A Summarie of the Antiquities, and wonders of the worlde, abstracted out of the sixtene first bookes of the excellente Historiographer Plinie, vvherein may be seene the wonderfull workes of God in his creatures, transla­ted oute of French into Englishe by. I. A.

¶ Imprinted at London by Henry Denham, for Thomas Hacket, and are to be solde at his shop in Lumbert streate.

The Translator to the Reader.

FOr asmuch (gentle Reader) as the works of God are maruelous, not onelye in vs his creatu­res, whom he hath fashi­oned and formed like to his similitude, but also in others, as beastes, foules, fishes, trées, plantes, & such like, whose miraculous works, al­though vnto vs some things séeme vn­credible: yet if we did consider ye omni­potencie of God, vnto whom nothing is vnpossible, doubtlesse we should not runne into so many daungers of sinne as we daily do. And therfore I thought good somwhat to profite my countrey, with that small talent that God hath lent me, in translating out of French, into our Englishe tongue, parte of the Secretes of that notable Historiogra­pher Plinie, abstracted out of the sixtene [Page] first bookes of his natural history wher­in is contained wonderfull & straunge things (vnto vs) of the diuersitie of coū ­treyes, the commodities thereof, wyth the most monstrous, and vggly shape of men inhabiting the said countreys, which though it some vnto vs as fables & lyes, yet (as I sayd before) nothing is impossible vnto god. For as his hande hath made all things, yea and straunge things, which vnto vs is wel knowen: so can he also make forraine thinges, which vnto vs are vnknowē. But least it shoulde seeme to the Reader, that I shoulde affirme that whiche I doe not knowe, therefore I referre it vnto the learned reader, to this end, that he may iudge the truth. And whereas Plinie commendeth the notable wit, pollicie, strength, and memorie of dyuers Ro­maines: so might I in like case, of ma­ny of our owne countrey, whose nota­ble pollicie, tried strength, sharpenesse of witte, and perfect memorie, vnto vs is well knowen, to be equal with those [Page] Romaines, of whom Plinie doth recite. But I omitte that for prolixitie, folow­ing mine aucthour. (neyther adding nor diminishing) As touching the rest con­teyned in this booke, whereof we haue heard, & somewhat séene by experience, I doubt not, but the Readers will veref [...]e the same. And there­fore I refer al things vn­to the gentle Reader, whome I desire to iudge in­differētly.

Fare well.

To my Lorde the right reuerende Cardinall of Meuldo [...], Bishop of Orleauns, and Mayster of the Kings Oratorie, Blaysse of Changy his most humble Seruaunt wysheth health.

COnsidering with my selfe the in­comparable be­nefyte of good spirits (most so­uerain prelate) thorowe whose most worthy diligēce & meanes a moste aboundaunt and plen­tifull fruite, is [...]owen thorowe the vniuersal worlde, not one­ly by the meanes of the Greeke and latine Rethoricke, but also by ye celelebration of our french tongue, the which dayly more [Page] and more most aboundantlye flourisheth. I could not by any meanes restrayne the heate of of my good wil, but that in this present worke, being (a traduc­tion of Plinie) thy most Illustri­ous name shoulde be spoken of, to the ende that with more di­ligence it might be brought to light, and presented before the eyes of those cleare beholders, that in good erudition & lear­ning, haue most sound and per­fecte knowledge: among the which foreseeing, that thy na­ture is inclined to support and maintain those that are the lo­uers of Muses, I haue therfore boldened my selfe to dedicate or direct vnto thee this newe traduction, it is a little labour of my father, which after his deceasse, among other of hys [Page] workes is fallē into my hands. It is a summe of the secretes of Plinie, abstracted out of the six­tene first bokes of his naturall historie, so that the matter is so requisite and necessary to man, that I thinke the publishing thereof to be very delectable to the Readers. And bicause I would not defraud the author of this same so profitable a tra­duction, I am constrayned to cause it to be opened, & vnder the title of a most mightie and soueraigne prelat to put it for­warde. For I thought it not good to preferre any one to thy magnificence, which hath such an ardente zeale, towardes those that battayle or warre vnder the standarde of Pallas. Receyue therefore (my good Lorde,) this my fathers worke, [Page] and accepting it in good parte, excuse thys mine enterpryse, es­teeming that of a good will and due obedience, this presente worke most worthy vnto thy noble priest­hod is de­rected.

[Page] [Page] The Secretes of the six­tene first bookes of Plinie natural Historian.

PLinie the naturall Historiographer, was borne vnder the Empe­ror Tyberian, and dyed vnder Titus, the Em­perour, that destroyed Ierusalem, af­ter the death and passion of oure Lorde Iesus Christ, in which tyme he did at­tribute his workes.

In the first booke (which is briefe,) he maketh his pream­bles. In the seconde, he treateth of the worlde, and of other matters. He des­cribeth that the worlde is alone and rounde, naturally vnmoucable, al­thoughe that there are certayne places moueable, and that maye moue, by the concauites of the earth, being full of wynde. There are foure Elementes, the earth, the water, and the fyre aboue the ayre, néere to the first firmament. [Page] Which is fyre naturall, and therefore there néedeth no woode to continue the same. Under the earth are the planets, which are called strayers, and yet they moue lesse than the others, but it is of the mutation of their influences, and of the firmament: among the which is the Sunne rector and guider of the other planets, principall gouernour of nature. The other stars are not atri­buted (as some doe thinke, as the grea­test and clearest to the rich: and the least to the pore, and the obscure and darke Star [...]es, to those that of nature are infected. For we haue no suche socie­tie with the stars, that they shoulde die with vs, and therefore they are equally deuyded, seruing to ech one. The mone hath hir planet comming before hir, as the Sunne hath the day starre, she doth encrease and diminish, and sometimes is at the full, and sometymes she hath hornes, euen as the Sunne doth giue and take awaye hir clearenesse. The earth is betwene them both, the Mone [Page] is in the first heauen, the Sunne in the fourth, and when the one is highe, the other is lowe, and the other stars are more higher in the skie, and therefore they seme lesse than the Mone. The ob­scuritie and dar [...]knesse of the Mone, commeth by the humours of the earth that is drawne or s [...]uked vp, from the earth. By ye geometrie of this world, ye Stade which is sorty roddes, doth con­taine. 125. paces, the which are. 525. fote. Sometimes there hath bene séene in the appearance, thre Sunnes, and thre Moones. In the ayre it rayneth some­times naturally, stones, sucke vp by the vapours of ye earth, sometymes Frogs, and sometime bloud in diuers figures. The Heliotropium in his floure doth turne euery day and follow the sunne. The Ant doth neuer begin to hourd vp but in the full Moone. The nature of the windes are dyuers, according to the diuersitie of Countreyes, and they procéede of the earth, and of the vapors of the same, which causeth somtimes in [Page] many places earthquakes. The thun­ders and lightninges doe neuer fall in the winter, for the coldnesse of the aire doth kepe them in and choakes them, & therefore they fall in the Sommer, and many times thei marre the wine, with­out touching the vessell. There was a womā at Rome whose child was slaine within hir wom be, by thunder & light­ning, and the womā had no hurt at all. Thrée things there are that neuer feele any harme by thunders & lightnings: the Lawrel trée on the earth, the Eagle in the Sky, and the Seacalfe in the sea, for they neuer fall vpon their skinnes, therefore best assured are they that are so clad. Naturally there are signes and tokens in the earth, the sea, & the aire, and therefore it hath rayned somtimes bloude, stones, woll, yea great stones acumulated in the aire by the coldnesse therof. The Raynebowe is not séene in a close & rainy day: but ye sunne beames entring into the concauites of ye earth, do reflere the Sunne, and make va­rietie [Page] of colours, by the mixture of the cloudes in the ayre, and is séene moste cōmonly in ye Sōmet. Also there are ne­uer lightly sene aboue two Rainbowes. The earth is ye mother of al liuing crea­tures. In the ayre is séene many tymes darkenesse and clowdes, the hayles are deryued of the wa [...]ers, but the earth is lowely, seruing to all cr [...]atures, shée bringeth forth corne, wine, fruites, & all kind of things pertaining to man. She bringeth forth yron, lead, golde, siluer, precious stones, & herbes, seruing vnto mans helth, yea if yt a s [...]rpēt chaunce to byte any person, the earth will not re­ceyue that serpent when it is dead. The earth is compassed rounde about with waters, the which is mo [...]e knowen by experience, than by arguments, & some part thereof is not inhabited towardes the North, bycause of the great colde. An other part is not inhabited bycause of the extreme heate, towards ye south. The middle of the earth is the Centry, to the whiche most wayghtiest thinges doe take holde. In some places there is [Page] no shadow of ye sunne, specially in Alexandria ye great, where as there is a depe well without shadowe. Anaxemenes Milesius was the first foūder of Dials. There are many signes of mouings, & mutation of tymes, without great ap­pearance, as in the sea when that with­out winde, the waues do ryse and rage. And in the skye, when yt there is a long strype or line: and when that the well waters are troubled. Two mountay­nes haue bene séene naturally hyt and touch one another, as if they had foughten, ye waters meting together to striue and maruellously to encrease, & beastes to dye. In Asia twelue cities were sub­uerted by ye earthquakes, without per­ceyuing thereof at Rome. Neare vnto Rome there are two hundreth acers of groūd, the which doth shake when there are horses running thereon. In the Ile of Paphos there is a place where there did neuer fall rayne. And in the same Ile Nea in the City of Troados, the sa­crifices do neuer putrifle nor rot. Nere [Page] Nere to Harpasa a town in Asia, there is a great Mountaine, yt one may shake with their finger, but if you put your whole strength to it, it remay [...]eth vn­moueable. There are two moūtaines neare to the floud of Nyle, the nature of them are dyuers, for the one re [...]ay­neth yron, the other casteth it off, in such sorte, that if any of their shooes be clouted with nayles, that goe vpon the sayd hil, they can neyther go nor stand, but are cast off: and on the other hyll, their shooes will sticke fast. In the City of Charagena, there is a certaine groūd that healeth all kinde of sores, and dis­eases, the Sea doth pourge in the full Moone: & the fluctuations of the seas, commeth by the Sunne and Moone, the which causeth it. In the hys Sea there neuer falleth snow, the sea is most hot­test in winter, and saltest in Sommer. Of fresh waters there are diuers sorts. In Dodone is the fountaine called Iu­piters spring, whiche doth kindle fire­brandes, it diminisheth at Noone, and [Page] encreaseth at midnight, and then after­wards decreaseth, & fayleth at myd day. There are many hote waters bycause of the smoke & closenesse of the hylles from whence these hote waters spring. There are springs that [...]il make black shéepe become white, and other waters that maketh white shepe become black by continuance of drinking, and others that the ewes that drinke in them their milke will become blacke. At Lincestis there is a fountayne of water, that will make them that drinke therof dronken. Also in Paphlagonia, and in the fielde Calenus, in the Ile of Andro, there is a Fountaine or spring, that rendreth wine euery yeare in the Nonas of Ia­nuary. In a field called Carrimensis, in Spaine, there is a Ryuer that wil make the fishes that are therein to séeme of the colour of golde, and if they are put into any other water, they will séeme as other fishes. Among the maruelles of fire, the Mountayne called Ethna, in Sicilia burneth continually, the flames [Page] whereof are sene aboue the hill toppe. An other hill that is called Chimera, burneth in like maner, the fire of which hill is so [...]er quenched with earth or with hay, than with water.

In the thirde, fourth, fifth, and sixth bokes, Plinie describeth the earth, the waters, and the Ilands, and deuideth the world into Asia, Affrica, & Europa. Asia conteineth the halfe of the world, in the whiche is Armenia, Capadocia, Albania, Suau [...]a, whereas there is no mettall but golde. Scithies where as is the sweete Sea, and there are trées that bring forth silke, ready to spinne. In­dia where there are people very ryche, they labour with Elephantes, and goe to warre with them. Their king hath ordinarily sixe hundreth thousand foote men, thirtie thousande horsemen, and nine thousande Camels to his gages, and to his dayly cost, and when they be so old yt they can scarce sée, nor can liue no longer, they cast them selues into a great fire. Beyonde the Indias, is the [Page] Ile called Taprobane, where as is the gréene Sea, and there is planted pre­cious stones, with metals of golde and siluer. The men of that Countrey are more greater thā others, they sell their marchandise by making of signes, the Moone neuer shineth with them aboue sixe houres, they haue small edifices or buildinges, and theyr vitayles neuer waxeth deare: for their God they haue Hercules. They doe electe and choose an olde man to their king, which hath no children, and if he chaunce to haue any whylest he is king, they do kill them, to that ende that the kingdome be not in­herited by their elected king: they do cō ­stitute. xxx. gouernours without whose assente none can be condempn [...]d to death. If their king doth missedoe, they do punishe him, or depose him from the crowne. This Nation taketh great de­lyte in the chase of Tigres and Ele­phants, and doth abounde in corne and fruites, they do delight to fishe for shell fishes, which are there very great, in so [Page] much that one may hyde themselues in their sh [...]lles. Alexandria the greate was foūded by the great king Alexan­der, and neare vnto that is the red Sea, by the repercussion of the Sunne, that doth so colour it, or else for that ye mood and the grauell is such, or for that it is the nature of the water. Also Siria and Arabia whose people are tanned & hea­ry al saue the heade, and they are appa­relled with the skinnes of fish. There is also Mesopotanie, Babilon, Assiria, A­rabia: the floud of Tyger, hath his origi­nall in a fountaine of Armenia. In the Ile of Sagaros, there can no dogge liue, for as sone as he entereth into the Ile, he turneth rounde tyll he fall downe deade. The Sabiens are ry [...]h with the fertillitie of their Forrests, with met­tals, hony, and waxe. The Candeans liue with Serpentes, and in the Ile of Gagaudes was first foūd Popengaies. Idumea, Iuda, Ierusalem, Galile, Si [...]ie, Palestin, whiche was the first founder of letters, and at the first, in stede of let­ters, [Page] vsed certaine figures of beasts. Al­so there is a Nation called Hessenians, lyuing without wyues, and without licherie. When they are dead, they are caste into the Sea, they liue without money, and grow of the deade. Of the Ethiopians there are dyuers formes and kindes of men. Some there are to­wardes the East, that haue neyther nose nor nostrels, but the face all full. Others that haue no vpper lippe, they are without tongues, and they speake by signes, & they haue but a little hole to take their breath at, by yt which they drinke with an ot [...]n straw [...]. There a [...]e some called Syrbote, that are eyght foote highe, they liue with the chase of Elephantes. In a parte of Affricke be people called Ptoemphane, for their king they haue a Dog, at whose fansie they are gouerned, to whome they doe pro [...]osticate their doings, and their cō ­duct in wa [...]xe. Towards the west there is a people called Arimaspi, that hath but one eye in their foreheade, they are [Page] in the desert and wilde Countrey. The people called Agriphagi, liue with the flesh of Panthers and Lyons: and the people called Anthropomphagi which we call Canibals, liue with humaine fleshe. The Cinamolgi, their heades are almoste lyke to the heades of Dogges. Affrica aunciently called Libia, doeth containe the Moores, and the pillers of Hercules, (among the floudes) there is Onylus that doth ingender Cocodrils. There are goodlye Forrestes with vn­knowen trées, some of the which trées beare small threades, of the whiche is made clothing of cotton. Cyrenes and Syrtes, make their houses of salt stones cut out of the mountaines, there is the mountaine of Giry, the which doth in­gender and bring forth many precious stones. In Libie which is at the ende of the Ethiopes, there are people, differing from the common order of others, they haue among them no names, and they cursse the Sunne for his great heate, by the which they are al black sauing their [Page] téeth, and a litle the palme of their han­des, and thei neuer dreame. The others called Troglodites, haue Caues and holes in the grounde, & haue no other houses. Others called Gramantes, they make no mariages, but all women are cōmon. Gamphasantes they go all na­ked. Blemmyis a people so called, they haue no heades, but haue their mouth and their eyes in their breastes. And o­thers there are yt go more by trayning of their hāds thā with their fete. There are gathered ye spices, & ther is nothing that they are afrayd of, but of greate Dogges that wil barke at them, & byte them. Africke begynneth beyonde the Realme of Spayne and Grenado, & is deuided in ye sea of Europa, as betwene Douer and Calis, there beginneth the kingdoms of Feoz▪ of Tunis, of Barba­ria, of Carthage, and of others of the Ethiopians.

Europia beginneth from the sea Me­ditarene so called, bycause it is a floude in the midst of the world. Upon this sea [Page] that deuideth Asia and Europia, the king Xerses caused to be made a bridge of shippes, such a number he had for the warre. Europa conteyneth Rome the auncient Citie, the plentiful Italy, Ve­nice discended of the Troyans, Grece, Thessalia, Aca [...]a, Macedonia, & Thes­salie where as is a floud called Peneus, nauigable in the middest, for into the sayde floude entreth the Ryuer of Or­con, but his water swimmeth aboue the other, without mingling together as doth Oyle. Italy hath the noble Ry­uer of Poste, bearing vaynes of golde. In the Iles of Pont, there are people that liue with the egges of wilde foule, others that haue [...]ete like horses, whose [...]ares are so greate and so long, that therewith they couer their whole bo­dyes. Europe doth containe Germanie whiche is the hye and base Almaine, Burgony, Sauoy, Brittaine: Gaule that is deuided into thrée partes. From the Ryuer Lescault to the Ryuer of Sayne is called Gaule, the fayre from Sayne, [Page] to Gyrrond, is Gaule the auncient, and contayneth Lionois, and from Gir­ronde to the hilles of Pirennes, that de­uideth Spaine and Fraunce, is Aquit­taine. Spaine also is of Europia where as is Cath [...]lognia, Araragō, Castilian, Portingall, Syuell, Andelosia, Leon, Galicia, and the kingdom of Granado, euen to the Sea.

The seuenth booke treateth of man.

THe world hath brought forth many things, of ye which man is almoste the least. He hath clothed the beastes, bir­des, fishes and trées, with skinnes, fea­thers, scales, barke, and otherwise. But man commeth forth all naked ready to wéepe, and lightly before fortye dayes, he doth not laugh: he yt ought to raigne ouer the beastes on the earth, is at the beginning weaker than any, he know­eth nothing without he be taught, ney­ther [Page] to speake nor to goe, and natural­ly doth nothing but weepe. Naturally the beastes seeke their lyuing, flye from their enimy, swimme, with many other things giuen them of nature. The Ly­ons do not warre betwene thē selues, the Serpentes doe not byte one an o­ther, but men study howe to destroye one another by warres, and dess [...]tions. Men neuer lightlye in all poyntes re­semble one like an other in their fa­ces, the which commeth by the diuersi­tie of the cogitations of their parents, the which maketh their symilitudes so farre vnlike: and therefore the brute beastes that haue no suche varieties in their thoughts, eng [...]der none but their like. Men there are called Arimaspi, that haue but one eye in their forehead, whiche incessantlye warre against the Griffons about mettals, and they finde in the ground golde and other mettals. Those that are towarde the ende of the west, drinke in deade mens [...]. In Albania, some haue their eyes yellow, y [Page] [...] to them in their youth, and they see better by night than by day. In Affrica in some places there are a gret multitude of serpēts, whose properties they vse for the tryall of their wyues chiefly, after this sort. If the husbands will haue probation of the honestie of their w [...]ues, they wil present their chil­dren before the Serpentes, which will flye awaye if that the children be legi­timate, but if that the Serpentes re­maine and feare not, then are they bas­tardes. When they are bitten with ser­pents, they put their spittle vpon the place for to he [...]le it, specially their fas­ting spittle, for the Serpente feareth mannes spittle as hote water In India there are hye m [...]n, and also maruel­lous hie beastes, as for a witnesse there are dogges as great as Asses, trees as hye as an archer can scarce shote to the toppe, and vnder the shadow of one fig­trée, may a hundreth horses stande, by­cause of the fertilitye of the lande, the temperance of the ayre, and the aboun­daunce [Page] of waters, there are men fyue cubites in hight, the which neuer vse to spit, nor are troubled with the paine of heade, eyes, or téeth, and are seldome sicke. Others there are in the Mountai­nes, with heades like dogs. In a parte of India the women neuer beare chil­dren but once, whose children waxe straight waye olde. And others called Sciopedae that haue their feete so brode that when they are layde, they couer them therewith from the heate of the Sunne, and they be very swift in run­ning. Some towarde the East haue no heades, but haue eyes in their shoul­ders, and others called Epithamai Pig­mei that are of one yarde hye. In the farther part of India towards the East neare to the Ryuer of Gangis, there is a people clad with leaues, that liue by smelling, they neuer eate nor drinke in their iourneys, they beare floures and rootes to smell at, and they are easely killed by filthy smelles and sauours. There are little men called Pigmei, a­mong [Page] whiche the highest passe not the hight of two cubites, hauing a whol­some ayre and pleasant countrey where they dwel, the which men are molested with Cranes, as writeth Homer, ther­fore it is no maruell thoughe often tymes they are caryed away with those Cranes. In the spring time the Pigmei assemble together moūted vpon shéepe and Goates, armed with darts and ar­rowes, for to discend downe to the sea, and for the space of thrée monthes, con­sume and breake the Cranes Egges, and kill the yong ones, otherwise they woulde so multiplie, that those little men should neuer rest in quiet. Some there are in the valleys called Pandore that liue two hundreth yeares, in their youth hauing whyte haire, in age their haires become blacke. There is a peo­ple that lyueth but fortie yeares, whose wyues doe bring forth children at the age of seauen yeares. There are peo­ple that haue long hairy tayles grow­ing. These things and others hath na­ture [Page] made monstruous, for our exam­ples. Among the women there are dy­uers childings, some haue had six chil­dren, some eyght, and some nine, and sometime children of dyuers kindes, which are called Hermaphrodites, whi­che are both man and woman. There hath bene that haue had in their lyfe tyme thirtie Children, and among the maruelles of the worlde, a childe be­ing newe borne did enter againe into his mothers wombe, in the Citie of Saguntra. And it is no fable nor tale, to haue sene women and maydes trans­formed into men. The females are so­ner engendred than the Male, and be­come sonest olde, the Females do moue in their mothers wombe, most on the left side, and the Males on the righte side. And Plinie reciteth to haue sene a mayde, on the night of hir mariage, to be naturally trāsformed into a man, and incontinent hir beard to grewe, & she to be maried againe to a woman. If that a woman bring forth two children [Page] at one burthen, lightly there is shorte lyfe, eyther to the mother, or to one of hir children, and if they be both Males, or Females, then are they lyghtly of a shorte life. Among the women there is no certaine time prefixed of their tra­uailings with childe, for some be dely­uered in seuen monthes, some in eight, and most commonly in nine monthes. Also sometime at ten and. xi. monthes. Before the seuenth monthe the childe hath no lyfe, the tenth day after she hath conceyued. Payne in the heade, a shadow or mist before the eyes, no taste nor relisse in meates, and a [...]ndigesting stomacke, are signes of conceptiō. That womā that bringeth forth a male child, hath better colour, and easyer deliue­rance. Miserable is ye condition of man. For the Princes by this meanes haue their originall, and are subiect to for­tune, and hath nature as others. We reade of a Romaine Prince that dyed in the morning in pulling on his hose, an other dyed with the stinging or by­ting [Page] of a Grape, an other was chooked with a haire, in eating of Milke. Scipio Affricanus was the first called Cesar, for that (Caesus fuit matris Vterus) hys mothers wombe was opened, for him to passe out. Of those that are crypple, lame, and counterfeite of nature, com­meth whole lymmed & perfect children, in their members: and sometymes of perfect and well proporcioned people, commeth lame and vnperfect children. A woman doth not beare children after fiftye yeares, and there are many that ceasse at fortye. As touching men we reade truely of a Prince, which at the age of foure score and sixe yeres begat a childe. When Cato was borne, his fa­ther was foure score yeares olde. Unto children their téeth come cōmonly at se­nē monethes, the seuenth yeare they re­nue, for then their téeth fall, and there commeth to them others, and some are borne with téeth. And if that a dead bo­dy be burned, the téeth wil neuer burne but remayne whole. Unto some their [Page] téeth fayle them at middle age, cōmon­lye a man hath thirty two teeth, and he that hath more, is estéemed to be the longer lyuer. Zoroastes did laugh that day he was borne, yea that with the ve­ry force of laughing he did reiecte the hande that was vpon his heade, for the placing and fashioning of his heade, & setling of his braines. A man is as long from the foote to the heade, as the extending or spreading abroade of hys armes, counting frō the great fingers. Men doe way more than women, the dead bodies way more than the liuing, and those that are a sléepe, way more than they that are awake. Some lyue without marow in their bones, & ther­fore they neuer thirst, & for this cause women drinke lesse than men: and such do neuer sweat. It is recited of Crassus the Senatour, yt he did neuer laugh. So­crates the great clarke, was neuer séene mery nor ioyful, nor angry at one time more than at an other, and therefore mennes complexions are dyuers.

[Page]In Rome hath bene sene a Princesse called Antonia Drusi neuer to spitte, Pomponius neuer to belk. The strēgth of menne hath bene great, and more in one than another. It is readde of one that with one hande did holde a Chariot, that thrée horses coulde not make to go forward nor remoue. Her­cules did cary his great Mule on hys backe. Fusius Saluius did beare two hū ­dreth on his féete, two hundreth in hys handes, and two hundreth on his shoul­ders, so being loden or charged wyth sixe hundreth waight, went vpon a lad­der. Plinie wryteth to haue séene one named Athanatus, to haue a iacke on his backe waying fiue hūdreth waight, going to a play with shooes on his féete waying fiftie pounde waight a piece. Milo set his foote in a place, from which place, there was no man able to make him goe backe or remoue. If that he helde a staffe in his hand, there was no man able to take it away or wrythe it out of his fist. For running there hath [Page] bene many light and nimble men, that would runne a thousande a hundreth and threscore furlongs a day and more. Also there are some yt haue their sight very singuler. We reade of a man cal­led Strabo of the country of Sicilia, that is toward the East, to recken & cou [...]npt the shippes that parted from Carthage for to enter into the South sca. Cicero did recite that he did see the Ihades of Homer in verse written, being inclu­ded in a Nutte shell, so small were the figures. Marmecides made a Cart, or Wagon so little, that a flye did couer it. And he made a ship that a Bée might couer with both hir wings. For a truth there haue bene people that haue heard battayls & fighting fiftie Leagues of, for they haue counted the tyme & hours of the assaults. The memorie hath bene very singuler to some. Cyrus Kyng of Persie, had the memorie to know and call euery one of his army by their na­mes. Methridates the king did talke one day to his people, in .xxij. langua­ges [Page] without stutting or stammering. Others léese their memory by fātastes, or otherwise haue forgotten their vn­derstanding. Messalla the orator, did forget by grieuous sicknesse his sciēces yea his owne name (in such sorte) that he knewe not frō whence he was. Mar­uellous was the memorie of Iulius Ce­sar, the which named to foure scribes or wryters at one tyme, and in the meane time, he read, writ, and hearde, and if he had no other affaires, he wolde name to seauen. He sought. 52. battayles. And Marcellus. 40. Cesar in his battayles is reputed to haue slaine of his enimies 1192. thousande men. Pompeus did spoile and take from the pirates, and sea rob­bers, against whom he was sent by the Romaines. 876. ships. Moreouer Cesar had this cōstancie, that the letters that Scipio did send him for to betray Pom­peus, he cast into the fire, without rea­ding them. Cato was accused to the Senatours. 42. tymes, and alwayes ab­solued. Sicinus dictator of Rome sustay­ned [Page] sixe score battayles: he had fiue & fortie woundes before, and not one be­hinde. Sergius was a worthy warrior, he deliuered Cremona from the siege, kept Placentia, toke in Fraunce twelue Castles and Townes. He had his right hande cut off, and he made one of yron, with the which he fought foure battay­les. Pitifull thinges are founde wor­thie of memorie, thorowe all partes, a­mong the which, it commeth to my re­mēbrance, of a woman taken in Rome, for to dye for offence, and being put into straight Prison there to be fami­shed, hir daughter had lycence of the Iayler to goe sée hir euery day, but shée was searched for feare least shée should bring hir mother foode. In the ende it was found, that euery day she did giue hir mother sucke with hir breastes, and for to satisfie hir shee came dayly. The Senators hauing intelligence therof, did pardon the mother for the vertue that was in the daughter, and did ap­poynte them a lyuing during their ly­ues. [Page] Marucllous are the operations of humaine creatures, amōg others onely of paintings, that doe resemble the ly­uing so nere, that there resteth nothing but ye speach. The king Attallꝰ bought a table or picture of a Painter, whiche cost a hundreth Markes. Cesar bought two for eyght hundreth Markes. Mans age hath bene reputed greate among the auncients, which do name Princes and kings to haue lyued eyght hūdreth yeares, and a thousand yeares, but it is by the varietie of yeres, for some make the Sommer a yeare, and the winter another yeare, and others make thrée monthes a yeare, as the Arcadians, & you muste not stay nor iudge things by the constellation of the firmament. For in one presēt houre many are born as well seruaunts as maysters, kings and magistrates, whose fortunes are al dyuers & contrarie. Many examples we haue of sickenesses. Publius Cor­nelius Rufus in dreaming to haue loste his sight, became blinde & lost his sight. [Page] Some there are that liue but til middle age, and others that dye in their youth, and nature doth giue a man nothing better than short life. To liue long the senses & vnderstāding become blunt, the whole mēbers féele dolor, the sight, the hearing, and the going fayle, the téeth also, & the instruments of meats: therefore age is but payne, and there is a tyme prefixed to liue. We reade no better example than of Zenophilus the Musitian, that lyued a hundreth & fiue yeares without sicknesse. The signes of death, are to laugh in the [...]uror & grief of the malady or sicknesse, to be bu [...]e in folding or doubling the clothes of hys bed with his handes, to voyde from one in sléeping behinde, a fearefull looke, with other things, and therefore séeing that by experience we sée innumera­ble signes of death, therefore there is no certaintie. Sickenesses are dyuers both to olde and yong. Sirius died by the multitude of Serpentes procée­ding from his body. Some haue had [Page] an Ague all their lyfe time. Mecaenas was seuē yeres in the end of his dayes without sléepe. Antipater lyued long without sickenesse, sauing that euery yeare on that day that he was borne, he had the Ague. We reade of one that ly­ued. 157. yeares, that slept in his age. 57. yeares, and weakened as thoughe he had slept but one houre. Others that haue returned a foote from their graue, when they were borne to be buried. Pō ­peus caused a mans heade to be smittē off, which when it was layde againe to the body, did speake an houre, both to the maister of the house, and to manye others of the house. Death bringeth re­pentance. Some die for ioy: men in the hearing of ioyfull newes, of victoryes, and women to sée their children. The fa­ther of Iulius Cesar dyed in putting on his hose, & felte before no harme. Some in drinking, some in wryting, and o­thers in dyuers maners as we daylye sée by experience. Aunciently the vse was among the Romaines to bury the [Page] deade, but for the often battayles of the Romaines, that had all the worlde in their subiection, they vse to burne the deade. Among men Liber Pater found first the meanes to sell and buy, also Diademes for kings, & for triumphes. The Lady Ceres founde the meanes to sowe corne, and to grinde it, and therefore shée was called a Goddesse. For before they vsed Acornes. The Assirians founde firste the meane to write letters, but the inuention hath bene since the beginning of the world. Two brethren in Athens found firste the meanes to make houses and bricks. Gellius Doxius inuented lathing and loming of walles, for before they had Caues and holes in the ground, and they tooke exāple of ye Swalowes which do make their neastes. Cynira sonne to Agriope, found out mettall, of copper, brasse, and of leade, he made first many Hammers therewith. Danaus was the first in Grecia that made welles, & dig­ged for water. Thrason made the first [Page] walles and towers. The Lidians found the meanes to dresse woolles. Arachne­us found the meanes to make Lin [...], and Canuas. The Egiptians the arte of medicine. Lydius to mingle and tem­per mettals together. Erichtonus found siluer. Cadmeus golde in the moūtaine of Pangy. The Cyclopians were the first workers in small yron worke. Co­rebus the Athenian made earthē pots. Theodore the Samyan made the firste keyes. Palamides the measures and waightes. Phrigies the Charrets and Wagons. Penius the firste trader for Marchandise. The Athenians to plant and sette trées and vineyardes. Staphi­lus to mingle water to wyne. Aristeus to make Oyle & hony. Briges of Athens did first yoke Oxen to Cart & Plough. The Lacedemonians founde harnesse, and habiliments for warre, Launces, Speares, Swordes, Bucklers, &c. Ca­res the Bowe and Arrowes. The Phe­nitians the Crosse bowes. Belerophons first mounted vpon horses. Palamydes [Page] in the warre betwene the Grekes & the Troyans, found the order of Stādarts, signes, pēnons, streamers, to giue war­ning and to kepe watch. Iason did first sayle on the Sea in long Shippes, or Galleys. Before that tyme there were made little ones of wood, & hydes: and since that tyme some haue added to thē masts, sayles, Cabels, tackelings, and many other things, that we sée by expe­rience to be necessary. The first Dyals were made at Rome with water, accor­ding to the course of the Sunne, and since they are reduced to houses & chur­ches, as it is sene at this present, which was very agreable to the Romaines. Finally, among al the knowledge that man hath (Plinie) thin­keth this to be the chefest poynte, for man to know him self, of what estate so euer he be.

The eight boke treateth of beastes that are on the earth.

IN the earth there is no beast greater than ye Elephant, they haue knowledge to vnder­stande their Countrey speach, they haue obedience and vnderstande their dueties and charges, they neuer passe the Sea tyll that their maister or gouernor doth promise to bring them home againe, they knéele downe for to be loden, and carry the Ladyes litters in feare, prudence & equitie: their téeth are of yuory, with their other bones there are made goedly workes, they are full of clemencie, and if they chaunce to find a man, strayed out of his way, they knowe it, and will leade him throughe the Forrest into his waye: but if they find a company of men séeking to chase them, then naturally they knowe their enimies, as other beastes doe. The E­lephants neuer commit adulterie, and [Page] they hyde them to couer their females, they carry two yeres their yong ones, and the Females neuer haue but one yong in their lyues, they liue two hun­dreth and thrée hundreth yeares, they loue the shallow and cleare waters, for bycause of their greatnesse they can not swim, they eate stones and earth, they feare colde, they will cast to the ground with their frōtes or foreheads, trées for to eate the fruite. Among the beastes they hate Mice, and Rats, and they will not feede where as they haue runne and tasted. They increase in the borders of Affrica, and the greatest in India, where as there are Dragons so puissant that they fight with the Ele­phantes. They are tamed by famine, & whe they are tamed, they carry Castels on their backes in steade of Saddles, wherein their may stande sixe or eight men, and towarde the East they make in them, the most part of their battails, although that they being wounded or hurt do retyre. There were Elephants [Page] at Rome, but they were slaine with shot, for the Romaines would not nou­rish them, nor giue them to Princes. The Ethiopians make them there ven [...] ­son, and they kill them with shooting and casting dartes, which they cast on them standing in trées, where the Ele­phantes vse to passe, or else they take them in holes or caues in the earth co­uered aboue, they neuer lye downe, but sléepe leaning against great tr [...]s, and they that knowe their repaire, will sawe the trée so farre, that when they come to reste them against the trée, it breaketh, and they fall downe, then they kill them, (for being once downe, they can neuer rise agayne.) The bloud of Elephantes is very colde, and there­fore the Dragons and Serpēts in that countrey do assemble vnder their eares and on their bodies, & sucke from them so much bloud, that they therewith dye. Dragons there are in Ethiopia, of ten fadome long, and in India, there hau [...] bene found Serpents of a hūdreth foote [Page] long, and some will flye in the ayre to catch birdes in flying. In Affrica there are a great number of wilde horses, & in Asia great Asses like vnto Mares, but for their long eares. So wryteth Aristotle the wyse, which was appoin­ted by Alexander the great, to describe the diuersitie & nature of beastes. The Lyon is full of noblesse and [...]lemencie, the Lionesse for the first tyme bringeth forth fiue, the nexte yeare after foure, then three, and when she bringeth but one, then she ceasseth. The yong ones are two monthes without mouing, & sixe monthes before they can goe, they do soner assaile men than women, and neuer yong children, vnlesse it be for great sa [...]ine. In their age they loue & followe men, when that they can no more séeke their pray, and they liue till their téeth fall out. By their clemencie they demaunde nothing of those that prostrate them selues before them, and their yre is mitigate by prayers, as we haue sene by the experience of women [Page] that name them selues straūgers, and poore vagabonds, but they are fierce to those that striue againste them, their taile doeth demonstrate their amitie and furor, as doth the eares of horses. When they are chased they nèuer hide them, they knowe and pursue among others those that hurte them. The fe­male if that hir yong ones are taken, closeth hir eyes against [...] those that chase them, to the ende that she feare not their weapons. Hanus was ye first that daūted or tamed their fearcenesse, and they are taken in holes that are made of purpose in the grounde. In Syria they are all blacke. The Pan­thers are also full of clemencie. We reade that if the Female méete a man strayed or lost in the woodes, that fle­eth for feare of hir, she will compasse him mouing hir ta [...]le, shewing vnto him a signe of amitie and loue, and af­ter that he is assured, shée will leade him into a caue or hole, where as are [Page] fallen hir yong ones by misfortune, which the man pulleth out, and then shée tumbleth and playeth before him to giue him thanks. The Tygres are very lyght and nimble, therefore those that steale their yong ones, as sone as the femall findeth them lost, she smel­leth their way and rūneth after them, & when shée is spyed of those that haue hir yong ones, they lette one of them fall, the which she taketh vp, and ca­ryeth it to hir repayre, & in the meane tyme, they escape with the rest, and bring them to their shippes. Camels they are dryuen to pasture toward the East as we doe shéepe. Wilde Dogs haue handes & féete almost lyke men. In the north parte there are maruel­lous swift beastes, which haue the vp­per lippe so long, that when they will feede they go backward. The Woulfe before he be séene, will easely draw frō a man his breath, they couple not with the females, but. xij. dayes in the [Page] yeare. There are wilde wolues, which in eating of their pray, if they turne once about, forget their pray, and goe againe to séeke another. Among the Serpents the Bassalicke doth infecte and kill people with his looke. There are innumerable kindes of others, whereof some haue double heades at both endes, for to cast venime. For the byting of an Aspis, there is no reme­dy but to cutte that that he hath tou­ched. The Cocodrils are ingendred in Nylle, a Ryuer of Egipt, which haue foure féete, the skinne very harde, and they haue no mouing but the vpper lippe, and they make as many egges as Géese, and they haue sharpe clawes for their defence, in the day they re­maine on the earth, and the night in the waters, whē they open their throte in sléeping, there are little birdes cal­led Trochilos that will picke & clense their teeth, in the which thei take great delight. The Stork doth shew the ma­ner [Page] how to take glisters, for by hir na­ture shée filleth hir necke with water, and behind with hir becke, maketh in­fusion into hir belly for to clense hir. And manye other beastes naturallye knowe the hearbes that for them are most proper. The Swallow knoweth howe to finde an hearbe called Cheli­donia, which serueth for hir yōg ones, when their eyes are endomaged. Of little beastes we finde Cities destroy­ed and people driuen away. In Spaine with Conies. In Thessaly wt Moles. In Fraunce with Frogs. In Affricke with Locustes. In the Ile of Ciclados with Rattes. In Italy with Ser pents. In Ethiopia with Scorpions. Hyaena is sayd to be a beast of doubte nature, Male and Female, they will hearken at the Cottes of the sheepeheards, and learne the proper name that a man is called by, and calling him, when the man is come forth, they will strayght way kill him, and they will call dogs. [Page] They are founde in Affrica, which is the cause of so many wylde Asses, that they ingender, the Males do correcte the yong ones by byting, they wyll [...]utte the trées along the Ryuers, as wyth a knife, they haue tayles like to fishes. Déere that are oppressed with Dogges, if they can finde no water for their refuge, then they retyre to man: the females beare eight wéekes, and often tymes two, and for to bring them forth, they séeke secrece places, not nere the hye wayes accustomed by men. The Hinde teacheth hir yong ones to runne, to feare, and to leape, the Males that haue left ye Females, haue their mussell blacke, when they knowe them selues heauye, they séeke secret places, they will stande still to heare the cry of the Dogs, they runne with the winde, to take away the smel of ye trase, they reioyce to heare whist­ling, and to heare a noyse of singing. Moreouer the Harte is simple, and all [Page] things are to him maruellous, if that he see a man with a bowe, or a crosse­ [...]owe, he looketh more on them, than on the man, the Males haue hornes, and in the spring time they cast their hornes, that day that they léese theyr hornes, they hyde them selues as all astonyed and sorowfull, as they that haue lost their armours. It is sayde that the right horne can not be found, for that they hyde them in the ground. At the burning of the hornes, the ser­pents flye away: their hornes growe till they be thrée score yeares olde, and the sayde tyme passed, there commeth vp others like, and then they neuer fal after that: there is no knoweledge of their age, but their age is knowen by their téeth, they being without hornes féede in the night, and when their hor­nes beginne to come, they wyll but te and runne against the trées, they liue a hundreth yeares, they neuer haue the Feuer or Ague, and therfore some [Page] dames alwayes delight to break their fast with Uenson, by ye v hich meanes they haue lyued a hūdreth yeres with­out hauing the Ague. Camelion ly­ueth not but by the ayre, and chaun­geth his colour according to the thing he toucheth, sauing whyte and redde, they ingēder in Affrica, and in India. The Beares doe ioyne with the Fe­males, in the beginning of Winter, not as other foure footed beastes doe, for the Male & the Female lye downe embracing, and after that they doe re­tyre in sundry caues, and the Female doth bring forth hir yong ones within thirtie dayes, and moste commonlye bringeth fiue, which haue the skinne white, deformed, without haire, and eyes, and there appeareth but their clawes, in licking of them they are fi­gured. There is nothing so little séene of man, as to sée the Beare bring forth hir yong, shée hydeth hir foure mon­thes, and the Male fortie dayes, they [Page] couch or lye vpon soft leaues, and the firste fouretene dayes they sléepe so soundlye, that you shall scarce waken them with strokes, then they fatten much, and their fatte or grease is cō ­uenable to many medicines, also to kepe haire from sheading. They be­ing wakened, for the most part stand vp, & liue with the licking of their fore feete, they warme their yong agaynste their breasts, they haue little bloude about the heart, and lesse in the bodye, they haue little eyes, and as feble or weake heades as the Lyon hath strōg, therfore they defend their heades with their fore féete, when they fall and leape from the Rocks, or when they are bayted with dogges. The Dogs among all other beastes that vnto vs are common, are most faythfull. We haue true histories of men that haue bene defended from théeues by their Dogges, others haue fought to re­uenge their maysters death, and con­strayned [Page] the murtherer to cōfesse the déede. Two hundreth Dogs did rescue by force the king Garamantus, being taken by the handes of his enimies. Many people haue assembled dogges together for the warre. We reade of Dogges that haue caste them selues into the fire, when in times past their Maisters body haue bene burned. We reade also of a Dog of Nicomedes the king of Bythinia, to haue almost torne the Queene in pieces, for that she play­ed familiarly with the king, the Dog thinking it had bene for harme. A Se­natour of Rome, was defended by his Dogge on a night, retourning to hys house, from the handes of those, that would haue put him to death. At Rome a prisoners Dogge woulde neuer de­parte from the Prison doore, and whē his mayster was deade, he would eate nothing, and when breade was giuen hym he brought it to his maysters month. The same Dog was séene o­penly [Page] to holde vp his maisters bodye being caste into the Ryuer of Tyber. They know their mayster, and vnder­stande his voyce, aboue all other beas­tes they do best know a mans voyce, and their names, they doe remembre the wayes and iourneyes be they ne­uer so farre off, and there is none of so long a memorie (except man.) In their chase they haue great diligence, speci­ally houndes. In India they tie proud Bytches to trées, and the Tygres doe couer them, by the whiche meanes, commeth fierce and cruell Dogges. The king of Albania did giue to A­lexander the great, a Dogge of mar­uellous highnesse, which would take Lyons and Elephants. The Females haue whelpes thre tymes a yere light­lie, and they carry them two mōthes, they are borne blinde, they can not sée till seuē dayes after they be whelped: If shée bring but one whelpe, it séeth not till ye nynth day, the better whelpe [Page] is that that the Bitche bringeth oute first, or that that séeth last. Horses are faithfull, and ful of great knowledge, for they knowe their maysters, & they that attende on them. Many are sin­guler in their doyngs, the Males line till fifty yeares, and the females lesse, at sixe yeres the males grow no more, and the females but fiue yeares. A­mong the beastes they haue least fer­tilitie. The moste eigrest and fiercest Horses, put their nose mussell depest in the water to drincke, and haue al­most as many diseases as men. Asses there hath bene bought for foure hun­dreth Crownes. In Acaia they are much requested to haue Mules. They feare colde, the Males are very slowe in their worke, they doe beare as d [...]e Mares, & in thirtie monthes the yong ones are ready to helpe them selues. After they are horsed they must be cō ­strayned to runne, or else they would reiect the séede by making water. The [Page] females beare all their lyfe, whiche is thirty yeares, they be afraied to wette their féete, and they neuer drinke but in small and shallowe waters, where they are accustomed to drinke drye footed, the Females doe hyde them selues when they bring forth, in darke places, that they be not seene of men, they will not passe the bridges when the Sunne shineth in the water, it is maruell that they runne not mad for thirst, for he that daylye chaungeth their water or Ryuer accustomed to drinke at, must constraine them per­force to drinke. The little Mule is in­gendred of the Asse and of the Mare. The Mules that commeth of a Horse and of a shée Asse, are beastes full of strength and labour. The Asse that co­uereth the Mare bringeth forth afore hir tyme, if shee before haue retayned the horse, but not else, the seuenth day the females should be filled, after their foale is borne, the Males fatigated of [Page] labour, doth soner replen [...]she the Fe­males. Some of them are not lyke to their Syres, and the Mule of hir na­ture is barren, sauing that in Capa­docia they beare, by force of drinking wine, often tymes the Mules [...]asse from casting or stryking. The Athe­nians knowing for a truth a Mule to haue done seruice fourescore yeares, did ordayne, that in the fi [...]ldes none should desturbe him, neyther in the corne nor otherwyse. The Oxen liue twenty yeares, and the Kine commō ­lye fiftene yeares, at fiue yeares they haue taken their strength: it is sayde that to washe them with warme wa­ter they will fatten, the strength of the Bull is at three yeres: for to make them drawe, it is good to yoke them with a drawing Oxe, for he will teach the other. In tymes past among the Romaines, it was estemed as greate offence to kill an oxe, or to steale one, (bycause of their ploughes,) as it was [Page] to kill a man. The Bull requyring cōbat, sheweth magnanimitie of cou­rage & gentilitie, he turneth the heade, lifteth vp the eares, remayneth on his foreféete, and maketh the dust to flie with his hinder féete. At Rome hath bene seene an Oxe speake. The Oxe of Egipt hath a kyrnell called Apis vn­der his tongue, and a white spotte on the right syde, whiche groweth as the hornes of the Moone. The nature of shepe is that they liue not aboue nyne or ten yeares, the Males couple with the Females in the middest of May, till the middest of August, the females beare a hundreth and fiftye dayes.

The Ram if the right genetorie be bound, maketh all Females, and if the left be bound in the sa [...]son, maketh all Males. If ye looke vnder the Tuppe or Rammes tongue, he doth ingender Lambes of the colour that the vaynes are, if they be of dyuers colours, he in­gendreth Lambes of dyuers sortes. [Page] Also the mutation of waters, doeth varefie the colour of Lambes, also the windes. It is estemed not good to cut or gueld Lambes before fiue mōthes, and cōmonly the Females bring forth not aboue foure Lambes. Goates con­ceyue commonly two Kiddes, & some­tyme foure, they beare fiue monthes as do shéepe, they become barren with fatnesse, and they ingender not before the fourth yeare, they conceiue in No­uember, for to be deliuered in March, when the trées beginne to budde: the Goate feareth cold, euery one of these beasts haue not hornes, but the milke of those that haue no hornes, is fatter than those that haue, and those that haue hornes, their age is knowen by the knots in their hornes, they asspyre through the eares, & not by their nose, and they are neuer without Feuers or Agues, bycause of the heate of their bodies, which maketh them much sub­iect to lechery, they sée aswell by night [Page] as by daye, they haue all beardes on their chinne, if one of them be taken or dryuen, al the rest will maruel ther­at, if they croppe or bite a yong trée, it dyeth, and if they licke an Oliue tree, it will drye away. Among the swyne the Sowe doth farrow two tymes a yeare, and somtime they haue twentie Pigges, but they cannot nouryshe so many: the tenth day the Pigges haue téeth: in once knowing ye Boare they are filled, but they double it for feare not to haue retayned. Some thinke that if they léese an eye that they will soone die, otherwise they liue til fiftene or twenty yeres, the most fattest haue least milke, they willinglye wallow in the durt and myre, and couch most on the left side, they fat [...]ē in six dayes, they know their Maysters house, and defende one an other, for if that one cry, all the rest will runne thither. A­mong the wilde boares, the Male hath great payne to acquaint him with the [Page] Female, and shée hath great dolor to make hir yong ones: they are borne with téeth, and are blacke. In Arabia they can not liue neither wild, nor yet tame. Apes doe approch muche to the sense of man, and their kynde is, to haue no tayles, these kinde of beastes, are muche affectioned to their yong o­nes, they kepe them or holde them al­wayes betwene their armes or legs, before their breastes, whereby manye times they kill them: they haue beard on their [...]hinne, and some in Ethiopia haue tayles, that can liue no where el [...]e. Of Hares, there are dyuers kindes in the hye Mountaynes, there are white ones, & in winter they liue with snowe. It is sayde that a Hare is as olde as there are pourgings or voydings in hir belly, they haue both kindes, and ingender one with an o­ther, and the Hare alone is meate vn­to men, beastes, and foules, and ther­fore he is euer in feare, & goeth more [Page] by nyght than by day. Conyes are of another kinde, the Males haue great desire to [...]ate the yong ones when they are born, but the female hydeth them, and they make great multiplication. Many sortes of beastes there are on the earth, that doe mingle one kynde with an other. Among the Beastes, Origes haue the haire long alwayes, tending towardes the heade, and of o­ther beastes the haire tēdeth towards the tayle. Mice are ingendred on the earth. We reade that when Haniball had besieged a towne, a Mouse was solde for two hundreth crownes, the seller dyed for famine, and the buyer did escape the hunger. The olde Mice are nourished of the yong ones, by great clemency. In Affrica there is neyther Déere, wylde Boares, Goa­tes, nor Beares. In other places ney­ther Wolues, nor Fo [...]es. In some pla­ces there are no Hares, in other places no Conyes. And in other places there [Page] is great diuersitie of beastes, that are not in other places. The Scorpions or Serpentes do sooner hurte strangers, than the Countrey inhabitantes.

The ninth booke trea­teth of water beastes, and of fishes.

IN the sea there are ma­ny greate beastes, aswell as on earth for the moisture ther­of, and bycause it is more lar­ger and bygger. Also there is manye monsters & diuersitie in many fishes, for they couple in many kindes, and there is the similitude of all kinde of beastes on the earth, and rather more. Whales are the moste greatest and grossest beastes in the Sea, there are of two hundreth yeards long. In ma­ny places ther are rib bones of Wha­les of twentye yeardes. Alexander the great was afrayed to méete them, least his Nauy shoulde haue perished. [Page] In the Sea there are Eeles thrée hun­dreth foote long. In the night there commeth many fishes out of the Sea, that will eate the corne in the fieldes, and after returne againe. There is in the Sea Meermaydes that haue bene sene, and some that haue the shape of men, and their voyce like vnto mens voice, hauing the body of mans shape, and the lower parts scaled like fishes, with a tayle. And there are Woulfes, Horsses, Asses, Hogges and other sea beastes, as on the earth. If the fishes asspire and respire as other beastes, there are dyuers opinions. Plinie doth beleue that the most part sléepeth and respireth, except those that haue no li­uer, and in stede of bloud haue humor. The Dolphin is the most swiftest fish in the Sea, and most hardest to be ta­ken: euery one foloweth his like, they haue yong in ten monthes in Sōmer, and nourishe them as doe the Wha­les, the olde ones carry the yong ones, [Page] and there is alwayes a greate Dol­phin, that followeth the little one, they haue the tongue mo [...]ing lyke a Hog. Aboue the nature of other fishes, they loue yong children, and the sounde of Instruments, they liue thrée hundreth yeares, and they haue their greatnesse at ten yeares, they reioyce when one calleth them Symon, & they loue hu­maine voyce. Manye examples are both séene and reade of little children, that they haue caryed by Sea on their backes & brought backe againe with­out doing them any harme. Shell fi­shes are so great in some places, that with their shels they couer their hou­ses. The beastes of the Sea haue dy­uers clothings, some are couered with leather, and with haire, as ye Sea calfe, some onely with leather as the Dol­phins, others with great thicke and harde shelles, others softer shelles, as Oysters, Cockles, and Mus [...]les, that haue no heades, others with sharpe [Page] prickles, as the Ecchinus called the sea Porcupen, others with scales, as Car­pes and many other fishe, others with rough skinnes with the whiche they shaue fine wood and Iuory, some with soft skins, and others that haue none. The Sea calfe whiche is clothed with skinne and haire, they ioyne Male and Female together as dogges, and they neuer haue but two at a burthen, they nourishe their yong ones with theyr pappes or tettes, and are deliuered on the land, and within twelue dayes af­ter they bring them to the Sea. The Sea calfe, is more grieued and more constrayned to sléepe than any other beast, and therefore their skinne putte on a mannes heade doth prouoke him to sléepe. Greate is the diuersitie of beastes, in some there is neyther bone nor thorne, and of many kindes there is no Male. Among the fishes the Fe­males are greater than the Males, there are some that haue their scales [Page] tending towards their heades, cleane contrary to ye nature of others. Some there are that go alwayes to sléepe vp­on the dry lande. The Whale maketh hir yong ones aliue without Egges. Eeles lyue commonlye eight yeare, they will lyue sixe dayes without wa­ter, specially whē the wind is at west, and lesse with other windes. In Win­ter they couet depe and cleare waters, and swimme in the bottom, they féede in the night, & they of all other fishes, flote not aboue water, when that they are deade. In the Laake of Verone they are taken by thousandes. Some kinde of fishes rendreth their yong o­nes aliue, others that flye by the Sea, as ye Sea swallow. Some make egges and couer or sitte on them, as doe the foules in the ayre, so doth the Sea kite, a foule called Lucerna, of the pro­pertie of his name, séeketh the maine Seas, whose tongue shineth or gliste­reth, as may well be séene in a faire [Page] and calme night. The Dragon of the Sea, as sone as she is taken & brought to land, shée maketh incontinently an entery or hole in the sande, that shée might be lost. Some fishes haue no bloude, and haue their heades in their bellyes betwene their féete, and wyth their féete they caste meate into their mouthes. The Sea Locusts hide them selues for the space of fiue monethes, and swimme in the spring tyme, they battayle betwene them selues wyth their hornes. If they be put aliue into hote water for to séeth, they wyll be tender. The sea Creuices liue in Roc­kes and stony places, and there are ve­ry great ones. In Sommer and in the Spring they fatten, & in the ful Mone, and they augment and diminish with the Moone, they are of a long lyfe, and they haue al eyght féete, The Females haue the first fote folded or double, and the Males single, and they créepe as much backward as forward. Cockles [Page] haue two litle hornes wherewith they féele ye way, for they haue no eyes. The fishes ioyne Male & Female, ioyning their bellyes, then the female runneth or swimmeth away, touching wyth hir mussell the belly of the Male, and the Males [...]ate the Females Egges, for if all the Egges should profite, the Seas, Ryuers, and Pondes, would be filled with fishe, there woulde be such an innumerable multitude. The Sea Mouse maketh h [...]r Egges on the land, and couereth them with earth, & thir­tie dayes after doth vncouer them, & bringeth hir yong ones into the Sea. Some fishe liue thre score yeare, as by the experience of marks put on them. Some fishes there are, that liue on the lande, when that in Sommer, the Ry­uers and Pondes are dryed vp, and some wil go féede in the corne, & on the lande, tarying for the water, and such is the nature of some; to liue on the earth with wormes. There are certain [Page] fishes with sharpe pryckles on their backes, that will cut the line of fishers Nettes. Other fishes that are called Sea starres, doe burne other fishes by their great heate. In the Sea there is warre among the fishes as among the foule in the ayre, for one féedeth not with another.

The tenth boke treateth of the Foules of the ayre.

IN Affrica & Ethiopia, there are birds that are called Stiu­thiocameli, as hie as a man on horse backe, which doe not for­sake the earth, but runne faster than horses. The Phenix liueth in Arabia, I saye not that he is alone, but neuer man sawe him eate, he lyueth six hun­dreth yeres, and in his age maketh a Nest of the braunches of spice trées, wherein he dyeth, and of his bones cō ­meth a worme, the which afterwarde [Page] naturally becommeth a Phenix. He is as great as an Eagle, the feathers aboute his necke are of the colour of golde, the tayle yellow, & the surplus like to Azure. Eagles there are of sixe kindes, some liue with their pray on the earth, other in the water, that fishe with one foote, they haue the knowe­ledge to take Whelkes, & other shelled fish vp into the ayre, and then let them fall, to breake their shelles, for to haue the fishe, they cause their yong ones to looke vp into the Sunne beames, and caste those out of the neast that wyll not beholde the Sunne, as bastards, they die in their age, bicause that their vpper bill doth grow so long that they can not eate, they fight against Déere and against the Dragons, & in flying they cast dust that they take vp on the lande, in the eyes of Crowes & other beastes for to blind them. The Cuckoe resembleth to the colour of the woode Doue, thei are killed of others of their [Page] kinde, they chaunge their voyce, and come in the spring tyme, and doe al­wayes bring vppe their yong ones in other birdes nestes, specially in the nestes of stock Doues, she neuer light­ly maketh aboue one egge, & very sel­dom two, bicause she knoweth yt she is hated of all other birdes. They thinke them selues very fayre, and disprayse others, and there is no fleshe swée­ter than theirs. The Kyte is alwayes a reuenging foule: it séemeth by the remouing of their tayle, that they that haue learned to guide or gouerne the ships by the Helme, haue learned by hir. Crowes wil breake or crack nuts, with often letting them fall in flying. The Rauens ingender by the mouth, as some suppose, as doe Doues: it is an euill tokē or signe when that they cry as though they were choaked. The night Owles doe defend them selues from other foules, with their bill and clawes, bycause they are hated they [Page] flye in the night, in winter they sléepe two monthes, and they haue nine ma­ner of voyces. Among the flying bea­stes, some haue fingers and nayles, & other flatte and brode féete, as Geese, Duckes, Swannes, and others liuing for the most parte in the waters. The proude Pecocke spreadeth abrode his feathers, specially against ye sunne, to make thē shine, & then putteth them downe together: his tayle shedeth as the leaues on trées, and commeth a­gaine with the spring, when he hath no tayle, he doth hyde him selfe as a­shamed, at thrée yeares his tayle be­ginneth to colour, & lyueth. xxv. yeres, his féete are fowle, & his voice feare­full. The Cocke kno [...]eth the starres, and when the day dawneth he ryseth, and goeth to rest when the Sunne is sette, by his crowing he giueth war­ning of the houres in the night, and waketh those that goe to their labour, he is king of beastes that are in the [Page] house of his bignesse, and fighteth with his spurres: if he haue the maysterie, he will sing or crowe, if he be vanquy­shed, he hydeth him selfe: he is stoute in his going, and maketh the Lyon a­frayed: he beholdeth the Sunne more than any other birde: if he be kerued or gelded, he will not crow, being ker­ [...]ed he wil soone ware fatte. The Goose kepeth the Romaines Capitoll, it hath bene recyt [...]d of a Goose, that hath fol­lowed his mayster from Svvecia, to Rome: there feathers are pluckt twice a yere, with Goose grease is made ma­ny good oyntments. Cranes they flye hye, they do elect one whome they fol­lowe, there are among them S [...]rge­antes, which make them kepe order in their assemblyes, in the night they slepe the heade vnder their wing, and one legge vnder their feathers, and sustaine them selues with the other. Those that are appoynted to make watche, holde a stone in one of their [Page] clawes, for to waken those that sléepe, when he letteth the stone fall into the water. The Storkes goe their wayes in the Sommer, and none knoweth whither, nor from whence they come, aswell as Cranes, the one commeth in in Sommer, and the other in winter, they assemble for to take their flight, but no man euer sawe their congre­gations, for that is done in the night, without noyse. They assemble in A­sia at a certaine day, and he that is last come, is killed and torne in pieces, and then thei take their flight, ye Swannes eate Serpents, and therefore there is as great payne to kill them, as to kill a man, the yong ones do nourishe the old. The Quailes come by night, and in daunger of mariners when they a­proch the lande, because of their great multitude. In tyme of rayne, or of a great wind, they neuer passe the seas, in winter they caste their feathers, so doth the Turtle. Swalowes liue with [Page] fleshe, they are so swift, and turne so sodainly, that no other foules can get them for to féede on, and they wil feede in flying. Swallowes tary but halfe a yeare, some chaunge their voyces, and their feathers mount euery yere. The Iay loueth to steale Golde and Siluer. In some places there are no Partriges. In Rhodes there are no Eagles. At Rome in the house of Her­cu [...]es, there entreth neyther Dogg [...], nor flyes. And so it is, that in manye places there is great diuersi [...]e of bir­des. A long the Sea coastes in some place there are birdes that liue with fishe, and euery one of them make [...]h seuen Nestes, and in euery nest yong ones, but their nestes are so hard, that they can scarce be broken, and there is no way into the nestes but one lit­tle hole for the Dame to come in and out, and their nestes are of thornes, that are ranged one against another, with earth and feathers, and they are [Page] seldome sene. There are Swallowes of dyuers kindes, there are some cal­led Marlions that make their neastes sixe foote in the grounde. Birdes haue maruellous great industrie & knowe­ledge in making their Neastes, with feathers, earth, and chaffe, haire, wool, mosse, and suche like. Also they carry water to temper it, and to fortifie it, by the which meanes their yong ones are sure and safe againste the rayne, the dames do clense and make cleane the nestes from ordure, when their little ones are yong, and when they become great, they force them to come forth of their nestes for to be cleane. And in In­dia, some foules séeke Hares skinnes to make their nestes. The Partridge so maketh hir nest, that the wilde bea­stes can not finde them, and where she layeth hir Egges shée hatcheth not hir yong, fearing that hir oft frequenta­tion should be knowen. The Female for the intemperancie of luste of the [Page] Male, seketh to deceyue him, bycause if she be vpon the nest, he will breake hir Egges. The Males do fight, for the Females. At the cry or singing of the Female, the Male runneth so blinded, that he will somtimes strike against the foulers heade, he is so much sub­ [...]ect to imbitilitie, more than any other birde. The Female when she heareth any approch hir yong ones, she faineth to haue hir winges broken, that shée can not flye, and cryeth that she maye be hearde, for to retyre the people and Dogs, to the ende they finde not their nestes, and shée flyeth a farre of from hir little ones, and they liue, by com­mon estimation, till sixtene yeares.

The Doues are chaste and leaue not their dwelling or remayning place, if that they are not without makes, they doe suspect adulterie: by this meanes they quarrell with their throte, and sight with their bill, then they flatter with their fete. The male is as careful [Page] toward the yong ones, as the female: at the first they bring their yong of the salte of the earth, for to temper their [...]ppetite, and they conceyue by the bil. The Pigeons and Turtles drinke as do horses, without often pulling their bil out of the water when they drinke: they liue aboute eight yeares, but the wilde Doues liue thirtie yeares. The Sparrowe liueth not aboue a yeare, and the female liueth somwhat more, bicause of the frequētation yt the [...] haue together. Birdes flye in dyuers kinds, some goe, some leape, some runne, and some caste there féete forwarde before they flye, as Cranes and Storkes, and there are none but Drakes, that flye bolt vpwarde at the first leape, others aduance them before they flye. Some haue no féete, and haue no rest but in their nest. Hennes haue vnderstan­ding, & when they haue layd an [...]gge, they cackle and make a noyse. The Cardnelis doth those things, that shée [Page] [...]s commaunded. The Popingay can speake humaine speach, they come frō the Indias, they haue their heade as harde as their bill, they liue most com­monly with Acornes, and they speake best yt haue fiue clawes on their feete, thei are taught secretly where as there is no other noyses but the teachers. Crowes haue bene séene speake, and call noble men by their names, speci­ally [...]e at Rome, which by that mea­nes was solemnely buried. It is easier to [...]ame a Lyon, an Eliphant, or any other great beast or foule, than to tame a Mouse or a swallow. Strabo was the first that did cage birdes, which before had liberty in the Sky: he taught the way to fattē Capo [...]s, with meale and milke. Among the birdes many haue foure féete, and some lay many egges, some foure, and some two. They ioyne together in two maners, the Cranes, with their height. And Hennes and o­ther Females the Cockes tread them [Page] doowne. Some egges, and the mo [...]e part are white, others coloured, and others redde, as the Egges of Fe­santes: and all kinde of egges within are of two colours, white and redde. Egges of fishes are rounde, and they haue no white, the Egges of feathered soules liuing on the water are round, & of others long: the yong ones come out of the shell at the round ende. Ho­race sayth that the longest egges haue the best sauour, and that Henne is best and most tenderest, that layeth round egges. Some birdes ingender at all tymes, as Hennes that lay euery day an egge, some two at a tyme, & some so many that therewith they dye. In some places Doues ingender tenne times in a yeare. In Egipt the Turtle twyce a yeare, and other birdes but once a yeare. As touching egges there is a red droppe in the middest of the yolke, the whiche maketh the birdes harte, and it is the first formed, and of [Page] the whyte is formed the body, & with­in the egge the heade is greater than the body, and liueth with the surplus of the yolke: the twentye day he hath lyfe and cryeth within the Egge, and then the feathers begin to come. The yong one in the egge lyeth after this sort, it hath the heade vnder the ryght foote, and the right wing vpō the head; and they growe on their féete, contra­ry to the nature of other beastes. Ye ought not to giue a Henne aboue. xxv. egges to coue on, and those Chickens that are hatched about the beginning of the yeare, are the best. For to sette Hennes to broode, take egges of tenne dayes olde, for they are better, than older, or more fresher, and ye ought to put odde: when the Henne hath co [...]ed foure dayes, in looking on them in the Sunne, ye shall knowe whether they be good or no, or in putting them in warme water, for the good egges will sinke to the bottome, and those that [Page] are pu [...]rified and naught, will flotte and swimme. If the egges are neuer so little craysed that are sette, they wil neuer proue. It is best to set Hennes to coue in the newe Moone, for if they are sette in the wane of the Moo [...]e, or at the ful, they wil profite little. Whē the weather is hote, chickēs will come within one and twenty dayes, and if it be cold, not til fiue & twenty dayes. If it thunder the egges that are coued will be lost, and also at the voyce of the Kyte or Puttocke. The remedy a­gainst the thunder, is to put a na [...]e in the Hennes nest, or else of the earth of a Carte whéele. It hath bene recited of a Cocke, whiche atfer the Hennes death hath atchieued couing, & by thys meanes to ceasse from crowing. The Ducke maruelleth at the first to see hir Ducklins, but after most carefullys she calleth them together, and lamen­teth if shée sée them drowned in the water, and some there are that can [Page] make Chickens come in warme wa­ter, as well as if the Egge were co­ued. The pip commeth lyghtly vnto pullaine, betwene haruest & the vin­tage: for a remedy therfore, it is good to let them hunger, & to giue them lit­tle meate, or to giue them to eat Gar­like and butter. Doues they lay two egges, and if they lay three they wyll hatche but twaine, they bring forth a Male and a Female, the Male first & two dayes after ye Female. The Male is hatched in the day tyme, and the fe­male in the night, the yong Pigions come forth of the shell twentye dayes after they are hatched, and the Fe­male layeth Egges within fiue dayes after yt she hath knowne the Male. In sōmer oftē times they haue yōg ones thrice in two monthes, for if the wea­ther be hote, they cōceyue in eightene dayes, and therfore in the nest is foūd many tymes egges and yong ones. And Pigeons conceyue at fiue Mon­thes. [Page] The Peacocke at the age of thrée y [...]ares bringeth forth yong ones, the first yeare one, and euery yeare after she increaseth, the Male breaketh the egges to haue the Female at his plea­sure, & therefore shee hydeth hir egges, and for one Male, she hath fiue Fe­males: in thirtie dayes shée bringeth forth hir yong ones. Géese conceyue in the water, they make their Egges in the spring: it is necessarye to giue them nine or eleuen egges to coue, at xxv. or. xxx. dayes they are hatched, cō ­monlye Swannes or suche lyke coue thirtie dayes, the Female crow alone coueth, and the Male féedeth hir in the nest. The Batte hath the members and wings as feathers, shée bringeth two yong ones, the whiche she nouri­sheth with the milke of hir breasts. U [...] ­pers do winde one aboute another in conceyuing, that they séeme to be but one serpent, and the Female concey­ [...]eth by sucking ye Males heade, which [Page] shée putteth into hirs. Some Serpen­tes make their egges on the ground, and then couereth them with earth, and the next yere after bringeth forth their yong ones. Men are more pro­ner to lust and fornication in winter, than in Sommer, and women more in Sommer than in Winter. Beastes haue societie, and knowe when the fe­male will haue the Male. Among the foure footed beastes, their smelling bringeth the operatiō of lecherie. The greater the beasts are, the fewer yong they bring forth, and the longer they beare them. All beastes are repleni­shed with ye Male at one tyme though they bring neuer so manye, and the yong ones lye in the Females belly, the ioyntes or knées against the belly. But a yong Childe in the mothers Wombe hath his face betwéene his knées, and is like a Citie. [...]attes and Myce do ingender by licking one ano­ther, and it hath bene sene that one [Page] hath made sixe score, so it commeth to passe that by this meanes there are so many both in the fieldes, and in mens houses. The Salmander in touching ye fire doth quench it as if it were yse, and notwithstanding that shée casteth by the mouth, which is like milke, if it touch any part of a man, the haire of his skinne will fall away, they growe as the Eele in the water, and among them there is neyther Male nor Fe­male, and they neuer conceyue nor make egges nor yet haue yong. Mans sense is perfect, but in séeing, the Eagle doth surmout him. The Uulture to smel, and the Mole to heare, what so­euer is on earth. Fyshes doth both smel and sée, and yet haue neither eare nor hole in the heade. Some fishes get their pray with their téeth, others with their féete, and others with sucking & licking according to their nature.

Some liue by sucking of venime, as Serpentes, and Spyders, that haue [Page] neyther bloud, nor heate, nor sweate, & to them nedeth no meates. Wolues do often tymes liue with earth. Bea­stes do fattē with drinking, and ther­fore salte for them is necessary. Those beastes that haue their téeth close, doe lape as Dogs in their drinking, and they that holde their téeth together do sowpe hume as doe Oxen and Horses. The Beare in drinking séemeth to bite the water. In Affrica wild beasts drinke not in the Sommer for default of water, & there are certaine beastes that neuer drinke, and yet they haue alwayes thirst within the body. There is that haue a bladder full of lyquor, in drinking thereof one shall endure long without thirst. Birdes haue both [...] and warre among them selues as well as beastes on the earth. One robbeth from the other their nestes, yong ones, egges, and meate. All beastes hauing heart will sléepe, both on the earth and in the water. A childe [Page] newe borne to let him sléepe long, is to him nourishment, as he growes to age he sl [...]peth lesse, and yong children dreame in their sléeping.

The. xj. booke treateth of little beastes.

NAture hath made more maruelles, and hath giuen more sense and vnderstāding to little beastes, worthy of more greater memorie than the great. They haue no bloude, but in stéede of bloude haue humid [...]ie and moysture in the body, which maketh them giue both sounde and voyce, to asspire and respire, they haue neyther heart nor lyuer, but onelye certaine bowels, and haue eyes and other sentementes and féelings, their heade moueth not without the body, vnlesse it be pulled off. Among the which, the good flyes or hony Bées haue sense, and labour for [Page] the publicke profite, they haue among them Princes, & conductours of their councell, and maner howe to behaue them selues in their frequentations. In the Winter they are hidden, for that they can not resist the Snowes, Windes, and Frostes, they make ho­ny and ware, when they goe to their worke they neuer léese no tyme. First they wype or rubbe their Hyue wyth things that are bytter, as the Gumme of trées, and other things for to take the taste frō other beastes of the swéet­nesse of their hony: afterwarde they make their chambers or dwellings, then they make their yong ones with­out corruption, and after that they make their hony and wa [...]e, of floures, & prouide foode for winter, otherwise bitter meate full of humor seperated frō hony. On nights in their voyage, when they are frō their wonted place to rest, they lye their belly vpwarde, to kepe their winges from the dewe. [Page] The maner of their workes is to re­maine some of them at ye gate or doore of their Hyue there to kepe watch, as the custome is of a Castle: in the night they rest till the morning, except those that are appointed to watche, of the which one of them in the morning go­eth aboute making a sounde or noyse, as it were a Trumpet, and then euery one departeth and flyeth away, if the day be faire, otherwise they continue in their house, & they know the disposi­tion of tymes, the yong ones goe or flye abrode into the fieldes, and the old ones remayne to make the worke, or to deuide the rowmes within. Some bring the flowers to the entrie of their place, others do discharge it, & caryeth it in, others bring water in their throte for to tēper or giue moysture to their workes, and they deuide their offices. Some do garnish, some pollishe, some sucke, and others make ready foode of that which is brought in, for they liue [Page] together and doe not seperate, to the ende, that equally their foode be deui­ded: they make double alleyes or pa­thes, some to come in at, & some to goe forth by: the most hony is in the high­est rowme. If there chaunce to ryse a great winde whylest they are in the fieldes, then they flie close to the groūd along the hedges, and they take a litle stone or earth to be more waightier, to the ende the winde beare them not away, and lode their floures in their fore féete, against their breastes. Those that are appointed maysters or ouer­seers of their house, will chastice those that are negligent and slowe. They neuer file nor make filth in their Hiue they are so cleane. In the night their watch being set, they retyre into their lodging, and make a murmuring or noyse, still deminishing till that one maketh the last sounde or Trumpet, flying in the midst of them, and then they ceasse oft al til the morning. First [Page] they make their common houses, and then the house of their king or Capi­taine whome they doe elect and choose. Among these good flyes, there are o­thers more greater without sting, whiche serue at the workes, & to chafe or warme ye yong ones betwene their féete, and they are straightly corrected, and if they fayle, without any remissi­on. These make their king a fayre house, pinacled lyke a Castle, sepera­ted from other houses. The lodgings of the common sort, haue sixe rowmes or corners for the worke of their sixe féete, and they make them in close, darke, or raynye dayes, and at suche tymes they fill the vpper Celles with hony, and in a fayre & cléere day they goe to the fieldes. The maner how the yong ones are borne, there is greate defficultie, for thei neuer couer one a­nother. There was a Romaine that made a hiue of cléere lanterne hornes for to sée their workes, and it séemeth [Page] that they make little wormes, that be­come flyes, and before that they haue feathers, there is nothing that ye dame desireth more to eat, whē their heades are pulled of. Their king is chosen in euery swarme or cōpany, & they choose hym that is greatest: he is knowen for he hath a spot in the foreheade. If he go or flye to the fieldes, the others fol­low him as his gard, and he goeth not out of the Hyue vnlesse that al the rest do followe. If he haue a wing broken or perished, he goeth not oute of the Hyue, he onely taketh no paynes, but admonisheth them of their worke. If by aduyse of councel he cōmeth forth, euery one putteth their payne to serue him, and wil carry him if he be weary. If he haue a sting, yet he vseth it not. Whē they intend to depart & leaue the hiue, certaine dayes before, they mur­mure and make a noyse, and flye their way by tempests. Often tymes they be at strife for their bondes & floures, [Page] or if one Hyue haue no foode, they wil spoile another, and their king doth de­fende them. If there want vittayles, they kill or driue away those flyes that haue no sting. If their sting be once broken, they are tamed or faint hear­ted, as a gelded body, and can profite no more, such haue places a part for to retyre them. They hate shéepe, for they can scarce get out of their wooll. Also they hate Crabbes or Creuices, and if there be any soddē nere to their place, the smell of them will make them dye. They haue many diseases, and if any of them dye, they bring him oute of their rowmes, & cast him out of their Hyue as making of funerals. If their King dye, they doe more, for then they make such dolor and sorrow, that they do nothing. By this and by to muche taking off of their hony, they die often tymes. They haue sense and vnderstā ­ding to heare, and doe reioyce, and at the sound of a Basan they wil assēble. [Page] When their worke is finished they flie abrode, then retourne to their hyue or house. Their age is seuen yeares, they neuer touch any Carion, as Crowes, Kytes, and other flyes doe. Their ho­ny commeth as it were a sweate from heauen, spittle from the starres, or ly­quor from the ayre, when in the spring tyme the sayd moysture falleth on the leaues and the Dew, and the Bées re­ceyueth it, and caryeth it into their byue. The hony at the first is as cleare as water, it boyleth lyke newe wine, and purgeth, the twentie day it fatte­neth, then it hardneth, and casteth a lit­tle skin like a scumme, there is wayes how to get the hony, for want of foode causeth the Bées to disperse and flye their wayes, or die, and to great abun­dance maketh them vnprofitable, for they labour no more than is necessary or nedeful, and therefore the twelueth parte is their porcion that they ought to leaue them. Of hony is made ma­ny [Page] medicinable thinges, seruing to eche one. Some leaue the tenth parte, and if it be not ful but almost empty, ye ought not to touche it. That hony that cleaueth together or thréedeth, is not good, but when incontinently it breaketh in taking of it, it is a good signe. Also the good smelling hony that hath a colour lyke golde, and swéete in the tast, is a signe of goodnesse. The wilde hony is not so good as the other. Spiders or Spinners haue within them suche fertilitie, that they spinne beginning in the mydst, & they make thréedes very subtill. They make their yong ones lyke wormes. Scorpions towards the East are very venemous, & they make little wormes like egges, of whiche commeth their yong ones, but in Italy they do litle harme. They byte or sting with their tayle. Locusts or Grashoppers make egges, they goe on the ground with their clawes. The Parthians doe eate them. Also Ants [Page] make egges, of the which growe their yong ones: and as the good flyes doe congregate their workes, so they hide their foode in the earth, for to liue with in the winter. They haue knowledge howe to deuide the greate graine A­corne, and they dry them that are wet in the Sommer, they worke by night in the full Moone, one commeth to a­nother for their burthens, & it séemeth that in them is mutual loue in the di­ligence of their worke. Among other beastes they bury one another when they are deade. The Butterflye com­meth of a little worme in thrée dayes, shée groweth also of woode wherein is humiditie. There are beastes full of bloud that dye [...]o sone as they are ful, for behinde they haue no issue, they are ingendered vnder the Oxen, & some­tyme on Dogges. In Cypres there growe in the furnaces, of flyes, greate flying flyes, called Piralis or Piransta, that dye when they are out of the fire. [Page] And some there are called Hemorobi­os, that dye that day that they take life. Deade flyes if they be hidden or buri­ed in Ashes, will reuiue. All beastes haue their hornes hollowe sauing at the very ende, except the Déere. Asses in India haue one horne. Man alone hath his eares vnmoueable. Hares sléepe with their eies open, so do many men which the Greekes call Coryban­tia. The eyes of yong Swallowes wil come again, if they be pulled out. The eyes of man principallys doth shewe loue, furor, folly, and wisedome. Great eyes signifie small wit or discretion. The heart lyueth first, and dyeth last. A man hath eight ribbes on a side, the Hog ten, the Serpent thirtie. Among foules the Batte hath téeth & no other. Man groweth til he be. xxi. yeres olde. Bloud preserueth the life of euery per­son: that being gone no remedy but death. They that haue the thickest and fattest bloude, are the strongest. They [Page] that haue it most fine and cleare, are the wysest. They that haue least are fearefull. The bloud of an asse is most fattest. The bloude of a Bull will sone ware harde. The bloude of Déere and Goates is not thicke nor hardneth no [...]. Man alone will chaunge his colour e­uen in a moment. The man that is hairye, is inclined to fleshely lust. If a mannes haire doth not growe nor his bearde, it is a signe that he is barren, so is the woman that hath no haire growing on hir bodye. The haire of a mannes bearde commeth not as the grasse in the fielde that is mowed, but it procéedeth from the roote. There is no Male that hath any appearance of breastes but man: a womā hath two in hir stomacke, the Cowe hath foure in hir belly, Goates and shéepe two, the Sowes ten, & some twelue. Euery Pigge knoweth the dugge that they haue bene nourished with. Whales, and Sea calues nourishe their yong [Page] ones with milke of their breastes. A womans milke is vnprofitable before the seuen monthes. A Cowe hath no milke before she hath had a calfe. The Asse hath milke when she beginneth to beare. And to let the yong Asse take the Dames milke before two dayes, is daungerous. Certaine Dames of Rome did bathe them selues in Asses milke, for it maketh their skin smoth and whyte. Milke of Goates is worsse to make chese than the milke of Kyne. The milke of beastes hauing aboue foure breastes, is vnprofitable to make chéese, and that of two breastes is bet­ter. The chéefest and best chéeses are made in Italy. Zoroastes liued twentie yeres with chéese without féeling age. Man hath two feete of one length and measure, and two armes with two handes. The thombe & the little finger are of one measure, the other two also of a measure, and that in the midst is longer. Euery finger hath thre ioynts, [Page] and they shutte or bowe inwarde and not outward, the thombe hath but two that bowe in like maner. The Ape is the beast that moste approcheth the fa­shion of féete, handes, nose, and eares to mā, for with the foreféete he fedeth, and hath the bowels lyke to mannes. At three yeares man hath taken halfe his growth of hight. He hath the knées and armes contrary in bowing, the one forwarde the other backwarde. Beastes that ingender their like, bow their knées backewarde, and those that make egges, forwarde. Nayles grow vnto eche one, yea vnto deade men as well as their beardes. Birdes that haue elawes & one at the héele, streatch their féete toward their tayle in flying. All beastes haue féete in nūber equall. Flyes haue sixe and so haue Locustes or Grashoppers that leape, bycause that their hinder féete are long. The genitores of Wolues, Foxes, and [...]ā ­mes are of bone. Boares haue them [Page] ioyning, and shéepe haue them hang­ing. The tayle of fishes serueth to con­duct them, and so it doth to other bea­stes, and all haue tayles except man and the Ape. Those beastes haue voice that haue lungs and artiers. Others make but a sounde or noyse, and mur­mure inwarde. A Childe neuer ren­dreth voyce till he be wholly out of the mothers wombe. They that sonest speake latest goe. The boyces of men are dyuers, as well as their similitu­des and likenesse, and we vnderstand them before we sée them. The voyce of men is more grauer than the voyce of women. Members that growe out of tyme are vnprofitable, as the sixte finger. There was one that had two eyes behinde the heade, but he saw no­thing. It is a vaine thing sayth Aris­rotle to iudge any person by signes. Often tymes commeth iudgementes of short life, that is to we [...]e, few téeth, very long fingers, colour like to lead, [Page] and other things. The contrary signes of long life is to crooke the shoulders, on one hande two strikes along, to haue more thā. xxxij. téeth, great eares. Great fore heades signifieth a stoute and manly courage, little fore heade, lightnesse, a round fore heade, wrath. If the browes be straight it signifieth imbecilitie. If they bende towards the nose, hastinesse. If they bende towards the chéekes, signifieth a mocking per­son. If they bende wholy towarde the eyes, malice and enuy. Long eyes sig­nifie malice. The greatnesse of ye eares signifieth a foolishe babler. The breath of a Beare is naught, & worsse a Liōs. The Serpent flyeth the breath of the Elephant, and the burning of Hartes hornes. The hony Bées oile being cast on them, dye. The Scithians in their warres, temper their Dartes heades in humaine bloude, and in Uipers poyson, and if they strike any there­with, there is no remedye but death. [Page] The best foode for man is to eate but of one meate at one time or meale, the accumulating of sauours is pestife­rous, and Wine maketh a smelling or stinking breath, if it be not tempe­red. With greate difficultie shall a man digest that whiche is taken gre­dely, excessiuely, or hastily. There is more payne in the stomacke to digest in Sommer, than in Winter, and in age more than in youth. The vomy­tings that are made after excesse, ma­keth the body colde, are hurtfull to the eyes and teeth. A mans body groweth & waxeth grosse, to vse swéete things, fatte meates, and good drinkes. A man maye easely liue seauen dayes with­out drinke. Butter asswageth hunger and thirst: neuerthelesse thinges excessiuely taken are hurtefull, and therefore it is good to deminishe that away which hurteth.

The. xij. booke treateth of swéete smelling trées.

TRees haue lyfe whiche they take of the earth. There are manye straunge trées in dyuers countreys, which vn­to some are vnknowen. In some pla­ces they water fine trées at the [...]oote with wyne, the which profiteth muche the rootes. The Parthians which haue trées bearing wooll, of the whiche is made fine cotton cloth, as it is sayde, haue a trée bearing Apples, but ye fruit is not to be eatē, but they haue a mer­uellous smell, so haue the barkes, the whiche being in your Chest among your apparell, casteth a sweete sauour or smell: and this trée hath alwayes fruit, some growing some dying, and some ready to gather, and the graftes of this trée will take in no other coun­trey. In India there is both wood and [Page] trées that will not burne in the fire. There hath also bene séene a Figge trée of a great height, the braunches of the same trée to spread sixty paces, and it hath leaues so brode, that the sunne beames can not by any meanes enter betwene, and therfore the fruit of this trée can not dye, but the shadow of the same is very delectable. There is also in the Indias, Apple trées which haue the leaues thrée cubites long, and two brode, bearing suche great fruit, that foure men can scarce eate one Apple. The trées name is Pala, the Apples name Aripa. Pepper groweth on lit­tle trées as doth Ienuper. In ye Indias it is sometymes mingled with Ienu­per berries of that Countrey, whiche haue some strength, but no suche tast: it groweth almoste white, but for to last it is dryed in the smoke, whiche causeth it to be blacke, and with the shrubbes of the same trée dryed in the Sunne, is made long Pepper▪ There [Page] are other trées whiche in the morning after the dewe, rendereth a certayne kinde of hony. In Arabia there are trées whiche neuer cast their leaues. Others that haue their floures, that beginneth in the morning at ye sunne rysing to open, and at hye noone they are opened, and after noone they begin to close, and so remayne all night till the morning, and the Paysauntes of that countrey say that the trée slepeth. There is the trée of Nardus, the which casteth a maruellous swéete smell or odour. And in Arabia of trées growe Frankencense, and Myrre. Franken­cense groweth in a Forrest of Arabia, in a fruitfull grounde, full of Foun­taynes pertayning to diuers persons. It is a hanging matter amōg them to steale any thing. The men doe purifie them selues, and abstaine from womē for a certaine space, to take or gather the Frankencense, otherwyse they can not profite. On this side the sea it is [Page] mingled with a kinde of Rosen whi­che is like, but the difference is know­en by the colour, by the breaking, and by the fire, for Frankencense will soner burne, and is soner broken with your teeth. Also there is in those woods of Arabia, trées bearing Myrre, and the Masticke. The Sabians burne no other wood, wherefore they are weary of their smell. In the Sea of Arabia groweth the Margets and other pre­cious stones. Cynamon is the barke of a little trée, which groweth in great quantitie in base Ethiopia, in ful pla­ces among the bushes, the best is that of the highest braunches, the worst is that that is nearest to the roote. When there is any deawe in the Sommer it is gathered by great defficultie. The trée hath no smell when it is gréene, & it is gathered from the Sunne rising, to the Sunne setting. The ships re­maine sixe monthes for their fraught. That that is caried into this countrey [Page] of Ethiopia to sell them, is glasses, vessels of Copper, and Brasse, wollen cloth, and linne. The worst barke or pelle, is that that is softe and white. Baulme groweth onelye in the pro­nince of Iuda, in two Gardins of the Kings, the one contayning about ten Ak [...]rs, the other lesse, and it commeth of little trees not foure foote lōg grow­ing after the maner of a Uine, [...] re­sembleth and is neare to the taste of wine, red in colour and fatte, the fruit is cutte with a knife of glasse, stone, or bone, for the braunche dye [...]h to be cut with [...]ron, and it is cutte to take a­way the superfluities, then in yt season the barke is onely cutte, and then cō ­meth out the sweate by small droppes. This experience is true, that if any of it be spilte vpon any apparell, it wyll neuer staine. There is daunger in Wormes, for they will marre the trée. Alexander the great in a Sommers day filled a little Uyall of one trée. [Page] Ginger groweth in the earth, and is rootes.

The. xiij. booke treateth of straunge trées.

THe sweete oyntmentes, perfumes, and smellings, are made of these trées. Some for the pleasure of others buye them deare, for they that carry them, haue not the smel and pleasure, but it is for ye smell of others, which is great vanitie. Palmes are in dyuers kinds, and there are none fruitfull, but to­warde the East, for they make wines: and as in trees and leaues there are Male and Female, so there is also in these. The Male buddeth within the roote, and the Female outward. They beare euery yeare Apples, and when the trée is cutte the roote casteth again. The Cedar groweth in Siria, of which commeth the soueraigne roote. That [Page] that flourisheth beareth no fruite, and that that fructifieth beareth no floure, and the woode lasteth perpetually. The Figge trées in Egipt are lyke to Mul­bery trees, the fruite commeth foure tymes a yeare, against the woode and not against the braunches. There are many vnknowen trées, specially those that haue ye good Gum. There are made Cordes or Ropes of this trée. At Rome haue bene found bookes of Philosophie in a Sepulchre betwene two stones couered with Cedar wood, that had laid there fiue hundreth thirtie fiue yeares without harme, for the Cedar neuer rotteth, and there is no wood so good to make workes. There are Cedar trées so hye, that ye can not sée the toppes, and so great that there was presented to Tiberius Cesar, a table that was foure foote large, and sixtie foote long. Lotten or Celtis is a trée in Affrica, the fruite of which is so swéete that it healeth al paynes in the belly, and out [Page] of that fruite being brused or prest, cō ­meth wine that will not continue a­boue ten dayes. Pomgranets there are of diuers kinds, swéete, sowre, and wynishe. The pell of the sower ones are good, and best to tanne skinnes, and the floures are good for Dyars. The thorn that is called Royal, grow­eth in one day, and kepeth wyne from being naught. Citisus is a singuler trée, the wood is good to all beastes, as well shepe as others. If it be sodden in water, it rendreth to Nources that drinke it, plenty of milke, and maketh the childrē more sure & more greater, and maketh Hennes to lay egges. Up­on the floure of this trée a flye will ne­uer sit. Many other straūge trées there are in the Sea, yt wil break like glasse, and others that are as hard as stones, and manye other trées that are in the Ilandes of the Sea, whiche we haue not here, and whiche vnto vs are also vnknowen.

The. xiiij. boke treateth of trées and fruitfull plants.

IN times past men were wonte to haue many pleasant trées, of the which nowe there is no mention, for euery one studieth couetousnesse. The Wyne groweth of wylde plants, and among all other plantes it is the principallest fruite, and there are manye kyndes, and euery yeare it must be cut, or else otherwyse it would compasse a whole Towne. Wyne is the bloude of the earth, it being taken within a mans bodye is hote, and without it is colde, it is both comfortable and profitable to a man, if it be taken measurably, otherwise it is very hurtfull. Alexan­der the great did van [...]uishe the whole worlde, and yet could not so wel kepe him selfe, but was ouercome with the force of wine. Wines is not permit­ted [Page] to the wyues of Rome. We reade that King Romulus did pardon and forgiue a Senatour of Rome called Ignatius Mecenius whiche had killed his wife with a Clubbe, for that shée was founde drinking Wyne out of a tunne. And therfore Cato did ordaine that women and maydens shoulde be kyssed of their parents and kinssolke, to the ende they shoulde knowe whe­ther they did smel of wine or no. Mar­cus Varo wryteth of a Consull which neuer made banquet, nor had at his Table more at one time than at ano­ther, for feare of to much drinking. In tymes past at Rome the pryce was set on wine, to the ende that little should be dronke, but since Cesar made great banquettes, whiche gaue occasion to make prouision at Rome for all kinde of Wynes. Wyne alone serueth to make medicines. There is wyne made of Peares, Apples, and of other trées, whiche they vse towarde the East.

[Page]Some make Wine of hearbes, of wa­ter and hony sodden, which in Wales is called Metheglyn that wyll laste fiue yeares, or wyth hony and Uine­ger, whiche is called Oximell. The smal wynes ought to touch the groūd for to be the better kepte, but not the good. The flower of white Wyne is good, and that of red is naught. By dronkennesse menne reueale their se­crets, and make debates.

The. xv. booke treateth of trées bearing fruite.

THe Oliue tree groweth not neare the Sea, nor in pla­ces to hote nor to colde: they must be cut lyke Uines. The Oliue oyle is of a better sauour when the Oliues begin to rype, but there is not so much when they beginne to be blacke, but that is the tyme to take them, and of their rypenesse. There is [Page] more payne to make Oyle than wine. The Oliue hath stone, oyle, and flesh, the grene are bytter, by drying they become lesse thoughe that the heate is cause of oyle. The lyquor of the Oliue is the Oyle, but is lasteth not as doth Wyne, for it is best the firste yeare. Some there are that tarry till the O­liues fall from trees, for it hurteth the trées agayne the yeare following, to be cutte, broken, or smitten. Olyues before they are rype will be kept wyth salte, after that they haue bene in hote water. If the Oliue be not cleane, it is washed and dryed, thrée or foure dayes and seasoned wyth salte. There is Oyle made of manye thinges, of Nuttes, of Acornes, of smal graynes, of swéete smelling trées, of Gumme that serueth for medicines, of Almōds, Chesnuttes, and dyuers other things, according to the Countreyes. Apples and Peares ought to be kept in a drie and cold place, and for them the north [Page] winde is good, and no other wyndes, when the weather is faire, they should be put on hay, seperated one from a­nother for to take the ayre, and they ought to be gathered before the full Moone. Nuttes make a sounde or [...] in falling, when they are rype, and among other fruites they are parted in foure within, with a lit­tle skinne betwene both. They will kepe gréene, being putte in earthe [...] Pottes, in the earth, and with them is made good Oyles. Chesnuttes, are a kinde of maste, and it is maruayle that nature hath so closed them in shelles. Mulberryes stayne a bodyes fingers, and they are of thrée colours, at the first they are whyte, after that become redde, and when they are ripe then they are blacke. Cheryes wyll kepe dryed wyth the Sunne as Oly­ues. There are many relessinges in fruites, as swéete, waterishe, sower, bytter, greene, salt, brackish, fatte, and [Page] dyuers others, among the which there are that haue many tastes together. The Wynes are swéete and sowre, pricking. Mylke is swéete and fatte, but there are thrée principall Elemen­tes, wythout sauour and wythout smel, as water, fire, and the ayre. The Lawrell is didicated to triumphes, and Emperours beare therof on their heades, principally bycause it kepeth the persones from thunder.

The. xvj. booke treateth of wylde trées.

THe Acornes commeth of Oke trées of dyuers sortes, for some there are better than others, and in time of famine the good Acornes dried may be grinded to make breade. Acornes be most swée­test when that they are newe, and ros­ted in the imbers. The Oke is beste for to builde withall eyther houses or [Page] shippes bycause it will longest laste. If an Oke trée be smitten with the thunder, it beareth fewe Acornes or none, and is so bitter, that no beaste wil eate therof but Hogges, and when they are very hungry. The Beache trée, beareth a kinde of maste the whiche reioyceth the Hogges being fedde with them, their fleshe is soone sodden, and verye profitable for the stomacke. Taxus is a trée lyke vnto a Pyne trée. In Arcadia it is so ve­nemous that no beast dare sleepe vn­der the shadow of it, nor eate thereof. The Cuppes that are made of thys woodde to putte Wyne in, are vene­mous. It is sayde that the venime of this woodde ceasseth, when there is nayled therein a nayle of brasse. An Esshe trée the leaues thereof is mor­tiferous to Mares, but it hurteth not the beastes that shadowe vnder it, to drinke the lyquor of it, is good against the byting of Serpents, for neuer ser­pent [Page] resteth vnder the shadow therof, and he that wyll compasse a Serpent about a fire with ye leaues of this trée, the Serpent will rather take the fire than escape through those leaues. The Tilia of some called the Teybe, hath Male and Female, for the Female a­lone beareth floures and séede. The luyce of the barke & leaues is swéete, but no beast will eate of the fruite, be­twene the barke and the woodde there are many little thinne pelles or skins with the which are made Ropes. The Mapple if it were so great and so high as the Cedar, should be preferred by­cause of his propernesse. Wyth this trée is made Tables being of a blac­kishe colour. The Boxe trée spreadeth very large and thicke, and is very pro­per bycause of his shadow. There are certaine wylde trées, that neuer léese their leafe, as the Cedar, the Ienuper, the Holly trée, and others. The Ienu­per for his leafe hath a sharpe pricke [Page] or thorne. There are certayne places in Egipt whereas some trées wyll not grow. Other trees there are that leaue their leaues sooner than the reste, and the difference thereof commeth, for that their fruite is sooner rype than o­thers: but Almonde trées, the Esshe, and others, haue their fruite wyth the first, and caste their leaues with the laste. The Mulberrye trée bringeth hir fruite late, and falleth hir leaues wyth the first. The trées after the ma­ner of beastes doe conceyue in Ianu­ary with the winde, some sooner than others, and after a straight wynde, beginneth the floures to appeare, and nourishe the fruite. Uynes in some places beareth twice a yeare. The rootes are dyuers according to the dy­uersitie of trées. Esculus as wryteth Virgill is a trée, that hath such profun­ditie or déepenesse in the earth, as it hath aboue the ground in height. The Ciper trée is slowe in growing with­out [Page] fruit, hauing bitter leaues, violent smell, and naughty shadow. The trées haue moystu [...] which is their bloude, with the whiche they [...]ut as well as beastes. They haue skin, fl [...]she, bloud, s [...]newes, vaines, bones, & mary. There are trées of a maruellous height, and greatnesse. A trée lyke to a Pine cal­led Larix was six score foote long, and so thicke that foure men coulde scant f [...]dome it. In Germany they cut such great trées for to swimme on the Ry­uers, and such there are as will bolde thirtie men. Commonly wood wil flote aboue the water, but some there are so waighty that they wil sinke. Diuers woods there are that wyll neuer rotte, as Cedar, Boxe, Ienuper, and others. Ciper, Box, and Cedar, of their owne nature doe neuer cracke nor crayse, nor are eaten of wormes. There were brought to Rome Cypers that were 400. yeares olde, which séemed as if they were new. Wormes hurte many [Page] woods, but neuer Cipers, bycause of his bitternesse, neither Box bycause of his strength. Alexander the great his souldiers found in an Iland of the red sea, ships that had bene made two hū ­dreth yeres before, of a certaine kinde of wood, not vsed on the water. The Oliue trées last two yeare, and Uines sixe hundreth yeares.

It shall suffise at this presente with the one halfe of Plinies booke, the other halfe is of husbandry, with the nature of Uynes, that vnto vs is well knowē by experience, as wel by the diuersitie and situation of places, as of the pro­pertie of euery hearbe seruing for me­dicine, the which I leaue out for pro­lixitie & obscuritie of the same. Also it serueth more for the science of medi­cines, than to vs. Making vpon this an ende, with prayse to God the father that hath vs in his tuicion.

FINIS.

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