A President for Parentes, Teaching the vertu­ous training vp of Children and holesome information of yongmen. Written in greke by the prudent and wise Phylosopher Choeroneus Plutarchus, Translated and partly aug­mented by Ed. Grant: very pro­fitable to be read of all those that desire to be Parents of vertuous children. ANNO. 1571.

Seene and allowed according to the Quenes Iniunctions.

Imprinted at London by Henry Bynneman.

This little following worke
a parent doth exhort,
To trayne his childe in vertuous wayes,
in good and godly sort:
In youth to sow the sedes of grace,
of learning and of skill,
Within his yong and tender brest,
to flee and voyde eche yll.

The Translatour vnto children, youth, and parents of Englande.

IF pruning herbs do culture vvant,
and lacke their tillage due,
There is no sightlinesse in grounde,
nor pleasure for to vevve.
If trees be graft in barren soyle,
and in infertile grounde,
In sommer time to yeelde good fruite,
they are but seldome founde:
So doth a pregnant minde likevvise
full soone degenerate,
In entraunce first to vitall life,
and vvandreth from his state,
Except it be vvell ordered,
and trayned vp vvith care,
And furnished vvith godlynesse,
vvith grace and lerning rare.
For though the earth breedes vvondrous things,
vvhose strength & vigour grene,
The sunne and shovvres do increase,
as dayly may be sene:
[Page] Yet painfull labour must be put,
and faithfull care to suche,
Least vicious luxuriousnesse
impeache it ouermuche.
And eke the skill of things also,
therto must ioyned be,
That nature may perfourme hir vvorke
vvith all integritie.
VVee see hovv vvylde and brutish beastes
their rigour put avvay,
And hagard natures doo depell,
and violence doo stay:
Suche force there is in care, and toyle,
in labour, and in payne,
In diligent sedulitie:
I haue him knovvne certayne,
VVhiche did degenerate from kynde,
by study to depell,
And paynfull toyle his errours vayne,
and grovving vices quell.
Somtyme he that by natures arte,
to gracious things is prone,
Is trapped in fonde fansies snare,
and soone is farre begone.
If culture, and if order due,
hir cunning doo not trie,
As it dothe happen vnto fieldes,
[Page] vnhusbanded vhich lye:
VVherin vve see through negligence
of some rude husbandman,
That thistles and suche choaking vveedes,
'mongs corne grovves novv and than,
VVhen youth grovves vp to lustie age,
vvhen strength begins to grovve,
And floure of lyfe doth burgen, then
must parents labour shovv,
And carefull be, vvhen that the myndes
of their children full deare,
May bovved bee, vvhen lyke to vvaxe
their louing sonnes appeare.
Therefore O chylde, vse thou good things,
that thy pure mynde may haue
His ornamentes more precious
than bodies beautie braue.
For as the membres haue theyr vse,
so vvorthier than they,
Thy mynde is to be polyshed
vvith studious skill full gay.
Suche riches and suche ievvels pure,
as vvill adorne thy mynde,
In Plutarchs lore full briefly here,
thou shalt be sure to fynde:
VVhich teacheth thee for to increase
the dovvries of the same,
[Page] And to extirpe the spottes by art,
vvhich do thy body maime.
And greater things than these also,
O childe, thou here shalt lerne,
VVhat may become thy riper age,
vvhen thou doste more discerne.
A fruitfull vvorke and holsome too,
vvhich no life vvell can lacke,
That coueteth the bondes of grace,
and vertue not to slacke.
VVhich vvorke bicause in Grekish tong
good Plutarch first did vvright,
Vnknovvne to many, novve it comes
in English to thy sight:
My simple labour in the same
therfore I haue employde,
That thou mightst lern therby t'imbrace
vertue, and vice auoyde.
That English parents might suruey,
hovv Greekish men vvere tought,
The vvay to trayne their children vp,
by Plutarch vvhich vvas vvrought.
For countreys cause I tooke this payne,
and trauel herein spente,
VVith adding to the same my marks,
vvhich others haue me lent,
To furnishe poorely this my payne,
[Page] adioyned to Plutarchs lore,
VVhich if it may be fructuous,
to thee, I aske no more:
No hier nor no guerdon, I do craue
for this my payne,
That parents dere may learne therby,
and children, is my gayne.
And to purtray my humble heart
vnto those gentlemen,
To vvhom I haue this dedicate,
this trauell toke my pen.
Yet some I hope vvill vvish me vvell
for this my good entent,
VVhen that they see and do peruse
my labour herein spent.
VVhich if they do they shal procure
me further for to vvade
Hereafter in vntroden pathes,
allure and eke persvvade.
And some perchaunce of learned sort,
vvhen that they do this vevv,
VVill iudge my labour vvell imployde,
and vvorthy guerdon devve.
Suche frendly men do knovv the fruite
that may hereof ensue,
If parents do imbrace the same,
and do their sonnes endue

bée tamed, and accustomed to come to the hande of the Falconer, (which serue vs in our hauking:) so vndoutedly much more, tender age, is and ought to be endued with faythfull precepts, and tilled with holsom lessons, that in tyme to come, they may be profitable membres in the cōmon weale, and with wisedome and experience, poli­tikely administer and gouerne the same. The men of olde tyme, as they suffered not theyr cattle to stray without a shepe­herd or herdesman, so neyther permitted they their children to wander and runne at randon licentiously without a guyde, a gouerner, or learned instructer. And this was their intent, that their childrens ten­der yeares myght godly and purely bée broughte vp. Therefore the valiante Philip king of Macedonia, did not ioye so muche that a sonne was borne to him, as Philip king of Macedo­nia, reioyced that his sōne Alexander was born in Aristotles time. Horatius. he reioyced, he was brought to light in A­ristotles tyme, that princely Philosopher, that of him he myght be taught & instruc­ted, to liue well and blissedly. Wysely and truely hath the Poet Horace soong.

Que semel est imbuta recens seruabit odorem testa di [...]. &c.
The vessell vvill conserue the taste
of lycour very long,
VVith vvhiche it vvas first seasoned,
and thereof smell full strong.
Euen so a chylde, if that he be
in tender yeares brought vp
In vertues schoole, and nurtred vvell,
vvill smell of vertues cup.

And in shewyng the way of this edu­cation, it shall not be out of the way, nor inexpedient, to begin of the birth, and ge­neration. Therfore, I wold counsell him How a parēt ought too marche him selfe, that would haue excellent children. that doth desire to be the father of a ver­tuous and honourable childe, not to ioyne himselfe, with those kinde of women, which are deuested of the attire of theyr shame, and disfurnished of all honestie, as baudes and common harlots: for such as of vnhonest and vicious parentes bée in­gendred, and brought to light, through all their life shall not auoyde the inexpugni­ble reproches taunts, quips, and nipping contumelies of their base birth and igno­bilitie, but at euery houre be a laughing stock & ready gibe, to those that be prone & bent to reprehensiō, ignominie, rayling, & casting in the nose of such obscure gene­ration. [Page] Truly and wysely hath the poet sayde, meritorious of immortall fame.

VVhen parentes do not rightly lay
a firme foundation,
Of stocke vnspotted, oft their sonnes
susteyne calumniation:
And proue th'assaultes of fortunes threats
for filthie procreation.

Therfore honest and lawfull birthe, is the excellent and beautifull treasure Honest birth is the trea­sure of li­bertie. of the libertie of speache, when none shall haue occasion (what alteration so e­uer happen) once to be so bolde, as to ob­iect any brutall obscuritie of vnhonest ge­neration: which thing they must very of­ten consider, which require the lawfull propagation of children: for those whose birth is blemished with spot or blot, or taynted with the dye of vnlawfull co­lour, naturally are wont to be of an ab­iect mynde, and contemptible courage, as notably the Poet sayth:

That man though he be bolde and stoute,
in courage oft doth quayle,
VVhen he doth knovve his fathers euils,
or mothers faulties staile.

As on the contrary parte, they, (which be the children of excellent and illustrious parents) be stout, bolde, couragious, fea­ring no thunderbolts of infamie. Wher­fore Fame hathe sounded in hir golden trump, that doughtie Diophantus, sonne Diophantus. of worthy Themistocles, oftē and sundry times gloried, and vaunted, that all those things which he liked, the Athenians al­lowed and ratified: for sayd he, all things which pleased me, my mother approued, and what things my mother counsailed, Themistocles condemned not: finally what Themistocles enacted or appoyn­ted, all the Citie of Athens followed and imbraced. Also I iudge the Lacedemoni­ans worthye of perduring praise, for the Archidamus was amer­ced by the Lacedemo­niās, bicause he espoused a woman of little stature. great magnanimitie, & couragious harts, which douted not, nor adreaded to punish by the purse, their king Archidamus, whē he had taken to wife, a woman of very small stature, and nothing strongly pro­porcioned in the liniaments of hir body: [Page] priuily reporting that he minded not that Kings should come of him, but Quéenes, to gouerne their posteritie. Nowe conse­quently that followeth here to purport & to reueale also that which our Ancetors neglected not, nor without great care o­uerpassed. And what is that? they willed and counsailed, that those men, (which for the procreation of children associated them selues to the company of women) should either wholly abstaine from the drinking of Wine, or at least with great moderation should drincke the same: for suche were wont to glutte them selues with the loue of wine, and prone to ebri­tie, which haue their beginning, and are ingendred of temulent and drunken Pa­rents.

Herevpon Diogenes, when he saw at a certaine time a certayne dissolute, Diogenes. foolishe, and brainelesse yong man, sayd:

Thy father thee begate my childe,
VVhē Bacchus cups had him beguild.

And as concerning the birth and pro­pagation [Page] of children, let this bréefe coun­saile suffise Nowe wil I speake and de­clare my opinion of the bringyng vp and education of the same. Generally what so euer wée were wont to speake of Arts Sciences, and disciplines, the same must wée also speake of Vertues: for we think that these thrée things must be concur­rent and runne togither, to the perfite and iuste operation of the same. [...], Three things are required to the attain­ment of ver­tue, nature, arte and ex­ercise. [...] and [...], Nature, Discipline, cu­stome or exercise. Out of ech of these thrée singular and excellent things doe flowe. But if any of these faile, and be wanting, Vertue of necessitie must be imperfect and lame: for nature without discipline and erudition, is but a certaine blynde things, and Discipline without nature is maynied and disfigured: and Exercise without bothe nature and Discipline, is a great imperfection, and a thing of little valuation. For euen as in husbandrye, and well laboured fieldes, it is especially conuenient and requisite that the ground be ranke and fertile, & next the husband­man or laborer cunning and skilfull, and last, that the séedes be good and fructuous: [Page] Semblably, nature is likened vnto the goodnesse of the earthe, the instructor or master to the husbandman, and the pre­cepts and holsome admonitions of artes and sciences are assimiled to the seede. Me thincke I dare boldly say, and firmly assure, that all these conioyned togither, were in the liues of those, which are throughe all the world sole [...]p [...]ized, as Pythagoras, Socrates and Plato, which haue obtained immortall glorye, and at­chieued (through their celestial wisdome and surmounting learning) the perpetui­tie of neuer dying commēdation. * Who Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato had all these three excellences. commends not Pythagoras, who praiseth not olde Socrates, who extols not Platoes prudencie? those rare ornaments of na­tures working. Their vertues conioy­ned with nature, Arte and exercise, be wrapped vp in the sereclothes of eterni­tie, and their praises are and shalbe bla­sed through all worldes. ✚ Therefore we must needs thincke him farre in Gods fauoure, and replete with felicitie and singular benifites, to whome God hathe giuen all these three excellencies nature, arte and exercise. But if there be any mā [Page] which thinketh, that those men which be of base birthe, (notwithstanding endued Vertues recompence the vvāt of nature in obseure birth. with holesome institutiō, and trained vp in vertueus exercises) are not able to re­pay and recompence the defect and want of nature, let him persuade himselfe that he is much, nay altogither deceiued.

For as luskishnesse and sluggishnesse dothe corrupt, marre and adulterate the goodnesse of nature, so doth learning and discipline correct and amend the fall and vitiositie thereof. Likewise very easle things do escape and flie these that pam­per themselues in negligence, and im­plunge themselues in the filthie puddles of idlenesse. And the hardest things with Of the [...]ore [...] and power of diligence both in all other things, and also in education. diligence, laboure, and sedulitié be obtai­ned and wonne. If thou turne thy eyes to learne the things which in common vse are accomplished, thou shalt soone moste cuidently perceiue, that diligence and la­boure are moste conuincible to the fini­shing and quicke perfiting and absolution of things. For the small drops of water doe pierce and penetrate the dure rockes and slint stones, and hard iron and brasse with the often handling of the craftes [Page] mannes handes, are mollified and softe­ned. But the Carte wheeles bowed and crooked wyth greatforce, can neuer come to theyr olde strayghtnesse, do what may be done. The crooked & retorted staues of stage playes cā by no meanes be straightned. But on the contrary part, a superna­tural thing may be bettered, by the indu­strie and labor of those things which are according to nature. * There is nothing so hie, so sharpe, so rigorous, so difficile, Labor im­probus om­nia vincit. which with diligēt study thou mayst not obtaine. But if desire of learning, desire of diligence be awāting, the most easiest things thou shalt proue to be most har­dest, and nothing at all thou shalt auaile in learning. Euen as a husbandman, if he loue his husbandry, shall accumulate a great heap of riches, while nothing he shall so muche estéeme, which may call him away from his husbandry, wherby he cānot execute all things in their time: so he which once hath giuen him selfe to diligēt studies of the Muses, and hath ta­sted of the pleasantnesse therof, can by no means be disioyned or seuered from that diligent laboure, but wil perlustrate and search out the most secrete sanctuaries of [Page] the nine prudent sisters. Aristotle the Aristotles in­dust [...]e and di­ligenoe in s [...] ­clu [...]g out na­tures s [...]. splendent lampe of all abstruse things, was holden with a seruent loue to inne­stigate and find out the obscurities in na­ture: and therfore it irked not him, whole xx. yeres, to hear his prudent master Pla­to, and to vse his aid & helpe to search out natures secrets. By that vntired and vn­weryed studie, he ascended the sort of all learning, and climed to the top of all sur­passing knowledge. Solon, the Sapient Solon was wont to say. Quotidie a­liquid addis­cens sen [...]sco. lawe maker among the Athenians, did much resemble him also, whichin his last age wold not be vndiligent, or slacke his studie. For when his brothers son in cō ­potation and drinking, had sung a certain verse of Sappho, he was so delited there­withall, that he commaunded the yong man his nepkew, to teach him the same. Who often wold say. [...], I daily wax old euer lear­ning somthing: the diligence of Diogenes is memorable: Who going to Athens, went to Antisthenes, of whom he being oftē repelled & driuē away, (for Antisthe­nes receyued no scholers to teach) would not forsake him. Therefore Antisthenes accensed wyth indignation against him, [Page] tooke vp a staffe to beat and abādon him: but Diogenes to testifie his diligence and good zeale towarde studies, was willing inough to be smitten vpon the head, say­ing: beat me as long as thou shalt please, but certainly no staffe thou shalt finde so harde, with which thou shalt beate me a­way, as long as thou sayest nay thing. ✚ But doe these things only shew the force and power of diligence? No verely, there be other things innumerous, which most manifestly declare the same. Althoughe a field by nature be good and fertile, not­withstādingif, it be neglected for dressing A fertile fielde for lacke of tillage, waxeth barren. doth wax barren, and how much it natu­rally is better, so much is it made worse without tillage: and contrariwise, if it be foule for lacke of good husbandry, & ouer­grown with wéedes, notwithstāding, (if it be wel labored & tilled) it wil be plen­tifull, and abounde in all good frutes, and straightwayes by course of time bring forth hir receiued séedes & grains. What are trées if they be neglected & had in no Trees if they be neglected, b [...] no frutes. culture? do they not grow crooked, and be­come vnfrutefull? but if they haue their due dressing & timely tillage, they burgen [Page] and blossome, and timely & aboundantly yeld their frutes. What is the strēgth of the body? is it not dulled, weakned, enfe­bled, and perisheth with the corruption of luxurious riot, euil vsage & custome? doth not a weake, féeble, & impotēt nature, by exercise and laborous industrie, atchieue much vigor & strength? what be horses, if Horses (if they bee not tamed and broken) be intractable. in time they be well broken & tamed? do they not patiently bear their sitter, or ri­der? but those horses yt be vnbroken, & re­main vnbrideled, what be they? are they not wont to be intractable, fierce, shreud, curst, & stifnecked? but to what end do we admit & maruell at the administration of these things? Do we not sée by manifest proofe, yt the most cruell, terrible, and hi­deous beastes by paine, labor, toile, indu­strie and diligence, become méeke, gētle, and tame? well & prudently answered yt Thessalian, whē he was asked, who were the most quietest among the Thessaloni­ans: euen those (said he) which cease & ab­stein frō martial mutinies, and warring weapōs. But what néed I herein vse ma­ [...]y words? for if any affirme yt custome is [...]urable, & that vertues by custome & vse [Page] obtained he also durable, shall we iudge him to think amisse? no. An example con­cerning these things will I recite, & so o­uerpasse it. Lycurgus the worthy lawma ker amōg the Lacedemonian (whose same & excellent exploites be registred in yt an­nuals of eternitie) toke once two yong whelps hauing both one dam, and caused thē to be brought vp, the one vnlike the other, for the one he made gluttonous, & gour [...]andised with rauenous paūche, the other he accustomed to pursue the chase, & to finde out by his sagacitie the footings of wild beasts. Afterwards, (whē he had congregated in a frequent assemble, togi­ther yt Lacedemonians to sée this sight) he said to them: To yt attainment of vertue, O ye Lacedemonians, vse discipline, lear­ning & the institution and right framing What vse cā do in education, is shevved bi tvvo vvhelpes borne at one tyme of one damme brought vp & cherished by the singular counsayle of [...]rgus. of life is very cōmodious, and much auai­leth, which at this time I am entended & minded most perspicuously to shew you. Then brought he out hys two diuers ac­customed whelpes, & (causing a pot filled with soddē sops or swil, and a Hare to be placed in yt mids before the dogs,) vncou­pled them, & let them go. The one pursu­ed, [Page] & ran after the Hare, & the other hyed hastely to the pot. But when the Lacede­monians could not yet diuine nor conie­cture what he mēt therby, nor wherfore he brought for the into the midst of them, those two diuers natured and nourtured dogs: Both these (sayd Licurgus) had one dam, but being wyth vnlike vse framed and taught, the one (yée sée) is desirous to swill and glutte and fill his paunche, the other applying the chase, and desirous to hunt, and to follow the footings of wilde beastes. Thus much of custome, vse, dili­gence and institution: now is occasion of­fred to speake somwhat of nourishing of infantes. In my opinion, it is moste con­uenable and necessarie, that mothers no­rishe Mothers vvith theyr ovvne paps ought to nourishe then Children. their owne Children, with theyr owne teates and paps: for mothers with great beneuolence & diligence wil cherish them, bicause wyth a certain intier loue, & mere affection they tender them which they haue born & bred: and loue euen the nailes of their fingers. But nursses & fo­string dames doe vse no true, but fayned & dissmuled loue: bicause for lieu of guer­don & reward, they practise their kindnes. [Page] And Dame nature hir self doth euident­ly declare, that mothers o [...]ght to cherish and battle with their owne milke those, which they haue engendred and borne. And for that cause, to euery liuing beast that brings for the young, hathe nature graunted and giuen, the power to nou­rishe their yong, with their owne milke. And the prouidence of GOD by great wisdom hath giuen to womē two brests, that if it should happen, that they at one birth should be deliuered of two twins, they should haue two fountaines of nu­triment. Besides this, mothers are boūd to their children with a greater good wil, and a more affectuous loue, and that not incongruently: for the coniunction in li­uing, and bringing vp togither, is cause of yt increase of beneuolēce: for brute beasts deuoide of reason, (if they be disioyned and disseuered from those, with whome they were brought vp,) they be desyrous of them. Great care therefore muste be imployed, and labour bestowed, that the very mothers them selues (as I haue sayde) with their owne breastes and pappes nourish and foster their infants. [Page] But if mothers be with infirmities and If mothers be sicke, or big vvith o­ther children a nourse must then be chosen that is honest & sober. diseases oppressed, and be vnhealthfull (whiche may happen) or hasten to the procreation of other children, then must nourses be receaued and gotten, not of the rascall rablement or rudest sort, but suche as be sober, honest, discrete, well conditioned and manered: for euen as it is most necessarie & expedient to frame and fashion the limmes and members of children (as soone as they be borne) that they growe straight and vncroked: so semblably is it conuenient and most de­cent (euen from their cradles) to endue their children with good maners, and to frame them vp in ciuill behauiour: for infancie is a flexible thing, and fitte to frame to what thing you please, and in their tender minds, precepts and di­sciplines, with great facilitie are instil­led: but that that is hardened, is with great labour hardlye molli [...]ted and so [...]ie­ned. Euen as seales and images be in soft waxe inscupled and engrauen, so are disciplines and eruditions infigured and printed in childrens tender minds. And Plato (who directed all his doings by the [Page] diall of discretion, and glasse of vnder­standing, of skilful reason and learning) séemeth to me very diligently and lear­nedly to admonishe and enforme nour­ses that they sing not to their babes and suckelings euerye trifling tale, bandye song, and olde wiues fabled fansies, lest it fortune from their cradles, that they be nousled in folly, and fraught with cor­rupt maners. Likewise was the passing excellent Poet Phocillides wont to giue this exhortation & counsayle.

VVhile children be of tender age,
they must be taught most carefully,
Good vvorks, as grace and vertue sage,
vvith vvisdoms lore and honesty.

And this also can not in silence be in­wrapped, nor worthilye oughte to be pretermitted. Let children haue to asso­ciate What com­pany a child ought to vse & vvhat play fellowes he most haue. and accompany them such compa­nions and playfelowes, which be seaso­ned with goodnes, and endued with ver­tuous maners, and suche as speake their language quickly and readily, lest they vsing the company of barbarous and vi­cious acquaintāce be infected, corrupted, [Page] and imbroyned of them: for the diuul­gated prouerbe was not without a cause vsed:

If thou vvith him that halts dost dvvel,
To lerne to halt thou shalt ful vvel.

And after children grow to some ma­turitie of yeres, & be of a riper age, then must they be put to schole, & deliuered to the gouernment and charge of masters, Whē a child ought to be put to scole, and what master he must be cō ­ [...]ued too. wherin parents must be circumspect and very careful, lest they yeld & cōmit their children imprudently to the custody of bondslaues, barbarians, incōstant, fickle & flingbrained dizards, & vnlettered run­nagates: that that many men now a dais folow, is very ridiculous, & meriteth gret blame: for parents of their seruants that be frugal, & studious of thriftinesse, some they put to plow and carte, some they make mariners: some they set to mar­chaundize, some they appoynt and con­stitute their stewards & rulers of their houses, and other they make vsurers to fill their bagges: But yf ameng all the crue of their domesticall seruants they finde a vyle and a contemptible [Page] person, a blynde idiote, wallowing drunkennesse, and prone to lucurious ingurgitation vnprofitable and vnméet [...] for any thing, to him they deliuer & com­mit their children, without any conside­ration & aduise: * A great vncarefulnesse in many parents. ✚ But a studious and honest teacher and instructour by nature ought to be suche a one as was Phaenix Phaenix A­chilles mast. Achilles tutor, a Phaenix in déede for his rare industry and diligence: therfore of all the other things which I will speaks off, the greatest, the most necessary, and peculiar thing is this, which now I will portray: which is, that parents séeke out and choose suche an instructour for their children, which in life is inculpable, in maners vncorrupt, in lerning excellent, by experience long taught, sober, honest, and painefull: for the fountayne & roote of honestie and felicitie is good instituti­on, The rote of felicitie is good insti­tution. and learned information: and euen as husbandmen to their grafts & plants ding in stakes and adioyne hedges for the safetie therof: so fit, learned, studi­ous and experienced scholemasters do [...]istil and plant in the tender yong mind [Page] of their scolers, salubrious precepts, and holsome admonitions, that they maye burgen, floure, and procéede, as well in good maners, vertue and learning, as in age. But who can now a dayes sharply enough reprehende, and with condigne tauntes proscide those parents, whiche (before they haue experiēced and appro­ued what the masters be) they not once doubt to cōinende and mancipate their children to ignorant, vnlearned, and su­spected men of euill life and scelerous conuersation, polluted in the puddles of all filthinesse, not able almost to say B to a battledore: Is not this too ridiculeus and worthy blame? If they do it through They are worthye re­prehensiō [...]e blam which cōmit their children to rude infor­mers and va fit instru­ctors. ignoraunce, it is a very absurde thing, and altogether intollerable. And what is that, oftentimes when they know by other mens reporte the leudenesse and rudenesse, ignorance, and peruerse beha­uiour of the instructours and teachers, notwithstanding to their credence and charge they commit their children: be­cause they suffer themselues to be won and conquered with the blandishing words, and filthy flatterings of those of [Page] whom they be friendly, with a pleasant chaunting tong intertained & gallantly intreated: but such (which with this fa­uour gratifie their frends) be likened to that man, which being in body enfebled and diseased, relinquisheth the aduise of a cunning and skilful phisition (by whose medicines he might be restored to his former health) for frendships sake, and through adulatiō, doth flée to an other, by whom he is brought to the brinck of his bane, and often (through lacke of expe­rience) dispoyled of his life. Or to him which (at his frends intreaties and al­lurements) doth prefer a foolish ignorant and vnskilfull shipmaster before a tray­ned, cunning, & experienced guyder and gouernor of his shippe. O god, what de­formitie is this? what follie? what do­tage? is he worthy to be called a father, which more estemeth the fauour of his frends, than he regardeth the good insti­tution of his children? Therfore the old ancient and reuerent philosopher Crates Crates. with gret dexteritie of wit and wisdome replenished, oftentimes sayd very well, that (if it were possible) he would ascend [Page] and clyme the highest tower and fort in the citie, to cry out aloude & say: O mor­tal men, whither are ye caried? whither runne ye headlong? to what place do ye precipitate your selues? which with all your endeuers, labours, cares, and toyls séeke for money, and gape for gayne, but do nothing regard, nor make no accompt of your children, to whom ye leaue these rotten riches. And I may resemble these parents to him, who béeing carefull for shoes regardeth not his féete: many pa­rents are so blinded with the ambicious desire of gaine and money, and haue so a­lienated and estranged their minds from their children, that they bestow no great cost vpon them, but choose men of no esti­mation, vile & contemptible to be their childrens instructors, which are able to teach thē nothing, but dispised and abiect ignorance and errour. * And suche they elect for spare of money, that are more fitter thēselues to go to scole to be taught than to take such a charge & burden vpon their shoulders, as the good instructing of others: and such now a dayes be ioly fellowes and the moste made of, yf they [Page] can chat and tel a pleasant English tale, to delight an vnlearned parents eares, they haue all the learning in the worlde and beare the bell, when in very déede they be no body, and haue but a shew of learning, runnagates and wanderers from place to place: in the ende dishone­sting themselues, and marring the chil­dren committed to their charge: for an vnlerned master can not make a lerned scholer, Qualis praeceptor, talis discipulus. Qualis prae­ [...]ptor, talis discipulus. If suche were vtterly refused, and este­med as shadowes, not able to sustayne any such vocation, nor maynteined with any lucre, then should learned and pain­full instructours be hadde in more reue­rence, and better sought out than they be. Many suche vncarefull parents there be, and too many of such vnfit and brain­lesse teachers, gadders and dishonesters of thēselues and others that be lettred, diligent and industrious: so that they of­tentimes (which in déede be very careful for their childrens erudition) be oft de­ceaued, and very ofte are in doubt to re­ceyue those, that be able lightly to go a­way with that burden, when they before [Page] haue tasted of the negligence, ignorance, & folly of other. ✚ Aristippus the curteous philosopher, well broken in the schole of ciuill education, not with stupiditie, but with great vrbanitie, rebuked & blamed an insensate and foolish father, depriued of reason, vnderstanding, & cōmon sense. When one asked him for what stipende and rewarde he taught and instructed a child: for a thousand grotes said Aristip­pus. But when the mā said in good sooth master Aristippu, your request and cra­uing is very great (for I can for so great a summe buy me a bondman.) Verily an swered Aristippus, thou shalt haue two bondmē, both thy sonne, and him whom thou hast bought. * Many such inconside­rate parents be in Englande, which had rather giue a thousand grotes for bond­flaues, soone passing pleasures & pelting pastimes, than one grote to the good in­structour of their child. Nay I feare me, if Aristippus wer aliue, & would receiue no child into his scole, vnder the number of a thousande groates, he shoulde haue no scholers brought to his schole: or yf all the trayners vppe of children were [Page] so determined too craue, but halfe so muche as Aristippus did, they shoulde haue very fewe auditors: so colde and [...]lacke be parents in rewarding the paynes of paynefull. Aristippus When on the cōtrary part, they can in no thing so wel bestow their liberalitie, as vpon them, who haue paynfully deserued the vttermost farthing, of what soeuer they receyue of parents, for the erudition of their children. Yf the liberalitie of pa­rents were as great towards Aristip­pus sect, as it is in trifles & gewgawes, to make their children yong lords be­fore the time, I am perswaded that ther woulde be many more diligent & payn­full Aristippus than there be, & an infi­nite number of better scolers in the cir­cuite of one shire, than now in a whole realme: so little regarde haue some pa­rents to their childrēs erudition. ✚ And to be briefe, is not this a thing full of absurditie, and worthy reprehension, to accustome children, to assume and take their meate with their right hand, & to rebuke & blame them with great seue­ritie, if they take it with their left hand? [Page] and to haue no care, no remorse, no re­gard, to haue thē seasoned with holsome lessons, & indued with good lerning, ver­tue & ciuilitie? what happeneth to these wonderful parents (if god say amen) af­ter they haue norished euilly, & instru­cted negligently their children, I will briefly shew. After they come to mans estate, and grow to more riper yeares Those childrē whiche be vn­carefully brou­ght vp by their parents, liue ve­ry viciously. of discretion, they abhorre the healthful way of liuing, they contemn good order and institution, they despise al godlines & godlimen, they regard not holsom ad­monitions, & imbroyne theselues in the sink of al filthy voluptuousnesse, & scur­riliti, e & precipitate themselues into all seruile sensualitie, & inordinate beastli­nes: then at length it repents thē (when all time is past) and then their heartes be frozen with the colde of sorow, then they gréeue, mourne, and lamente, that they were so vncarefull, and so reche­lesse in instructing their children, and in training them vp in godly feare, ver­tue & lerning. Nethelesse, when as they be so far sotted in brutishnes, & so long [Page] marched vnder pelting pleasures soone battered banner (that by no means they can be amended, and reduced to godlye lyfe) then wayling is their wealth, grée­uance their guerdō, lamēting their liew, mourning their mede, sorow their sause, and altogether excruciate and torment themselues for their childrēs sacinorous mischiefes: for some of them giue vp thē ­selues to tryfling flatterers, and parling Parasites, a scelerous and pestilent kind of varlets, whiche depraue and corrupt all youth, and blast towarde yongmen, with the winde of execrable behauiour, filthinesse & brutalitie: other some haunt harlots, and vile noughtie womē, proud, disdainful, malicious, adorned with sum­tuous apparell, but yet disgarnished of all shame, honestie, and good manners: other some vse beastly bellycheere, and are enrachined in gourmandize and gluttonie, minding nothing but to pe­ster them selues in riote, drunkennesse, and surfette. And some againe imbrue themselues with fresher euils: they com­mit abhominatiō, follow adulteries, and [Page] imbrace all kinde of libidinouse lustes, moste horribly, soo that they sticke not to buy only pleasure with death. Which yf they had béene well nurtred and in­structed vnder a wise master, and expe­rienced instructor, doubtlesse they would neuer haue béen in these matters immo­rigerāt and disobedient to their parents: neither would they haue cast themselues into such irremiable gulphs of peremto­rie perilles, but would haue ben memo­rous of Diogenes lesson and exhortation, Diogenes his admonition to yongmen. which in words somewhat importunely but in deede truly, gaue this admonition, saying: Enter into some brothel house or stewes, to lerne and vnderstande that there is a difference betwéene vile and precious things. * Diogenes thought, yf they should enter into this house of bau­dry, to vewe and discerne the filthinesse there practised, it would make them es­chue and vtterly abhorre all such viciosi­tie. ✚ To be briefe, the thing that now I Of the force & necessitie of right institutiō and of the col­latiō and pro­prietie of the goodes of the minde, goodes of the body, & goods of for­tune. will relate, I iudge to be pondered ra­ther as an oracle and infallible trueth, than as an admonition. In these, the first, middlemost, and last thing is good [Page] and diligent education, lawfull institu­tion, and skil of things, bicause I know and think these to be commodious, and profitable to vertue and felicitie: and al other humane goods be transitory, fraile caduke, momentane, perduring a very little time, not worth the labour, payne and toyle, which men bestow in obtay­ning & getting them. Nobilitie doutlesse and the discent from noble progeny is a Nobilitie. splēdent thing, but such a good as lineal­ly procedeth frō our progenitors. * And without vertue which engendreth no­bilitie, there is no respect of nobilitie: but if any be vertuous he shal easily com to no fained & dissimuled nobilitie (whi­che issues out of lineal discents and pro­sage) but to true nobilitie, which hath vertue, whose rewarde is nobilitie: for with only vertue is true nobility gottē: if any excel & surpasse in the resplentēce of noble kinred, & in the mean seasō liue vitiously & is deuoyd of all vertue, thou canst not rightly cal him noble. Turne to the first beginnings of nobilitye, and thou shalt finde, those to haue gotten the images of vertue their rewarde, which [Page] at home in ciuil administration, and in warre in shocke of shield, haue excellent­ly behaued them selues, by the ayde of vortue, which doth nobilitate those that be obscure and base of birth. Therefore Phalaris (I remember) in an Epistle Phalaris▪ to Axiochus after this sorte reasoneth of Nobilitie: Ego praeter virtutem nul­lam agnos [...]o Nobilitatem: that is, I be­side vertue knowe no nobilitie. Reliqua vero cuncta fortuna astimo: all the other things I estéeme to be in fortunes po­wer. For a man borne of a very low de­grée (if he be a vertuous scoler) may com to be the most noblest of kings and other men: and contrariwise one born of good parents may soone becom euil, and more ignoble than him selfe, and the vylest of all other. ✚ Men ought therefore to gle­ry of the prayses of the minde, and not of the nebilitie of their ancetors, blemished and quite extinguished in obseure peste­ritie. Well reasoned Democratus, and Democratus. rightly thought of nobilitie, which sayth: Pecudum nobilitas in bono va [...]do (que) corpo­ris habitu est: hominum autem in bonitate morū: that is, the nobilitie of beasts is in [Page] the good and valiaunt habite or state of the body: but mannes nobilitie is in the goodnesse of manners. And Martiall re­porteth in this wise:

Nobilitas sola est at (que) vnua virtus.
Onely vertue certainelie
Is sole and vvhole nobilitie.

Claudian also worthilie hath giuen this admonition:

Ʋirtute decet, non sangui- niti,
Sola perpetua manent, subiecta nulli,
mentis at (que) animi bona.
It doth become full decently
all men in vertue for to stay,
And not to bloud to clyne truely,
or vnto noble stocke full gay:
For vvhy the only giftes of minde
subiect to nothing do remayne,
In vigour shall vve dayly finde
continually, and neuer stayne.

Richesse in value be great, and in déede Richesse. precious things, but yet they be in for­tunes power, and hang balanced in for­tunes skooles: for somtime fortune takes them away frō him that inioyeth them, & intrudeth thē vpon him which hoped not for them. * Riches make men dote, and moue them to all euilles, while they sée [Page] that by the helpe of riches they may ob­taine eche thing but vertue. Alexander Riches east Alexander into vile viccs. the great that famous conqueroure, (be­fore he enioyed the Persian Monarchie, and yet kept himself within the narrowe limites of Macedonia) did in his minde conceiue the great workes of vertue, and with excellent manlinesse, inferred war to the Persians and atchieued it with no lesse trāpe of manhoode. But after he had subiugated and brought vnder hys domi­nyon the Persian Monarchie, & superflu­ously flowed with all riches, as he which had subdued Persia, and almost had con­quered the whole world, could not cor­quer nor tame himselfe, which did preci­pitate himselfe hedlongs into vile vices, through the copious affluence of goodes and riches. Who when his riches were few and meane, was relucent, and escla­rished with fortitude, temperance, chasti­tie, and clemencie. Assoone as he increased with the accesse of so many kingdemes & riches, he douted not to take vppon him vnfit and base apparel, vnworthy of such a stout Macedoman, and to cast himselfe into all kinde of luxurious riot, & in drun­kennesse [Page] and tossing of cups, to [...]lea hys best frends, that now it was safer for an enimie than a frēd, to be conuersant with him. So Ninus the yonger, liued more abiect than any shamelesse woman, dissi­pating Ninus Iu­nior. and wasting the goodes, which his father by manlinesse and fortitude acqui­red. Therefore the learned lawmaker Lycurgus iudged money (which is the strongest instrument, and strength most Lycurgus caused mo­ny to be ba­nished out of Sparta. mightie of riches,) to be relegated and a­bandoned by him out of Sparta, as the be­ginning and fruteful mother of all vices. Likewise Solon the sapient sayde, riches is the mother of saturitie, and saturitie Solon. engendreth crueltie and violence. With him doeth excellent Euripides assent: who sayeth, [...]. Riches brée­des Euripides. iniurious contumelie. Hither may Diogenes the Cynike his testimonie come, which affirmed, that riches were nothing else than the couerings of ma­lice. For the aboundance of ryches is a marke proponed to suche as doe their de­uoire to cutte Pursses, to robbe chestes, to filtch & pick, as light fingred fellowes, malignant seruāts, sycophants, cauillers, [Page] make strifes, factious and dissensious per­sonnes, and whych is the moste greatest euill of all, they often fall to the lottes of them which be the moste pernicious and leudest lubbers. And riches open the wyndowe (sayeth Isocrates) to [...]l [...]uthful­nesse and idlenesse, which two thinges those thinke they haue obtayned, which flowe in the aboundance of riches. For they persuade them selues, that goodes mynister idlenesse, and expences (as they doe in déede) to filthie pleasures. If any abounde in riches, he will not laboure, he neglecteth vertue, he contemneth all honest paynes, and cleaues (as a burre) to sluggishnesse. Such a one was Pirrhus Pirrhus. yt king of Epirus who about to proclaime warre to the Romaines, when Cineas as­ked him whye hée would proueke the Romaines with warre? answered that he desired to adiecte Italic to his kingdome. Cineas said againe: if thou shalt cenquer Italic, what then wilt thou der O king? Pirrhus answeared: then will I assaye to subdue Cicilia. Cineas sayde agayne. What wilt thou then doe? He aunswe­red: I will wallowe then in delytes, [Page] I will turne to my pleasures, I wil ma­cerate my selfe with riot, we will drinke and quaffe, and passe away the tyme in pleasant idlenesse. Sée howe riches (as soone as they come) inuite vs and moue vs to luskishnesse, ignauie, and idlenesse. Like wise the sapient old father Socrates sayd, that riches stay al the actiōs of ver­tue Socrates. and honest life: and as long and loose garments let the bodyes, so doe infinite riches harm the soules. ✚ Glory is a beu­tifull thing, and a tricks [...]e ornament: but Glorie. vnstable, vnconstāt, and soone is altered. It is but an image yt goeth and commeth soone fading away. Beautie is a thing which all desire to haue, but it dureth a Beautie. very small while. * There is so great in­constancie in beutie, that it can not resist and withstand olde age. Euen as winter taketh away all the flouring face and springing gréenes of the spring tyme and sommor, so doth olde age appropinqua­ting, destroy, wast & adnihilate, al youth­ful comelynesse, and lusty elegancie.

Nereus the fairest of the Grecians (be­ing now waxen olde) if in a glasse he be­held Nereus. his face, he knew not ye same bright­nesse [Page] of beutie which in his youth he had. And Helena (that floure of fairnesse, and Helena. the chéefest iewel that euer beautie had) in hir age suffered the like deformitie. For whome (being in the floure of hir gréene yéeres) the Grecians and Troyans were turmoyled in their ten yeres war: but when she was old and well stroken in yeares, neither shepheards nor swine­herds, muletours nor horsekéepers, wold take vp hostilitie to enioy hir. Likewise Penelope the chast in hir letters (wherin she calleth home hir louing Vlisses) com­plaineth, Penelope. saying: that hir beautie (being now an olde woman) is by the default of olde age abandoned and polluted. Ther­fore the fountaine of Romaine eloquence and beautie of Italie, Cicero doth thus re­son Cicero. of the instabilitie of the same: formae dignitas aut morbo deflorescit aut vetustate extinguitur. The floure or excellencie of beutie either by disease decayeth, or with old age defloureth and blemisheth. Héere may Nasoes testimonies come in, who sayeth:

Ista decens facies longis vitiabitur annis
Ruga (que) in antiqua fronte senilis erit.
This comely face and beautifull
long yeres shall vitiate,
And vvrinckles be in vvithered brovves,
vvhere beautie vvas of late.

And againe: the same Naso sayth.

Forma bonum fragile est: quantumque ac­cedit ad annos,
Fit minor, & spacio carpitur ipsa suo.
Nec semper violae, nec semper lilia florent:
Et riget amissa spina relicta rosa.
Beautie is a goodnesse fraile,
and in short time decayes,
And vvhen it cometh vnto yeres,
it lessens and repayres.
And is consumed in short space:
nor Violets alvvay,
Nor Lillies euer do encrease
and flourish, but decay.
And vvhen the Rose is lost, the thorne
doth vvax full stiffe straightvvay.

Infirmitie, malady, sicknesse and disease, do corrupt the valiant and beauifull con­stitution of the body, as daily experyence sheweth. Iob the iust before he was exul­cerated Iob. with sores, did wonderfully sur­passe in beauties giftes: but after he was excarnificated and tormented with stin­king [Page] sores, he lost all the trimnesse and brauenesse of his beautie, as his friendes witnessed which skarcely knewe him to be the same he was. If any be entriked in disease, he feleth the decencie of his beau­tie perish, and skarsly the shape of a man to remain. Therfore Seneca rightly saith:

Res est forma fugax: quis sapiens homo cen­fidat fragili.
Beautie is a fading thing,
vvhat vvise man vvill haue trust therin?

Eteocles spake thus vnto a certain yōg E [...]t [...]cles say­ing to a yōg man bosting in his beau­tie. man glorying in the fairnesse of his form and face. Art thou not ashamed to auaūce & lift vp thy crests, and to be so proud for the gifts of beautie, whose vse is graūted thée, and not proprietie, & that for a very smal time. Helth is precious and delecta­ble, Health. Strength. but very mutable. † Bodily strength is worthy emulation, but with disease & maladies it is defrayed & debilitated, and with old age (as beautie before) is expug­nable. In fine, if any trusteth to yt strēgth and vigoure of his body, & proudly reioy­seth therin, he is quite deceiued. * Let the huge Cyclops be exāple, whom ye fortitud of Vlisses, seasoned wt wisdome & reason, [Page] brought to a miserable kind of life, while he puld out his eye. Bulyris, Geryon, Ca­cus, and Milo Crotonia [...]as may hither be fetched: and the too much presumption of their strength, vtterly ouerthrewe the Giantes, which aduentured to depell Iu­piter out of his Emperiall seate. † Howe much is the strength of man inferioure Mans strēgth is much inferioure to the strength of beastes. and lesse than the mightie power, strēgth and hardinesse of other beastes? I meane of Elephants, Bulles, and Lions? In hu­main̄e things, erudition is only immor­tall, diuine, and neighbour to diuturnitie. And two things there be most peculiar in the nature of man, vnderstanding and Vnderstan­ding and re­son be the two cheefe things in the nature of man. reason: Vnderstāding ruleth reason, and reason is obsequious and morigerant to vnderstanding: which no fortune batte­reth downe nor conquereth: which no obtrectation or slaunder taketh away, which no infirmitie infecteth or depra­ueth which no old withered age doth de­uastate or destroy: For only vnderstan­ding in olde age perseuereth in his vi­goure, and is then yonglike. And tyme, (which consumeth all other things) toold age ioyneth science, and adiecteth great [Page] experience. Neither warre (which after the manner of a swift running riuer dra­weth and chaungeth all things) can euer take away vertue and learning. * Than How precious vertue and ler­ning be. which, nothing of al other things is more splendent or constant, as mark now and thou shalt learne. For vertue dothe giue vs that glorious light of Nobilitie, wher­with we moste relucent appéere in all mennes eyes. Neither doth it suffer vs or oures, to lurke in secrete, or in duskous dennes, but calles vs out, and makes vs manifest. Euen as a towne that is situate and built on a high hill, is in all mennes eyes most manifest and apparant: euen so vertue (in whose brest it is enrachined and rooted) suffereth not him to lurke and lie in darke dungeons and vnlyghtsome holes, but doth illustrate and illuminate him, and sperpleth his fame and commē ­dations, through all the tracts and costes of ye world. What so extreeme darknesse can oppresse and obscure the fortitude and magnanimitie of king Philips sonne Alexander the great? Of Iulius Caesar, renowned Prince, or of other noble and inuictoryous personages? What darke­nesse [Page] so obscure canne obtenebrate the iustice of Aristides, the integritie of Pho­cion, the liberalitie and munificence of Cinon, and the most absolute vertue of Socrates? Yea, what portion at least of Vertue (which in any, in all worldes hath shyned) hath not bene by the benefit of vertue chalenged and called from the destruction of Obliuion? Wherfore ver­tue is thus notablie described of Cicero. Virtus secū ­dum Cicero­nem. Virtus est affectio a [...] constans conueni­ensqúe, laudabiles efficiens eos in quibus est: That is, Vertue is a constant and conue­nient affection of the mind, making them laudable, in whome it is. And vertue by hir selfe is laudable: out of which all ho­nest willes, sentences, actiens, and all Out of vertue flow all good actions. ryght reason commeth and floweth. All other goodes fade awaye and peryshe, only Vertue neuer dyeth. It canne not be taken away, neyther wyth shyppe­wracke, nor with fyre it is lost, neyther wyth the alteration of Tempestes nor tymes it is chaunged, wyth which who­soeuer are indued, they only are riche: they only possesse thyngs bothe fructu­ous [Page] and perdurable. And they only are content wyth that they haue. It neuer forsaketh man in olde age: for vertue Virtus sene­ctutis viati­cum. is the best viandrie of olde age, wher­by the difficulties thereof are moste ea­sely borne.

And Cato in Tullie sayeth (reasoning of olde age with Scipio and Laelius) thus. Aptissima sunt omnino arma senectutis artes exercitationesque virtutum, quae in omni aetate cult [...] cum di [...] multumque vixeris, mirificos adferunt fructus, non so­lum quia nunquam deserunt hominem, nec extremo quidem tempore aetatis, quanquam id quidem maximum est: Ʋerum etiam quia conscientia bene actae vitae, multorum­que benefactorum recordatio incundissima est.

Cato by experience was taught what effect vertue traded, and wher and when it tooke place, being old him selfe, and re­plenyshed wyth this excellent iewel. E­uen as Salte dothe conserue and kéepe flesh from corruption and stench: so only vertue doth defend vs and our myndes, least that we come into the dungcon of corruption and destruction.


[Page] thou dost remember it always, and canst neuer forget it: but if thou shalt eyther heare, read, or doe any thing in thy elder age, the memory therof soone vanisheth away: so if in thy yeres of infancie thou shalt be put to discipline and vertue, thou shalt with vse and custome so learne it, that thou mayest neuer forget it. For what way any walkes in, when he is yong, the same way shall he tread when he is olde. But if thy childe, in any other age than childehoode, apply his minde to learning and vertue, perhaps many things may happen in the meane sea­son, to auert and turne his minde from it, when not yet it hath soundly taken roote in his brest. Wisely therefore an­swered Agesilaus, when he was asked, Agefilaus. what things chiefly children shoulde learne: Those things (sayde he) that they may vse, when they are growen to mans estate. By the whiche aunswere he déemed, that in tender yeres the pre­cepts of learning and vertue shoulde be planted in childrens brests, if alwais af­terwards they woulde enioy the same. Therfore, although (as Plautus sayth:) Plautus. [Page] Sera nūquam ad bo [...]os mares via, the way to good maners is neuer to late, yet not­withstanding, sith there is but one way to vertue, and that moste harde and straight (as Hesiodus, and Pythagoras letter purport) if we wil acquire the pos­session In tender yeres must vertue and learning be gotten. of vertue and learning, we must direct our iorney therto in tender yeres: otherwise in elder age we shalbe terifted from it by the hardnesse of the way, and danger of the iorney, whiche thing to too many doth happen. † And as I admonish parents to estéeme and regarde nothing more than this vertuous and learned bringing vp of their children, so again do I exhort them, that they vse good, vncor­rupt, and healthfull education: for chil­dren must be prohibited and repressed, from panegirical exercises, & from suche esbatements as contayne prayse and commendation. For he that pleaseth a multitude or cōmon sort of people, doth altogither displease and discontent them that be wise. Of this is the excellent Euripides my witnesse, whiche sayth:

To speake vnto the common sort of men
I haue no vvit, nor knovvledge I at al:
But cunninger and readier am I then,
amōg my equals, if they be fevv & smal.

They (which wisemen disproue and di­flike) haue eloquent tongs before the common crue of people: I my selfe haue marked and perceiued those (which haue studied, and with tooth and nayle haue labored by the chaunting vpon the cords of their pleasaunt tong, to augurate the fauour, and to hunt for the vayne cōmen­dation of the fickle and inconstant peo­ple) to liue very intemperately, & with­out any stay of continencie, wallowing in all vice, and enuoluped with too filthy pleasures And that (by him that guydes the heuenly scepter) not without a cause. For if they (by theyr preparation of ple­sures for other) shall neglect and tran­sgresse the limittes of honestie, they shal scarsly make more of their owne plea­sures and illecebrous wayes, than that is right, iust and holsome. Furthermore what things shall we teach for children profitable, or what good thing shall wée oxhort them to apply, séeing that to speke [Page] and do nothing temerously and without consideration, is a fayre and godly thing, and (according to the prouerbe) rare and [...] faire things are harde and difficile. But inconsiderate talke, and the vse of spea­king without premeditation, is fraught Children must not be suffered to speake sodenly and ex­tempore. with inconstancie, vncarefulnesse, and lenitie: so that they know not neyther where to begin, nor where to relinquish or leaue: and (besides other incommodi­ties and harmes) those, whiche sodenly, and hande ouer heade (as it were) with­out all consideration or thinking vppon matters, shall talke and reason, do fal in­to a certaine inunoderation and dismea­sured futilitie: but a wise and adui­sed premeditacion dothe not suffer the As vnadui­sed talk har­meth, so doth considerate talke muche profite. talke and communication to passe his reache, nor to transgresse his limits: vn­aduised loquacitie hath muche endaun­gered the blabber out therof, but talke with iudgement seasoned, hath much a­uayled and profited. * There came once out of Hellespontus to the Athenian baud Gnathaena the Athenian harlot. Gnathaena, a certayn babbling louer, stir­red through hir fame, and name, who when among the cuppes he had babbled [Page] out many things, and did séeme very im­portune in his talke, Gnathaena aun­swered: Sayest thou, thou camst out of Hellespontu? then why (sayth she) kno­west thou not the chiefe citie there? who (when he saide) what is that▪ she answe­red: Sige [...] And so artificially restray­ned the futilitis of hir louer: for [...] a­mongs [...]. the Greciās signifieth silence or taciturnitie. And so he receiued for a re­ward of his loquacitie, shame. ✚ Pericles Pericles refused sodenly and without premeditati­on to aun­swere. (as we haue heard reported) when he was called of the people oftentimes to make an oration, he refused and would not obey them, saying: he was vnpre­pared, and in no frame, so sodaynly to talke. Semblably, the thundring elo­quent orator Demosthenes, in the ad­ministration Demosth. of the common weale, Pe­ricles his emulator (when the Athe­nians called him to counsayle) refused to bée present, saying: he was not rea­dye, nor had premeditated. But perad­uenture some will insolentlye obiect, and say: This assertion hath no au­thour, it séemeth to bée fayned, and counterfayted. But Demosthenes (in [Page] that his Oration that he made agaynst Midias) dothe playnely and clearely set out before our eyes the fruite and v­tilitie of consideration, of premeditation, and diligence. ‘Therefore (sayeth he) I tell you O ye Athenians, and I can­not denye, but that I haue déepely con­sidered, and with ardent studie perpen­ded and poysed these matters in the bal­launce of premeditation, as it was lau­full and most expedient for mée: for I were a miserable man, and worthy of all misfortune and calamitie, yf I (ha­uing suffered and presently sustayning suche things, whiche haue happened to me) shoulde neglect and come vnprepa­red to speak of the things I should make mention of.’ But I will not speake alto­gither to reproue or disalow this quick­nesse and promptnesse of speache, or a­gayne to affirme the exercise thereof, as necessary, but I thinke it oughte too bée doone moderately, as (in taking a me­dicine in Phisike) it is decent and mete. For before hée come to mannes estate Two times may bee gi­uen to talke sodeynly, and to di­scourse vpon matters out of hande: I thinke a childe oughte to speake no­thing out of hande, whatsoeuer is offred: [Page] but when any hath béen long exercised in eloquent speaking, and [...]ath layd a déepe foundation and roo [...]e in the entrayles of fyne discoursing speac [...]e (yf oportunitie and time minister occasion) then is it decent and lawfull to vse libertie in talk and communication. For euen as they, which of long time haue béene impriso­ned, and bound in fetters, although at last they be loosed and dimis [...]ed, notwith­standing for the long vse of the charnes and bondes they can not goe, but halte, and oftentimes fall flat towne vpon the earth: Euen so they, that haue bene long time repressed, brideled, & restrayned to speake (if at any time of a sodeyn neces­sitie moueth them to talk) neuerthelesse they conserue and kepe their wonted or­der and phrase of speache. But if such (as haue not passed their childhoode) be per­mitted to be practised in the sodayne fa­cultie of talke, it maketh them (euer af­ter) to be fooles, garrulous, and iangling Of the extre­mities or vi­ces to be chefely elch [...]ed in talke. chatters. A foolish fonde paynter shewed an image to Apelles (prince of paynters) and sayde, this euen now I paynted. I saw and knew it (saide Apelles) though [Page] thou hadst held thy peace, and not spo­ken a word: I perceiue thou didst paynt it with great festination, but I maruell why thou hast not paynted more of this sort. As therfore (for now I will come a­gayne to my talke from whence I am digressed) I haue counseled and exhorted to flée and eschue a diuerse & changeable coloured oration, and loftie and tragicall talke: so agayn I do also persuade them, to auoyde a thinne exile, and a leane ora­tion: for a swelling and turbulent ora­tion lacketh ciuilitie, and a hungry leane oration doth not smite nor greatly moue the hearers minds. And as in a body on­ly incolumitie is not laudable, but also a firme and lustie disposition of the body is requisite: so is it likewise expedient, that an oracion or talke shoulde not be sickely, weake, and imbecill, but strong, firme, and rigorous: for that, that is se­cure and easie, is onely commendable, and doth alone merite prayse, but that, that is behedged with dangers and with studious labour atcheued, bringeth admiration. Now haue I to speke and to pur­port, how the mind ought to be affected, [Page] which must not be temerous, rash, and aduenturous, neither cowardous, timo­rous, soone affrighted and abiect: for as What is decent and vndecēt in the affects of the minde. too much confidence & boldnesse shewes foorth an impudent and vnshamefull minde, so doth timiditie & feare drawe and moue the mind into seruilitie and bondage. An artificiall thing it is in all things most diligently & rightly to en­ter into the mean way and kéepe it. * A gret vertue it is to vse moderation and not to brust ye lists of mediocritie. ✚ And to open my opinion more largely, and to touch this education more narowly, The harping of one string only is odious, and the likenes of talk is irke­some but vari­etie and change delightsull and pleasant. first I thinke that kinde of talke which is euer like if selfe, and neuer variable, to be the most certayn token of a blun­tish brayne, of a dull wit, indocible, and very hard to be taught. Secondarily, I déeme it not fit for any exercise, whiche soone conceiueth, & not long retayneth. One song always, and the iarring and chaunting vpon one onely corde and string, in all things is yrkesome, tedi­ous, and vnpleasant to the ears: but va­rietie and chaungeable tunes (as in all other things innumerous, so in those [Page] things which be heerd and séen) be most delectable, pleasant & delightfull. * Im­portunitie is alwayes odious, but to do all things fayre and softly, and in their time, hath great grace. Euen as that Musitian is molestuous to all men, which among the selfe same men dothe sing the selfe same song, and stil twan­geth vpon one string: so he that with one onely kinde of speach, harping vp­pon one onely matter, doth gréeue the same men with his importunity loseth ciuility, breaketh the limits of curtesie, & is thought a very importune felow. One once came vnto Aristotle, & blab­bed out many things very importune­ly, still vsing the same words. Aristotle still held his peace, at last, sayd the pra­ter: perhaps I trouble thée through my garrulitie. No in good soouth answered Aristotle, for I marked not, nor tooke héede what thou saydest. Semblably yf any go vnto men graue in authoritie, and vse this inuariable speach, and vn­pleasant tunes, he escapes not blame & rebuke, neyther doothe he further his sute. Not without a cause doth Terence Terentius. [Page] propoūd vnto vs the example of Demea, whereby he admonisheth vs not to be molestuous to the same man concerning the selfe same thing, with all one kind of spech (as Demea was to his brother Mi­tio) when he with gret indignation was offended withal, saying: An toties de ea­dem re te audiam▪ shal I heare thée so of­tentimes iangling vpon all one matter? Amongs the other tokens and marks wherwith Theophrastus describeth an importune talker, he reciteth this; impor­tunit as 'heophra­us. est occursus incidentibus molestus. Wherfore it is the part of a wittie and free childe to heare and lerne al the thin­ges which pertayn to the circle and com­passe of all learnings: and as it were by the way to sippe and tast of eche one of them, séeing it is impossible, and out of the reache of mans capacitie, to excell, and haue the full perfection of all disci­plines. But in Philosophie (before all other learnings) a childe must most dili­gently labour. Philosophie, that is the loue of wisedome (so dothe the Gréeke worde signifie) aboue the rest muste be tilled of a childe, and the frutes it brin­geth [Page] foorth must be layde vp and housed in the inwarde barne of a childs heart. And this my opinion and minde, I am purposed to approue and declare, by an example or similitude: for euē as it is an excellent & goodly thing, by nauigation to haue passed by many goodly and nota­ble regions, and to haue sayled about many gorgeous cities, but a cōmodious and fructuous thing, to inhabite and be resiant in the best of them all. ✚ So a child that is capable of wit and learning ought to vew many goodly artes, and to runne ouer with the glimse of his eyes, many beautifull and resplendent scien­ces (impossible all to be attayned) and to choose one for his resting place and man­sion of abode, which excelleth, and farre surmounteth all the rest. Maruellous wittie and mery is the saying of the phi­losopher Bion, which sayde: As the wo­ers The vvittie saying of Bion. whiche coulde not enioye Penelope Vlysses wyfe, nor reape the floure of hir chastitie, ioyned and coupled themselues with hir handmaides: so they which are not able to aspire to the height and loftie toppe of philosophie, do spend & dissipate [Page] their time miserably in other disciplins of no value or estimation. Wherfore a­mong other disciplins, philosophie as a princesse & chiefe crafts womā ought to Philosophie is princesse a­mong other di [...]iplines. be constituted and made. For about the cure of the body men haue inuented and found out by studious searche, two disciplines, phisick, and palestricall ex­ercise: whereof, the one conserueth the health of the body, and the other dothe cōrroborate the good disposition and ha­bitude of the same. But only philosophie Philosophie is [...]he curer and [...]medier of the [...]inde. is the present phisick, and redy remedy to recure and heale the maladies, infir­mities, griping gréefes, and painefull passions of the mind. Out of the entrals of Philosophie, we are taught to know what things be honest and vnhonest, iust and vniust, and in fine, what are to be required and chosen, and again what we ought to eschue, flée and euitate. It Philosophy tea [...]heth vs hovve [...] behaue our [...]lues tovvarde [...]ll estates and [...]egrees. teacheth vs how we ought to vse our selues towards god, our parents, el­ders, lawes, strangers, magistrats, and frends, that it behoueth vs to worship and feare god, to honor our parents, to reuerence our elders, to obey the laws, to be obediēt to magistrats, to loue our [Page] frends, to liue modestly with our wiues, with inward affection to imbrace our childrē, to deal iusty with our seruāts, not to be iniurious to them. And to speak of the chefest things & most pōdrous, neither in prosperitie (when fortune smileth on vs with louing looks) to triūph with to much iolitie, to be insolent with to much mirth: neither in aduersity (when fortune frou­neth with cloudish coūtenance) to dispaire to contristate, or to be to heuy & sorowful: neither in pleasurs to be dissolute, neither in anger to be passionated, & brutishly to be rigorous: which I (amongs al the other things which issue out of the sugry riuers of philosophie) esteme and déeme the most antike, chéef, & worthiest thing. To be of a Gentlenesse the token of a honest man. gentle corage fraught with generositie in time of florishing & fortunate things is yt propertie of a man in dede: to be fortunate without ye grudge of enuy is the signe of a most quiet, peaceable, & placable man: to resist & struggle agaynst pleasures, is the token of a wiseman, & to cohibite & bridle anger is not in euery mans power. But I iudge them perfite men, which are able to interlarde, and to concorporate the ciuill adimnistration of the publique weale, [Page] with the study of wisedome. And I sup­pose They be per­fect men whi­ch ioyne to the administration of the cōmon wealth the stu­die of wisedom of philosophie. the same to be the eminent enlar­gers, of two of the greatest goods. For while to administer and gouerne the common weale they doo the things that appertayne to common vtilitie, and while they be labrous, and vigilante in the studies of good artes, and intentiue in philosophie, they ben in great tran­quilitie and quietnesse. There be thrée kinds of life, the one is occupied in acti­on Three kinds of lyfe. or doing, the seconde in knowledge, the third in oblectation, & in the fruition of plesurs, of which the last kind of life, delicious, voluptuous or gyuen to plea­sures, The lyfe that is led in pleasures is brutish. is beastlike, brutyshe, abiecte vyle, vnworthie the excellencie of man. And the life which in knowledge consi­steth, if it be disseuered or wander from the actiue lyfe, it is vnprofitable & vn­frutful, Contemplatiue life without a­ctiue life is vn­profitable. and the actiue or ciuil life with­out philosophie and learning, is rude, rustickelyke, vnhandsome, and full of errours. Men muste therefore la­boure, and wyth all theyr myghte they can, proue, assayle, and bende their endeuours, bothe ryghtely to [Page] rule the common weal, and do the things which belong to publique commoditie, & (as it is decent) when time and oportu­nitie serueth, to take vnto them the wor­thie When bokes of Philoso­phie must be red. workes, & learned volumes of Phi­losophie. After this sort gouerned Peri­cles the common weale, after this sorte Archytas Tarentinus, Dion Syracusanus and Epaminondas the Thebane, which were Platoes schollers. And now concer­ning institution of Children, I thinke I néede speake no more. Besides these, not­withstanding, I iudge it a most profitable The worthy bokes of ler­ned authors must bee bought, kept and red as a treasure of learning. and necessary thing, to be diligent in the acquiring of antique Bookes, and monu­ments, imitating the manner of husbād­men: for euen as not the possession of ma­ny fieldes, but diligent tillage and good husbādry doth enrich them, so not by the possession of many bookes, but by the di­ligent reading, and pure iudgement ther­of, (as from a fountaine) doe we drawe and acquire the knowledge of things, science, and good litterature. And the olde students of wisdome in reading Bookes obserued this, that thereout they myght gather excellent sentences, wherewith [Page] they might direct and order their life. And (as Plutarche wytnesseth in an other Philosophie in the tyme of the [...]ag [...] of Greece was contai­ned in sentē ­ces for their direction. Booke) at that time, (when the, vij. wise men of Grece flourished) all Philosophie was contained in bréefe & few sentences, which partly by experience, & partly by reding they acquired, & for the vse of cō ­mon life set forth as theyr profitable sen­tences (which yet are extant) doe many­festly shew. And what commoditie may come by the reading of them, Lucretius Lucretius. full well knew, saying.

Floriferis vt apes in saltibus omnia libant,
Sic nos authorum decerpimus aurea dicta,
Aurea perpetua semper dignissima vita.
As laborous bees in forrests greene,
doo sucke, and floures taste,
So vve collecte the golden savves
of authours in tymes past:
The golden savves that they haue left,
behynde in memorie,
And bookes of fame, vvorthy in deede
to liue perpetually.

Socrates also, & other faithfull teachers of Hovv Socra­tes and other taught children. youth (if they toke children to teache, en­forme & learne) they cōpelled thē to lerne by heart, the sentences of Poets, orators, [Page] and Philosophers, yt in time to come they might be a great profite to them to leade their life wel, honestly & blissedly. More­ouer, if any buy & read yt volumes of Phi­losophers, & cheefely Plato, shall sée the sa­cred sentēces of Poetes, which (as goodly trim pictures) they scattred & sowed here & there in their bookes. Alexander Mace­do, The great care of king Alexandee in reading of Homers workes. yt inuictorius king (amōg so many turmoiles, tumults & sweats in war sustai­ned, almost surpassing the power of mā) neuer neglected the reading of Homers workes, which describeth to kings theyr dueties. He would euer haue it layd togi­ther with his dagger vnder his pillowe. And yt the diligent reding of good authors doth bring a wōderfull profit, Demetrius Phalereus sufficiētly enough proued, who How Deme­trius Phaleri us exhorted king Ptolo­me to pre­pare hys bookes. exhorted king Ptolomeus to prepare him such bookes, as intreted of a kingdom and warlike dominion: & to reuolue thē ouer, bicause those things in bookes are writtē, of which frēds dare not presume to admonish kings & princes. why speake I not of Alphōlus ye worthy persenage & famous king of Aragon who (being vexed wt sick­nesse at the Citie Cap [...]a, & his Phisitions [Page] ministring many medicines in his gre­uous Alphonsus was restoted to health by the reading of Quintus Curtius. disease) began to read the Histories of Quintus Curtius, describing the noble gestes of Alexander the great: with rea­ding wherof, he being delighted (when he had ouercome all the violence of the sick­nesse, and restored to health) Adew (sayd he) Auycen, adew Hippocrates, adewe Galene and other Phisitions, liue for e­uer Quintus Curtius, the restorer of my helth. And the same king, (when he hard trumpeters and minstrels iangling, (ta­king in his handes the famous lucubra­tions of Tullie:) Be packing, be packing ye Musitians (say de he) for Cicero the fresh fountaine of Romaine elequence is with me, whiche speaketh more swete & pleasante thinges. And the same worthy prince at an other time, (whē he heard a king of Spayne say, it was not decente for gentlemen and noble men to be lear­ned, lettered and to gaze vpon bookes) is reported to haue exclamed: haec non est re­gis, sed bou [...]s vox. This is not the voice of a king but of an Oxe. No lesse louer of boo­kes The great loue of Ca­rolus Caesar to learning. and Monumentes of learning, was Carolus Caesar the fourth Emperoure of [Page] Rome: for entring into the schole of the Prageneians (when he heard the masters of liberall sciences disputing the space of foure houres, & his Guard was offended and sayde, supper tyme is at hande.) It is not ready (saide he) for me, for this is my supper. This renoumed personage and mightie Emperour, preferred the philo­sophical disputations, before most deli­cate banquets. Carolus the fifth, August, & Ferdinandus Caesar (which fell into such turbulent times, wherin the great cōfusi­on of the monarchie inuaded al orders as Lerning was the cau [...]e [...]hat Carolus the fifth, August and Ferdi­nandes Cae­sar gouerned in most pea­rillous sea­sons. wel ciuil as spiritual) except they had bin instructed from their youthe in good let­ters, they could neuer haue holdē the go­uernmet of theyr empire so many yeres, with so great wisedome, and fortitude, in such mightie great perils of tempestuous times, and impetuous seasons. Wherfore Thales Milesius, one of the sages of Grece sayth, faciem componere non praeclarum est, sea bonarum artium studijs animun excolere longè praeclarius, not to trim, deck and dye the face, is an excellent thing, but to gar­nysh & a dorne the minde with good artes is a far more precious & beautifull thing: [Page] who also being asked, who was happie, said: qui corpore sanus est, animo vero eru­ditus He yt in body is helthful and whole, and wel instructed in his mind with good learning, & giue me leaue once againe to name Alphonsus (so oftētimes of me re­peated,) who was wont to say, yt the dead were very good counsailoures, signifying books, wherin he herd those things which he desired without feare and fauor. Then Alphonsus sayde that bokes were good coun­sailors, wherin we learne the things we desire without fear or fauour. how can it be but most necessary, to be di­ligent in getting, and diligent in studying yt monumēts & bokes of worthy authors: out of which so many cōmodities, so ma­ny fruites, so many aduises, so many good coūsails, lerned lessons, & prudent exhor­tatiōs may be gathered. And now I think it not expedient to passe ouer, and dispise the exercises of the body, but most conue­nient I déeme it, to send children to the Childrens bodies must be exercised, both for the agilitie of the bodye, & conseruatiō of health. houses & scholes of those that be cunning and expert teachers, yt sufficiently by la­bor they may obtain the same, & put them in practise, both for the agilitie & nimble­nesse of the body. And also to strengthen and corroborate the same: for the founda­tion of good & honest old age, is in childrē, the fit disposition, and habitude of the bo­dy. [Page] Children therfore, (which are liberal­ly brought vp,) are not so dishonestly and vnciuillie to be handled, to be driuē from the exercises which childehoode and ado­lescencie, & mannes age ought to be pra­ctised in, & much auail to the health of the body. While the strēgth of heat accensed wt mouing, doth more strongly disgest ye Exercises be neceslary for the bodies digestion. meat & drinke, and sendeth liuely & pure bloud, into al the mēbers of the body. * If ye takest away moderate exercises, slug­gish luskishnesse, drowsinesse, lasinesse & filthy idlenesse shall possesse thy children & striplings: whereby they shal be made vnfit to all yt honest actiōs of life. Amōgs The exerci­ses vsed a­mong the Grecians was cause of health, and little sicke­nesle. the old ancient Grecians (while these ho­nest exercises of youth flourished) there was not so great store of sicknesse & ma­ladies, (as now amongs vs, which folow none, or very few exercises, but drunkē ­nesse, bellychéere, filthie pleasures, and all intēperancie. So that when we come to that age, wherein we should serue our Prince and Countrey, in the offices of The lack of exercises at this day is cause there be so manye diseases. peace or feates of warre, we are hindred with yt gout, for lacke of practise, or one disease or other, which we haue gottē by [Page] intemperancie, while we dispised to haue a regard of our body, in exercising it with moderate and cōuentent exercises. Euen as therfore in Sommer tyme it is conue­uenable to prepare & lay vp those things that be necessarie agaynst winter: so in tender youth, it behoueth to prepare and hoorde vp good manners, ryght order of life, and modestie as a viandry and neces­sary prouision for olde age. And so with labors voluntary to exercise their bodies, least (their strengthes being exhausted & If the body be not exer­cised, it will hardly su­staine the toyles in learning. cōsumed) they may afterwards refuse to abide & sustain the labors & toyles pertai­ning to the conseruation of learning. For as the péerlesse philosopher Plato affir­meth, sléepe and labors be aduersaries to disciplines: he that accustomes himselfe to voluntarye labours, it shal not be gre­uous to him, to perdure in ye toiles, which men often times must abide by reason of their office: but he that dothe not exercise himselfe with willing labours, but gy­ueth himselfe to be depraued with slouth­fulnesse, he shal neuer in necessary labors with glory perseuere. But to what ende speake I vpon these? and doe not rather [Page] hasten to purport that, which is the most peculiar, and chiefest thing of all these? And that is this, that children be instruc­ted It is expedient that children be trayned in martiall pra­ctises. in practises of warre and feats of chi­ualry: as in handling the speare, casting of dartes, in iustings, bickerings, and hū ­ting of wilde beasts: for the goods of them which are conquered in battaile, fall to their lottes and guerdons, which be con­querours and winners of the field: but to warre, the disposition and exercise of the body priuately practised, doeth not a­uaile, but a weake warriour, and sillie Souldioure, (if he be trayned vp in mar­tial practises, and exercises of warre,) pe­netrateth and sperpleth the well garni­shed garrisons, and orderly adorned ar­mies of his ennimies: so much it auaileth to be exercised in these practises which ye worthy Gréeks knew wel enough, who had commonly in vse, games of exercise, For what vse the Grecians inuented their games of ex­ercise. huntings, leapings, skippings, dansings, and other such esbatemēts, wherwith as with voluntarie exercises they sharpned & exasperated youth to the true & necessa­ry labors of warre, lest in idlenesse they should be s [...]outhfull, spend their time lus­kishly, [Page] and the goodes of cowardous flug­gards (as Demosthenes sayth) doth fall to their lots that be laborous. Likewise, the renoumed Romains had their games and Why the Ro­maines founde out their exer­cises. laboures at home, wherewith they indu­rated & hardened their bodyes, to sustain the true labours in warre, wherby their countrey might be defended, and the ter­ritories of their Empire enlarged. But what will some say and obiect? You pro­mised to wryte preceptes and rules, con­cerning To whome these preceptes are wrytten. the education of frée children, but nowe you séeme to neglecte the bringing vp of poore and néedy children, and are only determined to giue and set forth in­structions, fit and congruent for rich, and such as are discent from noble progenie? Who may thus easely be answered: tru­ly, I greatly wishe and desire, that these my preceptes of education might be con­ducible and profitable to all in generall: but if there be any hindred through po­uertie, and oppressed with penurie and indigencie, shall not be able to vse al my admonitions, let them bewaile and de­plore their owne misfortune and calami­tie, and not accuse & insimilate him that [Page] giueth these admonitions and holesome preceptes. Therefore let the pore and in­digent laboure, endeuoure and assay (as much as lyeth in them) if they can attain to this chéefest and best education of chil­dren, which we haue made manifest. But if some shal not be able to vse it, let them practise that which is lawfull and p [...]ssi­ble for them. These things haue I chefe­ly touched, that I might afterwardes an­ner & interlace other things also, which anayle muche to the ryght Institution of Children. I thincke it a thing conue­nyent, to drawe and induce Children to Chyldren must be induced to studyes and o­ther necessarie duetyes, wyth gentlenes [...]e, persuasion, ex­hortation, not with force, violence and stripes. honest studyes, and to doe their dueties, with admonitions, persuasions, and gen­tle intreaties, and not wyth force, vio­lence, stripes, beating and bunching. For these séeme rather more derent for ser­uauntes and bondslaues, than for inge­nious and fréeborne Children. For slug­gishe seruauntes hardened in idlenesse a­dread stripes, and with these are incyted and dryuen to laboure, partely for the smarting gréefes of the stripes, and part­ly for contumelies, reproches and nip­ping tauntes. [Page] But praise and dispraise amongs ingeni­ous children are farre more better and commodious, thā any other chastisemēt. For commendations and prayses stirre and inuite them to honest things, and dis­commendations doth call them away, restraine and terrifie them from fil­thie, dishonest, and vicious things. And somtime againe diuers wayes they must be dispraised and chidden, and sometime commended, that after they shall nothing set by chidings and chaffings, shame may restraine them, and againe be made glad, and reduced from the same, with prayses and commendations: imitating nourses and mothers, which (after their babes & sucklings haue cried) giue and offer them the pappe, to still and aslake their cryes. And heere it behoueth Parents and good fathers to be circumspect, and diligently take héede, that aboue measure they doe not auaunce and extol with praises their children, least they become too insolent, proud, arrogant and headie: For dismea­sured and too much praise, doth infatuate, and make them more fierce and leuder. I haue known certain fathers, which with [Page] too much loue haue lost and marred their Recreations must be giuen to tender age, least beeing ti­red and weried with labors, it be ouerwhel­med, not able afterwardes to conceiue any good disci­plines. sonnes. While parents make posthast to haue their children excell, and surmount very festinely in all things, they lay such burdens vppon their shoulders, as they cannot beare nor sustaine: wherwith (be­ing too muche burdened and forefrushed) they fal down vnder them, when, as (be­ing hindered and stopped with other pas­sions, molestations and gréeues) they are not able rightly to cōceyue discipline and learnings lore. * They would haue them learned the first day, and perfite men the first houre, such too hastie Parents there be, who (thinking to haue out of hande surpassing children) make them fooles & dullardes through their hot festination. ✚ Euen as yong plants are norished with the sprinkling of moderate water, but suffocated and choked with dismeasured liquors poured vpon them: Likewise a childes tender yong wit with moderate labors is augmented, but with superflu­ous paines and immoderate toiles extin­guished, ouerwhelmed and drowned. Wherefore some recreation, breathing and refreshing from their continuall la­bors [Page] muste be permytted Children, * which banisheth and dryueth away irk­somnesse gotten by serious toyle, and doth restaurate and repaire againe their bodyes and mindes to laboure. For euen as too muche bending breaketh the bow: so to bée perpetually addicted to sery­ous things, and neuer to refreshe and solace the mynde wyth honeste oble­ctations, causeth that mannes mynd can not long endure in earnest studyes. For this cause in olde tyme were solempni­ties Festiuall dayes in olde tyme, were inuented for recreation. and Festiuall dayes ordayned, that menne béeyng called from laboures, myght take delyghte in seruyng GOD: whych delight without all controuersie is the moste honest of all other. So stu­dentes (least they fall into the detesta­ble vice of drunkennesse, and conta­mynate them selues wyth filthie plea­sures) had their delightes, musike and other bodily exercises, wherewith theyr mynde (being tired with study) myght be moste pleasantly recreated. ✚ Then Parentes ought to remember (those I meane, which so burden their Childrens tender mindes with suche too heauie bur­dens) [Page] that our life consisteth of remission, recreation, studie, labour, and paine. And therefore not onely wakings, but sléeping is founde out, not only warre, but also tyme of peace, not sommer and ser [...] ­nitie, but wynter, blustryng blastes, chillie colde and impetuous Tempestes, peries and stormes: To laborous ope­rations and paynefull busie woorkes (as I sayd before) are Holly dayes inuented a remedy. And finally, rest and cessa­tion is the medicine and sauce of la­boure Quies labo­ris remediū. and wearynesse: and that not in lyuing creatures alone, but in things de­uoyde of life we by experience proue: for we vnbend our bowes, and let downe and slacke the Harpe and lutestrings, that we may bend them agayne. And generally the body is preserued wyth emptying and filling agayne, and the mynde wyth remission, recreation and studie.

And there be some Parentes worthy great blame, and deserue seuere repre­hension, which (after they haue once com­mitted their childrē to the tutele and cu­stodie of the master and gouernor) neuer [Page] looke nor trie howe their children han [...] profited, and gone for warde in good litte­rature, vnfatherly neglecting their due­ties: for it behoueth them (a fewe dayes after) to be inquisitiue, and to make triall Parents after they haue put their children to schole, must be inquisitiue hovve they profit. vpon the studies and increasings of theyr childrens learning, and not to affie their hole hope and trust in him that teacheth for reward and gaine. In so doing, theyr children may euilly (without any profi­ting, waste and contriue their precious time, and dissipate their parents money. For vndoubtedly those masters would be more diligent and painefull in instru­cting their schollers, if they knewe they should render accompt of their institution and progression in good lerning. And cer­tainly that, that of horses is spoken, me­riteth no small grace: bicause nothing do so sone fattē, and bring into good liking a horse, as his owners eie. * Some parents I know in England, very careful in thys behalfe, and such in dede be parentes and loue their children interly, which daily enquire and trie their children, thoughe they be wholy persuaded in the painefull diligence of the Master.

[Page] Such must néedes haue toward, lerned, and obedient children: and worthy of great cōmendation they be, for the care and trauell they take, in the vertuous instruction of their children. But some other I haue heard of, that are altogi­ther vncarefull, and nothing regarde the good successe of their sonnes, not once in a whol yere demaunding how his child hath profited. Such parents be not wor­thy the name of parents, since they so temerously neglect their childrens good education, whom nature hath bounde them, and God commaundeth them to season with vertue, and to trayne them vp in feare & godlynesse. Nay (the more is the pitie) there be some which alto­gither neglect at all to put thē to schole, but permit them dissolutely, ydelly, and vaynely to contriue and spende their time, thinking learning and vertue to be of no value, supposing good institution to be a thing of nought, so that they re­semble their fathers euill wayes: if they learne to sweare and to rent God in a thousande morsels, then haue they lear­nyng enoughe, and then they be their [Page] white sonnes. What be these [...] the wic­ked parents of vicious children, vnprofi­table members, worthy to be extirped out of a christian common weale, and as one sayd: [...]. An in­fertile masse of molde But I leaue such to their owne follies, and turne to my The exer [...]y ses of a chil­des memory must not be neglected. purpose, wishing that there were none such remayning. ✚ Before all things a childs memorie must be exercised: for memory is (as it were) the buttry or pantry of all good learning: and therfore haue poets, in their poemes fayned and imagined memory to be the mother of the muses, and nine sisters of learning: thereby priuily interpreting & obscurely reueling, that nothing is better thā fer­tile, pregnant & redy memory: which all children must exercise: both they which naturally be endued with the beautiful benefite of the same, & also those which be obliuious, & enioy a very hard and dul memory: so shal they corroborate & con­firme the affluēce & goodnes of nature, & supply also the defect & want of the same: that they which haue a ready memory, and exercise it, may become better than [Page] others, & also the weak witted & obliui­ous childrē may better thēselues. Excel­lently hath ye ancient poet Hesiode said:

He [...]iod [...].
If to a little thou dost adde.
a little, doing oft the same,
At length a heape shall there be had,
and of a masse shal beare the name.

And parents ought to know this, that the remembrance of artes and sciences dothe not onely to erudition and know­ledge of things, but also to other practi­ses and affayres of life, bring a great light, and is (as it were) a looking glasse and perfite example to liue. * Laboure parente to cause thy chylde exercise his memorye, indeuour thy selfe child and scholer with care and diligence to holde those things thou shalt lerne. For except thou addest thy diligence, to lay vp those things (which thou by studie hast gathe­red into the precious coffer of thy me­mory) thou in vayne laborest in lerning, séeing onely we knowe that, that in memorye we retayne: But yf with [Page] dayly exercise thou committest to thy memory, the things which by learning thou hast attayned, doubt not but thou shalt be learned. Euen as the husbande­man in husbandry is weried, if he suffer his corne to perish in the field, and there to rotte by the violence of tempests: so vnprofitable is the labour whiche thou takest in studies, if thou dost not practise the things thou hast conceyued, and with dayly meditation fixe them in thy me­morie. Once there was one, whiche What chan­ced to hym that committed nothing to memory paynefullye trauayled at his Booke, and committed nothing to memorie, but to papers and commentaries. I know not what chaunce befell, this loytring lubber, and lerning eater lost all his be­paynted papers, wherin he had printed all his learning: he bewayled his mis­fortune and made his complaynt to An­tisthenes that learned man, who spake thus vnto him: Thou oughtest to haue written these in thy minde, and not in papers: for

Tantum scimus quantum me­moria tenemus.
So muche vve knovv assuredly,
as vve do holde in memory.

✚ It is also necessary and most néedeful, Children must be prohibited to speak filthy, and accusto­med to vse affabilitie, gentle salutation, modesty, temperance, and shame­fastnes. that children be repelled and admont­shed from filthy scurrilitie and leud nau­ghtie communication: for (as Democri­tus saide) talke is a shadow of a mannes worke, and such things as man practi­zeth, such things doth his communicati­on declare and relate. *If we vse to speake filthily, we much harme and en­danger our estimation, while all men think vs to be the neighbours and allies of dishonest communication: but yf we abstayne from scurrilitie & vitious talk, there is none but wil beléeue we be ho­nest, sober and discrete, yf we vtter those things which lacke dishonest talke, and abstayne from vitious words, none can blame vs as filthy speakers. But if we pamper our selues therin, who is he that will not speake ill of vs, and procide vs with worthy taunts & ignominie? who will say, that Tibullus, Catullus Proper­tius Lasciuious poetes. and Martiall, and other suche paul­tring lasciuious poets, are not taynted with infamy and slaunder, bicause they delighted rather to exercise their poetry, with the composition of filthy verses, [Page] than were memorous of chastitie and moderate talk. Not to eschue (saith Mu­sonius) Musonius. to speake obscene and filthy wor­des is the fountayne and beginning of euill liuing. And that worthy sentence of modest Menander, (which saint Paul Menander. vseth) ought to be a good lesson for all parents to learne:

Corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia praua.
Euill talke and filthy vvhich men haue,
Good vertuous maners do depraue.

✚ Next must parents accustome their affabilitie. children, to vse affabilitie, gentle and curteous salutation: for in good maners there is nothing counted so odious, as to be churlish, frowarde in words, and to estraunge them selues from companye and talke. * If a man in authoritie speke gently and curteously vnto euery one, it is almost incredible to say, how much beneuolence and fauour he amongs all men doth obtayne: but if he proudely disdayne to speake vnto his inferiours, thinking himselfe to be polluted (as it were) with their talke, doubtlesse that man is odible in the peoples fight, and iudged a proud, scorneful, disdaynful, and [Page] hye stomacked man. Marcus the Empe­rour Marcus the Emperour was cōmen­ded for his affabilite. is muche commended, for his affa­bilitie and curteous behauiour, bicause he gaue his right hand to euery one that came vnto him, and gently with great humanitie spoke vnto ech mā, although he had clymed the hyest degree of dig­nitie. So likewise among the Hebre­wes Absolon, with his curteous affa­bilitie Absolon. had moued and drawen almost all the Iudaicall people to his side, and (yf it had not otherwise pleased God) had inuaded the scepters of the Israeti­call kingdome. So I know not, what swéetenesse the tongurs of Caesar, of Caesar, Pom­pey, Sylla for their affabi­litie obtened muche fa­uour Pericles. Pompey, of Sylla, and other noble per­sonages hadde, whereby among their citizens they obtayned so much fauour, that to them they were most gratefull. Pericles also vsing this affabilitie (whi­che I woulde haue all Parents to teache their children) was muche este­med among the Athenians: whiche is bruted to haue made his supplication to Iupiter, as often as he came abroade) that he wuld not suffer one word to slip from his tong amisse, wherby he might [Page] incurre the enuy and conflate the hatred of the Athentan people to him selfe. What is a more humane thing, than in talke, and affabilitie, that children shew themselues meeke, gentle, faire spoken, curteous and kinde to all men? on the contrary part, what is more truculent, beastlike, and cruel, than in comparison of himselfe to despise other, and to sup­pose himselfe superior to all: euen as the nightingale with hir shrill and swéete voyce, deserueth muche fauour amongs al mē, and the owle with hir deadly and mournefull song incurs the hate of eche man, as a birde alienated from the kind of birds: so he whiche in company doth exercise affabilitie and curteous beha­uiour, is loued of all men: but he that lyueth after the maner of an owle, and professeth no affabilitie, and kéepes no company (as the owle) he is a most vn­manly man, and is recompted not wor­thy the societie of man. Roboam king Roboam. Salomons sonne, deuoyde of affabilitie, and despoyled of humanitie (bitterly ac­cusing the Israelites with sharpe words and seuere) alienated all the other tribes [Page] from him, beside Iudaes and Beniamin. But king Cyrus, that puisaunt prince, bicause he shewed gentlenesse and cur­teous Cyrus was curteous in all his ages. behauiour in his childhoode, adole­scencie, and all his other ages, felte the wonderfull increasings of felicitie: ther­fore saith Valerius Maximus, Humani­taus dulcedo etiam efferat [...] barbarorū inge­nia penetrat: toruos (que) & truc [...] hostium mollit oculos. Viuat nam, prosternit odium hostilem (que) sanguinem hostilibus iniscet la­chrimis. Sée the force of affabilitie, be­holde The force of affabilitie and gentle talke. what curteous speache can doo. ✚ Children that by their parents are taught this, shall tenderly be loued of them, whose company and familiaritie they kéepe and enioy, if they be not stif­necked, obstinate and opinatiue, for it is not onely a famous thing to ouerceme, but to suffer himselfe to be ouercomed, when the victorie little auayleth, but much endomageth and is hurtfull. It is in déede a victorie, whereof commeth Cadmea victo­ria. more harme than good. Of this haue I Euripides my witnesse, which sayth:

VVhen tvvo do talke, vvherof the one
doth rage in anger, than
The other (vvhich doth not reply)
is iudgde the vviser man.

Modestie. Agayne parents must be careful to at­tyre their children with the wéedes of modestie, which bringeth to men beau­tiful ornaments But whosoeuer dothe disseuer hīself therfro, he polluteth him­self wt all dishonesty & ignominious in­famy: euē as he which is furnished with the ciuilitie of maners, obtaineth amōgs al men great praiso & commendation: so he (that is esclarished with modesty the beautifullest [...]illament of vertues) is euery wher extolled into the sayes with many prayses. Ioseph yet is bruted and Iosephs mo­desty. blased, with fames perpetuall sounding trumpe, to be the most excellent exam­ple of modestie, bicause by no thundring threats, by no heauy manaces, he could be persuaded, so muche as to consent to the detestable allurement of the most dishonest Aegiptian woman. Therfore chiefly modesty doth maruelously well become children, & is to them a precious iewel, ad the iewel of our time Erasmus [Page] of Roterodame witnesseth. And one other Ʋereeundia virtutū cu­stos. thing there is, which children must be trayned vp in, and that is shamefastnes, which sullie calleth the keper of al ver­tues, eschuing dishonestie, and gayuing prayse. Euen as a diademe and crowne, doth adorne and beautifie a kings head, so doth shamefastnesse most gayly gar­nish a child and yongman. Pamphilus in The shamef [...] ­ [...]nes in Pam­philus was a figne of good­nesse. Terence was ashamed & blushed. Simon (as though al were wel) then sayd thus: Erubuit, saluares, he blushed, the matter is in good case. And therfore Pithias Ari­stotles daughter (béeing asked, what co­lour was most beautiful) answered: that Pythias A­ristotelis filia. which through shamefastnesse riseth in ingenious men, and vertuous children. And of this Cicero agayne doth witnesse with me, saying: Sine verecūdia nihil re­cte agitur, without shamfastnes nothing is rightly doon, for moderator cupidua [...]s est pudor, shamefastnes is the gouernor of desire. These be the braue arays yt children ought to be clad withal: & such gar­mēts must parēts put on their children. Now wil I purport the things nothing inferior to these before, wherin I wold [Page] haue yong men exercised: first and be­fore al things to fere god, who is the séer God must be feared. of al things, which knoweth the very se­cret cogitations of the heart, which doth defend the godly, & punish the malicious and impious: euen as it is the duetie of a diligent scholer to adde all his indeuour and industry to his studies & honest acti­ons, lest he offend his master thrugh his negligence, and vngracious facts: so is it the boūden duetie of a yong man alwais to bend his endeuour to fere god, and iu­stice, lest through his impietie & reckles ways, he prouoke Gods displeasure and reuenge. Once a frend asked Demonax, Demonax. and requested him to go with him to the temple of Aesculapius, to pray for his sons helth, whom a perilous disease had cruciated. Demonax answered: thinkest thou that god is so deafe that he wil not here vs but in the temple? So also ought we all to iudge of the sight of God, that he is in ech place, & beholdeth ech thing, and nothing so far distinct that Gods eye can not penetrat. Worthily therfore let yongmen (what euill priuily they be a­bout) dread & feare god, which is always [Page] present, & a beholder aswel of the things be wel done, as the things be euill done. Next must they obey their parents, for to them do children owe great honour: Yongmē must obey their pa­rents. by their benefite and meane we inioy this light, by thē we are nourished, bro­ught vp, & instructed: what things soeuer parents haue, at last fal to their childrēs hands. It is knowen full wel, and fame wil neuer let it be forgotten, how much reuerence Coriolanus the famous Ro­mane Coriolanue o­bedient to his mother Vetu­ria. gaue to his mother Veturia, whom when no force could withdraw from the oppugnation of the countrey, the chiding & persuasion of his mother Veturia puld him away. So did a daughter norish hir mother (condemned and kept in prison) with hir teats. Whervpō Valerius Ma­ximus astonished with this pietie excla­meth: Valerius Ma­ximus Quò non penetrat, aut quid non ex­cogitat pietas? quae in carcere seruanda ge­nitricis nouā rationē inne [...]t-qued eni [...] tam innsitatū, quid tā inauditū quā matr [...] vbe­ribus natae alitam esse? Whither doth not childish loue perce, what doth not pietie excogitate & inuent? which hath found a new way to saue hir mother being in [Page] prison. What thing is so insolent or vn­went, what thing so vnherd of, as a mo­ther to be nourished with hir daughters paps. Som wil thīk this against nature, vnlesse it wer the first law of nature, to loue our parents. The pietie of Cimon Cimon his pie tie towards Miltiades his father. towards his father is also euery where commended, who lingred not nor doub­ted to put on him his fathers fetters and chaynes, at the left that his father Mil­tiades might obtayne the honor of his graue. I might also recite the pietie of Ioseph the Hebrue, but who knoweth it not? Thus ought children & yongmen to honor their parents, who be the instru­ments of their life, of whō whatsoeuer we haue, we haue receiued, so shall they be of al men cōmended, & be iudged ver­tuous, obediēt, & godly. Next vnto parēts must frends be remēbred: for theyexhort Frends must be reuerenced. vs to vertue, and dissuade vs from vice and naughtinesse, & by al meanes labour to kéepe vs in the limittes of shamefast­nesse: euen as a good neighbour is to be reuerenced, according to Hesiodus his precept (which singeth that we haue got­tē honor if we haue gottē a good neibor) [Page] so certaynly much more honorably is a No treasure is more precious than a frend. frend to be intreated, thā the which no possession is better, no iewel more preci­ous. Alexander the puisant Macedonian was not offended yt Hephaestion was af­fected Alexander. with regal honors of Darius nie­ther: but whē she craued pardō for hir er­ror, Alexander alwais coragious, & then fraughted with a regall heart, sayd: be of good there O womā, whatsoeuer honor thou haft be [...]owed vpō him, I thīk thou hast don it to me: for this man (apointing to Hephaestiō) (saith he) est alter ipse. A frend therfore is a rare tresurs, a desired name, a mā scarce appering, ye refuge of infelicitie, a possessiō scarsly to be found, a receuer of secrets, a neuer failing rest, as Xenophon doth excellētly tech vs. [...] Now folows, yt they exercise thēsclues Yongmē must liue fr [...]gally, bridle their tong, & represle anger, & keepe their hands frō vnlauful pray. to liue quietly, to bride their tong, to represse anger, and to retayne and kéepe in their hands from vnlaufull spoyles. Of these (of what value eche is) let vs consider, which with examples I will make manyfest, and of the last I will first beginne. Some men hauing putte their hands to vnlawful prayes, and vn­iust [Page] gayne, haue disparaged al their glo­ry, and disparkled all the illustrious ge­stes of their progenitors and auncetors. As Gylippus the Lacedemonian, who (bicause he had loosed & opened the mo­ney Gylippus Lacedemonius. bagges, and stolne thereout a great summe of money) was abandoned his countrey, and repeld from Sparta. Dout­lesse he is a very wise man, which doth conquere his anger, and not suffer him selfe to be ouercome with yre. Socrates (when a certayne temerous hawty fel­low, and rash royster had spurned him with his héele, and thei which were pre­sent séeing it, were sore offended at him) sayd, If an asse had kicked and winched agaynst me with his héeles, woulde ye aduise me, and counsayle me agayne to spurne? Socrates surely did it not at all, Socrates. but (when they all pursued him, and cal­led him a héele flinger, and spurner) he was choked and strāgled. Aristophanes in his comedy, intituled [...] whiche Aristophanes. he set foorth, when with many contu­melious tauntes and reproches he had rent and proscided the same Socrates, and one whiche was present reprehending [Page] him sayd: Doest thou not take this in in­dignation O Socrates? No verely answe­red he, not I. For I am taunted now and bitten with railing words in the Thea­tre, as in a certaine sumptuous and gor­geous banquet. Archytas Tarentinus, and Archytas Tarentinus. diuine Plato, appeare to haue done ye lyke things to these: for certainly Archytas re­turning from warre (for about that time he gaue himselfe to chiualrie) when he had found his grounde vntilled and foule to looke vpon for lacke of good husbāding, (calling the stewarde of his farme vnto him) thou wouldest wéepe (sayd he) on­lesse I were too angry. Plato (being offen­ded Plato. with a gluttonous & proud seruaunt) called vnto him Speusippus his sisters sonne, saying to him, goe and whyp me this varlet, for I am accensed with an­ger. Hard and difficile these be some will say, and by no meanes imitable. So they be vndoubtedly I cannot deny. Wherfore must yongmen do their deuoire (as much as lyeth in them) to vse these examples of this carefull crue of surmounting lerned personages, as a glasse to loke vpon, and as pictures to behold, to qualifie and tē ­per [Page] their vntēperate and raging ir [...]. For although (cōcerning other things) we be not to be resembled to them, neyther in long experience, vertue, honest lyfe, nor learning: Nathelesse it is our duetie (as muche as we may) to followe their foote­steps, and in these things to imitate and counterfait them, as Prophets of ye gods, interpretors of sacred things, and (as it were) the leaming lampes and flaming firebrandes of wisedome. To moderate the tong therefore and to kéepe it in, (for of this as I purposed, must I speake) if a­ny thinke it a small or pernicious thing, he wandreth from the pathe of equitie, and is quite deceyued. For silence in due time is wisdome, and more excellent thā all talke, * and sometime to holde thy peace doth bring farre more commoditie than to let thy tong go at randon, for per­haps we speake many things which may endamage our selues, and shortly vtterly vndo vs, but if we kéepe our tong within The tong vntimely [...]lking, oringeth many i [...]ommo­d [...]. the wals of our téeth, we shall not be en­dangered. Euen as a Beare, (while she is kept in hole) wil hurt no man, but assone as she is let out frō thence, (while she ra­geth [Page] against them she méeteth) doth hurt both hir self & other: so ye tong as long as she is imprisoned wtin the fold & hedge of the téeth, it is harmlesse: but whē she vn­aduisedly leaueth the felde of the téethe, (wherwith she is enuir [...]ned) wil entāgle both hir self & others wt many euils. And for this (as me semeth) haue ye mē of old time cōstituted their sacred ceremonies, full of mysteries & secrecies, yt men being accustomed in those diuine mysteries to hold their peace, might wt like fear accu­stom thēselues faithfully to kepe humane secrecie. The religious mōks in old time (I haue herd say) wer wōt among other vertues (wherwt but few of thē were in­dued among so populous a rablement) to practise silence, yt they might lern what & whē they shuld speak, lest peraduēture wt their vnaduised temeritie, they might en­danger thēselues in lothsom labirinths, & implūge others in deuouring gulfs. Paulꝰ ye monk by surname Simplex, whē he as­ked Paulu [...] Mo­nach [...]. whither Christ was firster than the prophets. &c. being cōmaūded to lie vp in silēce den his folish questiō, by yt space of iii. yeres, durst speak neuer a word to any mā ▪ so lerned he bi his silēce, what things [Page] ought to be spoken, and not to be spoken. And it is noysed that Agatho the Abbot, How Aga­tho learned to hold his peace. putting daily a stone in his mouth, lerned to hold his peace, and for the space of thrée yeares obserued it, least when he would speake, he might not readely: for he had red in Salomons Prouerbes thus: qui cu­stodit os suum, custodit animam suam: qui autem inconsideratu [...] est ad loquendum sen­tiet mala. ✚ Againe I neuer heard man say he repented for kéeping his tong, but Men haue repented speking, but none hol­ding theyr peace. many I haue heard repenting for theyr talking and futilitie of their tongue. Be­sides this, it is an easie thing for a man to vtter, that he hath kept in, but a difficile thing, nay rather impossible, to cal again that he hath spoken, and rashly and vn­aduisedly vttered. I remember I haue heard tell that innumerable, (for the in­temperancie of their tongue) haue falne into gréeuous calamities, miseryes, mis­fortunes and discomfitures. Of the infini­tie of the which, (for exāples sake) I will recite one or two, relinquishyng the rest. When Philadelphus espoused nuptials wyth his owne sister Arsinoes, and one Solades sayde these wordes: [...] [Page] [...]. He was in­forced Solades for his tongue rotted in pryson. in prisone, fettered in bondes and chaines, a long time to rotte and pine a­way, and payd the price for his vntymely loquacitie. For that he might be a laugh­ing stocke and skorne to many, he long gréeued, lamented, and pitifully beway­led. Also Theocritus the Sophister spoke, Theocritus for his lo­quacitie was beheaded. and suffered things like to these, and a great deale more greuous. For when A­lexander commaūded the Greekes to pre­pare them Purple garments, that (whē he returned) he might solempnise the tri­umphe of the warlike exployts atchéeued against the Barbarians and his vassalles particularly, and man by man brought in their mony, before (sayd he) I douted, and now I euidētly perceiue that this is thy purple deathe as Homer sayeth. From which time Alexander was euer his foe, and enemie. Also he gréeuously offended and irritated Antigonus king of ye Ma­cedonians, when he cast his blindnesse in his nose. For he commaunded Eutropion his maister Cooke (whych was in a cer­tain ordinarie empechemēt) to come vn­to him, to giue and take an accompt. And [Page] when ye Cooke had often denounced these things to him, I know well (said Theo­critus) yt thou art about to set me raw be­fore a one eyed king. And so to the one, ye is to ye king, he vpbraided his blindnesse, & to the Cooke he twited his euil cookery. Eutropion therfore sayd, yu shalt léese thy head, yt thou maist worthely be punished for thy madnesse & dicacitie. When these were told to the king, he sent those which executed and cut off the hed of Theocri­tus. A due gained guerdon for the intem­perancie of his leudly walking and clat­tering tong. Notwithstāding two times there be (as Isocrates sayeth) wherin it is There bee two tymes wher [...] it is better too speake than to holde thy peace o [...] knowne things and neceslarie things. better to speake, than to vse silence. The one is, when occasion of talk is offered of the things yu knowest most plainely and perfitly. For to reson of vnknown things is a dishonest thing: wher on the cōtrary part, it is laudable to speake in time, of ye things thou art perfect in. Gorgias Leon­tinus came to yt temeritie, that he willed eche man to propoūd the question, which he wold haue canuased and discussed, and that he sodenly (and ex tempore) wold an­swer to euery poynt. Many he deceyued [Page] in this professiō with his loquacitie. But this proud sophister, and hautie soyler of questiōs, sapient Socrates brought to that poynt, (as the dialogue of Plato doth ma­nifest, Gorgias Leontin [...] was repro­ched of So­crates for his temeritie. which is intituled Gorgias) that he knew not howe to define an Rhetorica which he professed. The same reproch su­stained Protagoras, which (in ye dialogue of Plato which is called Protagoras) did make his great vaūt, & too largely promi­sed yt he wold so frame ye yongmā Hippocrates (if he wer cōmitted to his tuting) ye daily he shuld conceiue wōderful increa­sings and augmentations of vertue. But whē he was asked this question, (an vir­tus doceri posset) he had nothing to say: but soūded many trifeling toyes which made nothing for ye purpose. Is not he a laugh­ing stock to al men yt reasons of yt things he knoweth not? now adays many vaunt thēselues very leudly to be passing lerned mē among ye ignorant sort, & thunder out their boastes and gloriations, as though they were painfull students, and déepely lerned clarks, bolstring out with chaun­ting tongs, the names of Greke and Latin authors, to séeme in the iudgments of the [Page] vnlearned crewe, the pearlesse men in these dayes: when (if he that is learned aske) what is this author or that author, whom with their eloquent tongues and magnifical (forsooth) commendation they extoll and lift vp to ye skies, or what mat­ter they intreate vpon or discourse, then they be mute and not a worde for a thou­sand pounde. Thus many shame them­selues, and great is the number of suche vnlettered bragging gallants, as experi­ence sheweth. Therefore very merily & trimly Zeuxis admonyshed Megabizus Zeuxis al­monition to Megabyzus. after this sort, that he should not rashly speake of the things he knew not. Mega­bizus in times past entred into Zeuxis shoppe, and with great commendations praised certain rudely and grossely pain­ted pictures, with no art nor cunning po­lished, and blamed and dislyked others, which were very exquisitely wrought and finished: at whose follie Zeuxis ser­uaunts and boyes laughed, and Zeuxis sayde: O Megabyzus, while thou holdest thy peace, and kéepest silence, these boyes can but maruell at the beholding thy gay garments, costly roabes, & thy seruaunts [Page] which folowe thy traine, but when thou vtterest and speakest of the things which pertaine to this Arte, thou art a gibe and laughing stock vnto them. Beware ther­fore, and take héed of thy selfe by these, in whose sight thou dost praise these, and re­presse thy tōg: and furthermore endeuer, that neuer thou rashely speake of those Artes that thou knowest not. The other time is, that thou mayest speake, and not kéepe silence, when talke of things (ne­cessarily to be spoken vpon) is ministred. For if necessitie require thée to speake, to defend either thy selfe or thy frendes, it is a dishonest and vndecent thing to bée silent. But if no necessitie enforce thée to If necessitie enforce thee to speake, talke is better than silence. [...] speake, it is better for thée to holde thy peace. Euen as it is the parte of a good man, to harme or hurt no man: but (if contrary to Gods law and mannes lawe he be iniured of the wycked) laudably ta­keth vp weapons, and defends himselfe. Likewise is that man accompted good, which seldome speaketh, vnlesse necessi­tie driue him to vse hys tongue. Zeno the Prince of the Stoikes was called wyth other Philosophers, (by the Ambasia­dors [Page] of Antigonus sent to Athens) to a bāket: and when euery one of them wel whittled with Pacchu barrels) boasted vpon and shewed out his learning, Zeno helde his peace. But when the Legates asked him, what they should declare to Antigonus concerning him? Hoc ipsum dixit quod vide [...]s euen this you sée: for the Zenot' answer to the Legates of Antigonus. talke and tong of all other is hardest to be moderated and measured. Aelchines the scholler of Socrates, (being reprehen­ded for his silence, séeing he had so good Aeschines. and vertudus a master as Socrates) sayd: Nonloqui solum a Socrate, sed etiam [...]cere didici, I haue not only lerned of my ma­ster Socrates to speake, but to holde my pea [...]. These kinde of talkes of things, which thou knowest, and when necessity constraineth, containeth many commodi­ties, many vtilities, & bringeth great ho­nestie. But otherwise great incommodi­ties & harmes thou shalt reape, if thou tē ­per thy tōg to tattling and vntimely tal­king. Besides all these things, children must be accustomed to speake and tell Children must be fiamed to speake truthes. truthes, which is the best and most sacred thing of all: a seruile thing it is, & nothing [Page] decent, for a frée born man to lie & forge: which all men do abhorre and hate. And not in bondmen and seruaunts to be per­mitted. * Great enormities issue of thys Of lying flow many mis­cheeues. vile vice, and most detestable wycked­nesse: from hence come periuries, fra [...]ds, deceits, violation & breaking of promisse and faith, and innumerable such horrible vices, which sow amongs men discords, debates, & deadly hatreds. When Deme­trius Phalereus was asked of a certaine Demetrius Phalereus. man, what punishment liers were wer­thy of, he answered: vt ne dicentes quidem [...]era, digm fide haberen [...]ur [...] therfore as it is the duetie of iustice, to kéepe truthe in déedes, sayings and tong: so is it the part of iniustice to lie: Lying greatly displea­seth God, and is odious to the societie of men. Aboue all things Parents must be carefull to roote out from their childrens tender breastes, this vgly monster, least it ouerthrowe and quyte depraue all the good qualities, and carefull eruditi­on, which they from theyr infancie and youth haue trayned them in. And neuer more néede than now ought Parentes Lying was ne­uer more a flote than [...] to looke to this. For it neuer so muche [Page] raigned as now. Al children almost haue learned to dash out loud lies, and not one amongs a hundred, but can inuent hand­somly, and mainteine cunningly a lye, & with suche meanes and wayes, as it is a wonder to beholde: they are as perfite in their Arte, if they be but sixe yeares olde, as if they had gone twentie yere to schole to learne some good discipline. Where is the fault? in parents that be so vncarefull to vertuously teach them, and while they be yong, to eradicate such growing euils. The parentes be more to be blamed, for in them is the remedy héereof. There be to many parentes (the more is the pitie) that are delighted in their children, that can handsomely frame a lie: and they thē selues suche is the peruersitie of some) teach them how to lay somtime the foū ­dation therof. They count their children ioly boyes, if they once face a lie, sweare, stare, and tear God with othes. Such vn­godly and vngratious parentes, shall not be vnpunished for such their informatiō, if they do not in time séeke to recure thys pitifal sore and large vlcer, they cā neuer come to goodnesse whē in youth they tast [Page] so much of yt lakes of lies and puddles of vntruthes. Neither euer will they be ho­nest men, or estéemed in honest company for the author of lies is the hater of hone­sty, Sathan is the authoure of lying. truth, right and goodnesse. If any féele themselues giltie héerein, I meane them, let them séeke chéefely to abandon such a polluting euill, and infecting sore, frō the hearts of their children: as for such as be godly, I thinke they knowe the enormi­ties thereof well inough, and are carefull to wéede out suche euill swelling herbes from their childrens brestes. ✚ Hitherto Yong men ought no: to liue as they list and run at ran­don, but vnder a gouernor, the viewer of their studies, and honest informer of their man­ners. haue I spoken of the good institution, and right bringing vp of children, and of their behauior and decoration: now I thinke it conuenient to turne my talke to yong­men, and giue them some preceptes and good lessons. I haue often perceyned and found Parents to be the authors and on­ly causes of naughtynesse and peruerse manners, which for theyr children haue prepared and appoynted masters, gouer­nors, tutors, and guides, but haue giuen the bridle at large to their yong men, and suffered them to liue as they list, and to vagè and runne at their pleasure: when [Page] contrarywise, they ought to haue greater care, and more vigilant respect to suche, than to theyr children. Who knoweth not that childrens faults and transgressi­ons Yong men ought more narowly be loked to than children. be small and curable, perpetrated perhappes through the negligence of go­uernors, and committed by disobedience? But the trespasses and offences of yong­men, are oftentimes great, horrible, and The transgres­sions of yong men. miserable, as intemperate gluttonie, and rauening of the bellie, the expilation and robbing of their fathers goodes, cardes, diceplay, banketting, the lawlesse loue of virgins and women, the pollutings and corruptels of mariages. Wherfore it be­houeth to tame, cohibite and represse the mindes of these with cares, diligence and sedulitie. For this age is prone to plea­sures, wanton and vncircumspect, and néedeth a bridle. Therefore they (whych defendor pamper this age) doe open the window to offēces, and giue them liber­tie, winking at their wickednesse. But wise parents ought chéefely at this time, to haue a diligent care of their yongmen, teaching them to be vigilant, modest, and sober with preceptes, lessons, menaces, [Page] obseruations, persuasions, promisses, and with the cōmemoration of those mennes example, which (hauing pitched their tēts in pleasures field) haue cast themselues hedlongs into peremtorie perils, & casual calamities, and with rehersal of their ex­amples, which with constancie, suffe­rāce and abstinencie, haue got them pas­sing pure praise, gay glory, and conuem­ent commēdation, for their worthinesse, curtesie, good behauior, courage, and va­liance. For these two things are as it were) the Principles and incitations of The hope of honor, and fear of punishment be the incitati­ons to vertue. vertue, the hope of honor, and the feare of punishment. The one, that is the hope of honoure doth incite, and maketh coura­gious and hilarous to famous feates and excellent studyes: and the other, that is the feare of punyshment, draweth vs a­way from perpetrating filthynesse, and repelles vs from scelerous myschéeues. And first of all they ought to be bany­shed the companie and conuersation of The acquain­tarce and familiantie of wic­ked persons is to be elchued. flagitious and naughtie men: for wyth theyr malitious manners and beastly behauior, they are embroyned, infected, and tainted. [Page] Thys same commaunded prudent Py­thagoras by his obscure and darke say­ings, which muche auaile to the attayne­ment Pythagora [...]nigmata. of vertue. As [...]: that is to say, vse not company with those men, whose leudnesse of manners, may spot, blemish, diffame, and dishonest thée. Againe, [...], passe not the ballance, that is, doe nothyng a­gainst right and equitie. For the ballance in olde time, was accompted a signe of equitie, as an other prouerbe witnesseth, [...], iuster than the ballance, or as true as Stéele. [...]. That is, flée idlenesse, es­chue slonth, and prouide for things neces­sa [...]y against the morow. Again [...], desire not euery mans frendshippe, nor put thy selfe to euery mannes familiaritie, but choose, whome thou maist loue. And many suche like, as be left to our memorie by prudēt Pytha­goras, but I wil turn again to my former talke, from which I haue digressed. As I haue sayd before that Parentes ought to endeuoure them selues, and be circum­spect, that theyr children auoyde and flée [Page] all wicked, leude, and vicious compa­ny: so likewise I thinke it most méete and conueniēt, they be abandoned from fléering, flanting, and franticke flatte­rers. As I haue spokē it to many parēts so now I dout not agayn to confirme it, There is no­thing worse than the cō ­pany of flat­terers, chefly to yongmen that there is no kind of men more per­nicious or worse, whiche more depra­ueth and sooner corrupteth tender age, and strangleth youth, than flatterers: whiche euen the fathers themselues, with their children most miserably in­fect, and search to the quicke: for olde hoare hearedmen by such gabbing Gna­thoes, and pickthanke parasites, are af­flicted and conuerted into luctuous hea­uinesse, and their children runne head­long into present destruction. * Euen as the olde serpent turned his blandi­ments, and sugry sweete words, to the perdition and ouerthrow of mankind, (while he deceiued our first parents) so flatterers with their gallant blandi­shing tong circumuent vs, and throw vs into a thousande miseries. ✚ They allure and entice yongmen to delicious plesure, wherwith ye age is very gretly [Page] delighted. When their fathers exhort them to frugalitie, to modesty, and to so­briety, that hagard and sauage crue of caytife Ctesiphoes, prating Phormioes, and guilefull Getaes, impell them to drunkeanes and surfetting. When their The persua­sion of para­sites. parents moue them to temperance and continency, this rascall rout inuegle them to lasciuiousnesse and inordinate lustes: when their parents persuade them too bee sparing, laborious, and paynefull, this ragmannes roll drawe them from labours, to ydlenesse, slouth, and drousinesse, saying, that all our life is but a moment of time, and therfore ought they to liue, and not basely and obscurely spende the short time, defrau­ding pleasures: wherfore ought we to care for our fathers threats & many me­naces? he doteth through age, he is a nei­bour to the coffin, and a graue spirite, whiche very shortly we will lifte vp, and carry out a doores to his funerall farewell. And some of these makelesse marchantes draw them to baddes, & to other mens maried wiues, so that they robbe, spoyle, and pray vpon their fa­thers [Page] treasures, whiche be as a viandry and necessary prouision for their olde age. O execrable ennemyes too yong men, and wicked graffes, which while they fayne them selues hipocritically to bée fréends) they vtter nothing frée­ly. They gape and wayte vppon riche men, and set not a straw by poore per­sons, and indigent men: marking what yong men doo, that (when they that Si quis ait aio. Si quis negat, no­go. maynteyne them laughe) they maye laughe also, as they whiche doo all thin­gs with a fayned and flattering mind. And when they turne them selues to the becke and boke of ryche men, by fortune they be frée, but in mynde bondeflaues. And althoughe they haue not beene affected with iniuries, yet notwithstanding they crye out, and pi­teously playne, that they be wrong­fully intreated. And for this purpose, least not in vayne, and withoute a cause, they shoulde be thoughte to be nourished and maynteyned. Marcus tho rough para­sites vvas corrupted.

* Commodus the sonne of Marcus the Emperour wold neuer haue so degene­rated frō his fathers vertues, & chosen [Page] a kinde of life more worthy a worseler or champion, than an Emperour, yf flatterers (whom Constantinus the Emperour named rattes and mothes of the palace) had not so corrupted him, and so haue throwē him headlong in­to that dishonest life. And therefore This saying some attri­bute to Di­ogenes. Antisthenes (wel waying the great in­commodities that come by flatterers) was wont to say: It is farre better to fal amongs rauens than flatterers. For flatterers eate vp, and deuour quicke bodyes, and the rauens dead carkasses. ✚ Wherfore if any parents haue a care to haue their children well instructed and rightly brought vp, they must a­moue and banish these pestiferous pa­rasites, hellish hounds, and mischeuous monsters, and other vngracious felow scholers farre from the company and societie of their children: for these are able to euert and vtterly depraue, and coinquinate any méek natures good di­spositions & pregnant wits. * Also pa­rents must modestly adorne and decke Parents must modestly apparell their children. their children, and moue them by their exhortatiō or rather example, to despise [Page] riot and to much elegancie in apparell. For to gayne glory, and to require re­noume by the superfluous elegancie of garments, is a dishonest thing, but to respect (in euery thing, and in apparel) decency is a glorious thing, and therby were men wont to be beautified with glories garlands. Euen as to ouerlade himselfe with to much wine, and to in­curre the vice of ebrietie is great filthi­nesse to a man: so not to obserue mea­sure in furnishing the body, is subiect to crime. One exhorted once Alphonsus The answer of Alphōsus to one that exotted hin. to weare gay garments. king of Aragon to wear rial robes, and princely apparel (for in aray he nothing differed from his vassals and subiects.) But he gaue this worthy aunswere: Malo moribus & authoritate meos excel­lere, quàm diademate & purpura, I had lieuer surpasse my subiects in good be­hauiour, maiestie, and authoritie, than in crown and purple clothing. So Au­gustus Augustus Caesar hated excesse in apparell. Caesar the renowmed Romane, had in deadly hate the excesse of appa­rell: for this was he accustomed most grauely to say: gallaunt and trimme clothing is the banner of pride, and nest [Page] or lodging of luxurious lasciuiousnesse: and we by experience are taught, that euen in these dayes, they that be to cu­rious in aray, and perillous braue fel­lowes, thinking better of themselues than any other, gimping in ye stréets like gamesters, and manifesting themselues to the eyes & looks of people, are counted light persons, spendthriftes, riottous, proud, hautie, foolish, impudent, & of wise men more euilly thought of, & seuerely reprehended: A meane in al things is to be kept, which (whosoeuer in his degree He that pas­seth the meane pas­seth hone­sties bonds. doth passe) doth infringe the bonds of ho­nesty. Diogenes (when he saw a yongmā delicately and effeminately appareled) sayd: Non te pudet, qui peius tibi velis, qua ipsa natura voluit▪ illa siquidem te virum esse voluit, tu vero teipsū ex vestitu mulie­ [...]e [...] facis, Art thou not ashamed to wish worse to thy selfe than nature hir selfe would? she would haue thée to be a man, and thou makest thy self by thy aray, a woman. Grauely therfore saith Marius in Salust, Ex parente meo, & ex alijs san­ct [...]s viris ita accepi, munditias mulieribus, [...]iris laborem cōuenire, I haue thus heard [Page] of my father, and of other holy men, that the curious clenlynesse and gandy gar­ments are méete for women, and labour for men. Labour and studie must yong men be accustomed too, not to super­fluous apparell, and curious decking of the body: they ought to refuse no payne, no toyle, no trauell, no iourney to at­tayne learning, and to haste to suche as may instruct them in vertue and ler­ning, whiche by sweat and labour must be atchieued, or else it will neuer be gotten. No iorney so long, no way so te­dious Vertue and learning are by labour obtayned. ought to deterre a yongman, no payne (though it be neuer so greeuous) ought to holde him backe, from going to learned masters, persuading him selfe, that he shall so remunerate al his toyles so tedious and yrkesome, with more ample commodities, and larger gaynes within a little whyle. He must remember that Pythagoras the moste Pythagoras. perfect worke of wisedome (from his youthe, entring into a desire of Philo­sophie, and all other good learning and honest vertues) went into Aegipt▪ where being trained in the lerning of yt nation, [Page] searching out the commentaries of the priests of former age, knew the obser­uations of innumerous worlds: thus he departing vnto the Persians, gaue him selfe to the exact wisedome of the Magi, to be fashioned and framed: of whom with great docilitie of minde, he learned the mouings and courses of the constellations, and propriety and effect of euery thing. Then sayled he to Crete and Lacedemone, (whose manners and lawes when he had séene and grauen in minde) he went to the games of O­lympus Here is example for yongmen to follow that woulde be perfecte men, and in time to come, profitable mem­bers in the common weale. And not Pythagoras onely, but diuine Plato, lea­uing Plato. his owne countrey Athens, and his lerned wise master Socrates, a place and master most resplendent in lear­ning and experience of things, (béeing beautified with abundance of wit, and garnished with all good learning and sw [...]tenesse of tongue before) passed o­uer▪ Aegipt, where he learned of the Priests the manyfolde numbers of [Page] Geometry, and the obseruation of cele­stiall planets, and their influences. And at that time when yong men came floc­king to Athens to séeke & heare their ma­ster Plato, he becam a scholer of the Ae­giptian elders, passing the banks inexpli­cable of Nilus, the huge fields, the dan­rous dens and mountayns, and bowing circuites of riuers & lakes, no payne cal­led him back, no trauell could abate his gréedy desire of lerning. These examples ought parents to set before their yong­men, to moue them to labour for good lerning, vertue, & honesty: we read that many noble yongmen, from the furthest coasts of Spayne and France, went once to Rome to Titus Liuius flowing with the swéet milky fountaine of eloquence: and now shall it yrke yongmen of these days to measure out, & run ouer a little way and short iorney, to learne the pre­cious precepts of learning, of learned professours? Whiche learning is as it were the staffe to a weake body, and vaindry to olde age. [...]socrates admo­nished Isocrates. Demonicus, to spende the voyde tyme and vacant houres that were gi­uen [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] him in hearing: not in vayne thin­ges, in studies (whereof alwayes doe procéede the increase of learning, and augmentation of vertue) as to heare learned men, to read their lucubrations, not in riot, in wantonnesse, in trifles and toyes. Plato oftentimes disputed, and when he sent away the company of the reasoners, he alwayes vled to admonish them thus: Videte ô adolescentes, vt etium in re quapram honesta collocetis, Take héede, O ye yongmen, and beware, that ye contrine and spende your leasured houres in some honest thing. What can be more honest than to heare (if leysure permit) men resplendent in arts, and to peruse the worthy works, and modest monuments of surpassing authors, in al good sciences: what more dishonest, than to wallow in ydlenes, to spend the time in dicing, carding, riot, drunkennesse, and other naughtie and pernicious exercises. I woulde olde Scipio his words were Scipio. written with golden letters, in the ta­bles of yongmens hearts, who (when he from mortall affayres gayned any ley­sure or vacant time, and was intentiue [Page] to lerning) was wont to say: Se nunquā minus ot [...]osum esse, qua cū ot [...]osus: nec minus solum quā cum solus esset. So shal thei with out any vexation or gret toyle vnderstād those things, & be perfited in those sacred stiēces, which those lerned authors with vnspekable labour, toyle, & encombrous payn haue found out. But those yongmē which be dissolute, & refuse this institu­tion, shall neuer be beautified with sci­ences, nor replenished with knowledge of good arts. What a benefite is it to en­ioy the lucubracions of famous learned men, out of which issues profites to vs, & labours redounded to them. These thin­ges therfore are honest & profitable, and (if yongmen & parents be vigilant and laborous but to vew the same) wil bring infinite cōmodities, both to themselues and other. ✚ And those things that now I wil speake vpon, are fraught with hu­manitie, Children must be kept in do­ing their dune rather with lenity and ger­denesle, than sharpnesse and importunity. & replete with curteous lenity. Neither do I counsel parents to be alto­ther wayward, frowarde, peuish, harde, and by nature to sharp, sell, and seuere: but to winke at certayne faults of your yongmen, and to remitte and pardon [Page] their transgressions, remembring, that they themselues were once yong and faultie likewise. Euen as Phisitians do temper bitter drugs and medicines with sweete and dulcete sapours, that béeing concorporate and mixed with swetenes, and receiued of their pacients, may re­medy and recure them: so it becōmeth fathers and good parents to mixe the bit­ter rigour of their rebuks, and blustring blasts of their reprehension with méek­nesse and lenitie, and to graunt some­time vnto the lustes of their children, and to pardon their offences But yf it pleaseth not them so to doo, fathers may be angry, but soone they ought to quell and quenche it: for it is a great deale better for a time to be wrathfull, than long to be angry. For the continuall a­byding in anger, and the harde recon­cilement of fauour is a great signe, and manifest token of a minde alienated from children, and hatefull towards them. And also it is decent for parents, that they fayne themselues to conceale some of their childrens faults. For the incommodities of sighte and hearing, [Page] (that is blindnesse and deafnesse which Parents must sometime con­ceale their chil­drens faults. follow olde age) (as it were) not to sée certayn things which they see their chil­dren do, nor to heare certaine things which they heare. Séeing we wincke at, and suffer our frendes faultes, what maruell is it yf we tolerate the same in our children: & oftentimes we haue not rebuked and reproued our seruants rio­ting and surfetting. Yf thou sometime wouldest haue him liue sparingly and hardly, other sometime minister vnto him costes liberally: yf thou hast bene angry with him at any time, pardon him agayne: yf at any time he had de­ceyued thée through thy seruants, re­frayne thy anger, if he shall take out of thy field a yoke of oxen, remit him: yf he at any time come exhaling the surfet and drunkennesse the night before receaued, agnize it not, do as thou knewest it not: yf he smell of his odoriferous waters, and siuet powders, make no wordes of it, knowe it not: and by this way may lasciuious youth, and wanton be tamed, ordered, and restrayned. And parents must endeuour to prepare them wiues, [Page] which can not resiste vayne pleasures, nor abide bitter rebukes, when they At what time yongmen must be giuen to mariage, & what wiues must be chosen for thē. heare of their faults. For matrimony is the most firme bond, and sure bridle of lasciuious and wanton youth. And such wiues muste be matched and coupled with them, which neither in stocke nor substaunce surpasse them: it is a wise part to choose a wife that is his equall, like in all respects: for they whiche es­pouse wiues which be better than them selues, they are not the husbands of their wiues, they rule not their wiues, but are made their seruants, for their high­er bloud and richer dowrie sake. But to draw to an end, and to leaue off this gi­uing of precepts, before all other things it is requisite and moste necessarye, that parents liue an inculpable life, in no­thing Parents must be a liuely pa­terne and as a glade of ver­tues, to their yongmen and children of honest life. offending, and do those things on­ly whiche be honest, iust and lawfull: And to shew them selues a lyuely and manyfest example to their children, that beholding their honest and modest lyues, as in a glasse, may shunne the woorks and woords which be dishonest, fylthie and vnlawfull. For parents, [Page] whiche (when they reproue their chil­drens faultes and vyces) are filed with the same vyces themselues: whiles they accuse their children, they séeme to insi­mulate and accuse themselues. And they which leading a scelerous life, haue no libertie to rebuke their bondeslaues, much lesse their children. Moreouer they be the mouers and counsaylers to their children of vicious vices, and foule faul­tes: for when old men and parents passe the pathes of pudicitie, & leape ouer the limits of shamefastnesse, there must it of necessitie be, that the yonger sorte and their children be moste impudent. * I would to God there were no sucke pa­rents in this land, then should there be more vertuous impes than there be. I feare me the number is very great, and the more to be pitied. But godly parents must carefully practise, and exercise all things whatsoeuer apertaine to tempe­rance, & may draw their children to ho­nesty, and sobrietie: imitating Euridices, which although she was an [...] born, and most barbarous, notwithstanding [Page] for hir childrens discipline and institu­tion in the last time of hir age, addicted hir selfe wholly to learnyng, and la­borously trayned in paynefull studies. Whiche Euridices howe intierely she loued hir children, this Epigramm [...] (whiche she dedicated to the muses) doth manyfestly declare:

Euridices the learned dame
and holy citizen, for loue
Oflearnings lore, this taske did frame
vnto the Muses nynes behoue:
For vvhen hir children grevv to men,
and passed from their childs estate,
She laboured to learne (as then
a mother and a spoused mate)
Good artes, euen for their only cause,
and monuments of fyled speach,
Of eloquence, and ciuill lavves,
that she hir children thē might teach.

[Page] O that there were many suche mothers as Eurydices or but a few like fathers to the zealous minde of this surmountyng woman. What mother at this day wold take such paine, what parent wold so cō ­sume hir selfe with studie for their chil­drens erudition, though they loue theyr children well, and desire to haue them learned, but they séeke not the way? No not the father, which were the fittest for such a purpose. A rare Phaenix was Eury­dices, whose example if any wold folow, then should they vndoubtedly haue suche vertuous sonnes as Eurydices had. Ther­fore The epiloge of the tran­slator. to imbrace all these our institutions and wholsome preceptes, is rather the work of prayer than of admonition: how be it, it is no small felicitie & industrie to follow many of them. Let all true parēts which desire to bring vp their children vertuously) trie and proue how muche it It muche a­uaileth to imbrace these pre­ceptes. auaileth to folow these precepts: no hard matter, it passeth not yt power nor reache of mā. If they be diligent, if they be care­ful, if they be vigilant in the good instru­ction of their children, let them imbrace these precepts, folow them, practise them, [Page] and vndoutedly they shall be worthis Parents, and haue vertuous, godly, ho­nest, modest, discrete and painful childrē, endued with all good qualities, and ador­ned with all ciuil behauior and good con­ditions, They shall haue at last the guer­don of theyr trauell, they shall haue the hire of their paine, and reward of theyr diligence. When they are olde, and run ouer many a yeare, the vertues which they espie in their well instructed chil­dren, shall prolong their dayes, and com­fort theyr heartes wyth great delight.

Héere let Parentes learne to be Pa­rents, Lessons for Parentes. and in the pruning of their yeares looke diligently to the good education of theyr children. For those children which in the beginning be well nurtered, in­structed and brought vp, and whose foū ­dation of good education is well and ver­tuously layd, shall easily vnderstand and folow the other things, which flow from the beginning. But what chylde soeuer is not taught to knowe the principles of good institution, shalbe ignorant in al the other duties of life, which flow from the beginnings. He that is seasoned with the [Page] wholesome precepts of adolescencie, and after them exerciseth the course of hys lyfe, he shall after wardes easily vnder­stand and perceyue, what rules may be anornament and furniture to all the fo­lowing ages. Ioseph in his childehode Ioseph. and adolescencie, was so taught the scare of God, and so geuerned bothe those two ages, according to the feare of God, that when he was well stroken in yeares, he also knewe what dueties were decent and most méete for an olde mannes gra­uitie. Therefore as his childehode and a­dolescencie, so also was his olde age fa­mous and passing in those dueties, which euery age requireth. Semblably, whoso­euer shall honestly direct his youth, stall be able to lead the action of his manhode and olde age most orderly, decently, and plausibly. Be which in his youthe shall followe temperance, and learne what conuenient meates and potions, and o­ther good exercises are to be offered to thys age, shall knowe what order of ly­uing he ought to vse when he is a man, and an olde man: and what duetyes he ought to practise. [Page] So that parēts in the beginning must be careful for this, if they will be parents of good children. Yet not wt standing I know if they do all these things and practise all these fruteful lessons, yet shal they hard­ly ouercome, and vtterly eradicate the naughtinesse and prauitie of humane na­ture. Humane na­ture is cor­rupt For our nature by yt fall of our first Parentes was so depraued and corrup­ted, and hiddē vnder the vaile of al vices, so that it can hardly be made sound (vices being abandoned) although thou leauest nothing vndon, and no wayes & precepts vntride in the good and true education of thy child. But if that fault and crime had not so imbroyned and defiled vs (the issue of our first parentes) and also had not ob­litterated and obscured in vs yt fotesteps of vertue, peraduenture we myght haue with greater facilitie bene called againe to the path of vertue, in it to perseuer. E­uen as the Esopicall fable admonysheth, The fable of Esope or the yong man and cat doth resemble mannes na­ture. so standeth humane state, although there be neuer so much labor, trauel and pame exhausted and consumed in our education and institution. A certaine Cat (sayth E­sope) was the only delight of a certayne [Page] yongman: which yongman desired Ve­nus to change hir into a womā: the god­desse pitiyng the desire of the yongman, conuerted hir into a beutifull woman: with whose beuty the yong man accēsed and enflamed, caried hir with him home, and whē they wer set togither in a cham­ber, Venus desirous to proue whither the cat had altred with hir body hir maners, sēt a mouse into the middest of the cham­ber: but she (hauing forgotten those that wer present, and hir nuptialles, rifing vp) ranne after the mouse, desirous to catch hir & eate hir: so man howsoeuer he be trayned vp in vertue, can neuer so bel­che oute the olde poyson and venim of vi­ces, that (when occasion is ministred and offered) he feleth not the prickings of vi­ces, If a man bee neuer so ver [...]o [...]slye brought vp, yet be not the instigations of vice extingui­shed in him. and is not enflamed to syn, of this we may take the Iudaicall people for a ma­nifest example, so intierly beloued of the Lord, who although they had receiued fa­thers, lawes grace fauor, a land flowing with milke and honey, and infinite o­ther benefits of the Lorde, and were sub­iect to many punishments, could not bée brought to forget their corupt nature, and [Page] aspire into a new mā, in whō Adam was dead, and Christ liued. They always de­sired to go againe into Egipt, and (negle­cting the worshipping of the lord) toke a­gaine the most vaine superstitions of the Gentiles. The Bethlemeticall king and Prophet Dauid, although God thought King Dauid fell through natures cor­raption. and spoke of him honorably for his god­linesse and pietie, notwithstanding, (al­though he was excellently brought vp, & instructed in gods law) he could not take heed to himself, but fel into most filthie & detestable adultrie, which he impiously incresed by the slaughter of the stout mā Vrias, not deseruing the same. What speake I vpon Dauid? Not Noah (whom Noah com­mitted incest God spared, when all other almost peri­shed in the deluge and inundation) could so warely walke before the Lord, but he committed incest, and not with incest a­lone, but with drnkennesse polluted he himselfe. Samuel in other things a godly Samuell was negligent in the bringing vp of his children, and rebuked of the Lord. and iust man, notwithstanding he could not take heede but fel into yt crime, which to parentes bringeth great reproche and infamie. He was blamed and rebuked bicause he instructed not his children in [Page] the Artes, erudition, and learning of the countrey. And to come to Prophane ex­amples, what shall we say of Aristotle that péerelesse Prince of Philosophers? Aristotle. He could not conquere his corrupt na­ture, (although without all controuersie he ascended the top, and scaled the fort of Philosophie) but fell into the moste fil­thy loue of a womā, which enforced him like a brute beast to take the brydle in hys mouth, and like a horse to cary a we­man vpon his backe. What is filthyer than this, or of a Philosopher what can be fouler spoken. Although ther be some, (which otherwise expound thys, and re­ferre all things to the nature of things) which would deliuer him from this in­famous reproche, vndecent in a Philo­sopher. Demosthenes also the Prince of Oratoures, the eloquentest man that demosthenes euer spoke wyth Greekish tong, (whose Orations fraught with fleudes of Ele­quence, doe declare the singular granitie of the man, and shewe forth his seuere authoritie) could not dissemble nor con­ceale the vice of hys corrupt nature. As the receipt of the monie craued by him of [Page] the Miletians to holde his peace, do ma­nifestly purtray, who for the greate sum of money receyued, whē he should make his oration against the Miletians cōming to Athens, to craue help, came forth amōg the people (hauing his necke rolled about with wolle) and sayd [...], so that he could not speake against the Miletians: then one amongs the people exclamed, that it was not [...], but [...] that Demosthenes suffered. And Demosthenes himselfe afterwarde concealed it not, but for a glory assigned to himselfe: for when he ashed Aristode­mus the actor of plaies, how much he had takē to play, and Aristodemus answered a talent: but (sayth Demosthenes) I haue taken more for to kepe my tong & holde my peace. Cicero the beautie of Rome, and ornament of Italie no lesse excellent C [...]o. Latin Orator, and famous Philosopher, (although he was most expert in pleding causes, and beutified and adorned withal the preceptes of Philosophie, as one who had traueld through all learned Gréekish writers, & exenterated ye bowels of Phi­losophie, hindred by his corrupt nature) [Page] could not obey nature, if we beleue Salust his inuectiues against him: which no mā wil iudge altogither false, who so euer wt equall minde and right iudgement shall read them and iudge of them. The migh­tie Monarche and puissant Prince Alex­ander the great, had the eximious teacher of youthe, and best learned scholemaster Aristotle his instructor: He although in all his sayings and déedes (an ambitious Prince you will say) did set glory before him (as the end) & detested infamie. Not­withstanding, he could not so brydle and tame his nature, but sometime did very filthily, as he may sée, whosoeuer conside­reth his luxurious riot, (to which he fil­thily fel) after he had conquered ye Persi­an Prince Darius, and other things also, which they impute to him, which hath blased forth, and eternised (by their wri­tings) his gestes and worthy exploites. Therfore hath Horace rightly said.

Naturā expellas furca, tamen vs (que) recurrit.
If nature thou abandonest,
and dost vvith forke expell,
Nath'lesse it vvill returne againe,
As Horace doth thee tell.
And as the common prouerbe sayth,
that vve by nature haue,
VVill sticke by vs, it vvill not thence,
till vve be layd in graue.

And prudent Pyndarus hath told vs, that neither the subtile and craftie Fore, nor strong and cruel Lion, can change their natiue inclination & nature: for although mannes labor may tame a Lion: yet he turnes to his natural feritie & wildnesse. And a for doth not forget his natiue craft and fraudulēt disposition, although he be made gentle, tame & tractable. Therfore as the same Pindarus sayeth, it is a very hard thing to alter nature. Séeing these things be so, and that the nature of mā is corrupt, let not parents yet neglect to doe their dueties, but labor with all their po­wer, to preuent the corruption of nature as muche as they may, which must only be by good education, holsome precepts & diligent awe, that when their children grow to mannes estate, they may be a ioy to their parents, a profit to them selues, and great ornaments to the common weale.


The Translator, of the bringing vp of children, taken partly out of the .xxx. chapter of Iesus the sonne of Sirach.

WHo loues his child, in tēder yeres doth labor him to train
To tread the trace of vertues lore in māners, grace & pain
Sometime he doth rebuke his faults, and sometime doth exhort
Him fatherly and prayseth him in good and godly sort,
He warneth him, and forceth him, to doe those things be due,
And those things that vndecent be, he willeth to eschue,
That when to riper yeres his sonne and louing child shal grow,
He may then reap the sedes of groūd, that he in youth did plow,
Euen the rewardes of al his paine, which is an inward ioy,
To see his childe imbracing grace, with vices sore annoy.
What more delite can parent haue, than when he doth espie,
His children following vertues steps, and wayes of pietie,
To be among the noblest men, discent by lineall line
Estemed, and to beare the bell, in grace because they shine?
Aboundant ioyes do fill the hart of such when at they die,
When in their sonnes their vertues rare yplanted they espie,
That though the fates haue losde the threde of their desired life,
Yet may their childrē aid their frends in doutful thing [...] of strife,
And may his child a [...]ampier leaue, vnto himselfe and his
Against the shot of enuies threats, a bulwarke strong iwi [...].
But whosoeuer p [...]mpereth and cockereth soc [...]shly
His sonne, and neuer suffers him to wepe, to mourne nor to crie,
But when he hath deserued stripes, a thousand times and moe,
Doth mainteine him in naughtinesle, and still in vice to goe,
That man doth beare a stonie heart, and iron heart in brest,
And hath the name vnworthely of parent swete exprest.
He that absteines for to correct, with nipping rod his childe,
and blameth not the faulties great of youth, with words vnmild,
[Page] He is a foole, and hates his childe, wise Salomon hath tolde,
And harmes him much, when that he thinks in loue he doth him hold.
Euen as a wilde vnta [...]ed horse, which hath not f [...]lt the bit
Of bridle yet, cannot abide on backe the rider sit,
Euen so a childe that pampered is, vnder his fathers wing,
Doth flow in manners vicious, and many a filthy thing,
And runnes at randon wickedly abandoning all shame,
Vngratiously against all lawes, he kicks most worthy blame,
Not tractable to vertues trace all precepts doth dispise,
Disdainful when he warned is in good and godly wise.
Such doth reiect the holsome [...]awes and good monition,
Of frendly frends with deadly hate and vile obmurmuration,
And so in gulffes of vices vame, implunged do remaine,
And at the last runnes hedlongs downe to ruine all on maine.
Through fathers folish pāpring, through mothers cockring loue
A world to see such fondnesle foule, that parents such doth moue.
But thou O parent which dost care, in deede for thy deare childe,
In tender yeres apt to be r [...]d, in pliant youth and milde.
Laugh not on him pamper him not, giue him no libertie,
In youthful dayes take hede no wayes thou dost excuse his follie
Least tainted when he growes to yeares wyth vices vicious sore,
He may beleue all things be fit and lawful as before.
Bow downe his necke while he is yong and vse correction dire,
While that he is in tender yeares, least when he doth aspire
To riper yeares, he stubburne waxe, and forceth not all
So shall thy life be mest [...]ous, and bitterer than gall,
So shall he cause thee to lament, to mo [...]tue, to sob, to crie,
For to repent thy negligence, in trayning him duelie.
Teach thou thy child most fatherly, instruct him stil with grace,
Be diligent in warning him to walk in vertues race,
Lest that he shame thy hoared hears, and greue thy hart ful sore,
Lest that he cause thee teare thy eyes, and cockering deplore.
[Page] Oh pampring fare doth harme, and hurt a tender minde,
Imperious words do profite much, with minaces vnkinde.
Stoppe the beginning carefully, long is it ere the tree
Be ouerthrowen, that rooted is fast in the ground we see.
See that he voyde all idlenesle, th'increasing of all vyce,
And set him to some busie worke, and laborous exercise.
Always see that thou holde him in, not suffering him to stray,
That when he comes to mature yeres, for parent he may pray.
Set him to schole in tender yeres, commit him to his booke,
That he may learne good sciences, as in a glasle to looke,
Which common life can no ways want a passing pleasant thing,
Whiche richesle passe, and treasures all of Craesus caytif king.
To schoole commit your tender sonnes good sciences to gayne,
That they may profit countrey soyle, if learning they obtayne,
And be a ioy to parents dere, and glory to their kinde.
God stirre the hearts of parents all to haue so good a minde.
ꝙ T Grant.

Faultes escaped in printing.

  • In B. 1. pag. 1. line. 11. for fall reade fault.
  • In B. 1. pag. 2. line. 22. for conuincible, reade conuenable.
  • In B. 2. 1. pag. 2. line. 6. for playes. reade players.
  • In B. 3. pag. 1. line. 15. for admit read admire.
  • In C 4. pag. 2. line. 9. for sangui read sanguine.
  • In C 4. pag. 2. line. 14. for cline reade cliue.
  • In D. 2 pag. 1. line. 10. for culta, reade cultae
  • In D. 5. pag. 1. line. 27. for [...] reade [...].
    [...] reade [...].
  • In G. 1. pag. 1. line. 10. for viuat nam, reade, Vincit iram,
  • In G. 2. pag. 2 line. 23. for distinct, reade disiunct.
  • In G. 3. pag. 1. line. 21. for seruanda, reade seruandae.

Ad Lectorem. F. Y.

HEc ego cum vigili legissem scripta labore
Impressa in libro quae praeeunte vide [...],
Nil aliquando fui visus reperire, quod vllo
Esset par illis vtilitate modo.
Quisquis enim quanto virtus sit, quaeris, honore,
Te (que) lubens eius, participare cupis,
Hunc legito librū, quae dant haec scripta memēto,
Versato (que) diu quae meminisse voles.
Haec bene scripta leg as, bene qui vis dicere mores,
Qui pius esse voles, haec bene scripta legas.
Virtutis quicun (que) tenet praecepta, suprema
Ill'é potest magni scandere regna Iouis,
Est homo qui nouit, qui nescit moribus vti
Non homo, sub specie, sed fera bruta, viri.
Vnde feni laudes? Iuueni laus vnde lato [...]
Ʋnde fuit Fabio gloria tanta duci?
Multa viris sedem virtus elegit in illis,
Iunctus & ingenua cum grauitate pudor.
Quod si sint mores & tanto pondere virtus,
Hic liber exigui ponderis esse nequit
Quod Plutarchus enim Graecis prius, ille Bri­tannis
Transtulit, & scriptis amplificauit opus.
Desine propterea Momi stirps tota loquacis
Immeritam verbis rem violare malis
[Page] Si laudes cessent, cessent male vulnera hij quae
Mome tuae, & linguae scommata Mome tuae.
Hoc eteniu [...] quaecun (que) vides inscripta libello
Non nisi cum magno scripta labore vides.


MOmus abesto procul, mordaces cedite linguae,
Cedite mordac [...]s, Momus abesto procul.
Zoilus abscedat, vacuas latratibus auras
Impleat, haud istum diruet ore librum.
Brachia virtutis latissima tollere neseit,
In vetito virtus tramite tentat iter.
Traiani praeceptor erat Plutarchus, at illum
Effigiem viuam principis esse liquet.
Plutarchum hi [...]c constat quoddā scripsisse volu­men,
Ad quod Traiani docta iuuenta fuit.
Quē Grantus patriae linguae studiosus, et auctor,
(Quandoquidē pueros posse iuuare videt:)
Ad nos è Graecis in nostros transtulit vsus,
Disceret vt mores nostra inuenta bonos.
Excipiant igitur Grantum, Granti (que) libellum,
Queis virtus, mores, queis bona facta placent.
Moribus egregijs animo quicun (que) studebi [...],
Egregij mores vnde parentur habes.
Authorem defende libri, defende libellum,
Grandius et posthaec forte volumen erit.


HAec studiose viri studiosa volumina docti
Lector habe, pueris non minus apta tuis.
Tradita sunt linguae primo haec monimenta Pelasgae,
Primus & illorum haud sordidus author erat,
Quae nunc in linguam legitis translata paternam
Non sine doctrina, & sedulitate pari.
Propterea ingentes eius spectate labores,
Qui vos hac linguae commoditate iuuat.
Tradita qui Graecis aperit praecepta Britannis,
Qui quo (que), quae fuerant abdita plana facit.
Huic, qui de vobis meruit bene, gratia detur,
Nil opera illius gratius esse potest.
Tuta (que) quae vobis traduntur, tuta tenete,
Ne sint Zoilea dedecorata manu.
Quod si feceritis, fient magis inde volentes,
Vt tradaent alij pluria scripta viri.

Imprinted at London by Henry Bynneman, dvvelling in Knight­rider strete at the signe of the Marmayde. ANNO. 1571.

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