¶The Education or bringinge vp of children / tran­slated oute of Plu­tarche by syr Thomas Eliot knyght.


¶The table of this boke.
¶The preface of the translatour.
¶The procreation of children.
the fyrste chap.
¶Of nature, reason, and custome.
ij. chap.
¶Of nources and tutours.
iii. chap.
¶To chose schole maysters.
the .iii. chap.
¶The defau [...]e of lernynge.
the .v. chap.
¶The difficultie to please cōmunes.
vi. chap.
¶The iuste temperance in spekynge.
vii. cha.
¶The commodite of vertuous exercise.
ca. viii.
¶A moderate direction to prouoke childerne to lerne.
ca. ix.
¶Of the exercises of memorye, and of thre ex­cellente continences.
cap. x.
¶Howe premeditation ought to be vsed with a pleasant narration of Vlixes.
ca. xi.
¶what inconueniences do happen through ne­gligence of fathers.
ca. xij.
¶what company is pernicious and hurtefulle to children.
ca. xiii.
¶ The meanes to diswade yonge men from vice, and an example to be gyuē to parentes.
ca. xiiii.
¶ Thus endeth the Table.

¶Thomas Eliot to his only entierly beloued syster Margery Puttenbam.

AS in this tēporall lyfe no thing is to naturall man so desyrous as to haue by lefull encrease procrea­cion and frute of his body / sembla­bly to a man of honestye or gentyl corage, there is no disease or grefe so intollerable as chyldren of theyr disposicion abiecte or vici­ous: whiche declynynge from all vertue, in vo­luptuous and inordinate lyuinge not onely con­sume the goodes of theyr parentes and frendes, but also deface the good opiniō and fame, which perchance their auncetours, by some vertuous acte or studye haue acquired: whiche moste communly hapneth by the remysse educacion or bringinge vp of them. wherfore good syster, for as moche as I do consyder, with what fertilite al­mighty god hath endued you, to my great com­forte, if your chyldren do prospere in vertue and lernynge, I therfore in tymes vacant from busy­nes & other more serious study, as it were so: my solace & recreation, haue translated for you this lytell treatise entitled the Education of chyldren, and made by Plutarch the excellent philosopher and mayster to Tra [...]ane, moost vertuous & noble of all Emperours: wherby ye shall be maruay­lously instructed, or at leste waye [...] b [...]t shall admi [...]iculate your wysedome (whiche I dare affirme [Page] is ryght laudable) in ordrynge and instructy [...]ge your children, circumspectely and discretly. For as god shall iuge me, the lacke of children shuld nat be to me so payneful, as feare of hauinge succession of heires, in whom shulde be lacke of ve [...] tue & lerning. wherfore good sister ēdeuour your selfe to adapte & forme in my lyttel neuewes incl [...] naciō to vertue & doctrine, acording to min expec­tatiō: which ye shall with more facilite performe if ye beare the contentes of this litell boke in your remembrance: Aduertysynge you, that I haue not onely vsed therin the office of a translatour, but also haue declared at lengthe dyuers histo­ries, onely touched by Plutarch: to thentēt that difficultie of vnderstandinge shall not cause the matter to be to you fastidious, as it often tymes hath hapened to other. Also of pourpose I haue omitted to translate some parte of this matter, conteyned as well in the Greke as in the Latin [...] partly for that it is strange frome the experience or vsage of this present tyme, partly that some vices be in those tonges reproued, whiche ought rather to be vnknowen, than in a vulgare tonge to be expressed. Nor I wolde not that any man sh [...]ulde exacte of me the exquisite diligence of an interpretour, syns I wryte not to clerkes, ne de­sire not to haue my boke cōferred with the del [...]c­table styles of Grekes or Latines: but as I haue [...]ayde, I haue this done for my pastyme without moch studie or trauaile. And it shall only suffic [...] me, if by this littel labour I may cause you myn [Page] entierly beloued syster, to folowe the intent of Plutarche in brynginge & inducynge my litell ne­uewes into the trayne and rule of vertue, where by they shall fynally attayne to honour (god so disposinge) to the inestimable comforte of theyr naturall parentes, and other theyr louynge fren­des [...] and moste specially to the high pleasure of god, commoditye and profite of theyr countray.

Thus hartily fare ye well, and kepe with you this token of my tender loue to you, which with the vertue and toward [...]es of your children shall be contynually augmented.

¶Of the good and laufull procreacion of children, & howe they be enclyned to the good or yll disposition of their parentes. Fyrst chap.

LEt vs consider what may be spoken touchynge the e­ducation or bryngynge vp of the chyldren of honest parsonages, or by what exercyse they may sone attaine to vertuous maners. And perchāce it shall be moste exediente to take the begynnynge at theyr procreation, before [Page] we tray [...]t [...] of any other thinge. Therfore who so coueyteth to be fader of honorable or wor­shypfull chyldren, I suppose this thynge ought be to purpose pryncypally, neuer to be ioyned to womenne lewde and [...]biecte, as commune harlott [...]s and concubynes. For in who so euer is ingendred any blemyshe or yll spotte of theyr moder [...] parte, durynge theyr liues reproch of ignobilite alway [...]ccompanyeth them, which is apte and redy for those that of malyce wyll embraide or atwite them. For it was a wyse man that sayde:

Vnhappy is the generation /
wherin there fa [...]eth a good fundation.

It is more ouer a fayre treasure and great parte of lybertie, to be engendred of good parentis, whiche ought to be highly estemed of them that desyre good frute. For chyldren adulter at and lyke to counterfai [...]t money, be communely blyn­ded with arrogans, or be naturally of rude and vyle dysposycyon. wherfore that poete sayde truelye, that spake in this wyse:

The mynde whiche i [...] with any spotte [...]taysed
Of fewde parentis, holdeth in captiuite
The va [...]yant knyght, whole strength [...]rst neu [...] [...]ay [...]ed
Suche power hath nature, bredde in iniquitie
For chyldren brought vp in moche fe [...]icitie
Of no [...]e paren [...]e [...], ha [...]e for the more part
A [...]o [...]ynge tonge, a proude and sturdye [...]art.

According there vnto it is writen of one named Cleophantus, son of the noble duke Themysto­cles, [Page] whiche for his prowes was soueraynly este­med and beloued of the people of Athenes, the sayd Cleophantus auanted hym selfe, where he was in company, that what so euer he wold, his moder wold the same, and what she desired, his fader Themistocles graunted, and what pleased Themistocles, the people was therwith conten­ted. The noble hartes of Lacedemones (whiche are a people in Grece) be worthy to be highly ex­tolled, who compelled their kynge named Archi­damus / to pay to them a great somme of money, for that be maried a woman of small stature and personage embraidinge hym, that he purposed not to get them kynges, but only a linage of kyn­ges (as it were that in a kynge ought to be good features and maiestie.) Consequently one thyng is to be remēbred, whiche hath not ben forgoten of our elders: what suppose you that is? Certainly, that they which do accompany with women, to [...]hentent to gette children in the acte veneriall, be sober, or at the leste wayes that they drynke a litle wine only for that it is nourishing to nature / very temperatly. For truely it hapneth, that the sede beinge sowen by dronken parentes / the chil­dren therof comyng, for the more parte hen drunkardes and tauerne haunters. Therfore Di [...]ge­nes (the Philosopher) whan he espyed a yonge man, which beinge drunke had his wyttes trou­bled, and spake vnaduysedly, said to him: yonge man thy father did sowe the, whā he was drūke. Thus hitherto haue I spoken of procreation of [Page] chyldren: here after I shall treate of the gouer­nāce of them cōcerning the ordre of their liuinge.

¶Of nature / reson & custome / which shulde concurre in the educacion of children. Cap. ii.

GEnerally accordynge as we haue ben vsed to trayte of concernynge artis and sciences, the same shall we now eftsones reherce in the declara­cion of vertue. Thre thinges ther be that must cōcurre & agre in the accōplishing & perfecting of the warke, which I now purpose, that is to say Nature, Reason, and Custome. Reason I take for doctrine, Custome for exercise. The begynninge and entre is to be taken of doctrine, Ex­perience is won by meditacion & exercise. Of all those togyder is made a perfection: And where any of them do lacke or fayle, nedes must vertue halte. For Nature without doctrine is blynde, & doctrine without Nature is a thinge mutilate. Nedes muste than exercise (which lacketh them both) be imperfecte. For lyke as in tyllage fyrste it behoueth that the moulde (whiche is to be so­wen) be good. Secondarily that the husbande or ploughman be experte in sowinge. Thirdely that the sede be clene and withoute fau [...]e. So (in bringinge vp of youre children) ye shall applie & resemble to the moulde your childrens nature, to the ploughman, their instructour or maister [Page] to the sede, Instruction of lernynge & preceptes. All whiche thynges vndoutedly were assembled in those noble philosophers / whom all men do cō ­mende: I meane Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato, and euery other, whiche hathe attayned to immortall fame and honour. Doutles he is in great felicite and in the fauour of god, who that is indewed with all these qualities. But who so euer after that he hath attayned to doctrine and the right experiēce to vertue, do suppose the wyt of man not to be profitable, he doth nat qualifie the defaultes of Nature, but vtterlye erreth and is deceyued. For slouth destroyeth the power of nature, and she her selfe by doctrine is distroyed. And light thinges fleeth from men that be negli­gent: and nothing is so [...]ifficile, but by cure it is optained. Also you shal lightly perceiue in many thynges (if ye take good hede) what spedynes & efficacie is in labour and diligence. For the small droppes of water (with often fallyng) perce the stones. Iron and brasse is worne out with moche occupatiō. And the wheles of chariottes bowed by moche violence, can neuer recouer their pristi­nat streightnes. yet labour (excedyng the cours of nature) hath surmoūted her power. But sup­pose you these thinges only declareth the power of diligence [...] nay truly, but also other thinges in­numerable. If a grounde fertile of nature be yll housbandried / for lacke of good tillage it appe­reth foule and yl fauored: and the more excellent the nature of euerye thynge is, the more is loste / [Page] if bit perysshe by slouthe or negligence. Is your grounde barayne and out of measure rough and vntylthy? Tyll it well: and good spente, cometh agayne of it. Howe many trees be ther, that be­ynge lytell set by / abydeth barayne: And whan they be duely attended and cherysshed, they be­come fertile? what strengthe of body is nat dul­led and consumed by sluggardye, wantonnesse, and yll rule? Or what bodyes be so feble of Na­ture, that by exercyse and doyng of maistries be not auaunced to more strength and prowes? Semblablye, what horse welle broken in youthe is not after to the ryder gentyll and easye? And they that be roughe and yll broken, be not they verye harde beeded and fyers of stomake? But what nede we to meruayle at suche other thyn­ges, whan we se often tymes beastis most sauage and cruell / to be broken and made tame with la­bours? One of Thessalie (whiche is a countrey naturally inclined to warre) answered well whā it was demaunded of hym, who were moost ab­iecte of all the people of Thessaly, he sayde, they whiche in feates of warre be not exercised. what shall nede many wordes? Custome is a thynge auncient and of longe continuance. And he that customably haunteth his owne propre and fami­liar vertues, shal nat erre in any wise. Touching whiche matter, after one exaumple rehersed, I shal cesse to speake any more of these thinges. Lycurgus (whiche made and gaue lawes to the people called Spartanes of Lacedemones) for [Page] to proue the efficacie of custome, caused .ii. whel­pes to be taken and brought vp in sondrye ma­ners / thone to be made a rauenour and re [...]beles, thother chaste, suer in lyam, and to hunte true­ly. That done, on a tyme whan the people were in one place assembled, Lycurgus sayde vnto them: O ye Lacedemones, for to gete and at­tayne vnto vertue, custome, discipline, doctryne, and good bryngynge vp, be of great effecte and substaunce: Of the whiche I shall vnto you a­none, make experience. And forthewith, bryng­ynge before them the whelpes, whiche he kepte: whan he hadde sette betwene them a potte with meate and a quicke hare, thone whelpe egerly flewe to the hare, thother with as moche haste or more, thraste his heed in to the potte. And whan the people in no wyse coude coniecte what this thinge purported, or wherfore the whel­pes were brought forthe: Frendes sayde Lycur­gus, bothe these whelpes, hauynge one syre and one damme, by custome be trayned in to sondrye disposicions: for the one is become a rauenour, the other a good hunter. Nowe haue we suf­ficiently spoken of the lyfe and custome of men, here after we shall treate of the Educacion and bryngynge vp of chyldren.

¶The good or yll that hapneth by norises and tutours. Cap. iii.

[Page]AS me semeth it behoueth that the moders shulde brynge vp their owne chyldren, and do gyue vnto them souke at theyr owne brestes. For with more naturall affectiō and bu [...]y diligēce they noriss [...]h them, than doth other norses, as they, which most inwardly, & (as it is communly sayde) from the fyngers endes loue theyr chyldren. Nourses hired haue but a feyned beneuolence, louynge the chyldren for theyr rewarde onely.

[...]ore ouer that the moders them selfe ought to norishe them, which they brynge furth, nature d [...]clareth sufficiētly. For to that entent she hath gyuen to euery creature, that is of female kynde, norishement of mylke. Also there was in hym a high and wyse prouidēce, whiche gaue vnto women two pappes: that if hit happened any to brynge forthe twynnes, she shulde haue double fountaynes to noryshe them: whiche was done for great consideration, that therby loue and be­neuolence may be noris [...]hed & encreased betwene them and theyr children. For familiar company in liuynge and fedynge is an encreace of loue and amitye. Therfore it is to be obserued principally that moders (as I haue before rehersed) do brīg vp their owne childrē & giue them souke of their propre brestes, or if they can not for some disease or manyfest impediment that they may happen to haue: Or if they lyste not, for that they wolde haue plenty of children, than wolde I that they [Page] shulde take honeste and conuenient nources, and not brothels and vagaboundes, but suche as he instruct in the maners of theyr propre realme or countrey. For in lyke wise as the membres of in­fantes newly borne, muste be formed and ordred that they become not croked: so the maners of them at theyr begynnynge / muste be aptly and properly framed. For that very yonge age is teeē ­der and facile to be wrought: & lernynge is beste instylled and brought in wittes, whiles they be softe and delycate. Also thynges beynge longe harde, vnneth be mollified: therfore lernynge in childrens wittes is soonest impressed. wherfore Plato, whiche is called the deuine philosopher, discretely exhorteth nources, that they committe not to children tryfelynge and dishonest fables, lest at the begynnynge they infecte theyr wyttes with foly, and vnthrifty maners. Therfore the poet Phoci [...]ides in this wyse counsayleth:

Infourme thy childe in yonge and tender age.
To gentyll maners the very tyght passage.

Also hit ought not to be forgotten, that you pro­uide suche parsones to accompany or attende v­pon your children, as be all redy instructe in ver­tuous maners, and can perfectly and truely speke and pronounce your countrey language / lest if they be intached with barbarous speche and de­pryued maners, your children shulde enbrace of them some vicious disposicion. For not without reason this prouerbe is vsed: He that dwelleth by a crepyll, shall lerne to halte. But after your [Page] chyldren be comen to yeres, whan they shuld be cōmytted to Tutours, than for the remenaunt of theyr educacion you muste be circumspecte, that you do not cōmytte the gouernaunce of them to slaues or villaynes, or to men vnstable, false, or deceitfull. For they may well be laught to scorne that at this day, hauynge good and discrete ser­uauntes, appoynteth some to be theyr hyndes, some shypmen, some to be factours, other to be stewardes of house holde, baylyffes of husban­drye / surueyours of landes, or receyuours: And if they haue a ribaulde or a riottous seruaunte / vnprofitable to euerye purpose, communly to his gouernaunce they do commytte theyr chyldren. A good and necessarye tutoure ought to be suche as was Phenyx (tutoure of Achilles the moste valiaunt of all the Grekes, whiche were at the siege of Troye) whom Peleus fader of Achilles (as Homere the noble poete wryteth) ordeyned to haue the rule of his sonne, to the entent that (for his wysedome and eloquence) he shulde be as well in speakynge as doynge his instructour and mayster.

¶what schole maysters ar to be chosen and of the discom [...]oditees, whiche happen daylye by negly­gent educacyon. Cap. iiii.

[Page]NOwe come I to the thynge most chieffe and pryncipall to be remem­bred. ye muste dilygently prouyde for youre chylderne, schole may­sters / whose lyues be not disposed to vice, ne of reprocheable maners or conditi­ons, and whiche haue good experyence and fourme of teachynge. For certaynly the foun­tayne and roote of worshyppe and honestye, is good doctrine. For lykewyse as good husban­des do pyche busshes and bedges aboute yonge settes (as well to thentente they shulde growe streyght / as to kepe them from bytynge and bar­kynge of catall) so good and perfecte maysters plant in children conuenable and good aduertisementes and preceptes, wherby the yonge spryng of vertuous maners shall growe streyghte, and be out of daungerous and beastly vice. And tru­lye many fathers there be, whiche are greatelye to be blamed, that commytte theyr childerne to vnthrifty, ignoraunte, and folysshe maysters, not hauynge of them before any tryall or experience / whiche al be it they so do in defaulte of lernyng, yet is it in them great foly and symplenesse: For some there be, that notwithstandynge by the re­porte of men experte, they knowe the ignorance and lewdnes of some schole maysters, and do perceyue hit manifestely: yet vnto them speciallye they commende their sonnes: and some do bit, beynge vanquysshed with fayre promyses, other at the instant desyre and in fauour of theyr fren­des [Page] and acqueyntance: where in they do moche lyke, us if a man beynge sycke or diseased, dothe refuse an experte phisition / whiche may recouer hym, & for to haue the more fauour of his frende or acquayntaunce, taketh a manne vnlerned, by whom perchance he shall be brought in danger of his lyfe: or beinge on the see, forsaketh a good pilate or lodisman, and at the desire of his frende or acquayntaunce, approueth a persone folysshe and ignoraunt. O lorde god, is he to be called a fader, that more estemeth the desire of his neighbour, than the erudition and lerning of his chyl­dren? Accordyng thervnto the olde philosopher Crates was wonte to saye, that whan he shulde happen to be in the hyghest parte of the citie, he wolde crie in this fourme (if he myght be herde) whither wyll ye mad men, whiche do set al your study in gettyng of riches / and to your children, to whome ye wyll leaue that ryches, ye haue no consideration or respect? And to that in myn opi­nion may be added, that suche fathers do in lyke wise, as they which be very busy and nice in trimmyng their showes, whan they take lytel regard what hapneth to their feete.

There be also many parentes, in whom in ordi­nate loue of money hath ingendred hate of their naturall children: for to thentent that they wyll nat gyue great rewarde or salarye, they do pro­uyde maysters for their children, ignoraunt per­sones, whiche for a lyttell stypende professeth ler­nynge of small estimation. And therfore the phi­losopher [Page] Aristippus sauerly and with a propre taunte checked one beinge a fader, whiche lacked witte. For one demaunded of Aristippus, what bewolde aske for a rewarde to teache his sonne: who demaunded .xx.li. O sayd he, that is a sore demaūde, for I maye bye a seruant at that pryce (seruauntes at that tyme were bonde men, and beinge taken in warres were solde, as slaues he nowe in diuers places) ye sayde Aristippus, thou shalte haue for thy money two seruauntes, that is to saye thy sonne, and hym whome thou doste bye. As who saythe, the money whiche shulde purchase his son lerninge, beinge enployed on a slaue, maketh his son for lacke of lerninge, to be of lyke estate or cōdicion. Finally is it not a great foly & madnes / that where we do accustome our chyldren to take meate with the ryght hande, & if they do put forthe the lefte hāde, anone we correct them: and for to make them to here good & commodious lernynges, we make no prouision nor be circumspecte therin?

¶The inconueniences / whiche happen for defaulte of lernynge, and the compa­rison of lerninge to other qua­litees. Cap. v.

BUt nowe wyll I assay to shewe what happeneth often to these mon­struous fathers, that whan they haue lewdely and vnhappylye no­ryshed and brought vp their chyl­dren, [Page] whan they be at mans stute, they despisinge all holsome doctrine & vertuous ordre of liuing, do fall heedlynge into inordinate pleasures, and into seruile and abhomynable voluptuosities & vices. Than the fathers sore repente them, that they haue in suche wyse brought them vp. And whan they do perceyue in them no commoditie: than for their mischiefe and vnhappynes, the pa­r [...]ntis be continually in theyr myndes tourmen­ted. Semblablye some take to them flatterers, scoffers / and raylers, vyle and vngratious par­sons, peryllous subuertours of youthe: Other mainteyne proude and sumptuous queynes and harlottes: some passe all the holle dayes in deli­cate feastes and bankettes / other, as it w [...]re in a w [...]ccke, be drowned at dyse, and in riottous com­panye. There be also, whiche gyuynge them sel­fes to the foly of youth, do embrace lecherye, ad­uoutrye, and other lyke abhomynations, and onely make deth the ende of pleasure. whiche if they had alway ben in the company of any wyse man, doutles they shulde neuer haue sette their myndes to suche foly, but rather haue lerned the precept o [...] Diogenes the philosopher / who in his say [...]nge, wysely and by an experience truely ex­horted in this wise: Be bolde to entre into an harlottes house / that thou mayste lerne there, howe litell or no cōmodite is in the estimation of thin­ges vyle or vicious. Nowe to speake in fewe wordes / wherein I shall seme rather to dyuyne than to admoneste and exhorte, The fyrste, myd­dell, [Page] and laste poynte of this matter is, that the sure and honest rule of liuynge is lernynge. And that is the thyng, whiche soonest helpeth a man to vertue: All other thynges temporall be but tryfils, and not of suche value, that there in we oughte to spende any studye. Doubtles nobilite or gentylnes of bloud is a goodlye thynge: and ryches is a thynge precious and delectable: but the gyftes of Fortune be suche, that as we may se by experience, she gyueth them, where they be not loked fore: and those whiche alredy haue them, she dispoyleth. More ouer great substance is a token or pray to allure seruauntes and other parsones ylle disposed / to wayte a man with dis­pleasure, and to enserche his cofers and baggis. And finally they be redy for euery lewde person, that may happe to take them. Honoure is plea­saunt, but it is vnstable and nothynge constaunt. Beautie is a thynge excellente, and for the attay­nynge therof, moche debate hath ensurged: but yet it is transitorie, and dureth but a season. Bo­dilye helthe is a treasure, but that is also muta­ble. Strengthe is moche desyred, and is taken for a parte of felicitie: yet notwithstandynge hit soone fadeth, with age or sykenesse. And he that auaunteth hym selfe in myght of body and lym­mes, is in a false opinion. For howe small a por­cion of strength is in man, in comparison of bea­stis: I meane elephauntes, bulles, and lyons? Therfore truely the thynge that in vs is diuyne and immortall is lernynge. Generally two spe­ciall [Page] thynges be in the nature of manne / whiche be good, that is to saye, knowlege and reasone. Knowlege commaundeth, reasone dothe obeye. As for knowlege no violence of Fortune maye take awaye / no vexation maye withdrawe, nor sickenes may corrupt / nor age by any meane may endomage. Onely knowlege perisshed with age eftsones reuiueth. And where all other thynges by longe contynuance decaye, onely counnynge with the yeres encreseth and multiplieth. warre lyke a raginge floode, draweth and carieth away all thynges with hym, onely lernynge, for that he may not stere it, he leaueth vntouched. wher­fore Stilpo the philosopher, as me semeth, made answere necessarye to be remembred. For whan kynge Demetrius had taken the citie of Mega­rie, where Stilpo dwelled, and abated hit in to the erthe: he demaunded of Stilpo, if he hadde loste any of his goodes by the assault? No sayd Stilpo, warres maye neuer take any spoyle of vertue. Accordynge hit semeth that Socrates answered. For whan Gorgias the Rhetorician (as I remembre me) demaunded of hym, if he thoughte the kynge of Perse to be happye: I knowe nat sayd he, howe moche he hath of ver­tue and lernynge. As who saythe, in those thyn­ges standeth happynesse, and not in the treasure and gyftes of Fortune.

That the pleasynge of communes is diffi­ficile and also dangerous, and what peryll is in hastye and vnadui­sed speche. Cap. vi.

IN lyke wyse as there is nothynge more propise and conueniente for a man, than the vertuous bryngynge vp of his children, so it is expe­diente, that he sette them in a holsome and vncorrupted countreye, farre from the fantasyes and vayne glosynges of people. For he that endeuourethe hym to please the multitude, must nedes discon­tent the wyse men, as wytnesseth Euripides the wryter of tragedies,

Thus am I called fole and ignoraunt
Amonge rude people, my verses to auaunt
But to meane men, egall to my degre
I [...] thought wyse, eche as they fauour me.
For of whom wyse men set lytell price
Contenteth the people Best with their deuyse.

Verily I perceyue that they, whiche put they [...] holle prac [...]ise, to obteyne the grace and fauoure of the troublous cōmunes, be for the more parte prodigall, and desirous of inordinate pleasure / and by reason bit [...]uste be so. For they that ne­glecte honestie to content other mens appetites, can not always pref [...]rre good dilectations, or fo­lowe [Page] those that be moderate for them that be voluptuous. More ouer take good hede that your children do not speake sodaynely / and without premedytacion. For that, whiche is spoken or done vnaduysedly and hastily / in no wyse maye be cōmēdable. For it is said in a prouerbe: Good thinges are difficile. And wordes not forestudied be infarced with lyghtnesse and negligence, and vnneth suche perceyue wher at to begynne, or where they shal make their conclusion. Amonge other faultes they that speake hastily, falle in to bablynge immoderate, but aduysed meditation suffreth not langage to wandre out of due mea­sure. we rede of Pericles (one of the noble coū ­saylours of Athenes) often tymes whan he was required of the people to shew his opinion, wold none other thynge saye, but that he was not pro­uyded. Semblably his successour in the cōmune weale Demosthenes (the most excellent oratour) whā the people called for him to gyue them counsayle, he came not, sayenge, I am not yet four­nysshed sufficiently. Perchaunce some wyll saye, this tale is nat trewe, and that I speake it with­out auctorite. Al be it in his oration agaynst Mi­dea, he declareth the cōmodite of premeditation in this fourme: Frendes I deny not, but I haue consydered, what I shall saye, and that I shall speake is with great labour prouyded. ye might well pytie me, If I shulde come before you pre­pared, that I shuld omytte and passe ouer that thing, which I entende to declare. Nor I speake [Page] not thus now to depraue spedy expedicion in gy­uynge aduyse or counsayle, but that they whi­che haue anye suche grace, maye frankelye prac­tyse hit. All be hit, I thynke it necessarye, that [...]onge men do seldome vse hit, vntyll they come to the age of perfection, leste they speake al thin­ges that happeneth, and not all that is necessa­rye. And whan the vertue of eloquence hath ta­ken rote, than whan tyme requireth, hit shall be commendable to departe bounteously with plen­tye of matter. For as they, whiche haue bene longe in gyues or stockes, by custome of longe imprisonemente, whan they be loused, they do halte for the tyme, and may not well go: in lyke wyse they, which haue longe refrayned to speke, whan they be constrayned to speake sodaynely, yet wylle they folowe the s [...]ile of an interpretour (whiche is with longe taryenge and moche stu­dye.) But yet [...]e that suffreth children to speake hastily withoute deliberation, gyueth them oc­casyon to falle in to extreme claterynge and i [...]n­glynge. On a tyme whan a symple peynter had shewed vnto Appelles the moste counnyng pein­ter that euer was, an image that he had made, he also sayde to Appelles: Euen nowe I made this image. Nowe in good faythe sayde Appel­les, if thou wylte holde thy tounge and saye ne­uer a worde, I do perceiue thou dyddest sodayn­lye peynte hit. But I do meruayle moche more [...] that in that space thou haste not peynted no m [...] ymages.

¶Of the iuste temperance and modera­cion of speakynge, and of the beste kinde of doctryne. Ca. vii.

NOwe to returne to mi first matter. My counsayle is that chyldren do eschewe to moche arrogaunt and pom­pous speche: and in like wise to auoyde homely and rude communicacion. Inflate and proude speche lacketh gentyllnesse: base and vile wordes nothynge perswadethe or moueth. For like as the body ought not only to be hoole from sickenes, but also to be of good habilite or facion: so shulde the oracion or sentence not be onely not sicke, but also firme and substanciall. For that thynge whiche is sure, is onely commendable: & that whiche is exployted with daunger we com­mun [...]ly wonder at. And like opinion haue I in disposynge the mynde: For hit becomethe not a childe eyther to be shrewde and folehardy, or to be cowarde and temerous. The one shall cause hym to be shameles: the other to be of vile cou­rage and dastarde. The meane waye to holde in euery thynge, it is a high and perfecte crafte. Al be it I eftsones do remembre lernynge, yet what I deme therin, I wyll at this tyme differre. But to retourne to speakynge / To be contented with one onely membre or fourme of speakynge, and not to poli [...]he it with sondrie clauses or sen­tenses [Page] hit is a great token of ignoraunce. For to speake alway one thynge hit is nowe and thanne tedious and intollerable. For one note of syng­inge, and one acte in an Interlude withoute va­riacion, is to the syngers & playours laborious, and to the herers fulsome & tedyous. Therfore pleasaunt varietie is in euery thynge delectable: mooste specially in voyces, and thynges made to beholde. Therfore in yonge men of good stocke, nothynge shulde lacke, worthye to be harde or sene. And to say the trouthe, there shulde be in them that, whiche menne calle the Cercle of ler­nynge. But yet that is onely as it were to be ta­sted (takynge of euery doctrine some parte) per­usynge them through at the fyrste syghte. For it is almost impossible to be perfecte in all thynges. All be it philosophy of al studies ought to be so­ueraygne and had in moost reuerence: wherin I wyll declare myn opinion, by a similitude.

For lyke as it is a pleasant and goodly thynge in passynge the sees to come to dyuers worldes and countreyes, so to inhabyte and dwelle in the beste of them / hit is a thynge excellently commo­dious and moste hyghest to be estemed. Veryly hit was a propre sayenge of Byas the philoso­pher, that as the wowars of Penelope (wyfe of Vlysses, whiche in the ten yeres absence of her husbande, honorably susteyned her selfe chaste ageynste the importune sute of many valyaunte princes) coude not haue with her vnlefull com­panye, they medled with the wenches and drud­ges [Page] of her house. In lyke wyse some parsones, whiche can not atteygne to philosophye, as hi [...] were men vnapte and desperate, do languysshe and spende their tyme in other lernynges of no pryce or estimation. wherfore doubtles philoso­phie is to be preferred as princesse of al other do­ctrines. The wytte and studye of man hath dy­uysed a double science or knowlege for the good gouernaunce of the body, that is to saye phisike and exercise: Of the whiche, the one bryngeth helth, thother good habite or personage: onely they gryues and diseases of the soule and mynde, phylosophye cureth and maketh hoole. By her may be knowen what is honest, what is disho­nest, what ryght, what wronge: and generally what is to be enlued, what to be eschewed: how your parentes / your frendes, your soueraynes, your wyues and seruauntes, men in auctoritie and straungers ought to be vsed and enterteyg­ned. More ouer, howe we shulde honoure god, worshyppe our parentes, reuerence our betters, obey the lawes, suffre and gyue place to men ha­uyng auctorities. Also howe we ought to fauour our frendes, to loue womenne with measure, to holde dere our children, not to be of seruile con­dicion: & aboue all other, not to reioice to moche of prosperite, nor to be oppressed with sorowe in aduersitie / n [...] to be enclyned to voluptuosite, nei­ther by to moche wrath make our mindes beast­ly. whiche thynges be the chieffe and principall commodities or treasure of philosophie. Hit is [Page] the office or duetie of a gentyll man / to vse well good fortune, of a man well brought vppe to es­chewe enuie, of a man wyse and assured, to van­quyshe his appitites and desyres, with reason: And to refrayne or ouercome anger, hit is the parte of a man not abiecte nor of small discreci­on or vertue. But to my purpose, They ben as­sured and perfecte men, whiche can myxe poly­tike wysedome with philosophie. And I dare af­firme, they do therby obteyne double commodi­tie. That is to wete, they do leade theyr life to the cōmune weale of theyr countrey: And also they do passe theyr tyme in studies of wysedome and vertue, with quietnesse of mynde, neuer o­uer flowen with the wawes of fortune. For wher there be thre maner of lyues, one called Actife, the other contemplatife, the thyrde voluptuous or sensuall, the laste beinge vicious and seruaunt to pleasure, apperteyneth to beastis, and men of no reputation or goodnesse. The actife lyfe, lac­kynge philosophie, is of littell purpose, and is in sondry errours enuolued. The contemplatife life (concernynge man) if hit be natioyned with the actiue, hit is of none effecte or profite. Therfore let vs endeuour our selfes, that the cōmune weale may be applied, and also philosophie ob­teyned, as accordynge to the tyme hit shall seme moste expedient. In this wyse Pericles (the no­ble counsailour of Athenes) dyd his duetie to the cōmune weale o [...] his countre. So dyd Architas in Tarcut, Dyon in Sicile, and Epaminondas [Page] in Thebes: of whom two the last were scholers to Plato, the prince of philosophers. what shal I nede to tarye longer aboute doctryne / excepte that besydes that we haue all redy spoken, one thynge is conuenient and also necessary to be re­membred, that is, that yonge men endeuoure them to gette the bokes of olde wryters, and in gatheryng of them, to folowe and be lyke to the ploughman. For as the feate of tyllage is kepte by occupyenge of the grounde, and nat onely by hauynge of plowes and other store of housban­drie: in lyke wyse the instrument of lernynge is not only possession of bokes, but also exercise and practise of the same.

Of the commodite of vertuous exercise. Cap. viii.

EXercyse is not a lyttell to be estemed / and for that pur­pose children muste also be commytted to maysters, whiche maye exercise them sufficientlye, to the intente that thereby, good shappe of lymmes and membres & strengthe of bodye maye be acquired. For the good habitie and disposition in the bodyes of chylderne, is for age a sure fundation.

And as in somer and fayre wether men prouide agaynste wynter: so the best prouision for age, is good maners and temperance goten in youth. [Page] Also labour is to be kepte in, as it were in a closet or selle, and so moderatly vsed, that children be­ynge tendre and flexible, be not in study ouermo­che fatigated. For as Plato sayth, laboure and slepe be ennemyes to lernynge. But what nede I to tarye here vpon, seynge that I pourpose to declare that whiche is more necessarye to speake of. It shall be most expedient to exercise children in feates of armes, as in rydynge and chasyng, castynge of iauelyns and dartes, shotynge in the longe bowe, and suche other marcial actes, wher in the vanquiss hours appoynt for their rewarde to haue the goodes of them that be vāquysshed. All be hit warre lyttell estemeth the parsonage brought vp in the shadowe. The pure and leane souldiour, alwayes hauntynge the affayres of warre, oftē times ouerthroweth the great wrast­ler in bataile, and enforceth the front all redy im­batayled to recule. what is that to the purpose, sayth some man to me? For where thou dyddest promyse to gyue aduertisementes, concernynge the bryngynge vp of honest mens children, not withstandynge thou passest ouer poure men and the cōmune people, that thou goest aboute to in­structe onely ryche menne and nobles. whervnto it is no great difficultie to replie. Certeynly myn entent is, that my exhortation shulde be cōmune and also profitable to euery man. But if any be of suche pouertie, that he is not able to vse this my counsayle, he shal blame fortune and not me, that do the best I can to aduise hym. It is to be [Page] assayed with all that may be, that the beste ways of bryngynge vp of chyldren may be knowen al­so to poure men: and at the leste to do that that is possible. And these be the moste sorest obiecti­ons that be in this matter. Nowe frō hensforth I purpose to adde therto the sure and streyghte way howe yonge men shulde be instructed.

¶ A moderate direction to prouoke chil­dren to lerne. And of the folye of in­discrete fathers. Cap. ix.

I Do affirme surely in myne opi­nion, chyldren oughte not to be brought to honest exercise, by bea­tynge and strokes, but by exhorta­cion and reasonyng. For punisshe­ment is meter for villaynes and slaues / than for them that be franke or of gentill bloud: whiche with trauaile be hardned, and some tyme beinge aferde of the whippe / applieth them to labour. But children of gentyll nature take more profite by praise or lyghte rebuke, than by stripes. For praises stere them to worshyp, and rebuke doth withdrawe them from folye. wherfore it requi­reth at sondry tymes to myngle sharpe wordes with praises. After ye haue strongely rebuked, than to prouoke them to shamefastnes, and efte­sones to reuoke their corages with prayses: and therin nources are to be folowed, whiche whan they haue made theyr children to wepe, furthe­with [Page] with they do gyue vnto them theyr pappes, therby for to styll them. But beware gyue them not to many prayses, le [...]te they take therby to moche courage and presumption: and with to moche cockenayenge be spylled and lost. I haue knowen many faders, whom to moche loue hath caused, that they loued not their children. But what may I say, to tell it more playnlyer? For where they make haste, that their chyldren may the soner excel other, they do put vnto them infynite labours, wherof beynge werye and op­pressed with intollerable paynes, fynallye they fynde lyttell pleasure or swetenes in lernynge. A lyttell water maketh herbes to growe, and with to moche they be soone glutted. In lykewyse the mynde with moderate labour is quickened, and with inordinate labours is oppressed and drow­ned. wherfore in studyes and labours some re­creacion is to be gyuen to children. For we must remembre / that al our lyfer deuided in to study and reste. And therfore not onely watche is ne­cessarie, but also slepe: not batayle only, but also peace: not wynter and stormes, but also fayre wether and somer: not onely warke dayes, but also hygh feastes and holy dayes: and generally ydelnes and reste is sauce vnto labour: and that may you perceyue not onely in thynges hauynge lyfe, but also in those thynges that lacke life. For we do vnbende our bowes, and vnwra [...]te our lu­ [...]es and harpes, to the entent efte [...]ones to bende them and wraste them. And fynally the body to [Page] preserued with lacke and sustinance, the mynde / with remyssyon and laboure.

Many faders be to be blamed, and that with good cause, whiche so cōmytte theyr children to Tutours and maysters, that they them selfe did neuer se nor here howe their children haue in ler­nynge profited / wherin they offende more than nede: for in a lyttell space they may haue experi­ence, for theyr chyldrens furtherance by examy­nynge theyr chyldren: and not putte theyr hoole truste in the disposicion of a man hired. For mai­sters and tutours vse more diligence aboute the children, whan they knowe that they shal make answere and rekenynge for them: Accordynge to the propre sayenge of the wyse horseman, that sayde, that nothynge made a horse so sone fatte as the eie of his mayster.

¶Of the exercises of memorye / and of the thre excellent continences of the tounge, wrathe, and the handes. Cap. x.

ABoue all thynges the memorie of chylderne is to be exercised and kepte in vsage: for that is as hit were the store house of lernynge. wherfore in aunciente fables, Me­morie is named the mother of Muses (whiche as poetes write, were fynders of all sciences libe­ralle) therby declarynge, that nothynge nexte [Page] to nature may bringe fourth so moche as memo­rie. Therfore that is to be exercised in euery part wether the childe be retentife of memorie or ob­liuious. And if it shall happe that some be more excellēt than other, we ought to corroborate the habundaunce of nature: And where they be oppressed with dulnes, to amende and supply the defaulte or lacke. And therfore the poete Hesio­dus marueilously well sayth:

If to a lytell thou addest a lyttell more
In space of tyme thou shalle haue mykell store.

Let not this be forgoten of parentes, that the parte of doctrine concernynge memorie, is not onely a great porcion of lernynge, but also of o­ther necessaries to mans lyfe apperteignynge. And verily remembraunce of a [...]aires done in tyme passed, is an example and myrrour the bet­ter to consider thynges to come. Children more ouer ought to be refrayned from dyshonest & re­baulde cōmunicaciō. For as Democritus saith: Speche is the shadowe of dedes. Also it muste be forseen, that children be made in answeringe curteise, and swete in salutinge. For as stourdie and soure facion in spekinge / maketh a man odi­ous & disdayned: so childrē gete the loue of theyr companiōs, if whan they be demanded, they be not in theyr answeres strange and vncurteise. It is not cōmendable to vanquishe & subdue other, but also to knowe howe to be vanquished, speci­ally in these thynges, wherin victory is cause of detrimēt or losse. Suche was the victory of Cad­mus [Page] (whiche was in this wise as some men sup­pose. Cadmus the sonne of Agenor kynge of E­gypte was the fyrst founder of the citie of The­b [...]s, of whom by succession came Edipus, whiche maried Iocasta his owne moder, and had by her two sonnes Etheocles and Polynices, betwene whome was mortall warre for the kyngedome of Thebes: Polynyces the yonger brother, ha­uynge in his ayde the Arg [...]u [...]s. But fynally the Thebanes, of the part of Eth [...]ocles had the vi­ctorie, whiche was with small profite or honour. For Polinices hath wounded Eth [...]ocles his brother to dethe: But moued with cōpassion, as he stoped downe to releue his sayd brother who of­fered to kysse hym, Eth [...]ocles incontinent slewe his said brother. And so was the ende of the ba­tayle myserable and despiteous. And by reason that Cadmus was h [...]ed & chiefe of their lynage, it was called Cadmus victorie, & vsed for a pro­uerbe, where domage groweth by victorye. Of that I haue spoken is wytnesse the wyse Euripi­des, whiche sayth in this maner:

where [...] do [...]raule, and the one is in fury
He that refrayneth, the wy [...]er is truely.

Other exercises there be, which are no lesse to be estemed of yonge men, than they, whiche be re­bersed: that is to lay, no [...] to lyue to delicately / to refrayne the tonge, subdue wrathe, conteyne the handes, & what apperteyneth to euery of these, It is to be sene and occlared / not withstandynge they shall [...]e [...]te appere by example, & to begynne [Page] at the last. Dyuers that haue put theyr handes to vnlaufull gaynes, haue, loste all er they dyed. Bilippus a noble Lacedemon, onely for bycause he dyd vnknyt certeine bagges of money, he was banisshed [...]or euer out of his countre. It is the ꝓ­pertie of a wyse man, not to be vanquisshed with anger. On a tyme a wanton and presumptuous yonge man, with his hele strake Socrates (whi­che was in his tyme the wysest man of Grece) & whan Socrates ꝑceyued, that they whiche were in his company toke it d [...]plesantly, & were ther­with soore chaufed, in so moche that they wolde haue reuenged hym, he sayd vnto them: what if an asse had bytte me with her bele / thynke you it were mete I shulde kyke ageyne at her: wher­fore he wold not suffre them to folowe the person that strake hym. In conclusion the yonge man, whan men had longe tyme rebuked hym, and e­uery where called him a kiker, for pure shame at the laste [...]ynge hym selfe. whan Aristophanes in his enterlude, whiche he called the Cloudes, had spoken many rebukes o [...] Socrates, & one beinge present redynge it, sayd: Socrates, art not thou herewith angry. No on my faith said So­crates, it greueth me no more to be scoffed at in the hall, where playes be accustomed to be, than if it were at a feast or banket. Semblably did Ar­chitas & Plato the philosophers. Architas re­turnyng from batayle (for he was moche part in warres, soūde his lande out of tilth & disfigured, he called forth his baylife of husbandrie & sayd [Page] vnto hym: If I were sure that I shuld not be an­gry, thou shuldest repēt the. Plato being moued with his seruant, that was a riot [...]ous person, cal­led Speusippus his neuewe, & sayd to hym: Go beate this [...]low, for I am to moch chaufed & an­gry. Perchance some wyl say, that these be great & difficult matters to folowe: & I knowe well so they be, but yet we muste with all our myght en­force vs, that vsing these & other lyke ensamples, at the laste we may withdrawe a great parte of inordinate and vengeable angre. For where in o­ther thynges we may not cōpare with these wyse men, in doctrine nor vertue / yet neuer the lasse let vs with al our power endeuour our [...]elfes (which be the seruantes of god, & expounders of his wyl berynge lyght in our handes / folowe or at the lest scrape of some frute of theyr examples.

Nowe remayneth to declare the refraynyng of the tonge, accordynge as I purposed.

¶Howe premeditation ought to be vsed with a pleasant narration of Vlysses and Polyphemus. Ca. xi.

VUho so speaketh contem­tuously or vnaduisedly, tho it be but lyttell, he very mo­che do [...]herre. For oportu­nite in silence is a great part of wysedome & moche bet­ter than spekynge. Therfore [Page] our elders haue shewed vnto vs mistical & darke ceremonies & prouerbes: wherby we beyng one [...] accustomed to silēce, may conuert the [...]ere and re­uerence that be in diuine secretes / to [...]ayth or cre­dence to be had in the mysteries and wyse senten­ses of men: wherof diuerse hereafter ensue. Of silence neuer man repented. But of spekyng ma­ny. More ouer, that sylence kepeth, may sone be vttred, but it that ones is vttred, may neuer be reuoked. I remembre dyuers, that by their intem­perate langage haue susteyned moche domage. And in leauyng al other, it shal suffise to remem­bre one or two, in settynge out of this matter. Kynge Alexander the great conquerour, cōman­ded the Grekes to ordeyn garmentes of purple, that whan he returned from his conqueste, they myght in that apparaile honour his victory that he had agaynst them of the orient, with solemne sacrifice: The people for that entent paying heed siluer: One Theocrite a philsopher sayd to Ale­xander: I haue ben a great whyle in doute, but nowe I perceiue clerely by the sayeng of Homer, that this shalbe thy purple deth. By which wordes he brought him selfe ī to the high indignatiō of Alexander. The same Theocrite embraydinge king Antigonus who had but one eie / with blind­nes: prouoked hym to displesure. For on a tyme kynge Antigonus had commanded to come vnto him one Eutropion his mayster coke, which was also a capitayne in his armye / to reken with hym concernynge his office, which the sayd Theocrite [Page] often tymes came and shewed to Eutropion, and seynge hym make no haste, sayd vnto hym: I se well thou wylte serue me in rawe to Cyclops. In which wordes be enbraided the king with blind­nes, and the capitayne Etropyon with cokerye. Therfore sayde Eutropion / thou shalte lose thy heed / and suffre penaunce for thy bablynge and rayshenes, and furthwith shewed the wordes to the kyng, who in his fury immediatly sent one to slee Theocrite. But er I procede any further, I wyl shewe the historie of Cyclops, which is here remembred, that the taunt or rebuke gyuen by Theocrite may the better be vnderstande. After that the citie of Troye was destroyed, the Gre­kes laded with inestimable riches prepared their returne into their countreys, amonge whom the wyse and eloquent Vlisses, by whose policie the Grekes had exployted their affaires, trauayled lōge on the sees: to whom did happē maruailous and strange aduentures. Of the whiche one the most wonderfull was, that by tempest he and his company were dryuen through two daungerous passages: wherof one was a great and horrible rocke named Scilla: the other a gulfe or swalow called Charibdis: and finally arryued in Sicile, whiche at that tyme was named Trinacria, and was onely inhabyted with monsterous people, whiche were of great & huge stature like geaun­tes, and had but one eie, whiche was great and rounde, in the middes of their forheed, and were called Cyclopes. The chiefe or capitayne of them [Page] was named Polyphemus, who excelled al the o­ther in enormitie of stature. As Vlisses & diuers of his cōpany were entred into the Isle to reste & solace them after their trauaile, they were incon­tynent deprehēded by the said Ciclopes, & caried into the horrible caues or dēnes made in the roc­kes: where the giantes did eate the said Grekes rawe, and like to raueninge wolfes / crushed the heedis & bones of men betwene their tethe, that the braynes & marowe dropped downe by theyr mouthes. Suche was the terrible power and ra­uyne of the Ciclopes. But whan Vlisses percey­ued the imminent perill that he was in, he with most swete & delectable wordes appesed the rage of Polyphemus the giante / that toke him, who heringe the wonderfull eloquence of Vlisses, de­manded of him his name, and he answered, that he was called Noman. The giant delited & had moche pleasure at the beautie and eloquence of Vlisses, whiche he perceiuinge, gaue vnto the gi­ant a delectable potion, wherof he toke suche a­bundance, that he became therwith dronke, and fell into a d [...]ed & heuy slepe: that perceiuing Vlis­ses, he withdrew him priuely, and conueyed him vnder the deade bodyes, vntyll the tyme that he was assured, that the giant slepte faste, than he toke his sworde, & for the greatnes of the gian­tis body, beinge longe in a doubt where to stryke him, so that he might be most sure of him, at the last with al his might he perced the eie of the gi­ant, & put it clene out: but he was so drowned in [Page] slepe, that he therwith coude not awake. As Vlisses perceiued that he had made blynd the giant, be with all haste returned to his shippes & set vp all the sayles, & passed with all hast possible into the mayne see. After that Polyphemus was wa­ked, and than felte great peyne of his wounde, & that he had vtterly lost his eie, perceyuynge that he was betrayed by Vlisses, he supposynge Vlis­ses had ben yet in his denne or caue stode vp spredyng his armes before the hole of the caue, thin­kynge to kepe therin Vlisses: but whan he had longe tyme so taried, & at the laste perceiued that he was fledde, he wandred in to the Ile rorynge with a terrible voyce: wherwith there repaired vnto hym the other Ciclopes or giauntes / and se­ynge hym sore hurt and bledyng demanded him who had so hurted & woūded him: And he said [...] Noman: supposynge that had ben the name of Vlysses. But whan they coulde haue none other answere of knowlege of him, thinkynge [...] that he had ben madde, departed their ways: And Po­lyphemus desired to be auenged on Vlisses, as destracte and madde, pursued hym vnto the see, where he entred so far, that notwithstanding his strength and greatnes, he fynally was drowned. And Vlisses by his eloquence and excellent witte escaped from being eate by the giantes. By this fable it appereth, that Theocrite by namynge of Ciclops, noted and inbrayded kynge Antigonus with crueltie and also with his blemysshe of one eie. And by the sayenge of Theocrite, that Eu­tropion [Page] wolde serue by [...] in rawe, he noted hym with his crafte of cokery and that he was out of his kechyn / where he shulde roste or sethe hym. But to returne to our purpose. Children must be accustomed to speake nothinge but tre [...]the. For lyinge is a detestable vice, and to be hated of all men, ne to be suffred amonge seruantis ne other persones / howe poure estate so euer they be of.

¶what incōueniences do happen by the negligence of faders. And of the reuerēt preceptes of Pythagoras. Ca. xii.

NOwe sens I haue treated of the fyrste bryngynge vp of chyldren, and training them in good maners, I wil bere after in fewe wordes passe furth vnto the more ripenes of youth. Of­ten tymes I haue thought moche occasion of yll and corrupted maners to be in suche, whiche hauynge chyldren of theyr owne, durynge their infancy and tender youthe commytte them to good maysters and tutours, and as soone as they do entre into mannes age, they abandon them, and suffre them to lyue at theyr pleasure. wherin contrarye wyse in that entre and ieoper­ [...]ous tyme more hede oughte to be taken of them, than whan they were chyldren. For men knowe well, that the defautes of chyldren be of lyght importance, and lyghtly redressed: as per­chance it may happe / by neglygence of tutours [Page] and lacke of obedience. But the offences of them whiche be cōmen to yfect yeres, be more greuous often tymes & full of danger, as riottous lyuynge consumynge substance & inheritance, inordinate & chargeable gaminge, ingurgitacions and sur­fettes, defloracion of maydēs, corruptynge good women, and auoutryes. These inconueniences ought in tyme & spedily to be repressed. For the delicate flower of youthe vneth maye be preser­ued from the violence of bodily luste, onles he be brideled. wherfore they, whiche withstande not youthe in their children: litell force what libertie of ymaginacion they gyue vnto them to com­mytte vyce. wherfore wyse fathers, hauynge chyldren, at that estate and yeres wyll haue to them a vigilante eye, that they may the rather induce them in to temperance, some tyme exhor­tynge, another tyme menasynge, other whyles desyrynge, in lyke wyse counsaylynge, eftsones promysynge, or other wyse alluringe: some tyme declarynge to them, what daungers & troubles them selfe in youthe haue susteyned: or howe by vertue and sufferance they haue atteyned bothe laude and honour. For the two principall occasi­ons of vertue, be feare of peyne, and hope of re­warde: the one dysposeth a man to actes of ho­nestie, the other maketh hym slowe to do yll. Fynally we must amoue chyldren from the com­pany of ryottous and [...]lagicions persones. For by them they shall be with vice and vnthriftines corrupted. To this purpose were lefte by Py­thagoras [Page] the noble philosopher; wonderfull and good preceptes in darke sentences, whiche I purpose nowe to expounde. For they be ryght neces­sary for the opteynynge of vertue. The precep­tes be in this wyse.

Taste nothynge that hath a Blacke tayte, That is to saye, company with no persone, whose maners be spotted with vice.

Leape not ouer the Balaunce, Esteme Iustice, and skyppe not ouer hit.

Sytte not in idelnes, eschewe idelnes and prouide diligently for thy lyuynge.

Gyue not to euery man thy ryght hade, recōcile the not to sone to thin ennemye without good auisement.

Weare not to strayte a vynge, beare the so, that thou kepe the out of bondes.

Cutte not the fyre with weapon, do not irritate a mā in his furye, but rather whan he rageth, gyue place to his anger.

Eate no harte, what doth it els signifie, but accō ­bre not thy mynde with thoughtes, ne do not fa­tigate the with cares? A [...]steyne from [...]eanes, Busy not thy selfe with ouer mani matters. In the olde tyme iuges were electe by lottis made of beanes.

Put not thy meate in a traye, put not good sentēses and vertuous lernynges, into a foule & corrupte mynde. For lernynge and vertuous cōmunicaci­on is to the mynde norishement, but with disho­nestie and vice the mynde is defyled.

At the ende of thy iourney couet not to go backe, whan deth cometh, take it in good part & sorowe not.

¶ What company is pernicious to chyldren. Ca. xiii.

BUt nowe to returne to the purpose that I fyrste spake of. Let vs withdrawe our chyldren from men of yll dis­position, and specially flatte­rers & dyssemblers. And I doubte not to aduertyse you faders, there is nat lyuynge a thynge more mischeuous than flatterers, nor any thynge that soner causeth yonge men to de­cay, than they, who confounde bothe the fa­thers and chyldren, turmentynge the fathers age with pensiuenes, and subuertynge the yonge men with pernicious counsayle, surmisyng plea­sure, where in is bydde a bayte of vice and vn­thryftynes. The fathers exhorte theyr chyldren, whiche haue abundance to sobrenes: the flatte­rers stere them to riotte and wantonnesse. The fathers aduise them to vse mesurable sparynge: the flatterers sumptuous expenses and reue­lynge. The one preyseth labour and exercise: the other slouthe and desolute idelnes / sup­posynge that man liueth but a moment: wher­fore he shulde lyue frankely and lyberally, and not skantly. Nowe a dayes what carethe the chylde for the fathers menace thinkynge that in age his father doteth. And yet often tyme suche chyldren we preyse and make moche of: All be it diuers of them haunte brothels, and some tyme [Page] marie dishonestly, [...]o [...]ten tymes [...]nge and spe [...] ­dynge awaye theyr fathers substance, wherwith they shulde honestely lyue in theyr age. Dissem­blers of frendshyppe is an vnhappy kynde of people, absteynynge from all lybertie of speche, onely flatterynge the great men [...] and sk [...]minge the poure men / also prepared to disceyue yonge men. For whan they do se them skorne their pa­rentes or tutours, they also laugh with them, as men on all partes impfect and alienate from their nature. For where god made them fre, with flat­tery they do bryng them selfe in bōdage, also thin­kynge them selfe not regarded, whan they syt at other mens tables, if they be not iested at & rebu­ked. wherfore he that is a father, & desireth the good bringinge yp of his children, let hym in any wyse put away & abiect those lothely beastis and vnthryfty companyons. For by them a gentyll nature may sone be abused and corrupted.

¶Of meanes to dissuade yonge men from vyce, and of example to be gyuen by their parentes. Ca. xiiii.

THe [...]e thynges also be ho­nest and cōmendable, that I wyll nowe speake of. I wyll not that the parentes shuld be to sharpe or harde to theyr childrē, but some tyme to remytte and forgyue their offences passed, & to remēbre [Page] theyr owne fragilitie and youthe, lyke as phy­sicions do myxte bytter medicynes with delec­table lycours, fyndynge the meane, to ioyne pleasure with profyte in company: so ought the fathers to tempre rygour with mercye, and the chyldren some tyme shulde haue their brydell slaked, to haue somewhat theyr plea­sures. Specially fautes that be lyght shulde be casely taken: Or if the parentis be an­grye, it shulde be withoute great chaufynge or trouble of mynde: it is better that the father be sone angry than soore. For he that is so harde harted, that his son can not opteyne his fauour, but with greate difficultie, it may be apparent, that therby he causeth his sonne to hate hym. And somtime it is necessary to dissemble a lyght and small faute, applienge the defnes and dulle sencis of age to the actis of their children, that many thynges they se not lokynge, nor here not hiringe. Syns we suffre the defautes of our fren­des and seruauntes, what wonder is it, though some tyme we do suffre our children. By suche meanes the wildnes of youthe, lyke to a colte, wisely wayed and broken, is made gentyll and sobre. Aboue all thynges take hede, that they, whiche be vtterly enclyned to lechery / and be in­corrigible, may haue wiues and be maried. For that is the moste sure bridell of youth. And pro­uyde for them wyues, that neyther be to ryche, neither of to hygh bloud or stocke. For it is a prouerbe replenyshed with wysedome: Seke the a [Page] wyfe p [...]re [...]e vnto the. For they that take wyues moche better than them selfes, they forgete that they haue made them selfe not husbandes, but bonde men. Nowe addynge here to a fewe thin­ges, I shall make an ende of this matter.

Aboue al thinges it is moste expediēt [...] that the fathers be a true example to theyr children / not only in doynge none yuel, but doinge many good actis and faites, that beholdynge theyr fathers lyues, as it were a myrrour, the children may es­chewe al foule or vnsemely act or word. For who so rebuketh his chylde of vice, and he hym selfe falleth into the same, it semeth he knoweth nor, that vnder the name of his chylde, he accuseth hym selfe. And to conclude shortely, they which spende their lyues vnthriftly, they exclude them selfes from libertie to rebuke theyr owne sonnes or seruantes, & in theyr yuell doinge they gyue as it were counsyll and helpe to other, to committe like offence. More ouer where age is shameles there nedes must youth be without shamefast­nes. To gete youre childe temperāce and hone­stie, take hede, that euery thynge be done with good conuenience and ordre. And therin lette vs folowe Euridice a noble woman, who all be hit that she was barbarous and fer from leruynge, yet in her age she atteined to high study and do­ctrine, to the entente to bringe vp her children, as it is declared in her epigram, whiche she dyd de­dicate to the Muses: Euridice the Hiropolitan after she had obteined her desire of lerninge, she [Page] hath dedicate this remembrance to the [...] For after that her children [...]ame to age of discre­cion, she beinge a mother and aged, with great peyne and studye, lerned letters, whiche be the moniment of vertue. To do all that hath ben [...]e­hersed / pauenture I may soner wyss be it than persuade it: but to folowe it as nere as we can [...] it requireth the goodnes of nature, and also dili­gence, I am sure / that by mannes witte it may be performed and brought to passe.

¶ Thus endeth this very golden boke, called the Education of children.

¶ Imprinted at London in Fletestrete, in the house o [...] Thomas Berthelet, nere to the Cun­dite, at the sygne of Lucrece.


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