THE PRAISE OF MVSICKE: Wherein besides the antiquitie, dignitie, delectation, & vse there­of in ciuill matters, is also decla­red the sober and lawfull vse of the same in the congregation and Church of God.

Hieron. in Psal. 64.

Matutinis Vespertinisque hymnis Ecclesiae delectatur Deus per animam fidelem, quae relicto inanium superstitio­num ritu, eum deuotè laudauerit.

God is delighted with the morning & euening hymns of the church, in a faithfull soul, which reie­cting the ceremonies of vaine supersti­tion, praiseth him deuoutly.

Printed at Oxenford by IOSEPH BARNES Printer to the Vniuersitie, Anno 1586.


RIght worshipful, I am glad that I haue any small occasion to re­uiue that studie which laie, as dead, for a time: and I would bee as glad to haue it cōtinue in good credit & liking after it is once re­uiued. For which cause I request your worship in al humility to be­come a patrone of this smal work, worthy to be takē into your hand when your worship shall haue any respit frō your weightier affaires, [Page] and pleasant to be read, because it is an Orphan of one of Lady Musickes children. It is commen­ded to me by men of good iudge­ment and learning, and it will be the better commended hereafter if it may go out vnder your wor­ships protection: which I request again most humbly, wishing your worship as much happinesse as I can conceiue, and conceiuing as much as your worship can wish.

Your worships most humble at commandement, IOSEPH BARNES.

The preface to the Reader.

TRue it is,Arist. eth. 9. which is reported of Poets and Mu­sitions, that they are no otherwise affected toward their own deuises, than parents to­ward their children. And surely (gentle rea­der) I willingly confesse vnto thee, that I am glad I haue some skill in musicke, which is so sweete, so good, so vertuous, so comely a matrone among other artes. Wherefore I shal not iustly blame thee, if thou think, that loue and affection hath preuailed much with me in publishing of this pamphlet: for therein thou shalt giue testimonie vnto me, that I haue perfourmed the part of a kinde and gratefull sonne, in bestowing the best of mine abilitie, to the aduancing of so gratious a mother. Neither would I haue thee so much to stand vpon this conceit, as if reason had no place in this action: considering that affection without reason, is a blind and vniust iudge of any matter. May it there­fore please thee, no otherwise to iudge of my labour, than the reasons therein alleaged shall giue thee iust occasion: and if it happen thou come to the viewe hereof with a preiudice, yet consider that nature hath therfore giuen thee two eares, that thou shouldest as­well applie the one to the defendant, as the other to the plaintife. For as in ciuill matters, so in this,

Qui statuit aliquid parte inaudita altera,
Aequum licet statuerit, haud aequus fuit:
Who so defines a thing he doth not know,
Though iust his verdit be, he is not so.

If then I bring not only reason, but testimonie also for mine assertion, I shall desire the auerse Reader, not to condemne me without ground, nor with a phā ­tasticall preiudice to set light by that, which perhaps, he will not be able to gainsay. For as the Poet said in [Page] an other matter,

Qui hunc accusant, Naeuium, Plautum, Ennium.
Accusant, quos hic noster auiores habet.

So I make answere to them that passe their sentences of condemnation vpon me, that they do in no wise disgrace me, but Hierome, Ambrose, Augustine, Basil▪ Gregorie Nazianzen, and the holy Fathers of the pri­mitiue Church, whose authorities are here alleadged men farre better than themselues, and not worthy to be condemned vnder a session of their pieres. I know a blemish is soonest perceiued in a comely body, and the greater the man is that doth offend, the greater seemeth his offence. Because one smale wart is a stain to be a beautifull face, and some litle fault committed, that might otherwise seem tollerable in a mā of mean estate, is inexcuseable in a greater personage: So fa­reth it with musick, which because it is excellēt, & for that naturally subiect to the enuie and malice of ma­ny, is therfore ill spoken of, because it falleth out, that shee is oftentimes blemished with the faults of them, that professe to haue some knowledge in hir. Hence it commeth to passe, that the faults of the persons are attributed to the art, and that whatsoeuer is amisse in this or that lewd musicion, is said to proceed from hir, which ought by better reason to obscure and ouersha­dowe the foulest blottes which are incident to men, than she by them should be disgraced. Because the Pierides in pride of their skill prouoked the Muses, or Marsyas and Pan in opinion of their own excellency, Apollo: this generall collection is made, that musicke causeth pride and ambition. If there bee any such foolish musicions as Arcabius was, hauing that fault whereof Horace speaketh,

Vt nunquam inducant animum cantare, rogati,
Iniussi nunquam desistant:
[Page]That being praid to sing and shew their skil,
Cannot induced be, say what thou list:
But vnrequested keepe a chaunting stil,
And from their folly neuer will desist.

straightwaie musicke is wayward and troublesome, [...]unning men are either dangerous or phantasticall, as if to be skilfull, were a fault, or to be cunning, wor­ [...]hy reprehension.

Great occasion & aduantage of inueighing against his art, is taken of that saying which King Philip of Macedon vsed to his sonne Alexander when he rebu­ [...]ed him, for that he could sing so well and cunningly: as if we did allow the importunitie of Nero, which is said, all a long sōmers day, to haue sitten in the Thea­tre, playing on his Harp: or did not rather thinke, that musicke is so to be vsed of Noble & Gentlemen, as A­chilles did in Homer:Iliad. who after that bitter contention between him and Agamemnon, taking to him his [...]harp, (whereon hee had learned to play of Chiron [...]he Centaure, who also taught him feates of armes, with Phisicke and surgerie) and playing thereon,Eliot. lib. 1. cap. 7. sang [...]he martial acts of the Princes of Grece, as Hercules, Perseus, Peritheus, Theseus, & his cosen Iason, & was [...]herewith asswaged of his fury and reduced into his [...]irst esta [...]e of reason. And this in him was so commē ­ [...]able, th [...] Alexander himselfe, after he had vanqui­ [...]hed Ilion, oeing demanded of one, if he would see the [...]arp of Paris, who rauished Helena: there at gently [...]miling answerd, it was not the thing he much desired, but had rather see the harp of Achilles, wherewith [...]e sang not the illecebrous delectations of Venus, but [...]he valiant acts & noble affaires of excellent princes.

Some, I doubt not, will exult to drawe a reproch of his art from the ancient Greekes, with whom it was [...]t the first in greatest estimation: & therefore will tri­umph [Page] that Minerua should haue cast away her Recorder from her in disdaine,Arist. 8. pol. cap. 6. not as some say, because th [...] vsing thereof made her cheekes swell and puffed, bu [...] as Aristotle rather thought, because the playing on [...] Recorder doth neither auail the mind, nor help know­ledge any thing at al: whereas we ascribe art & know­lege to Minerua. But I would not haue any mā suppose that my purpose is in this treatise, otherwise to speake of this sciēce, than so, as that it may seem both worthy priuate delectation, for a mans proper solace: and also publikely cōmodious in matters both ciuill & ecclesiasticall as in the processe shalbe declared. And there­fore I refer the Reader, for the decēt vse hereof in gentlemen, to the 8. booke of Aristotles politiques, & the 7. chapter of Sir Thomas Eliots first booke of his Gouernour. From whom he shall sufficiently gather, wha [...] the proper and sober vse hereof is, and ought to bee Touching the other vse, I mean the Ecclesiastical, because that is a matter in controuersie, I shal desire the gentle reader, so long to suspend his iudgement, till hauing read the treatise, hee shall also consider of the strength & firmenesse of the reasons. And I do no [...] doubt, but as I without bitternes speak of these things so he peraduenture, that is most auerse, shall take some profit & fruit of these my labours. If thou be skilfull and learned, I know thou wilt not condemne me at a blush: if vnskilful and ignorant, think that I wil [...] not so mildely answer thee as Stratonicus answered King Ptolomy, [...]. A scepter o King is one thing, and an instrumen [...] another: but rather that which is more agreeable to thy person, which the same man also is said to haue answered a smith, which maliciously reuiled him: Sir, [...] pray you deale not aboue your hammer.

THE ANTIQVI­TIE AND ORIGINAL OF MVSICKE: FIRST GE­nerally, then more particular­lie set downe. CHAPTER I.

IT were but lost labour to write any thing of Musick, being an Arte of more vse than credit, more knowen than acknowledged, were it not that more indifferencie is to be looked for of the eye, to whose view and ouersight shee betaketh her selfe, than hath heretofore beene shewen by the eare, whose itching sense shee hardly contented. But fulnesse perhaps breeds loathing: And the eye which in a manner hath beene kept hungry from these things, may by sight and reading hereof, both satisfie her selfe, and teach her vngratefull neighbour the eare to thinke better of so comfortable a treasure. The commendation whereof as it ariseth from many heades, namely her parentage, [Page 2] auncientrie, dignitie, her both pleasant and profitable seruice, with other as many & no whit meaner arguments of her praise, all which iointly fill vp a perfect measure of more than common honour, so her birth and antiquitie maketh not least to the setting foorth of her beautie.

And although it is for poore men to rec­ken their cattel, because rich mēs store gro­weth out of number, & for yonglings to ac­count their yeares,Iustinus, because antiquities wax out of mind (wherupon the Arcadians least they might come in question of iuniority wc any other country would needs be elder thā the moone) yet the casting of her natiuity cā in no wise preiudice so anciēt a sciēce, whose continuance is great but not defined, her birth day ancient but not dated. For time cānot say that hee was before her, or nature that she wrought wtout her. To proue this looke vpon the frame, & workmanship of the whole worlde, whether there be not aboue, an harmony between the spheares,Musica mun­dana. Cor. Agrippa. beneath a simbolisme between the elements. Looke vpon a man, whō the Philosophers termed a litle world, whether the parts accord not one to the other by consent and vnity. And [Page 3] who can blame nature in any reason for v­sing her owne inuention?Polydor. Virg. 1. lib. cap. 14. Doth the nigh­tingale record by Art or by nature? Al­though the Romane taught his crow this one lesson with much adoe, All haile Caesar, and the Carthaginian his birdes hardly e­nough to sing this one plaine song, Hannon is god, yet it is I am sure besides the cu­stome, and perhaps beyond the cunning of any man, to instruct the nightingale in so pleasant and variable notes, being as cun­ningly deliuered as speedily learned. But to leaue nature and come to Art (which then is at her best when shee is neerest this mai­stresse) who can be ignorant that nature hath giuen her the ground worke, whereon shee a long time hath flourished? As for her infancy, let vs burie it in silence, and wrap vp as it were in her swathing cloutes. For no doubt shee was not enquired, talked, or written of till shee waxed and grewe in yeares, that is in perfection and ripenesse. At what time being ‘Iam plenis nubilis annis,’ fitte to wedde mens eares and heartes vn­to her, shee beganne euen with greedinesse to be receiued, cōmended, practised, to exer­cise [Page 4] their wits, possesse their mindes, occu­pie their tongues, fill their bookes and wri­tings. Forthwith shee was so chalenged by this nation and that countrie, so claimed by this man and that God, that it was doubt­full in such variety of iudgement, to whom she was most beholding for her birthright. Whereof what shall I say els, but that as the contention of seuen cities about Homer that famous & renowmed Poet, & earnest plea of each of them to be his natiue soile did implie his excellency: so these many lands & Islands, men and weomen, gods and god­desses, and (if I may so speake) heauen and earth being at ods and variance about this science, argue her to be no base borne child, but such a one as both commends him that inuented her, and honesteth them which in­tertaine her.

Cornelius Agrippa.But because she is as pregnant as Libia alwaies breeding some new thing, for so it pleased Anaxilas long agoe to make com­parison, it wilbe the harder in such fruitful­nes of issu to father euery child aright, & to assigne to euery one his proper and peculiar inuention. First the Muses lay chalenge vnto her for their ofspring, as may ap­peare [Page 5] by christening her Musicke after their owne name. If we from hence de­riue her linage, what one thing is amisse? Iupiter, that is dexteritie and quicknesse of witte her grandfather:Natal. Comes memorie that aged and reuerend Mistresse of all sciences her grandmother, her mother many in steede of one (for how could ordinary parēts haue conceiued such extraordinarie perfection?) and yet but one in many, for all is but Har­monie. Exception may bee taken against these things as fables and fantasies of the Poetes: yet if we drawe the vaile aside, and looke neerer into that, which nowe wee doe but glimpse at, what else is ment but that Musike is and ought to be accounted donum & inuentum deorum: the gift and inuentiō of the gods, and therefore ordained to good vse and purpose? Now if Musicke can find no fauour by alleadging these parentes,Pol. Virg. ibid. let vs search other mens registers, and see if happily shee be more gracious for the gra­ces sake. Whose handes being fast claspt without seuering, their faces amiable with­outfrouning, their youth fresh & green with­out waining, their garmentes loose with­out-girding, and their chastitie perpetuall [Page 6] without violating expresse in sense & mea­ning nothing else, but concorde without breach, mirth without sadnesse, continu­ance without end, liberty without cōstraint, and finally purenesse without taint or cor­ruption. And can a gracelesse fruite come of so gracious a stock? For proofe hereof may serue the image of Apollo which stoode at Delos, bearing in the one hande his bowe and arrowes as being God of the archers, in the other the three graces with seuerall instruments as hauing soueraintie ouer the Musitians.Idem ibid. I would not leaue Bacchus out of this catalogue: were it not that his name nowe adayes is in some disgrace a­mōgst vs, & those dronken euohes and how­linges togither with confuse hammering of timbrels vsed in his Bacchanalles feastes and somnities might seeme to indaunger the credit of this art. Howbeit if we take him not as hee is imagined, but as hee was indeede, I meane an heroicall per­son, his finding out of wine and Musike is or ought to be as famous, as his victories and triumphes in India were glorious.

But because as the rainebowe being not of one colour is therefore more sightly [Page 7] to the eye, so Musicke being not of one kinde is therfore more welcome to the eare, it shal not be amisse to consider the specialities, & lay by it selfe each mans helpe and furthe­rance in this science. And first to begin as best beseemeth, with vocall Musicke,Vocal Musick being sounded with a liuely instrument the toung of mā who wil not fly with birds of his own feather & professe that both the nature of mā is beautified with so excellent a quality, and the quality credited with so excellent a na­ture. For if we ioine euen with heathē Phi­losophers & masters in this point, & confesse with Pythagoras that mā is a great mira­cle, wt Mercury a secōd god, wt Phauorinus a mortal god, with Abdala the Sarracene another Proteus apt to receiue any form, wt others a litle world, & with others omnia, all in al: as taking part with angels, part with plantes, & part with brute beastes, it were most iniurious to make better account of an instrument framed by art, than made by na­ture, the one being without vs, the other ly­uing & growing within vs. But what neede I cal the light of the Sun in question? Let each of these sorts receiue her due commen­dation, neyther let contention about the [Page 8] maystrie make to the disgracing of either of them, but rather proue howe happye and rich wee are, that can finde no worse quarelling matter, than to dispute of two good thinges, whether is the better. The antiquitie of this kinde hath more neede of disciding than the soueraigntie, both because the times are not easilie re­membred, and the opinions of men hard­lie reconciled. For some ascribe singing to Iupiter, as Diodorus of Sicilie: some to Mercurie, as Heraclides of Pontus: rest in whether of these two verdicts we list, ‘deus est in vtroque parente,’ each of their authors was deified by the hea­uen for principall vertues. Furthermore as all the Muses were reported at the ma­riage of Cadmus and Hermione to haue sung a ditie of the neere alliance betwixt friendship & honestie, so specially amongest the rest Calliope had beene miscalled but for the goodnesse of her voice, and Melpo­mene nicknamed but for setting of songes. But in such cases wee canonize for Au­thors, aswell those that make perfect, as those which first inuent: not for deuising [Page 9] that which was not before, but for bette­ring that which was worse before. Doeth no manne build but hee which layes the foundation? no man paint but hee which shadowes? no man wade but hee which first breaketh the yce? If it were so, in what case had all our Artes & sciences bin? They had beene monumentes as one speaketh a­dorandae rubiginis, and nothing else, well we might haue reuerēced their anciēt rustines, but neither had their faces bin halfe so wel fauoured, neither their knowledge halfe so much practised.Diod. Sicul. Nowe then by this ac­compt Osiris must bee remembred for one whom the Muses were saide to attend vp­on. To signifie that he was his craftsmai­ster, hauing the art at will, and throughly stored with all the giftes of so notable a knowlege.Rauis. Next Tisias otherwise Stesicho­rus commended euen from his cradle to this science by the ominous sitting of a nightin­gale vpon his tender lippes. Besides these Chrysogonus which made a perfect con­sorte betweene his owne voice and Mari­ners oares, obseruing a delectable tune in the one, and proportionable a time in the o­ther.Volaterranus What shall I speake of Simon and [Page 10] Lysias, which being offended with the olde Musicke as too too harsh for their smooth and delicate eares, cast it once and againe as it were in a new mould, neither suffered so much as the former name to remaine vn­changed. These & many the like whose me­morie is fresh in histories though passed by mee in silence, either for setting vs on work by their examples, or for instructing vs by their precepts, or for polishing other mens rough hewen worke by their skilfulnesse cā deserue no lesse at our handes than to bee held and reputed for authors. But why doe I pleade for their priuilege and authorize­ment, who haue founde no age hitherto so vngratefull as not to offer it? He that will not giue seconds and thirds a first place in these matters thinkes it easie perhaps to builde Rome in one day, & possible enough to make a science perfect euen at one in­stant. Albeit we know that euen Mercurie himselfe called amongest the Aegyptians by a name of prerogatiue, Ter maximus, as being in three speciall thinges, especiall and chiefest could not acquite himselfe so handsomely in this science, as not to haue neede of bettering in succeeding ages. His [Page 11] Musicke of three parts,Pol. Virg. ibidem. set and proportio­ [...]ed to the three times of the yeare, the base [...]o winter, the treble to sommer, the meane [...]o the spring, being a midle season between sommer and winter, was bare and naked til other partes came in to helpe and supply it. So that as a questiō is made whether The­seus his shippe being kept among the A­thenians for a monument, and by continu­all reparation euen from the hatches to the keele quite altered bee nowe Theseus his shippe or no: so it might be disputed were it not iniurious to the good deseruings of our predecessours, whether this our Musicke after the newe fashioning, and working of so many mē in so many ages be the same musicke which was retained in former times? For string hath beene added to string, part vnto part, precept vnto precept, one thing to an other so long til at length no one thing so much as variety hath made musick a perfit & vniform body. Nowe besides al this who knowes not that as generally so many men so many minds, so specially sundry musiciās driue sundry crotchets, & diuersity of mai­sters maks diuersity of methods. Timotheꝰ one for al (though one swalow be no sufficiēt [Page 12] warrant of the spring) yet standing in for [...] of many witnesses, as being borne out b [...] common sense and practise of our dayes required a double fee of other mens scholers: one to make them forgette what the [...] had taught thē, another to make thē learn [...] what he himselfe would teach them. S [...] then if both the matter taught, and the maner of teaching haue seene as many alterations, as almost ages, who can imagin [...] that so great a dissent of the kindes can stā [...] without as great diuersitie of the authors?

Instrumen­tal musicke.But to come neerer home, and to speak [...] of the other sort of Musicke, which hath a while beene preuented by this needelesse digression, although we be nowe adaies fal­len into a kind of intemperancie and wan­tonnesse, especially in the framing of instru­mentes, in so much that the diuising of them is not so great a trouble as their naming, yet antiquitie the mother of simplicitie and singlenesse in the greatest part of artifi­ciall thinges, both contented her selfe with meaner choice, & incombred her selfe with smaller busines. In those times three co­lours did serue for painting, and three in­struments for playing. Nowe the Painters [Page 13] [...]op may vie with the rainebow for colors, [...]art hath almost gone beyond it selfe for in­ [...]ruments. But to leaue both the greater & [...]e later number of them which are made [...] the imitation of the former, there is no [...]uestion but as the dignity of these three [...]boue the rest is to be maintained, so their [...]der amongest them-selues not to bee [...]eglected.The harpe. For by the iudgemēt of Alcibia­ [...]es the harpe is to be preferred before the whistling pipe or pshalms, because it leaues [...] roume for the voice, wheras the other pos­ [...]essing the whole wind and breath of man [...]ispossesse him of that seruice.

Touching the original hereof it is repor­ [...]ed that when Nilus had ouer-washed the countrie of Aegypt & afterwards drank in [...]is waters againe into his seuen mouthes being so many streames or chanels,Polydor. Virg. amōgst many other fishes which perished on the dry lād being in a sort betraied by that element wherein their nature is preserued the Tor­tuise also came short. Mercury coasting along that way toke vppe one of them, and finding nothing thereon but a fewe of par­ched or withered sinewes tied them with his fingers, wherewith they made some [Page 14] offer of a musicall noise. The experiment is wel known lippis & tonsoribus, to the mea­nest and simpleir persons amongest vs. For euerie childe holding a threede or haire in his mouth, and striking it with his finger shall finde the like partly by the motion of his finger wherthrough the solid is caused, and partly by the hollownesse of the mouth whereby it is tuned. Mercurie hauing got­ten this hold tooke occasiō to set abroch his cunning. For he fashioned a peece of wood proportionable to the shel of a fish, and put thereon three strings distinct in sounds, an­swerable to the three seasōs. After this first onset which for the most part carieth both the greatest daunger, and the greatest cre­ditte, Terpander made vppe seauen stringes in honor of the seuen Atlantides which go vnder the name of our seuē stars: Simonides and Timotheus brought them to nine in reuerēce of the nine Muses.Ibidem. Thus Mercuries handsell set the market in a good & happy forwardnes. This instrumēt being as wel for the nouelty as excellencie strange was presented by report of some to Apollo: in lue whereof he recōpensed Mer­curie wt his heraulds rod called Caduceus.

[Page 15]
Hoc animas ille euocat orco
Pallentes, alias sub tristia Tartara mittit.
Herewith he calles some soules from Hel,
And sends down others there to dwell.

By witnesse of others it was giuen to Orpheus, wherewith he brought euen sens­lesse thinges to a sense and feeling of his sweetnes, and lifelesse creatures to a liuely stirring & motion of their vnarticulate bo­dies. And when Orpheus was torne in pie­ces by the drunken Bacchides, his head and harpe swam downe the riuer Hebrus, and were taken vp at Lesbos: where they buri­ed the one, and hung vp the other in the tem­ple to their gods. Thus the harpe liued after Orpheus was dead, and made a manifest proofe how highly it disdained to be handled by vnskilful & prophane fingers, reuenging euen vnto the death a presumptuous act cō ­mitted by Naearchꝰ. This yong man being the king of Miteleus son bargained with the priestes of the tēple for Orpheus his harpe, because as the practise of musick was cōmē ­dable amongest them, so the greater euery mans skill was the better was his recom­pēce. Now Naearchus hauing a mind to the best game, and putting more affiance in the [Page 16] vertue of the harpe than his owne cunning, gotte by night into the suburbes, and there iangled the stringes so long, till at length he was rent asunder by dogges. Thus was his Musicke vnsauerie, thus was his death vntimely.

But to proceede, the first that euer sang to the harp which is either the only or chiefe reason why it is preferred before wind in­strumentes, was Linus. Whose vngra­cious scholer Hercules being controlled by him for his rawnes made such vntoward Musike betwixt his Maisters harpe and his head, that he beat out the sides of the one, and the braines of the other. Although some displace him from the honour of this inuen­tion,Polydor. Vir. and ascribe it rather to Amphion.

The Pshalme.Nowe among the winde instrumentes the Pshalme was deuised either by Euter­pe one of the nine Muses, or else by Ardalus Vulcans sonne, made at the first of the shāke bones of cranes, and therefore called Tibia by the Latines.Caelius Rhod Although afterwardes it was framed of the baytree in Lybia, of box in Phrygia, of the boans of hinds in Thebes in Scythia of rauēs & eagles, in Aegypt of barly stalks, & so accordingly at other times [Page 17] & in other places of other matters. But the most voices run vppon Minerua the daugh­ter of Iupiter, and one who for her wisedom is said to be borne of Iupiters braine. And because euerie artificer loueth his owne worke, Minerua was delighted with her pipe, and vsed euen in the assemblie of the gods very much to winde it: till such time till both they draue her both from her Mu­sike and their presence by laughing at her blowen cheekes. Shee to make triall of the matter went down to a riuer side, & behol­ding her swelling face in Neptunes glas bid her pipe farewell in a great choler, loa­thing & disgracing the same as much as it disfigured her. This pipe left not so good a Mistresse, but it lighted on as bad a Master Marsias by name: whom it caused so to swel not in face but in heart,Ouid. that hee chalenged & prouoked Apollo to a musical combate: and being ouercom lost the best and nearest coate to his back, hauing his skinne pluckt ouer his eares for attempting so bold an enterprise. The vse and effect of this as also other instrumēts I referre to their places. In the meane while I followe my pur­pose.

[Page 18] The whistling Pipe.Touching the whistling pipes which were made, for the most part, of reedes, though some assigne them to Silenus the foster father of Bacchus: on whome he al­waies attended riding vpon an Asse, yet the greater part agree in Pan the God of sheep­heardes.

The occasion was this: It chaunced that he fell in loue with Sirinxe a nimph of Arcadie, Ouid. who would neither giue her head as they say for the washing, nor her virginitie for the asking. And therefore when he first came to commense his sute shee tooke her course from him towarde the riuer Ladon. Where her iourney being at an end vppon request made vnto the nimphes, shee was de­liuered by them from that rusticke para­moure by transforming her into water reedes. Those hee tooke for loue of her, and made them instruments to vtter forth his complaintes. Howsoeuer other thinges in this historie be feigned, sure it is that it carieth with it an other drift than to proue Pan the author of that in­strument. And if it be so, howe could so grounded a worke-man, being made as [Page 19] they say to the imitation of nature and ex­pressing by his hornes the sunne beames,Natal. Comes. by his redde face the coulour of the skies, by his rough and heary thigh the trees and hearbs vpon the face of the earth, by his goats feete the soliditie and steedfastnes of the same, be the master of a vaine and frutelesse worke? What shall I speak of the Lute, Citterne, Violle, Rebeck, Gittorne, Pandore, Dul­cimer, Organes, Virginals, Flute, Fife, Re­corders, of the Trumpet, Cornet, Sackbut, and infinite other sortes so excellent & plea­sant in their sundrie kinds, that if art be any way faultie for them, it is for being too too riotous and superfluous. For hauing as it were wearied and ouergone her selfe in choise of new sortes, shee hath deuised a kind of newnes euen out of the old, by ioyning & compacting many in one, which these later times may by right chalenge for their inuē ­tion. But to leaue al other historiographers dissenting some of them far in opinions that historie which indeed is the witnes of times & light of the trueth written by the finger of God sets downe Iubal sonne of Lamech & Ada to be the Father of all such as handle harpe and instruments.Genes. & Ioseph.

THE DIGNITIE OF MVSICKE PROVED BOTH by the rewardes and practise of many and most excellent men. Chap. 2.

THus hauing stoode vpon the antiquitie and originall of musick being so neerly lin­ked togither that they could not wel be seuered, it folow­eth by order that I speake somwhat of her honor. A needlesse treatise, were it not for the affectionat iudgemēts of some men, which making more reckening of the shadowe than the bodie accompt neither vertues nor sciences worthie the taking vp for their own faire faces, vnlesse they come furnished with good & sufficient doweries.

Ipse licet venias Musis comitatus Homere,
Si nihil attuleris ibis Homere foras.
Come Homer if thou list & bring the muses crue
Yet Homer if thou bring naught els but thē adue.

Notwithstanding to satisfie those which like indifferently well of this science not so much for her owne laudable nature as her profitable accidents, let them knowe that her professors & practisers were not rewar­ded [Page 21] heretofore (as they speake in reproch) wt meate, drink & mony, which they cal fidlers wages, but admitted into the presence and familiaritie of kings, sought vnto by whole cities and countries, & dismissed with rich and honourable rewards. I am sory that I am forced to seeke those kind of arguments, being fitter to quiet the common people thā the learned and wise: who looking into the things themselues, wey thē by themselues, valuing at an higher price the goodnesse where-with they are endowed, than the goods and commodities where-with they are enriched. But to approue musicke vn­to both those sortes of men, to the vpright & wel minded for her own sake, to the others for the things which they doe most estimate I intend both by variety and trueth of histo­rie to make manifest declaration in euerie respect of her dignitie.Alexander ab Alexandro. Who was more ac­cepted of Periander King of Corinth than Arion? of Hieron King of Sicil than Simo­nides? of Perdicchas than Menalippides? of Alexander the great than Timotheus & Zenophontus who could make him both giue an alarum, and sound retrait at their pleasures? Who in better fauor with Aga­memnon [Page 22] than Demodochus to whom hee committed his wife Clitemnestra for the time of his long & vnfortunat voiage? with Themistocles than Exicles whom he made his daily and housholde guest? with M. An­tonius than Anaxenor to whom he gaue the tribute of four Cities? with Iulius Caesar than Hermogenes? with Nero than Ferio­nus? with Vespasian than Diodorus? with Galba than Canus? Who more tendered of Aristratus king of Syciō than Thelestus, whom he countenanced being aliue with al kind of preferment, and honoured being dead with a costly monument?Musicke mol­lifieth cruel­tie. Nay the cunning of some hath so farre rebated the edge of most cruel and hard harted tirants, that they haue beene willing, as they say perforce to put vp iniuries and wrongs at their hands. Pyttachus of Mytilen let go scotfree Alcaeus his sworne enimie, not­withstāding he had both disgraced him and taken armes against him. The like did Phalaris the Agrigentine by Tisias his mortall foe, albeit hee tooke as much plea­sure in murdering as in banqueting, and had oftē euen with greedines dislodged the soules of many innocents from their harm­les [Page 23] bodies. Thus Musick led him farder thā euer humanity could draw him. What need I ad water to the sea,Theat. vitae. & after al these speak of Terpander in a dangerous tumult of the Lacedemoniās appointed by the oracle & required by the countrey to appease their vp­rores? A president so much the more to bee heeded, by how much the iudgement of a whole countrey than of any priuate persō is the rather esteemed. And is Lacedemō sin­gular in this case? haue not Rome & Greece ioyned hands with her, the former institu­ting a College of Minstrels, the later by or­deining that the same men should bee their sages, prophets and musicians? Plenty makes me scant both by restraining me to choice, & by withdrawing me from tedious­nes: for how easie a thing wer it in such abū ­dāce to tire & weary euen ye patientest ears? Notwithstanding because I am to cōuince these iudgements which look no farder than the outside, & harkē rather to the honor cōferred otherwise, thā the honesty & goodnes in­cidēt to the things thēselues, let them ad to the fauour and acceptation of those roiall persons aboue named their practise and in­dustrie which they haue exercised.

[Page 24]I omit the muses, graces, gods and god­deses before mentioned. Colworts twise sodde are harmeful, and tales twise tolde vngratefull. This next pageant shall bee filled with Emperours, Kings and Cap­taines, men both of courage and experience not content to go by hearesay and testimo­nie of others,The practise of Musicke in great and Noble men. but adioining them vnto their owne vse and practise. Nero Emperour of Rome wanne and ware the garland to the great admiration and shouting of the peo­ple for victorie ouer the harpers. Alexāder the great made a great iewel of Achilles his harp. Choraebus the Lydian prince was as soueraign in musick as in authoritie. Ci­mon of Athens and Epaminondas of The­bes no worse musicians than Captaines. Gregorie the great, Bishoppe of Rome en­ded his life and musicke togither, and the quier at this day is a witnesse of his pains. Yea Socrates himselfe as great a king in wisdome, as they in iurisdiction: whose stay and moderatiō of life let Xantippe his wife and scourge witnes, and let enuie it selfe iudge of his other qualities, being farre stricken in yeares, and hauing in a manner one foote in the graue, yet of an old master [Page 25] became a young scholer vnto Conus for the attaining of this science. And being charged therewt as a wantō toy vnfitting to his gray hayres made this apology,Cael. Rhod. It is more shameful in the wain & decrease of our life to be ignorant of any good & cōmendable pro­perty. Thus he put on musick as the list & vppermost garment, wherwith his wisdom, grauity and age, might bee adorned, & euen the whole race of his life perfited, a garment no dout that is wel worn, & of seemly perso­nages better worth the wearing thā the sof­test raimēt in kings housē.Musicke good in it selfe. You may cloath an Ape in golde, and an Infant in Hercu­les armour: doth an infant therfore chaunge his age, or an Ape forgoe his nature? or is there lesse price in the gold, or viler estima­tion of the armour? This is to misuse the right vse of things neither fitting the per­sons, and farre vnfitting the garments. The deepest dye may be stained, and the best gift abused. The tuning of the voice and strings may turne to the iarre and discord of man­ners, as well as Rhetoricke may plead vn­truethes, and Logicke proue impossibili­ties. So that I maruel the lesse if Dioge­nes the cynick Philosopher amongest other [Page 26] his dogtrickes put vp a formal bil of indite­ment against the musicians in open and or­dinarie court, for shewing greater skill in concordes and vnisons of their notes, thā v­nitie and consent of manners: whose sute or action, being in all cases and with all per­sons a resolute and peremptorie man and li­tle caring where or how he fastned his teeth so he fastned them, may seeme approueable in respect of those vniust and euer repining plaintiffes which attemper euery thing to their distemperate humor, and in their pro­ceedings make not reason their aduocate, but either the weaknes, strāgenes, or vndis­creetnes, of their owne nature. Now if a bleareeied man should giue sentence of the sunne beames, no doubt he would iudge thē to be shut vp into euerlasting cloudes, least at any time they might be offensiue to his sore eies. If a feuersicke palate should be iudge of tasts and relishes, what vnmerciful doome would it award to the holesomest re­storatiues? Aske the Satire what shall be­com of the fire for swealing his beard being ouersawcie in embracing it, I warrant you he wil curse Prometheus for euer troubling the earth wt it. A melancholick man and one [Page 27] that is fitter to liue in Trophonius his den, than in ciuill societie will trowne vpon mu­sicke, if for no other cause, yet at the least to shewe him selfe seruiceable to his melan­cholie. Thus we shall haue the brightest eye of the world euen the sunne pluckt out of heauen, the best meate out of our mouthes, and the necessariest element out of the na­ture of things, yea all vertues and sciences vtterly raced out, as the occasiōs somtimes (though neuer the causes) of some inconue­niences, if euery brainsicke, hareblind, and froward man may iudge and determine in those cases.Cael. Rhod. Now then as oft as we shall heare Archidamus or any the like sectarie of his make better accompt of a Cater thā a Singer (mihi bonus cantor, bonus cupediarius) what shall we say of him but that animus e­rat in patinis: His belly was his idol,Terent. & the belly hauing no ears is vnfit to meddle with soundes? If Anteas the Scythiā at the sing­ing of Ismenias the Thebā for want of bet­ter gods sware by the wind & his fauchin, he had rather hear the neieng of an horse thā ye singing of Ismen. let his words as they are indeed so go but for winde, & if his sworde be the best argumēt that he hath to auouch [Page 28] it let vs wound him againe but with this onely blow, Quis tumidum guttur miretur in alpibus, Who can looke for a white skine in Aethiopia, or an vpright iudgement in Scythia? Albeit besides the vnciuilitie and brutishnes of his countrie, he was no doubt fitter to handle a curriecombe than iudge of singing, who in the midst of his royaltie made boastes that he vsed to rubbe horses heeles. But if Antisthenes shal go a note aboue Anteas & giue this or the like vncha­ritable censure of Ismenias, as indeed he is reported to haue done,Cael. Rhod. he is a naughtie mā: if he were honest he would neuer be a mu­siciā, we may say with some indifferent re­uerence of his philosophers beard & gowne, yt as he was generally reputed to be Auitus magis quàm eruditus his wit being too head­strōg for his wisdom,Tullius ad Articum. so particularly in this matter he had not sufficiētly learned how to define honestie.Musicke not to be blamed for the lewd­nesse of some Musicians. For although many good musicians bee as many bad men, yet so farre is it off that musick should be blamed as the cause of such an effect, that rather if they bee otherwise bad men shee weanes and with­drawes them from their corruption. For warrant hereof the necessitie of the art to be [Page 29] sette downe in a latter treatise maie yeeld sufficiēt argument: meane while thus much I say, that a precious stone may be set in ledde, and a good qualitie placed in an euill subiect. In which cases wee haue more cause to pittie their vnfortunate houserome, than accuse their vnseemely demeanour. But to lose the bitte a litle farther and to giue thē euen their own asking, musicke, as many other good blessings hath beene made the instrument of many disorders. What need I recite them? other are eagle eied and quick sighted enough to espie thē. I confesse this to be true, but in such sort as glorie be­comes the fuell & occasion vnto enuy, peace to security, beautie to pride, learning to in­solencie, good lawes to enormitie, meates and drinkes to surfeting, and finally the fai­rest gifts an edge & intisement to the foulest faults. Wher notwithstāding the wel natu­red things themselues are not chargeable wt those crimes, but the euil disposed persons. If thou canst not moderate & schoole thy self in beholding, plucke out thy eies as De­mocritus did, if not in hearing stoppe thy eares with waxe as Vlisses his companiōs did, if not in eating lay thy teeth aside as [Page 30] those Graeae of Scythia did, if not in spea­king bite off thy tong as Zeno Eleates did. For by as good reason maist thou do the one as the other, seeing the disliking of these and the like good things stands in the immode­ration & intemperancie of these men which abuse them. Now if it be vnciuil to liue wt ­out vertue and knowledge, if vnnaturall wtout meats & drinks, if vnreasonable with­out eyes, teeth & tongues, although perhaps they haue many vnsufferable consequentes, then blame not the hatchet for the Carpen­ters fault: but esteeme worthily of good things for their owne natures, & fauorably deale with them for other mens offences.

Musick not to be blamed for some musici­ans vnskilful­nesse.Nowe besides this they that cannot espie an hoale in the musicians coate for their loosenesse & effeminatnes of manners seeke to bring musicke in contempt by reason of their vnskilfulnes. As if the husbandmans reasoning à baculo ad angulum should condēn Logicke, or Tom fooles telling his geese Arythmeticke. There are infantes in all arts, & I grant none so very a babe in mu­sicke as was Babys. Minerua to begge his pardon for offending therein vsed this frind­ly intercession to Apollo, Theat. abiectior est & in­faelicius [Page 31] canit quàm vt dignus sit supplicio. Cast not away chastisement vpon so base and vn­expert a person. And sure he was worth no­thing (say I) if he were not worth the puni­shing. Diogenes was troubled with the like moone calfe, whom as often as he mette him welcomed with this salutation, Salue galle, God speed cock, the other demaunding him why he mistermed him, Quia cantu tuo exci­tas omnes, Thou diseasest quoth he euery mā wt thy vnseasonable crowing. And Demost. was plain on the other side wt an harper of ye same stāpe, wt whō he euer cōditioned to tie vp his pipes before he would once set foot wt in his dores. There are a great many cocks & to vse a domesticall prouerb, a great many asses at the harp who because they haue em­ploied thēselues at ye trade dijs tratis, Eras. Persius. genio (que) sinistro against the hair as they cōmōly speak & euē in despite of Apol. & nature, haue made themselues a by-word & skorne in al places. Our alehouse, vagabōd & beging minstrelsie I defēd not, liberal sciences are for liberall men, whose dexteritie and aptnes of nature hath forwarded their art, & both these being conioyned haue made the men cōmendable & of good report. For thē is the medly good whē art & nature haue met with each other.

[Page 32]But I leaue this reason to be refuted by the weakenes and simplicitie of it selfe. I come to another vaine which hath neede of a litle opening,Daintie mē. least the neglecting of it make it in time somwhat more troublesom. I meane those men, who, as if they came of some finer mould, like well inough of mu­sicke in others, but cannot away with it themselues. They are delighted for exam­ples sake wt the wel proportioned pictures of Iupiter, Iuno, and Venus, but yet would not be Phidias, Policletꝰ or Praxiteles. Ex­amin their reasons they areas rare as black swannes, vnles perchaunce they answere as children and fooles are wont. They will not for their mindes sake. And why not they as well as other men? They are belike of a better broode. Be it so, let them plead their priuilege, but so farre foorth as they seeke not to dishonour things as hono­rable as themselues. In mechanical artes I beare with them. Tractent fabrilia Fabri. Courser meates may serue siner mouthes. What cardes can they shew to discarde li­teral sciences? If euery mans wil were a rule in such cases there is no doubt but that some [...] the whole corpse and body [Page 33] of sciēces would quite be extinguished. For euen amongst the nobler sort which stand vppon their gentry, and in consideration on­ly of their better fortune, condemne better natures than their own, there are manie au­reae pecudes, goldē sheep such as Iunius Bru­tus was better clad than taught, which can­not conceaue the excellencie of good facul­ties, many monstra hominum strange natu­red men such as Licinius the emperor was, not so princely borne, as pestilently minded, which call learning the poison & plague of a commonwealth. Howbeit some there are better enclined than these which do it not so much of despite as of daintines, for they are well enough content to take all the pleasure they can by it, & yet take as great pleasure to discontent those that afford it.

In whose fauor notwithstanding I will speak thus much,Aristotle. & my speach is abetted by good authors that both a choice of musicke is to be made, and a moderation therein re­tained. Minerua as before cast away hir pshawlme [...] for very shame. And amongest vs euery one will not blow a bagpipe, that wil finger the Lute or Virgi­nals. And as in one banquet all viandes, [Page 34] though all very good, please not alike euery mans diet, so in Musick there are sundrie & delectable sorts, which vnlesse they be orde­red wt good discretiō wil not sute al times & persons. The which two things time & per­sons serue principally to make limitation of that measure which I mentioned before. There is a time of breathing & a time of busines, a time of mirth & a time of sadnes. If thou be remisse or mery vse for thy recreatiō some kind of melodie. Albeit indeed wt Mu­sick no times are amisse. For we know that life is as it were put into the deadst sorows by inflexion & modulation of voice. And they whose heartes euen yearne for very greefe sometimes fall on singing not to seeke com­fort therein (for the best seeming comfort in such cases is to be comfortles) but rather to set the more on flote that pensiuenes wher­with they are perplexed. Similitudo parit ami­citiam saith Boetius, & sorowe findes some­what in Musick worthie his acquaintance, If not, how chance they haue specified three originals or causes of Musick?Cael. Rhod. the first plea­sure of which there is no question, the next grief, & the last Enthusiasmū som diuine & he­uēly inspiratiō. Surely affectiōs dance after [Page 35] pipes & being thēselues but motions do by a naturall kind of propension apply thēselues to Musick, whose efficacy stāds wholy vpon motiōs. But I returne to my purpose. The chiefe end of Musicke is to delight, howsoe­uer sorow vseth it somtimes for an aduātage as knowing how forcible & effectual it is to help forward al purposes. Therfore in time of vacācy & remissiō whē there is a mutiny of wars & a calm of other the like troblesom affaires, the place being not molested, the people being not disquieted, thē hath musick euermore had the best audience. For other­wise if you light vpō Pirrhus & ask him whe­ther is the better psalmist Pythō or Chari­sius, he wil answere you Polysperches. And why? In prōptu causa est, a blind mā may hit his staff at this mark, his mind forsooth ran vpō captaines & not musitiōs: bring an harp or other good instrumēt to Lacedemō, they wil cry away wt it. Nō est Laconicū nugari, Trifling is not our vocatiō. And do we mar­uel at thē? Pirrhus as if he had bin hūgersterued & stifled in his poor kingdō of Epirꝰ had laid a platform in his head of vsurping the whole world. The Lacedemoniās (to speak wtout exceptiō of sex, age or cōdition) as hard [Page 36] harted as if they had beene borne of Ada­māt or nursed vp with Lions milke. I bely them not, their stoicall Apothegs and reso­lute exploites deliuered vnto vs by faithfull authoritie are plentifull witnesses hereof. But to ende this point, the dignity of Mu­sicke is great if we do not partially and vn­equally burthē her with those faults wher­of shee is guiltlesse, the artificer may offend, mens affections are corrupt, times vnseaso­nable, places inconuenient, the art it selfe notwithstanding in her owne proper & law­full vse innocent and harmelesse.


ALthough both the Authors of this most diuine science, and antiquitie therof, and e­stimation which it hath had in times past, may sufficiēt­ly credit the same: yet I doe not desire any mā hardly affectioned in this point, to be moued by this treatise, vnlesse [Page 37] both the sweetenesse and necessity, and ope­ration of it, be declared to be such, as neither ought carelesly, or cā worthily be neglected. For as in those things which are both plea­sant and profitable, that which is profitable ought most earnestly to be followed: so the pleasure which is ioyned with the commo­dity, is not to be contemned. Wherefore, seeing that poetrie, which is but a part of Musicke, as Plutarch doth testifie, hath this commendation of Horace,

Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare Poetae,
Aut simul & iucunda, & idonea dicere vitae.

Poets of pleasure, or of profit great,
Or else of both most decently intreate.

we may safely pronounce of the whole, that it hath both delectation to allure, and profit to perswade men to those thinges, where­with mans life is beautified and adorned. I will first therefore speake of the sweetenes and delectation of Musick: and afterwards of the vse and necessity thereof. Concerning the pleasure and delight, I will first shew it by that affinity and congruity which Mu­sicke hath with the nature of liuing crea­tures: Secondly by the effectes and opera­tion, which it worketh in the hearers. [Page 38] Touching the first:Arist. 8. Polit. as the testimony of Mu­saeus in Aristotle: Res suauisima cantus est mortalibus, singing is a most pleasant thing to men: & daily experience doeth proue vn­to vs, that not only men but all other liuing creatures, are delighted with the sweet har­mony & concent of Musicke: so if there were no other thing els, yet that proper fiction of the Grāmarians, Onito parchꝰ in princ.ꝰ lib. 3. suae musicae. might fully satisfie any mā in this point. Sonus, say they, the king of Harmony had two sonnes. The one of them was called Concentus, the other Accen­tus: of Grammatica he begat Accentus, but Concentus was borne vnto him of the nymphe Musica. Whom when their father perceiued to be both equal in the gifts of the minde, and that neither was inferior to o­ther in any kind of knowledge, and himself now well striken in yeares to waxe euery day neerer and neerer to his death: hee fell into a serious cogitation with himself, whe­ther of them two, hee should leaue his suc­cessour in his kingdome: and therefore hee began more narrowly to marke the maners and behauiours of them both: nowe Accen­tus was the elder of the two: and hee was graue and eloquent, but austere, and there­fore [Page 39] lesse beloued of the people: But Con­centus was verie merrie, pleasaunt, a­miable, louelie, curteous, acceptable vnto all menne, and cleane contrarie to the disposition of his brother, thinking it more glorious to bee beloued than fea­red. Whereby hee did not only get the loue and liking of all his Subiectes, but also putte his Father into a greater doubt which of them hee shoulde institute in­heritour of his Scepter. Therefore ap­pointing a solemne meeting, hee asked the Counsell of the Nobles and Prin­ces of his Lande, as Musitians, Po­ettes, Oratours, Philosophers and Di­uines: and in conclusion their consulta­tion had this issue, that neyther shoulde be preferred before other, but both should equally inherite their Fathers Scepter and Dominions. Whereof I gather (o­mitting all other circumstaunces) that as Accentus which is Grammar ought not to be disinherited, because of the neces­sitie therof in speech: so Concentus which is Musicke, coulde not but bee esteemed as woorthie of preheminence, for his plea­sure and delectation. And for as much [Page 40] as that was the iudgemēt and determinatiō both of Musicians, Poets, Orators, Philoso­phers, both Moral & Natural, and Diuines: so much the more is to be ascribed to the sweetnesse of Musicke, as these Profes­sours are of better iudgement than other men. But I will not ground the commen­dation of that on fictions and conceipts: which neither in it self needeth the colour & shadowes of imaginations, being aboue all conceiptes: nor in the pleasure thereof any externall ornament: being sweeter than canne be counterfeited by fictions, or ex­pressed by fantasies. Wherefore leauing these, I will as neerely as I can, declare the reason of that delight which Musicke yeeldeth. And this first is euident, that Mu­sicke whether it be in the voyce only as So­crates thought, or both in the voyce and mo­tion of the body as Aristoxenus supposed: or as Theophrastus was of opinion not only in the voyce and motion of the body, but also in the agitation of the minde: hath a certaine diuine influence into the soules of men, whereby our cogitations and thoughts (say Epicurus what he will) are brought into a celestiall acknowledging of their natures. [Page 41] For as the Platonicks & Pythagoriās think al [...] of mē, are at the recordatiō of that celestial Musicke, whereof they were parta­kers in heauen, before they entred into their bodies so wōderfuly delighted, that no mā cā be found so harde harted which is not excee­dingly alured with the sweetnes therof. And therfore some of the antiēt Philosophers at­tribute this to an hiddē diuine vertue, which they suppose naturally to be ingenerated in our minds, & for this cause some other of thē as Herophilus & Aristoxenus which was also a Musician, thought that the soule was nothing else, but a Musical motiō, caused of the nature & figure of the whole body, gathe­ring thereof [...] necessary conclusion, that wheras things that are of like natures, haue mutual & easy action & passiō betweene thē ­selues, it must needs be,Cic. Tusc. quaest. that Musical cōcent being like that Harmonical motion which he calleth the soule, doth most wonderfullie allure, & as it were rauish our senses & cogi­tatiōs. But this which I haue said may seem peraduenture to be too profoundly handled: I will therefore confirme it by naturall ex­perience & examples. And first generally (as I said before) there is neither man, nor any [Page 42] other liuing creature exempt from the par­ticipation of the pleasure of Musicke.

As for man let vs begin with him euen from his cradell, and so take a view of his whole life:Man natural­ly delighted with musicke. and we shall see, that euen euerie particular actiō of his, is seasoned with this delight: first in his infancy, whiles he is yet wholy destitute of the vse of reason, wee see that the child is stilled, and allured to sleepe, with the sweete songes and lullabyes of his Nurse: although the griefe of his tender limmes be such, as is able to breede impa­tience in a stronger body. And for this cause is it, that children are so delighted and allu­red with rattels and bels, and such like toies as make a sound. Now as strength & iudge­ment increase in man, so Musicke pleaseth and delighteth him more and more: so that whether he be noble or ignoble, yet the same delight of minde groweth to perfection to­gither with the body.Arist. Polit. 8. cap. 3. And therfore Aristotle in his Politiques, coūselleth that childrē be instructed in musick, especially if they be of noble parētage: not so much for the profit & cōmodity therof, as because it is agreable to nature being in it selfe both liberal & honest: for in al matters to propose profit as the only [Page 43] end, is neither ye part of a liberal nature nor of a gētlemālike dispositiō. Again in base & in ignoble persons, the very senses & spirits are wōderfully inflamed, wt the rural songs of Phillis & Amaryllis: insomuch that euen the ploughmā & cartar, are by the instinct of their harmonicall soules cōpelled to frame their breath into a whistle, thereby not only pleasing thēselues, but also diminishing the tediousnes of their labors. And therefore most naturall is that which Virgil vseth in describing of a good housewife.

longum cantu solata laborem
Arguto coniux percurrit pectine telas.
1. Geor.

The huswifes spinning makes her labour long
Seeme light with singing of some merrie song.

as also that other spokē of ye pruner of trees:Eclog. 1.

Alta subrupe canit frondator ad auras.

The lopper singing from the craggy rocke
The bowes & leaues beats down with many a knocke.

and that of the sheepeheards:Eclog. 5.

Cur non Mopse (boni quoniā conuenimus ambo
Tu calamos inflare leues, ego dicere versus)
Hic corilis inter mixtas consedimus vlmos?

Mopsus my friend, seeing our skill is great
Thine for the tune, mine for the pleasant rime.
In th'hasell bower why take we not our seate,
In mirth and singing there to spend the time?

[Page 44] And hence it is, that wayfaring men, solace thēselues with songs, & ease the wearisom­nes of their iourney, cōsidering that Musick as a pleasant cōpanion, Comes facū ­dus estpro ve­hiculo in via. is vnto thē in steed of a wagō on the way. And hence it is, that manual labourers, and Mechanicall artifi­cers of all sorts, keepe such a chaunting and singing in their shoppes, the Tailor on his bulk, the Shomaker at his last, the Mason at his wal, the shipboy at his oare, the Tin­ker at his pan, & the Tylor on the house top. And therefore wel saith Quintilian, that e­uery troublesom & laborious occupation, v­seth Musick for a solace & recreatiō: wherof that perhaps may be the cause, which Gy­raldus noteth. The symphony & concent of Musicke (saith he) agreeth with the interior parts & affections of the soule. For as there are three partes or faculties of mans soule, the first and worthiest the part reasonable, which is euer chiefe, & neuer in subiectiō to the other, the second irascible, which, as it is ruled of the former, so ruleth the latter, and the last cōcupiscible, which euer obeieth, & neuer ruleth: so if we cōpare the symphony of Musicke, with these powers of the soule, we shal find great conueniencie and affinity [Page 45] between them. For looke what proportion is betweene the parts reasonable, & irasci­ble, such is there in Musicke between that string which is called hypate, & that which is termed Mese, causing the melody called di­atessaron: and looke what proportion is be­tween the parts of irascible & cōcupiscible, such is there between Mese & Nete making that sound which is named Diapente: so that as those three partes of the soule consenting in one, make an absolute and perfect action: so of these three in Musicke, is caused a pleasant and delectable Diapason. And ther­fore no maruell if according to the mixture of these sounds diuerse men be diuersely af­fected, with seuerall Musicke: insomuch, that almost euery peculiar nation and peo­ple, be in their wars delighted with proper instrumentes: as in former times, the Cre­tenses with the harpe, the Lacones with Cornets, the Amazones with Flutes, the Cibarites with Shalmes, the Lydi­ans with Whistles & Pipes, the Latines with trompettes, the Getes with the Cy­theron and Flute: so in these later daies, and more nice times of the world, al nations with compound and mixt Musick, and with [Page 46] sundrie kinds of instrumentes, as Cornets, Wayts, Shagboyts, Trūpets, Drūb & fife.

Neither do I here so attribute this de­lectation vnto man,1 Beasts deligh­ted with Mu­sicke. as denying it to other creatures, for I am verily persuaded, that the plowmā & cartar of whō I spake before do not so much please thēselues wt their whistling, as they are delightsom to their oxē & horses.Polyd. Virgil. Again the warhorse is so inflamed wt the soūd of the trūpet, that he cannot keepe his stāding, but maketh an open way to his rider, through the midst of his thickest eni­mies.Horses delighted with Mu­sicke. And here may it please the reader for his recreatiō, to call to mind one speciall hi­story of the Sibarits: whose horses were not only delighted with Musick, but also taught to dāce to the instrumēt: insomuch that one of their musitiōs at a certaine time, hauing some discurtesy & iniury offred him took oc­casiō to forsake his coūtry,Policianus Miscellaniorū 15. & fled to the Cro­toniats, which were enimies to the Sibarits, forasmuch as not long before that time the Sibarits had giuē thē the ouerthrow in bat­tle. This tibicē, or plaier on the shalm, com­ming amōg the crotoniats, made his speech vnto thē to this purpose & effect, that if they could afford him credit, he wold work such [Page 47] a deuice, as they shold easily obtain the con­quest of the Sibarits horsmē. Credit was gi­uē vnto his tale, & he ordained captain of the war,Sybaritarum mollicies prou. instructed all the fluters & shalmers of the Crotoniates, what note they shold play, and how they should addresse themselues a­gainst their enimies. Now the Sibarites on the other side being insolent, & hauing taken hart a grace & courage vnto them by reason of their former victory, prepare thēselues to meete their enimies in the field. Wherefore the Shalmers of whome I spake before ha­uing receiued a watchworde of the Cap­taine, on a suddaine sounded their Flutes and Shalmes. The horses of the Sibarites hearing their country Musicke, wherunto they had beene accustomed, reared them­selues on their hinder feete, cast their ri­ders, and as they were wont to daunce at home, so now they did it in the skirmish, and by this policy, the Crotoniats wan the vic­tory of the Sibarits. Wherby may be gathe­red not onely how pernicious clandestine treason is to a cōmonwealth, but also what strange & incredible delight musick impres­seth euen in these dumbe and vnreasonable creatures. So mules are wōderfully alured [Page 48] with the sound of bels: & sheepe follow their sheepeheards whistle. And it is recorded al­so, that the Hart and other wilde beastes are by sweete and pleasant notes drawen into the toiles and gins of the huntesman. AElianus in his varia historia testifieth, that Pythocaris a musition playing vpon his Cornet, mitigated the fierce and raue­nous nature of wolues, and that the mares of Libia and Oliphantes of India woulde followe the sound of Organes and diuers other instruments.2 Fishes de­lighted with Musicke. Plutarch in conuiuio 7. Sap. Herodotus in Clio. Cic. Tusc. 1. Ouid. 2. Fast. Now as these terrestri­all beasts haue their peculiar and proper de­lightes, so aquaticall creatures also liuing in another element, offer themselues volun­tarily to the sound of Musicke: so, as Marti­anus recordeth, certaine fishes in the poole of Alexandria are with the noice of instru­ments inticed to the bankes side, offering themselues to mens handes, so long as the melody endureth. Wonderfull are those thinges, which in good authors are related of the dolphin: but for our purpose, none so fit, as that of Arion: whose excellent skill in Musicke, giueth testimony aswell against the sauage and barbarous cruelty of those vnnaturall shipmen, which sought to take [Page 49] away his life: as to the gentle and kinde nature of the dolphin, which is both a louer of men, and an earnest follower of musicke. Arion seeing no way to escape the furie of his cruel enemies, tooke his Citterne in his hand, and to his instrument sang his last song, where-with not only the dol­phines flocked in multitudes about the ship readie to receiue him on their backes, but euen the sea that rude and barbarous ele­ment, being before roughe and tempestu­ous, seemed to allay his choler, waxing calme on a sodaine, as if it had beene to giue Arion quiet passage through the waues.

There is also a third kinde of liuing cre­atures, which by the Philosophers are cal­led [...], because they liue both on the land & in the waters. Of these, [...] I wil only name the Swanne, which bird is therefore saide to bee vnder the patronage of Apollo, not only for that shee is allured with the sweet notes and mellodious concent of musicke, following them which plaie vppon instru­ments on the water: but more especially because she seemeth to haue som diuination from him, whereby she foreseing what good is in death, by a naturall instinct, finisheth [Page 50] her life with singing and with ioy.

Sic vbi fata vocant vdis abiectis in herbis,
Ad vada Maeandri concinit albus olor:
When death the swanne assaies,
Laid prostrate on the ground,
Her song doth make Maeanders bankes
her dolors to resounde.

4 Birds deligh­ted with mu­sicke.As for those other creatures which liue in the aire, I do not think that the fouler could euer haue made such spoil & hauock of them, beeing so far out of his reach & iurisdiction, had not nature told him, that they aboue all creatures vnder the heauēs, are as most de­lited, so soonest intangled & allured with his songs. Wherfore when thou seest, each foul in his kind, the Linet, the Nightingale & the Lark, to mount aloft, & sing their notes vnto the skies, shewe thy selfe docill in these two thinges, first in acknowledging the delight which both thou takest in thē, & they in mu­sick: & secondly learn by their exāple, what thy duty is & ought to be in grateful singing of psalms and songs to him that made thee.

Semidei.Lastly, yt I may not omit those which the heathnish poets & wise mē counted inferior indeed to the gods: but better thā men (how worthily I will not heere stand to debate) [Page 51] euen they testifie also of thē, yt they take infi­nite pleasure in musik. As whē Silenus sang his song of the beginning of the world vnto Chronis, Mnasilus & Aegle yt faire nimphe.

Tū vero in numerū Faunos Satyros (que) videres
Ludere, tū regidas motare cacumina quercus.
Then mightst thou see the Faunes
and satyres daunces lead,
The Cypresse trees to shake,
and sturdie okes their head.

So when Pan & Apollo stroue whether of them was the better Musitian.

Deseruere sui nimphae vineta Timoli,
Deseruere suas nimphae pactolides vndas.
When Pan for lawrell branche
in song with faire Apollo stroue,
Pactolus nimphes forsook their stream
and Tmolus nimphes their groue.

Homer is not afraid to ascēd a litle high­er, shewing that euē the gods & Iupiter him­self are content to giue a patiēt eare to musical concent: & therupon in that banquet of ye gods where Vulcan plaid the skinker, hee maketh Apollo & the Muses singing a song.Iliad. [...].

[Page 52]Thus they in banquetting consumde the day:
Nor faire nor mirth was wanting to their will
While faire Apollo on his harpe did play,
The Muses answering with aequal skil.

Pithagoras and his sectatours, thought that the world did not consist without mu­sical proportion and concent. And therefore both he & the best philosophers ascribe vnto euery Celestiall sphere, one Goddesse or Muse, which is the gouernes & ruler therof: & because there are eight of those spheres, the seuen planets, and the eight which is called the firmament, therefore they made 8. peculiar Muses, attributing to Luna the muse Clio: to Mercurius, Euterpe: to Ve­nus, Thalia: to Sol, Melpomene: to Mars, Terpsichore: to Iupiter, Erato: to Saturne, Polymnia, to the firmamēt or coelum stella­tum, Vrania; and because of eight particular soundes or voices, keeping due proporti­on and time, must needes arise an harmo­ny or concent, which is made by them all, therefore that sound which al these make is [Page 53] called Calliope. And hence is that plea­sant harmony of the celestial globes caused, which Pythagoras so much speaketh of. If then both Gods and men, and vnreasona­ble creatures of what kind soeuer, be allu­red and mitigated with musicke, we may safely conclude that this proceedeth from that hidden vertue, which is between our soules and musicke: and be bold with Pin­darus to affirme, that [...] &c. Al those things that Iupiter doth not loue, do only contemne the songs of the Muses.


IN the former chapter was gathered a proofe and de­monstration of the sweet­nesse of Musick, proceeding frō the causes to the effects. Now I meane by the con­trarie demonstration, to proue the delecta­tion thereof from the effects to the causes. For it cannot be but that as the conueniēce [Page 54] and agreement which musicke hath with our nature, is the cause of the delectation thereof: So the pleasure and delectation is also the cause of those effectes which it worketh as well in the minds as bodies of them that heare it. Musick being in it selfe wholly most effectuall, importeth much of his force and efficacie, euen to the peculiar partes and portions thereof. And there­vpon auncient writers make the distinction of songs and notes in musicke, according to the operations which they worke in their hearers: calling som of them chast and tem­perate: some amarous and light, othersome warlike, others peaceable, some melancho­licke and dolefull, other pleasant and de­lightfull. And yet this diuision is not so auncient as that other which was in vse in Orpheus & Terpanders time: for Plutarck in his treatise of musick recordeth that Mo­di Musici were also distinguished by the names of nations: such were principally these foure, Modus Dorius, Modus Phry­gius, Modus Lydius, and Modus Myxoly­dius. Hereunto were added as collaterall other three Hypodorius, Hypoludius, and Hypophrygius: making seuen in number, [Page 55] aunswerable to the 7. planets: whereunto Ptolomaeus addeth an 8. which is called Hypermyxolydius, sharpest of them al and attributed to the firmament. These seue­rall distinctions of notes in musicke do not so farre dissent in name and appellation, as they do neerely accord in effects and opera­tion. For Modus Dorius, beeing a graue and staied part of musicke, aunswereth to that which I called chast and temperate. Modus Lydius vsed in comedies, in former times, being more lighter and wanton than Dorius, answereth to that which I termed amarous and delightsome. Modus Phry­gius distracting the mind variably, also cal­led Bacchicus for his great force & violence aunswereth to that which I called warlik, And Myxolydius most vsed in tragedies ex­pressing in melodie those lamentable affec­tions which are in tragedies represented, aunswereth to that which before I named Melancholike and dolefull. As for those other, Hypodorius, Hypolydius, Hypo­phrygius, & Hypermyxolydius, there is no doubt, but that they being collaterall and assistants to these, moue such like affection as their principall.

[Page 56] Macrob. in Som. Scip. lib. 2. Macrobius in effect saith asmuch in these wordes: Ʋt visus colorum, sic sonorum vari­etate delectatur auditus: Modus Dorius pru­dentiaelargitor est & castitatis effector: Phri­gius pugnas excitat & votum furoris inflāmat: Aeolius animi temperiem tranquillat, som­numque iam placatis tribuit. Lydius intelle­ctum obtusis acuit, & terreno desiderio graua­tis caelestium appetentiam inducit, bonorum operator eximius. That is, As the eye is de­lited with the variety of coulours, so is the eare, with the diuersitie of sounds. Modus Dorius is a giuer of wisdome, and a causer of chastitie. Modus Phrygius prouoketh to fight, and maketh couragious. Aeolius quieteth the mind, & giueth sleepe to the pacified sēses. Lydius sharpneth dul wits, & to men oppressed with earthly cares, it bringeth a desire of heauenly things: be­ing a wonderfull worker of good motiōs. So that the effects of musicke generally are these. To make hast to incite and stirre vp mens courages, to allay & pacifie anger, to moue pittie and compassion, and to make pleasant and delightsome: Nay yet I will go farther: & doubt not but to proue by good authority, that musick hath brought madde [Page 57] men into their perfect wits & senses, that it hath cured diseases, driuē away euil spirits, yea and also abandoned the pestilence from men & cities.Musick ma­keth chast. Touching the first effects of musick we read that Agamemnon going to the war of Troy left behind him Demodo­cus, an excellent musician,Dydimus Ho­meri interpr. in 2. Odyss. skilfull in Modo Dorio, to keep chast his wife Clitemnestra, whom he nicely had in suspition of wanton­nes and leuity with Aegistus. Wherevpon it is recorded that as long as Demodocus liued, Clytemnestra remayned faithfull to her husband: but when Aegistus, for that purpose had murthered him, shee gaue ouer her selfe to satisfie his adulterous appetite. So did Vlisses leaue Phenius an other mu­sician, with Penelope, whom Vlisses retur­ning home at twentie yeares end, founde to haue wrought so effectually with his wife, that both he deserued great commendation for his acts, and she is registred as a most perfect & absolute example of chastitie: nei­ther do I attribute so much to Homer the author hereof, as to Dydimus his interpre­ter, who giueth this as a reason thereof, be­cause in those dayes, Musicians were the cheefest professours of philosophie. I doubt [Page 58] not but that those,Obiection. which are glad to take any occasion to speake against musicke, will thinke the contrarie: and affirme that it maketh men effeminate, and too much subiect vnto pleasure.Answer. But whome I praie you, doth it make effeminate? Sure­ly none but such as without it would bee wanton: it is indeede as fire to flaxe, and as wine to a drunkarde, if flaxe be easilie infla­med, is the fault in the fire? or if a drunkard, be easily ouercom with wine, is the fault in the wine? So likewise if the sunne harden claie and mollifie waxe: the diuersitie of these effects is by reason of the diuersitie of those subiects: euen so the same musicke which mollifieth some men, moueth some o­ther nothing at all: so that the fault is not in musicke, which of it selfe is good: but in the corrupt nature, & euil disposition of light persons, which of themselues are prone to wantonnes.Musicke ma­keth cou­ragious As for the 2. effect which is caused by Modus Phrygius, as I saide be­fore, it shal suffice to confirm it by example. The Athenians hauing receiued great hurt and losse, by seeking to recouer the Iland Salamis, made a law that whosoeuer should make mentiō of any more recouering there­of [Page 59] should die the death.Plutar. in So­lone. But Solon per­ceiuing this lawe to bee hurtfull to the common wealthe, faigned him-selfe to bee madde, and running into the cheefest places of the Citie, sang a certaine E­legie, which hee for that purpose had made shewing how easily the Iland might bee redeemed, and how pernitious a law that was, which had beene made in that behalfe. With whose sweet song Plutarche doth re­cord the Athenians to haue beene so incen­sed, that immediately they armed them­selues, and with good successe recouered Sa­lamis. To this purpose serueth also that which is recorded of a certaine yong man of Taurominum, which Boetius reporteth,Boetius. was incited wt the sounde of Modus Phry­gius, to set a fier an house, wherein a harlot was intertained, But a most manifest proof hereof is that, which is saide of Alexander the great, who sitting at a banquet amongst his friends, was neuertheles by the excelent skil of Timotheus a famous musician so inflamed with the fury of Modus Orthius, Gyrald. lib. 1. Poet. or as som say of Dorius, that he called for his spear & target as if he would presently haue addressed himself to war. Neither is this a [Page 60] more apparent proof for this part than that which folowed is for the next.3 Musicke allay­oth anger. The same Ti­motheus seeing Alexander thus incensed, only with the changing of a note, pacified this moode of his, & as it were with a more mild sound mollified & asswaged his former violence. Chameleon Ponticus reporteth of a certaine man called Clinias Pithagori­cus, that he being a man giuen to seueritie, if at any time he perceiued himselfe to haue beene melancholik, took his Citterne in his hand & professed that he tooke ease thereby. And Homer witnesseth of Achilles that of all the spoiles of Etion he only tooke for him selfe a Lute, wherewith hee might asswage his wrath in his extremitie.2. Kings. 3. So a minstrell pacified Elizeus when Iehoram came to aske counsell of him,4 Musicke mo­ueth pittie. and quieted his mind when he was sore offended. As the 4. effect may by many examples bee confir­med, so the story of Lodouicus pius the Em­peror doth make it most euident. For when Theodolphus the Bishop, had by his coun­sell and deuise caused Lotharius not only to depriue his father Lodouicus of his empire but to cast him into prison, who can iustly accuse the Emperour, if he being restored [Page 61] to his imperiall dignitie againe, did fully purpose to chastise the bishoppe with death? Yet neuerthelesse such was the force of Musicke, that the Emperour parsing by the prison wall, and hearing the Bishop sing an Hymne most pleasantly which hee had made in prison for his solace, was moo­ued wt compassion, to be sauourable to that man, which had dealt disloially with him­selfe, and restored him to his former dignity and estimation. As for the fifthe,5 Musike ma­keth pleasāt. we day­ly prooue it in our selues: vsing Musicke as a medicine for our sorrowe, and a re­medie for our griefe: for as euerie disease is cured by his contrarie, so musicke is as an Antipharmacon to sorrowe: aban­doning pensiue and heauie cogitations, as the sunne beames do the lightsome vapors.6 Musicke re­storeth mad­men to their wits. Greater are those other properties of this art, which I wil in this place rather touch, than dilate with examples. Musicke aswa­geth and easeth the inordinate perturbati­ons and euill affections of the mind. For Pithagoras with the changing of the sound of his instrument, caused a young man ouercome with the impatience of loue to change his affection also, wholly taking [Page 62] away the extremitie of his passion.Baptist. Port. Magiae natu­ralis, lib. 2. cap. 25. So Em­pedocles wt his skilful playing on the Cit­terne hindred a madde man, ready to slea himselfe: yea Zenocrates also and Ascle­piades, 7 Musick cu­reth diseases. are saide by this only medicine, to haue restored a lunatike person, into his per­fect senses. If it bee so that musicke can helpe the outrages of the mind, it will not seeme vncredible that it should cure the dis­eases of the body. By the help of musicke Ismenias a Theban musician, restored men sicke of an ague, to their former health, and Asclepiades by the sound of a trumpet caused a deafe man to heare. Theophra­stus also testifieth of the Ischiasy, that their sicknesses are cured, if a man play the Phry­gian note vnto them.

8 Musick dri­ueth away euil spirits. 1. Sam. 16.It is also a present remedie against euil spirits: which as it is proued by that one example of Saul from whom the euil spirit departed when Dauid plaied on his Harp: so hauing so sufficient authoritie,9 Musick medi­cinable a­gainst the plague. for the confirmation thereof, I shall not neede to stand vppon it any longer. Lastly wee read also of musicke that it hath deliuered both men and Cities, from the noysome infection of the pestilence. As Gyraldus [Page 63] in the place aboue incited, recordeth. Ter­pander and Arion, saieth he, with their mu­sicke deliuered the Lesbians & Ioues, from most contagious infections. And Thales a musician of Creet, with the sweetnes of his harmonie, banished the plague from his ci­tie. I durst in no wise affirme the last effect & operation of this worthie arte,10 Musicke pre­serueth or o­uerthroweth cōmonweals. were it not that Plato with his credite and authoritie did embolden me: Mutati musicae moduli (saieth hee) status publici mutationem afferūt: The chaunging of Musicall notes, hath caused an alteratiō of the common state. The reason hereof can be no other than this, Because by the force of Musicke as well those of lesse heart & courage are stirred vp, as those of greater stomack weakened & vn­abled to any excelent enterprise. Whereupō he also inferreth, that such are the maners of young men, as are the notes and tunes they are accustomed to, in their tender yeares.

Now if these my proofes & authorities shal to som [...] & vnmoueable person ether seeme too weak, or the things attributed to musicke too hyperbolical: he shall bewray either his ignorance in not hauing read ancient writers, in whom, as of al other sciences, [Page 64] so of this especially, as most admirable, con­digne praises are comprehended: or els his malice, in derogating from this art, those properties which hee can neither deny other men haue giuen, nor conuince, ought not by good reason to be attributed thereunto. For as I do not stand on the sufficiencie of these allegations, meaning in this part only to shew what hath beene ascribed vnto musick in former tymes: so is it not enough for any malicious Musomastix, to take his pen and write I ly, vnlesse he can by sufficient rea­son declare, that these authors by mee ci­ted haue erred heretofore: which if he shall not be able to performe, then let him giue some reason why musicke in these daies, is not the same, it hath beene hereto­fore: or why Musicke hath rather lost a­ny of her former excellency, than increa­sed in perfection from time to time, con­sidering that time is the perfecter and increaser of all artes? But I will not willingly entangle my selfe, with the vaine and fantasticall deuises of this sort of men. Only I conclude this point, with that cōmon saying of the learned: Sci­entia neminem habet inimicum nisi ignorantē. [Page 65] None are so great enimies to knowledge as they that know nothing at all.

Likewise in Apulia when anie man is bitten of the Tarrantula, Balthas. Ca­stalion. Auli [...] lib. 1. which is a certain kinde of flie, verie venimous and full of daunger, they finde out the nature and sympathie of the sicknesse or humor, with playing on instrumentes, and with diuer­sitie of Musicke, neither doe they cease frō playing, vntill the often motion and agita­tion, haue driuen the disease away.


BVt what of all these thinges before re­hearsed, if Musick haue neither profit or necessity? or to what end shold a mā bestow his trauel & industry in that wherof there is no vse? Can an Art be vnnecessary, or can any thing be good for so many purpo­ses as haue bin declared, & not be needefull? yea can any thing be so profitable and haue no vse? Easier is it for water not to moistē, & for fire not to giue heat, thā for an art liberal to be vnnecessary, or for so precious a science to haue no vse. And therfore most memorable [Page 66] iudgement of Galene, which will not suffer that to be called an Art, that bringeth no profitte to our life. Wherefore before I en­ter into that which is the marke whereat I aime, I meane, the vse of Musicke in the church, I must adde to these former com­mendations, something, as of the necessity of it in fewer wordes, so of ciuil vse thereof more at large. And first concerning the ne­cessity: I confesse, that Musicke is not so ne­cessary for man, as meates are for the pre­seruatiō of life, and clothing for the defence of the body: (for so he were not a man, that were not a musicion:) but as in meates some are course, and others delicate, which both neuerthelesse are necessary, the one to those of meaner, the other to thē of higher degree: and as laboring men vse meane apparell only to defend their bodies from the violēce of the weather, and gentlemen finer, not only so, but for an ornament also, which both are necessary, to distinguish callinges: so Musicke is as the more delicate meates, and as the finer apparell: not in deede necessary simply, but profitablie necessary for the comlinesse of life. And therefore So­crates & Plato, & all the Pythagoreans in­structed [Page 67] their yong men and maydes in the knowledge of Musicke, not to the prouoca­tion of wantonnesse, but to the restraining and bridling their affections, vnder the rule and moderation of reason. For they, because youth naturally is moueable, & desirous of delight, & yet vnfit to receiue any seuere dis­cipline, thought it conuenient & necessarie, to acquaint their children with an honest oblectation of Musicke in their youth, that being brought vppe in that liberall delec­tation, they might learne to refraine from other illiberall and inordinate pleasures. And Aristotle in the eight booke of his Po­litiques, which is wholy of that argument, giueth counsell that noble men & gentlemē be instructed with Musicke,Arist. Polit. 8. cap. 3. first to auoide idlenesse, because the idle time which is in a mans life, doth require to be busied in the knowledge & learning of some profitable thing: secondly because Musicke after a sort belongeth vnto vertue.Cap. 4. For as that exercise which is called Gymnastica doth strengthen and confirme the body: so Musick refresheth the wearied mind with honest delectation. Thirdly for that it hath great force in the wel ordring and good institutiō of life. And [Page 68] therefore Pythagoras his Scholers, as Tullie recordeth,Tusc. 4. were woont, both to giue certaine hidden and secrete precepts in verses, and to with-drawe their mindes from intentiue and deepe cogitations, with singing and with instrumentes: yea and manie of the auncient Grecians a­mong whome this Art was in highe esti­mation, instructed their children in Mu­sicke, as profitable to the correction of life and manners, that thereby they might bee incited to temperance and honestie: for it is the property of liberall Sciences, to ingenerate a gentle, and liberal action in their hearers. Wherupon Aristotle, in the same place doth infer, that albeit arts are to be learned not for any vain pleasure or o­stentation, but for some good and profitable vse, yet if musicke were neither necessarie nor profitable at all, it ought to be accōpted of & embraced, for that it is liberall. And yet Aristotle doth not so far cōmend Musicke to noble men, that he would rather wishe them the practise, than the speculation and knowledge thereof: But as he would haue none but those that professe it to be the practisers of it: so hee counselleth [Page 69] noble men rather to vse it for their priuate solace, than publike ostentation, and rather to bee able to iudge of other mens cunning, than willing to shewe their owne. For the Lacedaemonians, saith he, a warlike and noble people, haue this as a singuler com­mendation, that although they seemed not to haue any skill in Musicke, yet they could easily discerne, which sound agreed or dis­agreed most. And he maketh it a generall obseruation, that in all poets of any credit and name, Iupiter is neuer made to sing, or to plaie vpon any instrument, although they deny him not most exact knowledge and iudgement.Suetonius. And indeed who doth not confesse an abuse of this art in Nero, which would sit whole daies togeather plaing in the Theater? or in Archabius that foolish musition, of whom it is written, that his au­ditors were woont to giue him more money to ende his song, than to begin. Pope Iohn the 22. of that name which was himself a good musicion, & wrote a booke thereof: in the second chapter of his booke attributeth thus much therunto. Great is the necessity of Musicke, and the vse thereof not to be con­temned: for it maketh him that is skil­ful [Page 70] therin, able to iudge of that which he hea­reth, to amend that which is amisse, and to make a newe. And thus much he ascribeth to the necessity of the art. Neuerthelesse the necessity which wee meane, is, that it doeth bridle and nurture our inordinate affections, as not only Aristotle taught vs before, but Strabo also, calling musicions the masters and correctors of maners. Ho­mer in the same sense termeth them So­phronistas, that is to say, Moderators or teachers of Temperance. And for the like cause as I suppose, was Musicke first brought into the church, and vsed in diuine seruice: for Isidore testifieth, that Propter Carnales in Ecclesia, Isidor. Eccle. off. lib. 1. cap. 5. non propter spirituales, consuetudo est instituta canendi, vt qui a verbis non compunguntur, suauitate modulaminis mo­ueantur. The custome of singing in the church, was instituted for the carnall, not for the spirituall, that they whome the wordes doe not pierce might bee moued with the sweetnesse of the note. S. Augu­stine also is of opinion,Confes. lib. 10. cap. 33. that Musicke is ne­cessary in the church of god, vt per oblectamē ­ta aurium, infirmior animus in affectum pieta­tis surgat: that by the delight of the eares, [Page 71] the weake soule may bee stirred vp in­to a feeling of godlinesse: and his reason is: Omnes affectus spiritus nostri pro suaui diuersitate sentio habere proprios modos in vo­ce atque cantu, quorum nescio qua occulta familiaritate excitentur. I perceiue, that all the affections of our spirites, haue cer­taine proper motions in the voice and song, according to the sweete diuersitie thereof, which (with I know not what hidden familiarity) are excited and stirred vp. Arist. Polit. 8. cap. 5. In a word Aristotles resolution tou­ching the ciuil necessity is, that musick hath relation to these three things, to delectatiō, to discipline, and to an happy life. To de­lectation, because Musicke with the sweet­nesse thereof, doeth refresh the minde and make it better able to greater labours. To discipline, because it is a cause of breeding in vs chastitie, temperance, and other mo­rall vertues. To an happy life, because that cannot consist without iudgement and liberall delectations, whereof Musicke is the chiefest.


PHilosophy & experiēce haue taught vs that omne bonum quo communius eo melius, the goodnes of euery good thing stāds chiefly vpō the vse. If the mysteries & secretes of nature touching plantes, springes, metals, stones, & the like had laine alwaies smothe­red & supprest within her bosom, doubtlesse we had wanted much of her blessings, & she asmuch of our cōmendation.Plutarch. Howe vile a thing were golde amongst vs, if for lacke of better vse we vsed it as we read of the Scy­thians to manacle & shackle our prisoners? skarlet is no color to him that sees it not, an Emeraul not precious to him that knowes it not. But Musicke God bee thanked is no nightbird, she hath flown through the whole world in the opē face & sight of al mē. And ye sun hath not had a larger theater wherin to display his beams thē musick to lay opē her sweetnes. Look into al ages, she hath grown [Page 73] vp with thē. Look into al places, she hath in­franchiced her self within them: look into al estates, shee hath no sooner come, but wel­come vnto them. Antiquitie which nowe adayes euerie greene head will needes set to schoole, and make subiect to the ouerlash­ing pregnancy of his yong wit, deriues her euen from Saturnes time, when the worlde was skant sheld:

Tum cum virguncula Iuno
Et priuat us adhuc Idaeis Iupiter antris.

When Iuno was a girle as yet,
And Iupiter not weand from teat.

Then did the priests of Cybele sing an hap­py lullabie for him,Pol. Virgil. whose crying if they had not drowned of purpose with their singing and tabering, his mercilesse father Saturne had deuoured him. But what neede these broken staues? Nature which in deede was when nothing else was can beare the best record in these cases: and what euidēce giues she? When I made the firmament I established it by concent. When I made the elements I qualified them with pro­portions. When I made man I gaue him a soule either harmony it selfe, or at least harmonicall. Nay besides this, Non est [Page 46] harmonicè compositus qui Musica non delecta­tur. If I made any one which cannot brook or fancy Musicke, surely I erred and made a monster. For how is it credible, if beasts haue bin snared, birdes allured, fishes bai­ted, serpentes charmed, yea and rent in sun­der with Musicke, that her strength should become weakenesse in the wisest and most reasonable creature, without an infallible preiudice of a most vntoward nature? If there be any such flintlike and senselesse mā, let vs leaue him as a desperate patient vn­recouerable, to the course of his owne hate­full constellation: which if it had not vowed to trie an experiment, and make one in all degrees worse than Timon of Athens, a mā euen wholy resolued and done into spiteful­nesse, how could it possibly haue harbored within his brest such an vnnatural loathing towards so excellent a science? I speak this but in iealousie: for I neuer hearde of any though seated & planted in the verie hart of Barbarie, which euer did abhorre it, or was not sometimes greedy to imbrace it.Musicke a Delphian sword. The rather because it is gladius Delphicus, ha­uing an edge on all sides, for it is made meate and drinke to melancholy, a great [Page 75] horse to choler, a full tide to greife, a fire to pleasure, a right hand to prodigality, a main sea to drunkennes, and finally a forst friend to all maner of affections and vices. So then if good dispositions loue hir for hir own sake, the bad for their passions sake, as whereby they back and strengthen them­selues in their vngratiousnes, I hope I may safely conclude an vniuersality touching hir vse and seruice. In this discourse plentie would haue ouerwhelmed me, had not a for­mer tract of her suauitie and effectes for­stalled this place. For to omit the court with her consortes, corporations with their waites, and other places both of greater countenance and frequency, wherin Musick may seeme by more authoritie to claime ac­quaintance, & to looke but with halfe an eie into the country, wherein toiling & as they call it good husbandrie should exclude all pleasurable recreation, howe hartily doth the poorest swaine both please himself, and flatter his beast with whistling & singings? Alas what pleasure could they take at the whippe and ploughtaile in so often and vn­cessāt labours, such bitter weather beatings somtimes benūmed with cold, otherwhiles [Page 76] melted with heat, euermore pāting & scarce­ly drawing breath vnder their burthenous trauels, vnlesse they quieted & euē brought a sleep their painfulnes, with this their home­ly, yet comfortable & selfe pleasing exercise? That as the woman in Plutarch sang, Mole pistrinum, mole, nam & Pittachus molit Rex magnae Mytilenae: grinde mil, grinde: for euē Pittachus grindes the great king of Myti­len (otherwise were it not for his grinders his belly would take but poore tole) so those with a light hart make their plough go ligh­ter, & while they vse the solace of their na­tural instruments both quicken themselues and incourage forward their ouerlaboured horses. What shall I speake of that petie & coūterfait Musick which cartars make wt their whips, hempknockers wt their beetels, spinners wt their wheels, barbers with their sizzers, smithes with their hāmers? where me thinkes the mastersmith with his treble hāmer sings deskāt whilest the greater buz vpō the plainsong: who doth not straitwaies imagin vpō musick whē he hears his maids either at ye woolhurdle, or the milking pail? good God what distinct intētiō & remissiō is there of their strokes? what orderly diuiding [Page 77] of their straines? what artificial pitching of their stops? If thē the bare imitatiō of Mu­sick in cōparison of the other being dombe & liuelesse, hee notwithstanding so auailea­ble as to cherish ouerdulled spirites, and euen by stelth to carrie awaie the labour­somest drudgeries, what malicious and sworne frowardnesse is it against nature, sense, and reason by a commission onely of Sic volumus, Sic iubemus, to discommon that which is the principall, and by all rea­son of the greater force? Where-in be­cause experience doth preuent examples (for what neede I alleadge Parrhasius and Ni­cias two notable painters by their owne confession strengthened hereby and euen steeled in their infinite labours?) I will reduce all to one monument of antiquitie, not priuate to any one either person, house­hold, colonie, or towne, but generally put in vre by a whole nation. The auncientes of Creete (a realme renowmed sometimes for no fewer than an hundred beautifull cities) as they were religious in their lawes,AElianus. being the very sinewes and ioyntes of euery wel-gouerned commonwealth, so they were as carefull to plant them in their childrens [Page 78] heades. But these lawes being matters of state and gouernment, and therefore too hard meate for such yong stomackes to di­gest, and deeper lessons than to match their shalow capacities, they vsed Musicke ther­in as a Schoolemaister, by faire meanes and gentle allurements to mitigate the dif­ficultie of their taskes. Which if it bee so vnprofitable as it is made now adayes, why was it accepted in so famous and populous a countrie? why borne out and maintained by so graue authority? why admitted to thinges of so great importance? wherein standeth the life and soule of all Kingdoms? why instilled to youth for pliablenesse of na­ture easily corrupted, and for their hope the best seede of the next haruest? But hencefor­ward because these sullein stoickes do mea­sure not their good liking of good Artes by such hard and niggardly skantlings I will learne to bee more liberall to my selfe, and presume vpon that foregranted, which as I know not so I care not whether euer they will graunt or no. Musicke is not at their stinting: her charter (how large let al the world iudge) was graunted by nature, con­firmed by prescription of time out of mind, [Page 79] and established by the vse of all places, per­sons and conditions. For better assurance whereof I wil descende more particular­ly to her vse, and speake of it partly as it is ciuill in time of peace and quietnesse, partly as warlike in times of commotion.

THE PARTICVLER VSE OF MVSICKE IN CI­uill matters, especially in sacrifi­ces, feasts, mariages and Burials. CHAP. VII.

NOw the ciuil vse, to let passe all generalities which I touched before with a wet finger, may best be collected out of these solemn either a­ctions or assemblies, which are frequented in al politique states, & may be listed for breuities sake within the com­passe of these foure things, to wit, sacrifices, feasts, mariages and burials. For I dare not speake of dauncing or theatrall specta­cles, least I pull whole swarmes of eni­mies vpon me. Albeit Lesbonax of My­tilen, honestus plane vir & bonus, Cael. Rhod. a man I [Page 80] am sure, aswell titled, as the curiously min­ded called dauncers [...], men teaching wisdome euen with their hands, & oftē went to theaters, giuing this testimony of them, that he euer returnd home the better by thē. I confesse I am accessory to their iniurie against Musick in bereauing it of these two so ample & notable prouinces, bicause I doe not by open resistance hinder their riot. For howsoeuer obcenity may bring the stage in suspicion of vnchastnes and incontinency, make dauncing disfauorable & odious, I am sure that neither of them keeping them selues vnder saile, that is not ouerreaching their honest and lawfull circumstances, can want either good groundes to authorize them,1 In sacrifices. or sufficient patronage to maintaine thē. As for these sacred or rather prophane churchrites vsed amōgst the heathē & pagās in reuerence of their supposed gods, let that sorting of Musicke into Sophronisticè appli­ed to Sobriety and Temperance,Cael. Rhod. Encomi­asticè to praises, Orchematicè to dancings, Threneticè to calamities, & Paeanicè to sacri­fices be sufficient to discharge me of farther paines.Ibidem. Notwithstanding because exāples stick deeper than precepts, & both these will [Page 81] skāt serue to win some mēs credence, let thē call to minde what the priestes of Rhea in Creete called Curetes or these Coryban­tes in Phrygia did. What kinde of seruice Apollo founde in Delos, or the Sunne a­mongst the Indians, in what manner those gadding huswiues of Thrace worshipped Bacchus. And if one Proctor Antoninus the Emperour may not serue to answere throughly enough in behalfe of Rome, who in sacrificing to Heliogabalus appointed Carthaginian Dames to daunce, and make melodie about the altars, let the whole cler­gie of Mars called Salij (perhaps as some haue gessed of dancing and leaping) instruct them what the vsage, and fashion was a­mongest the Romanes.

Touching banquets,2 In banquets. let no man I would aduise him exclude pleasure and recreation from thence, vnlesse he haue a forehead to set against the whole world, and a face to be at defiance with all countries. For other­wise why haue the feastmakers prouided meates for the mouth, sightes for the eye; perfumes for the nose, yea why haue they strowed Violets and Roses for the feete to walke vpon, but to allure and detaine their [Page 82] guestes with all maner of delectation? And must the eare sleepe al this while? No, there are questions of nature, of policy, or maners to be disputed on as amongst the Persians. There are riddles and mystical speeches to be explicated (for examples sake, A man and yet no man of an Eunuch, a stone and yet no stone of a pumeise, a birde and yet no bird of a reremouse) as amongst the Greci­ans. You may eate bookes in time of meals as did Alexander Seuerus: you may giue eare to tragical & comical Poets as did Ha­drianus. Or if such table talke be too graue for your light humour, bring in young chil­dren to find you occupied with their apish pratling as amongst the Abydens. Bring in fooles and iesters (the very skornes and reproches of nature) to delite you with their toies as amongst the Romans. And I praie why not Musicke as wel as al these? sure if I were priuy to any reasons of yours, which either are few & wil shrink in the nūbering, or light & wil vanish in ye weighing, I wold neuer suffer my pen to belie my hart: either I would bend al my force to conuince them, or if I could not, vtterly forsake the defence of Musick. In the meantime if I erre I am [Page 83] glad that my error is not yong or selfwilled but sprong euē frō the most anciēt & best ap­proued maners of many countries. The Ar­cadians (what speake I of the Arcadians?) veteres: The anciēts (for so in Athenaeus the patents are general, and concerne other pla­ces) were enioined by vertue of their lawes and statutes in time of feasting to sing forth praises vnto their gods. Cato his originals for ought I knowe are not extant amongst vs. Howbeit if wee will be tried by one of Cato his peeres,Tull. in Brut. Tullie can tell vs that eue­ry guest was bound in musicall sort to ex­presse the feates of armes and chiualrie at­tempted and performed by thier noble cap­taines. I am bolde to say they were bound,Stuckius. for their Feastes in those dayes represented euen the whole body of a Common-wealth. They had Regem & Legem, their King and their lawes, & euery inferiour vpon paine of some mulct or other sworne to alleagiance. Now amōgst these decrees one was that a Lawrel or mirtle bough shold passe through out the table from hand to hande as an en­signe or standard for each man in his time & course to sing vnder. Afterward they were put to the harp, & he that refused it sped no [Page 84] better than we read Themistocles did. For Habilis est indoctior. Tuscul. Hee was condemned of ignorance and vnkilfulnesse. What neede I specifie Lacedaemō or Athens? we neede not trauell farre to bee seene in their anti­quities. Euerie Historiographer especi­ally in this argument, hath matter enough to cloy and ouercharge the hungriest mind. And that one song in commēdation of Har­modius and Aristogiton for rooting out the tyranny and memory of Pisistratus [...]:Cael. Rhod. Thou art not yet dead sweete Harmodius (for his name was re­uiued in euerie banquet) makes it a cleare case touching the Athenians. The Sibarits besides all variety of minstrelsie brought in horses at their times of feasting, to tread the measures. But to set the Sunne against the lesser starres, I meane the sonne of Si­rach against all prophane authors (for how can I but confound my self and the readers in so ample a maze of authorityes?) he com­pares Musicke in a feast to an emerauld or carbuncle set in gold: if it be perillous why doth the wiseman commend it to vs in his writings? if vile why doth he match it with two so excellent & precious stones? But his [Page 85] bare word is to me a better warrant for the ratifieng of it than al their peeuishe & scarce colorable wrāgling to reproue it. I come to mariages,3 In mariages. wherin as our ancestors (I do willingly harp vpon this string that our yonger wits may know they stand vnder correctiō of elder iudgemēts) did fondly,Plutarch. & with a kind of doting maintaine many rites & ceremo­nies, some whereof were either shadowes or abodements of a pleasant life to come, as the eating of a quince peare, to be a prepara­tiue of sweete & delightfull dayes betweene the maried persons, the ioyning of Mercury and Venus togither, as a token that loue must bee preserued & fostered by curteous speeches, with other not vnlike: so in the time of solemnising the same they had choise & set songs appointed for the purpose.In auibus. The Grecians generally by report of Aristopha­nes one of their Poets sang Hymen, O Hy­maenaee, O Hymen. Calling vpon the name of him whom they made their chiefe super­intendent ouer such matters. And Plato in his booke intitled Gorgias makes mention of this dittie as peculiarly belonging to those festiual times. Formosum esse, & di­uitē, & bene valere, summū existimatur bonū.

[Page 86]
Wilt thou be blessed and happie indeede?
Be faire, rich and healthy, if thou wilt speede.

The Atheniās one of ye best flours in greece sang incōditū carmen, perhaps some blacke saunt wtout order or distinction, & it is re­ported to be this: Bonos ama, timidos repelle, scimus enim timidorū paruā esse vbi (que) gratiā.

Embrace & loue the good, the carpet knights repel,
How litle fauor they haue foūd elswhere who knowes not wel?

4 In funerals.I wil end wt death the end of al mortality, which though it be the dissolutiō of nature, & parting of the soul frō the body, terrible in it self to flesh & blood, & amplified wt a nūber of displeasant, & vncōfortable accidents, as the shauing of the head, howling, mourning ap­parel, funeral boughes of yeu, box, cipresse, & the like, yet we shal find by resorting to anti­quities, that musick hath had a share amōgst them, as being vnseasonable at no time. I let passe the Thraciās with their triūphes & iu­bilies for the happy estate of their deceased friēds & kinsfolk.Theat. The Lybiās most honora­ble mētion of those principally which were slain either by elephāts or other wild beasts or spēt their blood & liuelihood in ye field for maintenāce of their coūtry, I cānot omit wt ­out iniury to their thākfulnes & mine owne cause. The rather sith ye cause which moued thē to these exigēts cānot be vngrateful to a­ny [Page 87] loial & wel disposed eares. Autumn winds are not so cōmon as authorities if I would vse thē. Euery grāmer scholer that openeth but an orator, poet, or historiographer shal see trumpets, pshalms, & singings attributed to funerals. And to reduce al vains to the hart, & al autorities to one head, if there were no such remēbring of the dead, why haue they deified a goddes of these songs,Varro Teren­tius. that as Ianꝰ amōgest them was the first god to open the dore & entrāce of their liues, so Maenia shold be the last to do them any seruice, by quick­ning them after their deathes, and raising vp a second life, by a wailful and yet musical commemoration of their laudable deserts.

THE PARTICVLER VSE of musicke in warlike matters. CHAP. VIII.

NOw because musick is reported to be, belli & pacis alūna vel comes, Stuckius. either the daughter or cōpaniō both of war & peace, I wil set the palm & oliue togither: & as I haue bin short in declaring her peaceable vse, so I will take the neerest course that may bee in this warlik treatise. Though painters & Poets are commonly allowed to ly,Pliny. yet I am sure Theon expressed no more colours than is true in life when he drewe an armed [Page 88] man in compleat harnesse ready to make ex­cursion vppon his enimies, and to all mens thinking animated and incouraged therun­to by the clamorous soundes of a Musitian. I appeale not now to mens integritie, and vprightnesse of iudgementes. I make pro­uocation to them as they are men. Let them speake if the drum, fife, & trumpet do not ex­cite their spirits, & make their hearts euen to swel to the ouerthrow of their enimies.Alexan. ab Alexandr. The kings of Persia first sang a song to Ca­ster & Pollux, & then made incounter with their aduersaries. The Lacedaemonians vsed Pshalms: whose captain Agesilaus be­ing demanded of one not so wise as curious (I will not say hee was a ringleader to our froward questionists now adayes to what end & purpose be did it) made answere that hereby he was assured of euery mans minde & courage. For if his pases were consonant and according to measures, then it argued he was not appalled. If disagreeing, it ar­gued that he was faint harted. Now if it be expedient for a captaine to knowe whether his souldiers be harts or Lions, whose good & cheerful harts are the first step to the win­ning of the field, then it is consequent, that [Page 89] Musicke should be a Lydius lapis, the right touchstone to try their minds.

Nowe besides the aduertisement giuen hereby to the captaine,Musicke en­courageth our own parts and terrifieth the aduerse. Alex. ab Alex. & Clemens Alexand. our own side is inci­ted, the aduerse parts amased & astonished. For which causes all nations ciuil & barba­rous though in diuerse sorts, yet vpon one & the selfe same ground haue made euen the earth shake, & the heauens ring either with outcries, braying, howling, singing, & clattering of their armour as the old Germanes and frenchmen, or with tabering vpon their wagon pelts, as the Cimbrians, or with drums, & great iron hāmers, as the Parthi­ans, or with a gentler and remisser kind of Musicke, with their harping, or piping, or winding the cornets, or sounding trumpets, or tinkling their cimbals, as the Lydians, Hetrurians, Arcadians, Cicilians, Co­rinthians, Syrians, Troians, Aegyptians, Arabians, and to speake in one word, no one word so true, al countries. Amongst which Athens the mother & nurse of the best lite­rature was accustomed to sing hymns to Apollo and Iupiter, for the better speeding of their doubtful voiages. And Rome the lady & Queene of al other cities (if they may be [Page 90] credited in their own cause, vsed first an oxe horne til Tyrrhenus had deuised the brasen trūpet, prouided notwithstanding that in a­ny expeditiō of silēce, they gaue but a watch word only without any soūd of instrumēts.

THE LAVVFVL VSE OF MVSICKE IN THE CHVRCH confirmed by the practise of the church. CHAP. IX.

NOw although there be none but few men so senselesse & blockish by nature, or of dis­positiō so peuish, & waiward, that taking no delight in Musick thēselues, & measu­ring ye worth & price therof, by their own af­fectiōs, do accoūt of it as a thing either vain & vnlawful, or idle & vnprofitable, yet there be many, who albeit they allow a moderate, & sober vse of it, in ciuil matters: do notwith­standing cast it out of the church, as an vn­cleane thing, & will vouchsafe it no place in the seruice of God. But if the vse thereof be proued to be not lawfull only in the church, but profitable also and decent, by the prac­tise of the church at all times, the opinion of [Page 91] the best learned in all ages, and the authori­ty of the Scriptures themselues in many places: I trust that these men will reforme their opinions from thinking so basely of it, or refraine their tounges from inueigh­ing so bitterly against it.

And first as touching the practise of the church, they are not ignorant, that the most anciēt church of the Iewes (which receiued the doctrine of truth, which it beleeued, the precepts of life, which it obserued, the order of discipline, which it practised from God himself) vsed no one spirituall exercise more than singing vnto the Lord. When the Ark (which was vnto them a visible signe of Gods presence amōg them, and vnto which they resorted to aske counsell of the Lord, & to poure out their praiers, as wee do vnto the church) was brought into the citie of Dauid, 1. Chron. 23.5. 2. Sam. 6.4. not only the foure thousand Leuits whom Dauid had assigned this office to praise the Lord with instruments which he had made, song & made melody, but Dauid himself also sang, reioiced, & daunced before it. Afterward when the Temple was buylded by Solomon, and the Arke, with other thinges dedicated thereunto by [Page 92] Dauid, were brought into the tēple, the Le­uits according vnto their office, sang vnto the lord, songs of praise and thankesgiuing, lifting vp their voices with trumpets and Cimbals, & wt instrumēts of Musick: which seruice the Lorde did so gratefully accept, that hee vouchsaued his visible presence,2. Chron. 29.25.26. and filled the temple with his glory. And whē as Ezechias opened the temple which had been shut, & reestablished the seruice of the lord, which had beene intermitted by the wickednes of Ahas among other thinges, there is especiall mention, that he restored this exercise: for he appointed the Leuits in the house of the Lord, with cimbals and vi­als, and with harpes, according to the com­maundement of Dauid, and Gad the kings seer,Isid. de offic. Eccle. lib. 2. cap. 13. and Nathan the prophet: for the com­maundement was by the hand of the lord, & by the handes of his prophets. And his holy ordinance, which the lord himselfe had sanc­tified, cōtinued in that church as other parts of his seruice did, though corrupted, euen vnto the comming of Christ in the flesh. Neither was it then, as a bodily and vnpro­fitable exercise, abolished, but retained as a spirituall seruice vnto the Lord, albeit not [Page 93] in that order and forme as before. And Isidor testifieth that Ad antiquum morem Psal­mistarum in veteri ecclesia Iudaeorum, &c. of the auncient custome of singers in the old church of the Iewes, the primitiue church tooke example, to noorish singers, by whose songs the minds of ye hearers, might be stir­red vp to god. And ye psalmistor singer ought to be most excelēt both in voice & art, that he may the better delight the hearers with the sweetnesse of his Musicke, yea euen our sa­uiour Christ vsed this diuine exercise, for when he had eaten the passouer with his dis­ciples, S. Mathew addeth,Math. 29 30. & when he had song a psalme they went out into the mount of Oliues. As for the times wherin the apo­stles themselues liued, it cannot bee denied, but that this exercise was vsed in the chur­ches which they planted: for many exhorta­tions are by them made in their epistles, as it shall after appeare, vnto their churches that then flourished, cōcerning this matter, and I trust their practise then was agree­able to their exhortatiōs.Plin. in epist. ad Tra. epist. li. 10. & Euseb. lib. 3. eccl. hist. cap. 30. Plinie in an epistle he writeth to Troian the Emperor (whiles yet S. Iohn was liuing) testifieth that it was the custome of the Christians to sing [Page 94] himnes vnto their Christ in their assembles before day: for they could not freely come togither by day, for the persecutions that thē raged against them. Afterwarde when the church of Christ had a breathing time, and might freely serue their God, they did that openly in their churches, which before they vsed secretly in their assemblies. Look vpon the East & the West, the Greeke & Latine Churches, & you shall finde this to be true. It had his beginning in the East Church, and from thence being deriued vnto the West, spredde it selfe vnto all Churches, as Sainct Augustine reporteth in his con­fessions.Lib. 3. cap. 7.

It were too long to runne ouer all the particular Churches, which frequented this exercise,Lib. 2. cap. 24. it shall bee sufficient to take a view of the patriarchall seates, by whome the others were to bee directed in mat­ters of doctrine and discipline.1 Antioch in Syria vnder Fla­uian and Ig­natius. Theodoret reporteth that Flauianus and Diodorus or­dayned in the Church of Antioch that the Psalmes of Dauid shoulde bee song inter­changeably by a quire of singing men, diuided into partes, first at the monu­mentes of Martyrs, and afterwardes in [Page 95] the Church, & hortabantur, sayeth hee, so­cios sui ministerij vt in Ecclesia sanctissi­mum Dominum nostrum hymnis celebra­rent, And they exhorted their fellowe Ministers, to prayse their holie Lorde Christ, with hymnes and songes. Ibidem. The which order once begunne at Antioche was deryued farther and farther euen vn­to the vtmost partes of the worlde. In Zozomenus likewise it is recorded,Zozom. lib. 7. cap. 23. & Ni­ceph. lib. 12. cap. 43. that when the people of Antioch had intel­ligence, that the Emperour Theodosius was incensed against them for a sedition raysed in their Citie, they made their prayers vnto GOD, to allay and mi­tigate his rage, vsing thereunto mourn­full songes and melodie. The which when Flauianus the Bishoppe had cau­sed to bee song before the Emperour, as hee satte at meate, the storie sayeth, that Theodosius was thereat not onely moo­ued to pytty, but forgaue the offence al­so, and himselfe with teares encreased their lamentations.Zozom. lib. 3. cap. 29. And in another place he sayth, that the Cleargy & people of Anti­och diuiding themselues into two parts, did according to their accustomed maner, [Page 96] praise God with himnes and songes. To these former autorities accordeth Socrates, who although he attribute not the originall of this singing of Antiphones and psalmes in the church of Antioche, to Flauianus and Diodorus as Theodoret both, but vnto Ig­natius one auncienter than they (for he was the third bishope of that place after Peter, and was very conuersant with the Apostles themselues) yet he agreeth with him in the veritie of the matter wherof I speake, affir­ming that Ignatius, Socrat. lib. 9. cap. 8. hauing seene a vision of Angels lauding the holy Trinitie with himnes interchangeably sung, constituted in the church of Antioche that forme and maner of singing, which had beene mani­fested vnto him in that vision. And albeit this may seeme some what fabulous (as per­haps it is,Cent. 2. cap. 6. de pub. con­gres. and as the Magdeburgenses are of opiniō, saying that this is not a matter of so great moment, that therefore Angels should come downe from heauen & appeare singing:) yet this clause which they ad, espe­cially because the church in those daies wan­ted neither psalmes nor himnes, is a suffici­ent proofe of mine assertion.

Now concerning the church of Alexādria [Page 97] as I doe confesse,2 Alexandria in Africa vnder Athanasius. Tripart. hist. lib. 4. cap. 11. Socrat. lib. 2. cap. 4. this exercise was not so much vsed there as in Antioch: so must I needes say that sometimes it was there al­so frequented: for proofe whereof I referre the reader to Socrates and the tripartite historie, where they declare how Athanasi­us the Bishop of Alexandria being by the Arrians depriued of his Bishoprick, escaped out of the hands of Sirianus, the Captaine of that armie, who came with a band of 3000. souldiers, beside the ayd of the Arri­ans which were in the citie, as well to place Gregorius in that sea as to apprehend A­thanasius. For the historie saith thus: The euening grewe on, and the people watched all night, because they looked for a commu­nion. The Captaine placed his souldiers round about the Church: the which when Athanasius perceiued, all his care was, that for his sake the people might receiue no harme. Wherefore he willed the Deacon to end his praiers, & commanded they should sing a Psalm. Now while the Psalm was singing, with sweet and pleasant concent, the whole congregation went out at one dore: all this while, the souldiers were si­lent, and made no vprore: but Athanasius [Page 98] in the midst of the throng scaped the rage of his enemies without harm. Whereof I ga­ther that as in other churches, so also in this of Alexādria they vsed this diuine exercise: which also S.Confes. lib. 10 p. 33. Augustine testifieth, though not in so ful manner, when he wisheth, that ye order of singing were vsed in the Church where he was, which Athanasiꝰ obserued in the Church of Alexandria who cōmanded him that read the scriptures, that hee should so tēperate & moderate his voice, yt he might rather seem to speake treatably than to sing, to the end he might be the better vnderstood of the people. And yet neuertheles S. Austē calling to mind, how wonderfully himselfe had been moued wt the singing of the church at his conuersion to the faith, & what opera­tion it worketh in the hearers, although doubting, confesseth in the same place, that he doth allow singing in the church, that by the delight thereof the weake minde might be brought into a feeling of Religion.

As for the Church of Ierusalem, I think it a matter needlesse to stand long in proofe of that,3 Ierusalem in Palestina. which no man can deny, especially seeing this exercise was in vse among the A­postles themselues (as may appeare by that [Page 99] of Paul, I wil sing with the spirit, 1. Cor. 14.15. but I wil sing with the vnderstanding also) and none were bishops of that sea, but such as were ei­ther Apostles themselues, or scholers of the Apostles. Yet least I should seeme to say no­thing in so large a matter,Niceph. lib. 3. ca. 25. I wil alleage on­ly one testimonie for confirmation hereof. There is extant among the epistles of S. Hierom, one of S. Hieroms own making:Hieron. in epist. Paulae & Eustochij ad Marcel. tom. 1. but vnder the name of Paula & Eustochius written to Marcella, the argument whereof is to intreate Marcella which was then at Rome, to come vnto Ierusalem where Pau­la & Eustochius remayned. Among many cōmendations of the place, & diuers reasons to perswade her, this is one, Hic vox quidem dissona, sed vna religio, tot Psallentium chori, quot gentiū diuersitates: Here, say they, are diuers lāguages, but one religiō, & so ma­ny quiers of singers, as there is diuersities of nations. And in the same epistle they ad, In christi villula, Here in christ his village, is no pride but al plainnes, and besides the singing of Psalms, nothing but silēce. The husbandman holding the plough singeth Alleluia, the haruest man sweating at his labour doth solace himselfe with Psalms▪ [Page 100] and hee which cutteth the vines singeth some Psalme of Dauid. These are our verses in this countrie, these are our ama­rous songs. These be the tunes of our shepheards, & these be the instruments of our husbandrie, 4. Constant. in Thracia vnder Chry­sostome. Socrat. li. 6. cap. 8. &c. The fourth patriarchal seate was Constantinople, wherein as in a place consecrated to the seruice of god, was to be heard the most sweet & pleasant voice of the Church, singing Psalmes & Hymnes vnto the Lorde. For Socrates reporteth that Chrysostome ordayned in the Church of Constantinople, the manner of singing by course, that is, quiers interchangeably singing, which hee did by emulation of the Arrians, Zozome. lib. 8. cap. 8. which in their meetings and assem­blies without the Cittie, vsed this kinde of singing with a great shew of holines and deuotion. The which order once begun vpon this occasion, continued, as Zozome­nus noteth, a perpetuall custome in that Church.Hilar. in Psal. 64. Insomuch, that S. Hilarie in his Cōmentaries vpon the Psalmes giueth this testimony to the Church of Constan­tinople. They beganne (saith he) the day in praiers vnto God, they ended the day with Hymnes to him in the Church: and [Page 101] againe:In Psal. 65. Let him which is with-out the Church heare the voice of the people ma­king their praiers, let him consider the ex­cellent sound of their Hymnes. Niceph. lib. 17 cap. 27. & 28. We read also that Iustinian the Emperour, in the 8. yeare of his raigne after the fifth generall Councel at Constantinople, wherein were 165. Fathers assembled, to condemne the errours of the Origenists, made a song, the beginning whereof was, The only begot­ten sonne, and word of God, and gaue it to the church of Constantinople to be song. They were also woont to sing the Psalmes of Dauid, and certaine Letames, which they did at the commandement of Anasta­sius the gouernour of the Citie, to the end they might take heed of sedition, wherewith the Citie was often times molested. Many mo testimonies might be alleaged to proue the frequentation of this exercise in their patriarchal seats, but that I iudge these are sufficient, & my purpose is to shew, that as this custome begun in these chiefe & mother Churches of the East: so it flowed from them as from fountaines, not only into all other inferiour Churches of the East, but as if it had taken force in the course thereof, de­riued [Page 102] it self vnto their sister church of Rome & al other christiā cōgregations in the west.

And first concerning the other east chur­ches:Edessa in Sy­ria vnder Ephraim. we read of the church of Edessa, where Ephraim a Syrian (a man commended and had in admiration of S. Basil for his excel­lent knowlege and learning) was Deacon: that there in his time this diuine exercise was imbraced. For when Harmonius an heretike,Theod. li. 4. cap. 27. & Zo­zome. lib. 3. ca. 15. & Niceph. lib. 9. cap. 18. had set wicked & impious songs to most pleasant & delectable tunes, & thereby had allured the minds of many: this Ephra­im is said to haue made holy & godly ditties, & to haue applied them to the sweet notes & tunes of Harmoniꝰ: wherby it came to passe that afterwards the Syrians his countrimē sang in their assēblies the songs of Ephraim, obseruing therwt the musical consēt of Har­moniꝰ, which was to thē not only most pleasant,Neocaesaria vnder Basil. but wonderful profitable & cōmodious. And this custom preuailed also in ye Church of Neocaesaria. In the time of Basil, who in an epistle he writeth to certaine of the cler­gie of Neocaesaria, aunswereth the repro­ches of Sabellius & Marcellꝰ, which found fault wt the singing vsed in their church, and for that cause had separated thēselues from the congregation, his words be these: De no­cte [Page 103] populus consurgens, &c. Basil in epist. ad clericos Neocaes. epist. 63. The people rise before day, and hie them to the house of praier, & there after that in mourning & in heauines, & in continuall teares, they haue cōfessed themselues vnto god, stand­ing vp from their praiers they beginne the Psalmodie, and being diuided into 2. Consuetudo Asiaticar. & African. parts, they sing together the one part an­swering the other: whereby they streng­thē thēselues in the exercise & meditatiō of the word of god: & being attētiue with their harts, confirm their minds, reiecting al vain & friuolous cogitations, & so with varietie of psalms, & diuersitie of praiers, sometimes singing, & somtimes praying, they spend the night. Assoone as the day appeareth, altogether as it were with one mouth, & with one hart, offer a psalm vn­to the lord: if for these things ye auoid our cōpanie, ye must auoid likewise the chur­ches of Aegypt, of Lybia, them of Thebes & also of Palestina, of Arabia, of Phaenice­a, of Syria, & al those that border vpō the riuer Euphrates, where the vse of singing psalms is frequented. Where I note, that though I should haue held my peace, yet S. Basil prooueth for mee the generalitie of this practise, seeing in his last wordes [Page 104] he affirmeth, that this order was agreeable to al the other Churches of God. For the churches in Aegypt, I haue not only S. Basils bare assertion (as in this place ap­peareth,Aegyptus vn­der Nepos. Dionys. Alex. li. de promis. 2. which neuerthelesse were sufficient for my purpose) but also the testimonies of ancient writers. Dionysius Alexandrinus, as Eusebius reporteth, in his 2. booke De promissionibus commendeth Nepos a Bishop of Aegypt, Propter fidem, sedulitatem & ex­ercitium in scripturis, & propter multam ipsius psalmodiam, qua etiamnum multi ex fratribus delectētur: Euseb. eccle. lib. 7. cap. 19. & Niceph. lib. 6. Cap. 21. That is, for his faith, for his di­ligence in preaching, and for his exercise in the Scripture, and for his making and setting of diuers Psalmes and Hymnes, wherewith euen til that day, many of the brethren were delighted. The same Eu­sebius citeth out of Philo this testimonie, for the vse of this exercise in the churches of Aegypt. Euseb. eccle. lib. secundo ca. 16. Non contemplationi se solúm, &c. They do not only giue themselues to cō ­tēplation (for thereof he had spoken before) but they make also, Songs and Hymnes, with most exact qualities and measures of verses, which they sing in the honor & praise of god. Time wil not suffer me to [Page 105] speak of those churches seuerally which are mentioned in S. Basils catalog: wherefore I wil content my selfe with his authoritie, thinking his assertion as forceable to per­swade the reader, as my proofes and alle­gations. And to conclude this former part concerning the practise of the East Chur­ches, I verily perswade my selfe, that the churches of Corinth, of Colossa, Cor. Colos. Ephesus. of Ephesus and the rest vsed this exercise in their diuine seruice. In which opinion, I am the more confirmed, for that so often mention,1. Cor. 14.15. Coloss. 3.16. Ephes. 5.18. and so many exhortations hereof are extant in the epistles of the holy Apostle to these congre­gations.

As Italy and the westerne parts in for­mer times were beholding to Greece for humane learning:The west Churches. so at the first propagatiō of the gospel, they were much more boūd to the greeks and east regions for the know­ledge of God, and true religion. The sub­stance whereof, as they receiued pure and vndefiled at the first, and altogither vnspot­ted with mens traditions, as a treasure de­liuered vnto them vy the Apostles them­selues: so withall they receiued also the ho­ly ceremonies and customes of the same, so [Page 106] as they & the holy Ghost had thought it most conuenient. And forasmuch, as nothing of price is begū & perfected at once, but increa­sing by litle and litle afterward groweth to a ful & absolute perfection: therefore it is re­corded that the west and latin churches, first receiued the substance of religion, as the fū ­dation, & afterward the rites & ceremonies thereof, as beautiful adiuncts & ornaments of the building. For whereas the doctrine of Christ had continued in these parts euer since the preaching of the Apostles, we read that this part of diuine seruice was not in­tertained into the Latine churches before ye time of S.The church of Millen vnder S. Ambrose. Ambros bishop of Millen, which was after Peters death at Rome almost 300. years. So that of al the churches in the west, the church of Millen was the first that vsed this solemnitie, & that in the dayes of Ambrose the holy man of God, by whose meanes & aduise it was receiued. Whereof we haue the testimonies as wel of Sygiber­tus & Iuo in his chronicle,Magdeb. cent 4. cap. 6. which attribute ye first institution of singing of Anthems and Hymnes in the latine Churches vnto Am­brose, as the writers of Magdeburge iusti­fie: as of Austen also, who affirmeth that at [Page 107] what time Iustina the mother of Valētinian the emperor,Aug. confes. lib. 9. cap. 7. fauoring the heresie of the Ar­rians, persecuted the true Church of Christ, the maner of singing Psalms, which was v­sed in the east churches, begun to be frequē ­ted in the church of Millen by the counsel of Ambrose, least the people being in cōtinual watchings & labor should faint & pine away for sorow. The which vse he saith, was not only retayned there, but was also receiued & imbraced, of al the churches & cōgregations of christ throughout the west. To these for­mer authorities agreeth Isidorꝰ, who spea­king of Ambrose recordeth that he not only made Hymnes himself which were song in the church of Millen, Isidor. de eccl offic. lib. 1. cap. 6. Hymni. Ambr. & called Ambrosiani after his name, but also was the first, that instituted the singing of Anthems in his church to the example of the greeks, who diuided aquier of singing mē into 2. parts, which shuld sing by course, like the 2. Se­raphins, or the 2. testamēts answering one another in order, adding also, Cuius celebri­tat is deuotio postea per totius occidentis eccle­sias obseruabatur. The church of Rome vn­der Damasus.

I thinke it a matter of more labour than necessitie to goe about to shew the fre­quentation [Page 108] of this solemnitie in the Church of Rome, I meane not that which now is, but that which was in the time of the pri­matiue Church, especially seeing that as that was the place, whither all nations made great recourse: so nothing was there omitted which might in any respect make to the setting forth of the Gospell & diuine seruice of GOD. Neuerthelesse least I should seeme to speake only by ghesses and coniectures, I will alleadge antiquitie for my proofe.Isidor. lib. 10. eccle. offic. cap. 8. Antiphonae. Responsoriae. Isidorus Archbishop of His­palis in Spaine of whome I spake before, maketh a difference & distinction betweene Anthems and Responsories: for Anthems he said as I affirmed before, that Ambrose was the first that translated them from the Greeke into the Latine Church: but for Responsories hee sheweth that they were long before that time vsed in the Churches of Italy, and were so called be­cause when one sang, the quire answered him singing also, & then it was the vse ei­ther that euery mā shuld sing by himself, or sometime one alone, or at some other times two or three together, the quier for the most part making answere. Pontianus [Page 309] likewise the sixt bishop of Rome, which was long before S. Ambrose, ordayned, that in all churthes psalms should bee song night & day, as Fasciculus temporum hath obserued.Cent. 2. cap. 6. Now as I easilie confesse that this was not that exquisite kind of musicke which after­ward was in vse: so it cannot be denied, that they imbraced the other also. Damasus wrot vnto S. Hierom then beeing at Ierusalem by Bonifacius a priest,Epist. Damas. ad Hieron. that he would send him Psallentiū Graecorum, the maner of sing­ing of the Greeks in the East. He complai­neth also in that epistle of the simplicitie of the Roman Church, that there was on the sunday but one epistle of the Apostle and one Chapter of the gospel rehearsed, and that there was no singing with the voice, nor cōlines of hymnes knowē among thē. Whereupon S.Rescripsit Hieronymus ad Damas. Hierome in his answere sent him that, which he requested, and be­sides that counselled him, that at the end of euery Psalme, he should cause to be song, Glory be to the father, &c. Wherefore for certaintie of this matter, we haue the affirmation of Platina, who recordeth that Damasus was the first which caused the Psalmes to be song Alternatim, Platina in v [...] ­ta Damas. 1. by course [Page 110] interchaungeably in the Church of Rome. The which when M. Harding alleadged against Bishop Iewell, so as he would ther­by confirme, either singing in an vnknowen toung, or that the quier only song in the pri­mitiue Church: the Bishop answereth vnto by denial,Bishop Iewels answere to master Har­ding, fol. 159. not of the thing: for he graunted they vsed singing, but of the illations: for al­though they vsed singing (saith he) yet they vsed it not in an vnknowen toung, & though they vsed singing interchangeably by sides: yet the quier or sides song not alone but the people also, which he cōfirmeth out of the decrees of Gregorie, Dist. 92. distinct. 92. who forbad the priest that said seruice to sing, & in the end addeth this conclusion. Hereof we may gather (saith he) that Damasus diuided the whole people into 2. parts, & willed them to sing the psalms in their own toung, the one part making answer by course to the other. Now here me thinks I perceiue some exult as if they had gotten confitētē reum, because I confesse, the quiers did not only sing in ye primatiue church, but the people: & ye verily I do confesse, neither is it my purpose to de­nie any manifest trueth, and I doubt not, but to reconcile these contrarieties in their [Page 111] proper place sufficiently, where I shall an­swer al obiections fully that can in any re­spect be alleadged against this exercise. In the mean season I haue got hereby so much as I desired in this place, namely that this part of Gods seruice was vsed in the Ro­mane church and other congregations of Italy.

Neither did this seruice containe it selfe only within the boundes of Italy, Poyters in Fraunce vn­der S. Hilar. but took roote also in the churches of Fraunce and Germany, and other places. For in the time of Saint Hylary Bishoppe of Poyters in Fraunce, it is testified by Isidorus that this custome was confirmed in the church.Isid. de eccl. offic. li. 2. ca. 6. Hymni Hilar. In somuch that Hylary himselfe a man of wonderful eloquence, made Hymnes which were song in his church & called after his name Hylariani. The same may be saide of the churches of Africa as Carthage, The churches of Africa. Carthage. Aust. retract. lib. 2. cap. 11. & Hyppo: for the church of Carthage S. Austen saith thus much: Hylarius quidā vir. tribuni­tius, &c. A certaine man called Hilarie, being incensed, I know not vpon what occasion, against the ministers of god, did reuile with cōtumelious speeches, wher­soeuer he came, that custome of singing [Page 112] Hymnes at the Altar out of the booke of Psalmes, either before the offering, or af­ter that which was offered was distribu­ted to the people, which was begunne in Carthage, saying that it ought not so to be. To him did I make answere, saith S. Augustine, being commaunded so to doe by the brethren.

Cent. 5. cap. 6.So Victor in his historie de Vand. perse­cutione saith: That at Carthage in the feast of Easter the people assemble themselues togither in the pallace of Faustus, and there sing Hymnes in the night season in honor of the time.Hippo. As for the church of Hippo where S. Augustine himselfe was ruler & chiefe Bishop, it is not likely that he would defend the vse of that against Hylarie which he would not allowe in his Church: especially seeing himselfe was not only wonderfully therewith delighted: but in his conuersion (as was noted before) had the effectual wor­king thereof in himselfe. It were an infi­nite and endles labor to rehearse euery par­ticular Church after this order, considering that euen the verie names of them are infi­nite: neuerthelesse if these particulars will not suffice, harken to the generall voice of [Page 113] the Doctors, who with one consent agree, that nothing was more frequent in the assemblies of the faithful: First S. Hierom hath these words:Hier. in Psalm 64. Matutinis vespertinisque hymnis ecclesiae delectatur Deus, per animam fidelem, quae relicto inanium superstitionum ritu eum deuotè laudauerit. God is deligh­ted with the morning & euening hymnes of the church by a faithfull soule, which reiecting the ceremonies of vaine super­stitiō praiseth him deuoutly. Euseb. lib. 10. cap. 3. And Eusebius writing the exercises of ye Christiās in their meetinges maketh this catalogue. They v­sed prayers, singing of Psalmes, celebra­tion of the Sacramēts, and thanksgiuing. To whom agreeth S. Basil, Basil. in Psal. 114. templa Marty­ribus dedicarunt, &c. They dedicated chur­ches to the holy Martyrs with hymnes & giuing of thankes, whereunto they came togither euen at midnight as then their maner was. And in the same place, Interdū concionandi materia ex Psalmis illis desumpta est quos prius decantarunt. Somtimes the ar­guments and texts of their Sermons were taken out of the Psalmes which they had sung before. Euseb. lib. 5. cap. 27. Niceph. lib. 4. cap. 21. So Eusebius and Nicepho­rus against the cauils of Theodotus & Ar­temon [Page 114] and other heretiques make men­tion of Psalmes and songes which faith­full men had made, attributing therein to Christ, diuine Godhead, and pray­sing him with sweete concent. And it may easilie bee gathered out of Sainct Augustine, August. de ci­uitat. Dei lib. 22 cap 8. Theodor. lib. 3 cap. 27. that godly men in their as­semblies sang prayses vnto GOD, and made their prayers to their Lorde. So Theodoret maketh mention of dauncings and bāquets, which christians were woont to vse in their merry meetinges after any notable and strange deliuerance.Epiphan. con­tra haeres. lib. 3. tomo 2. in fi­ne, in cap de fide catholic. And E­piphanius to this purpose speaketh: Mor­ning hymnes are continually song in the church, and euening prayers, yea both Psalmes and prayers by candle light. But most euident is that testimony of Rabbi Sa­muell, who writing to Isaac the Israelite hath these wordes:Rabb. Samuel in lib. de ad­uentu Messiae sect. 24. Paueo, mi domine, quod dictū est de Apostolis illud Esaiae, &c. I am a­fraide (Sir) of that which Esaias spea­keth of the Apostles: they shall declare the holy one of Iacob, and preach the God of Israell: the ignorant shall receiue knowledge, and Musicions shall knowe the Lawes. We manifestly see that igno­rant [Page 115] men and Musicions teach our Lawe: And who are these ignorant men, but the Gentiles? and who are these Musicions, singing our Psalter and our Prophetes in their Churches, but the christians? And a litle after, His omnibus consideratis, &c. All these thinges considered, me thinks, Sect. 25. wee do amis in iudging of the sacrifice of their praise which they offer in the church of God, singing: especially seeing we finde both commandement for it in the law of God, and the example of Dauid. For com­mandement it is said, Praise him with Vir­ginals & organs, praise him with cimbals, Psalme. 150. praise him with high soūding cimbals, let euerie thing that hath breath praise the Lord Iesus Christ. For example we reade that Dauid daūced before the ark, 2. King. 6. whō his foolish wife Michol did therefore repre­hend, but he answered, O foolish woman, wil God suffer me in his seruice to be des­pised? And all the children of Israell sounded the trumpet as they caried the Arke. Nowe what are wee which laugh at the solemnities of these singers but foolish Michols? and who are these that sing, but the christians dancing & singing [Page 116] to God in humblenesse of heart as Dauid did? But for conclusion of this point, my last proofe shall bee out of Isidore which speaketh most plainely to this effect.Isidor. de eccl. off. lib. 1. cap. 5 Da­uidis Psalterium idcirco cum melodia cantile­narum suauium ab ecclesia frequentatur, quo facilius ad compunctionem flectantur. The Psalter of Dauid is therefore accustomed to be song in the church with the melodie of pleasant songs, that men may the more easily thereby be brought to a remorse of conscience and sorrowe for their sinnes.

THE LAVVFVLL VSE OF CHVRCH MVSICKE proued by authorities out of the Doctours. CHAP. X.

TO the pracise of the church, it may seeme superfluous to ad the opiniōs of the fathers for that it is likely, that they which vsed Musicke in their churches, allowed it in their opiniōs. And yet because the fathers set down the vse therof in ecclesiastical mat­ters, [Page 117] that we may leaue no place of cauil for the aduersary, I think it not amisse, though in few words, to adde their particular spee­ches to this purpose. Iustinus Martyr, who flourished about the yeare of our Lord 164. in his questions, which the Gentils propo­sed to the Christians, mouing a question touching this matter maketh aunswere thereunto. His question he putteth down in this form. If verses and songs were inuen­ted by them which detested religion, Iustin. Martyr Quaest. 107. Quaest. à Gēt. christian. pro­positarum. pur­posely to deceiue, & were cōmended to them which liued vnder the law for their weakenesse only, & because they were to be trained vp as childrē: why should they which haue receiued perfect giftes of grace, and different from those meanes which we haue spoken of, vse singing in their churches, to the imitation of those which were vnder the law as children & infants? His answere is this: To sing doth not at all become children, but to sing with dumbe instruments, and with daun­cing and cimbals. Therfore the vse of such instrumentes and others which are fit for children, is thrust out, and expelled the church, and singing onely is retained: for [Page 118] it inflameth the heart with a feruent de­sire of that which in singing delighteth vs, it subdueth the motions of the flesh, it driueth away those wicked cogitations, which our inuisible enimies put into our mindes, it watereth the mind, and causeth it to bring forth fruite of heauenly things, it armeth and strengthneth the reueren­cers of religion with patience in aduersi­tie, it ministreth a remedie vnto the god­lie against those molestations which spring of worldly affections. This Saint Paul calleth the sworde of the spirite, where-with hee furnisheth christian sol­diers, against their spiritual enimies: for the word of God is that, which being meditated vppon, song, and sounded out, chaseth away and putteth to flight the diuels themselues. It is of force to adorn the minde with christian vertues, which spring vp in them that reuerence religion with ecclesiastical songes. Thus farre Iustinus Martyr. Of which wordes being in themselues so cleare and euident to proue the lawfull vse of Musicke in the church, I say nothing but this, that as hee plainely alloweth singing, so he excludeth [Page 119] not all Musicall instrumentes, but such as are fit for children. Athanasius Bishop of Alexandria in Africa, who liued about the yeare of our Lord 329. Athan. ad Marcel. de int. psal. writing to Marcel­linus of the interpretation of the Psalmes, among other thinges which he speaketh in the commendation of this excellent gift of God, sheweth why it pleased God to or­daine the vse thereof. As we do vtter (saith he) and deliuer our inward thoughtes by our words: so god willing to haue the me­lody of our words to be a signe of the spi­rituall cōsent which is in our minds, Psal­mos vt modulis canerentur instituit, & cū hu­iusmodi harmonia recitari voluit, ordained that Psalms shold be song with Musick & would haue thē recited with such harmo­ny: Vt inde cōcinnitas animorū, &c. That therby the quietnes of the mind which is wel­disposed may be known as it is writtē, If a­ny mā be sorowful let him sing And a litle after speaking of instrumental musick he v­seth these words: to praise god vpō the wel tuned cymbals, vpon the harp & psaltery of ten strings, is a note & significatiō that there is such a consent between the parts of the body, as there is among the strings. [Page 120] And sure this his saying is proued by expe­rience: for as euen our senses witnesse vnto vs,Baptist. Port. Magiae Natur lib. 2. that if we strike onely one string of any instrument the rest of that tone also giue a certaine kind of sound, as if the striking of one partained to thē all: so in our bodie, if a­ny thing be pleasāt or grieuous to any part, it is also pleasant or grieuous to the whole. Good reason therfore that the toūg professe in diuine seruice, yt which ye heart beleeueth: & what both hart beleeueth, & toūg cōfesseth, good reason that both hand and whole body testifie to their power.Aug. in praefat. in Psalm. The like hath S. Austen in the prologue he writeth before his enarrations of the Psalmes. Because (saith hee) that the holy Ghost did see that mans mind by nature did forsake the way of vertue and incline to the delightes of this life, and that it might be incited and stirred vp to tread the pathes of vertue by sweete harmony, he mingled the efficacy of singing with his doctrine: that whiles the eares are delighted with the sweete­nesse of the verse, the profit of the worde of God might by little and litle distill in­to their mindes: much like vnto a skilfull Physition: who when he wil minister anie [Page 121] sharp or bitter potiō to his patient vseth to annoint the mouth of the cup with hony: least the diseased or sicke person, shold re­fuse the profit for the bitternes therof. And least we should thinke that he speaketh not this of the Musicke in the church, he defineth a Psalme to bee one voice of the whole church: whereupon in the same place brea­king into a wonderfull commendation of Psalmes, he addeth, Psalmus tranquillitas animarum est, &c. A Psalme is the quiet­nesse of souls, the stādard bearer of peace, a restrainer of the perturbations and rage of our cogitatiōs, repressing wrath, bride­ling wantonnsse, inciting to sobriety, ma­king friendship, bringing those to cōcord which were at variance, and a reconciler of vtter enimies. And in another place tel­ling first how he became a christian, he vseth these words, Quantū fleui in cāticis tuis, &c. Augu. confess. lib. 9. cap. 6. Howe great aboundance of teares did I shed at the hearing of thy hymnes and Psalmes, and how inwardly was I moued with the voice of thy sweete singing con­gregation? Greg. Nazia. in funeb. orat. Among other vertues Gregory Nazianzen commendeth this one in his si­ster Gorgonia, that she was skilful in sing­ing, [Page 122] and vsed it verie often. And surely no maruel, seeing Chrysostome attributeth these diuine properties thereunto. Musica, saith he,Chrysost. in Psalm. 148. in principio. mentem e terra abducit, &c. Musicke doth withdraw our mindes from earthly cogitatiōs, lifteth vp our spirites into hea­uen, maketh them light and celestial. And therefore it is that Tertullian giueth this generall exhortation, sonent inter duos Psal­mi, Tertul. lib. 2. ad vxorem loquitur de viro & coniu­ge. &c. Let Psalmes and hymnes be song euen of two, and let them prouoke one an other, whether of them can sing better to his God. Athanasius in the place aboue cited giueth this reason, why we should not onely sing, but also sing cunningly and arti­ficially to our maker: Modulatim recitare Psalmos, Athan. de in­terp. Psal. ad Marcellinum. &c. To sing Psalmes artificially is not to make a shew of cūning Musick, but an argument, that the cogitations of our mindes do aptly agree with our musicke, & that reading, which obserueth the lawe of feete & numbers, is a signe of a sober & quiet affection in the minde. For both to praise God vpon well sounding cymbals, & vpō the harp & psalterity often strings, is a note and signification that the partes of our body are so conioyned and linked [Page 123] together as be the stringes &c. To the same purpose speaketh Athanasius at large in the same place, and his meaning is as well to shewe how good and comely an ornament Musicke is in the churche, (which as in those daies it was not doub­ted of, nor once called in question, so needed no exquisite apologie) as to de­clare the profitte and vse which it hath euen in priuate meditations: for saith he, they that sing so, as the melody of wordes with the quantitie of them, may agree with the harmony of the spirit, bee those which sing with the tung & with vnder­standing also, neither do they delight thē ­selues only, but also bring wonderful help to those that heare thē. For he that singeth well doth frame his minde to his song, & bringeth it, as it were, frō an inequality to a certain equality & proportiō, not that he is moued by any thing, but rather that he doeth perceiue thereby the affections and imaginations of good things, & stirreth vp in his mind a greater desire to do good afterwardes. For the soule being inten­tiue to the wordes doeth forgette the af­fections & perturbations: & being made [Page 124] merie with the pleasant sound is brought to a sense and feeling of Christ, and most excellēt and heauenly cogitations. To their former authorities, it were an ea­sie matter to adde more innumerably: but I will content my selfe and the reader with a few.Euseb. praepar. Euang. 12. ca. 14. ex Platon. Eusebius in his twelft booke de praepa­tione euangelica vseth these wordes: vt pueri animus legem ita sequatur, vt vnà cum ea &c. To the end that the mindes of children may so follow the law, that they may to­gether therwith reioice and be sorowfull, let them learne and sing often such odes and songes as containe the praises and dispraises of those things which the law doth praise and discommend: and he ad­deth this reason: Quoniam teneriores animi rationem virtutis non suscipiunt, ludo atque cantu praeparantur: Iure igitur apud nos pro­phetarum odae a pueris addicuntur. For the tender mindes of children are therefore to be prepared, with daliance and mirth, because they cannot conceaue the reason of vertue at the first. Good therfore is that vse amōgst vs, that the Psalms of the Pro­phets should be learned by children. And S.Chrysost. in Psal. 134. ver. 3 Chrysostom vpon these wordes of the [Page 125] 134. Psalme, Psallite nomini eius quia sua­ue est: hath this sentence, Hoc dicit, ostendens rem ipsam habere quandam vel per se volup­tatem vnà cum vtilitate, &c. This he saieth to shew that the thing it selfe hath of it selfe, a certaine pleasure with profitte: for the principall gaine thereof, is, to sing himnes vnto God, to purge the soule, to lift our cogitations on high, to learne true and exquisite knowledge, to argue of things present & things to come. Besides these thinges it hath also by melody great pleasure and some comfort, and recreati­on, and maketh him that singeth graue and reuerend. And that it maketh men such, it is manifest, in as much as one inter­preter saith, it is a comely thing, and an other, it is a pleasant thing: for both say true: for although he that singeth be ne­uer so outragious, yet while he doth re­uerence the psalme, he doth pacifie the ti­ranny of his outrage. Although he be ouerwhelmed with mischeifes, and ouer­come with the heauines of his soule: yet while he taketh pleasure in singing he ea­seth his hart, extolleth his cogitations, and lifteth vp his mind on hie.

[Page 126]This part might wonderfully be ampli­fied as with the speaches of auncient fa­thers: so also with the practise and example, not only of themselues, as is before decla­red, but also of most noble and renowned Emperours: as of Constantine the great, Iustinian, Theodosius the yonger, Valens the emperour, and Carolus Magnus: which may be confirmed by the testimones of Eu­sebius, Nicephorus, Gregory Nazianzen, & Carion in his thronologie.Euseb. lib. 4. de vita Constan. Eusebius thus testifieth of Constantine: Cantare primus in­caepit, vnà orauit, conciones sacras reuerenter audiit: adeo vt rogatus vt consideret, respōderit: fas non esse dogmata de Deo remisse & segniter audiri. He first began the psalme, praied together with the people, heard holy sermons with reuerence, insomuch that being desired to sit downe, he answered, it was not meete that those thinges which were declared concerning God should be heard remisly and negligently. Nicephorus speaking of Iustinian sayeth,Nicepho. lib. 17. chap. 28. Iustinianus imperator octauo sui imperii an­no, constituit vt in concionibus ecclesiasticis concineretur illud: Vnigenitus filius & verbum dei &c. Iustinian the emperour in the eight [Page 127] yeare of his raigne, instituted that that ditty, the only begotten sonne & word of God &c. should be song in ecclesiasticall meetings. And of Theodosius the yonger,Niceph. lib. 14 cap. 3. Theodosius minor imperator, cum tota ecclesia supplicationem fecit pro serenitate, & ipse qui­dem medius hymnis canendis praeiuit priuati habitu incedens, Theodosius the emperour made his supplications with the whole churche for faire wether, and went in the middest before them in the habite of a priuate person while they song their hymnes. So Nazianzen speaketh of Va­lens. When the emperour Valens entred into the churche where Saint Basil prea­ched [...], Greg. Nazian. in funebre orat. de Basi­lio. Cario. chro. li. 4. hearing the sound of the psalms was stri­ken as if it had beene with thunder. So doeth the historie recorde of Charles the great. Quandocunque fuit in vrbibus accessit ad psalmodiam, &c. When so e­uer he came to anie cittie hee went to the Psalmody and sang him-selfe, ap­pointing vnto his sonnes and his o­ther Princes, Lessons to bee song, and ioyned his earnest prayer with the godly.

[Page 128]The epistle of the bishops, which were of the counsell of Antioch against Paulus Sa­mosatenus the heretik, among other things laieth this to his charge,Euseb. eccles. hist. lib 7. cap. 24. episc. epist. quòd psalmos & can­tus, qui ad honorem Domini nostri Iesu Christi decantari solent, tāquam recentiores, & a viris recentioris memoriae editos exploserit. That the hath thrust out of the church as newe and made by mē of late memory those psalms and songes which were woont to bee song in the honor of our lord Iesus Christ. Wherby it may appeare that as al the reue­rent assembly disliked of the attēpt of Pau­lus in abolishing the vse of singing, so also they thought it a meete ceremonie and or­nament for their churches. To these anti­quities of former times, it shall not bee vn­needful to ad the opinions of later writers: as of Bullinger, Peter Martyr, Caluine, Wolphius, Beza and others; who all with one consent (although some I confesse bee earnest against prickesong and artificiall musicke in the church) yet make this reso­lution, that as all other thinges, which of themselues be good, may be both wel & euil vsed: so Musicke likewise hath doubtlesse a good and profitable vse in the church, how­soeuer [Page 129] in the time of popery, the right and lawfull vse thereof hath been quite extin­guished and forgotten. And surely if any man thinke that I haue in this treatise, ta­ken vpon me the defence of the vnlawfull vse thereof, he may well take iust occasion of offence. But I am so farre from allowing of the abuse, and of popish church Musicke, that I detest both the one & the other. Looke vpon the seuerall tractes of these men, whō I last mentioned, Bullinger in his 5. Decad and 5. Sermon: Peter Martyr vpon the 5. chap. of the Iudges: Caluin in his Instituti­ons & in his cōmentaries vpon the Psalms, namely vpon the 4.48.67. and 98. Psalms: Wolphius vpon the 12. chap. of Nehemiah: Beza vpon the 3. chapter to the Colossians, & in diuerse other places, and you shal finde all the contention to be against the abuse: no one word against the right and lawfull vse therof.Brentius Ho­milia 14. Here I willingly omit Brentius & al the Lutherans: with whom I see no reason why in this point wee should not most con­stantly agree: so that all thinges be done to edifieng and to the praise of God. Wherfore I will conclude this part with that saying of S. Ambrose in his Hexameron: Quis [Page 130] sensum hominis gerens, non erubescat sine psal­morum celebritate diem claudere, cum etiam aues minutissimae solēni deuotione & dulci car­mine orius dierum ac noctium persequantur: Who is he bearing the sēse of a mā which is not ashamed to ende the day without the singing of Psalms, Ambr. Hex. lib. 5. cap. 12. seeing euen the li­tle birdes with solemn deuotion & sweet notes do both begin and end the daie?

Sentences of the Scripture, for the vse of Church Musick. Chap. 11.

BEcause it may seem a mat­ter impertinent, to heape a great number of testimo­nies of the Scripture, for the proofe of that, which can by no reason be denied, I meane, after some fewe testimonies and groūds of the Scripture alleaged, to touch the point and quicke of this controuer­sie. For asmuch therefore as I haue hi­therto sufficiently proued by the practise of the Church, and authoritie of Fathers, that there is a lawfull vse of Musicke in the Church, I wil content my selfe with these [Page 131] sentences of Scripture which I shall here cote, for confirmation of the same, meaning in one conclusion, to proue those two things which are in question: that aswell artificial as also instrumentall Musicke may be vsed in Gods congregation. My grounds there­fore are these: first the testimonies in the old Testament, whereof I will cite some, be­cause all are infinite. Psal. 33. Reioice in the Lord O ye righteous: Psalm. 33. for praise be­commeth well the iust: praise the Lorde with harpe, sing vnto him with viall and instrument of ten stringes: sing vnto him a new song, sing cheerefully with a loude voice, &c. Likewise in the last psalm: praise him in the soūd of the trumpet, praise him vpon the viall & harp, praise ye him, Psalm. 150. with timbrell & flute, praise ye him, with Vir­ginals & organs, praise ye him, with soun­ding cymbals, praise ye him vpō the high soūding cimbals: let euery thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Ad hitherto Psal. 81. the 5. first verses: sing we ioyfully vnto God our strēgth, &c. I willingly for bre­uities sake omit al other speches of the psal. Read besides these the particular examples of Miriam, Exod. 15. of Debora & Baruck, Exod. 15. Iudges 5. [Page 132] of Anna the mother of Samuel, 1. Sam. 2. of all the tribes of Israel, Nehem. the 12. 2. Chron. 5. 1. Esdras 3. and infinite more? Whereof I gather not onely precept, as in the former places out of the Psalmes: but also example and practise as out of these places last alleaged. And surely consi­dering that Musicke is no ceremoniall thing, and therefore not abolished with those thinges that are ceremoniall, I see no sufficient cause, why that which was so excellent an ornamēt to diuine seruice in those times, shold now in these latter daies, be cast out as an vnclean thing, and haue no place, nor vse in Gods Church.

Neither is this practise & seruice of God, a thing either vnused in the Primatiue church,Coloss. 3.6. or not heard of in the new testamēt: which is manifest by these testimonies. Let the word of God dwell in you plenteous­ly, in all kind of wisedom, teaching & ad­monishing your own selues, in Psalms & hymnes & spiritual songes, singing with a grace in your heartes to the Lord. And again,Ephes. 5.19. speaking vnto your selues in psalms & hymnes & spirituall songes, singing & making melody to the Lord in your harts [Page 133] &c. Hitherto ioyne also the examples of Christ and his disciples, Mat. 26. of Zacha­rias and the virgin Marie, Luke the 1. and tell me, why both the commendation of this exercise, giuen by the Apostle, (for I wil not cal it precept) and the example, both of our Sauiour, and other blessed Saincts of God may not bee a sufficient warrant for vs, to practise that in our Churches, which they performed in former ages. And surely if e­uery action of Christ be our instruction, and an example, wherunto we should frame our selues: why should Christ haue bin author of that which he allowed in himselfe, & in his Apostles: if hee were not willing, that wee should take example therby to imitate both thē & him? Now if we consider to what end the custome of singing was vsed: wee shall perceiue, that it was not so vsed, as that singing & the soūding of organs, shold be a deed meritorious, to obtaine remission of sinnes and life eternall (as the Iewes imagine of their songs, and the heathē of their sonnets) or as the hypocriticall Monkes and Friers sang their seuen canonicall houres that the doing of that work, whether wt vnderstand­ing, or wtout vnderstanding, it was not ma­terial, [Page 134] yet the bare performance of it, should be meritorious for the sinnes of the quicke & the dead: But so, that the Lord might de­cently be praised, whether with humble and harty prayer, as in the time of heauinesse, when griefe oppresseth: or with singing of Psalmes, and playing on instrumentes, as in the time of ioy and mirth, according to that counsell of the Apostle, If any man bee afflicted let him pray, and if any man bee merry, Iames 5.13. let him sing Psalmes.

In mine opinion, excellent is that inter­pretation of Maister Caluine, vppon these words in Luke, Caluin. in Lu. cap. 2. vers. 13.14. Then was with the angell a multitude of heauenly souldiers praising & singing, glory be to God on high. The Lord saith he by the example of this heauē ­ly melodie, would commend vnto vs, the vnity of faith, and stir vs vp here on earth, to sing the praises of our God &c. Where­fore a good argument may be gathered out of diuerse places in the Reuelatiō: That for asmuch as our life here on earth should with all industry and indeuor, apply it selfe to bee like that heauenly life which the angels liue aboue, where the 24. Elders fall down be­fore the Lamb,Reuel. 5.8. hauing euery one harpes, & [Page 135] goulden viols in their handes.Re. 14. ver. 23. The voice of which harpers, harping with their harpes, Iohn himselfe testifieth hee hearde, and that they sang as it were a new song before the throne, &c. We therefore ought not to omit any part of that seruice, which may either stir vs vp in deuotion, or make to the testifi­eng of our earnest & harty setting foorth of diuine seruice, and beautifieng of the church of God. And surely in the praising of God, whome should the Church militant follow, rather than the Church triumphant? And whome shoulde the Sainctes on earth i­mitate rather than the Sainctes in hea­uen? who behould the Lord face to face, 1 Cor. 13.12. and knowe euen as they are knowen.

Doubtlesse there can be no greater com­fort for a pensiue soule, than to thinke, that he is partaker of the same saluation, with the Sainctes. And no one thing can pierce deeper into the heart of manne than that hee is called, to the same state of pray­sing and lauding GOD, with the ho­lie Angelles. Howbeit because I would displease no man, nor giue iust occasion of offence vnto any: I put this as a prin­ciple: that as nothing is to be taught, [Page 136] so nothing to bee song in the Church, but either that, which is set downe in the ex­presse word of God, or that may certainly be shewed to be collected out of it. For I pro­fesse that rotten rythmes of popery, & super­stitious inuocation or praying vnto Saints doth not giue greater cause of vomit to any man than to my selfe: & al either vnwritten, or vnwarrātable verities, I so far abhor, as that I iudge thē fitter for Grocers shops, & fishmongers stals,Persius than for Gods congrega­tiō. So that I thus far agree with the grea­test aduersaryes of our profession, that I would not admit any other matter, than is contained in the written word of God, or consonable therunto: only herein we differ, that they would haue no great exquisite art or cunning thereunto, neither the noise of dumbe instruments, to fil vp the measure of the praises of god: & I alow of both. Wherin if I be not too much affectioned, me thinks they do great iniurie to the word of God, in that they can contentedly permit it to bee song plainly, denying the outward helpes & ornamēts of art, to adde more grace & dig­nity thereunto. And truly if in all other fa­culties, it be not only lawfull, but commen­dable [Page 137] also, as in painting & speaking, to set out their matters with coulors & eloquence of words: I see no reason, why to adde more grace to the ditty, with the exquisitenes of Musick, should be condēnable in the church. Wherfore I am of opinion that few of our aduersaries can answere this reason, which seemeth to me a general rule, & infallible demonstration for the allowing aswell of the cunning & exquisite art of singing, as of the vse of organs and dumbe instruments. The Psalmes may bee vsed in the church as the authour of them appointed: But the holy Ghost, the author of the Psalms, appointed and commanded them by the Prophet Da­uid, to be song, and to be song most cunning­ly, and to be song with diuerse artificiall in­struments of Musick, and to bee song with sundry, seuerall, and most excellent notes & tunes: Therefore in our English church, the psalmes may be song, and song most cū ­ningly, and with diuerse artificiall instru­ments of Musick, and song with sundry se­uerall and most excellent notes. For proofe that the holy Ghost would haue them song, hee calleth diuerse Psalmes by the name of the Hebrew word Shir, which is a song, and [Page 138] such a song, as ought of necessity to be song: as Psalme 7. and 120. That he would haue them song most cunningly, hee directeth many Psalmes especially and by name Lamnazzeath, that is, to the skilfull chan­ter, or to him that excelleth in Musicke, as Psalm 4, &c. That he would haue them song, with diuerse artificial instruments of Musick, gittith and neginoth, and diuerse other kinds of musicall instruments are ex­pressed in the titles of certaine Psalmes, as Psalm 6. & 8. That he would haue thē song with sundry seuerall and most excellent notes and varietie of tunes, in diuerse parts and places of sundry Psalmes, it is to bee seene by the word Sela set downe in sundry places, as Psalme 77. &c. which Hebrewe word properly signifieth, now change your voice and that cunningly, now lift vp your voice, and that with an other excellent tune, that the people may be more attentiue; and the word Sela is neuer written, but where the matter of the Psalme is most notable.

A REFVTATION OF OBIECTIONS AGAINST the lawful vse of Musicke in the Church. CHAP. XII.

IN this last part of my trea­tise I might seem to vnder­take a matter far aboue my ability: were it not that ei­ther their obiections were too weake to proue theyr purposes: or those which are of any force, mistaken and grounded vpon false princi­ples. Neuerthelesse that I may proceede orderly therein, it shall not be amisse, to see what diuersity of opinions are concerning this matter: 1 Some mislike not all kinde of singing, but that which is song by the Mi­nisters alone, or by singing men duputed for that purpose: and these are they, which ca­not away with exquisite and cunning Mu­sicke, nor with the sounde of instruments in the Church, but measuring all thinges by their owne humors, thinke plaine song farre more meete for Gods congregation. 2 Others there bee that disallowe all kinde [Page 140] of Musick in the church. 3 And we do not on­ly permit singing contrary to the latter, but also cunning and exquisite singing cleane repugnant to the former. My meaning is therefore, first to see what reasonable an­swere may be made, aswell to those which are against exquisite musick, which by yeel­ding somthing, make a great shew of proba­bility, as those which wholy banish all Mu­sicke out of diuine seruice: who therefore cā ­not auoid suspition of stomacke and malice, because they bee so earnest against that, which was neuer hitherto condēned. To the former, which dislike not al kind of musick, but that which is song by certaine men or­dained to that purpose,Ob. Exquisite Musick not to be vsed, be­cause all the congregation cannot sing together. Answer. alleaging, that they would haue all the people sing togither: I answere, that if all could it were not amisse, but because it cānot be I see no reason, why the people may not take as good edification by the singing which others sing, as by the prayers that others read, especially, if they so sing as they may be vnderstood.2. Obiect. Ex­quisit Musick confused and hard to be vn­derstoode. Yea but (say they) this cūning and exquisite musick, wherein the base and contratenors, & other parts sing wt full quier, with often repetitiō of the same things, is so confuse & vndistinct, [Page 141] that the very ditty cannot be vnderstood, much lesse any edification taken. If any thing will satisfie these men,Answer. me thinks this which I shall say may bee in steede of a rea­sonable answere: That the singing of so ma­ny parts togither, causeth the ditty not to be vnderstood, it is vitium hominū non artis, the fault is in them that so sing, and not in the art. For no doubt but a full quire of good & distinct voices, may be aswel vnderstood, as two or three pronouncing the same thing. Againe, because in deede this obscuritie can hardly be auoided, it hath bin wel proui­ded for in the church, that nothing should so be song, but such things, as are very familiar and known vnto the people. And whereas they obiect the often repetition of the same thing, as a fault, me thinks they blame that, which by their own reason should rather be commended. For if some things by the nū ­ber of the voices bee hardly vnderstood at once, then surely the 2.3. or 4. repetition is a mean to cause it to be vnderstood the better: neither if it bee vnderstoode at the first is it therefore a fault to repeat it againe, because the often ingeminating and sounding the same thing in our eares doth cause the thing [Page 142] repeated to take deepe roote, and worke ef­fectually in our hearts. The third reason is, because exquisite Musick maketh vs more intētiue to the note,3. Ob. Cun­ning Musicke pleaseth more with the note thā the matter. Confess. lib. 10. cap. 13. than to the matter. And to this purpose, they alleadge the place of S. Augustine, where he saieth, that he did sinne mortally when he was more moued with the melody, than with the ditty, that was song. Answer. Verily I do in no wise allowe that mē at the reading of the chapters shold walke in the bodie of the church, and when the Organs play, giue attentiue heede thereunto: as if the whole and better part of seruice did consist in Musicke. For this is a wōderful abuse. But if they would learne to lay the fault where the fault is, they might easily learne to satisfie themselues herein: For it is not the fault of musicke if thou bee too much therwith allured, but thine own. And Sainct Augustine in that place doth not condemne Musick for the sweete sound thereof, but his owne fraile and weake na­ture, which tooke occasion of offence at that, which in it selfe was good. A­gaine, as it carieth awaie some men, with the pleasure of the note: so for a recom­pence, it causeth some other, to giue grea­ter [Page 143] heede and attention to the matter: euen as the sound of the trumpet in the warre is to the dastardly, and white liuered knight, a cause of feare, but to the valiaunt soul­dier, a hartening and incouragement. Wherefore for a finall aunswere vnto these, mee thinkes a man out of their owne wordes, may gather this good collection against thē. Singing in the church they al­low: whereupon I inferre: If the worst sort of singing be allowable in the church, then the better much rather. But artificiall singing is farre better than their plain Mu­sicke, for it striketh deeper, and worketh more effectually in the hearers: There­fore much rather to bee allowed in Gods congregation.

Touching the seconde opinion, which excludeth Musicke wholy without excep­tion, I meane seuerally to make aunswere to such their obiections, as seeme to bee of greatest importaunce.1. Obiection. The first ob­iection beareth great shewe of trueth, affir­ming (which wee can by no meanes denie) that GOD is a spirite, and will bee wor­shipped in spirite and trueth, and requireth not the outwarde actions and seruice of [Page 144] the body, but the inwarde motions of the heart: the which as it is true indeed, so it is also declared by the testimony of Gregory: who in dist. Decret. Gre­gor. Pont. dist. 92. In Sancta Romana. 92. in sancta Romana, cōplaineth that it falleth out oftentimes, vt dum blanda vox quaeritur, cōgrua vita negligatur, & can­tor minister Deum moribus stimulet, cum po­pulū vocibus delectat. That while a pleasant voice is sought, honest life is neglected, & that the singing mā oftentimes offendeth God, while he indeuoreth to delight the people with his voice: adding in the same place those common verses,

Non vox sed votum, nō cordula musica sed cor,
Non clamans sed amans cantat in aure Dei.

And hereupon the fathers in the 4. Coū ­cell of Carthage decreed, that when the chaunter of any place was chosen, he should say: Vide vt quod ore cantas, corde credas: & quod corde credis, opere comprobes. See that thou beleeue that with thy heart, which thou singest with thy mouth: and that thou performe that in worke, which thou beleeuest with thine heart. Al which testimonies as they seeme to make against vs, so cary they the greater force with them, because they are grounded vppon a trueth. [Page 145] But the same aunswere afore,Answere. to that obie­ction out of Saint Augustine may satisfie these. For what if many men be more cari­ed away with the pleasure of the sound then with the thing and ditty, is this Musickes fault? or is it not rather the fault of them, which by that which is good, take occasion of euill? If some intemperate person, take surfeit of pleasant and holsome meates, are the meates to be reprehended, or the man? And although God bee a spirite, and will bee worshipped in Spirite and trueth, yet forasmuch as hee hath made both the soule and the bodie: as well the faculties of the one, as the partes of the other are to bee referred to his glorie. For what kinde of collection is this? God is to bee worshipped in Spirite and trueth: There-fore wee muste not indeuour to please and worshippe him with our out­warde and bodilie actions. Or, the in­warde seruice of the hearte is accepted, therefore the outwarde seruice of the bo­die may bee omitted? When wee there­fore commende the outwarde seruice of God, wee doe not denie the inward. But wee require that they which doe sing, sing [Page 146] with the toung & with the vnderstanding also: Atha. ad Mar­cellinum de inter. Psalmi. Now they which so sing as the melo­dy of words by the singing of voices may agree with the harmony of the spirite be those which sing with the tongue and vn­derstanding also, and profit not onely thē ­selues but others, 2. Obiection. as before was declared out of Athanasius. Secondly they vrge vs, that because pricksong is not verbally nor literally cōmāded in the Gospell it may not therefore be allowed. Whereunto I an­swere,Answere. that being not ceremoniall, it is suf­ficient for any christian being cleare & free from the Manichees opinion, that the olde Testament hath approued it. Again, grant that it hath no commaundement, in either the old or new Testament, is it therefore without all aduise and consideration to bee reiected? Verily many thinges haue beene very acceptable vnto God, which haue had no expresse commandement in the Scrip­tures: As the gold, incense, & mirre, which the three wisemen offered vnto Christ, the precious box of spiknard, wherewith Marie Magdalen annointed his blessed feete, the costly oders,Mat. 2. Luke. 7. Iohn. 19. wherewt Nicodemus did em­balm his glorious body, the bowes of trees & [Page 147] garments, which the people broke down,Marke 11. & spred in the way, as he went to Hierusalē, & infinite other more, which were done with­out any warrant of holy Scripture. Wher­fore as in the building of the temple the seruice of them, which brought lime and morter and other base thinges, and as in the beautifieng of Christes bodie, these thinges of small price and value were ac­ceptable vnto the Lord: so no doubt but the songes of the faithful may be as a sweete o­dor of incense vnto him, and most gratefull in his sight.

Thirdly,3. Obiection. this vse of singing is a ceremo­niall thing,, and if there were no other, yet this were a sufficient cause, why it shoulde be excluded out of the church. I aunswere, that Musicke was no ceremony:Answere. for euerie ceremony in the time of the law was a type and figure of somwhat, the substance wher­of comming in place, the ceremony was a­bolished: Nowe because we finde nothing in the Gospell, which answereth to Musick in a certain agreement of similitude, as vn­to his type and figure: we may therfore safe­ly pronounce, that Musick was neither ce­remoniall in the time of the Law, nor to be [Page 148] abolished out of the church in the time of the Gospell. Many other reasons of smal mo­mēt, may be brought against vs: but seeing so litle force in the stronger, I thought it an vnnecessarie point to trouble my paper, and the reader with the weaker.

And surely I do not mislike the good coū ­sel & indeuor of any wel disposed man, that is earnest in correcting abuses, and in sepa­rating that which is good, from that which is euill. But me thinks it is a desperate re­medy, for some few abuses, and inconue­niences, which might be better amended, to roote out al Musick from the church.Val. Max. Much like the counsaile of Fabritius and other se­nators of Rome, which by abolishing gold & siluer, or at leastwise the vse therof, thought to take away couetousnes and ambitiō.Plu. in Lycur. Or the deuise of Lycurgus among the Lacedae­monians, who for hatred of drūkennes cau­sed all the vines in the country to be digged vp by the rootes. Now as these men being otherwise wise and politique, as diuerse o­thers their actions testifie, tooke not herein a right course of reforming those faultes which were amisse, because they might better haue taken order against couetous­nesse, [Page 149] and drunkennesse, by permitting a lawfull and decent vse of mony and wine, than by quite abolishing of them: e­uen so those which reprehende certayne thinges in Church Musicke, may bet­ter reforme them in permitting a mode­rate vse, than in plucking it vppe by the rootes: For as a manne may bee coue­tous without monie, and drunken with­out wine: so a fraile and weake minde, will finde other prouocations to call it from the dittie, though Musicke shoulde bee wan­ting. Wherefore for conclusion of this matter, as I easily graunt to Master Bul­linger, that this is no good argument: The East Churches vse singing, the West Churches vse not singing: Therefore the West Churches are no Churches.Dec. 5. cap. 5. So I hope Maister Bullinger, and anie o­ther good man whatsoeuer will graunt as much to mee, that this is as false a collection: The West Churches vse not singing, the East Churches doe vse sing­ing, therefore the East church is no church. Seeing then, that there is no precept in the newe Testament, whereby Church-Musicke is eyther commanded or forbiddē, [Page 150] as it is apparant, that as those Churches which vsed it not, cannot be compelled to receiue it: so those churches which doe vse it can by no place of the Scripture there­fore be condemned. And this is the resolutiō of al our late diuines, Bucer, Bullinger, Cal­uin and the rest, which with one consent a­gree, that it is an indifferent thing, hauing no hurt, but rather much good in it, if it bee discreetly and soberly vsed. Why then is it not as lawful for me to incline to this part, that it should or may be vsed, as it is for thē to incline to the contrary, that it should not or may not in any wise be vsed, considering that neither my singing maketh me lesse the seruaunt of God, nor their not singing them the more holy and deuoute men?

Lastly therefore it remayneth that ha­uing answered the chiefest arguments that make against vs, I now bring certaine rea­sons for my positiō. 1 First therefore Musick is rather to bee vsed in the church than not, because it is the excellent inuention and gift of God himselfe, ordained to the honor and glory of God: neither doth their cauill auaile any thing at all, which saie, that if this reason were good, then all the liberall [Page 151] sciences & the knowledge of the ciuill law, and all good and honest artes, might by as good reason be vsed in ye church because they are also the inuention & good gift of God. For if they knew, howe to refer euerie of these things to their neat & proper end, they might perceiue that as the end of those other sciences, is first to know, and then to serue to the glory of God, so the vent and only end of musicke is immediatly the setting foorth of Gods praise and honour. 2 A second reason of mine assertion is, because musick with the concinnitie of her sound, and the excellency of harmony, doth as it were knit & ioyne vs vnto God, putting vs in mind of our maker and of that mutuall vnitie & consent, which ought to bee as of voices so of mindes in Gods church and congregatiōs. 3 Thirdly if there were no other reason, yet this were of sufficiēt force to perswade the lawful vse of Musicke: in that as a pleasant bait, it doeth both allure mē into the church which other­wise would not come, & causeth thē which are there to continue till the diuine seruice bee ended. 4 Fourthly men doe more willingly heare, & more firmely cary away with them, those thinges which they heare [Page 152] song than those which they hear barely spo­ken and pronounced. 5 Lastly the vse thereof is ancient and of great continuance, for it was vsed in Traian his time as I before shewed, and it was translated from the re­ligious of the heathen, which in hymnes and songes, yeelded all reuerence and ho­nor to their gods of wood & stone. And sure­ly if there be any one thing in man, more ex­cellent than another, that is Musicke: and therefore good reason, that hee which hath made vs, & the world, and preserueth both vs & it, should be worshipped & honored with that thing which is most excellent in man, diuiding as it were his soule from his body, and lifting vp his cogitations aboue him­selfe. Such was the zeale and feruencie of the kingly prophet Dauid, 2. Sam. 23.1. that he was ther­fore called by the title not only of the an­nointed of the God of Iacob, but also of the sweet singer of Israell. And S. Austen saith of himselfe, That the voices, of the singers, Aug. confes. lib. 9. cap. 6. did pierce into his eares, & Gods truth did distil into his hart, & that thēce was inflamed in him an affectiō of godli­nes which caused tears to issue from him so that he felt himself to be in a most bles­sed & happy state.


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