished; but a seuenth day still remaineth. Lex naturalis est. coniunctam habens ceremonialem designationem diei (saith Iunius.) The Law is naturall, hauing adioyned thereto the ceremoniall appointment of the day. But why is this day now called the Lords day? I answere, euen therefore, because it is the Lords day, not changed by the Churches Constitution Meere, as some seeme to hold; except by the Churches authoritie they meane Christ and his Apostles: nor descended to vs by Tradition, as the Papists maintaine, seeing the Scriptures Act. 20.7.1. Cor. 16.21. Apoc. 1.10. mention the name and celebration by the constant pra­ctise of the Apostles: yea, Christ himselfe, as he rose on that day, so did he vsually ap­peare on that day to his Apostles before his Ascension. Christ therefore and his Apo­stles are our authors of this change. And the Church euer since hath constantly ob­serued it. The Fathers teach, yea the Papists themselues acknowledge this truth. So Bellarmine de Cultu Sanct. l. 3. c. 11. sayth, Ius diuintum requirebat vt vnus dies Hebdo­made dicaretur cultni diuino: non autem conuexiebat vt seruaretur Sabbathum: staque ab Apostolis in drem Dominicum versum Congerit ibi testimonia Igna­ty, Tertull. Clem. Orig. Athanas. Ambros. Hicron. Gregor. Leonin. Hilary. est. It was in the Primitiue Church called the Lords day, Chrys. Ser. 5. de Resurrect. the day of Bread and of Light, because of the Sacraments of the Sup­per and Baptisme, therein administred, called Bread and Light. And how it may be ascribed to Tradition, Bell. deverbo Deinon scripto, l. 4. c. 7. Bellarmine, the great Patron of Traditions, sheweth out of Iustin Martyr, who sayth, Christus hacillis (Apostolis & Discipulis) tradaidit. Iustin in fine 2. Apolog. He there also reporteth, That they had their Ecclesiasticall Assem­blies euery Lords day. The Rhemists, which ascribe it to Tradition in Annot. Mat. 15. acknowledge the institution thereof, in Annot. 1.Cor. 16. 2. Ignatius may be allowed Arbiter in this question of the Sabbath, who thus writeth to the Magnesians: Non Sabbatisemus, Let vs not obserue the Sabbath after the Iewish manner, as delighting in ease; For he that worketh not, let him not eat: but let euery one of vs keepe the Sab­bath spiritually, not eating meat dressed the day before, and walking set spaces, &c. But let euery Christian celebrate the Lords day, consecrated to the Lords resurrecti­on, as the Queene and Princesse of all dayes.

Now for the particular Commaundement, which was giuen him as an especiall proofe of his obedience, in a thing otherwise not vnlawfull, it was the forbidding him to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. For in the middest of the Garden God had planted two Trees, which some call Sacraments, and were, by Gods Ordi­nance, signes vnto him; one of life, if he obeyed; the other of death, by disobedience: Not as the Iewes thought, and Iulian scoffed, That the Tree had power to giue sharp­nesse of wit. And although some thinke signes needlesse to so excellent a creature; yet being mutable, subiect to temptation, and each way flexible to vertue or vice, ac­cording as he vsed his naturall power of free will, I see not why they should denie God that libertie to impose, or man that necessitie to need such monitories, and (as it were) Sacramentall instructions. For what might these Trees haue furthered him in carefulnesse, if he had considered life and death, not so much in these Trees, as in his free-will, and obeying or disobeying his Creator?

These Trees, in regard of their signification, and euent, are called the Tree of Life, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and euill; which was not euill or hurtfull in it selfe, but was a visible rule, whereby good and euill should be knowne, and that by reason of the Commaundement annexed, which he might by this Precept see to be grounded in obeying or disobeying the authoritie of the Law-giuer. An easie rule, and yet too easily broken. For when as God did hereby chalenge his owne Soue­raignetie, by imposing so easie a fine, which might haue forbidden all but one (as con­trariwise he allowed) and fore-signified the danger, that he might continue his good­nesse [Page 20] to man, continuing in obedience, yet did Man herein shew his contempt, in reiecting so easie a yoake, and so light a burthen. I will not reason whether these two Trees may properly be called Sacraments; of which (say some) the one was but for the bodily life, and better neuer to haue touched the other; this wee know, that in eating of this he lost both bodily and spirituall life, which the name and institution thereof fore-warned, and should haue preunted: otherwise, in eating of the other, immortalitie had beene sealed both in soule and bodie, to him and his for euer. Strange it seemeth, that he should need no monitorie signes to preuent that, which, euen with these helpes added, he did not eschew.

CHAP. V.

Of the fall of Man: and of Originall Sixne.

HItherto we haue beheld the Creation of the World, and of our first Parents, the liuely Images of the Creator and the Creature; whome we haue somewhat leisurely viewed in a naked Maiestie, delighting themselues in the enamelled walkes of their delightfull garden. The Riuers whereof ranne to present their best offices to their new Lords, from which they were forced by the backer streames, greedie of the sight and place which they could not hold: The Trees stouped to behold them, offering their shadie mantle and varietie of fruits, as their naturall tribute: each creature in a silent gladnesse reioyced in them, and they enioyed all mutuall comforts in the Crea­tor, the Creatures, and in themselues. A blessed payre, who enioyed all they desi­red, whiles their desire was worth the enioying: Lords of all, and of more than all, Content; which might, in all they saw, see their Makers bountie: and beyond all they could see, might see themselues comprehended, where they could not compre­hend: of that infinite Greatnesse and Goodnesse, which they could not but loue, reuerence, admire, and adore. This was then their Religion, to acknowledge with thankfulnesse, to be thankfull in obedience, to obey with cheerefulnesse, the Author of all this good: to the performance whereof they found no outward, no inward im­pediment; Sicknesse, Perturbation, and Death (the deformed issue of Sinne) not yet being entred into the world.

In this plight did Sathan (that old Serpent) see, disdaine, and enuie them. It was not enough for him and the diuellish crue of his damned associates, for their late re­bellion, to be banished Heauen, but the inferiour World must bee filled with his ve­nome, working that malice on the creatures here, which he could not there so easily wrecke on their Creator. And because Man was here Gods Deputie and Lieute­nant, as a pettie God on the Earth, he chuseth him as the fittest subiect, in whose ru­ine to despite his Maker. To this end he vseth not a Lion-like force, which then had beene bootlesse, but a Serpentine sleight, vsing that subtill creature as the meetest in­strument to his Labyrinthian proiects. Whereas by inward temptation hee could not so easily preuaile, by insinuating himselfe into their mindes, he windes himselfe into this winding Beast, disposing the Serpents tongue to speake to the woman (the weaker vessell) singled from her husband, and by questioning doth first vndermine her. It is by all affirmed, that the fall was very soone af­ter the Crea­tion, as appea­reth by cir­cumstances of the narration, by Sathans malice, the womans vir­ginitie: and many hold, it was the very day of their Creation. Bibliand. Broughtons Concent, Praeter antiquos August. Iren. Chrysust. &c. The woman (whether she had not yet experience in the nature of the crea­tures, or did admire so strange an accident, and would satisfie her curious mind in the further tryall) entertained discourse, and was presently snared. For though shee held her to the Commaundement, yet the threatning annexed shee did somewhat mince and extenuate. What shee seemed to lessen, he feared not to annihilate, and wholly disannull, propounding not onely impunitie, but aduantage, That they should be as Gods, in the enriching of their minds with further knowledge. This he persuadeth by the equiuocating in the name of the Tree (the first equiuocation [Page 21] wee read of, Io 8. 44. otherwhere plainely tearmed a lye) charging God with falsehood and malignitie.

Thus he that abode not in the Truth himselfe, but was a Man-Slayer from the be­ginning, and the father of Lying, which he no where else borrowed, but had of his owne, persuaded her by his great subtiltie first to doubt of Gods Truth in his Word (the first particular sinne that euer mans heart entertained, for the other were but oc­casions and inducements; disobedience and vnthankfulnesse are more generall) after that she vnlawfully lusted after this new knowledge, bewitched with the pleasantnesse of the fruit to the tast and sight, she tooke & did eat, and gaue to her husband likewise. The highest power of the Soule is first intrapped, the lusting and sensible faculties fol­low after, iustly plagued by a correspondent inward rebellion, that the sense now ru­leth the appetite; and this the reason, in our corrupt estate, which hence proceeded.

Foolish and wicked is their conceit, that measure this sinne by the fruit (a Nut or Apple) that was eaten: as Pope Iulius, That said he might be as well angtie for his Peacocke, as God (whose Vicar he was) for an Apple: Bal. de vit. Pont. Thus vnbeleefe brought foorth vnthankfulnesse; vnthankfulnesse, pride; from thence ambition, and all that rabble of contempt of Gods Truth, beleeuing the De­uils lyes, abuse of the creatures to wanton lust, Sacrilegious vsurping that which God had reserued, scandalous prouocation of her husband, with the murther bodily and ghostly, of him, her selfe, & their whole posteritie for euer: and whereas yet they had done so little seruice to God, yet they offered almost their First fruits to the deuill, hauing Free will to haue resisted if they would. No maruell then if such a combination of so many sinnes in one, wrung from the iustice of God such a multitude of iudge­ments on them and theirs, in the defacing that goodly and glorious Image of God; subiecting (in stead thereof) the bodie to Sicknesse, Cold, Heat, Nakednesse, Hunger, Thirst, Stripes, Wounds, Death; the Mind to Ignorance, Doubtings, Vanitie, Phan­cies, Phrenzies; the Will to Vnstayednesse, Passions, Perturbations; the whole Man is made a slaue to Sinne within him, to the Diuell without; whence he must expect wages sutable to his worke, Death; Spirituall, Naturall, and Eternall: an infinite pu­nishment for offending Posse si vel­lent sed non velle vt possens. an infinite Maiestie.

Thus had they put out their light in obscure darkenesse: and if they were not pre­sently cast into vtter darknesse, it was Gods mercie (not their merit) which suspended the first & naturall death, to preuent that second and eternall. But spiritually they were euen alreadie dead in sinnes, as appeared by the accusations of their conscience; wher­of Moses sayth, Gen. 3. 7. The eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked. Conscience, before Vertues keeper, was now become Hels harbenger, thence flashing lightnings in the face of their mindes, to shew that their nakednesse did now appeare filthie in Gods sight: Lightnings indeed, which could only lighten to terrifie, not en­lighten with instruction and comfort: Which sparke remaineth after the fire of Gods image extinct, by the mercifull prouidence of God, in some Spiritus repri­mens, & reno­uans. to be a bridle of Nature, least they should runne into all excesse of villanie, and not leaue a face of the world in the world, and to be to others, by disposition and working of a higher & supernaturall Light, a preparatiue to, and a preseruatiue in that Light of Life. So much the greater is their sinne, that seeke to flash out these flashings: and whereas they cannot reade the booke of Scripture, and will not read the booke of the Creature, labour to extinguish also this Light of Nature, that with feared consciences they may more freely in dark­nesse commit the workes of darknesse. And euen this did Adam seeke, if God had not brought him out of his Owles nest. For what could a Figge-leafe hide from God? and did they thinke the innocent Trees would conspire with them to conceale Traytors? Was there any darknesse which was not Light to him? Or could Breeches and Trees couer their Soules, which receiued the first and worst Nakednesse; till which, Naked­nesse to the bodie was a Clothing of Beautie, a Liuerie of Bountie, an Ensigne of Ma­iestie? Such Ier. 2. 13. broken pits seeke they that forsake the Fountaine of liuing Waters.

And yet when God commeth into Iudgement, and Gen. 3. 8. makes the windes to vsher him vnto his priuate Sessions in Paradise; to those shiftlesse shifts they added worse, impiously accusing God, vncharitably charging one another, to put from themselues that blame which thus claue faster to them. A medicine worse than the disease, or a [Page 22] disease in stead of a medicine is hypocrisie, that will not see her owne sicknesse, and seekes rather couer, then to cure; to couer by charging others, then recouer by dis­charging it selfe; as if equitie pretended were not iniquitie doubled. God procee­deth to sentence, a sentence worthie of God, shewing at once his infinite iustice in the punishment of sinne, and no lesse infinite mercie, to prouide an infinite price to redeeme vs, by his infinite power bringing good out of euill, and by his manifold Wisdome taking that wise one in his craftinesse, who in the destruction of man had sought Gods dishonour. So good is it that euill should be, when this soueraigne goodnesse purposeth to effect his good will by wicked instruments, out of their darkenesse producing his owne maruellous light: as appeared in this worke of Sathan an aduersarie, intended to his despite; in and by the promised Seed, disposed to his glorie. Gen.3.14. The Serpent hath a bodily curse in his future bodily difficulties, which still continue, for his instrumentall and bodily imployment.

The Vers..15. old Serpent and spirituall enemie hath a spirituall and eternall curse, the brea­king of his head by that Seed of the woman, that should once lead Captiuitie captiue. Our parents are cursed, yet so, as their curse is turned into a blessing; all things wor­king to the best: In sorrow shall be the womans conceptions, but recompenced with the ioy which followeth (and is as it were the midwife in their trauell) because of Iob.16.21. fruit borne into the world; and more then recompenced, in that they are 1.Tim.2.vlt. saued by bearing of children, if they continue in the fanh, and liue in holmesse with modestie. Adam is set to labour, not as before, with delight, but with paine and difficultie; the Earth also being cursed for his sake: yet by this narrow way, by this crosse-way he is guided to Heauen; the hope whereof was giuen him, before Paradise was taken from him. So true is it, that in iudgement he remembreth mercy, if we can learne to liue by faith & not by sight.

This, that Moses telleth of the fall of Man, Experience doth in manner proclaime through the world, in the manifold effects thereof, which we daily see. For whereas the World was made for Man, as before is shewed, who alone, in regard of his bodily and spirituall nature, can need and vse it, no creature in the world is in his kind so im­perfectas Man. He that was before as an earthly God, is now become an incarnate di­uell, and for aspiring to be like his Lord, was made a seruant of his seruants; the no­blest part in him becomming a base officer to degrade him, Reason it selfe derected at the feet of sense, to be a slaue, and a very Baud to sensuall pleasures, a very Broker for dunghill-profits. And what is this but to metamorphose man into a beast? vnlesse that some in a lower degree, liuing only to liue, suffocated with eating, drinking, sleeping, are degenerated into plants? And if he descend not lower, to become torpide and lifelesse, yet doth he participate the imperfections of those things, and that without their perfections, as if with an imperfect retrograde he would returne into his first ele­ments. What stone so hard as mans heart is relent lesse, remorselesse to his best good? What dust more subiect to the wind, or water more flexible, then he to temptation and sinne? But those things remaine in their nature, or naturall place: Man is a fuming smoake, a passing shadow. And yet if we could stay at our Elements, it were somwhat better, but we are seruants and drudges beneath all names of basenesse, vnbowelling the earth, and our selues in the earth, for a little hardened earth, that neuer had the dig­nitie to see, no not to be seene of the Sunne. We seeme to rule the Skie, Windes, and Seas; indeed we aduenture our liues to their mercie, and not three fingers thicknesse doth separate vs from death, that we may bring home an idle discourse, or somewhat, almost lesse then nothing, that we call a Iewell. Once, we inuert Nature, subuert o­thers, peruert our selues, for those things which sometimes kill the bodie, and alway (except a power, with whom all things are possible, preuent) the Soule: And yet L [...]c.12.20 Thou foole, this night they may fetch away thy Soule; and whose then shall these things be? And whose then, and where then, shalt thou be? Thou gainest faire to lose thy selfe, to be taken with thy taking, to be thus bad to others, that thou mayest be worse to thy selfe: and when as (like an Asse) thou hast been laden all the dayes of thy life with those things, which euen in hauing thou wantedst, now to be more intolerably bur­thened, [Page 23] now to be in Hell, which will neuer be satisfied in thee, whose character was before engrauen in thy vnsatiable heart. Tell me not then of the reasonable power of our Soules, whereby we resemble God, seeing that reason may tell thee & me, that by abusing it Ignat. ad Magnes.Epist. Pins homo ru­misma est à Deo cusum: impius, adulterinum, non à deysed di­abolo effectum. we are like, & [...]o.8.44. are of our father the deuill. That erected countenance to be still grouelling in, & poring on the earth; that immortal soule to mind only such things as haue not the imperfect priuiledge to be mortall; those high excellēcies to be abused to mischiefe, blaspheming, denying, forswearing God, & all for the basest of the basest creatures. Well might this deluge of corruption moue that Diog.Laer. 1.6. Cynick, in a throng of men to make search for a man, this man which is now left vs being but the ruines, the carkas of himself. But what needs all this? Why are we fallen into so long & tedious discourse of our fall? Euen because some are fallen further, beyond all sense & feeling of their fal, and beleeue not that man was euer any other creature then now they see: that if their goodnes cannot, yet their wickednes might teach them, that so perfect a world should not haue bin framed for so imperfect a wretch, now only perfect in imperfection. Our fall must teach vs to rise, our straying to returne, our degeneration a regeneration. And therfore was not that image of God wholly done out, but some remainder continued to the posteritie, to conuince thē of miserie in themselues, that so denying themselues, they might take vp their Crosse, & follow the second Adam vnto a durable happines.

But how (may some aske, as Iul.Pelagian. in August. the Pelagian did) came this miserie tovs? Non peccat ille qui genuit, non peccat ille qui condidit, per quas igitur rimas inter tot praesidia innocentiae fingis peccatum ingressum. Doth it agree with diuine Iustice, that if the fathers haue ea­ten soure grapes, the childrens teeth should be set on edge? I answere we are heires of our father, we need not seeke some secret craney, we see an open gate, Rom.5.12. by one man sinne entred into the world, and death by sinne. A little leaue let vs borrow to cleare this difficultie. Sinne is 1.Io.3.4. a transgression of the Law, or a defect of conformitie to the Law, [...] and cannot properly be said to haue an efficient, but a defici­ent cause, being in it owne nature and subsistence, [...]. The Aqu.I.2.q.7I.6. Dorbel. Viguer &c Schoolemen say, in sinne are two things to be considered, the substance and the qualitie, essence and pri­uation, the act and defect, where of that they call the materiall, this the formall part of sinne, being nothing else but a deformitie, irregularitie, and vnlawfulnesse in our natu­rall condition and conditions, as easie to be distinguished, though not to be diuided, from the action, as lamenesse from the working hand, or iarring in an Instrument, both from the Instrument and sound. The sinner is tearmed nequam, as nequicquam, naught, as not ought. Not that sinne is simply nothing, Non negatinè sed priuatiuè Nihil, sayth Melancthon Mel.loc.Com. N. hil negatiuum est causa nilhil priuatiui: quaedam sc.inclina­tio creaturae ad suum illud nihii, vnde primum ortum & crea­tum est. Mor [...]. de veritate C.R. nor is it a meere and pure priuation, but to be considered with that sub­iect, wherein and whereof it is such a distortion and destruction:* the want of this con­sideration draue the Manichees to their hereticall opinion of two beings and begin­nings. Sinne was first seene in the Deuill, who voluntarily strayed from the right way, and as he abode not in the Truth himselfe, so he beguiled our first Parents, from whome, by the Conduit of Nature, it is conueyed to vs. I speake of originall sinne, which is our inheritance; for actuall sinnes are our own purchase & improuement, and yet bought with that stocke which our parents left vs. Our first parents are to be consi­dered, not as singularpersons only, whereby they defiled themselues, but as the root of mankind, which had receiued originall righte ousnes, to keepe or to loose to them and theirs as a perpectuall inheritance. As in the Bodie Politike the Act of the Prince is re­puted the Act of the whole; the consent of a Burgesse in Parliament bindeth the whole Citie which he representeth: and Aqu.in Ro.5. as in the naturall Bodie thé whole Bodie is lyable to the guilt of that fact which the head or hand hath committed: as a root to his braunches, a Fountaine to his streames, doth conuey the goodnesse or badnesse which it selfe hath receiued: So stands it betwixt vs and Adam our naturall Prince, the Burgesse of the World, the Head of this humane Bodie and Generation, the Root and Fountaine of our Humanitie. When he sinned, he lost to himselfe and vs that Image of God, or that part of the Image of God, which he had receiued for himselfe and vs, not the substance, nor the facuities of body or soule, but the conformitie in that [Page 24] substance and faculties to the will of God, in righteousnesse and holinesse of truth.

Not so much therefore are wee here to consider the ordinarie course of Nature, wherein Ezek.18.4. the soule that sinneth, it shall die: as the Ordinance of God, who appointed the first Adam the Well-spring of Nature, which he receiued incorrupted; the second of Grace; that as men, we all by generation are of the first and with the first, Eph.4.22. one old man, in whom we all sinned; of and with the second Adam we are Col.3.10. 1.Co [...].12. Rom.5 all one new man in the Lord, euen one Bodie, one Spirit, one Seed, one Christ, in whome, and with whome, wee, as members of that Head, obeyed the Precepts, and suffered the Curse of the Law. Persolum pri­mam pec [...] sub [...]t [...]ell bo­num naturz, per alia pe [...]cat [...]: bo­n [...] gratiae perso­nales. A pe. in Rom.5. Other sinnes of Adam are not our naturall, but his personall, because he could be no longer a publike person, then while he had some what to saue or loose for vs; all being alreadie forfeited in this first Sinne. The Author then of Originall Sinne is the propagator of our Nature: his actuall sinne is originally ours, the Guilt being deriued by impatation, the Corruption by naturall generation. First, that Per­son corrupted Nature; after, Nature infected our Persons. The matter of this originall corruption, in regard of the subiect, is All and euery man, and all and euery part of all and euery man, subiect to all sinne, that if all be not as bad as any, and the best as the worst, it must be ascribed to Gods restraining, or renewing, not vnto vnequall de­grees in this originall staine. In regard of the obiect, the matter of it is the want of originall Rightcousnesse, and a contrario inclination to Euill, Gen.6.5. the imagmations of our hearts being onely euill continually. No grapes can grow on these thornes. The forme of this corruption is the deformitie of our corrupted Nature, not by infusion or imi­tation, but by default of that first instrument, by which this Nature descendeth. It is the root of actuall sinnes: and whereas they, as fruits, are transient, this still remaineth, vntill Christ by his death destroyeth this death in vs.

But here ariseth another difficultie; How this sinne can be deriued by Generation, seeing it is truly beleeued, that God is Heb.12.9. the Father of Spirits, the Ecc.12.7. Gen.2.7. Zac.12.1. Former of our Soules, which doth by infusion create, and by creation infuse them: corruptible elements be­ing vnable to procreate an incorruptible substance, or generation to produce incor­ruption. Neither standeth it with reason, that he which communicateth not the sub­stance, should communicate the accidents; or with iustice, that an innocent Soule should necessarily be stained by involuntarie infusion into a polluted bodie.

I answere hereunto, That although the Soule be not traducted (as they tearme it) and by generation conferred; yet is it coupled to the bodie in that manner and order which God had appointed for the coniunction thereof, though man had not sinned: Neither was it the Soule alone in Adam, or the bodie alone, but the Person, consisting of both, which sinned. Neither can we be partakers of Natures sinne, till we be par­takers of Humane Nature, which is not, till the Soule and Bodie be vnited. We are not so much therefore to looke to the concupiscence and lust of the Parents in generati­on, on, as Lib.Sent.2. Dist [...].1. 'Lumbard teacheth vs, but to the Person; which, Super sent. Scotus sayth, is filia Adae, & debitrix iustitiae originalis. And although the Soule be not in the Seed, yet is commu­nicated to the Bodie (sayth Aquinas) by a dispositiue or preparatiue power of the Seed, which disposeth and prepareth the Bodie to the receiuing of the Soule, where it is receiued (after the Vnumquodq, recipitur lecun­diun modum re­cipientis. generall rule) according to the measure and nature of that which receiueth. The Father is then a perfect Father, not because he begetteth the Soule, but because he begetteth the Person, or at least all whatsoeuer in the Person is begotten: and though he doth not beget the substance thereof; yet, as it is such a sub­sistence, he may be said to procreate it, because his generation worketh towards the Vnion of the Soule and Bodie; which Vnion is made by the Spirits, Animall and Vi­tall. And Zanch. de o­perib. D. part.3. these Spirits are procreated by the Seed, and consist of a middle nature, as it were betwixt bodily and spirituall: so that the production of the Soule, & incorpo­rating thereof, may be counted in the middle way betweene Creation & Generation. And therefore this originall corruption did not reach to Christ Iesus, although hee were true Man, because he was the Seed of the woman, and did not descend of Adam by generation (per seminalem rationem, tanquam à principio actiuo, sayth Aquinas) but was [Page 25] miraculously framed in the wombe, and of the substance of the Virgin, by the power of the Holy Ghost.

Thus haue I presumed to offer my crude and rude meditations to the wiser World, about the deriuation of Originall sinne, which it selfe is the cause why we can no bet­ter see it, as darkenesse hideth it selfe. But the whole Citie of Mankind being here­with set on fire, it behoueth euery one to be more carefull to quench it, then ouer-cu­riously to enquire how it came: It is sufficient, that nothing descended hereby to vs by corruption, or was made ours by imputation, which is not fully cured by Christ: who is 1.Cor.1.30. made vnto vs (both by imputation of his actiue and passiue obedience, and by reall infusion of his Spirit) Wisdome, Righteousnesse, Sanctification, and Redemption; if we haue Faith to receiue it, and Charitle to expresse it: an absolute renewer and per­fecter of the Image of God, beyond what we had in our first Parents lost.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Reliques of the diuine Image after the fall, whereby naturally men addict themselues vnto some Religion: and what was the Religion of the World before the Floud.

THis Sinne of our first Parents, whereby they were almost no sooner made then marr'd (being, as some suppose, formed and deformed in one day; so interpreting the Psalme, Psal.49.12. That he lodged not one night in honour, but became as the beasts that perish. Eroughton out of the Rabbines in his Concent. Perer. in G. [...]1.6. ) This Sinne (I say) did not wholly depriue vs of the Image of God, whereunto we were created. A remainder and stumpe thereof continued, like to the stumpe of 1.Sam.S.4. Da­gon, whose head and hands were cut off by his fall; or like the stumpe of Dan.4.12. Nabochodo­nosers Tree, whose rootes were less in the earth, bound with a band of Iron and Brasse among the grasse of the field. So was mans head and hands fallen off before the Arke, that his wisdome remaining was foolishness with God; not sufficient to one good thought, not able either to will or to doe that which might please God. And though the stumpe remained (the substance and the faculties of Bodie and Soule) yet was this stumpe left in the earth, fast bound with Iron and Brasse, his earthly mind captiued and chayned with worldly vanities and diuellish villanies. Or to vse Lumbards comparison, Lib.2.sens. Dist.25. hee was like the man Luc.10.30. fallen among theeues, wounded and spoyled: wounded in his naturall parts, spoyled and robbed of the gifts of grace, which God by especiall grace added to his Nature, in that first beautifying of this his Image.

In the state of Creation Man was made 10 Statu, potuit non peccare. 20 Non potest non peccare. 30 Premitur sed non vincitur: nondum habet posse omnize non peccare. 40 Non potest peccare. Lumb. ibid. able to commit no Sinne; in the state of Corruption he cannot but Sinne: vntill a third state of grace doe free him; not from the being, but from the raigning and imputation of Sinne, whereby he is prepared to a fourth state of glorie, wherein shall be no possibilitie of sinning, or necessitie of striuing against sinne. And howsoeuer in this corrupt state of Nature, in our Spiritu­all actions, which meerely concerne the Kingdome of Heauen, we cannot but sinne, yet hath not God left himselfe without witnesse, euen in this darkenesse to conuince vs of sinne. Such are those notions, sowne by Natures hand in euery of our hearts; according to which euidence, Conscience as a Witnesse, Patron, or Iudge within vs, Rom.2.15. accuseth, excuseth, condemneth, or absolueth; that hereby God may be Rom.3 4. iustified, and all the world inexcusably sinnefull; and that hereby also a way might be left in Gods infinite mercie for mans recouerie. His intent was We must vn­derstand that God. though in the begin­ning he suffred man to fal, &c. yet vouchsafed of his goodnes so farre to vp­hold in him both light of vnderstanding and truth of conscience, as might serue to direct him in some sort for morall and ciuill life, for the preseruation and maintenance of societie a­mongst men. D.Abbot. Defenc.3. part.pag. 68. not to destroy vs vtterly (as iustly he might, and as it besell the rebellious Angels) but by this punishment to recall vs to subiection; not to breake vs in pieces in his wrath, but by wrath to re­claime vs to mercie.

[Page 26] Thus Nature suggesteth, Reason conuinceth, and is conuinced, That there is a God: that that God hath created the World (as we before haue shewed) and that for Man: that Man, to whome all things serue, is to serue God, who hath subiected them to him. Doth not Nature teach the sonne to honour his Father, and the ser­uant his Lord? Mal.1.6. If he then be our Father, where is his honour? if our Lord, where is his feare? Nature inferreth, Reason vrgeth this, and from that ground of Reason doth Scripture reason, the nature whereof in our nature is written. Euen by Reasons Principles wee learne, That so perfect a hand, as made all these inferiour things in such perfection, would not haue beene so imperfect in the perfectest of them all, so to haue left him in the Creation, as we now see him in Corruption. The Morn.de ver. Ch.R. Philoso­phers saw, Man was a little World, for whome the greater was made, who himselfe was made for more then the World: and that hee, for whome so durable and sub­stantiall a thing was made, must needes be made for another then this fraile and wretched life; that is, for the euerlasting life with him, that is the Euerlasting. And that is the foundation of all Religion. For what else is Religion, but the Schoole, wherein wee learne mans dutie towards God, and the way to be linked most strait­ly to him? And what are all the exercises of Religion, but acknowledgements of the Godhead, of the Creation of the World, of the prouident order therein, and ordering thereof, of the Soules immortalitie, of Mans fall and imperfection, of our soueraigne and supreame good to be sought out of our selues? Of all which Nature and Reason are witnesses, not to the learned alone, whose testimonies in this kind may easily be produced, but euen to the societies of men; yea, where as neither Art, nor Industrie, nor ciuill Societie hath bound men as men together, yet the grounds of these things haue bound them as men, by the meere bond of humane Nature, to God, in some or other Religion.

God, Man, and Religion, are necessarily linked, as a Father, a Sonne, and Obe­dience, as a Lender, a Debter, and a Bond. The wit no sooner conceiueth that there is a God, but the will inferreth that he ought to be worshipped. What Phi­losophers, or what Politicians euer taught the Easterne and Westerne Islands, disco­uered in this last Age of the World, this necessitie of Religion? And yet (as fol­loweth in this Historie to be shewed) they which neuer wore clothes on their bo­dies, neuer furnished their mindes with Arts, neuer knew any Law (besides Reason growne almost lawlesse) or Magistrate, but their Fathers: which, when they saw o­ther men, coûld not tell whether they were The Indians seeing the Spaniards mounted, thought the horse and man to be all one: they thought them also im­mortall, and fallen from Heauen. heauenly wights, or earthly monsters, these yet wearied themselues in Superstitions; shewing it easier to put off our selues, then to put the Principles of Religion out of our selues. Yea, among all the Lessons which Nature hath taught, this is deepeliest indented: not Arts, not Policie, nay not Rayment, not Food, not Life it selfe esteemed so deere, and that naturally, to men, as their Religion. Hereof let this Historie ensuing be witnesse, which will shew the Reader, euery where, in manner, ouer the World, this naturall zeale of that which they esteeme Religion, beyond all things else esteemed most na­turall.

Some, in the guiltie conscience of their owne irreligion (as Aesops Fox, that be­ing by casualtie depriued of his tayle, sought to persuade all Foxes to cut off theirs as vnprofitable burthens) would tell vs that which they Tibi, non sibi: interdu [...], non noctu. D. King. on [...]onas. cannot tell to themselues, which they dare not tell, but as they dare, whisper, That Religion is but a conti­nued Custome, or a wiser Policie, to hold men in awe. But where had Custome this beginning? And what is Custome, but an vniforme manner, and continuance of outward Rites? Whereas Religion it selfe is in the heart, and produceth those out­ward ceremoniall effects thereof. In one Countrey men obserue one habite of at­tyre, another in another: So likewise of diet: and yet is it naturall to be clothed, more naturall to eat, but naturall most of all, as is said, to obserue some kind of Re­ligion.

[Page 27] The Grecians He [...] burned their dead parents, the Indians intombed them in their owne bowels: Darius could not by great summes procure the Grecians to the Indi­an, or these to the Grecian custome: yet was that which moued both, and began ei­ther custome, one and the same principle of pietie and religious dutie, howsoeuer di­uersly expressed. Yea euen the most lasciuious, cruell, beastly, and diuellish obserua­tions, were grounded vpon one principle, That God must be serued: which seruice they measured by their owne crooked rules, euery where disagreeing, and yet mee­ting in one center, the necessitie of Religion.

As for Policie, although it is before answered; yet this may be added, That where­as men with all threatnings, promises, punishments, rewards, can scarce establish their politicall ordinances; religion insinuateth and establisheth it selfe: yea taketh naturally such rooting, that all politicall lawes and tortures cannot plucke it vp. How many Martyrs Not only the true Religion hath had Mar­tirs: but Iewish, Turkish, Eth­nike, Heretical superstitions and idolatries: Haue not our eyes seene Brownists, and Papists, euery where els iar, and yet meete in the halter, whiles one pretence of re­ligion hath moued thē to commotion, & disturbance of the State? and euen while we write these things, what madde Mar­tyrs haue we had for Aria­nisme and o­ther blasphe­mies? hath Religion; yea Superstition yeelded? but who will lay downe his life to seale some Polititians authoritie? And so farre is it that Religion should be grounded on Policie, that Policie borroweth helpe of Religion. Thus did Numa fa­ther his Romane lawes on Aegeria, and other Law-giuers on other supposed Dei­ties, which had been a foolish argument, and vnreasonable manner of reasoning, to perswade one obscuritie by a greater, had not Nature before taught them religious awe to God, of which they made vse to this ciuill obedience of their lawes, supposed to spring from a Diuine fountaine. Yea the falshoods and varietie of religions are e­uidences of this Truth; seeing men will rather worship a Beast, stocke, or the basest creature, then professe no religion at all. The Diagoras, Euhemerus, Theodor. Cyren. Philosophers also that are accused of Atheisme, for the most part, did not deny religion simply, but that irreligious religion of the Greekes in idolatrous superstition, Socrates rather swearing by a dogge, or an oke, then acknowledging such Gods. It is manifest then, that the Image of God was by the Fall depraued, but not vtterly extinct; among other sparkes this also being ra­ked vp in the ruines of our decayed Nature, some science of the God-head, some con­science of Religion: although the true Religion can be but one, and that which God himselfe teacheth, as the onely true way to himselfe; all other religions being but strayings from him, whereby men wander in the darke, and in labyrinthes of errour: like men drowning, that get hold on euery twig, or the foolish fish that leapeth out of the frying-pan into the fire.

Thus God left a sparke of that light couered vnder the ashes of it selfe, which him­selfe vouchsafed to kindle into a flame, neuer since, neuer after to be extinguished. And although that rule of Diuine Iustice had denounced Gen.2.17. morte morieris, to die, and againe to die a first and second death; yet vnasked, yea by cauilling excuses further prouoked, he by the promised seed erected him to the hope of a first and second re­surrection; a life of Grace first, and after of Glorie. The Sonne of God is promised to be made the seed of the Woman: the substantiall Colos.1.15. Image of the inuisible God, to be made after the Image and similitude of a Man, to reforme and transforme him againe into the former Image and similitude of God: that he, which in the Phil.2.6. forme of God thought it not robberie (for it was nature) to bee equall with God, should bee made nothing to make vs something, should not spare himselfe that he might spare vs, should become partaker of our Nature, flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone, that he might make vs 2. Pet.1.4. Epbes.5.30. partakers of the Diuine nature, flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone. This was that seed of the Woman, that hath broken the Serpents head, which by death hath ouercome death, and him that had the power of death. the Diuell, who submitted himselfe to a death in it selfe bitter, before men shamefull, and of God accursed, that hee might bring vs to a life peaceable, glorious, and blessed, beyond what eye hath seene, or heart can conceiue.

This promise of this Seed slaine from the beginning of the world, was the seed of all true Religion, the soule of faith, the life of hope, the well-spring of charitie. True it is that all receiued not this promise alike: for a seed of the Serpent was fore-signifi­ed also, which should bruise the heele of the Womans seed. And this in the first seed [Page 28] and generation of man soone appeared: Cain and Abel were hereof liuely examples. It appeareth that God had taught Adam and Eue how they should worship him, and they faithfully instructed their children herein: These accordingly Gen. 4. 3. in processe of time brought and offered their sacrifices.

As concerning sacrifices, some hold opinion (according to their owne practise) that Perer in Gen. lib 7. Potuit id Abel naturali ratione cogni­tum habere & tacito quodam naturae instinctu adduci, &c. Nature might teach Adam this way of seruing God: as if Nature were as well able to find the way, as to know that he is out of the way, and were as wel seene in the particular manner, as in the generall necessitie of Religion. We cannot see the Sunne without the Sun, nor come to God but by God, to whom 1.Sam.15. 22. Obedience is better then sacrifice, and to harken, better then the fat of Rammes. Abel, saith the Scripture, Hebr.11.4. offered by faith, without which faith it is impossible to please God: but faith hath necessarie relation Rom.10.17. to the word of God, who otherwise will be Esay 1.14. wearie of our solemnities, and asketh, who hath required them at our hands. These sacrifices also, besides that they were acknowledgements of their thankefulnes, and reall confessions of their sin and death, due to them therfore, did lead them by the hand to Christ that Lambe of God that should take away the sins of the world, figured by these slaine beasts, confirming their faith in the promise and hope of the accomplishment: of which Nature could not once haue dreamed, which hath rather, The mystery of our redemp­tion by Christ is meerely su­pernaturall: the impression of some confused notions, that we haue lost the way and ought to seek it, then either light to discerne it, or wisdome to guide vs in it.

Of sacrificing there were from the beginning two kinds, the one called [...] Gifts or oblations of things without life: the other Victims (so our Rhemists haue taught vs to English the word Victimae) slaine sacrifices of birds and beasts: Againe, they were propitiatorie, consecratorie, Eucharisticall, and so forth, whose kinds and rites Mo­ses hath in his bookes, especially in Leuiticus, so plainely declared, that I should but powre water into the sea, or light a candle to the Sun, to dilate much of them: these being the same in signification with the Leuiticall, and little (if little) differing in the manner of doing. Cain brought his offering, being an husbandman, of the fruit of the ground, Abel a shepheard, of the fattest of his sheepe: God respected ABEL and his offering, (the tree first, and then the fruit, the worker, and then the worke) which he signified either by voice, or by Hieron. Tra­dit. Heb. in Gen. fire from heauen, according to Theodotions transla­tion, Inflammauit super. as in the sacrifices of Aaron, Gideon, Manoah, Dauid, Salomon, Elias: or by some other meanes, both comfortable to Abel and enuied of Cain, who therefore slue him; thus in this member bruising the heele of that blessed seed, as a type of that which the head himselfe should after sustaine.

Here is the first Apostasie after that first Euangelicall promise, and the first diuision of Religion, Cain being the first builder of the Aug. de ciu. Dei, lib.15.c.5. Earthly Citie, not that which he cal­led after the name of his sonne, Gen. 4.17. Henoch, but of that spirituall citie of the wicked, the seed of the Serpent, which he founded in his brothers bloud: euen as that later Compendium thereof, which calleth herselfe Caput mundi, the head of the world (and indeed John. 17.6.9. 16. &c. the World is vsually in Scripture applied to that seed of the Serpent, as it is opposed to the seed of the Woman) was by Romulus her first founder by like example of fratricide in the murther of Remus, dedicated (as it were) to the future mysterie of iniquitie, the seat of the Beast, and of the Whore, (by whose authoritie, Christ him­selfe was slaine) drunken after with the bloud of his Saints: and still breathing bloud and slaughter, to euery Abel that will not communicate in her spirituall whoredomes; that will not with her offer the fruits of the ground (the sacrifice of Cain) which neither came from heauen, nor can guide to heauen, being earthly, sensuall, diuellish.

Cain was for this his fact conuented by that All-seeing Iustice, who both by open sentence and inward terrors accused & accursed him, continuing his life, euen for the same cause that other murtherers lose it, that he might liue an example (which then in that vnpeopled world by his death he could not haue been) to the future generati­ons, branded Some thinke this marke to be a shaking of all the bodie, as fearing continually, Perer. also by the Lord with some sensible marke, to exempt him, and terrifie others, from that bloudie crueltie: this mercie being mixed with this iudgement, a [Page 29] longer time of repentance. God before Gen.3. 17. cursed the earth for Adam, he now Gen 4. 11. cur­sed Cain from the earth, to be a runnagate, and wanderer thereon. For how could hee that had so forsaken God, but be forsaken of the earth and of himselfe? the Vt slādo Vesta vocatm. Ouid. stable and mercifull earth, which before had opened her mouth to receiue his brothers bloud, shrinking, and (as it were) grudging to support such wicked feet, and by de­nying him her strength, forcing him to his manifold shifts and shiftlesse remouings; wretched man alwayes bleeding his brothers bloud, not daring to looke vp to hea­uen, fearing to looke downe to hell, the world without him threatning a miserable life, his bodie branded to contempt and shame till his death, his soule become a stage of Anguish, Feare, Horrour, and other Furies, the harbingers of hell: not able to suffer (which yet he cannot but suffer) the guilt of passed wickednesse gnawing him, the waight of present miserie pressing him, the dread of a death, and a death atten­ding him: restlesse in himselfe, hated of the world, despairing of reliefe from God: a liuely map of the deadly and damnable state of sin and sinners, (without Christ) dead whiles they liue, mouing sepulchers, the Deuils captiues, hels heires, exiled from heauen, and vagabonds on the earth, euen on that which they call their owne land.

Cain, more vexed with the punishment, then at the fault of his sinne, departed from the presence of the Lord, which is meant either of his iudiciall conuenting him, or Caluin. in Gen. Martyr. in Gen. Chrysost.hom. 20. in regard of the visible societie of the Church, cradled yet in his fathers houshold, where God did especially shew his present prouidence, protection and grace, who otherwise filleth the heauen and earth, of whom and in whom they are: from hence, as Adam before out of Paradise, so Cain was, as it were, excommunicated, expelled, and out-lawed, and dwelt in the land of Nod, which Hieron. Heb. Trad. some take to be appellatiuely spoken, as if his misery had giuen name of Mouing vnto the place where he dwelled, or roamed rather: Antiq. lib.1.cap.2. Iosephus saith, he built Naida, applying it to a proper place, which was either Eastward from Eden, or Eastward towards Eden from Canaan, where A­dam is supposed to haue dwelt, and after with his wife to haue been buried at He­bron. Afterward, his posteritie being multiplied (his wife, Epiphan. out of Leptogenesis calleth Shaue, F. Comest. hist. Schol. Comestor calleth her Chalmana, Pseudo-Philo in antiq. Bibl. Philo, Themech) he built a city which he called by the name of his sonne Psendo-Bero­sus nameth the citie Oenus by Libanus. Henoch: to crosse that curse of his wandring to and fro on the earth, or to arme him against others, which his guiltie conscience caused him to feare, or to be a receptacle & store-house of those spoiles, which Iosephus saith he robbed from others by violence, when as the earth was barren to him. Philo (if we may so entitle that Author) which hath written of the antiquities of the Bible, ascri­beth to him other cities, Mauli, Leed, Tehe, Iesca, Celet, Iebbat, adding that he liued 730. yeares. These things may be probable, although that Author be otherwise fa­bulous, considering that men did ordinarily liue many hundred yeares in those times, and were also exceeding fruitfull, especially after that Polygamy was embraced of that family. And if that in Abrahams posterity the seed of Iacob in lesse then 300. yeares was multiplied to so 600000. men of warre. great a people, it is like that the Cainites were no Joseph. saith that Lamech had 77. chil­dren. lesse po­pulous, liuing in more freedome. He first (saith Iosephus) found out weights and mea­sures, and assigned proprieties in possessions of land, before common as the aire and light, & was author to lewd persons, of a lewd and vngodly life. Probable it is that the city was called Henoch, because the curse suffered not the father to stay in a place, but to leaue a hasty inheritance to his son to finish and rule it. Iabal and Iubal and Tubal­cain, were inuenters of Arts: the first to dwell in tents and keepe cattell; the second of musicall instruments: the third of working in mettals, and making of armour, which some thinke to be Vulcan; by the neerenesse of name and occupation.

Thus let vs leaue this family multiplying in numbers, in sciences, in wickednes, sa­uoring nothing diuine, or at least nothing but humane in their Diuinity: (therfore cal­led the sons of men, Gen. 6.I.2.) let vs looke backe to Adam, who in this wicked fruit of his body might reade continuall lectures of repentance for the sin of his soule. A­dam begat a child in his owne likenes, that is, not in that likenes of God wherein he was created, but like vnto himselfe both in humane nature, and naturall corruption, [Page 30] his name he called Seth, of whose posterity the whole world was by Noah repeopled. Vnto Seth was borne Enosh: Then began men saith MOSES, to call vpon the name of the Lord. This some Broughton. Concent. Martyr in Gen. interpret of the beginning of idolatry, that men began to prophane the name of the Lord: some to call the name of the Lord, that is, after Rabbi Salomo, to apply the name of God to Images, Stars and men: But the more likely opinion is, that when Adam had obtained a more holy posterity, which was now multiplied in diuers families, Luther. in Genes. Tremell. Vatablus, Cal­uin. in Genes. Perer. in Genes. lib.7. Religiō which before had bin a priuate in-mate in Adams houshold, was now brought into publike exercise. whereof Prayer hath alwaies bin accounted a principal part, & God himselfe in both Testaments calleth his house a house of prayer; the calues of the lips, & the eiaculations of the heart being the body and soule of Di­uine worship, whereof sacrifices were in a manner but the apparell, fashioned to that infancie of the Church. Of the names of the posterity of Adam, & his hundred yeares mourning for Abel of Sheth his remouing after Adams death to a mountaine neere Paradise, and such other things, more sauouring of fabulous vanity, in the false-named Methodij Re­ue [...]at. Philo de Antiq. Methodius, Philo and others that follow them, I list not to write.

CHAP. VII.

Of the cause, and comming of the Floud.

THus we haue seene in part the fulfilling of the Prophecie of the seed of the Woman, & of that other of the Serpēt, in the posterity of Cain & Seth. The family of Cain is first reckoned, and their forwardnes in hu­mane Arts, as Luke 16. 8. the children of this world are wiser in their generation, in the things of this life which they almost only attend, then the children of light. As for the Martyr. in Gen ex Rab. Salom. Iewish dreames, that Lamech was blind, & by the direction of Tu­balcain his son guiding his hand slew Cain, supposing it had bin a wilde beast, which, when he knew, so enraged him, that he killed his son also, they that list may follow.

Moses reckoneth the Generations according to the first-borne in the posteritie of Seth, as enioying the Principality & Priesthood, that so the promised seed of the Wo­man (after such a world of yeares comming into the world) might iustify the stablènes of Gods promises, his lineall descent from Adam with a due Chronologie being de­clared. After Seth Enosh, Kenan, Mehalaleel, I ared, was Henoch the seuenth from Adam who walked with God whom God tooke away that he should not see death. This before the Law, & Helias in the Law, are witnesses of the resurrection; being miraculously taken from the earth into heauen, not by death, but by supernaturall changing of their bo­dies. That he should be still in Bella [...]. tom 1. coat 3. lib 3. c. 6. an earthly Paradise, & that he and Elias should come and preach against Antichrist, and of him be slaine, is a Popish dreame: the Scripture He [...] 1 [...]. 5. &c. saying, that Henoch was taken away that he should not see death; of Elias that he is Luke 7. 27. Ma [...]. 17. 12. al­ready come in the person of IOHN Baptist: the spirit & power, or spirituall power of wal­king with God, reforming religion and conuerting soules, being communicated to many of those Ministers which haue lien slaine in the streets of that Great citie.

This his assumption is Gib. ex Rab. A [...]ba, Racanat­i, Targum. supposed to be visibly done, He was a Prophet, and Iude doth in his Epistle cite a testimony of his Perer lib. 7. in G [...]n. thin­keth that Iude knew of this prophecie by Reuelation, and reuealed the same to the Church. which either by Perk. Refor. Cathol. tradition went frō hand to hād, as it seemeth the whole word of God was deliuered before the daies of Moses; God by visions & dreames appearing vnto the Patriarks: or els it was written & since is lost. Some hold it was penned by some Iew vnder the name of Enoch. De Ciuit. Dei lib. 15. cap. 23. Augustine thinketh that the book, entitled Enoch, was forged in his name, as other Writings vn­der the names of Prophets & Apostles: & therfore calleth it Apocripha (as Eò quòd earū Scripturarum accu [...]ta origonon clarait patribus. In his autem A­pocrypbis etsi in­uenitur aliqua veritas, tamen propter multa falsa nulla est canonica authoritas. Hier. in Tit. c. [...]. Hierome doth also) Chrysost. Hons. in Matth. 1. Chrysostome and Theophilact account Moses the first Pen-man of holy ly Scripture. Although it seeme that letters were in vse before the floud, if Antiq. lib. 1. cap. 2. Iosephus his testimony be true, who affirmeth that Adam hauing prophecied two vniuersal de­structiōs, one by fire, another by water, his posterity erected two pillars; one of brick, another of stone, in both which they writ their inuētions of Astronomy: that of stone was reported to remain in his time. Plin. lib.7. cap.56. Pliny was of opinion that letters were eternall.

[Page 31] Howsoeuer, it is more then apparant, that the booke bearing Enochs name, is very fabulous, which, because the tables therein professe antiquitie (although they were later dreames) I thought it not vnfit to borrow out of Not. in Eu­seb. Chron. pag. 244. Frag. Graec. ex lib. 1. Enoch. Scaliger somewhat of that which he hath inserted, in his notes vpon Eusebius, the Greeke copie being as the phrase testifieth, translated out of Hebrew, which had been the worke of some Iew: the antiquitie appeareth in that Tertull. de ldololat. Tertullian citeth it. And it came to passe when the sonnes of men were multiplied, there were borne to them faire daughters, and the Watch-men (so he calleth the Angels, out of Dan.4.) lusted and went astray after them: and they said One to another, This fable a­rose of the false interpre­tation of Moses words. Gen.6. 12. The sonnes of God, &c. Let vs chuse vs wiues of the daughters of men of the earth. And Semixas their Prince said vnto them, I feare vie you will not do this thing, and I alone shall be debter of a great sinne. And they all answered him and said: We will all sweare with an oath, and will Anathematise or Curse our selues not to al­ter this our mind till we haue fulfilled it. and they all sware together. These came downe in the dayes of lared to the top of the hill, Hermon. And they called the hill, Hermon, because they sware and Anathematised on it. These were the names of their Rulers, Semixas, Atarcuph, Arachiel, Chabahiel, Orammame, Ramiel, Sapsich, Zakiel, Balkiel, Azalzel, Pharmaros, Samiel. &c.

These tooke them wiues, and three generations were borne vnto them. The first were great Giants: The Giants begate the Naphehin, to whom were borne Eliud: And they taught them and their wiues sorceries and inchantments. Ezael taught first to make swords, and weapons for warre, and how to worke in mettals. He taught to make womens ornaments, and how to looke faire, and Iewelling. And they beguiled the Saints: and much sinne was committed on the earth. Other of them taught the vertues of Roots, Astrologie, Diuinations, &c. After these things the Giants began to eate the flesh of men, and men were diminished: and the remnant cried to heauen, because of their wickednesse, that they might come in remembrance before him. And the foure great Archangels Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Vriel hearing it; looked downe on the earth from the holy places of heauen: and beholding much bloud shed on the earth, and all vngodlinesse and transgression committed there­in, said one to another, That the Spirites and Soules of men complaine, saying, That yee should present our prayer to the Highest, and our destruction. And the foure Archangels entring, said to the Lord, Thou art God of Gods, and Lord of Lords, &c. Thou seest what Exael hath done, he hath taught mysteries, and reuealed to the world the things in heauen, &c. Then the Highest said, The Holy one, the Great one spake and sent Vriel to the sonne of Lamech, saying, Go to, Noe, tell him of the end approching, and a flould shall destroy the earth, &c. To Raphael, he said, Go Raphael and bind Exael hand and foot, and cast him into darknesse, and open the wildernesse in the desert of Dodoel, and there cast him, and lay vpon him sharpe stones to the day of Iudgement, &c. And to Gabriel he said, Go Gabriel to the Giants, and destroy the sons of the Watch-men from the sons of Men, set them one against another in warre and destruction. To Michael he said, Go Michael, bind Semixa and the others with him that haue mixed themselues with the daughters of Men, (vntill seuentie genera­tions) to the hils of the earth; vntill the day of their iudgement, till the iudgement of the world be finished, and then they shall be brought into [...] the confusion of fire, and vnto triall, and vnto the prison of the ending of the world, and whosoeuer shall bee condemned and destroyed, from hence-forth shall bee cast together with them till the finishing of their generation. &c. And the Giants which were begotten of the spirits and flesh, they shall call them euill spirits on the earth, because their dwel­ling is on the earth. The spirits that depart out of their bodies shall be euil spirits, be­cause they were engendred of the Watchmen and Men.

But it were tedious to recite further. The antiquitie of it, and because it is not so common, and especially because Inseph. Antiq. lib. 1. Iustin. Ter­tull. Athenag. Cyprian. La­ctantius, Euseb. Hugo de S.Vic. Strabus, Bur­gensis, Sulpitius Seuer. sac. hist. lib. 1. This fable of Angels, &c. the Saracens also retaine. see lib. 3. cap.5. some of the Ancients, and of the Papists haue bin misse-led by these dreames, (refused iustly by Ierome and Augustine) interpreting the sonnes of God in Moses to be spoken of Angels (as their Translation did reade it) [Page 32] haue moued me to insert those tables. Notable is the diligence of the Purgatory Sca­uengers, who in Vines notes vpon Aug. de Ciuit. Dei. lib. 15. cap. 23. haue in their Index expurgatorius, set the seale of their Office vpon a testimonie alleaged out of Eu­sebius de Praep. Euang. lib. 5. cap. 4. as if they had been Vines owne words, to be left out in the impression. The words, because they sauour of the former error, haue I heere placed. Non ergo deos, neque bonos daemonaes Gentiles, sed perniciosos solummodo vene­rantur. Quam rem magis Plutarchus confirmat, dicens fabulosas de dijs rationes res quasdam significare, à daemonibus antiquissimis gestas temporibus, & ca quae de giganti­bus ac de Titanibus decantantur, daemonum fuisse operationes. Vnde mihi suspicio (saith Eusebius, but Vines is fined for it) nonnunquam incidit, ne ista illa sint, quae ante diluui­um à gigantibus fact a diuin a Scriptura tetigit, de quibus dicitur: Cùm autem vidissent Angels Dei filias hominum, quia essent speciosae, elegerunt sibi ex illis vxores, ex quibus procreats sunt famosissimi gigantes à saeculo. Suspicabitur enim fortasse quispiam, illos & illorum spiritus esse qui ab hominibus postea dij putati sunt, pugnasque illorum, tumultus & bella esse quae fabulose de dijs conscribebantur. Lactantius lib. 2. cap. 15. saith, that when the world was multiplied, God sent Angels to keepe men from the frauds of the Di­uell, to whom he forbad all earthly contagion. These were by the Diuell insnared with women, therefore depriued of heauen: and their progenie of a middle nature betwixt men and Angels, became vncleane spirits: so that hence grew two kinds of Daemones or diuellish spirits; the one heauenly, the other earthly, which would now seeme to be keepers, and are destroyers of men.

The Angels are sometimes called Iob 1.6. and 38.7. the sonnes of God: but that name is commu­nicated to men, who Ephes. 2.3. by Nature children of wrath, by faith in the naturall and one­ly begotten Sonne of God, haue this prerogatiue to be the sonnes of God, and fel­low-heires with Christ. But some of the children of the kingdome shall be cast out, because they haue rebelled against their Father that begot them, professing them­selues to be the sonnes of God, but Iob. 8.44. doe the workes of their father the Diuell: and of these Hypocrites and Apostataes, it is said, that louing pleasure more then God, they matched themselues in Cains familie, a prouocation so mightie to euill, that strong Sampson and wise Salomon are witnesses, that Prou.7.26. the strong men are slaine by this wea­ker sexe. This was the Serpents policie at first, Balaams policie after, Babels policie now; Sheldon in his Motiues ob­serueth these marriages to be a great meane for propagating Poperie. and Balaams wages doe moue many still to make such linsey-woolsey mar­riages, that the Nehem. 13.24. children speake halfe Ashdod, and whilest the father professeth one religion, the mother another, the children become Giants, to fight against all that is called God, and to make little or no profession (at least in their liues) of any religion at all.

I deny not that then there were Giants also in regard of bodily stature, Gibbins in Genes. whom the Scripture calleth, because they were great and fearefull, Rephaim and Emim, of their pride Hanakim, of their strength Gibborim, of their tyrannie Nephilim, of their naughtinesse Zamzummim. Such were Og and Goltah after the floud. Yea such haue been in all ages: which (to omit other Ethnike Authors) De Ciuit. Dei. lib.15. cap. 9. Augustine affirmeth, that at Vtica he saw a mans tooth as great as an hundred of the ordinarie sise. Viues on that place, saith hee saw one as bigge as a mans fist. Nicephorus telleth of two men in the time of Theodosius, the one not so admirable for his height which was fiue cu­bites and an hand, as the other for his smalnesse, like to a Partrich in bignesse, yet wittie and learned. Our Histories of Giral. Camb. Hector. Boct. Camden Brit. Arthur, Little Iohn, Curcy Earle of Vlster, and one in our times, 1581. seene in London, do shew some such here and there, now and then in the world, which Goropius in his Giganto machia, affirmeth of his owne sight: and euen whole families of these monstrous men are found at this day in America, both neere to Virginia, as Mappe of Virginia. Captaine Smith reporteth, and especially about the Straits of Magellan, Pigasetta. neere which he found Giants, and in the same Straits were such seene of the Ol [...]uer Noort. and Sebastian de Weert. Hollanders ten foot in height, where as yet other families were but of the ordinary greatnes. One Thomas Turner told me that neere the Riuer of Plate he saw one twelue foot high, and others whose hinder part of their head was flat, not [Page 33] round. I [...]l. Capitol. Herodianus. Authors tell of Maximinus the Romane Emperour, that he was eight foote and a finger high, whose wiues bracelets might serue him for rings, that he often in one day drunke an Amphora, which is almost six gallons of wine, and eate fortie pounds of flesh: Cordus saith sixtie; he could breake a horse legge, or strike out his teeth with a blow of his fist, &c. Which occurrents in Nature no doubt haue giuen occasion to some of further sabling: Qui de magnis maiora loquuntur. Plin. lib.7. cap.16. We reade in Pliny of one of forty six cubits, in Crete, foūd by the force of an earth-quake, breaking the hill wherein he stood, supposed to be Orion or Otus: more credible is that he tel­leth of one Gabbora in Claudius time, nine foot and nine inches; and in Augustus time of another halfe a foot higher.

Howsoeuer the bodies of these men before the Floud were composed, certaine their minds were disposed to all monstrous inhumanity which hastened their destru­ction. This made God to repent that he made man vpon the earth, not that there was any change or repentance in him; but because a change for want of repentance hap­pened to them. In long sufferance hee gaue them an hundred and twentie yeares space, in which Noah might bee a Preacher of righteousnesse; yea the Arke it selfe, which Noah that while was prouiding, might preach to them repentance, that their teares might haue quenched his wrath, and preuented temporall drowning, and eter­nall burning. Adam liued till Henochs time, a witnesse and Preacher of the promise he himselfe had receiued. Henoch himselfe is made, not a verball, but a reall Preacher, whiles his sonne Methushelah, and his Nephew Lamech the father of Noah liued: that God might haue witnesses to conuert some and conuince others. But whiles the world becommeth worse and worse, ( Horat. Carm. Aetas parentum peior auis tulit Hos nequiores, mox daturos Progeniem vitiosiorem) a deluge of sinne first, and a deluge of iudgement after, drowned the world.

For the circumstances of the Floud Moses hath more plainely related them, then that I should heere expresse them. Noah with his three sonnes, and their wiues, en­tered the Arke at Gods appointment, to which by Diuine instinct resorted both birds and beasts; of the cleane seuen, and of the vncleane two in euery kind. If any maruell at this distinction of cleane and vncleane in these times, supposing that God first in the wildernesse made this partition-wall: it is answered, that God before this had appointed sacrifices of beasts, which might make the difference, for which cause also there was a seuenth of euery such creature, reserued for sacrifice after No­ahs going out. Besides, God had now purposed to adde the flesh of beasts vnto mans diet, for which those, called by the Isaelites cleane, were most fit, and most in vse: and in that respect more of such kindes were reserued, as more necessarie for mans vse in food, cloathing, and some of them also for labour. Otherwise No creature is vncleane in it selfe, the Hoofe and Cudde being by Nature (Gods hand-maid) and not by their owne vice, such, as made this distinction. And after the Floud God made no Law of Difference vntill the time of Moses, although each countrey hath obserued their owne peculiar custome in this food, some loathing that which o­thers esteemed daintie, not for religion, but for naturall and ciuill causes. As at this; day to the Tartars, Horse-flesh is royall sare; to the Arabians, Camels; to some Ame­ricans, Serpents; and other flesh to others: which our appetite, more then our faith, our stomacke, more then our soule; abhorreth.

Concerning the Arke, diuers doubts haue beene moued, through curiositie and vnbelesse, of some, who by diuine iustice were in a manner depriued of sense and reason, hauing before, through diuellish wickednesse, lost their conscience and Re­ligion. Thus Orig. bom. in Genes.2. Apelles one of Marcions disciples, could not finde the Arke (af­ter Moses dimension) to bee capable of foure Elephants in so small a quantitie; Celsus, contrarie to him (yet agreeing in a foolish impietie and impious folly) thought so great a vessell was too great for mans handy-worke. Thus, like Sampsons foxes their heads are diuers waies, but they are tied together by the tailes, agreeing in disagreeing both from Moses and themselues.

[Page 34] But might not reason teach Celsus, that the direction of God might teach a man in an hundred and twentie yeares space to frame so mightie a Fabrike? doth not sense and experience shew buildings not much lesse both on the sea and on the land? And what Arithmeticke or Geometrie, nay what witte or common sense, had A­pelles in his assertion? The Arke was too little (forsooth) for so many creatures and their prouision for a yeare. We neede not seeke for shifts from helpe of the Geometricall cubite knowne to Moses in his Aegyptian learning, of three, sixe or nine foote to the cubite; as Origen and Hugo de Arca Noae, lib. 1. Hugo doe: nor of the sacred cubite, imagined twice as much as the common: nor of the larger stature and cubites of of men in those youthfull times and age of the world. The length whereof three hundred cubites, and the breadth fiftie, do make of square measure by common rules of Art, fifteene thousand cubites. Three floores or roomes were therein of that quantitie, each containing ten foote in height. As for the beastes; a floore of fif­teene thousand cubites might yeeld fiftie cubites seuare to three hundred seuerall kindes, many more then are knowne by relation of the most Writers, Aristotle, Pliny, Gesner, &c. which scarce reckon halfe that number, and but fortie kindes or thereabouts, that would take vp any great roome. The height might yeeld commodious roomes for the fowles on perches: and all this might one roome or floore afford. Iudge then whether two other roomes, of equall bignesse, might not bee sufficient for all other necessarie employments? Besides, the roofe is not to bee thought vnproportionable, fitted for so long and tempestuous stormes, and there­fore not vnfitted with roome for diuers necessaries. And if any accuse mee for ad­ding this of the roofe to Moses description, I say that so it is translated by Tremel. & Iunins. some, Et in cubits longitudinens consummato eius tectum supornè, vnderstanding those words not of the window (as many doe) but of the roofe it selfe, which else is no where described, which should ouer-hang the Arke a cubite breadth, to defend it the sa­fer from raines; as in our houses the eues and slope roofes are commodious both for roome within, and against the weather without. But if any would entertaine longer dispute about this, hee may (among others that haue handled this que­stion) resort vnto Beccesel. An­tiq. Antuerp. Goropius Becanus his Gigantomachia, whom in this point I would rather follow, then in many other his Becceselanicall paradoxes.

Noah and his family with this their retinue being entered, the fountaines of the great deepes were opened, and the windowes of Heauen: the two store-houses of waters which God had separated in the Creation, being in a manner confoun­ded againe, the Seas breaking their sandie barres, and breaking vp by secret vnder­minings the priuie pores and passages in the earth: the cloudes conspiring with the waters, and renuing their first league and naturall amitie, to the confusion of Nature and the World. The heauenly lights hid their faces from beholding it, and cloathed themselues with blacke, as bewailing the worlds funerall; the aire is tur­ned into a sea, the sea possesseth the airie region, the earth is now no earth but a mi­rielumpe, and all that huger world is contracted into a brife Epitome, and small a­bridgement in the Arke, euen there but a few inches distant from death. Thus doe all Rom. 8. 20. Creatures detest Sin which hath made them subiect to Vanitie; thus would the Elements wash themselues cleane from it, and the committers thereof: but the Arke preuaileth ouer the preuailing waters, a figure of the Church, the remnant of the el­der, and Seminarie of the new World.

This drowning of the world hath not beene quite drowned in the world, but besides Moses, many other writers haue mentioned it: the time thereof being referred to that which in each Nation was accounted most ancient; as among the Thebans to Ogiges; in Thessalia, to Deucalion; among the Americans (although De Fab. Mundi. Mercator thinke that the Floud drowned not those parts, because they were not yet peopled, and because the beastes there are most-what differing kinds from these in our world) the people haue retained the tradition hereof: Mnaseus among the Phoenicians, Berosus a Chaldaean, Hieronimus Aegyptius, Nicolaus of Damascus, [Page 33] the Poets Greeke and Latine, adding fables to the truth (which without some ground of truth they could not haue added) all mention the Floud; howsoeuer con­founding the lesse and later with this first and vniuersall.

I might adde the testimonies of Eupolemus, Molon, Abidenus, Alexander Po­lyhistor, out of Eusebius, Iosephus, and others. Lucian in his Dea Syria, telleth the opinion of the Hierapolitans but a little corrupted from Moses Narration: that Countrey wherein Noah liued, most likely retaining firmer memorie of this mira­cle: so plainely doth he attribute to his Deucalion the Arke, the resort and safegard of the Lions, Bores, Serpents, and Beastes: the repairing of the World after the drowning thereof, which he ascribeth to periurie, crueltie, and other abominations of the former people. That Berosus, which we now have, is not so much as the ghost, or carkasse, and scarce a few bones of the carkasse of that famous Chaldean Author, mentioned by the Ancients, but the dreames of Annius, (no new thing in this last age) coined for the most part in his name. Some fragments of Berosus wee haue ci­ted in other Authors that conuince this Bastard.

Among others, somewhat of the Floud hath escaped drowning: his testimonie whereof, set downe in Polyhistor and Abidenus, is in Euseb. Chron. Grac. Scasig. lib 1 & de Prae­par. lib. 9. Eusebius. Hee affirmeth that Saturne gaue warning to Sisuthrus of this deluge, and willed him to prepare a great vessell or shippe, wherein to put conuenient food, and to saue himselfe and his kin­dred, and acquaintance, which hee builded of length fiue furlongs, of bredth two. After the retiring of the waters, he sent out a bird which returned: after a few dayes he sent her forth againe, which returned with her feet bemired: and being sent the third time, came no more: with other things to like purpose, which Polyhistor there, and Abidenus, citeth out of Berosus. Plut arch hath also written of this Doue, sent out by Dencalion. Plut. de animantium comparatione.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the re-peopling of the world: and of the diuision of Tongues and Nations.

NOw Genes. 8.1. GOD remembred NOAH, saith Moses; not that God can forget, but that hee declared his Diuine power, whereby Noah might know hee was not forgotten. Then did the Hos. 2. 21. 22. Heauensre­member their wonted influence in the Elements: then did the Ele­ments remember their naturall order: GOD made awinde to passe in commission, and, as a common vmpire, to end their vnnaturall strife, forcing the waters into their ancient precincts aboue and beneath the firma­ment. (Ambrose interpreteth this Winde of the HOLY GHOST, lib. de No. Ru­pertus lib. 4. of the Sunne. The most, of winde, which yet naturally could not bee produced from that waterie masse, but by the extraordinary hand of God Perer. in Genes. lib. 13. .) Then did the Earth remember her first inheritance, being freed from the tyrannicall inua­sion and vsurpation of the waters. And what could then forget or bee forgotten, when GOD remembred NOAH and all that was with him in the Arke?

And in the An. Mund. 1656. the Floud. seuenth moneth, the seuenteenth day of the moneth, the Arke rested vpon the Mountaines of Ararat. This fell out in the yeare from the Creation 1656. The After the Sept. 2242. and after the most ancient copies 2262. Scalig. Septuagint, and the Fathers that followed them, reckon farre otherwise: which errour of theirs, differing from the Hebrew veritie, De Ciu. Dei. lib. 15. cap. 11. & dein. ad 13. Augustine ascribes to the first Copiers of that Translation: Iunius. Broughton. Others to their owne set purpose, that they might contend with other Nations in the challenge of Antiquitie: for that cause, [Page 36] and lest the often halfing of ages should trouble the faithlesse, saith Master Broughton, they faine Cainan, betwixt Arphaxad and Selah: in which account if Luke 3. 36. Luke in his Genealogie hath followed them, it is to be ascribed to them which would cor­rect Luke by their corrupt translation of the Septuagint, for B [...]za annot. Luc. 3. some copies of the Gospell haue wanted it. The place is commonly thought to be Armenia. G [...]t. Bec. In­doicytbica. pag. 473. Goropius after his wont paradoxicall, holdeth it to be the hill Paropanisus, or Paropamisus, a part of the hill Taurus (vnproperly ascribed to Caucasus, which riseth betweene the Euxine and Hircan sea) supposed the highest part of the earth, called now, M.Paul.Ven Nau­gracot.

He imagined, that the place first inhabited after the Floud was Margiana, whence those Colonies passed that with Nunrod built Babylon. His reason is, because Genes. 11. 2. they went from the East to the Plaine of Shinar, whereas Armenia beareth some­what Eastward from thence. As though that iourney had beene presently after the Floud, which was an hundred yeares after: in which space it is likely that they followed the Mountainous countries Eastward a long time, and from Assyria Adi­abena, turned backe into that fertile Plaine, where pride, fulnesse of bread, and abundance ofidlenesse, set them on worke against GOD. I hold it not meete, that a few coniectures should counterpoise the generall consent of all ages. Iosephus saith, the place in Armenia was called Apobaterion, of this their going forth of the Arke: and alleageth Berosus testimonie, that a part of this Arke was then said to remaine in the Cordyaean (or Gordyaean) hilles, the pitch whereof some scraping away, wore the same for Amulets. And out of Nich. Damascenus, lib. 96; There is (saith hee) aboue the region of the Minyae, a great hill in Armenia, by name Baris, wherein, they say, many saued themselues in the time of the Floud, and one, brought in an Arke, there stayed (the remnants of the wood thereof continuing there long time after) which happily was hee that Moses the Iewish Law-giuer writ of. This mountaine or mountainous Region the Chaldean Paraphrast calleth Tremel. & Inn. Annot. Kar­du; Curtius, Cordaei montes; Ptolomaeus, Gordiaei: the people are called Cardyaei or Gordyaei. In this Tract (saith Epiphan.) lib. 1. contra Haeres. there is one high mountaine called Lubar, which signifieth the descending place (Lubar in the Armenian and Egyptian language signifying the same that [...] before mentioned) and the word Baris before cited out of Damascenus seemeth to bee corruptly written for Lubaris.

The Armenians through all ages haue (as it seemeth) reserued the memorie here­of: and euen Cartwrights Trauels. in our dayes there standeth an Abbey of Saint Gregories Monkes neere to this hill, which was able to receiue The Persian King. Shaugh Thamas and a great part of his armie. These Monkes, if any list to beleeue them, say that there remaineth yet some part of the Arke, kept by Angels: which, if any seeke to ascend, carrie them backe as farre in the night, as they haue climbed in the day. Cartwright, an eye-witnesse, saith that this hill is alwayes couered with snow; at the foot thereof issue a thousand springs; there are adioyning three hundred Villages of the Armenians. Hee saith also that there are seene many ruinous foundations sup­posed to bee the workes of this first people, that a long time durst not aduenture in­to the lower countries for feare of another Floud. In Chron. Graec. Eusebij & praeparat. E­uang. lib. 9. cap. 4. Abidenus saith, that the Ship or Arke was still in Armenia (in his time) and that the people vsed the wood thereof a­gainst many diseases with maruellous effect.

After that Noah had obtained his deliuerance, and was now gone out of the Arke; his first care was Religion: and therefore he Genes. 8. [...]0. built an Altar to the Lord, and tooke of euery cleane beast, and of euery cleane fowle, and offered burnt offerings vpon the Altar. And the Lord smelled a fauour of rest, and renued the ancient blessings and promises to Noah and his Posterity. The liuing creatures were also permitted to their food, and submitted to their rule, by whom they had in the Arke escaped drowning. Only the bloud was prohibited to them, as a ceremonial obseruation to instruct them [Page 37] in lenity and hatred of cruelty: the politicall ordinance being annexed touching the bloud of man, against man or beast that should shed the same. This difference being Gibbins in Gènes. 9. Cic. dc [...]inilib. 2. alledged of the life of man and beast, that the life of the beast is his bloud, the life of man is in his bloud. Not that the bloud which we see shed is the life of the beast; for that is properly, Cruor, not Sanguis, that is, the matter, whose forme was the life or vitall spirit, which being separated from the bodie, is seuered also from the forme of life. And the life of beasts hath no other forme but that which is vnited with the bloud, as the life of trees is the sappe of trees; their bloud being (as it were) their soule. But Vt sit pecn­dum anim a qua­litativa, homi [...]num vero substantiua. Aquin. Sanguis vchicu­culum animae Aristot. de Gen. animal. lib. 3. the life of man is in his bloud, hauing his seate therein, liuing when it is by death separated from the bloud; meane while the Spirites beeing the purest part of the bloud, as conduites conueying life to the bodily members, and as firme bands of a middle nature, betweene the body & soule, vniting them together; which bands and carriages being broken by effusion of bloud, the soule subsisteth a spiri­tuall substance without the bodie, not subiect to substantiall corruption or morta­litie.

God did also make a couenant for man with the beasts of the field, infusing into the nature of all things, a dread and feare of man, whereby they feare the power, the snares, and sleights of man, and therefore flee or else submit themselues, not by that willing instinct, as to Adam in innocencie, but rather with a seruile feare. And al­though by hunger or prouocation, or feare of their owne danger, they sometimes rebell, yet otherwise there remaines some impression of this naturall decree in them, as experience in all places hath shewed. Euen the Lion, king of forrests & sauage cre­atures, doth not easily giue onset, but on such occasions: yea the Moores meeting with this beast, do rate and braule at him; this magnanimous beast passing by with a leering countenance, expressing a mixt passion of dread and disdaine, fearing the voyce of one, that feareth not the weapons of many, which himselfe, by the terrour of his voice, maketh the beasts to tremble. Hereunto the Lord addeth the Rainbow, a new sacrament, to seale his mercifull Couenant with the earth, not to drowne the same any more; which yet at last shall be burnt with fire, so to purge the heauens and earth of that vanity, whereto mans sin hath subiected them. And thus much do Gregor. Maz [...] ­nios homil. 8. in Ezech. Melanc. Comest. some reade in the colours of Rabbini tres Iridis colores referunt ad tres Patriarchas: si­cut & Christia­in quatuor colores, ad 4.ele­menta. Gib. the Rainbow, of a waterish and fiery mixture, as a continued signe of the double destruction of the world, the first outward as already past, the o­ther inward as yet to come. Wel indeed may this Bowe be called the Iris Thau­mant. filia. Child of Won­der, both for the naturall constitution and diuine ordinance: not that there was be­fore Alcuinum et Chrysoft. accusat Percrius huius opin. l. 14. in Gt. no such creature, but that then this vse of the creature was ordained. The refle­ction or refraction of the Sunne-beames in a waterie cloude, the brightnes from the Sunne and from the cloud meeting together, the variety of colours proceeding from the varietie of matter; the furnish and drier part of the cloude yeelding a purplish, the watery a greenish sea-colour &c. borrowing the roundnes from the Sunne halfe eclipsed by the shadow of the Earth, are accounted the natural causes of this wonder of Nature; sometime also by reason of aboundance of matter, the same beeing doubled, one Bowe within the other, their colours placed contrarie, for that the one is the image (by reflection) of the other. Neither is it to be thought, that there was no Rainebowe before the Floud, anie more than that there was no water, bread or wine before the institution of our Christian Sacraments, which name and dignitie, not Nature, but Vse, by the appoyntment of the GOD of Nature and Grace doth giue vnto them. For not in the cloudes alone is this Bows to be seene, but as further witnesse of the maturall causes and constitution thereof, the same, effect may be shewed by concurrence of like causes in the waters and rockes where Riuers haue their falles; yea on the buildings of men: as I my selfe haue seene a perfect Rainebowe by the reflection of the Sunne-beames on a boarded wall of a Wa­ter-mill, the boardes thereof being very wet with the fall of the water, and opposite to the Sunne.

The sonnes of Noah were Sem (which because of Diuine priuiledge, from whose [Page 38] loynes Christ was to come according to the flesh) is first named Ham or Cham, and Iapheth, who seemeth (as lunius & alij. Pererius contra lib. 15. in Gen. learned men gather by the Gen. 10.21. text) to be the eldest. Fa­bulous Methodius, contrary to Moses, speaketh of an other sonne Ionithus after the Floud, whereas the Genes. 9.19. Scripture saith, That of those three all the Earth was repleni­shed.

To shew directly which Nations descended of each of these three, were a hard taske: and now after this confusion of Nations by wars, leagues, and otherwise, im­possible. But for the first beginnings of Nations, before that Colonies were by vio­lence of Conquerours, or by themselues, in their exceeding multiplying, voluntarily translated from one place to another, they are by Moses faithfully related, although the confusion of Languages and of peoples do make the matter hard and harsh to vs. Yet the names of Nations in the Greeke Stories doe in great part agree with the names of these first Patriarkes, as maister Broughtons Concent. Broughton hath shewed, by laying downe the names of Noahs house, which, vnvowelled, may admit sundry pronouncings, set­ting against them such names as heathen Authors haue mentioned. Out of him, and Arias Montanus his Phaleg, and others, what I thought likeliest, I haue heere inser­ted. Iapheth, Iapetus: Gomer, or after the Septuagint Gamer: Camaritae Cimmerij, and Cimbri. Ioseph. Ant. l. 1. Trem. & Iun. An. Iosephus saith, That the inhabitants of Galatia were of Gomer some­time called Gomarae. Camd.Brit. Maister Camden deriueth the ancient Galls and Britans from this Gomer: the name which they giue to themselues to this day implying the same, which is Kumero, Cymro, and Kumeri, a Brittish or Welsh woman Kumeraes, and their language Kumeraeg.

Magog Mas­sagetae & Getae. Magog is supposed the father of the Scythians, before (saith Iosephus) called Ma­goges, Ezek. 38.2. and 39.6. who after inuading those parts, left the name Magog to Hierapolis in Syria: Plin lib. 5. c. 23. Of Madai came the Medes, of Iauan the Iones or Grecians. Of Thubal the Iberians, called sometime (saith Iosephus) Thobeli. The Iberians, saith Montanus, dwelt neere to Meotis: certaine colonies of them inha­bited Spaine, and called it Hiberia, and themselues Hiberians: whence the Spaniards haue a report, that Thubal was the first peopler of their countrey. The Cappadoci­ans were called Meschini of Meshech, whose citie Mazaca was named of Meshech, since by Tiberius named Caesarea, where Basil was Bishop. Hence was named Mos­chicus mons, and Moschos, and the Moscouites.

From Thiras came the Thracians. The name Tros may cause men to ascribe the Troians to this beginning. Of the sonnes of Gomer, Aschenaz was Author of the nations in Asia, Pontus, and Bithynia, where was the lake and riuer Ascanius, a pro­per name also of men in those parts: the Axine or Euxine Sea: the Ascanian Iland, and Ascania in Phrygia. Of Riphath came the Paphlagonians, sometimes called the Riphathaei, saith Iosephus: and the Riphaean hills in the North: the Amazonians were also called Aeorpatae in Herod. Melpom. The Arimphei neere to the Riphean hilles.

Thogarma gaue name to the inhabitants of Armenia Minor, whose Kings, called Tygranes, and Townes Tygranokartae, witnesse it: some also attribute the Turkes or Turkeman Nation to this name and author. These peopled Asia first, and from thence by degrees these parts of Europe: Of Togarma, Africanus deriueth the Ar­menians.

Of Iauans children, Elisha founded the Aeoles, called also Aelisei of Tarshish came the Cilicians, whose mother-citie was Tarsus, Paules birth-place. Montanus thin­keth that Tharsis was Carthage in Africa, which the Poeni after possessed: some re­ferre the Venetians to Tharsis also. Cittim was an other part of Cilicia. The Cre­tans (after Montanus) were called Chetim, and of others Cortini, of whom the Ita­lian coast called Magna Graecia was inhabited, and the city Caieta, builded. Of Do­danim came the Dorians and Rhodians. These peopled the North and West parts of the World in Asia and Europe.

Chams posteritie was Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan: These possessed the South of Asia, and Africa. Of Cham is the name Chemmis in Aegipt; and Ammon [Page 39] the Idol and Oracle so notorious. Cush gaue name to the Aethiopians and Arabians knowne in Scripture by that name. Mizraim, to the Aegyptians, euen at this day so called in their owne and the Arabian tongues. Put, to the Libyans, sometime cal­led Phuthaei: the riuer Fut is mentioned by lib. 5. ca 1. Pliny not far from Atlas. The Canaa­nites I need not mention: Moses plainely describeth them.

Of the sons of Cush, Seba Author of the inhabitants of Arabia deserta, Ps. 72.10. or after Montanus Sabaea regio thurifera. Chauila is a name more forgotten, supposed to be Author of a people neere the Persian Gulfe. Sabtha Sta­beisuper sinum Persie. & Mes­sabathae ex ijs oriundi. Arias Montanus. Sabbesta left the name to the inha­bitants of Arabia Faelix, where was the city Sabbatha with threescore temples there­in. Other people of Arabia Faelix came of Raeamah, where Ptolomaeus placeth Rega­ma: the Garamantes also in Libya. Sabitheca was Author of the Sachalitae in Arabia Faelix. Nimrod—the sonne of Cush, some thinke to be Zoroastres some Belus.

Misraim begate Ludim, the inhabitants of Maraeotica praefectura in Egypt: Ana­mim, the Cyreneans: & Lehabim, the Libyans: & Naphtuhim the Aethiopians neare to Egypt, whose towne Napata is mentioned in Ptolomey: Pathrusim the Pharusians, Casluhim, at the entrance of Egypt, Cassiotis. Montanus interpreteth Ludim the Libyans; Ghananim, the Troglodytes; Lehabim, the Cyrenaikes; Naphthuhim, Africa the lesse; Chasluhim the Saracens; Caphthorins, the Cappadocians.

To Shems posterity befell the parts of Asia from Iudaea eastward.

Shems sonnes were Elam, the father of the Elamites, in the higher part of Persia: Ashur, of whom came the Assyrians: Arphaxad: the Cadusians or the Chaldeans are (with little likenesse of sound) ascribed to him. Lud is holden father of the Lydians: and Aram of the Syrians, called also Aramaei; others of Aarm deriue Armenia.

Arams sonnes were Vz, of whom the region Ausanitis was named Chul, of whom Cholle seemeth to haue his appellation in the Palmyrene desarts neare to Euphrates. Gether; Iosephus ascribeth to him Bactria; others that part of Syria where Gnidar stood. Atergate and Derceto that notorious Syrian goddesse; happily borrowed the name hence: Of Mash is the name Masius, part of the hill Amanus: Montanus saith, of Mes Mis [...]', and Misia, whom Invenal calles Mesos—de grege Mesorum.

Ioktan begat Elmodad, of whom the hill Emodus may seeme named: of Shalah the Sclebij and Sariphi: of Hatzarmaveth, the Sarmatians: of Iarach, the Arachosi­ans: of Hadoram, the Orites, people of India: of Vzal or Auxal, Auzakea a citie in Scythia, and the riuer Oxus: of Diklah (after Arias Montanus) Scythia intra Ima­um, the reason I see not in the name: of Obal or Ghobal, the Cabolites, people of Pa­ropanisus: of Abimael, Imaus: of Sheba, the Sabae which Eustathius placeth in In­dia, or according to Montanus, the Sacae: of Ophir, some thinke called Aurea Cher­sonesus, where Pegu and Malacca now are: Montanus thinketh it to be Peru: Chani­lah hath not left so plaine impression behinde. Montanus ascribeth to him India. Of Iobab, Arias Montanus coniectureth Parias in the West Indies to haue come, but with little probabilitie which I can see. And of the most before named wee haue probable coniectures, not certaine proofes, as appeareth by the difference of opi­nions of Authors concerning them. Neither may we thinke that Moses intended so much a Geographicall Historie of all the Nations of the World, many of which were not, long after his time, planted or peopled; but of the first Fathers, who peopled the places by degrees, as they increased in multitude which were neerest that Armenian centre: and especially he relateth & dilateth of them, whom it most concerned the Israelites to know, as the Canaanites, whose bounds and nations are exactly descri­bed. I could adde much touching the seuerall Nations descending of these three brethren, and the bounds of their habitations, in which Africanus sometime took profitable paines; and Eusebius out of him, although both be in this part lost: some­what hath beene barbarously translated into Latine by an vnknowne Author, for the foloecismes, tedious; for the substance of history profitable to the Reader: and there­fore by Scaliger in his edition of Eusebius communicated to the world. But the vn­certainety Pererius, Op­merus, and o­ther Commē ­ters on Genes. and Chrono­logians, haue done somwhat in this argu­ment, which yet as in many we see much probabilitie, so very much is exceeding doubtfull of that they say. maketh me vnwilling to proceed in this argument further.

[Page 40] Of this vncertaintie no greater cause can be alleadged, then the diuision and con­fusion of Tongues, the historie whereof Moses declareth. For whereas God had gi­uen to man two Priuiledges and principall prerogatiues, whereof other creatures are no way capable, his inward Retione & oratione diffe­runt bomines à bestijs. Reason, and abilitie to vtter the same by Speach: this be­nefite of God in Nature was turned into a conspiracie against God and Nature. They said one to another, Genes. [...] 1. 2, 3 Come, let vs make bricke for stone, and slime had they instead of mor­ter. Also they said, let vs build vs a City and Tower, whose toppe may reach vnto the hea­uen, that we may get vs a name, lest we be scattered vpon the whole earth. This was their vaine arrogance and presumption, that when their guilty consciences threatened a dissipation and scattering by diuine Iustice: they would thus harten & harden them­selues against God and Man: in stead of thankefulnesse to God, and honouring his name, they would winne themselues a name and honour: in stead of preuenting pu­nishment by repentance, they would in this Giant-like fighting against God pre­uent future iudgements. But euen that, by which they intended to keepe them from scattering, was the true and first cause of their scattering. So doth God scatter the counsells of his enemies, and taketh the wise in their craftinesse. Babel or confusion is alway the attendant of Pride. Sibylla, alleaged by Ant.li. 1. ca. 4. Iosephus, testifieth of this con­fusion of Tongues in these words. When all men before vsed one speech, they ere­cted a high Tower, as if they would ascend to Heauen, but the Gods by tempests o­uerthrew their Tower, and gaue to ech of them seuerall Languages, whereof the ci­tie was named Babylon. According to that of Moses, Genes. 11. 9. Therefore the name of it was called Babel, because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth. From thence then did the Lord scatter them vpon all the Earth. The Atheists and Natura­lists dreame the world to be eternall, and conceiue that all men could not be of one; because of this diuersitie of languages. If such had beene at Hierusalem, and heard the Apostles (not the expertest men in their owne vulgar) speake all Languages: they might then haue seene the like powerin a contrary effect to this of Babylon. Mans sinne caused this, Gods mercie that the one came from Babylon, the other from Ie­rusalem, that old Ierusalem giuing a taste and earnest of that, which the new Ierusa­lem shal once fully accomplish, when all shalbe made new, all shall become one, and God shalbe all in all. It appeereth that these Builders lost the vnderstanding of their owne speach, and were indued with other language, whereto their Vnderstandings and Tongues were framed, in stead of that former.

What this former Language was, hath bin doubted, either of ignorance or of cu­riositie and self-loue. Theodor. q. 59. in Gen. esteemeth Syrian the first language and that Hebrew began with Moses, taught him by God as a sacred language. Herodot. li. 2. Psam­metichus K. of Egypt caused two children to be closely brought vp by a shepheard, who should at times put Goats to them to giue them suck, without euer hearing hu­mane voice. After two yeeres they vttered the word Bec Bec, which was the voyce that they had heard of their nurses the Goates, but not so interpreted by Psammeti­chus; for he enquiring in what language Bec was significant, and hearing that the Phrygians so called Bread, ascribed to them the prioritie of all nations and langua­ges. Melabdim Echebar the great Relat. Regn. Mogor. loan. Orani. Mogor (as the Iesuites Epistles declare) made the like triall of thirty children, whom he caused, without hearing of man, to be brought vp, setting Guards to obserue the Nurses that they should not speake to them: pur­posing to be of that Religion whereto they should addict themselues. But neither could they euer speake, or would he euer addict himselfe to one certaine Religion. Indoscyth. Goropini by a few Dutch Etymologies grew into conceit, & would haue the world beleeue him, that Dutch was the first language; which if it were, we English should reigne with them, as a Colony of that Dutch Citie, a streame from that fountaine, by commerce and conquests since manifoldly mixed. But his euidence is too weake, his authority too new.

The Orig. in Num. 11. Hier in So­phon.ca. 3. Chrys. in Gen, 30. Aug de Ciuit. Dei li. 16. ca. 11 &c. common and more receiued opinion, is, that the Hebrew was the first, confirmed also by vniuersalitie, antiquitie, and consent of the Christian Fathers and [Page 41] learned men, grounding themselues vpon this reason, That all the names, mentioned in Scripture before the Diuision, are in that Language only significant: besides, it is not like, that Shem conspired with these Babylonians, & therfore not partaker of their pu­nishmēt. Now it is very probable, & almost manifest, that he was See Broughton on that argu­ment. Genebrard. Chron. Gen. 10. 21. the same which after is called Melchisedesh, King of Salem; betwixt whom & Abraham, in that familiaritie, it is not likely, that there was much dissonance in Language. He is also called the fa­ther of all the sonnes of Heber, by a peculiar proprietie, although he had other sonnes, because the puritie of Religion & Language remained in Hebers posteritie. And why should Heber call his sonne Peleg (Diuision) but of this diuision which then happened? The Nation and Language of Israel borrow their name (Hebrew) of him. And if it had happened to himselfe, why should he, more then other, haue so named his sonne?

CHAP. IX.

A Geographicall Narration of the whole Earth in generall, and more particularly of ASIA.

WE haue all this time beene viewing one Nation, which alone was knowne in the Earth, vntill confusion of Language caused diuision of Lands; and haue taken notice of the Heads and Authors of those Peoples and Nations, that from that time were scattered ouer the World, and after setled in their proper Habitations. Wee haue not followed the opinion of some, both of the Augustin. Hierom. Arrzobius. Epiphan. Broughton &c. Antients, and later Writers, in defining the number of Nations and Languages through the World, reckoned by them 72. For who seeth not, that Moses in that tenth of Genesis is most carefull to describe the posteritie and bounds of Canaan, which GOD had giuen to Israel, which it were ab­surd to thinke in so small a territorie to be of so many (that is, eleuen) seuerall Langua­ges? And how many Nations were founded after that by Abrahams posteritie (not to mention so many other Fountaines of Peoples) by the sonnes of Hagar, and Ketura, and Esau the sonne of Isaac? Neither could the World so suddenly be peopled: and of that, which then was peopled, Moses writing a Historie of and for the Church, so farre mentioneth the Affaires and Nations of the world, as it was meet for the Church (and specially that Church of the Israelites) to know, according as it was likely they should haue then, or after, more or lesse to doe with them. Excerpta bar­baro-Latina a­pud los. Scalig. Eusebium Africanus hath reckoned the 72 by name. But how easie were it in these dayes to set downe 72 more, of diffe­ring Nations, both in Region and Language; and how little of the World was then knowne, shall presently be shewed. Besides, it may be a question, whether diuers of those, there mentioned, did not speake the same Language (as in Chaldaea, Syria, and Canaan) Gibbins in Gen. 11. with some diuersitie of a Dialect, a little more then in our Northerne, We­sterne, and Southerne English: Which may appeare, both by the pilgrimages of the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, in those parts (which had needed new inter­preters, by that rule, in euery two or three daies trauell, except themselues had beene almost miraculoussy skilful in Languages) and by the Chaldaean & Syrian Monuments & Books, which some obserue to come nigh to the Hebrew. 'D.Willet in Dan.c. 1. q. 25. reproueth Philo's opinion, That the Chalde and Hebrew was all one, because Dantel. an Hebrew, was set to learne the Chalde: or that the Syrian & Chalde, according to Mer­cerus opinion, was the same: yet grants, that in the first times the Syrian & Chalde litle differed. Perhaps it was with these three Languages, as with the Frankes See Wolfgang. Laz. de m [...]g­gentium, lib. 3. Beat. Rhenanus, R. Verstegans Ant.q. Language, when they first seated thēselues in Gallia, & that which is now called The olde French and our old Eng­lish are very like; both (in their original) Dutch. French; or the Saxon & the present English: for there were no lesse mutations and transmutations, by times & warres, in those parts thē in these. It seemeth therefore probable, that at the first diuision of Languages, they that most disagreed, did furthest separate thēselues, & they that spake either the same, or neere in likenesse to the same speech, obserued the same neighborhood of Nation, as of speech; which, the names and words of the Phenician, Syrian, Persian, Arabian, and Aegyptian Languages, testifie. The diuision of Tongues [Page 42] was about a hundred yeares after the Floud, An. Mundi 1757. as Caluisius and Bun­tingus accompt.

Now that wee haue spoken of the first Authors of the principall and first Nations, let vs suruey their Lands and Inheritance, which GOD gaue vnto them, which was the habitable Earth. This Earth, together with the Waters, make one-Globe and huge Ball, resting on it selfe, supported by the Almightie hand of GOD, to the round­nesse whereof, the high Mountaines, in comparison of the whole, can be small im­pediments, and are but as a few motes or dust sticking to a ball. Possidonius, Erato­sthenes, Hipparchus, Plinie, Ptolomey, and others, skilfull in Geographie, haue ende­uoured by Art to finde out the true quantitie hereof: and although there appeare dif­ference in their summes, yet that is imputed rather to the diuersitie of their furlongs, which some reckoned longer then others, then to their differing opinions. But ne­uer had they so certaine intelligence of the quantitie of the Earth, as in our times, by the Nauigations of F. Magellanes Spaniards, F. Drake. T. Cauend [...]sh [...]. English, and Oliuer Noort. Dutch, round about the same, is giuen vs; Art and Experience consulting, and conspiring together, to perfect the Sci­ence of Geographie. For whereas the Ancients diuided the World into three parts, Asia, Africa, and Europe, and yet neither knew the East and North parts of Asia, nor the South of Africa, nor the most Northerly parts of Europe: not onely these three are by Land and Sea farre more fully discouered, but also A. Maginus Geog. three other parts, no lesse (if not much greater) then the former, are added to them; namely, America Mexicana, and America Peruviana, and Terra Australis, or the Land lying to­ward the South pole. As for the seuenth part, which some reckon vnder the North Pole, because we haue no relation but Mercat. Tab. Vniuersal. from a Magician, a Frier of Oxford, cal­led Nicholas de Linna, which might with as good conscience lye to vs, as by Art­Magicke take view of those Parts (otherwise it is not certainely knowne, whether it be ioyning to Asia, or whether it be Land or Sea) I therefore leaue it out in this diuision.

Europe is diuided from Africke by the Mediterranean Sea; from Asia by the Aegean and Euxine, Maeotis, Tanais, and a line from the fountaines thereof North­wards: on the North and West parts washed with the Ocean; which running by the straits of Gibraltar, floweth along the Coasts of Africke to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence passeth all alongst on the East side thereof into the Arabian Gulfe, where, by a Necke of Land, it is encountred: This Necke, the Mediterranean, and Ocean, doe limit the bounds of Africa: The rest of the old World is Asia. America Mexicana, or North, and the South called Peruviana, are seuered by the narrow Straits of Dariene, in other places compassed by the Sea: The South Continent is verie little knowne, and containeth the rest of the World, not bounded in the former limits. But in their particular places wee shall heare of each of them more fully.

It cannot be without some great worke of God, thus in the old and decrepit Age of the World, to let it haue more perfect knowledge of it selfe; which wee hope, and pray, may be for the further enlargement of the Kingdome of CHRIST IESVS, and propagation of his Gospell. And, as in former times, in those then­discouered Parts, the Iewes were scattered, some violently, some willingly, through Asia, Africa, and Europe, to vsher the Gospell into those Parts, and make way for that which the most of themselues reiected: who knoweth, whe­ther in the secret dispensation of Diuine Prouidence, which is a co-worker in eue­rie worke, able euen out of euill to bring good, the Donations of Popes, the Na­uigations of Papists, the preaching of Friers and Iesuites may be fore-runners of a further and truer manifestation of the Gospell, to the new-found Nations? For euen alreadie it is one good steppe of an Atheist and Infidell to become a Proselyte, al­though with some soyle: and againe, the Iesuites there cannot play the States-men, as in these parts, yea Iesuitarum Epistole. Thus did Fr. K [...]uier, and the rest of them. (themselues in their relations being witnesses) they rather take the Euangelicall courses of those, which here they count heretikes, & by laying open mens [Page 43] sinne through the fall, and diuine iustice, onely by Christ satisfied, doe beat downe infidelitie with diligent Catechisings: although vpon that golden foundation they build afterward their owne Hay and Stubble, with their racke of Confession, and rab­ble of Ceremonies, and (the most dangerous to new Conuerts) an exchanged Poly­theisme in worshipping of Saints, Images, and the Host. But if God shall once shew mercie to Spaine, to make them truly Catholike, and, as a diuine Inquisitor, condemne that deuillish Inquisition to perpetuall exile, how great a window may be that means be opened vnto this new World for their conuersion and reformation? And why may not the English Expedition and Plantation in Virginia, and the Nauigations of other Protestants, helpe this way, if men respected not their owne Pride, Ambition and Couetousnesse, more then the truth and glorie of God? But he that by Fishers con­uerted the old World, and turned the wisdome of the World into foolishnesse, sub­dued Scepters by preaching the Crosse, yea, by suffering it in himselfe and in his members: is able of those stones to raise vp children to Abraham, and that by the mouth of Babes and Snoklings, by weakest meanes, when it pleaseth him. Let vs therefore pray the Lord of the Haruest to send forth Labourers into these wide and spa­cious fields ripe thereunto.

But to returne to our parts of the World, whence this meditation hath withdrawne me. The ancient Lege Ortelii Aevi [...]teris descrip. & Ma­ris pacifici. Geographers were ignorant of a great part of that threefold di­uision: as appeareth by their owne Writings. The vse of the Loadstone, found out by Iohn Go [...]a of Melsi, an Italian (or, as P. Bellonii obseru. l. 2. c. 16. Bellonius obserueth, by one Flanius, but Albertus Magnus was the first that writ of the nature of it) was a great and neces­sarie helpe to further Discoueries, especially after that Henry, sonne of Iohn the first, King of Portugall, Barr. dec. 1. l. 1. Asia Osorius de Reb. Ema. l. 1. Maffus, l. I. Hist. Ind. Dam. [...] Goes de mor. Aethiopum. Got. Arthus Hist. India. began to make voyages of discouerie vpon the Coast of Afri­ca, and Iohn the second seconded that Enterprise, and vsed the helpe of Mathemati­cians, Roderigo and Ioseph his Physicians, and Martin Bohemus, by whome the Astro­labe was applyed to the Art of Nauigation, and benefit of the Mariner, before vsed onely in Astronomie. This Iohn also sent men of purpose into Arabia and Aethiopia, and other Countries of the East, to learne further knowledge thereof. From these be­ginnings, daily encreasing, hath Nauigation (first in Portugall, and by degrees in o­ther Europaean Nations) by the helpe of Astronomicall rules growne to her present perfection, and by it, Geographie. And if the longitude of places might as easily be found out as the latitude, which our countreyman Master Linton made Comple­ment of the Art of Nau. promise of, wee should yet grow to better knowledge in those Sciences, and of the World by them. Moreouer, as the Expedition of Alexander, and those flourishing, Monarchies in Asia, brought some knowledge thereof to the Auncients: So the Histories of la­ter times, but specially the great Trauels by Land of Marcus Panlus, Odoricus, Will. de Rubruquis, Ioannes de Plano Carpini, our Countreyman Mandeuile, and others, be­fore this skill of Nauigation, haue giuen much light to the knowledge of the in-land Countries of Asia, which we are first to speake of.

As for the Circles, the Aequinoctiall, which parteth the Globe in the middest, the Tropickes of Cancer and Capricorne 23. degrees and a halfe from either side of the Aequinoctiall, the Arctike and Antarctike Circles 23. degrees and a halfe from the North and South Poles, or not much differing (which are vsually set in Mappes with red or double lines, for distinction:) The Meridians, which are Circles passing ouer our heads, in what part of the World soeuer we be, and also through both the Poles: the Horizon, which diuideth the vpper halfe of the World which wee see, from the nether halfe which wee see not: the Paralels of Latitude, which the old Cosmo­graphers make (sayth Blundeuile) but 21, from the Aequinoctiall to the North, and as many on the other side toward the South, but now the P. Merula. Moderne make them vp 39: The Climes or Climates, which are the spaces betwixt two Para­lels: Also the tearmes of Poles, which are two, the Arctike, and the Antarctike; and the Axletree of the World (a right line imagined to passe from the one to the other, through the Centre of the Earth:) the Degrees, containing 60. myles (or [Page 44] after Cornelius de Iuddis, 68095 ¼ paces, which is a greater summe then the former) into 90 of which degrees euery fourth part of the world is diuided, and amount in the whole to 360. Also the Geographicall tearmes of Littus, Fretum, Insula, Sinus, Con­tinens, Promontorium, Isthmus, that is, Shores, Straites, Islands, Bayes, Continent, Capes, or Head-lands, Neckes of Land, and such like: All these (I say) and other things of like nature, needfull to this kinde of knowledge, the studious shall finde in those Authors which teach the Principles of Astronomie and Geographie, as Master Blundeuile, and others.

My intent is not to teach Geographie, but to bestow on the studious of Geogra­phie, a Historie of the World, so to giue him meat vnto his bones, and vse vnto his Theorie or Speculation, whereby both that skill may be confirmed, and a further and more excellent obtained. Geographie without Historie seemeth a carkasse without life and motion: Historie without Geographie moueth, but in mouing wandreth as a vagrant, without certaine habitation. And whereas Time and Place are twinnes and vnseparable companions, in the chiefe Histories to set downe the true time of chiefe Accidents, will adde much light to both; a great taske in one Countrey: but to take vp the whole World on my shoulder, which haue not the strength either of Atlas or Hercules to beare it; and in the whole to obserue the description of Places, order of Times, and the Historie of Actions and Accidents, especially Religions (olli robur & aes triplex, thrice happie hee that could happily atchieue it) I confesse beyond my abi­litie exactly to performe; but with the wisest, I hope that the haughtinesse of the At­tempt, in a thing so full of varietie and hardnesse, shall rather purchase pardon to my slippes, then blame for my rashnesse. And how can I but often slip, that make a per­ambulation ouer the World, that see with others eyes, that tell of matters past so ma­ny Ages before I had a being? Yet such is the necessity of such a Historie, either thus, or not at all. But as neere as I can, I purpose to follow the best euidence, and to pro­pound the Truth: my fault (where it is worst) shall be rather mendacia dicere, then mentiri, and yet the Tales-man shall be set by the Tale, the Authors name annexed to his Historie, to shield me from that imputation.

And first we must begin with ASIA, to which the first place is due, as being the place of the first Men, first Religion, first Cities, Empires, Arts: where the most things mentioned in Scripture, were done; the place where Paradise was seated; the Arke rested; the Law was giuen; and whence the Gospell proceeded: the Place which did beare Him in his flesh, that by his Word beareth vp all things.

Asia (after A Maginus, [...] At­ [...]r. Iud. [...] Abr. Ortel. & alij. some) is so called of Asia, the daughter of Oceanus and Thetis; which was wife to Iapetus mother of Prometheus: Others fetch this name from Asius the sonne of Manaeus; both with like certaintie and credit. It is greater then Europe and Africa: yea, the Islands thereof are larger, if they were put together, then all Europe. It is compassed with the Easterne, Indian, and Scythian, Oceans, on three parts: on the West it hath the Arabian Gulfe, that necke of Land which diuideth it from Africa, the Mediterranean, Aegean, Pontike Seas, the Lake Maeotis, Tanais, with an imagined line from thence to the Bay of S. Nicholas. Some make it yet lar­ger, and make Nilus to diuide it from Africa, but with lesse reason. Taurus diuideth it in the middest: On the North side is that which is called Asia interior: on the South is Asia exterior. More vnequall is that diuision into Asia the greater and the lesse, this being lesse indeed, then that it should sustaine a member in that diuision. Io. Bar­rius diuideth it into nine parts, Ortelius into fiue, Maginus into seuen, which are these: First, That part of Tartaria betwixt Muscouia, the Northerne Ocean, the Ri­uer Ob, and the Lake Kytai, and a line thence drawne to the Caspian Sea, and that Isthmus which is betwixt that and the Pontike Sea: secondly, the great Chams Coun­trey, from thence to the Easterne Sea, betweene the frozen Sea and the Caspian: thirdly, That which is subiect to the Turke, all from Sarmatia & Tartaria Southwards, betweene Tigris and the Mediterrannean Sea: fourthly, The Persian Kingdome, be­tweene the Turke, Tartar, India, and the Red Sea: fifthly, India, within and beyond [Page 45] Ganges, from Indus to Cantan: sixtly, The Kingdome of China: seuenthly, The Islands. These diuisions are not so exact as may be wished, because of that varietie and vncertaintie in those Kingdomes. Many things doth Asia yeeld, not elsewhere to be had; Myrrhe, Frankincense, Cinnamon, Cloues, Nutmegs, Mace, Pepper, Muske, and other like, besides the chiefest Iewels. It hath also minerals of all sorts: It nouri­sheth Elephants, Camels, and many other Beasts, Serpents, Fowles, wild and tame, as in the ensuing discourse, in their due places, shall appeare; yet doth it not nourish such monstrous shapes of men as fabulous Antiquitie fained. It brought forth that Monster of irreligion, Mahomet; whose Sect, in diuers Sects, it fostereth with long continuance of manifold Superstitions. It hath now those great Empires of the Turk, Persian, Mogore, Cathayan, Chinois: it had sometimes the Parthian, and before that, the Persian, Median, Assyrian, Scythian: and first (as it seemeth) before them all, the Babylonian Empire vnder Nimrod, which is therefore in the next place to be spoken of.

CHAP. X.

Of Babylonia, the originall of Idolatrie: and the Chaldaeans Antiquities before the Floud, as BEROSVS hath reported them.

COnfusion caused diuision of Nations, Regions, and Religions. Of this confusion (whereof is alreadie spoken) the Citie, and thereof this Countrey, tooke the name. Plin. l. 5. c.12. Plinie maketh it a part of Syria, which he extendeth from hence to Cilicia. Strab. l.16. Strabo addeth, as farre as the Pontike Sea. But it is vsually reckoned an entire countrey of it selfe, which Ptol. Geograe. l.5.c.20. Ptolomey doth thus bound. On the North it hath Mesopota­mia, on the West Arabia Deserta; Susiana on the East; on the South, part of Arabia, and the Persian Gulfe. Luke (Act.7.21) maketh Babylonia a part of Mesopotamia: Pto­lomey more strictly diuideth them: whereunto also agreeth the interpretation of the Land of Shinar, that it was the lower part of Mesopotamia, containing Chaldaea and Babylon, lying vnder the Mount Sangara. D Willet in Dan. cap.1.9.15. In this Coun­trey was built the first Citie which wee reade of after the Floud, by the vngratefull world, moued thereunto (as some thinke) by Nimrod, the sonne of Cush, nephew of Cham. For as Cains posteritie, before the Floud, were called the Sonnes of Men, as more sauouring the things of men then of God; more industrious in humane inuenti­ons, then religious deuotions: so by Noahs Curse it may appeare, and by the Nations that descended of him, that Cham was the first Author, after the Floud, of irreligion. Neither is it likely, that he which derided his old father, whome Age, Hobnesse, Fa­therhood. Benefits, and thrice greatest Function of Monarchie, Priesthood, and Prophecie, should haue taught him to reuerence: That he (I say) which at once could breake all these bonds and chaynes of Nature and Humanitie, would be held with any bonds of Religion; or could haue an eye of Faith to see him which is inuisible, hauing put out his eyes of Reason and Cimlitie. Had he feared God, had he reuerenced man, had hee made but profession of these things in some hypocriticall shew, he could not so easily haue sitten downe at ease in that Chaire of Scorning, whence we reade not that euer he arose by repentance. From this Cham came Nimrod, Gen.10.9. the mightie hunter before the Lord; not of innocent beasts, but of men, compelling them to his subiection, although Noah and Sim were yet aliue, with many other Patriarchs.

As for Noah, the fabling Heathen, it is like, deified him. The Berosus of fabling An­nius, calleth him Father of the Gods, Heauen, Chaos, the Soule of the World. Ianus his double face might seeme to haue arisen hence, of Noahs experience of both Ages, before & after the Floud. The fable of Saturnes filius Coeli, cui sub [...] ­ic [...]t virilia. Saturnes cutting off his fathers priulties might take beginning of that act, for which Cham was cursed. Sem is supposed to be that [Page 46] Melchisedech King of Salem, the figure of our Lord, and the propagator of true Re­ligion; although euen in his posteritie it failed, in which, Abrahams father, as witnes­seth Iosh.24.2. Ioshua serued other Gods. Iaphets pietie causeth vs to persuade our selues good things of him; Cham and his posteritie we see the authors of ruine. Philo de Antiq. Method. Reuel. Philo and Me­thodius (so are the two bookes called, but falsely) tell, That in these dayes they began to diuine by Starres, and to sacrifice their children by Fire; which Element Nimrod compelled men to worship: and that to leaue a name to posteritie, they engraued their names in the brickes wherewith Babel was builded. Abram refusing to com­municate with them (and good cause, for The buil­ding of Babel was An. Mund. 1757. and A­braham was born An. 1948. he was not yet borne) was cast into their Brick-kill, and came out (long after from his mothers wombe) without harme. Nahor, Lot, and other his fellowes, nine in number, saued themselues by flight. Chronic. be­fore the Bible. Others adde, That Arane, Abrams brother, was done to death for refusing to worship the Fire. Qui Bauium non odit, amet tua carmina Maeni.

To come to truer and more certaine reports, Moses sayth, That Gen.10.9. the beginning of Nimrods Kingdome was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calne which three some in­terprete Edessa, Nisibis, Callinisum. And whereas commonly it is translated in the next words, Out of that land came Ashur, and built Niniue. Tremellius and Iunius reade it, Out of this land he (Nimrod) went into Ashur or Assyria, and built Niniue and Re­hoboth, Calah, and Resen. But Ar. Montanus. Melanctbon Chron. Gramay. Asia. most vsually this is vnderstood of Ashur the sonne of Sem; who disclaiming Nimrods tyrannie, built Niniue, which after became the chiefe Citie of the Assyrian Empire, to which Babylon it selfe was subiected not long after. Xenophon de Aequivocis (if his authoritie be current) saith, That the eldest of the chiefe Families were called Saturni, their fathers had to name Coelum, their wiues Rhea: and out of a pillar, erected by Semiramis to Ninus, alledgeth this inscription; My father was Iupiter Belus, my grandfather Saturnus Babylonicus, my great grandfather Satur­nus Aethiops, who was sonne of Saturnus Aegyptius; to whome Coelus Phoenix Ogyges was father. Ogyges is interpreted Noah, therefore called Phoenix, because of his ha­bitation (as is thought) in Phoenicia, not farre from whence, in Ierusalem, Sem raig­ned; Saturnus Aegyptius may be the name of Cham, of whose name Aegypt is in Scripture tearmed Ps.78.51. the land of Cham. Saturnus Aethiops is Chush; Nimrod Baby­lonicus, the father of Belus, who begat Ninus. But this cannot be altogether true. For Niniue hath greater antiquitie then Nimrods nephew (howsoeuer the Greeke Histories ascribe this to Ninus, and Babylon to his wife Semiramis) except wee say, that by them these two Cities, formerly built, were enlarged and erected to that mag­nificence, which with the growth of the Assyrian Empire they after obtained.

Chron. Gr. Edit. Scal. pag. 9. & 13. Eusebius in the first booke of his Chronicle attributeth the originall of Idolatrie to Serug the father of Nahor. Bed. Chronic. Beda sayth, In the daies of Pbaleg Temples were built, and the Princes of Nations adored for Gods. The same hath Isidore. Epiphan. can. her. l.1. in initio. Epiphanius re­ferreth it to Serug; and addeth, That they had not grauen Images of Wood or Met­tall, but pictures of men; and Thara, the father of Abraham, was the first Author of Images. The like hath Suidas. These times, till Abram, they called Scythismus. The reason of their Idolatrie Eusebius alledgeth: That they thus kept remembrance of their Warriors, Rulers, and such as had atchieued noblest Enterprises & worthiest Exploits in their life time. Their posteritie, ignorant of that their scope (which was, to obserue their memorials which had been authors of good things, and because they were their fore-fathers) worshipped them as heauenly Deities, and sacrificed to them. Of their [...] God-making or Canonization this was the manner: In their sacred Bookes or Kalen­dars they ordained, That their names should be written after their death, and a Feast should be solemnized according to the same time, saying, That their soules were gone to the Isles of the blessed, and that they were no longer condemned or burned with fire. These things lasted to the dayes of Thara; who (sayth Suidas) was an Image­maker, & propounded his Images (made of diuers matter) as Gods to be worshipped: but Abram broke his fathers Images. From Sarueh the Author, and this Practise, Ido­latrie passed to other Nations: Suidas addeth, specially into Greece: for they worship­ped [Page 47] Hellen, a Gyant of the posteritie of Iapheth, a partner in the building of the Tower.

Not vnlike to this, we read the causes of Idolatrie in the booke of Wisedome ca. 14.14. Wisdome (sup­posed to be written by Philo, but, because the substance is Salomons, professing and bearing his name) which of all the Apocrypha-Scripture sustaineth least exception, attaineth highest commendation: When a father mourned grieuously for his sonne that was taken away suddenly, he made an Image for him that was once dead, whom now he wor­shippeth as a God, and ordained to his seruants Ceremonies and Sacrifices. A second cause he alledgeth, viz. the tyrannie of men, whose Images they made and honoured, that they might by all meanes flatter him that was absent as though he had been present. A third rea­son followeth: the ambitious skill of the workman, that through the beautie of the worke the multitude being allured, tooke him for a God, which a little before was honored but as a man. The like affirmeth Polid. lib. 1. dt inuentorio. Polydore de inuentoribus, alledging Cyprian de Idolis for his author. Lactant. li. 4. ca. 28. Lactantius (as before is shewed) maketh that the Etymologie of the word Superstitio, Quia superstitem memoriam defunctorum colebant, aut quia parentibus suis superstites cele­brabant imagines corum doms, tanquam Deos penates: either because they honored with such worship the suruiuing memorie of their dead ancestors; or because suruiuing and out-liuing their ancestors, they celebrated their Images in their houses, as household­Gods. Such authors of new rites, and deifiers of Omnia idola ex mortuorum errore creuerūt. Hier. in Hos. 2. dead men they called Superstitious: but those which followed the publikely-receiued and auncient Deities, were called Religious, according to that verse of Virgil. Vana superstitio veterum (que) ignara deorū. But by this rule (saith Lactant.) we shall find all superstitious which worship false Gods, and them only religious, which worship the one and true GOD. The same Lib. 2. c. 14. Lactant. saith, That Noah cast off his sonne Cham for his wickednes, & expelled him. He abode in that part of the earth which now is called Arabia, called (sayth he) of his name Ca­naan, and his posteritie Canaanites. This was the first people which was ignorant of GOD, because their founder & Prince receiued not of his father the worship of GOD. But first of all other the Aegyptians began to behold & adore the heauenly bodies: And because they were not couered with houses for the temperature of the ayre, and that Region is not subiect to Clouds, they obserued the motions and eclipses of the starres, and whiles they often viewed them more curiously, fell to worship them. After that, they inuēted the monstrous shapes of Beasts, which they worshipped. Other men scattered through the World, admiring the Elements, the Heauen, Sunne, Land, Sea, without any Images & Temples worshipped them, and sacrificed to them sub dio, till in processe of time they erected Temples and Images to their most puissant Kings, & ordain­ed vnto them Sacrifices and Incense: so wandering from the knowledge of the true GOD, they became Gentilos. Thus farre Lactantius. And it is not vnlike that they performed this to their Kings, either Bullinger de orig. erroris li. 1. ca. 9. in flatterie, or feare of their power, or because of the benefits which they receiued from them, this being (saith Plin. l. 34. c. 4. Pliny) the most ancient kind of thankfulnesse, to reckon their benefactors among the Gods. To which accor­deth De Nat. D. l. 2. Cicero in the examples of Hercules, Castor, Pollux, Aesculapius, Liber, Romulus. And thus the Moores deified their Kings, and the Romans their deceased Emperors.

The first that is named to haue set vp Images, and worship to the dead, was Ambros. in e­pist. ad Roman. cap. 1. Ninus, who when his father Some think, and with pro­bable coniect­ture, that Belus was Nimrod. Belus was dead, he made an Image to him, & gaue priuiledge of sanctuarie to all offēders that resorted to this Image: wherupon, moued with a grace­lesse gratefulnesse, they performed thereunto diuine honours. And this example was practised after by others. And thus of Bel or Belus began this Imagerie, & for this cause (saith Lyra. in Sap. 14. Petr. Comest. Hist. c. 40. Lyra) they called their Idols Bel, Baal, Beel-zebub, according to the diuersitie of Languages. Cyril. l. 3. cont. Iulian. Cyrillus calleth him Arbelus, and saith, That before the Floud was no Idolatrie amongst men, but it had beginning after in Babylon, in which, Arbelus (next after whom raigned Ninus) was worshipped. Tertullian Tertal. de idol. out of the booke of Enoch, before mentioned, is of opinion, That Idolatrie was before the Floud. Thus to conti­nue the memorie of mortall men, & in admiration of the immortall heauenly Lights, together with the tyrannie of Princes, & policies of the Priests, begā this worshipping of the creature, with the contempt of the Creator: which how they encreased, by the mysteries of their Philosophers, the fabling of their Poets, the ambition of Potentates, [Page 48] the Superstition of the Vulgar, the gainefull Collusion of their Priests, the Cunning of Artificers, and aboue all, the Malice of the Deuils, worshipped in those Idols, their giuing Answeres and Oracles, and receiuing Sacrifices, the Oenomaus out of [...]esiod affi [...] [...]th the number of Gods in the world to be 30000: which number he saith was then much encrea­sed. Euseb. de preparat. l. 5. c. 15. Histories of all Nations are ample witnesses. And this Romane Babylon, now Tyrant of the West, is the heire of elder Babylon (sometimes Ladie of the East) in these deuotions, that then and still Babylon might be the mother of Whoredomes and all Abhominations. To which aptly agree the Paralels of Babylon and Rome in O cf. l. 2. c. 2, 3. Orosius, the Empire of the one ceasing, when the other began first to haue a being; which he further prosecuteth in many particulars.

But before wee prosecute these Babylonian affaires after the Floud, it shall not be amisse to shew here the Chaldaean fables of Antiquities before the Floud, out of Berosus, a Chaldaean Priest, which liued in the time of Alexander. Polyhistor Polyhist in Eus. Chron. citeth out of Berosus his first Booke this report of himselfe; and Tatianus Tatianus apud Scalig. sayth hee was the Priest of Belus, and wrote his Chaldaean storie to Antiochus, the third after Seleucus, in three bookes. His name by Scaligers interpretation signifieth the sonne of Osee.

Alorus raigned the space of tenne Sari (Sarus with them is three thousand sixe hundred yeares) Alasparus, three Sari; Amelus, thirteene Sari; Amenus, twelue; Metalarus, eighteene; Daorus, tenne; Aedorachus, eighteene; Amphis, tenne; Oti­artes, eight; Xixnthrus eighteene: in his time, as is said before, the Floud happened. The whole space is an hundred and twentie Sari, which amounteth to foure hundred thirtie two thousand yeares. This I thought not vnfit (although incredible) to report from Berosus, both because my scope is to declare as well false as true Religions (it be­ing not Theologicall but Historicall, or rather Historically Theologicall) and because the Ancients, Cicero, Lactantius, Augustine: haue mentioned this monstrous Computa­tion of the Chaldaean Kalendar, which yet they racke higher to foure hundred three­score and tenne thousand yeres. Here you haue the particulars, out of Apollodorus and Abidenus, which both borrowed them of Berosus. Fragmenta hec e [...] [...] in Chron. gr. Euseb. l. I. per Scalig. Polyhistor addeth, That there came one out of the red Sea, called Oannes, and Annedotus a Monster (otherwhere like a fish, his head, feet, and hands like a man, as sayth Photius but Al. Polyhistor ascribeth two heads, one of a Fish, and the other of a man) the Image whereof was vnto his times reserued. This Monster liued without meat, and taught them the knowledge of Letters, and all Arts, buildings of Cities, foundations of Temples, enacting of Lawes, Geometrie, and Husbandrie, and all necessaries to mans life. Afterwards he returned to the Sea: and after him appeared other such monsters. Foure of them came out of the Sea, sayth Abidenus, when Daos (whom Apollodorus calleth Daorus) raigned; their names were Enedocus, Eneugamus, Enaboulus, Anementus. Pentabiblus (it seemeth) was then their chiefe Citie. That Oannes the first did write of the first beginning: That all was darkenesse and water, in which liued monstrous creatures, hauing two formes; men with two wings, and some with foure; with one bodie, two heads, one of a man, and another of a woman, with the priuities of both sexes: others with hornes and legges like Goats; some with Horse feet; some like Centaures, the former part Men, the after part Horses: Buls also headed like Men, and Dogges with foure bodies &c. with many monstrous mixtures and confusions of creatures, whose Images were kept in the Temple of Belus. Ouer all these ruled a woman, named Omorka, which signifieth the Sea, and by like signification of Letters, the Moone. Then came Belus and cut her in twaine, and made the one halfe of her Land, the other Heauen, and the creatures therein appeared. This Belus made Men & Beasts, the Sunne, Moone, & Planets: These things reporteth Berosus in his first booke; in the second he telleth of the Kings (before mentioned) which raigned till the floud. After the floud also the same Polyhistor out of him sheweth, That Sisuthrus hauing, by Saturns warning before, built an Arke (as is be­fore said) & layd vp all monuments of Antiquitie in Sipparis, a Citie dedicated to the Sunne, & now with all his world of creatures escaped the floud, going out of the Arke did sacrifice to the Gods, & was neuer seen more. But they heard a voice out of the aire giuing thē this precept, to be religious. His wife, daughter, & shipmaster were partakers [Page 49] with him of this honour. He said vnto them, the Country where they now were was Ar­menia, and he would come againe to Babylon, and that it was ordained, that from Sipparis they should receiue letters, and communicate the same to men: which they accordingly did. For hauing sacrificed to the gods, they went to Babylon and dig­ged out the [...] letters, writings, or bookes, and building many Cities, and founding Temples, did againe repaire Babylon. Thus farre out of Alexander Polyhistor, a large fragment of the true Berosus.

CHAP. XI.

Of the City and Countrey of Babylon: their sumptuous walles, Temples and Images.

LEauing these Antiquities, rotten with age, let vs come to take better view of this stately City. Herodot. l. 2. Philostrat. devita Apollon.l. I.C. 18. Plin. lib 6.c.26.& Solinus e.60. report concerning the compasse of Babylon, That the walles contained 480. furlongs, situate in a large plain, foure square, inuironed with a broad & deep ditch ful of water: Diodor.l.3.c.4. saith, That ther were but so many furlongs as are daies in the yeare, so that euery day a furlong of the wall was built, and 1300000. work­men imployed therein. Strabo Libr.16. ascribeth to the compasse 380. furlongs: and Curtius l.5.358 (ninety furlongs thereof inhabited, the rest allotted to tylth and husbandry.) Concerning the thicknes of the walls, or the height, they also disagree. The first Au­thors affirme the height 200, cubites, the thicknesse 50. They which say least, cut off halfe that summe. Politic.l.3.t. [...] Wel might Aristotle esteeme it a country rather than a city: and, not without cause, was it reckoned among the wonders of the world. It had 100. brasen gates, & 250. towers. It was indeed a mother of wonders: so many miracles of Art ac­companied the same, the works partly of Semiramis, partly of Nabuchodonosor: which I would desire the Reader to stay his hastie pace, and take notice of. Euery where I shall not, I can not, be so tedious in these kinds of relations. Diodor.lib.3. (or after the Greek l.2.c.4.) thus addeth of Semiramis; She built also a bridge of fiue furlongs. The walls were made of bricke & asphaltum, a slimy kind of pitch which that country yiel­deth. She built two pallaces, which might serue both for ornament and defence; one in the west, which inuironed sixty furlongs; with high brick walls: within that a lesse, and within that also a lesse circuit which containeth the tower. These were wrought sumptuously with images of beasts, and therein also was game and hunting of beasts: this had 3. gates. The other in the east, on the other side the riuer, contained but 30. furlongs. In the lower country of Babylonia she made a great square lake containing 200. furlongs: the walls where of were of bricke, and that pitchy morter; the depth. thirtie fiue foot. In the midst of the Citie she erected a Temple to Iupiter Belus (saith Herodotus lib.2.) with brazen gates (now in his time remayning) foure square: each square containing two [...], a furlong is six hundred foot . furlongs, in the midst whereof is a solid tower of the height and thicknes of a furlong: vpon this another, & so one higher then another, eight in number. In the highest tower is a chappell, and therein a faire bed couered, and a ta­ble of gold, without any Image. Neither, as the Chaldaean Priests affirme, doth any abide here in the night, but one woman, whom this God shal appoint. They say the God himselfe there lieth. In regard of this exceeding height, Diodorus affirmes, that the Chaldaeans did thereon make their obseruations of the Starres. Hee also addeth, that Semiramis placed in the top three golden statues: one of Iupiter forty foot long, weighing a thousand Babylonian talents; till his time remaining: an other of Ops, weighing asmuch, sitting in a golden throne, & at her feet two lions, & iust by, huge serpents of siluer, each of 30. talents: the third Image was of Inno standing, in weight 800.talents. Her right hand held the head of a serpēt, her left, a scepter of stone. To all these was common, 1 table of gold 40 foot long, in breadth 12, in weight 50 talents. [Page 50] There were also two standing Cuppes of thirtie talents, and two vessells for perfume of like value: Three other vessells of gold, whereof one, dedicated to Iupiter, weigh­ed twelue hundred Babylonian talents: (euery Babylonian talent is said to containe seuen thousand drachma Atticae, sixtie three pounds, nine ounces, and an halfe, and halfe a quarter Troy weight.) All these the Persian Kings tooke away.

Without the Temple, by Herodotus testimony, was a golden Altar, and an other huge one besides, for their solemne sacrifices, the other being not to be polluted with bloud, except of sucking things. In that greater the Chaldaeans burnt yerely in their sacrifices a hundred thousand talents of Libanotus. One statue of gold twelue cubits high 'Darius, affecting, spared: but Xerxes both tooke it, and slew the priest that for­bade him. I might heere also tell of those Pensile gardens, borne vp on arches, foure square, each square containing 4. hundred foot: filled on the roofe with earth, where­in grew great trees and other plants. The entrance was (as it were) a hill: the arches were builded one vpon another in conuenient height, still increasing as they ascen­ded: the highest which bare the walls were fiftie cubits high, and twelue in breadth: There were within these arches, Innes. There was also a conueyance of water to the watering therof. This garden was made long after Semiramis time by Arege Syro. Diod. a king which heerein seemed to lord it ouer the Elements and countermaund Nature, being him­selfe the seruant of his wiues appetite, who in this lowly vally wherein Babilon stood, would faine haue some representation of her owne hilly and mountainous country of Media.

This King was Nabuchodonosor, as witnesseth Beros.fragm. apud Ioseph. contra Appian. lib. 1. Berosus in Iosephus, who hauing conquered Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Arabia, inriched the Temple of Belus with the spoiles, and added a new citie to the olde, without the same. And prouiding that the enemy might not after turne the course of the riuer, and approch to the city, he compassed the inner city with three walls, and the vtter city with as many, these of brick, those also with bitumen, or pitchie slime of that countrey, adding thereunto stately gates. And neare his fathers pallace he built another more sumptuous: and this hee did in fifteene dayes. Therein he raised stone-works like vnto mountains, and plan­ted the same with all manner of trees. Hee made also a pensile garden. Many more things (saith Iosephus) doth Berosus adde, and blameth the Greeke Writers for ascri­bing the building of Babylon to Semiramis an Assyrian. This fragment of Berosus cited by Iosephus, doth well serue vs to cleare both the holy and prophane Historie. In the one, Daniel Dan. 4.27. induceth Nabuchodonosor walking in his royall pallace in Babel, with words answerable to his pride, Is not this great Babel that I haue builded for the house of the kingdome, by the might of my power, and for the honour of my maiestie? His words (euen in the speaking) were written in the Booke of God, and an enditement thereof framed in the highest Court; where he was adiudged presently the losse of Reason, which he had thus abused, Till hee knew that the most High bare rule ouer the kingdome of men, giuing the same to whom soeuer he will. Well might he say he had built it, in regard of this new city & pallace, with other miracles thereof: with more truth then some Expositors, which accuse him herein of a lie, for arrogating that which Se­miramis did.

And for Semiramis, profane histories generally make her the founder of this City, and among others Pseudo Beros.lib. 5. Annius his Berosus, who (contrary to this fragment of the true Berosus in Iosephus) saith, that Semiramis made Babylon of a towne, a great City, that she might be rather esteemed the builder thereof, then enlarger. Nimrod had before built the Tower, but not finished it, and did not Nec designa­tam vrbem sun­dauit. lib. 4. found the citie, which hee had de­signed and set out, and Belus his sonne had Fundamenta designata Baby­loniae, oppidi magis quamvr­bis, crexit. erected those designed foundations ra­ther of the towne then the city Babylon. Moses testifieth that at the first building, they were (by confusion of language) forced to cease their worke, Genesis 11.8. lea­uing a name of their shame, instead of that renowne and name, which they had pro­mised to themselues. It may be that Semiramis did amplifie this: and happily so did other Assyrian and Babylonian kings, as Augustine and Abydenus affirme; Hanc [Page 51] quidam putant condidisse Babylon, quam quidem potuit instaurare, August. de ciuitate Dei li.18.ca.2. likewise Abydenus in Euseb. Praep.lib.9. saith, that the walles being by inun­dation fallen, were built againe by Nabuchodonosor, and agreeth in other things with Berosus.

But the Graecians are children, in comparison of antient History, and little of this matter can we affirme on their testimonie; their first Historian Herodotus liuing long after this age in the time of the Persian monarchie. Howsoeuer, Nabuchodonosor is he which (by diuine and humane testimony) there established that golden head of the Image, the seate of the Babylonian monarchie, raising it to that high top of world­ly excellence. Yea Daniel cha.3. speaketh of one more sumptuous Image, then anie mentioned by Herodotus and Diodorus set vp by this king threescore cubits high, and six broad, enioyning a Catholike and vniuersall idolatry thereunto, which the three Saints Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego refused, and in a fierie triall, were found both Martyrs and Confessors.

Strab.lib. 15. Strabo out of Megasthenes (whom Aunius hath set out as truly as he hath done Berosus, saue that he stutted at the name, and called him Metasthenes Anny. Metasthenes) saith of this King whom he nameth Nabocodrosor, more esteemed of the Chaldaeans then Hercu­les, that he came in his expeditions as farre as the Pillars of Hercules (the straights of Gibraltar) and as farre as Tearcon the Aethiopian, and that he conducted an armie out of Iberia into Thracia, and Pontus. This Tearcon is he whom the Scripture cal­leth Tirhaka, which warred against Senacherib.

2.Kings 19.9. But to returne to our pensile gardens, which Diodorus and Curtius attribute to a Syrian King (which was no other but this Conqueror of Syria, Nabuchodonosor) and both they and Strabo doe at large describe and account among the worlds wonders, as were also the bridge and the walls of the citie. And no lesse wonderfull was that Obeliske, or needle: a square stone made spire-fashion, cut by Semiramis out of the mountains of Armenia, one hundred and fiftie foot long, and foure and twentie thick, on many waines brought to the riuer, thence to Babylon, and there erected. Plinie testifieth, that the Temple of Belus still remained in his dayes: and that Belus was in­uentor of Astronomie. This Temple was the same with the Sepulchre of Belus, which Strabo saith was rased by Xerxes: yet not so, but that Alexander would haue repaired it; but in regard that it asked so much labour and time (for onely the cleansing of the earth required tenne thousand men two moneths worke) hee was not able to finish that which he had begunne. In the Description he saith lesse then Herodotus, that it was a Pyramis or spire-worke a furlong or sixe hundred foote in height, and each of the foure squares containing as much. Arrianus Arrian de rebus gestis A­lexand.lib.3. affirmeth that Alexander had the same of other Temples also. The Temples, saith he, which Xerxes had ouerthrowne, he commanded to be repaired, and among them the Temple of Belus, whom the Ba­bylonians with singular Religion worship. Ar.lib.7. At his returne homewards, Belus in thankfulnesse (it seemeth) sent his Chaldaean Priests to meet him, and forbid him to enter the citie, as he loued his life, whose oracle Alexander contemning, there ended his daies. The cause why he listened not to them, is thought a mistrust that he con­ceiued of the Chaldaeans. For whereas Xerxes, at his returne out of Greece, had ra­sed this and all other sacred places of the Babylonians: Alexander minding the re­paire hereof, hauing already remoued the rubbish, thought with his whole armie to atchieue this enterprise. But the reuenue which the Kings of Assyria had left for the maintenance of this Temple-sacrifices, after the ouerthrow thereof, was shared a­mong the Chaldaeans; which they by this attempt were like to loose, and therefore were willing to want his presence.

This Temple some suppose to be that Tower of Babel mentioned by Moses Gen. 11. and supposed still in part to remaine. For about seauen or eight miles from Bag­dat, as men passe from Felugia a towne on Euphrates, whereon old Babylon stood, to this new citie on Tigris (a worke of eighteene houres, and about fortie miles space) there is seene a ruinous shape of a shapelesse heap and building, in circuit lesse then a [Page 52] mile, (some say, but a quarter of a mile) about the height of the stone-worke on Pauls steeple in London: the brickes being six inches thicke, eight broad, and a foot long (as master Allen measured) with mattes of Canes laid betwixt them, yet remaining as sound, as if they had beene laid within a yeares space. Thus master Eldred, & mai­ster Fitch, maister Cartwright also, and my friend maister Allen, by testimony of their owne eies, haue reported. But I can scarce thinke it to be that Tower or Temple, be­cause Authors place it in the middest of old Babylon, and neare Euphrates: although I will not contend about it. Some affirme, ( Verst [...]ga [...] Antiq. I know not with what truth) that Nim­rods Tower was in height fiue thousand one hundred seuentie and foure paces. But it is now, as we see, come to confusion. Also there is yet beyond Tigris some ruines of a Temple, which is called the Temple of Bel, with high yron gates, as is reported.

Dominicus Niger Dom Nig. Asia Com. 4. hath these words: Seleucia in processe of time hath changed her state and her site. For it was on the westerne banke of Tigris, which a Cut from Eu­phrates slowed into; in which place are now seene the ruines thereof, where the shepheards haue erected them cottages: and on the Easterne banke haue the Barba­rians built the City and called it Bachdad, right ouer-against the old. If this be true, vaine is the conceit of credulous Trauellers, which suppose those ruines to bee the monuments of Babylons buriall, and confound againe this later world, with the re­ports of Babels Tower.

The Bitumen or slimie pitch which they vsed in stead of morter in their building, is, as Dominicus Niger Dom Nig. Asia Com. 4. out of Trogus reporteth, common in those parts. Herodotus telleth, that eight dayes iourney from Babylon was another Citie, named IS, with a small rill of the same name, which runneth into Euphrates, carrying thither (as tri­bute) much of this slimie matter. Niger mentioneth one place, where out of a clift or opening of the earth proceedeth such a stinke, that it killeth the birds which flie ouer it. And at this day, two daies iourney from Bagdat R. [...]itche.Hak. Voy.to.3. at a place called Ait, is a mouth continually throwing forth boiling pitch, therefore by the Moores called Hel-mouth, which runneth into a great field alwayes full thereof: and herewith they pitch their boats. The water, as my friend maister Allen (who liued in Bagdat diuers moneths) told me, is warme & accounted medicinable, for which cause he hath drunke large­ly thereof: the liquid pitch floateth on the toppe of the water, like clouted creame, to vse his owne phrase.

The Country of Babylonia hath beene the most fruitfull in the world, Hero.lib.2. yeelding ordinarily two hundred, and in some places three hundred increase: the blades of the wheat and barly about foure fingers broad. Plinn et. hist. lib.18.ca.17. Plinie, somewhat otherwise: They cut (saith he) or mowe their corne twice, and feed it a third time in Babylonia, other­wise it would be nothing but blade: & yet so their barrener land yeeldeth fiftie, their best an hundred increase. Tigris and Euphrates ouerflow it, but bring not fatnesse to the soile, as Nilus in Egypt, but rather cleanse that superfluous fatnesse which natu­rally it hath.

The soile is of a rosennie clay, saith master Allen, and would still retaine in likeli­hood his antient fertilitie, if it were watered with like diligent husbandry: In dig­ging it yeeldeth corrupt waters, sauouring of that pitchy slime. In the antient Ba­bylon, it seemeth that in euery garden of any citizen of sort were rilles made out of the riuer. The ruines from the tower aforesaid to Bagdat (which some call Babylon) & beyond on the other side of the riuer, containe twentie two miles, yet to be seene: which happily are the ruines, not of old Babylon, so much, as of the neighbor townes here built, Seleucia, Vologesocerta, and Ctesiphon: which I rather thinke, because they reach beyond Tigris as well as on this side.

To returne to the religious places in Babylon: Caelius Rhodig. lect. Antiq.lib.8.ca. 12. tells, that in the Temple of Apollo, was found a golden Chest of great antiquity, which being broken by some accident, thence issued a pestilent vapour, that infected not those alone which were present, but the neighbouring Nations, as farre as Par­thia, Ammianus Marcellinus Ammian.l.23 hath the like Historie of the Image of Apollo Chomens [Page 53] at Seleucia, which was brought to Rome, and there placed by the Priests in the tem­ple of Apollo Palatinus: and whenas a certaine hole which the Chaldaean Wise-men had by Art stopped, through the couetousnesse of certaine souldiers breaking in thi­ther for spoile, was broken vp, the world was thence poysoned with a contagion from Persia, as far as France. Philost. de [...]i­ta Apol.lib. I. cap 18. Philostratus tells of Apollonius, that he saw at Babylon such stately Palaces, as scarce agree with the state of Babylon in the time of Apollo­nius, which was while Domician reigned: amongst other things he saw Galleries full of Greeke Images, as of Orpheus, Andromeda, &c. He came also into a Gallery, the roofe whereof was made bowing like the heauens, and couered with Saphire, so to resemble Heauen, and the Images of their Gods, made of gold, were there set. From the roofe there hanged foure birds of gold, representing the Goddesse of Reuenge, which they called the tongues of the Gods, I know not by what art or mysterie, ad­monishing the King not to exalt himselfe.

CHAP. XII.

Of the Priests, Sacrifices, religious Rites, and customes of the Babylonians.

THe Chaldeans (saith Dio. Sic.l. 3. cap. 8. Diodorus) were of reputation in Babylon, as the Priests in Egypt: Chaldaean, being a name sometime applied to the whole Nation; sometime appropriated to the Priests, who spent their whole time in religious seruices, and in Astrologie. Many of them by Diuination foretold things to come, as we haue shewed be­fore in the Historie of Alexander; and the booke of Daniel witnesseth this their pro­fession. By their auguries, or diuination by birds, by sacrifices and enchantments, they were accounted to doe good or harme to mankind. They were most expert in their sacred Rites, in the knowledge whereof they were brought vp from their child-hood; and continued in that course of learning all their liues, the childe being instructed in his fathers science. They professed the interpretation of dreames, and prodigious accidents in Nature. Their opinions were, That the world is eternal, with­out beginning and end: the order and furniture of all was done by diuine prouidence: all heauenly things were perfected, not by chance, or of their owne accord, but by the determinate and firme decree of the Gods. By long obseruation searching the course and nature of the Starres, they foretold things to come. But the greatest Power they attributed to the fiue Planets, and especially to Saturne. They call them Mercuries, because when others are fixed, these haue their proper motion, and shew future things, as the Interpreters of the Gods, by their rising, setting, and colour. Vn­der their course they giue the title of Gods Dij Consul­tores. to thirtie other Starres, the one halfe, a­boue; the other, vnder the earth, beholding all accidents. And in ten dayes one of the higher is sent to the lower, as an angell, or messenger of the Starres, and one from them to the higher: And this course they take eternally.

They hold twelue principall Gods, each of which hath his peculiar moneth, and his signe in the Zodiake; by which the Sunne, and Moone, and fiue Planets, haue their motion. These Planets they esteeme to conferre much good or euill in the ge­neration of men, and by their nature and aspect, things to come may be foreknowne. Many things they foretold to Alexander, Nicanor, Antigonus, Seleucus, and to priuate men, beyond the reach of men. They number foure and twentie constellations without the Zodiake, twelue towards the North, and as many towards the South. These Northernely are seene, which they attribute to the liuing: those Southernely are hid­den; and present (they thinke) to the dead, whch they hold the Iudges of all. Con­cerning the site, motion and eclipse of the Moone, they hold as the Greekes; but of the Sunnes Eclipse they haue diuers opinions, and dare not vtter their opinion there­of, nor foretell the time. The earth they conceiued to be hollow like a boat. They rec­koned 43000. yeares, vntill the comming of Alexander, since first they had begunne their obseruations of the Starres.

[Page 54] These years Xenophon de aquiuocis interpreteth of months: for so (saith he) the Chal­deans reckoned their antiquities; in other things they kept their computation accor­ding to the Sunne. But of their fabulous antiquities we haue heard before: where we haue also touched, that one beginning of Idolatry did arise of this curious & supersti­tious Star-gazing, especially in the countries of Egypt, where not at all vsually; and in Chaldaea, where diuers months Eight mo­neths toge­ther, Master Eldred. Hak. Voy. tom 2. together they haue neither raines nor clouds. Strabo diuideth the Chaldeans into sects, Orchent, Borsippeni, & others, diuersly opinionate of the same things. Borsippa was a Citie sacred to Diana and Apollo.

Some Philost [...]at. de vita Apol.lib. 1. do call the Babylonian Priests, Magi; but because they were by this name best knowne & most esteemed among the Persians, which in that vicinity of regions had as neere neighborhood in religions, we will speake of these Magi, in our Persian relations. And it is thought that the Persian Magi came frō these Chaldeans. Mornae­us Ph. Morn. de Verit. C.R. reckoneth among the Chaldeā opiniōs, that of Oromases, Mitris, & Ariminis, that is to say, GOD, Mind & Soule: which he applieth to the Christian doctrine of the holy Trinity. The Oracle of Apollo, pronoūced the Chaldeans & Hebrews to be only wise.

The Chaldean opinion concerning iudiciall Astrologie, was not receiued of all the Chaldeans, as Strabo reporteth. And Bardesanes Syrus, the best learned of the Chaldeans (it is Euseb. testimony Euseb. de prae­yar. Eu.l. 6.c.8. ) doth at large confute that opinion (which yet ma­ny Wisards, carkasses of Christians, still follow) He affirmeth that in those things which a man hath common with a beast, eating, sleepe, nourishment, age, &c. a man is ordered by Nature, as the beasts are. But Man hauing also a reasonable soule, & free­dome of wil, is not subiect to that naturall seruitude; which at large he proueth by the diuers customes of men, both in diuers, & in the same coūtries, in diet, gouernmēt, and religion: as the Reader, willing to read so worthy a discourse, may find related at large in Euseb. Alexander Polyhistor Euseb. de prae­yar.lib.9. cap. 4. out of Eupolemus, telleth that in the tenth generation after the Floud, in Camyrine a citie of Babylonia, which other call Vr, Abram was borne, which excelled all in knowledge, & was the inuentor of Astrology among the Chaldeans. He by diuine precept went into Phaenicia, and taught the Phaenicians the course of the Sunne & Moone: & when the Armenians, warring vpon the Phaenicians, had taken his brothers son prisoner, he by a band of his seruāts recouered him, & free­ly dismissed the captiues, which he had taken. He after liued with the Priests at Helio­polis in Egypt, & taught them Astrology; confessing that he had receiued that Art by succession from Enoch. He addeth that Belus reigned the second in Babylon, and was called Saturne, the father of a second Belus, and Canaan; which Canaan was the father of the Phaenicians, and the Aethiopians, brother of Mizraim the Author of the E­gyptians: with many other things not much differing from the Diuine Historie.

Astronomy in all likelihood was knowne to Abraham, to whom the heauenly stars might be Remembrancers of that promise, so shall thy seed be: his country also, where it was practised, might therin further him, & the excellence of the Science in itselfe. But this Star-gazing destiny, Iudicial, Cōiectural, Genethliacal Astrology, Reason, & Ex­perience, GOD and Man haue condemned. Vr signifieth light, which agreeth to the Fire, the Chaldean deity, Ammian.l. 23. Plutar defacie in orbe Lunae. which the Persiās & Chaldeans fained to haue receiued frō heauen, & kept euer burning; as the Vestals in Rome. They held Water and Fire to be the beginning of al things. They made a chalenge of this their fiery God, to contend with any other gods of the godlesse Heathen: an Egyptian encountred & ouercame them thus: he caused his Canopus to be made ful of holes, stopped with wax, & hollow in the middle, which he filled with water: & the Chaldeans putting their fire vnder, the waxe melting, opened a quiuer of watry arrowes, that cooled the heat of their de­uouring god, and deuoured him. They had yet a more foolish God, euen an Alex. ab A­lexand.l. 6. 26. Onyon which they worshipped. They obserued diuers wicked Sciences, of diuining, by Fire, Aire, Water, Earth, consulting with the dead, and with wicked spirits.—Chaldaea vo­catis Imperat arte dijs, saith Claudian.

Euery day the King Coelius l. 8.c. 1. offered a Horse, furnished, vnto the Sunne; as did also the Persians. Philostrat. saith, that it was a white Horse of the Nisaean race, sumptuously trapped, lib. 1. cap. 20. They obserued a feast in Babylon (Athenoeus Athen.lib. 14. cap.17. citeth it out of [Page 55] Berosus) on the sixteenth Calends of September, which continued fiue daies; in which the Masters were subiect to their seruants, and one of them, royally attired, was car­ried out of the house, whom they called Zoganes. Baruch cap.6. in the Epistle of Ie­remte (Apocrypha) rippeth vp their idolatrous Rites, Idols, Processions, bearing Idols on mens shoulders, the people before and behind worshipping: their Priests collusiens to make gaines of the Idol-offerings, together with their Priests shauen heads and beards, their rent cloaths, their roaring before the Idoll: their Temples wherein they stood with scepters, axes, or other weapons in their hands, hauing candles lighted before them, with other such rites; that, in the reading, one would thinke he were telling the discourse of the mysteries of mystical Babylon in the West; so euenly they accord. The Chaldeans innocate their Be­lus, to do: miracles also saith he, innocating a dumble I doll, to giue speech to another, which himselfe wanteth. But aboue all, one beastly rite was in vse among them. The women, saith he, Bar. 6.42. sit in the waies girded with cords of rushes, and burne straw: and if one of them be drawne away, and he with any, such as come by, she casteth her neighbour in the teeth, be­cause shee was not so worthily reputed, nor her cord broken. Thus was their glorie their shame. Hero. Clio. Strabo. lib 16. mentioneth the same. Herodotus will yeeld vs a Commentary on this place. The Babylonians haue an abominable law (saith he) that all their women once in their life do sit at the Tem­ple of Venus to haue familiaritie with strangers: the richer sort comming in chariots, richly furnished and attended to this vngodly purpose. Their manner of sitting is, crowned on their temples with garlands, their retiring places distinguished with cords, by which the stranger may haue accesse to which of them he liketh best. And thus do these Votaries of Venus sit, holding it religion to be irreligious, none of them euer returning home, til some guest haue cast money into her lap, whom it is not law­full for her to refuse, but to accept of him and his price, whatsoeuer he be, and follow him aside from the Temple, where he defileth her. At the giuing of the mony he vseth these words, Tantitibi deam Mylitt am imploro: that is, at this price, or for so much, I implore vnto thee the Goddesse Mylitta (so the Assyrians call Venus) and this money is consecrated to a sacred vse. After this, with the Goddesse good leaue, she may re­turne home, although for no great price againe (saith our Author) to be hired. By this means the fairest are quickly dispatched, the rest endure a restles & irkesome penāce, sometime a yeare, two, or three, before they can be discharged of their honesty & the law together. And hence might arise that former ambitious vpbraiding in Baruch.

Among their many Idols, Bel bare the bell, not here alone, but in al the countries of Assyria, & adioyning thereto; as appeareth in the History of the Bible: where Bel or Baal is so often mentioned, as the Idol of so many nations, & the sin of the apostatical synagogue. They Ier. 19.5. Icrem. 32. 1. Reg. 18. & 16. 2. Reg. 23. & 10. Ose. 2.Es. 46. built vnto him high places: or els in stead therofvsed the roofes of their houses to his worship: they built him houses, they made him Images, erected Altars, planted groues, bended to him the knee, & kissed him in token of subiection, vsed perfume & intense, obserued to him holy daies, cut & lanced themselues in his seruice, with other extaticall fu­ries, & religious frenzies, with ornaments of gold and iewels, inuocations and immo­lations, yea of their owne children: he had also his peculiar Prophets & Priests. These and such like doth the Scripture mention of this Babylonian Idol, whose contagion infected the East with a Catholike Idolatry that could plead Antiquitie, Vniuersalitie, and Consent, by euidence of Scripture-historie (which later Babylon cannot do) and yet was but Catholike and generall errour.

Ribera affirmeth Rib. in Hos.2. that diuers later Authors, & before them Inler 32. Theodcret, do esteeme the name Bel or Baal to be a generall name, agreeing to all the Gods of the Gentiles, according to the signification of the word, to wit, a Lord. Nic. Strar. in Iudic. It was a name generall to their Idols, whē it was put alone, but particular with some addition, as Bel-zebub, Ba­al-zephon. And Seruius On those words of Virgil. [...], nicro pateram, quam Belus & omnes à Beln sol [...], &c. Aeneid.1. is author, that Belus the father of Dido descended of that an­cient Belus the first King of the Assyrians, which people worshipped Saturne & Iuno, which were after worshipped in Africa, whereupon the Punikes called God, Bal, (from whence came those names Hannibal, Adherbal, and such like) whom the Assyrians in some respect call Bel, and Saturne, and the Sunne. This opinion that in Bel they [Page 56] worshipped the Sunne, is followed by Tremellius and Iunius in their notes on Esaias, chap.46.1. because the Assyrians, Persians, and Babylonians, accounted the Sunne the greatest God, and worshipped the Fire as a particle thereof: To him the Iewes, with this borrowed forren Idolatrie, dedicated horses and chariots, which Iosias [...]. King.23.11 a­bolished, together with the Altars on the roose of Ahaz his house, and the high pla­ces, where their God might see their deuotions. Hierome, on that place of Esay, saith, that Bel was Saturne, which Suidas confirmeth. Augustine Aug.tom.4.quaest.lib.7.16. relateth the vsuall opi­nion (on those words, Iud.2. They serued Baal and Astaroth) that Baal in those parts was the name of Iupiter, and Astarte of Iuno, and produceth the Punike language, in which Baalsamen signifieth the LORD of Heauen; and for Astaroth (which he rea­deth Astartibus) he saith it is in the plurall number, in regard of the multitude of Iu­no's Images, each bearing the name of Iuno. This also is exemplified in the blessed Vir­gin by Ribera, sometime called our Lady of Loretto, sometime our Ladie of Monte­ferato, &c. according to the diuersitie of places, wherein they worship, not Mary the Virgin, but their owne Idols; the daughters of their whorish mother Babylon. For the Tyrians, Sydonians, Philistims, and other Syrian, and Assyrian nations, the Scripture brandeth them with this Bel or Baal-Idolatry: in hatred of which name, the Iewes called the Prince of Diuels, as the Acaronites did their principall Idols, by the name of Beelzebub.

Thus the Greekes and Latines haue confounded the Assyrian and Tyrian Bel, which by Iosephus Scalig. Can.Isagog. lib 3. pag 314. Scaliger (who not vnworthily is called Od. Drayton. Polyolb. the Dictator of know­ledge and great Prince of learnings state) are distinguished and made two: the one (saith he) is written [...] and the later [...] and reproueth Hierome for making Belus, the father of Ninus, and the Virgilian Belus to be one: In Photius (559. 3.) is mentioned, that the Phaeuicians and Syrians called Saturne ΗΛ, and Βὴλ, EL, and Bel, and Bolathes. Doctor Willet in his Comment vpon Dan. cap. 1.q.16.hath these words: The Chal­deans had fiue Idols, three Gods, and two Goddesses. Their first God was Bel, a name contracted of Behel, which commeth of Bahal, which signifieth a Lord: to whom was built that Temple before mentioned. The second was the Sunne, which they called Rach, that is, a King; because he is chiefe among the Planets: and the Persians call him Muhra, as Iustinus Martyr saith, Dialog. in Triphon. the Priests of this Idoll were called Racrophantoe Obseruers of the Sunne. Their third God was Ne­go, the Fire; so called of the brightnes, which was carried about among them. Their first Goddesse was Shacha, which was the Earth, worshipped also of the Romans vn­der the names of Tellus and Opis: of the Syrians called Dorcetha. In the honor of this Goddesse they vsed to keepe a feast fiue dayes together in Babylon; during which time the Masters were vnder the dominion of their seruants. This festiuall time was called Shache, whereof Babylon was called Sheshach, of keeping this feast, I erem. 25. 27. and 51.41. Their other Goddesse was Mulitta, which was Venus, whose Priests were called Natitae, or Natophantae Polan. But the chiefest of their Idols was Bel.

He also interpreteth Quaest. 16. those words Dan. 1.4. Whom they might teach the learning and tongue of the Chaldeans, of Schooles wherein youth were brought vp in goodlet­ters, to be after employed in the State. So among the Egyptians they had the like vse, where Moses was taught the learning of the Aegyptians. Among the Israelites eight and forty Cities were appointed for the Leuites, which were as the common Schools and Vniuersities for the whole kingdome. Samuel and Elizeus had their Schooles and Colledges of Prophets: yea the rude Indians had their Gymnosophistes; and the Ro­mans had their Colledges of Augures. Thus farre Doctor Willet of their Idols and Schooles.

In the seuenteenth chapter of the second booke of Kings is mentioned Sucoth Be­noth and Idoll of the Babylonians. Beda interpreteth it the Tabernacles of Benoth: and so the word Sucoth vsed, Amos 5.25.is by Saint Stephen, Act.7.43.interpreted. And so doth the Ra.in Gloss­ordin. Glosse on that place of the Kings interprete; where Lyra Lyra.in 4. Reg.17. according to the signification of the words (a Tabernacle of wings) relateth out of Rab.Sal. that [Page 57] this Idoll was made like to a Hen brooding her chickens: which Idols the Babyloni­ans framed in worship of that Constellation, called by the vulgar, the Hen and chic­kens, and of the learned, Pleiades; as others did to the Sunne, others to the Moone. Some Wolph.in a. Reg.17. apply it to the mysterie of their Idoll, (which CHRIST the Truth, truely saith of himselfe) protecting his worshippers, as a hen her chickens.

In the fourteenth chapter of Daniel, as the Latines reade, is a large historie both of Bel, a dead statue, and of a liuing Dragon, which the Babylonians worshipped. The Priests of Bel were seuentie, besides their wiues and children, whose fraud and cou­senage Daniel detected, making it manifest by their foot-steps in the ashes, which he had strewed in the Temple, that they were the deuourers of that huge portion of for­tie sheepe, twelue measures of meale, and six great pots of wine, daily consecrated for Bels break-fast. He after slew the Dragon also; for which the Babylonians forced the King to lodge him six dayes among the Lions. But howsoeuer generally more authoritie is to be ascribed to the Apocriphall bookes, then to any humane historie, or other Ecclesiasticall Authors, as Zanchius in his Confession religiously holdeth; yet for this fragment of Daniel, it is accounted Whitak. de Scrip. quaest.1.cap.9. the worke of Thedotion a bad man, who foisted it into his translation. And not only the Reformed Churches account it as it is, but Driedo a learned Papist, Erasmus a Semi-christian (so Bellarmine calleth him) Iulius Africanus of old, and the Iewes generally, reiect it out of the Canon, as the Cardinall himselfe Bel. de verbe Dci lib. I. cap. 9. hath obserued: and he is faine to tell vs of another Daniel of the Tribe of Leui, to maintaine the credit hereof. But Hicrome in the Preface of his Com­mentaries stileth them, Belis Draconis (que) fabulas, quas veru anteposito eo (que). iugulante, sub­iec [...]t, ne videretur apud imperitos magnam partem voluminū detruneasse: and alleageth Eusebius, Origen, Apollinarius, and other Ecclesiasticall Doctors, which were of his mind, and thought that they needed not to answere Porphyrie, who had hence raked some obiections against the Christians, for these things which had not authoritie of Scripture.

As for Pyramus, and Thysbe, with Cyparissus and such like, I leaue them to Metamorph. 4. & 10. Ouid and the Poets. It seemeth worthie relation that fell out at Aslus, a Babylonian Citie, where a Dolphin so loued a Boy, that following too farre after their wonted spor­tings, he stucke fast in the sands: Solinus c.18. which Alexander interpreting to be ominous, preferred the Boy to the Priesthood of Neptune.

For the present Saracenicall Religion, now obserued in these parts, our third book shall largely relate thereof. Concerning other Babylonian customes: Herodotus, l.2. telleth of three families in Babylon which liued on fish. It may be the Carthusians of our Westerne Babylon are of their of-sping: for whose sparing, their fellowes may eate the more flesh, with which those of old, and these later, may not (forsooth) pollute themselues. Duint.Curt.lib.5. Curtius telleth generally that, for fleshly vices, the Babyloni­ans were most corrupt. They prostituted their wiues and daughters to their guests for rewards. They were addicted to excessiue banketting, and drunkennesse. In the beginning of their feasts, their women were modestly attired; by degrees they strip­ped themselues of their cloathes, beginning with the vpper-most, till nothing was left to couer their shame, or forbid their shamelessenesse. And not their Curtizans a­lone, but their Matrons, (yea, in token of ciuilitie) did thus prostitute themselues to those flames of lusts which haue come from hell, and carrie thither. Heere was Alex­anders manly and victorious armie made effeminate, vnfit after to haue encountred with a strong enemie. Coe'ius Rhod. lib.8. cap.11. Some ascribe the loose liues of the Babylonians, to a law of Xerxes, who to chastise them for a rebellion, enacted that they should no longer weare armes, but addict themselues to Musicke, riot, and such like.

CHAP. XIII.

The Chaldean, and Assyrian Chronicle, or Computation of Times, with their manifold alterations of Religions and Gouernment, in those parts vntill our time.

WE haue before Chap. 10. shewed the prodigious Chronologie of the Chalde­ans, reckoning the reignes of their Kings before the Floud, 43 2000. yeares. They tell also after the Floud of diuers Dynasties or gouern­ments, in this countrey of Babylon.

First, Scaliger. Can. Mag. lib. a. & 3. the The Chalde­an Dynastie. Chaldeans, Euechoos raigned 6. yeares, Chomusbo­los, 7. Pores, 35. Nechubes, 43. Abios.48. Oniballos, 40. Zinziros, 45.

He being dispossessed by the Arabians, The Arabi­an Dynastie. Mardoecntes began the second Arabi­an Dynastie, and reigned 45. yeares, and after him, Sisimardacos, 28. Abias, 37. Pa­rannos. 40. Nabonnabos, 25.—41. The space of these two Dynasties is reckoned 440. yeares. Thus Scaliger relateth: but in my minde, as the former was beyond all possibilicie of Truth (which they tell of before the Floud) so this hath no great like­lihood, at least for so long a space before Belus, with whom the most histories begin their relations, and Scaliger his The Affyrian Dynastie. Moses, Gen. 14.1 speaketh of Amraphel King of Shinar, that is, of these parts of Baby­lonia, as his companions reigned not farre hence. third Dynastie, of one and fortie Kings in this order.

  • 1 Belus, 55
  • 2 Ninus, 52
  • 3 Semiramis 42
  • 4 Ninyas Zames 38
  • 5 Arius 30
  • 6 Aralius 40
  • 7 Xerxes 30
  • 8 Armamithres 38
  • 9 Beluchus 35
  • 10 Balaeus 52
  • 11 Sethus 32
  • 12 Mamythus 30
  • 13 Aschalios 28
  • 14 Sphaerus 22
  • 15 Mamylus 30
  • 16 Spartbeus 42
  • 17 Aschatades 38
  • 18 Amyntes 45
  • 19 Belochus 25
  • 20 Balatores 30
  • 21 Lamprides 30
  • 22 Sofares 20
  • 23 Lampraes 30
  • 24 Panyas 45
  • 25 Sofarmos 42
  • 26 Mithraeos 27
  • 27 Tentamos 32
  • 28 Teutaeus 44
  • 29 Arabelus 42
  • 30 Chaiaos 45
  • 31 Anabos 38
  • 32 Babios 37
  • 33 Thinaeos 30
  • 34 Dercylus 40
  • 35 Eupacmes 38
  • 36 Laostbenes 45
  • 37 Pyritiades 30
  • 38 Ophrataeus 21
  • 39 Ephatberes 52
  • 40 Acracarnes 42
  • 41 Tones Concoleros qui & Sardanapalus 20
  • The summe of this Dynastie, 1484. yeares.

The fourth Dynastie was The Median Dynastie. of the Medes, begun by Arbaces, who depriued Sar­danapalus, he reigned 28. yeares, his sonne Mandauces 50. Sosarmus 30. Artycas 50. (In the 19. yeare of this King, Nabonassar, the Babylonian, rebelled, and began a new Dynastie in Babylonia. And in the 43. yeare of his raigne Salmanassar captiued the ten Tribes) Arbianes, or Cardiceas 22. Arfaeos, or Deioces 40. Artynes called also Phraortes 22. Astibaras or Cyaxares 40. Apandas alias Astyages 40. In all 322. yeares.

The fifth The Persian Dynastie . Dynastie was of the Persians, begun by Cyrus, which ouerthrew Astya­ges, and reigned 30. yeares: His sonne Cambyses 8. the Magi 7. moneths. Darius sonne of Hystaspes 36. yeares, Xerxes 20. Artabanus 7. moneths, Artaxerxes Lon­gimanus 40. Xerxes 2. months, Sogdianus 7. months, Darius Nothus 19. yeares, Ar­taxerxes Mnemon 40. yeares, Artaxerxes Ochus 26. Arses 4. Darius 6. in al 231. years.

The sixth The Mace­donian Dyna­stie. Dynastie was of the Macedonians, the first of which was Alexander, who after the conquest of Darius reigned 6. yeares, Antigonus 12. Seleucus Nicator 32. Antigonus Soter 19. Antigonus Theos 15. (In the 12. yeare of his raigne, Arfaces the Persiā rebelled) Seleucus Callinicus 20. Selencus Ceranuns 3. Antiochus Magnus 36. [Page 59] Seleucus Philopator 12. Antiochus Epiphanes 11. Antiochus Eupator 2. Demetrius So­ter 12. Alexander Bala 10. Demetrius Nicanor 3. Antiochus Sidetes 9. Demetrius D. F. 4. Antiochus Grypus 12. Antiochus Cyzicenus 18. Philippus 2. In all 237. And from the beginning of the first Dynastie 2633. These I haue heere inserted out of Scaliger, rather to shew the continued succession of the Easterne Empire, then with any intent to perswade, that all these were Kings, and ruled the countrey of Baby­lonia. For after Arsaces rebelled, the Parthians dispossessed the Syrian Kings of these parts: and before, the Babylonians often rebelled: as in the time of the Persi­ans, when Zopyrus by a strange stratageme, recited by Iustin and others, restored them to Darins: but especially in the times of the Medes, whose Dynastie was much disquieted: sometime the Scythians ( Oros. lib. 1. cap. 19. saith Orosius) and sometimes the Chaldeans, and sometimes the Medes preuailing. Sometimes also (as the Scripture witnesseth) the Assyrians renewed their ancient power. Yea in the time of the Assyrian Dyna­stie, the Chaldeans are said to warre (in the reigne of Panyas) against the Phaenici­ans, which argueth that they were then free.

The Scripture and other Histories speake of Phul, Teglath-Phalasar, Iareb, Sargon, Salman-asar, Senacherib, Asar-haddon: which were great and mightie, not onely strong enough to defend themselues against the Medes, but to inuade forren Nations, yea did translate people from one kingdome to another, and 2. Reg. 17. 24. seated the captiues of Israel in the Cities of the Medes, and sent Babylonian Colonies to Sama­ria; which they could not do, if they had not commanded both Assyria, and Media, with Babylonia.

Nabonassar rebelled, as is said, against Artycas, and began the Chaldean Dyna­stie, from whom, for this restitution of libertie, the Chaldeans began their Astrono­micall computations: he reigned 14. yeares, Nassyus 2. Chinzerus and Porus 5. Di­Iulans 5. Mardokempadus 12. Called Me­rodach. Hee sent Ambassadours to Hezekia. Arkeanos 5. Interregnum 12. Belithus 3. Aporonadicus 6. Herigebalus 1. Nesnoemondacus 4. In­terregnum 17. Ieracdin 13. Saosducinus 9. Kiniladachus 14. Nabopellasarus 29. (In the seuenteenth yeare of his reigne, hee sent his sonne Nabuchodmoser into Sy­ria with an armie.) Nabuchodonosor 30. Euilmerodach 6. Neregasolarus 5. Na­bonidus 17. This was a Mede by linage (not as some say, King of the Medes) and therefore called Darius Medus, depriued by Cyrus, who after that reigned nine yeares. From the beginning of Nabonassar, to the end of Cyrus, are 217. yeares. From thence to the Asiatike Empire of the Macedonians 201. From thence to the rebellion of Arsaces the Parthian, of whom the Parthian Kings were called Arsa­cidae 79. And the Dynastie of the Parthians continued 479. yeares: the last of them Artabanus, being slaine. These Kings, and the times of their reignes are not easie to set downe, and Onuphrius is therefore reproued of Scaliger, for vnderta­king this taske, in which Authoritie faileth him. Of them wee shall speake in due place.

The The second Persian Dy­nastie. second Persian Dynastie continued till the Mahumetans depriued them. The first, Artaxares reigned 12. yeares, Sapores 31. Ormisdas 1. Wararanes 3. Wa­raranus 2.—17. Wararanes 3. foure Moneths. Narses 7. Ormisdas 7. Sabores was borne King, and raigned 70. yeares, Artaxerxes 4. Sabores 5. Wararanes 4.—11. Izdigerdes 21. Wararanes 5.—10. Isdigerdes 2.—17. Perozes 24. Obalas 4. Cabades 11. Zamaspcs 4. Cabades againe—30. Cosrees Magnus 48. Ormizda 8. Cosroes 39. Sirees 1. Adeser 7. moneths, Barasas 6. moneths, Baram 7. moneths, Ormizda Iezdegird 3. in all 402.

The Saracens succeeded, whose names and times you may see in our Lib. 3. cap. 1. Saraceni­call relation. After the Saracens, reigned the Tartars; and since, sometime one fa­mily, sometime another, among the Persians, till Solyman dispossessed the Sophian of the Babylonian dominion, vnder which Turkish feruitude it groned, till our daies, in which the present Persian hath recouered it.

I dare not take vpon me to bee vmpire and decider of those many altercations a­mong [Page 60] Chronologers: but haue simply followed Scaliger, whose verie name is able to shield mee from contempt, if not to yeeld mee commendation. Let others, that haue more lust and leisure, trauerse these matters at their pleasure: my intent is, most of all, the Histories of Religions: and the successions and alterations of States I haue lightly touched: But precisely to determine in what yeare of the world eue­ry King began his reigne, and to dispute the same with all opponents, would bee somewhat tedious to the Reader: to mee (perhappes) in these varieties of opi­nions, impossible. Leauing therefore the more studious, to the Chronolo­gers, let vs take a little reuiew of some principall occurrents in the former Cata­logue.

Africanus beginnes the Assyrian Monarchie at Belus, and not, as the most, with Ninus. That Belus some thinke to be the same with Nimrod, whom Ninus as wee said before, consecrated. Semiramis is Coeïus R lb. 13. cap. 29. reported to bee the first, that caused Eunuches to bee made. Ninias, which succeeded, left not like monuments of his great exploits, as his Predecessours before him. Buntingus thinkes him to bee that Amraphel King of Shinar, mentioned, Genes. 14. and that Arioch King of Elasser was his sonne. How euer, it breedes much difficultie, to reconcile the ancient hi­storie of the Babylonian and Assyrian great and long continued Empire, with the kingdomes and Kings in that Chapter by Moses mentioned. Eupolemus, as before is cited out of Eusebius, saith that those Kings were Armenians; Diodorus Tarsensis, as Percrius affirmeth, reckons them Persians, Iosephus. Assyrians: Pererius himselfe thinkes them vassals, and tributaries to the Assyrian: Genebrara suspects the Histo­rie of the Assyrian greatnesse: and truely, not altogether vniustly, as all the Histo­rie of: Moses and Ioshua concerning the Kings in those parts, for ought can bee ga­thered, yeelding no subiection to Babylon. And the Sodomite and his neighbours had beene the tributaries of Chedarlaomer King of Elam, and not of Amraphel King of Shinar: vnlesse we say that violent things are not permanent, and the yoake im­posed before by the Assyrians, was now in Ninias daies reiected: Semiramis be­ing weakened with her Indian expedition, and Ninias by killing her, giuing occa­sion of discontent to her followers, the men of warre, which might hereupon (contemning this effeminate King, who had suffered his mother to possesse the Scepter so long) fall to sharing for themselues, and erect pettie kingdomes. Arius (happily) restored the Empire thus decayed, if it bee true that Buntingus writeth, that hee was a great warriour, therefore called Arius and Mars, and, as the God of warre, inuocated by the Assyrians. When Tentamos reigned, Diodor. Sic. lib. 3. cap. 7. Diodor. lib. 3. testisieth, that Priamus, then besieged by Agamemnon, as vassall and tributarie to the Assyrians, sent to him for aide, who sent to his succour Memnon, with 20000. souldiers.

But to descend vnto times neerer both vs and the truth, and to view the ruine of that great estate: we reade in the same Author, and in Iustin. lib. 1. Orosius lib. 2. c. 2. others, that Arbaces (whom Iustin calleth Arbactus; Orosius, Arbastus) was by Sardanapalus made captaine of the armie which was yearely sent to Nina, or Niniue, where a conspiracie was contracted betweene him and Belesus a Chaldean Priest, Captaine of the Babylo­nians, who by his Chaldean skill in diuination, had foretold Arbaces this desti­ned Empire, and was promised, for his share, the Babylonian principalitie. Thus the Medes, Babylonians, and Arabians, enterprising rebellion, assembled to the num­ber of 400000. whom Sardanapalus ouerthrew in battaile twice; but being still ani­mated by Some thinke t [...] s Belesus to bee Din [...]el, whom the Ba­bylonian King called Bele­sh zzar. Bi [...] h ins Concent. Belesus predictions, which (said he) the Gods by the Starres fore-signi­fied: and by corrupting of the Bactrian armie, sent to succour the King, and adioyning themselues to the enemie, they at the third battell ouerthrew the forces of Sardanapalus, led by Salamenus his wiues brother. The King fled into Niniue, trusting to a prophecie, That the Citie should neuer bee taken till the riuer were enemie to it. After two yeares siege, by extreame raines, the riuer swelling ouerflowed part of the Citie, and cast downe twentie furlongs of the [Page 61] walls. Whereupon despairing (as seeming to see GOD and Man against him) he, which before had chambered himselfe with women, and accustomed himselfe to the Distaffe, in a womans both heart and habite: now in a manly resolution (if it may not more sitly be called a Feminine Dissolution, which thus runneth from that danger which it should encounter) gathered his treasures together, and erecting a frame in his Pallace, there burnt them, himselfe, his wiues, and eunuchs together. The Ashes, vnder pretence of a Vow thereof, made to Belus, Belesus obtained of Arbaces the new Conquerour and Monarch, to carrie to Babylon. But the cousi­nage being knowne, and Belesus condemned for the treasures, which with the ashes he had conueyed, Arbaces both gaue it, and forgaue him; adding the praesecture of the Babylonians, according to promise. Phrygio. Carion. lib. 2. Some say that Belesus, whom they call Phul Beloch, shared the Empire with him, Arbaces reigning ouer the Medes and Persians, the other ouer Niniuie and Babylonia: following heerein the forged Metasthenes, who (as Annius maketh him to say) out of the Susian Librarie pen­ned his Historie, hauing before fabled a Catalogue out of Berosus of the auncient Kings, contrary to that which out of the fragments of the true Berosus before is de­liuered.

Sardanapalus is written (saith Euseb, Chron. per Scalig. Scaliger in his Notes vpon Eusebius) with a dou­ble ll. Sardanapallus, a name, sitting to his effeminate life. [...]αλλὸς and φαλλὸς signifie the same, whence are those words of Cicero 3. De Repuh. Sardanapallus ille vitijs mul­tò quàm nomine ipso deformior. Sardanapalus built Tarsus and Anchiale (saith Eusebtus) at the same time: the one famous for the most famous Diuine that euer the Sunne saw, (except the Sunne of Righteousnesse himselfe) Paul the Apostle and Doctor of the Gentiles: The other for the Authors Monument and stony Image, Strabo lib. 14. with this Assyrian Epigramme; Sardanapalus, the sonne of Anacyndar axis, built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day: and thou O stranger, Eate, drinke, play. And Verses were annexed, which I haue thus englished.

Mortall, thou knowst thy selfe: then please thine appetite
With present dainties: Death can yeeld thee no delight.
Loe, I am now but dust: whilome a Prince of might.
What I did eate, I haue; and what my greetly minde
Consum'd: how much (alas) how sweet, left I behinde?
Learne this, (O man) thus liue: best wisedome thou canst finde
.

This his Legacie hee hath bequeathed to all Epicures, the liuing Sepulchres of themselues, breathing graues (not of so many Creatures onely better than them­selues, which they deuoure, but) of Reason, Nature, Religion, Soule, and (if it were possible) of GOD, which all lie buried in these swine, couered with the skinnes of Men. 1. Cor. 15.32. Let vs eate and drincke, for to morrow wee shall die. Who knoweth whe­ther Paul did not allude to this speech of the Founder of his Citie? This subuersion of the Assyrian Empire was Anno mundt 3145. after Buntingus accompt. Of the Medes see more in their proper place.

The Babylonian Empire renewed by Nabonassar, continued till Cyrus, of which times wee haue little record, but in the Scripture, as neyther of those Assyrian Kings, which before had captiued Israel, and inuaded Iuda. Senacherib is famous, euen in the Ethnike history, although they had not the full truth. For thus Herodotus Herod. lib. 2. telleth, That Sanacharib King of the Arabians and Assyrians warred on Aegypt, where Sethon (before, Vulcans Priest) then reigned: who, beeing forsaken of his souldiours, betooke him to his deuotion, amiddest the which hee fell asleepe. And the god appearing, promised aide which hee performed, sending an Armie of Mice into the Armie of Sanacharib, which did eate his Souldiours quiuers, and the leathers of their shieldes, and armour, in so much, that the very next day they [Page 62] all fled. In witnesse whereof, the Image of the King, made of stone, standeth in the Temple of Vulcan, holding a mouse in his hand, vttering these words; He that loo­keth on me, let him be religious. This History the Egyptians, in vanity and ambition, had thus peruerted and arrogated to themselues.

Funcius and Osiander make Nabopollasar and Nabuchodonosor to be one and the same, and diuerse Commenters vpon Daniel hold the same opinion, whom Scali­ger and Caluisius confute at large. Nabopollasar is supposed to begin his reigne An­no mundi 3325. which he continued nine and twenty yeres: in his Sc.canon. [...].3. seuenteenth yere Nebuchadnezzar (so the Masorites mis-call him, saith Scaliger) or Nabuchodonosor his sonne was sent by him, to subdue the rebellious Egyptians, Iewes, and Palestini­ans: at which time he carried away Daniel into captiuitie. Berosus apud Iosephum contra App.libr.1. Caluisius. Hee beganne his reigne Anno mundi 3354, and in the yeare 3360. destrōyed Ierusalem. In the yeare 3386. Euilmerodach his sonne succeeded him, whom Neriglessoorus, (as Scaliger Animaduers. in Eusebium pag 85. affirmeth) slew, thereby to aduance his owne sonne the nephew of Nabuchodonosor, called La­borosoarchadus, to the Scepter; which himselfe swayed as Protector in the minoritie of his sonne. But he being dead, & his sonne more fit for a Chamber then a Throne, Nabonidus conspired against him, and slew him. This Nabonidus, saith he, is Darius Medus, and Laborosoarchadus is that Baltasar mentioned by Daniel, after Scaligers interpretation of the Prophet out of Berosus and Megasthenes.

It is a world to see how the Catholikes (so they call themselues) sweate in finding out that Nabuchodonosor mentioned in Iudith 1. Pintus would make it a common name to the Babylonian Kings, as Pharao to the Egyptians: Pererius will haue two of the name; others will haue him to be Cyrus; others, Cambyses, Artaxerxes, Ochus. Once, Babel is a mother of confusion to her children, and makes them babble, while they will canonise Apocrypha-scriptures.

Cyrus ended the Babylonian monarchie, and hauing wonne Babylon, and taken Darius Medus at Borsippa, he gaue him his life, and the gouernement of Carmania. An. mundi 3409. As Nabuchodonosor had by Edict proclaimed the God of Daniel, so Cyrus ended the captiuity of his people; giuing liberty to such, as would, to returne. But many Iewes abode there still, and thence sent their yeerely offerings to the tem­ple. In the time of Artabanus the Parthian (when Caligula tyrannized at Rome) Ioseph. Antiq. lib. 1S.ca.12. Asimaeus and Anilaens, brethren of the Iewish nation, grew mightie, and haughtie withall, forgetting God and themselues, which caused the Babylonians to conspire against thē, & (after the death of the brethren with thousands of their partakers) they slew in Seleucia fiftie thousand of the Iewish Nation. Neerda and Nisibis were then much peopled by the Iewes. And thus Religion partly held the ancient course, part­ly was mixed (according to the custome of Conquests) with the Persian, Macedoni­an, Parthian, besides the Iewish and Syrian, vntill the Apostles preached heere the Christian veritie.

About the same time, Helena and her sonne Izates King of Adiabena (which is in these parts of Assyria) became Iewish Proselytes. Seleucia was built by Seleu­cus Nicator on a channel dig­ged out of Eu­phrates into Tigris. Plin.lib.6.ca.26. Seleucia built by Seleucus (as it were the marriage-Chamber of Euphrates and Tigris, which there meete and mix their waters: Nature being by mans industry forced to yeeld to the match) as Plinie saith, for that purpose, emptied Babylon of her Inhabitants, and inherited her name also, with her people. It was from Babylon ninetie miles, or, as some reade it, for­tie, inhabited with sixe hundred thousand citizens. To spoile the spoyler, the Par­thians built Ctesiphon three miles from thence, and failing of their purpose, Volo­gesus built another towne by, called Vologesocerta. Yet did Babylon it selfe remaine (but not it selfe) in the time of Ammianus Marcellinus, and after.

Ortelius thinketh that Bagdat was called Babylon (as Seleucia before had beene) because it stood neere to the place where Babylon had stood. For that old Babylon in Pausanias Arcad. lib.8. Pausanias time, had nothing left standing but the Temple of Bel, and the walls; sometimes, saith he, the greatest Citie that euer the Sunne saw.

In Ieromes time, Hieron in Es.13. within those walls were kept beasts for the Kings game. It was after inhabited with many thousands of Iewes, and was laid euen with the ground, as [Page 63] Ios. Scaliger Scal. animad­versan Euseb. pag.126. affirmeth, in the yeare, after the Iewish accompt, foure thousand se­uen hundred ninetie and seuen, and after the Christian, one thousand thirtie and seuen. Maister Fox hath a little Act.&Mon. ex M.S. Caricus. lengthned the date and fate thereof, shewing that Almaricus King of Ierusalem rased and ruined it, and that it was neuer after inhabi­ted.

Before that time was Bagded built by Bugliafar as I.di Bar. As.dec.1. lib.1. Barrius calleth him, or after Scal.can.Isa.lib.2.& 3. Scaliger, Abugephar Elmantzur, who beganne to reigne in the one hundred thir­tie and sixe, and died in the one hundred fiftie and eight yeare of their Hegeira. Sca­liger and Lidyat Em. Tem. Lydyate agree of this place (which in their Emendations of Time disagree so eagerly) that it was Seleucia, or built in the place, & of the ruines thereof: an opini­on not improbable, as theirs is altogether which thinke the present Bagded to be the old Babylon. The story of this Bagded or Baldach, and her Chalifs, ye may reade in Lib.3.ca [...].2. our Saracenicall Historie. Loys le Roy. libr.8. Knolls T.H.pag.113. M Polo Ven. Haiton Armen. Authors agree, that Haalon the Tartar sacked it, about the yeare one thousand two hundred and three score. Mustratzem being then Cha­lipha, the foure and fiftieth, and last of those Saracenicall Popes. He found a misera­ble death, where others with miserablenesse seeke a blessed life, being shut vp and starued amidst those Treasures, whereof he had store, which Niggardise forbade him to disburse in his owne defence.

There is yet a bone left of this Calipha's carkasse; or some ghost and shadow of that great and mighty body, I meane that ancient name and power of the Calipha's, which, magnificent Solyman the Turkish Emperour in his conquest 1534. would seeme to acknowledge, in accepting the royall ensignes of that new conquered state at the hands of their Calipha: a ceremony which the Soldans in Egypt and Persia v­sed, more for forme them necessitie; this Assyrian and that Egyptian Caliph hauing but gesture and vesture, the Souldans themselues enioying both body and soule of this authority.

In the yeare one thousand one hundred fiftie nine, the riuer Tigris ouerflowed Bagded, and desolated many Cities. Barrius Decad.As.li.2. affirmeth out of the Arabian and Per­sian Tarigh, which he saith hee had seene, that Bagded was built by the counsell of an Astrologer, a Gentile named Nobach, and hath for ascendent Sagittarius, was finished in foure yeares, and cost eighteene millions of gold. These studies of Astro­logie did there flourish. One Richardus Rich.contra Alcoran.ca.13. a Frier Preacher saith, That here was an V­niuersitie, the Students whereof were maintained at publike charge, of which num­ber himselfe was one. That Caliph, that founded it, for the preuenting of Sects, ba­nished Philosophie out of these Schooles, and accounted him a bad Saracen which was a good Philosopher. The reason whereof grew from some, which, reading A­ristotle and Plato, relinquished Mahomet.

M.Po.lib.t, ca. 7. Marco Polo or Paulus the Venetian saith, that they studied here in his time, the Law of Mahomet, Necromancie, Geomancie, Physiognomy, Physicke, and Astro­nomie: And that it was then a great Staple of the Indian Commodities. This was within few yeares after the Tartar had wonne it. Hee addeth that there were many Christians in these parts: and that in the yeare one thousand two hundred twentie and fiue, in derision of the Gospel, the Chaliph commanding by a day, that the Chri­stians should remoue a mountaine in testimony of their faith, according to the words of CHRIST, or else to abide the perill; this was effected by a Shoomaker, and the day in remembrance thereof yeerely solemnized with fasting the Euen.

The Iewes goe still to visite the Denne which is there shewed, as the place of 'Da­niels imprisonment, with his terrible Gaolers or fellow-prisoners, as Maister Allen tolde me.

A certaine Merchant, (the Discourse of whose voyage Cap. 8. Ramusius hath published) speaketh of Orpha, a towne in the way from Byr to Babylon, wherein the people foolishly suppose, that Abraham offered Isaac: at which time (say they) there sprang a fountaine which watereth their Countrey, and driueth their milles. Here was a Christian Temple called Saint Abraham, after turned into a Mahumetane Moschee, and now called Abrahams well, into which if any enter so many times [Page 64] (they haue a set number) with deuotion, he is freed of anie feuer: The fishes which are many, haue taken Sanctuarie in these waters, and none dare take them, but hold them holie. Six miles from hence is a Well, holden in like sacred account, which cureth Leprosies. Nisibis, Carrae, and V [...]later.ls.11. Edessa, were chiefe Cities of Mesopotamia: at Edessa reigned Ab igarus, betwixt whom and our Sauiour passed (if we may be­leeue it) those Epistles yet extant.

At Carrhae Alex.ab Alex­and.gen.dier.lib. 4.cap.8. there was a Temple of the Moone, in which, they which sacrificed to the goddesse Luna, were subiect to the gouernement of their wiues: they which sa­crificed to the god Lunus, were accounted their wiues Maisters. Hee saith, that the Babylonians allowed marriages of parents and children. Lib.2.cap.24 Cafe is two dayes iourny from Bagdet, Cartweight. religious for the buriall of Hali and his sonnes, Hassan and Ossain: whereunto is resort of Pilgrims from Persia, whose kings were wont here to be crow­ned. But this city Curio Curio Sar. Eist.lib.1. calleth Cusa, assigneth it to Arabia, & saith that of this acci­dent it was called Massadale, or the house of Ali, slain here by Muaui his cópetitor.

Mesopotamia is now called Diarbeth. Maginus. The chiefe Cities in it are Orfa, of seuen miles compasse, famous, say some, for the death of Crassus. Assyrias Latio maculauit lan­guine Cari as: saith Lucan. Caramit the mother-ci­tie of the Countrey, of twelue miles compasse: Mosul and Merdin, of which in the next Chapter. Betweene Orpha and Caramit, was the Paradise of Aladeules, where he had a fortresse destroyed by Selim. Cartwright. This his Paradise was like to that which you shall finde in our Persian Historie. Men, by a potion brought into a sleepe, were brought into this supposed Paradise, where at their waking, they were presented with all sensuall pleasures of musicke, damosells, dainties, &c. which (hauing had some taste of an other sleepie drinke) after came againe to themselues. And then did Aladeules tell them, That he could bring whom he pleased to Paradise, the place where they had bin: And if they would commit such murders, or haughty attempts, it should be theirs. A dangerous deuise. Zelim the Turke destroyed the place.

CHAP. XIIII.

Of Niniue and other neighbouring Nations.

WE haue hitherto spoken of Babylonia, but so, as in regard of the Em­pire, and some other occurrents, Necessitie now and then compel­led vs to make excursions into some other parts of Assyria, Mesopo­tamia, &c. And I know not how, this Babylon causeth confusion in that Sea of affaires, and in regard of the diuision of the Pennes (as sometimes of Tongues) of such as haue written thereof. Hard it is to distinguish betweene the Assyrian and Babylonian Empire, one while vnited, an other while diuided, as each party could most preuaile: and no lesse hard to reconcile the Ethnike and Diuine Historie touching the same. Ptolomey Libr.6.cap.I. straitneth Assyria, on the north, with part of Armenia neere the riuer Niphates; on the west with Mesopotamia; on the south with Susiana; and Media on the east. But her large Empire hath enlarged the name of Syria, and of Assyria (which names the Greeks did not well distinguish) to many Countries in that part of Asia. The Scripture deriueth Syria from Aram, and Assyria from Ashur. Both were in their times flourishing, and mention is made from Abrahams time, both of the warres and kingdomes in those parts: yea before, from Ashur and Nimrod, as alreadie is shewed.

Mesopotamia is so called, and in the Scripture Aram or Syria of the waters, be­cause it is situate betweene Euphrates and Tigris: the Countries Babylonia, and Armenia, confining the same on the North and South. Whereas therefore wee haue in our former Babylonian relation discoursed of Assyria, extending the name after a larger reckoning: here we consider it more properly.

The chiefe Citie thereof was Niniue, called in Ionas, Ion [...] 3.3. A great and excellent Citie of three days iourny. It had (I borrow the words of our reuerend Diocesan) Doctor King on Ionas Lect.2. an an­cient testimony long before in the Booke of Genes. 10.11. Genesis. For thus Moses writeth, That [Page 65] Ashur came from the land of Shinar, and built Niniueh and Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resin. At length he singleth out Niniue from the rest, and setteth a speciall marke of preheminence vpon it, This is a great Citie: Which honour, by the iudgement of the most learned (though standing in the last place) belongeth to the first of the foure Cities, namely to Niniue. Others Annius vpon Eeros. imagined (but their coniecture is without ground) that the foure Cities were closed vp within the same walls, and made but one, of an vnusuall bignesse.

Some ascribe the building of Niniue to Ninus the sonne of Belus: of whome it tooke the name, to be called either Ninus, as wee read in 'Pliny; or after the manner of the Hebrewes, Niniue: and after a few words; By the confession of all, both facred and Gentile Histories, the Citie was very spacious, hauing foure hundred and fourescore furlongs in circuit, when Babylon had fewer almost (as some report) by an hundred: and as afterwards it grew in wealth and magnificence, so (they write) it was much more enlarged. Raphael Volaterranus affirmeth, That it was eight yeares in building; and not by fewer at once then tenne thousand workemen. There was no Citie since, by the estimation of Diodorus Siculus, that had like compasse of ground, or statelinesse of walls: the height whereof was not lesse then an hundred foot; the breadth sufficiently capable to haue receiued three Carts on a rowe: and they were furnished and ador­ned besides with fifteene hundred Turrets. Thus farre our reuerend and learned Bishop.

Diodorus Diod, Sic. i. 3. c. 1. telleth out of Ctesias. That Ninus, after he had subdued the Aegyp­tians, Phoenicians, Syrians, Cilicians, Phrygians, and others, as farre as Tanais, and the Hyrcanians, Parthians, Persians, and other their neighbours, hee built this Citie. After that, he led an Armie against the Bactrians of seuenteene hun­dred thousand footmen, and two hundred thousand horse: in which Expedition he tooke Semiramis from her husband Menon, who therefore (impatient of loue and griefe) hanged himselfe. He had by her a sonne of his owne name, and then di­ed, leauing the Empire to his wife. His Sepulchre was nine furlongs in height (each of which is sixe hundred feet) and tenne in breadth. The credit of this Histo­rie I leaue to the Author, scarse seeming to agree with Moses narration of the buil­ding of Niniue, any more then Semiramis building of Babylon. Some write, That Aelian. vat. bist. l. 7. c. 1. Semiramis abusing her husbands loue, obtained of him the swaying of the Empire for the space of fiue dayes; in which time she depriued him of his life, and succeeded in his Estate.

But least the name of this Citie call vs backe againe too much to those Assy­rian Relations, before dilated as much as concerneth our purpose; let vs see what can be said of their Religion here. Of this we finde little, but as before is shewed of the Babylonians.

Nisroch was the Idoll, in whose Temple Senacherib was slaine by his owne sonnes. But what this Nisroch was, I cannot finde. Certaine it is, that hee which had vpbraided confidence in the true GOD, findes his Idoll, euen in the place and time of his Worship, his Traytor; and hee which had blasphemed the GOD of Heauen, findes Heauen and Earth, and his owne bowels, against him.

Uenus Vrania Wolpb. in 2. Reg. 19. is reckoned among the Assyrian deuotions, and Adad was their chiefe God, which they interprete One, (and Macrobius, the Sunne, which, as before is said, they worshipped) and Atargatis, the Earth. Belus also was here wor­shipped, as witnesse Dion, Eusebius and Cyrillus.

Lucian Luc. in lone Tragoedo. sayth, That the Assyrians sacrificed to a Doue; the touching of which Fowle required much ceremonie for expiation: Whereto accordeth the fable, Metam. 4. that Semiramis was turned into a Doue.

Concerning Adad and Atargatis, Macrobius Saturnal. l. 1. 23. sayth, That the Assyrians ascribe all power to these two. The Image of Adad shined with rayes or beames downewards, [Page 66] designing the Sunnes force: That of Atargatis, with beames vpwards, as it were as­cribing to the heauenly influence all her plentie: vnder the same Image were the shapes of Lyons, as also the Phrygians fained the mother of the Gods, that is, the Earth, to be borne on Lyons. But of this Atargatis more in the next Chapter.

Ionas was sent to preach to the great Citie of Niniue, as some Gramay. As. Sigon. in Sulpit. thinke in the dayes of Sardanapalus his next predecessor. Broughton (with some other) thinketh in the daies of Pul, or Phul-Assur. Their repentance stayed that iudgement. Nahum after denoun­ced the like iudgement, which accordingly came to passe. Phraortes King of the Medes (mentioned in the former Chapter) besieged it. His sonne Cyaxares succeeded in the Kingdome, and in this siege. After that, the Scythians inuaded Media, and held it eight and twentie yeares, according to the prophecie of Ieremie, 49. 34. and in the same Expedition obtained Niniue. But Cyaxares after preuailed against the Scythi­ans, and Astyages his sonne ouer-turned and destroyed Niniue, that it should no more be a receptacle or encouragement to the Assyrians, to rebell against the Medes. Nahum threatneth Nab. 2. 6. opening of the gates of the Riuers, and destruction to the Temple, as Tremellins readeth it, noting thereon the casting downe of the Forts on Tigris, and amongst them the Temple of Belus there erected; out of whose notes on the first Chapter of Nahum, I inserted the former relation. Herodotus in the Historie hereof sayth, That Phraeortes there perished in the siege, with most part of his armie. Cyaxares, to reuenge his fathers death, renewed the siege, but was not able to hold his owne a­gainst the Scythians, vntill, after eight and twentie yeares, that the Scythians had en­ioyed the Empire of Asia (vnder pretence of feasting being entertained in a ban­quet) the most of them, in their drunkennesse, were slaine by the Medes: and so the Scythians loosing what before they had gotten, Cyaxares recouered the Em­pire, and destroyed Niniue. Thus was that Citie destroyed [...]arothaeus in his Synopsi af­firmeth, that by an Earth­quake the lake which compas­sed the Citie drowned it, and [...] fire con­sumed the vp­per part there­of. whose Riches, Beau­tie, Antiquitie, Largenesse, and Puissance, the Scripture so often mentioneth.

A man may compare Ecbatana of the Medes, Babylon on Euphrates, and Niniue on Tigris, to the Triumviri at Rome: So did they both emulate and share the Ea­sterne Empire, as each could make her selfe strongest; now Babylon, another while Niniue, and sometime Ecbatana preuailing: which is the cause of no small difficul­tie in these Histories, M. Cartwright, an eye-witnesse, hath beheld (he sayth) the ruines of this Citie, and agreeth with Diodorus in the inequalitie of the sides: two of which contained an hundred and fiftie furlongs, the two other but fourescore and tenne on a side.

Mosul is supposed to be Niniue, happily for the neerenesse, or for that (as a post­hume issue) it hath sprung from the former. The ashes yet haue not yeelded such a Phoenix as the former was. G. Bo. Ben. part. 1. lib. 2. Mosul is in fame for Cloth of Gold and Silke, for ferti­litie, and for the Patriarchall Sea of the Nestorian Christians, whose authoritie stret­cheth to Cathay and India. Merdin, a Towne on the same Riuer, is also a Patriarchall Sea of the Chaldees (or Mahumetane Sect.) In Paulus Venetus his daies M. Paul. l. 1. c. 6. they were in the Prouince of Mosul, partly Mahumetans, partly Christians: and in the Moun­taines dwelt the Curdi, that were Participles or Mungrels in Religion, professing partly Christ, partly Mahumet in practise robbers and wicked. The Christian Pa­triarch hath Archbishops and Bishops vnder him, as the Roman Pope. The Mahume­tans are called Aratri.

Assyria (sayth Magin. Geogr. Maginus) is now called by Niger, Adrinsa; by Garara, Azemia; by Pinetus, Mosul; by Mercator, Sarh; and of Castaldus, Arzerum. It sometime contai­ned the Prouinces, Arapachite, Adiabena, and Sittacene, now called (after some) Bo­tan, Sarca, and Rabia.

Boemus l. Boem. l. 1. telleth of a strange fashion aunciently vsed in Assyria; That the maids which were marriageble were yearely brought forth in publike, and set to sale to such as would marrie them. The money which was giuen for the fairest, was giuen to the more deformed for their portion in marriage.

[Page 67] The Assyrians vsed to wash themselues daily, but chiefely after carnall com­panie.

As for the Saracenicall Religion, we shall more fitly handle the same by it selfe, then tediously repeat the same things. For this therefore, and other Countries subiect to Turkish or Persian seruitude, the Reader may reade of their superstitions in their due place, when we speake of the Saracens, Turkes, and Persians. The relation of their Christian Rites belong to another Tome.

But let vs come out of Assyria into Syria; the Histories of which are not a little, as is said, confounded together, and many Rites were common to them both, and to all these parts, from the Persian gulfe to Asia the lesse, as being so often subiect to one Empire, or rather still parts of that one Empire, which receiued often alterati­ons vnder the Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Macedonians, Scythians, Parthians, &c.

CHAP. XV.

Of Syria, and the ancient Religions there: of the Syrian Goddesse; and her Rites at Hierapolis: Of the Daphnean, and other Syrian superstitions.

SYRIA is called, in Scripture, Aram, of Aram the sonne of Shem, Gen. 10. 22. as before is said. And Strabo (lib. 1.) calleth the Syrians Arammaei. Hence also his Arinsi are deriued and Arami (lib. 13.) It is diuersly bounded by diuers Authors: some confounding the names of Syria and Assyria. Eustathius doth reckon these fiue parts thereof, viz. Commagena, Seleucide, Coelesyria, Phoenicia, and Iudaea. Mela extendeth it further, lib. 1. and Pliny, lib. 5. cap. 12. nameth, as part of Syria, Palaesti­na, Iudaea, Coele, Phoenice, Damascena, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Sophene, Com­magene, Adiabene, Antiochia. And in this large sense doth G. Post. Bar. Syr. descrip. Broc. descrip. Ter. san. Postellius and Brocardus stretch it beyond Tigris Eastward from the Mediterranean sea, and from Armenia to Arabia. But Dom. Niger, and before him Lib. 5. c. 15. Ptolomey (whome wee especially follow) make it abutte on the North vpon Cilicia, and part of Cappadocia, by the Mount A­manus; on the South, vpon Iudaea, and part of Arabia Petraea; on the East, vpon Ara­bia Deserta and Euphrates; on the West, vpon the Syrian sea.

This Countrey is thought to haue beene the habitation of our first parents, be­fore the Floud, and of Noah and his sincerer familie (as wee haue said) after. Yet how soone, and how much, they degenerated in the wicked off-spring of cur­sed Cham whose posteritie peopled a great part hereof, till they were thence by the Israelites expelled, the Scripture is sufficient record. Yea, euen from Noahs time did they deriue their Idolatrie, as appeareth by Lucian. de D [...] a Syria. Lucians narration of the Sy­rian Goddesse, which he partly saw with his eyes, and partly receiued of the Priests report. This Goddesse was with godlesse Rites serued and obserued at Hierapolis; which, although Strabo Lib. 16. placeth it beyond the Riuer in Mesopotamia, is by Pliny Lib. 5. c. 23. ac­counted in Coelesyria, called also Bambyce, and, of the Syrians themselues, Ma­gog; and by Ptolomey named among the Syrian Cities of the diuision Cirristica, in 71. 15. Longit. and 56. 15. Latit. And Lucian (who himselfe was there; for Gilh [...] Cognat. in Annot. hee calleth himselfe an Assyrian, and was borne at Samosata in Commagena) placeth it on this side the Riuer. Plinie and Strabo (deceiued in the name) mention the worship of Atargatis (called of the Greekes Derceto) in this place: but Lucian (other-where a scoffer, here an Historian) at large describeth it, making this diffe­rence betweene This and That, that Atargetis was halfe a fish, but the Syrian God­desse wholly resembled a woman.

[Page 68] The Citie he thinketh to haue receiued the name Hierapolis (Holy Citie) of these holy things here obserued; in which respect in giueth place to none other place in Sy­ria: hauing a stately Temple, enriched with gifts, Statues, and (as they esteemed them) Miracles. Arabia, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, and Assyria brought her Presents, and celebrated her solemne-Feasts.

This Temple was (in the Syrians opinion) first founded by Deucalion, whose Hi­storie you would thinke Lucian had learned of the Hebrewes, not of the Syrians, or Greekes; so liuely doth he expresse the infidelitie and crueltie of the old World; the manner of the Floud; the Arke wherein, with himselfe, his wife, and children, he sa­ued also all other creatures that liued on the earth, which came to him by couples, by dispensation of Iupiter. Hereunto these Hierapolitans adde, That in their Territorie was made a great Clift, which swallowed vp those waters: which Clift (but then ve­rie little) was shewed to our Author: to whome also they reported, That, in memorie hereof, Deucalion instituted that Rite, which to his time continued; that twice euery yeare, not the Priests onely, but many out of all Syria, Arabia, and beyond Euphra­tes, went to the Sea, and from thence brought water, which they poured downe in the Temple which he had built ouer that Clift vnto Iuno; all which water was receiued into the same.

Some ascribe the building of this Temple to Semiramis, in honour of her mother Derceto: others to Attes, for the worship of Rhea: which Attes was a Lydian, and was author of the superstitions of Rhea, to the Phrygians, Lydians, and Samothraci­ans: but the opinion most probable was, that Dionysius or Bacchus was founder of it; two substantiall witnesses, besides others, affirming the same, namely two Phalli, or Priapi (huge Images of the priuie part of a man) erected at the entrie of the Temple, with an inscription, That Bacchus had consecrated them to Iuno. That auncient foundation being consumed by time, this later Temple was erected by Queene Stra­tonice, who being in a dreame enioyned this office of Iuno, and, for neglecting the same, punished with sicknesse, vowed vpon her recouerie to performe it. The King ioyned in Commission with her, as Generall of his Armie, and ouerseer of these holy workes, a beautifull young man, named Combabus: who fearing what might happen, gelded himselfe, and closing those his dismembred members (first for their preserua­tion embalmed) in a boxe sealed, as some great treasure, he committed to the Kings fidelitie, to be safely reserued to his vse. Which his practise saued his life accordingly, being after produced to cleare him of adulterie with Stratonice, which had been layd to his charge by his enuious accusers, and by the iealous King greedily apprehended. In memorie whereof, a brazen Statue of Combabus was set vp in this Temple, and both then (whether to solace Combabus, or by inspiration of Iuno) and yearely euer after, many in this Temple gelded themselues, and put off together the nature and habit of men, attyring themselues like women. These Man-women Priests were cal­led Galli.

The Temple was built in the middest of the Citie, compassed with a double wall; the Porch looking Northwards, almost an hundred fadome high; where stood those Priapi aforesaid, about the height of three hundred fadome: vp to one of these one ascendeth twice a yeare, and abideth in the top thereof seuen dayes. He carrieth with him a long chayne, which he letteth downe, and thereby draweth vp to him such things as he needeth. Many offer Gold, and Siluer, and Brasse, and one appointed re­ceiueth their names, which he sheweth to him aboue, and he maketh his prayers for euery of them, sounding, while hee prayeth, a little Bell. The Temple within shi­neth with gold, and the Roofe is wholly of this Mettall; it yeeldeth so fragrant a smell, that the Garments of those, which come thither, retame this sent long after.

There is also another inner Roome or Quire, whereinto the chiefe of the Priests onely haue entrance; yet is it open without any dore. In this Sanctuarie are the Images of the Gods; Iupiter, supported with Bulls, but Iuno sitteth vpon Lyons, hol­ding [Page 69] in one hand a Scepter, and in the other a Distasfe, in some thing or other resem­bling diuers other Goddesses, by the Aegyptians, Indians, Armenians, Babylonians, Aethiopians, and Medes, adorned with many Iewels: and among the rest she hath on her head a stone called the lampe, of the effect, yeelding light in the night season, as if all the Temple were hanged with Lampes. This statue goeth twice a yeere to the sea, for the water before mentioned: neither of the Syrians is called by any name, but onely the Image, not expressing of whom.

In the temple is the image of Apollo cloathed, with a beard, (contrarie to the custome of the Greekes, and in a farre more glorious manner) giuing forth Oracles: for it moueth it selfe, which, the Priests espying, lift it vp alost (otherwise it sweateth and moueth it selfe forward neuerthelesse) and being thus supported, it turneth it selfe and them about, and leapeth from one place to another. Then doth the chiefe of the Priests, make supplication and request for all things: which if it misliketh, it goeth backwards; if it approueth, it carrieth them forwards: and without these Oracles they enterprise nothing neither priuate nor sacred: and Lucian saith hee saw it leauing the Priests (the supporters) and mouing it selfe aboue in the ayre. Here are also the statues of Atlas, Mercury, and Lucina, and without, a great brasen Altar, and many brasen images of Kings and Priests, and many others recorded in poets and histories. Among others standeth the image of Semyramis pointing to the temple with her fin­ger, which (they say) is the signe of her repentance, who hauing giuen commaunde­ment to the Syrians, to worship no other God but her selfe, was by plagues (sent from heauen) driuen to reuoke that former edict, and thus seemeth to acknowledge and point out another Deitie. There were also places inclosed, wherein were kept and fed; sacred Oxen, horses, Eagles, Beares, Lyons.

The Priests were in number aboue 300. some for killing sacrifices: some for offe­rings: some ministring fire to others at the altar: their garment all white: their head couered: and euery yeare was chosen a new High-priest, which alone was cloathed with purple, and a golden head-tire. A great multitude there was besides of Musici­ans, Galli, and Propheticall women: they sacrificed twice a day, whereat they all as­sembled. To Iupiter they vse neither song, nor instrument, in sacrifice: as they doe to Iuno.

Not farre hence was a lake of 200. fadome depth, wherein were preserued sacred fishes, and in the middest thereof an altar of stone, crowned alwaies with garlands, and burning with odours. They haue a great feast which they call the going downe to the lake, when all their idols descend thither.

Their greatest and most solemne feast was obserued in the spring, which they cal­led the fire: which they solemnifed in this sort. They felled great trees, and laide them in the Churchyard (as we may terme it) and bringing thither goates, sheepe, and o­ther beasts, they hanged them on these trees; & together with them, foules, and gar­ments, and workes of golde and siluer, which being set in due order, they carry the images of the gods about the trees, and then set all on fire. They resort to this feast out of Syria, and the coasts adioining, & bring hither their idols with them: and great multitudes resorting to the sacrifices, the Galli, and those other sacred wights beat and wound each other. Others play on instruments, and others, rauished by diuine furie, prophecie: and then doe the Galli enter into their orders: for the furie rauisheth ma­ny of the beholders. Whatsoeuer yong man commeth prepared to this purpose, hur­ling off his garments, with a great voice he goeth into the middest, and drawing his sword geldeth himselfe; and runneth through the Citie, carrying in his hands, that which he would no longer carry on his bodie. And into whatsoeuer house he casteth the same, he receiueth from thence his womanish habite and attire. When any of them die, his fellowes carrying him into the Suburbes, couer him and his horse with stones, and may not enter into the Temple in 7. daies after: nor after the fight of any o­ther carkasse in one day, but none of that family where one hath died, in 30. dayes: and then also with a shauen head. Swine they hold for vncleane beasts. And the Doue they esteeme so sacred, that if one touch one against his will, he is that day vncleane. [Page 70] This causeth Doues in those parts to multiply exceedingly: neither doe they touch fishes: This because of Derceto, halfe a woman, halfe a fish: that, for Semiramis vvhich vvas metamorphosed into a Doue. Euseb de praep. l. 8. c. 5.

Many are the ceremonies also to be performed of the religious Pilgrims, or Vo­taries that visite this holy Citie: for before hee setteth forth, hee cuts off the hayre of his head and browes, hee sacrificeth a sheepe, and spreading the fleece on the ground, hee kneeleth downe on it, and layeth vpon his head the head and feete of the beast, and prayeth to be accepted: the rest he spendeth in the banquet. Then doth hee crowne himselfe, and his fellow pilgrims, and after sets forward on his pilgrimage, vsing for his drinke and washing colde vvater, and sleepeth alway on the ground till his returne home. In this Citie vvere appoin­ted publique Hostes, for diuers Cities diuers, called Doctors, because they ex­pounded these mysteries: They haue also one manner of sacrificing, to hurle downe the beastes destinied herevnto, from the toppe of the porch, which die of the fall. They haue a like rite to put their Children in a Sacke, and carry them downe, branded first on the necke or palme of the hand: and hence it was that all the Assyrians were branded. The young men also consecrated their hayre from their Natiuitie, vvhich being cut in the Temple, vvas there preserued in some boxe of golde or siluer, with the inscription of the owners name thereon. And this did I (saith Lucian) in my youth: and my hayre and name remaine in the Temple still. Of Atergatis see more in the chapter of Phoenicca.

Suetonius tels of Nero, that hee contemned all Religions but this of the Sy­rian Goddesse: of vvhich also hee grewe weary, and defiled her with Vrine. After which he obserued a little Needle, supposed to haue a power of fore-signifying dan­ger: and because soone after he had it, hee found out a conspiracie intended against him, he sacrificed thereto three times a day.

Plutarch De conso' at. ad Ap. calleth the Syriane an effeminate Nation prone to teares: and saith, that some of them after the death of their friends haue hidden themselues in Caues, from the sight of the sunne many dayes.

Rimmon the idoll of the Syrians, and his temple is mentioned, 2 King. 5. 18. But I haue litle certainty to say of him.

Antiochia built by Selencus, (to whom, in honour of his memorie, in mount Cassius they obserued sacred solemnities, as to a demigod) sometimes the seate royall of the Syrian Kings, third Citie of the Roman Empire, third seate of the Chri­stian Patriarches, and first, where that melodious name of Christian was heard: is now the Sepulchre (saith Boterus) of it selfe, or, (as Niger) a greater wildernesse, vvherein it selfe is least part of it selfe, beeing left but a small Village (saith Cartwright. ano­ther) in the middest of it's owne walles.

About fiue miles from Antiochia, was that faire and sacred Daphne, vvhich Ortelius in his Theater hath presented to the spectators, with a peculiar descripti­on, and of vvhich the elder Authors S [...]zomen. l. 5 18. Niceph. l. 10. c. 18. Euogr. l. 1. c. 16. Strab. l. 16. haue plentifully written. It was 10. miles about: a place euery way enuironed vvith many stately Cypresses, besides other trees, which suffered not the Sunne to kisse their mother (Earth:) vvhose lappe was according to the diuersitie of the season replenished with varietie of flowers, her breastes flowing with streames of watery nourishment. A spring there was, de­riuing (as men supposed) her water from the Castalian Fountaines, to which aunci­ent superstition (and therefore superstitious Antiquitie) attributed a diuining faculty with like name and force to that at Delphos. This also was furthered by the Legend of Daphne, Ov. Metam. l. 1 recorded by the Poets, beleeued (and what will not Superstition beleeue, but the truth?) by the credulous multitude: who was said to haue fled from Apollo, and here turned into a tree. But thus could not Apollo bee turned from his loue, which hee continued both to the Tree and place. This was Lettice sutable to the lips of vaine youth. Ter. in Euni­cho. Et quia confimilem luserat (saith amorous Chaerea of Iupiter in the Comicke)

[Page 71]
I am olim ille ludum, impendio magis,
Animus gandebat mihi, &c.
Ego homincio non sacerem?

There needed no other lecture of sensualitie to them, then this Legend, especially in this schoole, where euery place might be a place of argument (vnder presence of reason and religion) to shut true Religion, and reason out of the place, especially with schol­lers greedy of this conclusion.

Here you might haue heard the whisking windes in a murmuring accent breathing this lustfull Oratorie: the Enamelled floore did offer her more then officious courtesie, (a soft, sweet, and inlayed bed) to lie in; the ayre with Temperature, seemed to further Intemperance: The eye of the Day, & watchmen of the Night, were prohibited by the Cypresse roose, with their vnwelcome light, to restifie those workes of darknes, which those guilty boughes couered from discouering: Once, the concurring obiects of each sense, did in silence speake and perswade to sensuall pleasure, insomuch that by a gene­rall Decree, Temperance and Temperate men were hence exiled, and scarse would the vulgar allow him the name of a man, which here would not bee transformed into a beast, or would presume, without a Curtesan, to tread on this holy ground. Needs must they goe whom the diuell driueth: such God, such religion. Here were erected sump­tuous buildings: the temple of Apollo Daphnaus, with a stately Image therin; the worke (as was thought) of Seleucus: also Dianas chappel & sanctuarie. Iulius Capitolinus wri­teth that Verus a voluptuous Emperour spent his summers here, and wintered in An­tioch. Seuerus (more truely answering his name) did to death certaine Tribunes (saith Lampridius) by whose negligence the Souldiors here were suffered to ryot. The Ora­cles added renowne to the place, which were deluered out of these Daphnaean waters by a certaine winde or breath. Hadrian the Emperor is reported to haue hence recei­ued the faculty of Diuining, by dipping a Cypresse lease in the Fountaine. Iulian re­sorted hither often for that purpose. But his elder brother Gaellus, whom Constantius had called to be Casar, & after (saith Ammianus) for his outrages executed, had in the time of his abode at Antioch, remoued the bones of Babylas their Bishop & other ho­ly Martyrs his companions in suffering, to this place, where also he built a church. Now when as Iulian in his Persian expedition had sent others to visite all the other Oracks in the Romane Empire, himselfe here consulted with Apollo, (an Apostata Emperour with an Apostata Angell) about the successe of those warres. But all his sacrifices ob­tained no other answere, then that he could not answere, by the countermaund of a more diuine power there liuing in those dead bones. Herevpon Iulian commanded the Christians to remoue those ill neighbours: which they did (saith Theodoret,) with a so­lemne procession, singing the Psalmes, & dancing with the heart of Danid; making this the burthen, and foote of each verse, Confounded be all they that worship grauen images: where with Iulian, enraged, persecuted the Christians. Euagrius affirmeth, that he built a temple in honour of Babylas: how truely, I know not. But the True GOD confounded both the Idol & Idolater, shortly after, calling the one to giue account of his-ill emploi­ed stewardship; vncertaine whether by diuine or humane hand: and for the other, his temple was consumed with fire from aboue, together with the Image, one pillar wher­of remained in Chrysostomes dayes. The Pagans attributed this fire to the Christians: and no maruell: for what did not that fire of blind Idolatry (kindled with Zeale) attri­bute to the innocent Christians? herein testifying that it came from hell, & must to Hel againe, by that hellish Character and impression, of so great fire, and as great Darknesse. Such is Hell, & such is ignorant Zeale: a fire but no light. Apollos priest by no torments could be forced to contesse any authour thereof: & the officers of the temple affirmed it was fire from heauen, which certaine country people confirmed by their owne sight. Iulian to satisfie his rage caused some temples of the Christians to be burned. Nicopho­rus Nic.l.16.23, & 17.14. telleth of the continuance of this Daphnaean groue, honoured with Buildings and spectacles, by Mammianus and Chosroes. Apollo's image was made of wood, couered ouer with gold. Theodosius forbade the cutting of any of those Cypresses.

Orontes is a riuer which ariseth in Coelesyria, and payeth Tribute to all the three [Page 72] Brethren: it visiteth Pluto's pallace, running with a long tract vnder the Earth, and then heauing vp his head, maketh his gladsome homage to Iupiter; and after his cu­stomes paied to the Antiochians, in fine poureth himselfe into the lappe of Neptune, entring the Sea neere to Seleucia. Strab.l.16. It was called Typhon, vntill Orontes, building a bridge ouer it, caused it to be called by his name. They had heere a tale of Typhen a huge Dragon, which diuided the earth, as he went seeking to hide himselfe, and pe­rished by the stroke of a thunderbolt. Thus did he indent a passage for this riuer. Not farre hence was a sacred Caue called Nymphoeum: also Mount Casius, and An­ticasius, and Heraclia,: and nigh thereto the temple of Minerus. In Laodicea was this Goddesse honoured, to whome they offered Eus de lau­dib.constantini. in yearely sacrifice in olde time a maide, after that in steede thereof a hart.

I may here mention also that, which Tacitus Tacit.l.2.bist. reporteth of the Mount Carmel (as he placeth it,) betwixt Iudea and Syria, where they worshipped a God of that name with Ethnicke rites. They had not any Temple or Statue to this God, an Altar onely and Reuerence was here seene: Vespasian did in this place offer sacrifice, where Basi­lides the Priest viewing the entrals, foretold him of his good successe. Laodicea, a citie of Syria, vsed this sacred butchery once a yeere, to offer a maiden in sacrifice: as testi­fieth Euseb.de praep. Euang.l.4.c.8.

CHAP. XVI.

Of the Syrian kings, and alteration in Gouernment, and Religion, in those countries.

SYria quickly grew into peoples and kingdomes, although Time hath long since deuoured both them and their memories. Of Menon the husband of Semiramis (mentioned by Diodorus) is spoken before. A­dadezer was in Dauids time, king of Aram Zoba, which some take for Chobal in Syria, some for Sophene in Armenia, and some for the Nu­bei: whatsoeuer they were, Dauid made them tributarie Anno mundi. 2903. Benhadad, Hazael, and others the scripture also mentioneth: but certaine suc­cession we finde not recorded of these Syrian kings, til the time of Alexander, which conquering all from Macedonia, to India, by his inexpected death, left his huge Empire to bee shared among his chiefe followers. Seleucus, the sonne of Antio­chus, a Macedonian, first, maister of the Elephants; then Tribune; after that Depu­tie of the Babylonians, at last obtained the kingdome of Asia, Anno M 3638. of whome Appianus thus vvriteth: The first King of Syria after Alexander vvas Seleucus, called Nicator, because hee was of very great stature; and as a wilde bull had in a sacrifice of Alexander broken loose, he helde him with both his hands. Hee built 16. Cities, called by the name Antiochia, of his father Antiochus: and fiue Laodicea's, in memory of his mother Laodice: nine Seleucia's of his owne name: three Apamea's, and one Stratonicea, after the names of his two wiues. He prospered in his warres, tooke Babylon, subdued the Bactrians; pierced to the Indians, which had slaine Alexanders gouernours (placed amongst them) after Alexanders death. He slew Lysimachus, and seuen monethes after was circumuented and slaine of Ptolo­mie (whose sister Lysimachus had married) being seuenty three yeeres olde.

To him succeeded his sonne Antiochus, surnamed Soter. A. 3667. who had obtai­ned Stratonice his mother in lawe, of his father (moued thereunto by his sonnes vio­lent loue, and his Physitians subtile perswasion.) His sonne Antiochus Thees was (contrarie to his name) poisoned by his wife: whose sonnes Seleucus, Callinicus, and Antiochus succeeded: and after them Antiochus Magnus, the sonne of Callinicus, who much enlarged his Empire, adding thereto Babylonia, Egypt, and Iudea: but inua­ding Graecia, prouoked the Romans against him, with whom hee compounded on base and meane conditions: He did yet comfort himselfe for his losse among his [Page 73] friends, saying, that he was Val.Max.l.4.c.1. beholden to the Romances, that eased him of so weighty a burthen, and lessened his cares of gouernement; (for they had coped him in a cor­ner of his kingdome beyond Taurus.) After this he was shine: exhibiting in him­selfe a true example of the worlds falshood, that playeth with Scepters, and vieth Diademes, vsing men like Counters or Figures, in numbring and casting accounts, where the same, with a little difference of place, is a pound, shilling, or peny, one, 10. or 100. And yet as earthly happines herein comes short of heauen, that it is neuer meere and vnmixed, but hath some sowre sauce to rellish it: so falleth it as farre short of hell, that not onely hope, but the most miserable hap, hath some glumpse of com­fort.

But to come to our historie. Antiochus his sonne, surnamed Epiphanes, and after Epimanes for his furious insolence, (who began his raigne A.M.3774.) was first sent to Rome in hostage, for securitie of his fathers faith: and after that Seleucus, his brother (which sent 2.Mac.3. Heliodorus to rob the Temple at Ierusalem) had a while war­med the throne, succeeded in the Syrian kingdome. Of him and his tyranny Daniel had long before prophecied in the interpretation of Nahuchodonosors Image, Dan.2. whose legges are interpreted to be this Syrian, and the Aegyptian kingdomes, both heauy and hard neighbours to the Church in Iudes lying betwixt them: but more especially in his visions in the 7. chapter. Dan.724. Where, after other things, he fore-telleth of the 10. hornes, Trem.Iun. in Dan. D.Downam of Antichrist. D.Willet on Dan.4.c.7. which are the eight kings aforenamed, and two Aegyptian Ptolomies, E­uergetes, & Philopater, in their times preuailing in Syrio, and infesting Iudea. And the last shall subdue three Kings, which were Ptolomey of Aegypt, driuen out of Syria, Seleucus his brother, and Demetrius, to whom, after Seleucus, the right of the Scep­ter belonged. His policie, and blasphemie, and tyranny, are also by Daniel plaine­ly fore-signified, and in their euent as fully in the historie of the Maccabees related. There you may reade his wicked life, and vvretched death: Hee tooke Ierusalem Calu [...]s. Anno M. 3781, and slew 80000. people, robbed the Temple of 1800. talents, and of the holy vessels; polluted the Temple; forbade the Sacrifice; named it the Temple of lupiter Olympius; forced men by tortures from their re­ligion; with other execrable outrages, which vvould require a iust volume to de­scribe.

As he was thus madde and raging against the true religion: so Atb.l.5.c.4. Athenaus shew­eth his vanitie in his owne, whose pompous solemnitie at the Daphnean feast hee thus relateth. Antiochus, in emulation to Paulus Aemilius, proclaimed this solemne festiuitie in the Cities of Greece, and performed it at Daphne. First passed in or­der 5000. men, armed after the Roman manner: next followed 5000. Mysians, and 3000. Cilicians, with crownes of gold: of Thracians, 3000. of Galatians 5000. of whom some had shieldes of siluer. 20000. Macedonians, and 5000, with shieldes of brasse: after these, 240. couples of champions which should fight in single com­bate. There followed 1000. Pisaean horse-men, and 3000. of the Citie, the most whereof had crownes and vials of gold, others trappings of siluer: Next came the band, called Socia, nothing inferiour in pompe or number: then 1000. extraordinarie, and another thousand in the band called Agema. Lastly, the barded horses 1500. all these in purple vestures, which many had embroidred, or embossed with gold: Chariots drawne with 6. horses, ICO. & 40. drawne by foure; one drawne by Elephants atten­ded with 36. other. The rest of the pompe is incredible and taedious: 80O. youthes with golden crownes: 1000. fat Oxen, and 300. persons to attend the sacrifices: 800. Ele­phants teeth. There were also the Images of all the gods, & Heroes that can be recko­ned, some gilded, some clothed with golden vestures, their fabulous histories being with great pompe annexed. After all these, the Images of 'Day, Night, Earth, Heauen, Mor­ning, and Noone. Then came a 1000. boyes, each hauing a peece of plate of a 1000. drams: 600. with vessels of gold: 80. women were carried in chaires footed with gold, and 500. in others footed with siluer, very sumptuously attired: 200. of them out of basons of golde strewed sweet odours. These spectacles lasted 30. dayes. A thou­sand (and sometimes 1200.) halies or dining roomes, vvere furnished for bankets, [Page 74] the king himselfe affecting too officious familiarity therein, visiting the tables of the baser people. So base is the pride of Ambition, tempeting a confused distemper; ac­cording (in a strange harmonie) the harshest discord of proude-aspiring, and deiected basenesse; where a base and seruile minde begetteth pride, and pride produceth a seruile basenesse, a changeling, which the doting world fathereth on Humilitie.

Of the death of this Antiochus, the former & second books of the Machabees seeme to disagree: and, which is more strange, the second booke in the first chapter saith, he and his company were destroyed in the temple of Nanaea in Persia: and in the ninth chapter saith, that in Media, at Ecbatana, he was smitten with an vncouth disease, and a fall from his Charlot, whereof he died. Some Mel.Canus, loc.l.2.C..11 that would haue this history Cano­nicall, apply it to two Antiochi, as Lyra and Rupertus, and after them Canus: but Bellarmine Bel de ver. L.I.C 15. seeing that they will not agree with the times of any other, but Epiphanes, proueth himselfe Epimanes, and runneth madde with loue of that Trent-mini­on: affirming that in the temple of Nauaea he fell, but escaped as Gen 14.16. Lot when he was captiued, and after parished, as is in the after-part of the historie expressed; whereas it is there said, that they shut the doores on him, and cut him and his fellowes in pee­ces, and made them shorter by the heads: who yet after this (forsooth) could goe into Media, and there haue a fall from his Chariot. They must haue no delicate stomackes, that vvill bee Iesuites, any thing must downe, vvhen they vvill vp, especially, if Trent or the Vatican commaund, though manifest reason and sense (that I say not, Religion) countermaund. I enuie not the red hat vvith these la­bels. Well fare that modestie of the Authour 2.Macc. 15.39 that confesseth his vveakenesse: but Anathema to their Anathema's, that enact Conc. Tri­dent. contradictions to bee Canonicall.

I omit the successours of Antiochus, to wit, Antiochus, Dometrius, Alexander, (who tooke away the golden Image of Victoria out of the temple at Antioch, in his necessitie: iesting that Iupiter had lent him victorie, and when hee would haue added Iupiter Iustin.1..33. to his sacrilege, was chased away by the multitude, and after slaine by Grypus.) The rest with the times of their raigne are before expressed. Supra tap.12 Pompey set an end to these Seleucidan Kings: and the Romanes enioyed the countries of Syria, till the Saracens dispossessed them: whose historie you may reade l.3.c.2. in their due place. The Turkes displaced those Saracens: the Christians of the West, by warre, made those parts Christian: but were expelled againe by the Turkes, and they by the Tartars. The Mamaluke Lib.6.c.6. slaues, and their Aegyptian Soldan after, held the Syrian dominion, vntill Selim the great Turke subdued it to the Ottoman Empire, vnder which it still groneth. Of these things this our historie will acquaint you in the pro­per reports of these Nations.

Aleppo, is now chiefe Citie of Syria: but Damascus both in elder and later times hath borre the greatest name, being the head of Aram, as Es.7.8 Esay affirmeth: cal­led of Iulian the Citie of Iupiter, and eye of the whole East, Holy and Great. It is in­terpreted drinking bloud, by Hier Com.in Ezec.l.8. Hierom, who telleth (from the Hebrewes tradition) that in this field Kain slewe his brother: Chytr. Oilo­mastic. Chytreus expoundeth it saccus sanguinis, Wolphij com. i.l2.Ke.16. Wolphius deriueth it of two words, signifying bloud and to spoile: which in the times of Hazael and Benhadad, and of Resin it performed: but neuer so much as when the Saracens made it the sinke of bloud and spoyle, which they executed on the Christi­ans: and Noradine, Saladine, and the Turkes, sitting themselues and this Citie to the name, before the Aegyptian Sultans, and Ottoman Turks were Lords of it. Stephanus ascribeth the name to one Ascus a gyant, which cast Dionysius there into the riuer: Or because Damascus, the sonne of Mercurie, comming hither out of Arcadia, built it: or because Dionysins their fleyd of the skinne of Damascus, which had cut vp his Vines.

The Turkes now call it, as Leunclanius and Chytreus testifie, Scham, and so is the whole region called in the Arabian Chronicle, whose extract you may finde x l.3. in our Saracenicall historie.

The Armies of Dauid, Ahab, Teglath-phalasar preuailed much against it: The Ba­bylonians [Page 75] subverted it: After that the Ptolomeys repaired it: Pompey wanne it: Paul hallowed it: The Saracens (as is said) polluted it. The Christians in vaine besie­ged it, in the yeere one thousand one hundred fortie and seuen. Ch. Adrichom. [...]beatrum Ter­rae sanct. Ty [...]bell. Sanst. libr.17. Herold con­tin.6. Haalon the Tar­tar, one thousand two hundred threescore and two, obtained it, and about one thou­sand foure hundred Tamerlane besieged it; and as hee had done at Aleppo, filling the ditch with the bodies of captiues and slaine carkasles, cast wood and earth vp­on them, and at last forced it and the Castle. Hee spared the Citie for the Temples sake, which had fortie Porches in the circuite, and (within) nine thousand Lampes of gold and siluer. But the Aegyptians by a wile possessing it, hee againe engirt it, and recouered it. Hee commaunded Mahomet, the Pope or Chalife, and his priests, which came to meete him, to repaire to the Temple, which they did with thirteene thousand Citizens, where he burnt them all: and for monument of his victorie, left three Towers erected of skulles of dead men. The Aegyptians regained and held it till Selim the Turke dispossessed them 1517.

Now in thus many alterations of State, who doubteth of diuersitie in Religions in Syria: First, the true Religion in the time of Noab, and the first Patriarkes. Next, those superstitions of Rimmon, and the rest before related, in the Assyrian, Baby­lonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman gouernements: After which long night, the Sunne of Righteousnesse shone vnto the Syrians, and made a more absolute Con­quest then all the former, not by Legions and Armies, but by a handfull of Fisher­men, (manifesting his Power in their weakenes) the Reason of Men, and Malice of Deuils, not being able to withstand their Euangelicall weapons, which 2.Cor.10.5. were mighty through GOD to cast downe holdes & bringing into captiuitie euery thought to the obedi­ence of CHRIST, Acts 11.20. insomuch, that hence the Christianworld receiued first that name. And, how sweete would thy name remaine. O Syrian Antiochia, euen now in thy latest fates, which first wast christned with the name Christian, hadst thou not out­liued thy Christanitie, or rather; (after the soule departed) remained the carkasse of thy selfe; which ceasing to be Christian, hast long since ceased to be, had not the Diuine hand reserued a few bones of thy carkasse to testifie this his iustice to the world! And what harmonie could haue beene more gratefull to the Gentiles eares, then thy memorie (Damascus) where the Doctor of the Gentiles was first taught himselfe, and made a Teacher of others? But in thee was the Chaire of Pe­stilence, the Throne of Sathan, the sincke of Mahumetan impictie to the rest of the world, infecting with thy contagion, and subduing with thy force more Nati­ons then euer Paul by preaching conuerted. Syria, first in the first and principall Priuiledges of Mankinde, embracing in her rich armes (if some bee right Suruci­ours) the promised Possession (the Seale of a further and better Inheritance) was with the first subdewed to Saracene seruitude: vnder their Caliph, vnder the Turks, vnder the Christians from the West, vnder the Tartars from the East, vnder the Mamalukes from the South, and from the North the Ottoman, by new successi­ons and vicissitudes of miseries and mischiefes, become a common Stage of bloud and slaughter.

And in all these later changes of State, and chaunces of Warre, Religion was the life that quickened those deaths, and whetted those murthering swords: no crueltie or sacriledge against GOD, or man, so irreligious and inhumane, but Re­ligion was pretended to be the cause, and bare the Standard to Destruction; a new Religion alway erected with a new Conquerour. The rest of which, as professing their owne peculiar rites, haue their peculiar standing in this field of our Narrations assigned them: this one (which followeth) as a confusion and gallymaufry of diuers, I thought fittest here to insert.

The Drusians are accounted reliques of the Latin Armies, which here warred a­gainst the Turkes for recouerie of the Holy Land: These Giv.Bo.Ben [...], are circumcised as the Turkes, they take the liberty of Christians, in drinking Wine, and the licentious­nesse of beasts, in incestuous copulations with their owne daughters. They serue their owne Lords, and are not subiect to the Turkes. Their habitation is not farre [Page 76] from Damasco. Knolles in his Turkish History saith, That the right Drusians are not circumcised, otherwise agreeing with the former report; and addeth: That they fol­low one Isman a prophet of their owne. A friend of mine, one master Iohn Pountesse, who hath been acquainted with them, saith they are circumcised. Selim and Amu­rath laboured to depriue them of their freedom, which was in part by Turkish policy, and their own discords, atchieued by Ebratm the Turkish Bassa Anno 1585. Onely Mon-ogli or Ebneman, a Drusian Lord, kept himselfe out of his hands, and deluded his subtile practises: And thus these Drusians. with some Arabians in the middest of the Ottoman Empire, retaine some freedome from the Turkish thral­dome.

Maginus saith, That Tyrus, now called Suri, or Sur, is an habitacle of those Dru­sian Robbers. Some place them betweene Ioppa and Damasco: I though this the fittest place therefore for their mention, as being accounted to Syria, and neighbors to Damasco, and of this hotch-potch Religion.

CHAP. XVII.

Of the Theologie, and Religion of the Phoenicians.

PHoenicia is the Sea coast of Syria, after Plinie, or that coast and tract bordering on the Sea from Orthosa (now Tortosa) to Pelusium. Stra­bo lib. 16. Sachoniatho a Euseb. de praep. Euang.lib. 1.ca,6. & 7. Phoenician, supposed to haue liued before the Troian warre, wrote in his owne language, the Historie of his Nation, which Philo Biblius translated into Greeke. This Philo in the beginning of his Worke saith, That his Author, Sachoniathe, as hee was generally learned, so especially he searched out those things, which Taan­tus, called of the Aegyptians Thoyth, of the Greekes Mercury, the first inuen­ter of Letters, had written: hee also blamed those, that by Allegories and Tro­pologies peruert and obscure the Historie of their Gods; affirming plainely, That the auncient Phoenicians, Aegyptians, and others adored those men for Gods, that had beene the Authors of good things to men, applying to them also the names of those Naturall Gods, the Sunne, Moone, &c. so making some Gods mortall, some immortall. According to this Taautus therefore, the first beginnings of all things were a darke disordered Chaos, and the spirit of the darke aire. Hence proceeded Moth, which wee may interpret Mire, from whence issued the seedes and gene­ration of all creatures in the Earth and Heauen. The Sunne by his heate separating these new-formed Creatures, their conflict in the aire produced Thunder, which noyse awaked, and caused to leape out of their earth, this slimie generation; after of the Winde Colpia, and Baan (which signifieth Night) were borne men, named Age and First-borne, of whome descended in succeeding generations those Gi­ants, that left their names to the hills where they dwelt, Cassius & Libanus, that con­tended against their brother Vson, who first aduentured the sea in the bodies of trees burned, (in which manner the Indians, euen yet, make their canoas or boats) and he erected two Statues to the Winde and the Fier, whom he adored with the bloud of beasts.

These first men after their death had Statues consecrated to them by posteritie, and yearely solemnities. To these succeeded others, inuenters of Artes, hunting, fishing, building, yron-workes, tents, and such like. To Misor, one of these, was borne Taautus, first Author of Letters. At that time was borne Elius, and Beruth his wife, which dwelt in Biblos, the Parents of Caelus, and Terra, (his wife and sister) who deified with rites and ceremonies their father Elius, being torne of wild beasts. To these were borne Saturne, Batilus, Dagon and Atlas.

[Page 77] But Caelus taking other wiues, there arose a great quarrell betwixt him and his former, aided herein by her sonnes: of whome Saturne the eldest, created Mercurie his Scribe, by whose Magicall Arts, and by those Weapons (first by him, and Minerua the daughter of Saturne deuised) Coelus was ouerthrowne: who, after two and thirtie yeeres warre betwixt them, was taken by his sonne, and depriued of his genitories.

Saturne had issue (besides his daughters Minerua and Proserpina) Amor, Cu­pido, Saturne, Iupiter Belus, and Apollo, of his sisters, Ascarte, Rhaea, Dione. Then also were borne Typho, Nereus, Pontus, the father of Neptune. Saturne suspecting his brother Atlas, buried him in the ground, and cast vp a high hill ouer him: where, not long after, was a Temple erected to him. Dagon was inuenter of Tillage; and therefore called Iupiter Ar [...]trius. Iupiter of the Plough. But Saturne becomming a great Con­querour, bestowed Aegypt on Taautus or Mercury, who first made a mysterie of their Theologie, as the sonne of one Thaion first did among the Phaenicians; ap­plying allegoricall interpretations thereof to Nature; and instituting rites to Po­steritie. This allegoricall Theologie of Taantus was interpreted by Surmobolus and Thurro. It followeth in the Historie, That it was then a custome, in great calamities, for the Prince to appease the angry Daemon with his best beloued sonne, and thus (in the time of a perillous warre) was Leüd the sonne of Saturne, by a Nymph, na­med Anobreth, cloathed in royall apparrell, offered on an Altar erected for that purpose. This was practised long after by the King of Moab 2. King. chap. 3. who being besieged by three Kings of Israel, Iuda, and Idumaea, sacrificed his eldest sonne: which yet some interprete of the eldest sonne of the King of Idumaea.

Taautus ascribed Diuinity to the Serpent, Trem. & Ius. as being of a most fierie and spirituall nature, mouing it selfe swiftly, and in many formes, without help of feet, and a crea­ture which reneweth her age. The Phaenicians and Egyptians followed him here­in, they calling it a happy Spirit or GOD; these, Eneth, and framed thereto the head of a Hawke: of which in his place we haue spoken. And thus far haue we beene in­debted to Euseb.de praep. Euang.lt. I. In the time of those warres betwixt Saturne and Caelus was borne Hercules: to whom was a Temple of great Antiquitie at Tyre. To Hercules were also celebrated games at Tyrus, euery fiue yeares, to which Iason sent three hundred drammes for a sacrifice 2. Mac. 4. 19. Hiram in Solomons time pulled downe the old Temples of Hercules and Astarte, and built new. Hee first erected a statue to Hercules, and in the Temple of Iupiter consecrated a golden Pillar. Ioseph. antiq. lt. 8.

The Sydonians also worshipped Astarte in a stately and antient Temple to her builded: whom Petr.Mart.Comm.in 1.Sa.7. some interprete Luna, Ci. de Natur. deor.lib.3. So Chytraeus, & before him, Eusebius and Plxutm in Mer­cator. some Venus, and one of her Priests, to Lu [...].Dea Syr. cum annotat. Gilberti Cognat. Luci­an, Europa. It is more probable, that Astarte was Iuno: for she was worshipped of the Punickes (a Phaenician colony) by that name. Lucian saith, that hee sawe also at Biblos the Temple of Venus Byblia, wherein are celebrated the yeerely rites of Adonis, (who they say, was slaine in their Countrey) with beatings and wofull la­mentings; after which they performe Obsequies vnto him, and the next day they affirme him to be aliue, and shaue their heads. And such women as will not be sha­uen, must prostitute their bodies for one day vnto strangers, and the money hence accrewing, is sacred to Venus. Some affirme that this ridiculous lamentation is made, not for Adonis, but Osiris; in witnes whereof, a head made of paper once a yeere in seuen daies space commeth swimming from Egypt to Byblos, and that without any humane direction: Of which Lucian reporteth himselfe an eye-witnes. Heereby runneth the Riuer Adonis also, which once a yeere becommeth red and bloudie: which alteration of the colour of the water, is the warning to that their Mourning for Adonis, who at that time they say is wounded in Libanus: whereas that rednes ariseth indeede of the windes, which, at that time blowing violently, do with their force carrie downe alongst the streame a great quantity of that redde Earth or Mi­nium of Libanus whereby it passeth. This constancie of the wind might yet seeme as meruailous as the other, if diuerse parts of the world did not yeelde vs instance of the like. In Libanus also was an auncient Temple dedicated to Venus by Cinyras.

[Page 78] Astarte or Astaroth was worshipped in the formes of sheepe, not of the Sydoni­ans onely, but of the Philistims also. I. Sam. vlt. in whose Temple they hanged the armor of Saul. And wise Salomon was brought by doting on women to a worse do­tage of Idolatrie 1.Reg., 11.5. with this Sydonian idoll among others. And not then first did the Israelites commit that fault, but from their first neighborhood with them, pre­sently after the dayes of Ioshua. Iud.2.13. This Sidon, the ancient Metropolis of the Phoenici­ans (now called Saito) in likelihood was built by Sidon, eldest sonne of Canaan, Gen. 10.15. and fell to the lot of Asher. Iof. 16. 28. whence it is called Great Sidon. It was famous Chytrays O. nomast. for the first Glasse-shops, and destroyed by Ochus the Persian. This faire mother yeelded the world a daughter farre fairer; namely, Tyrus, now called Sur, (whose glory is sufficiently blazed by the Prophets Esuy, and Ezechiel) being situ­ate in an Iland seuen hundred paces from the shore, to which Alexander in his siege vnited it; whome it held out eight moneths (as it had done Nabuchodonosor thir­teen yeeres, which long siege is mentioned Ezec. 26. 7.) in nothing more famous, then for helping Salomon vnder Hiram their king, Anno mundi. 2933. & d. to build the Temple a hundred fifty fiue yeres before the building of Carthage. This Hiram ( Iof.contr. Ap. libr..1. Iosephus reports it out of Dius a Phoenician Historiographer) inlarged the Citie, and compassed within the same the temple of Iupiter Olimpius, & (as he addeth out of Menander Ephesius) there­in placed a golden Pillar: he pulled downe the old temples and built new, and dedi­cated the temples of Hercules and Astarte. Ithobalus, Astartes priest, slew Phelles the King, and vsurped the Crowne. He was great grandfather to Pygmalion the brother of Dido, Founder of Carthage.

The Phoenicians, famous for Marchandise and Marinership, sailed from the red sea round about Afrike, and returning by Hercules pillars, arriued againe in Egypt the third yeere after, reporting (that which Herodotus Her.libr.4. doubted of, and to vs makes the Storle more credible) that they sailed to the South-ward of the Sunne: They were sent by Pharao Neco. Cadmus a Phaenician was the first Author of Letters also to the Greekes. At Tyrus was the fishing for purple: not far off was Arad, a popu­lous Towne, seated on a rocke in the sea, like Venice.

Alongst the shore is Ptolemais, neere which runneth the Riuer Belaeus, and nigh to it the Sepulchte of Memnon hauing hard by it, the space of a hundred cubits, Ioseph. de bel. Iu libr.2.ra 9. Pli.5.19.&.36 26. Strabo 16. yiel­ding a glassie sand: and how great a quantitie so euer is by ships carried thence, is supplied by the Windes, which minister new sands to be by the nature of the place changed into glasse. That would seeme strange, if this were not yet stranger, that this new glasse if it be cast vpon the brinks of this place, receiueth the former nature of sand againe.

Belus and Hercules Tyrius and the Sunne, called of them Heliogabalus, were Phoe­nician Deities. Euseb.de laudib.constant. orat.& de Prep. lib.4.ca.7. Eusebius also relateth other Phoenician abhominations, both bloudy and beastly: the one in yeerely sacrifice of the deerest pledges of Nature to Saturne: the other in that temple of Venus, built in the most secret retreit of Libanus, where Sodome (burned with fire from aboue, and drowned in a dead sea) seemed to reuiue: such was their practice of impure lusts, intemperately vsing the Naturall sex, & vnna­turally abusing their owne: worse in this then the Sodomites, that these intended sensuality; they pretended Religion. Constantine rased these suburbs of Hell, & de­stroyed both the customs, statues, and temple it selfe. Aug.de Ciui. Dei lib.4.ca.10. Augustine saith, That the Phoe­nicians prostituted their daughters to Venus, before they married them. Of Mel­canthor, Vsor, and other their gods (sometimes men) I forbeare to speake. Alexan­der Libr.2.ca.8. ab Alexandro, affirmeth, That the priest of the Sunne in Phoenicia, was attired with a long sleeued garment, hanging downe to the feet, and a golden Crowne.

We may adde to these Phoenician superstitions, their mysticall interpretation by [...] Macrobius. He expoundeth Venus and Adonis, to signifie the Earth and the Sunne. The wild Boare which wounded Adonis, is the Winter, which for the absence of her Louer maketh the Earth to put on her mourning weedes (at whose approch she af­ [...] putteth on her new apparrell, saith [...] our English Arcadian Oracle;) This was shado­wed in a certaine Image in mount Libanus, pourtrayed in mourning habite. And to [Page 79] this sense he applieth the Aegyptian rites of Osiris and Isis, and of Orus, which is A­pollo or the Sunne, and likewise the Phrygian mysteries of Atinis, and the mother of the Gods. He saith that they abstained from swines flesh.

The Philistims and all that Sea-coast, by Strabo.lib.1 [...] P [...]n.li.5.ca.12. Strabo and Plinie, are reckoned to the Phoenicians. Their originall is attributed to Misraim; They had fiue principall Cities, Ascalon, Accaron, Azotus, Gath, Gaza. Of their sheepish Astarte yee heard euen now, and of their Legend of Dagon. Their superstitions the Scripture often Iud.16.23.1.Sam.5.2. mentioneth. What this Dagon was (saith Comm.Petr. Mart. in Ind.16 Martyr) is not well knowne. But by the deriuation of his name (which signifieth a fish) it seemeth he was a Sea-god. For such Sea-deities had the Greekes and Latines, as Neptune, Leucothea, Triton: aboue his belly hee was of humane shape, beneath like a fish. Such is Idolatrie, diuine it will not be, it cannot content it selfe with humane, but proueth monstrous in the vg­ly and deformed image, exhibiting the character of the true Author of this falshood. When Cicero Cic de Natur. deor. lib.3. saith, the Syrians worshipped a fish; it may be construed of this Da­gon. Happily (saith Martyr Petr.Mart. com.in 1.Sam.5 ) they intended Neptune, or I know not what Deuill. Tremel. an­not.in Iud.15. 23. Drul.Quaest. beb.lib.1.q.82. Tremellius thinketh Triton. This may we see and say, when men are giuen ouer to themselues, then they become beasts, monsters, deuills: yea, worse then such, for while they worship such, they professe themselues as Clients and Votaries to bee worse and baser then their Deities. Drusius deriueth not this Dagon of Dag a fish; but of Dagan, which signifieth Wheate, whereof Eusebius saith, Dagon inuento fru­mento & aratro vocatus est [...] & Philo Byblius, Dagon, [...]: that is, is called Wheate or Bread-corne.

When the Philistims had placed the captiued Arke in Dagons Temple, hee fell on his face before the Arke: But they placing him againe in his roome, with a second fall, his head and hands were cut off vpon the threshold: The stump (or as Tremellius and Vatablus reade it) Dagon, or that part of him which resembled a fish, remained. And, therefore the Priests of DAGON, and all that come into DAGONS house, tread not on the threshold of DAGON. Thus true Religion, the more opposed, the more it flourished: the prison-house of her captiuity is the throne of her Empire: blinde su­perstition, the more it is detected, the more enraged, addeth new deuotion, to in­crease, not caring to amend the former.

Of Astaroth, we haue before shewed, why it is vsed in the plurall number, as Ribera in Hos.2. Ribera affirmeth for her many Idols, as we say our Lady of Walsingham, our Lady of Loretto, &c. The word Astar signifieth a flocke of sheepe: and it is likely, this their Iuno was in the forme of a sheepe worshipped, as Iupiter Ammon in likenesse of a Ramme. Their Dagon, it seemeth (seeming wee haue, no true being nor being of truth, in Idols) was the same which Poets Metam.lib.4. call Derceto or Dercetis, the mother of Semiramis, whose Image Lucian Luc dea syr. saith he saw in Phoenicia, not vnlike to that which is reported of the Mermaid, the vpper halfe like a woman, the other like a fish: (therefore of Plinie Plin.li.5.c.25 called Prodigiosa;) in reuerence of whom the Phoenicians were said to abstaine from fish. Authors doe also call this Idoll Atergatis: and Athen.l.8.c.6 Athenaeus reporteth, That the Country-lawe of the Syrians depriued them of fish: and that Gatis (a Syrian queene) prohibited the eating of fish Ater Gatis, that is, without Gatis, without her licence, and therefore was called Atergatis, as a forestaller of the fish to her owne delicate tooth. Mopsus, a Lydian, after drowned her in the lake of Ascalon, where this fish-deuourer was of fishes deuoured. They yet esteemed her a Goddesse, and offred vnto her fishes of gold & siluer: and the Priests all day long set before her true fishes rosted and sodden, which after themselues did eate; & it is not to be doubted but the mettall-mawes of those Ostriges could also digest the other.

Diod. Siculus Diodo.Sic.li.3.ca.2. telleth, That hard by a lake, full of fish, neere vnto Ascalon was a Temple dedicated to this fish-woman: her Story followeth, That shee yeelding to the lust of a yong man, had by that copulation Semiramis, whome (now too late re­penting of her folly, she exposed on the rockes, where she was nourished by birds: of which birds (called in their language Semiramis) shee receiued that name. The Sheepheards after espying this hospitalitie of the birds, found the childe, and presen­ted [Page 80] her to Simma the Kings sheepheard, who brought her vp as his owne daughter. The mother(not able to swallow her shame and griefe) cast her selfe into the lake to be swallowed of the water, but there by a new Metamorphosis, was turned into a fish, and hallowed for a Goddesse; and (for company) the fishes of that lake, and the Birds of that Rocke were canonized also in this deifying deuotion.

In Ascalon was a Temple of Apollo: and Herod father of Antipater, Niceph.lib.1.ca.9. grandfather to Herod the Great, hence called Ascalonita, was seruant to Apollo's Priest. At Ac­caron was worshipped Baalzebub, that is, the Lord of Flies, Pet.Mart. in 2.Reg.1. either of contempt of his idolatry, so called; or rather of the multitude of Flies, which attended the mul­titude of his sacrifices; or for that he was their Larder-god (as the Roman Hercules) to driue away slies: or for that D.Chytr.on [...]mast. forme of a Flie, in which he was worshipped, as Na­zianzeno against Iulian reporteth. He was called Sminibius or Myiothes: and was their Aeseulapius or Physicke-god, as appeareth by Ahaziab 2.Reg.1.2. who sent to consult with him in his sickenesse. And perhappes for this cause the blaspheming Phari­ses, rather applied the name of this then any other idoll to our blessed Sauior, Matt.10.25. whom they sawe indeede to performe miraculous cures, which superstition had conceiued of Baalzebub, and if any thing were done by that idoll, it could by no other cause be effected, but by the Deuill, as tending (like the popish miracles) to the confir­mation of idolatry.

What the deuil had at Beelzebubs Shrine to this end performed, blinded with rage and malice, they imputed to the miracles of CHRIST, which, in regard of the Ef­ficient, were more excellent then could bee Satans impostures, as countermaun­ding him and all his proiects: for the matter, were meerely supernaturall; in the Forme were acted by his will, signified by his naked word: and for the end (which is Deut.13.2. the only touch-stone for vs to trie all miracles) were to seale no other truth then was contained (for substance) in the Lawe and the Prophets, whith hee came not to de­stroy, but to fulfill. If an Angell from heauen, yea with heauenly miracles, (if it were possible) should preach vnto vs otherwise, Paul biddeth vs to holde him accursed: and cursed be that deuill of Hell, that vnder colour of miracles (one of Antichrists ensignes, 2. Thess. 2.9.) hath taught the World to worship the Lipsij vir go Halensis &c. Lipsian Historia Lau­retana Turselini. Lauretan, and I know not what other Ladies: not that Virgin, on Earth holy, in Heauen glo­rious; but their idol-conceits, and idol-blockes of her. Our Lord hath taught vs plainely in Mathew, chapter 4. verse 10. to serue God onely, without sophisticall di­stinctions.

As for these Heathenish & Popish, and all those other packets of miracles, which we receiue by the Iesuites annuall relations from the East and West Indies; I esteem them with Doctor Hall (a hall of Elegance, all-Elegance) Dec. I. epi. 6. That they are either falsely reported, or falsely done, or falsely miraculous, or falsely ascribed to Hea­uen. But I know not how (pardon it Reader) I am transported to Hale, Zichem and Loretto, from our Phoenician ports. The name of Beelzebub hath beene occasion of this parenthesis. But the power of Beelzebub (I feare) hath induced Bellarmine, to fall downe, and thus to worship, him, for his purple aduauncement. For amongst the Notes of the Church, he hath reckoned for one, this of miracles: Maiusipse mira­culum, a greater miracle hee, that now will not beleeue without miracles that go­spel, which at first was thereby sufficiently proued. We reade that the Matt.12.39 Iewes seeke for signes, and are therefore called, an euill and adulterons generation; and not only Matt.24.24. false Christs and false Prophets, and Antichrist himselfe, but the heathens had their Legends of miracles: as the whole course of our History will shew. Goe now and reckon a Catalogue of miracles through all Ages, euen to the time of blessed Ignatius and his Societie: and aske of vs miracles for proofe of our doctrine. Our doctrine hath alrea­dy by the Apostles and Prophets (Pen-men of holy Scriptures) beene proued that way; and we leaue to you the stile of Mirabiliarij Miracle-mongers, which August. Tractat. in Io. 13. for like bragges of things miraculous-ly wrought by them, giueth the Donatists. With vs, Miracles must be proued by the Truth and the Church, and not they by miracles. But let vs come backe to Phoenicia.

[Page 81] The Phoenicians are accounted first authors of Arithmeticke and Astronomie; as also of the Art of Nauigation (Primaratem ventis credere docta Tyrus, saith Tibullus) and obserued the North-starre to that Sea-skill. The Sidonians are reputed first au­thors of Weights and Measures. Herod. Terpsic. Herodotus affirmeth, That the Phoenicians, which came with Cadmus into Greece, taught the Graecians both other Sciences, and also Letters, which before that time they knew not. These letters after changed their sound and forme, being by the Ionikes principally learned, who called them Phoeni­cian, and called their Skinnes or Parchments biblos (haply of Byblos in Phoenicia.) He saw the Cadmean letters engrauen in a Temple at Thebes, much like the Ionike let­ters. Animad. in E [...]seb. chron. pag.103. & d. ad 113. Scaliger hath giuen vs a view of the one and the other, the auncient Ionike, then the onely Greeke letters, out of certaine old inscriptions, much resembling the present Latine letters; and the auncienter Phoenician (I may say with him, the aunci­entest) vsed by the Canaanites and Hebrewes of old, and by the Samaritanes at this day: For those which the Iewes now vse, he affirmeth to be new, corrupted from the Syrian, and these from the Samaritan. His learned discourse thereof were worthie the reading, but here would be too prolixe.

Of the Phoenician Kings here might be inserted a large Historie; but I feare tedi­ousnesse. Their Catalogue is thus in Scaligers Can. Isagog.l.2. Canons; first Abibalus, two yeares; Hirom, the sonne of Abibalus, 38. yeares; Baleazaros, 7; Abdestartus, 9; the Nurces sonne, 12; Astartus Dalaeastri F. 12; Aserymus, 9; Pheles, 8. moneths; Ithobaal, the Priest of Astarte, 32. yeares; Bad [...]zorus, 6; Margenus, 9; Pygmalion, 47. In his time Dido fled into Lybia. A long time after this raigned another Ithobalus 19. yeares; Baal, 10; and then Iudges ruled: Ecnibalus, 2. moneths; Helbes, 10. moneths; Abba­rus the high Priest, 11. moneths; Balator, 1. yeare; Mytgonus and Gerestratus, 6; Mer­bal (sent from Babylon) 4; Hirom his brother, 20. Thus much out of the Phoenician Antiquities: the rest of their Historie is for substance, the same with the Syrian before handled.

Ioppe P.Mela.l.1. c.11.Plin.l.5. c.13. (sayth Mela and Plinie) was built before the Floud; and Cepheus raigned there, witnesse certaine auncient Altars, there obserued religiously, and bearing titles of him and his brother Phineus. They shew monstrous bones, the Reliques of the Whale, from which Perseus freed Andromeda. Mount Casius had in it the Temple of Iupiter Casius, and Pompeyes Tombe.

CHAP. XVIII.

Of Palaestina, and the first inhabitants thereof, the Sodomites, Idumaeans, Moabites, Ammonites, and Canaanites, with others.

PHoenicia is stretched by some (as you haue read) euen to Aegypt, all alongst that Sea-coast, and in that respect partly, and partly because they obserued some neerenesse in Religion, I haue adioyned the Phi­listims to the Phoenicians: howbeit, others doc confine Phoenicia betwixt the Riuer Valania and Mount Carmel. Thus hath Brocard. de­script. Terrae sanc [...]iae, Magmud Geog [...]. Brocard written, and after him Maginius; who doe reckon vnto Palaestina, Ga­lilaea, Samaria, Iudaea, and Idumaea, leauing out Phoenicia, bounded as aforesaid, to make a part of Syria by it selfe. Of this Region I purpose to make larger dis­course in the next Chapter; here intending to rake out of their dust the auncient Nations which inhabited this Land, before the Israelites were Lords thereof. The Sodomites sometimes inhabited a pleasant and fertile valley, watered by Ior­dan, which Moses compareth Gen.13.10. to the Garden of the LORD, and the Land of Aegypt, for pleasure and plentie. To the Sodomites I reckon also those other Cities partakers of the same fertilitie and vengeance, Gomorrha, Adma, Zeboim, and little Zoar, saued [Page 82] at the request of Lot. Their Kings and their Warres are mentioned, Gen. 14. Their wickednesse in many places of Scripture; which Ezechiel Ez.16.49. reduceth to these foure heads, Pride, Gluttonie, Idlenesse, and Crueltie, or hard-heartednesse. Their iudgement both Moses and others, and the place it selfe doe record. Their Religion was an ir­religion, and prophane contempt of GOD and Man. Europe (I would I could not say England) can now yeeld the like: sauing that in our subtile, and more warie age, Policie, hauing eaten vp Religion, hath with the bloud thereof died her cheekes, and would seeme more shamefast then those former Sodomites. Thus did Es.1.10. Esay speake to the Princes of Sodome (in his time) and the people of Gomorah, in respect of that their wickednesse, which suruiued them, and hath fructified vnto vs, among whome yet the LORD of Hosts (as with them) hath reserued a small remnant from this worse plague then Sodoms brimstone, a Reprobate sense. The difference be­twixt ours and them is, that they were more open, ours more close, both in like height. but not in like weight of wickednesse; our darkenesse excelling theirs both in the sinne, and in the punishment, in as much as a greater light hath shined, which wee with-hold in vurighteousnesse. And if you will haue the maine character of diffe­rence betwixt these and those; the one were beastly Men, the other are Deuils in the flesh.

First, from a sparke of Hell Concupiscence, (guided by Sensuall Lust, attended by Pro.1.32. Ease and Prosperitie, and further inflamed and blowne by the Deuill) an vnnaturall fire, (which still beareth the name of Sodomie) was kindled, which gaue coales to a supernaturall flame, rained by the LORD in Brimstone and Fire from the LORD out of Heauen, and burning euen to Hell againe (the α and ω of wickednesse) where they suffer (sayth Iude, v.7. Iude) the vengeance of eternall fire. This 2.Pet.2.6. is written for our lear­ning, on whom the ends of the world are come, their ashes being made an example vnto them that should after liue vngodly. Let not any obiect the Preacher here, and re­quire the Historian, seeing that Historie builds not Castles in the ayre, but preacheth both ciuill and diuine knowledge by examples of the passed, vnto the present Ages. And why should not I preach this, which, not my calling alone, but the very place it selfe exacteth?

They being dead, yet speake, and the place of their buriall is a place to our memorie, being turned into a Sea (but a Dead Sea Iordan run­neth into the Dead Sea, and there stayeth without issue to the Ocean. ) which couereth their sinnes, that it may discouer ours; which, as astonished at their vnnaturalnesse, hath forgotten her owne nature: It drowneth the Earth, which it should haue made (as whilome it did) fertile: it stayes it selfe with wonder and indignation, and falling in a dead swowne, sinketh downe with horror, not wakened, not moued with the windes blu­string; refusing the light of the Sunne, the lappe of the Ocean, the commerce of Strangers, or familiaritie of her owne, and (as it happeneth in deepe passions) the co­lour goeth and commeth, changing three times euery day: it gaspes forth from her dying entrailes a stinking and noysome ayre, to the neere dwellers pestiferous, some­times auoiding (as it were excrements) both lighter ashes, and grosse Asphaltum: The neighbour-fruits participate of this death, promising to the eye toothsome and holesome foode, performing onely smoake and ashes. And thus hath our GOD shewed himselfe a consuming fire, the LORD of anger, to whome vengeance belon­geth; all creatures mustering themselues in his sight, and saying at his first call to execution, Loe we are here. That which I haue said of these miracles, still liuing in this Dead Sea, is confirmed by testimonie of many Ioseph.de bel. Iud.l.5.c.5. Cornel.Tacit. bi [...].lib.5. These two describe it at large. Also Strabo, lib.16. Plin.lib 5.c.16. besides the moderne and elder Christi­ans. Ptolo [...]ey placeth the middest there­of in 66.50. & 31 10. l.7.c.16. Authors. Brocard telleth of those Trees, with ashes, growing vnder Engaddi, by this Sea; and a vapour, arising out of the Sea, which blasteth the neighbour-fruits; and the Gen.14.10. slime-pits on the brinkes of this Sea, which he saw. Neither strangers nor her owne haue accesse there, where Fishes (the naturall inhabitants of the Waters) and Water-fowles (the most vsuall guests) haue no entertainement, and men or other heauie bodies cannot sinke. Vespasian proued this experiment by casting in some bound, vnskilfull of swimming, whome the waters (surfetted with swallowing her owne) spewed vp againe. The [Page 83] Lake, Iosephus sayth, is fiue hundred and fourescore furlongs in length (Plinie hath an hundred myles) the breadth, betweene sixe and fiue and twentie myles, Strabo tel­leth of thirteene Cities still, (whereof Sodome was chiefe) of threescore furlongs compasse; whereof some were consumed by fire, or swallowed by Earthquakes and sulphurous Waters, the rest forsaken: some Remainders (as bones of those carkasses) then in his time continuing. L.Vert.l.1. c.9. Vertomannus sayth, That there are the ruines of three Cities on the toppes of three Hils: and that the Earth is without water, and bar­ren, and (a greater miracle) hath a kinde of bloudie mixture, somewhat like redde Waxe, the depth of three or foure cubites. The ruines of the Cities are there seene still.

Idumaea lyeth Southward from Iudaea: it had name of Edom, the surname of Esau, sonne of Isaak. The Historie of this people, and the Horites, ioyned with them, is related by Gen.36. Moses. It was subdued by Dauid, according to the Prophecie, The elder shall serue the younger. They rebelled vnder Ioram the sonne of Iehosophat; as Isaak had also prophecied. From that time they continued bitter enemies to the people of GOD, Ios. Antiq.13. 17. till Hircanus, the sonne of Simon compelled them to accept both the Iewish Dominion and Religion: after which they were reckoned amongst the Iewes. Of the Idumaeans were the Amalekites, 1. Sam.15. destroyed by Saul. They were South from Iuda. Iob.2.11. Elphaz the Themanite, it seemeth, was of Esau his generation, and of the right Religion. The Idumaeans, Moabites, and Ammonites are by some placed in Arabia, of which I will not contend: I here mention them, as both bor­derers and subiects to the Israelites; of which we reade much in the Scripture; lit­tle elsewhere that maketh to our purpose. South from Amalek was Kedar, a coun­trey abounding with flockes of Sheepe and Goats. But I may not now dwell in the Tenis of Kedar, till I come to the Ismaelites.

Moabltes & Madianites. On the East side of the Lake of Sodome is that Region which the Moabites (so often in Scripture mentioned) sometime inhabited: and before them the Emims, which were Gyants, tall as the Anakims, Deut. 2. 10. The Moabites were the posteri­tie of Lot, by incest with his daughter. Arias Mon­tanus. Moab had on the East the Mountaines of Horeb; on the West the salt Sea, and part of Iordan; Arnon on the South, and the North border stretched from Iabbok to the Mountaines of Pisga. That part of their Countrey, betweene Iabok and Arnon, Sihon King of the Amorites had taken from them, and lost againe to the Israelites. Balac their King, fearing to loose the rest, sent for Balaam the Wizard to curse the Israelites; who yet, by Diuine power, was forced to blesse them. Yet the lustre of Balacs promises so dazeled his eyes, that Apoc.2.14. he taught Balac to put a stambling-blocks before the Israelites, and by sending a­mongst them their women, to draw them to carnall and spirituall whoredome; so to prouoke the wrath of GODS icalousie against them. But the zeale of Phineas stayed it; and Balaam, in his returne home ward to his Countrey of Mesopotamia, was slaine by the Israelites among the Madianites, partakers with the Moabites in Balaams idolatrous proicct. These Madianites descended of Abraham, Abrahams children by K [...]urah were authors of the Nations called Filij orientis, the children of the East, which inhabited the parts of Arabia betweene the Moabites, Am­monites, and the Persians & Chaldaeans, from Mesopo­tamia to the Persian gulfe. Ar.Mont.Ch [...] ­n [...]n. by Ketu­rah, and dwelt in a part of Arabia, neere to the Moabites, on the East. Some of them dwelt neere to Mount Sinai, Exod. 2. 15. and in the Desart, on the East side of the Red Sea. Their mightie Armie was mira culously destroyed by Iud.7.20. the Sword of the LORD, and Gedeon. The Moabites were subiected to Israel by Dauid, and so continued to the Kings of Samaria, till, that State being rent, they freed themselues. It seemeth they worshipped the Sunne; as the names Kirchereseth, Beth-Baalmeon, and Balacs high places doe shew, and we haue obserued before in the worship of Bel and Baal. Che­mosh was another Idoll of theirs, to which Salomon built an high place. Pehor also, and Baal pehor, and the rest, whose Rites are now rotten, and the memorie worne out.

In their rebellion against Iehoram King of Israel, he and Iehoshapat, King of Iu­da, with the King or Vice-roy of Idumaea, went to recouer them by force. The Moabite, in despaire, offered a bloudie Sacrifice of his eldest Sonne and Heire; [Page 84] or, as Tremellius readeth it, K [...]g3.27. The King of Edoms sonne: which caused the Israelites returne. The Ammonites and Moabites might not enter into the Congregation of GOD, vnto the tenth generation, because Deut.23.3. they met not the Israelites with bread and water in their way, when they came out of Aegypt, and for hiring Balaam against them. Ar. Montanus sayth, That the Moabites were circumcised in imitation of the Israelites, but worshipped not their God, but their owne Idols.

The Ammo­nites succee­ded the gyants called Zam­zummias, Deut.2.20. The Ammonites (their brethren in the euill both of Lot their father, and their owne) inhabited Northward from Moab; on the East were the hils Acrabim; on the West the Amorite; the hils Luith, Basan, &c. made it a valley. Their chiefe Citie was Rabbath, after called Philadelphia. These Ammonites had beene troublesome to the Israelites, in the times of Iud.11.5. Iephte and of 1. Sam.11. Saul. And after, Dauid in iust re­uenge, for violating the Law of Nations, destroyed them. Moloch, or Melchon, was their Idoll, which is supposed P Mart. in 2.Reg.2. Vatab. in Leu. 18. to be Saturne, whose bloudie butcherly sacrifices are before spoken of. It was a hollow Image (sayth Lyra in Leu. 18. Lyra) of Copper, in forme of a man. In the hollow concauitie was made a fire, with which the Idoll being heated, they put a child into his armes and the Priests made such a noyse with their Timbrels, that the cries of the child might not moue the parents to compassion, but they should rather thinke the childs soule receiued of the God into rest and peace: others A [...]et in Act. c.7. ex P. Fag. resert l.White. adde, That this Moloch had seuen Roomes, Chambers, or Ambries therein; one for Meale; a second for Turtles; a third for Sheepe; the fourth receiued a Ramme; the fift a Calfe; the sixt an Oxe: if a man would offer sonne or daughter, the seuenth was readie for that crueltie. Some interprete Moloch and Remphan, Act. 7. to be the Sunne and Moone.

There was a valley neere Ierusalem (sometimes possessed by the sonne of P. Mart. in 2. Reg.2. Chytr. O [...]omast. Hinnom) where the Hebrewes built a notorious high place to Moloch: it was on the East and South part of the Citie. It was also called Topheth, or Tymbrell, of that Tymbrell­Rite which those Corybantes and bloudie Priests did vse; or else for the spaciousnesse of it. Ier.7.31,32. Icremie prophecieth, That it should be called the Valley of slaughter, be­cause of the iudgements for the idolatrous high places in it. Vpon the pollution here­of, by slaughter and burials, it grew so execrable, that Hell inherited the same name, called Gehenna, of this place: first, of the lownesse, being a Valley: secondly, for the Fire, which here the children, there the wicked, sustaine: thirdly, because all the filth was cast out of the Citie hither, it seemed they held some resemblance. The Ammo­nites also were (as Montanus affirmeth) circumcised.

Canaan was the sonne of Cham, Father of many Nations, as Gen. 10.15. Moses declareth, Si­don and Heth, Iebufi, Emori, Girgashai, Hivi, Arks, Sini, Arvadi, Zemari, Hamathi; the most of which were expelled their Countrey, slaine or made Tributarie by the Israelites. Their border was from Sidon to Gaza West, and on the East side from Sodome to Lasha or Callyrrhoe. Antiq Iudaic. l 3.c.7. Arias Montanus is of opinion, That according to the number of the twelue Tribes of Israel, so were the people of Canaan: and therefore to those eleuen before rehearsed, he addeth their father Canaan, who left his name to them all; and where he liued, retained a part to himselfe, betweene the Philistims and Amorites. Of those his sonnes, Sidon, the eldest, inhabited the Sea­coast: and Eastwards from him Heth vnto the hill Gilboa: of him came the Hittites. Iebus went further, on the right hand: Emor inhabited the mid-land Countrey West­ward from the Iebusites. The Girgashite dwelt aboue the Hittite, next to Iordan, and the Lake Chinereth (so called, because it resembleth the forme of a Harpe) after called Gennezareth. The Hevite or Hivite inhabited betweene the Amorite and the Philistim. The Arkite possessed the rootes of Libanus. The Sinite dwelt be­yond the Hittite, Eastward, neerer to Iordan. Arvadi enioyed the Countrey next to the Wildernesse of Cades. Zemari obtained the Hils, called of him Scmaraim. The Hamathite possessed the Countrey nigh to the Fountaines of Iordan. As for the most notable Mountaines and Cities, which each of these Families enioyed, they which will, may reade further in the same Author.

[Page 85] Of these and their auncient Religions and Polities wee finde little or nothing but in the Scripture, where the Lord testifieth, that for their sinnes the Land spued them out. Some of them (as some thinke) fled into Africa: where Augustime Exposit.ep.ad Rom. [...]nchoat. sayth, That the Countrey people, inhabiting neere Hippon, called themselues in their Pu­nicke Language Chanani.

Procopius, in the fourth booke of the Vandale Warre, affirmeth, That all the Sea­coast, in those times, from Sidon to Aegypt, was called Phoenicia: and that when Ioshua inuaded them, they left their Countrey, and fled into Aegypt, and there mul­tiplying, pierced further into Africa; where they possessed all that Tract, vnto the Pillars of Hercules, speaking halfe Phoenician. They built the Citie Tinge or Tanger in Numidia, where were two pillars of White stone, placed neere to a great Foun­taine, in which, in the Phoenician Tongue, was ingrauen: We are Canaanites, whome IOSHVA the Theefe chased away. Which if it were so, the name of Hercules might therefore be ascribed to those Pillars, as accounted the chiefe Phoenician Idoll.

Philo Pseudo Phile. de Ant. Bib. (or the Author of those fabulous Antiquities) sayth, That the Israelites found, among the Amorites, seuen golden Images, called Nymphes, which, as Ora­cies, directed them in their affaires, and wrought wonders: the worke of Canaan, Phut, Selath, Nebroth, Elath, Desvat, of admirable workmanship, yeelding light in the night, by vertue of certaine stones, which could not by mettall be broken, or pierced, or be consumed by fire, but must needes haue an Angell to burie them in the depth of the Sea, and there let them lye.

This people was not vtterly at once destroyed, but sometime, as in the dayes of Iud. 4.2. Iabin and Sisera, conquered their Conquerours, and retained some power and name of a people, till the times of Dauid, who destroyed the Iebusites, and dwelt in the Fort of Sion, calling it after his owne name, 2.Sam.5.7. The Citie of Dauid. And in the dayes of Salomon, Pharao, King of Aegypt, tooke and burnt Gezer, and slew the Canaanites that dwelt in the Citie, and gaue it for a present to his daughter, Salomons wife. And all the people that were left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Iebusites, whome the children of Israel were not able to destroy, those did Salomon make tributaries vnto this day. 1. King. 9.16,20,21. The posteritie of these seruants of Salomon are mentioned Nebe.7.60. among the Israe­lites, which returned from the Babylo­nian Captiuitie, and accrewed into one People with them.

[Page 87] THE FIRST PART OF THE RELATIONS OF THE WORLD, AND THE RELIGIONS OBSERVED IN ALL AGES, AND Places discouered, from the Creation, vnto this present.
THE SECOND BOOKE.

CHAP. I.

The Preface of this Booke: and a Description of the Region of Palestina, since called Iudaea, and now Terra Sancta.

IN the former booke wee haue traced the foot-steps of Religion, following her in her wanderings from the truth, and her selfe through diuers Nations, till we came into this Land, sometime flowing with milke and hony, whose first inhabitants we last tooke view of. The Hebrewes were, by the Soueraigne Lord of all, made heires of their labours, and possessed both their place and wealth: Houses and Cities which they builded not, Vineyards which they planted not, and which is more, these were a type vnto them of the true and heauenly Countrey, which, not by their merits, but by the meere mercie of the Promiser, they should enioy. These did GOD chuse out of all the kinreds of the Earth, to make vnto himselfe Exod.19.5.6. a Kingdome of Priests, a holy Nation, and his chiefe treasure aboue all people, though all the Earth be his: He made them the keepers Rom.3.2. of his Oracles, bestow­ing on them Rom.9 4.5. the Adoption, and the Glorie, and the Couenants, and the giuing of the Law, and the Seruice of GOD, and the Promises: of whome were the Fathers, and of whome, concerning the flesh, CHRIST came, who is GOD ouer all, blessed for euer, A­men. These things were not onely communicated, but appropriated to them: He Psal.147.20. shewed his Word vnto Iacob, his Statutes and his Iudgements vnto Israel: He dealt not so with any Nation; neither had the Heathen knowledge of his Lawes: Hee was their Prerogatiue, and they his peculiar: In Psal.76.1.2. Iewrie was GOD knowne, his name was great in Israel: In Shalem was his Tabernacle, and his dwelling in Sion. And [Page 88] CHRIST himselfe ratified it, acknowledging himselfe Mat.15.24. sent to the lost sheepe of the house of Israel, Rom.15.8. a Minister of the Circumcision, and said to the Cananite woman which besought him for her daughter, It is not good to take the childrens bread, and to cast it to dogges. Such, in spirituall reputation before God were all people, excluded (as vn­cleane dogges) out of his heauenly Ierusalem, till this Ephes.2.14. &c. partition wall was taken downe, and they which had beene farre off, were made neere by the bloud of CHRIST, who abro­gated through his flesh that hatred, and made of twaine (Iewes and Gentiles) one new man in himselfe. So that the Gentiles (the name of all the world, excepting this people) which had beene without CHRIST, and aliants from the Common-wealth of Israel, strangers from the couenants of promise, had no hope, and were without GOD in the world; were now no more strangers and forreners, but citizens with the Saints, and of the houshold of GOD : built vpon the foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, IESVS CHRIST himself being the chiefe corner stone. Let it not be tedious to heare of this which the An­gels reioyced to learne, Ephes.3.9.10. a mysterie which from the beginning of the world had been hid in GOD: and vnto principalities and powers in heauenly places, was made knowne by the Church. But the word (whereby we haue fellowship in this mysterie) came out of Sion, and the preaching began at Ierusalem. This (and not Rome) by the confession of Espen­saeus, a learned Papist, on 1. Tim.4. was Emporium fidei Christianae, & Ecclesiae mater: The mart of Christian faith, and mother of the Church. Yea it wasAct [...] 13.45.necessarie that the word of GOD should first be spoken vnto them, which they by incredulitie put from themselues, and gaue place to the Gentiles. Rom.11.22. The fall of them became the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles, as a glasse wherein we may behold the boun­tifulnesse and seueritie of GOD, and in both the deepensse of the riches of the wisedome and knowledge of GOD, whose iudgements are vnsearchable, and his wayes past finding out. I may fitly compare them to Gideons Fleece, Iud.6. which receiued the dew, when all the earth be­sides was drie, and after, it was drie vpon the Fleece onely, when the dew couered all the ground. Sometimes they alone receiued those dewes, shewers, riuers, seas of Sauing bountie, and all the world besides was a parched wildernesse. Now Psal.107.34, 35. he turneth the fruitfull land into barrennesse, for the wickednesse of the inhabitants; but that wildernesse he turneth into pooles of water, and the drie land into water-springs. Hee hath Rom 9.24: called them his people, which were not his people, and her beloued which was not beloued; and where it was said, yee are not my people, there they are now called the children of the liuing GOD. Thus hath the Rom.11.3 [...]. shut vp all vnder vnbeleefe, that he might haue mercy vpon all, that his free election might appeare (not of workes, lest any should boast themselues but) of grace. Behold therefore, all Atheists, and wonder! The Iewes branded with iudge­ment, wander ouer the world, the contempt of Nations, the skumme of people, the hissing, derision, and indignation of men, for refusing him whom they expect, denying him whom they challenge, hating him whose name is in life and death vnto them, the sweetest tune, and most melodious harmony, still waiting for, and glorying in that Messias, whom (vnknowne) they crucified and slew: and still pursue with the deadliest hatred in all his followers: God they please not, and are contrarie to all men. Yet such is Gods manifold wisedome in his deepest iudgements, that his enemies shall fight for him, euen against themselues: the Midianites Iud.8. shall sheath their swords, which they haue drawne out against God, in their owne bowels, and Christian Truth shall pre­uaile, and let our Deut.32.31. enemies themselues bee iudges. Out of their premisses which they maintaine, as earnestly as thou (O Atheist) securely deridest, which they will seale with that which thou makest thy heauen, thy God; we will and do conclude, against thee and them, that, in which, with which, for which we will liue and die. Let the old Testament yeeld the Proposition in prophecie, and the new Testament will Assume in Historie, and euen be thou the iudge, if that Reason, which thou hast as a man, and peruertest as a Diuell, will not by force of their Scriptures, which they preferre before their liues, necessarily in the Conclusion demonstrate the Christian Truth. Neither (I appeale vnto our common Reason) canst thou more wonder at vs for Beleeuing, things in thy seeming incredible, absurd, and impossible, then at them (vpon such grounds which with vs they hold) not The Iew is a witnes against the Atheist, that we faine not those pro­phecies of Christ, seeing the Iew holdes the prophecies dearer then his bloud, and yet hateth Christianitie more deadly then the A­theist. beleeuing.

[Page 89] For what beleeue we but, for the maine and chiefe points of our faith, are as plain­ly in their Euangelicall Prophets, as in our propheticall Euangelists? All the Historie of Christ, in a more Diuine way, seemeth rather told then foretold, a Historie, not a Prophecie: as is casie by conference of both to shew, and thou, if thou beest not idle, or wilfully malicious, mayest find. That then which thou seest come vpon them, a spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and eares that they should not heare; which yet haue the light of the first Scriptures (had they not a veile ouer their hearts) the same see in thy selfe, that when greater light doth offer it selfe, willingly shuttest thine eyes, as though there could be no light, because thou liuest in, and louest, thy darknes. It is the same hand that giueth vp both thee and them, 2.Thess.2. because yee will not beleeue the Truth, to be saued, to strong delusions, that yee might beleeue lies, and be damned. To me, and all Christians, let the Iewes be both reall and verball teachers of the Truth, which they let fall, and we take vp; the one in their Oracles of sacred writte, the other in their exemplary iudgement. And to them, Let (O thou LORD of all heare and grant it) let all Christians be that which Moses prophecied, Deut.32.21. a prouocation to emulation, not of enuy and hatred, which hitherto hath beene in these, amongst all the Christian enemies, the most implacable and despitefull, but of imitation, that as Rom.11. their casting away hath been the reconciling of the world, their receiuing may be life from the dead, which Paul seemeth plainly to fore-signifie.

THus much being premised as a preparation to our Iewish historie, which, as of more importance then any other, deserueth more ample view: let vs in the next place suruey that countrey which their progenitors had with those priuiledges, and their posteritie (together with those priuileges) haue lost.

This countrie was first The name of the Coun­trie. called the Land of Canaan, after that the posteritie of Ca­naan, the sonne of Cham, had possessed it. Moses and Ioshua conquered it to the po­steritie of Iacob, of whom it was called the Land of Israel: after the diuision of the ten Tribes from the house of Dauid by Ieroboam, in the time of Rehoboam the sonne of Salomon, the name of Israel was more particularly appropriated to those ten rebel­lious Tribes, and the other two were knowne by the name of the kingdome of Iuda. Yet Israel remained in a generall sense the name of them all, especially in the new Testament. Paul of the Tribe of Beniamine Rom.11.1. & 26. calleth himselfe an Israelite, and all Israel, saith he in that Chapter, shall bee saued. After the Babylonian Ios.Antiq. 11.5. captiuitie they were called Iewes, of the chiefe and royall Tribe, and their countrie Iudaea: It was also called Palaestina, of the Philistims, which inhabited the sea-coast. And after in the times of the Christians it was generally called the Holy-Land, Phaenicia also being vnder that name comprehended. It is situated betweene the Mediteranean sea, and the Arabian Mountaines, Ptolomie Ptol.lib.7. cap.16. calleth it Palestina Syriae, and Iudaea, abutting it on the North with Syria, on the East and South with Arabia Petraea, on the West with part of Egypt, and the sea. Adrichomius, who hath bestowed a large volume on this subiect, which he calleth the Theater of the Holy-Land, on the East confineth it with Syria and Arabia; on the South the desert Pharan, and Egypt; on the North Mount Libanus; on the West, the Sea. Maginus placeth a part of Phaenicia on the North; on the North-east Libanus; on the South, and part of the East, Arabia; on the West, part of the Mediteranean sea. It is extended from the South to the North, from the one and thirtieth degree, to the three and thirtieth, and somewhat more. Others set it downe in other words; but these and they agree for the most part, in substance. It is commonly holden to be an hundred and sixtie Italian miles in length from Dan to Bersebee, and sixtie in breadth. An exact diuision thereof into twelue shires or shares, Ioshua setteth downe at large, with their bounds and Cities, from the thirteenth Chapter of that booke, to the one and twentieth, as they were by lot and Diuine dis­pensation allotted to the twelue Tribes, the posteritie of Iacobs twelue sonnes; onely Ephraim and Manasses, the sonnes of Ioseph, constituted two Tribes, and therefore had the double portion, descending of Iacobs eldest sonne, by Rachel his first inten­ded wife: and Leui had no portion, but was scattered in Israel, to keepe Israel from [Page 90] scattering, and to vnite them in one religion, to one God, who disposed that curse vn­to a blessing.

Ruben, Gad, and halfe the Tribe of Manasses, had their portion on the East-side of Iordan: the other halfe of Manasses, with Simeon, Iuda, Beniamin, Ephraim, Naph­thali, Aser, Dan, Izachar, Zabulon, had their portions assigned betwixt Iordan, and the Westerne sea. They which would be fully acquainted with their seueral diuisions, may finde in Ioshua himselfe to satisfie them, and in the Commentaries which diuers haue written on that Scripture. More, Stella, Adrichomius, and Arias Montansus haue in Maps presented them to the eye. Neither in the whole world beside is there (I thinke) found any region hauing more Cities in so small a space, then this sometime had, except we beleeue that which is told of the thousands of See lib.6. cap. 2. Egypt. Some reckon A [...]chom. P [...]at. in each Tribe, these, as royall Cities: in Aser. Achsaph, besides Sidon and Tytus: in Beniamin, Bethel, Gabaa, Ierusalem, Iericho: in Dan, Lachis, besides Acaron and Gath: in Ephraim, Gazer, Samaria, Saron, Taphua: in Gad, Rabba: in Isachar, A­phec: in Iuda, Arad, Bezee, Eglon, Hebron, Lebna, Maceda, Odolla, Taphua: in Manasse, 1. Dor, Galgal, Iezrael, Mageddo, Tanac, Thersa: in Manasse, 2. Asta­roth, Edrai, Gessur, Machati, Soba, Theman, and Damascus: in Nepthalim, Asor, Ce­des, Emath: in Ruben, Heshbon, Madian, Petra: in Simeon Dabir, Gerara: in Zebu­lon Ieconan, Semeron. The like Catalogue hee maketh of Episcopall Cities in this Land, while it was Christian. My purpose is not to write of all, but especially of such as are in some respect eminent.

And first let me dippe my pen in Iordan. This, saith Pliny, Plin lib. 5. cap. 15. is a pleasant Riuer, and as farre as the situation of places will permit, ambitious; prodigally imparting it selfe to the inhabitants, and (as it were vnwilling) passeth to that cursed Lake Asphal­tites, of which at last it is drunke vp, losing his laudable waters, mixed with those pe­stilent. As soone therefore as the valleyes giue opportunitie, it spreadeth it selfe into a Lake called Genesara, sixteene miles long, and six broad, enuironed with pleasant Townes; Iulias and Hippo on the East; on the South, Tarichea; and Tiberias on the West, made hole some with his hot waters. The fountaines of this Riuer are two, cal­led Ex sontis no­ [...]ac atque d [...]clius dis [...]en [...]a Iarden d [...]tas. Ar. M [...]ntan. Ior, and Dan, which compounding their streames, doe also compound their names, as Tame and Isis with vs bring forth (happie parents) our Tames or Thamisis. This is the beginning of the aparent streame: But the true Iu [...].Ed Iud.lib. 3. 18. Brocard. and first conception of it is in Phiale, one hundred and twentie furlongs from Caesarea, a fountaine of vnsearch­able depth, which yet (like some miserable Churle) alwaies containeth the waters in it selfe, till sincking, and as it were buried in the earth, those treasures being by Na­tures stealth conueyed vnder ground, vnto Dan or Paneas, who is liberall of that vsu­rers wealth (for into that Phiale powre as much as you will, it neuer encreaseth or de­creaseth) and thence it becommeth a riuer. Philip the Tetrarch of Trachonitis, by ca­sting chaffe therein, which was paid him againe at Dan, first found out this vnder-earth passage. The Saracens call that Phiale, in this respect, Medan, that is, the waters of Dan. Before it maketh the Lake of Genezareth, it maketh another called Samacho­nitis. This is especially filled, when the snowes on Libanus are melted, which causeth Weissenburg. & T [...]em. 1.C [...]o. 12.15. Iordan then to swell, and ouer-flow his bankes, in the first moneth, yearely, (and made the miracle in Ioshuas Iosh.3. passage thorow it the more miraculous) but in Summer it is almost drien vp. It is called the waters of Meron, halfe-way betweene Caesarea Philippi, where the mariage between Ior and Dan is solemnized, and the lake of Ge­nezareth. Elias, and after his assumption, his cloke, diuided these streames: Naamans Leprosie was heere cleansed; and a greater Leprosie then Naamans is daily cleansed in the Church by the lauer of Regeneration, first sanctified to that vse in this streame, where the holy Trinitie M [...]lth.3. did first yeeld it selfe in sensible apparition to the world, thereby to consecrate that Baptisme, whereby we are consecrated to this blessed Tri­nitie, the Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost. In which respect, Adrichom. Timberley. Pilgrimes in memo­rie thereof, do still wash themselues in this Riuer, spotting themselues further (I feare) by this washing with some mire of superstition.

I cannot blame this sacred streame, if it seeme loath, as Pliny saith, to leaue so fer­tile [Page 91] a countrey, and lingreth as long as it may in lakes by the way, not onely for that Salt sea or hellish lake, which shuteth vp his guiltlesse waues in perpetuall imprison­ment, but also for those pleasures in the passage the fruits of the earth without exacti­on freely yeelded, as Roses, Sage, Rue, &c. of the trees, in Oliues, Figges, Pome-gra­nats, Dates, and Vines (which last the Mahumetan superstition doth not cherish, and the westerne Christians did so husband, that one Vine Erocard. by their art and industrie, yeel­ded three Vintages in August, September, October.) The Grapes of Eshcol, which could lade two men with one cluster, were not so famous, as Num.13.24. I [...]rem. 8.22. & 46.11. Gen.37.25. Trem.Ios.Antiq. 15.5. the Balme of Gilead, which the first Merchants we reade of, from that mart, vented to other parts of the world. These Balme-trees grew in the vale of Iericho, which being cut, yeelded this precious liquor; whereof, besides the admirable effects in Cures, other wonders are told by ancient and later Writers, too long heere to relate. Bellonius Bellon lib.2. cap.39. will do it for me, if any list to reade his obseruations. He is not of their mind, which thinke there is now no true Balsam in the world (these in Iudaea being perished) but thinketh in Arabia-Faelix it groweth naturally, from whence some shrubbes he saw in Cairo. But I should be too tedious if I should insist on this argument: That instance of such a world of people, in such a patch of the world, doth sufficiently declare the fertilitie, when as Dauid 1. Chron. 21. See Tr [...]mel. notes on 2.Sam.249. numbered them, 1100000. Israelites, and of Iuda, 470000. or as in 2. Sam.24.9. 500000. which drew sword; and yet Beniamin and Leui were not rec­koned in this number: and in the dayes of Ieroboam, 2.Chron. 13. Abija King of Iuda brought into the field 400000. and Ieroboam 800000. and on this part were slaine in one bat­tell 500000. all choice men; which Historie cannot be matched with the like in all ages and places of the world: that a Countrey, an hundred and sixtie miles long, and not aboue sixtie in breadth, should nourish at once, or lose in a battel such multitudes, not to speake of impotent persons, women and children. But this multitude by eiuill warres and inuasions of enemies decreased, till first the reliques of Israel, and after, the remnant of Iuda, were by the Assyrians, and Babylonians led captiue, and the Land enioyed her Sabbaths.

For the Kingdome of Israel consisting of ten Tribes (some reckon Simeon also to Inda, because of his portion mixed with Inda's as Beniamins was adioyning thereto, to whom the Leuites 2.Chron. [...].14. likewise, and Priests forsaking their Cities, and all the religious Israelites annexed themselues) forsooke A great part of Beniamin, and Simcon was subiect to Dauids poste­titie. not the house of Dauid only, but the house of the Lord, and set them vp Calues (Egyptian superstitions) at Dan and Bethel, and made Priests for their Idolatrous purpose. This their rebellion and Apostacie God plagued with ciuill dissension and forren hostilitie, vntill at last the Assyrians 2.Reg.17. remo­ued them altogether, and repeopled those parts with new Colonies. Such is the end of Religion, which hath not God for the beginning, but is grounded on humane po­licie, a sandie foundation. Iuda could not take warning, but prouoking God by Ido­latrous courses, at last was carried to Babel, and thence, after seuentie yeares, returned. The historie of these things, so fully related in Scripture, I should but marre in the telling.

After this their returne the Land was not, as before, named after the portions of the seuerall Tribes: but was called by a generall name, Ios. Antiq. 11.5. Iudaea, and the people Iewes, be­cause the Tribe of Iuda had before inhabited those parts, or at least the principall of them, dilating themselues further, as they increased in number and power. But more especially Iudaea was the name of one Palaestina di­uided into 3. parts Galilee samaria Iudaea. third part of the countrie, by that name di­stinguished from the other two, Samaria, and Galilea, which two last are sometimes referred to Phoenicia.

Galilaea was the most Northerly, confining on Libanus and Antilibanus toward the North, Phoenicia Westerly, Coelesyria on the East; and Samaria, with Arabia, in­closing her Southerly borders, Iordan parteth it in the middest. It was diuided into the higher and lower Galilee: the higher called also Galilee of the Gentiles, contai­neth the springs of Iordan, and those Cities which Salomon gaue to Hiram. The lower was also called Galilee of Tiberias, that Citie giuing name both to the lake and regi­on: in which Nazareth was famous, and the hill Thabor.

[Page 92] Samaria is seated betwixt Galilee and Iudaea much lesse then either of them. Iu­daea is the most Southerly; betweene the Mediterranean and Dead seas, Samaria, and Idumea. Pliny maketh Galilaea a part of it, and Peraea another part, separated from the rest by Iordan. The rest he diuideth into ten Toparchies; Ierico, Emaus, Lidda, Ioppe, Acrabatena, Gophnitica, Thamnitica, Betholene, Tephene, Orine, in which was Ieru­salem farre the fairest of the Cities of the East, not of Iudaea alone: Herodium, with a famous towne of the same name. He addeth vnto these the Region of Decapolis, so called of the number of the Townes, and the Tetrarchies; Trachonitis, Pancas, Abi­la, Arca, Ampeloessa, Gabe. Those ten Townes of Decapolis were Caesarea, Philip­pi, Asor, Cedes, Neptalim, Sephet, Corozain, Capharnaum, Bethsaida, Iotapata, Ti­berias, and Bethsan, otherwise called Scythopolis, and before Nysa, where Bacchus buried his nurse. But these are parts of those former parts aboue mentioned; and so may we say of the rest, sustaining, in diuers respects, diuers diuisions, best fitting to the present polities, and little to our purpose.

Those things which of old were famous in those places, are mentioned in the Scripture: Those things which since haue been more remarkable; I purpose in the next part of this Worke, of Christian Religions, to handle, and especially the rarities of Ierusalem, sometimes the holy Citie, and Citie of the great King, now a den of theeues; a habitation of Mahumetans, or rather now not at all: for this which is now, is a new Citie, called by the Founder, Aelia Capitolina, built by Aelius Adrianus, who cau­sed the plough to passe thorow, and Salt to be sowne in the old, as testifying her eter­nall desolation; and fulfilling Christs Prophecie to the vtmost, not leauing a stone vp­on a stone, if Titus had not fully accomplished the same before. Arias Montanus in his Nehemias affirmeth, that Ierusalem was founded on three hilles; to wit, Sion, on which the Iebusites built their Tower; and which in Dauids time was further builded on, and called the Citie of Dauid. The second hill was Mount Moriah, which Dauid bought of Aranna, to erect thereon the Temple. The third was the higher Acra, cal­led the Suburb. These were compassed with one wall without; and within diuided with three walles, by which the Citie of Dauid, and Moriah, and the higher Acra were diuided: In the circuit of the walles were nine gates. He that desireth further to reade, or rather to see the old Ierusalem, with her holy fabriques, let him resort to Arias Montanus his Antiquitates Iudaicae, where he both relateth, and in figures presenteth these things. It is supposed that Melchisedech built it about the yeare of the World, 2023. and called it Salem. The Iebusites after possessed it (and of them some deriue the name Ierusalem, quasi Iebussalem) till Dauid expelled them: who had before reig­ned in Hebron (called Cariatharbe, the Citie of foure men, say some, because of A­dam, Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, both dwelling and buriall there; yet Adam, others say, was buried in Mount Caluarie, with other speculations curious and vncertaine.) He translated the highest seat both of spirituall and temporall regiment to Ierusalem, where he raigned after, three and thirtie yeares, to whom succeeded Salomon, and the rest in order. It then contained in circuit fiftie furlongs, compassed with a great ditch sixtie foot deepe, and two hundred and fiftie broad. Nabuchodonosor destroyed it, Nohemias reedified it, three and thirtie furlongs in circuit: The Macchabees, Herod, and others added to her excellence, till Titus besieged and tooke it; in which siege are said to haue perished 1100000. people; and being now a sepulchre of dead car­kaffes, was made a spectacle of Diuine vengeance, for murthering the LORD of Life. But those strugling spirits, and small remnants of life which remained in this for­lorne carkasse of the sometime Ierusalem, breathed a new rebellion, in the time of A­drian and thereby breathed her last, as before is said. The Historie of this Citie the Scripture hath recorded; and where Diuine Historie endeth, Iosephus and Hegesippus (that I speake not of late Writers) haue largely supplied, especially concerning her latest fates, and, as I may terme it, in her funerall Sermon. Iustin.lib.36. Strabo lib.16. Strabo, Iustine and others haue written of this people, but not sincerely. But the fountaines are cleare enough to acquaint vs with their true originall, which commeth next to be considered.

CHAP. II.

Of the Hebrew Patriarkes, and their Religion before the Law: also of their Law and Politie.

THe name of Hebrewes some deriue from Abraham, as if they were called Hebraei quaesi Abrahaei. Arias Montanus Mon. de An­tiq.lud.Canaan, vel lib.3.cap.9 [...] telleth vs, that this name of Hebrewes was not appropriate to any family, but common to all such, as hauing passed ouer the riuer Euphrates fixed their tents, and abode betweene that riuer and the great sea. He gathereth this from the Hebrew word, which signifieth to passe ouer. Such an one first of all was Heber, seeking a life answerable to his name: whose example (saith he) Thare imitated: and after, Abram for his twofold transmigration from Chaldea, and from Haran, deserued that name, and left it to his posteritie. But Ios.Antiq.lib.1. cap.6. Iosephus, Aug.De Ciuit. Dci.l.26.c.13. Augu­stine, and others, more fitly and truely, of Heber the fourth from Shem, the sonne of Noah, with whose family, as we haue said, continued the ancient Language of the world, called of his name, Hebrew: his sonne Peleg, or Phaleg, bearing the name of that diuision, which at the time of his birth the rest of the world in their languages sustained. This Peleg was Grand-father to Serug, whom some affirme to haue beene the first maker of Idols, which were afterwards worshipped by Nahor his sonne, and Thare his nephew, the father of Abram, who preached openly that there was but Ios.Antiq.lib.1. cap.7. one GOD, Creator and Gouernour of all things; and by this doctrine prouoking he Chaldaeans against him, warned by Oracle, departed towards Canaan.

Bellarmine Bel.de Not. Eccles.l.4.c.9. so eagerly swalloweth this opinion, that he taxeth Caluine of Heresie, or attributing to Abraham the contrarie; namely, that Abraham, before GOD cal­led him out of Vr, was an Idolater: an opinion so much more probable, then the o­ther, as hauing better authoritie. For Ioshua Ios.24.2. obiecteth to the Israelites their fore-fa­thers Idolatrie, and nameth Abraham amongst them. And Genebrard Genebrard. Chron. lib.1. doth so inter­pret it; and Mazius Maz. in los.24. in his Commentaries on that place, both zealous and learned Papists: yea Lindanus Lindan. i [...] Panop. specifieth the Idolatrie, and calleth him a worshipper of Ve­sta. Suidas Suidas. saith, that Abraham by the obseruation of the Creatures in his studie of Astronomie, lifted vp his minde aboue the Starres, and by the glorie, and order of them, learned the knowledge of God, neuer ceasing that Diuine search, till God ap­peared to him. Which opinion may reconcile both the former: that first he was, and after ceased to be, and Idolater, before God appeared in vision to him. Hec alledgeth philo for his Author, that at fourteene yeares Abraham reproued Thara for seducing men vnto Idolatrie (moued by his priuate lucre) with Images: and seeing the Heauen sometime cleare, sometime clowdie, he gathered, that that could not be God. The like hee concluded of the Sunne, and Moone, by their eclipses (for his father had taught him Astronomie). At last God appeared, and bad him leaue his countrey. Whereupon he tooke his fathers Images, who (as before is said) was an Image-ma­ker, and partly broke, partly burnt them, and then departed. Suidas further thinketh him the first inuenter of Letters, of the Hebrew tongue, and of the interpretation of dreames; which I leaue to the Authors credit. But for the fault of Abraham before his calling, and other blemishes after, in him and the rest of the Patriarkes; what doe they else, but in the abounding of mans sinne, set out the superabounding grace of God? and are prositable, as learned Morton Mort. Ap.p.1. lib.1.cap.30. in answere of this cauill, hath out of one of their owne Sixtus Senens. Bib. lib 7. cap.8. obserued against them, what he had obserued out of Augu­stine, to these foure purposes: Faith, Instruction, Feare, and Hope: the Faith of the Historie which slattereth, or concealeth the faults of none: Instruction to vertue, by seeing others faults taxed: Feare, for what shall shrubbes doe, if Cedars fall? and Hope, that we imitate their repentance, by seeing their pardon.

[Page 94] But to returne to our History. Many of the Ethnike histories mention him: Berosus commendeth him for his iustice, and skill in Astronomie. Nic. 'Damascenus saith, that he reigned at Damascus, & that in his time, his house continued in Damascus, & was still called by his name: Hecataeus wrote a booke of him: and Alexander Polyhistor telleth that he was borne in the tenth generation after the Floud in Camarine (or V­rien) a Citie of Babylon. Iosephus Antiq lib. 1. cap.3. addeth, that when famine draue him into Egypt, Gen. 12. he disputed with the Priests, and most learned Egyptians, in questions of Di­uinity; and in their diuided sects, hauing confuted one by another, he communicated to them the truth, both in this, and in Arithmetike and Astronomie, whereof before the Egyptians were ignorant. Abram (saith M. Broughton in his Concent) was borne sixtie yeares later then the common account; as appeareth See the Chronologie, chap 11. by computation of Terahs age, who died at two hundred and fiue yeares, and after his death Gen. 12.4. Abram went from Charan into Cannan, the threescore and fifteenth yeare of his owne life; and therefore was borne in the hundred and thirtieth, and not in the seuentieth yeare of his father, in the 352. yeare after the Floud; whereas the common opinion reckoneth the 292. To Abram God had giuen commandement, saying: Go from thy country, and from thy kin­dred, and from thy fathers house into the Land which I shall shew thee, and I will make of thee a great nation, &c.

His history is fully related by Moses, and his progenie also, whereof Ismael his son by Agar, and other his sons which he had by Ketura his second wife, he sent to inhabit. the East country (Arabia) in his life-time: but Isaac was made his heire, both Tempo­rall and Spirituall: to whom Iacob succeeded in the promised blessing: who with his sons and family went downe into Egypt, where his posterity multiplied exceedingly, and were called sometime Ebrewes of their ancient pedegree; sometime Israelites, of the name Israel, giuen to Iacob by the Angell, Gen. 32. 28. Their whole historie so largely and plainly in holy Writ recorded, I feare to make Mine, by euill reciting: Those Fountaines are more open to all, then that any should need ours, or others Brook [...], mixed with some mirie earth (at least) in the passage: (and my intent is to be largest in relation of those things which are not in the Scriptures; touching the same briefely for order sake). Their religion, meane while, was the best amongst the best, though stained in some, as Rachel, which stale her father Labans Idols; and Iacob was forced after to reforme his family in this respect; and after in Egypt they were cor­rupted with the Egyptian superstition, as Ezechiel in his twentieth Chapter prote­steth against them. The manner of Diuine worship was not so straitly limited, as after, to persons and places. By reuelation and tradition they receiued the religious wor­ship, wherein they instructed their posteritie: vntill that in their extreamest thraldome God sent Moses and Aaron to deliuer them: vnder whose conduct they passed tho­row the sea and wildernesse to the brinkes of Iordan, receiuing in the way that Law; which as a Tutour, or Schoole-master was in that their nonage to traine them vp, vn­till that full and ripe age; when Galath.4.4. God sent his Sonne made of a woman, made vnder the Law, that he might redeeme them that were vnder the Law, that we might receiue the a­doption of sonnes. Of this Law, although Moses hath giuen vs an absolute relation in the Scripture, whereof he was the first pen-man (of that at least which remaineth vnto vs) yet if we shall out of him, bring them into their order, and ranke them vnder their seuerall heads, as Sigonius Car. Sigon.de rep. Hebr. and others haue done; it shall not be, I thinke, ouer-tedi­ous to the Reader.

The Law is diuided vsually, into the Morall, Ceremoniall, and Iudiciall, as parts of the same: the first deliuered on the Mount Sinai, by the dreadfull voice of the Al­mightie GOD, and by the finger of GOD, written after in Tables of stone, called ten words, summarily abridged into two Commandements, by the Law-giuer him­selfe; Mat.22.38. The first and great Commandement enioyning the loue of GOD, the second, of our neighbours, that GOD, who himselfe is Charitie, imposing nothing but the loue­ly yoke of Loue and Charitie vnto his seruants. This Law is Eternall, written first in the hearts of our first parents, which being defaced, it was written againe in the stony Tables of the Law, where it was but a killing letter, till Grace and Truth by IE­SVS [Page 95] CHRIST indited and indented it in the fleshie Tables of the Gospell, as Io.13.34 CHRISTS new Commandement written in renewed hearts, and shall for euer bee then grauen in those spirituall Tables, when we that heere are 1.Cor.15.44. naturall men, shall rise againe spirituall men; and shall be the law of that holy Citie, the new Ierusalem; this be­ing then perfected, when 1.Cor.13. Faith, and Hope, and this World shall be finished. The o­ther parts Ceremonial and Iudicial, were (for the particulars) proper vnto that nation; the one respecting the manner of Diuine seruice, the other of Ciuill gouernment: not giuen (as the other) immediately to the Israelites by God himselfe, but communica­ted in the Mount to Moses, that he might acquaint the people withall. This nation was diuided, as is said alreadie, into Tribes, according to the number of Iacobs sons, amongst whom Leui had no portion (but the Lord was their portion, they seruing at the Altar, & liuing of the Altar) but 48. cities with their suburbs assigned for their ha­bitation, amongst other Tribes, that being so dispersed, they might disperse also, and preach the Law to the rest: and were reckoned Iud.17.7. to that Tribe with which they dwel­led: and whereas others might not marry, for feare of alienation of their inheritances; into another Tribe, this of Leui either had, or tooke libertie herein, as Indg. 19. and 2.Chro. 22. Ioiada married the Kings sister; and thus Elizabeth, wife of Zachary the Priest, might be cousin to Mary the mother of our Lord. The number of twelue re­mained yet entire, in reckoning of these Tribes, because that Ioseph had a double por­tion, and his sonnes, Ephraim and Manasses, made two Tribes. Neither were they a­lone reckoned Israelites, that naturally descended from some one of these twelue sons of Israel, but such also of other nations as embraced their Ceremonies and Religion, being for distinctiō sake called Proselytes. The Hebrew Ar.Montan. in Mattb.23. word which is interpreted a Proselyte, signifieth extracted, or drawne forth, because they esteemed such, drawn forth of hel: whom yet they made the childrē of hel, more then themselues, in burthening their consciences, not only with those Ceremonies whereunto the Law and their tradition tied them, but with diuers others also. The name Proselyte, as Drusius affirmeth, Drus.de 3.sect. lib.2. is either taken largely for any stranger, or strictly for a conuert to their religion. A Pro­selyte was made with obseruation of three things, Circumcision, Baptisme or wash­ing, and Oblation. The first was a signe of the Couenant, in which they were recei­ued: the second, as a badge of their cleannes; (for all the Gentiles were vncleane) the third, for the attonement with God. This was while the Temple stood, and now is not in force: but whether Baptisme be still vsed, I know not. He ought to be circumcised in the presence of three. A woman Proselite was admitted by Baptisme only, and the offering of two Turtles, or two Pigeons. Serarius saith, Baptisme and circumcision are still required: the like is written by Munster in l. Praecept. Mos. cum expos.Rab. Et in Euangel. Matth. Hebr: Anot.cap.22. Munster, who addeth, that when any desireth to become a Proselite, they propound to him the hardest things of the law: with the pro­mises of future happines: and if he continue his purpose, they circumcise him, & when he is whole, Baptise him; & then account him an Israelite. The same Author elswhere handleth the same their ceremonies more at large: he saith that they propound to him their strictest obseruations, as of the Sabbath, not eating fat, &c. with some penances, that he should not after say, had I wist; and they would seeme to be willing by these meanes, to driue them from their religion, as being corrupted by such new commers: but CHRIST affirmeth otherwise. Matth. 23.

The gouernment of this state was after Moses & Ioshua managed by Iudges of di­uers Tribes, not by election nor inheritance succeeding in that office, but by appoint­ment of God, till they desired a King, whereas before God was their King, and by his law partly, partly by oracleruled, the State, being as some think an Aristocratie. There were besides these Iudges, Princes of each Tribe, and the heads of families: there was also a gouernmēt in each City by the Elders or Senate, exercised in the gates ther­of. They had accordingly their Coūcels or assemblies, either of the whole nation, or of a whole Tribe, or of some one city: they had their Elders or Senators in like maner, ha­uing authority, some for the whole nation, some Car. Sigmi.de rep. Heb.lib.6. &7. (if we follow some mens cōiectures) for their own tribe; some in their proper city. The first of these was the Sāhedrin or 70. Elders appointed by GOD, Num. 15. & continued vnto the destructiō of that natiō, & [Page 96] their court was kept in the seat Royal, or mother-City of the Kingdome: to which, ap­peale was made from the inferiour Courts in obscure & difficult cases. They had Iud­ges also appointed, and Magistrates, hauing iurisdiction ouer a thousand, a hundred, fiftie, or ten. They had besides, their Officers in time of warre, & Officers of the Tem­ple: which I haue but named to the Reader, who, if he desire fully to bee informed, concerning their politie, and State-affaires: Carolus Sigonius (not to mention others) in his sixt and seuenth booke. De Repub. Hebraica, will reasonably satisfie him.

Yet I hold it not impertinent to mention (somewhat more largely) what Petrus Galatinus [...]. Galat.de A [...]ca [...]s. lib.4. cap. [...]. &6. hath written of this Iudiciary power of the Israelites, by the ceasing wher­of, he proueth, that the Messias is alreadie come, according to Iacobs prophecie, Gen. 49. He sheweth therefore that the Sanhedrin were the successors of those seuentie El­ders, which were appointed assistants to Moses, Num.11.18. to whom belonged the determination of all difficulties and hardest questions of the Law; as appeareth, Den. 17 from whom was no appeale. They were called Sanhedrin, whom we may call or­dinarie Iudges, and Mehokekim, that is, Scribes, or Law-giuers, because whatsoeuer they deliuered or writ, was receiued as a Law.

Their Colledge represented that Scepter, by the holy Ghost in Iacob promised to Iuda: and therefore not only vnder the Kings and Iudges did exercise iudgements, but also when there was no King, or Iudge in Israel. Of their qualitie it is thus written in the booke Sanhedrin. They appointed none (said R.Iohanan) but men of wisdome, stature, and of goodly Apparentie. presence, and of old age, and cunning in exorcismes, and vn­derstanding the seuentie tongues, that they might not need interpreters. Their stature and comelines, Rabbi Selomoh saith, was required, to acquire thē reuerence; & skill in enchantment, to conuince such wisards. Of their power in Sanhedrin Babilonice, is thus written: Foure kindes of Death was in their power, Stoning, Burning, killing with the Sword, & strangling. R. Akiba affirmed, that they fasted all that day in which they ad­iudged any to death. Mony-matters were ordered by three Iudges, as were all moue­able goods: iudgement of life by 22. of these 70. vnder which number they could not condemne any to death. But in cases of a Tribe, or Scepter, or false prophet, or high Priest, were required the whole number of seuenty and one: the like was in going to war, in adding to a city, or the reuenewes of the Temple, or in conuenting the ordina­ry Iudges of the Tribes, To cōstitute one of this nūber they vsed imposition of hands; R.Iudas saith of fiue. A wolfe, lion, beare, leopard, & serp̄et, were to be slain by the 23.

The great Colledge called Sanhedre ghedola, consisted of 71. the lesse of 23. That odde number aboue 70. was to supply the roome of Moses, which was ouer those first 70. Thus far the Talmud. Whereby Galatinus gathereth, that in the Councel that con­demned CHRIST, there was the whole number of 71. which is true, if Herod had not before disanulled that societie. The greater Sanhedrin ordained the lesse; for those 70. ordained all the Sessīos of Iudges, which in other cities & places ruled the people: and to this Court of the 70. in Ierusalem they were all subiect. The place where they sate was called Gazith, that is, Carued, whereof this Court had the name (as the Star­chamber with vs.) Other Courts or houses of Iudgement, they had diuers, of the 23. One of thē sate in the gate of the mountain of the Temple: another in the gate of the Court: others in euery city. And when there was a cōtrouersie, it was first brought to that city or towne, & so to the rest, if occasion required (in order) to that in the gate of the Mount, after to that in the Court-gate, & last to the Gazith consistory, in which they sate frō morning till night. But on Sabbaths & solemn daies they sate on the wal.

But when Herod obtained the Scepter, he slew Hircanus and his son Antigonus, which had been King and Priest, and also all of the seed royall, and burnt the Gene­alogies of their Kings: and further to stablish his throne in bloud, hee killed the Scribes and Doctors of the Law, and caused all the Sanhedrin to bee done to death. Because the Rabbanan (they are the words of the Talmud) had said accor­ding to Deut.17. From among thy brethren thoushalt set a King ouer thee: he slew the Rabbanan or Masters, reseruing onely Baba, the son of Bota, whose eyes he after put out. And therefore the Sanhedrin perished: for, as is said, fiue, or at least after R. Ismael, [Page 97] three were necessary to the ordination by the imposition of hands. But there were by Herods permission other Iudges instituted to be vnder the King, like the former Colledge, but had no authoritie of sentence in waightie and criminall causes: and therefore they said to Pilate, it is not lawfull for vs to put any man to death. And then for salfe sentence pronounced against CHRIST, they were expelled from the Consisto­rie Gazith, fortie yeares before the destruction of the Temple, and afterwards, by the commandement of the Romans, were all flaine. They being expelled Gazith, held their Consistorie at Hamith, another place in Ierusalem but, saith R. Abdimi, with the place they lost their power in criminall iudgements; which might not be giuen but in Gazith. So do the Rabbines interprete the words; Deut.17.10. According to the words which they of that place shew thee, thou shalt do. Thus much out of Galatinus.

The word Sanhedrin, saith Drusius, Quaest. Heb. lib 2. signifieth not the iudgements (as some mistake) but the Iudges, the seuentie Senators of the great Court at Ierusalem, called in the new Testament, Elders, Match. 16 21.

Now concerning the Iewish Excommunications, the same Author Quaest.Heb.lib.1. &2. hath obser­ued, that the Iewes had three kinds and degrees of Excommunications, Niddui, He­rem, Samatha the first signifieth a Remouing; the second, Anathema; the third, the same which the Apostle calleth Maran-atha: By the first they are made [...] (of which is an example, Genes.4.4) excommunicated from the Ecclesiasticall assem­blies: and if they did not amend, they were excommunicated with a greater curse, or Anathema: and if they persisted obstinate, they did Samatize them. The word Ana­thema is sometimes taken generally, but heere, for a particular kind. Maran-atha, signifieth the LORD commeth; and so doth Sem-atha. For by Sem, and more em­phatically, Hassem they vsed to signifie the name, meaning that Tetragrammaton and ineffable name of God, Iehoua. It may also be compounded of Sama, after the Chaldee forme; or of Sam and mitha, which signifieth, There is death. Some Authors ascribe this to the institution of Henoch: which they gather out of Iude 14.

CHAP III.

Of the Religious places of the Israelites.

IN the discouery of their ancient Religion, it seemeth fittest to discourse first of places, secondly of times, thirdly, of Rites, fourthly of Per­sons consecrated to Religion. And first, of the first. Neither were the first men, Hosplnian.de Templis cap.1. nor first Hebrewes, very religious in this point of dedi­cating places to religion; as appeareth in Histories both holy and prophane: and if for some vision, made vnto them in some places, they did for a time hallow the same with Altars, and Sacrifices: yet neither were they alway, or onely thus esteemed. But He, whose is the earth and all that therein is, did by his law appoint, as it were, a place of his residence amongst these, whom he had chosen for his owne people: and commanded them to erect a Tabernacle in the wildernesse, fitting that their peregrination. Afterward Salomon built him a house in Ierusalem: which therefore is called the holy Citie and the Citie of the great King.

The Tabernacle (a moueable Temple that might bee taken asunder, and ioyned together againe) was, by Gods commandement, erected in the wildernesse, in the same manner, and of the same matter, which God had both commanded and shewed to Moses in the Mount; the matter and forme whereof, with all that thereunto appertained; the Arke, the Candlesticke, the Altar, &c. in the booke of Eoeodus are liuely declared. It was after (as we reade in the booke of Iosh.3.14. 15. Ioshua with great solem­nitie carried miraculously thorow Iordan, by the Leuites deputed to that seruice: and, after their conquest of the Countrey, [...]os [...].18.1. placed in Shilo, a Citie of Ephraim. There did Ioshua diuide the Land to her new conquerours: there were their solemne assemblies for state and religion. In the time of Helt they remoued the Arke from the Tabernacle into the armie, which they had gathered against the Philistims; [Page 98] of whom the Arke was taken. The Tabernacle, in the time of Saul, was carried to Nob, and, in the time of Dauid, to Gibeon, where Salomon offered a thousand burnt offerings. The Philistims forced by Diuine iudgements, sent backe the Arke, receiued by the Bethsamites, curious to their cost, it was after placed in Kiriath-Iarim, in the house of Aminadab, next of Obed-Edam, and then by Dauid in the place, which he had fitted for the same in Ierusalem; whence it was remoued into the Temple, which Salomon had built: where it was till the time of the deportation: in which time 2.Maccb.2.5. it was hidden by Ieremie the Prophet. But that Author is beholden to the Councell of Trent for his credit, the Iewes themselues in that point, not beleeuing him; R. Samuel in lib. Sanhedrim. Hierosol. cap. Ellu hen baggol. Pet. Galatin. l.4. Genebrard. lu Chron. who affirme, that the second Temple came short of the former, by the want of the fire from heauen, of the Arke, of the Vrim and Thummim, of the succession of Prophets, and the glorie of God betweene the Cherubims.

The Temple was built on Mount Moriah by Salomon, according to the I. Chron. 28. 11.12. paterne, which he had receiued of Dauid: to which worke he had gathered a greater masse of wealth, then easily we shall reade of in the Persian, Greeke, Roman, or any other Chri­stian, Turkish, or Heathen Empire; I.Chron.22. 14. namely, 100000. talents of gold; 1000000. ta­lents of siluer, and afterward 3000, talents of gold, and 7000. talents of siluer: to which was added, by the offerings of the Princes, 10000. talents of siluer, and more then 5000. talents of gold, besides iewels, and brasse, and iron, without weight, with Cedars and stones without number. The gold alone amounteth after the common computation of the common talent, at 6000. crownes, to sixe hundred fortie eight millions of crownes, and vpwards; the siluer to about the same summe.

This beautifull frame I should deforme with my description, if (after a double narration of all the parts; forme, and contents thereof in the Historie of the Bible) I should recite the particulars. This Temple, fleeced by some, repaired by others, con­tinued in varietie of state, till the sacking and ruine of it, together with the Citie by Nabuchodonosor. And after their returne, by the edict of Cyrus, and other the Persian Kings, it was rebuilded (but farre inferiour in glorie) in the space, as the Iewes say, Ioh. 2.20. vnto Christ, of six and fortie yeares: after others it was longer in hand, by reason of impediments from their cauilling, and malicious neighbours. This second Temple ha­uing receiued accesse of magnificence in succession of times, was spoiled and polluted vnder Antiochus, who dedicated the same to Iupiter Olympius; but being freed and dedicated anew by Maccabaeus, it recouered great part of the former beautie; till as Ios.Antiq. lib. 12. Iosipp. debel Iud. Iosephus saith, and his abbreuiator Iosippus, it was pulled downe by Herod, and built anew. Herein both that allegation of the Iewes of sixe and fortie yeares, is against this assertion of Iosephus, and the Historie also of Hegesippus Egesip. lib. I. who reporteth that he only compassed the circuit about the Temple with a wall, and beautified the same with costly buildings, erected from the foundation the porches about the Sanctuarie, and fortified it with the castle Antonia.

Chrysostome Chrysostom. in Ican. hom.22. vnderstands those words, of the Iewes, Forty and sixe yeares was this Temple a building, of the Herodian, Temple: and herein Hospinian. de Tem. cap.3. Caesar Baron. To.1. Annal. An.31. Hospinian, and the great Car­dinall Baronius follow him: accounting exclusiuely from the eighteenth yeare of He­rods reigne, which Functins reckoneth A. M. 3947. to the yeare 3992. in which Iohn Baptised, and CHRIST vttered these words: in all which they coniecture that somewhat was still a doing about the new building thereof, although the principall part thereof was performed and finished by Herod in eight yeares. This they gather by Iosephus his owne testimonie, that the building continued till the time of Nero, and in an other place, where he affirmeth that the East porch, which Luke cals Act.5. 12. Sa­lomons porch, was still remaining of the ancient building, in the dayes of Nero, and elsewhere, that Herod repaired the Temple. Ies. de bells Iud.lib.1.c.16. Iosephus is therefore herein contrarie to the truth, and himselfe. Neither doe the Iewes in the Talmud speake of any third Temple: nor can the Prophecie of Hag.2.10. Haggaus bee fulfilled, that the glorie of the se­cond Temple should exceed the glorie of the former; if CHRIST (of whose comming it is interpreted) had not by his presence, preaching, and miracles, not onely supplied the defects (before mentioned) but made it surmount the other in effects of Maiestie [Page 99] and glorie. And the zeale vnto this testimonie, not the meanest which the Christian Veritie Morn. deve­rit.Christ. Relig vrgeth against the Iewish Incredulitie and Apostasie, which is necessarily demonstrated and euinced, whiles yet they continue their vaine hopes of a Messias, so many Ages after the desolation of that Temple whereof Aggee prophecied, hath caused me to vse so many words in this matter. But to satisfie the fancies of great men, their great workes are commonly made greater: For howsoeuer it was very great in it selfe, that Herod should haue, eight yeares together, many workemen at worke (which Iosephus numbreth for some part of the time tenne thousand and a thousand Priests) yet sustaining, no doubt, some intermission after his time, either wholly, or in part, it could not be so great as to haue accomplished it wholly from the foundation, wherein Salomon spent seuen yeares: and besides, what any of the naturall Israelites performed in this worke, hee imployed an hun­dred three and fiftie thousand and sixe hundred workemen of the Strangers or Fo­rainers found in the Countrey. And whereas the second Temple was but halfe the height of the former, perhaps it is true, that (according to Iosephus) he perfected it to that height of an hundred and twentie cubites, whereof twentie cubites sanke downe in the setling of the foundations. It was builded by Herod of white stones fiue and twentie cubites long, eight thicke, and twelue broad. He that would fur­ther reade the particulars, let him haue recourse to Iosephus in his fifteenth booke of Antiquities. This Temple was burned by Titus, in the sacke of the Citie, the same day that before it had beene fired by the Chaldaeans. Adrian the Emperour Dion Nicaeud in Adriano. did after destroy the Reliques thereof, that a stone was not left vpon a stone, and there, in the same place, dedicated another Temple to Iupiter, that former being ouer­whelmed with earth. Iulian gaue leaue to the Iewes to reedifie the Temple, in des­pight of Christian Religion, and contributed frankely thereto: but Ammianus Marcellinus Amm. Mar­cellinus, lib. 23. , a Heathen Writer, witnesseth, That fire issued out of the Earth, Metuendi slammaruns globi prope sun­damenta crobris assultibus erum­pentes, secere lo­cum exustis ali­quoties operan­tib [...], inaccessum. and burnt both worke and workemen: when as an Earthquake (which had before, sayth Sozomen. li. 5. Sozomen, killed a great many, in the very attempting of this Worke) could not deterre them from proceeding in their purpose: and Crosses, miraculously fallen on the garments of many, did both teach them to forsake their Iudaisme, and to be­come Christians.

Chrysostome Chrys. hom.3. contra Iudeos. mentioneth this, and saith, that vnder Adrian the Iewes sought to recouer their libertie, and lost their Countrey, Vnder Constantine they attempted the like, who therefore cut off their eares, and branded their bodies for rebels, as the elder of you (saith he to his Auditors) do know. And in our dayes, about twentie yeares since, Iulian the Emperour was at great expences, appointed officers, sent for worke-men from all places, thinking to frustrate CHRISTS Prophecie concerning the Temple, and to bring the Iewes to Idolatrie. But so soone as they had attempted this businesse, and bared the foundation, had drawne forth the earth, and were now readie to begin their building; a fire burst forth from the foundations, and burnt ma­ny, which caused them to cease. And if you now go to Ierusalem, you may see the foundations naked: Hereof we all are witnesses. Neither did this happen vnder Chri­stian Emperours, lest any should impute it to the Christians, but vnder an Ethnike, when Christianitie was persecuted. Thus much in effect, Chrysostome. Gregorie Na­zianzen Greg. Naz. orat.1. in Iulian. also testifieth the same, affirming that the Earth (as it were taking a Vomit from the Diuine hand) spued out the stones, which yet till this day had continued therein, and dispersed them to the great damage of the neighbour buildings.

Other holy places they had which the Scripture mentioneth as high places, which were high hils, or other open and loftie places, shaded for the most part with Trees: the Prophets inuey against them, and Deut.12.3. they were commanded to be destroyed, toge­ther with the Groues: some yet were permitted, either by extraordinarie commaund for a time, as to Gedeon Ind.6.24. and to Manoab Iud.13.19. ; or because of the Tabernaclent Gibeon, or of the Arke at Ierusalem. The not reforming this toleration of high places is rec­koned as an eclipse of Iehoshaphats and Asas glorie; which Ezekiuh and Iosiah quite remoued and polluted. These high and open places, it seemeth, were consecrated, as [Page 100] fitting to the celestiall bodies; to which, and to Baal (who is interpreted the Sunne) they vsed for the most part on them to sacrifice. They had also their Houses and Tem­ples for Baal, in Israel and Iuda; and Dan and Bethel were by Ieroboam dedicated to his Aegyptian Idolatrie: and Gilgal was a place of request in this kinde. Salomon also built Temples or Houses for his idolatrous wiues. And to reckon euery particular in this kinde were a worke endlesse: in the 2.Reg.17. & 23. and other places ynough is of them recorded.

Two other Temples were erected of some reputation: one by Sanballat at Sama­ria, on Mount Garizin, by licence obtained of Alexander the Great, whose part he followed, rebelling against Darius his true Lord. The occasion was, because Ma­nasses, brother of Iaddi the High Priest, had married, contrarie to GODS Law, Ni­caso Ios.Ant.l.11. daughter of Sanballat, and was forced either to leaue his Priestly Function or Heathenish bed. Whereupon Sanballat, hauing obtained licence to build that Tem­ple aforesaid, constituted him the high Priest thereof, many other Priests for the like fault, resorting thither to him. But of these Samaritans we shall haue fitter occasion to say more when we come to handle their Sects.

Ptolomaeus Philometor Ios.Ant.l.13. 6. abouesaid, graunted licence to Onias (the sonne of the high Priest Onias, whom Antiochus had slaine) who for the same cause had here shrowded himselfe, to build a Temple, induced herevnto by a false interpretation of the prophecie of Esay, Esay 19.19 at Leontopolis, in the shire, as I may terme it, or nomus of Heliopolis: hauing Priests and Leuites ministring therein, and other things answe­ring in some sort to that of Ierusalem. When the Temple of Ierusalem was burnt by Titus, this Temple was shut vp also of Lupus, the Deputy, three hundred and thirtie yeares after it had been builded: and after by his successour Paulinus vtterly dispoi­led both of the wealth and the religion. The Citie was called of Onias, Onion. Ios.l.7.c.30. de Bel.Iud. It had a Tower and an Altar like that of Ierusalem, but in steade of a candlesticke, a lampe of golde hanging on a chaine of golde, enriched by the king with large re­uenues.

Synagogues the Iewes had many, both in Ierusalem where are said to haue been foure hundred and fourescore, and in all cities of Iudea, and among the Gentiles where the Iewes were dispersed. When they first began to be builded, is vncertaine. Cornelius Betramus thinketh, That the eight and fortie Cities of the Leuites had their fit places for Assemblies, whence Synagogues had beginning. Car.Sig.l.2.c.8 Sigonius coniectu­reth, That their Babylonian exile ministred occasion to them to helpe themselues with these Houses of Prayer and Instruction. The word Synagogue Erastus de excommunicat. Thesis. is taken both for the Assemblies, whether in this place, or out of it, and for the Place it selfe; ha­uing a ciuill as well as a religious vse. And these Synagogues they haue in the places of their dispersion vnto this day. The order they obserued in their Synagogues was this: they disputed and preached sitting; Ambros [...]in.1.Cor.14. the Elders sat in Chaires which were set in order, of which CHRIST sayth, They loue the chiefe Seats in Synagogues: those of meaner sort sate in Seates, and the meanest of all on the floore vpon Mats. The Synagogue was gouerned by the Scribes, and the chiefe of them called Archisynagogus, resembling the High Priest and the inferior Priests in the Temple.

Besides these Temples and Houses consecrated to GOD, Ambition, the Ape of Deuotion, founded some of other nature. Herod the Great erected a sumptuous Tem­ple and Citie in the honour of Caesar, which sometime had beene called Stratonis tur­ris. and after Caesarea. The Temple of Caesar, was conspicuous to them which sayled farre off in the Sea, and there in were two Statues, one of Rome, the other of Caesar. The sumptuousnesse of Herods ambition in this Citie, Temple, Theater, and Amphi­theater, &c. Iosephus amply describeth. Ant.l.15.13 [...] He built another Temple at Pahiuni, the fountaine of Iordan, in honour of Caesar; and least this should stirre vp the peoples hearts against him to see him thus deuoutly prophane and prophanely deuout, he re­mitted to them the third part of the tributes. Hee consecrated Gaines, after the like Heathenish solemnitie, in honour of Caesar. to be celebrated euery fift yeare at Caesarea. He built also the Pythian Temple at Rhodes of his owne cost. He gaue yearely [Page 101] reuenue to the Olympian Games, for maintenance of the Sacrifices and solemnitie thereof: Quis in rapacitate auarior? Quis in largitione effusior? He robbed his owne to enrich (or rather vainely to lauish out on) others. He spared not the sepulchres of the dead. For the Sepulchre of Dauid had lent before to Hyrcanus three thousand talents of siluer; which filled him with hope of the like spoyle: and entring it with his choice friends, he found no money but precious clothes; and whiles he in a couetous curio­sitie searched further, he lost two of his companie, by flame (as fame went) breaking out vpon them. Hereupon he left the place, and, in recompence, in the entrie of the Sepulchre, built a monument of white Marble.

He built also Ios.de Bell. Iud.l.1.c.16. Sebaste in the Region of Samaria, wherein he erected a Temple, and dedicated a Court of three furlongs and a halfe of ground before it, to Caesar. Thus Caesar was made a God by him, who would not allow CHRIST a place among men, but, that he might kill him, spared not the infants of Bethleem, no not his owne sonne amongst the rest, as this his GOD iested of him Macrob. Sa­turn.l.2. , saying, That he had rather be He­rods Hogge then his Sonne. For his Iewish deuotion prohibited him to deale with Swine, but not Religion, not Reason, not Nature could protect those innocents from slaughter.

CHAP. IIII.

Of the Iewish Computation of Time, and of their Festiuall daies.

THe day amongst the Iewes was (as amongst vs) Naturall and Artifici­all: this from Sunne-rising to Sunne-setting, to which is opposed Night, the time of the Sunnes absence from our Hemisphere: that comprehended both these, called of the Greekes [...] contai­ning one whole reuolution of the Sunnes motion to the same point of the Horizon or Meridian, in 24. houres. This Plin.l.2.c.77. Fabrit.Paduani Catena temp.an.28. Scal.de Emend. Temp.l.1. Naturall day the Ba­bylonians began at the rising of the Sunne, the Athenians at the setting, the Vmbri­ans (as the Astrologians) at Noone, the Aegyptians and Roman Priests at Midnight, The Iewes agreed in their reckoning with the Athenians, as did the Galls in Caes.Com.l.6. Caesars time, reporting Pluto to be the Author of their Nation: and some reliques hereof is in our naming of time by a seuen-night and a fortnight; although otherwise we rec­kon the day betweene two midnights. The most naturall computation of this natu­rall day is to follow that order of Nature, wherein darknesse had the prioritie of time, Gen.1.5. and the euening and the morning were made one day, or the first day: which (sayth Hos­pinian Hospinian de fest.Ethnic.l.1.1. ) the Italian and Bohemian Clockes doe yet obserue. The day was not diui­ded of the first Hebrewes (before the Babylonian Captiuitie) into houres, but was di­stinguished by Vigiliae, or Watches, of which they had foure; the first began at eue­ning, the second at midnight, the third in the morning, the fourth at noone. Neither is there any Hebrew word signifying an houre; although some interprete the degrees of the Dyall of Ahaz Esa.38.8. to be houres; some (as Tremellius) halfe houres. Afterwards it was diuided into houres, 12. in the night, and as many in the day; not equall as ours, but longer or shorter, according to so many equall portions of the day or night: so that with them the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, houre was answerable with our houres of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, if we consider them in the Aequinoctiall, o­therwise they differed from our equall houres more or lesse, according to the vnequall lengthning or shortning of the dayes, but so, that an easie capacitie may conceiue the proportion. These houres sometimes they reduced into foure, the first containing the 1, 2, 3, or with vs the 7, 8, 9, houres: the second the 4, 5, 6, or after our reckoning 10, 11, 12, of the clocke, and so forwards. This was the Ecclesiasticall Computation, ac­cording to the times of Prayers and Sacrifices, imitated still in the Church of Rome in their Canonicall houres. Thus is Marke reconciled to himselfe and the other Euan­gelists, Mark.15.25. & 33. in relating the time of CHRISTS Passion, the first calling it the third houre [Page 102] when they crucified him, or led him to be crucified, whereas Iohn sayth, That it was about Ioh.19. the sixt houre when Pilate deliuered him. Thus may the parable of the Labo­rers in the Vineyard be vnderstood, Matth. 20. and other places of Scripture. The night also was diuided into foure Watches, each containing three houres, accor­dingly.

Seuen dayes were a Septimana, res omnibus quidem Orientis populis ab vltima vsque Antiquitate vsi­tata: nobis autē Europaeis vix tandē [...]ost Chri­stian smum re­ceptae. Scal. de Emend. T.l.1. weeke, whereof the seuenth was called the Sabbath; others had no peculiar name, but were called the first day of the weeke, or the first day of (or after) the Sabbath, and so of the rest. Their moneths, as with vs and the Grecians, tooke their name of the Moone, and with them also their measure, reckoning the order of their dayes according to the age of the Moone, and by courses they contained, one 30. dayes, the next 29, and therefore were constrained euerie second or third yeare to intercale, or adde, as in a Leape-yeare, one moneth of 22. dayes, and in euerie fourth yeare of 23. dayes. This they called Vcadar, that is, And-Adar, or Adar doubled. Veadar, because it followed the 12. moneth Adar, for the supply of 10. dayes, 21. houres, and 204. scruples, which the 12. moneths of the Moone came short of the yeare of the Sunne. And this they were forced to doe for the obseruation of the Passeouer, and their other Feasts. Ar. Montanus in his Daniel, or 9 booke of Iewish Anti­quities saith, That the aun­cient yeare had twelue moneths, as appeareth by the historie of Noah: but those moneths had no proper names, but of their order, the first, second, third moneth, &c. Those names which after they were knowne by, were Chal­dean. Before their Babylonian thraldome, foure onely of these moneths were knowne by proper names; the first cal­led Ethauim, the second Bul, the seuenth, which after was made the first, Abib; the eight Zif: but afterwards the rest receiued names, which had beene before distinguished onely by order, and the former names also were altered; that being reckoned the first moneth of the yeare, in which befell the 15. day of the Moone after the Aequinoctiall Vernall, and their names follow, Nisan, Iar, Sivan, Thamuz, Ab, Elul, Thischri, Mar­cheschvan, Cisleu, Tebeth, Schebath, Adar.

The Hebrew yeare, before Moses, began H spinian, Ar. Montanus in his Daniel, and others, begin the world in Autumne; but our English Church and Ioseph Scalliger suppose the world was cre­ated in the E­quinoctial ver­nall. And of this opinion is R Iehosua, Basil, Ambrose, Hie­rome, Augustine, Bed [...], Isidorus, Damascen, and other later Di­uines & Astro­nomers, whose reasons Hospi­nian laboureth to confute, & adhuc sub Iudice his est. at the new Moone next after the Autum­nall Aequinoctiall, that being supposed by some to be the time wherein the World was first created, euerie Plant and Tree hauing the fruit and seed ripe: and this recko­ning of the yeare, in ciuile affaires, is obserued of the Iewes vnto this day: and from hence they began their Iubilee and seuenth Sabbaticall yeare, least otherwise they should haue lost two yeares profits, not reaping the fruit of the old yeare, nor sowing in the next. Their Ecclesiasticall or festiuall yeare began at the Spring, as wee haue said asore, by the commaundement of GOD, at and in remembrance of their depar­ture out of Aegypt at the same time, Exod. 12. as with vs wee haue an Ecclesiasticall yeare moueable, according to the fall of Easter, differing from the Ciuill beginning at our Lady, as with others at Christmasse or New-yeares day.

Ios.Scal.de Emend, Temp.lib.4. Scaliger thus obserueth concerning the Iewish yeare. The Iewes (sayth he) vse a double reckoning of their yeare; one after the course of the Moone, the other after the Tekupha's or course of the Sunne. Tekupha Tekupha is the fourth part of a yeare. aunciently was that moment in which the passed yeare ended, and the following began. But the later Iewes diuided the yeare of the Sunne into foure equall parts, each whereof consisted of 91. dayes, 7. houres ½. And they diuide the said yeare into 12. equall parts, each containing dayes 30. houres, 10. 30. They begin at the fifteenth of Aprill, moued by the authoritie of R. Samuel an ancient Criticke, who ascribed the first Tekupha to that moneth which be­fore they began in Autumne: the reason was, because at that time Moses led the Israe­lites out of Aegypt. The moderne Iewes are so superstitious in the obseruation of their Tekupha's, that they esteeme it danger of life to alter their reckoning of them. They also attribute to each of them his proper element, as to the Tekupha Tamuz (the Summer Solstice) the Fire; and he which should drinke or eat in the moment of that Tekupha, they thinke should be taken with a burning feauer. Tekupha Nisan is on the fifteenth of Aprill, Tekupha Tamuz on the fifteenth of Iuly, Tekupha Tisrs on the foureteenth of October, Tekupha Tebeth on the foureteenth of Ianuarie. In times pas­sed they obserued superstitiously the beginnings of euerie moneth, thinking, that then the Sunne entred into that Signe which was attributed to that moneth. Now they on­ly obserue the foure Tropicall signes. Such is their folly, as though now the entrance of Aries were not more then fiue and thirtie dayes before the Tekupha of Moses. But [Page 103] their leaden braines know not what Tekupha is, nor why, nor when it was instituted. So much Scaliger.

If the new Moone happened after noone, then the moueth and their New-Moone Feast began the next day, and the yeare likewise, which began at the New Moone. Although, in regard of vse, some dayes were more holy then other, yet had euery day appointed Sacrifices Exod.29.38. Num.28. Leu.23. morning and euening.

Their Feasts were either weekely, of which was the Sabbath; or monethly, euerie New Moone; or yearely, of which were the Easter or Passeouer, Pentecost or Whitson­tide, the Feast of Tabernacles: These were chiefe, to which were added the Feast of Trumpets, of Expiation, and (as some accompt) of the Great Congregation At the end of the Feast of Tabernac. . To these we may reckon the seuenth yeares Sabbath, and the yeare of Iubilee. These Feasts GOD had prescribed to them, commaunding, that in those three principall Feasts e­uerie male (as the Iewes interpreted it, that were cleane, and sound, and from twentie yeares of their age to fiftie) should appeare there where the Tabernacle or Temple was, with their offerings, as one great Parish. Deut. 16. hereby to retaine an vnitie in diuine worship, and a greater solemnitie, with encrease of ioy and charitie; being bet­ter confirmed in that Truth, which they here saw to be the same which at home they had learned, and also better strengthened against the errors of the Heathen and idolatrous Feasts of Deuils. To these were after added vpon occasions, by the Church of the Iewes, their foure Fasts, in memorie of their calamities receiued from the Chaldaeans, their Feast of Lotts, of Dedication, and others, as shall follow in their order.

They began to celebrate their Feasts at Euen: so Moses is commaunded, Leu.23.32. From Euen to Euen shall ye celebrate your Sabbath: imitated in the Christian Euensongs on holy Euens: yet the Christian Sabbath is by some supposed to begin in the morning, because CHRIST did rise at that time.

CHAP. V.

Of the Festiuall dayes instituted by GOD in the Law.

AS they were enioyned to offer a Lambe in the morning, and another in the euening euery day, with other Prayers, Prayses, and Rites: so had the Sabbath a double honour in that kinde, and was wholly se­questred and sanctified to religious duties. Which howsoeuer it was ceremoniall, in regard of that seuenth day designed, of the Rites therein prescribed, of that rigid and strait obseruation exacted, of the particular workes prohibited, and of the deadly penaltie annexed, yet are we to thinke, that the eternall LORD, who hath all times in his hand, had, before this, se­lected some Time proper to his Seruice, which in the abrogation of ceremonies See lib.1.c.4. Le­gall, is in Morall and Christian dutie to be obserued to the end of the World: euen as from the beginning of the World he had sanctified the seuenth day to himselfe, and in the Morall Law (giuen not by Moses to the Iewes, but by GOD himselfe, as to all creatures) is the remembrance of that sanctification vrged. Friuolous are their rea­sons who would renew the Iewish Sabbath amongst Christians, tying and tyring vs in a more then Iewish seruitude, to obserue both the last and first dayes of the weeke, as some haue preached, and of the Aethiopian Churches is practised. Neither can I subscribe to those, who are so farre from paying two, that they acknowledge not the debt of one vpon diuine right, but onely in Ecclesiasticall courtesie, and in regard of the Churches meere constitution; and haue thereupon obtruded on many other dayes as religious respects or more, then on this (which yet the Apostles entitled in name and practise the LORDS day) with the same spirit whereby they haue equalled traditions to the holy Scriptures.

[Page 104] Thus Cardinall Tolet Tolet. In­struct. lib.4. c.24,25. allowes on the LORDS day Iourneying, Hunting, Wor­king, Buying, Selling, Fayres, Fencing, and other priuate and publike workes, by him mentioned: and sayth, a man is tied to sanctifie the Sabbath, but not to sanctifie it well: (a new kinde of distinction) the one is in hearing Masse, and ceasing from seruile workes; the well-doing it, in spirituall contemplations &c. Another Bellarm. de cultu sanct.l.3.c.10. Cardinall is as fast as he is loose, affirming, That other holy-dayes also binde the conscience, euen in cases void of contempt and scandale, as being truly more holy then other dayes, and a part of diuine worship, and not onely in respect of Order and Politie.

But to returne to our Iewish Sabbath. Plutarch thought, that the Sabbath was deriued of Σαβὰζειν which signifieth, to keepe Reuell-rout, as was vsed in their Bacchanals of [...] which is interpreted Bacchus, or the sonne of Bacchus, as Coelius Rhodiginus Coel.Rhodig. Lect.Antiq.l.4.c.15. sheweth out of Amphitheus and Mnaseas; who is therefore of opinion, That Plutarch thought the Iewes on their Sabbaths worshipped Bac­chus, because they did vse on that day to drinke somewhat more largely (a Sab­batising too much by too many Christians imitated, which celebrate the same ra­ther as a day of Bacchus, then the LORDS day. Apoc.1.10. ) Bacchus his Priests were called Sabbi, Plutarch. Sympos.lib 4. [...] of this their reuelling and misse-rule. Such wide coniectures wee finde in others, whereas the Hebrewes call it Sabbath, of [...] which signifieth to rest, be­cause of their vacation to diuine Offices, and not for idlenesse, or worse employ­ments. And for this cause all the festiuall Solemnities in the Scripture E [...].20.12. are styled with this generall title and appellation, as times of rest from their wonted bodily seruices. Likewise their seuenth yeare was Sabbathicall Leuit.25. 2. , because of the rest from the labours of Tyllage. In those feasts also, which consisted of many dayes solem­nitie, the first and last were Sabbaths Leuit.23. , in regard of the strictnesse of those dayes rest.

Luke Luk.6.1. hath an obscure place, which hath much troubled Interpreters with the difficultie thereof, [...] our English reades it, The second Sabbath after the first. Isid.in Thom. Catena. I sidore sayth it was so called of the Pascha and Azyma comming together. Chrysostome thinkes (as Sigonius cites him) it was when the Car.Sigon.de Rep.Heb. l.3.c.13. New Moone fell on the Sabbath, and made a double Festiuall. Sigonius, when they kept their Passeouer in the second moneth. Stella in Luc. c.6. Stella takes it for Manipulus Frugum, alledging Iosephus his Author. Ambros. in Luc. Ambrose, for the Sabbath next after the first day of the Easter Solemnitie. Hospin. de fest. Iudeor.c.3. Hospinian, for the Octaues or last day of the same: Maldonat. in Matth.12. Maldonatus, for the Feast day of Pentecost, which was the second of the chiefe Feasts: But Ioseph Scaliger Scaliger.Can. Isag. l.3. sayth, That the second day of the Feast was called [...] (being the sixteenth day of the moneth, called Ma­nipulus Frugum) and the Sabbaths which fell betwixt that and Pentecost receiued their denomination in order from the same; Secundo-primum, secundo-secundum, &c. And hence doth Luke call that first Sabbath which fell after that [...] or second day of the Feast, [...]. Of this wee shall haue occasion to say more when wee come to the Samaritans. Infra, cap.9. The name Sabbath is also taken for the Luc.18.12, bis in Sabbat. whole weeke. But I list not to stand on the diuers significations of the word.

Ios. de Bell. Iud.l.7. c.24. Inter Arcas & Raphanaeas. Plin. l.31.c.2. in Iudaea. Iosephus and Plinie tell of a Riuer in Syria, in the Kingdome of Agrippa, called Sabbaticus, which on other dayes ranne full and swift, on the Sabbath rested from his course. Petrus Galatinus P. Galat. de Arcan.l.11.c.9. alledgeth the ceasing of this Sabbaticall streame for an argument of the abrogation of the Iewish Sabbath.

The Iewes were superstitiously strict in the obseruation of their Sabbath: Ptolo­mey without resistance captiuating their Citie and themselues by this aduantage, as did Pompey afterwards. And in the dayes of Matathias, father of Iudas Macca­beus, a thousand were murthered without resistance, till that by him they were bet­ter aduised: which appeared by the Pharisees, that cauilled at the plucking and rubbing of a few eares of Corne, by the hungrie Disciples, and at their Master for healing on that day, though by his word: Which their superstition, the Iew that fell into a Priuie at Maidenburg, 1270, on his Sabbath, and another at Tewskburie, 1220, (and were, the one by the Bishop of the Place, the other by the Earle of [Page 105] Glocester constrained to abide the Christian Sabbath, whence on their owne they would not be freed) testified to the world by a stinking penance, and the later leauing also his stinking superstitious soule behinde to seale his deuotion. They added of their owne, fasting that day till Noone, their Sabbath dayes iourney, which was (saith S. Ie­rome) In vita Iose­phi. by the institution of Barachibas, Simcon and Hellis, (Rabbines) not aboue 2000. paces Dras. saith 2000, Cubites, his authors are the Chaldee paraphrast. Iarius. Throphil. Occumenius giueth the reason, because the Arke and Tabernacle did so farre goe before the people. or two miles. Thus did this holy ordinance, which God had instituted for the refreshing of their bodies, the instruction of their soules, and as a type of aeternall hap­pinesse, vanish into a smoakie superstition amongst them. The sacrifices and accusto­med rites of the Sabbath are mentioned. Num.28.&Leuit.23.& 24. Where we may reade, that the dayly burnt-offering, and meate-offering, and drinke-offering, were doubled on the Sabbath, and the shew-bread renewed, &c.

The sanctification of dayes and times being a Hooker l.5. Ecclesiast.Polit. token of that thankefulnes and a part of that publike honour which we owe vnto God, he did not onely enioyne, by way of perpetuall homage, the sanctification of one day in seuen, which Gods immutable Lawe doth exact for euer, but did require also some other part of time with as strict exaction, but for lesse continuance; besides accepting that which being left arbitra­rie to the Church, was by it consecrated voluntarily vnto like religious vses. Of the first of these (the Sabbath) we haue spoken: of the Mosaicall Feasts, the New­Moones are next to be considered. The institution hereof we reade, Num.28. and the solemne sacrifice therein appointed: so to glorifie God, the Author of time and light, which the darkened conceipts of the heathens ascribed to the planets and bo­dies coelestiall, calling the monethes by their names. Besides their sacrifices they banquetted on this day, as appeareth by 1.Sam.20.5. Dauid and Saul: Where the day after was festiuall also, either so to spend the surplusage of the former dayes sumptuous sacri­fice, or for a farther pretext of religion and zeale, as Martyr P. Mart in 1.Sam. hath noted. Sigonius Sigon.de Rep: Heb.l.3.c.4. maketh these New-moone dayes to be profestos, that is such wherein they might la­bour, the sacrificing times excepted: but those couetous penny-fathers seeme of an other minde. When Amos 8.5. (say they) will the New-moone bee gone that we may sell corne, and the Sabbath that wee may sellwheate: and Es. I. the Sabbaths and New-moones are reckoned together.

Their Passeouer, called of them Poesach, so called of the Angels passingouer the Israe­lites in the common destruction of the Aegyptian first born. For Poesach, the Grecians vse Pascha; of [...] to suffer, fitly in regard of the body of that shadow CHRIST himselfe, who 1.Cor.5.7. was our Paschall Lambe, in his suffering sacrificed for vs.

The institution of this Feast is set down Exo. 12. as Hospiniax hath noted in the yeere after the creation of the world. 2447. Scaliger & Caluisius account 2453. Lydiat 2509. others otherwise. after the floud 791. after the promise made to Abram, 430. it was celebrated from the fifteenth to the one and twenty day of the moneth Abib or Nison, those two daies being more especially sanctified with a holy Conuocation and abstinence from worke, except the dressing of their meat: the other being obserued with vnleauened bread: and the fourteenth day being the Parascene, or preparation in the euening of which fourteenth day, as some men hold opiniō, after sun set in the twi-light, others in the fourth howre, or fourth part of the day, as containing three houres space, before the going downe of the Ios.de Bel.7.17. saith à nona vsque ad vndecimam hostias coedun [...]. sun, the Paschal Lambe was slaine, about which time (the ninth houre) Christ, the true Pascha, yeelded vp the ghost. From which ninth hower the Iewes began their Vespera or Euening: and therefore it vvas inioyned them inter duas Vesperas, to kill the Passeouer.

This Lambe or Kidde was chosen a male of a yeere olde, the tenth day of the moone, which they kept till the fourteenth day tied (after their traditions) to the foote of some bench or forme, so to minister occasion to their children, of questioning a­bout it, to themselues of preparation and meditation, and to espie in this meane while, if any default were in the Lambe. It vvas first a priuate sacrifice to be perfor­med in euery house, after in that place ouely where the Tabernacle or Temple was, they there dispersed by companies, according to Iosephus, not fewer then ten, somtime twenty, in a company; with Christ there were thirtie: and of these sacrifices and com­panies in time of Cestins, were numbred 256500. so that reckoning the least num­ber [Page 106] there were ten times so many, besides those that by diseases or other manifold lets were not partakers thereof: and in regard of this Feast beeing assembled thither through Gods iust iudgement, their whole huge multitudes were couped or caged together in the walles of this Citie to destruction, vnder Titus.

The bloud of the Lambe they were to receiue in a vessell, and to sprinkle the same with a bunch of Hysope on the doore postes, and to eate it in the night, which was the beginning of the fifteenth day, roast with fire, with sowre hearbes, and vn­leauened bread, both the head, feete, and purtenance; girded, shod, with staues in their hands, in hast, standing, burning whatsoeuer was left of the same. There are that Hovinian. thinke, that after the eating the sacramentall Lambe, standing, they had other proui­sion which they eat sitting, Lipsius. or after their manner of lying at table, in remembrance of their libertie, as appeareth by Iohns leaning on his breast, and Iudas his soppe at Christs Supper. They were in the euen of the fourteenth day to purge their houses of leauen, and that throughout the land, where the Lambe might not bee eaten. All the Israelites were enioyned this duty: and they which by occasion of iourneying or vn­cleannesse could not now celebrate the Passeouer, were to obserue it the next mo­neth. Num.9..

The day after, or second day of this Paschall Feast, they were to bring to the Priest a Gomer of the first-fruits of their corne, and a Lambe, with other duties for a burnt offering to the Lord: before which time they might not eate of the new yeares fruits, which at that time in those countries began to ripen, and so to acknowledge God the giuer thereof. Philo.Iud de vita.Mos.l.3. Philo saith, that each priuate man, which otherwise brought in his sacrifice to the Priest, sacrificed or slew this sacrifice with his owne hands: and elsewhere In decalog. he affirmeth the same. Eleazarus, Hospin. de fe­stis. Iud.c.3. Maldonat. in Mat.26. or as other say the Synedrium, ordained 350. yeares before the birth of Christ, that the Passeouer should not bee solemnized on the second, fourth, or sixt day of the weeke: and therefore when it fell on the sixt day, which we call Friday, it was deferred to the seuenth, at the time of Christs Pas­sion, and hee with his Disciples eate it the night before, according to the law of God.

This Eleazarus ordained, that the Feast of Lots should not bee celebrated on the second, fourth, or seuenth: Or Pentecost on the third, fift, or seuenth: Or that of the Tabernacles on the first, fourth and sixt: Or the Fast of Expiation, on the first, third, or sixt: Or their New-yeares day, on the first, fourth, and sixt, which decree is extant in the booke of Gamaliel, Paules Mr. which they did superstitiously, to auoide two Sabbaths (in so strict a rest) together, and carrying boughes on the Sabbath, if that feast fell thereon, and on other such reasonlesse reasons,

After this sixteenth day of the moneth, or second day of vnleauened bread, in which first of all sickle was thrust into the haruest, to offer the first fruits thereof vnto God, were numbred seuen intire weekes, and the next day which was the fiftieth, (accoun­ting inclusiuely) was celebrated the Feast of Pentecost, receiuing his name of that rec­koning of fifty: and Schefuoth, that is, of weekes, because of this reckoning of seuen weekes, it is called also the Feast of the haruest of the first fruits: Exod.23.16. the rites thereof are prescribed. Leu. 23. The institution was in respect of the lawe then giuen on Mount Sinai, and a type of that Euangelicall law, which Christ, hauing ascended vp on high, did write not in Tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart, when (at the same Act. 2.4. time) he gaue the holy Ghost to his Disciples, as a remembrance also of the author of their haruest-fruits and euery good gift.

As the seuenth day in the weeke, so the seuenth moneth in the yeare, was in a great part festiuall: fittest for that purpose, as the fruits of the Earth being now inned.

The first day of this moneth vvas, besides the ordinarie Kalendes or Festiuall New-moone, the Feast of Trumpets, in respect of that rite then obserued of soun­ding Trumpets, being their New-yeares day, after the ciuill account: the institution is read Leu. 23. and Num. 29. Whether, as some of the Rabbines vvill haue it, for Isaacs deliuerance, that in remembrance of that Ramme, these Rams-horne trumpets should be sounded, or in regard of their warres, or in respect of that spirituall warre­fare which continueth our whole life, or that this was so festiuall a moneth, [Page 107] or the beginning of their yeare for ciuill accounts, and for the Sabbaticall and Iubilec­yeares or for some other cause, let the wiser reader iudge.

On the tenth day of this moneth was the Feast or Fast of Reconciliation or Expiation, a day of publike penance, fasting & afflicting themselues, described in Leu.16. through­out the chapter, and chap. 23. wherein is liuely in that type shewed the office of IE­SVS CHRIST, the eternall high Priest, who hath alone wrought our atonement, entered into the Holy place of heauen, and laide our finnes on the scape-Goate, bea­ring them, and satisfying for them in his owne person on the Crosse, and by the sprink­ling of his bloud sanctified vs for euer to GOD his Father. Paul. Heb.9. doth vnsold the mysterie of this dayes rites, wherein onely, the High Priest alone might enter into the holy place, and himselfe alone performe the other offices of Expiation. The Iewes thought, that this fasting & afflicting themselues was in respect of their Idolatry with the golden Calfe, and therefore it seemed, that in Theodorets Theodoret qu. 32.in Leuit. time they did not afflict themselues, but sported rather in obscene and profane manner. The sacrifices are set downe. Num.29.8.9.10.11.

The next Feast was that of Tabernacles; in remembrance that howsoeuer they now dwelleu in strong Cities, goodly houses, &c yet their fathers liued in tents in the wildernes, where God by a cloud in the day time, and fire in the night, protected that people. It is expressed Leu. 23. Num.29 Deut.16. It was obserued from the fifteenth to the one and twentith, the first and last of them being (as at the Passeouer) more solemnely feastiuall, with abstinence from labour, and a generall Conuocation. They were the first day to take boughes & branches of trees, and to make therwith boothes, and to dwell in boothes seuen dayes. This was neglected from the time of Iosuah, till the dayes of Nehemiah, Nebem.8. when hee and Ezra solemnized this Feast seuen daies vvith boothes on their house-tops, and in their Courts and streets, with lectures euery day out of the Lawe, and solemne assembly on the eight day. The Hebrewes report that they made them bundles of that matter, which they carried, euery day of the seuen, vp & down in the morning before they might eate, wherevpon it was called the Feast of Palmes or Willowes. The seuenth day saith Paulus Fagius, Fag.in cap. Leu.23. they compassed the Al­tar with these boughes seuen times, in remembrance of the fall of Iericho. Andrew Osiander, And Osiand. Annot. Harmon. Euan.l.3.c.36. affi meth that they vsed this carrying about boughes euery day, especially the seuenth, in which they obserued a kinde of procession or Letany singing, Ana Iehoua Hosanna ana Iehoua hatz elicha-na: first reckoning vp a great number of the names of God, then of his attributes: thirdly, of the things which they wish to be saued, then of themselues and other things interlacing euery particular of these with singing Ho­sanna, like their Ora pro nobis in the Popish Letany. Then they alter it in another form, Pray redeeme the Vine of thy planting, Hosanna, &c. then in another, As thou sauedst the strong, in Egypt, when thou went'st out for their deliuerance, so Hosanna, &c. Then in a longer forme of prayers, with this foote of the song Hosanna: and lastly all rings Hosanna, Hosanna: and herevpon the later Iewes called this Feast Hosanna, as also those bundles of boughes: and although that the later Iewes haue now added much, 21 moth. 9. the Iewes of Italy differing from them of Germany, yet in Christs time the acclama­tions of Hosanna, when he came riding on an Asse into Ierusalem, testifie some such obseruation then amongst them.

The sacrifices of euery day are designed Num. 29. The first day, thirteene bullockes, the second, twelue, and euery day one lesse to the seuenth: in all 70 (as the Rabbines interpret it) according to the number of the 70. languages of the Nations, which shall be subdued to the Messias; and 98. Lambes, in respect of so many curses in the lawe, against the transgressing Israelites.

The eight day was the Feast which they called Haaziph, Iob.7.37. Num, 29.35. and Azaereth, that is Colle­ction, called also the great day of the Feast, in the two and twentith day of this mo­neth Tisri. In this they were to Contribute to the continuall sacrifices, and publike thanksgiuing was made for the fruits of the Earth, and the first fruits of the later fruits were offered. Ieroboam Hospin.de fest. c.7. in an irreligious policie remoued the Feast of Tabernacles from the seuenth moneth to the eight, from Tisri to Marchesuan.

[Page 108] The seuenth yeare was appointed a Sabbaticall yeare wherein they were neither to so we nor to reape, but to leaue that which should voluntarily grow in their fieldes and yards to the poore, and secondly should not, exact debt of their brethren of the same Nation, but remit it. Deut. 15. Exod.23. Leu. 25. and the obseruation here of is expressed in the time of Nehemiah Nehem.10.31.

After seuen times seuen yeares which make fortie nine, they were to reckon Iobel or yeare of Iubilee. Leu. 25. beginning on the day of Reconcilation: Wherein seruants were freed, debts remitted, possessions, that had beene alienated, returned, the lawe allowing no further sales, proclaimed with sound of a Trumpet of a Rammes-horne, and therefore called Iobel, which signifieth a Ramme, or Rammes-horne.

Touching this yeare of Iubilee is much controuersie. The auncient Authors ac­count it the fiftieth yeare. Scaliger Ios.Scal. Ani­mad.in Euseb. pag.1 [...]. refuseth their authoritie herein. Many moderne writers hold the same opinion, as Hospin. de Temp. & de Fest. Iud. Hospinian, Melan. Chron. l. [...]. Melancthon, Fabritius Fab. Pad. Ca­tenatemp.annul. 40. Paduanus, &c. Caluis.Isag [...]ge c.23. Caluisius at large disputed this question against Crentzhemins and Bucholcerus, by diuers arguments proouing that the Iubilee was but fortie nine yeares complete, and that the fiftieth yeare was the first onwards of another Iubilee or Sabbath of yeares: Yet is this space reckoned by fiftie, as Ouid calles the Olympiad, quinquennis Olym­pias; Aristophanes, Aristoph. in Pluto. & Ausonius Ansonius de ludis. affirming the like: and yet the Olympiade is but foure yeares complete, and reckoned from the fifth to the fift exclusiuely. Other­wise they should haue had two Sabbaticall yeares togither, namely the forty ninth being the seuenth yeare, and the next which was the fiftieth yeare. As for the later writers, they might be deceiued by following the streame, and beguiled by the Po­pish Iubilee, which Boniface the eight, before called Benedictus, (and yet neither vvas good sayer nor dooer) instituted, Anno 1300. to be obserued euery hundreth yeare: and Clement the sixt abridged to the fiftieth: as Auentinus, Trithemius, Cranizius, and other haue written. Whether they were heathenish in imitating the Ludi secula­res, or Iewish in following the legall Iubilee: Certaine it is, Rome thereby becomes a rich mart, where the Apec. 18.11. Marchants of the Earth resort from all places of the Earth to buy heauen: and Babylon V.16. the great Citie is cloathed in fine linnen and purple and scarlet, and gilded with gold and precious stone and pearles, with the games of her wares giuing in exchange V.13. the soules of men washed from their sinnes; A thing more preci­ous to CHRIST then his most precious bloud. But his pretended Vicars haue learned to effect it (the filling of their purse) with greater ease: deuout Pilgrims from all parts, visiting Saint Peters staires, whence they goe truely Saint Peters heires, Act.3.6. Sil­uer and gold haue I none, and yet finde their pardons too cheape to be good. But to returne to our Pilgrimage, and to obsserue the obseruation of the Iewish Iubilee; This Feast was partly ciuill in regard of the poore, of the inheritances, of the Israe­litish Families, specially that of the Messias, and of the computation of times, as a­mongst the Greekes by Olympiads, and amongst the Romanes by Lustra and Indicti­ons: partly also it was mysticall in regard of the Gospell of CHRIST, preaching li­bertie and peace to the Conscience, the acceptable yeare of the Lord.

And thus much of those Feasts which God himselfe instituted to this Nation: which how the Iewes of later times haue corrupted, and doe now superstitiously ob­serue, instituting others also of their owne deuisings, shall bee handled in due place. Wee are next to speake of those Feasts, which vpon occasions they imposed vpon themselues before the comming of CHRIST: to which we will adde a briefe Ka­lendar of all their Fasts and Feasts.

CHAP. VI.

Of the Feasts and Fasts, which the Iewes instituted to themselues: with a Kalendar of their feasts and fasts through the yeare as they are now obserued.

THE Prophet Zacharie, in his 7. and 8. Chapters mentioneth certaine fasting dayes which the Iewes by Ecclesiasticall Iniunction obserued. One in the tenth day of the tenth moneth, because that on that day Ie­rusalem began to be besieged. 2. Reg. 24. A second fast was obser­ued on the ninth day of the fourth moneth, in remembrance that then the Chaldeans entred the Citie.

A third fast they held on the ninth day of the fift moneth in respect of the Citie and Temple burned on that day, First by Nabuchodonosor: Secondly by Titus, on the same day: which the Iewes doe yet obserue with strict penance, going barefoote and sit­ting on the ground, reading some sad historie of the Bible, and the Lamentations of Ieremie, three times ouer.

Their fourth fast they celebrated on the third day of the seuenth moneth, in re­membrance of Godoliah slaine by Ismael, Ier.41.42. 2.Reg.vlt. To these are reckoned the fast of Ester, in the thirteenth day of Adar, their twelfth moneth; and on the seuenteenth day of the fourth moneth, in the remembrance of the Tables of the Lawe broken by Moses: the institution whereof seemeth to bee late, seeing the scripture doth not mention it. In this moneth the Aegyptians kept the feast or fast of their O­firis, lamenting for him, which seemeth to be the same that is mentioned. Ezech. 8 Where women are said to mourne for Tamuz, whom Plutarch calleth Amuz, and from thence deriueth Iupiters title of Ammon. Of him was this fourth moneth called Tamuz.

On the Ester.9.21. fourteenth and fifteenth dayes of Adar, they kept the feast of Phurim, or lots instituted in remembrance of that deliuerance from Haman; by the authoritie of Ioachim the high Priest, as Funccius relateth out of Philo. Anno M. 3463. Caluis.3477. Antonius Margarita a christned Iew, reporteth that on these dayes the Iewes read the historie of Ester, and so often as Haman is mentioned, they smite on their seates with their fistes and hammers, otherwise spending the time of this feast in Bacchanall riots and excesse.

They had the feast also of wood-carrying called [...] mentioned by Ioseph.de bells Iud.l.2.c.17. Iosephus, in which the custome was for euery one to carry wood to the Temple to maintaine the fire of the Altar.

The Feast of Dedication, otherwise called the Feast of Lights, and the institution thereof is largely described. Mac.4. in remembrance of the restitution of diuine wor­ship and sacrifice in the Temple, which had been by Antiochus polluted, and sacred to Iupiter Olympius, all the seruices appointed by the law being abolished. By Iudas Ma­cabeus, the Temple and Altar, and other holy instruments, were dedicated the same day three yeares after their first pollution, called therfore the Feast of Lights, as I thinke saith Ios.Ant.12.c.2. Iosephus, because so vnexpected a light shone forth vnto them. But Franciscus Iunius, in his Annotations vpon the Syrian translation of the tenth of Iohn, where this Feast is mentioned, alledgeth out of the Talmud an other cause as followeth. When on the 25 day of Cislen they entered into the Temple, they found not pure oyle, except in one little vessell, which contained sufficient for the lampes but one day, of vvhich oyle they lighted the lampes in order, which lasted eight daies, till they prested out of the Oliues cleane Oyle. And therefore the Wise-men of that time decreed, that yearely those eight dayes beginning at the 25. of Cisten should be dayes of ioy, and that euery one in the doores of their houses euery euening during those eight daies should light lampes, for declaration of that miracle, wherein they must not fast nor lament.

Likewise I.Mac.13.is ordained festiuall the 23. day of Iar, for the expiation of the Tower of Ierusalem by Simon Mac.

[Page 110] Sigonius reckoneth also the feast of Iephta, in the end of the yeare, which yet is not like to haue continued in succeeding ages: and of the fire that wee haue mentioned in 2.Mac.1. and the Feast of Iudith, for killing Holofernes: and on the fourteenth day of Adar, for the victory against Nicanor, Ios.l. 12. Their later feasts I shall men­tion, and declare their seuerall ceremonies, when wee come to speake of their later times, and of the present Iewish superstition. In the meane time I thinke it not amisse to set downe here out of Scaliger, a view or Kalendar of their monethes, with the feasts and fasts, as they are obserued therein at this day.Ios.Scal.Can.Isag.l.1.c.6.

TISRI habet dies 30
Tisri Plenus. 1. Clangor Tubae 3. Ieiuntum Godoliae qui cum Iudoe's occidebatur in Mazpa. Ier. 41. 5. Ieiunium. Moriuntur 20. Israelitae. Rabbi Akiba filius Ioseph conij­citur in vincula vbi moritur. 7. Ieiunium. Decretum contra Patres nostros, vt persrent gla­dio, fame, ac peste, propter vitulum fabricatum. 10. Ieiunium Kippurim. 15. Scenope­gia. 21. [...] 22. Octaua Scenopegias. 23. Festiuitas Legis.
Marches. 29.
Marches. Cavus. 7. Ieiunium: Excaecarunt oculos Sedekiae &c. post. 29. Intercalatur dies vna in Anno pleno.
Casleu. 30.
Casleu plenus. 25. Encoenia. 28. Ieiunium: Ioiakim combussit volumen quod scripser at Baruch dictante Ieremia. 30. Eximitur dies in Anno defectiuo.
Tebeth.29.
Tebeth Cavus. 8. Ieiunium. Scripta est lex Graece diebus Ptolemaei Regis. Tenebrae tri­duo per vniuersum orbem. 9. Ieiunium. Non scripserunt Magistri nostri quare ea dies no­tata. 10. Ieiunium. Obsidetur Ierusalem à rege Babylonis.
Sebat.30.
Sebat plenus. 5. Ieiunium: Moriuntur Seniores qui fuerunt aequales Iosue filij Nun. 23. Ieiunium. Congregati sunt omnes Israelitae, contra Beniaminem propter pellicem & idolum Micha. 30. Locus Embolismi.
Adar.29.
Adar Cavus. 7. Ieiunium. Moritur Moses Magister noster qui in pace quiescit. 9. Ieiunium: Schola Sammai & schola Hillel inter se contendere coeperunt. 13. Festiuitas de­creta: interficitur Nicanor. 14. Maidochaeus Phurim.
Nisan 30.
Nisan plenus 1. Ieiunium. Mortui sunt filij Aaron. 10. Ieiunium. Moritur Mari­am. Eligitur agnus mactandus 14. die. 14. PASCHA. Exterminatio Fermenti. 15. Azyma. 16. [...] Manipulus frugum, [...] 21. Solemnitas finis Azymorū. 23. [...] 26. Ieiunium. Moritur Iosue filius Nun. 30. [...]
Iiar.29
Iiar cavus 7. [...] 10. Ieiunium. Moritur Eli Pont. Max. & ambo silij eius: capitur arca testimonij. 14. [...] 21. [...] 23. Solemnitas. Simon Gozans capit. 28. [...] Ieiunium: Moritur Samuel Propheta. plangitur abomnt populo.
Sivvan.30
Sivvan plenus 6. [...] 23. Ieiunium. Desistunt ferre primogenita & primitias Ierosolymae in diebus Ieroboam filij Nabat. 25. Ieiunium. Occiditur Rabban Simeon filius Gamaliel, Rabbi Ismael, R. Hanania secundus a pontificib. 27. Ieiunium. Conbustus est Rabbi Ha­nina filius Tardic [...]vnà cum libro legis.
Tamuz.29.
Tamuz Cavus 17. Ieiunium. Franguntur Tabulae legis. Cessat [...]. vrbs fissa. Epistemon cremat librum legis. Ponit statuam in temple.
Ab. 30.
Ab plenus. 1. Ieiunium. Moritur Aharon Pontifex. 9. Ieiunium. Decretum contra patres nostros ne ingrederentur in terram Iudaeam. Desolatio Templi prioris & posterioris. 18. Ieiunium. Extincta est Lucerna vespertina in diebus Ahaz.
Elul. 29.
Elul cavus. 17. Ieiunium. Moriuntur Exploratores qui diffamaverant terram. 22. Xy­lophoria.

As for the Sabbaoths. New-moones, and dayes not solomnized with feasting or fa­sting, I haue passed ouer in this Kalendar, as impertinent, or needelesse.

CHAP. VII.

Of the ancient Oblations, Gifts, and Sacrifices of the Iewes: and of their Priests, and persons Ecclesiasticall, and Religious.

ALthough Moses doth handle this matter of their Rites and Sacrifices, and is herein seconded and interpreted by the succeeding Prophets, so fully, that it may seeme a powring of water into the Sea, to speake needlesly, or by our Discourse, to obscure, rather than illustrate, that which is so largely and plainely there expressed; yet because of that subiect which we haue in hand, I cannot altogether be silent (at least of the kinds and heads) referring the desirous Reader for his more perfect satisfacti­on in particulars, to those cleerer propheticall fountaines. Their rites for time and place we haue already described: The next intended part of this Iewish relation shal be of their Oblations, which were either Gifts or Sacrifices. Their sacrifices were such oblations, wherein the thing offered was in whole or part consumed in diuine wor­ship, for the most part by fire or shedding of bloud. These were of eight Car.Sigon.de Republ. Heb.l.4. sorts. Burnt-offerings, Meate-offerings, Peace-offerings, Sinne-offerings, Trespasse-offerings. the offerings of Consecration. Cleansing and Expiation. Philo de Sa­crif. Philo reduceth them to three: Burnt, Peace and Sinne-offerings, according to the three causes of sacrificing; The worship of God the obtaining of good things, and freedome from euill.

The Burnt-offerings were by fire consumed, the rites and manner here of is expres­sed, Leuitic. 1. the fire was to be perpetuall on the Altar, being that which GOD miraculously sent from heauen to consume Aarons sacrifice; for neglecting which, and vsing other, his two sonnes Nadab and Abihu were stricken by a reuenging fire from GOD. The Meate offering was made of fine flower, without hony or leuen, and with oyle and incense on the altar, or frying panne, or ouen, or caldron, accor­ding to the rites prescribed, Leuit. 2. partly sacred to the LORD by fire, the rest to be the Priests. The Peace-offerings are with their proper ceremonies enioyned Leu. 3. and 7; the fat and kidneys were to be burned on the Altar (the fat and bloud be­ing vniuersally forbidden them for food) the breast and right shoulder was the Priests: the rest to the sacrificer, to bee eaten the first, or at furthest on the second day: or else on the third to be burnt with fire. The offering for sinnes of ignorance for the Priest, Prince, people or priuate man, is set downe Leu. 4. and 6. The Sinne-offe­ring in case of contempt, where the sinne is committed against GOD & man willing­ly, with the due maner therof is expressed, Leu. 6. To these were adioyned Prayers & praises, with musicall voices, and instruments, cymballs, violes, harpes, and trum­pets resounding For he is good, for his mercy endureth for euer. The sixt kind of sacri­fices was proper to the Priests at their consecration, recorded Le 6. 20. The seuenth mentioned sacrifice is of purification or cleansing, as of a woman after child-birth, Le. 12. or of a Leper 13. 14. or for vncleane issues of men and women, cha. 15. The eight is the sacrifice of Expiation or Reconciliation, on that festiuall or fasting day before spoken of, Le. 16. Hereunto may we adde the lights and the daily offring of incense, morning and euening, Exod. 20 on a golden altar, whereunto the Priests onely had accesse, with such perfume onely as is there prescribed.

The Gifts, which we haue reckoned a second sort of Oblations, that were not as the former in whole, or in part consumed in their offering, but preserued whole and sound, were giuen, either according to the Law, or by Vow, or of free will. The Law prescribed First-fruits & Tithes, and the personall halfe-shekel The first-fruits of Man, of beasts, and of the fruits of the earth, the Lawe exacteth, Exod. 22. 23. and are as­signed to the Priests, Num. 5 and 18. which, of men and vncleane beasts, were to be redeemed, of others to be sacrificed. Of Tithes. when we consider the assignement of them to the Tribe of Leui, we must so farre acknowledge them Leuiticall and Ce­remoniall. But some, considering the paying of them to a Priest, so soon as we reade [Page 112] of a Priest, 14 Gen.20 in Scripture, and that by the father of the faithfull (which the Apostle vr­geth against Leuiticall Ceremonies, in that Leui himselfe in Abraham paied them) and his nephew Iacob vowed the payment thereof so soone as GOD should giue him whereof to pay Tithes; and that (the first times of the Christian Church ex­cepted, wherein there was no such setled order for things of this and like nature) Tithes were paid to the Church, vntil the Arch-enemy of GOD and his Church, in his Antichristian supremacie robbed the Ministers of that due, which in GODS right they before held, impropriating the liuing of the Altar to them that liued not at the Altar but yet ordinarily leauing them to the Church (as they then accounted the Church): cannot so easily subscribe to that opinion perhaps more common then true, which disanull diuine right of the non-paying Tithes, as being then a Iewish and Leuiticall ceremonie. But I leaue the Reader to discusse this matter further, with Master Carlcton in his Treatise of that Argument; whose reasons, if they want weight in any mans iudgement, yet let the same consider an other supply, not at all fauoring of Iudaisme: namely, that M. Dow [...]am. Tithes are due to Christian Ministers by Vow: Christian Common-weales, and Counsells hauing consecrated them to GOD and his Church: neither is it now time after the Vowes to inquire, and without Diuine dispensation to alter it, without satisfaction sufficient. But leauing this sore too ten­der to be touched, and yet little touching and mouing some consciences pretended tender; let vs view the Tythes, as they then were, Iewish. In Leu. 27.30. is a decla­ration of the Lords right, All Tythes are the Lords; and an assignation of the same, Numb. 18.21. Behold, I haue giuen the children of LFVI all the tenth &c S. Hicron.super Ezech. Hie­rome reckons foure sorts of Tithes: first, that which the people paied to the Leuites: secondly, that which the Leuites hence paied to the Priests Num. 18.26. : Thirdly, that which they reserued for expence in their solemne feasts when they went to the Tabernacle or Temple Deut. 14.22. . The fourth was a third yeeres Tenth, which was then layd vp for the Leuite, and the poore amongst them Deut. 14.28. . The practise hereof Nehemiah restored in the reformation of Religion, Neha.10. when the First-fruits and Tenths were brought to the treasury or chambers of the house of GOD.

Besides First-fruits and Tithes, they payed to the treasurie personall offerings, as Exod. 10.12. euery man payed halfe a shekel, which the Hebrews interpreted to be perpetuall for the maintenance of the Sacrifices; others temporary, then onely put in practise. As for that collection 2. Reg.12. made by Ioas for the repayring of the Temple, and that after by Nehem.ca.10. the circumstances shew much difference. This treasury, in regard of this Poll-money, grew very rich, as appeared in I [...]s. Int. 14. 12. Crassus robbing the same of tenne thousand talents at one time, besides a great beame of gold, which Eleazarus the Treasurer, vpon Cressus his oath, (afterwards violated neuerthelesse) to redeeme the rest deliuered to him, weighing three hundred minae, euery mina being two pounds, two ounces, and a quarter Troy. Tully Cic.Pro Mu­rena. and other Authors mention these Oblations of the Iewes to their treasury yearely.

These Gifts and Offerings the Lawe exacted: they performed many other also, either of their Free-will or of Vow, otherwise little differing from the former, Leuit­vltim. Many other Ceremonies of their meates, garments, fastings, trumpets, and in other cases, I hope I shall haue leaue to omit in this place, and remit him that would further know of them to the Scripture it selfe: hauing pointed out the principall.

But by this is apparant, which Doctor Downam Downams Sermon of the Dignitie, &c. hath obserued, that all these be­ing deliuered them in the Lords treasury, without their labour or cost, together with their 48. cities assigned them, amounted to a farre greater proportion for the main­tenance of that small Tribe, then all the Bishoprickes, Benefices, Colledge-lands, or whatsoeuer other Ecclesiasticall indowments and profits in this land, although the prophane Ammonites or hypocriticall Cloysterers had neuer conspired to shaue off our 2.Sam.10. beards, and our garments by the buttocks, not leauing to D.Smith ser. Black-smith. couer our nakednes, or their shame: And yet how sicke is Ahab for Naboths vineyard? And would GOD we had no Iezabels to play the (too cunning) Physicians in this disease. Let me haue a little leaue to say no more then others (for the substance) in Bookes and Sermons [Page 113] haue said already: although those Bellies to whom wee speake, haue no eares. The first stroke which wounded vs, and causeth vs still to halt, was from Rome, the mo­ther of abhominations and rohoredomes. Here, as in the suburbs of Hell, were founded the Churches ruines: our Bulles of Bashan, (Abbey-lubbers, and Cloysterers) with the leaden hornes of those Roman Bulles haue pushed downe our Churches, (our Chauncells at least) and made them to fall into those Apoc. 18 2. Cages of vncleane Birds, the Popish Monasteries. Of nine thousand two hundred eighty and foure parishes in England, Camden Bri [...] ­tan. Edit. vlt. after M. Camdens account, three thousand eight hundred fortie fiue were (it is properly termed) impropriated. And who knoweth whether those Appropria­tions did not supplant these Supplanters, and dispropriate them of that which in a iuster proprietie was giuen them in their first foundations, for that three-fold main­tenance of themseluaes, of learning, and of the poore: yea happily yet (if we obserue the course of Diuine Iustice) we may see many, whose former inheritances haue by the additions of these, as of a contagious garment, beene infected, and haue either died, or bin sicke at the least, of this plague. How fitly and fully doe those wordes of Ha­bacuk Hab.2.9, 10, 11, 12. agree to the houses founded for religion, by this and like irreligion peruerted, and at last subuerted Vbi supra. They coueted an euill couetousnesse to their houses, they consulted shame to their owne houses, by destroying many people, and sinned against their owne soules. The stone hath cried out of the wall, and the beame out of the timber hath answered it, Woe vnto him that buildeth a towne with bloud, and erecteth a Citie by iniquite. Thus we see, the stones haue cried out of their walls indeede, and by their demolished heapes may receiue Labans name, Iegar sahadutha, the Gen.31.47. heape of witnesse, their ruines remaining testimonies of GODS iudgements. A violent streame (saith maister Camden Vbisupra. ) breaking through all obstacles, hath rushed out vpon the Ecclesiasticke state of this Land, and ouerwhelmed, to the Worlds wonder, and Englands griefe, the greatest part of the English Clergie, with their most beautifull buildings; and those riches which the Christian piety of the English had from the time of their first Christianity consecrated to GOD, were (as it were) in a moment dispersed, and (if I may so say) profaned.

Let none traduce me as a troubler of Israel, and a traducer of our Law and State, which haue thus both changed & setled these things. I inueigh against Absoloms con­spiracie, and Achitophels deuises, which were the troublers of Israel, and so disturbed the iust heart of righteous Dauid, that on the sodain hee a little forgat the exact rule: and commanded, Thon 2.Sam.19.29 and Ziba diuide the Lands. So (if loosers may haue leaue to speake) our Parliament (perhaps with some extasie of ioy, for remouing the sinks and stinckes of superstition) had in those busie times but negligent consideration of Mephibosheths right: and our Vicar-Mephibosheths, the Clergie then, did not much vrge it, yea we would still say of these our halting Zibaees, Let them take all, rather then wee should want our Lord and his Gospel, to come home to vs in peace. And in peace, let them rest which were Authors of this peace to vs; and let vs pray that a worse generation of vipers doe not arise, and that the Ioel 1.4. Canker-worme eate not what the Grashopper hath left, and the Caterpiller the residue of the Canker worme. I meane those Latron-patrons, and Patron-latrons, whereof these extend to the vtmost whatsoe­uer might, and whatsoeuer colour of right, in Exemptions, Customes, Let me haue the like liberty to inueigh a­gainst vices here, as Espen­saeus was allow­ed among the Papists, who speaking of the Romish proceedings, saith, Sedis A­postolice summ [...] iura, hoc est sum­mae, inioriae, pri­uilegia hoc est abusus, consue­tudines, hoc est, corruptelae: I speake only a­gainst abusers of law & right. Priuiled­ges and prauileges, whereby euery Iohn-a-Stile shall intercept the Churches due, or by a weightier fee, force a composition, or wrangle out some broken Title, or break the necke of the Case with a Prohibition: the other hauing a trust committed, ma­keth himselfe a bawd, and selleth his Church (which cost no meaner price then the bloud of CHRIST) for money. Oh Christ, ouerthrow the Tables of these Mony­changers, and with some whippe driue them, scourge them out of thy Temple, which supplant thy plantations, and hinder the gaining of Soules for gaine. With­stand these Balaams, which for Balaks blessing, care not what curse they bring vp­on Israel, which present for presents, and scrape to maintaine their carnall liuing, out of our spirituall Liuings; to bestow on their Hawkes, their Hounds, their! [Page 114] But whither hath this passion, or zeale (Truth I am sure) transported mee? True­ly, the fixed Starres in our Westminster firmament (and may not I so call it, where is such a Starre-chamber, shining with the bright beames of Iustice?) I admire, and almost adore in silence: onely those wandering planets, which selfe-guiltinesse accuseth, doe I here accuse.

And for these, and all the Churches enemies, Let GOD arise, and his ene­mies, (or their enmitie) bee scattered, that there be no more such t.Reg.21. Ahabs, as I mentioned, which hauing more then enough, seeme to haue nothing, as long as Naboth hath something which they can long for: and that there bee no Nehem.13. Eliashibs, which shall prouide Tobias the Ammonite a Chamber in the house of the LORD: that neyther any abuse the profession of Lawe, directly; nor the possession of Patro­nage, indirectly; (for abuses onely I taxe) so to discouer our Churches naked­nesse, that euerie Cham (the prophane Atheist, and superstitious Papist) may espie and deride the same, wherein themselues are the most guiltie amongest vs; although none are more readie to 1. Sam.1.20. tell it in Gath, or publish it in the streetes of Ash­kelon, that the daughters of Babylon may triumph.

After that wee haue spoken of the Times, Places, and Rites sacred to GOD, order requireth next to speake of those Persons, whose office and function it was to procure and mannage those Diuine and Religious affaires. And first, amongest the first Hebrewes, wee finde no Priest named before Abrahams time, in which Melchizedech was interpreted by the most, to be Shem the sonne of Noah. Fa­ther both of this and other Nations: and Maister Broughton hath written a whole Booke in confirmation heereof. The heads of Families then exercised the Priestlie office of teaching, praying, and sacrificing in their owne housholds, as we reade of Gen. 18.19. Abraham, Isaac, Genes.37. and Gen.49. [...] Iacob. After that, the first borne of all the Tribes of Israel were consecrated to this businesse, when as GOD had destroyed the first-borne of Aegypt, Exod.13.2.& 15. and these offered Sacrifices Exod.24.5. vntill that the Leuites were chosen in their roome; Num.3.41. GOD turning that propheticall curse of Iacob, of Gen.49.7. scat­tering them in Israel, into a blessing, for the instructing of the Israelites. The cause of this their consecration was, because they, Exod.32.29. in a zeale of GODS glorie, had sanctified their hands to this ministerie in the bloud of the neerest of their idola­trous kinred, that had sinned in adoring the golden Calfe.

Now in the third of Numbers, where the first-borne of the Israelites, and the Leuites are numbred, appeareth a difficultie, which most of the Interpreters which I haue read of that place, haue neglected: namely, that of the Israelitish first­borne there were found, from a moneth-old vpward, two and twentie thousand, two hundred seuentie and three, and of the Leuites, but two and twentie thousand; so that therefore there must be fiue shekels a peece payed for the redemption of e­uery of those two hundred seuentie and three in surplusage more then the Leuites; whereas yet in the parcells of the Leuiticall accompt, are found more of the Leuites then of the Israelites, as appeareth; the family of the Gershonites containing seuen thousand and fiue hundred, the Kohathites, eight thousand six hundred, and the family of Merari, sixe thousand and two hundred, which being added together, amount to two and twentie thousand and three hundred; and therefore are se­uen and twentie more then the Israelites. To this Lyra in Num. Diony [...] Carthus. Iun. addeth al­so in the number of Priests. Lyrae, Dionysius Carthusianus, and Iunius (for the most are wholy silent) answere, that those three hundred ouer and aboue the two and twenty thousand were first-borne themselues, and therefore in right of the former challenge of the first-borne, were the LORDS already. And if it seeme as much wonder, (which Authors obserue not) that of two and twen­tie thousand were but three hundred first-borne; But one of 74. That their exploit of executing their kinred for idolatrie (before mentioned) in which sinne, the first-borne, as Priests, were likeliest to haue followed Aaron, a chiefe man of their Tribe, might answere for me. And that cruell Edict Exod.9. of Pharao, and their miraculous fruitful­nesse, may make it lesse strange, that both in these Leuites there were so few first­borne, [Page 115] and in the other Israelites also, with whom amongst 603550. men from twen­ty yeres old vpwards, there were (though reckoning but from a month old, as is said) but 22273. which is little more then one of seuen and twenty, besides that inequa­litie of the persons numbred. This excursion vpon this occasion, wherein I haue found diuerse Interpretets mute, will (I hope) finde pardon with the Reader, who happily himselfe may finde some better resolution.

To returne to our Historie; GOD had before appointed Aaron to be high Priest, and his sonnes Exod.28. to be Priests, to whom the Leuites were assigned after (as wee haue said) as assistants in inferiour offices of the Tabernacle. Aaron, from whom is rec­koned the succession of the high Priests in the same office, had appointed to him eight holy garments, a breast-plate, an ephod, a robe, a broidred coat, a miter, a girdle, a plate of golde, and linnen breeches. Also his sonnes had appointed to them coates, and bonets, and girdles, and breeches: which their attire is described at large, Exo. 28. Iosephus writeth of the Stones there mentioned, That that on the Priests right shoulder shined forth very bright, when GOD was pleased with their Sacrifices, as did also those twelue in the breast-plate, when in the time of warre GOD would assist them, which ceased miraculously to shine two hundred yeeres before his time; or as the Talmudists say, from the building of the second Temple.

The consecration of the Priests, and rites thereof are mentioned, Exod. 29. The conditions required in the high Priest, as that he should not haue the bodily defects of blindnes, lamenes, maimednes, &c. nor should vncouer his head, and many other such like, are expressed, Leu. 21. His Leuit.244. office was daily to light the Lights at the eue­ning, and to burne incense at morning and euening, and once euery Sabbath to set the Shew-bread before the LORD to sacrifice, and once a yere to make recon­ciliation in the holy place, &c. This office they executed till the Captiuitie, after which they ruled also in the Common-wealth, and the family of the Maccabees ob­tained temporall and spirituall iurisdiction, being both Priests and Kings. But the state being vsurped by others, they also appoynted high Priests at their pleasures: and thus were Annas and Caiphas high Priests, although Caiphas alone admi­nistred the office, which was abrogated to Annas, the name onely remaining: and thus Iosephus saith, that Anna was most happie, who had himselfe beene high Priest, and seene all his sonnes in that office, whereas in the institution, and before the Cap­tiuitie, this office continued ordinarily with their liues: which after they enioyed longer or shorter, at pleasure of the Conquerour.

Next vnto the high Priest, were the Priests lineally descended from Eleazar and Ithamar the sonnes of Aaron, as in number many, so in their priestly rayments, consecration, condition, and office, much differing from the sormer, as appeareth; for their garments, Leuitic. 28. their consecration 29. their conditions required in them, Leu. 10. and 21. and their office in some things, as preaching, praying, sacrifi­cing, not much vnlike to the former, but in degree, sometime assisting him in these things, sometime alone, and in some things, nothing participating, as in Moses plainly may be seene. These priestly families, being of the house of Eleazar sixteen, and of Ithamar eight, which Dauid by lot distributed into foure and twenty orders, according to the number of the heads of families, those foure and twenty men, chiefe of those orders, being to the high Priest, as Aarons sonnes were vnto him in their ministery, 1. Chronic. 24. and tooke turnes by course, in perfourming of the same as Luke sheweth Lu.1.5. in the example of Zachary. Iosephus Ioseph. in App. & in vita. testifieth the same, and af­firmeth, That in each of these rankes were more then fiue thousand men in his time: and in the historie of his life, saith, that himselfe was of the first of these orders, betwixt which was no small difference, and the heads of these were called also Chiefe Priests Ez.8.Mar.14 Actes 4. in the old and new Testament.

The Leuites had the next place in the legall ministery: all that descended of Leui, except the family of Aaron, being thus called: and Num. 3. according to the des­cent of the three sonnes of Leui had their Offices assigned them, which so continued till the daies of Dauid. He distributed them according to their families vnto their [Page 116] seuerall functions, twentie foure thousand to the seruice of the Temple: six thousand to be Iudges and Rulers, foure thousand Porters, and foure thousand which praised the LORD vpon instruments. These were diuided vnder their Heads or Princi­palls according to their 1.Chr. 23.24, families. The Leuiticall Musicians, with their Offices and Orders are reckoned. 1. Chron. 25. and 2. Chron. 7. These in stead of the silken stole, which they ware, obtained in the dayes of Agrippa, to weare a linnen one, like the Priests. The Porters are in the 26. of 1. Chron. described according to their families, orders and offices. They kept, in their courses, the doores and treasures of the Tem­ple: to keep the same cleane, and to keep that which was vncleane out of the same: and these all are mustered in their offices 2. Chron. 35.

The Gibeonites, called after Nethanims, were at hand vnto the Leuites in the meanest offices about the Tabernacle and Temple, Ios. 9.21. and 1. Chro. 9. assigned hereunto first by Ioshu.1, after by Dauid and the Princes, for the seruice of the Le­uites to cut wood, and draw water, for the house of GOD, Ezra 8. Besides these Ecclesiasticall persons in the ordinarie ministerie of the temple, were other, which may no lesse be counted holy: either in regard of Vow, as the See the in­stitution of them, Num.6.2 Nazarites for a time: Sampson is an especiall example hereof, and Iames the Iust, brother of our LORD: or else they were Prophets by extraordinary calling, as Samuel, Esay, Ieremy, and o­thers: to whome GOD manifested his will by dreames, visions, and reuelations; whose ordinary habite seemes to be a rugged hairie garment, by the example of 2.Reg1.8. Isu.20.2. E­lijah, and the false Zach.13.4. Prophets, and of Mat.3.4. Iohn Baptist afterward. And thus much of those persons, which according to the Law were sacred to GOD: it followeth that we should obserue their superstitious deuoting of themselues, according to their owne deuises and traditions, vnto a supposed seruice of GOD. In a more strict ma­ner then ordinary, or some-way in opinion and practise differing both from the law, and the rest of the Iewish people. Of this kinde were many Sects, whereof wee are next to speake.

CHAP. VIII.

Of the diuers Sects, Opinions, and Alterations of Religion, a­mongst the Hebrews.

IN this matter of Alterations, and altercations amongest them about Questions and practise of Religion, we are in the first place to obserue their often apostacies Philastrius reckoning therein their idolatries, numb [...] eth 28. Iewith sects: and as Scaliger obserueth, and the Scripture will bcare i [...], might by that rule haue rec­koned many other. from the truth of the Lawe to the idolatrous superstitions of the neighbouring Nations: as the Reliques of their Aegyptian idolatry in the golden Calfe Exo. 32. their often murmu­rings in the desart, the presumption of Nadab and Abihu, and after of Aaron and Miriam, the conspiracie of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, Balaams stumbling-blocke, to couple them in idolatrous seruice to Baal-Peor, the idoll of the Moabites: And after their possession of the Land, when Ioshua and the Elders were dead, they serued Iud.2.12,13. the gods of the people that were round about them, as Baal and Ashtaroth: of the idoles and their rites is before spoken. And although Gideon cut downe the groue, and destroyed the altar of Baal, Iud.6.27. yet he made an Ephod of the eare­rings of the prey, and put it in Ophrah his Citie, and all Israel went a whoring there after it Iud.8.27,33. : and after his death, made Baal-berith their god. They serued also the GODS of Aram, Zidon, Moab, Ammon, Iud.10.6. and the Philistims: Michah lud.17 &18. an Ephramite made an house of gods, an Ephod, and Teraphim, and consecrated one of his sonnes to be his Priest; and after set a Leuite, Ionathan, in his roome, the occasion of a­postacie to a great part of the Tribe of Dan, all the while the house of GOD was in Shiloh: besides the corruption of state and religion by the Beniamites Iud.19. and by 1.Sam.2.12. Hophni and Phinehas the sonnes of Eli.

[Page 117] But after the reformation of Religion by Samuel, Dauid, and Salomon, (who yet became after an idolatour) befell their greatest Apostasie, to wit, of the tenne Tribes; from GOD, their King, and Religion, by the ouer-wise policie of Ieroboam, which corrupted and subuerted both it and himselfe. He (least those reuolted Israelites should, by frequenting GODS appointed worship at Ierusalem, recknowledge their former and truer LORD) consecrated two Aegyptian Calues at Bethel and Dan 1.King.12. , and made an House of High Places, and Priestes of the lowest of the people.

Iudah also made them, in the same times, High Places, Images, and Groues, on euerie high Hill, and vnder euerie greene Tree. Yet had the Kingdome of Iudah their entercourses of corruption and reformation, according as they had good or bad Kings; but in Israel, the Commonwealth and Church receiued, by that sinne of Ieroboam, an vncurable wound and irrecouerable losse, vntill that, in GODS iust punishment, they were carried away by the Assyrian Kings into Assyria, and into Hala, Habor, and the Cities of the Medes, as 2. King. 17. appeareth, where is recorded a summarie collection of these and other their idolatries. Of these exiled Israelites (if wee beleeue the reports and coniectures of diuerse Authors) are des­cended those Tartarians, which since ouer-ran, with their Conquests, a greater part of Asia and Europe, then euer any other Nation, before or since: of which their Originall and Exploits, wee shall in fitter place further discourse. The other Kingdome of Iudah, although it receiued sometime some breathing and refresh­ing vnder her more vertuous and religious Kings, yet for the most part, groaning vnder Tyrannie and Idolatrie, was at last a prey to the Babylonians: from which seruitude being freed by the Persian Monarches, vnder varieties of aduerse and prosperous fortunes, it was afterwards rent and tome by the Macedonians, be­ing made a common Stage for the Armes and Armies of the successors of Pto­lomey in Aegypt, and Seleucus in Asia; remaining meede vnto the Conquerour, and receiuing no small impressions and wounds in Soule as well as Bodie, in Re­ligion as in Politie. But being after deliuered from Macedonian thraldome by the Familie of the Macchabees, the Gouernment, Ecclesiasticall and Temporall, be­came theirs, but the mindes of this Iewish people was in those Times diuided in diuersitie of Sects and Opinions, of which the Euangelicall and other Histories make mention.

The opinions of the Iewes may bee reduced Halls Phari­saisme and Christianitie. Synagoga Iu­daic. cap.2. into these two generall Heads: the one were such as contented themselues with the Law of GOD, and were called Karraim, or Koraim, of which sort there are diuerse at this day in Constantinople, and other-where: The other Rabbinists, Supererogatorie (as Master Hall calls them) and Popish Iewes, called Hasidim, professing a more strict Holinesse then the Law required: Yet at first these both pleased them­selues, and did not, by opposition of Science, displease each other, and disagree­ing in opinion, they yet in affection agreed. But when these voluntarie Serui­ces began to be drawne into Canons, and of arbitrarie became necessarie, they were rent into sundrie Sects. Of these and their originall let vs heare Scaliger speake.

There were Ios. Scal. Elench. Triber. Nich. Serrar. c.22. He calls these two sects cap.2. Karraim, of Kara, which signifieth the Scripture: and Rabban [...]m, which were the Wise-men, [...] after called Phari­sees. (sayth hee) before the times of Hasmonaei, two kindes of Dog­matists, men holding differing opinions, among the Iewes: the one onely accep­ting the written Law; the other Tradition, or the addition to the Law. Of the former kinde arose the Karraim, of whome came the Sadducees; of the later, the Pharisees. These Pharisees were the issue of the Hasidees.

The Hasidees were a Corporation, Guild, or Fraternitie, which voluntarily ad­dicted themselues to the Offices of the Law, I. Macchabees, Chap. 2. verse 42. Iunius tran­slateth it As­chidaei, & sayth, they were such as for religion were scattered and dispersed about forfeare of the King. Their originall was from the times of Ezrah, or Esdras, Haggai and Za­charie, the Prophets, being authors of this Order. These, in regard of their in­stitution, were called Holy, Hasidim; and in regard of their Combination, Hasi­daei. [Page 118] And besides that which the Law enioyned (which is iust debt) they superero­gated, and of their owne free accord disbursed vpon the Temple and Sacrifices. They professed not onely to liue according to the Prescript of the Law, but if a­ny thing could by interpretations and consequences be drawne thence, they held themselues bound to satisfie it, and when they had done all, to seeme to haue done nothing, but accounted themselues vnprofitable seruants notwithstanding.

Euery one paid a tribute to the reparations of the Temple, from the times of Es­dras and Nehemias. Neh.10.32. The Hasidaeans added further (of their owne free-will) to the Sanctuarie, Walles, and Porches, neuer (almost) going from the Temple, which they seemed to hold peculiar to themselues, and by which they vsed to sweare, By this Habitacle, or, By this House: Which the Pharisees, their posteritie, also did Mat.23.16. & 29. , as likewise they learned of them to build the Sepulchres of the Prophets. They were therefore called Hasidim, either because their Colledge was instituted of the Pro­phets; or of their holy and religious workes, and the sacred buildings by them ei­ther repaired or reared from the foundations. And therefore, when wicked Alci­mus had killed threescore men of this Corporation or Guild, the people thought their death was prophecied in the Ps.79.2. Psalme, such reputation was there of their holinesse.

These Hasidaei were not in proper sense a Sect, but a Fraternitie, which euerie day assembled in the Temple, and offered in daily Sacrifice a Lambe, which was cal­led the Sinne-offering of the Hasidim. One day was excepted, the eleuenth of Tisri, in which that Sacrifice was omitted. They offered not themselues (for they were not Priests) but the Priests in their name. Abraham Zachuth Abr.Zachuth lib.Iohasm. sayth, That Baba, the sonne of Bnta. daily of his owne accord offered a Ramme for a Sinne-offering, ex­cept one day, which was the day after the Expiation: And this was called the Sacri­fice of the Saints for Sinne: And he sware, By this Habitacle, that is, the Temple. Of this kinde, or much like thereto, Scaliger Scal.ibid. cap.24. thinketh the Rechabites were, which Ie­remia ler.35.19. mentioneth, whose immediate father hee accounteth Ionadab, (not him which liued 2.Reg.10.15. in the dayes of Iebu, but another of that name) and that their austere order began but a little before it ended (namely, in the same Prophets time) quickly ending, because of the Captiuitie. After the Captiuitie, those sonnes of Io­nadab, renewing their former obseruations, were called Hasidaei, which went not from the Temple, and obserued the orders aboue-mentioned: so Scaliger interpre­ted Ieremies Prophecie, that Ionadab should not want one to stand before the LORD, that is, to minister and attend holy duties in the Temple, like to Anna the Prophe­tesse Luk.2.37. . This (sayth he) is the true beginning of the Hasidaei, which abstained from wine, as did also the Priests, as long as they ministred in the Temple. Thus much Scaliger.

Drusius Drus.de 3 ser.l.1.c.11. proueth, That diuers of the Pharisees and Essees also were of these Hasi­daei, whereby it appeareth, that it was rather a Brotherhood, as Scaliger calleth it, then a Sect. He sheweth their Rites and Discipline, out of Iuchasin. or Iohasin Ab.Zac. They spent nine houres of the day in prayer. They beleeued that a man might sinne in thought, and therefore they had care thereof; their will was not without the will of Heauen, that is, of GOD. Tenne things were peculiar to them: Not to lift vp their eyes a­boue tenne cubits: secondly, Not to goe bare-headed: thirdly, To stablish three re­fections: fourthly, To dispose their hearts to prayer: fifthly, Not to looke on either side: sixtly, To goe about, that they might not be troublesome to any companie: seuenthly, Not to eat at the Tables of great men: eightly, If they had angred any man, quickly to appease him: ninthly, To haue a pleasant voice, and to descend to the interpretation of the Law: tenthly, To accustome themselues to their Threads and Phylacteries.

Rab (one of this Fraternitie) did not lift vp his eyes aboue foure cubits. Tenne or twentie daies before their death they were diseased with the Collicke, and so all cleare and cleane they departed into the other life.

[Page 119] To returne vnto Scaliger. touching the originall of Sects, and to leaue those Hasi­daean obseruants. As long (sayth he) as Supere rogation onely was vsed, there was no Sect in the people of GOD: but when the Precepts thereof were brought into Canons, and committed to writing, then arose many doubts, disputations, altercati­ons, growing and succeeding daily, from whence sprang two Sects, differing in opi­nion; the one admitting onely the Law, the other embracing the interpretations and expositions of their Rabbines. The former, in processe of time, was diuided in­to two. For at first the Karram were onely such as obserued the Law and the Pro­phets, till the times of Sadok and Boethi or Baithi, who first doubted of the punish­ment of sinnes, and rewards of good workes, from whome sprang the Haeresie of the Sadducees. The Karraim were not, before this, diuided in Sect from the Hasi­dim, but onely in those voluntarie Functions and Supereogations, wherein the Law, by Iniunction, ruled the former, and these, as is said, supererogated. But when Canons and Iniunctions began to be written, then of these Hasidim arose Dogma­tists, which called themselues Perushim, Holy, and Separated both from the other Hasidim, and from the Vulgar; making a necessitie of that obseruation, which be­fore was voluntarie. This sort was againe diuided into those which retayned the name Perushim, or Pharisees; and the Essens: both receiuing from their Authors the Rules and Precepts of their Sect. After this, the Pharisees were diuided into any kindes: The Iewes reckon seuen. The Essens also were diuided first into Cloysterers, or Collegians, which liued in a common Societie; and Eremites, or So­litraric persons; and those former into such as married; and others which remained continent.

Now let vs consider of these more particularly; and first of the Pharisees. Drusius Drusius de 3.Sectis, li.2. deriueth the name from the Syrian, as most of the names in the New Testament are, and not from the Hebrew; for then it should it not be Pharisees, but Pharusees: as after the Hebrew, it should rather be Masias, then Messias. The Etimologie some fetch from Phares, which signifieth Diuision, as Epiphanius, and Origen, with others Ambros. in Luc. l.3. Damascen. de haeres. Suidas. : against which, Drusius excepteth, because in Phares the last letter is Tsaddi, here it is Schin. Others Fr. Forerius, Es.1.10. Forsic [...] ­rus lexic. deriue it from Parash, signifying to explaine, because, they did all things openly, to be seene of men: it is not likely: or Hypocrisie loues her workes should be seene, but not her humour (then should it not be hypocrisie;) shee would not be seene in her affection to be seene: and this name, in this sense, would haue beene to their infamie, and not to their reputation, which they most aymed at. A third deriuation of this name is from another signi­fication of the same Verbe, to expound. But to expound the Law, was more pro­per to the Scribes; and some of the Pharisees were not Expositors. Howbeit, the most probable opinion is, that they were so called of Separation; because they were, or would seeme to be, separated from others: first, in cleanenesse of life; se­condly, in dignitie; thirdly, in regard of the exquisitenesse of those Obseruations, whereto they were separated; fourthly, in their habite, wherein they were (as our Monkes) distinguished from the people; yea, they did abhorre the garments of the people.

Their opinions are gathered by Iosephus Ioseph.de An­tiq.l.18.de bell.Iud.l.2. , and others, out of whome Drusius. They attributed (sayth Iosephus) all things to Fate. Abraham Zacuth interpre­teth their opinion thus, They beleeue that GOD knoweth and disposeth all things, and the Starres helpe; yet so, as free-will is left in the hand of man. And if a man by his free-will chuseth the good, GOD will helpe him in his good way. They say, That there is no Hearbe in the Earth which hath not his proper Planet in Heauen.

They ascribed immortalitie to the Soule, holding, that iudgement passed on it vn­der the Earth; and that if it had done euill, it was adiudged to perpetuall prisons: if well, it had easie returne vnto life by a transmigration [...] Thus Christ was, after this opinion, called Elias, or one of the Prophets. , or going into another bo­die. So Zacuth: The good Soules take delight of their good workes; the bad des­cend, and ascend not. They beleeued that there were both Deuils and good Angels. [Page 120] They conceiued, that he which kept the most of the Commaundements, although he transgresse in some, is iust before GOD: against which opinion Burgens. Ad­dit.1.in epist.Ia.2.10. Burgensis thinketh, that Iames alledged that saying in his Epistle, He that faileth in one, is guiltie of all. He citeth Rab. Moses for this Pharisaicall opinion, That GOD iudgeth according to the pluralitie or paucitie (to vse his owne words) of merits or demerits. Like stuffe haue I read in S. Francis Legend, of the ballance wherein mens deedes are weighed, and the Deuill lost his prey by the weight of a Chalice, which one had giuen to the Saint; which heauie mettall caused the Scale wherein his good deedes were put (be­fore too light) to weigh heauiest. They (the auncienter Pharisees) confesse the Resur­rection of the flesh. Hereof are three opinions Drus. l.2. c. 14. : one, That all, good and bad, shall rise againe; another, That the iust only shall rise; a third, That the iust, and part of the wic­ked, shall rise.

They call their Traditions the Law giuen by Word, and the vnwritten Law, which they equall to the written, deriuing both from Moses, as more fully elsewhere shall be said. These Traditions they called [...], as both Epiphanius and Hieronynius witnesse: the Teachers thereof [...], or Wise-men; and when they Lectured, they were wont to say, [...], i. The Wise-men teach Traditions. Of these Traditions were, concerning the Sabbath, That they might iourney from their place two thousand cubites; (Hierome Hierom. ep. ad Alg. accounteth feet, Origen Orig. [...], l.4.c.2. Elnes) That none might carrie any burthen that day; but they interpreted, if one carried on one shoulder, it was a burthen; if on both, it was none; if his shooes had nayles, they were a burthen, otherwise not. Concerning Fasting, the Pharisee boasteth, Luk. 18. 12. I fast twice in the weeke: which they obserued (sayth Theophilact Theoph. in Luc.18. ) on the second and fifth day, Mundayes and Thursdayes. Happily out Wednesdayes and Fridayes succeeded in this Penance, that we might not seeme to be behind them in dutie, howsoeuer woe disagree with them in their time. And yet Mercorus sayth, The Iewes fasted the fourth day, Wednesday, because they held that vnluckie, in which children are taken with the Squinancie. Further, the Pharisees eat not vnwashed, [...], Mark 7. 3. Except they wash with the fist, as Beza translateth. Scaliger Scalig.Elench. Ser.cap.7. expoun­deth it, not by washing one fist in the other, but composing the fingers into such a frame, that all their ends meet on the toppe of the thumbe, which for want of ano­ther name is called πυγμὴ, a Fist, although it be not properly so. In this forme they hold vp their hands in washing, that the water may slide downe to the elbow, and thence fall to the ground, as the Iewes vse to this day. They washed Mar.7.4.when they came from Market, because sinners and vncleane persons were there, whose touch might pollute them. They washed also Cups and Brasen Vessels and Beds not cham­ber-beds to lye on (Drusius Drus lib.2. vbi supra. expoundeth) but dining-beds, which they vsed instead of Tables.

They would not Luc.7.3 [...]. Es.65.5. eat with Publicanes or Sinners, yea they accounted themselues polluted with their touch.

Their Hypocrisie in prayer CHRIST mentioneth, that it was long, and open in the streetes &c. It was thrice in the day, at the third, sixt, and ninth houre: Their wordes submisse and softly, as of Hannah, 1. Sam. 1. and toward the Temple.

They tythed all, Luk. 18. Matth. 23. euen the smallest matters. For Tythes (sayth Aquita) are the Hedge of thy Riches. And another Prouerbe (learne it) Tythe, that thou mayest be rich. Epiphanius Epiph.haer.16. addeth, they payed First fruits, thirtieths, and fiftieths, Sacrifices, and Vowes.

Their Phylacteries or Seruatories, Defensiues (so the word signifieth) in Hebrew Totaphoth Of these read the 15. chapter fol­lowing. , they vsed as Preseruatiues, or Remembrancers of the Law, and ware them larger then other men. Hierome calls them Pittaciola, resembling to them here­in some simple superstitious women, wearing little Gospels, and the wood of the Crosse, and such like, of zeale not according to knowledge, strayning a Gnat, and swallowing a Cammell. This superstition, then complained of by Hierome, yet remai­neth (sayth Scaliger Scal. Elench. c.8. ) among Christians, and Mahumetanes, which weare about them the Gospell of S. Iohn. CHRIST condemneth not the Rite, but their ambition, [Page 121] for dilating, not for wearing them, to which all the Iewes were bound, and all the Iewes and Samaritans obserued. They vsed the like ambition in their Fringes or twi­sted Tassels, which the Iewes call Zizis, and vse them still, as after shall appeare. Their oathes were, By Ierusalem, the Temple, the Heauen, Earth, their Head, by the Law. Fagius Fag.annot. ad Onk.ap.Dr. obserueth, That the Iewes, in swearing, lay their hand on the booke of the Law, at this day. Other oathes are little esteemed. Hence it seemeth came our corporall Oathes on a Booke. The Iewes (sayth Capito Capit.in Hos. ) thinke it no oath, if one forsweare by Heauen or Earth, vnlesse he say by him which dwelleth there, &c. And none is subiect to that Curse, in which the Name of GOD is not added.

That of Corban pertaineth to this place, mentioned Matth. 15:5. & Mark. 7.11. which some interprete, as if a Iew should say to his parents, That he had alreadie de­dicated all that to GOD (to whome vowes are to be performed) wherewith hee might haue helped them. Doctor Rainolds Rain.& Hart [...] c.7.d.4. sayth, That the Iewes, as they were prone to vngodly vowes, so this was an vsuall vow amongst them, and they would bind it with an oath, That such or such a man should haue no profit by them. The oath which they herein vsed as most solemne, was, By the Gift: for so they were in­structed, Matth.23. That if any sware by the Altar, it was nothing, but if By the Gift, he was a debtor. The Pharisees therefore taught, if any had said to his father, By the Gift thou shalt haue no profit by me, then he might in no case doe them any good, against the Commaundement, Honour thy Father, &c. The Iewes vsed to bind their vowes with a Curse, as they which vowed Act.23.14. Paules death, vsing yet to suppresse the Curse it selfe, as, Heb.3.11. if they shall enter into my rest: So these, By the Gift, if thou haue any profit by me, meant they should haue none. Thus the Talmud (sayth he) the booke of their Canon Law, and Schoole-Diuinitie, sayth, That a man is bound to ho­nour his father, vnlesse he vow the contrarie. Masius Mas.in Ios. ap. Dr. explaineth it thus, That they did consecrate by saying Corban all, wherewith they should haue benefited their parents: as if they had said, Let it be Anathema, or deuoted, whatsoeuer it be, with which I may profit thee. And therefore those Rabbines, vnder pretext of Religion, allowed not to spend on his parents that which hee had thus vowed to GOD. Scaliger Scal. Elench. c.9. thus interpreteth the place, as if a sonne being by his parents ad­monished of his dutie, should put them off with this exception, vnlesse that which I haue offered for thee, free me of this burthen. But let the more curious read it in himselfe.

The Pharisees were esteemed pitifull; the Sadducees more cruell. N. [...]yra. in Mat.16. They were much addicted to Astrologie, and the Mathematikes: whose names of the Planets E­piphanius Epip. h [...]r.16. rehearseth, as also of the twelue Signes.

There were Drus. de 3. see.l.2.c.22. seuen sorts of the Pharisees, which the Talmud reckoneth: first, Sichemita, which measure pietie by honour and profit, as the Sichemites, which for the marriage of Dina endured Circumcision: secondly, Nacphi, which lifted not his feet from the ground: the third Kisai, Draw-bloud, which smiteth his head to the wall, to cause the bloud to come; and also shutteth his eyes, that he behold not a woman: the fourth, that standeth on his perfection, called Mahchobathi: What is my sinne? as if there wanted nothing to his righteousnesse: the fifth, Medu­chia, which goe lowly and stouping: the sixt, the Pharisee of Loue, which obeyeth the Law for loue of vertue or reward: the seuenth, the Pharisee of Feare, which is holden in obedience by feare of punishment. This they call Iobs Pharisee, the former Abrahams.

Epiphanius Epip. h [...]r.16. describeth their strict obseruations. Some (sayth hee) prescribed to themselues tenne yeares, or eight or foure yeares continence. Some lay on plankes, which were only nine ynches broad, that when they slept, they might fall to the paue­ment, so to be awakened againe to prayer, and keepe themselues waking. Others put stones vnder them for the same end, by pricking to awake them: others lay on thornes for that purpose. Scaliger Scal.El.c.13. reproueth Epiphanius for affirming, that the Pharisees ware [Page 122] womans attyre, as not agreeing to their austeritie, which despised all beds, beat them­selues against wals, and put thornes in the fringes of their garments, to pricke them: he thinketh him deceiued by some Iewes report; and addeth, that the moderne Iewes haue little or no knowledge of those auncient Pharisees, but as they learne it of the Christians, or of Pseudo-Gorionides (so he calleth the Hebrew Booke, ascribed to Io­seph ben Gorion, whome Drusius esteemeth, and Scaliger proueth to be, a coun­terfeit.)

Wee may here also insert the Scal.Elench. c.10. manner of the Iewish Schoole or Academie, with their promotion therein to the degree of a Doctor: which whosoeuer affected, was first a Disciple and being prostrate at the feet of the Doctor, heard him teaching: for the Disciple did reade, being layd on the Floore or Pauement, and the Doctor inter­preted what he read. All the time which he learned on this manner, was called his Minoritie. and the Scholler was called Katan, à Minor. Thus Paule sayth hee Act.22.3. was brought vp at the feet of Gamaliel. All this while he was called by the name of his father, his owne name not added; which, after laying on of hands, was annexed to his Title: as Ben Bethira before laying on of hands; after, Rabbi Iosua Ben Bethira, &c. For by laying on of hands he was promoted to his Mastership; which was done with a set forme of words, whereof R. Iuda, the sonne of Baba, was Author. But although he had now receiued the Degree, he was not presently intituled Master, but Chaber. as [...] with the Greekes, Speusippus [...] Platonis, that is, such a Scholler as is able to teach. This word Chaber therefore is not put alone, but hath alway his Relatiue adioyned, as R. Ismael Chaber of R. Eleazar. And whiles hee was so called, hee neuer sate whiles his Master sate, but prostrate on the pauement: And when they were both Masters, the younger stood, while the elder sate and taught: as in the Primitiue Church the younger Bishop called the elder Papa. Such was the reuerence to their Rabbines. CHRIST at twelue yeares was otherwise ho­noured amongst them: but this was extraordinarie.

The Pharisees in a selfe-conceit and singularitie called all but themselues, in a dis­gracefull scorne, Ar.Mont. in Euang.Mat.23. Other men: so said he, Luk. 18. I am not as other men: whereas they accounted themselues maisters of others, on whome also they bound heauie bur­thens, in their Rules and Cases, the breach whereof they iudged Sinne in the people, but yet held not themselues bound thereto. For example, Euery Israelite ought eue­rie day, by their Rule, to say ouer the tenne Commaundements, and that in the first Watch, which might not be deferred, for danger of sinne; and yet amongst themselues they esteemed it lawfull at any houre of the night. But vpon the Proselytes they im­posed more then on the other Israelites, all which they were bound to (in their cen­sure) vnderpaine of Hell-fire; and therefore CHRIST sayd, They made them two­fold more the children of Hell then themselues; for they freed themselues from many of those impositions they layd on the consciences of others. And these Proselytes they lesse trusted, and therefore burthened them with more obseruations.

After wee haue spoken of the Pharisees, which loued the first roomes (which they haue here obtained) it followeth to speake next of the Sadducees Sadducees. , who in the New Testament are often mentioned. Beda in Act.5. Beda giueth an vniust interpretation of their name, saying the Sadducees are interpreted Iust. Epiphanius Epiph.h [...]r.14. also fetcheth their name from Sadec, which signifieth Iustice. Lyra Lyra in Act. 5. alledgeth a reason, because they were seuere and rigorous in iudgement, they gaue this name of Iust (not iustly) to themselues. Burgensis Burgens.ibid. otherwise; as of Arrius were the Arrians, so of one Sadoch (sayth he) are the Sadducees called, who was the first inuentor of their Heresie. The Pharisees were esteemed more iust then they, as appeareth Luk. 18. 9. They counted themselues iust, and despised others; Summum ius, summa iniuria. Their rigorous iu­stice was vniust rigour. This Drus de 3. Sec.l.3.c.3. Sadoc, or rather Saduc, liued vnder Antigonus Sochaens, who succeeded to Simeon the Iust: His fellow-scholler was Baithos, of whome came the Baithosaeans. So sayth Abraham ben Dauid in his Historicall Cabball: Antigonus said, Bee yee not as seruants, which minister to their Prince on condition [Page 123] to receiue reward. Sadoc and Baithos asked him of this thing, and hee answered that they should not put confidence in the reward of this life, but in the world to come. But they denied his words, and said, Wee neuer heard any thing of the world to come; for they had beene his disciples: and they dissented from him, and went to the Sanctuarie of Mount Garizin, where the princes were. They vpbraided the Pharisees with their Traditions, saying; The Tra­dition is in the hand of the Pharisees, to vexe themselues in this world, whereas in the world to come they haue no reward. Antigonus his words are in the Treatise Aboth. Be ye not seruants which minister to a Prince, to receiue of him reward: but be ye as seruants which minister to their Prince, with this condition, that they receiue no reward, and let the feare of God be vpon you.

Baithos had a diuers family fro Sadoc, otherwise held the same opinions, as Hellel and Sammai among the Pharisees; so these were two chiefe Masters of the Sadducaean Schooles. The Baithusaeans ministered to Baithos in vessels of siluer and gold. These Sadducees were called Minim or Minaei, that is, Heretikes. They are called Karraim, because they would seeme Textuall, and Scripture-men, disallowing Traditions, Scal.Elen. Tribaer.cap.2. of Kara, which signifieth the Scripture: which was called Kara or Cara, of Cara to reade, saith Drusius, Drus. quast. lib.1.q.44. because of the diligence, which ought to be vsed in reading the Scrip­tures, whereunto men should designe (after the Iewish precepts) the third part of their life. Abraham Zachuth calles them Epicures. The Scriptures they interpreted after their owne sense, nor regarded they the words of the Wise men; that is, the Pharisees. They were of the ancient Caraeans, or Karraim, but not of those which now are so ter­med; which as Zachuth confesseth, confesse the Resurrection, and Reward. Scaliger Scal. quosup. affirmeth, by the testimonie of Philip Frederike a Christian Iew, who had great fami­liaritie with these Karraim at Constantinople, and had beene often present at their Synagogue, that they differ nothing from the other Iewes, but in reiecting Traditi­ons, and are farre more honest and faithfull then the Rabbanim, of whom they are no lesse hated for their integritie, then for reiecting Tradition.

Concerning the Karraim now remaining, it is reported that the other Iewes, and they, will not speake one to another: so inexpiable hatred do the other Iewes con­ceiue against them. And Postellus saith, G. Postel. Al­phab.12. ling. ap. Dr. There are three principall Sects of the Iewes in the Easterne parts; Thalmudists; Caraim, which reiect those Glosses. They are rich, but so hated of the rest, that a great part of their virgins remaine vnmarried: And if (saith the common Iew) it should so happen that a Caraim and a Christian should fall together into the water, with like possibilitie of sauing either, he would make a bridge of the Caraim to saue the Christian. The third sort is the Samaritan, of which after­ward. Buxdorf. Buxdorf.Syna­gog.Iud.cap.2. saith, that there are of these Caraim also in Poland; and Leo Leo.Africa. menti­ons some places in Barbary, where this sort of Iewes doth inhabit; as you may here­after reade in our sixth Booke, and the eleuenth Chapter.

First, their difference from the Pharisees was about the future reward, which being denied, they by consequence of that error fell into the rest, to deny the Resurrection: the subsistence spirituall, &c. They couped vp GOD in Heauen, without all behol­ding of euill. They denied Fate, which the Pharisees held. They denied Spirit altoge­ther, saith Lira, Lyra in Act.23. for they held GOD to be corporeall: the soule to die with the bo­die: Angels and Diuels they denied: Good and euill they ascribed to a mans free-wil Ioseph de Bel. Iud.lib.2.7. . They were inhospitall and cruell: and as cruelly, hated of the people. They are char­ged (the Diuell may be slandered) to deny all Scripture but Moses Reade this Argument handled by Scaliger. Elenc. cap.16. : But first in Scrip­ture, this opinion of theirs is not mentioned: and Iosephus affirmeth, that they recei­ued the Scriptures, and reiected Tradition. Neither would the Zealous people of the Iewes, haue endured them in the Temple, if they had denied their Prophets, for feare of whom, they durst not professe otherwise of Iohn Baptist, although hee had left no monument of miracle, or Scripture. Drusius Drus. de 3. [...]ct.li.3.cap.10. would reconcile this opinion of the Fa­thers, which say they denied all but Moses; and the other, saying, that some of the Sadducees liued in Iudaea, others in Samaria. These later happily, with the Samaritans, denied all saue Moses. Amongst these were the Apostata's, which liued in Sichem, men­tioned by Iosephus Antiq. lib. 11. cap. 8. and Ecclesiasticus 50. 27. Iunius thinketh [Page 124] that they fell from the Iewish religion with Manasses, in the time of Nehemias.

The Sect of the Sadducees was diminished, if not worne out, after the destruction of the Temple, till in the yeare 4523. or after Scalig. 4515. and A D. 755. one Anan and Saul his sonne renewed that Doctrine, because he had not receiued his expected promotion to the degree of Gaon Gaon was a degree, as a Doctor with vs, created by imposition of hands, 8 c. . Hee wrote bookes against the other Iewes. The like did one Carcasuas But of these Sadducees too much.

Of the Essexs. Essees or Hessees, followeth in the next place. Their name Scaliger Scalig. Elenc. cap 26. deri­ueth of a [...] to be written Hessees not Essees. word which signifieth Rest, or quietnes and silence: both which well agreed to their institution. He disproueth that opinion of Eusebius, & others, that therein fol­lowed him, which thought these Iewish Heretikes were Christian Monks and Catho­likes. Such Catholikes, let Baronius Baron. Annal. tom.I. and Bellarmine [...] l de Mon. lib.2. cap.5. boast of, as the authors of their Monkes, for so they would haue them; which you may beleeue as well as before the Floud, Enosh; and after, Elias, Iohn Baptist, the Nazarites & Rechabites, were Monkish Votaries, as the Cardinall would haue you. As for these Essees, he makes no small a­doe against the Centuries, Cent. I. lib.2. cap.3. for vnderstanding Philo of Iewish, and not of Christian Monkes. But the loue to Monkery hath dazeled the eyes of men too much: and euen their historie (which followeth) will conuince that opinion of falsehood. Besides, Christianitie should haue small credit of such associates. Indeed the later Monkes are much like them in superstition and Idolatrie, though farre behind in other things. But hee that will see this Argument disputed, let him reade Scaliger his Confutation of Serarius the Iesuite. He sheweth also that the Ossens, Sampsaeans, Messalians, and di­uers heresies amongst the Christians, sprang from these Essees: that the Egyptian Essees, of which Philo speaketh, out of whom Eusebius first collected that conceit, and that Philo himselfe had no skill in the Hebrew, but knew only the Greeke tongue: that Pau­lus the Eremite in Thebais, was the first Author of Monasticall liuing. But now to come to our historie of these men.

These Essees, Hessees, or Essens, are placed by Pliny on the West of the Dead-sea Plin.l.5.c.17. , a people solitarie, & in the whole world most admirable, without women, without mo­ney, and a nation eternall in which none is borne, the wearinesse of others fortunes be­ing the cause of their fruitfull multiplying. Philo in that Booke which he intituled, that all good men are free, saith that there were of them aboue soure thousand, called Essaei, quasi [...], that is, Holy, not sacrificing other creatures, but their mindes, vnto GOD. Some of them are Husband-men, some Artificers, for necessitie, not for abundance: They make no weapons of warre, nor meddle with Merchandize. They haue no ser­uants, but are all both free, and mutually seruants to each other. They liue perpetually chast, sweare not at all, nor lie: esteeming GOD the Giuer of all good, and Author of no euill: Their societie is such, that one garment, one house, one food, one treasurie, one getting, one spending, one life, is in common to them all; carefully prouiding for their sicke, and holding the elder men in place of parents.

Iosephus, who himselfe liued among them, doth more largely describe them. Ioseph.de bel. Iud.lib.2. cap.7. Hee reporteth that they were by Nation Iewes, auoiding pleasures and riches as Sinnes; ac­counting continence and contentednes great vertues. They marrie not, but instruct the children of others, respecting them as their kindred, in their manners: not denying the lawfulnesse of marriage, but the honestie of women. Hee which becommeth one of their fraternitie, must make his goods common. Oyle and neatnesse they shunne, yet weare alwaies a white garment. They haue Officers for their common prouision. They haue no one certaine Citie, but in each, many of them haue their houses: to strangers of their owne Sect, they communicate their goods, and acquaintance; and therefore carrie nothing with them in their iorneyes, but weapons for feare of theeues: and in euery Citie haue of the same Colledge an especiall Officer which prouideth for stran­gers. The children vnder tuition of Masters are alike prouided for; nor do they change their raiment till the old be worne: They neither buy nor sell, but mutually communi­cate. Deuout they are in the seruice of GOD. For before the Sunne riseth, they speake of no prophane or wordly matter, but celebrate certaine Prayers, as The Essees were worship­pers of the Sunne: hence came the [...] and Sampsai. praying him to rise. Then by their Officers are each appointed to their workes, till the fifth houre, at [Page 125] which time they assemble together, and, being girded with linnen garments, wash themselues in cold water. Then do they go into their dining roome, as into a Temple, where no man of another Sect may be admitted; and there staying with silence, the Pantler sets them bread in order, and the Cooke one vessell of broth. The Priest giueth thankes, as after dinner also. Then laying aside those their holy garments, they plie their worke till the euening; and then suppe in like manner. There is neuer crying or tumult, they speake in order, and obserue euen without the house a venerable silence. In other things they are subiect to their Ouersoer, but at their owne choice may helpe and shew mercie to others. To their kindred they cannot giue without licence. What they say, is certaine: but an oath they hate no lesse thē periury. They studie the writings of the Ancient, thence collecting such things as may benefit the manners of the mind, or health of the bodie. They which are studious of their Sect, must a yeares space en­dure triall, and then after that probation of their continencie, must be probationers yet two yeeres longer, and then vpon allowance of their manners are assumed into their fellowship; making first deepe proteestation of religion towards God, and iustice to­wards men, to keepe faith to all, but especially to Princes, and if they shall come to rule ouer others, not to abuse their power, not to exceed others in habit, not to steale, not to keepe any thing secret from them of their owne Sect, or communicate it to an­other, although vpon perill of life: not to deuise new doctrines: to keepe the bookes of their owne opinions, and the names of the Angels. Offenders they put from their fellowship: and he which is thus excommunicate, may not receiue food offered of any other, but, eating grasse and herbes, is consumed with famine, except they in compas­sion receiue him againe, in extremitie. They giue no sentence of iudgement, being fewer then an hundred. If ten sit together, one speakes not without consent of the rest. They may not spit in the middest, or on the right-hand. They will not so much as purge Nature on the Sabbath They go not to stoole on the Sabbath, because of that instrument which they cou [...]d not vse to digge and couer their ex­crement, with­out Sabbath­breaking. Sca­liger. , and on other dayes do it very closely, for offending the Diuine light, and couer it with an instrument in the earth, and that in the most secret places; and are washed after.

They are of foure rankes, according to the time of their profession; and the yonger sott of these are so far inferiour to the rest, that if one of these do touch them, he wash­eth himselfe, as if he had touched a stranger. They liue long: feare not death: nor by any tortures of the Romans, could be compelled to transgresse their lawes; but derided their tormentors rather: beleeuing to receiue their soules againe presently, holding the bodies to be corruptible, and the prisons of the immortall soules: which if they haue been good, haue a pleasant place assigned them beyond the Ocean, but the euill to be in tempestuous stormie places of punishments. Some of these Essens also forertell things to come. And another sort is of thē which allow of marriage, but make a three­yeares triall first of the women, and if by a constant purgation they appeare fit for child-bearing, they wed them, not for pleasure, but procreation: and therefore after conception do not accompany with them. These women when they wash, haue their sacred linnen garments also, as the men. Thus farre Iosephus: who in his Ios.Antiq lib.18.cap.2. Antiq addeth to these, their opinions of GODS prouidence ruling all things: and that they thinke their Ceremonies more holy then those of the Temple, and therefore send thither their gifts, but do not there sacrifice, but by themselues following the same course of life, which the Plisti Scaliger rea­deth not Plisti, but Pol [...]stae; cal­led also Ctis [...]ae, Scythian Ne­mades. do amongst the Dacians.

Some of these Essenes liued solitary, like to Hermits, as is said before. Happily that Banus was of this sort, to whom Iosephus In vita Ioseph. resorted for imitation. He liued in the wil­dernesse, cloathing and feeding himselfe with such things as the trees and plants of their owne accord yeelded him, and with often cold washings in the night and day, cooling the heat of lust. With him Iosephus abode three yeares.

The Gaulonites or Galilaeans, Galilaeans. had their Ioseph. de An­tiq. lib. 18.cap. 1. de Bello Iud.lib. 2. cap.7. beginning of Iudas (elsewhere he calleth him Simon) a Galilaean, whose doctrine was, That, Onely GOD was to be accounted their LORD and Prince: in other things they agreed with the Pharisees: but for their libertie they would rather endure any the most exquisite tortures, together with their kindred and friends, then call any mortall man their LORD. Thoudas happily, mentio­ned, [Page 126] Act. 5. and that Egyptian, Act. 21. were of this rebellious and traiterous Sect, and those Sicarij which wore short weapons vnder their garments, therewith mur­thering men in assemblies. That Egyptian Ioseph. de Bel.lib.2.cap.21. Iosephus calls a false Prophet, who vnder pretence of Religion, and name of a Prophet, assembled almost thirtie thousand men to Mount Oliuet: he was defeated by Foelix the Gouernour. Such were their Zelotae in the siege of Ierusalem, vnder the mantle of Religion, all of them harbouring and cloking Treason and villany.

The Scribes Scribes. are not a Sect, but a function: of which were two sorts, [...] and, [...], the one expounders of the Law, the other publike No­taries or Actuaries, Recorders, Secretaries. Epiphanius maketh difference betwixt the Scribes that were [...], Teachers of the Law, and the [...], or Lawyers, which prescribed formes of Law, Law-cases, and taught Ciuill actions. But these are often taken one for the other. Ezra is called a Scribe, whose Pulpit is mentioned, Ne­hem. 8. and Moses D. Rainolds and Ha [...]t. Chaire was the seat of the Scribes; that is, they taught the Law of Moses, which they vsed to do sitting: as CHRIST also did, Mat. 5. 2. Their expositions, Epiphanius Epiph. Haer.15. saith were of foure sorts, one in the name of Moses; the second in the name of their Rabbine Akiba (he is said to haue liued an hundred and twentie yeares, and to be Standard-bearer to Barchozba) the third in Andan or Annan; the fourth after the Assamonaei. But little is to be said of these Scribes, more then what is before said of the Pharisees, this being not a differing Sect, but an Office or Ministe­rie, whereof the Pharisees also were capable, and are for false teaching blamed by our SAVIOVR, together with the Scribes.

The Scribes are said in their expositions D. Hall, Pha­ris. & Christian. to haue been more textuall, the Pharisees more in their Glosses and Traditions: the Scribes had chiefe reputation for learning, the Pharisees for holines, taking more paines (saith our English Iosephus) to go to hel. The Scribes professed both disputation and obseruation of many things, saith Arias Montanus Ar. Mont. in Euang. Mat. 15. , but not so exact as the Pharisees. For the Pharisees, though not so lear­ned as the other, thought themselues more holy then them, because they obserued not only those things, which in the common opinion were thought meet, but those things which were least, which the people obserued not, which others had added. This they were ambitious of, as of some great perfection. For there was a threefold state of men, The Doctors, Pharisees, and People of the Land. The prouerb was The people of the Land are the foot-stoole of the Pharisees. The people were tied to obserue the precepts mētio­ned, or by necessity of consequence drawne out of the Bible. The Pharisees (as is said) added their Traditions. The Scribes manner Ar. Mont.in Marc.1.22. of teaching was cold and weake, consi­sting in certaine arguments, which rather afflicted, then affected the minds of the hea­rers; in certain niceties, & scrupulous questions, sometimes inextricable. And therfore the people heard Christ, as speaking with authority, and not as the Scribes. But to let passe these School-mē, & those Canonists let vs come to their other sects & sort of professiōs.

The Hemerobaptists Hemero­baptists. are nūbred by Epiphanius Epiph.her.17. among the Iewish heresies, which, saith he, in other things differ not from the Scribes and Pharisees; but in their doctrine of the resurrection & in infidelity are like to the Sadducees: And euery day in al times of the year they are baptised or washed, whēce they haue their name. But this custome of daily washing, saith Scaliger, Scal. Elench.cap. 31. was cōmon to al the ancient Iewes, which would seeme better thē their fellowes, & not only obserued of the Pharisees, Essees, & Hemerobap­tists (if such a sect may be added). At this time in Palestina many do it, not once, but often in the day. The Mahumetans obserue it. The Priests whē they kept their courses in the Temple, abstained from wine, and eat not of the Tithes before they had washed their whole body. The Pharisees and Essees composed themselues to this sanctity: the greater part of the Pharisees, and all the Essees abstained from wine, & both vsed daily washings, especially before they ate. And as many heretikes professing thēselues Chri­stians, retained many things of Iudaisme; so these Hemerobaptists learned them this daily washing. It seemeth by him, that, these were Christiā rather thē Iewish heretikes.

And so were the Nazaraeans Nazarae­ans. also, which some reckon among the Iewish sects, who embraced the Gospell of CHRIST, but would not relinquish their Iudaisme; vnlesse [Page 127] we say with Hierome, that whiles they would be both Iewes and Christians, they were neither Iewes nor Christians. These Nazaraeans, or Nazoraeans, Scaliger affirmeth, were meere Karraim, Scripture-Iewes, but because of their obstinacie in the Law, the first Councell of the Apostles determined against them. As for the Nazarites of the old Te­stament, Moses describeth them and their obseruations: Not to cut their haire, not to drinke wine and strong drinke, &c. Such was Sampson. But these could be no Sect, hol­ding in euery thing the same doctrine with the Iewes, and only, for a time, were bound by vow to these rites. But for those Nazaraeans, Epiphanius Ep ph her.18. maketh them a Iewish Sect, not without cause, if such were their opinions, as he describeth them. Their dwel­ling was beyond Iordan in Gilead and Bashan, as the fame goeth (saith he) by Nation Iewes: and by obseruing many things like to the Iewes. Herein they differed: They did not eat any thing which had life: they offered not sacrifice: for they counted it vnlaw­full to sacrifice, or to eat flesh. They disallowed the fiue Bookes of Moses: they indeed confessed Moses, and the Fathers by him mentioned, and that he had receiued the law, not this yet, which is written, but another.

Next to these doth Haeres. 19 Epiphanius place the Ossens Ossens. , dwelling in Ituraea, Moab, and be­yond the Salt or Dead sea: to these one Elxai in the time of Traian ioyned himselfe: he had a brother named Iexai. Scaliger (here and euery where acute) saith Scal.Elenc.cap.27. that the Essens and Ossens are the same name, as being writtē with the self-same Hebrew letters, diffe­ring only in pronuntiation, as the Abyssines pronounce Osrael, Chrostos. for Israel. Chri­stus. And the Arabian Elxai, and his brother Iexai, were not proper names, but the ap­pellation of the Sect it selfe; as he proueth. But they agreed not so well in profession, as in name, with the Essens, for they were but an issue of those ancient Essens, holding some things of theirs, others of their owne: as concerning the worship of Angels, reproued by the Apostle, Col. 2. 21. in which the Essens and Ossens agreed, & other things there men­tioned, Touch not, taste not, handle not: and in worshipping of the Sunne, whereof they were called Sampsaeans, or Sunners, Sun-men, as Epiphanius interpreteth that name. Those things wherein they differed, were brought in by that Innouator, who (of this his Sect) was called Elxai.

He was, saith Epiphanius, a Iew, he ordained, Salt, and Water & Earth, and Bread, and Heauen, and the Skie & the Winde, to be sworne by in Diuine worship. And sometime he prescribed other seuen witnesses; Heauen, and Water, and Spirits, and the holy Angels of prayer, and Oile, and Salt, and Earth. He hated continencie, and enioyned mariage of necessity. Many imaginations he hath, as receiued by reuelation. He teacheth hypocri­sie, as in time of persecution to worship Idols; so as they keepe their cōscience free: and if they confesse any thing with their mouth, but not in their heart. Thus ancient is that Changeling, Aequiuocation. He bringeth his author, one Phineas of the stocke of the ancienter Phineas, the son of Eleazar, who had worshipped Diana in Babylon, to saue his life. His followers esteeme him a secret vertue or power. Vntill the time of Constan­time, Marthus and Marthana (two women of his stock) remained in succession of his honor, and were worshipped in that country for gods, because they were of his seed. Marthus died a while since, but Marthana still liueth: Their spittle, and other excre­ments of their body, those Heretikes esteemed, and reserued for reliques to the cure of diseases, which yet preuailed nothing. He mentioneth CHRIST, but it is vncertaine whether he meaneth our LORD IESVS. He forbids praying to the East-ward, and bids turne towards Ierusalem from al parts. He detesteth sacrifices, as neuer offered by the Fathers: he denieth the eating of flesh among the Iewes, and the Altar, and Fire, as contrary to GOD, but water is fitting. He describeth CHRIST after his measure, foure and twentie Schaeni in length, that is fourescore and sixteene miles, & the fourth part thereof in breadth, to wit, six Schaeni, or foure and twenty miles; besides the thick­nes, and other fables. He acknowledgeth a HOLY GHOST, but of the female sexe, like to CHRIST, standing like a statue aboue the clowds, and in the midst of two moun­taines. He bids none should seek, the interpretatiō, but only say those things in praier: (words which he had taken out of the Hebrew tongue, as in part we haue found). His prayer is this, Scaliger thinketh they are three senten­ces, and not a prayer. Abar, anid moib nochile daasim an daasim nochile moib anid abar selam. Thus Epiphanius relateth it, and thus construeth, I cannot say expoundeth (although [Page 128] they, like our deuout Catholikes, needed no exposition) Let the humility passe from my fathers, of their condemnation, & conculcation, and labour; the conculcation in condemnati­on by my fathers, from the humility passed in the Apostleship of perfection. Thus was Elxai with his followers opinionate: otherwise Iewish. Epiphanius speaketh of his sect else­where often, as when he mentioneth the Ebionites Epiph her. 53. , and the Sampsaeans: This booke both the Ossees and Nazoraeans, and Ebionltes vsed.

The Sampsaeans Sampsaeans. had another booke (they said) of his brothers. They acknowledge one GOD, and worship him, vsing certaine washings. Some of them abstaine from liuing creatures, and they wil die for Elxai his posterity; which they had in such honor, that if they went abroad, the people would gather vp the dust of their feet for cures, & their spittle, & vsed thē for amulets & preseruatiues. They admit neither the Apostles, nor Prophets: they worship Water, esteeming it as a god, belieuing that life is frō thēce.

Scaliger also affirmeth, that the Massalians Massalians. (which word Epiphanius interpreteth [...] Such as pray, according to the opinion and practise of those Heretikes) were Scal.ele. c.28. first a Iewish sect, and a slip of the Essees, and after by marriages with some false Chri­stiās, made such a galli-maufrey, as after when we come to speak of the Pseudochristiā sects shall (GOD willing) be related: for of Iewish they became Christian Heretikes.

The Herodians Herodians. were Iewes, Epiph.haer.20. otherwise agreeing with the rest; but they thought Herod to be the Messias, moued by Iacobs prophecie falsely interpreted, That the Scep­ter should not depart from Iuda till Shilo came. When as therefore they saw Herod a stran­ger to possesse the kingdome, they interpreted as aforesaid. Some make question whe­ther this was the name of a sect, or of Herods souldiers. Drusius D [...]us.de 3. see.lib.1.cap.3. obserueth out of a Commenter vpon Persius, Sat. 5. Herodis venere dies, &c. these words, Herod raigned among the Iewes in the parts of Syria, in the daies of Augustus. The Herodians therfore ob­serue the birth-day of Herod, as also the Sabbaths: in the which day they set lampes burning, and crowned with violets in the windowes. Arias Montanus Ar.Mont in Fuang.Malth.22.16. thinketh that the Herodi­ans were polititians, that little respected religion. They thought the Common-wealth should be established, and that could not stand without Princes, nor could Princes nourish themselues or theirs without money, and therefore propounded that question to our Sauiour touching Caesars tribute. Others thinke they made hotchpotch of Iu­daisme and Gentilisme, as Herod had done: in which it is like his succesiors succeeded him. This coniecture is mentioned by Beza, Beza Annot. in Mat.22. who yet rather thinketh that the Herodi­ans were Herods courtiers, moued thereto by the Syrian translation, which hath de­beth Hiraudis, Herods domesticals. Thus thinketh Iunius I [...]n. in An­not. Syc. Tran. of them also, who saith that when the Pharisees could not intrap him in the Law, they sent their disciples to que­stion him of Tribute, hauing before agreed (which vsually they did not) with the He­rodians to stand by (vnknowne) as witnesses, if he had answered any thing, whereat Caesar might haue been offended. And this seemeth most likely: for after Herods death, how could they hold him for Messias?

Another sect amongst these of the Circumcisiō, Eusebius Euseb.hist. Eccles l.4. c. 21. out of Hegesippus nameth the Masbothoaei Masbothaei. or Masbotheani; for Thebulis (saith Hegesippus) was of their number, which arose out of seuen sects in the Iewish people: Which sects had their begin­ning Symon, of whom the Symonians: and Cleobius, of whom the Cleobians; Dositheus, of whom the Dositheans; and Gortheus, of whom the Gortheans; and Masbotheus, of whom the Masbotheans. And from the same fountaines issued the Menandrians, Mar­cionists, Carpocratians, Valentinians, Basilidians, and Saturnilians. And a little after, There were diuers sects amongst the Israelites; Essees, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Mas­botheans; Samaritans, Sadducees, Pharisees.

The word Masbothaet, Scaliger Scalig. Elenc. cap.3. saith, signifieth Sabbatists, or Sabbatarians, be­cause they professed to haue learned the obseruation of the Sabbath from CHRIST, and therein differed from the other Iewes.

He there nameth (and little else haue we but their names, euen the name also of the wicked shall rot) diuers other sects; if they may beare that name: as the Genites Genites. or Genists; which stood vpon their stocke and kindred: the Merissaeans Merissaeans. or Merists, which were (as the name importeth) sprinklers of their holy-water: the Hellenians Hellenians. , of Hellenius: the Cleobians Cleobians. and Theobulians Theobuli­ans. wee can but mention. Of the [Page 129] Tubiens Tubiens. as little, saue that they are said to be a Colledge or fellowship: and lesse of Ganaei. Ganaei, and such like, if there be any other names that remaine as the rotten bones of the consumed carkasses of heresies and heretikes: and either are vnknowne, or degene­rated into some or other sect of pseudo-christians, which require another taske.

The Coelicolae Coelicolae. were Iewes, Scal elench. triber. Serar. c.31. but corruptly embracing, Christianitie, for they were Massalians, which had their houses or places of prayer abroad in the open ayre, of whom Iunenal is vnderstood, Nil praeter nubes & coeli lumen adorant. So Scaliger rea­deth, not numen: & Petronius, Iudaeus licet & porcinum nomen adoret, Et coeli summas ad­uocet auriculas. These also were an oft-spring of the Essees: and from these proceeded the Massalians. They being baptised, reuolted to their former Iudaisme, and bearing the name of Christians, retained the rites of those Coelicolae, or Heauen-worshippers.

The Cannaei. Cannoei were a deuout Societie & order, giuen to holines of life, and obseruati­on of the Lawe: of whom was Simon Kannaeus, Mat. 10. called Zelotes, the inter­pretation of the former as Beza. Annot. in Mat.10. Beza, Scal. El.c.1. and Scaliger shew. Suidas calleth them obseruants of the Lawe, whom Ananus shut in the Temple. Their [...] or Mourners Mourners. were such as lamented with continual fasting, praying, and weeping, the destruction of their Citie, See.cap.10. Temple and Nation: as else-where is said.

CHAP. IX.

Of the Samaritans.

IT remaineth to speake of the Samaritane Sects.

Samaria was the Citie royall of the ten Tribes, after that Omri (who, as other his predecessors, had raigned before at Tirzah) had bought the mountaine Shomron 1.Reg.16.24. of one Shemer, for two Talents of siluer, and built thereon this Citie, which hee called after the name of Shemor, Lord of the Mountaine. In vaine therefore is it to seeke the name of the Samaritans from the signification of the Epiph.haer.9. chytr.Onomast. word (which is keeping) seeing they were so called of the place, and the place of this their ancient Lord. It remained the chiefe seate of the kingdome as long as the same indured, and namely till the dayes of Hosheae their last King, in whose time 2.Reg.17. Salmanasar the Assyrian carried the Israelites thence. Esarhaddon the son of Se­nacherib, otherwise called Osnappar (thus saith Hezra: Ezr.4.2.10. and therefore Epiphanius was deceiued in ascribing this act to Nabuchodonosor in the time of the captiuitie fortie yeeres before the returne) sent to inhabite that region, Colonies from Babel, and from Cuthan, and from Aua, and from Hannah, and from Sepharuaim. Babel is knowne: Cutha and Aua Tremel.annot. in Reg. 2.17. Iosephus thin­keth Cutha to be Persian. are esteemed parts of the desert of Arabia, the other of Syria and Me­sopotamia. It seemeth that most of them were of Cutha, because all of them after pas­sed into that name, and were of the Iewes called Cuthaei, as witnesseth Iosephus. Ioseph.Antiq. l.9.14. & l.11.4

These heathens serued not the LORD, and therefore the LORD sent Lyons a­mong them which slew them: Wherefore they sent to the King of Assyria, who sent thither one of the captiued Priests of Israel to teach them how to worship GOD (Epi­ohanius, calleth his name Esdras. The He­brewes cal him Dosthai, as Dru­sius citeth. Se­nacherib sent to Samaria R. Dosthai, the son of Iannai to teach them the Lawe. Drus.l.3. de sec.c.4. Ter­tullion cals him Dositheus and so doth Hierom, fathering the Samaritan sect on him. ) He dwelt at Bethel: and as some conceiue, taught rather that idolatrous worship, whereof Bethel had before been the Beth-auen, where Ieroboam had placed his golden Calfe, then the true worship of the True Iehonah. Howsoeuer, euery Nation (saith the Text) made them Gods, & put them in the houses of the high places, which the Samaritans had made. The men of Babel made Succoth Benoth: and the men of Cutha made Nergal, and the men of Hamath, Ashima: and the A­vims, Nibhaz, and Tartak: & the Sepharusaims burnt their children in the fire to A­drammelech, and Anammelech their gods. Thus they feared the LORD, and ser­ued their gods after the manner of the Nations, and so continued: a mungrell re­ligion begotten of a bastard or haereticall Iudaisme, and wilde paganisme. What those gods vvere, it is vncertaine, and interpreters agree not. Of Succoth Be­noth is spoken L.1 c.13. already: Wolphius interpreteth Wolph. in 2. Reg.17. Nergal a wilde hen, Ashima a goate, Nibhaz a Dogge, Tartak an Asse, Adramelech a Mule, Anaemelech a Horse: thus (saith he) the Hebrewes expound them: and he supposeth these creatures vvere [Page 130] among them Canonized and sacred: as the Persians are said to worship a Cocke; the Proembari of Africa, a Dogge: other people, other creatures. Thus their Religion continued till after the returne of the Iewes from captiuitie, to whom they would haue beene officious helpers in building of the Temple: which being refused they became their enemies, and hindred the building a long time. Ezra.4. But the Temple being built, and religion established among the Iewes, and their state flourishing, Sanballat gaue Ios.Antiq.11.7. his daughter Nicaso to Manasses, the brother of Iaddus the High Priest, in the time of Darius the last Persian Monarch. This Nehemia mentioneth, but deigneth not to name him, affirming that he chased him from him, of which some Wolph. in Nehem. descant whether it were by exile, or excommunication, or some other punishment. R. Salomo interpre­teth it of exile, Pelican of excommunication.

Drusius Drus.de 3.sec. l.3.c.2. hath a discourse out of a Iewish Author, which relateth the forme of that first Anathema and iudiciall curse, (not vnmeete heere to be mentioned) denounced a­gainst the Samaritans for hindring the worke of the Temple. Zorobabel and Ioshna (saith he) gathered all the Congregation into the Temple of the LORD, and brought three hundred Priests, and three hundred Trumpets, and three hundred bookes of the lawe, and as many children, and sounded. And the Leuites singing and playing on in­struments cursed with all kinds of Anathema's the Chutheans, in the secret of the name Tetragrammaton, and in Writing written vpon tables: and with the Anathema of the house of the higher iudgement, and the Anathema of the house of the lower iudge­ment, that none of Israel should eate the bread of the Chuthean (wherevpon it is said he which eateth a Samaritans bread, be as he that eateth swines flesh) and that a Chuthe­an should not be a Proselyte in Israel, nor should haue part in the Resurrection of the dead. This they writ, and sealed, and sent vnto all Israel which were in Babylonia, which heaped vpon them Anathema vpon Anathema. That, concerning their becom­ming proselytes, Drusius doubteth whether it may not bee translated, that a stranger Chuthaean should not abide in Israel: which is more likely. The other had been more im­pious: their zeale to make proselytes of all Nations is knowne.

To returne to Manasses, Iosephus saith that the high Priest and the Elders put him from the Altar, who therefore went to Sanballat his father in lawe, and told him that he loued his daughter well, but would not for her loose his Priesthood. Sanballat re­plied, that if he would retaine his daughter, he would not onely maintaine him in his Priesthood, but procure him a high Priests place, and make him Prince of all his pro­vince: and would build a Temple like to that of Ierusalem in mount Garizin, which looketh ouer Samaria, higher then the other hils, & that with the consent of K.Darius. Hereupon Manasses abode with him, and many Priests and Israelites being intangled with like mariages reuolted to him, and were maintained by Sanballat. But now Alex­ander preuailing against Darius, Sanballat (whose Religion was Policie) rebelled, and tooke part with Alexander, and in reward thereof obtained leaue to build his Temple, whereof Manasses enioyed to him and his successors the pontificall dignitie. Then was the Circumcision diuided, some (as said the Samaritan woman) [...]ub.4.20. worshipping in this mountaine, others at Ierusalem. The Zeale which the Samaritans had to their Temple appeared Ios Antiq.l.13.c.6. in the time of Ptolomens Philometor, when at Alexandria Sabbaeus and Theodosius, with their Samaritans, contended with Andronicus and the Iewes, these challenging to Ierusalem, those to Garizin, the lawfull honour of a Temple, both par­ties swearing by GOD and the King, to bring proofe of their assertion out of the law; and beseeching the King to doe him to death that should not make his part good: and thereupon the Samaritans failing in proofe, were adiudged to punishment.

The Samaritans in the prosperitie of the Iewes professed themselues their kinsmen & allies: in aduersitie disclaimed them, & their GOD also, as appeareth Antiq.l.12.c.7. in their Epi­stle to Antiochus that figure of Antichrist & persecutor of the Iewish religion, in which they call themselues Sidonians dwelling in Sichem, and say, that moued by ancient su­perstition they had embraced the Feast of the Sabbath, and building a Temple of a namelesse Deity had offered therein solemne sacrifices: whereas therefore their origi­nall was Sidonian and not Iewish; pleased him to enact that their Temple might beare [Page 131] name of Iupiter Graecanicus, and they might liue after the Greekish rites. These things Antiochus easily granted.

Hircanus by force tooks both Sichem and Garizin. Two hundred yeares after the foundation of this Temple, as testifieth Iosephus, Ant.l.13 c.17. hapned this desolation thereof. The zeale yet continued as appeareth by many testimonies of Scripture. The Iewes medled not with the Samaritanes, which made the Io.4.9. woman wonder that CHRIST asked drinke of a Samaritane. Another time the Samaritans would not receiue him because his Luk 9.52 behauiour was as though he would goe to Ierusalem, for which fact of theirs the sons of thunder would haue brought lightning frō heauen vpon them. And the Iewish despite could not obiect worse in their most venemous slander, then, Iob.8.42. Thou art a Samaritane. This Ierusalem-iourney through the Samaritans countrey caused bloudy warres and slaughter betwixt the Galileans Ios.Antiq.l.20.5. & them, in the time of Cumanus, to the destruction of many. And before that in the daies of Pilat, a cousning Prophet abused their zeale, bid­ding them to assemble in mount Garizin Antiq.l.18.c. [...]. with promise there to shew them the sacred vessels, which, said he, Moses had there hidden. Wherevpon they seditiously assembling, & besiedging T [...]rabatha, Pilat came vpon them with his forces, & cut them in peeces.

Their opinions (besides those aforesaid) were, Epiphan. har. 9. that onely the fiue bookes of Mo­ses were Canonicall Scripture, the rest they receiued not. They acknowledge not the Resurrection, nor the Trinitie: and in zeale of one GOD, abandon all idolatries, which it seemeth was receiued of them after the building of the Temple, and mixture with the Apostata Iewes; the Scripture testifying otherwise of their former deuotions. They wash themselues with Vrine, when they come from any stranger, being (for sooth) pol­luted. And if they haue touched one of another Nation, they diue themselues, garments and all, in water. Such a profanation is the touch of one of another faith. They haue a dead corps in abhomination presently.

The Samaritan Dr [...]s.de3.sect.l.2. if he meeteth a Iew, Christian, or Mahumetan, he saith vnto them, Touch me not. Scaliger, out of the Arabian Geographer, scal.de Em. T [...]m.l.7. telleth of an Iland still inhabi­ted with these Samaritans, in the red Sea, which appeareth by their custome, when any comes on shore, forbidding to touch them. This arrogant superstition remaineth with them.

The Samaritan Chronicle is cited by Eusebius Chron. graec. l., 1. Scal.Annot.in Eus. Chron & in Isag.Can. Scaliger saith he had a copy of their Chronicle translated out of Hebrew into Arabian: it differeth somwhat from the Hebrew account. The Iewes confound the Samaritans and Sadduces, as if they were but one Sect. The difference hath appeared, for the Sadduces accept all the Bible; the Samaritans, Moses onely. The Sadduces denied the soules immortalitie and reward. The Samaritans in their Chronicle acknowledge both a place of reward, & pu­nishment after this life. But whether they beleeue the Resurrection or no, he doubteth. The Sadduces deny spirits, Angels, Diuels; the Samaritans confesse them. The Samari­tans also vse still those ancient Letters called Phenician, which the Hebrewes vsed be­fore the captiuitie, which who so lisleth to view, let him see their Characters, and Sca­ligers large notes thereon in his Annotations vpon Eusebius Chronicle.

The Samaritans were diuided also into diuers sects, as Epiphan. Epiph.hare.13 rehearseth: one whereof were called Dositbeans. Dositheans: if it be lawfull to reckon them Samaritans, which acknowledged (as Epiphan. acknowledgeth of them) the Resurrection of the Dead. They abstaine from such things as haue life: some of them from Mariage after they haue beene before maried, and some continue in Virginitie. They obserue Circumci­sion and the Sabbath: and they touch no man, but hold euery man in abhomination. Report goeth also of their fasting and exercises.

They had name of Dosithens: who being a Iew, and hauing well profited in their law, but not receiuing promotion sutable to his ambition, reuolted to the Samaritans, and hatched this sect amongst them. And when afterwards in a singularitie he had gone a­side into a Caue, and there mewed vp himselfe, and persisted in hypocrisie & fasting, he there died (as the fame goeth) through his wilfull want of bread and water. After a few daies, some resorting to him found his dead body crawling with wormes, and compas­sed with flies. § Of this name Dositheus there were diuers. Drus.de 3.sec.l.3.6. Two of them liued af­ter [Page 132] the comming of CHRIST. One a lew, sonne of R. Iannai, the other a Samaritan which endeuoured to perswade his countreymen that hee was the CHRIST which Moses had prophecied of, as Orig.cont.Cels.l 2. Origen reporteth, and saith: of him are the Dositheans named. Another is mentioned in Iohasin.Ab. zach. Iohasin, who liued in the time of CHRIST, the dis­ciple of Sammai. And before these was another Dosthai, the sonne also of Iannai, of whom it is said in Lib.Ilmedenu Ilmedenu, that Senacherib sent R. Dostha to Samaria to teach the Samaritans the lawe. This seemeth to be he, whom before out of Epiphanius wee haue called Esdras, the first founder of the Samaritan heresie. And so Tertullian Ter.prescrip. aduers. [...]aer.lc1. saith of him; Dosubeus the Samaritan, was the first that reiected the Prophets, as not hauing spoken by the HOLY GHOST. The like testimonie Hierom giueth of him. His colleague and companion is said to be one Sebua, the supposed Author of the Sebvaeans. In Ilmedenn Ap.Drus.pag.260. he is called Sebaia: or Sebuia. Orig.de prin­cip.4.c.2. Dositheus also taught, that how and in what position of body he was in the Sabbath morning, in the same he ought to continue all that day, without change of gesture or place: that if he did sit, he should sit in the same place all day long, and so of lying or other habite of body. The Authour of this Dosithean sect, (properly so called) liued, as Scaliger Scal. Elench. Serarij.tribaer.15. thinketh, about or at the destruction of the Tem­ple, and could not be that first Dustai or Dosthaei.

The Sebuaeans Sebuaeans. you haue heard, in Drufius opinion, haue their name of Sebuia, the companion of Dosthai, sent by Senacherib, or rather by Esarhaddon: which if it be so, it seemeth this sect is auncient, haply nothing differing from the other Samaritans. E­piphanius maketh a difference, Epiph.haer.11. but the cause he alledgeth, was the Iewes refusall of their helpe at Ierusalem, which was common to all the Samaritans. The difference he alledgeth is the transposing of their solemnities (for that quarrell betwixt them and the Iewes) from the Iewish times, so that they kept their Passeouer in August (which they made the beginning of their yeare) Pentecost in Autumne, and that of Tabernacles, when the Iewes kept their Passeouer: neither might they sacrifice in Garizin, obseruing such differing solemnities. Scaliger Scal.Canon. Isagog.l.3. pag.218.219. (whom I shame not thus of­ten to name, in relation of these things too intricate for mine owne, or for common wits to finde) both in his Treatise against Serarius, cap.1. & 21. and in his Canons Isagog. l.3. dissenteth from Epiphanius: saying, that they dissented not from the other Samaritans, but that the name was a common name, which the Iewes ascribed to the Samaritans: It signifieth [...] Weekers: which name they gaue them because that euery weeke betweene the Passeouer and Pentecost, they obserued that day of the weeke, in which the computation of the fifty dayes began, with as great solemnitie as the feast of Pentecost it selfe. This day, from which the reckoning began, was called [...] the second, because it was the next day after the Azyma or Feast-day. But the Samaritans reckoned the second after the Sabbath, and so in all that space of fiftie dayes, kept the first day of the weeke, that is, Sunday, holy. Thus they kept seuen Pentecosts in a yeare. And perhaps (hee but coniectureth) as they had these imagi­narie Pentecostes, so they might at other times of the yeare haue such imaginarie solemnities of other Feasts. From that word [...] the second day, and next to the Feast of vnleauened bread, the Sabbaths, saith Scaliger in the same place, were cal­led in order, the first [...] the second Sabbath after that day, [...] and so the rest: and thus he expoundeth those words of Luke c.6.v.1. se­cundo-primum Sabbatum, that is the first Sabbath after that [...] or first day of the fif­tie which began to be reckoned the next day after Easter till Pentecost. A place hither­to very obscure. Epiphanius doth number for Samaritane sects, The Essens, Esseni. of which is before shewed that they were Iewes, and otherwise heretical and idolatrous in respect of their morning-deuotions to the Sunne, for which it seemeth they might not, (cer­taine they did not) communicate with other Iewes in the Temple and sacrifices. These pertaine not to this place; as not Samaritanes. A fourth Samaritane sect he accounteth the Gortheni, Gortheni. or Gortbaieni. which differed from the rest, at least from the Sebuians, in keeping their solemnities, Paschall, Pentecost, and of Tabernacles at the Iewish times, and obserued but one day holy: as likewise the fasting day.

CHAP. X.

The miserable destruction and dispersion of the Iewes from the time of the desolation of their Citie and Temple to this day.

THE Curse threatned vnto this superstitious and rebellious Nation, Deut.28.28. Madnesse, blindnesse, astonishment of heart, to grope at noone dayes as the blinds gropeth in darknesse, to bee a wonder, aprouer be, and a common talke among all people, among which they should be scattered from one end of the world to the other, is this day fulfilled in our eyes, both in respect of their Politie and Religion, Gods iust iudgement sealing that their owne imprecation Mat.27.25. his bloud be on vs, & on our children, and pursuing them in all places of their dispersion through the reuolutions of so many ages. Odious are they, not to the Christians alone, but to the heathen people that know not GOD: P. Galat.l 4. c.28. Bidalph.letter. nor will the Turke receiue a Iew in­to the felowship of their Mahumetane superstition, except he hath passed first from his Iudaisme through the pargation of a Christian profession, vnto that their no leste ridi­culous and miserable deuotion. 1.Thes.2.15. GOD they please not (saith Paul) and are contrary vn­to all men. This their wretchednes although it seemed to begin, when Herode a stran­ger seased their state, yet was that infinitely more then recompenced, when their Mes­siah, so long before prophesied and expected, came among his owne, but his owne re­ceiued him not: yea, they crucified the Lord of glory. But euen then also did not the long-suffering GOD reiect them, CHRIST prayed for them, the Apostles preached to them remission of this and all their sinnes, till that (as Paul chargeth them) they Act.13.46. putting these things from, and iudging themselues vnworthy of eternall life, GOD remooued this golden candlesticke from amongst them to the Gentiles, and let out his Vineyard to other husbandmen. Famine, sword, and pestilence at once assailed them. (And what shall not assaile what will not preuaile against the enemies of GOD?) Ie­rusalem, sometimes the glory of Earth, the type of heauen, the citie of the great king, and mother citie of the Iewish kingdome, from this incomparable height, receiued as irre­couerable a fall, besieged and sacked by Titus, and yet more violently tortured with inward convulsions and ciuil gripes, then by outward disease, or forraine hostilitie. Io­sephus and Iosippus Ioseph. de Bel­lo.Iud & Anti­quit. Iosippus Hebr. both Englithed haue handled the same at large, both which can acquaint the Eng­lish Reader with the particulars. Besides many thousands by Vespasian and the Romans slaine in other places of Iudea, Ierusalem the holy Citie was made a prison, slaughter­house, and graue of her owne people. First had diuine mercy Euseb.bist. Eccles.l.3.c.5. by Oracle remoued the Christians to Pella out of the danger, that without any impediment the floud-gates of vengeance might be set wide open for Desolations black guard to enter. Here might you see the strong walles shaking and falling, with the pushes of the iron ramme; there the Romans bathing their swords in Iewish entrailes: here the seditious Captaines dis­agreeing in mutuall quarrels, written in bloud; there agreeing in robbing and burning the Citie, and in slaughter of the citizens: here hunger painted with pale colours in the ghastly countenances of the starued inhabitants; there, died in red with the bloud of their dearest children, which the tyranny of famine forceth to re-enter into the tende­rest-hearted mothers wombe, sometime the place of Conception, now of buriall: Eue­ry where the eye is entertained with differing spectacles of diuersified Deaths', the Eare with cries of the insulting Souldiour, of the famished children, of men and wo­men, euen now feeling the tormenting or murthering hand of the seditious: the sent re­ceiueth infectious plague and Contagion from those humane bodies, with inhuma­nitie butchered, whom no humanitie buried: the taste is left a meere and idle faculty, saue that it alway tasleth the more distastefull poison of not-tasting and emptinesse: what then did they feele, or what did they not feele? where all senses seemed to bee reserued that they might haue sense of punishment? vvhere all outward, inward, publike, priuate, bodily, ghostly plagues were so ready executioners of the Diuine sentence. The continuall sacrifice first ceased for want of Priests of the last course, to vvhom in order it had descended; after for want of a Temple before [Page 132] polluted with Ethnicke sacrifices, and murthers of the Priests and Souldiors, and lastly ruined, the sacred vessels thereof being carried to Rome for ornaments of the Temple of Peace which Vepasian had there Ios. de Bel.Iud. l.7.c. 14. erected.

Eleuen hundred thousands are numbred of them which perished in this destruction: The remnant that escaped the Romane sword, for the most part, perished after in wars, or killed themselues, or were reserued either for solemnitie of triumph, or (if they were vnder seuenteene yeares of age) sold vnto perpetuall slauery. Iosep.de Bell. Ind.l. 7.c.17. 97000, of these Iewish slaues were numbred: Galatinus P. Galat de Atcan.l. 4 c. 21. accounteth 200000. And that the hand of GOD might be the more manifest, they which at their Passeouer-feast had crucified the sonne of GOD, are at the same time gathered togither in Ierusalem, as to a common prison­house of that whole Nation: and they, which had bought CHRIST of the Traitour Iudas for thirty peeces of siluer, were sold thirty of them for one peece. Galatinus tels of two false prophets, whom, comming in their owne name, they receiued for their Mes­sias, hauing before refused IESVS that came in his fathers name: both these were called Ben-or Barchosba, that is, the sonne of lying. Sanhedrin. lib.s. Helech. R Muse ben. Maimon. The one, not long after the passion of CHRIST, (if the Iewes be not the sonnes of lying which write it) the other in the time of Adrian, Rabbi Akiba, (famous for his wisedome, for his 24000. Disciples, and for his long life) receiued both in their succeeding ages: and interpreted to the first, that place of Hag. 2. 7 8. Haggai, I wilshake the heauens, &c. But afterward they slew him as the Talmud witnesseth, which also affirmeth Tractat. Meg­hila. that Titus enioyned the Iewes which he suffered to remaine, that from thence they should no more obserue Sabbaths, nor abstaine from menstrous women.

Fortie eight yeares after the destruction of Ierusalem the Iewes made the Citie Bit­ter Bethoron. to be their chiefe Citie, and rebelled by the perswasion of Bencochab (so he cal­led himselfe) that is the sonne of the Starre. Of him did R. Akiba (which had been ar­mour-bearer to the former) interpret Talmud. Iero­sol.l. Taanith. that prophecie of Balaam, Num. 23. There shal arise a Starre of Iacob. Adrian then Emperour besieged them in Bitter, (where if you beleeue the Iewish Tract. Bee­ressith rabb. fables) were 80000 which sounded Trumpets, euery one of them Captaines of many bands, which helped Barcosba, (so they called him after) that is, the sonne of lying, who had 200000, souldiours, which to testifie their loue and valour had cut off euery man a finger from his hand. After three yeares and sixe monethes the Citie was taken, and Lib.Echa. rabbethi. this their Messias slaine, together with such multitudes that the bloud reached to the horses mouthes, and carried downe great streames vvith the streame thereof, running to the Sea foure miles from Bitter. And Adrian had a Vine­yard eighteene miles square, which he hedged with those slaine carkasses, as high as a man can reach (a reacher I thinke.) There were two Riuers Lib.Masse­abeth G [...]itlin. in the region of Ieri­co, and the third part of them by estimation of the Wise-men was the bloud of the slaine: and seuen yeares together did the people of the Gentiles satten and harten their Vines, onely with the bloud of the Iewes. Adrian slewe also at Alexandria in Egypt, 700000. Iewes.

Dion Niceus Dion. Nicaei Adrianus. (a more credible Author) affirmeth that Adrian sent Senerus against the Iewes, who in regard of their multiudes would not try it with their ioynt forces in set battell, but taking his occasions and best opportunitie, proceeded more slowly and more surely: tooke fiftie of their fortified Castles, rased nine hundred and fourescore of their best townes, slew at sundry times 580000. of their men, besides innumerable mul­tudes, which perished of famine, sicknesse, and fire, these gleanings being greater then the other haruest. Salomons sepulchre by falling downe had fore-signified this their downefall: and Hyaena's and Wolues prodigiously entering their cities, seemed to howle their Funerall obsequies. All Iudaea was left almost desolate. Euseb. bist. Eccles.l.4.c. 6. Niceph.l. 3.24. Caes.Baron.anal. Eusebius out of Ariston Pellaeus addeth, that Adrian prohibited the Iewes by an Edict to come neere to Ierusalem, or once from any high place to looke towards the same, or the region ad­ioining. We haue already shewed how he destroyed this Citie, and built a new (the present Ierusalem) called of his owne name Aelia. He made swine ouer the gates of this new Citie, which images were most faithfull porters to prohibite the Iewes (faith­fully superstitious in their faithlesse superstitions) to enter. And as he had erected a tem­ple [Page 135] to Iupiter, in, or neere the place where the Temple had stood, so (to afflict the Chri­stians also) he built another Temple of Iupiter in Golgatha, and of Venus at Bethleem, which continued till the time of Constantine. The Christian Iewes gained by this losse: for when as they might not come to Ierusalem, they afterwards relinquished their wonted Iewish ceremonies. This was the end of Barchosba. And such is the end of all which fight against God and their Soueraigne, their arrowes which they shoote against the clouds fall downe vpon themselues: he proues a falling Starre, which be­ing but a groser elementarie exhalation, is eleuated by his owne aspiring course (not to the firmament, but) to some higher region of the ayre, where it shineth with the fire which burnes it, and moueth with some short glaunce, till with selfe-ruine it retur­neth (whence it had beginning) to the Earth.

Thus haue we seene the Iewes banished their countrey (about the yeare 135.) a­greeing to which their miserable Estate was that order of men, mentioned by Ios.Scal.Llenc. triher.Ser.c.13. Scali­ger called [...] Mourners, Heraclitus his heires, which spent their time in wee­ping, and intended nothing but Lamentation for the Desolation of their Sanctuarie. These haue beene among the Iewes (saith he) euer since this destruction, and vvere once a yeere, on the ninth day of the moneth Ab, allowed entrance into Ierusa­lem by Adrians Edict,. And it is written in an auncient Iournall of Burdeaux, Itinerarium Burdegal. that not farre from the Images there is a stone boared through, to which the Iewes come yearely, and annoint it, lamenting grieuously, and renting their garments, and then depart. Beniamin Beniamin. (an Hebrew Author) relateth of these Mourners that they giue Tithes of all which they possesse to the Wise-men, alway sitting in the Schoole, and to the humbled Israelites and deuout persons which lament Sion, and bewaile Ierusa­lem. These dwell in Caues, or in ruined houses, fasting all the dayes of their life, ex­cept on the Sabbaths and Festiualls, beseeching mercie continually at the hands of GOD, touching the banishment and deportation of Israel. And so let them mourne which refuse Luc.2.11. the glad tidings of great ioy to all people, that vntovs is borne IESVS a Sauiour, which is CHRIST the LORD.

But yet what rockie heart can but mourne with them, and for them, thus made spectacles to the world of bodily & spirituall misery, which both in these times men­tioned, and (before) in the time of Traian, and in all ages since, hath pursued them in all places of their habitation, if that name may be giuen to this world-wandring and vagabond-people? In the time of Traian, Euseb.li.4.c.2 Adrians predecessour, the Iewes had rebelled in Egypt, and Cyrene, where they committed much outrage and mischiefe, vnder one Luke their captaine, against whom the Emperor sent Martius Turbo, who destroyed many thousands of them; and fearing that the Iewes in Mesopotamia would doe the like, commanded Lucius Quietus to destroy them vtterly; in recom­pence of which seruice, executed to his minde, hee made him President of Iudaea. Dion Dion.N.Tra­ia [...]us. saith, That the Captaine of the Iewes was named Andrew, and that they slue many Greekes and Romans, did eate their flesh, girt themselues with their guttes, were imbrewed with their bloud, and clothed with their skinnes; many they sawed asunder, from the crowne downewards, many they cast to the beasts, and many were found to kill one an other with mutuall combats, so that two hundred and twenty thousand persons perished by this vnspeakeable cruelty. In Egypt and Cy­prus, vnder their Captaine Artemion they destroyed two hundred and fortie thou­sand. They were subdewed by Traians Captaines, specially by Lucius: and it was made a capitall crime for a Iew (although forced by tempest) to set foote in Cyprus. Africa was repeopled (where they had destroyed) with new Colonies. No maruel if the Romans (thus prouoked) both in the time of Traian & Hadrian destroied so ma­ny thousands of them. Iulian afterwards gaue them leaue to returne into their coun­trey, and rebuild their Temple, more for hatred of the Christians, then for loue to their Nation: whose wickednesse and answerable successe herein is plainly detected and detested by Gregorie Nazianzene, Greg.Naz.Orat.4.cont.Iuliaen. and other Fathers, as Cap.3. we before haue re­lated.

To adde further of their bodily confusions and illusions of their bewitched minds: [Page 136] Nicephorus mentioneth a Pseudo-Moyses of the Iews in the parts of Arabia destroy­ed by the forces of the Empire, together with his Complices in a like rebellion. So­crates Socr.li.7.c.37 describeth a further madnesse of theirs (for true is that saying of Saint Paeul. That they which will not beleeue the Truth, are giuen ouer to strong delusions to be­leeue lies.) In the Ile of Creete was Anno 434. a false prophet, that affirmed himselfe to be Moyses, which led the Israelites through the red Sea, and to bee sent from heauen to those Iewes to conduct them through the red Sea, into the continent of the Ho­lie Land. This hee perswaded them for the space of a whole yeere, going from ci­tie to citie: and at last induced them to leaue their riches to them that would take them, and to follow him: at a day appointed hee went afore them vnto a Promon­torie of the Sea, and there biddes them leape in; which many obeying, perished in the waues, and many more had perished, had not some Christian Merchants and Fishers beene at land, which saued some, and forbade the rest to follow. The Iews seeking to be reuenged of this counterfeit Moses. could no where finde him: and therefore thought him to be some Deuill in humane shape, which sought their de­struction, and thereupon, many of them became Christians.

Of their miseries sustained in all places of their abode, all histories gaue mention. And yet their superstition is more lamentable then their dispersion, as also their per­tinacie and stubbornenesse in their superstition. And certainely mee thinkes, that euen to him that will walke by sight, and not by faith, not obliging his credite to meere authoritie, as the case standeth betwixt vs and the Scriptures, but will bee drawne by the cords of Reason onely and Sense, euen to such a one mee thinkes this Historie of the Iewes may be a visible demonstration of the truth of Christian Religion: not onely because the truth of the prophecies of Genesis 49. Iaacob, of Deut.28. Moses, of Esa.6. Esay, and other the Prophets is fulfilled in them; and because GODS iustice still exacteth the punishment of the betraying and murthering that Iust one; but especi­ally in this, that the bitterest enemies, cruellest persecutors, and wilfullest haters that euer were of the Christian truth, are dispersed into so many parts of the world, as wit­nesses of the same truth; holding and maintaining to death the Scriptures of Moses and the Prophets; then which, euen Reason being iudge (as is said before) we will not desire sounder and fuller proofes of our profession. Neither is our Gospel where­in we differ from them, any other then the fulfilling of their Lawe: and CHRIST came not to destroy the Lawe, but to fulfill the same. In him the Promises, in him the Figures, in him the righteousnesse of the Lawe, righteousnes in doctrine, righ­teousnesse in practise, righteousnesse of doing, righteousnesse of suffering, to satis­fie the debt, to merite the inheritance, are the witnesses, that in him they are all, yea and Amen, haue receiued their perfect being and accomplishment. But [...].Cor. 3.15. the veile is ouer their hearts; eyes they haue and see not, eares and heare not: They holde out to vs the light of the Scripture, themselues walking in darkenesse, and reserued to darkenesse; like to a Lampe, Lanthorne, or Candlesticke, communicating light to others, whereof themselues are not capable, nor can make any vse.

But to returne, to consider further of their dispersions. Wee haue shewed how they were vtterly cast out of their Countrey: and Italie, and the Empire was filled with Iewish slaues. Nor was this their first dispersion: but as the Aslyrians had car­ried away the other tenne Tribes, whose of-spring, as is thought, about the yeare of our Lord God, one thousand two hundred, founded that mightie Empire of Ca­thay; so the Babylonians carried away the two Tribes remaining, which might haue returned vnder the Persian Monarchie; but many remained in those Countries till the dissolution of that Iewish state, and after. They had a famous Vniuersitie at Babylon, which indured till the yeere of CHRIST one thousand three hundred (so writeth Boterus. G. Botero Ben., Terza part.libr. 2. ) At which time they fleeing the persecutions of the Arabians dispersed themselues into India, where many are found at this day. These, through continuall conuersing with the Gentiles and Christians, haue small knowledge of the Lawe, and lesse would haue but for other Iewes, that resort thither out of Ae­gypt. Before that time also, if wee beleeue the Aethiopian Historie, twelue thou­sand [Page 137] Damian a Goes. Ludonic. Car. Iewes (of each Tribe a thousand) went with the Queene of Saba's sonne, which they say she had by Salomon, into that countrey, and there remaine their po­steritie to this day. Thus is Asia and Afrike fraught with them, but Europe much more. Adrian Boter. Ibid. banished fiue hundred thousand into Spaine, where they multi­plied infinitely, and founded an Vniuersitie at Corduba, about the yeare of our Lord one thousand: and at Toledo was a Schoole of twelue thousand Iewes, about the yeare of our Lord, one thousand two hundred thirtie and sixe, as writeth Rab. Mosche Mik. apud Ruxd. ca.1. Rabbi Mosche Mikkotzi: from hence it seemeth they swarmed into England and France. Their miseries heere in our Land indured, are by our Authors mentioned Fox Act and Monuments. Historie of [...]well &c. in the dayes especially of king Richard the first, and King Iahn; and the whole Land gaue a fift part of their goods to King Edward the first to banish them, Ann. one thousand two hundred ninetie and one.

Out of France they were thrice banished by three Philips although in Auinion there still remaine some of them. Being expelled France, they sought habitation in Germany, where Conradus the Emperour admitted them into the countrey of Sue­uia: and thence they flowed into other parts, into Bohemia (in the citie of Prage, are about fifteen thousand of them) and into Austria, and into Hungaria, whence, for the crucifying of a childe, they were banished by King Mathias: as at Trent for the like fact, and poysoning of Wells, they sustained much trouble in Germanie: and many passed to Venice; many also went from thence into Russia (where the people cannot abide to heare them named) and Poland, where Cassimere the Great for loue of an Hebrew Lasse, gaue them many priuiledges. They liue dispersed in the townes and villages, occupied in handicrafts, and husbandry. They haue great Synagogues in Cracouia, Leopolis, and at Trochi, a towne of Lituania: and Maister Barkeley a Merchant of London, who hath spent many yeeres in Liuonia, Polonia, and other of those colde countries, told me, That the Iewes farme the Custome of the Kings, and at Samaiden in Curland one of these Iewish Customers beat out the braines of a Polonish Merchant, for deferring to open his packe: but in regard of the peo­ples hatred, prouision is made, vnder great penalties, for their securitie; and yet many Iewes were there executed by occasion of a murren, procured (as was suspe­cted) by Iewish exorcismes intending a plague to the men, and not a murren to the beasts, if their working had sorted: but the Iewes said it was but a pretence to de­priue them of their riches. They heere in Poland print what Bookes they list. They were cast out of Spaine by Ferdinand and Isabella, in the yere, one thousand foure hundred ninetie and two. It is thought Ioannes Reu­clinus Cabal.l.1 saith 420000. persons. Ghachami [...]. , that there went out of Spaine a hundred and twentie thousand families of them (besides Moores) and out of their kingdomes of Naples and Sicill. Hence they passed An­no Domini one thousand fiue hundred thirtie nine, into Tuscane, and the Popes Do­minions, whence they were banished by Paul the fourth, and Pius the fift; and re­ceiued againe by Pius 4, and Sistus the fift; Rome and Venice hauing great store of them. This is the Popes holinesse: hee that would not willingly indure a Prote­stant in the world; besides the Stews vnder his Holinesse nose, can indure the Grae­cians: yea and these Iewes, Rome it selfe hauing tenne thousand, or, Relat. of Rel. West. after others reckoning, twentie thousand of them priuiledged, with their fine Synagogues, Li­turgies and publike Sermons; and to straine vp their Vsurie to eighteen in the hun­dred: hauing also in some places (it may be in all) a peculiar magistrate to decide controuersies between Christians and them, with particular direction to fauor them in their trade. Dulcis odor lucriex requalibet The beastly trade of Curtisans and cruel trade of Iewes is suffered for gaine, these paying a yearely rent for the heads they weare, besides other meanes to racke and wracke them in their purses at pleasure, they being vsed as the spunge-like Friers, to sucke from the meanest, to be squeezed of the greatest; insomuch that the Pope, besides their certaine tribute, doth some­times (as is said) impose on them a Subsidie for tenne thousand crownes extraordi­narie for some seruice of State. So well is the rule of Paul obserued by this Bishop, not to be a louer of filthie lucre.

Out of Spaine they went into Barbarie and diuers other Countries, and some into [Page 138] Portugal: where Iohn the second made them pay eight crownes for a poll, and yet limited them a short time of departure. Emanuel his successor did the like 1497. ex­cept they would become Christians, for which hee assayed diuers meanes. But not preuailing, he caused their children, vnder the age of foure and twenty yeares, to be baptised; some rather hurling their children into pits, some killing themselues: ma­ny for feare were baptised; some went into Italie and abode in Ferrara, Mantua, Ve­netia, in the name of Maranes, and haue a Synagogue at Pisa. But the greatest part of them went into the East to Constantinople and Salonichi, in which two Cities there are about a hundred and sixtie thousand of them. There are of them in all the chiefe Cities of traffike in the Turkish Empire. Theatrum vrbi [...]m Ad. Ro. Tyberias is wholly inhabited with Iewes, which City Zelim gaue to Gratiola a Iewish matron. In Ierusalem there are about a hundred houses of them. There abide not many, because of a superstiti­ous opinion, That before the Messias shall come, a great fire from heauen will con­sume that Citie and Country, to purge it of the abhomination committed there by profane Nations. At Zante they are so hated, that from Mawndy Thurseday vntill Saturday noone, they dare not come abroad: for the people, in a foolish zeale, would stone them: and some refuse to eate of their meate or bread. The Turkes in their reproach vse such a kinde of imprecation; If this be not true, would GOD I might die a Iew. The old Testament is read of them in these parts in the Hebrew Let.Bidulp. , but their Cakamins and Cohens, that is, their Wise-men and Priests preach in Spanish. Only at Salonichi (anciently Thessalonica) in Macedonia, and at Safetta in the Ho­lie Land, (two Vniuersities) they speake Hebrew. They will rather in blasphemie testifie their hatred of CHRIST, then be able to dispute.

CHAP. XI.

A Chronologie of the Iewish Historie from the beginning of the world, briefly collected.

THe Floud happened (as Moses reckoneth the parcells in the Ages of the Patriarchs) in the yeare of the world 1656, 1656. which are thus ac­counted. Adam at the 130 yere begat Seth. Seth at 105 begat Enos. Enos at 90 Kainan. He at 70 Mahalaleel, who at 65 begat Iared. Ia­red being 162 yeares old begat Henoch, who at 65 begat Methuse­lah: and he at 187 begat Lamech, who in his 182 yeare begat Noah: in the six hun­dreth yeare of whose life the Floud came.

The second age of the world is reckoned from the Floud to Abraham: whose birth was after the Floud 292 yeares: Sem two yeres after the Floud begat Arphac­sad. He at 35 yeres Selah, who in his thirtieth yeare begat Heber. Heber at 34 Peleg, who being thirty yeres old begat Regu, and he at 32 Serug, in whose thirtieth yeere Nahor was borne, who at 29 begat Terah, who at 70 yeares begat Abram. Thus Scaliger; Calnisius, Buntingus, Arias Mont. Genebrard, Pererius, Adrichomius, Op­meerus, &c But Iunius, Bronghton, Lydyat, Codomannus &c. adde 60 yeares more. For Moses saith, Gen. 11. 32. That Terah died in Charan, aged 205 yeres, and then Abram (as it is in the next chapter) was 75 yeres old; so that Terah, when Abram was borne, was 130 yeres old. Whereas therefore he is said at 70 yeres to beget Abram, Nabor, and Haran; it is to be vnderstood, that he then began to beget: A [...]no mundi [...]008. Abram borne. Abram being na­med first for diuine priuiledge, not because he was eldest. The like phrase is vsed Gen. 5. 32. Noah being fiue hundred yeres old, begat Shem. Ham, and Iaphet: and yet nei­ther were they all borne at once, nor was Shem the eldest; let the Reader chuse whe­ther of these opinions he best liketh.

In the 75 yeere Abram went out of Charan, hauing receiued the promise: from whence, to the departure of the Israelites out of Aegypt, are numbred 430 yeares. Rather herein we are to follow Pauls interpretation of Moses, then Genebrards, who Gal. 3. 17. accounts those 130 yeres mentioned by Moses, Exo. 12. 40. from the pre­mise [Page 139] made to Abraham, and not from the time that Iacob went downe with his fami­lie into Egypt. So that the departure out of Egypt, after Scaligers computation, and some others, Perkins, Adrichomius &c. hapned in the yere of the world 2453; where­to if we adde those sixtie yeres of Terahs life before mentioned, it amounteth to 2513. And so Broughton reckoneth. Iunius and Lydyat account 2509. The difference seemes to arise from hence, that one accounteth from Abrams departing out of Vr of the Chaldees; the other from his departure from Haran after his fathers death about fiue yeres after. But it were an endlesse work to reconcile Chronologers in their different computations. Some reckon the 25, Ios.Scaliger annot.in Euseb. Scaliger the 15 of Aprill, the day of their depar­ture. And then the Hebrews beganne their yere at the Spring Aequinoctiall, which before they beganne in Autumne.

From this departure, to the building of Salomons Temple, Ios.Scaliger De Em.T.libr.5. 2933. Lydyat, 2988. Scaliger reckneth 480. yeeres, whose first foundations (he saith) were laid the 29 of Maie, being Wednesday; Anno Mundi 2933, and of the Great Iulian Period (which differeth 764 yeares from the yeare of the world) 3697. In this computation of 480 yeares betwixt the de­parture and foundation of the Temple, many Chronologers agree, Arias Montanus, Adrichomius, Broughton, Perkins. Lydyat, &c. although some dissent much. The summe ariseth of these parcells. Moses died fortie yeres after their deliuerance. Io­shua ruled seuenteene; Otbonicl forty; Ehud foure score; Gedeon forty; Abimelech three; Thola twenty three; Iaer twenty two; Iephte six; Ibsan seuen; Elam ten; Abdon eight; Sampson twentie; Heli forty; Samuel and Saul forty; Dauid forty; Salomon in the fourth yere and second month began to build his Temple, after which he raigned thir­tie seuen yeares.

An.M.3360. From thence to the destruction of the Temple vnder Zedekids are accounted 427. This agrees with Ezek.4.5. Lydy.3417. Ezekiels account, reckning a day for a yere, 390 daies of yeres after the apostacie of Israel frō God, the rebellion against the house of Dauid in the begin­ning of Rehoboams reigne, by the means of Ieroboam; to which if we adde 37 yeares which Salomon reigned, after the foundation of the Temple, the summe is 427. The same appeareth thus; Roboam reigned 17 yeres; Abiam three; Asa 41; Ichoshaphat 25; Iehoram eight; Ahaziah one; Athaliah six; Ioash forty; Amazia 29; Azaria or Vzzia 52. Betwixt Amazia and Azaria the kingdome was ruled eleuen yeres by the states, as some gather out of 2. Reg 15. 1. (others reckon it not.) Iotham 16. Abaz sixteene, Ezekiah 29. Manasses 55. Amon 2. Iosias 31. Iehoahaz three months; Eltakim or Iehc­iakim eleuen yeeres; Iehoiachin 3 months; Zedekiah or Mattaniah eleuen yeres. The little difference from the former number may be ascribed to the current and vnfini­shed yeres of some of their reignes.

From this time of Sedekias ruine, some begin the reckoning of the seuentie yeeres captiuity; in which time others comprehend all Sedekias reigne, and account the re­turne vnder Cyrus to be fifty nine yeres after this desolation; and from thence 108. to the Edict of Darius Nothus; from which time are numbred 259 to the Dedication of Iudas Maccabeus; and from thence 162 yeres to the birth of CHRIST. So Scal, de Em. libr.7. Scaliger.

It were a worke irksome to my selfe, and tedious to the Reader, to recite the varia­ble opinions of Chronologers, or to trauerse their arguments about these points.

To recite here their high Priests and later Kings, with the time of their pontificali­tie and reigne, out of Arias Montan. I holde not vnfit. First Iesus returned with Zorobabel, & built the Temple, whose time of priesthood, after Scaliger, Iunius, and those that reckon vpon the Edict of Darius Nothus, must needes be very long They which list to see the varietie of opi­nions of Iew­ish, Greek, La­tine, old and new Chrono­logers, may see Genebr.chron. lib1.in fine. Likewise, see our 4. Booke chap, 4. . To leaue that therefore, his son Ioacim Ioseph.Antiq. & Car.Sigo.de republ.bebr.lib.5. haue set downe the ca­talogue of hie Priests, from the first to the last. succeeded in the priesthood 28. yeares, besides twenty yeares, with his father. Eliasib held the priesthood 41 yeres; Ioiada 25; Iona­than 24; Ieddoa 27. till the time of Alexander; Onias 27, after Philo; but Eusebius saith 23; Simon Iustus 13; Eleazar twentie; Manasses twenty seuen; Onias thirtie nine.

Afterwards the Syrian Kings appointed high Priests: of whom, Iason was Priest 3 yeares; Menelaus twelue yeres; in whose seuenth yere, Iudas Maccab. began to ad­minister the common-wealth. Ionathas brother of Iudas ruled eighteen yeres; Simon his brother was both Priest & Captaine eight yeares; Ioannes Hircanus his sonne 31.

[Page 140] Aristobulus, son of Hircanus, first after the captiuitie called himselfe King, & reig­ned one yere; Ioannes Alexander his brother 27: after him, his wife Alexandra nine; Hircanus her son, three months; Aristobulus his brother, three yeres. Ierusalem was ta­ken of Pompey and Hircanus recouered the Priesthood, which he held 22 yeares; An­tigonus by aid of the Parthians possessed Iudaea fiue yeres; and in his second yeere He­rod was proclaimed King by the Romans, who tooke the citie the fift yeare of Anti­gonus, and reigned foure and thirtie.

Scaliger ascribeth Can.Isagog.l.2 to Herods kingdome the number after Eusebius account, rec­koning from the birth of Abram 1977; he died 2016. Archelaus his sonne was made, by Augustus, Tetrarch of Ierusalem 2016, and was banished 2025. Agricola was made King by Caligula 2053. Agrippa his sonne, by Clandius 2060, and died 2116, thirtie yeares after the destruction of the Temple. The Dynasty of the Herodians lasted 139 yeares. Thus Scaliger. He attributeth the natiuity of CHRIST to the 3948 yere of the world.

Heere we must leaue the Chronologers contending of the yeare of the world, in which this blessed Natiuitie hapned; some adding many more yeares, some not al­lowing so many. It is certaine by the Scripture, that he was borne in the 41 or 42 of Augustus; baptized in the fift of Tiberius, then beginning to be about thirty yeres of age: in the 33 yeare he was crucified. In the 72 as Baronius, and 71 yere of CHRIST, as Buntingus, & Liuely account, Ierusalem was destroyed by Titus, in the second of Vespasian. Ar. Mont. reckoneth this the yere of the world 3989, and saith, that the Hebrews reckon it the 3841, which must needes be false. The fault ariseth from the false computation of the Persian & Graecian monarchies Ios.Antiq.lib. [...]0.18. . Iosephus counteth from the time of Herod, to the destruction of the Temple. 28 high Priests, and 107 yeeres. Af­ter Scaliger in his Can. Isag. li. 3. this yere 1612 is the 1614 of CHRIST, of the world 5561, after the Iewish account of Hillel 5372, of the Armenians 1061, of the Iulian Period 6325, of the Hegira 1021; Anno 4. Olymp. 597.

CHAP. XII.

Of the Iewish Talmud, and the Composition and Aestimation therof: also of the Iew­ish learned men, their succession, their Scriptures, and the translations of them.

RAbbi Mosche Mikkotzi, R. Mos. in Se­pher.mitzuos gadol. in a Worke of his, set forth anno 1236, as Buxdorfius citeth him, Synag.Iudaic. Buxd. latine reddit.ab Herm. Germberg. c.1. saith, That the Written Lawe which GOD gaue to Moses, and Moses to the Israelites, is obscure & hard, because it speaketh some things contradictory (which he seeketh to prooue by some places Exod. 12. 15. Deut. 16 3.& Leuit.23. 6 Ex. 19. 11. & Exod. 20. 22. &c. mis-interpreted) & because it is imperfect, and contai­neth not all things meet to be knowne. For who shall teach vs (saith he) the notes of Birds and Beasts? (a Franciscan might answer him Legend of Saint Francis, where hee is said to preach to the beasts and speake to the Swallowes &c. out of the Legend of S. Francis, the Patron of this Order) who shal teach them the propriety & nature of points, and accents, and of letters? also, what fat might be eaten, what not? &c. Many such things are defectiue in the Law, and therefore there is need of some other Expo­sition of the written Law, whence these things might be learned. This Exposition (for­sooth) must be their Talmud, the generation of which viper, touched before, we will here more fully declare.

They say, that Moses on mount Sinai was not with God 40 daies and 40 nights, to keepe geese. And God could haue written those Tables of the Law in an houre, & sent him away with them; so to haue preuented that Idolatrie with the golden Calfe. But God brought Moses into a Schoole, Pircke seu capita R.Eliczer ca.40. & there gaue him the Law in writing, first, and then in all that long time expounded the same, shewing the cause, manner, measure, foundation, and intention thereof in the true sense. This vnwritten and Verball Law did Moses R.Aben Eora R.Salom.I [...], & alij in Deut. 4 14. teach Ioshua; he, the Elders; from these it was deriued to the Prophets. After Zachary and Malachy, the last of these, it came to the great Sanhedrin: and af­ter them, by Tradition, from father to sonne.

And R.Bechai Ex­od.34. Rabbi Bechai saith, That Moses learned the Lawe written, in the day time; [Page 141] and this Traditionall Law by night: for then hee could not see to write. Rabbi Mosche Mikkotzi sheweth the cause why GOD would deliuer the same by mouth onely, and not in writing, lest (I wisse) the Gentiles should peruert this, as they did the o­ther which was written. And in the day of Iudgement, when GOD shall demand who are the Israelites, the Gentiles shall make challenge, because of the Law written, but the Iewes onely shall be accepted, as hauing this Simani, this verball exposition. GOD also (say they) gaue them Chachamim, Wisemen, authors of diuers ordinan­ces amongst them, as to blesse GOD at the Sunne-rising, and Sunne-setting; and of Schooles where children should be taught the Law of Moses in euerie Citie, and where the Law of Moses should be read weekely: and that the Israelites should not eate or drinke with the Gentiles, nor what they had dressed; after the example of Da­niel Dan.1. 8. &c.

But when the Temple was destroyed, and the Iewes carried away captiues, then a­rose vp Rabbi Iuda Hannasi, who is called (for his humilitie and godlinesse) Our great Master; to whom GOD procured such fauour in the eyes of Antoninus the Empe­rour, that he had authoritie to assemble out of all places of the Empire the most lear­ned Iewes, to consult in this their almost desperate estate, what course to take for the preseruation of the Law amongst the people. And although this Kabala or Law, giuen by word of mouth, might not be committed to writing; yet in consideration, and commiseration of their miserie, whatsoeuer thereof was remaining in memorie, hee writ in a booke which he called Mischna, that is, a Deuteronomie [...] , or Law reiterated, containing sixe summes, diuided into sixtie lesse parts or tractates, and these into 532. chapters. Thus farre R. Mikkotzi.

In this booke were contained the Traditions and Ordinances of the Elders, accor­ding to the prescript whereof, the Iewish Synagogue was to bee ordered: and it was receiued and approued of the Iewish Synagogue, Chron Heb. Tzemach Da­uid in the yeare of CHRIST 219. The Talmud is (in manner) nothing but a commentary on that Misna: a worke full of diuine, natural and politicall wisdome, saith Golatinus, of the parts ther­o [...] see his first booke. chap.5. 10. Picus saith it was composed about the yeare 150. Others, say in the yeare 120. Io. Wolf. Section. Memorab. C. [...]n­tenar. 2. Some yeares after, Rabbi Iochanan, Rector of the Vniuersitie of Ierusalem for the space of eightie yeares, enlarged that booke, and called it the Talmud of Ierusalem, which for the difficultie and obscuritie thereof was not had in such estimation as the former, nor is it at this day. After him, Rabbi Asse read in the Schooles those Tra­ctates, handling euery yeare two of them; so in the sixtie yeares of his Rector-ship, he went twice through it all; but finished in writing onely fiue and thirtie Tractates. After him in the yeare Pet. Galat. hath 436. 427. Maremar was made Rector, to whom Mar the sonne of Rabbi Asse adioyned himselfe. These perfected that which Rabbi Asse had left vnfinished. And that which they thus added was called Gemara, or the complement.

Thus the Mischnatos, and Gemara made vp the whole Talmud Talmud is the same that Do­ctrina, or disci­pli [...]atio. . These two spent in their labors threescore and thirteene yeres. And so in the yere of our LORD 500. the Talmud was perfected, receiued for authenticall, and called the Babylonian Talmud, according to which the Iewes, to this day, behaue themselues in cases spirituall and temporall.

And this is that Law verball, or deliuered by word of mouth, which is equalled to the other, without which the written Law cannot be conceiued or vnderstood: The ioy of the heart (saith Aben Ezra Ab Ezra in Prooem. Penta­teuch ) and refreshing of the bones; betwixt which and the written Law he can find no Sic Tridenti [...] ­na Synodus sel. 4. dec. 1. vt dein. difference, but being deliuered to them from their Elders. In one of their bookes, Semok, vel Sephar mitzvos katon R. Isaac. printed at Cremona, 1556. is this sentence. Thinke not that the Law written is the foundation, but rather the Law Traditionall is the right foundation: and according to this Law, did GOD Exod.34.27. make couenant with the Israelites, for GOD foresaw their captiuity in time to come, and therefore lest the peo­ple, among whom they should dwel, should write out & interpret this Law, as they did the other, GOD would not haue it written. And although in processe of time this Law be now written, yet it is not explained by the Christians, because it is hard, & requireth a sharp wit. That which is spokē of the Law, is applied to cōmend their Talmud: If you can frustrate (saith the LORD) my Couenant with the Psal.1.2. Esa.59.vlt. Ierem.33.25.day & the night, that is, according to their book Tanchuma, whē you wil no longer learne & obserue the Talmud. And in [Page 142] the Tract it. Ba­uamaziab. Talmud is thus recorded: To studie and reade in the Bible is a vertue and not a vertue, that is, a small vertue: but to learne their Mischna or Talmud-text is a ver­tue worthie reward: and to learne by heart Gemaram (the complement of the Tal­mud) is a vertue so great that none can be greater.

Hence it is that their Rabbines are more exercised in their Talmud, then in the Bi­ble: as on which their faith is founded more then on the other: and according to this doe they expound the Scripture. And as their Talmud is most certaine, so also is that (whatsoeuer) exposition of their Rabbines, according to the same. Thus saith Rabbi Isaac Abhuhabh, whatsoeuer our Rabbines in their Sermons and mysticall explanations haue spoken, wee are no lesse firmely to beleeue, then the Law of Moses.

And if any thing therein seeme repugnant to our sense, wee must impute it to the weakeneste of our conceit, and not to their words: as for example, it is written in the Talmud, Tract. de Sab­bal. c.2.pa.30. that a Rabbine once preached, that the time would come, when a woman should euery day bee deliuered of her burthen: according to the saying, Ie­rem. 31. 7. Concepit statimque peperit. One not beleeuing this, the Rabbine answered that hee spake not of a common woman, but of a henne, which should euery day lay an egge.

Such are their expositions, I know not, whether fitter to be heard of Heraclitus, or Democritus, more lamentable or ridiculous; and yet is it there said, that their words are the words of the liuing GOD, whereof not one shall fall to the ground; and must not be derided either in word or thought, whether ye respect the persons, or workes of their Rabbines. Therefore in a Dutch booke printed in Hebrew characters at Cra­couia, 1597. it is written, that the Iewes are bound to say Amen, not onely to their Prayers, but to all their Sermons and Expositions, according to the Prophet Esay, Cap.26.2. Open the gates, the people commeth (schomer amunim) which keepeth righteousnesse: that is (say they) which saying Amen, beleeueth all things which the wise Rab­bines haue written. And if any be so simple, that he cannot vnderstand, yet must hee heleeue.

When two Rabbins (saith their Talmud) maintaine contrarie opinions, yet must not men contradict them, because both of them hath his Kabala or traditi­on for the same: and this is a rule in their Rabbines, Remember rather the word of the Scribes, than of the Lawe of Moses. R. Salomon Iarchi vpon Deutero­nomie chap. 17. verse 12. Thou shalt not decline from the word that they shall shew thee, to the right hand or to the left, hath these words; And when hee saith vnto thee of the right hand, that it is the left; and of the left hand, that it is the right a R. must be beleeued, though he say the right hand is the leit. , thou must beleeue it: how much more if hee saith, the right hand is the right hand, &c. They haue a Storie in their Talmud tract. de Sabbal. Legend for the same, That there camea Goi a Gen­tile to Sammai, and asked him, how many Lawes they had, who answered, two, a Written and a Verball. Hee replied; The Written Lawe I acknowledge no lesse then thou: make mee therefore a Iew, and teach mee the other. Sammai refused: and hee went to Hittel, (these both liued a little before the time of CHRIST) who admitted and instructed him; after hee bade him pronounce the Letters in order, Aleph, Beth, Gimel, &c. which hee did. The next day he bade him say the same Letters backward, Gimel, Beth, Aleph. The Gentile said, Rabbi, yester­day you taught me otherwise: And yet said Hillel you beleeue mee, and so learne of me; which you must no lesse doe in the traditionall Lawe, beleeuing all that is therein. I had almost thought in reading of this Hillel, I had beene reading the life of Ignatij vita lib.3.cap.7. Ignatius Loiola the Iesuite-founder (so like is the Storie, though the names dif­fer) who practised himselfe, and trained vp others, Adsapientem hanc sauitam­que stultitiam caecae, vtipse appellabat, obedientiae, saith Maffaeus in a large Dis­course hereof: PAVLS Omnia probate was in these daies; but prudentiam non obedient is, sed imperantis esserespondit Ignatius: negabat obedient is nomine dignum haberi oportere qui legitimo superiori non cum voluntate iudicium quoque submitteret: in superior [...] iussis [Page 143] examinando esse arrogantiam. And this wise and holy folly of blind obedience is with all rigour obscured still in his followers who submit their mindes and iudgements, as well as affections, to their superiours in all things. And what more could old Hellel say to his disciples? Or doth GOD himselfe exact? Bernard, throughout his seuenth Epistle, teacheth more soundly of the Pope, and those religious Superiours; Bern.epist.7. Nec di­co praepositorum mandata esse à subditis iudicanda, vbinibil inhere depraehenduntur diuinis contrarium institut is. Sed necessarium esse dico & prudentiam qua aduertatur, siquid ad­uersetur, & libertatem qua ingenuè contemnatur. Hanc ego nunqu ins aemuler obedienti­am: talem nuhi nunquam libe at modestiam, vel potius molestiam imilari. Talis siquidem obedientia omniest contempt is deterior: talis quoque modestia vltra omnem modum exten­ditur,O patientia, omni digna impatientia! But to leaue this question and our Ie­suites till fitter time; the Iewish Rabbines auerre, that whosoeuer mocketh or con­temneth their sayings, shall bee punished in hot and boyling Zoah, or excrement in hell. And thus much of their Talmud, the originall, and authoritie thereof. More modest yet were those Fathers of Trent, Self 4.d [...]c.1. Paripietatis as­sectu & riue­rentia traditio­nes vna cum libris veteris & Noui Testamen­ti sulcipimi.s & vencramur. that would ascribe but equalitie of reue­rence and respect to their Traditions with the Scripture, which must needes ac­knowledge themselues beholding to them; left they complaine they follow not their Traditionaire Masters in making them fit lower: and they haue their Anathema as readie as the Rabbines their Zoah; and their Traditions, Canons, and Constitutions, must interprete as well as their Kabala.

But before wee leaue their Talmud (thus highly esteemed amongst them) I thought meete also to speake more largely, both of that, and of their learned Rabbines, out of Petrus Galatinus, who thus writeth thereof.

The Galat. de dr­canis lib 1. per totum. Traditionall Law they call Tora scebeal pe, that is, the Law which is in the mouth, or deliuered by word of mouth. Rabbi Moses Aegyptius telleth the passages thereof thus: Ioshua receiuing it of Moses, deliuered it to Phineas, the sonne of Elea­zar the Priest: Phineas, to Hels the Priest: hee, to Samuel the Prophet: Samuel to Danid: hee, to Achias the Prophet, who deliuered the same to Elias, the teacher of Elisha: Elisha or Elisaus to Ioiada the Priest: this Ioiada, to Zacharias; Zacharias to Hosea; and hee, to Amos; Amos, to Esay; of whom Micheas receiued it, and of him Ioel; Nahum from him; and from him againe, Habacuck, who taught it Se­phanie, the instructer of Ieremie, of whom Baruch the Scribe learned it: Baruch taught it Ezya. Vntill this time the Iewes had none other but the written Scrip­ture.

Now for their Scriptures: they call the same Arabaa Veesrim (that is, the foure and twentie) of the D. Whitak.de script q [...]st. c.6. Sheweth that the Iewes ac­coūted so ma­ny bookes of the Bible, as they had let­ters, in the Al­phabet, to wit, two and twen­tie, he alled­geth authors of this number two and twen­tie, and the conceit there­of Gregor.Naz. Hilary, Cyrillus. Hierosol Epiph. Hieron. Isidorus, Niceph. Leenti­us, &c. The reason of this difference, E­piph. hares.8. sheweth, that some of the bookes were double, and therefore him­selfe numbreth seuen & twen­tie, or rather, saith he, two and twentie, according as more or fewer were thus rec­koned coge­ther. And in lib.de Mens. & pond. he hath the same. Ruth is, saith he, rec­koned with the booke of lud­ges, Nehemia with Ezra, and Samuel, Kings & Chronicles, are not diui­ded. number of the bookes after their computation, all which they re­duce to foure parts. The first of which they call Tora, the Law, or Humas, the Pen­tateuch or fiue bookes: and call euery booke after the first words in the beginning thereof. The second part hath foure bookes; Ioshua, Iudges, Samuel, and Kings. The third part comprehendeth foure other, which they call the last Prophets; Esay, Iere­mie, Ezekiel, and the booke of the twleue smaller Prophets. The fourth part is called Chetuuim, and hath eleuen bookes, Paralipomenon or Chronicles: the Psalmes; the Prouerbs; Iob; Ruth; Ecclesiastes; Lamentations; Canticles; Ester; Daniel; Ezra, which they make one with Nehemia, Ecclesiasticus, Iudith, and Tobias, and the first booke of Maccabees they haue, but reckon not among the foure and twentie. The third and fourth bookes of Ezra I haue not seen in Hebrew; but some of them say, that they are lately foundat Constantinople: But the second of Maccabees, and the booke of Philo (called the Wisdome of Salomon) I neuer saw but in Greeke, nor those additions to Daniel. But after the Babylonian captiuitie, Ezra writing out the Law, which had beene burned in the destruction of the Citie, other wise-men writte out the Exposition of the Law, left, if another destruction should happen, the same might perish. And from that time, all the Wise-men, which are called the men of the Great Synagogue, in their teaching the Law, deliuered the same both in word, and writing, vntill the Talmud was written.

These mens authority hath the next place to the Prophets. And are in this order [Page 144] mentioned in their Talmud. Ezra deliuered the same to Simon the Priest called Iad­dus, who was honored of Alexander. This Simon deliuered this explanation to An­tigonus; Antigonus to Iosephus the sonne of Iohn, and to Iosephus the sonne of Iohezer: They to Nitaeus Arbulensis, and Ioshua the sonne of Peratria, whose auditour the Iewes falsely affirme that IESVS, our blessed SAVIOVR, was, which liued an hundred and ten yeares after. Those two deliuered the same to Iuda the sonne of Ti­baeus, and Simon the sonne of Sata: These to Samaia and Abatalion: and they to Hil­lel and Samaeus. Hiliel flourished an hundred yeares before the destruction of the se­cond Temple; and had eightie schollers or disciples, all of excellent wit and learning. Thirtie of them, for their excellence, had the Diuinitie descending vpon them as Mo­ses: and other thirtie obtained, that the Sunne should stand still for them, as Ioshua: The rest were accounted meane. Of these, the greatest was Ionathas son of Vziel, the least Iohn the sonne of Zachaeus, which yet knew the Scripture and Talmud, and all things else to the examples of Foxes, and Narrations of Diuels.

Hillel and Samaeus deliuered this explanation to this Iohn, and to Simeon the Iust, sonne of the said Hillel, who after Luke2.28. receiued CHRIST in his armes, and prophecied of him in the Temple. Rabbi Moses proceedeth, and saith that Simeon taught Gama­liel, Pauls Master; and Gamaliel instructed his sonne Rabban Simeon, who was slaine of Hadrian the Emperour, after hee had taught his sonne Iudas, whom the Iewes for his learning and holinesse call Rabbenu Haccados, (that is, our holy Master) of which honorable name there had beene another in the time of the Roman Con­suls. These for the most part, besides almost infinite others of their hearers, haue left many things written of the explanation of the Law; of which the Talmud was compacted.

Of the Authentike Authors of the Iewes before CHRISTS time, Galatinus fur­ther addeth the threescore and twelue Interpreters, who are said by Ptolomies direction to be separated in threescore and twelue cels, or seuerall roomes; and each interpreting by himselfe, did all agree in words, order, and time of their translation, exactly. Calendar. Iud. apud Ios. Scalig. see cap.6. But howsoeuer Iosephus, writing in Greeke, boasteth of this translation, yet the Iewes (I know not whether of enuy at the effect thereof among the Christians) keepe the eight day of Tebeth fasting, for griefe of that Greeke translation. Iesus Sirach mentioneth his Grand-father and other writers. And an hundred and sixty yeares before CHRIST flourished Aristobulus, a Iew, and Peripatetike Philosopher: who by Ptolomoeus Philo­metors perswasion writ Commentaries on Moses, and spake many things of the Messi­as: as did also Rabbi Iodam, and R. Ibba not long after: and after them, R. Simeon ben lohai. After these, Rabbenu Haccados writ a booke called Gale-razeya, that is, the re­uealer of secrets, very diuinely vttering many things of CHRIST. The like did Rabbi Nahumias sonne of Haccana, both expounding the Prophets, and affirming that the Messias was to come within fiftie yeares; and writ an Epistle therof to his sonne, of whom he hoped that he should liue to see him. About the same time (two and fortie yeares before CHRIST) Ionathas the sonne of Vziel, and scholler (as I said) of Hil­lel, translated all the old Testament into Chaldee, and expounded the same so, that it might seeme rather a Glosse and exposition, then interpretation. This the Hebrewes call Targum, that is, the Translation, which hath with them no lesse credit then the text it selfe, and thereby expound all hard places of the text. They tell therefore, that at that time wherein he laboured this worke, if a Flie or such creature did flie ouer him or his paper, presently, without any harme to the paper, it was consumed with fire from Heauen. And although his translation of the Pentateuch be most rare, yet I once saw it: for that which is most common was the worke of Ankelos a Proselyte, whom the Hebrewes affirme to be the sonne of Titus the Emperour, who also turned all the Bible into Chaldee, and is of no lesse reputation with the Iewes, then the for­mer, and is also called Targum.

After the Times of CHRIST, Philo and Iosephus are famous: and after the resurrection of CHRIST, the Iewes were of three sorts; some true beleeuers, others ab­solute denyers, the third would haue the Christian Religion and the Iewish Ceremo­nies [Page 145] to be conioyned in equall obseruation; against which third sort the first Councel, Act. 15. was summoned.

The moderne Iewes insist principally on the literall sense of Scripture; the Elder sought out a spirituall and mysticall sense, accounting this a great matter, the literall, but small, like to a candle, with the light whereof, the other (as a hidden pearle) is found. The Talmudists followed the allegoricall sense; the Cabalists, the Anago­gicall.

As concerning this Cabala, in old times they communicated not that skill to any, but to such as were aged and learned; and therefore nothing thereof, or verie little, is found written of the Ancient, except of Rabbi Simeon Ben Iobai. But the Doctors of the later Iewes, lest that learning should perish, haue left somewhat thereof in wri­ting, but so obscurely, that few know it, and they which doe, account it a great secret. Amongst the Christians, Iohannes Picus began first to suspect, and spie it, as afarre off. After, Paulus Israelita, Augustus, Instinianus, Capnio, Aegidius Viterbiensis writ thereof.

Thus much out of Galatinus his first booke, De Arcanis: Gal. de Ar­canis. Mor. de verita­te C. R. out of whom, and out of Philip. Mornaeus, they which please, may borrow arguments to conuince the Iewish incredulitie, and stubbornenes, and to confound them by their owne testimo­nies, both from these elder Writers aboue mentioned, and also from the later, both compiled in their Talmud. So great is the Truth, and so mightily it preuaileth, that it extorteth not onely her owne weapons, vsurped and stolne by her enemies: but their owne also, wherewith they come armed against the Truth, and retorteth them on theselues; as Dauid serued the Philistims: 1. Sam.17.51. Who cut off Goliahs bead, with Goliahs sword: as 1. Chro. 11.23. Benaiah (one of his Worthies) slew an Aegyptian, a man of great stature, fiue cubites long, and in the Aegyptians hand was a speare, like a Weauers beame; and he went downe to him with a staffe, and plucked the speare out of the Aegyptians hand, and slew him with his owne speare. Thus did Q. Curt.l.9. Dioxippus the Champion (if forrenners delight any) deale with Horratus the Macedonian in a set combate: and thus hath our D. Morton. Apolog-catho­lica, &c. Worthie and Champion come often into the field against the Popish Giants, armed inwardly with Truth, outwardly with Arguments, wrested (without wresting) from his ene­mies.

Hee, in his Latine, and English workes, hath obserued the two-fold rule of Policie; Diuide and Rule, against the Papists: Vnite and Rule, for the Protestants: Which Brerely would haue brought into the like briers. But those his troopes are shewed not to bee men, but apes; like those that held Alexanders armie in suspence: and like Semsramis Elephants, which were but stuffed oxe-hides, kill-cow-frayes. But Macte virtute esto (worthie Deane) Euen so goe on still, and fight the Lords battels: that thy Sparta (so happily vndertaken) still adorne, and shew the confusion of Babels bab­blers, Diuide that societie, which now in their last age haue hissed with their forked, venemous Tongues; feared and enuied at home, for their arrogance, no lesse then hated abroad, for their heresies and treasons.

Let Saint Iohns, Let England, and the whole Church still sing the ten thousands, that thou doest thus slay with their owne weapons; and let the Apostoticall Truth escape, whiles her apostaticall enemies, the Pharisees and Sadducees, are set toge­ther by the eares. A happie and Diuine stratageme, which (not to detract from others iust prayses, in this or other parts of the battell) had beene singled, and singularly managed by thy prowesse, which speakest (more iustly then hee which vsed those words) to these Babylonians, 2. Reg. 18.27. in their owne language, that they may eate their owne dung, and drinke their owne pisse together.

Doctor White also, in (that Lactea via, his Milke-white) Pag.342. Way to the true Church, chalengeth in all points of Poperie both authoritie of Scriptures, Fathers, and later Romanists, to produce the same against the Trent-Councell, and the Ie­suites.

But how hath that fatall and deadly name of Babel transported mee? Truely the likenesse of these Traditionaries, Cabalists, Talmud Ba­bylonica. muddie Talmudists, and Legendaries [Page 146] (as will appeare to an easie obseruer and comparer of this ensuing Historie to their practise) which haue beene mustered from the Easterne and Westerne Both Bellar­mine and Baro­ni [...]s approue, and proue Rome to be Babylon. Babel, and the like manner of their confusion, hath almost made mee forget the Historie and my selfe, but neuer a whit the Truth. And this will be further manifested in the next Chapter, where their account of their Talmud, and in the rest of this booke, where their superstitious deuotion is related.

As for those testimonies of the Iewes against themselues, besides the Scriptures (which (in regard of the true sense) the veile ouer their hearts will not suffer them to reade, but it is a sealed booke vnto them, and they haue left the riches thereof vnto vs, as 2.Reg.7.7. the Aramites left their tents, with their horses and treasure, to the pined Israe­lites)

Their other Authors are so plaine and plentifull in the mysteries of our Religion, as I know not whether it cause greater pleasure to reade their writings, or astonishment and wonder at the Nation; so stricken with madnesse, and with blindnesse, and with astonishment of heart, since they haue shut their eyes against the Sunne of righteous­nesse; on whom that threatened plague is come, Deut.28.29. Thou shalt groape at noone-dayes, as the blind doth groape in darkenesse. For out of their Talmud-Authors is plainly deliue­red the mysterie of the Trinitie, the Incarnation of the SONNE of GOD, his two Natures, his Birth of a Virgine, his Spirituall Kingdome, the time of his comming, the truth of his Prophecies, and power of his Miracles; the Redemption of Mankind, by his Death, his Crucifying, Descent, Resurrection and Ascension: and that their Nation was to bee reiected, the old Law to cease, a New to succeed, &c. All which as they agree vnto that sweete and blessed Name, and Person of IESVS (which name, and that of EMANVEL, is also found in their writings) so do they argue the seueritie of GODS Iudgements, when men will not beleeue the Truth, that by the efficacie of errour, they shall haue eyes and see not, eares and heare not (neither ours nor their owne) as Paul, and CHRIST himselfe often told them. But those parti­culars, as rather appertaining to disputation, then historie, (and therefore too much impertinent to our purpose) the desirous Readers may at large finde in Morney and Ga­latinus, not to mention Iud. Viu. de V. C. F. Seb. Munster. de side Christ. & Ind. Censura. others.

The witnesse of Iosephus, being one, whose name we often vse in this Historie, may iustly chalenge me, if I should omit him, especially seeing he liued in the very dayes of the Apostles, who, as he witnesseth of Iohn Baptist, and of many other things men­tioned in the Gospell, fully agreeing therewith: so concerning our LORD and SA­VIOVR, hath this testimonie.

Ios.Antiq.18.cap.4. In the time of Tiberius, there was one IESVS, a wise Man (if at least-wise he was to be called a man) who was a worker of great Miracles, and a Teacher of such as loue the Truth; and had many followers, as well of Iewes as of Gentiles. This was CHRIST. Neuerthelesse being accused vnto Pilate, by the Chiefe of the Iewes, he was crucified. But yet for all that, those which had loued Him from the beginning, ceased not to continue still. For he shewed himselfe aliue vnto them three dayes af­ter his Death, as the Prophets had foretold of him, both this and diuers other things. And euen vnto this day doe those continue still, which after his name are called Christians. Thus much Iosephus. Thus did the Truth force him to confesse, whose Historie of the destruction of his Nation, what is it but as a Commentarie on IESVS Prophecie thereof, and their fearefull imprecation, Matth.27.25. His bloud bee vpon vs and our children shewing that the wrath of GOD was come vpon them to the vt­most?

From Mount Oliuet, where IESVS was first apprechended, and where last those blessed feete touched the earth, (as if Mercie had there left a print of Iustice) was Ierusalem besieged, and at their Feast of Passeouer, (when they had crucified CHRIST) they were couped vp, as it were, assembled by Diuine Iustice from all quar­ters to destruction, together with that their Citie, where they had slaine the LORD. But of this before. It will not be vnsauourie to the Reader, obseruing herein Diuine vengeance, to relate as vnsauourie a tale as euer was deuised, which their Talmud tel­leth [Page 147] in derogation of CHRISTS Miracles, in which I know not whether to call them Beasts or Deuils, so witlesse, and withall so wicked is their blasphemie. For sooth in Salomons Temple there was (say they) a certaine stone of verie rare vertue, wherein Salomon, by his singular wisedome, had engrauen the verie true name of GOD, which it was lawfull for euerie man to reade, but not to conne by heart, nor to write out. And at the Temple dore were two Lyons tyed at two chaynes, which rored ter­ribly, that the feare thereof made him to forget the name that had committed the same to memorie, and him to burst asunder in the middest, that had put it in writing. But IESVS, the sonne of Marie, say they, regarding neither the Curse annexed to the Prohibition, nor the roaring of the Lyons, writ it out in a Bill, and went his way with it ioyfully. And least he might be taken with the thing about him, he had a lit­tle opened the skinne of his legge, and put it in there, and afterward wrought his mi­racles by the vertue of that name. I should be almost as absurd as they, if I should dispute against it, seeing in this, and most of their braine-sicke dreames, the very re­citation is sufficient refutation.

But before wee shake hands with the learned Writers of the Iewes, it is not vn­meet, in my opinion, here to meet with some questions which some haue moued, concerning them and their dealing in and with the Scriptures. For since that the Councell of Trent hath decreed, in the yeare 1546, both the diuine authoritie of Scriptures Canonicall, to the Apocrypha-bookes, which the Iewes receiue not, nor euer did; and hath made the vulgar Translation Ses.4. In publicis lecti­onibus, disputationibus, praedica­tionibus, aut ex­positionibus, pro­cuthentica ha­beatur: & quòd ecm nemo reij­cere quouis prae­textu and eat vel praesumat. Authenticall in publike Lectures, Disputations, Preachings, and Expositions, that none, vnder any pretence whatso­euer, shall presume to reiect it: it is wonder to see how eagerly (that I say not im­pudently) diuers of them haue sought to slander the originall Text, and haue bla­med, as Authors thereof, in the New Testament, Heretikes, and in the Old, Iewes; couering their malice to vs with pretence of the malice of Heretikes and Iewes, and forgetting the true Rule, That it is a shame to belie the Deuill. Thus haue Lib.2.cap.13. Canus and Pintus, and Gregorius de Valentia, Sacroboscus, and others, traduced the Iewes in this behalfe; themselues refuted by their owne (which yet by conse­quent ouerthrow that former Decree) Sixtus Senensis, Ribera, Cardinall Bellar­mine himselfe, Andradius, Arias Montanus, Isaac Levita, &c. Besides, of ours many, and especially our owne learned Countreymen, Whitaker, Reynolds, Mor­ton, &c.

Bellar.de ver. Dei.lib.2.cap.1. Bellarmine hath both taught vs the vanitie of their opinion, that hold, That the Scriptures were all lost in the Babylonian Captiuitie, and were by Ezra renew­ed miraculously (who is rather Ezra.4.14. commended for his industrie in interpreting and ob­seruing them, and for ordering and compacting them in one volume, then for such needlesse reuelation to finde that which was neuer lost: an Author rather, as Hier. Prolog. Galeat. Hierome hath obserued, of the present Hebrew Letters, then of their auncient Scriptures) and hath also proued the absurditie of their conceit, that imagine the Hebrew Fountaines corrupted. First, by Bel.ibid.c.2. the Arguments of Origen and Hierome, That such corruption must haue been either before or after CHRIST: if that; CHRIST would haue re­proued and not commended their Scriptures to their search: if this; how commeth it, that the testimonies, cited by him and his Apostles, are found now in Moses and the Prophets, as they were then cited? Secondly, out of Angustine, That it is not likely they would put out both their eyes (in depriuing their Scriptures of truth) that they might put out one of ours: nor was it possible that such a generall conspiracie could be made. Thirdly, from their more then reuerent estimation of their Scriptures, for which they would die, if it were possible, a hundred deaths, and euen still (as Isaac an­swereth B. Lindan his Scholer) they proclaime a Fast to expiate, if by some accident that Book but fals to the ground. Fourthly, some places in the Hebrew are more strōg against the Iewes then our Translations are, and the Prophecies, which make most a­gainst them, remaine there vncorrupted. And lastly, the prouidence of GOD would neuer herein faile his Church, but hath left them, with their bookes, to be dispersed through the world, to beare witnesse to that Truth which they hate and persecute. [Page 148] These are Bellarmines Arguments; which, because they are the Truth, are also ours: and therefore we haue beene bold with the Reader to insert them. As for that Emen­dation or Correction of the Scribes, which Galatinus mentioneth, wherein they haue corrupted the Text, he proueth it to be a late dreame of the Talmud, and answereth the Arguments of his fellowes, herein not so Catholike as himselfe.

Now although this may seeme more then enough to conuince that folly, yet it shall not be impertinent to adde out of Arias Montanus somewhat touching the same, because it openeth another mysterie touching the Hebrew Learning, and the Masóreth. Refert Re­n [...]ldus ex praef. Bibl. part.6. Antuerp. When the Iewes (sayth he) returned into their Countrey after the Cap­tiuitie threescore and tenne yeares in Babylon, it befell them partly by occasion of their long troubles, which did distract their mindes, partly by corruption of their na­tiue Tongue, which was growne out of kinde, first into the Chaldee, and afterward into the Syriake, that they neither knew nor pronounced so well the wordes of the Scripture, written (as the manner was) without vowels. Whereby it came to passe, that in the writing of them there crept in some fault, either through iniurie of the Times, or by reason of troubles which fell vpon the People, or by negligence of some Scriucners. But this inconuenience was met withall afterward by most lear­ned men, such as Esdras was, and afterward Gamaliel, Ioseus, Eleazar, and other of great name, who prouided by common trauell, with great care and in dustrie, that the Text of Scripture, and the true reading thereof, should be preserued most found and vncorrupt. And from these men, or from their instruction, being receiued and polished by their Scholers in the Ages following, there came, as wee iudge, that most profitable Treasure, which is called Masóreth, that is to say, a Deliuerie, or Traditionall, because it doth deliuer abundantly and faithfully all the diuers Rea­dings that euer were of the Hebrew Bibles. Wherein there appeareth an euident token of the prouidence of GOD, for the preseruation of the sacred Bookes of Scrip­ture whole and sound, that the Masóreth hath beene kept till our time these many hundred yeares, with such care and diligence, that in sundrie Copies of it, which haue beene written, no difference was euer found. And it hath beene added in all the written Bibles that are in Europe, Africke, or Asia, each of them agreeing throughly therein with other, euen as it is printed in the Venice Bibles, to the great wonder of them, who read it. Thus farre Montanus: and by this Masóreth, their obiection of Caari and Caaru, in the two and twentieth Psalme, is answered, in that certaine readings haue the later and truer, as the Masóreth testifieth. Gram. Heb. [...]. Marti­nus affirmeth, That these Masorites inuented the prickes wherewith the Hebrew is now read, to supply the lacke of vowels, herein vsing religious care, least by inuenting new Letters to that purpose, they should haue changed that auncient forme of writing, and somewhat impaired the maiestie thereof. They tell, that when a cer­taine Rabbine had read Zacár for Zécer, he was slaine of his Scholer Ioah, for vio­lating Scripture.

Gene [...]. Chron 4. Genebrard denying their opinion, that make Ezra or Esdras Author of these He­brew prickes and accents, sayth, That they were inuented after the times of Honorius the Emperour, in the yeare, after the Temple was destroyed, 436, which is (sayth he) from CHRIST 476, in Tyberias, a Citie of Galilee; the chiefe Authors were Aa­ron Aseries, and Iames, sonnes of Niphthali, whose dissenting one from the other caused a diuision among the Iewes, the Westerne Iewes following the former, the Ea­sterne, which dwelt in Babylonia, the later.

The Syriake Tongue some hold to haue sprung from the corruption of the Chaldee and Hebrew mixt. The Editions and Translations of the Scriptures, out of the Hebrew into the Greeke, are Bell q.sup. cap.5. reckoned nine, besides that which Cle­ment Alexandrinus. Strom. lib. 1. sayth, was before the time of Alexander, where­of Plato and the Philosophers borrowed not a little. The first (alreadie mentioned) of the Seuentie. The second of Aquila, first a Gentile, after a Christian, and now last a Iew, in the time of Adrian. The third of Theodotion, a Marcionist, vnder Com­modus. The fourth of Symmachus, first a Samaritane, and after that a Iew. [Page 149] Of the fift and sixt are not knowne the Authors. Of all these Origen compounded his Hexapla. The seuenth was the correction rather then a translation. The eight was of Lucian, Priest and Martyr. The ninth of Hesychius. But the most famous and auncient, which the Spirit of GOD hath by often allegations, in some measure, confirmed, is that of the Seuentie.

As for that conceit of the Cells, which Iustine Paraen. ad Gen. sayth were threescore and tenne, in which they were diuided, and which Epiph. de Pon. Epiphanius placeth by couples, and numbreth sixe and thirtie Cells, in which, by miracle, these thus diuided did all agree, in words and sense, Hier. praefat. in Pentateuch. Bellar.l.2.c.6. de verbe Dci. Hierome derideth the same as a Fable, because neither Aristaeus, which then liued, nor Iosephus, doc euer mention it. Now whereas Iosephus mentioneth on­ly the Law translated by them; Iustinus, Irenaeus, Clemens, Eusebius, write, That they translated all. And although Aristaens name but the Law, yet who knoweth not, that by this generall name they sometime comprehended all the Scripture, as in the New Testament is seene; as 1. Cor. 14. 21. and Ioh. 10. 34. &c..

CHAP. XIII.

Of the Moderne Iewes Creed, or the Articles of their Faith, with their interpretation of the same.

STayEs. 29.9.your selues and wonder (sayth the LORD, of this people) they are blind, and make blind: they are drunken, but not with Wine: they stagger, but not by strong drinke &c. And after, because of their Hypo­crisies, And their feare toward me is taught by the Precept of Vers.14.Men: Therefore behold, I will againe doe a maruellous worke in this People; euen a maruellous worke and a wonder: for the wisedome of their wise men shall perish, and the vnderstanding of their prudent men shall be hid. This day is this Scripture (as it hath beene many Ages heretofore) fulfilled in our eyes: as it hath ap­peared by our former declaration of their Talmud, and further followeth, in rehear­sing the thirteene Articles of their Creed, thus briefely expressed in their daily Prayer-bookes.

  • 1. I Beleeue with a true and perfect faith, that GOD is the Creator, Gouernor, and Preseruer of all Creatures, and that he hath wrought all thinges, wor­keth hitherto, and shall worke for euer.
  • 2. I beleeue with a perfect faith, that GOD the Creator is one, and that such an Vnitie as is in him can be found in none other, who alone hath beene OVR GOD, is yet, and for euer shall continue OVR GOD.
  • 3. I beleeue with a perfect faith, that GOD the Creator is not bodily, nor in­dued with bodily proprieties, and that no bodily essence can be compared to him.
  • 4. I beleeue that GOD the Creator is the first and last, and that nothing was before him, that he shall abide the last for euer.
  • 5. I beleeue that he alone is to be adored, and that none else may be worshipped.
  • 6. I beleeue that all, what soeuer the Prophets haue taught and spoken, is sincere truth.
  • 7. I beleeue that the Doctrine and Prophecie of MOSES was true; that he was the Father and chiefe of wise men, that liued then, or before his time; or should be in times to come after.
  • 8. I beleeue that all the Law, as it is this day in our handes, was so deliuered by GOD himselfe to MOSES.
  • [Page 150]9. I beleeue that the same Law is neuer to be changed, nor any other to bee gi­uen vs of GOD.
  • 10. I beleeue that he knoweth and understandeth all the workes and thoughts of men, as it is written in the Prophet, Hee hath fashioned their hearts together Ps.33.15.considering all their workes.
  • 11. I beleeue that GOD will recompence to all men their workes: to all, I say, which keepe his Commandements, and will punish all transgressers whomsoeuer.
  • 12. I beleeue that the MESSI AS is yet to come, and although he doe long dif­ferre his comming, yet will I hope, that he will come, waiting for him euery day, till he doth come.
  • 13. I beleeue with a perfect faith, that there shall be an awakening of the dead, at that time which shall seeme fit to GOD the Creator: the name of which GOD the Creator be much blessed and celebrated for euer-more. AMEN.

This is the Iewish Faith, in which with much vexation, doubting, and lamentation, they die; vpon which, their Religion hath beene alway founded: but it was first put in writing, and brought into this order by R. Mosche bar Maimon, who died in the yeare after their reckoning 4964, Anno Dom. 1104. and strait charge was giuen, That the Iewes thenceforth for euer confessing it in this order, should, according to the same, liue and die. This their Creed, howsoeuer Charitie may construe much of it to a bet­ter sense, yet according to their vnderstanding doth it principally aime at the subuer­sion of Christian Religion; as appeareth in a more strait examination, after their sense of the 2,3,4, and 5, the 7,8,9,10,11,12. Articles: all which make against the person or the office of the sonne of GOD, as they vnderstand them; denying his Godhead, and disannulling his office, affirming, as a Iew shamed not to professe and vtter vnto M. Buxdorfius, That it needed not that any should satisfie for them, for euerie Foxe must yeeld his owne skinne and haires to the flayer. And the Iewish Faith, sayth R. Ioseph Albu, is founded vpon three foundations: vpon the vnitie of the diuine es­sence; vpon the Law of Moses, and vpon the eternall reward of good works, and pu­nishment of euill, contemning the Passion of CHRIST, Es.53.5.6 by whose stripes we are healed, and on whom GOD hath layed the iniquities of vs all. It is written also in their Tract. San­hedrin, c. 11. Talmud, that all the Israelites haue their portion in the world to come, not all alike, but he shall haue a greater part that hath done more good workes, and the wicked and impenitent shall be punished twelue moneths in Hell or Purgatorie, after which time they also (and some sooner, if they haue beene lesse sinners) shall haue their part, but a lesse then the former: but to them which denie GOD (which become Christians) their fore-skinne groweth againe, and as vncircumcised eternally are punished in Hell. And the sonne of a deceased Iew is bound to say, for the space of one yeare, See Cap.19. a prayer called Kaddisch, thereby to redeeme him from Purgatorie; in which respect the father dieth with ioy. A good woman may doe the like for her husband. But R. Bechai (who excludeth all other Nations from their part in the Re­surrection, preferring the Iewes in a foure-fold priuiledge, viz. the Land of Canaan, the Law, the Prophets, and the Resurrection) reciteth out of the great Tract.de nouo anno, c.1. Talmud, That three forts of men shall rise againe at the day of Iudgement: one, of the best Is­raelites; a second sort of the wicked and worst; the third of a meane, who haue done as much good as euill. The good shall presently goe into life eternall; the wicked shall be cast into Hell, as in the twelfth of Daniel, and shall be for euer in torments of bodie and soule. The third and