RELATION OR Iournall of the beginning and proceedings of the English Plantation setled at Plimoth in NEW ENGLAND, by certaine English Aduenturers both Merchants and others.

With their difficult passage, their safe ariuall, their ioyfull building of, and comfortable planting them­selues in the now well defended Towne of NEW PLIMOTH.

AS ALSO A RELATION OF FOVRE seuerall▪ discoueries since made by some of the same English Planters there resident.

I. In a iourney to PVCKANOKICK the habitation of the Indians grea­test King Massasoyt: as also their message, the answer and entertainment they had of him.

II. In a voyage made by ten of them to the Kingdome of Nawset, to seeke a boy that had lost himselfe in the woods: with such accidents as befell them in that voyage.

III. In their iourney to the Kingdome of Namaschet, in defence of their greatest King Massasoyt, against the Narrohiggonsets, and to reuenge the supposed death of their Interpreter Tisquantum.

IIII. Their voyage to the Massachusets, and their entertainment there.

With an answer to all such obiections as are any way made against the lawfulnesse of English plantations in those parts.

LONDON, Printed for Iohn Bellamie, and are to be sold at his shop at the two Greyhounds in Cornhill neere the Royall Exchange. 1622.

TO HIS MVCH RE­spected Friend, Mr. I. P.

GOod Friend: As wee cannot but account it an extraordina­ry blessing of God in direct­ing our course for these parts, after we came out of our natiue countrey, for that we had the happinesse to be posses­sed of the comforts we receiue by the bene­fit of one of the most pleasant, most health­full, and most fruitfull parts of the world: So must wee acknowledge the same blessing to bee multiplied vpon our whole company, for that we obtained the honour to receiue allowance and approbation of our free possession, and enioying thereof vnder the authority of those thrice honou­red Persons, the President and Counsell for the affaires of New-England, by whose boun­ty and grace, in that behalfe, all of vs are ti­ed to dedicate our best seruice vnto them, as those vnder his Majestie, that wee owe it vnto: whose noble endeuours in these their [Page] actions the God of heauen and earth mul­tiply to his glory and their owne eternall comforts.

As for this poore Relation, I pray you to accept it, as being writ by the seuerall Actors themselues, after their plaine and rude manner; therefore doubt nothing of the truth thereof: if it be defectiue in any thing, it is their ignorance, that are better acquainted with planting then writing. If it satisfie those that are well affected to the businesse, it is all I care for. Sure I am the place we are in, and the hopes that are apparent, cannot but suffice any that will not desire more then enough, neither is there want of ought among vs but compa­ny to enioy the blessings so plentifully be­stowed vpon the inhabitants that are here. While I was a writing this, I had almost forgot, that I had but the recommendation of the relation it selfe, to your further consi­deration, and therefore I will end without saying more, saue that I shall alwaies rest

Yours in the way of friendship, R. G.

To the Reader.

COurteous Reader, be intreated to make a fauorable construction of my forwardnes, in publishing these inseuing discourses, the desire of carrying the Gospell of Christ, into those forraigne parts, amongst those people that as yet haue had no knowledge, nor tast of God, as also to procure vnto themselues and others a quiet and comfortable habytation: weare amongst other things the inducements (vnto these vndertakers of the then hopefull, and now experimentally knowne good enterprice for plantation, in New England, to set afoote and prosecute the same & though it fared with them, as it is common to the most actions of this nature, that the first at­temps proue diffecult, as the sequell more at large expresseth, yet it hath pleased God, euē beyond our expectation in so short a time, to giue hope of let­ting some of them see (though some he hath taken out of this vale of teares) some grounds of hope, of the accomplishment of both those endes by them, at first propounded.

And as my selfe then much desired, and short­ly [Page] hope to effect, if the Lord will, the putting to of my shoulder in this hopefull business, and in the meane time, these relations comming to my hand from my both known & faithful friends, on whose writings I do much rely, I thought it not a misse to make them more generall, hoping of a cheerefull proceeding, both of Aduenturers and planters, in­treating that the example of the hon: Virginia and Bermudas Companies, incountering with so many distasters, and that for diuers yeares toge­ther, with an vnwearied resolution, the good ef­fects whereof are now eminent, may preuaile as a spurre of preparation also touching this no lesse hopefull Country though yet an infant, the extent & cōmodities whereof are as yet not fully known, after time wil vnfould more: such as desire to take knowledge of things, may in forme themselues by this insuing treatise, and if they please also by such as haue bin there a first and second time, my har­ry prayer to God is that the euent of this and all other honorable and honest vndertakings, may be for the furtherance of the kingdome of Christ, the inlarging of the bounds of our Soueraigne Lord King Iames, & the good and profit of those, who either by purse, or person, or both, are agents in the same, so I take leaue and rest

Thy friend, G. MOVRT.

CERTAINE VSEFVL ADVERTISEMENTS SENT in a Letter written by a discreete friend vn­to the Planters in New England, at their first setting saile from Southhampton, who earnestly desireth the prosperitie of that their new Plantation.

LOuing and Christian friends, I doe heartily and in the Lord salute you all, as being they with whom I am present in my best affection, and most earnest longings after you, though I be constrained for a while to be bodily absent from you, I say constrained, God knowing how willing­ly and much rather then otherwise I would haue haue borne my part with you in this first brunt, were I not by strong necessitie held backe for the present. Make account of me in the meane while, as of a man deuided in my selfe with great paine, and as (naturall bonds set aside) hauing my better part with you. And though I doubt not but in your godly wisedomes you both foresee and re­solue vpon that which concerneth your present [Page] state and condition both seuerally and ioyntly, yet ha [...]e I thought but my dutie to adde some further spurre of prouocation vnto them who run already, if not because you need it, yet because I owe it in loue and dutie.

And first, as we are daily to renew our repentance with our God, speciall for our sinnes knowne, and generall for our vnknowne trespasses; so doth the Lord call vs in a singular maner vpon occasions of such difficultie and danger as lieth vpon you, to a both more narrow search and carefull reformation of our wayes in his sight, lest he calling to remem­brance our sinnes forgotten by vs or vnrepented of, take aduantage against vs, and in iudgement leaue vs for the same to be swallowed vp in one danger or other; whereas on the contrary, sin being taken away by earnest repentance and the pardon thereof from the Lord, sealed vp vnto a mans conscience by his Spirit, great shall be his securitie and peace in all dangers, sweete his comforts in all distresses, with happie deliuerance from all euill, whether in life or in death.

Now next after this heauenly peace with God and our owne consciences, we are carefully to pro­uide for peace with all men what in vs lieth, especi­ally with our associates, and for that end watchful­nes must be had, that we neither at all in our selues do giue, no nor easily take offence being giuen by others. Woe be vnto the world for offences, for though it be necessary (considering the malice of Satan and mans corruption) that offences come, yet woe vnto the man or woman either by whom [Page] the offence cometh, saith Christ, Math. 18.7. And if offences in the vnseasonable vse of things in them selues indifferent, be more to be feared then death it selfe, as the Apostle teacheth, 1. Cor. 9.15. how much more in things simply euill, in which neither honour of God nor loue of man is thought worthy to be regarded.

Neither yet is it sufficient that we keep our selues by the grace of God from giuing offence, except withall we be armed against the taking of them when they are giuen by others. For how vnperfect and lame is the worke of grace in that person, who wants charitie to couer a multitude of offences, as the Scriptures speake. Neither are you to be exhor­ted to this grace onely vpon the common grounds of Christianitie, which are, that persons ready to take offence, either want charitie to couer offences, or wisedome duly to weigh humane frailtie; or lastly are grosse, though close hypocrites, as Christ our Lord teacheth, Math. 7.1, 2, 3. as indeed in mine owne experience, few or none haue beene found which sooner giue offence, then such as easily take it; neither haue they euer proued sound and profi­table members in societies, which haue nourished in themselues that touchey humour. But besides these, there are diuers spe [...]iall motiues prouoking you aboue others to great care and conscience this way: As first, you are many of you strangers, as to the persons, so to the infirmities one of another, and so stand in neede of more watchfulnesse this way, lest when such things fall out in men and wo­men as you suspected not, you be inordinately af­fected [Page] with them; which doth require at your hands much wisedome and charitie for the co­uering and preuenting of incident offences that way. And last [...]y your intended course of ciuill com­munitie wil minister continuall occasion of offence, and will be as fuell for that fire, except you dili­gently quench it with brotherly forbearance. And if taking of offence causlesly or easily at mens do­ings be so carefully to be auoided, how much more heed is to be taken that we take not offence at God himselfe, which yet we certainly do so oft as we do murmure at his prouidence in our crosses, or beare impatiently such afflictions as wherewith he pleaseth to visit vs. Store we vp therefore pa­tience against the euill day, without which we take offence at the Lord himselfe in his holy and iust works.

A fourth thing there is carefully to be prouided for, to wit, that with your common emploiments you ioyne common affections truly bent vpon the generall good, auoiding as a deadly plague of your both common and speciall comfort all retirednesse of minde for proper aduantage, and all singularly affected any maner of way; let euery man represse in himselfe and the whole bodie in each person, as so many rebels against the common good, all pri­uate respects of mens selues, not sorting with the generall conueniencie. And as men are carefull not to haue a new house shaken with any violence before it be well settled and the parts firmly knit: so be you, I beseech you brethren, much more care­full, that the house of God which you are and are [Page] to be, be not shaken with vnnecessary nouelties or other oppositions at the first settling thereof.

Lastly, whereas you are to become a body politik, vsing amongst your selues ciuill gouernment, and are not furnished with any persons of speciall emi­nencie aboue the rest, to be chosen by you into of­fice of gouernment: Let your wisedome and godli­nesse appeare, not onely in chusing such persons as do entirely loue, and will diligently promote the common good, but also in yeelding vnto them all due honour and obedience in their lawfull admi­nistrations; not beholding in them the ordinarinesse of their persons, but Gods ordinance for your good; nor being like vnto the foolish multitude, who more honour the gay coate, then either the vertu­ous mind of the man, or glorious ordinance of the Lord. But you know better things, and that the i­mage of the Lords power and authoritie which the Magistrate beareth, is honorable, in how meane per­sons soeuer. And this dutie you both may the more willingly, and ought the more conscionably to per­forme, because you are at least for the present to haue onely them for your ordinary gouernours, which your selues shall make choise of for that worke.

Sundrie other things of importance I could put you in mind of, and of those before mentioned in more words, but I will not so far wrong your godly minds, as to thinke you heedlesse of these things, there being also diuers among you so well able to admonish both themselues and others of what con­cerneth them. These few things therefore, and [Page] the same in few words I do earnestly commend vn­to your care and conscience, ioyning therewith my daily incessant prayers vnto the Lord, that he who hath made the heauens and the earth, the sea and all riuers of waters, and whose prouidence is ouer all his workes, especially ouer all his deare childre [...] for good, would so guide and guard you in your wayes, as inwardly by his Spirit, so outwardly by the hand of his power, as that both you and we al­so, for and with you, may haue after matter of prai­sing his Name all the days of your and our liues. Fare you well in him in whom you trust, and in whom I rest

An vnfained well-willer of your happie successe in this hopefull voyage, I. R.


WEdnesday the sixt of Septem­ber, the Wind comming East North East, a sine small gale, we loosed from Plimoth, ha­uing beene kindly intertained and curteously vsed by diuer [...] friends there dwelling, and af­ter many difficulties in boy­sterous stormes, at length by Gods prouidence vpon the ninth of Nouember following, by breake of the day we espied land which we deemed to be Cape Cod, and so afterward it proued. And the appea­rance of it much comforted vs, especially, seeing so good­ly a Land, and woodded to the brinke of the sea, it caused vs to reioyce together, and praise God that had giuen vs once againe to see land. And thus wee made our course South South West, purposing to goe to a Riuer ten leagues [Page] to the South of the Cape, but at night the winde being con­ [...]rary, we put round againe for the Bay of Cape Cod: and vpon the 11. of Nouember, we came to an anchor in the Bay, which is a good harbour and pleasant Bay, circled round, except in the entrance, which is about foure miles ouer from land to land, compassed about to the very Sea with Okes, Pines, Iuniper, Sassafras, and other sweet wood; it is a harbour wherein 1000. saile of Ships may safely ride, there we relieued our selues with wood and water, and re­freshed our people, while our shallop was fitted to coast the Bay, to search for an habitation: there was the greatest store of fowle that euer we saw.

An [...] [...]uery day we saw Whales playing hard by vs, of which in that place, if we had instruments & meanes to take them, we might haue made a very rich returne, which to our great griefe we wanted. Our master and his mate, and other [...] experienced in fishing, professed, we might haue made three or foure thousand pounds worth of Oyle; they preferred it before Greenland Whale- [...]ishing, & purpose the next winter to fish for Whale here; for [...]od we a [...]ayed, but found none, there is good store no doubt in their season. Neither got we any [...]i [...]h all the time we lay there, but some few little ones on the shore. We found great Mussles, and very fat and full of Sea pearle, but we could not eat them, for they made vs all sicke that did eat, as well saylers as pas­sengers; they caused to cast and se [...]ure, b [...]t they were soone well againe. The bay is so round & circling, that before we could come to anchor, we went round all the points of the Compasse. We could not come neere the shore by three quarters of an English mile, because of shallow water, which was a great preiudice to vs, for our people going on shore were forced to wade a bow shoot or two in going a­land, which caused many to get colds and coughs, for it was many times freezing cold weather.

This day before we came to harbour, obseruing some not well affected to vnitie and concord, but gaue some appea­rance of faction, it was thought good there should be an as­sociation and agreement, that we should combine together [Page 3] in one body, and to submit to such government and gover­nours, as we should by common consent agree to make and chose, and set our hands to this that followes word fo [...] word.

IN the name of God, Amen. We whose names are vnde [...] ­written, the loyall Subiects of our dread soveraigne Lord King IAMES, by the grace of God of Great Britaine, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, &c.

Having vnder-taken for the glory of God, and advance­ment of the Christian Faith, and honour of our King and Countrey, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the Nor­therne parts of VIRGINIA, doe by these presents solemnly & mutually in the presence of God and one of another, cove­nant, and combine our selues together into a civill body po­litike, for our better ordering and preservation, and furthe­rance of the ends aforesaid; and by vertue hereof to en­act, constitute, and frame such iust and equall Lawes, Ordi­nances, acts, constitutions, offices from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the generall good of the Colony: vnto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witnesse whereof we haue here vnder subscribed our names. Cape Cod 11. of November, in the yeare of the raigne of our soveraigne Lord King IAMES, of Eng­land, France, and Ireland 18. and of Scotland 54. Anno Do­mino 1620.

The same day so soone as we could we set a-shore 15. or 16. men, well armed, with some to fetch wood, for we had none left; as also to see what the Land was, and what Inha­bitants they could meet with, they found it to be a small neck of Land; on this side where we lay is the Bay and the f [...]rther side the Sea; the ground or earth, sand hils, much like the Downes in Holland, but much better; the crust of the earth a Spits depth, excellent blacke earth; all wooded with Okes, Pines, Sassafras, Iuniper, Birch, Holly, Vines, some Ash, Wal­nut; the wood for the most part open and without vnder­wood, sit either to goe or ride in: at night our people retur­ned, [Page 4] but found not any person, nor habitation, and laded their Boat with Iuniper, which smelled very sweet & strong, and of which we burnt the most part of the time we lay there.

Munday the 13. of November, we vnshipped our Shallop and drew her on land, to mend and repaire her, having bin forced to cut her downe in bestowing her betwixt the decks, and she was much opened with the peoples lying in her, which kept vs long there, for it was 16. or 17. dayes be­fore the Carpenter had finished her; our people went on shore to refresh themselues, and our women to wash▪ as they had great need; but whilest we lay thus still, hoping our Shallop would be ready in fiue or sixe dayes at the furthest, but our Carpenter made slow worke of it, so that some of our people impatient of delay, desired for our better furthe­rance to travaile by Land into the Countrey, which was not without appearance of danger, not having the Shallop with them nor meanes to carry provision, but on their backes, to see whether it might be fit for vs to seate in or no, and the ra­ther because as we sayled into the Harbour, there seemed to be a river opening it selfe into the maine land; the willingnes of the persons was liked, but the thing it selfe, in regard of the danger was rather permitted then approved, and so with cautions, directions, and instructions, sixteene men were set out with every man his Musket, Sword, and Corslet, vn­der the conduct of Captaine Miles Standish, vnto whom was adioyned for counsell and advise, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins, and Edward Tilley.

Wednesday the 15. of November, they were set a shore, and when they had ordered themselues in the order of a sin­gle File, and marched about the space of a myle, by the Sea they espyed fiue or sixe people, with a Dogge comming to­wards them, who were Savages, who when they saw them ran into the Wood and whilled the Dogge after them, &c. First, they supposed them to be master Iones, the Master and some of his men, for they were a shore, and knew of their comming, but after they knew them to be Indians they mar­ched [Page 5] after them into the Woods, least other of the Indians should lie in Ambush; but when the Indians saw our men fol­lowing them, they ran away with might and may [...]e and our men turned out of the Wood after them, for it was the way they intended to goe, but they could not come neare them. They followed them that night about ten miles by the trace of their [...]ootings, and saw how they had come the same way they went, and at a turning perceived how they r [...]n vp an hill, to see whether they followed them. At length night came vpon them, and they were constrained to take vp their lodging, so they set forth three Sentinells, and the rest, some kindled a fire, and others fetched wood, and there held our Randevous that night. In the morning so soone as we could see the trace, we proceeded on our iourney, & had the tracke vntill we had compassed the head of a long creake, and there they tooke into another wood, and we after them, supposing to finde some of their dwellings, but we marched thorow boughes and bushes, and vnder hills and vallies, which tore our very Armour in peeces, and yet could meete with none of them, nor their houses, nor finde any fresh water, which we greatly desired, and stood in need off, for we brought neither Beere nor Water with vs, and our victuals was one­ly Bisket and Holland cheese, and a little Bottle of aquavite, so as we were sore a thirst. About ten a clocke we came into a deepe Valley, full of brush, wood-gaile, and long grasse, through which we found little paths or tracts, and there we saw a Deere, and found springs of fresh water, of which we were heartily glad, and sat vs downe and drunke our first New-England water with as much delight as euer we drunke drinke in all our liues. When we had refreshed our selues, we directed our course full South, that we might come to the shore, which within a short while after we did, and there made a fire, that they in the ship might see where wee were (as we had direction) and so marched on towards this sup­posed River; and as we went in another valley we found a fine cleere Pond of fresh water, being about a Musket sho [...] broad, and twise as long; there grew also many small vines, [Page 6] and Foule and Deere haunted there; there grew much Sasa­fras: from thence we went on & found much plaine ground, about fiftie Acres, fit for the Plow, and some signes where the Indians had formerly planted their corne; after this, some thought it best for nearenesse of the river to goe downe and travaile on the Sea sands, by which meanes some of our men were tyred, and lagged behind, so we stayed and gathered them vp, and struck into the Land againe; where we found a little path to certaine heapes of sand, one whereof was cove­red with old Matts, and had a woodden thing like a morter whelmed on the top of it, and an earthen pot layd in a little hole at the end thereof; we musing what it might be, digged & found a Bow, and, as we thought, Arrowes, but they were rotten; We supposed, there were many other things, but because we deemed them graues, we put in the Bow againe and made it vp as it was, and left the rest vntouched, because we thought it would be odious vnto them to ransacke their Sepulchers. We went on further and found new stubble, of which they had gotten Corne this yeare, and many Wallnut trees full of Nuts, and great store of Strawberries, and some Vines; passing thus a field or two, which were not great, we came to another, which had also bin new gotten, and there we found where an house had beene, and foure or fiue old Plankes layed together; also we found a great Ketle, which had beene some Ships ketle and brought out of Europe; there was also an heape of sand, made like the former, but it was newly done, we might see how they had padled it with their hands which we digged vp, and in it we found a little old Basket full of faire Indian Corne, and digged further & found a fine great new Basket full of very faire corne of this yeare, with some 36. goodly eares of corne, some yellow, and some red, and others mixt with blew, which was a very goodly sight: the Basket was round, and narrow at the top, it held about three or foure Bushels, which was as much as two of vs could lift vp from the ground, and was very handsomely and cunningly made; But whilst wee were busie about these things, we set our men Sentinell in a round ring, all but two [Page 7] or three which digged vp the corne. We were in suspence, what to doe with it, and the Ketle, and at length after much consultation, we concluded to take the Ketle, and as much of the Corne as we could carry away with vs; and when our Shallop came, if we could find any of the people, and come to parley with them, we would giue them the Ketle againe, and satisfie them for their Corne, so wee tooke all the eares and put a good deale of the loose Corne in the Ketle for two men to bring away on a staffe; besides, they that could put any into their Pockets filled the same; the rest wee buried a­gaine, for we were so laden with Armour that we could car­ry no more. Not farre from this place we found the remain­der of an old Fort, or Palizado, which as we conceiued had beene made by some Christians, this was also hard by that place which we thought had beene [...] river, vnto which wee went and found it so to be, deviding it selfe into two armes by an high banke, standing right by the cut or mouth which came from the Sea, that which was next vnto vs was the lesse, the other arme was more then twise as big, and not vnlike to be an harbour for ships; but whether it be a fresh river, or onely an indraught of the Sea, we had no time to discover; for wee had Commandement to be out but two dayes. Here also we saw two Canoas, the one on the one side, the other on the other side, wee could not beleeue it was a Canoa, till we came neare it, so we returned leauing the further disco­very hereof to our Shallop, and came that night backe againe to the fresh water pond, and there we made our Rande [...]ous that night, making a great fire, and a Baricado to windward of vs, and kept good watch with three Sentinells all night, euery one standing when his turne came, while fiue or sixe inches of Match was burning. It proved a very rainie night. In the morning we tooke our Ketle and sunke it in the pond, and trimmed our Muskets, for few of them would goe off because of the wett, and so coasted the wood againe to come home, in which we were shrewdly pus-led, and lost our way, as we wandred we came to a tree, where a yong Spritt was bowed downe over a bow, and some Acornes strewed vn­der [Page 8] neath; Stephen Hopkins sayd, it had beene to catch some Deere, so, as we were looking at it, William Bradford being in the Reare, when he came looked also vpon it, and as he went about, it gaue a sodaine jerk vp, and he was immediately caught by the leg; It was a very pretie devise, made with a Rope of their owne making, and having a noose as artifici­ally made, as any Roper in England can make, and as like ours as can be, which we brought away with vs. In the end wee got out of the Wood, and were fallen about a myle too high aboue the creake, where we saw three Bucks, but we had ra­ther haue had one of them. Wee also did spring three couple of Partridges; and as we came along by the creake, wee saw great flockes of wild Geese and D [...]ckes, but they were very fearefull of vs. So we marched some while in the Woods, some while on the sands, and other while in the water vp to the knees, till at length we came neare the Ship, and then we shot off our Peeces, and the long Boat came to fetch vs; ma­ster Iones, and master Caruer being on the shore, with many of our people, came to meete vs. And thus wee came both weary and well-come home, and deliuered in our Corne in­to the store, to be kept for seed, for wee knew not how to come by any, and therefore were very glad, purposing so soone as we could meete with any of the Inhabitants of that place, to make them large satisfaction. This was our first Discovery, whilst our Shallop was in repairing; our people did make things as fitting as they could, and time would, in seeking out wood, and heluing of [...]ooles, and sawing of Tymber to build a new Shallop, but the discommodiousnes of the harbour did much hinder vs for we could neither goe to, nor come from the shore, but at high water, which was much to our hinderance and hurt, for oftentimes they waded to the midle of the thigh, and oft to the knees, to goe and come from land; some did it necessarily, and some for their owne pleasure, but it brought to the most, if not to all, coughes and colds, the weather prouing sodainly cold and stormie which afterward turned to the scurvey, whereof ma­ny dyed.

[Page 9]When our Shallop was fit indeed, before she was fully fit­ted, for there was two dayes worke after bestowed on her, there was appointed some 24 men of our owne, and armed, then to goe and make a more full discovery of the rivers be­fore mentioned. Master Iones was desirous to goe with vs, and tooke such of his saylers as he thought vsefull for vs, so as we were in all about 34. men; wee made master Iones our Leader, for we thought it best herein to gratifie his kindnes and forwardnes. When we were set forth, it proued rough weather and crosse windes, so as we were constrained, some in the Shallop, and others in the long Boate, to row to the neerest shore the wind would suffer them to goe vnto, and then to wade out aboue the knees; the wind was so strong as the Shallop could not keepe the water, but was forced to harbour there that night, but we marched sixe or seaven miles further, and appointed the Shallop to come to vs as soone as they could. It blowed and did snow all that day & night, and frose withall; some of our people that are dead tooke the originall of their death here. The next day about 11. a clocke our Shallop came to vs, and wee shipped our selues, and the wind being good, we sayled to the river we formerly disco­vered, which we named, Cold Harbour, to which when wee came we found it not Navigable for Ships, yet we thought it might be a good harbour for Boats, for it flowes there 1 [...]. foote at high water. We landed our men betweene the two creekes, and marched some foure or fiue myles by the greater of them, and the Shallop followed vs; at length night grew on, and our men were tired with marching vp and downe the steepe hills, and deepe vallies, which lay halfe a foot thicke with snow: Master Iones vvearied with marching, was desi­rous we should take vp our lodging, though some of vs would haue marched further, so we made there our Randevous for that night, vnder a few Pine trees, and as it fell out, wee got three fat Geese, and six Ducks to our Supper, which we eate with Souldiers stomacks, for we had eaten little all that day; our resolution was next morning to goe vp to the head of this river, for we supposed it would proue fresh water, but in [Page 10] the morning our resolution held not, because many liked not the hillinesse of the soyle, and badnesse of the harbour, so we turned towards the other creeke, that wee might goe over and looke for the rest of the Corne that we left behind when we were here before; when we came to the creeke, we saw the Canow lie on the dry ground, and a flocke of Geese in the river, at which one made a shot, and killed a couple of them, and we lanched the Canow & fetcht them and when we had done, she carryed vs over by seaven or eight at once. This done, we marched to the place where we had the corne formerly, which place we called Corne-hill; and digged and found the rest, of which we were very glad: we also digged in a place little further off, and found a Botle of oyle; wee went to another place, which we had seene before, and dig­ged, and found more corne, viz. two or three Baskets full of Indian Wheat, and a bag of Beanes, with a good man, of faire Wheat-eares; whilst some of vs were digging vp this, some others found another heape of Corne, which they dig­ged vp also, so as we had in all about ten Bushels, which will serve vs sufficiently for seed.Note. And sure it was Gods good providence that we found this Corne, for els wee know not how we should haue done, for we knew not how we should find, or meete with any of the Indians, except it be to doe vs a mischiefe. Also we had neuer in all likelihood seene a graine of it, if we had not made our first Iourney; for the ground was now covered with snow, and so hard frosen, that we were faine with our Curtlaxes and short Swords, to hew and carue the ground a foot deepe, and then wrest it vp with leavers, for we had forgot to bring other Tooles; whilst we were in this imployment, foule weather being towards, Ma­ster Iones was earnest to goe abourd, but sundry of vs desired to make further discovery, and to find out the Indians habi­tations, so we sent home with him our weakest people, and some that were sicke, and all the Corne, and 18. of vs stayed still, and lodged there that night, and desired that the Shal­lop might returne to vs next day, and bring vs some Mat­tocks and Spades with them.

[Page 11]The next morning we followed certaine beaten pathes and tracts of the Indians into the Woods, supposing they would haue led vs into some Towne, or houses; after wee had gone a while, we light vpon a very broad beaten path, well nigh two foote broad then we lighted all our Matches, and prepared our selues, concluding wee were neare their dwellings, but in the end we found it to be onely a path made to driue Deere in, when the Indians hunt, as wee supposed; when we had ma [...]ched fiue or six myles into the Woods, and could find no signes of any people, we returned againe ano­ther way, and as we came into the plaine ground, wee found a place like a graue, but it was much bigger and longer then any we had yet seene. It was also covered with boords, so as we mused what it should be, and resolved to digge it vp, where we found, first a Matt, and vnder that a fayre Bow, and there another Matt, and vnder that a boord about three quarters long, finely carued and paynted, with three tynes, or broches on the top, like a Crowne; also betweene the Matts we found Boules, Trayes, Dishes, and such like Trin­kets; at length we came to a faire new Matt, and vnder that two Bundles, the one bigger, the other lesse, we opened the greater and found in it a great quantitie of fine and perfect red Powder, and in it the bones and skull of a man. The skull had fine yellow haire still on it, and some of the flesh vnconsumed; there was bound vp with it a knife, a pack-needle, and two or three old iron things. It was bound vp in a Saylers canvas Casacke, and a payre of cloth breeches; the red Powder was a kind of Embaulment, and yeelded a strong, but no offensiue smell; It was as fine as any flower. We opened the lesse bundle likewise, and found of the same Powder in it, and the bones and head of a little childe, about the leggs, and other parts of it was bound strings, and brace­lets of fine white Beads; there was also by it a little Bow, a­bout three quarters long, and some other odd knackes; we brought sundry of the pretiest things away with vs, and co­vered the Corps vp againe. After this, we digged in sundry like places, but found no more Corne, nor any things els but [Page 12] graues: There was varietie of opinions amongst vs about the embalmed person; some thought it was an Indian Lord and King: others sayd, the Indians haue all blacke hayre, and never any was seene with browne or yellow hayre; some thought, it was a Christian of some speciall note, which had dyed amongst them, and they thus buried him to honour him; others thought, they had killed him, and did it in tri­umph over him. Whilest we were thus ranging and search­ing, two of the Saylers, which were newly come on the shore, by chance espied two houses, which had beene lately dwelt in, but the people were gone. They having their pee­ces, and hearing no body entred the houses, and tooke out some things, and du [...]st not stay but came againe and told vs; so some seaven or eight of vs went with them, and found how we had gone within a slight shot of them before. The houses were made with long yong Sapling trees, bended and both ends stucke into the ground; they were made round, like vnto an Arbour, and covered downe to the ground with thicke and well wrought matts, and the doore was not over a yard high, made of a matt to open; the chim­ney was a wide open hole in the top, for which they had a matt to cover it close when they pleased; one might stand and goe vpright in them, in the midst of them were foure little trunches knockt into the ground, and small stickes laid over, on which they hung their Pots, and what they had to seeth; round about the fire they lay on matts, which are their beds. The houses were double matted, for as they were mat­ted without, so were they within, with newer & fairer matts. In the houses we found wooden Boules, Trayes & Dishes, Earthen Pots, Hand baskets made of Crab shells, wrought together; also an English Paile or Bucket, it wanted a bayle, but it had two Iron eares: there was also Baskets of sundry sorts, bi [...]ger and some lesser, finer and some courser: some were curiously wrought with blacke and white in pretie workes, and sundry other of their houshold stuffe: we found also two or three Deeres heads, one whereof had bin newly killed, for it was still fresh; there was also a company of [Page 13] Deeres feete, stuck vp in the houses, Harts hornes, and Eagles clawes, and sundry such like things there was: also two or three Baskets full of pa [...]ched Acornes, peeces of fish, and a peece of a broyled Hering. We found also a little silke grasse, and a little Tobacco seed, with some other seeds which wee knew not; without was sundry bundles of Flags, and Sedge, B [...]ll rushes, and other stuffe to make matts; there was thrust into an hollow tree, two or three peeces of Venison, but we thought it fitter for the Dogs then for vs: some of the best things we tooke away with vs, and left the houses standing still as they were, so it growing towards night, and the tyde almost spent, we hasted with our things downe to the Shal­lop, and got abourd that night, intending to haue brought some Beades, and other things to haue left in the houses, in signe of Peace, and that we meant to truk with them, but it was not done, by meanes of our hastie comming away from Cape Cod, but so soone as we can meete conveniently with them, we will giue them full satisfaction. Thus much of our second Discovery.

Having thus discovered this place, it was controversall a­mongst vs, what to doe touching our aboad and setling there; some thought it best for many reasons to abide there.

As first, that there was a convenient harbour for Boates, though not for Ships.

Secondly, Good Corne ground readie to our hands, as we saw by experience in the goodly corne it yeelded, which would againe agree with the ground, and be naturall seed for the same.

Thirdly, Cape Cod was like to be a place of good fishing, for we saw daily great Whales of the best kind for oyle and bone, come close aboord our Ship, and in fayre weather swim and play about vs; there was once one when the Sun shone warme, c [...]me and lay aboue water, as if she had beene dead, for a good while together, within halfe a Mu [...]ket shot of the Ship, at which two were prepared to shoote, to see whether she would s [...]ir or no, he that gaue fire first, his Mu [...] ­ket flew in peeces, both stocke and barrell, yet thankes be to [Page 14] God, neither he nor any man els was hurt with it, though many were there about, but when the Whale saw her time she gaue a snuffe and away.

Fourthly, the place was likely to be healthfull, secure, and de [...]ensible.

But the last and especiall reason was, that now the heart of Wint [...]r and vnseasonable weather was come vpon vs, so that we could not goe vpon coasting and discovery, with­out danger of loosing men and Boat, vpon which would follow the overthrow of all, especially considering what va­riable windes and sodaine stormes doe there arise. Also cold and wett lodging had so taynted our people, for scarce any of vs were free from vehement coughs, as if they should con­tinue long in that estate, it would indanger the liues of ma­ny, and breed diseases and infection amongst vs. Againe, we had yet some Beere, Butter, Flesh, and other such victu­als left, which would quickly be all gone, and then we should haue nothing to comfort vs in the great labour and toyle we were like to vnder-goe at the first; It was also conceived, whilst we had competent victuals, that the Ship would stay with vs, but when that grew low, they would be gone, and let vs shift as we could.

Others againe, vrged greatly the going to Anguum or Angoum, a place twentie leagues off to the North-wards, which they had heard to be an excellent harbour for ships; better ground and better fishing. Secondly for any thing we knew, there might be hard by vs a farre better seate, and it should be a great hindrance to seate where wee should re­moue againe. Thirdly, The water was but in ponds, and it was thought there would be none in Summer, or very lit­tle. Fourthly, the water there must be fetched vp a steepe hill: but to omit many reasons and replies vsed heere a­bouts; It was in the ende concluded, to make some disco­very within the Bay, but in no case so farre as Angoum: be­sides, Robert Coppin our Pilot, made relation of a great Na­vigable River and good harbour in the other head land of this Bay, almost right over against Cape Cod, being a right [Page 15] line, not much aboue eight leagues distant, in which hee had beene once: and because that one of the wild men with whom they had some trucking, stole a harping Iron from them, they called it theeuish harbour. And beyond that place they were enioyned not to goe, whereupon, a Company was chosen to goe out vppon a third discovery: whilest some were imployed in this discovery, it pleased God that Mistris White was brought a bed of a Sonne, which was called Pe­regrine.

The fift day, we through Gods mercy escaped a great danger by the foolishnes of a Boy, one of Francis Billingtons Sonnes, who in his Fathers absence, had got Gun-powder, and had shot of a peice or two, and made squibs, and there being a fowling peice charged in his fathers Cabbin, shot her off in the Cabbin, there being a little barrell of powder halfe full, scattered in and about the Cabbin, the fire being within foure foote of the bed betweene the Deckes, and many s [...]ints and Iron things about the Cabbin, and many people about the fire, and yet by Gods mercy no harme done.

Wednesday the sixt of December, it was resolved our discoverers should set forth, for the day before was too fowle weather, and so they did, though it was well ore the day ere all things could be readie: So ten of our men were appointed who were of themselues willing to vndertake it, to wit, Cap­taine Standish, Maister Carver, William Bradford, Edward Winsloe, Iohn Tilley, Edward Tilley, Iohn Houland, and three of London, Richard Warren, Steeuen Hopkins and Edward Dotte, and two of our Sea-men, Iohn Alderton and Thomas En­glish, of the Ships Company there went two of the Masters Mates, Master Clarke and Master Copin, the Master Gun­ner, and three Saylers. The narration of which Discovery, followes, penned by one of the Company.

Wednesday the sixt of December wee set out, being very cold and hard weather, wee were a long while after we lun­ched from the ship, before we could get cleare of a sandie poynt, which lay within lesse then a fu [...]long of the same. In which time, two were very sicke, and Edward Tilley had like [Page 16] to haue founded with cold; the Gunner was also sicke vnto Death, (but hope of truking made him to goe) and so remai­ned all that day, and the next night; at length we got cleare of the sandy poynt, and got vp our sayles, and within an houre or two we got vnder the weather shore, and then had smoother water and better sayling, but it was very cold, for the water frose on our clothes, and made them many times like coats of Iron: wee sayled sixe or seaven leagues by the shore, but saw neither river nor creeke, at length wee me [...]t with a tongue of Land, being flat off from the shore, with a sandy poynt, we bore vp to gaine the poynt, & found there a fayre income or rode, of a Bay, being a league over at the narrowest, and some two or three in length, but wee made right over to the land before vs and left the discovery of this Income till the next day: as we drew neare to the shore, wee espied some ten or twelue Indians, very busie about a blacke thing, what it was we could not tell, till afterwards they saw vs, and ran to and fro, as if they had beene carrying some thing away, wee landed a league or two from them, and had much adoe to put a shore any where, it lay so full of flat sands, when we came to shore, we made vs a Baricado, and got fire wood, and set out our Sentinells, and betooke vs to our lod­ging, such as it was; we saw the smoke of the fire which the Savages made that night, about foure or fiue myles from vs, in the morning we devided our company, some eight in the Shallop, and the rest on the shore went to discouer this place, but we found it onely to be a Bay, without either river or creeke comming into it, yet we deemed it to be as good an harbour as Cape Cod, for they that [...]ounded it, found a ship might ride in fiue fathom water, wee on the land found it to be a levill soyle, but none of the fruitfullest 5 wee saw two beckes of fresh water, which were the first running streames that we saw in the Country, but one might stride over them: we found also a great fish, called a Grampus dead on the sands, they in the Shallop found two of them also in the bottome of the bay, dead in like sort, they were cast vp at high water, and could not get off for the frost and ice; they were some [Page 17] fiue or sixe paces long, and about two inches thicke of fat, and fleshed like a Swine, they would haue yeelded a great deale of oyle, if there had beene time and meanes to haue ta­ken it, so we finding nothing for our turne, both we and our Shallop returned. We then directed our course along the Sea-sands, to the place where we first saw the Indians, when we were there, we saw it was also a Grampus which they were cutting vp, they cut it into long rands or peeces, about an ell long, and two handfull broad, wee found here and there a peece scattered by the way, as it seemed, for hast: this place the most were minded we should call, the Grampus Bay, be­cause we found so many of them there: wee followed the tract of the Indians bare feete a good way on the sands, as length we saw where they strucke into the Woods by the side of a Pond, as wee went to view the place, one sayd, hee thought hee saw an Indian-house among the trees, so went vp to see: and here we and the Shallop lost sight one of another till night, it being now about nine or ten a clocke, so we light on a path, but saw no house, and followed a great way into the woods, at length wee found where Corne had beene set, but not that yeare, anone we found a great bury­ing place, one part whereof was incompassed with a large Palazado, like a Church-yard, with yong spires foure or fiue yards long, set as close one by another as they could two o [...] three foot in the ground, within it was full of Graues, some bigger, and some lesse, some were also paled about & others had like an Indian-house made over them, but not matted those Graues were more sumptuous then those at Corne-hill, yet we digged none of them vp, but onely viewed them, and went our way; without the Palazado were graues also, but not so costly: from this place we went and found more Corne ground, but not of this yeare. As we ranged we light on foure or fiue Indian-houses, which had beene lately dwelt in, but they were vncovered, and had no matts about them, els they were like those we found at Corne-hill, but had not beene so lately dwelt in, there was nothing left but two or three peeces of old matts, a little sedge, also a little further we [Page 18] found two Baskets full of parched Acorns hid in the ground, which we supposed had beene Corne when we beganne to dig the same, we cast earth thereon againe & went our way. All this while we saw no people, wee went ranging vp and downe till the Sunne began to draw low, and then we hasted out of the woods, that we might come to our Shallop, which when we were out of the woods, we espied a great way off, and call'd them to come vnto vs, the which they did as soone as they could, for it was not yet high water, they were ex­ceeding glad to see vs, (for they feared because they had not seene vs in so long a time) thinking we would haue kept by the shore side, so being both weary and faint, for we had ea­ten nothing all that day, we sell to make our Randevous and get [...]ire wood, which alwayes cost vs a great deale of labour, by that time we had done & our Shallop come to vs, it was within night, and we fed vpon such victualls as we had, and betooke vs to our rest, after we had set out our watch. About midnight we heard a great and hideous cry, and our Senti­nell called, Arme, Arme. So we bestirred our selues and shot off a couple of Muskets, and noyse ceased; we concluded, that it was a company of Wolues or Foxes, for one told vs, hee had heard such a noyse in New-found land. About fiue a clocke in the morning wee began to be stirring, and two or three which doubted whether their Peeces would goe off or no made tryall of them, and shot them off, but thought nothing at all, after Prayer we prepared our selues for brek-fast, and for a journey, and it being now the twilight in the morning, it was thought meet to carry the things downe to the Shal­lop: some sayd, it was not best to carry the Armour downe, others sayd, they would be readier, two or three sayd, they would not carry theirs, till they went themselues, but mis­trusting nothing at all: as it fel [...] out, the water not being high enough, they layd the things downe vpon the shore & came vp to brek fast. Anone, all vpon a sudden, we heard a great & strange cry, which we knew to be the same voyces, though they varied their notes, one of our company being abroad came running in, and cryed, They are men, Indians, Indians; [Page 19] and withall, their arrowes came flying amongst vs, our men ran out with all speed to recover their armes, as by the good Providence of God they did.Our first combat with the Indians. In the meane time, Captaine Miles Standish, having a snaphance ready, made a shot, and after him another, after they two had shot, other two of vs were ready, but he wisht vs not to shoot, till we could take ayme, for we knew not what need we should haue, & there were foure onely of vs, which had their armes there readie, and stood before the open side of our Baricado, which was first assaulted, they thought it best to defend it, least the ene­mie should take it and our stuffe, and so haue the more van­tage against vs, our care was no lesse for the Shallop, but we hoped all the rest would defend it; we called vnto them to know how it was with them, and they answered, Well, Well every one, and be of good courage: wee heard three of their Peeces goe off, and the rest called for a fire-brand to light their matches, one tooke a log out of the fire on his shoulder and went and carried it vnto them, which was thought did not a little discourage our enemies. The cry of our enemies was dreadfull, especially, when our men ran out to recover their Armes, their note was after this manner, Woath woach ha ha hach woach: our men were no sooner come to their Armes, but the enemy was ready to assault them.

There was a lustie man and no whit lesse valiant, who was thought to bee their Captaine, stood behind a tree within halfe a musket shot of vs, and there let his arrowes fly at vs; hee was seene to shoote three arrowes, which were all avoy­ded, for he at whom the first arrow was aymed, saw it, and stooped downe and it flew over him, the rest were avoyded also: he stood three shots of a Musket, at length one tooke as he sayd full ayme at him, after which he gaue an extraor­dinary cry and away they went all, wee followed them a­bout a quarter of a mile, but wee left sixe to keepe our Shal­lop, for we were carefull of our businesse: then wee shouted all together two severall times, and shot off a couple of mus­kets and so returned: this wee did that they might see wee were not afrayd of them nor discouraged. Thus it pleased [Page 20] God to vanquish our Enemies and giue vs deliverance, by their noyse we could not guesse that they were lesse then thir­ty or forty, though some thought that they were many more yet in the darke of the morning, wee could not so well dis­cerne them among the trees, as they could see vs by our fire side, we tooke vp 18. of their arrowes which we haue sent to England by Master Io [...]es, some whereof were headed with brasse, others with Harts horne, & others with Eagles clawes many more no doubt were shot, for these we found, were almost covered with leaues: yet by the especiall providence of God, none of them either hit or hurt vs, though many came close by vs, and on every side of vs, and some coates which hung vp in our Baricado, were shot through and through. So after wee had given God thankes for our deli­verance, wee tooke our Shallop and went on our Iourney, and called this place, The first Encounter, from hence we in­tended to haue sayled to the aforesayd theeuish Harbour, if wee found no convenient Harbour by the way, having the wind good, we sayled all that day along the Coast about 15. leagues, but saw neither River nor Creeke to put into, af­ter we had sayled an houre or two, it began to snow and raine, and to be bad weather; about the midst of the after­noone, the winde increased and the Seas began to be very rough, and the hinges of the rudder broke, so that we could steere no longer with it, but two men with much adoe were same to serue with a couple of Oares, the Seas were growne so great, that we were much troubled and in great daunger, and night grew on: Anon Master Coppin bad vs be of good cheere he saw the Harbour, as we drew neare, the gale be­ing stiffe, and we bearing great sayle to get in, split our Mast in 3. peices, and were like to haue cast away our Shallop, yet by Gods mercy recovering our selues, wee had the floud with vs, and struck into the Harbour.

Now he that thought that had beene the place was decei­ved, it being a place where not any of vs had beene before, and comming into the Harbour, he that was our Pilot did beare vp North-ward, which if we had continued wee had [Page 21] beene cast away, yet still the Lord kept vs, and we bare vp for an Iland before vs, and recovering of that Iland, being compassed about with many Rocks, and darke night grow­ing vpon vs, it pleased the Divine providence that we fell vpon a place of sandy ground, where our Shallop did ride safe and secure all that night, and comming vpon a strange Iland kept our watch all night in the raine vpon that Iland: and in the morning we marched about it, & found no Inha­bitants at all, and here wee made our Randevous all that day being Saturday, 10. of December, on the Sabboth day wee rested, and on Munday we sounded the Harbour, and found it a uery good Harbour for our shipping, we marched also into the Land, and found divers corne fields, and little run­ning brookes▪ a place very good for scituation, so we retur­ned to our Ship againe with good newes to the rest of our people, which did much comfort their hearts.

On the fifteenth day, we waighed Anchor, to goe to the place we had discovered, and comming within two leagues of the Land, we could not fetch the Harbour, but were faine to put roome againe towards Cape Cod, our course lying West; and the wind was at North west, but it pleased God that the next day being Saturday the 16. day, the winde came faire, and wee put to Sea againe, and came safely into a safe Harbour; and within halfe an houre the winde changed, so as if we had beene letted but a little, we had gone backe to Cape Cod. This Harbour is a Bay greater then Cape Cod, compassed with a goodly Land, and in the Bay, 2. fine Ilands vninhabited, wherein are nothing but wood, Okes, Pines, Wal-nut, Beech, Sasifras, Vines, and other trees which wee know not; This Bay is a most hopefull place, innumerable store of fowle, and excellent good, and cannot but bee of fish in their seasons: Skote, Cod, Turbot, and Herring, wee haue tasted of, abundance of Musles the greatest & best that ever we saw; Crabs, and Lobsters, in their time infinite, It is in fashion like a Cikle or Fish-hooke.

Munday the 13. day, we went a land, manned with the Maister of the Ship, and 3. or 4. of the Saylers, we marched [Page 22] along the coast in the woods, some 7. or 8. mile, but saw not an Indian nor an Indian house, only we found where former­ly, had beene some Inhabitants, and where they had planted their corne: we found not any Navigable River, but 4. or 5. small [...]unning brookes of very sweet fresh water, that all run into the Sea: The Land for the crust of the earth is a spits depth, excellent blacke mold and fat in some places, 2. or 3. great Oakes but not very thicke, Pines, Wal-nuts Beech Ash, Birch, Hasell, Holley, Asp, Sasifras, in abundance, & Vines euery where, Cherry trees, Plum trees, and many other which we know not; many kinds of hearbes, we found heere in Winter, as Strawbery leaues innumerable, Sorrell, Yarow, Caruell, Brook-lime, Liver-wort, Water-cresses, great store of Leekes, and Onyons, and an excellent strong kind of Flaxe, and Hempe; here is sand, gravell, and excel­lent clay no better in the Worlde, excellent for pots, and will wash like sope, and great store of stone, though some­what soft, and the best water that ever we drunke, and the Brookes now begin to be full of fish; that night many being weary with marching, wee went abourd againe.

The next morning being Tuesday the 19. of December, wee went againe to discover further; some went on Land, and some in the Shallop, the Land we found as the former day we did, and we found a Creeke, and went vp three En­glish myles, a very pleasant river at full Sea, a Barke of thirty tunne may goe vp, but at low water scarce our Shallop could passe: this place we had a great liking to plant in, but that it was so farre from our fishing our principall profit, and so incompassed with woods, that we should bee in much dan­ger of the Salvages, and our number being so little, and so much ground to cleare, so as wee thought good to quit and cleare that place, till we were of more strength; some of vs hauing a good minde for safety to plant in the greater Ile, wee crossed the Bay which there is fiue or sixe myles ouer, and found the Ile about a myle and a halfe, or two myles a­bout, all wooded, and no fresh water but 2. or 3. pits, that we doubted of fresh water in Summer, and so full of wood, [Page 23] as we could hardly cleare so much as to serue vs for Corne, besides wee iudged it colde for our Corne, and some part very rockie, yet diuers thought of it as a place defensible, and of great securitie.

That night we returned againe a ship boord, with resolu­tion the next morning to setle on some of those places, so in the morning, after we had called on God for direction, we came to this resolution, to goe presently ashore againe, and to take a better view of two places, which wee thought most fitting for vs, for we could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, espe­cially, our Beere, and it being now the 19. of December. Af­ter our landing and viewing of the places, so well as we could we came to a conclusion, by most voyces, to set on the maine Land, on the first place, on an high ground, where there is a great deale of Land cleared, and hath beene planted with Corne three or foure yeares agoe, and there is a very sweet brooke runnes vnder the hill side, and many delicate springs of as good water as can be drunke, and where we may har­bour our Shallops and Boates exceeding well, and in this brooke much good fish in their seasons: on the further side of the river also much Corne ground cleared, in one field is a great hill, on which wee poynt to make a plat-forme, and plant our Ordinance, which will command all round about, from thence we may see into the Bay, and farre into the Sea, and we may see thence Cape Cod: our greatest labour will be fetching of our wood, which is halfe a quarter of an English myle, but there is enough so farre off; what people inhabite here we yet know not, for as yet we haue seene none, so there we made our Randevous, and a place for some of our people about twentie, resolving in the morning to come all ashore, and to build houses, but the next morning being Thursday the 21. of December, it was stormie and wett, that we could not goe ashore, and those that remained there all night could doe nothing, but were wet, not having dai-light enough to make them a sufficient court of gard, to keepe them dry. All that night it blew and rayned extreamely▪ [Page 24] it was so tempestuous, that the Shallop could not goe on land so soone as was meet, for they had no victuals on land. About [...]. a Clocke the Shallop went off with much adoe with provision, but could not returne it blew so strong, and was such foule weather, that we were forced to let fall our Anchor, and ride with three Anchors an head.

Friday the 22. the storme still continued, that we could not get a-land, nor they come to vs aboord: this morning Good wife Alderton was delivered of a sonne, but dead borne.

Saturday the 23. so many of vs as could, went on shore, felled and carried tymber, to provide themselues stuffe for building.

Sunday the 24. our people on shore heard a cry of some Savages (as they thought) which caused an Alarm, and to stand on their gard, expecting an assault, but all was quiet.

Munday the 25. day, we went on shore, some to fell tymber, some to saw, some to ri [...]e, and some to carry, so no man rested all that day, but towards night some as they were at worke, heard a noyse of some Indians, which caused vs all to goe to our Muskets, but we heard no further, so we came aboord againe, and left some twentie to keepe the court of gard; that night we had a sore storme of winde and rayne.

Munday the 25. being Christmas day, we began to drinke water aboord, but at night the Master caused vs to haue some Beere, and so on boord we had diverse times now and then some Beere, but on shore none at all.

Tuesday the 26. it was foule weather, that we could not goe ashore.

Wednesday the 27. we went to worke againe.

Thursday the 28. of December, so many as could went to worke on the hill, where we purposed to build our platforme for our Ordinance, and which doth command all the plaine, and the B [...]y, and from whence we may see farre into the sea, and might he easier impayled, having two rowes of houses and a faire streete. So in the afternoone we went to mea­sure out the grounds, and first, we tooke notice how many [Page 25] Families they were, willing all single men that had no wiues to ioyne with some Familie, as they thought fit, that so we might build fewer houses, which was done, and we reduced them to 19. Families; to greater Families we allotted larger plots, to every person halfe a pole in breadth, and three in length, and so Lots were cast where euery man should lie, which was done, and staked out; we thought this propor­tion was large enough at the first, for houses and gardens, to impale them round, considering the weaknes of our peo­ple, many of them growing ill with coldes, for our former Discoveries in frost and stormes, and the wading at Cape Cod had brought much weakenes amongst vs, which increa­sed so every day more and more, and after was the cause of many of their deaths.

Fryday and Saturday, we fitted our selues for our labour, but our people on shore were much troubled and discoura­ged with rayne and wett that day, being very stormie and cold; we saw great smokes of fire made by the Indians about six or seaven myles from vs as we coniectured.

Munday the first of Ianuary, we went betimes to worke, we were much hundred in lying so farre off from the Land, and faine to goe as the tyde served, that we lost much time, for our Ship drew so much water, that she lay a myle and al­most a halfe off, though a ship of seaventie or eightie tun as high water may come to the shore.

Wednesday the third of Ianuary, some of our people be­ing abroad, to get and gather thatch, they saw great fires of the Indians, and were at then Corne fields, yet saw none of the Savages, nor had seene any of them since wee came to th [...]s Bay.

Thursday the fourth of Ianuary, Captaine Miles Standish with foure or fiue more, went to see if they could meet with any of the Savages in that place where the fires were made, they went to some of their houses, but not lately inhabited, yet could they not meete with any; as they came home, they shot at an Eagle and killed her, which was excellent meat; It was hardly to be discerned from Mutton.

[Page 26]Fryday the fifth of Ianuary, one of the Saylers found aliue vpon the shore an Hering, which the Master had to his sup­per, which put vs in hope of fish, but as yet we had got but [...] Cod; we wanted small hookes.

Saturday the sixt of Ianuary, Master Marten was very sicke, and to our iudgement, no hope of life, so Master Carver was sent for to come abourd to speake with him about his ac­compts, who came the next morning.

Munday the eight day of Ianuary, was a very fayre day, and we went betimes to worke, master Iones sent the Shallop as he had formerly done, to see where fish could be got, they had a great storme at Sea, and were in some danger, at night they returned with three great Seales, and an excellent good Cod, which did assure vs that we should haue plentie of fish shortly.

This day, Francis Billington, having the weeke before seene from the top of a tree on an hie hill, a great sea as he thought, went with one of the Masters mates to see it, they went three myles, and then came to a great water, devided into two great Lakes, the bigger of them fiue or sixe myles in circuit, and in it an Ile of a Cable length square, the other three miles in compasse; in their estimation they are fine fresh water, full of fish, and foule; a brooke issues from it, it will be an ex­cellent helpe for vs in time. They found seaven or eight Indian houses, but not lately inhabited, when they saw the houses they were in some feare, for they were but two persons and one peece.

Tuesday the 9. Ianuary, was a reasonable faire day, and wee went to labour that day in the building of our Towne, in two rowes of houses for more safety: we devided by lott the plot of ground whereon to build our Towne: Af­ter the proportion formerly allotted, wee agreed that every man should build his owne house, thinking by that course, men would make more hast then working in common: the common house, in which for the first, we made our Rende­vous, being neere finished wanted onely couering, it being about 20. foote square, some should make morter, and [Page 27] some gather thatch, so that in foure dayes halfe of it was that­ched, frost and foule weather hindred vs much, this time of the yeare seldome could wee worke halfe the weeke.

Thursday the eleuenth, William Bradford being at worke, (for it was a faire day) was vehemently taken with a griefe and paine, and so shot to his huckle-bone; It was doubted that he would haue instantly dyed, hee got colde in the for­mer discoveries, especially the last, and felt some paine in his anckles by times, but he grew a little better towards night and in time through Gods mercie in the vse of meanes reco­vered.

Friday the 12. we went to worke, but about noone, it began to raine, that it forced vs to giue over worke.

This day, two of our people put vs in great sorrow and care, there was 4. sent to gather and cut thatch in the mor­ning, and two of them, Iohn Goodman and Peter Browne, having cut thatch all the fore noone, went to a further place, and willed the other two, to binde vp that which was cut and to follow them; so they did, being about a myle and an halfe from our Plantation: but when the two came af­ter, they could not finde them, nor heare any thing of them at all, though they hallowed and shouted as loud as they could, so they returned to the Company and told them of it: whereupon Master Leaver & three or foure more went to seeke them, but could heare nothing of them, so they retur­ning, sent more, but that night they could heare nothing at all of them: the next day they armed 10. or 12. men out, verily thinking the Indians had surprised them, they went seeking 7. or 8 myles, but could neither see nor heare any thing at all, so they returned with much discomfort to vs all. These two that were missed, at dinner time tooke their mea [...]e in their hands, and would goe walke and re­fresh themselues, so going a litle off they finde a lake of wa­ter▪ and having a great Mastiffe bitch with them and a Span­nell; by the water side they found a great Deere the Dogs chased him, and they followed so farre as they lost them­selues, and could not finde the [...] way backe, they wandred [Page 26] [...] [Page 27] [...] [Page 28] all that after noone being wett, and at night it did freeze and snow, they were slenderly apparelled and had no wea­pons but each one his Cicle, nor any victuals, they ranged vp and downe and could finde none of the Salvages habi­tation [...]; when it drew to night they were much perplexed, for they could finde neither harbour nor meate, but in frost and snow, were forced to make the earth their bed, and the Element their covering, and another thing did very much terrifie them, they heard as they thought two Lyons roaring exceedingly for a long time together, and a third, that they thought was very nere them, so not knowing what to do they resolved to climbe vp into a tree as their safest refuge, though that would prone an intollerable colde lodging; so they stoode at the trees roote, that when the Lyons came they might take their opportunitie of climbing vp, the bitch they were faine to hold by the necke, for shee would haue beene gone to the Lyon; but it pleased God so to dispose, that the wilde Beastes came not: so they walked vp and downe vn­der the Tree all night, it was an extreame colde night, so soone as it was light they trauailed againe, passing by many lakes and brookes and woods, and in one place where the Salvages had burnt the space of 5. myles in length, which is a fine Champion Countrey, and even. In the after-noone, it pleased God from an high Hill they discovered the two Iles in the Bay, and so that night got to the Plantation, be­ing ready to faint with travaile and want of victuals, and almost famis [...]ed with colde, Iohn Goodman was faine to haue his shooes cut off his feete they were so swelled with colde, and it was a long while after ere he was able to goe▪ those on the shore were much comforted at their returne, but they on ship-boord were grieved as deeming them lost; but the next day being the 14. of Ianuary, in the morning about sixe of the clocke the winde being very great, they on ship-boord spied their great new R [...]ndevous on fire, which was to them a new discomfort, fearing because of the supposed losse of the men, that the Salvages had fiered them, neither could they presently goe to them for want of water, but af­ter [Page 29] 3. quarters of an houre they went, as they had purposed the day before to keepe the Sabboth on shore, because now there was the greater number of people. At their landing they heard good tidings of the returne of the 2. men, and that the house was fiered occasionally by a sparke that flew into the thatch, which instantly burnt it all vp, but the roofe stood and little hurt; the most losse was Maister Carvers and William Bradfords, who then lay sicke in bed, and if they had not risen with good speede, had beene blowne vp with pow­der: but through Gods mercy they had no harme, the house was as full of beds as they could lie one by another, and their Muskets charged, but blessed be God there was no harme done.

Munday the 15. day, it rayned much all day, that they on ship-boord could not goe on shore, nor they on shore doe a­ny labour but were all wet.

Tuesday, wednesday, thursday, were very faire Sun-shinie dayes, as if it had beene in Aprill, and our people so many as were in health ought chearefully.

The 19. day, we resolved to make a Shed, to put our com­mon provision in, of which some were alreadie set on shore, but at noone it rayned, that we could not worke. This day in the evening, Iohn Goodman went abroad to vse his lame feete, that were pittifully ill with the cold he had got, having a little Spannell with him, a little way from the Plantation, two great Wolues ran after the Dog, the Dog ran to him and betwixt his leggs for succour, he had nothing in his hand but tooke vp a sticke, and threw at one of them and hit him, and they presently ran both away, but came againe, he got a pai [...]e bord in his hand, and they sat both on their tayles, grinning at him, a good while, and went their way, and left him.

Saturday 20. we made vp our Shed for our common goods.

Sunday the 21. we kept our meeting on Land.

Munday the 22. was a faire day, we wrought on our hou­ses, and in the after-noone carried vp our hogsheads of meale to our common store house.

[Page 30]The rest of the weeke we followed our businesse likewise.

Munday the 29. in the morning cold frost and sleete, but after reasonable fayre▪ both the long Boate and the Shallop brought our common goods on shore.

Tuesday and wednesday 30. and 31. of Ianuary, cold frosty weather and sleete, that we could not worke: in the morning the Master and others saw two Savages, that had beene on the Iland nere our Ship, what they came for wee could not tell, they were going so farre backe againe before they were des [...]ried, that we could not speake with them.

Sunday the 4. of February, was very wett and rainie, with the greatest gusts of winde that ever we had since wee came forth, that though we rid in a very good harbour, yet we were in danger, because our Ship was light, the goods taken out, and she vnballased; and it caused much daubing of our hou­ses to fall downe.

Fryday the 9. still the cold weather continued, that wee could doe little worke. That after-noone our little house for our sicke people was set on fire by a sparke that kindled in the roofe, but no great harme was done. That evening the ma­ster going ashore, killed fiue Geese, which he friendly distri­buted among the sicke people; he found also a good Deere killed, the Savages had cut off the hornes, and a Wolfe was eating of him, how he came there we could not conceiue.

Friday the 16. day, was a faire day, but the northerly wind continued, which continued the frost, this day after-noone one of our people being a fouling, and having taken a stand by a creeke side in the Reeds, about a myle and an halfe from our Plantation, there came by him twelue Indians, marching towards our Plantation, & in the woods he heard the noyse of many more▪ he lay close till they were passed, and then with what speed he could he went home & gaue the Alarm, so the people abroad in the woods returned & armed them­selues, but say none of them, onely toward the euening they made a great fire, about the place where they were first discovered: Captaine Miles Standish, and Francis Cooke, be­ing at worke in the Woods, comming home, left their [Page 31] tooles behind them, but before they returned, their tooles were taken away by the Savages. This comming of the Sa­vages gaue vs occasion to keepe more strict watch, and to make our peeces and furniture readie, which by the moysture and rayne were out of temper.

Saturday the 17 day, in the morning we called a meeting for the establishing of military Orders amongst our selues, and we chose Miles Standish our Captaine, and gaue him au­thoritie of command in affayres: and as we were in consul­tation here abouts, two Savages presented themselues vpon the top of an hill, over against our Plantation, about a quar­ter of a myle and lesse, and made signes vnto vs to come vn­to them; we likewise made signes vnto them to come to vs, whereupon we armed our selues, and stood readie, and sent two over the brooke towards them, to wit, Captaine Stan­dish and Steven Hopkins, who went towards them, onely one of them had a Musket, which they layd downe on the ground in their sight, in signe of peace, and to parley with them, but the Savages would not tarry their comming: a noyse of a great many more was heard behind the hill, but no more came in sight. This caused vs to plant our great Ordinances in places most convenient.

Wednesday the 21. of February, the master came on shore with many of his Saylers, and brought with him one of the great Peeces, called a Minion, and helped vs to draw it vp the hill, with another Peece that lay on shore, and mounted them, and a saller and two bases; he brought with him a ve­ry fat Goose to eate with vs, and we had a fat Crane, and a Mallerd, and a dry'd neats-tongue, and so wee were kindly and friendly together.

Saturday the third of March, the winde was South, the morning mistie, but towards noone warme and fayre wea­ther; the Birds sang in the Woods most pleasantly; at one of the Clocke it thundred, which was the first wee heard in that Countrey, it was strong and great claps, but short, but after an houre it rayned very sadly till midnight.

Wednesday the seaventh of March, the wind was full East, [Page 32] cold, but faire, that day Master Carver with fiue other went to the great Ponds, which seeme to be excellent fishing pla­ces; all the way they went they found it exceedingly beaten and haunted with Deere, but they saw none; amongst other foule, they saw one a milke white foule, with a very blacke [...]ad: this day some garden seeds were sowen.

Fryday the 16. a fayre warme day towards; this morning we determined to conclude of the military Orders, which we had began to consider of before, but were interrupted by the Savages, as we mentioned formerly; and whilst we were bu [...]ed here about, we were interrupted againe, for there presented himselfe a Savage, which caused an Alarm, he ve­ry boldly came all alone and along the houses straight to the Randevous, where we intercepted him▪ not suffering him to goe in, as vndoubtedly he would, out of his boldnesse, hee saluted vs in English, and bad vs well-come, for he had lear­ned some broken English amongst the English men that came to fish at Monchiggon, and knew by name the most of the Captaines, Commanders, & Masters, that vsually come, he was a man free in speech, so farre as he could expresse his minde▪ and of a seemely carriage, we questioned him of ma­ny things, he was the first Savage we could meete withall; he sayd he was not of these parts, but of Morattiggon, and one of the Sagamores or Lords thereof, and had beene 8. moneths in these parts, it lying hence a dayes sayle with a great wind, and fiue dayes by land; he discoursed of the whole Country, and of every Province, and of their Sagamores, and their number of men, and strength▪ the wind beginning to rise a little, we cast a horsemans coat about him, for he was starke naked, onely a leather about his wast, with a fringe about a span long, or little more; he had a bow & 2 arrowes, the one [...]eaded, and the other vnheaded; he was a tall straight man, the haire of his head blacke, long behind, onely short before, none on his face at all; he asked some beere, but we gaue him strong water, and bisket, and butter, and cheese, & pudding, and a peece of a mallerd, all which he liked well, and had bin acquainted with such amongst the English; he told vs the [Page 33] place where we now liue, is called, Patuxe [...], and that abou [...] foure yeares agoe, all the Inhabitants dyed of an extraordi­nary plague, and there is neither man, woman, nor childe remaining as indeed we haue found none, so as there is none to hinder our possession, or to lay claime vnto it; all the after­noone we spent in communication with him, we would glad­ly haue beene rid of him at night, but he was not willing to goe this night, then we thought to carry him on ship-boord, wherewith he was well content, and went into the Shallop, but the winde was high and water scant, that it could not returne backe: we lodged him that night at Steven Hopkins house, and watched him; the next day he went away backe to the Masasoits, from whence he sayd he came, who are our next bordering neighbours: they are sixtie strong, as he sayth▪ the Nausites are as neere South-east of them, and are a hundred strong, and those were they of whom our people were encountred, as we before related. They are much in­censed and provoked against the English, and about eyght moneths agoe slew three English men and two more hardly escaped by flight to Monhiggon; they were Sir Ferdinando Gorge his men, as this Savage told vs, as he did likewise of the Huggerie, that is, Fight, that our discoverers had with the Nausites, & of our tooles that were taken out of the woods, which we willed him should be brought againe, otherwise, we would right our selues. These people are ill affected to­wards the English, by reason of one Hunt, a master of a ship, who deceived the people, and got them vnder colour of [...]ruk­ing with them, twentie out of this very place where we inha­bite, and seaven men from the Nausites, and carried them away, and sold them for slaues like a wretched man (for 20. pound a man) that cares not what mischiefe he doth for hi [...] profit.

Saturday in the morning we dismissed the Salvage, and gaue him a knife, a bracelet, and a ring; he promised within a night or two to come againe▪ and to bring with him some of the Massasoyts our neighbours, with such Beuers skins as they had to trucke with vs.

[Page 34]Saturday and Sunday reasonable fayre dayes. On this day came againe the Savage, and brought with him fiue other tall proper men, they had every man a Deeres skin on him, and the principall of them had a wild Cats skin, or such like on the one arme; they had most of them long hosen vp to their groynes, close made; and aboue their groynes to their wast another leather, they were altogether like the Irish-trou­ses; they are of complexion like our English Gipseys, no haire or very little on their faces, on their heads long haire to their shoulders, onely cut before some trussed vp before with a feather, broad wise, like a fanne, another a fox tayle hanging out: these left (according to our charge giuen him before) their Bowes and Arrowes a quarter of a myle from our Towne, we gaue them entertaynement as we thought was sitting them, they did eate liberally of our English victuals, they made semblance vnto vs of friendship and amitie; they song & danced after their maner like Anticks; they brought with them in a thing like a Bow-case (which the principall of them had about his wast) a little of their Corne pownded to Powder, which put to a little water they eate; he had a little Tobacco in a bag, but none of them drunke but when he li­sted, some of them had their faces paynted blacke, from the forehead to the chin, foure or fiue fingers broad; others af­ter other fashions, as they liked; they brought three or foure skins, but we would not trucke with them at all that day, but wished them to bring more, and we would trucke for all, which they promised within a night or two, and would leaue these behind them, though we were not willing they should, and they brought vs all our tooles againe which were taken in the Woods, in our mens absence, so because of the day we dismissed them so soone as we could. But Samoset our first acquaintance, eyther was sicke, or fayned himselfe so, and would not goe with them and stayed with vs till Wednesday morning: Then we sent him to them, to know the reason they came not according to their words, and we gaue him an hat, a payre of stockings and shooes, a shirt, and a peece of cloth to tie about his wast.

[Page 35]The Sabboth day, when we sent them from vs, wee gaue every one of them some trifles, especially, the principall of them, we carried them along with our Armes to the place where they left their Bowes and Arrowes, whereat they were amazed, and two of them began to slinke away, but that the other called them, when they tooke their Arrowes, we bad them farewell, and they were glad, and so with ma­ny thankes giuen vs they departed, with promise they would come againe.

Munday and tuesday proved fayre dayes, we digged on [...] grounds, and sowed our garden seeds.

Wednesday a fine warme day, we sent away Samose [...].

That day we had againe a meeting, to conclude of lawes and orders for our selues, and to confirme those Military Orders that were formerly propounded, and twise broken off by the Savages comming, but so we were againe the third time, for after we had beene an houre together, on the top of the hill over against vs two or three Savages presented them­selues, that made semblance of daring vs, as we thought, so Captaine Standish with another, with their Muskets went o­ver to them, with two of the masters mates that follows them without Armes, having two Muskets with them, they wher­ted and rubbed their Arrowes and Strings, and made shew of defiance, but when our men drew nere them, they ranne away. Thus we were againe interrupted by them; this day with much adoe we got our Carpenter that had beene long sicke of the scurvey, to fit our Shallop, to fetch all from a­boord.

Thursday the 22. of March, was a very fayre warme day. About noone we met againe about our publique businesse, but we had scarc [...] beene an houre together, but Samoset came againe, and Squanto. the onely natiue of Patuxat, where we now inhabite, who was one of the twentie Captiues that by Hunt were carried away, and had beene in England & dwelt in Cornehill with master Iohn Sla [...]ie a Marchant, and could speake a little English, with three others, and they brought with them some few skinnes to trucke, and some red Her­rings [Page 36] newly taken and dryed, but not salted, and signified vnto vs, that their great Sagamore Masasoyt was hard by, with Quadequina his brother, and all their men. They could not well expresse in English what they would, but after an houre the King came to the top of an hill over against vs, and had in his trayne sixtie men, that wee could well behold them▪ and they vs: we were not willing to send our gover­nour to them, and they vnwilling to come to vs, so Squanto went againe vnto him, who brought word that wee should send one to parley with him, which we did, which was Ed­ward Winsloe, to know his mind, and to signifie the mind and will of our governour, which was to haue trading and peace with him. We sent to the King a payre of Kniues, and a Cop­per Chayne, with a Iewell at it. To Quadequina we sent likewise a Knife and a Iewell to hang in his eare, and withall a Pot of strong water, a good quantitie of Bisket, and some butter, which were all willingly accepted: our Messenger made a speech vnto him, that King IAMES saluted him with words of loue and Peace, and did accept of him as his Friend and Alie, and that our Governour desired to see him and to trucke with him, and to confirme a Peace with him, as his next neighbour: he liked well of the speech and heard it attentiuely▪ though the Interpreters did not well expresse it; after he had eaten and drunke himselfe, and giuen the rest to his company, he looked vpon our messengers sword and armour which he had on, with intimation of his desire to buy it, but on the other side, our messenger shewed his vnwil­lingnes to part with it: In the end he left him in the custodie of Quadequina his brother, and came over the brooke, and some twentie men following him, leaving all their Bowes and Arrowes behind them. We kept six or seaven as hostages for our messenger; Captaine Standish and master Williamson met the King at the brooke, with halfe a dosen Musketiers, they saluted him and he them, so one going over, the one on the one side, and the other on the other, conducted him to a [...] house then in building, where we placed a greene Rugge, and three or foure Cushions, then instantly came our [Page 37] Governour with Drumme and Trumpet after him, and some few Musketiers. After salutations, our Governour kissing his hand, the King kissed him, and so they sat downe. The Governour called for some strong water, and drunke to him, and he drunke a great draught that made him sweate all the while after, he called for a little fresh meate, which the King did eate willingly, and did giue his followers. Then they treated of Peace, which was;

  • 1. That neyther he nor any of hi [...] should iniure or doe hurt to any of our people.
    The agree­ments of peace betweene vs and Massasoy [...]
  • 2. And if any of his did hurt to any of ours, he should send the offender, that we might punish him.
  • 3. That if any of our Tooles were taken away when our people were at worke, he should cause them to be restored, and if ours did any harme to any of his, wee would doe the like to them.
  • 4. If any did vniustly warre against him, we would ayde him; If any did warre against vs, he should aydeys.
  • 5. He should send to his neighbour Confederates, to cer­tifie them of this, that they might not wrong vs, but might be likewise comprised in the conditions of Peace.
  • 6. That when their men came to vs, they should leaue their Bowes and Arrowes behind them, as wee should doe our Peeces when we came to them.

Lastly, that doing thu [...], King IAMES would esteeme of him as his friend and Alie: all which the King seemed to like well, and it was applauded of his followers, all the while he sat by the Governour he trembled for feare: In his per­son he is a very lustie man, in his best yeares, an able body, graue of countenance, and spare of speech: In his Attyre little or nothing differing from the rest of his followers, on­ly in a great Chaine of white bone Beades about his necke, and at it behinde his necke, hangs a little bagg of Tobacco, which he dranke and gaue vs to drinke; his face was payn­ted with a sad red like murry, and oyled both head and face, that hee looked greasily; All his followers likewise, were in their faces, in part or in whole painted, some blacke, some [Page 38] red, some yellow, and some white, some with crosses, and other Antick workes, some had skins on them, and some naked, all strong, tall, all men in appearance: so after all was done, the Governour conducted him to the Brooke, and there they embraced each other and he departed: we dili­gently keeping our hostages, wee expected our messengers comming, but anon word was brought vs, that Quaddequina was comming, and our messenger was stayed till his returne, who presently came and a troupe with him, so likewise wee entertained him, and convayed him to the place prepared; he was very fearefull of our peeces, and made signes of dis­like, that they should be carried away, whereupon Comman­dement was given, they should be layd away. He was a ve­ry proper tall young man, of a very modest and seemely countenance, and he did kindely like of our entertainement, so we convayed him likewise as wee did the King, but diuers of their people stayed still, when hee was returned, then they dismissed our messenger. Two of his people would haue stayed all night, but we would not suffer it: one thing I for­got, the King had in his bosome hanging in a string, a great long knife, hee marveiled much at our Trumpet, and some of [...]men would sound it as well as they could, Samoset and Squanto, they stayed al night with vs, and the King and al his men lay all night in the woods, not aboue halfe an English myle from vs, and all their wiues and women with them, they sayd that within 8. or 9. dayes, they would come and set corne on the other side of the Brooke, and dwell there all Summer, which is hard by vs: That night we kept good watch, but there was no appearance of danger; the next morning divers of their people came over to vs, hoping to get some victuales as wee imagined, som of them told vs the King would haue some of vs come see him; Captaine Stan­dish and Isaack Alderton went venterously, who were wel­commed of him after their manner: he gaue them three or foure ground Nuts, and some Tobacco. Wee cannot yet conceiue, but that he is willing to haue peace with vs, for they haue seene our people sometimes alone two or three in [Page 39] the woods at worke and fowling, when as they offered them no harme as they might easily haue done, and especially because hee hath a potent Adversary the N [...]h [...]g [...]seis, that are at warre with him, against whom hee thinkes wee may be some strength to him, for our peeces are terrible vn­to them; this morning, they stayed till ten or eleuen of the Clocke, and our Governour bid them send the Kings kettle, and filled it full of pease, which pleased them well, and so they went their way.

Fryday was a very faire day, Samoset and Squanto still re­mained with vs, Squanto went at noone to fish for Eeles, at night he came home with as many as he could well lift in one hand, which our people were glad of, they were fat & sweet, he trod them out with his feete, and so caught them with his hands without any other Instrument,

This day we proceeded on with our common businesse, from which we had beene so often hindred by the Salvage [...] comming, and concluded both of Military orders, and of some Lawes and Orders as wee thought be­hoofefull for our present estate, and condition, and did likewise choose our Governour for this yeare, which was Master Iohn Carver a man well approo­ved amongst vs.

A IOVRNEY TO PACKANOKIK, The Habitation of the Great King MASSASOYT. As also our Message, the Answere and intertaine­ment wee had of HIM.

IT seemed good to the Company for ma­ny considerations to send some amongst them to Massasoyt, the greatest Com­mander amongst the Savages, borde­ring about vs; partly to know where to find them, if occasion served, as also to see their strength, discover the Country, prevent abuses in their disorderly comming vnto vs, make satisfaction for some conceived jniuries to be done on our parts, and to continue the league of Peace and Friendship betweene them and vs. For these, and the like ends, it pleased the Governour to make choice of Steven Hopkins, & Edward Winslo [...] to goe vnto him, and having a fit opportunitie, by reason of a Savage, called Tisquantum (that could speake English) comming vnto vs; with all expedition provided a Horse-mans coat, of red Cotton, and laced with a slight lace for a present, that both they and their message might be the more acceptable amongst them. The Message was as fol­loweth; That forasmuch as his subiects came often and without feare, vpon all occasions amongst vs, so wee were now come vnto him, and in witnesse of the loue and good will the English beare vnto him, the Governour hath sent him a coat, desiring that the Peace and Amitte that was [Page 41] betweene them and vs might be continued, not that we fea­red them, but because we intended not to iniure any, desiring to liue peaceably: and as with all men, so especially with them our neerest neighbours. But whereas his people came very often, and very many together vnto vs, bringing for the most part their wiues and children with them, they were well come; yet we being but strangers as yet at Patuxet, alias New Plimmoth, and not knowing how our Corne might prosper, we could no longer giue them such entertainment as we had done, and as we desired still to doe: yet if he would be pleased to come himselfe, or any speciall friend of his desired to see vs, comming from him they should be well­come; and to the end wee might know them from others, our Governour had sent him a copper Chayne, desiring if a­ny Messenger should come from him to vs, we might know him by bringing it with him, and hearken and giue credite to his Message accordingly. Also requesting him that such as haue [...]kin [...], should bring them to vs, and that he would hinder the multitude from oppressing vs with them. And whereas as our first arrivall at Pao [...]i [...]t (called by vs Cape [...]od) we found there Corne buried in the ground, and finding no inhabitants but some graues of dead now buryed, tooke the Corne, resolving if ever we could heare of any that had right thereunto, to make satisfaction to the full for it, yet since we vnderstand the owners thereof were fled for feare of vs, our desire was either to pay them with the like quantitie of corne, English meale, or any other Commodities we had to plea­sure them withall; requesting him that some one of his men might signifie so much vnto them, and wee would content him for his paines. And last of all, our Gouernour requested one favour of him, which was, that he would exchange some of their Corne for seede with us, that we might make tryall which best agreed with the foyle where we liue.

With these presents and message we set forward the tenth Iune, about 9. a clocke in the Morning, our guide resol­ving that night to rest at Namasches, a Towne vnder Massa­soyt, and conceived by vs to bee very neere, because the [Page 42] Inhabitants flocked so thicke vpon every slight occasion a­mongst vs: but wee found it to bee some fifteene English myles. On the way we found some ten or twelue men wo­men and children, which had pestered vs, till wee were wea­rie of them, perceiving that (as the manner of them all is) where victuall is easiliest to be got, there they liue, especially in the Summer: by reason whereof our [...]ay affording ma­ny Lobsters, they resort every spring tide thither: & now re­turned with vs to Namaschet. Thither we came about 3. a clock after noone▪ the Inhabitants entertaining vs with ioy, in the best manner they could, giving vs a kinde of bread cal­led by them Maixium, and the spawne of Shade, which then they got in abundance, in so much as they gaue vs spoones to eate them, with these they boyled mustie Acorns, but of the Shads we eate heartily. After this they desired one of our men to shoote at a Crow, complaining what damage they sustained in their Corne by them, who shooting some fourescore off and killing, they much admired it, as other shots on other occasions. After this Tisquantum told vs we should hardly in one day reach Pakanokick, moving vs to goe some 8. myles further, where we should finde more store and better victuals then there: Being willing to hasten our Iourney we went, and came thither at Sunne setting, where we found many of the Namaschecks (they so calling the men of Namaschet) fishing vppon a Ware which they had made on a River which belonged to them, where they caught a­bundance of Basse. These welcommed vs also, gaue vs of their fish, and we them of our victuals, not doubting but w [...] should haue enough where ere we came. There we lodged in the open fieldes: for houses they had none, though they spent the most of the Summer there. The head of this Ri­ver is reported to bee not farre from the place of our abode, vpon it are, and haue beene many Townes, it being a good length. The ground [...] good on both sides, it being for the most part cleered: Thousands of men have lived there, which dyed in a great plague not long since: and pitty it was and is to [...]ee, so many goodly, fieldes, & so well seated, with­out [Page 43] men to dresse and manure the same. Vppon this River dwelleth Massasoyt: It commeth into the Sea at the Nar­rohiganset Bay, where the French men so much vse. A shipp may goe many myles vp it, as the Salvages report, and a shal­lop to the head of it: but so farre as wee saw, wee are sure a Shallop may.

But to returne to our Iourney: The next morning wee brake our fast, tooke our leaue and departed, being then ac­companied with some sixe Salvages, having gone about sixe myles by the Riverside, at a knowne shole place, it beeing low water, they spake to vs to put off our breeches, for wee must wade thorow. Heere let me not forget the vallour and courrage of some of the Salvage [...], on the opposite side of the river, for there were remaining aliue only 2. men, both aged, especially the one being aboue threescore; These two espy­ing a company of men entring the River, ran very swiftly & low in the grasse to meete vs at the banck, where with sh [...]ll voyces and great courage standing charged vppon vs with their bowes, they demaunded what we were, supposing vs to be enemies, and thinking to take advantage on vs in the water: but seeing we were friends, they welcommed vs with such foode as they had, and we bestowed a small bracelet of Beades on them. Thus farre wee are sure the [...]ide [...]bs and flowes.

Having here againe refreshed our selves we proceeded in our Iourney, the weather being very hote for travell, yet the Country so well watered that a man could scarce be drie, but he should haue a spring at hand to coole his thirst, beside smal Rivers in abundance: But the Salvages will not willingly drinke, but at a spring head. When wee came to any small Brooke where no bridge was, two of them desired to carry vs through of their owne accords, also fearing wee were or would be weary, offered to carry our peeces, also if we would lay off any of our clothes, we should haue them carried: and as the one of them had found more speciall kindnesse from one of the Messengers, and the other Salvage from the other so they shewed their thankefulnesse accordingly in affor­ding [Page 44] v [...] all helpe, and furtherance in the Iourney.

As we passed along, we observed that there were few pla­ces by the River, but had beene inhabited, by reason where­of, much ground was cleare, saue of weedes which grewe higher then our heads. There is much good Timber both Oake, Wallnut-tree, Firre, Beech, and exceeding great Chessnut-trees. The Country in respect of the lying of it, is both Champani [...] and hilly, like many places in England. In some places its very rockie both aboue ground and in it: And though the Countrey bee wilde and over-growne with woods, yet the trees stand not thicke, but a man may well ride a horse amongst them.

Passing on at length, one of the Company an Indian espi­ed a man, and [...]old the rest of it, we asked them if they fea [...]ed any, they told vs that if they were Narrohigganset, men they would not trust them, whereat, we called for our peeces and bid them not to feare; for though they were twenty, we two alone would not care for them: but they hayling him, hee prooved a friend, and had onely two women with him: their baskets were empty, but they fetched water in their bottels, so that we dranke with them and departed. After we met a­nother man with other two women, which had beene at Rand [...]vow by the salt water, and their baskets were full of rosted Crab fishes, and other dryed shell fish, of which they gaue vs, and wee eate and dranke with them: and gaue each of the women a string of Beades, and departed.

After wee came to a Towne of Massasoyts, where we eat Oysters and other fish. From thence we went to Packanokick, but Massasoyt was not at home, there we stayed he being sen [...] for: when newes was brought of his comming, our guide Tis­quantum requested that at our meeting, wee would discharge our peeces, but one of vs going about to charge his peece, the women and children through feare to see him take vpp his peece, ran away, and could not bee p [...]cified, till hee layd it downe againe, who afterward were better informed by our Interpreter.

Massasoyt being come, wee discharged our Peeces, and [Page 45] saluted him, who after their manner kindly well commed vs, and tooke vs into his house, and set vs downe by him, where having delivered our foresayd Message, and Presents, and having put the Coat on his backe, and the Chayne about his necke, he was not a little proud to behold himselfe, and his men also to see their King so brauely attyred.

For answere to our Message, he told vs we were well-come, and he would gladly continue that Peace and Friendship which was betweene him & vs: and for his men they should no more pester vs as they had done: Also, that he would send to Paomet, and would helpe vs with Corne for seed, ac­cording to our request.

This being done his men gathered neere to him, to whom he turned himselfe, and made a great Speech; they some­time interposing, and as it were, confirming and applauding him in that he sayd. The meaning whereof was (as farre as we could learne) thus; Was not he Massasoyt Comman­der of the Countrey about them? Was not such a Towne his and the people of it? and should they not bring their skins vnto vs? To which they answered, they were his & would be at peace with vs, and bring their skins to vs. After this manner, he named at least thirtie places, and their answere was as aforesayd to every one: so that as it was delightfull, it was tedious vnto vs.

This being ended, he lighted Tobacco for vs, and fell to discoursing of England, & of the Kings Maiestie, marvayling that he would liue without a wife. Also he talked of the French-men, bidding vs not to suffer them to come to Nar­rohiganset, for it was King IAMES his Countrey, and he al­so was King IAMES his man. Late it grew, but victualls he offered none; for indeed he had not any, being he came so newly home. So we desired to goe to rest: he layd vs on the bed with himselfe and his wife, they at the one end and we at the other, it being onely plancks layd a foot from the ground, and a thin Mat vpon them. Two more of his chiefe men for want of roome pressed by and vpon vs; so that we were worse weary of our lodging then of our iourney.

[Page 46]The next day being Thursday, many of their Sachims, or petty Governours came to see vs, and many of their men also. There they went to their manner of Games for skins and kniues. There we challenged them to shoote with them for skins: but they durst not: onely they desired to see one of vs shoote at a marke, who shooting with Haile-shot, they wondred to see the marke so full of holes. About one a clocke, Massasoyt brought two fishes that he had shot, they were like B [...]ame but three times so bigge, and better meate. These being boyled there were at lest fortie looked for share in them, the most eate of them: This meale onely we had in two nights and a day, and had not one of vs bought a Par­tridge, we had taken our Iourney fasting: Very importunate he was to haue vs stay with them longer: But wee desired to keepe the Sabboth at home: and feared we should either be light-headed for want of sleepe, for what with had lodging, the Savages barbarous singing, (for they vse to sing them­selues asleepe) lice and [...]leas within doores, and Muskeetoes without, wee could hardly sleepe all the time of our being there; we much fearing, that if wee should stay any longer, we should not be able to recover home for want of strength. So that on the Fryday morning before Sun-rising, we tooke ou [...] leaue and departed, Massasoyt being both grieved and ashamed, that he could no better entertaine vs: and retaining Tisquantum to send from place to place to procure t [...]ucke for vs: and appointing another, called Tokamahamon in his place, whom we had found faithfull before and after vpon all oc­casions.

At this towne of Massasoyts, where we before eate, wee were againe refreshed with a little fish; and bought about a handfull of Meale of their parched Corne, which was very precious at that time of the yeere, and a small string of dryed shell-fish, as big as Oysters. The latter we gaue to the sixe Savages that accompanied vs, keeping the Meale for our selues, when we dranke we eate each a spoonefull of it with a Pipe of Tobacco, in stead of other victuals; and of this al­so we could not but giue them so long as it lasted. Fiue myles [Page 47] they led vs to a house out of the way in hope of victualls: but we found no body there, and so were but worse able to returne home. That night we reached to the wire where we lay before, but the Namascheusks were returned: so that we had no hope of any thing there. One of the Savages had shot a Shad in the water, and a small Squirrill as big as a Rat, cal­led a Neuxis, the one halfe of either he gaue vs, and after went to the wire to fish. From hence we wrote to Plimouth, and sent Tokamahamon before to Namasket, willing him from thence to send another, that he might meet vs with food at Namasket. Two men now onely remained with vs, and it pleased God to giue them good store of fish, so that we were well refreshed. After supper we went to rest, and they to fishing againe: more they gat and fell to eating a fresh, and retayned sufficient readie rost for all our break-fasts. About two a Clocke in the morning, arose a great storme of wind, raine, lightning, and thunder, in such violent manner, that we could not keepe in our fire; and had the Savages not ro­sted fish when we were asleepe, we had set forward fasting: for the raine still continued with great violence, even the whole day thorow, till wee came within two myles of home.

Being wett and weary, at length we came to Namaschet, there we refreshed our selues, giuing gifts to all such as had shewed vs any kindnesse. Amongst others one of the sixe that came with vs from Packanokik having before this on the way vnkindly forsaken vs, marvayled we gaue him nothing, and told vs what he had done for vs; we also told him of some discurtesies he offered vs, whereby he deserved no­thing, yet we gaue him a small trifle: wherevpon he offered vs Tobacco: but the house being full of people, we told them hee stole some by the way, and if it were of that we would not take it: For we would not receiue that which was stolne vpon any termes; if we did, our God would be angry with vs, and destroy vs. This abashed him, and gaue the rest great content: but at our departure he would needs carry him on his backe thorow a River, whom he had formerly in some [Page 48] sort abused. Faine they would haue had vs to lodge there all night: and wondered we would set forth againe in such Weather: but GOD be praysed, wee came safe home that night, though wett, weary, and surbated.

A VOYAGE MADE BY TEN of our Men to the Kingdome of NAVSET, to seeke a Boy that had lost himselfe in the WOODS; With such Accidents as befell vs in that VOYAGE.

THe 11th of Iune we set forth, the weather being very faire: but ere we had bin long at Sea, there arose a storme of wind and raine, with much lightning and thunder, in so much that a spout arose not far from vs: but God be praysed, it dured not long, and we put in that night for Harbour at a place, called Cummaquid, where wee had some hope to finde the Boy. Two Savages were in the Boat with vs, the one was Tisquantum our Interpreter, the other Tokamahamon, a speciall friend. It being night before we came in, we An­chored in the middest of the Bay, where we were drie at a low water. In the morning we espied Savages seeking Lob­sters, and sent our two Interpreters to speake with them, the channell being betweene them; where they told them what we were, and for what we were come, willing them not at all to feare vs, for we would not hurt them. Their answere was, that the Boy was well, but he was at Nauset; yet since wee were there they desired vs to come ashore & eate with them: which as soone as our Boat floated we did: and went sixe a­shore, having foure pledges for them in the Boate. They brought vs to their Sachim or Gouernour, whom they call [Page 50] Iyanough, a man not exceeding twentie-six yeeres of age, but very personable, gentle, courteous, and fayre conditioned, indeed not like a Savage, saue for his attyre; his entertaine­ment was answerable to his parts, and his cheare plentifull and various.

One thing was very grieuous vnto vs at this place; There was an old woman, whom we iudged to be no lesse then an hundred yeeres old, which came to see vs because shee neuer saw English, yet could not behold vs without breaking forth into great passion, weeping and crying excessiuely. We de­maunding the reason of it, they told vs, she had three sons, who when master Hunt was in these parts went aboord his Ship to trade with him, and he carried them Captiues into Spaine (for Tisquantum at that time was carried away also) by which meanes shee was depriued of the comfort of her children in her old age. We told them we were sorry that any English man should giue them that offence, that Hunt was a bad man, and that all the English that heard of it con­demned him for the same: but for vs we would not offer them any such iniury, though it would gaine vs all the skins in the Countrey. So we gaue her some small trifles, which somewhat appeased her.

After dinner we tooke Boat for Nauset, Iyanough and two of his men accompanying vs. Ere we came to Nauset, the day and tyde were almost spent, in so much as we could not goe in with our Shallop: but the Sachim or Governour of Comm [...]quid went a shore and his men with him, we also sent Tisquantum to tell Aspinet the Sachim of Nauset wherefore we came. The Sauages here came very thicke amongst vs, and were earnest with vs to bring in our Boate. But we nei­ther well could, nor yet desired to doe it, because we had lest cause to trust them, being they onely had formerly made an Assault vpon vs in the same place, in time of our Winter Discouery for Habitation. And indeed it was no maruayle they did so, for howsoeuer through snow or otherwise wee saw no houses, yet wee were in the middest of them.

[Page 51]When our boat was a ground they came very thicke, but wee stood therein vpon our guard, not suffering any to en­ter except two: the one being of Maramoick and one of those, whose Corne we had formerly found, we promised him restitution, & desired him either to come to Patuxet for satisfaction, or else we would bring them so much corne a­gaine, hee promised to come, wee vsed him very kindely for the present. Some few skins we gate there but not many.

After Sun-set, Aspinet came with a great traine, & brought the boy with him, one bearing him through the water: hee had not lesse then an hundred with him, the halfe whereof came to the Shallop side vnarmed with him, the other stood aloofe with their bow and arrowes. There he delivered vs the boy, behung with beades, and made peace with vs, wee bestowing a knife on him, and likewise on another that first entertained the Boy and brought him thither. So they de­parted from vs.

Here we vnderstood, that the Narrohigansets had spoyled some of Massasoyts men, and taken him. This strucke some feare in vs, because the Colony was so weakely guarded, the strength thereof being abroad: But we set foorth with resolution to make the best hast home wee could; yet the winde being contrary, having scarce any fresh water least, and at least 16. leagues home, we put in againe for the shore. There we met againe with Iyanough the Sachim of Cūmaquid, and the most of his Towne, both men women & children with him. Hee being still willing to gratifie vs, tooke a run­let and led our men in the darke a great way for water, but could finde none good: yet brought such as there was on his necke with them. In the meane time the women ioyned hand in hand, singing and dancing before the Shallop, the men also shewing all the kindnes they could, Iyanough him­selfe taking a bracelet from about his necke, and hanging it vpon one of vs.

Againe we set out but to small purpose: for wee gat but little homeward; Our water also was very brackish, and not to be drunke.

[Page 52]The next morning, Iyanough espied vs againe and ran after vs; we being resolved to goe to Cummaquid againe to water, tooke him into the Shallop, whose entertainement was not inferiour vnto the former.

The soyle at Nauset and here is alike, even and sandy, not so good for corne as where wee are; Shipps may safely ride in eyther harbour. In the Summer, they abound with fish. Being now wa­tered, we put forth againe, and by Gods providence, came safely home that night.

A IOVRNEY TO THE Kingdome of NAMASCHET in defence of the Great King MASSASOYT against the Nar­rohiggansets, and to revenge the supposed Death of our Interpreter Tisquantum.

AT our returne from Nauset, we found it true, that Massasoyt was put from his Countrey by the Narrohiggansets. Word also was brought vnto vs, that one Coubatant a petty Sachim or Governour vnder Massasoyt (whom they euer feared to be too conver­sant wi [...]h the Narrohiggansets) was at Namaschet, who sought to draw the hearts of Massasoyts subiects from him, speaking also disdainfully of vs, storming at the Peace be­tweene Nauset, Cummaquid, and vs, and at Tisqua [...]tum the worker of it; also at Tokamahamon, and one Hobbamock (two Indians or Lemes, one of which he would trecherously haue murdered a little before, being a speciall and trusty man of Massasoyts) Tokamahamon went to him, but the other two would not; yet put their liues in their hands, priuately went to see if they could heare of their King, and lodging at Na­maschet were discouered to Coubatant, who set a guard to be­set the house and tooke Ti [...]quantum (for he had sayd, if he were dead, the English had lost their tongue) Hobbamock see­ing that Tisquantum was taken, and Coubatant held a knife at his breast, being a strong and stout man, brake from them and came to New-Plimmouth, full of feare and sorrow for Tisquantum, whom he thought to be slaine.

[Page 54]Vpon this Newes the Company assembled together, and resolued on the morrow to send ten men armed to Namas­chet and Hobbamock, for their guide, to reuenge the supposed death of Tisquantum on Coubatant our bitter Enemy, and to retaine N [...]pcof, another Sachim or Gouernour, who was of this confederacy, till we heard, what was become of our friend Massasoyt.

On the morrow we set out ten men Armed, who tooke their iourney as aforesayd, but the day proved very wett. When wee supposed we were within three or foure myles of Namaschet, we went out of the way and stayed there till night, because we would not be discouered. There we con­sulted what to doe, and thinking best to beset the house at mid-night, each was appointed his taske by the Captaine, all men incouraging one another, to the vtmost of their power.

By night our guide lost his way, which much discoura­ged our men, being we were wet, and weary of our armes: but one of our men hauing beene before at Namasch [...]t brought vs into the way againe.

Before we came to the Towne we sat downe and ate such as our Knapsacke affoorded, that being done, wee threw them aside, and all such things as might hinder vs, and so went on and beset the house, according to our last resolu­tion. Those that entred, demaunded if Coubatant were not there: but feare had bereft the Savages of speech. We char­ged them not to stirre, for if Coubatant were not there, we would not meddle with them, if he were, we came principal­ly for him, to be auenged on him for the supposed death of Tisquantum, and other matters: but howsoeuer wee would not at all hurt their women, or children. Notwithstanding some of them pressed out at a priuate doore and escaped, but with some wounds: At length perceiuing our principall ends, they told vs Coubatant was returned with all his traine, and that Tisquantum was yet liuing, and in the towne offering some Tobacco▪ other such as they had to eate. In this hurley burley we discharged two Peeces at randome, which much [Page 55] terrified all the Inhabitants, except Tisquantum and Tokama­hamon, who though they knew not our end in comming, yet assured them of our honesty, that we would not hurt them. Those boyes that were in the house seeing our care of women, often cryed Neensqua [...]s, that is to say, I am a Wo­man: the Women also hanging vpon Hobbamock, calling him Towam, that is, Friend. But to be short, we kept them we had, and made them make a fire that we might see to search the house. In the meane time, Hobbamock gat on the top of the house, and called Tisquantum and Tokamahamon, which came vnto vs accompanied with others, some armed and others naked. Those that had Bowes and Arrowes we tooke them away, promising them againe when it was day. The house we tooke for our better safegar [...] released those we had taken, manifesting whom we came for and wherefore.

On the next morning we marched into the middest of the Towne, and went to the house of Tisquantum to break­fast. Thither came all whose hearts were vpright towardes vs, but all Coubatants faction were fled away. There in the middest of them we manifested againe our intendment, assuring them, that although Coubatant had now escaped vs, yet there was no place should secure him and his from vs if he continued his threatning vs, and prouoking others a­gainst vs, who had kindly entertained him, and neuer in­tended euill towards him till he now so iustly deserued it. Moreover, if Massasoyt did not returne in safetie from Narrohigganset, or if hereafter he should make any insurrec­tion against him, or offer violence to Tisquantum, Hobba­mock, or any of Massasoyts Subiects, we would revenge it vpon him, to the ouer-throw of him and his. As for those were wounded, we were sorry for it, though them­selues procured it in not staying in the house at our com­mand: yet if they would returne home with vs, our Surgeon should heale them.

At this offer, one man and a woman that were wounded went home with vs, Tisquantum and many other knowne [Page 56] friends accompanying vs, and offering all helpe that might be by carriage of any thing wee had to ease vs. So that by Gods good Providence wee safely returned home the morrow night after we set forth.

A RELATION OF OVR Voyage to the MASSACHVSETS, And what happened there.

IT seemed good to the Company in gene­rall, that though the Massachusets had of­ten threatned vs (as we were informed) yet we should goe amongst them, partly to see the Countrey, partly to make Peace with them, and partly to procure their trucke.

For these ends the Governours chose ten men, fit for the purpose, and sent Tisquantum, and two other Salvages to bring vs to speech with the people, and interpret for vs.

We set out about mid-night, the tyde then seruing for vs; we supposing it to be neerer then it is, thought to be there the next morning betimes: but it proued well neere twentie Leagues from New Plimmouth.

We came into the bottome of the Bay, but being late wee anchored and lay in the Shallop, not hauing seene any of the people. The next morning we put in for the shore. There we found many Lobsters that had beene gathered together by the Saluages, which we made ready vnder a cliffe. The Captaine set two Sentinels behind the cliffe to the landward to secure the Shallop, and taking a guide with him, and foure of our company, went to seeke the Inhabitants, where they met a woman comming for her Lobsters, they told her of them, and contented her for them. She told them where the people were; Tisquantum went to them, the rest returned, hauing direction which way to bring the Shallop to them.

The Sachim, or Gouernour of this place, is called Obba­tinewat, and though he liue in the bottome of the Massachu­set bay, yet he is vnder Massasoyt. He vsed vs very kindly, he told vs, he durst not then remaine in any setled place, for feare of the Terentines. Also the Squa Sachim, or Massa­chusets Queene was an enemy to him.

[Page 58]We told him of diuers Sachims that had acknowledged themselues to be King IAMES his men, and if he also would submit himselfe, we would be his safegard from his enemies; which he did, and went along with vs to bring vs to the Squa Sachim. Againe we crossed the Bay which is very large, and hath at lest fiftie Ilands in it: but the certaine number is not knowne to the Inhabitants. Night it was before wee came to that side of the Bay where this people were. On shore the Saluages went but found no body. That night also we [...]id at Anchor aboord the Shallop.

On the morrow we went ashore, all but two men and mar­ched in Armes vp in the Countrey. Hauing gone three myles, we came to a place where Corne had beene newly gathered, a house pulled downe, and the people gone. A myle from hence, Nanepashemet their King in his life time had liued. His house was not like others, but a scaffold was largely built, with pools and plancks some six foote from ground, and the house vpon that, being situated on the top of a hill.

Not farre from hence in a bottome, wee came to a Fort built by their deceased King, the manner thus; There were pools some thirtie or fortie foote long, stucke in the ground as thicke as they could be set one by another, and with these they inclosed a ring some forty or fifty foote ouer. A trench breast high was digged on each side; one way there was to goe into it with a bridge; in the midst of this Palli [...]ado stood the frame of an house, wherein being dead he lay buryed.

About a myle from hence, we came to such another, but seated on the top of an hill: here Nanepashemet was killed, none dwelling in it since the time of his death. At this place we stayed, and sent two Saluages to looke the Inhabitants, and to informe them of our ends in comming, that they might not be fearefull of vs: Within a myle of this place they found the women of the place together, with their Corne on heapes, whither we supposed them to be sted for feare of vs, and the more, because in diuers places they had newly pulled downe their houses, and for hast in one place had left some of their Corne couered with a Mat, and no bo­dy with it.

[Page 59]With much feare they entertained vs at first, but seeing our gentle carriage towards them, they tooke heart and en­tertained vs in the best manner they could, boyling Cod and such other things as they had for vs. At length with much sending for came one of their men, shaking and trem­bling for feare. But when he saw we intended them no hurt, but came to trucke, he promised vs his skins also. Of him we enquired for their Queene, but it seemed shee was far from thence, at lest we could not see her.

Here Tisquantum would haue had vs rifled the Saluage wo­men, and taken their skins, and all such things as might be seruiceable for vs, for (sayd he) they are a bad people, and haue oft threatned you: But our answere was; Were they neuer so bad, we would not wrong them, or giue them any just occasion against vs: for their words we little weighed them, but if they once attempted any thing against vs, then we would deale far worse then he desired.

Hauing well spent the day, we returned to the Shallop, almost all the Women accompanying vs, to trucke, who sold their coats from their backes, and tyed boughes about them, but with great shamefastnesse (for indeed they are more modest then some of our English women are) we pro­mised them to come againe to them, and they vs, to keepe their skins.

Within this Bay, the Salvages say, there are two Riuers; the one whereof we saw, hauing a faire entrance, but we had no time to discouer it. Better harbours for shipping cannot be then here are. At the entrance of the Bay are many Rockes; and in all likelihood very good fishing ground. Many, yea, most of the Ilands haue beene inhabited, some being cleered from end to end, but the people are all dead, or remoued.

Our victuall growing scarce, the Winde comming fayre, and hauing a light Moone, we set out at euening, and through the goodnesse of GOD, came safely home be­fore noone the day following.

A LETTER SENT FROM New England to a friend in these parts, setting forth a briefe and true Declaration of the worth of that Plantation; As also certaine vsefull Directions for such as intend a VOYAGE into those Parts.

LOuing, and old Friend, although I receiued no Letter from you by this Ship, yet forasmuch as I know you expect the perfor­mance of my promise, which was, to write vnto you truely and faithfully of all things. I haue therefore at this time sent vnto you accordingly. Refer­ring you for further satisfaction to our more large Relations You shall vnderstand, that in this little time, that a few of vs haue beene here, we haue built seauen dwelling houses, and foure for the vse of the Plantati­on, and haue made preparation for divers others. We set the last Spring some twentie Acres of Indian Corne, and sowed some six Acres of Barly & Pease, and according to the man­ner of the Indians, we manured our ground with Herings or rather Shadds, which we haue in great abundance, and take with great ease at our doores. Our Corne did proue well, & God be praysed, we had a good increase of Indian Corne, and our Barly indifferent good, but our Pease not worth the gathering, for we feared they were too late sowne, they came vp very well, and blossomed, but the Sunne parched [Page 61] them in the blossome▪ one harvest being gotten in, our Go­vernour sent foure men on fowlle [...], that so we might after a more speciall manner reioyce together, after we had ga­thered the fruit of our labours [...] they [...] in one day killed as much fowle, as with a [...] beside, serued the Com­pany almost a weeke, at which time amongst [...] Recrea­tions, we exercised our Armes, many of the Indians coming amongst vs, and amongst the rest their greatest King Massas­soyt, with some nintie men, whom for three dayes we enter­tained and feasted and they went out and killed fiue Deere, which they brought to the Plantation and bestowed on our Governour, and vpon the Captaine, and others. And al­though it be not alwayes so plentifull, as it was at this time with vs, yet by the goodnesse of God, we are so farre from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plentie. Wee haue found the Indians very faithfull in their Covenant of Peace with vs; very louing and readie to pleasure vs: we of­ten goe to them, and they come to vs [...] some of vs haue bin fi [...]tie myles by Land in the Country with whom, the occasions and Relations whereof you shall vndestand by our generall and morefull Declaration of such things [...] are worth the noting, yea, it hath pleased God so to possesse the Indians with a feare of vs, and loue vnto vs, that not onely the grea­test King amongst them called Massasoyt, but also all the Princes and people [...] round about [...], haue either made su [...]e vnto vs, or beene glad of any occasion to make peace with vs, so that seauen of them at once h [...]ue sent their messengers to vs to that end, yea, an Fl [...]nt sea, which we neuer saw hath also together with the for [...]er yeelded willingly to be vnder the protection, and subiects to [...] souereigne Lord King IAMES, so that there is now greatly [...] amongst the Indians themselues, which was not formerly neither would haue bin but for vs▪ and we for our parts walks as peaceably and safely in the wood, as in the hie wayes in England, we enter­taine them familiarly in our houses, and they as friendly be­stowing their Venison on [...]. They are a people without any Religion, or knowledge of any God, yet very trustie, [Page 62] quicke of apprehe [...]sion, [...] witted, iust the men and wo­men goe naked, onely [...] about their middles; for the traiper of the ayre, [...] it agreeth well with that in England, and if there be any different [...] at all, this is somewhat hotter in Summer, home [...] he deed bledolderin. Winter, but I can­not out of experience so say, the ayre is very cleere and not foggie, as hath beene reported. I neuer in my life remember a more seasonable yeare, then we haue here enioyned: and if we haue once but Kine, Horses, and Sheepe, I make no que­stion, but men might liue as contended here: as in any part of the world. For fish and fowle, we haue great abundance, fresh Codd in the Summer is but course meat with vs, our Bay is full of Lobsters all the Summer, and affordeth varietie of o­ther Fish; in September we can take a Hogshead of [...]e [...]es in a night, with small labour, & can dig them out of their beds, all the Winter we haue Mussells and Othus at our doores: Oysters we haue [...] noneere, but we can haue them brought by the Indians when we will; all the Spring time the earth sendeth forth naturally very good Sallet Herbs: here are Grapes, white and red, and very sweete and strong also. Strawberies, Goofeberies, Raspa [...], &c. Plums of three sorts, with blacke and red, being almost as good as a Damsen: a­bundance of Roses, white; red, and damask: single, but very sweet indeed; the Countrey wanteth onely industrious men to imploy, for it would grieue your hearts (if as I) you had seene so many myles together by goodly Riuers vnihabi­ted, and withall to consider those parts of the world where­in you liue▪ to be even greatly burthened with abundance of people. These things I thought good to let you vnderstand, being the truth of things as new as I could experimentally take knowledge of, and that you might on our behalfe giue God thankes who hath delt so fauourably with vs.

Our supply of men from you came the ninth of November 1621. putting in at Cape [...]od, some eight or ten leagues from vs, the Indians that dwell there about were they who were owners of the Corne which we found in Caues, for which we haue giuen them full content, and are in great [Page 63] league with them, they [...] vs [...] was a ship nere vnto them, but though [...] it to be [...] indeede for our selues, we expected not a friend so soone. But when we perceived that she made for our Bay, the Gouernor com­manded a great [...] to beshoo [...], [...] all [...] were abroad at worke; whereupon [...] that could handle [...] Gun were readie, with full resolution that if she were an Enemy, we would stand [...] iust defence, not fearing them, but God provided better for vs then we sup­posed; these came all in health vnto vs, [...] being sicke by the way (otherwise then by Sea sicknesse) and so conti­nue at this time, by the blessing of God, the good wife [...]ord was deliuered of a sonne the first night shee landed and both of them are very well. When it pleaseth God, we are setled and sitted for the fishing busines, and other trading, I doubt not but by the blessing of God, the gayne will giue content to all; in the meane time, that we haue gotten we haue sent by this ship, and though it be not much, yet it will witnesse for vs, that we haue not beene idle, considering the small­nesse of our [...] all this Summer. We hope the Mar­chants will accept of it, and be incouraged to furnish vs with things needfull for further imployment, which will also incourage vs to put forth our selues to the vttermost. Now because [...] expect your comming vnto vs with other of our friends, whose companie we much desire, I thought good to aduertise you of a few things needfull; be carefull to haue a very good bread-roome to put your Biskets in, let your Cask for Beere and Water be Iron-bound for the first tyre if not more; let not your meat be drie salted, none can better doe it then the Saylers; let your meale be so hard trodd in your Cask that you shall need an Ads or Hatchet to worke it out with: Trust not too much on vs for Corne at this time, for by reason of this last company that came, depending wholy vpon vs, we shall haue little enough till haruest; be carefull to come by some of your meale to spend by the way, it will much refresh you, build your Cabbins as open as you can, and bring good store of clothes, and bed­ing [Page 64] with you, bring euery man a Musker or fowling Pe [...]ce, let your Pe [...]ce be long in the barrell, and feare not the waight of it, for most of our shooting is from Stands; bring iuyce of Lemons, and take it fasting, it is of good vse; for hot wa­ters, Anni [...]seed water is the best, but vse it sparingly: if you bring a [...]y thing for comfort in the Country, Butter or Sal­let oyle or both is very good; our Indian Corne even the coursest, maketh as pleasant meat as Rice, therefore spare that vnlesse to spend by the way; bring Paper, and Linced oyle for your Windowes, with Cotton yarne for your Lamps; let your shott be most for bigge Fowles, and bring store of Powder and shot: I forbeare further to write for the pre­sent, hoping to see you by the next returne, so I take my leane, comm [...]nding you to the LORD for a safe conduct vnto vs. Resting in him

Your louing Friend E. W.

Reason & considerations touching the lawfulnesse of remouing out of England into the parts of America.

FOrasmuch as many exceptions are daily made against the going into,The Pream­ble. and inhabiting of for­raine desert places, to the hinderance of plantations abroad, and the increase of di­stractions at home: It is not amisse that some which haue beene care witnesses of the ex­ceptions made, and are either Agents or Abettors of such remouals and plantations, doe seeke to giue content to the world, in all things that possibly they can.

And although the most of the opposites are such as either dreame of raising their fortunes here, to that then which there is nothing more vnlike, or such as affecting their home-borne countrey so vehemently, as that they had ra­ther with all their friends begge, yea starue in it, the vnder­goe a little difficultie in seeking abroad, yet are there some who out of doubt in tendernesse of conscience, and feare to offend God by running before they be called, are straitned and doe straiten others, from going to forraine plantations.

For whose cause especially, I haue been drawne out of my good affection to them, to publish some reasons that might giue them content and satisfaction, and also stay and stop the wilfull and wittie cauiller: and herein I trust I shall not be blamed of any godly wise, though thorow my slender iudgement I should misse the marke, and not strike the naile on the head, considering it i [...] the first attempt that hath beene made (that I know of) to defend those enterprises. Reason would therefore, that if any man of deeper reach and better iudgement see further or otherwise, that he rather in­struct me, then deride me.

And being studious or breuitie, we must first consider, [...]. Gen. 12. [...], [...] & 35. [...]. that whereas God of old did call and summon our Fathers by predictions, dreames, visions, and certaine illuminations [Page 66] to goe from their countries,Mat. 2. 19. places and habitations, to reside and dwell here or there,Psal. 105. 13. and to wander vp and downe from citie to citie, and Land to Land, according to his will and pleasure. Now there is no such calling to be expected for a­ny matter whatsoeuer, neither must any so much as imagine that there will now be any such thing.Eseb. 1. 1, 2. God did once so traine vp his people, but now he doth not, but speakes in another manner, and so we must apply our selves to Gods present dealing, and not to his wonted dealing: and as the miracle of giuing Man [...]s ceased,Josh. [...].12. when the fruit [...] of the land became plentie, so God hauing such a plentifull storehouse of di­rections in his holy word, there must not now any extraordi­narie reuelations be expected.

But now the ordinarie examples and precepts of the Scriptures reasonably and rightly vnderstood and applied, must be the voice and word, that must call vs, presse vs, and direct vs in euery action.

Neither is there any land or possession now, like vnto the possession which the Iewes had in Caanan, [...] 3. being legally ho­ly and appropriated vnto a holy people the seed of Abra­ham, in which they dwelt securely, and had their daies pro­longed, it being by an immediate voice said, that he (the Lord) gaue it them a [...] a land of rest after their wearie trauels, and a type of Eternall rest in heauen, but now there is no land of that Sanctimanie, no land so appropriated; none ty­picall: much lesse any that can be said to be giuen of God to any nation a [...] was Caanan, which they and their seed must dwell in, till God sendeth vpon them sword or captiuitie: but now we are all in all places strangers and Pilgrims, trauellers and soiourners, most properly, hauing no dwelling but in this earthen Tab [...]rnacle;2 Cor. 5 1, 2.3. our dwelling is but a wandring, and our abiding but as a fleeting,So were the Iewes, but yet their temper all blessings and inheritances were more [...] then [...] and in a word our home is nowhere, but in the heauens: in that house not made with hand [...], whose maker and builder is God, and to which all ascend that [...] the comming of our Lord Iesus.

Though then, there may be reasons to perswade a man to liue in this or that land, yet there cannot be the same reasons which the Iewes had, but now as naturall, ciuill and Religious [Page 67] bands tie men, so they must be bound, and as good reason [...] for things terrene and heauenly appeare, so they must be led. And so here falleth in our question,Obiect. how a man that is here borne and bred, and hath liued some yeares, may remoue himselfe into another countrie.

I answer,Answ. a man must not respect only to liue, and doe good to himselfe, but he should see where he can liue to doe most good to others:What persons may hence re­moue. for as one saith, He whose liuing is but for himselfe, it is time he were dead. Some men there are who of necessitie must here liue, as being tied to duties either to Church, Common-wealth, houshold, kindred, &c. but o­thers, and that many, who doe no good in none of those nor can doe none, as being not able, or not in fauour, or as wan­ting opportunitie, and liue as outcasts: no bodies, eie-sores, eating but for themselues, teaching but themselues, and do­ing good to none, either in soule or body, and so passe ouer daies, yeares, and moneths, yea so liue and so die. Now such should life vp their eies and see whether there be not some other place and countrie to which they may goe to doe good and haue vse towards others of that knowledge, wisdome, hu­manitie, reason, strength, skill, facultie,Why they should re­moue. &c. which God hath giuen them for the seruice of others and his owne glory.

But not to passe the bounds of modestie so far as to name any, though I co [...]fesse I know many, who sit here still with their talent in a napkin, hauing notable endowments both of body and minde,Luk. 19.20. and might doe great good if they were in some places, which here doe none, nor can doe none, and yet through fleshly feare, nicenesse, straitnesse of heart, &c. sit still and looke on, and will not hazard a dram of health, nor a day of pleasure, nor an houre of rest to further the know­ledge and saluation of the sons of Adam in that New world, Reas. [...]. where a drop of the knowledge of Christ is most precious, which is here not set by. Now what shall we say to such a pro­fession of Christ, to which is ioyned no more deniall of a mans selfe?Obiect. But some will say, what right haue I to goe liue in the heathens countrie?

Letting passe the ancient discouerie [...],Answ. contracts and agree­ments which our English men haue long since made in those [Page] parts, together with the acknowledgement of the histories and Chronicles of other nations, who professe the land of A­merica from the Cape De Florida vnto the Bay of Canad [...] (which is South and North 300. leagues and vpwards; and East and West, further then yet hath beene discouered) is proper to the King of England, yet letting that passe, lest I he thought to meddle further then it concerns me, or further then I haue discerning: I will mention such things as are within my reach, knowledge, sight and practice, since I haue trauailed in these affaires.

Reas. 2.And first seeing we daily pray for the conuersion of the heathens, we must consider whether there be not some ordi­nary meanes, and course for vs to take to conuert them, or whether praier for them be only referred to Gods extraordi­narie worke from heauen. Now it seemeth vnto me that we ought also to endeuour and vse the meanes to conuert them, and the meanes cannot be vsed vnlesse we goe to them or they come to vs: to vs they cannot come, our land is full: to them we may goe, their land is emptie.

Reas. 3.This then is a sufficient reason to proue our going thither to liue, lawfull their land is spatious and void & there are few and doe but run ouer the grasse, as doe also the Foxes and wilde beasts: they are not industrious, neither haue are, sci­ence, skill or facultie to vse either the land or the commodi­ties of it, but all spoiles, rots, and is marred for want of ma­nuring, gathering, ordering, &c. As the ancient Patriarkes therefore remoued from straiter places into more roomthy, where the Land lay idle and waste, and none vsed it, though there dwelt inhabitants by them, as Gen. and 34.21. and 41.20. so is it lawfull now to take a land which none vseth, and make vse of it.

Reas. 4.And as it is a common land or vnused, & vndressed coun­trey;This is to be considered as respecting new England and the [...] the plantation. so we haue it by common consent, composition and a­greement, which agreement is double: First the Imperial Go­uernor [...], whose circuits in likelihood are larger then England and Scotland, hath acknowledged the Kings Ma­iestie of England to be his Master and Commander, and that once in [...] and in writing, vnder his hand to [Page 69] Captaine Standish, both he and many other Kings which are vnder him, as Pamet, Nauset, Cammaquid, Narrowhiggonset, Namaschet, &c. with diuers others that dwell about the baies of Patuxet, and Massachuset: neither hath this beene ac­complished by threats and blowes, or shaking of sword, and sound of trumpet, for as our facultie that way is small, and our strength lesse: so our warring with them is after another manner, namely by friendly vsage, loue, peace, honest and iust cariages, good counsell, &c. that so we and they may not only liue in peace in that land,Psal. 110.3. & 48. [...]. and they yeeld subiection to an earthly Prince, but that as voluntaries they may be per­swaded at length to embrace the Prince of peace Christ Ie­sus, and rest in peace with him for euer.

Secondly, this composition is also more particular and applicatorie, as touching our selues there inhabiting: the Em­perour by aioynt consent, hath promised and appointed vs to liue at peace, where we will in all his dominions, taking what place we will, and as much land as we will, and bringing as many people as we will, and that for these two causes. First, because we are the seruants of Iames King of England, whose the land (as he confesseth) is, 2. because he hath found vs iust, honest, kinde and peaceable, and so loues our company, yea, and that in these things there is no dissimulation on his part, nor feare of breach (except our securitie ingender in them some vnthought of trecherie, or our vnciuilitie pro­uoke them to anger) is most plaine in other Relations, which shew that the things they did were more out of loue then out of feare.

It being then first a vast and emptie Chaos: Secondly ac­knowledged the right of our Soueraigne King: Thirdly, by a peaceable composition in part possessed of diuers of his lo­uing subiects, I see not who can doubt or call in question the lawfulnesse of inhabiting or dwelling there, but that it may be as lawfull for such as are not tied vpon some speciall occasion here, to line there as well as here, yea, and as the enterprise is weightie and difficult, so the honour is more worthy, to plant a rude wildernesse, to enlarge the honour and fame of our dread Soueraigne, but chiefly to displaie the [Page] efficacie & power of the Gospell both in zealous preaching, professing, and wise walking vnder it, before the faces of these poore blinde Infidels.

As for such as obiect the tediousnesse of the voyage thi­ther, the danger of Pirats robberie, of the sauages trecherie, &c. these are but Lyons in the way,Prou. 22.13. and it were well for such men if they were in heauen, for who can shew them a place in this world where iniquitie shall not compasse them at the heeles, and where they shall haue a day without griefe,Psal. 49.5. Mat. 6.34. or a lease of life for a moment; and who can tell but God, what dangers may lie at our doores, euen in our natiue countrie, or what plots may be abroad, or when God will cause our sunne to goe downe at noone daie [...],Amos 8.9. and in the midst of our peace and securitie, lay vpon vs some lasting s [...]ourge for our so long neglect and contempt of his most glorious Gospell.

Ob.But we haue here great peace, plentie of the Gospell, and many sweet delights and varietie of comforts.

Answ. 2. Chro. 32.25.True indeed, and farre be it from vs to denie and diminish the least of these mercies, but haue we rendered vnto God thankfull obedience for this long peace, whilst other peoples haue beene at wars? haue we not rather murmured, repined, and fallen at iars amongst our selues, whilst our peace hath lasted with forraigne power? was there euer more suits in law, more enuie, contempt and reproch then now adaies? Abra­ham and Lot departed asunder when there fell a breach be­twixt them,Gen. 13.9.10. which was occasioned by the straightnesse of the land: and surely I am perswaded, that howsoeuer the frailties of men are principall in all contentions, yet the straitnes of the place is such, as each man is faine to plucke his meanes as it were out of his neighbours throat, there is such pressing and oppressing in towne and countrie, about Farmes, trades, traffique, &c. so as a man can hardly any where set vp a trade but he shall pull downe two of his neighbours.

The Townes abound with young trades-men, and the Hospitals are full of the Auncient, the country is replenished with new Farmers, and the Almes-houses are filled with old Labourers, many there are who get their liuing with bearing burdens, but moe are faine to burden the land with their [Page 71] whole bodies: multitudes get their meanes of life by prating, and so doe numbers more by begging. Neither come these straits vpon men alwaies through intemperancy, ill husban­dry, indiscretion, &c. as some thinke, but euen the most wise, sober, and discreet men, goe often to the wall, when they haue done their best, wherein as Gods prouidence swai­eth all, so it is easie to see, that the straitnesse of the place ha­uing in it so many strait hearts, cannot but produce such ef­fects more and more, so as euery indifferent minded man should be ready to say with Father Abraham, Take thou the right hand, and I will take the left: Let vs not thus oppresse, straiten, and afflict one another, but seeing there is a spatious Land, the way to which is thorow the sea, wee will end this difference in a day.

That I speake nothing about the bitter contention that hath beene about Religion, by writing, disputing, and in­ueighing earnestly one against another, the heat of which zeale if it were turned against the rude barbarisme of the Heathens, it might doe more good in a day, then it hath done here in many yeares. Neither of the little loue to the Gospell and profit which is made by the Preachers in most places, which might easily driue the zealous to the Heathens who no doubt if they had but a drop of that knowledge which here flieth about the streetes, would be filled with ex­ceeding great ioy and gladnesse, as that they would euen plucke the kingdome of heauen by violence, and take it as it were by force.

The greatest let that is yet behinde is the sweet fellowship of friends,The last [...]. and the satietie of bodily delights.

But can there be two neerer friends almost then Abraham and Lot, or then Paul and Barnabas, and yet vpon as little oc­casions as we haue heere, they departed asunder, two of them being Patriarches of the Church of old; the other the Apo­stles of the Church which is new, and their couenants were such as it seemeth might binde as much as any couenant be­tweene men at this day, and yet to auoid greater inconue­niences they departed asunder.

Neither must men take so much thought for the flesh, as not [Page] to be pleased except they can pamper [...] bodies [...] varie­ty of dainties. Nature is content with little, and health is much endangered, by mixtures vpon the stomach: The de­lights of the palate doe often inflame the vitall parts: as the tongue setteth a fire the whole body.Iames 3.6. Secondly, varieties here are not common to all, but many good men are glad to snap as a crust. The rent taker liues on sweet morsels, but the rent payer eats a drie crust often with watery eies: and it is no­thing to say what some one of a hundreth hath, but what the bulke, body and cominalty hath, which I warrant you is short enough.

And they also which now liue so sweetly, hardly will their children attaine to that priuiledge, but some circumuentor or other will outstrip them, and make them sit in the dust, to which men are brought in one age, but cannot get out of it againe in 7. generations.

To conclude, without all partialitie, the present consump­tion which groweth vpon vs here, whilst the land groaneth vnder so many close fisted and vnmercifull men, being com­pared with the easinesse, plainenesse and plentifulnesse in li­uing in those remote places, may quickly perswade any man to a liking of this course, and to practise a remoual, which be­ing done by honest, godly and industrious men, they shall there be right hartily welcome, but for other of dissolute and prophane life, their roomes are better then their companies; for if here where the Gospell hath beene so long and plenti­fully taught, they are yet frequent in such vices as the Hea­then would shame to speake of, what will they be when there is lesse restraint in word and deed? My onely sute to all men is, that whether they liue there or here, they would learne to vse this world as they vsed it not, keeping faith and a good conscience, both with God and men, that when the day of account shall come, they may come forth as good and fruit­full seruants, and freely be receiued, and enter into the ioy of their master.


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