The TRVE GAINE: more in worth then all the goods in the world.

Philip. c. 3. v. 7.

Printed by Iohn Legat, Printer to the Vniuersitie of Cam­bridge. 1601.

To the Right worship­full, Sir Edward Denny Knight.

IT is a Conclusion of our religiō worthy to be cō ­sidered: That Christ alone is our Mediator, Iustifier, Propitiatour, Sauiour, by workes and merits which he him­selfe wrought within himselfe, and not by any works or merits which he worketh in vs by his spirit. The scripture saith thus much in expresse wordes. Iustified freely by the redēption THAT IS IN CHRIST IESVS. Ro. 3. 24. He hath by HIM­SELFE purged our sinnes. Hebr. 1. 3. He was made sinne for vs that we should be made the righteousnesse of God IN HIM. 2. Cor. 5. 21. IN HIM are yee complete. Coloss. 3. 10. By his OWNE BLOOD he entred once into the holy place, and obtained [Page] eternall redemption. Heb. 9. 12. Againe Christ is said to purge our consciences from dead workes by his blood: because he offered himselfe by his eternall spirit without spot to his father. v. 14. And cō ­mon reason tels vs as much. For if men be mystically vnited to Christ, and by this vni­on receiue the spirit of Christ, and by the spirit doe good workes, and consequently merit eternal life, they are thē becom part­ners with Christ, and are receiued into fel­lowship with him in the worke of mans re­demption: whereas he in the Act of our re­conciliation with God, admits neither de­putie nor partner.

This conclusion beeing thus of infallible trueth, it serues greatly to exalt the grace of God, to abase nature, and to beate downe the pride of all Iustitiarie persons and reli­gions. And for the further explaning of it, serues this Treatise following: which I present to your Worship. And the reason of my doing is this. I remember, almost two yeares agoe, in speech you entred into com­mendatiōs of that golden text, Phil. 3. v. 7. and withall gaue signification of your desire, that some thing might be set downe, where­by [Page] you might be brought to a further vn­derstanding of that place of scripture. Ther­fore to satisfie your desire, I haue here pen­ned a short exposition of it. And I haue further presumed to publish it in your name desiring it may be a testimonie of a thanke­full minde, for your loue & fauour towards me.

Thus wishing to your Worship continu­ance and increase of loue to the holy worde of God, I take my leaue. Anno. 1601. Ian. 20.

Your Worships in all dutie to command W. Perkins.

The text, Phil. 3. 7. containes a comparison of Vnequalls.

  • Protasis, the first part. I count all things Dung for Christ. Here con­sider
    • What things are doung. All things.
      • Vertues and works be­fore his conuersion. pag. 5.
      • Vertues and works af­ter his conuersion. pag. 12.
    • How they are dung, shewed by a gradati­on. pag. 22.
      • 1. I account all things losse.
      • 2. I depriue my selfe of them.
      • 3. I account them doung.
  • Apodosis, the second part. Christ is my gaine pag. 33. Here consider
    • the amplifica­tion by a Gra­dation.
      • 1. I esteeme the know­ledge of Christ an ex­lent thing. pag. 46.
      • 2. I desire to gaine Christ. pag. 57.
      • 3. I desire to be found in Christ in the day of iudgement pag. 61.
    • the de­grees of Gaine in Christ.
      • 1. Iustice by the faith of Christ. pag. 67.
      • 2. Fellowship with Crist in the vertue of his
        • Resurrecti­on p. 92.
        • Death. p. 106.
      • 3. Attainment to the resurrecti­on of the dead.
Philip. 3. 7.

But the things which were advantage to me, the same I accounted losse for Christ.

Yea, doubtlesse I count all things but losse, for the excellent knowledge of Christ Iesus my Lord, for whome I haue counted all things losse, and doe iudge them to be dongue, that I might winne Christ,

And be found in him—.

THE scope of these words, is this. In the second ver. Paul ad­monisheth the Phi­lippians to take heed of certaine counter­feit. Apostles which ioyned Christ and circumcision in the cause of their saluation: and put confi­dence in the flesh, that is, in the outward works of the ceremoniall & morall law. And that his Admonition might take the better place, he vseth two reasons. [Page 2] The first propounded in the 3. v. is this; True circumcision is to worship God in spirit, to reioyce in Christ, and not to put any confidence in the flesh. The se­cond reason is framed thus. If any man might put confidēce in outward things, then I much more: but not I: therefore no man. The proposition or first part of the reason is propounded in the 4. v. and confirmed in the fift and sixt. The second part, or, assumption [but I doe not put confidence in outward things] is confirmed in the 7. and eight verses, thus: All things are losse to me in re­spect of Christ: therefore I put no con­fidence in any thing out of Christ. And this is the very drift of the former wordes.

In the second place the proper sense and meaning of this portion of Scrip­ture is to be considered. And for this cause, we are to be aduertised of sundrie things in the wordes themselues. And first of all, let it be obserued, that Paul in the 7. v. saith, in the time past, I haue counted all things losse: and in the next verse, in the time present, I doe count all [Page 3] things losse. The former speach is meant of that time in which he was first called to the knowledge of Christ: the second is spoken of the time, when he had long continued an Apostle of Christ, and writte this epistle to the Philippians. This distinction of times in one and the same word, makes much to the cleering of the doctrine, that shall afterward be deliuered. Secondly, whereas in our translation, it is saide in the eight verse, For whome I haue counted all things losse, the words are too skant, and do not ful­ly expresse the meaning of the holy Ghost. For the words fully translated, signifie, I haue made all things losse, or, I haue cast away all things, or, I haue depri­ued my selfe of all things for Christ. And whereas Paul had said before, [I count all things losse,] his meaning is to ampli­fie his owne words, by saying, I depriue my selfe of all things, and iudge them dunge for Christ. Thirdly, the word translated [Doung] signifieth such things in the in­tralls of beasts, as beeing vnfit for mans vse, are cast to dogges: and by it Paul signifies, that he did not onely esteeme [Page 4] all things as losses, and depriue himselfe of them, but also cast them away with loathing, in a minde neuer to seeke the recouerie of them. Lastly, it must be knowne, that Paul in these verses vseth a similitude borrowed from the mar­chant man; and it may be framed on this manner. The marchant in hope of a treasure, is cōtent to esteeme his com­modities no commodities but losses; yea he is further content to cast them out into the sea, and to esteeme thē as things cast to dogges, that he may obtaine his intended treasure: so, saith Paul, doe I count all my former prerogatiues as losse, and am content to depriue my selfe of them, yea to loath them as dung, for the obtaining of Christ.

Furthermore the summe and sub­stance of the wordes, is a comparison of things vnequall, and it may be formed thus: All things are losse to me for Christ: and Christ is my gaine. The first part of the comparison is of Pauls losses, and it is amplified two waies. First he sets downe, what things be his losse: and they are of two sorts. Priui­ledges, [Page 5] vertues, and workes before his conuersion when he was a Pharisie: a­gaine priuiledges, vertues, and workes after his conuersion when he was an A­postle of Christ: the first are mentioned in the 7. v. the latter in the eight. Se­condly Paul sets downe, how all things are losses to him by a gradation, thus: I count all things losse: I depriue my selfe of them: I count them dung.

The second part of the comparison is of Pauls Gaine. And it is amplified by a contrarie gradation, thus: I esteeme the knowledge of Christ an excellent thing: I desire to gaine Christ: and I desire to be found in him. Of these points in order: and first of Pauls losses before his con­uersion, in these words: ‘For the things that were vantage to me, I counted losse for Christ.’ That these things may be well knowne, let vs yet more narrowly search the mea­ning of these wordes. The things that were vantage to Paul are of three sorts. First his priuiledges, that he was borne a Iewe, that is, a member of the church: and againe, that he was circumcised and [Page 6] brought vp in the straight sect of the Pharisies: secondly his vertues, namely his iustice & zeale in his religion: third­ly his workes, whereby he for outward carriage obserued the Ceremoniall and Morall law without reproofe. And all these things are called his aduantage, be­cause he put his confidence in thē, and thought to merit euerlasting life there­by, when he was a Pharisie. He addes further, that he counted these his aduan­tages to be his losse; because so soone as he knew Christ, his confidence ceased, his former merits were no merits, but as things lost and cast away: yet not sim­ply, but for Christ, that is, that he might gaine Christ, and be found in Christ, as he expounds himselfe in the words fol­lowing.

The meaning thus laide downe, sun­drie things may be learned. The first, that it was an heresie of the Pharisies, to put confidence in their works, & to think that they could merite eternal life by thē: for here Paul saith, that being a pharisie, his workes were his gaine and aduantage in the cause of his saluation. [Page 7] And hence we learne, what to iudge of the popish religion, which teacheth in substance the very same doctrine of cō ­fidence in workes, and of the merit of saluation thereby. And therefore the papists of our time are the children of the old pharisies, reuiuing and renu­ing the old heresie touching merit, with new and fresh colours. If they alleadge, that they ascribe merit to the works not of the ceremoniall but of the morall law, and to workes not of nature but of grace; I answer, that the pharisies did the same, as the pharisie acknowledgeth in his praier, when he saith, I thanke thee, O Lord, I am not as other men, &c.

Secondly in Pauls example beeing a Pharisie, we learne, that it is the pride & arrogancie of mans nature, to be some­thing within himselfe, and to erect vp something vnto himselfe to be his righ­teousnesse and a meanes of his saluati­on, out of Christ. The iust (saith Haba­cuk) liues by his faith, Hab. 2. 4. but he whose soule is not right in him, puffes vp himselfe, or builds towers of defence to himselfe by vaine confidence out of God. The pro­digall [Page 8] sonne must haue his part alone by himselfe from his father. Paul saith of the Iewes,Ro [...]. 10. 3. that they established their owne righteousnesse, and would not be subiect to the righteousnesse of God. This beeing so, let vs learne to see and detest this pride in our selues. For where it raignes and takes place, there Christ is not truely acknowledged: and when men beginne to knowe Christ, this hidden and spirituall pride giues place. And further by this, we learne not to maruell, that Turkes and Iewes denie Christ, and that Papists in the cause of their saluation, beside the passi­on of Christ, foiste in something of their owne, namely their owne merits and sa­tisfactions: for it is the proude nature of man to set vp himself in whole or in part, and to relie himselfe vpon something of his own out of Christ. No maruell then, that such as be otherwise learned and wise, liue & die in the opinion of iusti­fication by their owne workes.

Thirdly whereas Paul accompts things of aduantage to be his losse, we learne that no priuiledges out of Christ [Page 9] minister true comfort or true happines. It is a priuiledge to haue known Christ and to haue eaten & drunken with him: but of such Christ saith,Luk. 13. 16. Depart from me, I knowe you not. It is a priuiledge to be of the kindred of our Sauiour Christ, but it is of no moment:Mar. 2. 35. for Christ saith, Who is my mother and brethren? he that doth the will of my father, is my brother, sister, and mother. It is a priuiledge that the virgin Mary was the mother of Christ: but if shee had not as well borne him in her heart by faith as shee bare him in her wombe, shee had not bin saued. It is a priuiledge to prophesie in the name of Christ,Math. 7. but of such Christ saith, Depart from me ye workers of iniquitie. Lastly it is a priuiledge to be indued with all kind of learning, of artes, and tongues; but alas, all is nothing: for if a man had al wit, wisdome, and learning, and could speake in all matters with the tongue of men and angels, vnlesse he be found in Christ, he is no better in the sight of god then a damned wretch. This being so, we must learne first of all, to moderate our care and our affections for worldly [Page 10] profits, honours, pleasures, & our prin­cipall care must euermore be cast on Christ. Secondly, such persons as liue an honest and ciuill life, and stand vpon this, that they are no theiues, no murde­rers, no adulterers, no blasphemers, but in outward duties shewe loue to God and man, they must I say, take heed, least they deceiue themselues, building vpon false groundes. For though ciuill hone­stie be a thing commendable before men, yet is it not sufficient to saue vs be­fore God. And Paul, who was a straite obseruer of the lawe, after he came to the knowledge of Christ counted all his morall obedience, in which he had for­merly trusted, but losse and dungue for Christ.

Fourthly it hath bin the doctrine of the popish Church this many yeres, that before a man can be in Christ and be iustified, he must first of all prepare and dispose himselfe to receiue his iustifica­tion: and that when he is sufficiently di­sposed, he doth merit of congruitie that god should infuse righteousnes, wherby of a sinner he is made no sinner & righ­teous [Page 11] before God. But I demaund of the Patrons of this doctrine; whether, when the workes of preparation are done, the doer is in Christ or out of Christ? If he be in Christ, he is also iustified before he is iustified. If he be as yet out of Christ, Paul hath giuen the sentēce that the said workes are to be esteemed as losse, and that the merit of cōgruitie is not meate for them that desire to feede on Christ, but rather food for dogges.

Lastly hence we learne, howe Christ is to be receiued of vs. Such as would truely come to Christ and receiue him, must make losses of al things: they must come naked and emptied of all their owne righteousnesse. As men in a ship­wracke cast out their commodities, and when there is no remedie leaue their ship and betake themselues to the sea, & thus come swimming to the shore: euen so must all men first forsake all, & then come to Christ. Beggars, that they may obtaine their almes, come in their rag [...] vnfolding legges and armes, that their sores and botches may be seene. Bena­dad king of Syria, that he might recouer [Page 12] the fauour of the king of Israel, castes off his crowne and royall robes: he and his men come in sackcloath with halters about their heads: and thus he obtaines his desire. In like manner comming to Christ, we must lay aside all opinion of our owne goodnesse, and in abasing of our selues follow beggars fashions, and with Benhadad cloath our selues with signes of guiltinesse and confusion of face. We must first be annihilated and vtterly in respect of goodnesse be made nothing in our selues, that we may be what we are out of our selues in Christ. There is no entring into the kingdome of heauē, except we receiue it & Christ as a little child in all meeknesse and hu­militie. For there must be nothing in vs to receiue Christ, but meere faith re­sting on meere mercy. Let all such think on this, as desire to be in Christ, and to receiue true comfort by him.

Thus much of Pauls losses before his conuersion: nowe come to be consi­dered the things which were his losses after his conuersion: and they are set downe in the words following, But, [Page 13] [doubtlesse I doe thinke all things losses for the excellent knowledge of Iesus Christ my Lord.] That these losses may be the bet­ter knowne, let vs a little consider the meaning of the words. Whereas before Paul had said, that herefore he counted things to be losse vnto him for Christ, that had beene his aduantage: some man might happily thinke, this is but rash iudgem [...]nt in Paul; he therefore, to cut off this surmise saith, Daubtlesse I count all things losse, that is, that I may not be thought to speake rashly, I say more, that I doe nowe account all things losse, and I speake it confidently, as beeing re­solued what I say. When he saith, I doe count, he speakes in the time present of himselfe as beeing not only a Christian but also an Apostle of Christ. And whē he saith, ALL things, the generall speech must be obserued, for he excep­teth nothing pertaining to him, but his knowledge and faith in Christ. Here therefore we must first of all vnderstand the priuiledge of an Apostle: secondly all inward & Christian vertues, as hope, feare, loue of God, good conscience, [Page 14] &c. for of al the inward gifts none is ex­cepted but faith (as I haue said.) Thirdly here we must vnderstand works not of nature but of grace, done and effected by the spirit of God in vs. For in the verse following he doth reiect his owne righteousnes which is of the law. Now he saith of all these, that they are his los­ses for Christ. But how are they losses? The speach must warily be vnderstood, least it be offensiue. They are losses not in respect of godly conuersation: for they are the causes thereof, and they are meanes of shewing our thankfulnes to God and loue to man. Now then they are losses onely in respect of iustificati­on and saluation: when they are repu­ted and maintained as meritorious cau­ses thereof either in whole or in part. Though, when they are rightly vsed & applied, they are the excellent gifts of God: yet when they are brought into the Acte of iustification and saluation, they become as losses and dung. And this I take to be the meaning of these words. To the like purpose the prophet Isai saith in the name of the whole [Page 15] church confessing hir sinnes,Isa. 64. 6▪ All our righteousnes is as a cloath vtterly to be cast away. Gal. 2. 21. And Paul to the Galatians: If righteousnes be by the law, Christ died without cause, or, in vaine: that is, if the righteousnes of the law be our aduan­tage, Christ must be our losse: and on the contrarie, if he be our aduantage, the righteousnesse of the law must be our losse.

This doctrine of Paul, that all vertues and workes both of nature and grace are losses in the case of our saluation, soundes not in mans reason, and there be many things brought to the contra­ry. First, it is alleadged, that God doeth accept and crowne our works: and ther­fore that they are not losses. I answer: God doeth as it were keepe a double court. One of iustice, the other of mer­cie. In the court of iustice he giues iudgement by the lawe, and accurseth euery man that doth not continue in all things written in the lawe to doe them. In this court nothing can stand but the passion and righteousnesse of Christ, & for the best workes that we can doe, we [Page 16] may not looke for any acceptation or reward: but vse the plea of Dauid, En­ter not, O Lord, into iudgement with thy seruant, for no flesh shall be iustifi­ed in thy sight. Nowe in the court of grace and mercie, God hath to deale with his owne children that stand be­fore him iustified and reconciled by Christ. And the obedience of such he accepteth in this court, and mercifully rewardeth, though otherwise it be im­perfect; yet not for the merit thereof, but for the merit and worthinesse of Christ. Thus then good works in rigour of iustice are worthy condemnation, & are accepted of mercie procured by the merit of Christ. Secondly it is alleadged that workes are necessarie to saluation, and therefore not to be reputed losses. I answer: workes may be considered either as causes of saluation, or onely as a waie directing thereto. If they be con­sidered as causes, they are not necessary, but in this respect they are dung. If they be respected as a way leading and dire­cting to eternall life, they are indeede necessarie thus, & no otherwise. Third­ly, [Page 17] it is obiected that the law requires workes, and the law must be satisfied, & therfore that he which is iustified, must be iustified by workes. The answere is, that whosoeuer is iustified and saued, is iustified and saued by works. But works must be distinguished. Some are perso­nall workes done in and by our selues. These neither iustifie nor saue any man, but in the case of saluation are losse and doung. Besides these, there be workes, that are out of vs, wrought in and by the person of our Sauiour Christ, name­ly the workes of obedience in satisfying and fulfilling the lawe. These indeede are the workes, which iustifie and saue vs, & none that proceede frō vs. To this effect Paul saith,Rom 3. 24. that we are iustified free­ly by the redemption that is in Christ. Last­ly it is alleadged, that if all vertues be losse for Christ, then faith it selfe. I an­swer: Faith must diuersly be considered, first of all, as a vertue working & bring­ing forth many good fruites in vs. And thus it is to be reputed losse, as all other vertues are. Secondly it must be consi­dered not as a vertue, but as an instru­ment [Page 18] or hand not to giue or worke any thing, but to apprehend and receiue Christ and his benefits. And thus it is no losse, but is a thing excepted in this text. Nowe then we see that the doctrine of Paul is manifest, that all vertues and workes both of nature and grace, are meere losses in the cause of our iustifica­tion and saluation.

Hence sundrie things may be lear­ned. The first, that the most holy works of holy men cannot iustifie or merit e­ternall life. When they are brought within the Act of iustification as causes, Paul saith they are but losse, and as of­fles to be cast to dogges. Let this be no­ted and remembred for euer against all iustitiarie papists. Who, if they would but seriously consider this one text, they might be farre better resolued then they are.

Secondly, hence the doctrine of our our church is plainely gathered, name­ly, that we are saued and iustified by faith alone. For all things except our knowledge and faith in Christ are made as doung. And that this our doctrine [Page 19] may not be scandalous, sundry things must be remembred. The first is the right meaning of the doctrine, which is, that there is nothing within vs, that is a­ny cause either efficient, materiall, for­mall, or finall of iustification but faith. The second, that faith is no principall cause, but onely an instrument. The third, that faith is no instrument to pro­cure or worke our iustification and sal­uation, but an instrument to receiue or to apprehend our iustification giuen by the father, procured by the sonne, ap­plied by the holy Ghost. The last, that faith must be considered as a cause, or else, as a waie of saluation. If, as an in­ternall cause in vs, it onely iustifieth and consequently saueth vs. If as a waie, it doth not saue alone. For other vertues and workes though they be no causes, yet are they waies to eternall life as well as faith. Here then when papists make outcries against vs, saying that we looke to be saued by faith alone: the true and plaine answere to them is this. We con­sider faith two waies: first as a cause within vs, not meriting any way, but in­strumentally [Page 20] apprehending pardon in Christ and applying it to vs for our e­ternall happinesse. Secondly, faith may be considered as a way in which we are to walke for the attainement of euerla­sting life. In the first sense faith alone iu­stifieth and saueth, and nothing els with­in vs. To this doe the learned fathers a­gree▪ Homil. de Hu­mil. Basil saith, This is perfect reioycing in God, when a man is not puffed vp for his owne iustice, but acknowledgeth that he wants iustice, fide sola in Christum se iu­stificari. and that he is iustified by faith alone in Christ. Hilarie: That is re­mitted of Christ by faith, In Math. c. 9. which the lawe could not loosen: for faith alone iustifies. Ambrose:in 3 cap. ad Rom. They are iustified freely which Nihil operates. doe nothing, nor repaie like for like, are iustified by faith alone, through the gift of God. Againe, in his commentarie vpon the epist. to the Corinth.In 1. Cor. 1. This is appointed of God, that he which beleeues in Christ should be saued without worke, by faith a­lone receiuing remission of sinnes. Hierom: God iustifieth by faith alone. in Rom▪ c. 10.

Neuertheles, if we speake of the way to life, then we are not saued onely by faith. For though faith be the onely in­strument [Page 21] to apprehend Christ, yet is it not the onely way to life: repentance al­so is the way, yea all vertues & all works are the waie.2. Cor. 4. 17. [...] In this sense, affliction is said to worke vnto vs a more excellent weight of glorie: not as a cause; but as a way giuing direction. And mothers are said to be saued by bearing of children, 1. Tim. 2. 15. not as by a cause, but as by a straight and narrow way.Iam. 2. 22. Againe Abrahams faith went not alone, but had a kind of co-o­peration with his works: faith & works both beeing considered as a way to hap­pinesse or as markes in a way. In this sense the fathers haue ascribed saluation to many things,Libro de gratia & lib. arbitrio. via regni non causa regnandi, Epitom. diu. in­stitut c. 9. not as to causes, but as to waies. Bernard said well, that workes are the way to the kingdome of heauen and not the causes of raigning. Lactātius saith, Great is the helpe of Repentance: which, whosoeuer taketh away, homil. 38. in. Ioh. cuts off to himselfe the way of life. Chrysostome: Some by watching, by sleeping on the bare ground, by tewing their bodies with daily labour doe blot out their sinnes: but thou maiest obtaine the same by a more easie way, that is, by for­giuing. Thus many hundred places of [Page 22] the fathers are to be vnderstood, when they ascribe remission of sins to martyr­dome to fasting, praier, workes of mer­cie, and such like.

Thirdly here is laid downe the foun­dation of true humilitie. For if all our vertues and workes be losses in the case of our saluation, then all boasting is ex­cluded, and we are to take nothing to our selues but shame and confusion and giue al glorie to God. Yea the more our vertues are and workes, if we place any confidence in them, the greater are our losses.

Thus we see what things are losses to Paul: in the next place let vs consider howe they are losses. This Paul settes downe by a gradation thus, I count them losse, I make them my losses, I count them as doung. This gradation is nothing els but a repetition of one and the same thing inlarged and amplified in speech. Nowe repetitions in scripture are not idle and vaine, as they are oftentimes in the wri­tings of men, but they commonly signi­fie two things, namely the certainty and the necessitie of the thing repeated: and [Page 23] therefore in this place, they signifie the certaintie and the necessitie of Pauls los­ses.

Certaine they are: because he that will be saued by Christ must certainely indure these losses without recouerie. The foundation of this certenty lies in an impossibilitie of merit by any works of man: which I will make manifest by fiue reasons. The first is this: It is a prin­cipall part of Christian inherent righ­teousnesse to haue and keepe a good conscience: now Paul expresly excludes it from iustification saying, I know nothing by my selfe, yet am I not there­by iustified. 1. Cor. 4. 4. The second is this, Paul saith, Eph. 2. 9. we are not saued by workes: nowe he meanes no other workes but such as followe faith, and are done by the spirit of God. And this appeares by the reasons which he v­seth, that we are created to good works, and againe that they are ordained that we should walke in them. The third: before a worke can meritte, it must please God: before the worke please God, the worker must please him: [Page 24] before the worker please him he must be reconciled to God and perfectly iu­stified. Iustification therefore goes in order before good workes, and for this cause workes cannot be brought with­in the acte of iustification as causes. Good workes make not good men in whole or in part; but men first of all made good by the goodnesse of Christ imputed, make good workes by their goodnesse. The fourth is this: The hu­manitie of Christ is the most excellent of all creatures in heauen and earth: yet beeing considered by it selfe, it cannot possibly merit at Gods hand. In a work properly meritorious there be three cō ­ditions. First, the doer thereof must do it by himselfe, and not by another, for then the praise is his by whome he doth it, and not his owne. Secondly the worke to be done, must not be a debt or dutie, for then the doer deserues no­thing. Thirdly there must be a propor­tion betweene the worke and the re­ward of life eternall. Now the manhood of Christ considered apart by it selfe, cannot performe these three conditions. [Page 25] For it doth what it doth by the spirit of God, whereby it was conceiued and is filled without measure. Againe it is a creature, and therefore whatsoeuer it is, hath, or can doe, it oweth all to God. Lastly it cannot doe a worke proporti­onall to eternall glorie: because it takes all of God and can giue nothing to him. If then it be demanded, howe this man­hood of Christ merits in our behalfe: I answere, not by it selfe, but by meanes of the personall vnion, whereby it is ex­alted and preferred into the vnitie of the second person the eternall Word of the father. Hence it is that Christ meriteth: none can merit of God but God. Now then if Christ merit onely in this regard, no meere creature, man, or angell can possibly merit by any worke. The fifth reasō is this: There be two kinds of trās­gression of the lawe, one when a worke is directly against the law: the other is, whē that is don which the law requires, but not in that manner and perfection the lawe requires. The second kind of transgression is in euery good worke which is done by men vpon earth: [Page 26] now where any transgression is, there must be pardon: where pardon is, there is no merit.

That this doctrine of the certentie of our losses may yet the better be cleared, I will set downe the supposed grounds of merit, and discouer their weaknesse. They are two: the first is the Promise that God hath made to workes, where­by he hath bound himselfe to reward them with eternall glorie. I answer, that this very promise is made of the good pleasure, and meere good will of God: and of the same goodnes it is, that any man is a doer of any good worke, either by nature or grace. Therefore, if a man could fulfill the whole law, he should not merit at Gods hand. Thus saith the Lord, Exod. 20. 6. That he will shew mercie vpon thousands of them that loue him and keepe his commaundements. The second ground is, That vertue of meriting is deriued frō Christ the head to his members by diuine influence. I answer, it is a thing vnpossible. For the vertue of meriting is in Christ not sim­ply as he is Man, but as he is in one per­son [Page 27] God and Man. The worke which meriteth is done or acted euen by the manhood; but the merit of the worke is from the Godhead, or from the ex­cellencie of the person. Now then if this vertue be in Christ, not as he is man, but in respect he is Man-god, or God-man; it can not be deriued to vs that are but men, vnlesse euery beleeuer should be Deified, & made of a meere man God­man, which is impossible. Therefore there is no capablenes or possibilitie of merit in the worke of any meere man, or creature whatsoeuer. For this cause the true church of God euer detested humane merit. The merit of congruitie before iustification is a Pelagian con­ceit, and was neuer maintained of the orthodoxe Fathers. Stapleton confes­seth thus much:De orig. [...]. l. 1. c. 4. The merit of congruitie (saith he) in respect of the first grace was of old hissed out: neither was it euer admit­ted of the better sort of schoolemen, as of Thomas in his Summe, and his latter writings, nor of his followers. And the [...] [...] condigno, me­rit of condignitie, whereby workes are said of their owne dignitie and that pro­perly, [Page 28] to deserue the increase of the first iustification, and eternall life, was not re­ceiued of the learned in the church for more then a 1000. yeares after Christ.In Dominica 18. post. Trin. in An. 10 [...]0. Radulphus Ardens a very learned man in his time saith thus: Seeing by one grace we come to an other, [...] dicun­tur [...] impropriè. they are called merits and that improperly, For as Augustin wit­nesseth, God crownes onely his owne grace in vs. Againe,In dominica Septuagsimae. No man may thinke that God is bound as it were by a bargaine, to repay that which he hath promised. For as God is free to promise, so is he free in respect of repaying, especially considering that as well merits as rewardes are his grace. For God crownes nothing els in vs but his grace: because Distictè agere if he would deale with vs in extre­mitie, none liuing should be iustified in his sight. And hereupon the Apostle, who la­boured more then all, saith: I thinke that the affictions of this time are not wor­thie the glorie that shall be reuealed. Ther­fore this couenant or bargaine is nothing els but a voluntarie promise. De mensuratio­ne crucis an 1080. Anselme af­ter him saith: If a man should serue God a thousand yeares, and that most zealously, Non merere ur ex condigno. he should not vvorthely deserue to be [Page 29] in the kingdome of heauen so much as halfe a day. Bern de Annunc. Virg. serm 1. an. 1140. S. Bernard saith, Touching eternall life, we know that the sufflerings of this time are not worthie of the glorie to come; no not if one man should suffer all. For the merits of men are not such, that eternall life may be due for them, or that God should doe some iniurie if he gaue it not. For to let passe, that all merits are the gifts of God, and so man is rather debter to God for them, then God to man, what are all merits to so great a glorie? Lastly, who is better then the Prophet, to whome the Lord giueth so worthie a testimonie, saying: I haue found a man according to mine owne heart: for all that he had need to say to God, Enter not into iudgement with thy ser­uant. Againe in the processe of time, when the merit of condignitie had takē place, it was not generally receiued: for it was reiected of sundrie schoolemen and others, as of Gregorie of Arimine, of Durand, of Waldensis, of Burgensis and Scotus. Wherefore to conclude, it now appeares to be an infallible certen­tie, that he which desires to be saued by Christ, must indure the losse of all his [Page 30] workes and vertues whatsoeuer, in the cause of his owne iustification.

Nowe then if this doctrine be so cer­taine and infallible, as it is: thē also must we be setled in this point without doub­ting, that the present church of Rome erreth grieuously, in that it magnifieth the merit of workes. Yea in this regard it reuerseth the very foundation of true religion. For if they make aduantage in the matter of saluation by their workes, Christ must needes vpon infallible cer­tentie be their losse: because Paul makes all workes losse, that Christ may be ad­uantage. Therefore farre be it from vs all, to haue any dealing or contract of societie with that church, least we be partakers of her dangerous and feare­full losses.

Againe in that all vertues & workes of grace, are but losses for Christ. We must not onely in our first conuersion, but euer afterward though we be iusti­fied and sanctified euen in the pang of death by meere faith rest on the meere mercie of God, and apprehend naked Christ, that is, Christ seuered in the case [Page 31] of saluation, from all respect of all ver­tues and workes whatsoeuer. For there is nothing that may be opposed to the seuere iudgement of God, but meere Christ. If we doe presume to oppose any of our doings to the sentence of the law, hell, death, condemnation, we are sure to goe by the losses.

Thus much of the certentie of Pauls losses: now follows the necessitie of thē. They are necessarie in as much as with­out thē, no man can haue part in Christ. For the merit of our vertues and good workes, and the grace of God in Christ can not stand together: yea they are cō ­trarie as fire and water, and one ouer­throweth the other in the cause of iusti­fication and saluation. Paul to signifie this contrarietie saith,Rom. 11. 6. If Election be of grace, it is not of workes: and if it be of workes,Gal. 5. 4. it is not of grace. And againe, If ye be iustified by the law, ye are a­bolished from Christ. And to the same purpose Ambrose saith, Grace is whol­ly receiued, or wholly lost: and Augu­stine, It is no way grace, that is not freely giuen euery way. Hence it followes, that [Page 32] the present religion of the church of Rome abolisheth Christ, in as much as it maintaines and magnifies the merit of good workes. And this may be gathe­red by the very doctrine of that church. For it teacheth that men must be saued by their praiers, fastings, almes, pilgri­mages, buildings of churches, chappels, bridges, &c. What then shall the passion of Christ doe? whereto serues it? They answer, that it frees vs from death, and giues to our works the merit of eternall life, and makes them meritoriously to increase our iustification. Hence it fol­lowes, that Christ is no more but the first cause of our saluation, and that we our selues are secondarie causes vnder him and with him. And thus he is made of a Sauiour no Sauiour. For either he must be a full and perfect Sauiour in himselfe, or no Sauiour. Secondly by the former necessitie we learne, that whosoeuer will be saued by the merit of Christ, must come vnto him without vertues or workes of his owne, not carr­ying in heart so much as the least con­fidence in them, esteeming himselfe to [Page 33] be a most vile, wretched, and miserable sinner, as the Publican did, who praied, Lord, be mercifull to me a sinner.

Hitherto of Pauls losses: now follows the second part of the comparison, tou­ching Pauls gaine, But Christ is my gaine. A sentence to be remembred, and to be written in the tables of our heart for e­uer. And the reason thereof is manifest. Christ our Mediatour God and man, is the onely Fountaine of all good things that are or can be thought on, whether spirituall or temporall. Saint Iohn saith, Of his fulnes, Ioh. 1. 16. we receiue grace for grace. Againe Paul saith,Coloss. 2. 9, 10 In him al the treasures of knowledge and wisdome are hidde: and, Ye are complete in him. 1. Tim. 2. 6. And he calls Christ our Ransome, or counterprice. And as he makes Adam the roote of all euill in mankinde, so makes he Christ the roote of all grace and goodnes. For the better clearing of this doctrine, two points are to be handled: When Christ is our gaine? and how? Touching the time when, I set downe three things. He is our gaine in this life: he is our gaine in death: and he is our gaine after death. [Page 34] To returne to the first: He is our gaine in life, if we turne from our euill waies, and beleeue in him; in as much as he hath gained for vs many benefits, which 1 I will reduce to tenne heads. The first is, pardon of sinne, without tearme of time, whether past, present, or to come. Yet must we here remēber that pardon of sinne is not giuen absolutely whether men repent or no, but vpon condition 2 of repentance. The second, is the impu­tation of Christs obedience in fulfilling the law, for our iustification before God. From the former benefit ariseth our freedome from hell and from the law, in respect of the curse thereof: and from the second ariseth a Right to eter­nall life; whereof the possession is reser­ued 3 to the life to come. The third is our Adoption, whereby we are the children of God, and brethren of Christ. And hence haue we a Right of lordship or dominion ouer the whole world, and all things contained therein, whether in heauen or in earth: which right was lost by Adam, and is now resto­red by Christ. Indeede wicked men [Page 33] and infidels haue and vse the things of this life at their wills, and that by Gods permission: but yet they receiue and inioy them no otherwise, then children of traytours doe the goods of their pa­rents, who peraduenture are suffered to take benefite of some part of them for the preseruing of their liues, though ti­tle and interest to them be not restored. The fourth is the ministerie, that is, the 4 presence,Heb. 1. 14. aide, and protection of the good angels. The fifth gaine or benefit 5 is, that all the miseries and calamities of this life, cease to be curses, and are made blessings,Rom. 8. 26. beeing turned to the good of them that are to be saued by Christ. The 6 sixth is the mortification of originall sinne, with all the parts thereof, by the vertue of the death of Christ. The 7.7 is a spirituall life, whereby we liue not, but Christ liues in vs, making vs parta­kers of his Annointing, and thereby in­abling vs to liue as Prophets, Priests, kings. Prophets, to teach and make con­fession of our faith in Christ: Priests, to dedicate and present our bodies and soules to God for the seruice of his ma­iestie. [Page 36] Kings, to beare rule and domini­on ouer the corruptions, and lusts of 8 our hearts. The eight gaine is, that Christ presents all our praiers and good workes to his Father in his owne name: and thus by his own Intercession makes 9 them acceptable vnto him. The ninth gaine is, the presence of his spirit. For when Christ ascended, [...] he tooke with him our pawne, namely our flesh, and left with vs his owne Pawne, the presence of the Comforter, to supplie his owne presence, to guide, comfort, and to assure vs of our adoption and 10 saluation. The tenth and last is Perseue­rance in hauing & holding the former gaines. For thus faith the Lord, I will put my feare into their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. Ier. 31. 40. And it must be remembred, that these wordes are not spoken onely in generall to the church, but also in singular to euery true mem­ber thereof: because they are the words of the couenant. Againe Dauid saith, that the righteous man is like a tree plan­ted by the waters side, Psal. [...] whose leafe neuer withereth: who therefore hath alwaies [Page 37] sappe of grace in the heart to the ende.

Againe, as Christ is our gaine in life, so is he also our gaine in death, in as much as he hath taken away the sting of death, and hath changed the conditi­on of it, by making it of the gate of hel, to be the way to eternall life.

Thirdly he is our gaine after death three waies. Our first gaine is the resur­rection of our bodies to eternall life in the day of iudgement. The second, is a priuiledge to iudge the world.1. Cor. 6. [...]. For first of all iudgement shall passe vpon the godly: which done, they shall be taken vp to Christ, and there as witnesses and approouers of his sentence of condem­natiō, iudge togither with him, the wic­ked world. The third is the eternall re­tribution, in which God shall be all in all, first in Christ, and then in all the members of Christ, and that for euer and euer.

The next point to be handled is, How Christ is our gaine? For the an­swering of this, two questions are to be opened. The first is, According to what nature is Christ our gaine? I answer, fol­lowing [Page 38] the ancient & catholik doctrine▪ ThatAugust. hom. de ovious c. 12. Hu­mana divinitas, & divina huma­nitas mediatrix est. whol Christ is our gain according to both natures. The godhead of Christ profits no sinner without the manhood, nor the manhood without the godhead, And as Leo saith,Leo epist. 10. each nature worketh that which is proper vnto it, hauing cō ­munication with the other. Againe, God may be considered two waies; God absolute, or God made man. God abso­lute, that is, God absolutely considered without respect to Christ, is indeede a fountaine of righteousnes and life, but this fountain [...]s closed, sealed vp, and not to be attained vnto: because our sinnes make a separation betweene God and vs, and God thus considered is a Maiestie full of terrour to all sinnefull men. But God considered as he was made man and manifested in our flesh, is also a fountaine of goodnes, yea the same fountaine opened, vnsealed, and flowing forth to all mankind. Hence it is, that Christ is called the light of the world; the bread and water of life; the way, the truth, the life. Here againe we must remember to make a difference or [Page 39] distinction of the natures of Christ. For the Godhead of Christ is our gaine not in respect of essence, but in respect of vertue and operation shewed in, or vp­on the manhood of Christ, whereby it makes things which were done and suf­fered in the said manhood apt and suffi­cient to appease Gods anger, & to me­rit eternall life for vs. As for the man­hood, it is not onely in effect and opera­tion, but also really communicated to the faith of the beleeuing heart: and her­upon it is as it were a Treasurie and storehouse of all the rich graces of God that serue to iustifie, saue, or any way to inrich the Elect of all ages and times through the whole world. If any doubt of this, let them consider three things of this most glorious manhood. The first is the grace of personall vnion, whereby it is receiued into the Vnitie of the second person, & hath no beeing or subsisting, but onely in the subsistance thereof. And hence it is truly tearmed the hu­manitie of the Sonne of God, or of the Word. The second is, that this man­hood hath in it all fulnes of grace, com­monly [Page 40] called in schooles, habitual grace. Now this fulnes of grace containes in it all the gifts of the holy Ghost,Ioh. 3. 35. and that, in the highest degree of perfection. It hath therefore in it gifts more for num­ber, & greater for measure; then all men and angels haue. The third is, that it re­ceiueth this excellencie of gifts and gra­ces; not for it selfe, but that it may be as it were a pipe or conduit to conuaie the same graces to all the Elect. Our salua­tion and life depends on the fulnesse of the Godhead which is in Christi neuer­thelesse it is not conuaied vnto vs but in the flesh & by the flesh of Christ. Thus much Christ signifieth, when he saith: My flesh is meate indeede. Ioh. 6. 51. 54. And, Except ye eate the flesh of the sonne of man and drinke his blood, ye haue no life in you. And, He which eateth my flesh abideth in me and I in him. And Iohn the Baptist saith, Of his fulnes we receiue grace for grace. The supper of the Lord is ordained for the increase and continuance of grace and life: and of it Paul saith, The bread which we breake, is a fellowship or cōmunion with the very bodie of Christ. On this manner [Page 41] Christ is said to be made vnto vs of God, wisdome, 1. Cor. 1. 30. righteousnesse, sanctification, re­demption. Wisdom, not because the essen­tial wisdome of the godhead is giuen to vs: for that is infinit and incommunica­ble. Neither againe because he is the au­thor of our wisdome, giuing vs know­ledge of our saluation as the Father and holy Ghost doe. Nor because he is the matter of our wisdome, the know­ledge of whome is eternall life: but for an higher cause then all these. Our me­diatour the man Iesus Christ who is al­so God, is an head vnto vs and a Roote of our wisdome. For he was annointed with the spirit of wisdome in the assu­med māhood not priuatly for himselfe, but that we also which beleeue might be partakers of the same annointing, & that wisdome from him by his flesh might be conueied vnto vs. Therefore from his wisdome there is wisdome de­riued in some measure to all that are mystically vnited to him, as light in one candle is deriued to an hundred, or as heate is deriued from heate. Againe he is our iustice, not onely because he is the [Page 42] author and giuer of our iustice, with the father and the holy Ghost: neither be­cause the essentiall iustice of Christ is giuen to vs: for then we should be all deified: but because that iustice which is in the māhood, cōsisting partly in the puritie of nature, & partly in the puritie of actiō, whereby he obeyed his fathers will and suffered all things to be suffe­red for vs; this iustice I say, is imputed to vs and accounted ours, according to the tenour of the couenant, as if it were inherent in vs. He is our Sanctification, not onely because he is the author of it, neither because the sanctitie or holines of the godhead is communicated to vs: but because he was sanctified in his mā ­hood about all men and angels. And from this holinesse of his, our holinesse is deriued and springs as a fruit; as the corruption in Adams posteritie is deri­ued from the corruption of Adam. Christ saith, For their sakes sanctifie I my selfe, Ioh. 17. 19. that they also may be sanctified through the truth. Cyril. in Ioh. l. [...]1. c. 25. Cyril saith, As God, he giues himselfe the spirit, as man he receiues it: which he doth not for himselfe, but for [Page 43] vs, that the grace of sanctification out of him and in him first receiued might passe to all mankind. Lib. 11. c. 22. Againe he saith, that the bo­die of our Lord being sanctified by the ver­tue of the Word ioyned to it, is made so ef­fectuall for mystical benediction, that it can send forth his sanctification into vs. Lastly, Christ is our Redemption or life on this manner. In the person of the Mediatour beeing one and the same, there is a dou­ble life: one vncreated and essentiall, a­greeing to Christ as he is God. And this life is not giuē to vs at all, saue in re­spect of the efficacie thereof. For in god we liue, mooue, and haue our beeing. The other is the created life of the man­hood: and it is either naturall or spiri­tual. Naturall is that wherewith he liued in the estate of humiliation by ordinary means as all other men doe. Spirituall is that whereby he nowe especially liueth in the estate of exaltation and glorie.Rom 6. 8. And this life he liueth not onely for himselfe, but also for vs, that we beeing partakers thereof, may liue togither with him.Cyril. in Iosu. l. 3. c. 37. & 4. 12. 14. & l. 10. 13. Thus the ancient church hath taught, the flesh of Christ vnited to the [Page 44] Word is made quickening flesh; that it might further quicken them with spiri­tuall life, that are vnited to it.

The next question is, in what estate Christ is our Gaine? The estate of Christ is twofolde, the estate of humili­ation from his birth to his death: and the estate of exaltation in his resurrecti­on, ascension, and his sitting at the right hand of god. In the first estate he works and procures our gaine. Christ lying basely in the manger, and crucified ig­nominiously on the crosse gained our deliuerance from hell, and a right to life euerlasting. In the second estate he com­municats to vs the gaine before named, and by degrees puts vs in prossession of it. And for this ende, he nowe sits at the right hand of God and makes request for vs.

The vse of this doctrine, that Christ is our gaine, is manifold. First it sheweth that we in our selues are poore and alto­gither destitute of all spirituall good things. For to this ende is Christ our gaine, that he may supplie our want, & fill them with graces that are otherwise [Page 45] emptie and euen hunger starued. Se­condly it teacheth that men doe in vaine seeke for so much as the least droppe of goodnes out of Christ, who alone is the storehouse of all good things. Heauen and earth, men and angels, and all things are but as nothing to vs, if by them we seeke to inioy any thing out to Christ: yea God is no god to vs without Christ. Thirdly, we learne to detest the Treasu­rie, which the Church of Rome main­taines and magnifies. It is as it were a chest in which is contained not onely the ouerplus of the merits of Christ, but also of martyrs and Saints to be dispen­sed in pardons at the Popes pleasure. But Christ is alone our full and perfect gaine, and therefore in himselfe there is an al-sufficient Treasurie of the church; and as Paul saith,Coloss. 2. 10 in him we are complete. As for the merits of martyrs and Saints, they bring no aduantage to the people of God, but are indeed matter for the dounghill. Fourthly, if Christ be our treasure and gain, our hearts must be set on him. Our mindes vse to be vpon our pennie, and we hunger after gaine: let vs [Page 46] therefore hunger after Christ: he is out pennie and he is our gaine. Nay we must aboue all pleasures, honours, pro­fits, loue him, and reioice in him: yea we should be swallowed vp with loue of him. Lastly, here is matter of cōfort. In the losse of goods and friendes, and all calamities of this life, we may not be dis­mayed: all the losses of this life are but pettie losses, so long as we haue Christ for our gaine. Nothing can be wanting vnto vs in the middest of all our losses and miseries, so long as we receiue of his fulnesse, who is the fountaine of good­nes neuer dried vp.

To proceed further, the second part of the comparison [Christ is my gaine] is amplified by a gradatiō on this manner: I esteeme the knowledge of Christ Iesus my Lord an excellent thing: I desire to gaine Christ: I desire to be foūd in Christ. Of these in order. By the knowledge of Christ, we are to vnderstand, the doctrine of the gospell, or the doctrine of the person & offices of Christ cōceiued & known of vs. To this knowledge an excellency is ascribed, of which I will speake a lit­tle. [Page 47] This excellencie appeares partly in the matter and contents, & partly in the effects thereof. Touching the matter, it is ful of excellent mysteries, which Paul reduceth to fixe heads in his epistle to Timothie.1. Tim. 3. 16 The first is the Incarnation of the sonne of God in these wordes,1 God made manifest in the flesh. And here two wōders offer themselues to be con­sidered: the first, whereas Adams flesh and Adams sinne are inseparably ioy­ned togither in respect of all that nature can doe, yet did the sonne of God take vnto him mans nature and flesh with­out mans sinne: because he was concei­ued of a virgin by the operation of the holy ghost: whereas if he had beene cō ­ceiued by naturall generation, he had with Adams flesh taken Adams cor­ruption. The other wonder in the In­carnation of Christ is, that the flesh of man is vnited to the person of the sonne of God, & thence hath his subsistance, otherwise hauing no subsistance of his owne. The like example is not to be found in the world againe: sauing that we haue some resemblance thereof in [Page 48] the plant called Miscelto, which hath no roote of his own, but grows as a branch of the oake, or some other tree, and hath his life and sappe from the roote there­of. 2 The second mysterie in the know­ledge of Christ, is the Iustification of Christ in these wordes, iustified in the spi­rit: and it was on this manner. Christ made man became our Suretie and was subiect to the law for vs. Hereupon our sinnes were imputed to him, and the pu­nishment due thereto laid vpon him, that is, the first death with the paines of the secōd: yea further death in the graue had dominion ouer him. After all this, by his spirit or power of the godhead he raised himselfe from death, and ther­by acquit himselfe of our sinnes; and this acquitall or absolution is his iusti­fication, whereby he declareth himselfe to be a Sauiour perfectly righteous. For if he had not satisfied the wrath of God to the full, and brought perfect righte­ousnes, he had neuer risen againe, con­sidering he was iudged and condemned for our sinnes. The third mysterie is the sight of Angels, who desired to looke in­to [Page 49] the Incarnation of Christ: in which they sawe three things, as Luke testifi­eth. The first, that it was a means to ma­nifest the glorie of God: Luk. 2.14. the second, that it brought peace and good successe to men vpon earth: the third, that it was a meanes to reueale the good will of God to the world. The fourth, is the preaching 4 of Christ to the Gentiles. This appeares to be a great mysterie; because the know­ledge of Christ was kept secret from the nations,Rom. 16. 2 [...]. for the space of more thē 4000. yeares. For from the creation to Moses the church of God was shut vp in a litle familie: from Moses to Christ, it was in­cluded within the precincts of Iewrie: which was not so much as the fourth part of England. The fift mysterie was 5 the Conuersion of the world to the faith of Christ. And this is so much the grea­ter wonder; because this conuersion was wrought by the preaching of the go­spel, which is flatte against the naturall reason and will of man, and therefore vnfit to perswade: and the preachers hereof were simple and silly men to see to: and some of them which were con­verted, [Page 50] were the very Iewes that crucifi­ed Christ. The last mysterie was the as­cension of Christ into glorie. The greatnes of this mysterie appeares in two things. The first, that Christs ascension was a reall and full opening of the kingdome of heauen; which had formerly bin shut by our sinnes. The second, that the as­cension of Christ, was no personall or priuate ascension: for he ascended in the roome and stead of all the Elect: and they ascended together in and with him, and now after a sort are together in and with him in glorie. Thus we see the ex­cellencie of the knowledge of Christ in respect of the Mysteries contained therein: the like excellencie appeares in the effects thereof; which are two, the knowledge of God, and of our selues.

For the first, by the knowledge of Christ, we know God aright. Hence Christ is called the brightnes of the glorie of the Father, Heb. [...]. [...]. and the ingrauen image of his person: Coloss. 1. 15. and the image of the inuisible God. And Paul saith notably, that when God shineth in our hearts by the light of the Gospel,2. Cor. 4. 6. his glorie is to be seene in [Page 51] the face of Christ. The wisdōe, power, & goodnesse of God is made manifest in Christ: and that more fully then euer it was in the creation. In the creation A­dam beeing but a meere man was our head; but in the estate of grace, Christ is our head, God and man. By creation we receiue but a naturall life to be con­tinued by foode: by Christ we receiue a spirituall, to be preserued eternally without foode; by the operation of the spirit. As the spouse of Adam was bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh: so is the spouse of Christ bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh; and that in more excellent manner: because euery parti­cular man as he is borne anew, and the whole catholike church the true spouse of Christ, springeth & ariseth out of the merit and efficacie of the blood that di­stilled out of the heart & side of Christ. In the creation God makes life of no­thing: but by Christ he drawes our life forth of death, and changeth death it selfe into life. Againe in the law the iu­stice of God is set downe and reuealed: in Christ we see more, namely perfect [Page 52] iustice and perfect mercie, reuealed to the full; yea (which is a wonder) iustice and mercie reconciled. Lastly in Christ we see the lēgth, the breadth, the height, the depth of the loue of God, in that God vouchsafeth to loue the Elect with the very same loue wherewith he loueth Christ.Ioh. 17. 23.

As by Christ we know God: so also by Christ we know our selues: and that on this manner. First we must consider, that in the Passion he tooke our person vpon him, and that vpon the crosse, he stoode in our place, roome, and stead. Secondly we are to consider the great­nes of his agonie and passion set forth vnto vs, especially by fiue things. The first is the testimonie of the Euangelists, who say in emphaticall wordes, that he was full of sorrow, Math. 26. 37. and grieuously troubled. The second, his complaint, that his soule [...] [...] vnto the death: and that he was forsaken of the father. The third his prai­er with strong cries: saue me frō this houre▪ let this [...] passe. The fourth the com­ming of an Angel to comfort him. The last his sweate of water and thicke or [Page 53] clotted blood. Now in Christ thus con­sidered, we see the greatnes of Gods an­ger against vs for our sinnes: we see the greatnes of our sinnes: we see the vilenes of our persons: we see the hardnes of our hearts, that neuer so much as sigh for our offences, for which the sonne of God swette water and blood: we see our vnthankfulnes that little respect or re­gerd this worke of Christ. Lastly we see our dutie: that we are to be through­ly touched with true repentance, and to humble our selues as it were to the very pit of hell: for if the son of God mourne and crie for our sinnes imputed, we are much more to crie and to bleed in our hearts for them, seeing they are ours properly,Zach. 12. 10. and by them we haue pierced Christ. And thus the excellencie of the knowledge of Christ is manifest.

Hence we learne sundry things: first, if the knowledge of Christ be so excel­lent, we may not maruell, that by the mallice of the deuill it hath bin corrup­ted many hundred yeares in the Romish church: which teacheth, that the Gospel is nothing else in effect but the law of [Page 54] Moses perfected. Now if this were so, Christ doubtlesse died in vaine, and we might place our hope in our owne righteousnes; and the promise of life e­ternall by Christ, should be of none ef­fect. For the law neuer iustifies before God, till it be perfectly kept: which con­dition of perfection if men could per­forme, there should be little neede of Christ or of the Gospel. Secondly, if this knowledge be of such excellencie, it must be learned of vs, and that in speci­all manner. If to other inferiour learning we lend the vnderstanding and memo­rie, to this we are to applie the whole man. The minde must learne it by ope­ning it selfe to conceiue it: the memorie must learne it, by storing it vp: the will and affections must learne it, by resig­ning and conforming thēselues in their kinde vnto it. Thus Paul teacheth, that to learne Christ, Eph. 4. 21, 22. as the truth is in Christ, is to put off the old man and to put on the new man, which after God is created in righte­ousnesse and holinesse. Thirdly by this we learne to value & prize the knowledge of Christ, aboue all things in the world. [Page 55] The Angels of God themselues desire to profit in this knowledge: Dauid, who in the darknes of the old Testament de­sired to be a dorekeeper in the house of God;Psal. 84. if he were now liuing on earth, would be content with an office a thou­sand fold more base, that he might inioy this cleere light of the knowledge of Christ. But alas; there is no such Dauids now a daies. It is our fault, and the fault of our times, that this knowledge is of little or no value and account among men; and little fruit thereof to be seene. And therfore it is to be feared, that God will take this Treasure of knowledge from vs,2. Thess. [...]. 10. and send strong illusions to be­leeue lies; because it is little or nothing loued.

Paul yet further cōmends this know­ledge in that he calls it, The knowledge of Christ, HIS LORD. Now he is our Lord foure waies. First, by the right of donation (because all the Elect are giuen to him of the Father in the eternal coun­sell of Election:) secondly by creation: thirdly by the right of Redemption: fourthly by right of headship; in that as [Page 56] a liuing head he giues sense and spiritu­all life to all that beleeue in him. And Paul calls Christ his Lord, because he beleeued his owne election, in which he was giuen to Christ, his creation and redemption by him, and his my­sticall coniunction with him, as with his head. And here Paul in his example teacheth vs two things. The first, how we should know Christ, and the do­ctrine of the Gospell: For the right knowledge whereof, there is required, beside generall vnderstand of Christ & his benefits, with generall assent, a spe­ciall Application thereof. It is not suffi­cient to beleeue the election, redempti­on, iustification, glorification of Gods people: but we must goe further, and beleeue the very same things in our selues. The reason may be taken from the contents of the Gospel. For it con­taines two parts, the first is a promise in which Christ with all his benefits is offe­red and propounded vnto vs. The se­cond is a commandement to applie the said promise, [...]. Ioh. 3. 2 [...]. and the substance thereof to our selues, and that by our faith. And [Page 57] he that takes away this second part, o­uerthrowes halfe the Gospel of Christ. Here is the foundation of sauing know­ledge,Isa. 53. which iustifieth and bringeth life eternall;Ioh. 17. 3. and the foundation of spe­ciall faith. The second thing to be lear­ned in Pauls example is, that we are to resigne our selues, our bodies & soules, and to render all subiection to Christ. For in that he calleth him Lord, he pro­fesseth himselfe to be the seruant of Christ.2. Cor. 10. 5. The ende of all preaching is to bring not onely our words and deedes; but also our secret thoughts in subiecti­on vnto him. And the ende why Christ sits in glorie at the right hand of the Fa­ther is, that euery knee may bowe vnto him of things in heauen and earth. It behooues vs therefore to liue and carrie our selues in our places as true and vn­fained seruants of Christ.

The second degree in Pauls gradation is, That he desires to Gaine Christ. Now to gaine Christ is nothing els, but to make Christ his gaine, as appeares by the op­position of the wordes. For he saith, he had deprined himselfe of all things, that is, [Page 58] made all things his losse, that he might gaine Christ. And he is made our gaine if two things be done. First, he must be made ours, that is, thy Christ or my Christ in particular: secondly we must put our confidēce in him. For the first, that Christ may be ours, a double con­sent is required: Gods consent to giue Christ, and our consent to receiue him. Gods consent, that Christ shall be ours, is giuen in the reuelation of the promise touching the womans seed, made to our first parents, in the continuall renewing of the said promise to our forefathers, in the incarnation and birth of Christ, in his passion, in the preaching of the Go­spell, in the administration of both the sacraments, baptisme and the Lords supper. Our consent to receiue Christ, is giuen when we beginne to beleeue in him; yea when we beginne to be touch­ed in our hearts for our sinnes, and to hunger & thirst after Christ. And thus by the concurrence of these two con­sents is Christ really made ours. And further yet, that he may be not onely ours, but also our gaine, we must set and [Page 59] fixe the whole confidence of our hearts vpon him alone, for the forgiuenesse of our sins, and the saluation of our soules. For where the gaine is, there must the heart be. When riches increase we may not set our heartes on them; because though they be good things, yet are they not our gaine or treasure: nowe Christ is not onely a good thing vnto vs, but our gaine, and the very fountaine of all good things: & therefore we must bestowe our hearts on him.

Hence we learne that the Popish re­ligion teacheth wickednesse. For it maintaineth, that we are not onely to beleeue in God, but alsoRemenses in Rom. 10. 14. in the church: it maintaineth an hopeThomas Bec­ket in Maria sp [...] ̄ totam ponit post Christum. Matth. Paris in Henrico. 11. and confidence in Saints, specially in the virgin Marie: it maintaineth lastly aBellarm. tom. [...]. de iustific. l. 5. c. 7. confidence in our owne workes: so it be as they say in sobrietie. This is to make the creature our gaine, and to put downe Christ our Redeemer.

Againe, Paul had said in thePhil. 1. 21. former chapter, that Christ was his gaine both in life and death: and yet nowe he saith, that he still desires to gaine Christ. And by [Page 60] his example we learne, that in this life our affectious must neuer be satisfied & filled with the desire of Christ, till we haue the full fruition of him. Naturally our desires be insatiable in respect of ri­ches, honours, pleasures: but we must learne to moderate and stinte our selues in seeking earthly things; beeing con­tent with the portion that God doth alot vs: and the insatiablenesse of our af­fections must be directed and turned vpon Christ. The woman in the Gospel that had the bloodie ishew, desired but to touch the hemme of his garment; we must goe further, not onely to touch him, but also by our faith to lay hold on him, as it were with both the hands, and to hang vpon him. Thomas desired for his contentation, but to put his finger into his side: we must sette before our eies Christ crucified: and his pretious blood as it were a fresh distilling from his handes, feete, and side: and we must not onely touch this blood, but sprinkle our selues with it, yea dip and as it were diue out selues into it, bodie, soule, and all.

[Page 61] The third and last degree in Pauls gradation is, that he desires to be founde in Christ. And here his desire is twofold, the first, to be in Christ, the second, to be found so of God in the daie of iudgement. The first, To be in Christ, is to be taken out of the first Adam, and to be vnited vnto Christ as his very flesh, or as a true mē ­ber of his mysticall bodie. Now this In­corporation and vnion into Christ is a mysterie; and for the better vnderstan­ding of it foure rules must be obserued. The first, that not onely our soules are vnited to the soule or godhead of Christ: but also that the whole person of him that beleeueth is vnited to the whole person of Christ. For the Redee­mer and they which are redeemed are vnited togither: and Christ God and mā redeemed vs, not onely in soule but also in bodie. We therefore beleeuers, haue [...] our whole persons vnited to the whole person of Christ. And S. Paul saith,1. Cor. 6. 15. that our verie bodies are the mem­bers of Christ. And Christ himselfe saith,Ioh 6. 56. that we must eate his flesh and drinke his blood, that we may be in him and he in vs. [Page 62] The second rule, is touching the order of this vnion: That we are first ioyned to the flesh of Christ, and by his flesh to his godhead. For that which brings vs to haue fellowship with God, ioynes vs to God. Now by the flesh of Christ we haue our fellowship with God. It is as the vaile of the temple, whereby the high priest entred into the Holie of ho­lies,Heb. 10. 20. and into the presence of God. A­gaine it serues as a pipe or conduit to deriue the efficacie and operation of the godhead vnto vs. The third rule is: that this vnion standes not in imagination, but is a true and reall coniunction. Nei­ther doth the distance of place (we bee­ing on earth and the flesh of Christ in heauen) hinder this vnion. The minde is vnited after a sort to the thing it mind­eth. After the contract of marriage, two distinct persons being a thousand miles asunder, remaine one flesh. If nature af­foard thus much: why may not the like be found in the coniuction that is aboue nature? The last rule is: That the bond of this coniunction is one and the same spirit, beeing both in Christ and vs: first [Page 63] in Christ and then in vs. This teacheth S. Iohn saying,1. Ioh. 3. 23▪ that Christ dwels in vs by his spirit giuen vnto vs. Againe this spirit worketh in vs faith, which also knits vs to Christ:Eph. 3. 17. who as Paul saith, dwels in our hearts by faith. And by this we further see that distance of place hinders not this vnion. The spirit of God beeing in­finit may dwell both in Christ and vs: & our faith though it be seated within our hearts, yet can it reach foorth it selfe and apprehend Christ in heauen.

The second desire of Paul is, that he may be found of God to be in Christ, that is, that God would respect him as a mem­ber of Christ and accept him into his fauour eternally for Christ. For the bet­ter vnderstanding of this; the order that God vseth in shewing his loue must be obserued. First of all, he begins his loue in Christ, whome he loues simply for himselfe: then from Christ he descends to them that are vnited to Christ, consi­dering them euen as parts of Christ: whome also he loueth, yet not simply, but respectiuely, in and for Christ. He that lookes vpon things of diuers kinds [Page 64] through a greene glasse, beholdes them all to be greene: euen so, whome God respecteth in and for Christ, they are lo­ued of God as he is loued, and righte­ous as he is righteous. And this is the thing which Paul desireth, that in the daie of iudgement he may be thus re­spected.

Hence we learn, that God will make an examination of all our hearts, liues, and works, in the day of iudgement. For this Finding which Paul mentioneth, presupposeth, that God sees and ob­serues our waies, and will one daie cer­tenly discouer them, knowing euē now certainly whether we be in Christ or no. For this cause we are to call our selues to an account, yea to a strait account: for God will find out whatsoeuer is amisse, though we haue skill to make faire shewes before men. And we are withall to amend our selues. Salomon vpon this ground disswades the young man from fornication; why shouldest thou my sonne (saith he) take delite in a straunge woman, Pro. 5. 11. seeing the waies of men are before the cies of God, and he pondereth all their pathes. [Page 65] To this purpose the Iewes haue a saying worth our marking: write say they three things in thy heart, and thou shalt neuer sinne: There is an eie that seeth thee, an eare that heareth thee, and a hand that writeth all thy sayings & doings in a booke. And the cause of our manifold sinnes is, that men falsely thinke, that God nei­ther sees nor heares them. Thus saith Dauid of his enemies;Psal. 59. 8. They bragge in their talke, and swordes are in their lippes, for say they who heareth vs.

Againe, here we see Pauls care, yea the pitch of all his desires and his prin­cipall forecast, that he might be found of God in the day of iudgement to be a member of Christ. The like must be our care and forecast nowe in the time of this life: yea this must be the care of all cares, that we may be knit to Christ, and so accepted of God, when we shall rise to iudgement.Luk. 21. 36. Christ bids vs, watch and praie that we may stand before the sonne of man: and this we cannot doe, vn­lesse we be incorporate into Christ. We are bidden first to seeke the kingdome of heauen: and that is indeed to be in [Page 66] Christ. To be wise and circumspect in many matters, and yet to want forecast to compasse our maine and principall good, is the greatest follie of all. What is the fault of the foolish virgins? virgins they were as the wise: they carried the burning lamps of Christian profession: likewise they had oyle, that is, the oyle of grace: but, alas, they had not oyle e­nough to furnish their lampes. Their fault was, that they wanted forecast to furnish themselues with oyle sufficient. And there is neuer sufficiencie of oyle, till we be true and liuely members of Christ. And this was their damnable follie, that they contented themselues with the name and profession of Christ, and had not a serious and speciall care indeed to be members of Christ. Ther­fore let vs now diligently indeauour to be that in this life, which we desire to be found of God in the day of iudgement. There be three iudgements which we are to vndergoe, the iudgement of men, of our selues, and of God. The two first we may falsifie, the third we cānot. For men we may deceiue, and our selues we [Page 67] may deceiue; but God we can not. It is the foundation of all good things to be ingraffed into Christ: and for this cause, all the forecast of our heads, all other cares and studies should giue place that this be might accōplished. Som mā may hereupon demand, what he should doe, that he might be in Christ. I answer, two things: first he must breake off all his sinnes, and turne vnto God: secondly, he must pray earnestly euen vnto the death, that his heart may be knitte to Christ. Againe it may be demanded, how it may be knowne of vs, that we are in Christ.2. Ioh. 3. S. Iohn answereth: Hereby we know that he dwelleth in vs by the spirit which he hath giuen vs. And we may know that we haue the spirit of Christ, if the same mind, inclination, and dispo­sition, the like loue to God and man, the like meeknesse, patience and obedi­ence be in vs which was in Christ. For the same fruites argue the same spirit.

v. 9.—Not hauing mine owne righ­teousnes, which is of the law, but that which is of the faith of Christ, &c.

The Apostle hauing taught in gene­rall [Page 68] tearmes, that Christ is his gaine, here beginnes to declare the same in more particular sort. For he sets downe a threefold gaine which he desired to ob­taine of Christ: the first is, the righteous­nes of Christ: the second is, inward fellow­ship with him: the third is, the resurrection of the bodie to eternall glorie. Now this righteousnesse of Christ which Paul makes his first gaine, is handled in the 9. verse: for the better knowledge where­of, I will first open the meaning of the wordes. And first of all, it must be knowne, that they are an exposition of the wordes which went before. For whereas Paul had desired to be found in Christ, now he shewes his owne mea­ning, that he desired therein nothing els but that he might be accepted of God for Christs sake, and be esteemed righ­teous in his righteousnes. And that this righteousnesse may be the better discer­ned, he sets downe two sorts of iustice: the one he refuseth, the other he desi­reth and chooseth. The righteousnes re­fused, he calls it his owne: because it is within him, and it is exercised by the [Page 69] powers of his soule, namely his minde, will, affections. He saith further, it is of the law, that is, of the workes which the Law requireth: for (as Paul saith) the righteousnes of the law is this, Rom. 10. 5. He that doth these things shall liue therein. Againe of the iustice desired, he saith, it is by the faith of Christ, that is, it ariseth of the o­bedience of Christ apprehended by faith.Rom. 3. 22. 25. For in this manner to the Roma­nes, he puts the faith of Christ, for faith in the blood of Christ. And whereas some man might happily say, that euen this righteousnes is ours as the former, Paul addeth further, that it is of God, wholly and onely, and not of vs either in whole or in part; beeing freely giuen of him vpon our faith, that is, when we beleeue.

In these few wordes Paul coucheth many weightie points of doctrine. I will distinctly propound them one by one. First of all, he makes a double iu­stice, one of the Law, the other of the Gospel: yea he opposeth them as con­traries in the case of iustification: and that they may the better be conceiued, [Page 70] he describes them seuerally. Touching the iustice of the law, he sets it downe by two things. First, he saith, it is within vs: because it is nothing els but a confor­mitie of heart & life to the will of God, reuealed in the said law. And the law knowes not the righteousnes which is without vs. Secondly he notes the mat­ter of it, that it consists of such vertues and workes as the law prescribeth. Now the iustice of the Gospell it is likewise set forth by foure things. First, it is not in vs, but forth of vs: because Paul op­poseth it to the righteousnesse which is ours and within vs. Secondly Paul sets downe the matter of it, or the person in whome it is, namely Christ. Of whome Ieremie saith,Ierem. 23. Iehoua is our righteousnes. And Christ must be considered two waies; as God, and as Mediatour: ac­cording to which two respects he hath a double righteousnes. One as God, and that is infinite, and therefore incommu­nicable. The other as Mediatour, is the Obedience of Christ which he perfor­med in his manhood, consisting of two parts, his sufferings in life and death, [Page 71] and his fulfilling of the law for vs. And this very obedience which is in Christ and not in vs, is the very matter of the iustice of the Gospel. Thirdly Paul sets downe the meanes whereby this iustice is made ours, and that is Faith, which doth rest on Christ and applie his obe­dience to vs. Lastly Paul sets downe the author of this Iustice, and that is God, who of his grace and mercy freely giues Christ and his obedience vnto vs, when we beleeue. Out of these foure points a definition of the Iustice of the Gospell may be framed thus: It is the righteous­nes of the Mediatour, namely the obe­dience of Christ giuen vs freely of God and receiued by our faith.

By this distinction of Legall and E­uangelicall iustice, we learne the diffe­rence of the Law and the Gospel. The Law promiseth life vpon the condition of our workes, or obedience performed according to the tenour of the law. The Gospell requires not the condition of merit, or of any work to be done on our parts in the case of our iustification, but onely prescribes vs to beleeue in Christ [Page 72] and to rest on his obedience, as our iu­stice before the Tribunall of God. Se­condly by this we learn, that the church of Rome and the learned therein, are ig­norant of the right difference betweene the Law and the Gospel. For they teach, that the righteousnesse, which stands in our inherent vertues and workes done by vs, is required for iustification as wel in the Gospell as in the Law: and that the difference lies onely in this, that the law is more darke, and without grace: the Gospel more plaine, hauing also the grace of God annexed vnto it, to inable vs in our own persons to doe that which both law and Gospell require. But this is indeede to make a confusion of the law and Gospell, and to abolish the di­stinction of the twofold iustice before named: which may not be.

The second point of doctrine deli­uered by Paul is, That a sinner standes iust before the tribunall seat of God, not by the iustice of the law, but by the iu­stice of faith, which is the obedience of Christ, without any works of ours. And because this point of doctrine is of great [Page 73] moment, and is withall oppugned of many, I will further confirme it by some speciall reasons. First of all, in the iusti­fication of a sinner, God manifests his mercie and iustice to the full. For, as Paul saith,Rom. 3. 24. 26. he iustifieth freely by his grace: and in iustifying he is not onely a iustifier but also iust. Now this concurrence of mercie and iustice is no where to be found, but in the Obedience of Christ, performed by him in our roome and stead. As for all Christian vertues and works of godly men, they are by mercie accepted of God, but they do not satisfie the iustice of God according to the te­nour of the law. Secondly, Paul in the e­pistle to the Rom. considering Abrahā not as an idolater vnconuerted, but as a beleeuer,Rom. 4. 1. yea as the father of all the faithfull; saith, that then he was iustified without workes; and that, his faith, that is, the Messias apprehended by his faith, was counted vnto him for righteous­nesse, long after his conuersion. Nowe, as he, who is a patterne for vs to follow, is iustified, so must we be iustified, and no otherwise. Thirdly, as by Adams dis­obedience [Page 70] [...] [Page 71] [...] [Page 72] [...] [Page 73] [...] [Page 74] we are made sinners:Rom. 5. 19. so by Christs obedience are we made righte­ous: but but by Adams disobedience Lira vpō Rom. 5. & Bellar. de grat. ami. 1. l. 5. c. 17.imputed to vs, are we made sinners: therefore we are made iust by the obe­dience of Christ imputed. Bernard vsed this reason.In Dominica. 1. po. [...]. E­piph. serm. 1. Whome (saith he) another mans fault defiled, another mans water wa­shed. Yet in calling it another mans fault, I doe not denie it to be ours: otherwise it could not defile vs. But it is another mans, because we all not knowing of it, sinned in Adam. It is ours; because we haue sinned, though in an other, and it is imputed to vs by the iust iudgement of God, though it be secret. Yet, that thou maist not complaine, ô man, against the disobedience of Adam, there is giuen thee the obedience of Christ: that beeing sould for naught, thou maist be redeemed for naught. Again the doctrine of imputed iustice he teacheth expresly, saying:Epist. 190. Al are dead, that the satisfaction of one might be imputed to all, as he alone bare the sinnes of all. Ad milites temp. c. 11. Againe, Death is put to flight by the death of Christ, and the righ­teousnes of Christ is imputed to vs. Fourth­ly,1. Cor. 1. 30. Paul saith, Christ is made vnto vs of [Page 75] God, iustice, that is, iustice imputed: for in the next words he saith, he is made our sanctification, 2. Cor. 5. 21. that is, our iustice not im­puted, but inherent. Fiftly, as Christ was made sinne, so are we made the iu­stice of God, but Christ was made our sin not by any conueiance of any cor­ruption into his most holy heart, but by imputation. We therefore are made the iustice of God by like imputation. And least any man should yet surmise that this iustice is not imputed; but in­fused into vs, Paul saith, We are made the iustice of God IN HIM, that is, in Christ. Hence it followeth mani­festly, that there is no vertue or worke within vs which iustifieth before God, and that our iustice whereby we are iust in the fight of God, and accepted to life eternall, is out of vs, & placed in Christ. Thus much haue the Fathers obserued vpon this text of Paul. Augustine saith, that Christ was made sinne,Fnchir. c. 41 & de verbis Apost. Serm. 6. that we might be made iustice, not our iustice, but Gods iustice, neither in vs, but in him: as he declared sinne not to be his, but ours, not placed in him but in vs. [Page 76] Hierome saith, Christ being offered for vs tooke the name of sin that we might be made the righteousnesse of God in him, not ours, nor in vs. In the same man­ner speake Theophilact, Anselme, Se­dulius presbyter, and others. Lastly, mā considered as a creature before his fall, owed vnto God the fulfilling of the lawe, which as a certaine tribute was daily to be paid vnto him. After the fall, he doubled his debt, because he then became debter to God of a satisfaction due for the breach of the lawe. Now the not paiment of this double debt is our vnrighteousnes. But where may we find a sufficient paiment for this debt? We our selues by our sinnes daily increase the said debt. And our owne workes, though proceeding of faith, are no con­uenient paiment: because we cannot by one debt paie an other. And if we shall search through heauen and earth, there is nothing to be found, that may stand for paiment with God, but the obedi­ence of the Redeemer, which he hath presented and laid downe before the throne of the Almightie, as an endlesse [Page 77] treasure to make paiment in our be­halfe. And because the said obedience is a satisfaction for our vnrighteousnes, it is also our iustice in the acceptation of God. By these and other reasons, it ap­peares, that nothing can absolue vs be­fore God, and procure the right of eter­nall life, but the onely obedience of the Mediator Christ, God and man: & that without any vertue or worke of ours.

Hence it followes that the present Church of Rome corrnpts the article of iustification by mingling things togi­ther, which can no more be compoun­ded and mingled togither, then fire and water: namely, the iustice of the gospell with the iustice of the law. For it makes a double iustification: the first containes two parts, pardon of sinne by the death of Christ, and the infused habit of cha­ritie. The second is by workes, which (they say) do meritoriously increase the first iustification and procure eternall life. Here we see the soueraigne medi­cine of the Gospel, namely remission of sinnes, tempered with the poison of the lawe. For though vertues and workes [Page 78] prescribed in the lawe, haue their place, as good giftes God, in our liues and cō ­uersations: yet whē they are set vp high­er, and brought within the circle of iu­stification as meritorious causes; they are put quite out of their place, and are no better then poison: and hereupon are tearmed of Paul, losse and dongue. But such as desire to be tearmed Catho­lickes, alleadge for themselues against vs, that the obedience of Christ, that is, the righteousnesse of an other cannot possibly be our righteousnesse. I aun­swer, that the iustice of another may be our iustice, if it be really made ours. And this is true in Christ. For when we begin to beleeue in him, though our persons remaine euermore distinct and vnconfounded, yet are we made one with him, and according to the tenour of the Euangelicall couenant, are we gi­uen to him, and he to vs: so as we may truely say, Christ is mine, as we can tru­ly say, this house or this land is mine. Now if Christ be ours, then also his o­bedience is not onely his but ours also: his, because it is in him: ours, because [Page 79] with him it is giuen vs of God. Againe, they alleadge, That when Paul refuseth the righteousnesse of the lawe, he means nothing els but the workes of the lawe, that are perfourmed by the strength of nature, and that he doth not exclude the workes of Grace. I answer, it is false: for he speakes of himselfe in the time pre­sent when he was a Christian Apostle: and therefore he excludes all righteous­nes of his own, which he had by the law, euen when he was an Apostle. And the obiection, Rom. 6. 1. what then shall we sinne that grace may abound? cannot be inferred vpon iustification by workes of grace: but vpon a iustification by the obedience of Christ imputed to vs, without all workes of our owne.

Againe, that we are iustified, not by the iustice of the lawe, but by the iustice of faith, here is the foundation of our comfort. For hereupon, if we be temp­ted in the time of this life, we may op­pose against the tempter this our iustice. If Satan plead against vs that we are sin­ners, and therefore subiect to eternall damnation: let vs answere him, that the [Page 80] obedience of Christ hath freed vs from this damnation. If he plead further, that we neuer fulfilled the lawe; and conse­quently that we haue no right to eter­nal life: we must answer him, that Christ fulfilled the lawe for vs. If he shall vexe and vpbraid vs with the consideration of our manifold wants and corruptions; let vs tell him, that, so long as we turne vnto God from all our euill waies, be­waile our corrupttions, and beleeue in Christ, all our wants are couered in his obedience. Againe, if in the time of death, the feare and apprehension of the iudgement and anger of God terrifie vs, we are to oppose this obedience of our Mediatour, to the iudgement of God, and to put it betweene Gods anger and vs: yea we are to rest vpon it, and to in­fold and wrap our soules in it, and thus to present them to God.Isa. 4. 6. Isai the pro­phet saith, that the Messiah is a place of refuge, shelter, or shade, against the tem­pest or burning heate of the wrath of God.Rom. 3. 25. And Paul saith, he is our propitiato­rie: to signifie, that as the propitiatorie couered the arke, and the lawe in the [Page 81] arke, which is the hand writing against vs, from the presence of God: so Christ couereth our sinnes, and puts himselfe betweene vs and the indignation of his father.

The third and last point of doctrine here deliuered by Paul is, That faith is the meanes to receiue and to obtaine the obediēce of Christ for our iustice. That this may the better be conceiued, foure points are to be handled. What this faith is? howe it is a meanes to obaine iustice? whether alone by it selfe, or by the helpe of other vertues? When and howe long it is the onely meanes? For the first: Faith is a speciall gift of God whereby we beleeue Christ and his benefits to be ours. In the first place I say, it is a gift of God: because it comes wholly of God, and not from the minde or will of man. Thus Paul saith,Phil. 1. 29. It is giuen you for Christ to beleeue in him: Luk. 24. 25. and Christ our Sauiour Saith to two of his disciples, O foolish and sloe of heart to beleeue. If it be obie­cted, that when we beleeue first, we then beleeue willingly: I answere; it is so in­deede: yet is not this willingnes in vs by [Page 82] nature but by grace: because when God giues vnto vs the gift of faith, he giues vs also to will to beleeue. None comes to Christ but he is drawne of the father: and to be drawne is, when the vnwilling will is chaunged, and by the power of God made a willing will. I adde further, that faith in the Messias is a speciall gift, for two causes. First, because it is a gift aboue not onely corrupted, but al­so aboue the first created nature. For it was neuer in mans nature by creation. Adam neuer had it: neither did the mo­rall law reueale it vnto vs; because it ne­uer knew this faith. Neuerthelesse other vertues, as loue of God and man, feare of God, &c. are reuealed of the law, and were in mans nature by creation. Again, whereas all other gifts of God are giuen to them that are ingrafted into Christ: faith is giuen to them thatnon insitis, sed inserendis. are to be in­grafted: because it is the ingrafting, and therefore can not be giuen to them that are alreadie in Christ, but to them that are to be in Christ. Further, I say, that by faith, we beleeue Christ and his be­nefits to be ours. For this is the proper­tie [Page 83] of faith, whereby it differs from all other graces of God. When Thomas had put his finger into the side of Christ he said, My Lord, and my God: to whōe Christ replied:Ioh. 20. 28, 29. Because thou hast seene, thou hast beleeued. Where we see, that this is faith, to beleeue Christ to be our Lord & our god. Paul saith, I liue by the faith of Christ: now what he meanes by faith,Gal. 2. 20. he shewes in the next words: who hath loued ME and giuen himselfe FOR ME.

If any man shall demand, vpon what grounds, (because we are not to goe by imagination) I say, vpon what groundes he is to conceiue a faith, that Christ is his Christ: I answer, the groundes are two. The first is the commandement of God, to beleeue Christ and his benefits to be ours, 1. Ioh. 3. 23. This is his com­mandement, that ye beleeue in the name of his sonne Iesus Christ. Now to beleeue in Christ, is to put our confidence in him: and we can put no confidence in him, vnlesse we be first assured that he with his benefits is ours. And whatsoeuer we aske in praier,Mar. 11. 24. we are commaunded to [Page 84] beleeue that it shall be giuen vnto vs. Now aboue all things we are to aske that Christ and his benefits may be gi­uen vnto vs of God. This therfore must we beleeue. The second ground is this: We must consider the maner that God vseth in propounding the promise of grace vnto vs: for he doth not onely set it forth vnto vs in a generall sort, but al­so he vseth meete and conuenient means to applie it to the persons of men. First of all, he confirmes it by oath, that we our selues might the better applie it and reape sure consolation thereby.Hel. 6. 18. Second­ly God giueth vnto vs the spirit of a­doption; which beareth witnes to our consciences of such things as God hath giuen vnto vs in particular, and are one­ly in generall manner propounded in the promise. And this testimonie must be certen in it selfe, and also plainely knowne vnto vs; els is it no testimonie. Thirdly both the Sacraments, are seales of the promise: in the lawfull vse where­of God offers, yea exhibits Christ vnto vs; and doth (as it were) write our names within the promise, that we might not [Page 85] doubt. Now then, looke as God giues the promise, so must we by faith receiue it. But God giues the promise, & with­all applies it: we therefore must receiue the promise, and by faith applie it to our selues. If any man shall say, that he can not conceiue a speciall faith vpon these groundes by reason of his vnbe­leefe: I answer, that he must striue a­gainst his vnbeleefe, and indeauour to beleeue by desiring, asking, seeking, knocking: and God will accept the will to beleeue for faith it selfe, so be it there be an honest heart touched with sorrow for sinnes past, and a purpose to sinne no more.

That we may yet better know, what faith is; vnderstand that there be two kindes of false faith, like indeede to true faith, and yet no faith at all. The first is, when a man conceiues in his heart a strong perswasion, that Christ is his Sa­uiour, and yet carries in the same heart a purpose to sinne, and makes no change or amendment of his life. This perswa­sion is nothing but presumption, and a counterfeit of true faith, whose proper­tie [Page 86] is to purifie the heart, and to shew it selfe in the exercises of inuocation and true repentance. The second is, when men conceiue a strong perswasion, that Christ is their Sauiour, and yet for all this contemne and despise the Ministe­rie of the word and sacraments. This al­so is an other counterfeit. For true faith is conceiued, cherished, and confirmed by the vse of the word & sacramēts. And we must there seeke Christ, where God will giue him vnto vs: now God giues Christ in the word and sacraments; and in them he doth as it were open his hand & reach forth all the blessings of Christ vnto vs. We must not therefore ima­gine to finde Christ, where and how we list; but we must seeke him in the word and sacraments, and there must we re­ceiue him, if we desire to receiue him aright.

The second point to be considered is, How faith is a meanes to iustifie? I answer thus. Faith doth not iustifie as it is an excellent worke of God in vs: for then all vertues might be meanes of iu­stification, as well as faith. It doth not [Page 87] iustifie as it is an excellent vertue in it selfe: because it is imperfect and ming­led with vnbeleefe. It doth not iustifie as a meanes to prepare and dispose vs to our iustification: for so soone as we be­gin to beleeue in Christ, we are iustifi­ed Chrysost. hom. 7. in Rom. Quam primum homo credidit, confe­stim simul iusti­ficatus est.without any disposition or prepa­ration comming betweene faith and iu­stification. Lastly it doth not iustifie as it containes in it all other vertues and good workes, as the kernell containes the tree with all his branches. For then should it be a part, yea the principall part of our iustice. Whereas Saint Paul distinguisheth iustice and faith, saying, that our righteousnes is of God vpon faith: and not for faith, but, by faith. Now then faith iustifies, as it is an Instrument or hand to apprehend or recceiue the be­nefits of Christ for ours; and this appre­hension is made, when we doe indeede beleeue Christ and his benefits to be ours. And least any should imagine, that the very action of faith in appre­hending Christ, iustifieth: we are to vn­derstand that faith doth not apprehend by power from it selfe, but by vertue of [Page 88] the couenant. If a man beleeue the king­dome of France to be his, it is not there­fore his: yet if he beleeue Christ and the kingdome of heauen by Christ to be his: it is his indeede: not simply because he beleeues, but because he beleeueth vpon commandement and promise: for in the tenour of the couenant, God pro­miseth to impute the obedience of Christ vnto vs for our righteousnes, if we beleeue.

The third point is, whether faith a­lone be the meanes to obtaine the iustice of Christ for vs or no? I answer, it is the onely meanes without the helpe of any other vertue or worke. For Paul here teacheth, that faith apprehendeth Christ for righteousnes, without the law: that is, without any thing that the law requi­reth at our hands. And here by this ex­clusiue particle [without the law,] he tea­cheth three things. The first, that no­thing within vs is an efficient or merito­rious cause, either principall or lesse principall, in whole or in part of our iu­stification or reconciliation with God. The second, that nothing within vs is an [Page 89] instrument or meanes to applie the o­bedience of Christ vnto vs, but faith which is ordained of God to be an hād to receiue the free fauour of God in the merit of Christ. The third, that our re­nouation or sanctification is no matter, forme, or part of our iustification, but that it wholly stands in the imputation of the iustice of Christ. In a word, Paul vtterly excludes all things that are with­in vs, whether by nature or by grace, frō the act of iustificatiō: that in this article, onely grace, onely Christ, onely faith, onely mercie in pardon of sinne may raigne. It may be here obiected, that Abraham was iustified not by faith a­lone, but by workes, as S. Iames teach­eth. I answer, there is a double iustifica­tion, one of the person whereby a man of a sinner is made no sinner: the second is the iustification of the faith of the person, whereby faith is declared to be true faith: and this second is by workes: and of it S. Iames speaketh as appeareth v. 18. where he saith, Shew me thy faith by thy workes. And whereas he saith, that Abraham our father was iustified by [Page 90] workes, his meaning is that Abraham by workes iustified himselfe to be a true beleeuer, yea the father of all the faith­full: and his faith was made perfect by workes, verse 22. that is, declared or iu­stified to be a true faith.

The fourth or last point is, when and howe long faith alone iustifieth? I an­swer, not onely in the beginning of our conuersion, but also in the continuance, and finall accomplishment thereof. For here Paul desires in the day of iudge­ment to stand before God onely by the iustice of faith, without his owne iustice of the lawe. And Paul brings in Abra­ham (as I haue noted before) in the ve­ry middest of godly conuersation and holy obedience to be iustified without any workes by his faith in the Messias.Rom. 4. And Paul auoucheth three things of faith:Rom. 5. 2. by it we haue accesse to the grace of God: by it we stand in the same grace: by it we reioice vnder the hope of glorie. Thus then, we see there is one onely waie of iustification, namely that we are iustified and accepted of God to life e­ternall through grace alone, by faith [Page 91] alone, for Christ alone in the begin­ning, middle, and ende of our conuer­sion. And here is plainly discouered the errour of the church of Rome. It makes a double iustification: one whereby a sinner is made of an euill man a iust mā; and this they say is by faith alone: the se­cond is, whereby a man of a iust man is made more iust: and this (they say) is by faith and workes togither: but falsely, as I haue shewed.

By all this which hath beene said, we see howe righteousnesse comes by, and vpon the faith of Christ. And hence we learne, that it stands vs in hand to proue whether we haue faith or no: because where is no faith, there is no iustice. Se­condly our dutie is to labour for such a faith, that can and doth iustifie it selfe to be true faith, by workes of loue to God and men. Thirdly we must by this faith, rest and wholly relie our selues on the obedience of Christ both in life and death: yea whatsoeuer doeth befall vs. Though God should reach out his hād & destroy vs, we must stil rest vpō him.

Secondly, if our iustice be foorth of [Page 92] vs, and we must by faith trust God for it: then much more must we trust him for health, wealth, libertie, peace, foode, and raiment, and for all the things of this life. And if we cannot trust him in the lesse, we shall neuer trust him in the principall. Therefore it is our part to walke in the duties of our callings, and to obey God therein: & for the successe of our labours to trust him vpon his word; yea when all worldly helpes and succours faile, to trust in him still. If we cannot trust him for our temporall life, we shal neuer trust him for our saluatiō.

The second gaine which Paul desi­reth, is fellowship with Christ in the 10. verse. Where it is set forth first general­ly, and then by his partes. Generally in these wordes [That I may knowe him.] Here it must be remēbred that know­ledge is twofold, knowledge of faith, & of experience. Knowldge of faith is to be assured of Christ and his benefits, though it be against all humane reason, hope, & experience. Of this Paul saith, It is eternall life to know thee the only God, &c. The knowledge of experience is to [Page 93] haue a sense and feeling of our inward fellowship with Christ, and vpon often obseruation of his goodnesse to growe more and more in experience of his loue. Nowe this knowledge is here meant, and not the first, which was be­fore mentioned verse 8. And therefore Pauls desire is, that he may grow more and more in holy experience of the end­lesse loue of God, and fellowship with Christ.

The partes of this desired communi­on are two: fellowshippe with Christ in his resurrection, and fellowshippe with him in his death. The former is expres­sed in these wordes, [and the vertue of his resurrection.] And for the better cō ­ceiuing of it, we are to consider what the resurrection of Christ is? and what is the vertue thereof? That the resur­rection of Christ may be rightly con­ceiued, fiue points are to be skanned. The first, touching the person of him that rose: and that was Christ God and man. Indeede properly the bodie alone did rise, and not the soule or godhead, yet by reason of the vnion of the two [Page 94] natures in the vnitie of one person, whole Christ arose, or God himselfe made man arose. This commends vnto vs the excellencie of Christs resurrecti­on, and makes it to be the foundation vnto vs of our resurrection. The second point is, For whome he rose? He rose not as a priuate person for himselfe a­lone: but he rose in our roome & stead, and that for vs: so as when he arose, all the elect arose with him, and in him. Thus saith Paul, that the Fphesians were raised togither with him. Eph. 2. 6. His resur­rection therefore was publike: and this is the ground of our comfort. The third point is, When he arose? He arose then, when he lay in bondage vnder death, & that in the graue, which is as it were the castle & hold of death. Whē Peter saith, that God loosed the sorrowes of death, Act. 2. 24. he signifieth that Christ was made captiue for a time to the first death & to the sor­rows of the second. Now in the midst of this captiuity & bōdage, he raised him­self: & this argues, that his resurrectiō is a ful victorie & conquest ouer death and all our spirituall enemies. The fourth [Page 95] point is, That he rose by his own pow­er,Ioh. 10. [...]8. as he saith of himselfe, I haue power to lay downe my life, and to take it vp againe. If this had not bin, though he had risen a thousand times by the power of ano­ther, he had not beene a perfect Redee­mer. The last point is, Wherein stāds the resurrection of Christ? Answer, it con­sistes in three actions of Christ. The first is the revniting of his bodie to his soule, both which were seuered for a time, though neither of them were seue­red from the godhead. The second a­ction is the change of his naturall life, which he led in the estate of humiliatiō, into a heauenly and spirituall life with­out infirmities, and not maintained by food as before. For we finde not that af­ter his resurrection he euer tooke meate for necessitie, but onely vpon occasion, to manifest the trueth of his manhood. And this life he tooke vnto himselfe, that he might conuey it to all that should beleeue in him. The third action is his cōming forth of the graue; where­by death it selfe did as it were acknow­ledge him to be a conquerour; and that [Page 96] it had no title or interest in him. These fiue things considered, the article of Christs resurrection shall be rightly vn­derstood.

Touching the vertue of Christs re­surrectiō, it is nothing els but the pow­er of his god head, or the power of his spirit, whereby he raised himselfe migh­tily from death to life, and that in our behalfe. The excellencie of it may be known by the effects, which be in num­ber eight. The first, that by it he shewed himselfe to be the true and perfect Sa­uiour of the world. For it was foretolde of the Messias that he should die & rise againe. Psal. 16. Matth. 12. And all this was accordingly accomplished by the vertue of Christs resurrection. The se­cond effect is, that by it he shewed him­selfe to be the true and naturall sonne of god.Rom. 1 [...]. Paul saith, He was declared migh­tily to be the sonne of God, by the spirit of holinesse in his rising from the dead. The third effect is, that by this vertue he de­clared himselfe to haue made a full and perfect satisfaction for the sinnes of the world. For if he had not satisfied to the [Page 97] full,1. Cor. 15. 17. he had not risen againe. And Paul saith, If Christ be not risen we are yet in our sinnes. On the contrarie then, seeing he is risen, such as beleeue in him, are not in their sinnes.Rom. 8. 34. Againe: Who shall con­demne vs? it is Christ which is dead, yea or rather which is risen againe. The fourth effect is iustification, as Paul testifieth: He died for our sinnes, and rose againe for our iustification, and that was on this mā ­ner. When he was vpon the crosse, he stood there in our roome, hauing our sinnes imputed vnto him: and when he rose from death he acquit and iustified himselfe from our sinnes, and ceased to be any more a reputed sinner for vs: and thus, all that doe or shall beleeue in him, are in him acquit, absolued, and iustifi­ed from all their sinnes. If any demaund, how they which liued in the time of the old Testament, before the resurrection of Christ, could be iustified thereby; considering the effect must followe the cause: I answer, that they were iustified by the future resurrection of Christ: which though it followed in time, yet did the value & vertue therof, reach euē [Page 98] euen to the beginning of the world. The fift effect, is the conferring and bestow­ing of all such gifts and graces as he had merited & procured for vs by his death and passion. Thus Christ testifieth that the giuing of the spirit in large & plen­tifull manner, was reserued to the glori­fication of Christ,Ioh 7. 39. which beganne in his resurrection.Luk. 24. 47. And the preaching of Re­pentance and remission of sinnes is re­serued till after his resurrection. And S. Peter saith,1. Pet. [...]. 3. that the Elect are regenerate to a liuely hope by the resurrectiō of Christ. By reason of this bestowing of graces and gifts, the resurrection of Christ is the beginning of a new and spirituall world, which the holy Ghost calls the world to come, Heb. 2. 5. in which shall be a new heauen and a new earth,Isa. 65. 27. as Isai speaketh, and a peculiar people of God, zealous of good works, keeping an eternall sab­bath vnto God. This one effect alone sufficiently declares the excellencie of this vertue of Christ. The sixth effect is viuification, which is a raising of vs frō the death of sinne to newnes of life. And the reason hereof is plaine. For Christ [Page 99] in his resurrection put away his natural life, which with our nature he receiued from Adam, and tooke vnto him a spi­rituall life, that he might communicate the saide life to all that beleeue in him. Againe as the first Adam makes vs like himselfe in sinne and death: so Christ the second Adam renewes vs and makes vs like to himselfe in righteousnes and life. And the head quickned with spiri­tuall life will not suffer the members to remaine in the death of sinne. The sea­uenth effect is to preserue safe & sound the gifts and graces, which he hath pro­cured by his death; and bestowed on them that beleeue: and this he doth by the vertue of his resurrection. For to this ende, hath he conquered all our spi­rituall enemies, and doth by his power conquer them still in vs; so as none shal be able to take his sheepe out of his hands. The last effect is, to raise the bo­die from the graue in the day of iudge­ment to eternall glorie. If it be obiected, that the wicked are also raised then by the power of Christ:Rom. 8. 1 [...]. I answer, that the power of Christ is twofold. One is the [Page 100] power of iudgement, the other a power of a Sauiour. By the first, Christ as a iudge raiseth the vngodly, that he may exequute on them the curse denounced from the beginning of the world [at what time thou shalt eate the forbidden fruit, [...] 2. 7. thou shalt die the death.] The se­cond power is here tearmed the power of Christs resurrection; and it belongs to him as he is our Sauiour: and by it will he raise to life eternall all those that by the bond of the spirit, are mystically vnited to him. For by meanes of this v­nion, this raising power shall flow from the head to the dead bodies of them that are in Christ. Thus we see, what the ver­tue here mentioned is, and what Paul desires, namely that he may haue expe­rience of these effects in himselfe.

The vse of the doctrine followeth. First of all, in that Christ rose for vs, and in that his resurrection is of endlesse ef­ficacie, here is the foundation of all our spirituall comfort. For by this vertue of Christs resurrection frō death to life, all our spiritual enemies are conquered and subdued, and by the said vertue doth he [Page 101] daily more and more subdue them in vs. Vpō this groūd said Christ: Ye shal haue affliction in the world: Ioh. 16. 33. but be of good com­fort, I haue ouercome the world. And this victorie is for vs, and it is made ours by our faith, as Iohn saith, This is the victorie which ouer commeth the world, 1. Ioh. 5. 4. euen your faith. Art thou then terrified and afrai­ed with the conscience of thy sinnes, with the crueltie of tyrants, the rage of the world, the paines of hell, the pangs of death, the temptations of the deuill; be not dismaied, but by thy faith rest on Christ that rose againe frō death to life for thee, & therby shewed himself to be a rocke for thee to rest on, and to be the lyon of the Tribe of Iuda: and thus shalt thou finde certen remedie against all the troubles and miseries of life and death.

Againe here we are taught to rise with Christ from our sinnes, and to liue vnto God in newnes of life: and for this ende to pray that we may feele the ver­tue of Christs resurrection to chaunge and renew vs. Great are the benefites which we reape by this vertue, and we [Page 102] are to shew ourselues thankfull to God for them: which we can doe no way, but by newnes of life. Againe the ende why Christ rose for vs, was that we might rise from our sinnes and corrup­tions,Rom 6. 4. in which we lie buried as in a graue, to a new spirituall life. And the reward is great to them that make this happie change. For he that is partaker of the first resurrection shall neuer see the se­cond death: [...]. 20. 6. as on the contrarie he which neuer riseth from his owne sinnes and e­uill waies, shall certenly feele and indure the second death. And further it must be knowne, that the vertue of Christs resurrection and the merit of his death, are inseparably ioyned together: and therefore he that findes not the vertue of Christ to raise him to an holy and spi­rituall life acceptable to God, falsly per­swades himself of the merit of his death in the remission of his sinnes. Christ by rising put vnder his feete all our ene­mies, and ledde captiuitie captiue euen sinne it selfe. It is therefore a shame for vs to walke in the waies of sinue, and to make our selues slaues and captiues to [Page 103] it. Christ by rising from death made himselfe a principall leader and guide to eternall life.Act. 3. 25. What wickednes then is it to walke in the waies of our owne heart, and not to 'follow this heauenly guide. The care and purpose to keepe a good conscience is a certen fruit and effect of Christs resurrection.2. Pet. 3. 21. Thus S. Peter saith, that the effect of our bap­tisme is the stipulation of a good con­science by the resurrection of Christ. Where the word which I translate, Sti­pulation, [...] signifies an interrogation vpon an interrogation. For the Minister in the name of God demandes, whether we renounce the world, the flesh & the deuill, and take the true God for our God. And we vpon this demaund, doe further in our hearts demaund of God, whether he will vouchsafe to accept vs being wretched sinners for his seruants; and thus we make profession of our minde and desire. When Christ rose, by the vertue of his resurrection, the earth trembled, and thereby this bruit crea­ture in his kinde professed his subiecti­on and homage to Christ that rose a­gaine. [Page 104] If then we beleeue, that Christ rose from death for vs, much more should our hearts tremble and we yeeld our selues in subiection to him in all spirituall obedience. Some man may say, you bid vs rise from our sinnes, as Christ rose to the glorie of his Father, whereas this is wholly Gods worke in vs, and not ours: I answer, it is so indeed: yet can we vse the outward meanes of hearing and reading; and if we haue a­ny sparke of grace, we can aske and de­sire the spirit of God, that worketh this in vs. Againe, exhortations, admoniti­ons, and such like, are meanes appoin­ted of God, whereby he worketh in vs the thing which he requireth and com­mandeth. Wherefore let vs listen to the voice of Christ, Awake thou that sleepest, stand vp from the dead, Eph. 5. 14. and Christ shall giue thee life. And worldly cares must not hinder vs in this worke: for as Paul saith,Coloss. 3. 1. they which are risen with Christ, must seeke the things that are aboue.

Againe here we are taught, that we may not content our selues, if we know Christ in the braine, and can speake [Page 105] well of him with a glibbe tongue, we must goe yet further, and by all meanes labour, that we taste and feele by expe­rience how good and sweete a Sauiour Christ is vnto vs; that our hearts may be rooted and grounded in his loue. This is the thing which Paul aimed at: which also we must seeke by all possible meanes to attaine vnto.

To proceede; that we may haue right knowledge of our communion with Christ in his death, two points are to be handled. The first is, what are the sufferings of Christ? I answer, not one­ly the sufferings which he indured in his owne person, but also those which are indured of his members.Act. 9. 4. Thus Saul persequuting the church, is saide to persequute Christ himselfe. And Paul saith, that he fulfilled the rest of the afflicti­ons of Christ in HIS OWNE FLESH. Coloss. 1. 24. And whereas the Lord said of the peo­ple of Israel,Hos. 11. 1. I haue brought my son out of Egypt: it is applyed by Saint Matthew to Christ himselfe. Yet here it must be re­membred, that if the members of Christ suffer either ciuill or ecclesiasticall pu­nishments [Page 106] for euill doing; they are not the sufferings of Christ. For when Saint Peter had said,2. Pet. [...]. 13. 15. Reioice in that you are partakers of the sufferings of Christ: he ad­deth further, Let no man suffer as an euill doe [...], opposing the one kinde of suffe­rings to the other. Therefore our suffe­rings are then to be accounted the suffe­rings of Christ, when they are for good cause, and for the name of Christ.

For the secōd point, fellowship with Christ in his death is either within vs or without vs. That within vs is called the mortification of the flesh or the cruci­fying of the affections and the lustes thereof. The other without vs, is the mortification of the outward man by manifold afflictions: and of this Paul speakes in this place: and it may be thus described out of this text. Fellowship with Christ in his death: is nothing but a conformitie in vs to his sufferings and death. And it is a thing worthy our cōsi­deration to search wherein standes this conformitie. For in two respects there is no conformitie betweene our suffe­rings and the sufferings of Christ. For [Page 107] first of all, God powred forth on Christ the whole malediction of the law due to our sinnes: and by this meanes shewed vpon him iustice without mercie. Con­trariwise in our afflictions God mode­rates his anger,1. Cor. 10. & in iustice remembers mercie: because he laies no more vpon vs, then we are able to beare. Secondly Christs sufferings are a redemption & satisfaction to Gods iustice for our sins: so are not ours: because before God we stand but as priuate persons, & for this cause the sufferings of one man cannot satisfie for an other: and there is no pro­portion betweene our sufferings & the glorie which shall be reuealed. And Christ saith of himselfe,Isa. 6 3. 3. I haue tread the wine-presse alone.

Nowe this conformitie standes (as I take it) properly in the manner of suffe­ring; and that in foure things. First of al, Christ suffered for a iust and righteous cause: for he suffered as our redeemer,Mat. 5. 10. the righteous for the vnrighteous. And so must we likewise suffer for righte­ousnes sake.1. Pet. 2. 21. Secondly Christ in suffe­ring was a myrrour of all patience and [Page 108] meeknesse. And we in our sufferings must shewe the like patience. And that we be not deceiued herein, our patience must haue three properties. It must be voluntarie, that is, we must willingly and quietly renounce our owne wills, and subiect our selues in our suffe­rings to the will of God. Patience per­force is no patience. Againe it must not be mercenarie, that is, we must suffer not for bie respects, as for praise, or pro­fit, but for the glorie of God, and that we may shewe our obedience to him. Hence it appeares that the patience of the papist, that suffers in way of satisfa­ction, is no right patience. Lastly our patience must be constant. If we endure afflictions for a brunt, and afterwarde beginne to grudge and repine casting off the yoke of Christ, we faile in our patience. Further, if it be demaunded, whether the affections of griefe & sor­rowe may stand with patience: I answer yea: for Christian religion doth not a­bolish these affections, but onely mode­rate them, and bring them in subiection to the will of God, when we lie vnder [Page 109] the crosse. The third point wherein standes our conformitie with the suf­ferings of Christ is this:Heb. 5. 8. Christ learned obedience by the things which he suffe­red, not because he was a sinner, but be­cause beeing righteous he had experi­ence of obedience. And we likewise in our sufferings must be more carefull to take the fruit thereof, then to haue them taken away. And the fruite of them is to learne obedience thereby, specially to the commandements of faith and repē ­tance. When Iob was afflicted of God, not for his sins, but that he might make a triall of his faith and patience,Iob. 42. 6. he ne­uerthelesse in the end tooke an occasion thereby to renewe his olde repentance. And Paul saith, that he receiued in his owne flesh the sentence of death,2. Cor. 1. that he might learne by faith to trust in god alone. Lastly Christs sufferings were e­uen to death it selfe:Heb. 12. 4. euen so must we re­sist sinne, fighting against it to the shed­ding of our blood. Faith and good con­science are things more pretious then the very blood of our hearts: and there­fore if neede be, we must conforme our [Page 110] selues to Christ, euen in the paines of death.

This is that conformitie of which Paul here speaks of, which also he mag­nifies as a speciall gaine. And there be many reasons thereof. For first of all this conformitie is a marke of Gods child.Heb. 12. 7. For if we obediently endure afflicti­ons, God in them, & by them, offers him­selfe as a father vnto vs. Secondly, it is a signe that the spirit of God dwelleth in vs:1. Pet. 4. 14. as Peter saith, If ye be railed vpon for the name of Christ, the spirit of glory and of God resteth vpon you. Thirdly, the grace of God is most of all manifested in af­flictions, in which God seemes most of all in mans reason to withdrawe his grace. Gods power is made manifest in weakenesse. 1. Cor. 12. 9. Afflictions bring foorth pati­ence: not of themselues, but because then the loue of God is shed abroad in our heartes.Rom. 5. 5. Hope of eternall life sheweth it selfe most in the patient bearing of af­flictions.15. 4. In peace and ease naturall life raignes. Contrariwise in our sufferings naturall life decaies, and the spirituall life of Christ apparently shewes it selfe. [Page 111] Lastly, this conformitie with Christ,2. Cor. 4. 1 [...]. is the right and beaten way to eternal life. By many tribulations we must enter into the kingdome of heauen. Act. 14. 2. Tim. 2. [...]. That we may raigne and liue with Christ, we must first die with him. The estate of humili­ation is the way to the estate of exaltati­on and glorie, first in him and then in vs.

The vse of this doctrine followes. Here we see what for this life is the con­dition of all true beleeuers: namely, that after they are made partakers of Christ and his benefits, by the vertue of his re­surrection, they must also be made con­formable to his death. The commande­ment of our Sauiour Christ to thē that wil be his disciples is,Luk. 9. 23. To denie themselues and to take vp their owne crosses euery day. And there be three waightie causes, why God will haue it so.2. Cor. 12. 1. Cor. 1 [...]. The one, that he may correct sinnes past: the other, that he may preuent sins to come: the third, that he may proue what is in our hearts. Secondly we learne by this which hath bin said, to comfort our selues in our sufferings. For in them Christ and we [Page 112] are partners, and he vouchsafes to make vs his fellowes. Hence it followes that all our afflictions are well knowne to Christ, and that they are laid on vs with his consent: and for this cause we should frame our selues to beare them with all meekenes. And hence againe we learne, that he beeing our partner, will helpe vs to beare them, either by moderating the waight of them, or by ending them for our good. Lastly, here we learne that our afflictions are either blessings or benefits: and such may we discerne them to be, though not by the light of reason, yet by the eie of faith: because they are meanes to make vs conformable to our head Christ Iesus. Benefits of God are of two sorts, positiue and priuatiue. Po­sitiue, whereby God bestowes somthing on vs. Priuat [...] whereby God takes away a blessing, and couertly giues another. Benefits of this kind be afflictions. Of the twaine, these are the rifer for the time of this life: and the other for the life to come. And therefore while we liue in this worlde, our dutie is with Paul to labour to attaine to this confor­mitie [Page 113] with the sufferings of Christ, whē vpon any occasion we shall be afflicted: for then shall we be fashioned like vnto him, and reape much comfort there­by.

Thus much of the second gaine: nowe followes the third in these words, [If by any meanes, I may attaine to the re­surrection of the dead.] The word resur­rection here signifies the reward of e­ternall life; the antecedent beeing put for the consequent. For to rise againe of it selfe is no gaine, considering it is cō ­mon both to good and badde, but eter­nal life that followes, is the reward. And the forme of speech, [if by any meanes] doth not signifie or imply any doubt­ing in Paul of his owne resurrection to life:Rom 8. 2. [...]im. 1. 12. for he was perswaded that nothing should seperate him from Christ: and it is an article of our and Pauls faith, to be­leeue the resurrection of the bodie to e­ternall life. Wherefore it signifies pro­perly a difficultie to obtaine the gaine desired: and an earnest affection in Paul to obtaine the same. And when he saith, [By any meanes,] we must knowe that [Page 114] there be three waies or meanes to come to eternall life. One is by peaceable life and death: the other is by a life ladē with many afflictions, the third is by a vio­lent, cruell, and bloody ende. And Pauls mind and desire is, to obtain the crowne of eternall glorie by any of these waies: and if not by the first or second, yet by the third.

In these wordes foure things are to be considered. The first is the gaine it selfe, and that is, the Reward of eternall glorie. And that we may the more with Paul be stirred vp to a desire thereof, I will stand a while to declare the excel­lencie and the conditions of it. It is no­thing els but a certaine estate of life, in which all the promises of God are in & by Christ accomplished vnto vs in hea­uen. And it will the better be conceiued by the answering of three questions: What shall ceafe in this estate? What we shall haue? What we shall doe?

For the first, seauen things shal cease. The first is the Exequution of the Me­diatorship of Christ, or of the offices of a king, priest, prophet. Thus much tea­cheth [Page 115] Paul,2 Cor. 15. 24. when he saith, that Christ in the last daie must giue vp his kingdome to his father. And though the exequution shall then cease: yet nothing shall be wanting to them that beleeue: because then shall be the full and eternall fruiti­on of all the benefits of our redemptiō. Secondly, then shall cease all callings in familie, church, and common wealth: because Christ shall then put downe all power,Ibid. v. 24. rule, and authoritie. In this bles­sed estate, there shall not be magistrate and people, master & seruant, husband and wife, parents and children, pastor and people: but all such outward distin­ctions of persons shal cease, and we shall be as the angels of God. Thirdly all ver­tues, that pertaine to vs, as we are pil­grimes here vpon earth, shall haue an end, as faith, hope, patience: because the things beleeued and hoped for shall thē be obtained. Withall that part of in­uocation called Petition, shall cease, as also the preaching and hearing of the word and the vse of sacraments.1. Cor. 13. 13▪ The fourth thing that shall cease is originall sinne with the fruites thereof: because [Page 116] no vncleane thing may enter into the heauenly Hierusalem.Rev. 21. 4. Fiftly, then shall cease all miseries, and sorrowes, all in­firmities of bodie and mind: for then all defects of eies, armes, and legges, shall be restored. The fixt thing that shall cease is naturall life with the meanes thereof, as meate, drinke, clothing, phi­sicke, recreation. For then our bodies shall be spirituall, that is, immediately & eternally preserued by the operation of the spirit of God, as nowe the bodie of Christ is in heauen. The last thing to be abolished is the vanitie of the creatures, specially of heauen and earth: which i [...] the last iudgement shal againe be resto­red to their former excellency.Act. 3. 21.

The second question is, what we shal haue and inioye in this estate? I answer, three things. The first is, immediate and eternal fellowship with God the father,1. Cor. 15▪ 28. sonne, and holy ghost. For in this hap­pie estate the tabernacle of God shall be with men,Rev. 21. 3. as Saint Iohn saith: & God shall be all things that heart can wish to all the elect.Serm. de Temp. 148. Augustine saith notably: There shall be exceeding peace in us, and a­mong [Page 117] vs, and with God himselfe. Because we shall see him and inioy him alwaies and euery where. Therefore blessed shall that life be, for the thing which we shall inioy: for we shall inioy God himselfe. For the man­ner of inioying him: for we shall inioy him by himselfe, all other meanes ceasing. For the measure of our inioying him: for we shall fully inioy him. For the time: for we shall eternally inioy him. For the certenty, whereby we shall knowe that it shall be so. For the place: for we shall inioy him in hea­uen. Lastly for the companions ioyned with vs: for they shall be the elect. From this fruition of God shall arise endlesse and vnspeakable ioy. Psal. 16. 11. In thy pre­sence is fulnesse of ioy, at thy right hand are pleasures for euermore. In the Transfi­guration of Christ, which was but a sha­dow of the eternall glorie, Peter was ra­uished with ioy & delight: the ioy there­fore which shal be in heauē must needs be vnspeakable.Mat. 17. The secōd thing which shall be inioyed is Glory both in minde and bodie. In mind, because we shall thē be partakers of the Diuine not essence (for then we should be deified) but na­ture, [Page 118] that is, diuine vertues and qualities, more excellent then those which God bestowed on Adam,2. Pet. 1. 4. though of the same kinde. The glory of the body is to be changed and made like the glorious body of Christ. The third thing is, Do­minion and Lordship ouer heauen and earth; which Lordship once lost by A­dam, shal then fully be restored. He that ouercommeth shall possesse all things. Phil. [...]. 21. Reu. 21. 7.

The third question is, what we shall doe? I answer briefly, keepe an eternall sabbath in praising of God, and giuing thanks vnto him. And thus by the con­sideration of these things, we may take a taste of the excellencie of this third and last gaine.

The second point here to be consi­dered, is the difficultie of obtaining this desired gaine of eternall life. And the reason is plaine. For the way to eternall life is full of impediments, which I re­duce to foure heads. First of all in this way we are to fight, not with flesh and blood,Eph. 6. 13. but with principalities and pow­ers in spirituall things, seeking the de­struction [Page 119] of our soules. Secondly there be within vs innumerable lusts that cō ­passe vs round about, presse vs downe, and draw vs away to the broad way of destruction.Heb. 12. 1. [...]am. 1. 14. Thirdly this way lies full of offences, partly in doctrines, partly in euill examples; all tending to this ende, either to make vs fall, or to goe out of the way.Ro [...]. 1. 8. 35. Lastly it is beset with manifold tribulations, from the begin­ning to the ende. Hence we learne, that we must giue all diligence that we may attaine to the reward of glorie: and therefore we must struggle,Mat. 7. 13. striue, and wrastle to enter in at the straight gate. The principall gaine, and the hardnes to obtaine it, requires our principall studie and labour. Therefore they deale wickedly, that vse no meanes, but (as they say) leaue all to God, thinking it the easiest matter in the world, to winne the kingdōe of heauē. The like is their fault, that professe religion in a slacke and negligent manner, beeing neither whot nor cold.

The third point, is Pauls minde and desire of eternall life. If it be saide, that [Page 120] wicked men haue the like desire, as for example Balaam: I answer, in Paul there was an indeauour answerable to his desire, as appeares act. 24. 16. where he saith, That he waited for the resurre­ction of the iust and vniust: and that in the meane season he laboured to keepe a good conscience before God and men: now this desire in the vngodly is barren, and yeeldes not his fruit. Againe Paul bee­ing iustified, still desires to attaine to full fellowship with Christ, and to con­formitie with him in glorie. The like desire, with the like indeauour, should be in vs.

The last point, is Pauls courage and fortitude. He is content to indure any kinde of death, yea cruell death, so he may obtaine this third and last gaine. And thus it is verified, which he saith, that God had giuen him the spirit not of fearefulnes but of courage. [...]. Tim. 1. 7. Like was the courage of Moses, who was content to indure afflictions with the people of God, that he might winne the recom­pence of reward.Heb. 11. 26. Like was the courage of the martyrs, that were racked & would [Page 121] not be deliuered, [...] that they might obtaine a better resurrection. We likewise walking in the way to eternall life, must take the like courage vnto vs in all dangers. For this cause we must pray vnto God, to giue vs the spirit of courage: and we must alwaies attende vpon the calling and commaundement of God, making it the stay and foundation of our cou­rage: and we must yet further stay our selues on the promise of Gods presence and protection, so long as we obay him. If it be alledged, that we are by nature fearefull in daungers, and therefore vn­capable of courage: I answer, there is a threefold feare. The first is feare of na­ture; when mans nature feares, flies, and eschewes that which is hurtfull vnto it. This feare was in Christ, whose soule was heauie vnto death,Heb. [...]. [...]. who also feared the cursed death which he indured. And therefore this feare of it selfe is no sinne, and it may stand with true forti­tude. The second feare is that which ri­seth of the corruption of nature, when a man feares without cause, or without measure. Without cause, as when the [Page 104] Disciples feared Christ walking vpon the sea: or when they feared drowning, Christ lying asleepe in the shippe. Without measure, as when men distru­sting God, neglect their callings in time of daunger, and the dutie of inuocation, flying to vnlawfull meanes of deliue­rance. Now this secōd feare is an enemy vnto all true courage. The third feare is, when perils and death are indeede feared: but yet feare is ordered by faith in the mercie and prouidence of God, by hope, by inuocation; and it is ioyned with obedience to God in the time of daunger. This is a proceeding of grace, and it may well stand with courage, and it serues to order the two former feares, the one of nature, the other of distrust.

Trin-vni Deo gloria.

Amend the faults thus.

Pag. 18. l. 18. offals.

P. 61. l. 21. put out, haue.

P. 74. l. 3. put out, but.

P. 78. l. 2. gifts of God.

P. 112. l. 20. for priuate, read, priua­tiue.

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